Sample records for dynamics trace gas

  1. Tracing Noble Gas Radionuclides in the Environment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. Collon; W. Kutschera; Z. -T. Lu

    2004-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Trace analysis of radionuclides is an essential and versatile tool in modern science and technology. Due to their ideal geophysical and geochemical properties, long-lived noble gas radionuclides, in particular, 39Ar (t1/2 = 269 yr), 81Kr (t1/2 = 2.3x10^5 yr) and 85Kr (t1/2 = 10.8 yr), have long been recognized to have a wide range of important applications in Earth sciences. In recent years, significant progress has been made in the development of practical analytical methods, and has led to applications of these isotopes in the hydrosphere (tracing the flow of groundwater and ocean water). In this article, we introduce the applications of these isotopes and review three leading analytical methods: Low-Level Counting (LLC), Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) and Atom Trap Trace Analysis (ATTA).

  2. atmospheric trace gas: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Websites Summary: enrichments of 22.8 f 2.2 in the concentrations of Ir, SC and the rare earths relative to Cl chondrites of refractory trace metals from a gas of solar...

  3. Project AIRSTREAM: Trace gas final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leifer, R.

    1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The results of 10 years of sampling for trace gases in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere are presented. These samples were collected under the auspices of the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC), the Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA) and the Department of Energy (DOE). Almost 1000 whole air samples were collected during the years 1973 to 1983 under Project AIRSTREAM. Project AIRSTREAM was part of the Environmental Measurements Laboratory's (EML, at that time called the Health and Safety Laboratory/HASL) research effort to investigate the impact of the injection of radionuclides and stable compounds into the stratosphere. One or more of the following compounds were analyzed: CCl[sub 3]F, CCl[sub 2]F[sub 2], CCl[sub 4], N[sub 2]O, SF[sub 6], CO[sub 2], CH[sub 4], CH[sub 3]CCl[sub 3], and COS. Details of the Project's quality assurance program are discussed. Also included in the report are two-dimensional plots of the concentration of CCl[sub 3]F and a complete tabulation of the data.

  4. Project AIRSTREAM: Trace gas final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leifer, R.

    1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The results of 10 years of sampling for trace gases in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere are presented. These samples were collected under the auspices of the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC), the Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA) and the Department of Energy (DOE). Almost 1000 whole air samples were collected during the years 1973 to 1983 under Project AIRSTREAM. Project AIRSTREAM was part of the Environmental Measurements Laboratory`s (EML, at that time called the Health and Safety Laboratory/HASL) research effort to investigate the impact of the injection of radionuclides and stable compounds into the stratosphere. One or more of the following compounds were analyzed: CCl{sub 3}F, CCl{sub 2}F{sub 2}, CCl{sub 4}, N{sub 2}O, SF{sub 6}, CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, CH{sub 3}CCl{sub 3}, and COS. Details of the Project`s quality assurance program are discussed. Also included in the report are two-dimensional plots of the concentration of CCl{sub 3}F and a complete tabulation of the data.

  5. Effects of afforestation and forest management on soil carbon dynamics and trace gas emissions in a Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis (Bong) Carr.) forest 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zerva, Argyro

    The establishment and intensive management of forests for the production of timber can have significant effects on the soil carbon dynamics. The establishment of forest on organic soils under grasslands may lead to ...

  6. Gas Source Tracing With a Mobile Robot Using an Adapted Moth Strategy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zell, Andreas

    Gas Source Tracing With a Mobile Robot Using an Adapted Moth Strategy Achim Lilienthal, Denis,reiman,zell}@informatik.uni-tuebingen.de Abstract. As a sub-task of the general gas source localisation problem, gas source tracing is supposed to guide a gas-sensitive mobile system towards a source by using the cues determined from the gas

  7. Role of trace impurities in large-volume noble gas atmospheric-pressure glow discharges

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raja, Laxminarayan L.

    Role of trace impurities in large-volume noble gas atmospheric-pressure glow discharges Xiaohui. Large-volume APG discharges find numerous applications in processing of material surfaces,1 ozone-purity helium is presented, and the role of trace impurities in such noble gas plasmas is established. Trace

  8. Gas-phase chemical dynamics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weston, R.E. Jr.; Sears, T.J.; Preses, J.M. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States)

    1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Research in this program is directed towards the spectroscopy of small free radicals and reactive molecules and the state-to-state dynamics of gas phase collision, energy transfer, and photodissociation phenomena. Work on several systems is summarized here.

  9. Gas Dynamics in Galaxy Mergers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joshua E. Barnes

    2000-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

    In interacting and merging galaxies, gas is subject to direct hydrodynamic effects as well as tidal forces. One consequence of interactions is the rapid inflows of gas which may fuel starbursts and AGN. But gas dynamics is not limited to inflows; a small survey of equal-mass and unequal-mass encounters produces a wide variety of features, including plumes between galaxies, extended disks formed by infall of tidal debris, and counterrotating nuclear disks. An even richer spectrum of behavior awaits better thermodynamic models for gas in merging galaxies.

  10. "Trace Analysis of Speciality and Electronic Gases," Chapter 4, "Emerging Infrared Laser Absorption Spectroscopic Techniques for Gas Analysis"

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lascola, R.; McWhorter, S.; Tittel, F.; Lewicki, R.

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This chapter covers Laser Absorption Spectroscopic Techniques and Applications of Semiconductor LAS Based Trace Gas Sensor Systems.

  11. Room-temperature mid-infrared laser sensor for trace gas detection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , and pipeline leak detection. Applications such as landfill emissions monitoring require measurements of gasRoom-temperature mid-infrared laser sensor for trace gas detection Thomas To¨ pfer, Konstantin P of a compact, portable, room-temperature mid-infrared gas sensor is reported. The sensor is based on continuous

  12. (Astro)Physics 343 Lecture # 8: Green Bank trip + gas dynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baker, Andrew J.

    matter (i.e., dark matter). #12; A heretical alternative? A few bold souls have pointed out that once/T. #12; Gas dynamics: a Keplerian example From Herrnstein et al. (1999): water masers tracing orbital, based on the central concentration of luminous matter (stars and gas): #12; Rotation curves

  13. (Astro)Physics 343 Lecture # 8: Green Bank trip; gas dynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baker, Andrew J.

    matter (i.e., dark matter). #12; A heretical alternative? A few bold souls have pointed out that once/T. #12; Gas dynamics: a Keplerian example From Herrnstein et al. (1999): water masers tracing orbital, based on the central concentration of luminous matter (stars and gas): #12; Rotation curves

  14. Gas-controlled dynamic vacuum insulation with gas gate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Benson, David K. (Golden, CO); Potter, Thomas F. (Denver, CO)

    1994-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed is a dynamic vacuum insulation comprising sidewalls enclosing an evacuated chamber and gas control means for releasing hydrogen gas into a chamber to increase gas molecule conduction of heat across the chamber and retrieving hydrogen gas from the chamber. The gas control means includes a metal hydride that absorbs and retains hydrogen gas at cooler temperatures and releases hydrogen gas at hotter temperatures; a hydride heating means for selectively heating the metal hydride to temperatures high enough to release hydrogen gas from the metal hydride; and gate means positioned between the metal hydride and the chamber for selectively allowing hydrogen to flow or not to flow between said metal hydride and said chamber.

  15. Gas-controlled dynamic vacuum insulation with gas gate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Benson, D.K.; Potter, T.F.

    1994-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed is a dynamic vacuum insulation comprising sidewalls enclosing an evacuated chamber and gas control means for releasing hydrogen gas into a chamber to increase gas molecule conduction of heat across the chamber and retrieving hydrogen gas from the chamber. The gas control means includes a metal hydride that absorbs and retains hydrogen gas at cooler temperatures and releases hydrogen gas at hotter temperatures; a hydride heating means for selectively heating the metal hydride to temperatures high enough to release hydrogen gas from the metal hydride; and gate means positioned between the metal hydride and the chamber for selectively allowing hydrogen to flow or not to flow between said metal hydride and said chamber. 25 figs.

  16. Validation of a Model of a Resonant Optothermoacoustic Trace Gas Sensor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minkoff, Susan E.

    Validation of a Model of a Resonant Optothermoacoustic Trace Gas Sensor N. Petra1, J. Zweck1, S. E optothermoacoustic sensor is validated by comparison with experiments performed with 0.5% acetylene in nitrogen Optical Society of America OCIS codes: 300.6430, 300.6340. 1. Introduction Quartz-Enhanced Photo

  17. Laser Spectroscopic Trace-Gas Sensor Networks for Atmospheric Monitoring Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhong, Lin

    a laser based chemical sensing technology with wide-area autonomous wireless sensor networking@princeton.edu ABSTRACT Laser-based atmospheric trace-gas sensors have great potential for long-term, real such as CO2, NOx, and methane with exceptionally high specificity. Categories and Subject Descriptors C.3

  18. Evolution of the geothermal fluids at Los Azufres, Mexico, as traced by noble gas isotopes, 18

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Long, Bernard

    following over 25 years of geothermal fluid exploitation. Mantle helium dominates in fluids from the north field has been extensively studied in the past 30 years for its geological and tectonic features (DobsonEvolution of the geothermal fluids at Los Azufres, Mexico, as traced by noble gas isotopes, 18 O, D

  19. Tracing high density gas in M 82 and NGC 4038

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    E. Bayet; C. Lintott; S. Viti; J. Martín-Pintado; S. Martín; D. A. Williams; J. M. C. Rawlings

    2008-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

    We present the first detection of CS in the Antennae galaxies towards the NGC 4038 nucleus, as well as the first detections of two high-J (5-4 and 7-6) CS lines in the center of M 82. The CS(7-6) line in M 82 shows a profile that is surprisingly different to those of other low-J CS transitions we observed. This implies the presence of a separate, denser and warmer molecular gas component. The derived physical properties and the likely location of the CS(7-6) emission suggests an association with the supershell in the centre of M 82.

  20. Trace Gas Emissions Data from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    CDIAC products are indexed and searchable through a customized interface powered by ORNL's Mercury search engine. Products include numeric data packages, publications, trend data, atlases, and models and can be searched for by subject area, keywords, authors, product numbers, time periods, collection sites, spatial references, etc. Some of the collections may also be included in the CDIAC publication Trends Online: A Compendium of Global Change Data. Most data sets, many with numerous data files, are free to download from CDIAC's ftp area. Collections under the broad heading of Trace Gas Emissions are organized as Fossil-Fuel CO2 Emissions, Land-Use CO2 Emissions, Soil CO2 Emissions, and Methane.

  1. Ablation Plume Dynamics in a Background Gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Amoruso, Salvatore [CNR-SPIN and Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche, Universita degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, Complesso Universitario di Monte S. Angelo, Via Cintia, I-80126 Napoli (Italy); Schou, Joergen [Deparment of Photonics Engineering, Risoe Campus, Technical University of Denmark, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Lunney, James G. [School of Physics, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin 2 (Ireland)

    2010-10-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The expansion of a plume in a background gas of pressure comparable to that used in pulsed laser deposition (PLD) has been analyzed in terms of the model of Predtechensky and Mayorov (PM). This approach gives a relatively clear and simple description of the essential hydrodynamics during the expansion. The model also leads to an insightful treatment of the stopping behavior in dimensionless units for plumes and background gases of different atomic/molecular masses. The energetics of the plume dynamics can also be treated with this model. Experimental time-of-flight data of silver ions in a neon background gas show a fair agreement with predictions from the PM-model. Finally we discuss the validity of the model, if the work done by the pressure of the background gas is neglected.

  2. Molecular gas and the dynamics of galaxies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    F. Combes

    1999-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this review, I discuss some highlights of recent research on molecular gas in galaxies; large-scale CO maps of nearby galaxies are being made, which extend our knowledge on global properties, radial gradients, and spiral structure of the molecular ISM. Very high resolution are provided by the interferometers, that reveal high velocity gradients in galaxy nuclei, and formation of embedded structures, like bars within bars. Observation of the CO and other lines in starburst galaxies have questioned the H2-to-CO conversion factor. Surveys of dwarfs have shown how the conversion factor depends on metallicity. The molecular content is not deficient in galaxy clusters, as is the atomic gas. Galaxy interactions are very effective to enhance gas concentrations and trigger starbursts. Nuclear disks or rings are frequently observed, that concentrate the star formation activity. Since the density of starbursting galaxies is strongly increasing with redshift, the CO lines are a privileged tool to follow evolution of galaxies and observe the ISM dynamics at high redshift: due to the high excitation of the molecular gas, the stronger high-$J$ CO lines are redshifted into the observable band, which facilitates the detection.

  3. Trace element chemistry of coal bed natural gas produced water in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richard E. Jackson; K.J. Reddy [University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States). Department of Renewable Resources

    2007-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Coal bed natural gas (CBNG) produced water is usually disposed into nearby constructed disposal ponds. Geochemistry of produced water, particularly trace elements interacting with a semiarid environment, is not clearly understood. The objective of this study was to collect produced water samples at outfalls and corresponding disposal ponds and monitor pH, iron (Fe), aluminum (Al), chromium (Cr), manganese (Mn), lead (Pb), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), arsenic (As), boron (B), selenium (Se), molybdenum (Mo), cadmium (Cd), and barium (Ba). Outfalls and corresponding disposal ponds were sampled from five different watersheds including Cheyenne River (CHR), Belle Fourche River (BFR), Little Powder River (LPR), Powder River (PR), and Tongue River (TR) within the Powder River Basin (PRB), Wyoming from 2003 to 2005. Paired tests were conducted between CBNG outfalls and corresponding disposal ponds for each watershed. Results suggest that produced water from CBNG outfalls is chemically different from the produced water from corresponding disposal ponds. Most trace metal concentrations in the produced water increased from outfall to disposal pond except for Ba. In disposal ponds, Ba, As, and B concentrations increased from 2003 to 2005. Geochemical modeling predicted precipitation and dissolution reactions as controlling processes for Al, Cu, and Ba concentrations in CBNG produced water. Adsorption and desorption reactions appear to control As, Mo, and B concentrations in CBNG water in disposal ponds. Overall, results of this study will be important to determine beneficial uses (e.g., irrigation, livestock/wildlife water, and aquatic life) for CBNG produced water in the PRB, Wyoming. 18 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. Gas bubble dynamics in soft materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. M. Solano-Altamirano; John D. Malcolm; Saul Goldman

    2014-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Epstein and Plesset's seminal work on the rate of gas bubble dissolution and growth in a simple liquid is generalized to render it applicable to a gas bubble embedded in a soft elastic medium. Both the underlying diffusion equation and the expression for the gas bubble pressure were modified to allow for the non-zero shear modulus of the elastic medium. The extension of the diffusion equation results in a trivial shift (by an additive constant) in the value of the diffusion coefficient, and does not change the form of the rate equations. But the use of a Generalized Young-Laplace equation for the bubble pressure resulted in significant differences on the dynamics of bubble dissolution and growth, relative to a simple liquid medium. Depending on whether the salient parameters (solute concentration, initial bubble radius, surface tension, and shear modulus) lead to bubble growth or dissolution, the effect of allowing for a non-zero shear modulus in the Generalized Young-Laplace equation is to speed up the rate of bubble growth, or to reduce the rate of bubble dissolution, respectively. The relation to previous work on visco-elastic materials is discussed, as is the connection of this work to the problem of Decompression Sickness (specifically, "the bends"). Examples of tissues to which our expressions can be applied are provided. Also, a new phenomenon is predicted whereby, for some parameter values, a bubble can be metastable and persist for long times, or it may grow, when embedded in a homogeneous under-saturated soft elastic medium.

  5. Gas Dynamics of NGC 4472 R. P. Kraft(1)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sarazin, Craig

    Gas Dynamics of NGC 4472 R. P. Kraft(1) , W. R. Forman(1) , C. Jones(1) , P. E. J. Nulsen(1) M. J present preliminary results from a 100 ks XMM-Newton observation of the hot gas in the nearby massive to be falling into the Virgo cluster. We find several structures in the gas indicative of a previous epoch

  6. Effective destruction of CO by cosmic rays: implications for tracing H$_2$ gas in the Universe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bisbas, Thomas G; Viti, Serena

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We report on the effects of cosmic rays (CRs) on the abundance of CO in $\\rm H_2$ clouds under conditions typical for star-forming galaxies in the Universe. We discover that this most important molecule for tracing H$_2$ gas is very effectively destroyed in ISM environments with CR energy densities $\\rm U_{CR}\\sim(50-10^{3})\\times U_{CR,Gal}$, a range expected in numerous star-forming systems throughout the Universe. This density-dependent effect operates volumetrically rather than only on molecular cloud surfaces (i.e. unlike FUV radiation that also destroys CO), and is facilitated by: a) the direct destruction of CO by CRs, and b) a reaction channel activated by CR-produced He$^{+}$. The effect we uncover is strong enough to render Milky-Way type Giant Molecular Clouds (GMCs) very CO-poor (and thus CO-untraceable), even in ISM environments with rather modestly enhanced average CR energy densities of $\\rm U_{CR}\\sim(10-50)\\times\\rm U_{CR,Gal}$. We conclude that the CR-induced destruction of CO in molecular c...

  7. Physics 343 Lecture # 8: Green Bank trip; gas dynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baker, Andrew J.

    rotation curves, implying the existence of additional nonluminous matter (i.e., dark matter). #12, while blue shows mass based on weak lensing (apparently, mostly dark matter that is not "collisional dynamics: a Keplerian example From Herrnstein et al. (1999): water masers tracing orbital motions around

  8. Thermochemically Driven Gas-Dynamic Fracturing (TDGF)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael Goodwin

    2008-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This report concerns efforts to increase oil well productivity and efficiency via a method of heating the oil-bearing rock of the well, a technique known as Thermochemical Gas-Dynamic Fracturing (TGDF). The technique uses either a chemical reaction or a combustion event to raise the temperature of the rock of the well, thereby increasing oil velocity, and oil pumping rate. Such technology has shown promise for future application to both older wellheads and also new sites. The need for such technologies in the oil extraction field, along with the merits of the TGDF technology is examined in Chapter 1. The theoretical basis underpinning applications of TGDF is explained in Chapter 2. It is shown that productivity of depleted well can be increased by one order of magnitude after heating a reservoir region of radius 15-20 m around the well by 100 degrees 1-2 times per year. Two variants of thermal stimulation are considered: uniform heating and optimal temperature distribution in the formation region around the perforation zone. It is demonstrated that the well productivity attained by using equal amounts of thermal energy is higher by a factor of 3 to 4 in the case of optimal temperature distribution as compared to uniform distribution. Following this theoretical basis, two practical approaches to applying TDGF are considered. Chapter 3 looks at the use of chemical intiators to raise the rock temperature in the well via an exothermic chemical reaction. The requirements for such a delivery device are discussed, and several novel fuel-oxidizing mixtures (FOM) are investigated in conditions simulating those at oil-extracting depths. Such FOM mixtures, particularly ones containing nitric acid and a chemical initiator, are shown to dramatically increase the temperature of the oil-bearing rock, and thus the productivity of the well. Such tests are substantiated by preliminary fieldwork in Russian oil fields. A second, more cost effective approach to TGDF is considered in Chapter 4: use of diesel-fuel to raise the rock temperature by a combustion process in the well. The requirements for such a Gas-Vapor Generator are laid out, and the development of a prototype machine is explained. This is backed up with laboratory experiments showing that the fuel-water mixture used does significantly increase the viscosity of the oil samples. The prototype Gas-Vapor Generator is shown to be able to operate at temperatures of 240 C and pressures of 200 atm. Unfortunately, geopolitical and economic factors outside of our control led to the cancellation of the project before the field testing phase of the generator could be commenced. Nevertheless, it is to be hoped that this report demonstrates both the feasibility and desirability of the Gas-Vapor Generator approach to the application of TDGF technology in both existing and new wells, and provides a foundation for further research in the future.

  9. Continuum limit of lattice gas fluid dynamics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Teixeira, C.M.

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The general theory for multiple-speed lattice gas algorithm (LGAs) is developed where previously only a single-speed theory existed. A series of microdynamical multiple-speed models are developed that effectively erase the underlying lattice from the macroscopic dynamics allowing the LGA to reproduce the results of continuum hydrodynamics exactly. The underlying lattice is the 4D FCHC lattice. This lattice: (1) Permits all integral energies, (2) Has sufficient symmetry to allow for an isotropic stress tensor for each energy individually, (3) Allows interaction amongst all energies, and (4) Has discrete microscopic Galilean invariance, all of which allows the extension of the model to higher-speeds. This lattice is the only regular lattice with these remarkable properties, all of which are required to show that the discreteness artifacts completely disappear from the LGA in the limit of infinite speeds, so that correct continuum hydrodynamic behavior results. The author verifies the removal of the discreteness artifacts from the momentum equation using a decaying shear wave experiment and shows they are still invisible for Mach numbers up to M [approximately].4 beyond the theoretical limit. Flow between flat plates replicated the expected parabolic profile of Poiseuille flow in the mean when started from rest. Two separate measurements of the kinematic viscosity of the fluid (normal pressure drop and the microscopic particle force at the wall) agreed with each other and with the shear wave viscosity to better than 1%. Cylinder flow simulations accurately reproduced drag coefficients and eddy-length to diameter ratios for Re[le]45 to within the error of experimental observation. At higher Reynolds number, Re [approx equal] 65, vortex shedding was observed to occur. CFD results for flow past cylinders at similar Reynolds numbers produce either erroneous results or rely on artificially perturbing the flow to cause phenomena that does not occur naturally in the method.

  10. Oil and gas exploration system and method for detecting trace amounts of hydrocarbon gases in the atmosphere

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wamsley, Paula R. (Littleton, CO); Weimer, Carl S. (Littleton, CO); Nelson, Loren D. (Evergreen, CO); O'Brien, Martin J. (Pine, CO)

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An oil and gas exploration system and method for land and airborne operations, the system and method used for locating subsurface hydrocarbon deposits based upon a remote detection of trace amounts of gases in the atmosphere. The detection of one or more target gases in the atmosphere is used to indicate a possible subsurface oil and gas deposit. By mapping a plurality of gas targets over a selected survey area, the survey area can be analyzed for measurable concentration anomalies. The anomalies are interpreted along with other exploration data to evaluate the value of an underground deposit. The system includes a differential absorption lidar (DIAL) system with a spectroscopic grade laser light and a light detector. The laser light is continuously tunable in a mid-infrared range, 2 to 5 micrometers, for choosing appropriate wavelengths to measure different gases and avoid absorption bands of interference gases. The laser light has sufficient optical energy to measure atmospheric concentrations of a gas over a path as long as a mile and greater. The detection of the gas is based on optical absorption measurements at specific wavelengths in the open atmosphere. Light that is detected using the light detector contains an absorption signature acquired as the light travels through the atmosphere from the laser source and back to the light detector. The absorption signature of each gas is processed and then analyzed to determine if a potential anomaly exists.

  11. Batch methods for enriching trace impurities in hydrogen gas for their further analysis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ahmed, Shabbir; Lee, Sheldon H.D.; Kumar, Romesh; Papdias, Dionissios D.

    2014-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Provided herein are batch methods and devices for enriching trace quantities of impurities in gaseous mixtures, such as hydrogen fuel. The methods and devices rely on concentrating impurities using hydrogen transport membranes wherein the time period for concentrating the sample is calculated on the basis of optimized membrane characteristics, comprising its thickness and permeance, with optimization of temperature, and wherein the enrichment of trace impurities is proportional to the pressure ratio P.sub.hi/P.sub.lo and the volume ratio V.sub.1/V.sub.2, with following detection of the impurities using commonly-available detection methods.

  12. Tracing ultrafast dynamics of strong fields at plasma-vacuum interfaces with longitudinal proton probing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abicht, F.; Braenzel, J.; Koschitzki, Ch.; Schnürer, M., E-mail: schnuerer@mbi-berlin.de [Max-Born-Institut, Max-Born-Str. 2a, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Priebe, G. [XFEL GmbH, Notkestr. 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany); Andreev, A. A. [Max-Born-Institut, Max-Born-Str. 2a, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Vavilov State Optical Institut, Birzhevaya line 12, 199064 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); St. Petersburg University, 199064 St. Petersburg, University emb.6 (Russian Federation); Nickles, P. V. [Max-Born-Institut, Max-Born-Str. 2a, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Center of Relativistic Laser Science, Institute for Basic Science, Gwangju 500-712 (Korea, Republic of); Sandner, W. [Max-Born-Institut, Max-Born-Str. 2a, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Technical University Berlin, Straße des 17. Juni 135, 10623 Berlin (Germany); ELI-DC International Association AISBL, c/o DESY – StandortZeuthen, Platanenallee 6, 15738 Zeuthen (Germany)

    2014-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

    If regions of localized strong fields at plasma-vacuum interfaces are probed longitudinally with laser accelerated proton beams their velocity distribution changes sensitively and very fast. Its measured variations provide indirectly a higher temporal resolution as deduced from deflection geometries which rely on the explicit temporal resolution of the proton beam at the position of the object to probe. With help of reasonable models and comparative measurements changes of proton velocity can trace the field dynamics even at femtosecond time scale. In longitudinal probing, the very low longitudinal emittance together with a broad band kinetic energy distribution of laser accelerated protons is the essential prerequisite of the method. With a combination of energy and one-dimensional spatial resolution, we resolve fast field changes down to 100 fs. The used pump probe setup extends previous schemes and allows discriminating simultaneously between electric and magnetic fields in their temporal evolution.

  13. Dynamics of Gas-Fluidized Granular Rods

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    L. J. Daniels; Y. Park; T. C. Lubensky; D. J. Durian

    2008-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

    We study a quasi-two-dimensional monolayer of granular rods fluidized by a spatially and temporally homogeneous upflow of air. By tracking the position and orientation of the particles, we characterize the dynamics of the system with sufficient resolution to observe ballistic motion at the shortest time scales. Particle anisotropy gives rise to dynamical anisotropy and superdiffusive dynamics parallel to the rod's long axis, causing the parallel and perpendicular mean squared displacements to become diffusive on different timescales. The distributions of free times and free paths between collisions deviate from exponential behavior, underscoring the non-thermal character of the particle motion. The dynamics show evidence of rotational-translational coupling similar to that of an anisotropic Brownian particle. We model rotational-translation coupling in the single-particle dynamics with a modified Langevin model using non-thermal noise sources. This suggests a phenomenological approach to thinking about collections of self-propelling particles in terms of enhanced memory effects.

  14. Physics 343 Lecture # 8: Green Bank trip; gas dynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baker, Andrew J.

    the existence of additional nonluminous matter (i.e., dark matter). #12; A heretical alternative? A few bold on weak lensing (apparently, mostly dark matter that is not "collisional"). #12; Inclination's third law for v = 2R/T. #12; Gas dynamics: a Keplerian example From Herrnstein et al. (1999): water

  15. The dynamics of two-phase (gas

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over Our InstagramStructureProposedPAGESafetyTed Donat AboutTextiles (2010 dynamics of

  16. Investigation of trace amounts of gas on microvave water-cut measurement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Jin

    2006-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

    In recent years, the upstream oil and gas industry has dealt with some of the most challenging metering applications. One of these is the measurement of water percentage at the point of allocation. It is an essential requirement when test separators...

  17. Dynamics of Sound Waves in an Interacting Bose Gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. -A. Deckert; J. Fröhlich; P. Pickl; A. Pizzo

    2014-06-06T23:59:59.000Z

    We consider a non-relativistic quantum gas of $N$ bosonic atoms confined to a box of volume $\\Lambda$ in physical space. The atoms interact with each other through a pair potential whose strength is inversely proportional to the density, $\\rho=\\frac{N}{\\Lambda}$, of the gas. We study the time evolution of coherent excitations above the ground state of the gas in a regime of large volume $\\Lambda$ and small ratio $\\frac{\\Lambda}{\\rho}$. The initial state of the gas is assumed to be close to a \\textit{product state} of one-particle wave functions that are approximately constant throughout the box. The initial one-particle wave function of an excitation is assumed to have a compact support independent of $\\Lambda$. We derive an effective non-linear equation for the time evolution of the one-particle wave function of an excitation and establish an explicit error bound tracking the accuracy of the effective non-linear dynamics in terms of the ratio $\\frac{\\Lambda}{\\rho}$. We conclude with a discussion of the dispersion law of low-energy excitations, recovering Bogolyubov's well-known formula for the speed of sound in the gas, and a dynamical instability for attractive two-body potentials.

  18. Control of Gas Tungsten Arc welding pool shape by trace element addition to the weld pool

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Heiple, C.R.; Burgardt, P.

    1984-03-13T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved process for Gas Tungsten Arc welding maximizes the depth/width ratio of the weld pool by adding a sufficient amount of a surface active element to insure inward fluid flow, resulting in deep, narrow welds. The process is especially useful to eliminate variable weld penetration and shape in GTA welding of steels and stainless steels, particularly by using a sulfur-doped weld wire in a cold wire feed technique.

  19. Quantifying Climate Feedbacks from Abrupt Changes in High-Latitude Trace-Gas Emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schlosser, Courtney Adam [MIT; Walter-Anthony, Katey [University of Alaska; Zhuang, Qianlai [Purdue University; Melillo, Jerry [Marine Biological Laboratory

    2013-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Our overall goal was to quantify the potential for threshold changes in natural emission rates of trace gases, particularly methane and carbon dioxide, from pan-arctic terrestrial systems under the spectrum of anthropogenically forced climate warming, and the extent to which these emissions provide a strong feedback mechanism to global climate warming. This goal is motivated under the premise that polar amplification of global climate warming will induce widespread thaw and degradation of the permafrost, and would thus cause substantial changes in the extent of wetlands and lakes, especially thermokarst (thaw) lakes, over the Arctic. Through a coordinated effort of field measurements, model development, and numerical experimentation with an integrated assessment model framework, we have investigated the following hypothesis: There exists a climate-warming threshold beyond which permafrost degradation becomes widespread and thus instigates strong and/or sharp increases in methane emissions (via thermokarst lakes and wetland expansion). These would outweigh any increased uptake of carbon (e.g. from peatlands) and would result in a strong, positive feedback to global climate warming.

  20. Dynamic characteristics of gas-water interfacial plasma under water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zheng, S. J.; Zhang, Y. C.; Ke, B.; Ding, F.; Tang, Z. L.; Yang, K.; Zhu, X. D. [Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China)

    2012-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Gas-water interfacial plasmas under water were generated in a compact space in a tube with a sandglass-like structure, where two metal wires were employed as electrodes with an applied 35 kHz ac power source. The dynamic behaviors of voltage/current were investigated for the powered electrode with/without water cover to understand the effect of the gas-water interface. It is found that the discharge exhibits periodic pulsed currents after breakdown as the powered electrode is covered with water, whereas the electrical current reveals a damped oscillation with time with a frequency about 10{sup 6} Hz as the powered electrode is in a vapor bubble. By increasing water conductivity, a discharge current waveform transition from pulse to oscillation presents in the water covering case. These suggest that the gas-water interface has a significant influence on the discharge property.

  1. Dynamic Absorption Model for Off-Gas Separation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Veronica J. Rutledge

    2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Modeling and simulations will aid in the future design of U.S. advanced reprocessing plants for the recovery and recycle of actinides in used nuclear fuel. The specific fuel cycle separation process discussed in this report is the off-gas treatment system. The off-gas separation consists of a series of scrubbers and adsorption beds to capture constituents of interest. Dynamic models are being developed to simulate each unit operation involved so each unit operation can be used as a stand-alone model and in series with multiple others. Currently, a rate based, dynamic absorption model is being developed in gPROMS software. Inputs include liquid and gas stream constituents, column properties, liquid and gas phase reactions, number of stages, and inlet conditions. It simulates multiple component absorption with countercurrent flow and accounts for absorption by mass transfer and chemical reaction. The assumption of each stage being a discrete well-mixed entity was made. Therefore, the model is solved stagewise. The simulation outputs component concentrations in both phases as a function of time from which the rate of absorption is determined. Temperature of both phases is output as a function of time also. The model will be used able to be used as a standalone model in addition to in series with other off-gas separation unit operations. The current model is being generated based on NOx absorption; however, a future goal is to develop a CO2 specific model. The model will have the capability to be modified for additional absorption systems. The off-gas models, both adsorption and absorption, will be made available via the server or web for evaluation by customers.

  2. Gas-Phase Molecular Dynamics: High Resolution Spectroscopy and Collision Dynamics of Transient Species

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hall, G.E.

    2011-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This research is carried out as part of the Gas-Phase Molecular Dynamics program in the Chemistry Department at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Chemical intermediates in the elementary gas-phase reactions involved in combustion chemistry are investigated by high resolution spectroscopic tools. Production, reaction, and energy transfer processes are investigated by transient, double resonance, polarization and saturation spectroscopies, with an emphasis on technique development and connection with theory, as well as specific molecular properties.

  3. Tunable photonic cavities for in-situ spectroscopic trace gas detection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bond, Tiziana; Cole, Garrett; Goddard, Lynford

    2012-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Compact tunable optical cavities are provided for in-situ NIR spectroscopy. MEMS-tunable VCSEL platforms represents a solid foundation for a new class of compact, sensitive and fiber compatible sensors for fieldable, real-time, multiplexed gas detection systems. Detection limits for gases with NIR cross-sections such as O.sub.2, CH.sub.4, CO.sub.x and NO.sub.x have been predicted to approximately span from 10.sup.ths to 10s of parts per million. Exemplary oxygen detection design and a process for 760 nm continuously tunable VCSELS is provided. This technology enables in-situ self-calibrating platforms with adaptive monitoring by exploiting Photonic FPGAs.

  4. Quantifying Climate Feedbacks from Abrupt Changes in High-Latitude Trace-Gas Emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qianlai Zhuang

    2012-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

    During the three-year project period, Purdue University has specifically accomplished the following: revised the existing Methane Dynamics Model (MDM) to consider the effects of changes of atmospheric pressure; applied the methane dynamics model (MDM) to Siberian region to demonstrate that ebullition estimates could increase previous estimates of regional terrestrial CH{sub 4} emissions 3- to 7-fold in Siberia; Conducted an analysis of the carbon balance of the Arctic Basin from 1997 to 2006 to show that terrestrial areas of the Arctic were a net source of 41.5 Tg CH{sub 4} yr{sup â??1} that increased by 0.6 Tg CH{sub 4} yr{sup â??1} during the decade of analysis, a magnitude that is comparable with an atmospheric inversion of CH{sub 4}; improved the quantification of CH{sub 4} fluxes in the Arctic with inversion methods; evaluated AIRS CH4 retrieval data with a transport and inversion model and surface flux and aircraft data; to better quantify methane emissions from wetlands, we extended the MDM within a biogeochemistry model, the Terrestrial Ecosystem Model (TEM), to include a large-scale hydrology model, the variable infiltration capacity (VIC) model; more recently, we developed a single box atmospheric chemistry model involving atmospheric methane (CH{sub 4}), carbon monoxide (CO) and radical hydroxyl (OH) to analyze atmospheric CH{sub 4} concentrations from 1984 to 2008.

  5. Gas-Phase Molecular Dynamics: Theoretical Studies In Spectroscopy and Chemical Dynamics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu H. G.; Muckerman, J.T.

    2012-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The main goal of this program is the development and application of computational methods for studying chemical reaction dynamics and molecular spectroscopy in the gas phase. We are interested in developing rigorous quantum dynamics algorithms for small polyatomic systems and in implementing approximate approaches for complex ones. Particular focus is on the dynamics and kinetics of chemical reactions and on the rovibrational spectra of species involved in combustion processes. This research also explores the potential energy surfaces of these systems of interest using state-of-the-art quantum chemistry methods, and extends them to understand some important properties of materials in condensed phases and interstellar medium as well as in combustion environments.

  6. Understanding Sectoral Labor Market Dynamics: An Equilibrium Analysis of the Oil and Gas Field Services

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sadoulet, Elisabeth

    Understanding Sectoral Labor Market Dynamics: An Equilibrium Analysis of the Oil and Gas Field examines the response of employment and wages in the US oil and gas ...eld services industry to changes the dynamic response of wages and employment in the U.S. Oil and Gas Field Services (OGFS) industry to changes

  7. Gas Dynamic Effects On Laser Cut Quality Kai Chen, Y. Lawrence Yao, and Vijay Modi

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yao, Y. Lawrence

    Gas Dynamic Effects On Laser Cut Quality Kai Chen, Y. Lawrence Yao, and Vijay Modi Department are very sensitive to gas jet pressure and nozzle standoff distance. Do a high gas pressure and a small shows the same behavior (i.e., discontinuity as gas pressure and standoff change

  8. Study of gas flow dynamics in porous and granular media with laser-polarized ¹²?Xe NMR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Ruopeng, 1972-

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis presents Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) studies of gas flow dynamics in porous and granular media by using laser-polarized ¹²?Xe . Two different physical processes, the gas transport in porous rock cores and ...

  9. Multi-Symplectic Lagrangian, One-Dimensional Gas Dynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. M. Webb

    2015-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

    The equations of Lagrangian, ideal, one-dimensional (1D), compressible gas dynamics are written in a multi-symplectic form using the Lagrangian mass coordinate $m$ and time $t$ as independent variables, and in which the Eulerian position of the fluid element $x=x(m,t)$ is one of the dependent variables. This approach differs from the Eulerian, multi-symplectic approach using Clebsch variables. Lagrangian constraints are used to specify equations for $x_m$, $x_t$ and $S_t$ consistent with the Lagrangian map, where $S$ is the entropy of the gas. We require $S_t=0$ corresponding to advection of the entropy $S$ with the flow. We show that the Lagrangian Hamiltonian equations are related to the de Donder-Weyl multi-momentum formulation. The pullback conservation laws and the symplecticity conservation laws are discussed. The pullback conservation laws correspond to invariance of the action with respect to translations in time (energy conservation) and translations in $m$ in Noether's theorem. The conservation law due to $m$-translation invariance gives rise to a novel nonlocal conservation law involving the Clebsch variable $r$ used to impose $\\partial S(m,t)/\\partial t=0$. Translation invariance with respect to $x$ in Noether's theorem is associated with momentum conservation. We obtain the Cartan-Poincar\\'e form for the system, and use it to obtain a closed ideal of two-forms representing the equation system.

  10. Rarefied gas dynamics and its applications to vacuum technology F. Sharipov

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sharipov, Felix

    function and obtained its expression in the equilibrium state. Thus Maxwell gave the origin to the kinetic is given. 1 Brief history of rarefied gas dynamics Rarefied gas dynamics is based on the kinetic approach theory of gases. Then, in 1872 Boltzmann [2] deduced the kinetic equation which determines the evolution

  11. Theodor Meyer--Lost pioneer of gas dynamics Gary S. Settles a,, Egon Krause b

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Settles, Gary S.

    Theodor Meyer--Lost pioneer of gas dynamics Gary S. Settles a,Ã, Egon Krause b , Heinz F ¨utterer c August 2009 a b s t r a c t Theodor Meyer's 1908 doctoral dissertation, with Ludwig Prandtl (1875­1953) as his advisor, introduced much of what has now become basic gas dynamics: not only the Prandtl­Meyer

  12. Noble gas temperature control of metal clusters: A molecular dynamics study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Noble gas temperature control of metal clusters: A molecular dynamics study Jan Westergren a noble gas atmosphere. The simulations are performed using a many-body interaction scheme for the intra-cluster potential, while a pairwise Lennard-Jones potential is used to model the interaction between the noble gas

  13. Contributed papers Study of gas-fluidization dynamics with laser-polarized 129

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walsworth, Ronald L.

    Gas fluidization is a process in which solid particles experience fluid-like suspension in an upward. Bubbles, or void spaces with volume much larger than that of a single particle, emerge when the gas flowContributed papers Study of gas-fluidization dynamics with laser-polarized 129 Xe Ruopeng Wanga

  14. SIAM J. on Applied Mathematics, submitted 20 February 1996 The Gaussian Moment Closure for Gas Dynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Soatto, Stefano

    of extremely low pressure rarefied gas flows is important in a wide range of applications, from the reentrySIAM J. on Applied Mathematics, submitted 20 February 1996 The Gaussian Moment Closure for Gas of Levermore applied to the Boltzmann equation for rarefied gas dynamics leads to a hierarchy of symmetric

  15. Development of a new type shock tube without a diaphragm for gas-dynamic laser research

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    tube are shown in Fig.2. The cylinder sections C and D are filled with a higher pressure gas than A to the left side, and this makes the high pressure gas in the driver section flowing into the driven sectionDevelopment of a new type shock tube without a diaphragm for gas-dynamic laser research S.Kugimiya1

  16. Dynamics of the solar chromosphere. V. High-frequency modulation in ultraviolet image sequences from TRACE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. G. de Wijn; R. J. Rutten; T. D. Tarbell

    2007-06-13T23:59:59.000Z

    We search for signatures of high-frequency oscillations in the upper solar photosphere and low chromosphere in the context of acoustic heating of outer stellar atmospheres. We use ultraviolet image sequences of a quiet center-disk area from the Transition Region and Coronal Explorer (TRACE) mission which were taken with strict cadence regularity. The latter permits more reliable high-frequency diagnosis than in earlier work. Spatial Fourier power maps, spatially averaged coherence and phase-difference spectra, and spatio-temporal k-f decompositions all contain high-frequency features that at first sight seem of considerable intrinsic interest but actually are more likely to represent artifacts of different nature. Spatially averaged phase difference measurement provides the most sensitive diagnostic and indicates the presence of acoustic modulation up to f=20 mHz (periods down to 50 seconds) in internetwork areas.

