National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for dynamic time expansion

  1. Dynamic Time Expansion and Compression Using Nonlinear Waveguides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Findikoglu, Alp T.; Hahn, Sangkoo F.; Jia, Quanxi

    2004-06-22

    Dynamic time expansion or compression of a small amplitude input signal generated with an initial scale is performed using a nonlinear waveguide. A nonlinear waveguide having a variable refractive index is connected to a bias voltage source having a bias signal amplitude that is large relative to the input signal to vary the reflective index and concomitant speed of propagation of the nonlinear waveguide and an electrical circuit for applying the small amplitude signal and the large amplitude bias signal simultaneously to the nonlinear waveguide. The large amplitude bias signal with the input signal alters the speed of propagation of the small-amplitude signal with time in the nonlinear waveguide to expand or contract the initial time scale of the small-amplitude input signal.

  2. Dynamic time expansion and compression using nonlinear waveguides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Findikoglu, Alp T. (Los Alamos, NM); Hahn, Sangkoo F. (Los Alamos, NM); Jia, Quanxi (Los Alamos, NM)

    2004-06-22

    Dynamic time expansion or compression of a small-amplitude input signal generated with an initial scale is performed using a nonlinear waveguide. A nonlinear waveguide having a variable refractive index is connected to a bias voltage source having a bias signal amplitude that is large relative to the input signal to vary the reflective index and concomitant speed of propagation of the nonlinear waveguide and an electrical circuit for applying the small-amplitude signal and the large amplitude bias signal simultaneously to the nonlinear waveguide. The large amplitude bias signal with the input signal alters the speed of propagation of the small-amplitude signal with time in the nonlinear waveguide to expand or contract the initial time scale of the small-amplitude input signal.

  3. Expansion techniques for collisionless stellar dynamical simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meiron, Yohai; Li, Baile; Holley-Bockelmann, Kelly; Spurzem, Rainer

    2014-09-10

    We present graphics processing unit (GPU) implementations of two fast force calculation methods based on series expansions of the Poisson equation. One method is the self-consistent field (SCF) method, which is a Fourier-like expansion of the density field in some basis set; the other method is the multipole expansion (MEX) method, which is a Taylor-like expansion of the Green's function. MEX, which has been advocated in the past, has not gained as much popularity as SCF. Both are particle-field methods and optimized for collisionless galactic dynamics, but while SCF is a 'pure' expansion, MEX is an expansion in just the angular part; thus, MEX is capable of capturing radial structure easily, while SCF needs a large number of radial terms. We show that despite the expansion bias, these methods are more accurate than direct techniques for the same number of particles. The performance of our GPU code, which we call ETICS, is profiled and compared to a CPU implementation. On the tested GPU hardware, a full force calculation for one million particles took ?0.1 s (depending on expansion cutoff), making simulations with as many as 10{sup 8} particles fast for a comparatively small number of nodes.

  4. Eigenfunction Expansion of the Space-Time Dependent Neutron Survival...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Eigenfunction Expansion of the Space-Time Dependent Neutron Survival Probability. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Eigenfunction Expansion of the Space-Time Dependent...

  5. Eigenfunction Expansion of the Space-Time Dependent Neutron Survival

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Probability. (Conference) | SciTech Connect Eigenfunction Expansion of the Space-Time Dependent Neutron Survival Probability. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Eigenfunction Expansion of the Space-Time Dependent Neutron Survival Probability. Abstract not provided. Authors: Kamm, Ryan James ; Prinja, Anil K. Publication Date: 2013-10-01 OSTI Identifier: 1117182 Report Number(s): SAND2013-9422C 480812 DOE Contract Number: AC04-94AL85000 Resource Type: Conference Resource Relation:

  6. Eigenfunction Expansion of the Space-Time Dependent Neutron Survival

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Probability. (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Journal Article: Eigenfunction Expansion of the Space-Time Dependent Neutron Survival Probability. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Eigenfunction Expansion of the Space-Time Dependent Neutron Survival Probability. Abstract not provided. Authors: Kamm, Ryan James ; Prinja, Anil K. Publication Date: 2013-07-01 OSTI Identifier: 1106880 Report Number(s): SAND2013-5731J 465496 DOE Contract Number: AC04-94AL85000 Resource Type: Journal

  7. Dynamical Expansion of HII Regions From Ultracompact to Compact Sizes in

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Turbulent, Self-Gravitating Molecular Clouds (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Technical Report: Dynamical Expansion of HII Regions From Ultracompact to Compact Sizes in Turbulent, Self-Gravitating Molecular Clouds Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Dynamical Expansion of HII Regions From Ultracompact to Compact Sizes in Turbulent, Self-Gravitating Molecular Clouds Authors: Low, Mordecai-Mark Mac ; Toraskar, Jayashree ; /Amer. Museum Natural Hist. ; Oishi, Jeffrey S. ; /Amer.

  8. Emission features and expansion dynamics of nanosecond laser ablation plumes at different ambient pressures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farid, N.; Harilal, S. S. Hassanein, A.; Ding, H.

    2014-01-21

    The influence of ambient pressure on the spectral emission features and expansion dynamics of a plasma plume generated on a metal target has been investigated. The plasma plumes were generated by irradiating Cu targets using 6?ns, 1064?nm pulses from a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser. The emission and expansion dynamics of the plasma plumes were studied by varying air ambient pressure levels ranging from vacuum to atmospheric pressure. The ambient pressure levels were found to affect both the line intensities and broadening along with the signal to background and signal to noise ratios and the optimum pressure conditions for analytical applications were evaluated. The characteristic plume parameters were estimated using emission spectroscopy means and noticed that the excitation temperature peaked ?300?Torr, while the electron density showed a maximum ?100?Torr. Fast-gated images showed a complex interaction between the plume and background air leading to changes in the plume geometry with pressure as well as time. Surface morphology of irradiated surface showed that the pressure of the ambient gas affects the laser-target coupling significantly.

  9. Dynamics of plasma expansion and shockwave formation in femtosecond laser-ablated aluminum plumes in argon gas at atmospheric pressures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miloshevsky, Alexander; Harilal, Sivanandan S.; Miloshevsky, Gennady Hassanein, Ahmed

    2014-04-15

    Plasma expansion with shockwave formation during laser ablation of materials in a background gasses is a complex process. The spatial and temporal evolution of pressure, temperature, density, and velocity fields is needed for its complete understanding. We have studied the expansion of femtosecond (fs) laser-ablated aluminum (Al) plumes in Argon (Ar) gas at 0.5 and 1 atmosphere (atm). The expansion of the plume is investigated experimentally using shadowgraphy and fast-gated imaging. The computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling is also carried out. The position of the shock front measured by shadowgraphy and fast-gated imaging is then compared to that obtained from the CFD modeling. The results from the three methods are found to be in good agreement, especially during the initial stage of plasma expansion. The computed time- and space-resolved fields of gas-dynamic parameters have provided valuable insights into the dynamics of plasma expansion and shockwave formation in fs-pulse ablated Al plumes in Ar gas at 0.5 and 1?atm. These results are compared to our previous data on nanosecond (ns) laser ablation of Al [S. S. Harilal et al., Phys. Plasmas 19, 083504 (2012)]. It is observed that both fs and ns plumes acquire a nearly spherical shape at the end of expansion in Ar gas at 1?atm. However, due to significantly lower pulse energy of the fs laser (5 mJ) compared to pulse energy of the ns laser (100 mJ) used in our studies, the values of pressure, temperature, mass density, and velocity are found to be smaller in the fs laser plume, and their time evolution occurs much faster on the same time scale. The oscillatory shock waves clearly visible in the ns plume are not observed in the internal region of the fs plume. These experimental and computational results provide a quantitative understanding of plasma expansion and shockwave formation in fs-pulse and ns-pulse laser ablated Al plumes in an ambient gas at atmospheric pressures.

  10. Sheath expansion and plasma dynamics in the presence of electrode evaporation: Application to a vacuum circuit breaker

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sarrailh, P.; Garrigues, L.; Hagelaar, G. J. M.; Boeuf, J. P.; Sandolache, G.; Rowe, S.

    2009-09-01

    During the postarc dielectric recovery phase in a vacuum circuit breaker, a cathode sheath forms and expels the plasma from the electrode gap. The success or failure of current breaking depends on how efficiently the plasma is expelled from the electrode gap. The sheath expansion in the postarc phase can be compared to sheath expansion in plasma immersion ion implantation except that collisions between charged particles and atoms generated by electrode evaporation may become important in a vacuum circuit breaker. In this paper, we show that electrode evaporation plays a significant role in the dynamics of the sheath expansion in this context not only because charged particle transport is no longer collisionless but also because the neutral flow due to evaporation and temperature gradients may push the plasma toward one of the electrodes. Using a hybrid model of the nonequilibrium postarc plasma and cathode sheath coupled with a direct simulation Monte Carlo method to describe collisions between heavy species, we present a parametric study of the sheath and plasma dynamics and of the time needed for the sheath to expel the plasma from the gap for different values of plasma density and electrode temperatures at the beginning of the postarc phase. This work constitutes a preliminary step toward understanding and quantifying the risk of current breaking failure of a vacuum arc.

  11. Expansion of Facilities on the North Slope of Alaska in Time for the

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    International Polar Year Expansion of Facilities on the North Slope of Alaska in Time for the International Polar Year Zak, Bernard Sandia National Laboratories Ivey, Mark Sandia National Laboratories Zirzow, Jeffrey Sandia National Laboratories Brower, Walter UIC Science Division ARM/NSA Ivanoff, James NSA Whiteman, Doug NSA/AAO Sassen, Kenneth University of Alaska Fairbanks Truffer-Moudra, Dana University of Alaska Fairbanks Category: Infrastructure & Outreach The International Polar

  12. TIME-VARYING DYNAMICAL STAR FORMATION RATE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Eve J.; Chang, Philip; Murray, Norman

    2015-02-10

    We present numerical evidence of dynamic star formation in which the accreted stellar mass grows superlinearly with time, roughly as t {sup 2}. We perform simulations of star formation in self-gravitating hydrodynamic and magnetohydrodynamic turbulence that is continuously driven. By turning the self-gravity of the gas in the simulations on or off, we demonstrate that self-gravity is the dominant physical effect setting the mass accretion rate at early times before feedback effects take over, contrary to theories of turbulence-regulated star formation. We find that gravitational collapse steepens the density profile around stars, generating the power-law tail on what is otherwise a lognormal density probability distribution function. Furthermore, we find turbulent velocity profiles to flatten inside collapsing regions, altering the size-line width relation. This local flattening reflects enhancements of turbulent velocity on small scales, as verified by changes to the velocity power spectra. Our results indicate that gas self-gravity dynamically alters both density and velocity structures in clouds, giving rise to a time-varying star formation rate. We find that a substantial fraction of the gas that forms stars arrives via low-density flows, as opposed to accreting through high-density filaments.

  13. Correlated electron dynamics with time-dependent quantum Monte Carlo:

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Three-dimensional helium (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Correlated electron dynamics with time-dependent quantum Monte Carlo: Three-dimensional helium Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Correlated electron dynamics with time-dependent quantum Monte Carlo: Three-dimensional helium Here the recently proposed time-dependent quantum Monte Carlo method is applied to three dimensional para- and ortho-helium atoms subjected to an external electromagnetic field with amplitude sufficient

  14. Real-Time Dynamics Monitoring System with Synchronized Phasor Measurements

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2005-01-01

    The Real-Time Dynamics Monitoring System is designed to monitor the dynamics within the power grid and assess the system behavior during normal and disturbance conditions. The RTDMS application was built on the Grid-3P technology platform and takes real-time information collected by Synchronized Phasor Measurement Units (PMU5) or other collection devices and transmitted to a central Phasor Data Concentrator (PDC) for monitoring grid dynamics. The data is sampled 30 times per second and is time-synchronized. Thismore »data is processed to create graphical and geographical displays to provide visualization for frequency/frequency response, voltage magnitudes and angles, voltage angle differences across critical paths as well as real and reactive power-flows on a sub-second and second basis. Software allows for monitoring, tracking, historical data archiving and electric system troubleshooting for reliability management.« less

  15. Can the ring polymer molecular dynamics method be interpreted as real time quantum dynamics?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jang, Seogjoo; Sinitskiy, Anton V.; Voth, Gregory A.

    2014-04-21

    The ring polymer molecular dynamics (RPMD) method has gained popularity in recent years as a simple approximation for calculating real time quantum correlation functions in condensed media. However, the extent to which RPMD captures real dynamical quantum effects and why it fails under certain situations have not been clearly understood. Addressing this issue has been difficult in the absence of a genuine justification for the RPMD algorithm starting from the quantum Liouville equation. To this end, a new and exact path integral formalism for the calculation of real time quantum correlation functions is presented in this work, which can serve as a rigorous foundation for the analysis of the RPMD method as well as providing an alternative derivation of the well established centroid molecular dynamics method. The new formalism utilizes the cyclic symmetry of the imaginary time path integral in the most general sense and enables the expression of Kubo-transformed quantum time correlation functions as that of physical observables pre-averaged over the imaginary time path. Upon filtering with a centroid constraint function, the formulation results in the centroid dynamics formalism. Upon filtering with the position representation of the imaginary time path integral, we obtain an exact quantum dynamics formalism involving the same variables as the RPMD method. The analysis of the RPMD approximation based on this approach clarifies that an explicit quantum dynamical justification does not exist for the use of the ring polymer harmonic potential term (imaginary time kinetic energy) as implemented in the RPMD method. It is analyzed why this can cause substantial errors in nonlinear correlation functions of harmonic oscillators. Such errors can be significant for general correlation functions of anharmonic systems. We also demonstrate that the short time accuracy of the exact path integral limit of RPMD is of lower order than those for finite discretization of path. The present quantum dynamics formulation also serves as the basis for developing new quantum dynamical methods that utilize the cyclic nature of the imaginary time path integral.

  16. Capturing Real-Time Power System Dynamics: Opportunities and Challenges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Zhenyu; Zhou, Ning; Diao, Ruisheng; Wang, Shaobu; Elbert, Stephen T.; Meng, Da; Lu, Shuai

    2015-09-01

    The power grid evolves towards a new mix of generation and consumption that introduces new dynamic and stochastic behaviors. These emerging grid behaviors would invalidate the steady-state assumption in today’s state estimation – an essential function for real-time power grid operation. This paper examines this steady-state assumption and identifies the need for estimating dynamic states. Supporting technologies are presented as well as a proposed formulation for estimating dynamic states. Metrics for evaluating methods for solving the dynamic state estimation problem are proposed, with example results to illustrate the use of these metrics. The overall objective of this paper is to provide a basis that more research on this topic can follow.

  17. Real-Time Bioluminescent Tracking of Cellular Population Dynamics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Close, Dan; Sayler, Gary Steven; Xu, Tingting; Ripp, Steven Anthony

    2014-01-01

    Cellular population dynamics are routinely monitored across many diverse fields for a variety of purposes. In general, these dynamics are assayed either through the direct counting of cellular aliquots followed by extrapolation to the total population size, or through the monitoring of signal intensity from any number of externally stimulated reporter proteins. While both viable methods, here we describe a novel technique that allows for the automated, non-destructive tracking of cellular population dynamics in real-time. This method, which relies on the detection of a continuous bioluminescent signal produced through expression of the bacterial luciferase gene cassette, provides a low cost, low time-intensive means for generating additional data compared to alternative methods.

  18. Electron dynamics in complex environments with real-time time dependent density functional theory in a QM-MM framework

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morzan, Uriel N.; Ramrez, Francisco F.; Scherlis, Damin A. E-mail: mcgl@qb.ffyb.uba.ar; Lebrero, Mariano C. Gonzlez E-mail: mcgl@qb.ffyb.uba.ar

    2014-04-28

    This article presents a time dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) implementation to propagate the Kohn-Sham equations in real time, including the effects of a molecular environment through a Quantum-Mechanics Molecular-Mechanics (QM-MM) hamiltonian. The code delivers an all-electron description employing Gaussian basis functions, and incorporates the Amber force-field in the QM-MM treatment. The most expensive parts of the computation, comprising the commutators between the hamiltonian and the density matrixrequired to propagate the electron dynamics, and the evaluation of the exchange-correlation energy, were migrated to the CUDA platform to run on graphics processing units, which remarkably accelerates the performance of the code. The method was validated by reproducing linear-response TDDFT results for the absorption spectra of several molecular species. Two different schemes were tested to propagate the quantum dynamics: (i) a leap-frog Verlet algorithm, and (ii) the Magnus expansion to first-order. These two approaches were confronted, to find that the Magnus scheme is more efficient by a factor of six in small molecules. Interestingly, the presence of iron was found to seriously limitate the length of the integration time step, due to the high frequencies associated with the core-electrons. This highlights the importance of pseudopotentials to alleviate the cost of the propagation of the inner states when heavy nuclei are present. Finally, the methodology was applied to investigate the shifts induced by the chemical environment on the most intense UV absorption bands of two model systems of general relevance: the formamide molecule in water solution, and the carboxy-heme group in Flavohemoglobin. In both cases, shifts of several nanometers are observed, consistently with the available experimental data.

  19. Time lagged ordinal partition networks for capturing dynamics of continuous dynamical systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCullough, Michael; Iu, Herbert Ho-Ching; Small, Michael; Stemler, Thomas

    2015-05-15

    We investigate a generalised version of the recently proposed ordinal partition time series to network transformation algorithm. First, we introduce a fixed time lag for the elements of each partition that is selected using techniques from traditional time delay embedding. The resulting partitions define regions in the embedding phase space that are mapped to nodes in the network space. Edges are allocated between nodes based on temporal succession thus creating a Markov chain representation of the time series. We then apply this new transformation algorithm to time series generated by the Rssler system and find that periodic dynamics translate to ring structures whereas chaotic time series translate to band or tube-like structuresthereby indicating that our algorithm generates networks whose structure is sensitive to system dynamics. Furthermore, we demonstrate that simple network measures including the mean out degree and variance of out degrees can track changes in the dynamical behaviour in a manner comparable to the largest Lyapunov exponent. We also apply the same analysis to experimental time series generated by a diode resonator circuit and show that the network size, mean shortest path length, and network diameter are highly sensitive to the interior crisis captured in this particular data set.

  20. Time-dependent water dynamics in hydrated uranyl fluoride

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miskowiec, Andrew J.; Anderson, Brian B.; Herwig, Kenneth W.; Huq, Ashfia; Mamontov, Eugene; Rondinone, Adam; Trowbridge, Lee D.

    2015-09-15

    In this study, uranyl fluoride is a three-layer, hexagonal structure with significant stacking disorder in the c-direction. It supports a range of unsolved thermodynamic hydrates with 02.5 water molecules per uranium atom, and perhaps more. However, the relationship between water, hydrate crystal structures, and thermodynamic results, collectively representing the chemical pathway through these hydrate structures, has not been sufficiently elucidated. We used high-resolution quasielastic neutron scattering to study the dynamics of water in partially hydrated uranyl fluoride powder over the course of 4 weeks under closed conditions. The spectra are composed of two quasielastic components: one is associated with translational diffusive motion of water that is approximately five to six times slower than bulk water, and the other is a slow (on the order of 2300 ps), spatially bounded water motion. The translational component represents water diffusing between the weakly bonded layers in the crystal, while the bounded component may represent water trapped in subnanometre pockets formed by the space between uranium-centred polymerisation units. Complementary neutron diffraction measurements do not show any significant structural changes, suggesting that a chemical conversion of the material does not occur in the thermodynamically isolated system on this timescale.

  1. Time-dependent water dynamics in hydrated uranyl fluoride

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Miskowiec, Andrew J.; Anderson, Brian B.; Herwig, Kenneth W.; Huq, Ashfia; Mamontov, Eugene; Rondinone, Adam; Trowbridge, Lee D.

    2015-09-15

    In this study, uranyl fluoride is a three-layer, hexagonal structure with significant stacking disorder in the c-direction. It supports a range of unsolved ‘thermodynamic’ hydrates with 0–2.5 water molecules per uranium atom, and perhaps more. However, the relationship between water, hydrate crystal structures, and thermodynamic results, collectively representing the chemical pathway through these hydrate structures, has not been sufficiently elucidated. We used high-resolution quasielastic neutron scattering to study the dynamics of water in partially hydrated uranyl fluoride powder over the course of 4 weeks under closed conditions. The spectra are composed of two quasielastic components: one is associated with translationalmore » diffusive motion of water that is approximately five to six times slower than bulk water, and the other is a slow (on the order of 2–300 ps), spatially bounded water motion. The translational component represents water diffusing between the weakly bonded layers in the crystal, while the bounded component may represent water trapped in subnanometre ‘pockets’ formed by the space between uranium-centred polymerisation units. Complementary neutron diffraction measurements do not show any significant structural changes, suggesting that a chemical conversion of the material does not occur in the thermodynamically isolated system on this timescale.« less

  2. Dynamic Simulation over Long Time Periods with 100% Solar Generation.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Concepcion, Ricky James; Elliott, Ryan Thomas

    2015-12-01

    This project aimed to identify the path forward for dynamic simulation tools to accommodate these needs by characterizing the properties of power systems (with high PV penetration), analyzing how these properties affect dynamic simulation software, and offering solutions for potential problems.

  3. Time-averaged quantum dynamics and the validity of the effective

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Hamiltonian model (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Time-averaged quantum dynamics and the validity of the effective Hamiltonian model Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Time-averaged quantum dynamics and the validity of the effective Hamiltonian model We develop a technique for finding the dynamical evolution in time of an averaged density matrix. The result is an equation of evolution that includes an effective Hamiltonian, as well as decoherence terms in Lindblad form. Applying

  4. Dynamic force matching: A method for constructing dynamical coarse-grained models with realistic time dependence

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davtyan, Aram; Dama, James F.; Voth, Gregory A.; Andersen, Hans C.

    2015-04-21

    Coarse-grained (CG) models of molecular systems, with fewer mechanical degrees of freedom than an all-atom model, are used extensively in chemical physics. It is generally accepted that a coarse-grained model that accurately describes equilibrium structural properties (as a result of having a well constructed CG potential energy function) does not necessarily exhibit appropriate dynamical behavior when simulated using conservative Hamiltonian dynamics for the CG degrees of freedom on the CG potential energy surface. Attempts to develop accurate CG dynamic models usually focus on replacing Hamiltonian motion by stochastic but Markovian dynamics on that surface, such as Langevin or Brownian dynamics. However, depending on the nature of the system and the extent of the coarse-graining, a Markovian dynamics for the CG degrees of freedom may not be appropriate. In this paper, we consider the problem of constructing dynamic CG models within the context of the Multi-Scale Coarse-graining (MS-CG) method of Voth and coworkers. We propose a method of converting a MS-CG model into a dynamic CG model by adding degrees of freedom to it in the form of a small number of fictitious particles that interact with the CG degrees of freedom in simple ways and that are subject to Langevin forces. The dynamic models are members of a class of nonlinear systems interacting with special heat baths that were studied by Zwanzig [J. Stat. Phys. 9, 215 (1973)]. The properties of the fictitious particles can be inferred from analysis of the dynamics of all-atom simulations of the system of interest. This is analogous to the fact that the MS-CG method generates the CG potential from analysis of equilibrium structures observed in all-atom simulation data. The dynamic models generate a non-Markovian dynamics for the CG degrees of freedom, but they can be easily simulated using standard molecular dynamics programs. We present tests of this method on a series of simple examples that demonstrate that the method provides realistic dynamical CG models that have non-Markovian or close to Markovian behavior that is consistent with the actual dynamical behavior of the all-atom system used to construct the CG model. Both the construction and the simulation of such a dynamic CG model have computational requirements that are similar to those of the corresponding MS-CG model and are good candidates for CG modeling of very large systems.

  5. Long-time dynamics through parallel trajectory splicing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Perez, Danny; Cubuk, Ekin D.; Waterland, Amos; Kaxiras, Efthimios; Voter, Arthur F.

    2015-11-24

    Simulating the atomistic evolution of materials over long time scales is a longstanding challenge, especially for complex systems where the distribution of barrier heights is very heterogeneous. Such systems are difficult to investigate using conventional long-time scale techniques, and the fact that they tend to remain trapped in small regions of configuration space for extended periods of time strongly limits the physical insights gained from short simulations. We introduce a novel simulation technique, Parallel Trajectory Splicing (ParSplice), that aims at addressing this problem through the timewise parallelization of long trajectories. The computational efficiency of ParSplice stems from a speculation strategy whereby predictions of the future evolution of the system are leveraged to increase the amount of work that can be concurrently performed at any one time, hence improving the scalability of the method. ParSplice is also able to accurately account for, and potentially reuse, a substantial fraction of the computational work invested in the simulation. We validate the method on a simple Ag surface system and demonstrate substantial increases in efficiency compared to previous methods. As a result, we then demonstrate the power of ParSplice through the study of topology changes in Ag42Cu13 coreshell nanoparticles.

  6. Long-time dynamics through parallel trajectory splicing

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Perez, Danny; Cubuk, Ekin D.; Waterland, Amos; Kaxiras, Efthimios; Voter, Arthur F.

    2015-11-24

    Simulating the atomistic evolution of materials over long time scales is a longstanding challenge, especially for complex systems where the distribution of barrier heights is very heterogeneous. Such systems are difficult to investigate using conventional long-time scale techniques, and the fact that they tend to remain trapped in small regions of configuration space for extended periods of time strongly limits the physical insights gained from short simulations. We introduce a novel simulation technique, Parallel Trajectory Splicing (ParSplice), that aims at addressing this problem through the timewise parallelization of long trajectories. The computational efficiency of ParSplice stems from a speculation strategymore » whereby predictions of the future evolution of the system are leveraged to increase the amount of work that can be concurrently performed at any one time, hence improving the scalability of the method. ParSplice is also able to accurately account for, and potentially reuse, a substantial fraction of the computational work invested in the simulation. We validate the method on a simple Ag surface system and demonstrate substantial increases in efficiency compared to previous methods. As a result, we then demonstrate the power of ParSplice through the study of topology changes in Ag42Cu13 core–shell nanoparticles.« less

  7. Non-minimal Kinetic coupling to gravity and accelerated expansion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Granda, L.N.

    2010-07-01

    We study a scalar field with kinetic term coupled to itself and to the curvature, as a source of dark energy, and analyze the role of this new coupling in the accelerated expansion at large times. In the case of scalar field dominance, the scalar field and potential giving rise to power-law expansion are found in some cases, and a dynamical equation of state is calculated for a given solution of the field equations. A behavior very close to that of the cosmological constant was found.

  8. Time-averaged quantum dynamics and the validity of the effective...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    We develop a technique for finding the dynamical evolution in time of an averaged density matrix. The result is an equation of evolution that includes an effective Hamiltonian, as ...

  9. Characterizing system dynamics with a weighted and directed network constructed from time series data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Xiaoran; School of Mathematics and Statistics, The University of Western Australia, Crawley WA 6009 ; Small, Michael; Zhao, Yi; Xue, Xiaoping

    2014-06-15

    In this work, we propose a novel method to transform a time series into a weighted and directed network. For a given time series, we first generate a set of segments via a sliding window, and then use a doubly symbolic scheme to characterize every windowed segment by combining absolute amplitude information with an ordinal pattern characterization. Based on this construction, a network can be directly constructed from the given time series: segments corresponding to different symbol-pairs are mapped to network nodes and the temporal succession between nodes is represented by directed links. With this conversion, dynamics underlying the time series has been encoded into the network structure. We illustrate the potential of our networks with a well-studied dynamical model as a benchmark example. Results show that network measures for characterizing global properties can detect the dynamical transitions in the underlying system. Moreover, we employ a random walk algorithm to sample loops in our networks, and find that time series with different dynamics exhibits distinct cycle structure. That is, the relative prevalence of loops with different lengths can be used to identify the underlying dynamics.