  17. Laboratory scale studies of Pd/y-Al2O3 sorbents for the removal of trace contaminents from coal-derived fuel gas at elevated temperatures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rupp, Erik C.; Granite, Evan J.; Stanko, Dennis C.

    2010-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) is a promising technology for the use of coal in a clean and efficient manner. In order to maintain the overall efficiency of the IGCC process, it is necessary to clean the fuel gas of contaminants (sulfur, trace compounds) at warm (150-540 C) to hot (>540 C) temperatures. Current technologies for trace contaminant (such as mercury) removal, primarily activated carbon based sorbents, begin to lose effectiveness above 100 C, creating the need to develop sorbents effective at elevated temperatures. As trace elements are of particular environmental concern, previous work by this group has focused on the development of a Pd/{gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} sorbent for Hg removal. This paper extends the research to Se (as hydrogen selenide, H{sub 2}Se), As (as arsine, AsH{sub 3}), and P (as phosphine, PH{sub 3}) which thermodynamic studies indicate are present as gaseous species under gasification conditions. Experiments performed under ambient conditions in He on 20 wt.% Pd/{gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} indicate the sorbent can remove the target contaminants. Further work is performed using a 5 wt.% Pd/{gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} sorbent in a simulated fuel gas (H{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2}, N{sub 2} and H{sub 2}S) in both single and multiple contaminant atmospheres to gauge sorbent performance characteristics. The impact of H{sub 2}O, Hg and temperature on sorbent performance is explored.

  18. The Relativistic Dynamics of Photon Gas Two dynamic equations are established in photon gas, which is just the carrier or medium of electromagnetic waves

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jikang Chen

    2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The carrier or medium of electromagnetic waves has been vainly searched for many years, and now it has been caught after the establishment of the dynamic equations in photon gas. The photon's rest mass has been estimated from the cosmic background temperature in space where the photon gas is at an open state of thermal equilibrium, and the photon's proper magnetic moment is calculated from the dynamic equations of photon gas too. As the carrier of electromagnetic waves, the photon gas is a discrete medium at very high frequency, and then the Bohr's electron is hardly to emit energy in wave form and can be stably rounding the nuclei in discrete orbits at lower temperature.

  19. Dynamics of a geothermal field traced by noble gases: Cerro Prieto, Mexico

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mazor, E. (Weizmann Inst. of Science, Rehovot, Israel); Truesdell, A.H.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Noble gases have been measured mass spectrometrically in samples collected during 1977 from producing wells at Cerro Prieto. Positive correlations between concentrations of radiogenic (He, /sup 40/Ar) and atmospheric noble gases (Ne, Ar, and Kr) suggest the following dynamic model: the geothermal fluids originated from meteoric water penetrated to more than 2500 m depth (below the level of first boiling) and mixed with radiogenic helium and argon-40 formed in the aquifer rocks. Subsequently, small amounts of steam were lost by a Raleigh process (0 to 3%) and mixing with shallow cold water occurred (0 to 30%). Noble gases are sensitive tracers of boiling in the initial stages of 0 to 3% steam separation and complement other tracers, such as Cl or temperature, which are effective only beyond this range.

  20. Physics 343 Lecture # 8: Green Bank trip; gas dynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baker, Andrew J.

    rotation curves, implying the existence of additional nonluminous matter (i.e., dark matter). #12, while blue shows mass based on weak lensing (apparently, mostly dark matter that is not "collisional: a Keplerian example From Herrnstein et al. (1999): water masers tracing orbital motions around the central

  1. Analysis of condensate banking dynamics in a gas condensate reservoir under different injection schemes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sandoval Rodriguez, Angelica Patricia

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    condensate reservoir under natural depletion, and injection of methane, injection of carbon dioxide, produced gas recycling and water injection. To monitor the condensate banking dynamics near the wellbore area, such as oil saturation and compositional...

  2. Gas dynamics in high-luminosity polarized 3He targets using diffusion and convection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kelleher, Aidan Michael

    The dynamics of the movement of gas is discussed for two-chambered polarized 3He target cells of the sort that have been used successfully for many electron-scattering experiments. A detailed analysis is presented showing ...

  3. Gas-confined barrier discharges: a simplified model for plasma dynamics in flame environments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guerra-Garcia, Carmen

    In this paper we evaluate the dynamics of non-thermal plasmas developing in extremely non-homogeneous environments. We present the gas-confined barrier discharge (GBD) concept and justify its importance as a first step to ...

  4. The origin of the hot metal-poor gas in NGC1291: Testing the hypothesis of gas dynamics as the cause of the gas heating

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    I. Perez; K. Freeman

    2006-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper we test the idea that the low-metallicity hot gas in the centre of NGC 1291 is heated via a dynamical process. In this scenario, the gas from the outer gas-rich ring loses energy through bar-driven shocks and falls to the centre. Heating of the gas to X-ray temperatures comes from the high velocity that it reaches ($\\approx$ 700 \\kms) as it falls to the bottom of the potential well. This would explain why the stellar metallicity in the bulge region is around solar while the hot gas metallicity is around 0.1 solar. We carried out an observational test to check this hypothesis by measuring the metallicity of HII regions in the outer ring to check whether they matched the hot gas metallicity. For this purpose we obtained medium resolution long slit spectroscopy with FORS1 on the ESO VLT at Paranal and obtained the metallicities using emission line ratio diagnostics. The obtained metallicities are compatible with the bulge stellar metallicities but very different from the hot-gas metallicity. However, when comparing the different time-scales, the gas in the ring had time enough to get enriched through stellar processes, therefore we cannot rule out the dynamical mechanism as the heating process of the gas. However, the blue colours of the outer ring and the dust structures in the bar region could suggest that the origin of the X-ray hot gas is due to the infall of material from further out.

  5. Dynamics of the UK Natural Gas Industry: System Dynamics Modelling and Long-Term Energy Policy Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chi, K C; Reiner, David; Nuttall, William J

    www.eprg.group.cam.ac.uk E P R G W O R K IN G P A P E R N O N -T E C H N IC A L S U M M A R Y DYNAMICS OF THE UK NATURAL GAS INDUSTRY: SYSTEM DYNAMICS MODELLING AND LONG-TERM ENERGY POLICY ANALYSIS EPRG Working Paper 0913... Cambridge Working Paper in Economics 0922 Kong Chyong Chi , David M. Reiner and William J. Nuttall The UK offshore natural gas and oil industry has a long and successful history and has been said to represent the pride of UK...

  6. Molecular dynamics simulation of nanoporous graphene for selective gas separation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Au, Harold (Harold S.)

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Graphene with sub-nanometer sized pores has the potential to act as a filter for gas separation with considerable efficiency gains compared to traditional technologies. Nanoporous graphene membranes are expected to yield ...

  7. Evaluation and Effect of Fracturing Fluids on Fracture Conductivity in Tight Gas Reservoirs Using Dynamic Fracture Conductivity Test 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Correa Castro, Juan

    2011-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

    EVALUATION AND EFFECT OF FRACTURING FLUIDS ON FRACTURE CONDUCTIVITY IN TIGHT GAS RESERVOIRS USING DYNAMIC FRACTURE CONDUCTIVITY TEST A Thesis by JUAN CARLOS CORREA CASTRO Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A... in Tight Gas Reservoirs Using Dynamic Fracture Conductivity Test Copyright 2011 Juan Carlos Correa Castro EVALUATION AND EFFECT OF FRACTURING FLUIDS ON FRACTURE CONDUCTIVITY IN TIGHT GAS RESERVOIRS USING DYNAMIC FRACTURE CONDUCTIVITY TEST A...

  8. Dynamics of inelastic and reactive gas-surface collisions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smoliar, L.A.

    1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The dynamics of inelastic and reactive collisions in atomic beam-surface scattering are presented. The inelastic scattering of hyperthermal rare gaseous atoms from three alkali halide surfaces (LiF, NaCl, GI)was studied to understand mechanical energy transfer in unreactive systems. The dynamics of the chemical reaction in the scattering of H(D) atoms from the surfaces of LIF(001) and the basal plane of graphite were also studied.

  9. Dissipative dynamics of a kink state in a Bose-condensed gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. O. Fedichev; A. E. Muryshev; G. V. Shlyapnikov

    1999-05-18T23:59:59.000Z

    We develop a theory of dissipative dynamics of a kink state in a finite-temperature Bose-condensed gas. We find that due to the interaction with the thermal cloud the kink state accelerates towards the velocity of sound and continuously transforms to the ground-state condensate. We calculate the life-time of a kink state in a trapped gas and discuss possible experimental implications.

  10. Impact of Fuel Interchangeability on dynamic Instabilities in Gas Turbine Engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ferguson, D.H.; Straub, D.L.; Richards, G.A.; Robey, E.H.

    2007-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Modern, low NOx emitting gas turbines typically utilize lean pre-mixed (LPM) combustion as a means of achieving target emissions goals. As stable combustion in LPM systems is somewhat intolerant to changes in operating conditions, precise engine tuning on a prescribed range of fuel properties is commonly performed to avoid dynamic instabilities. This has raised concerns regarding the use of imported liquefied natural gas (LNG) and natural gas liquids (NGL’s) to offset a reduction in the domestic natural gas supply, which when introduced into the pipeline could alter the fuel BTU content and subsequently exacerbate problems such as combustion instabilities. The intent of this study is to investigate the sensitivity of dynamically unstable test rigs to changes in fuel composition and heat content. Fuel Wobbe number was controlled by blending methane and natural gas with various amounts of ethane, propane and nitrogen. Changes in combustion instabilities were observed, in both atmospheric and pressurized test rigs, for fuels containing high concentrations of propane (> 62% by vol). However, pressure oscillations measured while operating on typical “LNG like” fuels did not appear to deviate significantly from natural gas and methane flame responses. Mechanisms thought to produce changes in the dynamic response are discussed.

  11. Some axioms of the thermodynamics of gas dynamic theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Niss, Keith Frank

    1960-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    -tupel, ( &, , +&, ' ' ' ' ' ' ', +n ); K&' E' Q?, or by the n-tupel ( g) 'I $Q 1 y gfj ) j ( Q $ y g is called 16 the "alternate thermodynamic state coordinate" and. the set ~ is called "alternate coordinate system of the thermo- dynamic state space. " DEPINITION 14..., by heat radiation from Y DEFINITION 19: The time rate of change of the total heat addition (t) of 8 is )~ = ff(H~ l "l"~. AXIOM 6: (a) There exists an alternate thermo- dynamic state coordinate C (g $) called the internal i energy per unit mass...

  12. The Natural Aerodynamic Sampling of Trace Explosives from the Human Body

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Settles, Gary S.

    The Natural Aerodynamic Sampling of Trace Explosives from the Human Body Gary S. Settles, Huban A. Gowadia, Sean B. Strine, and Timothy E. Johnson Gas Dynamics Lab, Mechanical Engineering Dept., 301D Reber developed for this purpose, their widespread use may be too slow for airport security use and may

  13. Fluctuation formula for nonreversible dynamics in the thermostated Lorentz gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Dolowschiak; Z. Kovacs

    2003-01-03T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate numerically the validity of the Gallavotti-Cohen fluctuation formula in the two and three dimensional periodic Lorentz gas subjected to constant electric and magnetic fields and thermostated by the Gaussian isokinetic thermostat. The magnetic field breaks the time reversal symmetry, and by choosing its orientation with respect to the lattice one can have either a generalized reversing symmetry or no reversibility at all. Our results indicate that the scaling property described by the fluctuation formula may be approximately valid for large fluctuations even in the absence of reversibility.

  14. Molecular dynamics of gas phase hydrogen-bonded complexes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wofford, Billy Alan

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . These analyses have permitted the calculation of an approximate stretching harmonic force field for the hydrogen-bound heterodimer HCN---HF. In addition, a new technique is developed to determine both the ground state and equilibrium dissociation energies... OF FIGURES. CHAPTER I. INTRODUCTION. CHAPTER II. MOLECULAR DYNAMICS IN HYDROGEN-BONDED INTERACTIONS: A PRELIMINARY EXPERIMENTALLY DETERMINED HARMONIC STRETCHING FORCE FIELD FOR HCN---HF. Introduction. Experimental Calculations. 10 Discussion. 19...

  15. Flow analysis and nozzle-shape optimization for the cold-gas dynamic-spray process

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grujicic, Mica

    Flow analysis and nozzle-shape optimization for the cold-gas dynamic-spray process M Grujicic1*, W, maximizes the acceleration of the particles. Furthermore, it is found that if the cold-spray nozzle, a significant increase in the average velocity of the particles at the nozzle exit can be obtained

  16. Simulation of Gas Dynamic Behavior in Dry-Wall Inertial Fusion Energy Chambers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tillack, Mark

    . In this work, the code TSUNAMI [2] was used to model chamber gas dynamics for different shapes, sizes of size scaling. Previous- ly, TSUNAMI was used primarily for studying liquid protec- ted chambers which the basic response charac- teristics (with emphasis on the evolution towards a quiescent state

  17. Carbon and nitrogen dynamics in bioenergy ecosystems: 2. Potential greenhouse gas emissions and global

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhuang, Qianlai

    Carbon and nitrogen dynamics in bioenergy ecosystems: 2. Potential greenhouse gas emissions) from bioenergy ecosystems with a biogeochemical model AgTEM, assuming maize (Zea mays L.), switchgrass haÃ?1 yrÃ?1 . Among all three bioenergy crops, Miscanthus is the most biofuel productive and the least

  18. Ambient gas effects on the dynamics of laser-produced tin plume expansion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tillack, Mark

    Ambient gas effects on the dynamics of laser-produced tin plume expansion S. S. Harilal,a Beau O online 28 April 2006 Controlling the debris from a laser-generated tin plume is one of the prime issues radiation can be used for controlling highly energetic particles from the tin plume. We employed a partial

  19. (Astro)Physics 343 Lecture # 8: Green Bank trip; gas dynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baker, Andrew J.

    the existence of additional nonluminous matter (i.e., dark matter). #12; A heretical alternative? A few bold on weak lensing (apparently, mostly dark matter that is not "collisional"). #12; Inclination's third law for v = 2R/T. #12; Gas dynamics: a Keplerian example From Herrnstein et al. (1999): water

  20. Study of Gas Flow Dynamics in Porous and Granular Media with Laser-Polarized 129

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walsworth, Ronald L.

    Abstract This thesis presents Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) studies of gas flow dynamics in porous in porous rock cores and the mass exchanges between different phases in fluidized granular systems, were-emulsion exchange and emulsion-adsorption exchange in a fluidized bed are two processes crucial to the efficiency

  1. FIRST OPERATING RESULTS OF A DYNAMIC GAS BEARING TURBINE IN AN INDUSTRIAL HYDROGEN LIQUEFIER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bischoff, S.; Decker, L. [Linde Kryotechnik AG, Pfungen, CH-8042 (Switzerland)

    2010-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Hydrogen has been brought into focus of industry and public since fossil fuels are depleting and costs are increasing dramatically. Beside these issues new high-tech processes in the industry are in need for hydrogen at ultra pure quality. To achieve these requirements and for efficient transportation, hydrogen is liquefied in industrial plants. Linde Gas has commissioned a new 5.5 TPD Hydrogen liquefier in Leuna, Germany, which has been engineered and supplied by Linde Kryotechnik. One of the four expansion turbines installed in the liquefaction process is equipped with dynamic gas bearings. Several design features and operational characteristics of this application will be discussed. The presentation will include results of efficiency and operational reliability that have been determined from performance tests. The advantages of the Linde dynamic gas bearing turbine for future use in hydrogen liquefaction plants will be shown.

  2. Bubble coalescence dynamics and supersaturation in electrolytic gas evolution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stover, R.L. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering]|[Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States). Energy and Environment Div.

    1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The apparatus and procedures developed in this research permit the observation of electrolytic bubble coalescence, which heretofore has not been possible. The influence of bubble size, electrolyte viscosity, surface tension, gas type, and pH on bubble coalescence was examined. The Navier-Stokes equations with free surface boundary conditions were solved numerically for the full range of experimental variables that were examined. Based on this study, the following mechanism for bubble coalescence emerges: when two gas bubbles coalesce, the surface energy decreases as the curvature and surface area of the resultant bubble decrease, and the energy is imparted into the surrounding liquid. The initial motion is driven by the surface tension and slowed by the inertia and viscosity of the surrounding fluid. The initial velocity of the interface is approximately proportional to the square root of the surface tension and inversely proportional to the square root of the bubble radius. Fluid inertia sustains the oblate/prolate oscillations of the resultant bubble. The period of the oscillations varies with the bubble radius raised to the 3/2 power and inversely with the square root of the surface tension. Viscous resistance dampens the oscillations at a rate proportional to the viscosity and inversely proportional to the square of the bubble radius. The numerical simulations were consistent with most of the experimental results. The differences between the computed and measured saddle point decelerations and periods suggest that the surface tension in the experiments may have changed during each run. By adjusting the surface tension in the simulation, a good fit was obtained for the 150-{micro}m diameter bubbles. The simulations fit the experiments on larger bubbles with very little adjustment of surface tension. A more focused analysis should be done to elucidate the phenomena that occur in the receding liquid film immediately following rupture.

  3. Dynamics of Interacting Generalized Cosmic Chaplygin gas in Brane-world scenario

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rudra, Prabir

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this work we explore the background dynamics when dark energy is coupled to dark matter with a suitable interaction in the universe described by brane cosmology. Here DGP and the RSII brane models have been considered separately. Dark energy in the form of Generalized Cosmic Chaplygin gas is considered. A suitable interaction between dark energy and dark matter is considered in order to at least alleviate (if not solve) the cosmic coincidence problem. The dynamical system of equations is solved numerically and a stable scaling solution is obtained. A significant attempt towards the solution of the cosmic coincidence problem is taken. The statefinder parameters are also calculated to classify the dark energy models. Graphs and phase diagrams are drawn to study the variations of these parameters. It is also seen that the background dynamics of Generalized Cosmic Chaplygin gas is consistent with the late cosmic acceleration, but not without satisfying certain conditions. It has been shown that the universe in...

  4. On the application of computational fluid dynamics codes for liquefied natural gas dispersion.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luketa-Hanlin, Anay Josephine; Koopman, Ronald P. (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA); Ermak, Donald (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA)

    2006-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes are increasingly being used in the liquefied natural gas (LNG) industry to predict natural gas dispersion distances. This paper addresses several issues regarding the use of CFD for LNG dispersion such as specification of the domain, grid, boundary and initial conditions. A description of the k-{var_epsilon} model is presented, along with modifications required for atmospheric flows. Validation issues pertaining to the experimental data from the Burro, Coyote, and Falcon series of LNG dispersion experiments are also discussed. A description of the atmosphere is provided as well as discussion on the inclusion of the Coriolis force to model very large LNG spills.

  5. ARM - Measurement - Trace gas concentration

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadap Documentation TDMADAP : XDCnarrowbandheat flux ARM Data Discovery

  6. Dissipative dynamics of a vortex state in a trapped Bose-condensed gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. O. Fedichev; G. V. Shlyapnikov

    1999-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We discuss dissipative dynamics of a vortex state in a trapped Bose-condensed gas at finite temperature and draw a scenario of decay of this state in a static trap. The interaction of the vortex with the thermal cloud transfers energy from the vortex to the cloud and induces the motion of the vortex core to the border of the condensate. Once the vortex reaches the border, it immediately decays through the creation of excitations. We calculate the characteristic life-time of a vortex state and address the question of how the dissipative dynamics of vortices can be studied experimentally.

  7. Application of gas dynamical friction for planetesimals: I. Evolution of single planetesimals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grishin, Evgeni

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    One of the first stages of planet formation is the growth of small planetesimals. This stage occurs much before the dispersal of most of the gas from the protoplanetary disk. For small planetesimals, aerodynamic gas drag keeps their relative velocities low and enhances their growth rate. For large protoplanets, m~0.1M_Earth, the net torque due to spiral density waves causes the planet to migrate. There is an additional mass range, m~10^21-10^25 g of intermediate size planetesimals, where gas dynamical friction (GDF) dominates over aerodynamic gas drag, and the net torque of spiral density waves is negligible. Recently, GDF has been studied in the context of fully evolved planets. However, current studies of gas-planetesimal interaction do not account for planetesimal evolution due to GDF in the range of intermediate mass planetesimals (IMPs). Here, we study the implications of GDF on single IMPs by including GDF into few-body simulations of their evolution. We find that planetesimals with small inclinations d...

  8. Dynamic Allocation of a Domestic Heating Task to Gas-Based and Heatpump-Based Heating Agents

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Treur, Jan

    Dynamic Allocation of a Domestic Heating Task to Gas-Based and Heatpump-Based Heating Agents Jan for a domestic heating task is introduced and analysed. The model includes two alternative heating agents (for gas-based heating and for heatpump-based heating), and a third allocation agent which determines

  9. Distributed delay model for density wave dynamics in gas lifted wells Laure Sin`egre, Nicolas Petit

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Distributed delay model for density wave dynamics in gas lifted wells Laure Sin`egre, Nicolas Petit in the tubing D. dynamical choking is used to stabilise the density wave instability. In this paper, we propose instabilities cause production losses. One of these instabilities, referred to as the "density-wave

  10. Quasiparticle spectrum and dynamical stability of an atomic Bose-Einstein condensate coupled to a degenerate Fermi gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. P. Search; H. Pu; W. Zhang; P. Meystre

    2001-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The quasiparticle excitations and dynamical stability of an atomic Bose-Einstein condensate coupled to a quantum degenerate Fermi gas of atoms at zero temperature is studied. The Fermi gas is assumed to be either in the normal state or to have undergone a phase transition to a superfluid state by forming Cooper pairs. The quasiparticle excitations of the Bose-Einstein condensate exhibit a dynamical instability due to a resonant exchange of energy and momentum with quasiparticle excitations of the Fermi gas. The stability regime for the bosons depends on whether the Fermi gas is in the normal state or in the superfluid state. We show that the energy gap in the quasiparticle spectrum for the superfluid state stabilizes the low energy energy excitations of the condensate. In the stable regime, we calculate the boson quasiparticle spectrum, which is modified by the fluctuations in the density of the Fermi gas.

  11. Dynamics of the Lyman alpha and C IV emitting gas in 3C 273

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stephane Paltani; Marc Turler

    2002-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper we study the variability properties of the Lyman alpha and C IV emission lines in 3C273 using archival IUE observations. Our data show for the first time the existence of variability on time scales of several years. We study the spatial distribution and the velocity field of the emitting gas by performing detailed analyses on the line variability using correlations, 1D and 2D response functions, and principal component analysis. In both lines we find evidence for two components, one which has the dynamic properties of gas in Keplerian motion around a black hole with a mass of the order of 10^9 Mo, and one which is characterized by high, blue-shifted velocities at large lag. There is no indication of the presence of optically thick emission medium neither in the Lya, nor in the Civ response functions. The component characterized by blue-shifted velocities, which is comparatively much stronger in Civ than in Lya, is more or less compatible with being the result of gas falling towards the central black hole with free-fall acceleration. We propose however that the line emission at high, blue-shifted velocities is better explained in terms of entrainment of gas clouds by the jet. This gas is therefore probably collisionally excited as a result of heating due to the intense infrared radiation from the jet, which would explain the strength of this component in Civ relative to Lya. This phenomenon might be a signature of disk-jet interaction.

  12. Laboratory scale studies of Pd/{gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} sorbents for the removal of trace contaminants from coal-derived fuel gas at elevated temperatures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rupp, Erik C.; Granite, Evan J. [U.S. DOE; Stanko, Dennis C. [U.S. DOE

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) is a promising technology for the use of coal in a clean and efficient manner. In order to maintain the overall efficiency of the IGCC process, it is necessary to clean the fuel gas of contaminants (sulfur, trace compounds) at warm (150–540 °C) to hot (>540 °C) temperatures. Current technologies for trace contaminant (such as mercury) removal, primarily activated carbon based sorbents, begin to lose effectiveness above 100 °C, creating the need to develop sorbents effective at elevated temperatures. As trace elements are of particular environmental concern, previous work by this group has focused on the development of a Pd/?-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} sorbent for Hg removal. This paper extends the research to Se (as hydrogen selenide, H{sub 2}Se), As (as arsine, AsH{sub 3}), and P (as phosphine, PH{sub 3}) which thermodynamic studies indicate are present as gaseous species under gasification conditions. Experiments performed under ambient conditions in He on 20 wt.% Pd/?-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} indicate the sorbent can remove the target contaminants. Further work is performed using a 5 wt.% Pd/?-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} sorbent in a simulated fuel gas (H{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2}, N{sub 2} and H{sub 2}S) in both single and multiple contaminant atmospheres to gauge sorbent performance characteristics. The impact of H{sub 2}O, Hg and temperature on sorbent performance is explored.

  13. Gas Dynamics in the LINER Galaxy NGC 5005: Episodic Fueling of a Nuclear Disk

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kazushi Sakamoto; Andrew J. Baker; Nick Z. Scoville

    1999-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We report high-resolution CO(1-0) observations in the central 6 kpc of the LINER galaxy NGC 5005 with the Owens Valley Radio Observatory millimeter array. Molecular gas is distributed in three components - a ring at a radius of about 3 kpc, a strong central condensation, and a stream to the northwest of the nucleus but inside the 3 kpc ring. The central condensation is a disk of about 1 kpc radius with a molecular gas mass of 2 x 10^9 M_sun. The stream between the 3 kpc ring and the nuclear disk lies on a straight dust lane seen in the optical. If this material moves in the plane of the galaxy, it has a velocity offset by up to ~ 150 km/s from galactic rotation. We suggest that an optically inconspicuous stellar bar lying within the 3 kpc ring can explain the observed gas dynamics. This bar is expected to connect the nuclear disk and the ring along the position angle of the northwest stream. A position-velocity cut in this direction reveals features which match the characteristic motions of gas in a barred potential. Our model indicates that gas in the northwest stream is on an x_1 orbit at the bar's leading edge; it is falling into the nucleus with a large noncircular velocity, and will eventually contribute about 2 x 10^8 M_sun to the nuclear disk. If most of this material merges with the disk on its first passage of pericenter, the gas accretion rate during the collision will be 50 M_sun/yr. We associate the nuclear disk with an inner 2:1 Lindblad resonance, and the 3 kpc ring with an inner 4:1 Lindblad resonance. The high rate of bar-driven inflow and the irregular appearance of the northwest stream suggest that a major fueling event is in progress in NGC 5005. Such episodic (rather than continuous) gas supply can regulate the triggering of starburst and accretion activity in galactic nuclei. (abridged)

  14. Lead Isotopic Composition of Fly Ash and Flue Gas Residues from Municipal Solid Waste Combustors in France: Implications for Atmospheric Lead Source Tracing.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Lead Isotopic Composition of Fly Ash and Flue Gas Residues from Municipal Solid Waste Combustors@crpg.cnrs-nancy.fr _______________________________________________________________________________________ Fly ash and flue gas residues from eight municipal solid waste combusters (MSWC) in France (1992 of "industrial Pb" is not an easy task because of its possible extreme heterogeneity. Municipal solid waste

  15. Molecular Gas in Candidate Double Barred Galaxies I. The Diverse Morphology and Dynamics of NGC 2273 and NGC 5728

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Glen Petitpas; Christine Wilson

    2002-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Double bars have been proposed as a means of transporting molecular gas past inner Lindblad resonances into the nuclear regions, where it can fuel active or starburst nuclei. Thus far, the existence of double bars has been determined predominantly through analysis of near infrared images, which can tell us little about the dynamics and inflow rates of these systems. We have observed two double bar galaxy candidates (NGC 2273 and NGC 5728) in CO J=1-0 with the Owens Valley Radio Observatory Millimeter Array. Despite the similarity in the near infrared images of these galaxies, we see rather different nuclear morphologies in the CO maps. NGC 2273 shows evidence of a nuclear gas bar, aligned with the nuclear stellar bar seen in the near infrared images. Both the nuclear gaseous and stellar bars are misaligned from the large scale bar by approximately 90 degrees, which also allows the possibility that both are the result of stars and gas populating the $x_2$ orbits of the primary bar. Estimates using dynamical friction arguments and star formation rates suggest significant gas inflow rates along the nuclear bar of NGC 2273. Conversely, NGC 5728 does not show any evidence for a nuclear molecular bar, but shows an arc of CO clumps that peaks just to the south-west of the dynamical center and curves to the south-east where it follows the dust lane to the south. Models of double-barred galaxies suggest that these galaxies should contain large amounts of molecular gas in their nuclei. Our calculations suggest that both galaxies contain sufficient amounts of gas in their nuclei, but only NGC 2273 shows evidence for a nuclear gas bar. This may be the result of past episodes of star formation exhausting and dispersing the nuclear gas of NGC 5728, but is more likely evidence that NGC 5728 has undergone a minor merger event.

  16. Gas giant planets as dynamical barriers to inward-migrating super-Earths

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Izidoro, Andre; Morbidelli, Alessandro; Hersant, Franck; Pierens, Arnaud

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Planets of 1-4 times Earth's size on orbits shorter than 100 days exist around 30-50% of all Sun-like stars. In fact, the Solar System is particularly outstanding in its lack of "hot super-Earths" (or "mini-Neptunes"). These planets -- or their building blocks -- may have formed on wider orbits and migrated inward due to interactions with the gaseous protoplanetary disk. Here, we use a suite of dynamical simulations to show that gas giant planets act as barriers to the inward migration of super-Earths initially placed on more distant orbits. Jupiter's early formation may have prevented Uranus and Neptune (and perhaps Saturn's core) from becoming hot super-Earths. Our model predicts that the populations of hot super-Earth systems and Jupiter-like planets should be anti-correlated: gas giants (especially if they form early) should be rare in systems with many hot super-Earths. Testing this prediction will constitute a crucial assessment of the validity of the migration hypothesis for the origin of close-in supe...

  17. Thermal analysis of adsorptive natural gas storages during dynamic charge phase at room temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ridha, Firas N.; Yunus, Rosli M.; Rashid, Mohd. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Technology Malaysia, 81310 UTM, Skudai, Johor (Malaysia); Ismail, Ahmad F. [Department of Gas Engineering, University of Technology Malaysia, 81310 UTM, Skudai, Johor (Malaysia)

    2007-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The thermal behavior of an adsorptive natural gas (ANG) vessel pressurized continuously with light hydrocarbon gases and their mixture at 27 C was analyzed using two different activated carbons. Activated carbon AC-L showed better isothermal storage capacity than AC-D due to its sufficient porous structure. However, higher adsorption capacity claimed more extreme thermal fluctuation represented by a temperature rise of 99.2 C at the center region of the bed charged continuously with methane at 1 L min{sup -1} up to pressure of 4 MPa, corresponding to 82.5 C in AC-D bed. Higher charge rate of 5 L min{sup -1} claimed severer thermal fluctuation of 116 C in AC-L/methane system calling for a serious reduction of 26.9% in the dynamic storage capacity with respect to the isothermal storage capacity. This reduction brought the storage system to a working pressure of about 2.5 MPa rather than the desired working pressure of {proportional_to}4 MPa (about 40% reduction in storage pressure). The severest temperature rise was at the center region caused by bed poor thermal conductivity leading to limited heat transfer. High ethane and propane portions in natural gas may contribute to the thermal fluctuation of the storage system as their heats of adsorption are higher than that for methane. (author)

  18. Dynamic instabilities in spark-ignited combustion engines with high exhaust gas recirculation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daw, C Stuart [ORNL] [ORNL; FINNEY, Charles E A [ORNL] [ORNL

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We propose a cycle-resolved dynamic model for combustion instabilities in spark-ignition engines operating with high levels of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). High EGR is important for increasing fuel efficiency and implementing advanced low-emission combustion modes such as homogenous charge compression ignition (HCCI). We account for the complex combustion response to cycle-to-cycle feedback by utilizing a global probability distribution that describes the pre-spark state of in-cylinder fuel mixing. The proposed model does a good job of simulating combustion instabilities observed in both lean-fueling engine experiments and in experiments where nitrogen dilution is used to simulate some of the combustion inhibition of EGR. When used to simulate high internal EGR operation, the model exhibits a range of global bifurcations and chaos that appear to be very robust. We use the model to show that it should be possible to reduce high EGR combustion instabilities by switching from internal to external EGR. We also explain why it might be helpful to deliberately stratify the fuel in the pre-spark gas mixture. It might be possible to extend the simple approach used in this model to other chemical reaction systems with spatial inhomogeneity.

  19. Modelling of the dynamics of a low-speed gas-liquid heat engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cunha, C.M.P.; Parise, J.A.R. (Pontificia Univ. Catolica do Rio de Janeiro (Brazil))

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper deals with the simulation model of a gas-liquid heat engine which is characterized by very low speeds (1-3 rpm) and relatively high torque. The engine operates according to the Minto Thermal Wheel' principle. It is based on the conversion of thermal energy from the heat source, through gas expansion, into mechanical work, by means of the fall of a mass of liquid. A prototype has already been constructed showing great ability to operate at very low temperature differences between the heat source and heat sink. This makes the engine quite suitable to the utilization of low temperature heat sources such as solar energy and waste heat. On the other hand, the number of moving parts is kept to a minimum, since the piston of traditional positive displacement engines (PDE) is now replaced simply by a mass of liquid. The mathematical model consists of applying the energy equation, in it time-derivative form, to representative engine control volumes, resulting in a set of linear ordinary differential equations. Their integration provides the time variation of pressure and temperature of the working fluid. The engine performance can thus be predicted as a function of engine operating conditions and geometric characteristics. In this paper, the engine dynamics (i.e., variable angular speed) have been taken into account, as well as heat losses in the engine structure. Results and further design considerations are discussed.

  20. The dynamics of droplet formation and detachment in gas metal arc welding

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, J.A.; Smartt, H.B.; Clark, D.E.; Carlson, N.M.; Watkins, A.D.; Lethcoe, B.J.

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Experimental measurements of gas metal arc welding are required for the development and confirmation of models of the process. This paper reports on two experiments that provide information for models of the arc physics and of the weld pool dynamics. The heat transfer efficiency of the spray transfer mode in gas metal arc welding was measured using a calorimetry technique. The efficiency varied from 75 to 85%. A special fixture was used to measure the droplet contribution, which is determined to be between 35 and 45% of the total input energy. A series of experiments was performed at a variety of conditions ranging from globular to spray to streaming transfer. The transfer was observed by taking high-speed movies at 500 to 5000 frames per second of the backlighted droplets. An automatic image analysis system was used to obtain information about the droplets including time between detachments, droplet size, and droplet acceleration. At the boundary between the globular and spray modes, the droplet size varies between small droplets that melt off faster than average, resulting in a smaller electrode extension, and large droplets that melt off slower than average, resulting in an increase in the electrode extension. 5 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Measuring the dynamic structure factor of a quantum gas undergoing a structural phase transition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Renate Landig; Ferdinand Brennecke; Rafael Mottl; Tobias Donner; Tilman Esslinger

    2015-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

    The dynamic structure factor is a central quantity describing the physics of quantum many-body systems, capturing structure and collective excitations of a material. In condensed matter, it can be measured via inelastic neutron scattering, which is an energy-resolving probe for the density fluctuations. In ultracold atoms, a similar approach could so far not be applied due to the diluteness of the system. Here, we report on a direct, real-time and non-destructive measurement of the dynamic structure factor of a quantum gas exhibiting cavity-mediated long-range interactions. The technique relies on inelastic scattering of photons, stimulated by the enhanced vacuum field inside a high finesse optical cavity. We extract the density fluctuations, their energy and lifetime while the system undergoes a structural phase transition. We observe an occupation of the relevant quasi-particle mode on the level of a few excitations, and provide a theoretical description of this dissipative quantum many-body system.

  2. A dynamic process model of a natural gas combined cycle -- Model development with startup and shutdown simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liese, Eric [U.S. DOE; Zitney, Stephen E. [U.S. DOE

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Research in dynamic process simulation for integrated gasification combined cycles (IGCC) with carbon capture has been ongoing at the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), culminating in a full operator training simulator (OTS) and immersive training simulator (ITS) for use in both operator training and research. A derivative work of the IGCC dynamic simulator has been a modification of the combined cycle section to more closely represent a typical natural gas fired combined cycle (NGCC). This paper describes the NGCC dynamic process model and highlights some of the simulator’s current capabilities through a particular startup and shutdown scenario.

  3. Dynamic Traitor Tracing Tamir Tassa

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tassa, Tamir

    , imprint- ing, pay TV, on-line algorithms. 1 Introduction The subject of this paper is protecting ownership access to the content. Pirates make a business of breaking the security safeguards of the conditional sophisticated differential power analysis and timing attacks [12], have compromised unqualified reliance

  4. Gas Dynamics in NGC 5248: Fueling a Circumnuclear Starburst Ring of Super Star Clusters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shardha Jogee; Isaac Shlosman; Seppo Laine; Peter Englmaier; Johan H. Knapen; Nick Z. Scoville; Christine D. Wilson

    2002-04-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Through observations and modeling, we demonstrate how the recently discovered large-scale bar in NGC 5248 generates spiral structure which extends from 10 kpc down to 100 pc, fuels star formation on progressively smaller scales, and drives disk evolution. Deep inside the bar, two massive molecular spirals cover nearly 180 degrees in azimuth, show streaming motions of 20--40 km/s and feed a starburst ring of super star clusters at 375 pc. They also connect to two narrow K-band spirals which delineate the UV-bright star clusters in the ring. The data suggest that the K-band spirals are young, and the starburst has been triggered by a bar-driven spiral density wave (SDW). The latter may even have propagated closer to the center where a second Halpha ring and a dust spiral are found. The molecular and HST data support a scenario where stellar winds and supernovae efficiently clear out gas from dense star-forming regions on timescales less than a few Myrs. We have investigated the properties of massive CO spirals within the framework of bar-driven SDWs, incorporating the effect of gas self-gravity. We find good agreement between the model predictions and the observed morphology, kinematics, and pitch angle of the spirals. This combination of observations and modeling provides the best evidence to date for a strong dynamical coupling between the nuclear region and the surrounding disk. It also confirms that a low central mass concentration, which may be common in late-type galaxies, is particularly favorable to the propagation of a bar-driven gaseous SDW deep into the central region of the galaxy, whereas a large central mass concentration favors other processes, such as the formation and decoupling of nuclear bars.

  5. Development of a dynamic simulator for a natural gas combined cycle (NGCC) power plant with post-combustion carbon capture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liese, E.; Zitney, S.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The AVESTAR Center located at the U.S. Department of Energy’s National Energy Technology Laboratory and West Virginia University is a world-class research and training environment dedicated to using dynamic process simulation as a tool for advancing the safe, efficient and reliable operation of clean energy plants with CO{sub 2} capture. The AVESTAR Center was launched with a high-fidelity dynamic simulator for an Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) power plant with pre-combustion carbon capture. The IGCC dynamic simulator offers full-scope Operator Training Simulator (OTS) Human Machine Interface (HMI) graphics for realistic, real-time control room operation and is integrated with a 3D virtual Immersive Training Simulator (ITS), thus allowing joint control room and field operator training. The IGCC OTS/ITS solution combines a “gasification with CO{sub 2} capture” process simulator with a “combined cycle” power simulator into a single high-performance dynamic simulation framework. This presentation will describe progress on the development of a natural gas combined cycle (NGCC) dynamic simulator based on the syngas-fired combined cycle portion of AVESTAR’s IGCC dynamic simulator. The 574 MW gross NGCC power plant design consisting of two advanced F-class gas turbines, two heat recovery steam generators (HRSGs), and a steam turbine in a multi-shaft 2x2x1 configuration will be reviewed. Plans for integrating a post-combustion carbon capture system will also be discussed.

  6. Event-driven multithreaded dynamic optimization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Weifeng

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Speci?c Optimizations . . . . . . . . . . . . . F.3. Trace Optimization Overhead . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Dynamic Optimization . . . . . . .B. Optimizations with the

  7. Analysis of liquid natural gas as a truck fuel: a system dynamics approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bray, M.A.; Sebo, D.E.; Mason, T.L.; Mills, J.I.; Rice, R.E.

    1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this analysis is to evaluate the potential for growth in use of liquid natural gas (LNG) fueled trucks. . A system dynamics model was constructed for the analysis and a variety of scenarios were investigated. The analysis considers the economics of LNG fuel in the context of the trucking industry to identify barriers to the increased use of LNG trucks and potential interventions or leverage points which may overcome these barriers. The study showed that today, LNG use in trucks is not yet economically viable. A large change in the savings from fuel cost or capital cost is needed for the technology to take off. Fleet owners have no way now to benefit from the environmental benefits of LNG fuel nor do they benefit from the clean burning nature of the fuel. Changes in the fuel cost differential between diesel and LNG are not a research issue. However, quantifying the improvements in reliability and wear from the use of clean fuel could support increased maintenance and warranty periods. Many people involved in the use of LNG for trucks believe that LNG has the potential to occupy a niche within the larger diesel truck business. But if LNG in trucks can become economic, the spread of fuel stations and technology improvements could lead to LNG trucks becoming the dominant technology. An assumption in our simulation work is that LNG trucks will be purchased when economically attractive. None of the simulation results show LNG becoming economic but then only to the level of a niche market.