  10. Wide dynamic range neutron flux monitor having fast time response for the Large Helical Device

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Isobe, M. Takeiri, Y.; Ogawa, K.; Miyake, H.; Hayashi, H.; Kobuchi, T.; Nakano, Y.; Watanabe, K.; Uritani, A.; Misawa, T.; Nishitani, T.; Tomitaka, M.; Kumagai, T.; Mashiyama, Y.; Ito, D.; Kono, S.; Yamauchi, M.

    2014-11-15

    A fast time response, wide dynamic range neutron flux monitor has been developed toward the LHD deuterium operation by using leading-edge signal processing technologies providing maximum counting rate up to ?5 10{sup 9} counts/s. Because a maximum total neutron emission rate over 1 10{sup 16} n/s is predicted in neutral beam-heated LHD plasmas, fast response and wide dynamic range capabilities of the system are essential. Preliminary tests have demonstrated successful performance as a wide dynamic range monitor along the design.

  11. Dispersion curves from short-time molecular dynamics simulation. 1. Diatomic chain results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Noid, D.W.; Broocks, B.T.; Gray, S.K.; Marple, S.L.

    1988-06-16

    The multiple signal classification method (MUSIC) for frequency estimation is used to compute the frequency dispersion curves of a diatomic chain from the time-dependent structure factor. In this paper, the authors demonstrate that MUSIC can accurately determine the frequencies from very short time trajectories. MUSIC is also used to show how the frequencies can vary in time, i.e., along a trajectory. The method is ideally suited for analyzing molecular dynamics simulations of large systems.

  12. Experimental nonlinear dynamical studies in cesium magneto-optical trap using time-series analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anwar, M. Islam, R.; Faisal, M.; Sikandar, M.; Ahmed, M.

    2015-03-30

    A magneto-optical trap of neutral atoms is essentially a dissipative quantum system. The fast thermal atoms continuously dissipate their energy to the environment via spontaneous emissions during the cooling. The atoms are, therefore, strongly coupled with the vacuum reservoir and the laser field. The vacuum fluctuations as well as the field fluctuations are imparted to the atoms as random photon recoils. Consequently, the external and internal dynamics of atoms becomes stochastic. In this paper, we have investigated the stochastic dynamics of the atoms in a magneto-optical trap during the loading process. The time series analysis of the fluorescence signal shows that the dynamics of the atoms evolves, like all dissipative systems, from deterministic to the chaotic regime. The subsequent disappearance and revival of chaos was attributed to chaos synchronization between spatially different atoms in the magneto-optical trap.

  13. Dynamics of spintronic materials: Exploration in the time and frequency domain

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zabel, Hartmut

    2014-12-14

    X-ray and neutron reflectivity are mature experimental techniques for the exploration of film thicknesses and interface roughnesses on the nanoscale. Combining with photon and neutron polarization, these methods can be carried forward to the analysis of magnetic thin films and magnetic domain structures. New opportunities open up when these methods are used either in the time or in the frequency domain. Then dynamical processes can be studied such as domain oscillations, domain propagation, precession of spins, and damping effects. Two methods are discussed which have been developed recently: polarized neutron reflectivity from magnetic films in an alternating magnetic field and time resolved resonant magnetic x-ray reflectivity of the free precessional dynamics in films and multilayers.

  14. The Explosive Spherical Cavity Expansion for Characterization of SiC-N Ceramic Dynamic Behavior and Post Shock Damage Using RUS Method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gefken, Paul; Curran, Donald; Nesterenko, Vitali F.; Cai, Jing

    2006-07-28

    Two spherical cavity expansion experiments were performed with SiC-N to provide high-strain rate data for developing ceramic armor penetration models. Here, an explosive charge is detonated within a cavity machined in the ceramic, generating a pulse that moves radially outward. The particle velocity at multiple radial locations from the charge, including at the charge radii, was measured and the fractured ceramic was recovered for posttest evaluation. From the particle velocity histories we derived displacement, radial strain and circumferential strain histories. In the recovered samples we observed the regions where comminution, radial cracking and circumferential cracking occurred. The elastic properties of initial undamaged SiC-N and shocked damaged material were measured using a resonant ultrasound spectroscopy (RUS). Comparison of these measurements illustrated the posttest condition of the SiC-N material. Hot isostatic pressing of ''as is'' SiC-N material demonstrated a significant increase in the quality factor. The same procedure applied to SiC-N damaged in spherical cavity experiments resulted in a significant recovery of the elastic properties.

  15. Nonlinear Raman Techniques in Femtosecond Time Resolved Spectroscopy for the Analysis and Control of Molecular Dynamics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Materny, Arnulf; Konradi, Jakow; Namboodiri, Vinu; Namboodiri, Mahesh; Scaria, Abraham

    2008-11-14

    The use of four-wave mixing techniques in femtosecond time-resolved spectroscopy has considerable advantages. Due to the many degrees of freedom offered e.g. by coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS), the dynamics even of complex systems can be analyzed in detail. Using pulse shaping techniques in combination with a self-learning loop approach, molecular mode excitation can be controlled very efficiently in a multi-photon excitation process. Results obtained from the optimal control of CARS on {beta}-carotene are discussed.

  16. Dynamic response of materials on subnanosecond time scales, and beryllium properties for inertial confinement fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swift, Damian C.; Tierney, Thomas E.; Luo Shengnian; Paisley, Dennis L.; Kyrala, George A.; Hauer, Allan; Greenfield, Scott R.; Koskelo, Aaron C.; McClellan, Kenneth J.; Lorenzana, Hector E.; Kalantar, Daniel; Remington, Bruce A.; Peralta, Pedro; Loomis, Eric

    2005-05-15

    During the past few years, substantial progress has been made in developing experimental techniques capable of investigating the response of materials to dynamic loading on nanosecond time scales and shorter, with multiple diagnostics probing different aspects of the behavior. These relatively short time scales are scientifically interesting because plastic flow and phase changes in common materials with simple crystal structures--such as iron--may be suppressed, allowing unusual states to be induced and the dynamics of plasticity and polymorphism to be explored. Loading by laser-induced ablation can be particularly convenient: this technique has been used to impart shocks and isentropic compression waves from {approx}1 to 200 GPa in a range of elements and alloys, with diagnostics including line imaging surface velocimetry, surface displacement (framed area imaging), x-ray diffraction (single crystal and polycrystal), ellipsometry, and Raman spectroscopy. A major motivation has been the study of the properties of beryllium under conditions relevant to the fuel capsule in inertial confinement fusion: magnetically driven shock and isentropic compression shots at Z were used to investigate the equation of state and shock melting characteristics, complemented by laser ablation experiments to investigate plasticity and heterogeneous response from the polycrystalline microstructure. These results will help to constrain acceptable tolerances on manufacturing, and possible loading paths, for inertial fusion ignition experiments at the National Ignition Facility. Laser-based techniques are being developed further for future material dynamics experiments, where it should be possible to obtain high quality data on strength and phase changes up to at least 1 TPa.

  17. Massively-parallel electron dynamics calculations in real-time and real-space: Toward applications to nanostructures of more than ten-nanometers in size

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Noda, Masashi; Ishimura, Kazuya; Nobusada, Katsuyuki; Yabana, Kazuhiro; Boku, Taisuke

    2014-05-15

    A highly efficient program of massively parallel calculations for electron dynamics has been developed in an effort to apply the method to optical response of nanostructures of more than ten-nanometers in size. The approach is based on time-dependent density functional theory calculations in real-time and real-space. The computational code is implemented by using simple algorithms with a finite-difference method in space derivative and Taylor expansion in time-propagation. Since the computational program is free from the algorithms of eigenvalue problems and fast-Fourier-transformation, which are usually implemented in conventional quantum chemistry or band structure calculations, it is highly suitable for massively parallel calculations. Benchmark calculations using the K computer at RIKEN demonstrate that the parallel efficiency of the program is very high on more than 60 000 CPU cores. The method is applied to optical response of arrays of C{sub 60} orderly nanostructures of more than 10 nm in size. The computed absorption spectrum is in good agreement with the experimental observation.

  18. Optimal Electric Utility Expansion

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1989-10-10

    SAGE-WASP is designed to find the optimal generation expansion policy for an electrical utility system. New units can be automatically selected from a user-supplied list of expansion candidates which can include hydroelectric and pumped storage projects. The existing system is modeled. The calculational procedure takes into account user restrictions to limit generation configurations to an area of economic interest. The optimization program reports whether the restrictions acted as a constraint on the solution. All expansionmore » configurations considered are required to pass a user supplied reliability criterion. The discount rate and escalation rate are treated separately for each expansion candidate and for each fuel type. All expenditures are separated into local and foreign accounts, and a weighting factor can be applied to foreign expenditures.« less

  19. Time-resolved terahertz dynamics in thin films of the topological insulator Bi2Se3

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Valdés Aguilar, R.; Qi, J.; Brahlek, M.; Bansal, N.; Azad, A.; Bowlan, J.; Oh, S.; Taylor, A. J.; Prasankumar, R. P.; Yarotski, D. A.

    2015-01-07

    We use optical pump–THz probe spectroscopy at low temperatures to study the hot carrier response in thin Bi2Se3 films of several thicknesses, allowing us to separate the bulk from the surface transient response. We find that for thinner films the photoexcitation changes the transport scattering rate and reduces the THz conductivity, which relaxes within 10 picoseconds (ps). For thicker films, the conductivity increases upon photoexcitation and scales with increasing both the film thickness and the optical fluence, with a decay time of approximately 5 ps as well as a much higher scattering rate. Furthermore, these different dynamics are attributed tomore » the surface and bulk electrons, respectively, and demonstrate that long-lived mobile surface photo-carriers can be accessed independently below certain film thicknesses for possible optoelectronic applications.« less

  20. Characterization of beam dynamics in the APS injector rings using time-resolved imaging techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, B.X.; Lumpkin, A.H.; Borland, M.

    1997-06-01

    Images taken with streak cameras and gated intensified cameras with both time (longitudinal) and spatial (transverse) resolution reveal a wealth of information about circular accelerators. The authors illustrate a novel technique by a sequence of dual-sweep streak camera images taken at a high dispersion location in the booster synchrotron, where the horizontal coordinate is strongly correlated with the particle energy and the {open_quotes}top-view{close_quotes} of the beam gives a good approximation to the particle density distribution in the longitudinal phase space. A sequence of top-view images taken fight after injection clearly shows the beam dynamics in the phase space. We report another example from the positron accumulator ring for the characterization of its beam compression bunching with the 12th harmonic rf.

  1. Solid waste bin detection and classification using Dynamic Time Warping and MLP classifier

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Islam, Md. Shafiqul; Hannan, M.A.; Basri, Hassan; Hussain, Aini; Arebey, Maher

    2014-02-15

    Highlights: Solid waste bin level detection using Dynamic Time Warping (DTW). Gabor wavelet filter is used to extract the solid waste image features. Multi-Layer Perceptron classifier network is used for bin image classification. The classification performance evaluated by ROC curve analysis. - Abstract: The increasing requirement for Solid Waste Management (SWM) has become a significant challenge for municipal authorities. A number of integrated systems and methods have introduced to overcome this challenge. Many researchers have aimed to develop an ideal SWM system, including approaches involving software-based routing, Geographic Information Systems (GIS), Radio-frequency Identification (RFID), or sensor intelligent bins. Image processing solutions for the Solid Waste (SW) collection have also been developed; however, during capturing the bin image, it is challenging to position the camera for getting a bin area centralized image. As yet, there is no ideal system which can correctly estimate the amount of SW. This paper briefly discusses an efficient image processing solution to overcome these problems. Dynamic Time Warping (DTW) was used for detecting and cropping the bin area and Gabor wavelet (GW) was introduced for feature extraction of the waste bin image. Image features were used to train the classifier. A Multi-Layer Perceptron (MLP) classifier was used to classify the waste bin level and estimate the amount of waste inside the bin. The area under the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves was used to statistically evaluate classifier performance. The results of this developed system are comparable to previous image processing based system. The system demonstration using DTW with GW for feature extraction and an MLP classifier led to promising results with respect to the accuracy of waste level estimation (98.50%). The application can be used to optimize the routing of waste collection based on the estimated bin level.

  2. High thermal expansion, sealing glass

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brow, R.K.; Kovacic, L.

    1993-11-16

    A glass composition is described for hermetically sealing to high thermal expansion materials such as aluminum alloys, stainless steels, copper, and copper/beryllium alloys, which includes between about 10 and about 25 mole percent Na[sub 2]O, between about 10 and about 25 mole percent K[sub 2]O, between about 5 and about 15 mole percent Al[sub 2]O[sub 3], between about 35 and about 50 mole percent P[sub 2]O[sub 5] and between about 5 and about 15 mole percent of one of PbO, BaO, and mixtures thereof. The composition, which may also include between 0 and about 5 mole percent Fe[sub 2]O[sub 3] and between 0 and about 10 mole percent B[sub 2]O[sub 3], has a thermal expansion coefficient in a range of between about 160 and 210[times]10[sup [minus]7]/C and a dissolution rate in a range of between about 2[times]10[sup [minus]7] and 2[times]10[sup [minus]9]g/cm[sup 2]-min. This composition is suitable to hermetically seal to metallic electrical components which will be subjected to humid environments over an extended period of time.