  8. angstrom noble gas: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (AMS) and Atom Trap Trace Analysis (ATTA). Collon, P; Lu, Z T 2004-01-01 5 Tracing Noble Gas Radionuclides in the Environment Nuclear Experiment (arXiv) Summary: Trace analysis of...

  9. Barnett Shale Municipal Oil and Gas Ordinance Dynamics: A Spatial Perspective 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Murphy, Trey Daniel-Aaron

    2013-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

    with the recent optimization of horizontal drilling, has substantially increased United States oil and gas production. Hydrocarbon firms perfected and use hydraulic fracturing on the Barnett Shale in North Texas; due to the nature of the formation, gas companies...

  10. Interdependency of electricity and natural gas markets in the United States : a dynamic computational model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jenkins, Sandra Elizabeth

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Due to high storage costs and limited storage availability, natural gas is generally used as a just-in- time resource that needs to be delivered as it is consumed. With the shale gas revolution, coal retirements and ...

  11. Barnett Shale Municipal Oil and Gas Ordinance Dynamics: A Spatial Perspective

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Murphy, Trey Daniel-Aaron

    2013-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

    with the recent optimization of horizontal drilling, has substantially increased United States oil and gas production. Hydrocarbon firms perfected and use hydraulic fracturing on the Barnett Shale in North Texas; due to the nature of the formation, gas companies...

  12. Dynamic S0 Galaxies II: the Role of Diffuse Hot Gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Jiang-Tao; Li, Zhiyuan; Chen, Yang

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Gas loss is thought to be important in SF quenching and morphological transition during the evolution of S0 galaxies. In high density environments, gas loss can be achieved via many external mechanisms. However, in relatively isolated environments, where these external mechanisms cannot be efficient, gas loss must be dominated by some internal processes. We perform Chandra analysis of hot gas in five nearby isolated S0 galaxies, based on quantitative subtraction of various stellar contributions. We find that all the galaxies studied in the present work are X-ray faint, with the hot gas luminosity LXcold-hot gas relation, and gas removal from S0 galaxies in isolated environments. We find that elliptical and S0 galaxies are not significantly different in LX at the low mass end (typically with LK<1e11Lsun). However, at the high mass end, S0 galax...

  13. GETRAN: A generic, modularly structured computer code for simulation of dynamic behavior of aero- and power generation gas turbine engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schobeiri, M.T.; Attia, M.; Lippke, C. (Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering)

    1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The design concept, the theoretical background essential for the development of the modularly structured simulation code GETRAN, and several critical simulation cases are presented in this paper. The code being developed under contract with NASA Lewis Research Center is capable of simulating the nonlinear dynamic behavior of single- and multispool core engines, turbofan engines, and power generation gas turbine engines under adverse dynamic operating conditions. The modules implemented into GETRAN correspond to components of existing and new-generation aero- and stationary gas turbine engines with arbitrary configuration and arrangement. For precise simulation of turbine and compressor components, row-by-row diabatic and adiabatic calculation procedures are implemented that account for the specific turbine and compressor cascade, blade geometry, and characteristics. The nonlinear, dynamic behavior of the subject engine is calculated solving a number of systems of partial differential equations, which describe the unsteady behavior of each component individually. To identify each differential equation system unambiguously, special attention is paid to the addressing of each component. The code is capable of executing the simulation procedure at four levels, which increase with the degree of complexity of the system and dynamic event. As representative simulations, four different transient cases with single- and multispool thrust and power generation engines were simulated. These transient cases vary from throttling the exit nozzle area, operation with fuel schedule, rotor speed control, to rotating stall and surge.

  14. Oil and Gas CDT Using noble gas isotopes to develop a mechanistic understanding of shale gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Henderson, Gideon

    Oil and Gas CDT Using noble gas isotopes to develop a mechanistic understanding of shale gas, desorbtion, tracing, migration Overview The discovery of shale gas in UK Shales demonstrates how important and no doubt will vary from shale to shale. An improved understanding of the controls on gas production from

  15. DYNAMIC S0 GALAXIES. II. THE ROLE OF DIFFUSE HOT GAS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li Jiangtao; Chen Yang [Department of Astronomy, Nanjing University, 22 Hankou Road, Nanjing 210093 (China); Daniel Wang, Q. [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, 710 North Pleasant Street, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Li Zhiyuan [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2011-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Cold gas loss is thought to be important in star formation quenching and morphological transition during the evolution of S0 galaxies. In high-density environments, this gas loss can be achieved via many external mechanisms. However, in relatively isolated environments, where these external mechanisms cannot be efficient, the gas loss must then be dominated by some internal processes. We have performed Chandra analysis of hot gas in five nearby isolated S0 galaxies, based on the quantitative subtraction of various stellar contributions. We find that all the galaxies studied in the present work are X-ray faint, with the luminosity of the hot gas (L{sub X} ) typically accounting for {approx}< 5% of the expected Type Ia supernova (SN) energy injection rate. We have further compared our results with those from relevant recent papers, in order to investigate the energy budget, cold-hot gas relation, and gas removal from S0 galaxies in isolated environments. We find that elliptical and S0 galaxies are not significantly different in L{sub X} at the low-mass end (typically with K-band luminosity L{sub K} {approx}< 10{sup 11} L{sub sun,K}). However, at the high-mass end, S0 galaxies tend to have significantly lower L{sub X} than elliptical galaxies of the same stellar masses, as already shown in previous observational and theoretical works. We further discuss the potential relationship of the diffuse X-ray emission with the cold (atomic and molecular) gas content in the S0 and elliptical galaxies included in our study. We find that L{sub X} /L{sup 2}{sub K} tends to correlate positively with the total cold gas mass (M{sub H{sub 2}+H{sub i}}) for cold-gas-poor galaxies with M{sub H{sub 2}+H{sub i}}{approx}<10{sup 8} M{sub sun}, while they anti-correlate with each other for cold-gas-rich galaxies. This cold-hot gas relationship can be explained in a scenario of early-type galaxy evolution, with the leftover cold gas from the precursor star-forming galaxy mainly removed by the long-lasting Type Ia supernova (SN) feedback. The two different trends for cold-gas-rich and cold-gas-poor galaxies may be the results of the initial fast decreasing SN rate and the later fast decreasing mass loading to hot gas, respectively.

  16. Dynamic

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOn AprilA group currentBradleyTableSelling7111AWell: Gas productionDynamic , and Static ,

  17. TRACING FLUID SOURCES IN THE COSO GEOTHERMAL SYSTEM USING FLUID...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    FLUID-INCLUSION GAS CHEMISTRY Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Conference Proceedings: TRACING FLUID SOURCES IN THE COSO GEOTHERMAL SYSTEM USING...

  18. Computational Fluid Dynamics Analysis of Very High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor Cavity Cooling System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Angelo Frisani; Yassin A. Hassan; Victor M. Ugaz

    2010-11-02T23:59:59.000Z

    The design of passive heat removal systems is one of the main concerns for the modular very high temperature gas-cooled reactors (VHTR) vessel cavity. The reactor cavity cooling system (RCCS) is a key heat removal system during normal and off-normal conditions. The design and validation of the RCCS is necessary to demonstrate that VHTRs can survive to the postulated accidents. The computational fluid dynamics (CFD) STAR-CCM+/V3.06.006 code was used for three-dimensional system modeling and analysis of the RCCS. A CFD model was developed to analyze heat exchange in the RCCS. The model incorporates a 180-deg section resembling the VHTR RCCS experimentally reproduced in a laboratory-scale test facility at Texas A&M University. All the key features of the experimental facility were taken into account during the numerical simulations. The objective of the present work was to benchmark CFD tools against experimental data addressing the behavior of the RCCS following accident conditions. Two cooling fluids (i.e., water and air) were considered to test the capability of maintaining the RCCS concrete walls' temperature below design limits. Different temperature profiles at the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) wall obtained from the experimental facility were used as boundary conditions in the numerical analyses to simulate VHTR transient evolution during accident scenarios. Mesh convergence was achieved with an intensive parametric study of the two different cooling configurations and selected boundary conditions. To test the effect of turbulence modeling on the RCCS heat exchange, predictions using several different turbulence models and near-wall treatments were evaluated and compared. The comparison among the different turbulence models analyzed showed satisfactory agreement for the temperature distribution inside the RCCS cavity medium and at the standpipes walls. For such a complicated geometry and flow conditions, the tested turbulence models demonstrated that the realizable k-epsilon model with two-layer all y+ wall treatment performs better than the other k-epsilon and k-omega turbulence models when compared to the experimental results and the Reynolds stress transport turbulence model results. A scaling analysis was developed to address the distortions introduced by the CFD model in simulating the physical phenomena inside the RCCS system with respect to the full plant configuration. The scaling analysis demonstrated that both the experimental facility and the CFD model achieve a satisfactory resemblance of the main flow characteristics inside the RCCS cavity region, and convection and radiation heat exchange phenomena are properly scaled from the actual plant.

  19. Quantum coherence in the dynamical excitation, ionization, and decaying of neon gas induced by X-ray laser

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Yongqiang; Dong, Wenpu; Zeng, Jiaolong; Yuan, Jianmin

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We develop a large scale quantum master equation approach to describe dynamical processes of practical open quantum systems driven by both coherent and stochastic interactions by including more than one thousand true states of the systems, motivated by the development of highly bright and fully coherent lasers in the X-ray wavelength regime. The method combines the processes of coherent dynamics induced by the X-ray laser and incoherent relaxations due to spontaneous emissions, Auger decays, and electronic collisions. As examples, theoretical investigation of {\\it real} coherent dynamics of inner-shell electrons of a neon gas, irradiated by a high-intensity X-ray laser with a full temporal coherence, is carried out with the approach. In contrast to the rate equation treatment, we find that coherence can suppress the multiphoton absorptions of a neon gas in the ultra-intense X-ray pulse, due to coherence-induced Rabi oscillations and power broadening effects. We study the influence of coherence on ionization p...

  20. THE DIVERSE HOT GAS CONTENT AND DYNAMICS OF OPTICALLY SIMILAR LOW-MASS ELLIPTICAL GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bogdan, Akos; David, Laurence P.; Jones, Christine; Forman, William R.; Kraft, Ralph P., E-mail: abogdan@cfa.harvard.edu [Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2012-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The presence of hot X-ray-emitting gas is ubiquitous in massive early-type galaxies. However, much less is known about the content and physical status of the hot X-ray gas in low-mass ellipticals. In the present paper, we study the X-ray gas content of four low-mass elliptical galaxies using archival Chandra X-ray observations. The sample galaxies, NGC 821, NGC 3379, NGC 4278, and NGC 4697, have approximately identical K-band luminosities, and hence stellar masses, yet their X-ray appearance is strikingly different. We conclude that the unresolved emission in NGC 821 and NGC 3379 is built up from a multitude of faint compact objects, such as coronally active binaries and cataclysmic variables. Despite the non-detection of X-ray gas, these galaxies may host low density, and hence low luminosity, X-ray gas components, which undergo an outflow driven by a Type Ia supernova (SN Ia). We detect hot X-ray gas with a temperature of kT {approx} 0.35 keV in NGC 4278, the component of which has a steeper surface brightness distribution than the stellar light. Within the central 50'' ({approx}3.9 kpc), the estimated gas mass is {approx}3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 7} M{sub Sun }, implying a gas mass fraction of {approx}0.06%. We demonstrate that the X-ray gas exhibits a bipolar morphology in the northeast-southwest direction, indicating that it may be outflowing from the galaxy. The mass and energy budget of the outflow can be maintained by evolved stars and SNe Ia, respectively. The X-ray gas in NGC 4697 has an average temperature of kT {approx} 0.3 keV and a significantly broader distribution than the stellar light. The total gas mass within 90'' ({approx}5.1 kpc) is {approx}2.1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 8} M{sub Sun }, hence the gas mass fraction is {approx}0.4%. Based on the distribution and physical parameters of the X-ray gas, we conclude that it is most likely in hydrostatic equilibrium, although a subsonic outflow may be present.

  1. Dynamics of the electric current in an ideal electron gas: a sound mode inside the quasi-particles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sašo Grozdanov; Janos Polonyi

    2015-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the equation of motion for the Noether current in an electron gas within the framework of the Schwinger-Keldysh Closed-Time-Path formalism. The equation is shown to be highly non-linear and irreversible even for a non-interacting, ideal gas of electrons at non-zero density. We truncate the linearised equation of motion, written as the Laurent series in Fourier space, so that the resulting expressions are local in time, both at zero and at small finite temperatures. Furthermore, we show that the one-loop Coulomb interactions only alter the physical picture quantitatively, while preserving the characteristics of the dynamics that the electric current exhibits in the absence of interactions. As a result of the composite nature of the Noether current, composite sound waves are found to be the dominant IR collective excitations at length scales between the inverse Fermi momentum and the mean free path that would exist in an interacting electron gas. We also discuss the difference and the transition between the hydrodynamical regime of an ideal gas, defined in this work, and the hydrodynamical regime in phenomenological hydrodynamics, which is normally used for the description of interacting gases.

  2. Gas mixing system for imaging of nanomaterials under dynamic environments by environmental transmission electron microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akatay, M. Cem [School of Materials Engineering and Birck Nanotechnology Center, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States)] [School of Materials Engineering and Birck Nanotechnology Center, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States); Zvinevich, Yury; Ribeiro, Fabio H., E-mail: fabio@purdue.edu, E-mail: estach@bnl.gov [Forney Hall of Chemical Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States); Baumann, Philipp [Computer Sciences, University of Applied Sciences of Northeastern Switzerland, 4132 Muttenz, Switzerland and Department of Physics, Yeshiva University, New York, New York 10016 (United States)] [Computer Sciences, University of Applied Sciences of Northeastern Switzerland, 4132 Muttenz, Switzerland and Department of Physics, Yeshiva University, New York, New York 10016 (United States); Stach, Eric A., E-mail: fabio@purdue.edu, E-mail: estach@bnl.gov [Center for Functional Nanomaterials, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States)

    2014-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A gas mixing manifold system that is capable of delivering a stable pressure stream of a desired composition of gases into an environmental transmission electron microscope has been developed. The system is designed to provide a stable imaging environment upon changes of either the composition of the gas mixture or upon switching from one gas to another. The design of the system is described and the response of the pressure inside the microscope, the sample temperature, and sample drift in response to flow and composition changes of the system are reported.

  3. Micro-Structured Sapphire Fiber Sensors for Simultaneous Measurements of High-T and Dynamic Gas Pressure in Harsh Environments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xiao, Hai; Tsai, Hai-Lung; Dong, Junhang

    2014-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This is the final report for the program “Micro-Structured Sapphire Fiber Sensors for Simultaneous Measurements of High Temperature and Dynamic Gas Pressure in Harsh Environments”, funded by NETL, and performed by Missouri University of Science and Technology, Clemson University and University of Cincinnati from October 1, 2009 to September 30, 2014. Securing a sustainable energy economy by developing affordable and clean energy from coal and other fossil fuels is a central element to the mission of The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). To further this mission, NETL funds research and development of novel sensor technologies that can function under the extreme operating conditions often found in advanced power systems. The main objective of this research program is to conduct fundamental and applied research that will lead to successful development and demonstration of robust, multiplexed, microstructured silica and single-crystal sapphire fiber sensors to be deployed into the hot zones of advanced power and fuel systems for simultaneous measurements of high temperature and gas pressure. The specific objectives of this research program include: 1) Design, fabrication and demonstration of multiplexed, robust silica and sapphire fiber temperature and dynamic gas pressure sensors that can survive and maintain fully operational in high-temperature harsh environments. 2) Development and demonstration of a novel method to demodulate the multiplexed interferograms for simultaneous measurements of temperature and gas pressure in harsh environments. 3) Development and demonstration of novel sapphire fiber cladding and low numerical aperture (NA) excitation techniques to assure high signal integrity and sensor robustness.

  4. Investigation of Vortex Structures in Gas-Discharge Nonneutral Electron Plasma: II. Vortex Formation, Evolution and Dynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kervalishvili, N A

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The results of experimental investigations of inhomogeneities of gas-discharge nonneutral electron plasma obtained by using the nonperturbing experimental methods [N.A. Kervalishvili, arXiv:1502.02516 [physics.plasm-ph] (2015)] have been presented. Inhomogeneities are the dense solitary vortex structures stretched along the magnetic field, the lifetime of which is much greater than the time of electron-neutral collisions. The processes of formation, evolution and dynamics of vortex structures were studied. The periodic sequence of these processes is described for different geometries of discharge device.

  5. THE GAS DYNAMICS OF NGC 4472 REVEALED BY XMM-NEWTON

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kraft, R. P.

    We present results from a 100 ks XMM-Newton observation of the hot gas in the Virgo cluster elliptical galaxy NGC 4472. We find a surface brightness discontinuity ~21 kpc north of the nucleus, consistent with being a contact ...

  6. Molecular Dynamics Simulation of the Response of a Gas to a Spherical Piston

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ruuth, Steven

    ;ed treatment of ionization e#11;ects in the gas at high temperatures. The e#11;ects of water vapor produced by applying intense sound to a liquid, or in a periodic single bubble mode which allows more

  7. Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Vapor Dispersion Modeling with Computational Fluid Dynamics Codes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qi, Ruifeng

    2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Federal regulation 49 CFR 193 and standard NFPA 59A require the use of validated consequence models to determine the vapor cloud dispersion exclusion zones for accidental liquefied natural gas (LNG) releases. For modeling purposes, the physical...

  8. Application of Rarefied Gas Dynamics to the Head-Disk Interface in Hard Disk Drives

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Nan

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A phenomenological heat transfer model for the molecular gasD. B. Bogy. A heat transfer model for thermal fluctuation inA new phenomenological heat transfer model in which the mean

  9. Identification of dynamic force coefficients of a labyrinth and gas damper seal using impact load excitations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ransom, David Lawrence

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Experiments to identify stiffness and damping force coefficients of a two bladed teeth-on-stator labyrinth seal and a gas damper seal, both of diverging clearance, are presented. Calibrated impact guns excite a housing holding the test seal...

  10. Cooling Limits on Galaxy Formation; Gas dynamical simulations incorporating a background UV field and metal enrichment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    John Hultman; Daniel Kaellander

    1997-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

    We present hydrodynamical simulations of the formation of galaxies in the mass range 10^9 - 10^13 solar masses, with the focus on the efficiency of gas cooling. The effect of a background UV radiation field, and the effect of metal enrichment of halo gas due to star formation and stellar evolution, are investigated. A background radiation field is found to strongly suppress the formation of galaxies with circular velocities less than approximately 50 km/s. The effect is, however, not large enough to reconcile hierarchical clustering models with observations. Metal enrichment of the halo gas increases the cooling rate at low redshifts. We find that the mass fraction of gas at virial temperatures may be reduced by a factor of two, in simulations with a UV background field added. The decrease in overall efficiency of gas cooling due to the inclusion of a UV background field can be more than compensated for by the increased cooling that follows metal enrichment of halo gas, but the effect may depend strongly on the assumed model of metal enrichment.

  11. The Mission and Technology of a Gas Dynamic Trap Neutron Source for Fusion Material and Component Testing and Qualification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Molvik, A W; Simonen, T C

    2009-07-17T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes discussions and conclusions of the workshop to 'Assess The Mission and Technology of a Gas Dynamic Trap Neutron Source for Fusion Material and Component Testing and Qualification'. The workshop was held at LBNL, Berkeley, CA on March 12, 2009. Most workshop attendees have worked on magnetic mirror systems, several have worked on similar neutron source designs, and others are knowledgeable of materials, fusion component, and neutral beams The workshop focused on the gas dynamic trap DT Neutron Source (DTNS) concept being developed at the Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics (BINP) in Novosibirsk, Russia. The DTNS may be described as a line source of neutrons, in contrast to a spallation or a D-Lithium source with neutrons beaming from a point, or a tokamak volume source. The DTNS is a neutral beam driven linear plasma system with magnetic mirrors to confine the energetic deuterium and tritium beam injected ions, which produce the 14 MeV neutrons. The hot ions are imbedded in warm-background plasma, which traps the neutral atoms and provides both MHD and micro stability to the plasma. The 14 MeV neutron flux ranges typically at the level of 1 to 4 MW/m2.

  12. Dynamics of the electric current in an ideal electron gas: a sound mode inside the quasi-particles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grozdanov, Sašo

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the equation of motion for the Noether current in an electron gas within the framework of the Schwinger-Keldysh Closed-Time-Path formalism. The equation is shown to be highly non-linear and irreversible even for a non-interacting, ideal gas of electrons at non-zero density. We truncate the linearised equation of motion, written as the Laurent series in Fourier space, so that the resulting expressions are local in time, both at zero and at small finite temperatures. Furthermore, we show that the one-loop Coulomb interactions only alter the physical picture quantitatively, while preserving the characteristics of the dynamics that the electric current exhibits in the absence of interactions. As a result of the composite nature of the Noether current, composite sound waves are found to be the dominant IR collective excitations at length scales between the inverse Fermi momentum and the mean free path that would exist in an interacting electron gas. We also discuss the difference and the transition betwee...

  13. Gas-Mediated Impact Dynamics in Fine-Grained Granular Materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    John R. Royer; Eric I. Corwin; Peter J. Eng; Heinrich M. Jaeger

    2007-07-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Non-cohesive granular media exhibit complex responses to sudden impact that often differ from those of ordinary solids and liquids. We investigate how this response is mediated by the presence of interstitial gas between the grains. Using high-speed x-ray radiography we track the motion of a steel sphere through the interior of a bed of fine, loose granular material. We find a crossover from nearly incompressible, fluid-like behavior at atmospheric pressure to a highly compressible, dissipative response once most of the gas is evacuated. We discuss these results in light of recent proposals for the drag force in granular media.

  14. Evaluation of high-efficiency gas-liquid contactors for natural gas processing. Semi-annual report, April--September 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this proposed program is to ensure reliable supply of high-quality natural gas by reducing the cost of treating subquality natural gas containing H{sub 2}O, CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}S and/or trace quantities of other gaseous impurities by applying high-efficiency rotating and structured packing gas liquid contactors. Work accomplished during this reporting period are discussed for the following tasks: Task 2, field experimental site seletion; Task 3, field experimental skid unit design and preliminary economic evaluations; and Task 6, fluid dynamic studies.

  15. Experimental Investigation of Propped Fracture Conductivity in Tight Gas Reservoirs Using The Dynamic Conductivity Test

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Romero Lugo, Jose 1985-

    2012-10-24T23:59:59.000Z

    deep into the formation, changing the flow pattern from radial to linear flow. The dynamic conductivity test was used for this research to evaluate the effect of closure stress, temperature, proppant concentration, and flow back rates on fracture...

  16. Development of a control algorithm for a dynamic gas mixing system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lovelady, April

    2006-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

    An algorithm was developed to control the partial pressures of N2, O2, and CO2 in a gas mixing tank. The gases were premixed before being introduced into the low pressure Mars Dome. As an attempt to reduce the effects of pressure, the number...

  17. Dynamics and Thermodynamics of the Low-Temperature Strongly Interacting Bose Gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ; 05.30.Fk; 32.80.Pj; 34.50.-s From sand piles to neuronal networks, electrons in metals and quantum the enhanced role of the interaction with respect to the ki- netic energy can drive the gas into a strongly, experiments at JILA and Rice have revived interest in these systems [6, 7]. Here we report on a quantitative

  18. Development of a control algorithm for a dynamic gas mixing system 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lovelady, April

    2006-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

    An algorithm was developed to control the partial pressures of N2, O2, and CO2 in a gas mixing tank. The gases were premixed before being introduced into the low pressure Mars Dome. As an attempt to reduce the effects of ...

  19. How effective is new variable modified Chaplygin gas to play the role of dark energy- A dynamical system analysis in RS II Brane model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Prabir Rudra; Chayan Ranjit; Sujata Kundu

    2013-03-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Motivated by some previous works of Rudra et al we set to explore the background dynamics when dark energy in the form of New Variable Modified Chaplygin gas is coupled to dark matter with a suitable interaction in the universe described by brane cosmology. The main idea is to find out the efficiency of New variable modified Chaplygin gas to play the role of DE. As a result we resort to the technique of comparison with standard dark energy models. Here the RSII brane model have been considered as the gravity theory. An interacting model is considered in order to search for a possible solution of the cosmic coincidence problem. A dynamical system analysis is performed because of the high complexity of the system . The statefinder parameters are also calculated to classify the dark energy model. Graphs and phase diagrams are drawn to study the variations of these parameters and get an insight into the effectiveness of the dark energy model. It is also seen that the background dynamics of New Variable Modified Chaplygin gas is consistent with the late cosmic acceleration. After performing an extensive mathematical analysis, we are able to constrain the parameters of new variable modified Chaplygin gas as $mNew Variable Modified Chaplygin gas is not as effective as other Chaplygin gas models to play the role of dark energy.

  20. Chemical dynamics in the gas phase: Time-dependent quantum mechanics of chemical reactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gray, S.K. [Argonne National Laboratory, IL (United States)

    1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A major goal of this research is to obtain an understanding of the molecular reaction dynamics of three and four atom chemical reactions using numerically accurate quantum dynamics. This work involves: (i) the development and/or improvement of accurate quantum mechanical methods for the calculation and analysis of the properties of chemical reactions (e.g., rate constants and product distributions), and (ii) the determination of accurate dynamical results for selected chemical systems, which allow one to compare directly with experiment, determine the reliability of the underlying potential energy surfaces, and test the validity of approximate theories. This research emphasizes the use of recently developed time-dependent quantum mechanical methods, i.e. wave packet methods.

  1. How to move ionized gas: an introduction to the dynamics of HII regions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    William J. Henney

    2006-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

    This review covers the dynamic processes that are important in the evolution and structure of galactic HII regions, concentrating on an elementary presentation of the physical concepts and recent numerical simulations of HII region evolution in a non-uniform medium. The contents are as follows: (1) The equations (Euler equations; Radiative transfer; Rate equations; How to avoid the dynamics; How to avoid the atomic physics). (2) Physical concepts (Static photoionization equilibrium; Ionization front propagation; Structure of a D-type front; Photoablation flows; Other ingredients - Stellar winds, Radiation pressure, Magnetic fields, Instabilities). (3) HII region evolution (Early phases: hypercompact and ultracompact regions; Later phases: compact and extended regions; Clumps and turbulence).

  2. Investigation of Gas Solid Fluidized Bed Dynamics with Non-Spherical Particles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choudhuri, Ahsan

    2013-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    One of the largest challenges for 21st century is to fulfill global energy demand while also reducing detrimental impacts of energy generation and use on the environment. Gasification is a promising technology to meet the requirement of reduced emissions without compromising performance. Coal gasification is not an incinerating process; rather than burning coal completely a partial combustion takes place in the presence of steam and limited amounts of oxygen. In this controlled environment, a chemical reaction takes place to produce a mixture of clean synthetic gas. Gas-solid fluidized bed is one such type of gasification technology. During gasification, the mixing behavior of solid (coal) and gas and their flow patterns can be very complicated to understand. Many attempts have taken place in laboratory scale to understand bed hydrodynamics with spherical particles though in actual applications with coal, the particles are non-spherical. This issue drove the documented attempt presented here to investigate fluidized bed behavior using different ranges of non-spherical particles, as well as spherical. For this investigation, various parameters are controlled that included particle size, bed height, bed diameter and particle shape. Particles ranged from 355 µm to 1180 µm, bed diameter varied from 2 cm to 7 cm, two fluidized beds with diameters of 3.4 cm and 12.4 cm, for the spherical and non-spherical shaped particles that were taken into consideration. Pressure drop was measured with increasing superficial gas velocity. The velocity required in order to start to fluidize the particle is called the minimum fluidization velocity, which is one of the most important parameters to design and optimize within a gas-solid fluidized bed. This minimum fluidization velocity was monitored during investigation while observing variables factors and their effect on this velocity. From our investigation, it has been found that minimum fluidization velocity is independent of bed height for both spherical and non-spherical particles. Further, it decrease with decreasing particle size and decreases with decreasing bed diameter. Shadow sizing, a non-intrusive imaging and diagnostic technology, was also used to visualize flow fields inside fluidized beds for both spherical and non- spherical particles and to detect the particle sizes.

  3. Development and initial evaluation of a dynamic species-resolved model for gas phase chemistry and size-resolved gas//particle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dabdub, Donald

    condensed products of gas phase oxidation, the present model can be viewed as the most detailed SOA of the semivolatile or nonvolatile products of VOC oxidation between the gas and particle phases. Chem- ical analysis of the SOA identifies many products that condense, thereby allowing formulation of gas phase path- ways

  4. Investigation into the effects of trace coal syn gas species on the performance of solid oxide fuel cell anodes, PhD. thesis, Russ College of Engineering and Technology of Ohio University

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trembly, J.P.

    2007-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Coal is the United States’ most widely used fossil fuel for the production of electric power. Coal’s availability and cost dictates that it will be used for many years to come in the United States for power production. As a result of the environmental impact of burning coal for power production more efficient and environmentally benign power production processes using coal are sought. Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) combined with gasification technologies represent a potential methodology to produce electric power using coal in a much more efficient and cleaner manner. It has been shown in the past that trace species contained in coal, such as sulfur, severely degrade the performance of solid oxide fuel cells rendering them useless. Coal derived syngas cleanup technologies have been developed that efficiently remove sulfur to levels that do not cause any performance losses in solid oxide fuel cells. The ability of these systems to clean other trace species contained in syngas is not known nor is the effect of these trace species on the performance of solid oxide fuel cells. This works presents the thermodynamic and diffusion transport simulations that were combined with experimental testing to evaluate the effects of the trace species on the performance of solid oxide fuel cells. The results show that some trace species contained in coal will interact with the SOFC anode. In addition to the transport and thermodynamic simulations that were completed experimental tests were completed investigating the effect of HCl and AsH3 on the performance of SOFCs.

  5. The effect of bubble growth dynamics on the performance of a gas evolving electrode

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haque, Mohammad Shamsul

    1967-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ) studied the growth of electrolytic bubbles on platinum, copper, iron and nickel electrodes of di Ffer- ent diameters at various constant current levels. They used high speed photography and a series of dry cell batteries for a d. c. power source...THE EFFECT OF BUBBLE GRONTH D'rgiAMI CS ON THE PE' FOi&ilANCE OF A GAS EVOLVING ELECTRODE A Thesis By MOHAMMAD SHAMSUL HAgUE Submitted to the Graduate College of the Texas Alg& University in Partial ful fi llment of the requirements...

  6. Gas Diffusion in a Porous Organic Cage: Analysis of Dynamic Pore

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOnItem NotEnergy,ARMFormsGasReleaseSpeechesHall ATours,Dioxide andNational Security

  7. Nuclear gas dynamics in Arp 220 - sub-kiloparsec scale atomic hydrogen disks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. G. Mundell; P Ferruit; A Pedlar

    2001-06-13T23:59:59.000Z

    We present new, high angular resolution (~0.22") MERLIN observations of neutral hydrogen (HI) absorption and 21-cm radio continuum emission across the central ~900 parsecs of the ultraluminous infrared galaxy, Arp220. Spatially resolved HI absorption is detected against the morphologically complex and extended 21-cm radio continuum emission, consistent with two counterrotating disks of neutral hydrogen, with a small bridge of gas connecting the two. We propose a merger model in which the two nuclei represent the galaxy cores which have survived the initial encounter and are now in the final stages of merging, similar to conclusions drawn from previous CO studies (Sakamoto, Scoville & Yun 1999). However, we suggest that instead of being coplanar with the main CO disk (in which the eastern nucleus is embedded), the western nucleus lies above it and, as suggested by bridge of HI connecting the two nuclei, will soon complete its final merger with the main disk. We suggest that the collection of radio supernovae (RSN) detected in VLBA studies in the more compact western nucleus represent the second burst of star formation associated with this final merger stage and that free-free absorption due to ionised gas in the bulge-like component can account for the observed RSN distribution. (Abridged)

  8. Twenty-Seventh Symposium (International) on Combustion/The Combustion Institute, 1998/pp. 22492257 SIMULATION OF THE TRANSIENT, COMPRESSIBLE, GAS-DYNAMIC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Petzold, Linda R.

    ­2257 SIMULATION OF THE TRANSIENT, COMPRESSIBLE, GAS-DYNAMIC BEHAVIOR OF CATALYTIC-COMBUSTION IGNITION2249 Twenty-Seventh Symposium (International) on Combustion/The Combustion Institute, 1998/pp. 2249 combustion in a stagnation-flow configuration. The analysis considers the elementary heterogeneouschem- istry

  9. The Mission and Technology of a Gas Dynamic Trap Neutron Source for Fusion Material and Component Testing and Qualification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ivanov, A; Kulcinski, J; Molvik, A; Ryutov, D; Santarius, J; Simonen, T; Wirth, B D; Ying, A

    2009-11-23T23:59:59.000Z

    The successful operation (with {beta} {le} 60%, classical ions and electrons with Te = 250 eV) of the Gas Dynamic Trap (GDT) device at the Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics (BINP) in Novosibirsk, Russia, extrapolates to a 2 MW/m{sup 2} Dynamic Trap Neutron Source (DTNS), which burns only {approx}100 g of tritium per full power year. The DTNS has no serious physics, engineering, or technology obstacles; the extension of neutral beam lines to steady state can use demonstrated engineering; and it supports near-term tokamaks and volume neutron sources. The DTNS provides a neutron spectrum similar to that of ITER and satisfies the missions specified by the materials community to test fusion materials (listed as one of the top grand challenges for engineering in the 21st century by the U.S. National Academy of Engineering) and subcomponents (including tritium-breeding blankets) needed to construct DEMO. The DTNS could serve as the first Fusion Nuclear Science Facility (FNSF), called for by ReNeW, and could provide the data necessary for licensing subsequent FSNFs.

  10. Direct observation of ultrafast many-body electron dynamics in a strongly-correlated ultracold Rydberg gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nobuyuki Takei; Christian Sommer; Claudiu Genes; Guido Pupillo; Haruka Goto; Kuniaki Koyasu; Hisashi Chiba; Matthias Weidemüller; Kenji Ohmori

    2015-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Many-body interactions govern a variety of important quantum phenomena ranging from superconductivity and magnetism in condensed matter to solvent effects in chemistry. Understanding those interactions beyond mean field is a holy grail of modern sciences. AMO physics with advanced laser technologies has recently emerged as a new platform to study quantum many-body systems. One of its latest developments is the study of long-range interactions among ultracold particles to reveal the effects of many-body correlations. Rydberg atoms distinguish themselves by their large dipole moments and tunability of dipolar interactions. Most of ultracold Rydberg experiments have been performed with narrow-band lasers in the Rydberg blockade regime. Here we demonstrate an ultracold Rydberg gas in a complementary regime, where electronic coherence is created using a broadband picosecond laser pulse, thus circumventing the Rydberg blockade to induce strong many-body correlations. The effects of long-range Rydberg interactions have been investigated by time-domain Ramsey interferometry with attosecond precision. This approach allows for the real-time observation of coherent and ultrafast many-body dynamics in which the electronic coherence is modulated by the interaction-induced correlations. The modulation evolves more rapidly than expected for two-body correlations by several orders of magnitude. We have actively controlled such ultrafast many-body dynamics by tuning the principal quantum number and the population of the Rydberg state. The observed Ramsey interferograms are well reproduced by a theoretical model beyond mean-field approximation, which can be relevant to other similar many-body phenomena in condensed matter physics and chemistry. Our new approach opens a new avenue to observe and manipulate nonequilibrium dynamics of strongly-correlated quantum many-body systems on the ultrafast timescale.

  11. NMR dynamics of quantum discord for spin-carrying gas molecules in a closed nanopore

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yurishchev, M. A., E-mail: yur@itp.ac.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Problems of Chemical Physics (Russian Federation)

    2014-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A local orthogonal transformation that transforms any centrosymmetric density matrix of a two-qubit system to the X form has been found. A piecewise-analytic-numerical formula Q = min(Q{sub ?/2}, Q{sub ?}, Q{sub 0}), where Q{sub ?/2} and Q{sub 0} are analytical expressions and the branch Q{sub 0?} can be obtained only by numerically searching for the optimal measurement angle ? ? (0, ?/2), is proposed to calculate the quantum discord Q of a general X state. The developed approaches have been applied for a quantitative description of the recently predicted flickering (periodic disappearance and reappearance) of the quantum-information pair correlation between nuclear 1/2 spins of atoms or molecules of a gas (for example, {sup 129}Xe) in a bounded volume in the presence of a strong magnetic field.

  12. Characterization of the reactive flow field dynamics in a gas turbine injector using high frequency PIV

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barbosa, Séverine; Ducruix, Sébastien

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present work details the analysis of the aerodynamics of an experimental swirl stabilized burner representative of gas turbine combustors. This analysis is carried out using High Frequency PIV (HFPIV) measurements in a reactive situation. While this information is usually available at a rather low rate, temporally resolved PIV measurements are necessary to better understand highly turbulent swirled flows, which are unsteady by nature. Thanks to recent technical improvements, a PIV system working at 12 kHz has been developed to study this experimental combustor flow field. Statistical quantities of the burner are first obtained and analyzed, and the measurement quality is checked, then a temporal analysis of the velocity field is carried out, indicating that large coherent structures periodically appear in the combustion chamber. The frequency of these structures is very close to the quarter wave mode of the chamber, giving a possible explanation for combustion instability coupling.

  13. Gas Dynamics in the Barred Seyfert Galaxy NGC4151 - II. High Resolution HI Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. G. Mundell; A. Pedlar; D. L. Shone; A. Robinson

    1998-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

    We present sensitive, high angular resolution (6" x 5") 21-cm observations of the neutral hydrogen in the nearby barred Seyfert galaxy, NGC4151. These HI observations, obtained using the VLA in B-configuration, are the highest resolution to date of this galaxy, and reveal hitherto unprecedented detail in the distribution and kinematics of the HI on sub-kiloparsec scales. A complete analysis and discussion of the HI data are presented and the global properties of the galaxy are related to the bar dynamics presented in Paper I.

  14. International Lige Colloquium on Ocean Dynamics, GAS TRANSFER AT WATER SURFACES, May 2 -6 2005 Estimation of air-sea gas and heat fluxes from infrared imagery and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jaehne, Bernd

    2005 Estimation of air-sea gas and heat fluxes from infrared imagery and surface wave measurements and much higher heat fluxes. In addition, the infrared imagery analysis reveals potentially significant the infrared images. It is also shown that the difference in the surface boundary conditions for heat and gas

  15. Studies on operational and dynamic response characteristics of the potentiometric carbon dioxide gas-sensing probe by using a Teflon membrane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roditaki, A.; Nikolelis, D.P.; Papastathopoulos, D.S. (Univ. of Athens (Greece))

    1993-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The performance and dynamic response characteristics of the potentiometric carbon dioxide gas sensor with an alternative to the commercially available silicon rubber membrane are studied in this paper. This study was performed in the course to choose a low cost membrane and possibly to further optimize the time response of this sensor. The membrane used was a microporous Teflon membrane which is used in ammonia gas sensors. The results have shown that the CO[sub 2] gas-sensing probe with the Teflon membrane shows similar performance characteristics as the silicon rubber membrane, but improved stability with time. Convolution mathematics were also used to study the dynamic response characteristics of the gas sensor with the Teflon membrane and the results have shown that practically similar time constants are obtained as when a silicon rubber membrane is used. Therefore, the less costly membrane can replace the silicon rubber membrane when CO[sub 2] is being monitored and a gas-sensing probe can be constructed through this means, by using a Teflon membrane and a 1 mM NaHCO[sub 3]-100 mM NaCl internal filling solution. 10 refs., 5 figs.

  16. Molecular gas and AGN fueling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    F. Combes

    2003-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    CO emission, tracing the molecular content and distribution in galaxies, is a privileged tool to trace gas towards the nucleus, since the HI tracer is in general depleted there. A review is done of recent CO line observations, with sufficient spatial resolution to indicate the morphology and kinematics of the gas near the nucleus. The puzzling result that nuclei presently observed in an active phase have little sign of fueling, is discussed.

  17. Effects of radio-frequency driving power, gas pressure, and nitrogen seeding on the transition dynamics in argon inductively coupled plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Razzak, M. Abdur; Takamura, Shuichi; Uesugi, Yoshihiko [Department of Energy Engineering and Science, Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Kanazawa University 2-40-20 Kodatsuno, Ishikawa 920-8667 (Japan)

    2004-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The influences of rf driving power, neutral gas pressure, and nitrogen seeding on the electrostatic-to-electromagnetic (E-H) mode transition dynamics in radio-frequency argon inductively coupled plasmas (ICPs) in a pressure range of 50-100 kPa are investigated, both experimentally and theoretically. The E-H mode transition dynamics and its characteristic transition time scale are investigated by observing the high-speed imaging (13 500 fps) as well as the temporal change of plasma loading impedance. The experimental results reveal that the E-H mode transition time is not fixed at any operating conditions rather it depends on some important parameters such as the rf driving power, neutral gas pressure, gas type. It is found that the E-H mode transition time depends on the unique parameter E{sub {theta}}/p; the so-called effective induced electric field, rather than the independent parameter: the rf power or neutral gas pressure. It is also found that longer E-H mode transition time is required to ignite the high-pressure Ar-N{sub 2} plasmas with a 2.5%-10% N{sub 2} seeding than that of pure Ar plasmas with the same operating conditions. The experimental results are compared with that of the recently developed theoretical models, and a good agreement is found between them.