  3. High thermal expansion, sealing glass

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brow, Richard K. (Albuquerque, NM); Kovacic, Larry (Albuquerque, NM)

    1993-01-01

    A glass composition for hermetically sealing to high thermal expansion materials such as aluminum alloys, stainless steels, copper, and copper/beryllium alloys, which includes between about 10 and about 25 mole percent Na.sub.2 O, between about 10 and about 25 mole percent K.sub.2 O, between about 5 and about 15 mole percent Al.sub.2 O.sub.3, between about 35 and about 50 mole percent P.sub.2 O.sub.5 and between about 5 and about 15 mole percent of one of PbO, BaO, and mixtures thereof. The composition, which may also include between 0 and about 5 mole percent Fe.sub.2 O.sub.3 and between 0 and about 10 mole percent B.sub.2 O.sub.3, has a thermal expansion coefficient in a range of between about 160 and 210.times.10-7/.degree.C. and a dissolution rate in a range of between about 2.times.10.sup.- 7 and 2.times.10.sup.-9 g/cm.sup.2 -min. This composition is suitable to hermetically seal to metallic electrical components which will be subjected to humid environments over an extended period of time.

  4. Static gas expansion cooler

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Guzek, J.C.; Lujan, R.A.

    1984-01-01

    Disclosed is a cooler for television cameras and other temperature sensitive equipment. The cooler uses compressed gas ehich is accelerated to a high velocity by passing it through flow passageways having nozzle portions which expand the gas. This acceleration and expansion causes the gas to undergo a decrease in temperature thereby cooling the cooler body and adjacent temperature sensitive equipment.

  5. EIS-0498: Magnolia LNG and Lake Charles Expansion Projects; Calcasieu...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    with the public interest. EIS-0498: Magnolia LNG and Lake Charles Expansion Projects Public Comment Opportunities No public comment opportunities available at this time....

  6. Anomalous lattice expansion in yttria stabilized zirconia under simultaneous applied electric and thermal fields: A time-resolved in situ energy dispersive x-ray diffractometry study with an ultrahigh energy synchrotron probe

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akdogan, E. K.; Savkl Latin-Small-Letter-Dotless-I y Latin-Small-Letter-Dotless-I ld Latin-Small-Letter-Dotless-I z, I.; Bicer, H.; Paxton, W.; Toksoy, F.; Tsakalakos, T.; Zhong, Z.

    2013-06-21

    Nonisothermal densification in 8% yttria doped zirconia (8YSZ) particulate matter of 250 nm median particle size was studied under 215 V/cm dc electric field and 9 Degree-Sign C/min heating rate, using time-resolved in-situ high temperature energy dispersive x-ray diffractometry with a polychromatic 200 keV synchrotron probe. Densification occurred in the 876-905 Degree-Sign C range, which resulted in 97% of the theoretical density. No local melting at particle-particle contacts was observed in scanning electron micrographs, implying densification was due to solid state mass transport processes. The maximum current draw at 905 Degree-Sign C was 3 A, corresponding to instantaneous absorbed power density of 570 W/cm{sup 3}. Densification of 8YSZ was accompanied by anomalous elastic volume expansions of the unit cell by 0.45% and 2.80% at 847 Degree-Sign C and 905 Degree-Sign C, respectively. The anomalous expansion at 905 Degree-Sign C at which maximum densification was observed is characterized by three stages: (I) linear stage, (II) anomalous stage, and (III) anelastic recovery stage. The densification in stage I (184 s) and II (15 s) was completed in 199 s, while anelastic relaxation in stage III lasted 130 s. The residual strains ({epsilon}) at room temperature, as computed from tetragonal (112) and (211) reflections, are {epsilon}{sub (112)} = 0.05% and {epsilon}{sub (211)} = 0.13%, respectively. Time dependence of (211) and (112) peak widths ({beta}) show a decrease with both exhibiting a singularity at 905 Degree-Sign C. An anisotropy in (112) and (211) peak widths of {l_brace} {beta}{sub (112)}/{beta}{sub (211)}{r_brace} = (3:1) magnitude was observed. No phase transformation occurred at 905 Degree-Sign C as verified from diffraction spectra on both sides of the singularity, i.e., the unit cell symmetry remains tetragonal. We attribute the reduction in densification temperature and time to ultrafast ambipolar diffusion of species arising from the superposition of mass fluxes due to Fickian diffusion, thermodiffusion (Soret effect), and electromigration, which in turn are a consequence of a superposition of chemical, temperature, and electrical potential gradients. On the other hand, we propose defect pile-up at particle-particle contacts and subsequent tunneling as a mechanism creating the 'burst-mode' discontinuous densification at the singularities observed at 847 and 905 Degree-Sign C.

  7. Femtosecond laser ablation dynamics of fused silica extracted from oscillation of time-resolved reflectivity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumada, Takayuki Akagi, Hiroshi; Itakura, Ryuji; Otobe, Tomohito; Yokoyama, Atsushi

    2014-03-14

    Femtosecond laser ablation dynamics of fused silica is examined via time-resolved reflectivity measurements. After optical breakdown was caused by irradiation of a pump pulse with fluence F{sub pump}?=?3.314.9?J/cm{sup 2}, the reflectivity oscillated with a period of 63??2 ps for a wavelength ??=?795?nm. The period was reduced by half for ??=?398?nm. We ascribe the oscillation to the interference between the probe pulses reflected from the front and rear surfaces of the photo-excited molten fused silica layer. The time-resolved reflectivity agrees closely with a model comprising a photo-excited layer which expands due to the formation of voids, and then separates into two parts, one of which is left on the sample surface and the other separated as a molten thin layer from the surface by the spallation mechanism. Such oscillations were not observed in the reflectivity of soda-lime glass. Whether the reflectivity oscillates or not probably depends on the layer viscosity while in a molten state. Since viscosity of the molten fused silica is several orders of magnitude higher than that of the soda-lime glass at the same temperature, fused silica forms a molten thin layer that reflects the probe pulse, whereas the soda-lime glass is fragmented into clusters.

  8. Dynamic keyhole: A novel method to improve MR images in the presence of respiratory motion for real-time MRI

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Danny; Pollock, Sean; Whelan, Brendan; Keall, Paul; Kim, Taeho

    2014-07-15

    Purpose: In this work, the authors present a novel magnetic resonance imaging reconstruction method to improve the quality of MR images in the presence of respiratory motion for real-time thoracic image-guided radiotherapy. Methods: This new reconstruction method is called dynamic keyhole and utilizes a library of previously acquired, peripheral k-space datasets from the same (or similar) respiratory state in conjunction with central k-space datasets acquired in real-time. Internal or external respiratory signals are utilized to sort, match, and combine the two separate peripheral and central k-space datasets with respect to respiratory displacement, thereby reducing acquisition time and improving image quality without respiratory-related artifacts. In this study, the dynamic keyhole, conventional keyhole, and zero-filling methods were compared to full k-space acquisition (ground truth) for 60 coronal datasets acquired from 15 healthy human subjects. Results: For the same image-quality difference from the ground-truth image, the dynamic keyhole method reused 79% of the prior peripheral phase-encoding lines, while the conventional keyhole reused 73% and zero-filling 63% (p-value < 0.0001), corresponding to faster acquisition speed of dynamic keyhole for real-time imaging applications. Conclusions: This study demonstrates that the dynamic keyhole method is a promising technique for clinical applications such as image-guided radiotherapy requiring real-time MR monitoring of the thoracic region. Based on the results from this study, the dynamic keyhole method could increase the temporal resolution by a factor of five compared with full k-space methods.

  9. Load regulating expansion fixture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wagner, Lawrence M. (San Jose, CA); Strum, Michael J. (San Jose, CA)

    1998-01-01

    A free standing self contained device for bonding ultra thin metallic films, such as 0.001 inch beryllium foils. The device will regulate to a predetermined load for solid state bonding when heated to a bonding temperature. The device includes a load regulating feature, whereby the expansion stresses generated for bonding are regulated and self adjusting. The load regulator comprises a pair of friction isolators with a plurality of annealed copper members located therebetween. The device, with the load regulator, will adjust to and maintain a stress level needed to successfully and economically complete a leak tight bond without damaging thin foils or other delicate components.

  10. Load regulating expansion fixture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wagner, L.M.; Strum, M.J.

    1998-12-15

    A free standing self contained device for bonding ultra thin metallic films, such as 0.001 inch beryllium foils is disclosed. The device will regulate to a predetermined load for solid state bonding when heated to a bonding temperature. The device includes a load regulating feature, whereby the expansion stresses generated for bonding are regulated and self adjusting. The load regulator comprises a pair of friction isolators with a plurality of annealed copper members located therebetween. The device, with the load regulator, will adjust to and maintain a stress level needed to successfully and economically complete a leak tight bond without damaging thin foils or other delicate components. 1 fig.

  11. Stateline Expansion Wind Farm | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Stateline Expansion Wind Farm Jump to: navigation, search Name Stateline Expansion Wind Farm Facility Stateline Expansion Sector Wind energy Facility Type Commercial Scale Wind...

  12. Time-domain dynamic opto-rheology study of polymer films using step-scan FTIR time-resolved spectroscopy (S{sup 2}FTIR TRS)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, H.; Palmer, R.A.; Manning, C.J.; Schoonover, J.R.

    1998-07-01

    Step-scan Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy in conjunction with impulse stress on polymer films has been used to monitor dynamic rheological responses in real time. A novel piezo-electrically-driven polymer microrheometer was employed to apply repetitive impulses to the polymer sample while time-domain spectra were recorded. Recent results include the study of both semi-crystalline polymers such as isotactic polypropylene (iPP) and elastomers such as Estane polyester/polyurethane copolymer and Kraton tri-block copolymer. The spectral changes of iPP are consistent with frequency-domain results. For iPP at room temperature, large differences in the response times of different absorption bands are not seen. However, the orientation response of the CH{sub 3} rocking mode is slightly slower than the responses of the backbone modes. To the authors` knowledge, this is the first reported successful step-scan FTIR time-domain dynamic polymer opto-rheology experiment. The advantages of the time-domain experiment over the frequency-domain experiment are also discussed briefly. This technique appears to be applicable to a variety of polymer samples, and examples from additional results are illustrated.

  13. Cryogenic expansion machine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pallaver, Carl B. (Woodridge, IL); Morgan, Michael W. (Palos Park, IL)

    1978-01-01

    A cryogenic expansion engine includes intake and exhaust poppet valves each controlled by a cam having adjustable dwell, the valve seats for the valves being threaded inserts in the valve block. Each cam includes a cam base and a ring-shaped cam insert disposed at an exterior corner of the cam base, the cam base and cam insert being generally circular but including an enlarged cam dwell, the circumferential configuration of the cam base and cam dwell being identical, the cam insert being rotatable with respect to the cam base. GI CONTRACTUAL ORIGIN OF THE INVENTION The invention described herein was made in the course of, or under, a contract with the UNITED STATES ENERGY RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION.

  14. Dynamic

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Dynamic , and Static , Res.ponse of the Government Oil Shale Mine at ' , . , Rifle, Colorado, to the Rulison Event. , . ; . . DISCLAIMER Portions of this document may be illegible in electronic image products. Images are produced from the best available original document. p ( y c - - a 2-1 0 -4- REPORT AT (29-2) 914 USBM 1 0 0 1 UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT O F THE I NTERIOR BUREAU OF MINES e s.09 P. L. R U S S E L L RESEARCH D l RECTOR Februory 2, lB7O DYNAMIC AND STATIC RESPONSE 'OF THE GOVERNMENT

  15. Quantum Monte Carlo estimation of complex-time correlations for the study of the ground-state dynamic structure function

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rota, R.; Casulleras, J.; Mazzanti, F.; Boronat, J.

    2015-03-21

    We present a method based on the path integral Monte Carlo formalism for the calculation of ground-state time correlation functions in quantum systems. The key point of the method is the consideration of time as a complex variable whose phase δ acts as an adjustable parameter. By using high-order approximations for the quantum propagator, it is possible to obtain Monte Carlo data all the way from purely imaginary time to δ values near the limit of real time. As a consequence, it is possible to infer accurately the spectral functions using simple inversion algorithms. We test this approach in the calculation of the dynamic structure function S(q, ω) of two one-dimensional model systems, harmonic and quartic oscillators, for which S(q, ω) can be exactly calculated. We notice a clear improvement in the calculation of the dynamic response with respect to the common approach based on the inverse Laplace transform of the imaginary-time correlation function.

  16. Protein Folding Dynamics Detected By Time-Resolved Synchrotron X-ray Small-Angle Scattering Technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fujisawa, Tetsuro; Takahashi, Satoshi [RIKEN Harima Institute, SPring-8 Center, Laboratory for Biometal Science, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Institute for Protein Research, Osaka University Suita Osaka 565-0871/CREST, JST (Japan)

    2007-03-30

    The polypeptide collapse is an essential dynamics in protein folding. To understand the mechanism of the collapse, in situ observation of folding by various probes is necessary. The changes in secondary and tertiary structures in the folding process of globular proteins, whose chain lengths are less than 300 polypeptides, were observed by circular dichrosim and intrinsic fluorescence spectroscopies, respectively. On the other hand, those in protein compactness could be only detected by using time-resolved synchrotron x-ray small-angle scattering technique. The observed dynamics for several proteins with different topologies suggested a common folding mechanism termed 'collapse and search' dynamics, in which the polypeptide collapse precedes the formation of the native contact formation. In 'collapse and search' dynamics, the most outstanding feature lied in the compactness of the initial intermediates. The collapsed intermediates demonstrated the scaling relationship between radius of gyration (Rg) and chain length with a scaling exponent of 0.35 {+-} 0.11, which is close to the value (1/3) predicted by mechano-statistical theory for the collapsed globules of polymers in poor solvent. Thus, it was suggested that the initial collapse is caused by the coil-globule transition of polymers. Since the collapse is essential to the folding of larger proteins, further investigations on the collapse likely lead to an important insight into the protein folding phenomena.