  18. Atom trap trace analysis of krypton isotopes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bailey, K.; Chen, C. Y.; Du, X.; Li, Y. M.; Lu, Z.-T.; O'Connor, T. P.; Young, L.

    1999-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

    A new method of ultrasensitive isotope trace analysis has been developed. This method, based on the technique of laser manipulation of neutral atoms, has been used to count individual {sup 85}Kr and {sup 81}Kr atoms present in a natural krypton gas sample with isotopic abundances in the range of 10{sup {minus}11} and 10{sup {minus}13}, respectively. This method is free of contamination from other isotopes and elements and can be applied to several different isotope tracers for a wide range of applications. The demonstrated detection efficiency is 1 x 10{sup {minus}7}. System improvements could increase the efficiency by many orders of magnitude.

  19. Mid-Infrared Laser based Gas Sensor Technologies for Environmental Monitoring,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , quantification and monitoring of trace gas species and their applications in environmental and industrial process performing sensitive trace gas measurements in gas samples of a few mm3 in volume. QEPAS employs readilyChapter XX Mid-Infrared Laser based Gas Sensor Technologies for Environmental Monitoring, Medical

  20. The 'Supply-of-Storage' for Natural Gas in California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Uria, Rocio; Williams, Jeffrey

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the Hedging Effectiveness of Natural Gas Futures. ” EnergyCommission. (2002). “Natural Gas Supply and Infrastructureand Price Dynamics in Natural Gas City Gate Markets. ”

  1. Dynamical transition from a quasi-one dimensional Bose-Einstein condensate to a Tonks-Girardeau gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. Ohberg; L. Santos

    2002-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

    We analyze in detail the expansion of a 1D Bose gas after removing the axial confinement. We show that during its one-dimensional expansion the density of the Bose gas does not follow a self-similar solution, but on the contrary, it asymptotically approaches a Tonks-Girardeau profile. Our analysis is based on a nonlinear Schr\\"odinger equation with variable nonlinearity whose validity is discussed for the expansion problem, by comparing with an exact Bose-Fermi mapping for the case of an initial Tonks-Girardeau gas. For this case, the gas is shown to expand self-similarly, with a different similarity law compared to the one-dimensional Thomas-Fermi condensate.

  2. Carbon and Greenhouse Gas Dynamics in Annual Grasslands: Effects of Management and Potential for Climate Change Mitigation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ryals, Rebecca

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    dynamics and potential carbon sequestration by rangelands.G. E. Schuman. 2007. Carbon sequestration and rangelands: ASilver, W.L. in review. Carbon sequestration potential and

  3. Carbon and Greenhouse Gas Dynamics in Annual Grasslands: Effects of Management and Potential for Climate Change Mitigation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ryals, Rebecca

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    organic wastes at different composting stages during theirbiological changes during composting of different organicand nitrogen dynamics in composting and in compost?amended

  4. Heat-Traced Fluid Transfer Lines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schilling, R. E.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    HEAT-TRACED FLUID TRANSFER LINES Robert E. Schilling, P.E. Eaton Corporation Aurora, Ohio This paper discusses basic considerations in designing a heat tracing system using either steam or electrical tracing. Four basic reasons to heat...

  5. Tracing Geothermal Fluids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael C. Adams; Greg Nash

    2004-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Geothermal water must be injected back into the reservoir after it has been used for power production. Injection is critical in maximizing the power production and lifetime of the reservoir. To use injectate effectively the direction and velocity of the injected water must be known or inferred. This information can be obtained by using chemical tracers to track the subsurface flow paths of the injected fluid. Tracers are chemical compounds that are added to the water as it is injected back into the reservoir. The hot production water is monitored for the presence of this tracer using the most sensitive analytic methods that are economically feasible. The amount and concentration pattern of the tracer revealed by this monitoring can be used to evaluate how effective the injection strategy is. However, the tracers must have properties that suite the environment that they will be used in. This requires careful consideration and testing of the tracer properties. In previous and parallel investigations we have developed tracers that are suitable from tracing liquid water. In this investigation, we developed tracers that can be used for steam and mixed water/steam environments. This work will improve the efficiency of injection management in geothermal fields, lowering the cost of energy production and increasing the power output of these systems.

  6. Epidemic Contact Tracing via Communication Traces Katayoun Farrahi1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    interactions, where contagious outbreaks propagate. However, due to privacy constraints and noisy data traces may be a viable option to arrest contagious outbreaks. Citation: Farrahi K, Emonet R, Cebrian M

  7. Adsorptive Stripping Voltammetric Measurements of Trace Uranium...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Adsorptive Stripping Voltammetric Measurements of Trace Uranium at the Bismuth Film Electrode. Adsorptive Stripping Voltammetric Measurements of Trace Uranium at the Bismuth Film...

  8. Dynamic mean field theory for lattice gas models of fluids confined in porous materials: Higher order theory based on the Bethe-Peierls and path probability method approximations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edison, John R.; Monson, Peter A. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Massachusetts 01003-9303 (United States)

    2014-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Recently we have developed a dynamic mean field theory (DMFT) for lattice gas models of fluids in porous materials [P. A. Monson, J. Chem. Phys. 128(8), 084701 (2008)]. The theory can be used to describe the relaxation processes in the approach to equilibrium or metastable states for fluids in pores and is especially useful for studying system exhibiting adsorption/desorption hysteresis. In this paper we discuss the extension of the theory to higher order by means of the path probability method (PPM) of Kikuchi and co-workers. We show that this leads to a treatment of the dynamics that is consistent with thermodynamics coming from the Bethe-Peierls or Quasi-Chemical approximation for the equilibrium or metastable equilibrium states of the lattice model. We compare the results from the PPM with those from DMFT and from dynamic Monte Carlo simulations. We find that the predictions from PPM are qualitatively similar to those from DMFT but give somewhat improved quantitative accuracy, in part due to the superior treatment of the underlying thermodynamics. This comes at the cost of greater computational expense associated with the larger number of equations that must be solved.

  9. Fate of trace elements in UK coals during gasification processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bushell, A.J.; Williamson, J. [Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, London (United Kingdom)

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Five UK coals were selected to cover the range of mineral matter and ash contents typically encountered in UK bituminous coals. Trace element analysis was performed on both the whole coals and size separated fractions using ICP analysis for 21 trace elements, including Be, Cr, Co, Ni, As, Cd, Sb, Hg, and Pb, elements deemed to be the most environmentally hazardous. Small quantities of each coal were gasified in a laboratory gasifier in an atmosphere of N{sub 2} containing 15% O{sub 2}. Samples of bed ash, cyclone ash, and a fine gas-filtered ash were collected and analyzed to determine the partition of the trace elements between the gasification products. Mass balance calculations showed that the recovery of the trace elements varied from 20 to 97%; the low recovery of some trace elements highlighting the difficulties of collecting representative samples from a laboratory system. A parallel study on samples taken from a pilot plant gasifier showed significantly higher recovery rates, indicating the value of larger scale trials.

  10. Trace tritium and the H-mode density limit G.F. Matthews a,*, K.-D. Zastrow a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Basse, Nils Plesner

    Trace tritium and the H-mode density limit G.F. Matthews a,*, K.-D. Zastrow a , P. Andrew a , B University, Princeton, NJ 08543, USA Abstract Trace amounts of tritium gas have been injected in short pus then saturation of the separatrix density implies clamping of the core density. Short pus of tritium were used

  11. Conference on natural gas use state regulation and market dynamics in the Post 636/Energy Policy Act Era: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Reports in this Record of Proceedings explore a wide variety of issues related to the regulation of natural gas and its future role as one of the critical fuels that powers the economy of the United States. The focus is mainly on problems, obstacles, barriers, and the incredibly complex system created to bring a fuel from wellhead to burner tip. Individual papers have been cataloged separately.

  12. Understanding reservoir mechanisms using phase and component streamline tracing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kumar, Sarwesh

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    some important signatures of reservoir dynamics, such as dominant phase in flow, appearance and disappearance of phases (e.g. gas), and flow of components like CO2. In the work being presented, we demonstrate the benefits of visualizing phase...

  13. Gas/slurry flow in coal-liquefaction processes (fluid dynamics in a three-phase-flow column). Final technical progress report, 1 October 1979-31 March 1982

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ying, D.H.S.; Sivasubramanian, R.; Moujaes, S.F.; Givens, E.N.

    1982-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A commercial coal liquefaction plant will employ vertical tubular reactors feeding slurry and gas concurrently upward through these vessels. In the SRC-I plant design the reactor is essentially an empty vessel with only a distributor plate located near the inlet. Because the commercial plant represents a considerable scale-up over Wilsonville or any pilot plant, this program addressed the need for additional data on behavior of three phase systems in large vessels. Parameters that were investigated in this program were studied at conditions that relate directly to projected plant operating conditions. The fluid dynamic behavior of the three-phase upflow system was studied by measuring gas and slurry holdup, liquid dispersion, solids suspension and solids accumulation. The dependent parameters are gas and liquid velocities, solid particle size, solids concentration, liquid viscosity, liquid surface tension and inlet distributor. Within the range of liquid superficial velocity from 0.0 to 0.5 ft/sec, gas holdup is found to be independent of liquid flow which agrees with other investigators. The results also confirm our previous finding that gas holdup is independent of column diameter when the column diameter is 5 inches or larger. The gas holdup depends strongly on gas flow rate; gas holdup increases with increasing gas velocity. The effect of solids particles on gas holdup depends on the gas flow rate. Increasing liquid viscosity and surface tension reduce gas holdup which agrees with other investigators. Because of the complexity of the system, we could not find a single correlation to best fit all the data. The degree of liquid backmixing markedly affects chemical changes occurring in the dissolver, such as sulfur removal, and oil and distillate formation.

  14. Homogeneous and Heterogeneous Reaction and Transformation of Hg and Trace Metals in Combustion Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. Helble; Clara Smith; David Miller

    2009-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The overall goal of this project was to produce a working dynamic model to predict the transformation and partitioning of trace metals resulting from combustion of a broad range of fuels. The information provided from this model will be instrumental in efforts to identify fuels and conditions that can be varied to reduce metal emissions. Through the course of this project, it was determined that mercury (Hg) and arsenic (As) would be the focus of the experimental investigation. Experiments were therefore conducted to examine homogeneous and heterogeneous mercury oxidation pathways, and to assess potential interactions between arsenic and calcium. As described in this report, results indicated that the role of SO{sub 2} on Hg oxidation was complex and depended upon overall gas phase chemistry, that iron oxide (hematite) particles contributed directly to heterogeneous Hg oxidation, and that As-Ca interactions occurred through both gas-solid and within-char reaction pathways. Modeling based on this study indicated that, depending upon coal type and fly ash particle size, vaporization-condensation, vaporization-surface reaction, and As-CaO in-char reaction all play a role in arsenic transformations under combustion conditions.

  15. Abstract--South America has emerged in recent years as one of the most dynamic regions for natural gas and electricity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Catholic University of Chile (Universidad Católica de Chile)

    for natural gas and electricity development. The continent boasts natural gas reserves and high- growth energy countries to promote the use of natural gas, especially for power generation. On the other hand, challenges-country natural gas agreements, competition between natural gas and other resources for power generation

  16. Development of a new dynamic gas flow-control system in the pressure range of 1 Pa-133 Pa

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hong, S. S.; Chung, J. W. [Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, Daejeon 305-340 (Korea, Republic of); Khan, Wakil [Pakistan Vacuum Society, street 17, Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2011-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A new flow-control system (FCS-705) has been developed at Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science. The system is intended for calibration of vacuum gauges in the pressure range of 1 Pa-133 Pa by comparison method. This paper describes some basic characteristics of the system including; (1) the design and construction of the system, (2) the generation of stable pressures in the chamber, (3) achieving high upstream pressure limit by installing a short duct in the by-pass pumping line, and (4) investigation of the gas flow regimes within the short duct.

  17. A FAST OPENING TOROIDAL GAS VALVE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Myers, B.R.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    FIGURE 1. Artists sketch of valve illustrating the dynamicsCross sectional view of valve. FIGURE 3. Oscilloscope recordcm (b) Gauge 5.0 em from valve Top trace; gauge, 0.5 volts/

  18. An acoustic energy framework for predicting combustion- driven acoustic instabilities in premixed gas-turbines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ibrahim, Zuhair M. A.

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    During Premix Gas Turbine Combustion," Journal ofApplication to Gas-Turbine Combustion Instability Analysis,"Clavin, P. , " Premixed Combustion and Gas Dynamics," Annual

  19. The dynamics and high-energy emission of conductive gas clouds in supernova-driven galactic superwinds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Marcolini; D. K. Strickland; A. D'Ercole; T. M. Heckman; C. G. Hoopes

    2005-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper we present high-resolution hydrodynamical models of warm ionized clouds embedded in a superwind, and compare the OVI and soft X-ray properties to the existing observational data. These models include thermal conduction, which we show plays an important role in shaping both the dynamics and radiative properties of the resulting wind/cloud interaction. Heat conduction stabilizes the cloud by inhibiting the growth of K-H and R-T instabilities, and also generates a shock wave at the cloud's surface that compresses the cloud. This dynamical behaviour influences the observable properties. We find that while OVI emission and absorption always arises in cloud material at the periphery of the cloud, most of the soft X-ray arises in the region between the wind bow shock and the cloud surface, and probes either wind or cloud material depending on the strength of conduction and the relative abundances of the wind with respect to the cloud. In general only a small fraction (thermal conduction, in particular in terms of the OVI-to-X-ray luminosity ratio, but cloud life times are uncomfortably short (thermal conductivity and found that even when we reduced conduction by a factor of 25 that the simulations retained the beneficial hydrodynamical stability and low O{\\sc vi}-to-X-ray luminosity ratio found in the Spitzer-level conductive models, while also having reduced evaporation rates.

  20. Distributed trace using central performance counter memory

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Satterfield, David L; Sexton, James C

    2013-10-22T23:59:59.000Z

    A plurality of processing cores, are central storage unit having at least memory connected in a daisy chain manner, forming a daisy chain ring layout on an integrated chip. At least one of the plurality of processing cores places trace data on the daisy chain connection for transmitting the trace data to the central storage unit, and the central storage unit detects the trace data and stores the trace data in the memory co-located in with the central storage unit.

  1. Distributed trace using central performance counter memory

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Satterfield, David L.; Sexton, James C.

    2013-01-22T23:59:59.000Z

    A plurality of processing cores, are central storage unit having at least memory connected in a daisy chain manner, forming a daisy chain ring layout on an integrated chip. At least one of the plurality of processing cores places trace data on the daisy chain connection for transmitting the trace data to the central storage unit, and the central storage unit detects the trace data and stores the trace data in the memory co-located in with the central storage unit.

  2. LEARNING FROM BULLYING TRACES IN SOCIAL MEDIA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhu, Xiaojin "Jerry"

    of bullying traces collected Lady Gaga Movie: Bully #12;Questions NLP Can Help with 8 Is the post a bullying

  3. Multi-Gas Assessment of the Kyoto Protocol John Reilly,*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Multi-Gas Assessment of the Kyoto Protocol John Reilly,* Ronald G. Prinn,* Jochen Harnisch,* Jean in the protocol appear to be an adequate representation of trace gas climatic effects. The principal reason for the success of this simplified GWP approach in our calculations is that the mix of gas emissions resulting

  4. Casimir Effect and Trace formula Andreas Wirzba

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wirzba, Andreas - Helmholtz-Institut für Strahlen- und Kernphysik (HISKP)

    1 Casimir Effect and Trace formula Andreas Wirzba Institut f¨ur Kernphysik Forschungszentrum J¨ulich · · Andreas Wirzba Casimir effect and trace formula Copenhagen, 17 May 2006 #12;1 Casimir Effect and Trace formula Andreas Wirzba Institut f¨ur Kernphysik Forschungszentrum J¨ulich 1. Introduction to the Casimir

  5. Measurements and Analyses of Urban Metabolism and Trace Gas Respiration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McManus, J.B.

    2002-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Human society has well defined metabolic processes that can be characterized and quantified in the same way that an ecosystem’s metabolism can be defined and understood [Fischer-Kowalski, 1998.] The study of “industrial ...

  6. Tracing the magmatic/hydrothermal transition in regional low-strain zones: The role of magma dynamics in strain localization at pluton roof, implications for intrusion-related gold

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    dynamics in strain localization at pluton roof, implications for intrusion-related gold deposits Eric features of a granite-pluton roof; large-scale dykes and a network of gold veins are intensively developed in this roof, recording a succession of mechanical instabilities. Our gravity survey underlines the presence

  7. Trace Explosive Detection Using Nanosensors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Senesac, Larry R [ORNL; Thundat, Thomas George [ORNL

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Selective and sensitive detection of explosives is very important in countering terrorist threats. Detecting trace explosives has become a very complex and expensive endeavor because of a number of factors, such as the wide variety of materials that can be used as explosives, the lack of easily detectable signatures, the vast number of avenues by which these weapons can be deployed, and the lack of inexpensive sensors with high sensitivity and selectivity. High sensitivity and selectivity, combined with the ability to lower the deployment cost of sensors using mass production, is essential in winning the war on explosives-based terrorism. Nanosensors have the potential to satisfy all the requirements for an effective platform for the trace detection of explosives.

  8. Trace element emissions. Semi-annual report, October 1994--February 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pigeaud, A.; Maru, H.; Wilemski, G.; Helble, J.

    1995-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Many trace elements can exist in raw coal gas either in the form of metallic vapors or gaseous compounds which, besides their action on potentially ``very clean`` advanced power generating systems such as fuel cells and gas turbines, can also be detrimental to plant and animal life when released into the atmosphere. Therefore, volatile trace contaminants from coal which can also be toxic must be removed before they become detrimental to both power plant performance/endurance and the environment. Five trace elements were selected in this project based on: abundance in solid coal, volatility during gasification, effects on downstream systems and toxicity to plant and animal life. An understanding was sought in this investigation of the interactions of these five trace elements (and their high temperature species) with the different components in integrated cleanup and power generating systems, as well as the ultimate effects with respect to atmospheric emissions. Utilizing thermodynamic calculations and various experimental techniques, it was determined that a number of trace contaminants that exist in coal may be substantially removed by flyash, and after that by different sorbent systems. High temperature cleanup of contaminants by sorbents such as zinc titanate, primarily to remove sulfur, can also absorb some metallic contaminants such as cadmium and antimony. Further polishing will be required, however, to eliminate trace contaminant species incorporating the elements arsenic, selemium, lead, and mercury.

  9. Pressure wave charged repetitively pulsed gas laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kulkarny, Vijay A. (Redondo Beach, CA)

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A repetitively pulsed gas laser in which a system of mechanical shutters bracketing the laser cavity manipulate pressure waves resulting from residual energy in the cavity gas following a lasing event so as to draw fresh gas into the cavity and effectively pump spent gas in a dynamic closed loop.

  10. Trace Holdings | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnualProperty Edit withTianlin Baxin Hydropower StationTown ofTown ofTown ofTrace Holdings Jump to:

  11. Gas Atomization of Amorphous Aluminum: Part I. Thermal Behavior Calculations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zheng, Baolong; Lin, Yaojun; Zhou, Yizhang; Lavernia, Enrique J.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    which are summarized below: 1. Gas composition is moree?ective than gas pressure on in?uencing cooling rate for app. 210–11. 37. J.E.A. John: Gas Dynamics, Allyn and Bacon,

  12. THE THEORY OF URANIUM ENRICHMENT BY THE GAS CENTRIFUGE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Olander, Donald R.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Technical Basis of the Gas Centrifuge", Adv. in Nucl. Sci.D.R. , (1978) "The Gas Centrifuge", Scientific American,Fluid Dynamics of a Gas Centrifuge", J. Fluid Mech. , 101,

  13. Traces on Module Categories over Fusion Categories

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gregor Schaumann

    2015-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

    We consider traces on module categories over pivotal fusion categories which are compatible with the module structure. It is shown that such module traces characterise the Morita classes of special haploid symmetric Frobenius algebras. Moreover, they are unique up to a scale factor and they equip the dual category with a pivotal structure. This implies that for each pivotal structure on a fusion category over the complex numbers there exists a conjugate pivotal structure defined by the canonical module trace.

  14. Geothermal: Sponsored by OSTI -- Trace metal characterization...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Trace metal characterization and speciation in geothermal effluent by multiple scanning anodic stripping voltammetry and atomic absorpotion analysis. Annual progress report...

  15. Evolution of simple configurations of gravitating gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. P. Pronko

    2011-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

    We considered the dynamics of gravitating gas - a continuous media with peculiar properties. The exact solutions of its Euler equations for simple initial conditions is obtained.

  16. Trace elements in coal by glow discharge mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jacobs, M.L.; Wilson, C.R.; Pestovich, J. Jr. [WAL Inc., Wheat Ridge, CO (United States)] [and others

    1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A need and a demand exist for determining trace elements in coal and coal related by-products, especially those elements which may potentially be a health hazard. The provisions of the 1990 clean air act require that the EPA evaluate the emissions of electric utilities for trace elements and other potentially hazardous organic compounds. The coal fired electric utility industry supplies roughly 60% of the total generating capacity of 2,882,525 million kilowatt hours (nearly 3 trillion kilowatt hours) generated in the U.S. This is accomplished by 414 power plants scattered across the country that burned 813,508,000 short tons of coal in 1993. The relative volatility of some inorganic constituents in coal makes them more prone to be emitted to the atmosphere following combustion. The production of analytical data for trace elements is known to be a difficult task in coal and by-products of coal combustion (fly ash, bottom ash, gas streams, etc.), in terms of both sample collection and analytical determinations. There are several common analytical methods available to the analyst to determine trace elements in coal and coal by-products. In general analytical germs, the material to be analyzed can be totally solubilized (or extracted), or the elements analytes can be determined in the material as a solid. A relatively new elemental technique, Glow Discharge Mass Spectrometry (GDMS) can be used with solids as well. This new analytical technique had never before been applied directly to coal. The radio frequency-glow discharge quadropole mass spectrometer was used to analyze coal directly for the first time ever by rf-GDMS. The rf-GDMS technique is described.

  17. The Measurement of Trace Emissions and Combustion Characteristics for a Mass Fire

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    actual amounts of fuel consumed, the rate of fuel consumption, and carbon and heat release by the fire of world emis- sions, there are insufficient data on the combustion efficiency, emission factors, and trace understand- ing of fire dynamics of large fires (induced winds, heat release, turbulence, etc

  18. Method for remote detection of trace contaminants

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Simonson, Robert J.; Hance, Bradley G.

    2003-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for remote detection of trace contaminants in a target area comprises applying sensor particles that preconcentrate the trace contaminant to the target area and detecting the contaminant-sensitive fluorescence from the sensor particles. The sensor particles can have contaminant-sensitive and contaminant-insensitive fluorescent compounds to enable the determination of the amount of trace contaminant present in the target are by relative comparison of the emission of the fluorescent compounds by a local or remote fluorescence detector. The method can be used to remotely detect buried minefields.

  19. Infrared near-field spectroscopy of trace explosives using an...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    spectroscopy of trace explosives using an external cavity quantum cascade laser. Infrared near-field spectroscopy of trace explosives using an external cavity quantum cascade...

  20. Workshop on L-functions and Trace Formula

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ali Altug, Columbia University: Trace formula beyond endoscopy and analytic number theory. I will talk about trace formula and analytic number theory, and how ...

  1. Feasibility of the detection of trace elements in particulate...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of trace elements in particulate matter using online High-Resolution Aerosol Mass Spectrometry. Feasibility of the detection of trace elements in particulate matter using online...

  2. atom trap trace: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1 An atom trap trace analysis system for measuring krypton contamination in xenon dark matter detectors Physics Websites Summary: An atom trap trace analysis system for measuring...

  3. Method for detecting gas turbine engine flashback

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Singh, Kapil Kumar; Varatharajan, Balachandar; Kraemer, Gilbert Otto; Yilmaz, Ertan; Lacy, Benjamin Paul

    2012-09-04T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for monitoring and controlling a gas turbine, comprises predicting frequencies of combustion dynamics in a combustor using operating conditions of a gas turbine, receiving a signal from a sensor that is indicative of combustion dynamics in the combustor, and detecting a flashback if a frequency of the received signal does not correspond to the predicted frequencies.

  4. Towards Dynamic Pricing-Based Collaborative Optimizations for Green Data Centers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Loo, Boon Thau

    framework by coupling utilities with data centers via dynamic pricing. We develop models describing using real intermittent-energy-generation trace data. Modeling the dynamic price over this trace, weTowards Dynamic Pricing-Based Collaborative Optimizations for Green Data Centers Yang Li David Chiu

  5. Privacy Vulnerability of Published Anonymous Mobility Traces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2010-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Sep 20, 2010 ... locations of real users leading to the public availabilities of many such traces through .... infer the private information. ... are open to observations in public spaces. Hence, the ..... value is called the entropy rate of the process X.

  6. RESTRICTED-TRACE APPROXIMATION FOR NUCLEAR ANTIFERROMAGNETISM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    1353 RESTRICTED-TRACE APPROXIMATION FOR NUCLEAR ANTIFERROMAGNETISM M. GOLDMAN and G. SARMA Service to predict several properties of nuclear antiferromagnetic structures : sublattice magnetization of nuclear dipolar magnetic ordering, either antiferromagnetic or ferromagnetic, has been reported

  7. Extraction of trace metals from fly ash

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blander, Milton (Palos Park, IL); Wai, Chien M. (Moscow, ID); Nagy, Zoltan (Woodridge, IL)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for recovering silver, gallium and/or other trace metals from a fine grained industrial fly ash associated with a process for producing phosphorous, the fly ash having a silicate base and containing surface deposits of the trace metals as oxides, chlorides or the like, with the process being carried out by contacting the fly ash with AlCl.sub.3 in an alkali halide melt to react the trace metals with the AlCl.sub.3 to form compositions soluble in the melt and a residue containing the silicate and aluminum oxide or other aluminum precipitate, and separating the desired trace metal or metals from the melt by electrolysis or other separation techniques.

  8. Extraction of trace metals from fly ash

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blander, M.; Wai, C.M.; Nagy, Z.

    1983-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A process is described for recovering silver, gallium and/or other trace metals from a fine grained industrial fly ash associated with a process for producing phosphorous. The fly ash has a silicate base and contains surface deposits of the trace metals as oxides, chlorides or the like. The process is carried out by contacting the fly ash with AlCl/sub 3/ in an alkali halide melt to react the trace metals with the AlCl/sub 3/ to form compositions soluble in the melt and a residue containing the silicate and aluminum oxide or other aluminum precipitate, and separating the desired trace metal or metals from the melt by electrolysis or other separation techniques.

  9. Trace element analysis of Texas lignite

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mahar, Sean

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    or in the planning stages, Near surface lignite re- sources are estimated to be 21 billion metric tons in Texas, while deep basin reserves are estimated at 31 billion metric tons. Near (3] surface reserves alone could fulfill Texas' electrical needs for 100 years... for environmental and health concerns trace element characterization of lignites is important. A needed avenue of research is charact- erization of trace element pathways in lignite fired power plants. :hat is to say what percentage of a certain element...

  10. Simulating the Hot X-ray Emitting Gas in Elliptical Galaxies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daisuke Kawata; Brad K. Gibson

    2002-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the chemo-dynamical evolution of elliptical galaxies and their hot X-ray emitting gas using high-resolution cosmological simulations. Our Tree N-body/SPH code includes a self-consistent treatment of radiative cooling, star formation, supernovae feedback, and chemical enrichment. We present a series of LCDM cosmological simulations which trace the spatial and temporal evolution of heavy element abundance patterns in both the stellar and gas components of galaxies. X-ray spectra of the hot gas are constructed via the use of the vmekal plasma model, and analysed using XSPEC with the XMM EPN response function. Simulation end-products are quantitatively compared with the observational data in both the X-ray and optical regime. We find that radiative cooling is important to interpret the observed X-ray luminosity, temperature, and metallicity of the interstellar medium of elliptical galaxies. However, this cooled gas also leads to excessive star formation at low redshift, and therefore results in underlying galactic stellar populations which are too blue with respect to observations.

  11. Novel Sorbent-Based Process for High Temperature Trace Metal Removal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gokhan Alptekin

    2008-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project was to demonstrate the efficacy of a novel sorbent can effectively remove trace metal contaminants (Hg, As, Se and Cd) from actual coal-derived synthesis gas streams at high temperature (above the dew point of the gas). The performance of TDA's sorbent has been evaluated in several field demonstrations using synthesis gas generated by laboratory and pilot-scale coal gasifiers in a state-of-the-art test skid that houses the absorbent and all auxiliary equipment for monitoring and data logging of critical operating parameters. The test skid was originally designed to treat 10,000 SCFH gas at 250 psig and 350 C, however, because of the limited gas handling capabilities of the test sites, the capacity was downsized to 500 SCFH gas flow. As part of the test program, we carried out four demonstrations at two different sites using the synthesis gas generated by the gasification of various lignites and a bituminous coal. Two of these tests were conducted at the Power Systems Demonstration Facility (PSDF) in Wilsonville, Alabama; a Falkirk (North Dakota) lignite and a high sodium lignite (the PSDF operator Southern Company did not disclose the source of this lignite) were used as the feedstock. We also carried out two other demonstrations in collaboration with the University of North Dakota Energy Environmental Research Center (UNDEERC) using synthesis gas slipstreams generated by the gasification of Sufco (Utah) bituminous coal and Oak Hills (Texas) lignite. In the PSDF tests, we showed successful operation of the test system at the conditions of interest and showed the efficacy of sorbent in removing the mercury from synthesis gas. In Test Campaign No.1, TDA sorbent reduced Hg concentration of the synthesis gas to less than 5 {micro}g/m{sup 3} and achieved over 99% Hg removal efficiency for the entire test duration. Unfortunately, due to the relatively low concentration of the trace metals in the lignite feed and as a result of the intermittent operation of the PSDF gasifier (due to the difficulties in the handling of the low quality lignite), only a small fraction of the sorbent capacity was utilized (we measured a mercury capacity of 3.27 mg/kg, which is only a fraction of the 680 mg/kg Hg capacity measured for the same sorbent used at our bench-scale evaluations at TDA). Post reaction examination of the sorbent by chemical analysis also indicated some removal As and Se (we did not detect any significant amounts of Cd in the synthesis gas or over the sorbent). The tests at UNDEERC was more successful and showed clearly that the TDA sorbent can effectively remove Hg and other trace metals (As and Se) at high temperature. The on-line gas measurements carried out by TDA and UNDEERC separately showed that TDA sorbent can achieve greater than 95% Hg removal efficiency at 260 C ({approx}200g sorbent treated more than 15,000 SCF synthesis gas). Chemical analysis conducted following the tests also showed modest amounts of As and Se accumulation in the sorbent bed (the test durations were still short to show higher capacities to these contaminants). We also evaluated the stability of the sorbent and the fate of mercury (the most volatile and unstable of the trace metal compounds). The Synthetic Ground Water Leaching Procedure Test carried out by an independent environmental laboratory showed that the mercury will remain on the sorbent once the sorbent is disposed. Based on a preliminary engineering and cost analysis, TDA estimated the cost of mercury removal from coal-derived synthesis gas as $2,995/lb (this analysis assumes that this cost also includes the cost of removal of all other trace metal contaminants). The projected cost will result in a small increase (less than 1%) in the cost of energy.

  12. A study of the effects of inlet preswirl on the dynamic coefficients of a straight-bore honeycomb gas damper seal 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sprowl, Tony Brandon

    2005-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

    In high-pressure centrifugal compressors, honeycomb seals are often used as replacements for labyrinth seals to enhance dynamic stability. A concern exists with the loss of this enhanced stability if the honeycomb cavities become clogged with debris...

  13. A study of the effects of inlet preswirl on the dynamic coefficients of a straight-bore honeycomb gas damper seal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sprowl, Tony Brandon

    2005-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

    In high-pressure centrifugal compressors, honeycomb seals are often used as replacements for labyrinth seals to enhance dynamic stability. A concern exists with the loss of this enhanced stability if the honeycomb cavities become clogged with debris...

  14. The trace formula The Langevin process in R

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Herrmann, Samuel

    The trace formula The Langevin process in R Symmetric spaces and the Malliavin calculus and the trace formula Jean-Michel Bismut Universit´e Paris-Sud, Orsay `A la m´emoire de Paul Malliavin Jean-Michel Bismut The Malliavin calculus and the trace formula #12;The trace formula The Langevin process in R

  15. Multiscale non-adiabatic dynamics with radiative decay, case study on the post-ionization fragmentation of rare-gas tetramers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ivan Jane?ek; Tomáš Jan?a; Pavel Naar; Frederic Renard; René Kalus; Florent X. Gadéa

    2012-03-08T23:59:59.000Z

    In this supplementary material, we recollect, for reader's convenience, the general scheme of suggested multiscale model (Sec. 1), and basic informations about approaches used for pilot study: a detailed description of the interaction model (Sec. 2) and dynamical methods used for the dark dynamics step (Sec. 3) reported previously in two preceding studies [1, 2]. In addition, a detailed description of the treatment of radiative processes is also given (Sec. 4).

  16. Multiscale non-adiabatic dynamics with radiative decay, case study on the post-ionization fragmentation of rare-gas tetramers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jane?ek, Ivan; Naar, Pavel; Renard, Frederic; Kalus, René; Gadéa, Florent X

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this supplementary material, we recollect, for reader's convenience, the general scheme of suggested multiscale model (Sec. 1), and basic informations about approaches used for pilot study: a detailed description of the interaction model (Sec. 2) and dynamical methods used for the dark dynamics step (Sec. 3) reported previously in two preceding studies [1, 2]. In addition, a detailed description of the treatment of radiative processes is also given (Sec. 4).

  17. A comparison of the static and dynamic characteristics of straight-bore and convergent tapered-bore honeycomb annular gas seals 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dawson, Matthew Peter

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Results are presented from tests conducted with straight-bore and convergent tapered-bore honeycomb annular gas seals. The test seals had a 114.3 mm bore with an L/D = 0.75 and a nominal radial clearance of 0.19 mm. The honeycomb cell depth for both...

  18. Characterization of trace element emissions from a pilot-scale coal combustion unit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hargis, R.A.; Pennline, H.W. [Dept. of Energy, Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The flue gas cleanup projects in the in-house research program at the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center range from laboratory-scale work to testing with the combustion products of coal at a scale equivalent to about 0.75 MW of electric power generation. The largest unit is a 500-pound-per-hour coal combustor, complete with ductwork, spray dryer, baghouse, and ancillary equipment. Over the past year, tests to investigate the distribution and fate of trace elements have been conducted with this pilot unit. These investigations are an integral component of the Air Toxics and Fine Particulate Control subprogrammatic area of the AR and ET Power Systems Program. The overall effort of this area focuses on the improvement of existing technologies and the development of new technologies for the control of hazardous air pollutants and fine particulates associated with coal combustion. A major endeavor within the subprogram is the characterization of trace elements in flue gas from coal combustion, including a special emphasis on mercury speciation. The study described in this paper examined the results from an investigation on the pilot unit; the distribution of trace elements in the ash streams and flue gas stream, material recoveries for the system, baghouse removal efficiencies, and enrichment of ash particulate. Also, a preliminary comparison between the results from the pilot unit and a full-scale utility that burned coal from the same coal batch is provided.

  19. Paraxial ray-tracing approach for the simulation of ultrasonic inspection of welds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gardahaut, Audrey; Jezzine, Karim [CEA, LIST, Digiteo Labs, Bât 565, PC 120, F-91191, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Cassereau, Didier [CNRS, UMR 7623, LIP, 15 rue de l'école de médecine, 75006 Paris, France and ESPCI ParisTech, 10 rue Vauquelin, 75005 Paris (France)

    2014-02-18T23:59:59.000Z

    On-site inspection of bimetallic or austenitic welds can be very difficult to interpret owing to their internal structures. Skewing and splitting of the ultrasonic beam may occur due to the anisotropic and inhomogeneous properties of the welding material. In this paper, we present a ray-based method to simulate the propagation of ultrasonic waves in such structures. The formalism is based on dynamic ray tracing system in Cartesian coordinates along a reference ray. Standard ray tracing consists in the solution of a system of linear ordinary differential equations of the first order and is used to determine the trajectory of the ray. Likewise, dynamic ray tracing (DRT) also called paraxial ray tracing consists in the solution of an additional system of linear ordinary differential equations along the ray allowing paraxial quantities to be computed. It is used to evaluate the geometrical spreading and amplitude along the ray and in its vicinity. DRT is applied on a smooth representation of the elastic properties of the weld obtained thanks to an image processing technique applied on a macrograph of the weld. Simulation results are presented and compared to finite elements and experimental results.

  20. Trace fossil assemblages in selected shelf sandstones

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Locke, Kathleen Ann

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and decreasing marine 1nfluence. Individual trace fossil types are more abundant and show a greater d1versity 1n the delta-margin facies; several large, vert1cal crab(?) burrows are P ascot a d th bi g is do 1 t d by ~Ohio o h In the shelf sequences, mostly... ~Zoo h os, f d ly i th iddl -to. outer and outer shelf sequences. Continued study of trace fossils should provide more specific information than the general shelf locations described above. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The completion of this thesis marks...

  1. Trace element analysis of Texas lignite 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mahar, Sean

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . Gluskoter, and N. F. Shimp: Occurence and Distribution of Potentiall Volatile Trace Elements in Coal. Illinois State Geological Survey. Urbana, IL. (July, 1974). 39 [26] Andren, A. W. , D. H. Klein, and Y. Talmi: Selenium in Coal- Fired Plant Emissions.... Envir. Sci. and Tech. , 9:856, (Sept. , 1975). [27] Gluskoter, H. J. , R. R. Ruch, W. G. Miller, R. A. Cahill, G. B. Breher and J, K. Kuhn: Trace Elements in Coal: Occur- rence and Distribution. Illinois State Geological Sur- vey. Urbane, Illinois...

  2. Gas power, its promises and problems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seay, J.G.

    1980-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In spite of the recent decline in natural gas supply, it is still the dominant domestic source of energy supply and the most widely used fuel in the industrial, commercial, and household sectors. The basic problem of the gas industry is that of finding new supplies cost-competitive with other fuels in order to maintain the delivery of adequate gaseous energy to its customers, utilizing the existing and literally irreplaceable underground transmission and distribution system. The decline in gas supplies is traced to regulation of the field price of natural gas at a level too low to insure continuing additions to reserves at a rate sufficient to balance production. As a result, the US is drawing down its inventory of gas supply. The higher prices for gas in the field established by the Natural Gas Policy Act of 1978 provides additional economic incentives for exploration and development of new natural gas, and it is hoped that the higher prices will elicit new supplies. The US has available a large resource base of gas yet to be discovered, natural gas in unconventional sources, and the potential of additional incremental supplies from gasification of coal, the largest remaining fossil fuel resource.

  3. Assessment of hot gas contaminant control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rutkowski, M.D.; Klett, M.G.; Zaharchuk, R.

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this work is to gather data and information to assist DOE in responding to the NRC recommendation on hot gas cleanup by performing a comprehensive assessment of hot gas cleanup systems for advanced coal-based Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) and Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (PFBC) including the status of development of the components of the hot gas cleanup systems, and the probable cost and performance impacts. The scope and time frame of information gathering is generally responsive to the boundaries set by the National Research council (NRC), but includes a broad range of interests and programs which cover hot gas cleanup through the year 2010. As the status of hot gas cleanup is continually changing, additional current data and information are being obtained for this effort from this 1996 METC Contractors` Review Meeting as well as from the 1996 Pittsburgh Coal Conference, and the University of Karlsruhe Symposium. The technical approach to completing this work consists of: (1) Determination of the status of hot gas cleanup technologies-- particulate collection systems, hot gas desulfurization systems, and trace contaminant removal systems; (2) Determination of hot gas cleanup systems cost and performance sensitivities. Analysis of conceptual IGCC and PFBC plant designs with hot gas cleanup have been performed. The impact of variations in hot gas cleanup technologies on cost and performance was evaluated using parametric analysis of the baseline plant designs and performance sensitivity.

  4. Gas phase 129Xe NMR imaging and spectroscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaiser, Lana G.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    5 l l Dynamic NMR microscopy of gas phase Poiseuille flowmetal vapors and noble gases can be used to efficientlypolarize the nuclei ofthe noble-gas atoms. As a result, the

  5. A comparison of the static and dynamic characteristics of straight-bore and convergent tapered-bore honeycomb annular gas seals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dawson, Matthew Peter

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    seals was 3.1 mm and the cell width was 0.79 mm. Static and dynamic measurements are reported with air at three speeds out to 20,200 rpm, three supply pressures out to 17.2 bar, and with exit-to-inlet pressure ratios of 40% and 60%. The results...

  6. Advanced Gasification Mercury/Trace Metal Control with Monolith Traps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael L. Swanson; Grant E. Dunham; Mark A. Musich

    2007-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Three potential additives for controlling mercury emissions from syngas at temperatures ranging from 350 to 500 F (177 to 260 C) were developed. Current efforts are being directed at increasing the effective working temperature for these sorbents and also being able to either eliminate any potential mercury desorption or trying to engineer a trace metal removal system that can utilize the observed desorption process to repeatedly regenerate the same sorbent monolith for extended use. Project results also indicate that one of these same sorbents can also successfully be utilized for arsenic removal. Capture of the hydrogen selenide in the passivated tubing at elevated temperatures has resulted in limited results on the effective control of hydrogen selenide with these current sorbents, although lower-temperature results are promising. Preliminary economic analysis suggests that these Corning monoliths potentially could be more cost-effective than the conventional cold-gas (presulfided activated carbon beds) technology currently being utilized. Recent Hg-loading results might suggest that the annualized costs might be as high as 2.5 times the cost of the conventional technology. However, this annualized cost does not take into account the significantly improved thermal efficiency of any plant utilizing the warm-gas monolith technology currently being developed.

  7. Sensitive Multi-Species Emissions Monitoring: Infrared Laser-Based Detection of Trace-Level Contaminants.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steill, Jeffrey D

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes our development of spectroscopic chemical analysis techniques and spectral modeling for trace-gas measurements of highly-regulated low-concentration species present in flue gas emissions from utility coal boilers such as HCl under conditions of high humidity. Detailed spectral modeling of the spectroscopy of HCl and other important combustion and atmospheric species such as H 2 O, CO 2 , N 2 O, NO 2 , SO 2 , and CH 4 demonstrates that IR-laser spectroscopy is a sensitive multi-component analysis strategy. Experimental measurements from techniques based on IR laser spectroscopy are presented that demonstrate sub-ppm sensitivity levels to these species. Photoacoustic infrared spectroscopy is used to detect and quantify HCl at ppm levels with extremely high signal-to-noise even under conditions of high relative humidity. Additionally, cavity ring-down IR spectroscopy is used to achieve an extremely high sensitivity to combustion trace gases in this spectral region; ppm level CH 4 is one demonstrated example. The importance of spectral resolution in the sensitivity of a trace-gas measurement is examined by spectral modeling in the mid- and near-IR, and efforts to improve measurement resolution through novel instrument development are described. While previous project reports focused on benefits and complexities of the dual-etalon cavity ring-down infrared spectrometer, here details on steps taken to implement this unique and potentially revolutionary instrument are described. This report also illustrates and critiques the general strategy of IR- laser photodetection of trace gases leading to the conclusion that mid-IR laser spectroscopy techniques provide a promising basis for further instrument development and implementation that will enable cost-effective sensitive detection of multiple key contaminant species simultaneously.

  8. Modeling of Oceanic Gas Hydrate Instability and Methane Release in Response to Climate Change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reagan, Matthew T.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Potential effects of gas hydrate on human welfare. Proc.W.S. A review of methane and gas hydrates in the dynamic,Geology of Natural Gas Hydrates, M. Max, A.H. Johnson, W.P.

  9. Basin scale assessment of gas hydrate dissociation in response to climate change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reagan, M.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Moridis GJ. Oceanic gas hydrate instability and dissociationKA. Potential effects of gas hydrate on human welfare, Proc.WS. A review of methane and gas hydrates in the dynamic,

  10. Trace metals in sediments of coastal Siberia 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Esnough, Teresa Elizabeth

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    For the work described in this thesis, a total of 218 samples from 104 cores from the East Siberian, Laptev, Kara, and Pechora Seas and the Ob and Yenisei Rivers were analyzed for the trace metals Ag, As, Ba, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Ni, Pb, Sb, and Zn...

  11. Trace elements and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Trace elements and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in snow and ice sampled at Colle designed, built and tested. Melt water from inner part of ice core section was pumped to an ICP-SFMS and ICP-OES. Melt water from outer section was on-line extracted by solid-phase cartridges for semi

  12. Background Concentrations of Trace Metals in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ma, Lena

    of Florida State University System of Florida FLORIDA CENTER FOR SOLID AND HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT 2207 NW for evaluating land application of non-hazardous waste materials and monitoring the mobility of trace metals from 8,000 archived samples. l To validate the sampling protocol used by the Florida Cooperative Soil

  13. Trace metals in sediments of coastal Siberia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Esnough, Teresa Elizabeth

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    For the work described in this thesis, a total of 218 samples from 104 cores from the East Siberian, Laptev, Kara, and Pechora Seas and the Ob and Yenisei Rivers were analyzed for the trace metals Ag, As, Ba, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Ni, Pb, Sb, and Zn...

  14. Prediction of rainwater acidity using trace element concentrations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vong, R.J.; Peterson, R.E. (Univ. of Washington, Seattle (USA))

    1988-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    It is of interest to be able to estimate the contribution of an anthropogenic emission source to downwind rainwater chemistry. The authors here consider the closure of a large copper smelter which operated in a region where background and other emission sources should contribute smaller amounts of atmospheric sulfur than the smelter. An additional simplification existed in that meteorology associated with rain was relatively well known and consistent. A field experiment was conducted in the winters of 1985 and 1986 to collect rainwater at sites upwind and downwind of the Tacoma, Washington smelter. The smelters SO{sub 2} emissions, their conversion to SO{sub 4}= via three oxidants (O{sub 3}, H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, and O{sub 2} - Fe catalyzed reactions), diffusion, transport, and aerosol/gas scavenging previously have been estimated while adjusting model parameters until the predictions fit the rainwater data. To take advantage of the unique experimental design afforded by the closure of the smelter, statistical analysis was performed on NO{sub 3}-, SO{sub 4}(xs)= (excess of seasalt), and pH data; analysis of variance (ANOVA) confirmed that the smelter had a significant (p < .01) influence on rainwater pH and SO{sub 4}(xs). The analysis presented here extends the ANOVA by applying a multivariate regression technique to new data for trace element concentrations for the same rain samples. To predict rainwater acidity, they derive fingerprints from trace element data, identify a source or process related to that fingerprint, and compare the predicted contributions for pre- and post- closure samples.

  15. Are the TRACE-P measurements representative of the western Pacific during March 2001?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    TRACE-P measurements representative of the western PacificTHE TRACE- P MEASUREMENTS REPRESENTATIVE? Pierce, R. B. , etTRACE-P measurements representative of the western Pacific

  16. 12.479 Trace-Element Geochemistry, Fall 2006

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Frey, Frederick August

    Focuses on element distribution in rocks and minerals using data obtained from natural and experimental systems. Emphasizes models describing trace-element partitioning and applications of trace-element geochemistry to ...

  17. 12.479 Trace-Element Geochemistry, Spring 2009

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Frey, Frederick

    The emphasis of this course is to use Trace Element Geochemistry to understand the origin and evolution of igneous rocks. The approach is to discuss the parameters that control partitioning of trace elements between phases ...

  18. A graphics architecture for ray tracing and photon mapping 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ling, Junyi

    2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and spatial locality, as well as eliminating unnecessary random memory accesses. A high level abstraction of the combined ray tracing and photon mapping streaming pipeline is introduced. Based on this abstraction, an e?cient ray tracing and photon...

  19. Steam Tracing...New Technologies for the 21st Century

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pitzer, R. K.; Barth, R. E.; Bonorden, C.

    For decades, steam tracing has been an accepted practice in the heating of piping, vessels, and equipment. This paper presents recent product innovations such as "burn-safe" and "energy efficient" steam tracing products. For the many applications...

  20. Ambient methods and apparatus for rapid laser trace constituent analysis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Snyder, Stuart C. (Idaho Falls, ID); Partin, Judy K. (Idaho Falls, ID); Grandy, Jon D. (Idaho Falls, ID); Jeffery, Charles L. (Blackfoot, ID)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for measuring trace amounts of constituents in samples by using laser induced breakdown spectroscopy and laser induced fluorescence under ambient conditions. The laser induced fluorescence is performed at a selected wavelength corresponding to an absorption state of a selected trace constituent. The intensity value of the emission decay signal which is generated by the trace constituent is compared to calibrated emission intensity decay values to determine the amount of trace constituent present.

  1. A dense gas survey of the gamma-ray sources HESS J1731-347 and HESS J1729-345

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maxted, Nigel; de Wilt, Phoebe; Burton, Michael; Renaud, Matthieu; Fukui, Yasuo; Hawkes, Jarryd; Blackwell, Rebecca; Voisin, Fabien; Lowe, Vicki; Aharonian, Felix

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The results of Mopra molecular spectral line observations towards the supernova remnant HESSJ1731-347 (G353.6-0.7) and the unidentified gamma-ray source HESSJ1729-345 are presented. Dense molecular gas in three different velocity-bands (corresponding to three Galactic arms) are investigated using the CS(1-0) line. The CS-traced component provides information about the dense target material in a hadronic scenario for gamma-ray production (cosmic rays interacting with gas) and an understanding of the dynamics. Furthermore, the effects of cosmic ray diffusion into dense gas may alter the gamma-ray spectrum to cause a flattening of spectra towards such regions. Dense molecular gas mass at a level of ~10^5 Mo was revealed in this survey, with mass of the order of ~10^3 Mo towards HESSJ1729-345 in each coincident Galactic arm, but no significant detection of dense molecular gas towards HESSJ1731-347 at the currently-preferred distance of ~5.2-6.2 kpc was discovered.

  2. Methods developed for detecting hazardous elements in produced gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chao, S.; Attari, A. (Inst. of Gas Technology, Des Plaines, IL (United States))

    1995-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

    The Institute of Gas Technology, Des Plaines, Ill. has been developing sampling and analytical methods to detect in natural gas various trace constituents that may pose health, safety, or operational risks. The constituents of interest include paraffinic and aromatic hydrocarbons, H[sub 2]S, organic sulfur compounds, arsenic, mercury, radon, and others. Better sampling and analytical techniques for produced natural gas, similar to those developed by IGT for processed gas, will enhance producers and processors' abilities to monitor undesirable constituents in raw gas streams and improve their clean-up processes. The methods developed at IGT were modifications of air sampling and analytical methods that are commonly used for air toxic substances. These monitoring methods, when applied to natural gas, present special challenges because gas has a much more complex matrix than the air. Methods for the analysis of the following are discussed: arsenic, mercury, radon, sulfur compounds, hydrocarbons, and aromatics including BTEX and PAHs.

  3. Long term performance of boilers using landfill gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gulledge, J.; Cosulich, J.; Ahmed, S.L.

    1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The US EPA estimates that approximately 600 to 700 landfills produce sufficient gas for profitable energy production in the United States. The gas from these landfills could provide enough electricity for about 3 million homes. Yet, there are only about 120 operating landfill gas to energy facilities. A lack of information on successful projects may cause part of this shortfall. This paper provides information on 4 successful projects using landfill gas fired boilers, some of which have operated over a decade. Natural gas fired boilers can be easily converted to bum landfill gas. Several modifications to Districts` boilers, described in this paper, have resulted in many years of safe and corrosion free operation. Most of the modifications are minor. Conversion can be accomplished for under $100,000 in many cases. Information on the reliability and longevity of landfill gas supplies is also provided. Gas from a given landfill is generally available over 99.5% of the time with about 5 brief flow interruptions annually. Actual data from 3 landfills document the high availability of landfill gas. To show the longevity of landfill gas flows, data from the Palos Verdes Landfill are provided. The Palos Verdes Landfill closed in 1980. The Palos Verdes. Landfill Gas to Energy Facility is currently producing over 8 megawatts. Landfill gas pretreatment is not required for boilers. In cases where the landfill gas is being piped offsite, it is usually cost effective to dehydrate the landfill gas. Landfill gas bums cleaner than natural gas. NO{sub x} emissions from landfill gas fired boilers are lower because of the carbon dioxide in the landfill gas. Trace organic destruction efficiency is usually over 99% in landfill gas fired boilers. In addition, flare emissions are eliminated when landfill gas is used to displace fossil fuels in boilers.

  4. Greenhouse Gas Basics

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Greenhouse gases are trace gases in the lower atmosphere that trap heat through a natural process called the "greenhouse effect."

  5. Trace anomaly of the conformal gauge field

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sladkowski, J

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The proposed by Bastianelli and van Nieuwenhuizen new method of calculations of trace anomalies is applied in the conformal gauge field case. The result is then reproduced by the heat equation method. An error in previous calculation is corrected. It is pointed out that the introducing gauge symmetries into a given system by a field-enlarging transformation can result in unexpected quantum effects even for trivial configurations.

  6. Agegraphic Chaplygin gas model of dark energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ahmad Sheykhi

    2010-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

    We establish a connection between the agegraphic models of dark energy and Chaplygin gas energy density in non-flat universe. We reconstruct the potential of the agegraphic scalar field as well as the dynamics of the scalar field according to the evolution of the agegraphic dark energy. We also extend our study to the interacting agegraphic generalized Chaplygin gas dark energy model.

  7. HELSINKI UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY ENE-47.153 Trace elements and alkaliTrace elements and alkali

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zevenhoven, Ron

    elements in fossil - and waste-derived fuelsTrace elements in fossil - and waste-derived fuels Coal Peat Heavy fuel oil Pet coke MSW RDF Wood Waste wood Waste paper Scrap tyres Sew. sludge Hg 0.02-3 ~0.07 .153 Behaviour of trace elements in coalBehaviour of trace elements in coal combustion flue gasescombustion flue

  8. Trace element distribution and mercury speciation in a pilot-scale coal combustor burning Blacksville coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hargis, R.A.; Pennline, H.W. [Dept. of Energy, Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Federal Energy Technical Center

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A series of tests have been conducted on a nominal 500-pound-per-hour, pilot-scale combustion unit to characterize trace element emissions and mercury speciation. The coal fired during the testing was a Blacksville {number_sign}2, medium-sulfur coal, similar to that used by other researchers investigating mercury speciation. A description of the pilot unit operating conditions during the testing is provided. A summary of the gas/solid distribution of trace elements at various locations within the system, material balances, and baghouse removal efficiencies is also supplied. EPA Method 29 was used to determine trace element and speciated mercury concentrations before and after the baghouse. A comparison of these results with past trace element results from this unit and with the findings of other researchers who have used Blacksville coal is also presented. The pilot-scale combustion unit has been characterized in terms of trace element distribution during two tests while burning a medium-sulfur bituminous Blacksville coal. EPA sampling methodology at the inlet to the baghouse and at the stack was used. Results indicate that most of the elements are removed across the baghouse with the exception of mercury and selenium. Both of these elements were found predominantly in the vapor phase. The average mercury speciation revealed that the vapor-phase mercury was primarily in the oxidized form, which is consistent with the findings of other research with Blacksville coal. Material recoveries for most of the elements were very good. The average recovery for mercury further validates that this pilot unit will be a viable system for mercury sampling and control methods.

  9. Trace Analytical Techniques for Nuclear Forensics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Halverson, J.E.

    1999-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Over the history of the Savannah River Site, the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) has developed high sensitivity analytical capabilities in support of the Site's Environmental Monitoring Program and nuclear material protection process. Many of these techniques are applicable to the developing need for nuclear forensic analysis capabilities. Radiological and critically control procedures are in place at the SRTC, as well as clean room practices, to minimize the potential for a radiological evidentiary sample to contaminate personnel and the facility, as well as to minimize contaminating the sample thus rendering it useless by law enforcement agencies. Some of the trace analytical techniques available at the SRTC include ultra-low-level gamma and alpha spectrometry, high-sensitivity thermal ionization mass spectrometry, time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry and trace organic analyses. These techniques have been tested during a planned domestic smuggling exercise and in the analysis of an unknown sample.In the event of an interdiction involving the illegal use or movement of radioactive material by U.S. law enforcement agencies (local, state or federal) forensic analyses will be used in developing and building a legal case against the perpetrators. The Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) at the U.S. Department of Energy's Savannah River Site, a former nuclear production site currently conducting nuclear material stabilization missions, located in Aiken South Carolina, has a long history of performing trace analytical analyses for environmental monitoring. Many of these techniques are also applicable to nuclear forensic analyses. A summary of the trace analytical techniques used at the SRTC, which are applicable to Nuclear Forensics, is presented in this paper.Contamination control, of facilities and personnel involved in the analytical analyses, as well as preventing contamination of the sample, is a unique challenge for nuclear forensic analyses. A discussion of sample handling and contamination control procedures is included in this paper. Some of the applicable analytical techniques available at the SRTC for nuclear forensic analyses include: ultra-low-level gamma and alpha spectroscopy, high-sensitivity thermal-ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS), time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS), and trace organic analyses. Results from analyses of special nuclear material (SNM) standards, materials from nuclear smuggling exercises, and materials of unknown origin will be presented.

  10. ScalaTrace: Tracing, Analysis and Modeling of HPC Codes at Scale

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mueller, F; Wu, X; Schulz, M; de Supinski, B; Gamblin, T

    2010-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Characterizing the communication behavior of large-scale applications is a difficult and costly task due to code/system complexity and their long execution times. An alternative to running actual codes is to gather their communication traces and then replay them, which facilitates application tuning and future procurements. While past approaches lacked lossless scalable trace collection, we contribute an approach that provides orders of magnitude smaller, if not near constant-size, communication traces regardless of the number of nodes while preserving structural information. We introduce intra- and inter-node compression techniques of MPI events, we develop a scheme to preserve time and causality of communication events, and we present results of our implementation for BlueGene/L. Given this novel capability, we discuss its impact on communication tuning and on trace extrapolation. To the best of our knowledge, such a concise representation of MPI traces in a scalable manner combined with time-preserving deterministic MPI call replay are without any precedence.

  11. Trace water vapor determination in nitrogen and corrosive gases using infrared spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Espinoza, L.H.; Niemczyk, T.M. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Stallard, B.R.; Garcia, M.J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The generation of particles in gas handling systems as a result of corrosion is a major concern in the microelectronics industry. The corrosion can be caused by the presence of trace quantities of water in corrosive gases such as HCl or HBr. FTIR spectroscopy has been shown to be a method that can be made compatible with corrosive gases and is capable of detecting low ppb levels of water vapor. In this report, the application of FTIR spectroscopy combined with classical least squares multivariate calibration to detect trace H{sub 2}O in N{sub 2}, HCl and HBr is discussed. Chapter 2 discusses the gas handling system and instrumentation required to handle corrosive gases. A method of generating a background spectrum useful to the measurements discussed in this report, as well as in other application areas such as gas phase environmental monitoring, is discussed in Chapter 3. Experimental results obtained with the first system are presented in Chapter 4. Those results made it possible to optimize the design options for the construction of a dedicate system for low ppb water vapor determination. These designs options are discussed in Chapter 5. An FTIR prototype accessory was built. In addition, a commercially available evacuable FTIR system was obtained for evaluation. Test results obtained with both systems are discussed in Chapter 6. Experiments dealing with the interaction between H{sub 2}O-HCl and potential improvements to the detection system are discussed in Chapter 7.

  12. TCgen 2.0: A Tool to Automatically Generate Lossless Trace Compressors Martin Burtscher

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burtscher, Martin

    TCgen 2.0: A Tool to Automatically Generate Lossless Trace Compressors Martin Burtscher Computer of TCgen, a tool for generating portable lossless trace compressors based on user-provided trace format for translating user-provided trace descriptions into fast and effective trace compressors. A typical trace

  13. 1. Introduction to the relative trace formula Give an idea of the relative trace formula along any of the sources [CPS90,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ould Ahmedou, Mohameden

    1. Introduction to the relative trace formula Give an idea of the relative trace formula along any (91h:11042) [Jac05] Herv´e Jacquet, A guide to the relative trace formula, Automorphic representations2192826 (2006g:11100) [Lap10] Erez M. Lapid, Some applications of the trace formula and the relative trace

  14. Gas sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schmid, Andreas K.; Mascaraque, Arantzazu; Santos, Benito; de la Figuera, Juan

    2014-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A gas sensor is described which incorporates a sensor stack comprising a first film layer of a ferromagnetic material, a spacer layer, and a second film layer of the ferromagnetic material. The first film layer is fabricated so that it exhibits a dependence of its magnetic anisotropy direction on the presence of a gas, That is, the orientation of the easy axis of magnetization will flip from out-of-plane to in-plane when the gas to be detected is present in sufficient concentration. By monitoring the change in resistance of the sensor stack when the orientation of the first layer's magnetization changes, and correlating that change with temperature one can determine both the identity and relative concentration of the detected gas. In one embodiment the stack sensor comprises a top ferromagnetic layer two mono layers thick of cobalt deposited upon a spacer layer of ruthenium, which in turn has a second layer of cobalt disposed on its other side, this second cobalt layer in contact with a programmable heater chip.

  15. Benchmarking stepwise ray-tracing in rings in presence of radiation damping

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meot, F.

    2011-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

    A number of machine design studies, including 'nanobeams', sub-millimeter 'beta*' optics, SR rings, etc., require high accuracy on beam orbit and beam size, reliable evaluation of machine parameters, dynamic apertures, etc. This can only be achieved using high precision simulation tools. Stepwise ray-tracing methods belong in this category of tools, stochastic synchrotron radiation and its effects on an electron beam in a storage ring are simulated here in that manner. Benchmarking of the method against analytical model expectations, using a Chasman-Green cell, is presented. Ray-tracing reproduces very accurately beam parameters associated with synchrotron radiation damping. That makes the method a relevant tool in design studies regarding nanobeams, resonance factories and other e-p collider projects.

  16. NATURAL GAS MARKET ASSESSMENT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION NATURAL GAS MARKET ASSESSMENT PRELIMINARY RESULTS In Support.................................................................................... 6 Chapter 2: Natural Gas Demand.................................................................................................. 10 Chapter 3: Natural Gas Supply

  17. Trace Element Geochemical Zoning in the Roosevelt Hot Springs...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Capuano. 1980. Trace Element Geochemical Zoning in the Roosevelt Hot Springs Thermal Area, Utah. In: Transactions. GRC Annual Meeting; 09091980; Salt Lake City, UT. Salt...

  18. Tracing And Quantifying Magmatic Carbon Discharge In Cold Groundwaters...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Tracing And Quantifying Magmatic Carbon Discharge In Cold Groundwaters- Lessons Learned From Mammoth Mountain, USA Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to...

  19. Monitoring Trace Radionuclides by ICP Mass Spectrometry with...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    extensive monitoring programs for trace radionuclides relevant to the observation of illicit nuclear activities. FUNDING SOURCE: United States Department of Energy NA22 FOR MORE...

  20. The Effects of Trace Contaminants on Catalytic Processing of...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Processing of Biomass-Derived Feedstocks . Abstract: Trace components in biomass feedstocks are potential catalyst poisons when catalytically processing these materials to...

  1. Georgia Tech Dangerous Gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sherrill, David

    1 Georgia Tech Dangerous Gas Safety Program March 2011 #12;Georgia Tech Dangerous Gas Safety.......................................................................................................... 5 6. DANGEROUS GAS USAGE REQUIREMENTS................................................. 7 6.1. RESTRICTED PURCHASE/ACQUISITION RULES: ................................................ 7 7. FLAMMABLE GAS

  2. Isotopic abundance in atom trap trace analysis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lu, Zheng-Tian; Hu, Shiu-Ming; Jiang, Wei; Mueller, Peter

    2014-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and system for detecting ratios and amounts of isotopes of noble gases. The method and system is constructed to be able to measure noble gas isotopes in water and ice, which helps reveal the geological age of the samples and understand their movements. The method and system uses a combination of a cooled discharge source, a beam collimator, a beam slower and magneto-optic trap with a laser to apply resonance frequency energy to the noble gas to be quenched and detected.

  3. A field study on the trace metal behavior in atmospheric circulating fluidized-bed coal combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lind, T.; Kauppinen, E.I.; Jokiniemi, J.K.; Maenhaut, W.

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Trace element behavior in atmospheric circulating fluidized-bed combustion (CFBC) of Venezuelan bituminous coal was studied by determining particle size distributions in the CFBC flue gas. The size distributions of calcium, iron, aluminium, and 21 trace elements, Sc, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Zn, Ga, As, Se, Sr, Cd, Sb, Cs, Ba, La, Ce, Sm, Lu, Pb, and Th, in the size range 0.01--70{micro}m, were determined by collecting aerosols with a low-pressure impactor-cyclone sampling train from the flue gases of an 80-MW(th) CFBC boiler upstream of the electrostatic precipitator. The collected samples were analyzed gravimetrically and with instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA), particle-induced X-ray emission analysis (PIXE), and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The number size distributions of the aerosols were determined with a differential electrical mobility method in the size range 0.01--0.8 {micro}m. In the ultrafine particle mode, i.e., D{sub p} < 0.1 {micro}m, the CFBC number concentrations varied strongly during the experiments, being one to two orders of magnitude lower than those observed in pulverized coal combustion. For all of the elements studied, 75% or more were found in particles larger than 5{micro}m. None of the studied elements showed significant vaporization and subsequent chemical surface reaction or condensation in the CFBC. The Sr, Se, V, Zn, Ga, Cs, Ba, La, Sm, Lu, and Th size distributions resembled those of aluminium, suggesting their occurrence in aluminosilicate-rich particles in the fly ash. The association of the trace elements with aluminium in the fly ash particles may result from reactions of the trace elements with the aluminosilicate mineral particles inside the burning coal particles, or their initial occurrence in association with these minerals.

  4. The biogeochemistry of marine particulate trace metals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ohnemus, Daniel Chester

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Marine particles include all living and non-living solid components of seawater, representing an extremely dynamic and chemically diverse mixture of phases. The distributions of these phases are poorly constrained and ...

  5. Can the trace formula describe weak localisation?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robert S. Whitney; Igor V. Lerner; Robert A. Smith

    1999-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

    We attempt to systematically derive perturbative quantum corrections to the Berry diagonal approximation of the two-level correlation function (TLCF) for chaotic systems. To this end, we develop a ``weak diagonal approximation'' based on a recent description of the first weak localisation correction to conductance in terms of the Gutzwiller trace formula. This semiclassical method is tested by using it to derive the weak localisation corrections to the TLCF for a semiclassically disordered system. Unfortunately the method is unable to correctly reproduce the ``Hikami boxes'' (the relatively small regions where classical paths are glued together by quantum processes). This results in the method failing to reproduce the well known weak localisation expansion. It so happens that for the first order correction it merely produces the wrong prefactor. However for the second order correction, it is unable to reproduce certain contributions, and leads to a result which is of a different form to the standard one.

  6. Fixed Space of Positive Trace-Preserving Super-Operators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ansis Rosmanis

    2011-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We examine the fixed space of positive trace-preserving super-operators. We describe a specific structure that this space must have and what the projection onto it must look like. We show how these results, in turn, lead to an alternative proof of the complete characterization of the fixed space of completely positive trace-preserving super-operators.

  7. Accuracy of Memory Reference Traces of Parallel Computations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Holliday, Mark A.

    , the trace-driven simulator uses the intrinsic traces and the sequence of loads and stores before the current cy- cle, to determine the next address. The mapping between load and store sequences and next addresses to issue, sometimes, requires partial program reexecution. Programs that do not require partial

  8. Initial conditions for paraxial ray tracing in inhomogeneous anisotropic media

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cerveny, Vlastislav

    , theoretical seismology, seismic anisotropy, wave propagation 1 Introduction By standard kinematic ray tracing and in numerical modelling and interpretation of high-frequency seismic wave #12;elds propagating in inhomogeneous to such important quantities as geometrical spreading and ray amplitudes. The limitations of kinematic ray tracing

  9. Nitrogen gas emissions from stormwater retention basins during wet weather events in the Phoenix Metropolitan area: an additional ecosystem service?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hall, Sharon J.

    . We pretreated the basin with a heavy N isotope (15N in NO3 ­ ) to trace the fate of the N added from any process by basin design. Data calculated from gas fluxes in chambers after water, but potentially producing considerable amounts of N2O, a greenhouse gas Incoming data will allow complete

  10. Annual Report 1998: Chemical Structure and Dynamics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    SD Colson; RS McDowell

    1999-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The Chemical Structure and Dynamics (CS&D) program is a major component of the William R. Wiley Environmental Molecular Sciences Labo- ratory (EMSL), developed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to provide a state-of- the-art collaborative facility for studies of chemical structure and dynamics. We respond to the need for a fundamental, molecular-level understanding of chemistry at a wide variety of environmentally important interfaces by (1) extending the experimental characterization and theoretical description of chemical reactions to encompass the effects of condensed media and interfaces; (2) developing a multidisciplinary capability for describing interracial chemical processes within which the new knowledge generated can be brought to bear on complex phenomena in envi- ronmental chemistry and in nuclear waste proc- essing and storage; and (3) developing state-of- the-art analytical methods for characterizing com- plex materials of the types found in stored wastes and contaminated soils, and for detecting and monitoring trace atmospheric species. Our program aims at achieving a quantitative understanding of chemical reactions at interfaces and, more generally, in condensed media, compa- rable to that currently available for gas-phase reactions. This understanding will form the basis for the development of a priori theories for pre- dicting macroscopic chemical behavior in con- densed and heterogeneous media, which will add significantly to the value of field-scale envi- ronmental models, predictions of short- and long- term nuclear waste storage stabilities, and other areas related to the primary missions of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE).

  11. Fuel gas conditioning process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lokhandwala, Kaaeid A. (Union City, CA)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for conditioning natural gas containing C.sub.3+ hydrocarbons and/or acid gas, so that it can be used as combustion fuel to run gas-powered equipment, including compressors, in the gas field or the gas processing plant. Compared with prior art processes, the invention creates lesser quantities of low-pressure gas per unit volume of fuel gas produced. Optionally, the process can also produce an NGL product.

  12. Gas hydrate research in the Gulf of Mexico: Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bennet, R.

    1988-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The high energy seismic sections on the continental slope showed no evidence of a Bottom Simulating Reflector (BSR), which would indicate the presence of gas hydrates. There was no indication of metastable hydrates in continental shelf or slope sediments outside of the conventionally accepted temperature and pressure environment. Tracing the path of migrating gas from the source is much more straight forward than intercepting gas being transported and tracing it back to the source. Our study of low and medium energy seismic methods has shown that they could identify migrating gas. We feel strongly that there are hydrate zones in the Gulf of Mexico that are decomposing; they build up pressure and periodically release the trapped hydrocarbon gases. The released gases migrate vertically and/or laterally to mix with other types of gas or to form discrete pockets. Some of this gas may be emitted from underwater seeps into the overlying water column where it could be identified by a geochemical survey. The ratio of isobutane to normal butane determined by the geochemical survey can be used to assess the probability of the hydrocarbons emanating from a hydrate source. (The more the ratio exceeds 1.0 the greater the probability that the gas could be from a hydrate source.) As no indications of a hydrate zone (e.g., a BSR) were located, we were not able to establish a geophysical signature for gas hydrates; but the records indicate there are large volumes of gas migrating up the continental slope, some of which may have originated from a decomposing hydrate zone or from gas trapped below the hydrate cap. 20 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.

  13. BUBBLE DYNAMICS AT GAS-EVOLVING ELECTRODES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sides, Paul J.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    magnification and high speed cinematography are required toMicroscopy and high speed cinematography are required toneed for high speed cinematography. 8. #060280-3, 25% KOH,

  14. on Rarefied Gas Dynamics, Cannes, France,

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron4 Self-Scrubbing:,, ,Development of NovelHigh Capacity Oligomers at the

  15. Dynamic Modelling and Control Design of Pre-combustion Power

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Foss, Bjarne A.

    - pressors, gas and steam turbines and a heat recovery system. Analysis of dynamic models at an early stage principles. The pre- combustion gas power cycle plants consist of reformers and separation units, com

  16. MOLECULAR SPECTROSCPY AND REACTIONS OF ACTINIDES IN THE GAS PHASE AND CRYOGENIC MATRICES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heaven, Michael C.; Gibson, John K.; Marcalo, Joaquim

    2009-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this chapter we review the spectroscopic data for actinide molecules and the reaction dynamics for atomic and molecular actinides that have been examined in the gas phase or in inert cryogenic matrices. The motivation for this type of investigation is that physical properties and reactions can be studied in the absence of external perturbations (gas phase) or under minimally perturbing conditions (cryogenic matrices). This information can be compared directly with the results from high-level theoretical models. The interplay between experiment and theory is critically important for advancing our understanding of actinide chemistry. For example, elucidation of the role of the 5f electrons in bonding and reactivity can only be achieved through the application of experimentally verified theoretical models. Theoretical calculations for the actinides are challenging due the large numbers of electrons that must be treated explicitly and the presence of strong relativistic effects. This topic has been reviewed in depth in Chapter 17 of this series. One of the goals of the experimental work described in this chapter has been to provide benchmark data that can be used to evaluate both empirical and ab initio theoretical models. While gas-phase data are the most suitable for comparison with theoretical calculations, there are technical difficulties entailed in generating workable densities of gas-phase actinide molecules that have limited the range of species that have been characterized. Many of the compounds of interest are refractory, and problems associated with the use of high temperature vapors have complicated measurements of spectra, ionization energies, and reactions. One approach that has proved to be especially valuable in overcoming this difficulty has been the use of pulsed laser ablation to generate plumes of vapor from refractory actinide-containing materials. The vapor is entrained in an inert gas, which can be used to cool the actinide species to room temperature or below. For many spectroscopic measurements, low temperatures have been achieved by co-condensing the actinide vapor in rare gas or inert molecule host matrices. Spectra recorded in matrices are usually considered to be minimally perturbed. Trapping the products from gas-phase reactions that occur when trace quantities of reactants are added to the inert host gas has resulted in the discovery of many new actinide species. Selected aspects of the matrix isolation data were discussed in chapter 17. In the present chapter we review the spectroscopic matrix data in terms of its relationship to gas-phase measurements, and update the description of the new reaction products found in matrices to reflect the developments that have occurred during the past two years. Spectra recorded in matrix environments are usually considered to be minimally perturbed, and this expectation is borne out for many closed shell actinide molecules. However, there is growing evidence that significant perturbations can occur for open shell molecules, resulting in geometric distortions and/or electronic state reordering. Studies of actinide reactions in the gas phase provide an opportunity to probe the relationship between electronic structure and reactivity. Much of this work has focused on the reactions of ionic species, as these may be selected and controlled using various forms of mass spectrometry. As an example of the type of insight derived from reaction studies, it has been established that the reaction barriers for An+ ions are determined by the promotion energies required to achieve the 5fn6d7s configuration. Gas-phase reaction studies also provide fundamental thermodynamic properties such as bond dissociation and ionization energies. In recent years, an increased number of gas-phase ion chemistry studies of bare (atomic) and ligated (molecular) actinide ions have appeared, in which relevant contributions to fundamental actinide chemistry have been made. These studies were initiated in the 1970's and carried out in an uninterrupted way over the course of the past three d

  17. Molecular Gas in Galaxies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    F. Combes

    2000-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Knowledge of the molecular component of the ISM is fundamental to understand star formation. The H2 component appears to dominate the gas mass in the inner parts of galaxies, while the HI component dominates in the outer parts. Observation of the CO and other lines in normal and starburst galaxies have questioned the CO-to-H2 conversion factor, and detection of CO in dwarfs have shown how sensitive the conversion f actor is to metallicity. Our knowledge has made great progress in recent years, because of sensitivity and spatial resolution improvements. Large-scale CO maps of nearby galaxies are now available, which extend our knowledge on global properties, radial gradients, and spiral structure of the molecular ISM. Millimetric interferometers reveal high velocity gradients in galaxy nuclei, and formation of embedded structures, like bars within bars. Galaxy interactions are very effective to enhance gas concentrations and trigger starbursts. Nuclear disks or rings are frequently observed, that concentrate the star formation activity. Since the density of starbursting galaxies is strongly increasing with redshift, the CO lines and the mm dust emission are a privileged tool to follow evolution of galaxies and observe the ISM dynamics at high redshift: they could give an answer about the debated question of the star-formation history, since many massive remote starbursts could be dust-enshrouded.

  18. Simulation of radiation damping in rings, using stepwise ray-tracing methods

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Meot, F.

    2015-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The ray-tracing code Zgoubi computes particle trajectories in arbitrary magnetic and/or electric field maps or analytical field models. It includes a built-in fitting procedure, spin tracking many Monte Carlo processes. The accuracy of the integration method makes it an efficient tool for multi-turn tracking in periodic machines. Energy loss by synchrotron radiation, based on Monte Carlo techniques, had been introduced in Zgoubi in the early 2000s for studies regarding the linear collider beam delivery system. However, only recently has this Monte Carlo tool been used for systematic beam dynamics and spin diffusion studies in rings, including eRHIC electron-ion collider projectmore »at the Brookhaven National Laboratory. Some beam dynamics aspects of this recent use of Zgoubi capabilities, including considerations of accuracy as well as further benchmarking in the presence of synchrotron radiation in rings, are reported here.« less

  19. Trace Assessment for BWR ATWS Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheng, L.Y.; Diamond, D.; Arantxa Cuadra, Gilad Raitses, Arnold Aronson

    2010-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

    A TRACE/PARCS input model has been developed in order to be able to analyze anticipated transients without scram (ATWS) in a boiling water reactor. The model is based on one developed previously for the Browns Ferry reactor for doing loss-of-coolant accident analysis. This model was updated by adding the control systems needed for ATWS and a core model using PARCS. The control systems were based on models previously developed for the TRAC-B code. The PARCS model is based on information (e.g., exposure and moderator density (void) history distributions) obtained from General Electric Hitachi and cross sections for GE14 fuel obtained from an independent source. The model is able to calculate an ATWS, initiated by the closure of main steam isolation valves, with recirculation pump trip, water level control, injection of borated water from the standby liquid control system and actuation of the automatic depres-surization system. The model is not considered complete and recommendations are made on how it should be improved.

  20. Transitional regimes of natural convection in a differentially heated cubical cavity under the effects of wall and molecular gas radiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Soucasse, L.; Rivière, Ph.; Soufiani, A., E-mail: anouar.soufiani@ecp.fr [CNRS, UPR 288, Laboratoire EM2C, 92290 Châtenay-Malabry (France); École Centrale Paris, 92290 Châtenay-Malabry (France)] [France; Xin, S. [CNRS/INSA-Lyon, UMR 5008, CETHIL, 69621 Villeurbanne (France)] [CNRS/INSA-Lyon, UMR 5008, CETHIL, 69621 Villeurbanne (France); Le Quéré, P. [CNRS, UPR 3251, LIMSI, 91403 Orsay Cedex (France)] [CNRS, UPR 3251, LIMSI, 91403 Orsay Cedex (France)

    2014-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The transition to unsteadiness and the dynamics of weakly turbulent natural convection, coupled to wall or gas radiation in a differentially heated cubical cavity with adiabatic lateral walls, are studied numerically. The working fluid is air with small contents of water vapor and carbon dioxide whose infrared spectral radiative properties are modelled by the absorption distribution function model. A pseudo spectral Chebyshev collocation method is used to solve the flow field equations and is coupled to a direct ray tracing method for radiation transport. Flow structures are identified by means of either the proper orthogonal decomposition or the dynamic mode decomposition methods. We first retrieve the classical mechanism of transition to unsteadiness without radiation, characterized by counter-rotating streamwise-oriented vortices generated at the exit of the vertical boundary layers. Wall radiation through a transparent medium leads to a homogenization of lateral wall temperatures and the resulting transition mechanism is similar to that obtained with perfectly conducting lateral walls. The transition is due to an unstable stratification upstream the vertical boundary layers and is characterized by periodically oscillating transverse rolls of axis perpendicular to the main flow. When molecular gas radiation is accounted for, no periodic solution is found and the transition to unsteadiness displays complex structures with chimneys-like rolls whose axes are again parallel to the main flow. The origin of this instability is probably due to centrifugal forces, as suggested previously for the case without radiation. Above the transition to unsteadiness, at Ra = 3 × 10{sup 8}, it is shown that both wall and gas radiation significantly intensify turbulent fluctuations, decrease the thermal stratification in the core of the cavity, and increase the global circulation.

  1. Trace elements in oil shale. Progress report, 1979-1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chappell, W R

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this research program is to understand the potential impact of an oil shale industry on environmental levels of trace contaminants in the region. The program involves a comprehensive study of the sources, release mechanisms, transport, fate, and effects of toxic trace chemicals, principally the trace elements, in an oil shale industry. The overall objective of the program is to evaluate the environmental and health consequences of the release of toxic trace elements by shale and oil production and use. The baseline geochemical survey shows that stable trace elements maps can be constructed for numerous elements and that the trends observed are related to geologic and climatic factors. Shale retorted by above-ground processes tends to be very homogeneous (both in space and in time) in trace element content. Leachate studies show that significant amounts of B, F, and Mo are released from retorted shales and while B and Mo are rapidly flushed out, F is not. On the other hand, As, Se, and most other trace elements are not present in significant quantities. Significant amounts of F and B are also found in leachates of raw shales. Very large concentrations of reduced sulfur species are found in leachates of processed shale. Very high levels of B and Mo are taken up in some plants growing on processed shale with and without soil cover. There is a tendency for some trace elements to associate with specific organic fractions, indicating that organic chelation or complexation may play an important role. Many of the so-called standard methods for analyzing trace elements in oil shale-related materials are inadequate. A sampling manual is being written for the environmental scientist and practicing engineer. A new combination of methods is developed for separating the minerals in oil shale into different density fractions. Microbial investigations have tentatively identified the existence of thiobacilli in oil shale materials such as leachates. (DC)

  2. Redistribution of trace chemical species by a small convective cloud

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stith, J.L.; Alkezweeny, A.J.; Pleim, J.E.; Ching, J.K.S.