  17. FERC approves Northwest pipeline expansion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-06-15

    Northwest Pipeline Co., Salt Lake City, Utah, received a final permit from the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission for a $373.4 million main gas line expansion. This paper reports that it plans to begin construction of the 443 MMcfd expansion in mid-July after obtaining further federal, state, and local permits. The expanded system is to be fully operational by second quarter 1993. When the expansion is complete, total Northwest system mileage will be 3,936 miles and system capacity about 2.49 bcfd.

  18. Pseudodynamic planning for expansion of power distribution sytems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramirez-Rosado, I.J. ); Gonen, T. )

    1991-02-01

    This paper presents basic and extended planning models, based on a pseudodynamic methodology, to solve the global expansion problem (sizing, locating, and timing) of distribution substations and feeders throughout the planning time period. The objective functions, that represent the expansion costs, are minimized by successive concatenated optimizations subject to the Kirchhoff's current law, power capacity limits and logical constraints, in the basic model. It also presents an extended model that is obtained by including the voltage drop constraints in the basic model.

  19. Probing Reaction Dynamics of Transition-Metal Complexes in Solution via Time-Resolved X-ray Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huse, Nils; Khalil, Munira; Kim, Tae Kyu; Smeigh, Amanda L.; Jamula, Lindsey; McCusker, James K.; Schoenlein, Robert W.

    2009-05-24

    We report measurements of the photo-induced Fe(II) spin crossover reaction dynamics in solution via time-resolved x-ray absorption spectroscopy. EXAFS measurements reveal that the iron?nitrogen bond lengthens by 0.21+-0.03 Angstrom in the high-spin transient excited state relative to the ground state. XANES measurements at the Fe L-edge show directly the influence of the structural change on the ligand-field splitting of the Fe(II) 3d orbitals associated with the spin transition.

  20. Clocking the Early Universe's Expansion

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Clocking the Early Universe Clocking the Early Universe's Expansion Calculations Performed at NERSC Help Scientists Close in on the Nature of Dark Energy April 17, 2014 Margie Wylie, mwylie@lbl.gov, +1 510 486 7421 NERSC PI: David Schlegel Lead Institution: Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Project Title: Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey NERSC Resources Used: Hopper DOE Program Office: High Energy Physics Astronomers have made the most accurate calculation yet of the expansion rate of

  1. Dynamic response of materials on sub-nanosecond time scales, and beryllium properties for inertial confinement fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swift, D C; Tierney, T E; Luo, S N; Paisley, D L; Kyrala, G A; Hauer, A; Greenfield, S R; Koskelo, A C; McClellan, K J; Lorenzana, H E; Knudson, M D; Peralta, P P; Loomis, E

    2004-12-09

    During the past few years, substantial progress has been made in developing experimental techniques capable of investigating the response of materials to dynamic loading on nanosecond time scales and shorter, with multiple diagnostics probing different aspects of the behavior. these relatively short time scales are scientifically interesting because plastic flow and phase changes in common materials with simple crystal structures--such as iron--may be suppressed, allowing unusual states to be induced and the dynamics of plasticity and polymorphism to be explored. Loading by laser ablation can be particularly convenient. The TRIDENT laser has been used to impart shocks and isentropic compression waves from {approx}1 to 200GPa in a range of elements and alloys, with diagnostics including surface velocimetry (line-imaging VISAR), surface displacement (framed area imaging), x-ray diffraction (single crystal and polycrystal), ellipsometry, and Raman spectroscopy. A major motivation has been the study of the properties of beryllium under conditions relevant to the fuel capsule in inertial confinement fusion: magnetically-driven shock and isentropic compression shots at Z were used to investigate the equation of state and shock melting characteristics, complemented by laser ablation experiments to investigate plasticity and heterogeneous response. These results will help to constrain acceptable tolerances on manufacturing, and possible loading paths, for inertial fusion ignition experiments at the National Ignition Facility. Laser-based techniques are being developed further for future material dynamics experiments, where it should be possible to obtain high quality data on strength and phase changes up to at least 1TPa.

  2. Test Cases for Wind Power Plant Dynamic Models on Real-Time Digital Simulator: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singh, M.; Muljadi, E.; Gevorgian, V.

    2012-06-01

    The objective of this paper is to present test cases for wind turbine generator and wind power plant models commonly used during commissioning of wind power plants to ensure grid integration compatibility. In this paper, different types of wind power plant models based on the Western Electricity Coordinating Council Wind Generator Modeling Group's standardization efforts are implemented on a real-time digital simulator, and different test cases are used to gauge their grid integration capability. The low-voltage ride through and reactive power support capability and limitations of wind turbine generators under different grid conditions are explored. Several types of transient events (e.g., symmetrical and unsymmetrical faults, frequency dips) are included in the test cases. The differences in responses from different types of wind turbine are discussed in detail.

  3. Nuclear Fusion Drives Present-Day Accelerated Cosmic Expansion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ying, Leong

    2010-09-30

    The widely accepted model of our cosmos is that it began from a Big Bang event some 13.7 billion years ago from a single point source. From a twin universe perspective, the standard stellar model of nuclear fusion can account for the Dark Energy needed to explain the mechanism for our present-day accelerated expansion. The same theories can also be used to account for the rapid inflationary expansion at the earliest time of creation, and predict the future cosmic expansion rate.

  4. Expansion of a cold non-neutral plasma slab

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karimov, A. R.; Yu, M. Y.; Stenflo, L.

    2014-12-15

    Expansion of the ion and electron fronts of a cold non-neutral plasma slab with a quasi-neutral core bounded by layers containing only ions is investigated analytically and exact solutions are obtained. It is found that on average, the plasma expansion time scales linearly with the initial inverse ion plasma frequency as well as the degree of charge imbalance, and no expansion occurs if the cold plasma slab is stationary and overall neutral. However, in both cases, there can exist prominent oscillations on the electron front.

  5. Couplings between hierarchical conformational dynamics from multi-time correlation functions and two-dimensional lifetime spectra: Application to adenylate kinase

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ono, Junichi; Takada, Shoji; Saito, Shinji

    2015-06-07

    An analytical method based on a three-time correlation function and the corresponding two-dimensional (2D) lifetime spectrum is developed to elucidate the time-dependent couplings between the multi-timescale (i.e., hierarchical) conformational dynamics in heterogeneous systems such as proteins. In analogy with 2D NMR, IR, electronic, and fluorescence spectroscopies, the waiting-time dependence of the off-diagonal peaks in the 2D lifetime spectra can provide a quantitative description of the dynamical correlations between the conformational motions with different lifetimes. The present method is applied to intrinsic conformational changes of substrate-free adenylate kinase (AKE) using long-time coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations. It is found that the hierarchical conformational dynamics arise from the intra-domain structural transitions among conformational substates of AKE by analyzing the one-time correlation functions and one-dimensional lifetime spectra for the donor-acceptor distances corresponding to single-molecule Frster resonance energy transfer experiments with the use of the principal component analysis. In addition, the complicated waiting-time dependence of the off-diagonal peaks in the 2D lifetime spectra for the donor-acceptor distances is attributed to the fact that the time evolution of the couplings between the conformational dynamics depends upon both the spatial and temporal characters of the system. The present method is expected to shed light on the biological relationship among the structure, dynamics, and function.

  6. ON QUIET-TIME SOLAR WIND ELECTRON DISTRIBUTIONS IN DYNAMICAL EQUILIBRIUM WITH LANGMUIR TURBULENCE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zaheer, S.; Yoon, P. H.

    2013-10-01

    A recent series of papers put forth a self-consistent theory of an asymptotically steady-state electron distribution function and Langmuir turbulence intensity. The theory was developed in terms of the ? distribution which features Maxwellian low-energy electrons and a non-Maxwellian energetic power-law tail component. The present paper discusses a generalized ? distribution that features a Davydov-Druyvesteyn type of core component and an energetic power-law tail component. The physical motivation for such a generalization is so that the model may reflect the influence of low-energy electrons interacting with low-frequency kinetic Alfvnic turbulence as well as with high-frequency Langmuir turbulence. It is shown that such a solution and the accompanying Langmuir wave spectrum rigorously satisfy the balance requirement between the spontaneous and induced emission processes in both the particle and wave kinetic equations, and approximately satisfy the similar balance requirement between the spontaneous and induced scattering processes, which are nonlinear. In spite of the low velocity modification of the electron distribution function, it is shown that the resulting asymptotic velocity power-law index ?, where f{sub e} ? v {sup ?} is close to the average index observed during the quiet-time solar wind condition, i.e., ? ? O(6.5) whereas ?{sub average} ? 6.69, according to observation.

  7. Dynamic Response of an Optomechanical System to a Stationary Random Excitation in the Time Domain

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Palmer, Jeremy A.; Paez, Thomas L.

    2011-01-01

    Modern electro-optical instruments are typically designed with assemblies of optomechanical members that support optics such that alignment is maintained in service environments that include random vibration loads. This paper presents a nonlinear numerical analysis that calculates statistics for the peak lateral response of optics in an optomechanical sub-assembly subject to random excitation of the housing. The work is unique in that the prior art does not address peak response probability distribution for stationary random vibration in the time domain for a common lens-retainer-housing system with Coulomb damping. Analytical results are validated by using displacement response data from random vibration testingmore » of representative prototype sub-assemblies. A comparison of predictions to experimental results yields reasonable agreement. The Type I Asymptotic form provides the cumulative distribution function for peak response probabilities. Probabilities are calculated for actual lens centration tolerances. The probability that peak response will not exceed the centration tolerance is greater than 80% for prototype configurations where the tolerance is high (on the order of 30 micrometers). Conversely, the probability is low for those where the tolerance is less than 20 micrometers. The analysis suggests a design paradigm based on the influence of lateral stiffness on the magnitude of the response.« less

  8. Time-resolved, nonequilibrium carrier dynamics in Si-on-glass thin films for photovoltaic cells

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Serafini, John; Akbas, Yunus; Crandall, Lucas; Bellman, Robert; Williams, Carlo Kosik; Sobolewski, Robert

    2016-03-02

    Here, a femtosecond pump–probe spectroscopy method was used to characterize the growth process and transport properties of amorphous silicon-on-glass, thin films, intended as absorbers for photovoltaic cells. We collected normalized transmissivity change (ΔT/T) waveforms and interpreted them using a comprehensive three-rate equation electron trapping and recombination model. Optically excited ~300–500 nm thick Si films exhibited a bi-exponential carrier relaxation with the characteristic times varying from picoseconds to nanoseconds depending on the film growth process. From our comprehensive trapping model, we could determine that for doped and intrinsic films with very low hydrogen dilution the dominant relaxation mode was carrier trapping;more » while for intrinsic films with large hydrogen content and some texture, it was the standard electron–phonon cooling. In both cases, the initial nonequilibrium relaxation was followed by Shockley–Read–Hall recombination. An excellent fit between the model and the ΔT/T experimental transients was obtained and a correlation between the Si film growth process, its hydrogen content, and the associated trap concentration was demonstrated.« less

  9. Static properties of nuclear matter within the Boson Loop Expansion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alberico, W.M.; Cenni, R. Garbarino, G.; Quaglia, M.R.

    2008-08-15

    The use of the Boson Loop Expansion is proposed for investigating the static properties of nuclear matter. We explicitly consider a schematic dynamical model in which nucleons interact with the scalar-isoscalar {sigma} meson. The suggested approximation scheme is examined in detail at the mean field level and at the one- and two-loop orders. The relevant formulas are provided to derive the binding energy per nucleon, the pressure and the compressibility of nuclear matter. Numerical results of the binding energy at the one-loop order are presented for Walecka's {sigma}-{omega} model in order to discuss the degree of convergence of the Boson Loop Expansion.

  10. Cosmic expansion histories in massive bigravity with symmetric matter coupling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Enander, Jonas; Mrtsell, Edvard [Oskar Klein Center, Stockholm University, Albanova University Center, 106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Solomon, Adam R. [DAMTP, Centre for Mathematical Sciences, University of Cambridge, Wilberforce Rd., Cambridge CB3 0WA (United Kingdom); Akrami, Yashar, E-mail: enander@fysik.su.se, E-mail: a.r.solomon@damtp.cam.ac.uk, E-mail: yashar.akrami@astro.uio.no, E-mail: edvard@fysik.su.se [Institute of Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1029 Blindern, N-0315 Oslo (Norway)

    2015-01-01

    We study the cosmic expansion history of massive bigravity with a viable matter coupling which treats both metrics on equal footing. We derive the Friedmann equation for the effective metric through which matter couples to the two metrics, and study its solutions. For certain parameter choices, the background cosmology is identical to that of ?CDM. More general parameters yield dynamical dark energy, which can still be in agreement with observations of the expansion history. We study specific parameter choices of interest, including minimal models, maximally-symmetric models, and a candidate partially-massless theory.

  11. First Demonstration of Combined kV/MV Image-Guided Real-Time Dynamic Multileaf-Collimator Target Tracking

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cho, Byungchul Poulsen, Per R.; Sloutsky, Alex; Sawant, Amit; Keall, Paul J.

    2009-07-01

    Purpose: For intrafraction motion management, a real-time tracking system was developed by combining fiducial marker-based tracking via simultaneous kilovoltage (kV) and megavoltage (MV) imaging and a dynamic multileaf collimator (DMLC) beam-tracking system. Methods and Materials: The integrated tracking system employed a Varian Trilogy system equipped with kV/MV imaging systems and a Millennium 120-leaf MLC. A gold marker in elliptical motion (2-cm superior-inferior, 1-cm left-right, 10 cycles/min) was simultaneously imaged by the kV and MV imagers at 6.7 Hz and segmented in real time. With these two-dimensional projections, the tracking software triangulated the three-dimensional marker position and repositioned the MLC leaves to follow the motion. Phantom studies were performed to evaluate time delay from image acquisition to MLC adjustment, tracking error, and dosimetric impact of target motion with and without tracking. Results: The time delay of the integrated tracking system was {approx}450 ms. The tracking error using a prediction algorithm was 0.9 {+-} 0.5 mm for the elliptical motion. The dose distribution with tracking showed better target coverage and less dose to surrounding region over no tracking. The failure rate of the gamma test (3%/3-mm criteria) was 22.5% without tracking but was reduced to 0.2% with tracking. Conclusion: For the first time, a complete tracking system combining kV/MV image-guided target tracking and DMLC beam tracking was demonstrated. The average geometric error was less than 1 mm, and the dosimetric error was negligible. This system is a promising method for intrafraction motion management.