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The paper describes a new experiment with a SF6 tracer to determine the mixing history of a small region of cloud-base air. In situ measurements of the SF6 are made to follow the region and simultaneous measurements of natural trace gases are used to determine the dilution of the tagged region as it is affected by the cloud. After describing the experimental method, the results from an experiment with a small cumulus, which was ideally suited for the experiment, are explained. The goal of the paper is to better understand how convective clouds redistribute trace constituents (e.g. moisture, trace gases) in the vertical.

  3. Algorithms and analysis for underwater vehicle plume tracing.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Byrne, Raymond Harry; Savage, Elizabeth L. (Texas A& M University, College Station, TX); Hurtado, John Edward (Texas A& M University, College Station, TX); Eskridge, Steven E.

    2003-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The goal of this research was to develop and demonstrate cooperative 3-D plume tracing algorithms for miniature autonomous underwater vehicles. Applications for this technology include Lost Asset and Survivor Location Systems (L-SALS) and Ship-in-Port Patrol and Protection (SP3). This research was a joint effort that included Nekton Research, LLC, Sandia National Laboratories, and Texas A&M University. Nekton Research developed the miniature autonomous underwater vehicles while Sandia and Texas A&M developed the 3-D plume tracing algorithms. This report describes the plume tracing algorithm and presents test results from successful underwater testing with pseudo-plume sources.

  4. Gas Storage Act (Illinois)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Any corporation which is engaged in or desires to engage in, the distribution, transportation or storage of natural gas or manufactured gas, which gas, in whole or in part, is intended for ultimate...

  5. Gas Companies Program (Tennessee)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Gas Companies program is a set of rules that encourage the development of the natural gas industry in Tennessee. They empower gas companies to lay piped and extend conductors through the...

  6. Gas Utilities (Maine)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Rules regarding the production, sale, and transfer of manufactured gas will also apply to natural gas. This section regulates natural gas utilities that serve ten or more customers, more than one...

  7. Gas Utilities (New York)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This chapter regulates natural gas utilities in the State of New York, and describes standards and procedures for gas meters and accessories, gas quality, line and main extensions, transmission and...

  8. Future of Natural Gas

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    of Natural Gas Bill Eisele, CEM SC Electric & Gas Co Hosted by: FEDERAL UTILITY PARTNERSHIP WORKING GROUP SEMINAR November 5-6, 2014 Cape Canaveral. Florida Agenda * Gas Facts *...

  9. Industrial Gas Turbines

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A gas turbine is a heat engine that uses high-temperature, high-pressure gas as the working fluid. Part of the heat supplied by the gas is converted directly into mechanical work. High-temperature,...

  10. Supervisory Natural Gas Analyst

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Department of Energys Office of Fossil Energy, Office of Oil and Natural Gas, Office of Oil and Gas Global Security and Supply (FE) is responsible for regulating natural gas imports and exports...

  11. Molecular Dynamics Simulation Studies of Electrolytes and Electrolyte...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    and is lower than the barrier for opening EC cyclic radical. ReaxFF molecular dynamics simulations show similar barriers in gas and condensed phases for these reactions....

  12. Tracing spiral density waves in M81

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. Kendall; R. C. Kennicutt; C. Clarke; M. D. Thornley

    2008-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We use SPITZER IRAC 3.6 and 4.5micron near infrared data from the Spitzer Infrared Nearby Galaxies Survey (SINGS), optical B, V and I and 2MASS Ks band data to produce mass surface density maps of M81. The IRAC 3.6 and 4.5micron data, whilst dominated by emission from old stellar populations, is corrected for small-scale contamination by young stars and PAH emission. The I band data are used to produce a mass surface density map by a B-V colour-correction, following the method of Bell and de Jong. We fit a bulge and exponential disc to each mass map, and subtract these components to reveal the non-axisymmetric mass surface density. From the residual mass maps we are able to extract the amplitude and phase of the density wave, using azimuthal profiles. The response of the gas is observed via dust emission in the 8micron IRAC band, allowing a comparison between the phase of the stellar density wave and gas shock. The relationship between this angular offset and radius suggests that the spiral structure is reasonably long lived and allows the position of corotation to be determined.

  13. Natural Gas Monthly Update

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    other liquids including biofuels and natural gas liquids. Natural Gas Exploration and reserves, storage, imports and exports, production, prices, sales. Electricity Sales, revenue...

  14. Gas Production Tax (Texas)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A tax of 7.5 percent of the market value of natural gas produced in the state of Texas is imposed on every producer of gas.

  15. Historical Natural Gas Annual

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    8 The Historical Natural Gas Annual contains historical information on supply and disposition of natural gas at the national, regional, and State level as well as prices at...

  16. Natural gas dehydration apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wijmans, Johannes G; Ng, Alvin; Mairal, Anurag P

    2006-11-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A process and corresponding apparatus for dehydrating gas, especially natural gas. The process includes an absorption step and a membrane pervaporation step to regenerate the liquid sorbent.

  17. Historical Natural Gas Annual

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    6 The Historical Natural Gas Annual contains historical information on supply and disposition of natural gas at the national, regional, and State level as well as prices at...

  18. Historical Natural Gas Annual

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    7 The Historical Natural Gas Annual contains historical information on supply and disposition of natural gas at the national, regional, and State level as well as prices at...

  19. Sodium storage facility trace heat system design description

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, D.D.

    1997-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

    This document describes the SSF PLC Ladder Logic, Cross references, and the software that was used to control the amount of power applied to the SSF Trace Heated components.

  20. L-?Functions and Trace Formula Workshop Schedule

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2015-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

    L-?Functions and Trace Formula Workshop Schedule. May 11 – May 13, 2015 at Purdue University. Monday, May 11. 9:15 am – 9:30 am: Casselman/Shahidi:.

  1. Inhibition of trace element release during Fe(II)-activatedrecrystall...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    impurities (e.g., Al) which are known to affect the chemical properties of such minerals. Here we explore the effect of Al(III), Cr(III), and Sn(IV) substitution on trace...

  2. TRACES Centre Thermo GFS35 Graphite Furnace Spectrometer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wells, Mathew G. - Department of Physical and Environmental Sciences, University of Toronto

    TRACES Centre Thermo GFS35 Graphite Furnace Spectrometer Standard Operating Procedure 1. Turn. Click on the lamp icon a. ID the lamp of choice and click the `Off' button to `On' b. Non-Thermo lamps

  3. TRACES Centre Thermo iCE 3500 Flame AA Spectrometer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wells, Mathew G. - Department of Physical and Environmental Sciences, University of Toronto

    TRACES Centre Thermo iCE 3500 Flame AA Spectrometer Standard Operating Procedure 1. Turn on the lamp icon a. ID the lamp of choice and click the `Off' button to `On' b. Non-Thermo lamps MUST

  4. Laboratory measurements and modeling of trace atmospheric species

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sheehy, Philip M. (Philip Michael)

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Trace species play a major role in many physical and chemical processes in the atmosphere. Improving our understanding of the impact of each species requires a combination of laboratory exper- imentation, field measurements, ...

  5. Application of Reinforcement Learning to Requirements Engineering: Requirements Tracing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hayes, Jane E.

    of the Software Development Life Cycle (SDLC) can be appreciated by the customers who request and expect delivery the phases of the SDLC, a number of steps can be taken. Requirements tracing ensures that requirements

  6. A Virtuous Cycle: Tracing Democratic Quality through Equality 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ross, Ashley Dyan

    2011-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

    This dissertation asks the question: How do democracies improve in quality? Building on previous scholarship, the author offers a theoretical framework that traces democratic quality through equality of outcomes. The ...

  7. Ichnotaxonomic assessment of Mazon Creek area trace fossils, Illinois, USA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    LoBue, David J.

    2010-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

    The Francis Creek Shale Member (FCSM) of the Mid-Pennsylvanian Carbondale Formation along Mazon Creek in northern Illinois is known for soft-bodied organisms preserved within siderite concretions. Trace fossils, though ...

  8. active trace gases: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH, VOL. 94, NO. D13, PAGES 16,417-16,421,NOVEMBER 20, 1989 Greenhouse Effect of Chlorofluorocarbons and Other Trace Gases Environmental Sciences and Ecology...

  9. Affine braids, Markov traces and the category O Rosa Orellana

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ram, Arun

    , affine BMW algebras, cyclotomic BMW algebras, Markov traces, Jacobi-Trudi type identities, dual pairs [Ze of affine braid groups of type A, (d) We define the affine BMW algebra (Birman-Murakami-Wenzl) and show

  10. Trace determination of lead by helium-4 activation analysis 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vargas Bernal, Maria E.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    TRACE DETERMINATION OF LEAD BY HELIUM-4 ACTIVATION ANALYSIS A Thesis by MARIA E. VARGAS BERNAL Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ARM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August... 1984 Major Subject: Chemistry TRACE DETERMINATION OF LEAD BY HELIUM-4 ACTIVATION ANALYSIS A Thesis by MARIA E. VARGAS BERNAL Approved as to style and format by: Emile A. Schweikert (Chairman of Committee) Marvin W. Rowe (Member) Gerald A. Sc...

  11. Trace determination of lead by helium-4 activation analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vargas Bernal, Maria E.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    TRACE DETERMINATION OF LEAD BY HELIUM-4 ACTIVATION ANALYSIS A Thesis by MARIA E. VARGAS BERNAL Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ARM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August... 1984 Major Subject: Chemistry TRACE DETERMINATION OF LEAD BY HELIUM-4 ACTIVATION ANALYSIS A Thesis by MARIA E. VARGAS BERNAL Approved as to style and format by: Emile A. Schweikert (Chairman of Committee) Marvin W. Rowe (Member) Gerald A. Sc...

  12. The Fidelity and Trace Norm Distances for Quantifying Coherence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lian-He Shao; Zhengjun Xi; Heng Fan; Yongming Li

    2014-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate the coherence measures induced by fidelity and trace norm, based on the recent proposed coherence quantification in [Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 140401, 2014]. We show that the fidelity of coherence does not in general satisfy the monotonicity requirement as a measure of coherence under the subselection of measurements condition. We find that the trace norm of coherence can act as a measure of coherence for qubit case and some special class of qutrits.

  13. aligned tight gas: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Reservoirs Using The Dynamic Conductivity Test Texas A&M University - TxSpace Summary: Hydraulic Fracturing stimulation technology is used to increase the amount of oil and gas...

  14. Flow injection trace gas analysis method for on-site determination of organoarsenicals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aldstadt, III, Joseph H. (Orland Park, IL)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for real-time determination of the concentration of Lewisite in the ambient atmosphere, the method includes separating and collecting a Lewisite sample from the atmosphere in a collection chamber, converting the collected Lewisite to an arsenite ion solution sample, pumping the arsenite ion containing sample to an electrochemical detector connected to the collection chamber, and electrochemically detecting the converted arsenite ions in the sample, whereby the concentration of arsenite ions detected is proportional to the concentration of Lewisite in the atmosphere.

  15. Flow injection trace gas analysis method for on-site determination of organoarsenicals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aldstadt, J.H. III

    1997-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is described for real-time determination of the concentration of Lewisite in the ambient atmosphere, the method includes separating and collecting a Lewisite sample from the atmosphere in a collection chamber, converting the collected Lewisite to an arsenite ion solution sample, pumping the arsenite ion containing sample to an electrochemical detector connected to the collection chamber, and electrochemically detecting the converted arsenite ions in the sample, whereby the concentration of arsenite ions detected is proportional to the concentration of Lewisite in the atmosphere. 2 figs.

  16. Investigation of trace amounts of gas on microvave water-cut measurement 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Jin

    2006-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

    sampling probe or a sampling port on the pipeline. Then, the oil and water are separated using a centrifuge. Finally, the volume of the separated water is measured and the water-cut of the sample is calculated based on the total volume of the liquid... pipeline; 2. The oil/water monitor generates the current or electrical signal transmit to a zero-&- span adjuster; 3. From the zero-&-span adjuster, the data is transmitted from analog to digital at converter and calculator and to a comparator. 4...

  17. Estimation of mixing in the troposphere from1 Lagrangian trace gas reconstructions during2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Legras, Bernard

    of Physics and Atmospheric Science, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Canada 7 Institut f¨ur Physik der Atmosph for Mathematical Sciences University of Cambridge (i.pisso@damtp.cam.ac.uk) 1 Department of Applied Mathematics

  18. COMPACT QEPAS SENSOR FOR TRACE METHANE AND AMMONIA DETECTION IN IMPURE HYDROGEN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wright, J; Ferguson, B; Peters, B; Mcwhorter, S

    2011-11-02T23:59:59.000Z

    A compact two-gas sensor based on quartz enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy (QEPAS) was developed for trace methane and ammonia quantification in impure hydrogen. The sensor is equipped with a micro-resonator to confine the sound wave and enhance QEPAS signal. The normalized noise-equivalent absorption coefficients (1{sigma}) of 2.45 x 10{sup -8} cm{sup -1}W/{radical}Hz and 9.1 x 10{sup -9} cm{sup -1}W/{radical}Hz for CH{sub 4} detection at 200 Torr and NH{sub 3} detection at 50 Torr were demonstrated with the QEPAS sensor configuration, respectively. The influence of water vapor on the CH{sub 4} channel was also investigated.

  19. Naturally fractured tight gas reservoir detection optimization. Quarterly report, January 1, 1997--March 31, 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1998-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document contains the quarterly report dated January 1-March 31, 1997 for the Naturally Fractured Tight Gas Reservoir Detection Optimization project. Topics covered in this report include AVOA modeling using paraxial ray tracing, AVOA modeling for gas- and water-filled fractures, 3-D and 3-C processing, and technology transfer material. Several presentations from a Geophysical Applications Workshop workbook, workshop schedule, and list of workshop attendees are also included.

  20. Oxford Institute for Energy Studies Natural Gas Research Programme

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Texas at Austin, University of

    demand and price dynamics than by crude oil or oil product prices. The author, Dr Michelle Michot Foss concludes that the relationship between petroleum liquids and natural gas prices going forward will be less, this means that as long as crude oil prices remain significantly in excess of $35/bbl, European gas markets

  1. Transportation and Greenhouse Gas Mitigation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutsey, Nicholas P.; Sperling, Dan

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    fuels (eg diesel, compressed natural gas). Electricity (infossil fuels, such as compressed natural gas and liquefied

  2. Compressed gas manifold

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hildebrand, Richard J. (Edgemere, MD); Wozniak, John J. (Columbia, MD)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A compressed gas storage cell interconnecting manifold including a thermally activated pressure relief device, a manual safety shut-off valve, and a port for connecting the compressed gas storage cells to a motor vehicle power source and to a refueling adapter. The manifold is mechanically and pneumatically connected to a compressed gas storage cell by a bolt including a gas passage therein.

  3. Noble gas magnetic resonator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Walker, Thad Gilbert; Lancor, Brian Robert; Wyllie, Robert

    2014-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Precise measurements of a precessional rate of noble gas in a magnetic field is obtained by constraining the time averaged direction of the spins of a stimulating alkali gas to lie in a plane transverse to the magnetic field. In this way, the magnetic field of the alkali gas does not provide a net contribution to the precessional rate of the noble gas.

  4. OIL & GAS INSTITUTE Introduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mottram, Nigel

    OIL & GAS INSTITUTE CONTENTS Introduction Asset Integrity Underpinning Capabilities 2 4 4 6 8 9 10 COMPETITIVENESS UNIVERSITY of STRATHCLYDE OIL & GAS INSTITUTE OIL & GAS EXPERTISE AND PARTNERSHIPS #12;1 The launch of the Strathclyde Oil & Gas Institute represents an important step forward for the University

  5. Arthur-Selberg trace formula CRM, June 30-July 3, 2009

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lapid, Erez

    #12;#12;Arthur-Selberg trace formula Erez Lapid CRM, June 30-July 3, 2009 #12;Contents Applications of the Selberg Trace Formula 1. Weyl's law #12;Contents Applications of the Selberg Trace Formula 1. Weyl's law 2. Prime Geodesic Theorem #12;Contents Applications of the Selberg Trace Formula 1. Weyl's law 2. Prime

  6. Effect of Sawtooth Activity on Tritium and Beam Deuterium Evolution in Trace Tritium Experiments on JET

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Effect of Sawtooth Activity on Tritium and Beam Deuterium Evolution in Trace Tritium Experiments on JET

  7. New Safety and Technical Challenges and Operational Experience on the JET First Trace Tritium Experiment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    New Safety and Technical Challenges and Operational Experience on the JET First Trace Tritium Experiment

  8. Advanced Gasification Mercury/Trace Metal Control with Monolith Traps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Musich, Mark; Swanson, Michael; Dunham, Grant; Stanislowski, Joshua

    2010-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Two Corning monoliths and a non-carbon-based material have been identified as potential additives for mercury capture in syngas at temperatures above 400°F and pressure of 600 psig. A new Corning monolith formulation, GR-F1-2189, described as an active sample appeared to be the best monolith tested to date. The Corning SR Liquid monolith concept continues to be a strong candidate for mercury capture. Both monolith types allowed mercury reduction to below 5-?g/m{sup 3} (~5 ppb), a current U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) goal for trace metal control. Preparation methods for formulating the SR Liquid monolith impacted the ability of the monolith to capture mercury. The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC)-prepared Noncarbon Sorbents 1 and 2 appeared to offer potential for sustained and significant reduction of mercury concentration in the simulated fuel gas. The Noncarbon Sorbent 1 allowed sustained mercury reduction to below 5-?g/m{sup 3} (~5 ppb). The non-carbon-based sorbent appeared to offer the potential for regeneration, that is, desorption of mercury by temperature swing (using nitrogen and steam at temperatures above where adsorption takes place). A Corning cordierite monolith treated with a Group IB metal offered limited potential as a mercury sorbent. However, a Corning carbon-based monolith containing prereduced metallic species similar to those found on the noncarbon sorbents did not exhibit significant or sustained mercury reduction. EERC sorbents prepared with Group IB and IIB selenide appeared to have some promise for mercury capture. Unfortunately, these sorbents also released Se, as was evidenced by the measurement of H2Se in the effluent gas. All sorbents tested with arsine or hydrogen selenide, including Corning monoliths and the Group IB and IIB metal-based materials, showed an ability to capture arsine or hydrogen selenide at 400°F and 600 psig. Based on current testing, the noncarbon metal-based sorbents appear to be the most effective arsine and hydrogen selenide sorbents. The noncarbon sorbent was able to reduce the concentration to 0 ppb from a starting concentration of 120 ppb. This compares to the target value of 5 ppb (~17?g/m{sup 3}). The EERC-prepared metal-based pellet and coprecipitate sorbents exhibited arsine reductions of 90% or greater, being below 10 ppb. Corning SR Liquid monoliths exhibited brief periods (<1 hour) of attaining 90% arsine reduction but were able to achieve greater than 80% reduction for several hours. With respect to hydrogen selenide, all Group IB and IIB metal-based sorbents tested exhibited 100% reduction from an inlet concentration of approximately 400 ppb. Corning SR Liquid monoliths exhibited an 82% reduction when two monoliths were tested simultaneously in series.

  9. ADVANCED GASIFICATION MERCURY/TRACE METAL CONTROL WITH MONOLITH TRAPS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mark A. Musich; Michael L. Swanson; Grant E. Dunham; Joshua J. Stanislowski

    2010-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Two Corning monoliths and a non-carbon-based material have been identified as potential additives for mercury capture in syngas at temperatures above 400°F and pressure of 600 psig. A new Corning monolith formulation, GR-F1-2189, described as an active sample appeared to be the best monolith tested to date. The Corning SR Liquid monolith concept continues to be a strong candidate for mercury capture. Both monolith types allowed mercury reduction to below 5-?g/m3 (~5 ppb), a current U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) goal for trace metal control. Preparation methods for formulating the SR Liquid monolith impacted the ability of the monolith to capture mercury. The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC)-prepared Noncarbon Sorbents 1 and 2 appeared to offer potential for sustained and significant reduction of mercury concentration in the simulated fuel gas. The Noncarbon Sorbent 1 allowed sustained mercury reduction to below 5-?g/m3 (~5 ppb). The non-carbon-based sorbent appeared to offer the potential for regeneration, that is, desorption of mercury by temperature swing (using nitrogen and steam at temperatures above where adsorption takes place). A Corning cordierite monolith treated with a Group IB metal offered limited potential as a mercury sorbent. However, a Corning carbon-based monolith containing prereduced metallic species similar to those found on the noncarbon sorbents did not exhibit significant or sustained mercury reduction. EERC sorbents prepared with Group IB and IIB selenide appeared to have some promise for mercury capture. Unfortunately, these sorbents also released Se, as was evidenced by the measurement of H2Se in the effluent gas. All sorbents tested with arsine or hydrogen selenide, including Corning monoliths and the Group IB and IIB metal-based materials, showed an ability to capture arsine or hydrogen selenide at 400°F and 600 psig. Based on current testing, the noncarbon metal-based sorbents appear to be the most effective arsine and hydrogen selenide sorbents. The noncarbon sorbent was able to reduce the concentration to 0 ppb from a starting concentration of 120 ppb. This compares to the target value of 5 ppb (~17?g/m3). The EERC-prepared metal-based pellet and coprecipitate sorbents exhibited arsine reductions of 90% or greater, being below 10 ppb. Corning SR Liquid monoliths exhibited brief periods (<1 hour) of attaining 90% arsine reduction but were able to achieve greater than 80% reduction for several hours. With respect to hydrogen selenide, all Group IB and IIB metal-based sorbents tested exhibited 100% reduction from an inlet concentration of approximately 400 ppb. Corning SR Liquid monoliths exhibited an 82% reduction when two monoliths were tested simultaneously in series.

  10. Traffic Dynamic Instability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Louis Reese; Anna Melbinger; Erwin Frey

    2015-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Here we study a driven lattice gas model for microtubule depolymerizing molecular motors, where traffic jams of motors induce stochastic switching between microtubule growth and shrinkage. We term this phenomenon \\enquote{traffic dynamic instability} because it is reminiscent of microtubule dynamic instability [T. Mitchison and M. Kirschner, Nature 312, 237 (1984)]. The intermittent dynamics of growth and shrinking emerges from the interplay between the arrival of motors at the microtubule tip, motor induced depolymerization, and motor detachment from the tip. The switching dynamics correlates with low and high motor density on the lattice. This leads to an effectively bistable particle density in the system. A refined domain wall theory predicts this transient appearance of different phases in the system. The theoretical results are supported by stochastic simulations.

  11. Traffic Dynamic Instability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reese, Louis; Frey, Erwin

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Here we study a driven lattice gas model for microtubule depolymerizing molecular motors, where traffic jams of motors induce stochastic switching between microtubule growth and shrinkage. We term this phenomenon \\enquote{traffic dynamic instability} because it is reminiscent of microtubule dynamic instability [T. Mitchison and M. Kirschner, Nature 312, 237 (1984)]. The intermittent dynamics of growth and shrinking emerges from the interplay between the arrival of motors at the microtubule tip, motor induced depolymerization, and motor detachment from the tip. The switching dynamics correlates with low and high motor density on the lattice. This leads to an effectively bistable particle density in the system. A refined domain wall theory predicts this transient appearance of different phases in the system. The theoretical results are supported by stochastic simulations.

  12. Gas Shepherding by an Infalling Satellite

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. Chang

    2008-05-22T23:59:59.000Z

    I calculate the action of a satellite, infalling through dynamical friction, on a coplanar gaseous disk of finite radial extent. The disk tides, raised by the infalling satellite, couple the satellite and disk. Dynamical friction acting on the satellite then shrinks the radius of the coupled satellite-disk system. Thus, the gas is ``shepherded'' to smaller radii. In addition, gas shepherding produces a large surface density enhancement at the disk edge. If the disk edge then becomes gravitationally unstable and fragments, it may give rise to enhanced star formation. On the other hand, if the satellite is sufficiently massive and dense, the gas may be transported from $\\sim 100$ pc to inside of a 10 to 10s of parsecs before completely fragmenting into stars. I argue that gas shepherding may drive the fueling of active galaxies and central starbursts and I compare this scenario to competing scenarios. I argue that sufficiently large and dense super star clusters (acting as the shepherding satellites) can shepherd a gas disk down to ten to tens of parsecs. Inside of ten to tens of parsecs, another mechanism may operate, i.e., cloud-cloud collisions or a marginally (gravitationally) stable disk, that drives the gas $\\lesssim 1$ pc, where it can be viscously accreted, feeding a central engine.

  13. Natural gas monthly

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Natural Gas Monthly highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the Natural Gas Monthly features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  14. Thermodynamic analysis of interactions between Ni-based solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) anodes and trace species in a survey of coal syngas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andrew Martinez; Kirk Gerdes; Randall Gemmen; James Postona

    2010-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A thermodynamic analysis was conducted to characterize the effects of trace contaminants in syngas derived from coal gasification on solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) anode material. The effluents from 15 different gasification facilities were considered to assess the impact of fuel composition on anode susceptibility to contamination. For each syngas case, the study considers the magnitude of contaminant exposure resulting from operation of a warm gas cleanup unit at two different temperatures and operation of a nickel-based SOFC at three different temperatures. Contaminant elements arsenic (As), phosphorous (P), and antimony (Sb) are predicted to be present in warm gas cleanup effluent and will interact with the nickel (Ni) components of a SOFC anode. Phosphorous is the trace element found in the largest concentration of the three contaminants and is potentially the most detrimental. Poisoning was found to depend on the composition of the syngas as well as system operating conditions. Results for all trace elements tended to show invariance with cleanup operating temperature, but results were sensitive to syngas bulk composition. Synthesis gas with high steam content tended to resist poisoning.

  15. Hybrid Optical Pumping of Optically Dense Alkali-Metal Vapor without Quenching Gas M. V. Romalis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Romalis, Mike

    Hybrid Optical Pumping of Optically Dense Alkali-Metal Vapor without Quenching Gas M. V. Romalis; published 7 December 2010) Optical pumping of an optically thick atomic vapor typically requires a quenching the atoms. We show that optical pumping of a trace contamination of Rb present in K metal results in a 4

  16. Automatic Identification of Application I/O Signatures from Noisy Server-Side Traces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Yang [ORNL] [ORNL; Gunasekaran, Raghul [ORNL] [ORNL; Ma, Xiaosong [ORNL] [ORNL; Vazhkudai, Sudharshan S [ORNL] [ORNL

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Competing workloads on a shared storage system cause I/O resource contention and application performance vagaries. This problem is already evident in today s HPC storage systems and is likely to become acute at exascale. We need more interaction between application I/O requirements and system software tools to help alleviate the I/O bottleneck, moving towards I/O-aware job scheduling. However, this requires rich techniques to capture application I/O characteristics, which remain evasive in production systems. Traditionally, I/O characteristics have been obtained using client-side tracing tools, with drawbacks such as non-trivial instrumentation/development costs, large trace traffic, and inconsistent adoption. We present a novel approach, I/O Signature Identifier (IOSI), to characterize the I/O behavior of data-intensive applications. IOSI extracts signatures from noisy, zero-overhead server-side I/O throughput logs that are already collected on today s supercomputers, without interfering with the compiling/execution of applications. We evaluated IOSI using the Spider storage system at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, the S3D turbulence application (running on 18,000 Titan nodes), and benchmark-based pseudo-applications. Through our ex- periments we confirmed that IOSI effectively extracts an application s I/O signature despite significant server-side noise. Compared to client-side tracing tools, IOSI is transparent, interface-agnostic, and incurs no overhead. Compared to alternative data alignment techniques (e.g., dynamic time warping), it offers higher signature accuracy and shorter processing time.

  17. Spin tracking simulations in AGS based on ray-tracing methods - bare lattice, no snakes -

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meot, F.; Ahrens, L.; Gleen, J.; Huang, H.; Luccio, A.; MacKay, W. W.; Roser, T.; Tsoupas, N.

    2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This Note reports on the first simulations of and spin dynamics in the AGS using the ray-tracing code Zgoubi. It includes lattice analysis, comparisons with MAD, DA tracking, numerical calculation of depolarizing resonance strengths and comparisons with analytical models, etc. It also includes details on the setting-up of Zgoubi input data files and on the various numerical methods of concern in and available from Zgoubi. Simulations of crossing and neighboring of spin resonances in AGS ring, bare lattice, without snake, have been performed, in order to assess the capabilities of Zgoubi in that matter, and are reported here. This yields a rather long document. The two main reasons for that are, on the one hand the desire of an extended investigation of the energy span, and on the other hand a thorough comparison of Zgoubi results with analytical models as the 'thin lens' approximation, the weak resonance approximation, and the static case. Section 2 details the working hypothesis : AGS lattice data, formulae used for deriving various resonance related quantities from the ray-tracing based 'numerical experiments', etc. Section 3 gives inventories of the intrinsic and imperfection resonances together with, in a number of cases, the strengths derived from the ray-tracing. Section 4 gives the details of the numerical simulations of resonance crossing, including behavior of various quantities (closed orbit, synchrotron motion, etc.) aimed at controlling that the conditions of particle and spin motions are correct. In a similar manner Section 5 gives the details of the numerical simulations of spin motion in the static case: fixed energy in the neighboring of the resonance. In Section 6, weak resonances are explored, Zgoubi results are compared with the Fresnel integrals model. Section 7 shows the computation of the {rvec n} vector in the AGS lattice and tuning considered. Many details on the numerical conditions as data files etc. are given in the Appendix Section, pages A and sqs.

  18. Combustion fume structure and dynamics. Semiannual report, February 16, 1993--August 15, 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Flagan, R.C.

    1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    During pulverized coal combustion, a fume of submicron particles is formed from the mineral matter in the parent coal. Studies of the variation in chemical composition with particle size have revealed that much of the submicron fume is formed from volatilized coal ash. The formation and evolution of the ash fume is governed by homogeneous nucleation, condensation, and coagulation. Vapors of refractory species nucleate relatively early in the combustion process. Coagulation of those fine particles results in a size distribution that is approximately log normal. More volatile species remain in the gas phase until after the nucleation has taken place. Condensation on the surfaces of both the fume and the larger residual ash particles results in the enrichment of the fine particles with volatile, and frequently toxic trace species. The resultant concentration of heavy metals in the size interval between 0.1 and 1 {mu}m may allow disproportionate amounts of these species to escape collection, even by the best of gas cleaning systems. A comprehensive theoretical treatment of the aerosol dynamics of pyrogenous fumes requires a number of extensions of the classical descriptions. Rigorous descriptions of the coagulation of dense, spherical particles are available, but fume particles are rarely spherical. The materials involved tend to be refractory, so high temperatures are required to achieve complete coalescence. Flame temperatures may be hot enough to melt some materials, so coalescence is not always achieved. Even with systems that can melt the particles in the primary reaction zone, coagulation during the cooling or quench process can form agglomerates. To predict the dynamics of the fumes produced when coalescence is rate limiting, the structure and dynamics of the resulting aggregates must be understood.

  19. Combustion fume structure and dynamics. Semiannual report, February 16, 1994--August 15, 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Flagan, R.C.

    1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    During pulverized coal combustion, a fume of submicron particles is formed from the mineral matter in the parent coal. Studies of the variation in chemical composition with particle size have revealed that much of the submicron fume is formed from volatilized coal ash. The formation and evolution of the ash fume is governed by homogeneous nucleation, condensation, and coagulation. Vapors of refractory species nucleate relatively early in the combustion process. Coagulation of those fine particles results in a size distribution that is approximately log normal. More volatile species remain in the gas phase until after the nucleation has taken place. Condensation on the surfaces of both the fume and the larger residual ash particles results in the enrichment of the fine particles with volatile, and frequently toxic trace species. The resultant concentration of heavy metals in the size interval between 0.1 and 1 {mu}m may allow disproportionate amounts of these species to escape collection, even by the best of gas cleaning systems. This project comprises theoretical and experimental investigations of the dynamics of aggregate aerosols produced as pyrogenous fumes. For the proposes of modeling the dynamics of these complex structures, the particles have been characterized and modeled as having fractal structure. The objective of this study is to develop and validate a model describing the formation and evolution of fine particles from minerals volatilized during coal combustion, with special emphasis on particle structure and its influence on the dynamics of the combustion aerosol. Experimental and theoretical investigations of the individual processes involved in the aerosol evolution, i.e., sintering and aggregation are studied independently using model systems. Theoretical investigations have paralleled the experimental studies to help to interpret the experimental results and as a step toward the develop of quantitative predictive models.

  20. Fuel Interchangeability Considerations for Gas Turbine Combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ferguson, D.H.

    2007-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In recent years domestic natural gas has experienced a considerable growth in demand particularly in the power generation industry. However, the desire for energy security, lower fuel costs and a reduction in carbon emissions has produced an increase in demand for alternative fuel sources. Current strategies for reducing the environmental impact of natural gas combustion in gas turbine engines used for power generation experience such hurdles as flashback, lean blow-off and combustion dynamics. These issues will continue as turbines are presented with coal syngas, gasified coal, biomass, LNG and high hydrogen content fuels. As it may be impractical to physically test a given turbine on all of the possible fuel blends it may experience over its life cycle, the need to predict fuel interchangeability becomes imperative. This study considers a number of historical parameters typically used to determine fuel interchangeability. Also addressed is the need for improved reaction mechanisms capable of accurately modeling the combustion of natural gas alternatives.

  1. AN OVERVIEW OF TOOL FOR RESPONSE ACTION COST ESTIMATING (TRACE)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    FERRIES SR; KLINK KL; OSTAPKOWICZ B

    2012-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Tools and techniques that provide improved performance and reduced costs are important to government programs, particularly in current times. An opportunity for improvement was identified for preparation of cost estimates used to support the evaluation of response action alternatives. As a result, CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company has developed Tool for Response Action Cost Estimating (TRACE). TRACE is a multi-page Microsoft Excel{reg_sign} workbook developed to introduce efficiencies into the timely and consistent production of cost estimates for response action alternatives. This tool combines costs derived from extensive site-specific runs of commercially available remediation cost models with site-specific and estimator-researched and derived costs, providing the best estimating sources available. TRACE also provides for common quantity and key parameter links across multiple alternatives, maximizing ease of updating estimates and performing sensitivity analyses, and ensuring consistency.

  2. Cost of Gas Adjustment for Gas Utilities (Maine)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This rule, applicable to gas utilities, establishes rules for calculation of gas cost adjustments, procedures to be followed in establishing gas cost adjustments and refunds, and describes reports...

  3. Overview of SOFC Anode Interactions with Coal Gas Impurities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marina, Olga A.; Pederson, Larry R.; Gemmen, Randall; Gerdes, Kirk; Finklea, Harry; Celik, Ismail B.

    2009-08-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Efficiencies greater than 50 percent (higher heating value) have been projected for solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) systems fueled with gasified coal, even with carbon sequestration. Multiple minor and trace components are present in coal that could affect fuel cell performance, however, which vary widely depending on coal origin and type. Minor and trace components have been classified into three groups: elements with low volatility that are likely to remain in the ash, elements that will partition between solid and gas phases, and highly volatile elements that are unlikely to condense. Those in the second group are of most concern. In the following, an overview of the results of SOFC anode interactions with phosphorus, arsenic, selenium, sulfur, antimony, and hydrogen chloride as single contaminants or in combinations is discussed. Tests were performed using both anode- and electrolyte-supported cells in synthetic coal gas. The ultimate purpose of this work is to establish maximum permissible concentrations for impurities in coal gas, to aid in the selection of appropriate coal gas clean-up technologies.

  4. CASING-HEADING PHENOMENON IN GAS-LIFTED WELL AS A LIMIT CYCLE OF A

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    phenomenon occurring on gas- lift artificially lifted well. This behavior is well represented by a 2D model: Process Control, Dynamic Systems, Limit Cycles, Switching System, Gas-Lifted Well. 1. INTRODUCTIONCASING-HEADING PHENOMENON IN GAS-LIFTED WELL AS A LIMIT CYCLE OF A 2D MODEL WITH SWITCHES Laure Sin

  5. A Semi-Lagrangian Approach for Natural Gas Storage Valuation and Optimal Operation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Forsyth, Peter A.

    A Semi-Lagrangian Approach for Natural Gas Storage Valuation and Optimal Operation Zhuliang Chen such as fuel and electricity, natural gas prices exhibit seasonality dynamics due to fluctuations in demand [28]. As such, natural gas storage facilities are constructed to provide a cushion for such fluctuations

  6. Understanding the dynamics of a two-phase flow (liquid and gas) has been studied quite extensively over the past. This problem is indeed of direct relevance for many areas such

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    be trapped on the ground because of the presence of an obstacle. The studied products were propane, butane set-up, and pressure storage. 1 INTRODUCTION In many chemical and process plants, gas are stored for the understanding of the flow inside the pipe. The net of pipes linking the storage and the nozzle are composed

  7. Optimal Control of Transient Flow in Natural Gas Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zlotnik, Anatoly; Backhaus, Scott

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We outline a new control system model for the distributed dynamics of compressible gas flow through large-scale pipeline networks with time-varying injections, withdrawals, and control actions of compressors and regulators. The gas dynamics PDE equations over the pipelines, together with boundary conditions at junctions, are reduced using lumped elements to a sparse nonlinear ODE system expressed in vector-matrix form using graph theoretic notation. This system, which we call the reduced network flow (RNF) model, is a consistent discretization of the PDE equations for gas flow. The RNF forms the dynamic constraints for optimal control problems for pipeline systems with known time-varying withdrawals and injections and gas pressure limits throughout the network. The objectives include economic transient compression (ETC) and minimum load shedding (MLS), which involve minimizing compression costs or, if that is infeasible, minimizing the unfulfilled deliveries, respectively. These continuous functional optimiza...

  8. Enhanced membrane gas separations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prasad, R.

    1993-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved membrane gas separation process is described comprising: (a) passing a feed gas stream to the non-permeate side of a membrane system adapted for the passage of purge gas on the permeate side thereof, and for the passage of the feed gas stream in a counter current flow pattern relative to the flow of purge gas on the permeate side thereof, said membrane system being capable of selectively permeating a fast permeating component from said feed gas, at a feed gas pressure at or above atmospheric pressure; (b) passing purge gas to the permeate side of the membrane system in counter current flow to the flow of said feed gas stream in order to facilitate carrying away of said fast permeating component from the surface of the membrane and maintaining the driving force for removal of the fast permeating component through the membrane from the feed gas stream, said permeate side of the membrane being maintained at a subatmospheric pressure within the range of from about 0.1 to about 5 psia by vacuum pump means; (c) recovering a product gas stream from the non-permeate side of the membrane; and (d) discharging purge gas and the fast permeating component that has permeated the membrane from the permeate side of the membrane, whereby the vacuum conditions maintained on the permeate side of the membrane by said vacuum pump means enhance the efficiency of the gas separation operation, thereby reducing the overall energy requirements thereof.

  9. Trace metal mapping by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaiser, Jozef [ORNL; Novotny, Dr. Karel [Masaryk University; Hrdlicka, A [Brno University of Technology, Czech Republic; Malina, R [Brno University of Technology, Czech Republic; Hartl, M [Brno University of Technology, Czech Republic; Kizek, R [Mendel University of Brno; Adam, V [Mendel University of Brno

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Abstract: Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) is a sensitive optical technique capable of fast multi-elemental analysis of solid, gaseous and liquid samples. The potential applications of lasers for spectrochemical analysis were developed shortly after its invention; however the massive development of LIBS is connected with the availability of powerful pulsed laser sources. Since the late 80s of 20th century LIBS dominated the analytical atomic spectroscopy scene and its application are developed continuously. Here we review the utilization of LIBS for trace elements mapping in different matrices. The main emphasis is on trace metal mapping in biological samples.

  10. COMPUTATIONAL OPTIMIZATION OF GAS COMPRESSOR ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2015-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Feb 26, 2015 ... When considering cost-optimal operation of gas transport net- works ..... The four most frequently used drive types are gas turbines, gas driven.

  11. Purchased Gas Adjustment Rules (Tennessee)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Purchased Gas Adjustment Rules are implemented by the Tennessee Regulatory Authority (Authority). Purchased Gas Adjustment (PGA) Rules are intended to permit the company/LDC (local gas...

  12. Transportation and Greenhouse Gas Mitigation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutsey, Nicholas P.; Sperling, Dan

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    natural gas and liquefied petroleum gas have continued to make small contributions to transportation,transportation actions include electric power sector actions, eg coal to natural gas

  13. Natural gas annual 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience. The 1996 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas from it`s production to it`s end use.

  14. Recirculating rotary gas compressor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weinbrecht, J.F.

    1992-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

    A positive displacement, recirculating Roots-type rotary gas compressor is described which operates on the basis of flow work compression. The compressor includes a pair of large diameter recirculation conduits which return compressed discharge gas to the compressor housing, where it is mixed with low pressure inlet gas, thereby minimizing adiabatic heating of the gas. The compressor includes a pair of involutely lobed impellers and an associated port configuration which together result in uninterrupted flow of recirculation gas. The large diameter recirculation conduits equalize gas flow velocities within the compressor and minimize gas flow losses. The compressor is particularly suited to applications requiring sustained operation at higher gas compression ratios than have previously been feasible with rotary pumps, and is particularly applicable to refrigeration or other applications requiring condensation of a vapor. 12 figs.