  12. Comparison among Magnus/Floquet/Fer expansion schemes in solid-state NMR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Takegoshi, K. Miyazawa, Norihiro; Sharma, Kshama; Madhu, P. K.

    2015-04-07

    We here revisit expansion schemes used in nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) for the calculation of effective Hamiltonians and propagators, namely, Magnus, Floquet, and Fer expansions. While all the expansion schemes are powerful methods there are subtle differences among them. To understand the differences, we performed explicit calculation for heteronuclear dipolar decoupling, cross-polarization, and rotary-resonance experiments in solid-state NMR. As the propagator from the Fer expansion takes the form of a product of sub-propagators, it enables us to appreciate effects of time-evolution under Hamiltonians with different orders separately. While 0th-order average Hamiltonian is the same for the three expansion schemes with the three cases examined, there is a case that the 2nd-order term for the Magnus/Floquet expansion is different from that obtained with the Fer expansion. The difference arises due to the separation of the 0th-order term in the Fer expansion. The separation enables us to appreciate time-evolution under the 0th-order average Hamiltonian, however, for that purpose, we use a so-called left-running Fer expansion. Comparison between the left-running Fer expansion and the Magnus expansion indicates that the sign of the odd orders in Magnus may better be reversed if one would like to consider its effect in order.

  13. Stetson Wind Expansion Wind Farm | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Stetson Wind Expansion Wind Farm Jump to: navigation, search Name Stetson Wind Expansion Wind Farm Facility Stetson Wind Expansion Sector Wind energy Facility Type Commercial Scale...

  14. Accelerated expansion of the universe la the Stueckelberg mechanism

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akarsu, zgr; Ar?k, Metin; Kat?rc?, Nihan; Kavuk, Mehmet E-mail: metin.arik@boun.edu.tr E-mail: mehmet.kavuk@boun.edu.tr

    2014-07-01

    We investigate a cosmological model in which the Stueckelberg fields are non-minimally coupled to the scalar curvature in a gauge invariant manner. We present not only a solution that can be considered in the context of the late time acceleration of the universe but also a solution compatible with the inflationary cosmology. Distinct behaviors of the scalar and vector fields together with the real valued mass gained by the Stueckelberg mechanism lead the universe to go through the two different accelerated expansion phases with a decelerated expansion phase between them. On the other hand, in the solutions we present, if the mass is null then the universe is either static or exhibits a simple power law expansion due to the vector field potential.

  15. Pressurized electrolysis stack with thermal expansion capability

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bourgeois, Richard Scott

    2015-07-14

    The present techniques provide systems and methods for mounting an electrolyzer stack in an outer shell so as to allow for differential thermal expansion of the electrolyzer stack and shell. Generally, an electrolyzer stack may be formed from a material with a high coefficient of thermal expansion, while the shell may be formed from a material having a lower coefficient of thermal expansion. The differences between the coefficients of thermal expansion may lead to damage to the electrolyzer stack as the shell may restrain the thermal expansion of the electrolyzer stack. To allow for the differences in thermal expansion, the electrolyzer stack may be mounted within the shell leaving a space between the electrolyzer stack and shell. The space between the electrolyzer stack and the shell may be filled with a non-conductive fluid to further equalize pressure inside and outside of the electrolyzer stack.

  16. SEMI-ANNUAL REPORTS FOR FREEPORT LNG EXPANSION L.P. & FLNG LIQUEFACTION,

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    LLC - FE DKT. 10-160-LNG - ORDER 2913 | Department of Energy LNG EXPANSION L.P. & FLNG LIQUEFACTION, LLC - FE DKT. 10-160-LNG - ORDER 2913 SEMI-ANNUAL REPORTS FOR FREEPORT LNG EXPANSION L.P. & FLNG LIQUEFACTION, LLC - FE DKT. 10-160-LNG - ORDER 2913 No report submitted at this time. More Documents & Publications SEMI-ANNUAL REPORTS FOR FREEPORT LNG EXPANSION L.P. & FLNG LIQUEFACTION, LLC - FE DKT. NO. 12-06-LNG - ORDER 3066 SEMI-ANNUAL REPORTS FOR FREEPORT LNG EXPANSION, L.P.

  17. ARM - Lesson Plans: Thermal Expansion of Water

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Thermal Expansion of Water Outreach Home Room News Publications Traditional Knowledge Kiosks Barrow, Alaska Tropical Western Pacific Site Tours Contacts Students Study Hall About ARM Global Warming FAQ Just for Fun Meet our Friends Cool Sites Teachers Teachers' Toolbox Lesson Plans Lesson Plans: Thermal Expansion of Water Objective The objective of this activity is to demonstrate the concept of thermal expansion of water when heated. Materials Each student or group of students will need the

  18. Expansion Capital Partners LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Area Product: Venture capital firm that invests in expansion-stage, clean technology enterprises Year Founded: 2001 Phone Number: (415) 788-8802 Website: www.expansioncapital.com...

  19. Extended space expectation values in quantum dynamical system evolutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Demiralp, Metin

    2014-10-06

    The time variant power series expansion for the expectation value of a given quantum dynamical operator is well-known and well-investigated issue in quantum dynamics. However, depending on the operator and Hamiltonian singularities this expansion either may not exist or may not converge for all time instances except the beginning of the evolution. This work focuses on this issue and seeks certain cures for the negativities. We work in the extended space obtained by adding all images of the initial wave function under the system Hamiltonians positive integer powers. This requires the introduction of certain appropriately defined weight operators. The resulting better convergence in the temporal power series urges us to call the new defined entities extended space expectation values even though they are constructed over certain weight operators and are somehow pseudo expectation values.

  20. Eigenfunction Expansion of the Space-Time Dependent Neutron Survival...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Resource Relation: Conference: 2013 ANS Winter Meeting held November 9-13, 2013 in Washington DC, DC.; Related Information: Proposed for presentation at the 2013 ANS Winter...

  1. Micromagnetic analysis of dynamical bubble-like solitons based on the time domain evolution of the topological density

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Puliafito, Vito Azzerboni, Bruno; Finocchio, Giovanni; Torres, Luis; Ozatay, Ozhan

    2014-05-07

    Dynamical bubble-like solitons have been recently investigated in nanocontact-based spin-torque oscillators with a perpendicular free layer. Those magnetic configurations can be excited also in different geometries as long as they consist of perpendicular materials. Thus, in this paper, a systematic study of the influence of both external field and high current on that kind of dynamics is performed for a spin-valve point-contact geometry where both free and fixed layers present strong perpendicular anisotropy. The usage of the topological density tool highlights the excitation of complex bubble/antibubble configurations. In particular, at high currents, a deformation of the soliton and its simultaneous shift from the contact area are observed and can be ascribable to the Oersted field. Results provide further detailed information on the excitation of solitons in perpendicular materials for application in spintronics, magnonics, and domain wall logic.

  2. Multipole expansion method for supernova neutrino oscillations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duan, Huaiyu; Shalgar, Shashank, E-mail: duan@unm.edu, E-mail: shashankshalgar@unm.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States)

    2014-10-01

    We demonstrate a multipole expansion method to calculate collective neutrino oscillations in supernovae using the neutrino bulb model. We show that it is much more efficient to solve multi-angle neutrino oscillations in multipole basis than in angle basis. The multipole expansion method also provides interesting insights into multi-angle calculations that were accomplished previously in angle basis.

  3. Dynamical Expansion of HII Regions From Ultracompact to Compact...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Authors: Low, Mordecai-Mark Mac ; Toraskar, Jayashree ; Amer. Museum Natural Hist. ; ... Sponsoring Org: USDOE Country of Publication: United States Language: English Subject: ...

  4. Dynamical Expansion of HII Regions From Ultracompact to Compact...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Museum Natural Hist. ; Oishi, Jeffrey S. ; Amer. Museum Natural Hist. Virginia U., ... Sponsoring Org: USDOE Country of Publication: United States Language: English Subject: ...

  5. Photochemistry of the water dimer: Time-dependent quantum wave-packet description of the dynamics at the S{sub 1}-S{sub 0} conical intersection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chmura, Bartosz; Rode, Michal F.; Sobolewski, Andrzej L.; Lan Zhenggang

    2009-10-07

    The photoinduced electron-driven proton-transfer dynamics of the water-dimer system has been investigated by time-dependent quantum wave-packet calculations. The main nuclear degrees of freedom driving the system from the Frank-Condon region to the S{sub 0}-S{sub 1} conical intersection are the distance between the oxygen atoms and the displacement of the hydrogen atom from the oxygen-oxygen bond center. Two important coupling modes have been investigated: Rotation of the H-donating water dangling proton and asymmetric stretching of the H-accepting water dangling protons'O{sub a}H bonds. Potential energy surfaces of the ground and lowest excited electronic states have been constructed on the basis of ab initio calculations. The time-dependent quantum wave-packet propagation has been employed within the (2 + 1)-dimensional systems for the description of the nonadiabatic dynamics of water dimer. The effects of the initial vibrational state of the system on the electronic population transfer and dissociation dynamics are presented. To approximate the photochemical behavior of water dimer in bulk water, we add a boundary condition into the (2 + 1)-dimensional systems to simulate the existence of water bulk. The results provide insight into the mechanisms of excited state deactivation of the water-dimer system in gas phase and in bulk water through the electron-driven proton-transfer process.

  6. Real-Time Target Position Estimation Using Stereoscopic Kilovoltage/Megavoltage Imaging and External Respiratory Monitoring for Dynamic Multileaf Collimator Tracking

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cho, Byungchul; Poulsen, Per Rugaard; Sawant, Amit; Ruan, Dan; Keall, Paul J.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To develop a real-time target position estimation method using stereoscopic kilovoltage (kV)/megavoltage (MV) imaging and external respiratory monitoring, and to investigate the performance of a dynamic multileaf collimator tracking system using this method. Methods and Materials: The real-time three-dimensional internal target position estimation was established by creating a time-varying correlation model that connected the external respiratory signals with the internal target motion measured intermittently using kV/MV imaging. The method was integrated into a dynamic multileaf collimator tracking system. Tracking experiments were performed for 10 thoracic/abdominal traces. A three-dimensional motion platform carrying a gold marker and a separate one-dimensional motion platform were used to reproduce the target and external respiratory motion, respectively. The target positions were detected by kV (1 Hz) and MV (5.2 Hz) imaging, and external respiratory motion was captured by an optical system (30 Hz). The beam-target alignment error was quantified as the positional difference between the target and circular beam center on the MV images acquired during tracking. The correlation model error was quantified by comparing a model estimate and measured target positions. Results: The root-mean-square errors in the beam-target alignment that had ranged from 3.1 to 7.6 mm without tracking were reduced to <1.5 mm with tracking, except during the model building period (6 s). The root-mean-square error in the correlation model was submillimeters in all directions. Conclusion: A novel real-time target position estimation method was developed and integrated into a dynamic multileaf collimator tracking system and demonstrated an average submillimeter geometric accuracy after initializing the internal/external correlation model. The method used hardware tools available on linear accelerators and therefore shows promise for clinical implementation.

  7. Concentric ring flywheel without expansion separators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kuklo, Thomas C. (Oakdale, CA)

    1999-01-01

    A concentric ring flywheel wherein the adjacent rings are configured to eliminate the need for differential expansion separators between the adjacent rings. This is accomplished by forming a circumferential step on an outer surface of an inner concentric ring and forming a matching circumferential step on the inner surface of an adjacent outer concentric ring. During operation the circumferential steps allow the rings to differentially expand due to the difference in the radius of the rings without the formation of gaps therebetween, thereby eliminating the need for expansion separators to take up the gaps formed by differential expansion.

  8. Concentric ring flywheel without expansion separators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kuklo, T.C.

    1999-08-24

    A concentric ring flywheel wherein the adjacent rings are configured to eliminate the need for differential expansion separators between the adjacent rings. This is accomplished by forming a circumferential step on an outer surface of an inner concentric ring and forming a matching circumferential step on the inner surface of an adjacent outer concentric ring. During operation the circumferential steps allow the rings to differentially expand due to the difference in the radius of the rings without the formation of gaps therebetween, thereby eliminating the need for expansion separators to take up the gaps formed by differential expansion. 3 figs.

  9. Low expansion superalloy with improved toughness

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, D.F.; Stein, L.I.; Hwang, I.S.

    1995-06-20

    A high strength, low coefficient of thermal expansion superalloy exhibiting improved toughness over a broad temperature range down to about 4 K is disclosed. The composition is adapted for use with wrought superconducting sheathing.

  10. Low expansion superalloy with improved toughness

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, Darrell F. (Huntington, WV); Stein, Larry I. (Huntington, WV); Hwang, Il S. (Seoul, KR)

    1995-01-01

    A high strength, low coefficient of thermal expansion superalloy exhibiting improved toughness over a broad temperature range down to about 4.degree. K. The composition is adapted for use with wrought superconducting sheathing.

  11. EA-1997: Construction Landfill Expansion, Pantex Plant, Amarillo, Texas |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy 7: Construction Landfill Expansion, Pantex Plant, Amarillo, Texas EA-1997: Construction Landfill Expansion, Pantex Plant, Amarillo, Texas SUMMARY Construction Landfill Expansion, Pantex Plant, Amarillo, Texas

  12. Atomistic Time-Domain Simulations of Light-Harvesting and Charge-Transfer Dynamics in Novel Nanoscale Materials for Solar Hydrogen Production.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prezhdo, Oleg V.

    2012-03-22

    Funded by the DOE grant (i) we continued to study and analyze the atomistic detail of the electron transfer (ET) across the chromophore-TiO2 interface in Gratzel cell systems for solar hydrogen production. (ii) We extensively investigated the nature of photoexcited states and excited state dynamics in semiconductor quantum dots (QD) designed for photovoltaic applications. (iii) We continued a newly initiated research direction focusing on excited state properties and electron-phonon interactions in nanoscale carbon materials. Over the past year, the results of the DOE funded research were summarized in 3 review articles. 12 original manuscripts were written. The research results were reported in 28 invited talks at conferences and university seminars. 20 invitations were accepted for talks in the near future. 2 symposia at national and international meetings have being organized this year on topics closely related to the DOE funded project, and 2 more symposia have been planned for the near future. We summarized the insights into photoinduced dynamics of semiconductor QDs, obtained from our time-domain ab initio studies. QDs exhibit both molecular and bulk properties. Unlike either bulk or molecular materials, QD properties can be modified continuously by changing QD shape and size. However, the chemical and physical properties of molecular and bulk materials often contradict each other, which can lead to differing viewpoints about the behavior of QDs. For example, the molecular view suggests strong electron-hole and charge-phonon interactions, as well as slow energy relaxation due to mismatch between electronic energy gaps and phonon frequencies. In contrast, the bulk view advocates that the kinetic energy of quantum confinement is greater than electron-hole interactions, that charge-phonon coupling is weak, and that the relaxation through quasi-continuous bands is rapid. By synthesizing the bulk and molecular viewpoints, we clarified the controversies and provided a unified atomistic picture of the nature and dynamics of photoexcited states in semiconductor QDs. We also summarized our recent findings about the photoinduced electron dynamics at the chromophore-semiconductor interfaces from a time-domain ab initio perspective. The interface provides the foundation for a new, promising type of solar cell and presents a fundamentally important case study for several fields, including photo-, electro- and analytical chemistries, molecular electronics, and photography. Further, the interface offers a classic example of an interaction between an organic molecular species and an inorganic bulk material. Scientists employ different concepts and terminologies to describe molecular and solid states of matter, and these differences make it difficult to describe the interface with a single model. At the basic atomistic level of description, however, this challenge can be largely overcome. Recent advances in non-adiabatic molecular dynamics and time-domain density functional theory have created a unique opportunity for simulating the ultrafast, photoinduced processes on a computer very similar to the way that they occur in nature. These state-of-the-art theoretical tools offered a comprehensive picture of a variety of electron transfer processes that occur at the interface, including electron injection from the chromophore to the semiconductor, electron relaxation and delocalization inside the semiconductor, back-transfer of the electron to the chromophore and to the electrolyte, and regeneration of the neutral chromophore by the electrolyte. The ab initio time-domain modeling is particularly valuable for understanding these dynamic features of the ultrafast electron transfer processes, which cannot be represented by a simple rate description. We demonstrated using symmetry adapted cluster theory with configuration interaction (SAC-CI) that charging of small PbSe nanocrystals (NCs) greatly modifies their electronic states and optical excitations. Conduction and valence band transitions that are not available in neutral NCs dominate

  13. Heat Flow Database Expansion for NGDS Data Development, Collection...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Heat Flow Database Expansion for NGDS Data Development, Collection and Maintenance (SMU) Heat Flow Database Expansion for NGDS Data Development, Collection and Maintenance (SMU) ...

  14. Year-in-Review: 2012 Energy Infrastructure Events and Expansions...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    2 Energy Infrastructure Events and Expansions (July 2013) Year-in-Review: 2012 Energy Infrastructure Events and Expansions (July 2013) The Year-in-Review (YIR): 2012 Energy...

  15. Electrochemical-acoustic time of flight: in operando correlation of physical dynamics with battery charge and health

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hsieh, AG; Bhadra, S; Hertzberg, BJ; Gjeltema, PJ; Goy, A; Fleischer, JW; Steingart, DA

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate that a simple acoustic time-of-flight experiment can measure the state of charge and state of health of almost any closed battery. An acoustic conservation law model describing the state of charge of a standard battery is proposed, and experimental acoustic results verify the simulated trends; furthermore, a framework relating changes in sound speed, via density and modulus changes, to state of charge and state of health within a battery is discussed. Regardless of the chemistry, the distribution of density within a battery must change as a function of state of charge and, along with density, the bulk moduli of the anode and cathode changes as well. The shifts in density and modulus also change the acoustic attenuation in a battery. Experimental results indicating both state-of-charge determination and irreversible physical changes are presented for two of the most ubiquitous batteries in the world, the lithium-ion 18650 and the alkaline LR6 (AA). Overall, a one-or two-point acoustic measurement can be related to the interaction of a pressure wave at multiple discrete interfaces within a battery, which in turn provides insights into state of charge, state of health, and mechanical evolution/degradation.

  16. Matching pre-equilibrium dynamics and viscous hydrodynamics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martinez, Mauricio; Strickland, Michael

    2010-02-15

    We demonstrate how to match pre-equilibrium dynamics of a 0+1-dimensional quark-gluon plasma to second-order viscous hydrodynamical evolution. The matching allows us to specify the initial values of the energy density and shear tensor at the initial time of hydrodynamical evolution as a function of the lifetime of the pre-equilibrium period. We compare two models for pre-equilibrium quark-gluon plasma, longitudinal free streaming and collisionally broadened longitudinal expansion, and present analytic formulas that can be used to fix the necessary components of the energy-momentum tensor. The resulting dynamical models can be used to assess the effect of pre-equilibrium dynamics on quark-gluon plasma observables. Additionally, we investigate the dependence of entropy production on pre-equilibrium dynamics and discuss the limitations of the standard definitions of nonequilibrium entropy.

  17. EIA - Natural Gas Pipeline Network - Expansion Process Flow Diagram

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Development & Expansion > Development and Expansion Process Figure About U.S. Natural Gas Pipelines - Transporting Natural Gas based on data through 2007/2008 with selected updates Development and Expansion Process For Natural Gas Pipeline Projects Figure showing the expansion process

  18. Live Cells as Dynamic Laboratories: Time Lapse Raman Spectral Microscopy of Nanoparticles with Both IgE Targeting and pH-Sensing Functions

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Nowak-Lovato, Kristy L.; Rector, Kirk D.

    2012-01-01

    Tmore » his review captures the use of live cells as dynamic microlaboratories through implementation of labeled nanoparticles (nanosensors) that have both sensing and targeting functions. The addition of 2,4-ε-dinitrophenol-L-lysine (DNP) as a FcεRI targeting ligand and 4-mercaptopyridine (4-MPy) as a pH-sensing ligand enables spatial and temporal monitoring of FcεRI receptors and their pH environment within the endocytic pathway. To ensure reliability, the sensor is calibrated in vivo using the ionophore nigericin and standard buffer solutions to equilibrate the external [ H + ] concentration with that of the cell compartments. This review highlights the nanosensors, ability to traffic and respond to pH of receptor-bound nanosensors (1) at physiological temperature ( 37 ° C ) versus room temperature ( 25 ° C ) , (2) after pharmacological treatment with bafilomycin, an H + ATPase pump inhibitor, or amiloride, an inhibitor of Na + / H + exchange, and (3) in response to both temperature and pharmacological treatment. Whole-cell, time lapse images are demonstrated to show the ability to transform live cells into dynamic laboratories to monitor temporal and spatial endosomal pH. The versatility of these probes shows promise for future applications relevant to intracellular trafficking and intelligent drug design.« less

  19. Improving Power System Modeling. A Tool to Link Capacity Expansion and Production Cost Models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Diakov, Victor; Cole, Wesley; Sullivan, Patrick; Brinkman, Gregory; Margolis, Robert

    2015-11-01

    Capacity expansion models (CEM) provide a high-level long-term view at the prospects of the evolving power system. In simulating the possibilities of long-term capacity expansion, it is important to maintain the viability of power system operation in the short-term (daily, hourly and sub-hourly) scales. Production-cost models (PCM) simulate routine power system operation on these shorter time scales using detailed load, transmission and generation fleet data by minimizing production costs and following reliability requirements. When based on CEM 'predictions' about generating unit retirements and buildup, PCM provide more detailed simulation for the short-term system operation and, consequently, may confirm the validity of capacity expansion predictions. Further, production cost model simulations of a system that is based on capacity expansion model solution are 'evolutionary' sound: the generator mix is the result of logical sequence of unit retirement and buildup resulting from policy and incentives. The above has motivated us to bridge CEM with PCM by building a capacity expansion - to - production cost model Linking Tool (CEPCoLT). The Linking Tool is built to onset capacity expansion model prescriptions onto production cost model inputs. NREL's ReEDS and Energy Examplar's PLEXOS are the capacity expansion and the production cost models, respectively. Via the Linking Tool, PLEXOS provides details of operation for the regionally-defined ReEDS scenarios.

  20. Expansion analyses of strategic petroleum reserve in Bayou Choctaw : revised locations.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ehgartner, Brian L.; Park, Byoung Yoon

    2010-11-01

    This report summarizes a series of three-dimensional simulations for the Bayou Choctaw Strategic Petroleum Reserve. The U.S. Department of Energy plans to leach two new caverns and convert one of the existing caverns within the Bayou Choctaw salt dome to expand its petroleum reserve storage capacity. An existing finite element mesh from previous analyses is modified by changing the locations of two caverns. The structural integrity of the three expansion caverns and the interaction between all the caverns in the dome are investigated. The impacts of the expansion on underground creep closure, surface subsidence, infrastructure, and well integrity are quantified. Two scenarios were used for the duration and timing of workover conditions where wellhead pressures are temporarily reduced to atmospheric pressure. The three expansion caverns are predicted to be structurally stable against tensile failure for both scenarios. Dilatant failure is not expected within the vicinity of the expansion caverns. Damage to surface structures is not predicted and there is not a marked increase in surface strains due to the presence of the three expansion caverns. The wells into the caverns should not undergo yield. The results show that from a structural viewpoint, the locations of the two newly proposed expansion caverns are acceptable, and all three expansion caverns can be safely constructed and operated.

  1. Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) Dynamic-Tracking Directional Wireless Antennas for Low Powered Applications that Require Reliable Extended Range Operations in Time Critical Scenarios

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scott G. Bauer; Matthew O. Anderson; James R. Hanneman

    2005-10-01

    The proven value of DOD Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) will ultimately transition to National and Homeland Security missions that require real-time aerial surveillance, situation awareness, force protection, and sensor placement. Public services first responders who routinely risk personal safety to assess and report a situation for emergency actions will likely be the first to benefit from these new unmanned technologies. Packable or Portable small class UAVs will be particularly useful to the first responder. They require the least amount of training, no fixed infrastructure, and are capable of being launched and recovered from the point of emergency. All UAVs require wireless communication technologies for real- time applications. Typically on a small UAV, a low bandwidth telemetry link is required for command and control (C2), and systems health monitoring. If the UAV is equipped with a real-time Electro-Optical or Infrared (EO/Ir) video camera payload, a dedicated high bandwidth analog/digital link is usually required for reliable high-resolution imagery. In most cases, both the wireless telemetry and real-time video links will be integrated into the UAV with unity gain omni-directional antennas. With limited on-board power and payload capacity, a small UAV will be limited with the amount of radio-frequency (RF) energy it transmits to the users. Therefore, packable and portable UAVs will have limited useful operational ranges for first responders. This paper will discuss the limitations of small UAV wireless communications. The discussion will present an approach of utilizing a dynamic ground based real-time tracking high gain directional antenna to provide extend range stand-off operation, potential RF channel reuse, and assured telemetry and data communications from low-powered UAV deployed wireless assets.

  2. Natural Gas Pipeline and System Expansions

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    1997-01-01

    This special report examines recent expansions to the North American natural gas pipeline network and the nature and type of proposed pipeline projects announced or approved for construction during the next several years in the United States. It includes those projects in Canada and Mexico that tie in with U.S. markets or projects.

  3. Climate Science: Tropical Expansion by Ocean Swing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Jian

    2014-04-01

    The tropical belt has become wider over the past decades, but climate models fall short of capturing the full rate of the expansion. The latest analysis of the climate simulations suggests that a long-term swing of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation is the main missing cause.

  4. Resonant state expansion of the resolvent

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berggren, T.; Lind, P. )

    1993-02-01

    An analytic method of generating resonant state expansions from the standard completeness relation of nonrelativistic quantum mechanics is described and shown to reproduce the generalized completeness relations, earlier derived, involving resonant states. The method is then applied to the expansion of the resolvent (the complete Green's function), the symmetry properties of which [ital seem] to be destroyed if a conventional application of the completeness relations is made. These forms of expansions have a continuum term which contains symmetry-restoring contributions and can therefore never vanish identically, nor can it be neglected. The symmetry-conserving form of the expansion has a set of discrete terms which are identical in form to those of the Mittag-Leffler series for the resolvent. In addition, it contains a continuum contribution which in some cases vanishes identically, but in general does not. We illustrate these findings with numerical applictions in which the potential (a square well) is chosen so as to permit analytic evaluation of practically all functions and quantities involved.

  5. 216-B-3 expansion ponds closure plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-10-01

    This document describes the activities for clean closure under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) of the 216-B-3 Expansion Ponds. The 216-B-3 Expansion Ponds are operated by the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) and co-operated by Westinghouse Hanford Company (Westinghouse Hanford). The 216-B-3 Expansion Ponds consists of a series of three earthen, unlined, interconnected ponds that receive waste water from various 200 East Area operating facilities. The 3A, 3B, and 3C ponds are referred to as Expansion Ponds because they expanded the capability of the B Pond System. Waste water (primarily cooling water, steam condensate, and sanitary water) from various 200 East Area facilities is discharged to the Bypass pipe (Project X-009). Water discharged to the Bypass pipe flows directly into the 216-B-3C Pond. The ponds were operated in a cascade mode, where the Main Pond overflowed into the 3A Pond and the 3A Pond overflowed into the 3C Pond. The 3B Pond has not received waste water since May 1985; however, when in operation, the 3B Pond received overflow from the 3A Pond. In the past, waste water discharges to the Expansion Ponds had the potential to have contained mixed waste (radioactive waste and dangerous waste). The radioactive portion of mixed waste has been interpreted by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to be regulated under the Atomic Energy Act of 1954; the dangerous waste portion of mixed waste is regulated under RCRA.