  15. Recirculating rotary gas compressor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weinbrecht, John F. (601 Oakwood Loop, NE., Albuquerque, NM 87123)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A positive displacement, recirculating Roots-type rotary gas compressor which operates on the basis of flow work compression. The compressor includes a pair of large diameter recirculation conduits (24 and 26) which return compressed discharge gas to the compressor housing (14), where it is mixed with low pressure inlet gas, thereby minimizing adiabatic heating of the gas. The compressor includes a pair of involutely lobed impellers (10 and 12) and an associated port configuration which together result in uninterrupted flow of recirculation gas. The large diameter recirculation conduits equalize gas flow velocities within the compressor and minimize gas flow losses. The compressor is particularly suited to applications requiring sustained operation at higher gas compression ratios than have previously been feasible with rotary pumps, and is particularly applicable to refrigeration or other applications requiring condensation of a vapor.

  16. Gas and Oil (Maryland)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Department of the Environment has the authority to enact regulations pertaining to oil and gas production, but it cannot prorate or limit the output of any gas or oil well. A permit from the...

  17. Microminiature gas chromatograph

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yu, Conrad M. (Antioch, CA)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A microminiature gas chromatograph (.mu.GC) comprising a least one silicon wafer, a gas injector, a column, and a detector. The gas injector has a normally closed valve for introducing a mobile phase including a sample gas in a carrier gas. The valve is fully disposed in the silicon wafer(s). The column is a microcapillary in silicon crystal with a stationary phase and is mechanically connected to receive the mobile phase from the gas injector for the molecular separation of compounds in the sample gas. The detector is mechanically connected to the column for the analysis of the separated compounds of sample gas with electronic means, e.g., ion cell, field emitter and PIN diode.

  18. Microminiature gas chromatograph

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yu, C.M.

    1996-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A microminiature gas chromatograph ({mu}GC) comprising a least one silicon wafer, a gas injector, a column, and a detector. The gas injector has a normally closed valve for introducing a mobile phase including a sample gas in a carrier gas. The valve is fully disposed in the silicon wafer(s). The column is a microcapillary in silicon crystal with a stationary phase and is mechanically connected to receive the mobile phase from the gas injector for the molecular separation of compounds in the sample gas. The detector is mechanically connected to the column for the analysis of the separated compounds of sample gas with electronic means, e.g., ion cell, field emitter and PIN diode. 7 figs.

  19. Residual gas analysis device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thornberg, Steven M. (Peralta, NM)

    2012-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A system is provided for testing the hermeticity of a package, such as a microelectromechanical systems package containing a sealed gas volume, with a sampling device that has the capability to isolate the package and breach the gas seal connected to a pulse valve that can controllably transmit small volumes down to 2 nanoliters to a gas chamber for analysis using gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy diagnostics.

  20. Natural gas annual 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. The 1995 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas (including supplemental supplies) from its production to its end use. This is followed by tables summarizing natural gas supply and disposition from 1991 to 1995 for each Census Division and each State. Annual historical data are shown at the national level.

  1. Natural gas annual 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

    The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. The 1994 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas (including supplemental supplies) from its production to its end use. This is followed by tables summarizing natural gas supply and disposition from 1990 to 1994 for each Census Division and each State. Annual historical data are shown at the national level.

  2. Gas separations using ceramic membranes. Final report, September 1988--February 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, C.L.; Wu, J.C.S.; Gallaher, G.R.; Smith, G.W.; Flowers, D.L.; Gerdes, T.E.; Liu, P.K.T.

    1993-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study covers a comprehensive evaluation of existing ceramic membranes for high temperature gas separations. Methodology has been established for microporous characterization stability and gas separation efficiency. A mathematical model was developed to predict gas separations with existing membranes. Silica and zeolitic modifications of existing membranes were pursued to enhance its separation efficiency. Some of which demonstrate unique separations properties. Use of the dense-silica membranes for hydrogen enrichment was identified as a promising candidate for future development. In addition, the decomposition of trace ammonia contaminant via a catalytic membrane reactor appears feasible. A further economic analysis is required to assess its commercial viability.

  3. Turbulent Compressibilty of Protogalactic Gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    John Scalo; Anirban Biswas

    2001-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

    The star formation rate in galaxies should be related to the fraction of gas that can attain densities large enough for gravitational collapse. In galaxies with a turbulent interstellar medium, this fraction is controlled by the effective barotropic index $gamma = dlog P/dlog (rho)$ which measures the turbulent compressibility. When the cooling timescale is smaller than the dynamical timescale, gamma can be evaluated from the derivatives of cooling and heating functions, using the condition of thermal equilibrium. We present calculations of gamma for protogalaxies in which the metal abundance is so small that H_2 and HD cooling dominates. For a heating rate independent of temperature and proportional to the first power of density, the turbulent gas is relatively "hard", with $gamma >= 1$, at large densities, but moderately "soft", $gamma <= 0.8$, at densities below around $10^4 cm^(-3)$. At low temperatures the density probability distribution should fall ra pidly for densities larger than this value, which corresponds physically to the critical density at which collisional and radiative deexcitation rate s of HD are equal. The densities attained in turbulent protogalaxies thus depend on the relatively large deuterium abundance in our universe. We expect the same physical effect to occur in higher metallicity gas with different coolants. The case in which adiabatic (compressional) heating due to cloud collapse dominates is also discussed, and suggests a criterion for the maximum mass of Population III stars.

  4. Valve for gas centrifuges

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hahs, C.A.; Rurbage, C.H.

    1982-03-17T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention is pneumatically operated valve assembly for simulatenously (1) closing gas-transfer lines connected to a gas centrifuge or the like and (2) establishing a recycle path between two on the lines so closed. The value assembly is especially designed to be compact, fast-acting, reliable, and comparatively inexpensive. It provides large reductions in capital costs for gas-centrifuge cascades.

  5. Gas Cylinders: Proper Management

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Elizabeth W.

    Compressed Gas Cylinders: Proper Management And Use Published by the Office of Environment, Health;1 Introduction University of California, Berkeley (UC Berkeley) departments that use compressed gas cylinders (MSDS) and your department's Job Safety Analyses (JSAs). Talk to your gas supplier about hands

  6. Static gas expansion cooler

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Guzek, J.C.; Lujan, R.A.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed is a cooler for television cameras and other temperature sensitive equipment. The cooler uses compressed gas ehich is accelerated to a high velocity by passing it through flow passageways having nozzle portions which expand the gas. This acceleration and expansion causes the gas to undergo a decrease in temperature thereby cooling the cooler body and adjacent temperature sensitive equipment.

  7. Natural Gas Exploration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Elizabeth W.

    . Exploration and extraction of natural gas from the Marcellus shale is a potentially valuable economic stimulus for landowners. You might be wondering how the nation's economic situation is affecting the market for naturalNatural Gas Exploration: A Landowners Guide to Financial Management Natural Gas Exploration

  8. Gas flows and bars in galaxies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    F. Combes

    2006-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Dynamical evolution of spiral galaxies is strongly dependent on non-axisymmetric patterns that develop from gravitational instabilities, either spontaneously or externally triggered. Some evolutionary sequences are described through which a galaxy could possibly concentrate mass and build bulges, how external gas accretion from cosmic filaments could be funneled to the galaxy disks, and intermittently driven to the galaxy center, to form nuclear starbursts and fuel an active nucleus. The frequency of both bars and lopsidedness can be used to constrain the gas accretion rate.

  9. Interactive Distributed Ray Tracing of Highly Complex Models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wald, Ingo

    projects dealing with entire cars, ships, buildings, and processing plants. The complexity of such modelsInteractive Distributed Ray Tracing of Highly Complex Models Ingo Wald, Philipp Slusallek, Carsten- ulation of huge and complex 3D environments. Examples include large structural and mechanical engineering

  10. Trace Elements Greg Mullins, Extension Nutrient Management Specialist, Virginia Tech

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    the plants. Manganese (Mn) Manganese deficiency has been found on soybeans and peanuts grown in VirginiaTrace Elements Greg Mullins, Extension Nutrient Management Specialist, Virginia Tech Steve Heckendorn, Soil Test Laboratory Manager, Virginia Tech Soil Test Note #4 Introduction Your Soil Test Report

  11. Quantifying the Digital Traces of Hurricane Sandy on Flickr

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stanley, H. Eugene

    Quantifying the Digital Traces of Hurricane Sandy on Flickr Tobias Preis1 *, Helen Susannah Moat1 social science. To investigate user attention to the Hurricane Sandy disaster in 2012, we analyze data to Hurricane Sandy bears a striking correlation to the atmospheric pressure in the US state New Jersey during

  12. Traces of Human Migrations in Helicobacter pylori Populations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wirth, Thierry

    Traces of Human Migrations in Helicobacter pylori Populations Daniel Falush,1 Thierry Wirth,1 Bodo Reichard,1 Elena Katzowitsch,8 Xiaoyan Wang,1 Mark Achtman,1 * Sebastian Suerbaum8 Helicobacter pylori tuberculosis (2), Haemophilus influenzae (3), and Helicobac- ter pylori (4­8). H. pylori, a Gram

  13. From transformation traces to transformation rules: Assisting Model Driven Engineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    From transformation traces to transformation rules: Assisting Model Driven Engineering approach. In this paper we are interested in semi-automatically gen- erating labelled graph (model) transformations conform to a particu- lar syntax (meta-model). Those transformations are basic operations in model driven

  14. Boron isotope application for tracing sources of contamination in groundwater.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kasher, Roni

    Boron isotope application for tracing sources of contamination in groundwater. Abstract: Boron isotope composition and concentration of sewage effluent and pristine and contaminated groundwater from sodium perborate as a bleaching agent in detergents, leads to an enrichment of boron in wastewaters

  15. ANIMAL TRACING: BENEFITS IN CATTLE INDUSTRY AND PRIVATE INCENTIVES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCarl, Bruce A.

    AND PRIVATE INCENTIVES The economic implications of foreign animal diseases and their mitigation options haveANIMAL TRACING: BENEFITS IN CATTLE INDUSTRY AND PRIVATE INCENTIVES LEVAN ELBAKIDZE Assistant Research Professor Department of Agricultural Economics Texas A&M University College Station, TX, 77843

  16. Execution Trace-Driven Automated Attack Signature Generation Susanta Nanda

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chiueh, Tzi-cker

    Execution Trace-Driven Automated Attack Signature Generation Susanta Nanda Symantec Research Labs In its most general form, an attack signature is a program that can correctly determine if an input network packet se- quence can successfully attack a protected network appli- cation. Filter rules used

  17. A Feasibility Study: Mining Daily Traces for Home Heating Control

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Whitehouse, Kamin

    , prediction 1. INTRODUCTION Heating, ventilation and cooling (HVAC) contributes most to a home's energy billsA Feasibility Study: Mining Daily Traces for Home Heating Control Dezhi Hong and Kamin Whitehouse and make predictions of arrival times. Our approach requires the minimum ef- forts for heating controls

  18. Auto-Generation of Communication Benchmark Traces Vivek Deshpande

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mueller, Frank

    Auto-Generation of Communication Benchmark Traces Vivek Deshpande North Carolina State University.edu Frank Mueller North Carolina State University Raleigh, NC, USA mueller@cs.ncsu.edu ABSTRACT Benchmarks creation is a tedious manual process. As a result, benchmarks tend to lag behind the development of complex

  19. RESEARCH ARTICLE Particles for tracing turbulent liquid helium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lathrop, Daniel P.

    RESEARCH ARTICLE Particles for tracing turbulent liquid helium Gregory P. Bewley Æ K. R of local flow velocities in turbulent liquid helium, using tracer particles. We survey and evaluate, we note that cryogenic helium is attractive for experimental studies because its kinematic viscosity

  20. PALEOZOIC TRACE FOSSILS FROM THE KUFRA BASIN, LIBYA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Benton, Michael

    PALEOZOIC TRACE FOSSILS FROM THE KUFRA BASIN, LIBYA BRIAN R. TURNER AND MICHAEL J. BENTONPaleozoicsuccessionin the southeastern part ofthe Kufra Basin, Libya, comprises a sequence of sedimentary facies up to 250 m thick THEK u m BASINin southeast Libya (Figure 1)occupiesan area of about 400,000km2and is filled

  1. Developing Performance Models from Non-intrusive Monitoring Traces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Murphy, John

    Developing Performance Models from Non- intrusive Monitoring Traces Daniela Mania, John Murphy transactions within the system at run-time using non-intrusive monitoring. Our belief is this methodology obtained by non-intrusive monitoring of an EJB-based e-commerce application. Moreover, the methodology

  2. Parallel Seismic Ray Tracing in a Global Earth Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Genaud, Stéphane

    1 Parallel Seismic Ray Tracing in a Global Earth Model Marc Grunberg * , Stéphane Genaud of the Earth interior, and seismic tomogra- phy is a means to improve knowledge in this #28;eld. In order present in this paper the de- sign of a software program implement- ing a fast seismic ray

  3. Balancing Privacy and Fidelity in Packet Traces for Security Evaluation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fahmy, Sonia

    for a certain network. Previous attempts at developing security benchmarks include the 1998 and 1999 evaluation1 Balancing Privacy and Fidelity in Packet Traces for Security Evaluation Sonia Fahmy and Christine.com Abstract Security mechanisms, such as firewalls and intrusion detection systems, protect networks

  4. Essays on price dynamics, discovery, and dynamic threshold effects among energy spot markets in North America 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Park, Haesun

    2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Given the role electricity and natural gas sectors play in the North American economy, an understanding of how markets for these commodities interact is important. This dissertation independently characterizes the price dynamics of major electricity...

  5. Essays on price dynamics, discovery, and dynamic threshold effects among energy spot markets in North America

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Park, Haesun

    2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Given the role electricity and natural gas sectors play in the North American economy, an understanding of how markets for these commodities interact is important. This dissertation independently characterizes the price dynamics of major electricity...

  6. Research paper Investigation of at-vent dynamics and dilution using thermal infrared

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Williams-Jones, Glyn

    . These data were processed to extract puff frequencies, amplitudes, durations, emission velocities and volumes a detailed understanding of the dynamics of gas puffing (gas release as a series of distinct pulses) and more sustained degassing (steady plumes of gas) during persistent volcanic degassing, measurements of gas mass

  7. Welcome FUPWG- Natural Gas Overview

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation—given at the Federal Utility Partnership Working Group (FUPWG) Fall 2008 meeting—provides an overview of natural gas, including emissions, compressed natural gas (CNG) vehicles, and landfill gas supplement for natural gas system.

  8. Trace Metal Source Terms in Carbon Sequestration Environments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karamalidis, Athanasios; Torres, Sharon G.; Hakala, Jacqueline A.; Shao, Hongbo; Cantrell, Kirk J.; Carroll, Susan A.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ABSTRACT: Carbon dioxide sequestration in deep saline and depleted oil geologic formations is feasible and promising; however, possible CO2 or CO2-saturated brine leakage to overlying aquifers may pose environmental and health impacts. The purpose of this study was to experimentally define to provide a range of concentrations that can be used as the trace element source term for reservoirs and leakage pathways in risk simulations. Storage source terms for trace metals are needed to evaluate the impact of brines leaking into overlying drinking water aquifers. The trace metal release was measured from cements and sandstones, shales, carbonates, evaporites, and basalts from the Frio, In Salah, Illinois Basin, Decatur, Lower Tuscaloosa, Weyburn-Midale, Bass Islands, and Grand Ronde carbon sequestration geologic formations. Trace metal dissolution was tracked by measuring solution concentrations over time under conditions (e.g., pressures, temperatures, and initial brine compositions) specific to the sequestration projects. Existing metrics for maximum contaminant levels (MCLs) for drinking water as defined by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) were used to categorize the relative significance of metal concentration changes in storage environments because of the presence of CO2. Results indicate that Cr and Pb released from sandstone reservoir and shale cap rocks exceed the MCLs byan order of magnitude, while Cd and Cu were at or below drinking water thresholds. In carbonate reservoirs As exceeds the MCLs by an order of magnitude, while Cd, Cu, and Pb were at or below drinking water standards. Results from this study can be used as a reasonable estimate of the trace element source term for reservoirs and leakage pathways in risk simulations to further evaluate the impact of leakage on groundwater quality.

  9. Natural gas leak mapper

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reichardt, Thomas A. (Livermore, CA); Luong, Amy Khai (Dublin, CA); Kulp, Thomas J. (Livermore, CA); Devdas, Sanjay (Albany, CA)

    2008-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A system is described that is suitable for use in determining the location of leaks of gases having a background concentration. The system is a point-wise backscatter absorption gas measurement system that measures absorption and distance to each point of an image. The absorption measurement provides an indication of the total amount of a gas of interest, and the distance provides an estimate of the background concentration of gas. The distance is measured from the time-of-flight of laser pulse that is generated along with the absorption measurement light. The measurements are formated into an image of the presence of gas in excess of the background. Alternatively, an image of the scene is superimosed on the image of the gas to aid in locating leaks. By further modeling excess gas as a plume having a known concentration profile, the present system provides an estimate of the maximum concentration of the gas of interest.

  10. Gas Hydrate Storage of Natural Gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rudy Rogers; John Etheridge

    2006-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Environmental and economic benefits could accrue from a safe, above-ground, natural-gas storage process allowing electric power plants to utilize natural gas for peak load demands; numerous other applications of a gas storage process exist. A laboratory study conducted in 1999 to determine the feasibility of a gas-hydrates storage process looked promising. The subsequent scale-up of the process was designed to preserve important features of the laboratory apparatus: (1) symmetry of hydrate accumulation, (2) favorable surface area to volume ratio, (3) heat exchanger surfaces serving as hydrate adsorption surfaces, (4) refrigeration system to remove heat liberated from bulk hydrate formation, (5) rapid hydrate formation in a non-stirred system, (6) hydrate self-packing, and (7) heat-exchanger/adsorption plates serving dual purposes to add or extract energy for hydrate formation or decomposition. The hydrate formation/storage/decomposition Proof-of-Concept (POC) pressure vessel and supporting equipment were designed, constructed, and tested. This final report details the design of the scaled POC gas-hydrate storage process, some comments on its fabrication and installation, checkout of the equipment, procedures for conducting the experimental tests, and the test results. The design, construction, and installation of the equipment were on budget target, as was the tests that were subsequently conducted. The budget proposed was met. The primary goal of storing 5000-scf of natural gas in the gas hydrates was exceeded in the final test, as 5289-scf of gas storage was achieved in 54.33 hours. After this 54.33-hour period, as pressure in the formation vessel declined, additional gas went into the hydrates until equilibrium pressure/temperature was reached, so that ultimately more than the 5289-scf storage was achieved. The time required to store the 5000-scf (48.1 hours of operating time) was longer than designed. The lower gas hydrate formation rate is attributed to a lower heat transfer rate in the internal heat exchanger than was designed. It is believed that the fins on the heat-exchanger tubes did not make proper contact with the tubes transporting the chilled glycol, and pairs of fins were too close for interior areas of fins to serve as hydrate collection sites. A correction of the fabrication fault in the heat exchanger fin attachments could be easily made to provide faster formation rates. The storage success with the POC process provides valuable information for making the process an economically viable process for safe, aboveground natural-gas storage.

  11. Zevenhoven & Kilpinen TRACE ELEMENTS, ALKALI METALS 19.6.2001 8-1 Chapter 8 Trace elements,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zevenhoven, Ron

    air pollutants), "known or suspected of causing cancer or other serious health effects" (see also, in part stemming from anthropogenic sources, i.e. pollution. In wastes and waste-derived fuels the "trace to fouling of turbine blades (mainly Ca)or pollute or poison catalysts (mainly As) or sorbents downstream

  12. Monitoring hydrocarbons and trace metals in Beaufort Sea sediments and organisms. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boehm, P.; LeBlanc, L.; Trefry, J.; Marajh-Whittemore, P.; Brown, J.

    1990-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As part of the Minerals Management Service's environmental studies of oil and gas exploration and production activities in the Alaskan Beaufort Sea, a study was conducted in 1989 to monitor the marine environment for inputs of chemicals related to drilling and exploration. The 1989 Beaufort Sea Monitoring Program (BSMP) was designed to monitor sediments and selected benthic organisms for trace metals and hydrocarbons so as to infer any changes that might have resulted from drilling and production activities. A series of 49 stations were sampled during the program. The study area extended from Cape Halkett on the western end of Harrison Bay to Griffin Point, east of Barter Island. The sampling design combined an area-wide approach in which stations were treated as replicates of 8 specific geographic regions, with an activity-specific approach, which focused on the potential establishment of metal or hydrocarbon concentration gradients with distance from the Endicott Production Field in Prudhoe Bay. The analytical program focused on the analysis of the fine-fraction of the sediment for a series of trace metals and elements and the analysis of a suite of saturated and aromatic hydrocarbons in the bulk sediment. The total organic carbon (TOB) content and the grain size distribution in the sediments were determined as well. Benthic bivalve molluscs, representative of several feeding types were collected from those stations for which data previously existed from the 1984-1986 BSMP, and were analyzed for metals and saturated and aromatic hydrocarbons. The benthic amphipods were collected, pooled by station or region, and analyzed as well.

  13. Trace metal uptake and accumulation pathways in Kemp's ridley sea turtles (Lepidochelys kempii)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Hui-Chen

    2005-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Little is known of trace metal concentrations and their possible role in the mortality of critically endangered Kemp??s ridley sea turtles (Lepidochelys kempii). Research described herein characterized concentrations of seven trace metals ?? Ag, Cd...

  14. Combining sedimentological, trace metal (Mn, Mo) and molecular evidence for reconstructing past water-column

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wehrli, Bernhard

    Combining sedimentological, trace metal (Mn, Mo) and molecular evidence for reconstructing past online 22 June 2013 Abstract Here, we present sedimentological, trace metal, and molecular evidence underscores the value of combining sedimentological, geochemical, and microbiological approaches

  15. Carbon sequestration in natural gas reservoirs: Enhanced gas recovery and natural gas storage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oldenburg, Curtis M.

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    gas reservoirs for carbon sequestration and enhanced gasproduction and carbon sequestration, Society of Petroleumfeasibiilty of carbon sequestration with enhanced gas

  16. Matrix Optimization for the MALDI-TOF-MS Analysis of Trace Biodiesel Components (Poster)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McAlpin, C. R.; Voorhees, K. J.; Alleman, T. L.; McCormick, R. L.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Trace biodiesel components that could reduce the fuel's operability in cold weather are analyzed using MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry.

  17. Flue gas desulfurization

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Im, K.H.; Ahluwalia, R.K.

    1984-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention involves a combustion process in which combustion gas containing sulfur oxide is directed past a series of heat exchangers to a stack and in which a sodium compound is added to the combustion gas in a temparature zone of above about 1400 K to form Na/sub 2/SO/sub 4/. Preferably, the temperature is above about 1800 K and the sodium compound is present as a vapor to provide a gas-gas reaction to form Na/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ as a liquid. Since liquid Na/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ may cause fouling of heat exchanger surfaces downstream from the combustion zone, the process advantageously includes the step of injecting a cooling gas downstream of the injection of the sodium compound yet upstream of one or more heat exchangers to cool the combustion gas to below about 1150 K and form solid Na/sub 2/SO/sub 4/. The cooling gas is preferably a portion of the combustion gas downstream which may be recycled for cooling. It is further advantageous to utilize an electrostatic precipitator downstream of the heat exchangers to recover the Na/sub 2/SO/sub 4/. It is also advantageous in the process to remove a portion of the combustion gas cleaned in the electrostatic precipitator and recycle that portion upstream to use as the cooling gas. 3 figures.

  18. Fissile solution dynamics: Student research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hetrick, D.L.

    1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    There are two research projects in criticality safety at the University of Arizona: one in dynamic simulation of hypothetical criticality accidents in fissile solutions, and one in criticality benchmarks using transport theory. We have used the data from nuclear excursions in KEWB, CRAC, and SILENE to help in building models for solution excursions. An equation of state for liquids containing gas bubbles has been developed and coupled to point-reactor dynamics in an attempt to predict fission rate, yield, pressure, and kinetic energy. It appears that radiolytic gas is unimportant until after the first peak, but that it does strongly affect the shape of the subsequent power decrease and also the dynamic pressure.

  19. A Thesis for the Degree of Master Design of Fair Tracing E-cash

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Kwangjo

    A Thesis for the Degree of Master Design of Fair Tracing E-cash System based on Blind Signature Tracing E-cash System based on Blind Signature #12;Design of Fair Tracing E-cash System based on Blind and Communications University A thesis submitted to the faculty of Information and Com- munications University

  20. TRACE METAL CONTENT OF COAL AND ASH AS DETERMINED USING SCANNINGELECTRON MICROSCOPYWITE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laughlin, Robert B.

    TRACE METAL CONTENT OF COAL AND ASH AS DETERMINED USING SCANNINGELECTRON MICROSCOPYWITE WAVELENGTH Grand Forks, ND 58202-9018 Keywords: scanning electron microscopy, trace metals, coal analysis ABSTRACT Scanningelectron microscopy with wavelength-dispersive spectrometry has been used to measure trace metals in coal

  1. Trace Formula in Noncommutative Geometry and the Zeros of the Riemann Zeta Function

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Connes, Alain

    Trace Formula in Noncommutative Geometry and the Zeros of the Riemann Zeta Function Alain CONNES interpretation of the explicit formulas of number theory as a trace formula on the noncommutative space of Adele classes. This reduces the Riemann hypothesis to the validity of the trace formula and eliminates

  2. A RELATIVE TRACE FORMULA FOR A COMPACT RIEMANN KIMBALL MARTIN, MARK MCKEE, AND ERIC WAMBACH

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martin, Kimball

    A RELATIVE TRACE FORMULA FOR A COMPACT RIEMANN SURFACE KIMBALL MARTIN, MARK MCKEE, AND ERIC WAMBACH Abstract. We study a relative trace formula for a compact Riemann surface with respect to a closed geodesic estimates on the lengths of geodesic segments which start and end orthogonally on C. Variant trace formulas

  3. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MULTIMEDIA, VOL. 9, NO. 4, JUNE 2007 677 Digital Image Tracing by Sequential

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fontanari, Claudio

    IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MULTIMEDIA, VOL. 9, NO. 4, JUNE 2007 677 Digital Image Tracing by Sequential many interesting applications such as multimedia document tracing, data usage monitoring, mul- tiple--Asymmetric watermarking, image tracing, linear algebra, multiple watermarking. I. INTRODUCTION SECURITY of multimedia

  4. The effects of shifting modality between study and test: a fuzzy-trace theory analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gerkens, David Preston

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present research was designed to test properties of the fuzzy-trace theory memory model. Fuzzy-trace theory is a global memory model that posits that multiple memory traces are formed for every experience. According to the theory there are two...

  5. RAY TRACING IN THE SMOOTHED ACOUSTIC SEG/EAGE SALT MODEL.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cerveny, Vlastislav

    RAY TRACING IN THE SMOOTHED ACOUSTIC SEG/EAGE SALT MODEL. PART 1: SEISMOGRAMS V â?? ACLAV BUCHA­waves in the smoothed acoustic SEG/EAGE Salt Model are computed. The shot­receiver configuration is derived from that the smoothed SEG/EAGE Salt Model is suitable for two­point ray tracing. KEY WORDS Velocity model, ray tracing

  6. Gas shielding apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brandt, D.

    1984-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus for preventing oxidation by uniformly distributing inert shielding gas over the weld area of workpieces such as pipes being welded together. The apparatus comprises a chamber and a gas introduction element. The chamber has an annular top wall, an annular bottom wall, an inner side wall and an outer side wall connecting the top and bottom walls. One side wall is a screen and the other has a portion defining an orifice. The gas introduction element has a portion which encloses the orifice and can be one or more pipes. The gas introduction element is in fluid communication with the chamber and introduces inert shielding gas into the chamber. The inert gas leaves the chamber through the screen side wall and is dispersed evenly over the weld area.

  7. Valve for gas centrifuges

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hahs, Charles A. (Oak Ridge, TN); Burbage, Charles H. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention is a pneumatically operated valve assembly for simultaneously (1) closing gas-transfer lines connected to a gas centrifuge or the like and (2) establishing a recycle path between two of the lines so closed. The valve assembly is especially designed to be compact, fast-acting, reliable, and comparatively inexpensive. It provides large reductions in capital costs for gas-centrifuge cascades.

  8. Thermodynamics of Chaplygin gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yun Soo Myung

    2011-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

    We clarify thermodynamics of the Chaplygin gas by introducing the integrability condition. All thermal quantities are derived as functions of either volume or temperature. Importantly, we find a new general equation of state, describing the Chaplygin gas completely. We confirm that the Chaplygin gas could show a unified picture of dark matter and energy which cools down through the universe expansion without any critical point (phase transition).

  9. Ray tracing a three dimensional scene using a grid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wald, Ingo; Ize, Santiago; Parker, Steven G; Knoll, Aaron

    2013-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Ray tracing a three-dimensional scene using a grid. One example embodiment is a method for ray tracing a three-dimensional scene using a grid. In this example method, the three-dimensional scene is made up of objects that are spatially partitioned into a plurality of cells that make up the grid. The method includes a first act of computing a bounding frustum of a packet of rays, and a second act of traversing the grid slice by slice along a major traversal axis. Each slice traversal includes a first act of determining one or more cells in the slice that are overlapped by the frustum and a second act of testing the rays in the packet for intersection with any objects at least partially bounded by the one or more cells overlapped by the frustum.

  10. Trace Metal Source Terms in Carbon Sequestration Environments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karamalidis, Athanasios K.; Torres, Sharon G.; Hakala, J. Alexandra; Shao, Hongbo; Cantrell, Kirk J.; Carroll, Susan

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Carbon dioxide sequestration in deep saline and depleted oil geologic formations is feasible and promising, however, possible CO{sub 2} or CO{sub 2}-saturated brine leakage to overlying aquifers may pose environmental and health impacts. The purpose of this study was to experimentally define trace metal source terms from the reaction of supercritical CO{sub 2}, storage reservoir brines, reservoir and cap rocks. Storage reservoir source terms for trace metals are needed to evaluate the impact of brines leaking into overlying drinking water aquifers. The trace metal release was measured from sandstones, shales, carbonates, evaporites, basalts and cements from the Frio, In Salah, Illinois Basin – Decatur, Lower Tuscaloosa, Weyburn-Midale, Bass Islands and Grand Ronde carbon sequestration geologic formations. Trace metal dissolution is tracked by measuring solution concentrations over time under conditions (e.g. pressures, temperatures, and initial brine compositions) specific to the sequestration projects. Existing metrics for Maximum Contaminant Levels (MCLs) for drinking water as defined by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) were used to categorize the relative significance of metal concentration changes in storage environments due to the presence of CO{sub 2}. Results indicate that Cr and Pb released from sandstone reservoir and shale cap rock exceed the MCLs by an order of magnitude while Cd and Cu were at or below drinking water thresholds. In carbonate reservoirs As exceeds the MCLs by an order of magnitude, while Cd, Cu, and Pb were at or below drinking water standards. Results from this study can be used as a reasonable estimate of the reservoir and caprock source term to further evaluate the impact of leakage on groundwater quality.

  11. Solar limb darkening and ray trace evaluation of solar concentrators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Negi, B.S.; Bhowmik, N.C.; Mathur, S.S.; Kandpal, T.C.

    1985-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A comparison of different correlations commonly used to describe the limb darkening effect is made. A somewhat new correlation is proposed which predicts the values to within +- 1.5% of the experimental values. Using a conventional ray trace technique and assigning proper weight factors to each ray, the distribution of the local concentration ratio over a flat absorber placed in the focal plane of a cylindrical parabolic trough is also determined.

  12. Lyapunov exponents for 2D ray tracing without interfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cerveny, Vlastislav

    Lyapunov exponents for 2­D ray tracing without interfaces LudŸek KlimeŸs Department of Geophysics@seis.karlov.mff.cuni.cz Summary The Lyapunov exponents asymptotically quantify the exponential divergence of rays. The ``Lyapunov exponent'' for a finite 2­D ray and the average ``Lyapunov exponents'' for a set of finite 2­D rays

  13. Home Safety: Radon Gas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shaw, Bryan W.; Denny, Monica L.

    1999-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Every home should be tested for radon, an invisible, odorless, radioactive gas that occurs naturally. This publication explains the health risks, testing methods, and mitigation and reduction techniques....

  14. String Gas Baryogenesis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. L. Alberghi

    2010-02-19T23:59:59.000Z

    We describe a possible realization of the spontaneous baryogenesis mechanism in the context of extra-dimensional string cosmology and specifically in the string gas scenario.

  15. Natural gas annual 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1998-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. The 1997 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas (including supplemental supplies) from its production to its end use. This is followed by tables summarizing natural gas supply and disposition from 1993 to 1997 for each Census Division and each State. Annual historical data are shown at the national level. 27 figs., 109 tabs.

  16. Home Safety: Radon Gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shaw, Bryan W.; Denny, Monica L.

    1999-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Every home should be tested for radon, an invisible, odorless, radioactive gas that occurs naturally. This publication explains the health risks, testing methods, and mitigation and reduction techniques....

  17. Liquefied Natural Gas (Iowa)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This document adopts the standards promulgated by the National Fire Protection Association as rules for the transportation, storage, handling, and use of liquefied natural gas. The NFPA standards...

  18. Oil and Gas Outlook

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Gas Outlook For Independent Petroleum Association of America November 13, 2014 | Palm Beach, FL By Adam Sieminski, Administrator U.S. Energy Information Administration Recent...

  19. Oil and Gas (Indiana)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This division of the Indiana Department of Natural Resources provides information on the regulation of oil and gas exploration, wells and well spacings, drilling, plugging and abandonment, and...

  20. NETL: Oil & Gas

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    that address the unique nature and challenging locations of many of our remaining oil and natural gas accumulations. The National Energy Technology Laboratory's (NETL)...

  1. Reversible Acid Gas Capture

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Dave Heldebrant

    2012-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory scientist David Heldebrant demonstrates how a new process called reversible acid gas capture works to pull carbon dioxide out of power plant emissions.

  2. Natural Gas Rules (Louisiana)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Louisiana Department of Natural Resources administers the rules that govern natural gas exploration and extraction in the state. DNR works with the Louisiana Department of Environmental...

  3. Gas venting system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Khan, Amjad; Dreier, Ken Wayne; Moulthrop, Lawrence Clinton; White, Erik James

    2010-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A system to vent a moist gas stream is disclosed. The system includes an enclosure and an electrochemical cell disposed within the enclosure, the electrochemical cell productive of the moist gas stream. A first vent is in fluid communication with the electrochemical cell for venting the moist gas stream to an exterior of the enclosure, and a second vent is in fluid communication with an interior of the enclosure and in thermal communication with the first vent for discharging heated air to the exterior of the enclosure. At least a portion of the discharging heated air is for preventing freezing of the moist gas stream within the first vent.

  4. Spin dynamics simulations at AGS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, H.; MacKay, W.W.; Meot, F.; Roser, T.

    2010-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

    To preserve proton polarization through acceleration, it is important to have a correct model of the process. It has been known that with the insertion of the two helical partial Siberian snakes in the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS), the MAD model of AGS can not deal with a field map with offset orbit. The stepwise ray-tracing code Zgoubi provides a tool to represent the real electromagnetic fields in the modeling of the optics and spin dynamics for the AGS. Numerical experiments of resonance crossing, including spin dynamics in presence of the snakes and Q-jump, have been performed in AGS lattice models, using Zgoubi. This contribution reports on various results so obtained.

  5. Control of Trace Metal Emissions During Coal Combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas C. Ho

    1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Emissions of toxic trace metals in the form of metal fumes or submicron particulate from a coal-fired combustion source have received greater environmental and regulatory concern over the past years. Current practice of controlling these emissions is to collect them at the cold-end of the process by air-pollution control devices (APCDS) such as electrostatic precipitators and baghouses. However, trace metal fumes may not always be effectively collected by these devices because the formed fumes are extremely small. The proposed research is to explore the opportunities for improved control of toxic trace metal emissions, alternatively, at the hot-end of the coal combustion process, i.e., in the combustion chamber. The technology proposed is to prevent the metal fumes from forming during the process, which would effectively eliminate the metal emission problems. Specifically, the technology is to employ suitable sorbents to (1) reduce the amount of metal volatilization during combustion and (2) capture volatilized metal vapors. The objectives of the project are to demonstrate the technology and to characterize the metal capture process during coal combustion in a fluidized bed combustor.

  6. Landfill gas cleanup for carbonate fuel cell power generation. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steinfield, G.; Sanderson, R.

    1998-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Landfill gas represents a significant fuel resource both in the US and worldwide. The emissions of landfill gas from existing landfills has become an environmental liability contributing to global warming and causing odor problems. Landfill gas has been used to fuel reciprocating engines and gas turbines, and may also be used to fuel carbonate fuel cells. Carbonate fuel cells have high conversion efficiencies and use the carbon dioxide present in landfill gas as an oxidant. There are, however, a number of trace contaminants in landfill gas that contain chlorine and sulfur which are deleterious to fuel cell operation. Long-term economical operation of fuel cells fueled with landfill gas will, therefore, require cleanup of the gas to remove these contaminants. The overall objective of the work reported here was to evaluate the extent to which conventional contaminant removal processes could be combined to economically reduce contaminant levels to the specifications for carbonate fuel cells. A pilot plant cleaned approximately 970,000 scf of gas over 1,000 hours of operation. The testing showed that the process could achieve the following polished gas concentrations: less than 80 ppbv hydrogen sulfide; less than 1 ppmv (the detection limit) organic sulfur; less than 300 ppbv hydrogen chloride; less than 20--80 ppbv of any individual chlorinated hydrocarbon; and 1.5 ppm sulfur dioxide.

  7. 47 Natural Gas Market Trends NATURAL GAS MARKET TRENDS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    47 Natural Gas Market Trends Chapter 5 NATURAL GAS MARKET TRENDS INTRODUCTION Natural gas discusses current natural gas market conditions in California and the rest of North America, followed on the outlook for demand, supply, and price of natural gas for the forecasted 20-year horizon. It also addresses

  8. Shale gas is natural gas trapped inside

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOriginEducationVideo »UsageSecretary of EnergyFocus Group HSS/UnionGlossary Shale GasShale gas

  9. Bulk Viscosity of a Gas of Massless Pions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jiunn-Wei Chen; Juven Wang

    2009-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    In the hadronic phase, the dominant configuration of QCD with two flavors of massless quarks is a gas of massless pions. We calculate the bulk viscosity (zeta) using the Boltzmann equation with the kinetic theory generalized to incorporate the trace anomaly. We find that the dimensionless ratio zeta/s, s being the entropy density, is monotonic increasing below T=120 MeV, where chiral perturbation theory is applicable. This, combined with previous results, shows that zeta/s reaches its maximum near the phase transition temperature Tc, while eta/s, eta being the shear viscosity, reaches its minimum near Tc in QCD with massless quarks.

  10. Coarse Grained Quantum Dynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cesar Agon; Vijay Balasubramanian; Skyler Kasko; Albion Lawrence

    2014-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

    We consider coarse graining a quantum system divided between short distance and long distance degrees of freedom, which are coupled by the Hamiltonian. Observations using purely long distance observables can be described by the reduced density matrix that arises from tracing out the short-distance observables. The dynamics of this density matrix is that of an open quantum system, and is nonlocal in time, on the order of some short time scale. We describe these dynamics in a model system with a simple hierarchy of energy gaps $\\Delta E_{UV} > \\Delta E_{IR}$, in which the coupling between high-and low-energy degrees of freedom is treated to second order in perturbation theory. We then describe the equations of motion under suitable time averaging, reflecting the limited time resolution of actual experiments, and find an expansion of the master equation in powers of $\\Delta E_{IR}/\\Delta E_{UV}$, in which the failure of the system to be Hamiltonian or even Markovian appears at higher orders in this ratio. We compute the evolution of the density matrix in two specific examples -- coupled spins, and linearly coupled simple harmonic oscillators. Finally, we discuss the evolution of the density matrix using the path integral approach, computing the Feynman-Vernon influence functional for the IR degrees of freedom in perturbation theory, and argue that this influence functional is the correct analog of the Wilsonian effective action for this problem.

  11. Numerical analysis of a microwave torch with axial gas injection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gritsinin, S. I.; Davydov, A. M.; Kossyi, I. A., E-mail: kossyi@fpl.gpi.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Prokhorov General Physics Institute (Russian Federation); Kulumbaev, E. B. [National Research University Belgorod State University (Russian Federation)] [National Research University Belgorod State University (Russian Federation); Lelevkin, V. M. [Kyrgyz-Russian Slavic University (Kyrgyzstan)] [Kyrgyz-Russian Slavic University (Kyrgyzstan)

    2013-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The characteristics of a microwave discharge in an argon jet injected axially into a coaxial channel with a shortened inner electrode are numerically analyzed using a self-consistent equilibrium gas-dynamic model. The specific features of the excitation and maintenance of the microwave discharge are determined, and the dependences of the discharge characteristics on the supplied electromagnetic power and gas flow rate are obtained. The calculated results are compared with experimental data.

  12. Inorganic hazardous air pollutants before and after a limestone flue gas desulfurization system as a function of <10 micrometer particle sizes and unit load

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maxwell, D.P.; Williams, W.A.; Flora, H.B. II [Radian Corp., Austin, TX (United States)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Radian Corporation collected size-fractionated particulate samples from stack gas at a unit burning high sulfur coal with a venturi scrubber FGD system. Independent sample fractions were collected under high-load and low-load operating conditions and subjected to various techniques designed to measure the total composition and surface-extractable concentrations of selected trace elements. The relationships between unit load, particle-size distribution, total composition, and surface-extractable inorganic species are reported and compared to show the availability of trace elements relevant to potential health risks from flue gas particulate emissions.

  13. Horizon dynamics of distorted rotating black holes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tony Chu; Harald P. Pfeiffer; Michael I. Cohen

    2011-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

    We present numerical simulations of a Kerr black hole perturbed by a pulse of ingoing gravitational radiation. For strong perturbations we find up to five concentric marginally outer trapped surfaces. These trapped surfaces appear and disappear in pairs, so that the total number of such surfaces at any given time is odd. The world tubes traced out by the marginally outer trapped surfaces are found to be spacelike during the highly dynamical regime, approaching a null hypersurface at early and late times. We analyze the structure of these marginally trapped tubes in the context of the dynamical horizon formalism, computing the expansion of outgoing and incoming null geodesics, as well as evaluating the dynamical horizon flux law and the angular momentum flux law. Finally, we compute the event horizon. The event horizon is well-behaved and approaches the apparent horizon before and after the highly dynamical regime. No new generators enter the event horizon during the simulation.

  14. Challenges, uncertainties and issues facing gas production from gas hydrate deposits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moridis, G.J.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of Gas Price ($/Mscf) for Offshore Gas Hydrate StudyEvaluation of deepwater gas-hydrate systems. The Leadingfor Gas Production from Gas Hydrates Reservoirs. J. Canadian

  15. Oil and Gas Exploration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tingley, Joseph V.

    , oil and gas, and geothermal activities and accomplishments in Nevada: production statistics Products 23. Sloan dolomite quarry 24. Weiser gypsum quarry Oil Fields 1. Blackburn field 2. North WillowMetals Industrial Minerals Oil and Gas Geothermal Exploration Development Mining Processing Nevada

  16. Illinois Natural Gas Summary

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Withdrawals NA NA NA NA NA NA 1991-2014 From Gas Wells NA NA NA NA NA NA 1991-2014 From Oil Wells NA NA NA NA NA NA 1991-2014 From Shale Gas Wells NA NA NA NA NA NA 2007-2014...

  17. Montana Natural Gas Summary

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Withdrawals NA NA NA NA NA NA 1991-2014 From Gas Wells NA NA NA NA NA NA 1991-2014 From Oil Wells NA NA NA NA NA NA 1991-2014 From Shale Gas Wells NA NA NA NA NA NA 2007-2014...

  18. Gas Kick Mechanistic Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zubairy, Raheel

    2014-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

    -gain and temperature profile in the annulus. This research focuses on these changes in these parameters to be able to detect the occurrence of gas kick and the circulation of the gas kick out from the well. In this thesis, we have developed a model that incorporates...

  19. Fission gas detection system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Colburn, Richard P. (Pasco, WA)

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A device for collecting fission gas released by a failed fuel rod which device uses a filter to pass coolant but which filter blocks fission gas bubbles which cannot pass through the filter due to the surface tension of the bubble.

  20. Western Europe's future gas supplies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kardaun, G.

    1983-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Decline in indigenous natural gas production by 2000 will be compensated by imported natural gas and LNG and gas from unconventional sources. Coal gas will furnish about 10 percent of the demand, more natural gas imports will come from North Africa and the USSR and additional LNG will come from West Africa, the Middle East and the Western Hemisphere.

  1. Final Scientific/Technical Report. A closed path methane and water vapor gas analyzer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liukang, Xu; Dayle, McDermitt; Tyler, Anderson; Brad, Riensche; Anatoly, Komissarov; Julie, Howe

    2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Robust, economical, low-power and reliable closed-path methane (CH4), carbon dioxide (CO2), and water vapor (H2O) analyzers suitable for long-term measurements are not readily available commercially. Such analyzers are essential for quantifying the amount of CH4 and CO2 released from various ecosystems (wetlands, rice paddies, forests, etc.) and other surface contexts (e.g. landfills, animal husbandry lots, etc.), and for understanding the dynamics of the atmospheric CH4 and CO2 budget and their impact on climate change and global warming. The purpose of this project is to develop a closed-path methane, carbon dioxide gas and water vapor analyzer capable of long-term measurements in remote areas for global climate change and environmental research. The analyzer will be capable of being deployed over a wide range of ecosystems to understand methane and carbon dioxide exchange between the atmosphere and the surface. Measurements of methane and carbon dioxide exchange need to be made all year-round with limited maintenance requirements. During this Phase II effort, we successfully completed the design of the electronics, optical bench, trace gas detection method and mechanical infrastructure. We are using the technologies of two vertical cavity surface emitting lasers, a multiple-pass Herriott optical cell, wavelength modulation spectroscopy and direct absorption to measure methane, carbon dioxide, and water vapor. We also have designed the instrument application software, Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA), along with partial completion of the embedded software. The optical bench has been tested in a lab setting with very good results. Major sources of optical noise have been identified and through design, the optical noise floor is approaching -60dB. Both laser modules can be temperature controlled to help maximize the stability of the analyzer. Additionally, a piezo electric transducer has been utilized to randomize the noise introduced from potential etalons. It is expected that all original specifications contained within the initial proposal will be met. We are currently in the beginning stages of assembling the first generation prototypes and finalizing the remaining design elements. The first prototypes will initially be tested in our environmental calibration chamber in which specific gas concentrations, temperature and humidity levels can be controlled. Once operation in this controlled setting is verified, the prototypes will be deployed at LI-COR�¢����s Experimental Research Station (LERS). Deployment at the LERS site will test the instrument�¢����s robustness in a real-world situation.

  2. 2566 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON PLASMA SCIENCE, VOL. 36, NO. 5, OCTOBER 2008 Quantitative Analysis of Gas Circuit Breaker

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Basse, Nils Plesner

    --Understanding the dynamic processes governing gas circuit breaker physics is crucial in order to continue to improve short, especially those induced at flow reversal where the gas flow between the arc zone and heating volume changes2566 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON PLASMA SCIENCE, VOL. 36, NO. 5, OCTOBER 2008 Quantitative Analysis of Gas

  3. Gas pump with movable gas pumping panels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Osher, John E. (Alamo, CA)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Apparatus for pumping gas continuously a plurality of articulated panels of getter material, each of which absorbs gases on one side while another of its sides is simultaneously reactivated in a zone isolated by the panels themselves from a working space being pumped.

  4. Shale gas production: potential versus actual greenhouse gas emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O’Sullivan, Francis Martin

    Estimates of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from shale gas production and use are controversial. Here we assess the level of GHG emissions from shale gas well hydraulic fracturing operations in the United States during ...

  5. Intermountain Gas Company (IGC)- Gas Heating Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Intermountain Gas Company's (IGC) Gas Heating Rebate Program offers customers a $200 per unit rebate when they convert to a high efficiency natural gas furnace that replaces a heating system...

  6. Peoples Gas and North Shore Gas- Bonus Rebate Program (Illinois)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Peoples Gas and North Shore Gas Natural Gas Savings Programs are offering the following bonus rebates (in addition to the joint utilities bonus rebate). For both offers below, installation must...

  7. Underground Storage of Natural Gas and Liquefied Petroleum Gas (Nebraska)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This statute declares underground storage of natural gas and liquefied petroleum gas to be in the public interest if it promotes the conservation of natural gas and permits the accumulation of...

  8. EIA - Natural Gas Pipeline Network - Natural Gas Supply Basins...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Corridors About U.S. Natural Gas Pipelines - Transporting Natural Gas based on data through 20072008 with selected updates U.S. Natural Gas Supply Basins Relative to Major Natural...

  9. Supersonic gas compressor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lawlor, Shawn P. (Bellevue, WA); Novaresi, Mark A. (San Diego, CA); Cornelius, Charles C. (Kirkland, WA)

    2007-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

    A gas compressor based on the use of a driven rotor having a compression ramp traveling at a local supersonic inlet velocity (based on the combination of inlet gas velocity and tangential speed of the ramp) which compresses inlet gas against a stationary sidewall. In using this method to compress inlet gas, the supersonic compressor efficiently achieves high compression ratios while utilizing a compact, stabilized gasdynamic flow path. Operated at supersonic speeds, the inlet stabilizes an oblique/normal shock system in the gasdyanamic flow path formed between the rim of the rotor, the strakes, and a stationary external housing. Part load efficiency is enhanced by the use of a pre-swirl compressor, and using a bypass stream to bleed a portion of the intermediate pressure gas after passing through the pre-swirl compressor back to the inlet of the pre-swirl compressor. Inlet guide vanes to the compression ramp enhance overall efficiency.

  10. Cryogenic treatment of gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bravo, Jose Luis (Houston, TX); Harvey, III, Albert Destrehan (Kingwood, TX); Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX)

    2012-04-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Systems and methods of treating a gas stream are described. A method of treating a gas stream includes cryogenically separating a first gas stream to form a second gas stream and a third stream. The third stream is cryogenically contacted with a carbon dioxide stream to form a fourth and fifth stream. A majority of the second gas stream includes methane and/or molecular hydrogen. A majority of the third stream includes one or more carbon oxides, hydrocarbons having a carbon number of at least 2, one or more sulfur compounds, or mixtures thereof. A majority of the fourth stream includes one or more of the carbon oxides and hydrocarbons having a carbon number of at least 2. A majority of the fifth stream includes hydrocarbons having a carbon number of at least 3 and one or more of the sulfur compounds.

  11. Evolution of gas processing industry in Saudi Arabia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Showail, A.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The beginning of the natural gas processing industry in Saudi Arabia is traced back to 1959 when Aramco embarked on a program to recover natural gas liquids (NGL) for export from low pressure gases such as stabilizer overhead, spheroid, tank farm, and refinery off-gases. The processing scheme involves compression and refrigeration to extract C3+ raw NGL, a raw NGL gathering system, and a fractionation plant to separate propane, butane, and natural gasoline. NGL extracted in Abqaiq and Ras Tanura is moved to Ras Tanura for fractionation, storage, and export. The system, built in several increments, has total design capacity of 500 MMscfd of feed gases to produce 320,000 bpd of NGL composed of 40% propane, 30% butane, and 30% natural gasoline. Phase II of the Saudi gas program envisages collection and processing of associated gas produced with Arabian medium and heavy crude oils largely in the northern onshore and offshore fields. Further domestic development may focus on more diversification in gas product utilization and on upgrading to higher value products.

  12. Gas Storage Technology Consortium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joel Morrison

    2005-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Gas storage is a critical element in the natural gas industry. Producers, transmission and distribution companies, marketers, and end users all benefit directly from the load balancing function of storage. The unbundling process has fundamentally changed the way storage is used and valued. As an unbundled service, the value of storage is being recovered at rates that reflect its value. Moreover, the marketplace has differentiated between various types of storage services, and has increasingly rewarded flexibility, safety, and reliability. The size of the natural gas market has increased and is projected to continue to increase towards 30 trillion cubic feet (TCF) over the next 10 to 15 years. Much of this increase is projected to come from electric generation, particularly peaking units. Gas storage, particularly the flexible services that are most suited to electric loads, is critical in meeting the needs of these new markets. In order to address the gas storage needs of the natural gas industry, an industry driven consortium was created--the Gas Storage Technology Consortium (GSTC). The objective of the GSTC is to provide a means to accomplish industry-driven research and development designed to enhance operational flexibility and deliverability of the Nation's gas storage system, and provide a cost effective, safe, and reliable supply of natural gas to meet domestic demand. This report addresses the activities for the quarterly period of April 1, 2005 through June 30, 2005. During this time period efforts were directed toward (1) GSTC administration changes, (2) participating in the American Gas Association Operations Conference and Biennial Exhibition, (3) issuing a Request for Proposals (RFP) for proposal solicitation for funding, and (4) organizing the proposal selection meeting.

  13. Dynamic Traitor Tracing Amos Fiat 1,2 and Tamir Tassa 2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tassa, Tamir

    , watermarking, imprinting, pay TV, on­line algorithms. 1 Introduction The subject of this paper is protecting. Pirates make a business of breaking the security safeguards of the conditional access system and sell on tamper resistant devices, most notably di#erential power analysis and timing attacks [6], have

  14. Exploring Light's Interactions with Bubbles and Light Absorbers in Photoelectrochemical Devices using Ray Tracing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stevens, John

    2013-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Ray tracing was used to perform optical optimization of arrays of photovoltaic microrods and explore the interaction between light and bubbles of oxygen gas on the surface of the microrods. The incident angle of light was varied over a wide range. The percent of incident light absorbed by the microrods and reflected by the bubbles was computed over this range. It was found that, for the 10 ?m diameter, 100 ?m tall SrTiO{sub 3} microrods simulated in the model, the optimal center-­?to-­?center spacing was 14 ?m for a square grid. This geometry produced 75% average and 90% maximum absorbance. For a triangular grid using the same microrods, the optimal center-­?to-­?center spacing was 14 ?m. This geometry produced 67% average and 85% maximum absorbance. For a randomly laid out grid of 5 ?m diameter, 100 ?m tall SrTiO! microrods with an average center-­?to-­?center spacing of 20 ?m, the average absorption was 23% and the maximum absorption was 43%. For a 50% areal coverage fraction of bubbles on the absorber surface, between 2%-­?20% of the incident light energy was reflected away from the rods by the bubbles, depending upon incident angle and bubble morphology.

  15. Questar Gas- Home Builder Gas Appliance Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Questar Gas provides incentives for home builders to construct energy efficient homes. Rebates are provided for both energy efficient gas equipment and whole home Energy Star certification. All...

  16. Questar Gas- Home Builder Gas Appliance Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Questar Gas provides incentives for home builders to construct energy efficient homes. Rebates are provided for energy efficient gas equipment. Builders can also receive whole house rebates for...

  17. Questar Gas- Home Builder Gas Appliance Rebate Program (Idaho)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Questar Gas provides incentives for home builders who incorporate energy efficiency into new construction. Rebates are provided for energy efficient gas equipment placed into new construction....

  18. Questar Gas- Home Builder Gas Appliance Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Questar Gas provides incentives for home builders who incorporate energy efficiency into new construction. Rebates are provided for energy efficient gas equipment placed into new construction. ...

  19. ,"New York Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Shale Gas (Million...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"2262015 9:43:21 AM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: New York Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Shale Gas (Million Cubic Feet)"...

  20. natural gas+ condensing flue gas heat recovery+ water creation...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    natural gas+ condensing flue gas heat recovery+ water creation+ CO2 reduction+ cool exhaust gases+ Energy efficiency+ commercial building energy efficiency+ industrial energy...

  1. EIA - Natural Gas Pipeline Network - Largest Natural Gas Pipeline...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Interstate Pipelines Table About U.S. Natural Gas Pipelines - Transporting Natural Gas based on data through 20072008 with selected updates Thirty Largest U.S. Interstate Natural...

  2. Commercialization Development of Oxygen Fired CFB for Greenhouse Gas Control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nsakala ya Nsakala; Gregory N. Liljedahl; David G. Turek

    2007-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Given that fossil fuel fired power plants are among the largest and most concentrated producers of CO{sub 2} emissions, recovery and sequestration of CO{sub 2} from the flue gas of such plants has been identified as one of the primary means for reducing anthropogenic (i.e., man-made) CO{sub 2} emissions. In 2001, ALSTOM Power Inc. (ALSTOM) began a two-phase program to investigate the feasibility of various carbon capture technologies. This program was sponsored under a Cooperative Agreement from the US Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE). The first phase entailed a comprehensive study evaluating the technical feasibility and economics of alternate CO{sub 2} capture technologies applied to Greenfield US coal-fired electric generation power plants. Thirteen cases, representing various levels of technology development, were evaluated. Seven cases represented coal combustion in CFB type equipment. Four cases represented Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) systems. Two cases represented advanced Chemical Looping Combined Cycle systems. Marion, et al. reported the details of this work in 2003. One of the thirteen cases studied utilized an oxygen-fired circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boiler. In this concept, the fuel is fired with a mixture of oxygen and recirculated flue gas (mainly CO{sub 2}). This combustion process yields a flue gas containing over 80 percent (by volume) CO{sub 2}. This flue gas can be processed relatively easily to enrich the CO{sub 2} content to over 96 percent for use in enhanced oil or gas recovery (EOR or EGR) or simply dried for sequestration. The Phase I study identified the O{sub 2}-fired CFB as having a near term development potential, because it uses conventional commercial CFB technology and commercially available CO{sub 2} capture enabling technologies such as cryogenic air separation and simple rectification or distillation gas processing systems. In the long term, air separation technology advancements offer significant reductions in power requirements, which would improve plant efficiency and economics for the oxygen-fired technology. The second phase consisted of pilot-scale testing followed by a refined performance and economic evaluation of the O{sub 2} fired CFB concept. As a part of this workscope, ALSTOM modified its 3 MW{sub th} (9.9 MMBtu/hr) Multiuse Test Facility (MTF) pilot plant to operate with O{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} mixtures of up to 70 percent O{sub 2} by volume. Tests were conducted with coal and petroleum coke. The test objectives were to determine the impacts of oxygen firing on heat transfer, bed dynamics, potential agglomeration, and gaseous and particulate emissions. The test data results were used to refine the design, performance, costs, and economic models developed in Phase-I for the O{sub 2}-fired CFB with CO{sub 2} capture. Nsakala, Liljedahl, and Turek reported results from this study in 2004. ALSTOM identified several items needing further investigation in preparation for large scale demonstration of the oxygen-fired CFB concept, namely: (1) Operation and performance of the moving bed heat exchanger (MBHE) to avoid recarbonation and also for cost savings compared to the standard bubbling fluid bed heat exchanger (FBHE); (2) Performance of the back-end flash dryer absorber (FDA) for sulfur capture under high CO{sub 2}/high moisture flue gas environment using calcined limestone in the fly ash and using fresh commercial lime directly in the FDA; (3) Determination of the effect of recarbonation on fouling in the convective pass; (4) Assessment of the impact of oxygen firing on the mercury, other trace elements, and volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions; and (5) Develop a proposal-level oxygen-fired retrofit design for a relatively small existing CFB steam power plant in preparation for a large-scale demonstration of the O{sub 2} fired CFB concept. Hence, ALSTOM responded to a DOE Solicitation to address all these issues with further O{sub 2} fired MTF pilot testing and a subsequent retrofit design study of oxygen firing and CO{s

  3. Oil and Gas Program (Tennessee)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Oil and Gas section of the Tennessee Code, found in Title 60, covers all regulations, licenses, permits, and laws related to the production of natural gas. The laws create the Oil and Gas...

  4. Oil and Gas Production (Missouri)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A State Oil and Gas Council regulates and oversees oil and gas production in Missouri, and conducts a biennial review of relevant rules and regulations. The waste of oil and gas is prohibited. This...

  5. Integrated capture of fossil fuel gas pollutants including CO.sub.2 with energy recovery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ochs, Thomas L. (Albany, OR); Summers, Cathy A. (Albany, OR); Gerdemann, Steve (Albany, OR); Oryshchyn, Danylo B. (Philomath, OR); Turner, Paul (Independence, OR); Patrick, Brian R. (Chicago, IL)

    2011-10-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of reducing pollutants exhausted into the atmosphere from the combustion of fossil fuels. The disclosed process removes nitrogen from air for combustion, separates the solid combustion products from the gases and vapors and can capture the entire vapor/gas stream for sequestration leaving near-zero emissions. The invention produces up to three captured material streams. The first stream is contaminant-laden water containing SO.sub.x, residual NO.sub.x particulates and particulate-bound Hg and other trace contaminants. The second stream can be a low-volume flue gas stream containing N.sub.2 and O.sub.2 if CO2 purification is needed. The final product stream is a mixture comprising predominantly CO.sub.2 with smaller amounts of H.sub.2O, Ar, N.sub.2, O.sub.2, SO.sub.X, NO.sub.X, Hg, and other trace gases.

  6. Survey and assessment of the effects of nonconventional gases on gas distribution equipment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jasionowski, W.J.; Scott, M.I.; Gracey, W.C.

    1982-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A literature search and a survey of the gas industry were conducted to assess potential problems in the distribution of nonconventional gases. Available literature did not uncover data that would describe potential problems or substantiate the presence of harmful trace elements in final gas compositions produced from various SNG processes. Information from the survey indicates that some companies have encountered problems with nonconventional gases and extraneous additives such as landfill gas, refinery off-gases, oil gas, carbureted water gas, coke-oven gas, propane-air, and compressor lubricant oils. These nonconventional gases and compressor oils may 1) cause pipeline corrosion, 2) degrade some elastomeric materials and greases and affect the integrity of seals, gaskets, O-rings, and meter and regulator diaphragms, and 3) cause operational and safety problems. The survey indicated that 62% of the responding companies plan to use supplemental gas, with most planning on more than one type. Distribution companies intend to significantly increase their use of polyethylene piping from 11.6% in 1980 to 22.4% in 2000 for gas mains and from 33.4% to 50.3% in 2000 for gas service lines.

  7. Exhaust gas recirculation apparatus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Egnell, R.A.; Hansson, B.L.

    1981-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Apparatus is disclosed for recirculating combustion exhaust gases to the burner region of a Stirling cycle hot-gas engine to lower combustion temperature and reduct NO/sub x/ formation includes a first wall separating the exhaust gas stream from the inlet air stream, a second wall separating the exhaust gas stream from the burner region, and low flow resistance ejectors formed in the first and second walls for admitting the inlet air to the burner region and for entraining and mixing with the inlet air portion of the exhaust gas stream. In a preferred embodiment the ejectors are arranged around the periphery of a cylindrical burner region and oriented to admit the air/exhaust gas mixture tangentially to promote mixing. In another preferred embodiment a single annular ejector surrounds and feeds the air/exhaust gas mixture to a cylindrical burner region. The annular ejector includes an annular plate with radially-directed flow passages to provide an even distribution of the air/exhaust gas mixture to the burner region.

  8. Vacuum surface flashover and high pressure gas streamers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elizondo, J.M.; Krogh, M.L.; Smith, D.; Stolz, D.; Wright, S.N. [Allied-Signal Aerospace Co., Kansas City, MO (United States). Kansas City Div.; Sampayan, S.E.; Caporaso, G.J.; Vitello, P.; Tishchenko, N. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Pre-breakdown current traces obtained during high pressure gas breakdown and vacuum surface flashover show similar signatures. The initial pre-breakdown current spike, a flat constant current phase, and the breakdown phase with voltage collapse and current surge differ mostly in magnitude. Given these similarities, a model, consisting of the initial current spike corresponding to a fast precursor streamer (ionization wave led by a photoionizing front), the flat current stage as the heating or glow phase, and the terminal avalanche and gap closure, is applied to vacuum surface flashover. A simple analytical approximation based on the resistivity changes induced in the vacuum and dielectric surface is presented. The approximation yields an excellent fit to pre-breakdown time delay vs applied field for previously published experimental data. A detailed kinetics model that includes surface and gas contributions is being developed based in the initial approximation.

  9. Gas Storage Technology Consortium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joel L. Morrison; Sharon L. Elder

    2006-07-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Gas storage is a critical element in the natural gas industry. Producers, transmission & distribution companies, marketers, and end users all benefit directly from the load balancing function of storage. The unbundling process has fundamentally changed the way storage is used and valued. As an unbundled service, the value of storage is being recovered at rates that reflect its value. Moreover, the marketplace has differentiated between various types of storage services, and has increasingly rewarded flexibility, safety, and reliability. The size of the natural gas market has increased and is projected to continue to increase towards 30 trillion cubic feet (TCF) over the next 10 to 15 years. Much of this increase is projected to come from electric generation, particularly peaking units. Gas storage, particularly the flexible services that are most suited to electric loads, is critical in meeting the needs of these new markets. In order to address the gas storage needs of the natural gas industry, an industry-driven consortium was created--the Gas Storage Technology Consortium (GSTC). The objective of the GSTC is to provide a means to accomplish industry-driven research and development designed to enhance operational flexibility and deliverability of the Nation's gas storage system, and provide a cost effective, safe, and reliable supply of natural gas to meet domestic demand. This report addresses the activities for the quarterly period of April 1 to June 30, 2006. Key activities during this time period include: (1) Develop and process subcontract agreements for the eight projects selected for cofunding at the February 2006 GSTC Meeting; (2) Compiling and distributing the three 2004 project final reports to the GSTC Full members; (3) Develop template, compile listserv, and draft first GSTC Insider online newsletter; (4) Continue membership recruitment; (5) Identify projects and finalize agenda for the fall GSTC/AGA Underground Storage Committee Technology Transfer Workshop in San Francisco, CA; and (6) Identify projects and prepare draft agenda for the fall GSTC Technology Transfer Workshop in Pittsburgh, PA.

  10. Gas Storage Technology Consortium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joel L. Morrison; Sharon L. Elder

    2007-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Gas storage is a critical element in the natural gas industry. Producers, transmission and distribution companies, marketers, and end users all benefit directly from the load balancing function of storage. The unbundling process has fundamentally changed the way storage is used and valued. As an unbundled service, the value of storage is being recovered at rates that reflect its value. Moreover, the marketplace has differentiated between various types of storage services and has increasingly rewarded flexibility, safety, and reliability. The size of the natural gas market has increased and is projected to continue to increase towards 30 trillion cubic feet over the next 10 to 15 years. Much of this increase is projected to come from electric generation, particularly peaking units. Gas storage, particularly the flexible services that are most suited to electric loads, is crucial in meeting the needs of these new markets. To address the gas storage needs of the natural gas industry, an industry-driven consortium was created--the Gas Storage Technology Consortium (GSTC). The objective of the GSTC is to provide a means to accomplish industry-driven research and development designed to enhance the operational flexibility and deliverability of the nation's gas storage system, and provide a cost-effective, safe, and reliable supply of natural gas to meet domestic demand. This report addresses the activities for the quarterly period of April 1, 2007 through June 30, 2007. Key activities during this time period included: (1) Organizing and hosting the 2007 GSTC Spring Meeting; (2) Identifying the 2007 GSTC projects, issuing award or declination letters, and begin drafting subcontracts; (3) 2007 project mentoring teams identified; (4) New NETL Project Manager; (5) Preliminary planning for the 2007 GSTC Fall Meeting; (6) Collecting and compiling the 2005 GSTC project final reports; and (7) Outreach and communications.

  11. Gas Storage Technology Consortium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joel L. Morrison; Sharon L. Elder

    2006-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Gas storage is a critical element in the natural gas industry. Producers, transmission and distribution companies, marketers, and end users all benefit directly from the load balancing function of storage. The unbundling process has fundamentally changed the way storage is used and valued. As an unbundled service, the value of storage is being recovered at rates that reflect its value. Moreover, the marketplace has differentiated between various types of storage services, and has increasingly rewarded flexibility, safety, and reliability. The size of the natural gas market has increased and is projected to continue to increase towards 30 trillion cubic feet (TCF) over the next 10 to 15 years. Much of this increase is projected to come from electric generation, particularly peaking units. Gas storage, particularly the flexible services that are most suited to electric loads, is critical in meeting the needs of these new markets. In order to address the gas storage needs of the natural gas industry, an industry-driven consortium was created--the Gas Storage Technology Consortium (GSTC). The objective of the GSTC is to provide a means to accomplish industry-driven research and development designed to enhance operational flexibility and deliverability of the Nation's gas storage system, and provide a cost effective, safe, and reliable supply of natural gas to meet domestic demand. This report addresses the activities for the quarterly period of January 1, 2006 through March 31, 2006. Activities during this time period were: (1) Organize and host the 2006 Spring Meeting in San Diego, CA on February 21-22, 2006; (2) Award 8 projects for co-funding by GSTC for 2006; (3) New members recruitment; and (4) Improving communications.

  12. Gas Storage Technology Consortium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joel L. Morrison; Sharon L. Elder

    2007-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Gas storage is a critical element in the natural gas industry. Producers, transmission and distribution companies, marketers, and end users all benefit directly from the load balancing function of storage. The unbundling process has fundamentally changed the way storage is used and valued. As an unbundled service, the value of storage is being recovered at rates that reflect its value. Moreover, the marketplace has differentiated between various types of storage services and has increasingly rewarded flexibility, safety, and reliability. The size of the natural gas market has increased and is projected to continue to increase towards 30 trillion cubic feet (TCF) over the next 10 to 15 years. Much of this increase is projected to come from electric generation, particularly peaking units. Gas storage, particularly the flexible services that are most suited to electric loads, is crucial in meeting the needs of these new markets. To address the gas storage needs of the natural gas industry, an industry-driven consortium was created - the Gas Storage Technology Consortium (GSTC). The objective of the GSTC is to provide a means to accomplish industry-driven research and development designed to enhance the operational flexibility and deliverability of the nation's gas storage system, and provide a cost-effective, safe, and reliable supply of natural gas to meet domestic demand. This report addresses the activities for the quarterly period of January1, 2007 through March 31, 2007. Key activities during this time period included: {lg_bullet} Drafting and distributing the 2007 RFP; {lg_bullet} Identifying and securing a meeting site for the GSTC 2007 Spring Proposal Meeting; {lg_bullet} Scheduling and participating in two (2) project mentoring conference calls; {lg_bullet} Conducting elections for four Executive Council seats; {lg_bullet} Collecting and compiling the 2005 GSTC Final Project Reports; and {lg_bullet} Outreach and communications.

  13. Electronic Spectroscopy & Dynamics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mark Maroncelli, Nancy Ryan Gray

    2010-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The Gordon Research Conference (GRC) on Electronic Spectroscopy and Dynamics was held at Colby College, Waterville, NH from 07/19/2009 thru 07/24/2009. The Conference was well-attended with participants (attendees list attached). The attendees represented the spectrum of endeavor in this field coming from academia, industry, and government laboratories, both U.S. and foreign scientists, senior researchers, young investigators, and students. The GRC on Electronic Spectroscopy & Dynamics showcases some of the most recent experimental and theoretical developments in electronic spectroscopy that probes the structure and dynamics of isolated molecules, molecules embedded in clusters and condensed phases, and bulk materials. Electronic spectroscopy is an important tool in many fields of research, and this GRC brings together experts having diverse backgrounds in physics, chemistry, biophysics, and materials science, making the meeting an excellent opportunity for the interdisciplinary exchange of ideas and techniques. Topics covered in this GRC include high-resolution spectroscopy, biological molecules in the gas phase, electronic structure theory for excited states, multi-chromophore and single-molecule spectroscopies, and excited state dynamics in chemical and biological systems.

  14. Gas only nozzle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bechtel, William Theodore (15 Olde Coach Rd., Scotia, NY 12302); Fitts, David Orus (286 Sweetman Rd., Ballston Spa, NY 12020); DeLeonardo, Guy Wayne (60 St. Stephens La., Glenville, NY 12302)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A diffusion flame nozzle gas tip is provided to convert a dual fuel nozzle to a gas only nozzle. The nozzle tip diverts compressor discharge air from the passage feeding the diffusion nozzle air swirl vanes to a region vacated by removal of the dual fuel components, so that the diverted compressor discharge air can flow to and through effusion holes in the end cap plate of the nozzle tip. In a preferred embodiment, the nozzle gas tip defines a cavity for receiving the compressor discharge air from a peripheral passage of the nozzle for flow through the effusion openings defined in the end cap plate.

  15. Gas ampoule-syringe

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gay, Don D. (Aiken, SC)

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A gas ampoule for the shipment and delivery of radioactive gases. The gas ampoule having a glass tube with serum bottle stopper on one end and a plunger tip in the opposite end all fitting in a larger plastic tube threaded on each end with absorbent between the tubes, is seated onto the internal needle assembly via a bushing associated with the plunger and locked into the syringe barrel via barrel-bushing locking caps. The design practically eliminates the possibility of personnel contamination due to an inadvertent exposure of such personnel to the contained radioactive gas.

  16. Gas ampoule-syringe

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gay, D.D.

    1985-02-02T23:59:59.000Z

    A gas ampoule for the shipment and delivery of radioactive gases. The gas ampoule having a glass tube with serum bottle stopper on one and a plunger tip in the opposite end all fitting in a larger plastic tube threaded on each end with absorbent between the tubes, is seated onto the internal needle assembly via a bushing associated with the plunger and locked into the syringe barrel via barrel-bushing locking caps. The design practically eliminates the possibility of personnel contamination due to an inadvertent exposure of such personnel to the contained radioactive gas.

  17. Calculation of material properties and ray tracing in transformation media

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schurig, D; Smith, D R

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Complex and interesting electromagnetic behavior can be found in spaces with non-flat topology. When considering the properties of an electromagnetic medium under an arbitrary coordinate transformation an alternative interpretation presents itself. The transformed material property tensors may be interpreted as a different set of material properties in a flat, Cartesian space. We describe the calculation of these material properties for coordinate transformations that describe spaces with spherical or cylindrical holes in them. The resulting material properties can then implement invisibility cloaks in flat space. We also describe a method for performing geometric ray tracing in these materials which are both inhomogeneous and anisotropic in their electric permittivity and magnetic permeability.

  18. Natural Gas | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Fossil Natural Gas Natural Gas September 15, 2014 NETL Releases Hydraulic Fracturing Study The National Energy Technology Laboratory has released a technical report on the...

  19. Regulations For Gas Companies (Tennessee)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Regulations for Gas Companies, implemented by the Tennessee Regulatory Authority (Authority) outline the standards for metering, distribution and electricity generation for utilities using gas....

  20. Citizens Gas- Residential Efficiency Rebates

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Citizens Gas of Indiana offers rebates to its residential customers for the installation of several types of efficient natural gas appliances. Rebates are generally available for residential homes...

  1. Gas Water Heater Energy Losses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Biermayer, Peter

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    p. 163, January 1, 2005. Battelle, Assessment of Technologymodel, TANK, was developed by Battelle for the Gas Research93/0186. Prepared by Battelle for Gas Research Institute

  2. Historical Natural Gas Annual 1999

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1999 The Historical Natural Gas Annual contains historical information on supply and disposition of natural gas at the national, regional, and State level as well as prices at...

  3. Virtual Pipeline System Testbed to Optimize the U.S. Natural Gas Transmission Pipeline System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kirby S. Chapman; Prakash Krishniswami; Virg Wallentine; Mohammed Abbaspour; Revathi Ranganathan; Ravi Addanki; Jeet Sengupta; Liubo Chen

    2005-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The goal of this project is to develop a Virtual Pipeline System Testbed (VPST) for natural gas transmission. This study uses a fully implicit finite difference method to analyze transient, nonisothermal compressible gas flow through a gas pipeline system. The inertia term of the momentum equation is included in the analysis. The testbed simulate compressor stations, the pipe that connects these compressor stations, the supply sources, and the end-user demand markets. The compressor station is described by identifying the make, model, and number of engines, gas turbines, and compressors. System operators and engineers can analyze the impact of system changes on the dynamic deliverability of gas and on the environment.

  4. Model of the radial distribution of gas in the blast furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nikus, M.; Saxen, H. [Aabo Akademi Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes an on-line model for estimating the radial gas distribution in blast furnaces. The model is based on molar and energy flow balances for the blast furnace throat region, and utilizes the top gas temperature and gas temperature measurements from a fixed above-burden probe. The distribution of the gas flux is estimated by a Kalman filter. The method is illustrated to capture short-term dynamics and to detect sudden major changes in the gas distribution in Finnish blast furnace.

  5. ComEd, Nicor Gas, Peoples Gas & North Shore Gas- Small Business Energy Savings Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    ComEd, Nicor Gas, Peoples Gas, and North Shore Gas fund the Small Business Energy Savings program in which an energy advisor conducts a free on-site energy assessment and provides free installati...

  6. ComEd, Nicor Gas, Peoples Gas and North Shore Gas- Bonus Rebate Program (Illinois)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    ComEd, Nicor Gas, Peoples Gas and North Shore Gas are offering a Complete System Replacement Rebate Program to residential customers. The program is a bundled promotion in partnership with ComEd...

  7. Evidence of Pressure Dependent Permeability in Long-Term Shale Gas Production and Pressure Transient Responses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vera Rosales, Fabian 1986-

    2012-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

    The current state of shale gas reservoir dynamics demands understanding long-term production, and existing models that address important parameters like fracture half-length, permeability, and stimulated shale volume assume constant permeability...

  8. Evidence of Pressure Dependent Permeability in Long-Term Shale Gas Production and Pressure Transient Responses 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vera Rosales, Fabian 1986-

    2012-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

    The current state of shale gas reservoir dynamics demands understanding long-term production, and existing models that address important parameters like fracture half-length, permeability, and stimulated shale volume assume constant permeability...

  9. A statistical analysis of the natural gas futures market : the interplay of sentiment, volatility and prices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fazzio, Thomas J. (Thomas Joseph)

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper attempts to understand the price dynamics of the North American natural gas market through a statistical survey that includes an analysis of the variables influencing the price and volatility of this energy ...

  10. Nonlinear Structure of the Diffusing Gas-Metal Interface in a Thermonuclear Plasma

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Molvig, Kim

    This Letter describes the theoretical structure of the plasma diffusion layer that develops from an initially sharp gas-metal interface. The layer dynamics under isothermal and isobaric conditions is considered so that ...

  11. Lyapunov instability for a periodic Lorentz gas thermostated by deterministic scattering K. Rateitschak*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Klages, Rainer

    Lyapunov instability for a periodic Lorentz gas thermostated by deterministic scattering K assess the nonlinear properties of this dynamical system by numerically calculating its Lyapunov exponents. Based on a revised method for computing Lyapunov exponents, which employs periodic

  12. Theoretical studies of combustion dynamics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bowman, J.M. [Emory Univ., Atlanta, GA (United States)

    1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The basic objectives of this research program are to develop and apply theoretical techniques to fundamental dynamical processes of importance in gas-phase combustion. There are two major areas currently supported by this grant. One is reactive scattering of diatom-diatom systems, and the other is the dynamics of complex formation and decay based on L{sup 2} methods. In all of these studies, the authors focus on systems that are of interest experimentally, and for which potential energy surfaces based, at least in part, on ab initio calculations are available.

  13. Dynamic reduced order modeling of entrained flow gasifiers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Monaghan, Rory F. D. (Rory Francis Desmond)

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Gasification-based energy systems coupled with carbon dioxide capture and storage technologies have the potential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from continued use of abundant and secure fossil fuels. Dynamic reduced ...

  14. Fluidic Catalytic Cracking Power Recovery Dynamic Computer Simulation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Samurin, N. A.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    operation of the primary mechanical components, specifically the axial compressor and hot gas expander. The present work expands upon the steady state model to add the dynamic characteristics of these elements as well as the effects of the controlling...

  15. Application of computational fluid dynamics to aerosol sampling and concentration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hu, Shishan

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    An understanding of gas-liquid two-phase interactions, aerosol particle deposition, and heat transfer is needed. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is becoming a powerful tool to predict aerosol behavior for related design work. In this study...

  16. The effect of fuel composition on flame dynamics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hendricks, Adam G.; Vandsburger, Uri [Department of Mechanical Engineering - 0238, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States)

    2007-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    As fuel sources diversify, the gas turbine industry is under increasing pressure to develop fuel-flexible plants, able to use fuels with a variety of compositions from a large range of sources. However, the dynamic characteristics vary considerably with composition, in many cases altering the thermoacoustic stability of the combustor. We compare the flame dynamics, or the response in heat release rate of the flame to acoustic perturbations, of the three major constituents of natural gas: methane, ethane, and propane. The heat release rate is quantified using OH* chemiluminescence and product gas temperature. Gas temperature is measured by tracking the absorption of two high-temperature water lines, via Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy. The flame dynamics of the three fuels differ significantly. The changes in flame dynamics due to variations in fuel composition have the potential to have a large effect on the thermoacoustic stability of the combustor. (author)

  17. Simulation of the dynamic response of a damped taught string

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Favennec, Hervé

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Marine pipeline are facing new issues involved by the increase of the depth of exploited oil and gas reservoirs. This thesis discusses the changes in the dynamic behavior of marine pipelines and proposes a simple simulation ...

  18. Natural gas monthly

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Data presented include volume and price, production, consumption, underground storage, and interstate pipeline activities.

  19. Greenhouse Gas Emissions (Minnesota)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This statute sets goals for the reduction of statewide greenhouse gas emissions by at least 15 percent by 2015, 30 percent by 2025, and 80 percent by 2050, calculated relative to 2005 levels. These...

  20. Gas Turbine Emissions 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Frederick, J. D.

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of regulatory interest in the 'real world' test results coupled with the difficulties of gathering analogous bench test data for systems employing gas turbines with Heat Recovery Steam Generators (HRSG) and steam injection. It appears that the agencies...