  6. Cosmology with hybrid expansion law: scalar field reconstruction of cosmic history and observational constraints

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akarsu, zgr [Department of Physics, Ko University, 34450 Sariyer, ?stanbul (Turkey); Kumar, Suresh [Department of Mathematics, BITS Pilani, Pilani Campus, Rajasthan-333031 (India); Myrzakulov, R.; Sami, M. [Centre of Theoretical Physics, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi-110025 (India); Xu, Lixin, E-mail: oakarsu@ku.edu.tr, E-mail: sukuyd@gmail.com, E-mail: rmyrzakulov@gmail.com, E-mail: samijamia@gmail.com, E-mail: lxxu@dlut.edu.cn [Institute of Theoretical Physics, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian, 116024 (China)

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we consider a simple form of expansion history of Universe referred to as the hybrid expansion law - a product of power-law and exponential type of functions. The ansatz by construction mimics the power-law and de Sitter cosmologies as special cases but also provides an elegant description of the transition from deceleration to cosmic acceleration. We point out the Brans-Dicke realization of the cosmic history under consideration. We construct potentials for quintessence, phantom and tachyon fields, which can give rise to the hybrid expansion law in general relativity. We investigate observational constraints on the model with hybrid expansion law applied to late time acceleration as well as to early Universe a la nucleosynthesis.

  7. Frostless heat pump having thermal expansion valves

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, Fang C. (Knoxville, TN); Mei, Viung C. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    2002-10-22

    A heat pump system having an operable relationship for transferring heat between an exterior atmosphere and an interior atmosphere via a fluid refrigerant and further having a compressor, an interior heat exchanger, an exterior heat exchanger, a heat pump reversing valve, an accumulator, a thermal expansion valve having a remote sensing bulb disposed in heat transferable contact with the refrigerant piping section between said accumulator and said reversing valve, an outdoor temperature sensor, and a first means for heating said remote sensing bulb in response to said outdoor temperature sensor thereby opening said thermal expansion valve to raise suction pressure in order to mitigate defrosting of said exterior heat exchanger wherein said heat pump continues to operate in a heating mode.

  8. Low thermal expansion seal ring support

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dewis, David W. (San Diego, CA); Glezer, Boris (Del Mar, CA)

    2000-01-01

    Today, the trend is to increase the temperature of operation of gas turbine engines. To cool the components with compressor discharge air, robs air which could otherwise be used for combustion and creates a less efficient gas turbine engine. The present low thermal expansion sealing ring support system reduces the quantity of cooling air required while maintaining life and longevity of the components. Additionally, the low thermal expansion sealing ring reduces the clearance "C","C'" demanded between the interface between the sealing surface and the tip of the plurality of turbine blades. The sealing ring is supported by a plurality of support members in a manner in which the sealing ring and the plurality of support members independently expand and contract relative to each other and to other gas turbine engine components.

  9. Locally-smeared operator product expansions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Monahan, Christopher; Orginos, Kostantinos

    2014-12-01

    We propose a "locally-smeared Operator Product Expansion" (sOPE) to decompose non-local operators in terms of a basis of locally-smeared operators. The sOPE formally connects nonperturbative matrix elements of smeared degrees of freedom, determined numerically using the gradient flow, to non-local operators in the continuum. The nonperturbative matrix elements do not suffer from power-divergent mixing on the lattice, provided the smearing scale is kept fixed in the continuum limit. The presence of this smearing scale prevents a simple connection to the standard operator product expansion and therefore requires the construction of a two-scale formalism. We demonstrate the feasibility of our approach using the example of real scalar field theory.

  10. Derivative expansion of the effective action

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheyette, O.

    1987-04-01

    This paper describes some methods for calculating derivative terms in the one loop effective action for a quantum field theory. The functional approach and background field method are first used to derive the general form of the one loop determinant. Then the determinant is expanded in powers of derivatives of the background fields. The form of this expansion is described for the simple case of an interacting scalar field, and then for the more complicated problem of a non-abelian gauge field. Finally, the expansion is applied to the task of calculating Higgs mass dependent effects in the Glashow-Weinberg-Salam model, and all terms which grow with the Higgs mass M/sub H/ are found in the one loop approximation. The result of this calculation is used to find the dependence of the gauge boson mass ratio rho on M/sub H/, and also to estimate the size of corrections to W and Z scattering theorems.

  11. Pole EXpansion and Selected Inversion (PEXSI)

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2014-03-01

    The Pole EXpansion and Selected Inversion method (PEXSI) is a fast method for evaluating certain selected elements of a matrix function. PEXSI is highly scalable on distributed memory parallel machines. For sparse matrices, the PEXSI method can be more efficient than the widely used diagonalization method for evaluating matrix functions, especially when a relatively large number of eigenpairs are needed to be computed in the diagonalization methond

  12. Frequency dependent thermal expansion in binary viscoelasticcomposites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berryman, James G.

    2007-12-01

    The effective thermal expansion coefficient beta* of abinary viscoelastic composite is shown to be frequency dependent even ifthe thermal expansion coefficients beta A and beta B of both constituentsare themselves frequency independent. Exact calculations for binaryviscoelastic systems show that beta* is related to constituent valuesbeta A, beta B, volume fractions, and bulk moduli KA, KB, as well as tothe overall bulk modulus K* of the composite system. Then, beta* isdetermined for isotropic systems by first bounding (or measuring) K* andtherefore beta*. For anisotropic systems with hexagonal symmetry, theprincipal values of the thermal expansion beta*perp and beta*para can bedetermined exactly when the constituents form a layered system. In allthe examples studied, it is shown explicitly that the eigenvectors of thethermoviscoelastic system possess non-negative dissipation -- despite thecomplicated analytical behavior of the frequency dependent thermalexpansivities themselves. Methods presented have a variety ofapplications from fluid-fluid mixtures to fluid-solid suspensions, andfrom fluid-saturated porous media to viscoelastic solid-solidcomposites.

  13. Expansion/De-expansion Tool to Quantify the Accuracy of Prostate Contours

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chung, Eugene; Stenmark, Matthew H.; Evans, Cheryl; Narayana, Vrinda; McLaughlin, Patrick W.

    2012-05-01

    Purpose: Accurate delineation of the prostate gland on computed tomography (CT) remains a persistent challenge and continues to introduce geometric uncertainty into the planning and delivery of external beam radiotherapy. We, therefore, developed an expansion/de-expansion tool to quantify the contour errors and determine the location of the deviations. Methods and Materials: A planning CT scan and magnetic resonance imaging scan were prospectively acquired for 10 patients with prostate cancer. The prostate glands were contoured by 3 independent observers using the CT data sets with instructions to contour the prostate without underestimation but to minimize overestimation. The standard prostate for each patient was defined using magnetic resonance imaging and CT on multiple planes. After registration of the CT and magnetic resonance imaging data sets, the CT-defined prostates were scored for accuracy. The contours were defined as ideal if they were within a 2.5-mm expansion of the standard without underestimation, acceptable if they were within a 5.0-mm expansion and a 2.5-mm de-expansion, and unacceptable if they extended >5.0 mm or underestimated the prostate by >2.5 mm. Results: A total of 636 CT slices were individually analyzed, with the vast majority scored as ideal or acceptable. However, none of the 30 prostate contour sets had all the contours scored as ideal or acceptable. For all 3 observers, the unacceptable contours were more likely from underestimation than overestimation of the prostate. The errors were more common at the base and apex than the mid-gland. Conclusions: The expansion/de-expansion tool allows for directed feedback on the location of contour deviations, as well as the determination of over- or underestimation of the prostate. This metric might help improve the accuracy of prostate contours.

  14. Uncertainty Quantification in CO{sub 2} Sequestration Using Surrogate Models from Polynomial Chaos Expansion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Yan; Sahinidis, Nikolaos V.

    2013-04-06

    In this paper, surrogate models are iteratively built using polynomial chaos expansion (PCE) and detailed numerical simulations of a carbon sequestration system. Output variables from a numerical simulator are approximated as polynomial functions of uncertain parameters. Once generated, PCE representations can be used in place of the numerical simulator and often decrease simulation times by several orders of magnitude. However, PCE models are expensive to derive unless the number of terms in the expansion is moderate, which requires a relatively small number of uncertain variables and a low degree of expansion. To cope with this limitation, instead of using a classical full expansion at each step of an iterative PCE construction method, we introduce a mixed-integer programming (MIP) formulation to identify the best subset of basis terms in the expansion. This approach makes it possible to keep the number of terms small in the expansion. Monte Carlo (MC) simulation is then performed by substituting the values of the uncertain parameters into the closed-form polynomial functions. Based on the results of MC simulation, the uncertainties of injecting CO{sub 2} underground are quantified for a saline aquifer. Moreover, based on the PCE model, we formulate an optimization problem to determine the optimal CO{sub 2} injection rate so as to maximize the gas saturation (residual trapping) during injection, and thereby minimize the chance of leakage.

  15. Year-in-Review: 2011 Energy Infrastructure Events and Expansions...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    1 Energy Infrastructure Events and Expansions (April 2012) Year-in-Review: 2011 Energy Infrastructure Events and Expansions (April 2012) The 2011 Year-in-Review (YIR) provides a...

  16. Expansion-loop enclosure resolves subsea line problems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rich, S.K.; Alleyne, A.G.

    1998-08-03

    Recent design and construction of a Gulf of Mexico subsea pipeline illustrate the use of buried, enclosed expansion loops to resolve problems from expansion and upheaval buckling. Buried, subsea pipelines operating at high temperatures and pressures experience extreme compressive loads caused by the axial restraint of the soil. The high axial forces combined with imperfections in the seabed may overstress the pipeline or result in upheaval buckling. Typically, expansion loops, or doglegs, are installed to protect the pipeline risers from expansion and to alleviate axial forces. Buried expansion loops, however, are rendered virtually ineffective by the lateral restraint of the soil. Alternative methods to reduce expansion may increase the potential of upheaval buckling or overstressing the pipeline. Therefore, system design must consider expansion and upheaval buckling together. Discussed here are methods of prevention and control of expansion and upheaval buckling, evaluating the impact on the overall system.

  17. The curious case of large-N expansions on a (pseudo)sphere

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Polyakov, Alexander M.; Saleem, Zain H.; Stokes, James

    2015-02-03

    We elucidate the large-N dynamics of one-dimensional sigma models with spherical and hyperbolic target spaces and find a duality between the Lagrange multiplier and the angular momentum. In the hyperbolic model we propose a new class of operators based on the irreducible representations of hyperbolic space. We also uncover unexpected zero modes which lead to the double scaling of the 1/N expansion and explore these modes using Gelfand-Dikiy equations.

  18. Fission gas retention and axial expansion of irradiated metallic fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fenske, G.R.; Emerson, J.E.; Savoie, F.E.; Johanson, E.W.

    1986-05-01

    Out-of-reactor experiments utilizing direct electrical heating and infrared heating techniques were performed on irradiated metallic fuel. The results indicate accelerated expansion can occur during thermal transients and that the accelerated expansion is driven by retained fission gases. The results also demonstrate gas retention and, hence, expansion behavior is a function of axial position within the pin.

  19. Diamond Shamrock nears completion of major expansions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    True, W.R.

    1993-05-24

    With completion later this year of a second refined products line into Colorado, Diamond Shamrock Inc., San Antonio, will have added more than 600 miles of product and crude-oil pipeline on its system and expanded charge and production capacities at its two state-of-the-art refineries, all within 30 months. The projects aim at improving the company's ability to serve markets in the U.S. Southwest and increasing capacities and flexibility at its two refineries. The paper describes these projects under the following headings: new products service; another new line; and refineries, crude pipelines; Three Rivers expansion and Supplies for McKee.

  20. Lattice-structures and constructs with designed thermal expansion coefficients

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Spadaccini, Christopher; Hopkins, Jonathan

    2014-10-28

    A thermal expansion-managed lattice structure having a plurality of unit cells each having flexure bearing-mounted tabs supported on a base and actuated by thermal expansion of an actuator having a thermal expansion coefficient greater than the base and arranged so that the tab is inwardly displaced into a base cavity. The flexure bearing-mounted tabs are connected to other flexure-bearing-mounted tabs of adjacent unit cells so that the adjacent unit cells are spaced from each other to accommodate thermal expansion of individual unit cells while maintaining a desired bulk thermal expansion coefficient of the lattice structure as a whole.

  1. Does fluoride disrupt hydrogen bond network in cationic lipid bilayer? Time-dependent fluorescence shift of Laurdan and molecular dynamics simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pokorna, Sarka; Jurkiewicz, Piotr; Hof, Martin; Vazdar, Mario; Cwiklik, Lukasz; Jungwirth, Pavel

    2014-12-14

    Time-dependent fluorescence shift (TDFS) of Laurdan embedded in phospholipid bilayers reports on hydration and mobility of the phospholipid acylgroups. Exchange of H{sub 2}O with D{sub 2}O prolongs the lifetime of lipid-water and lipid-water-lipid interactions, which is reflected in a significantly slower TDFS kinetics. Combining TDFS measurements in H{sub 2}O and D{sub 2}O hydrated bilayers with atomistic molecular dynamics (MD) simulations provides a unique tool for characterization of the hydrogen bonding at the acylgroup level of lipid bilayers. In this work, we use this approach to study the influence of fluoride anions on the properties of cationic bilayers composed of trimethylammonium-propane (DOTAP). The results obtained for DOTAP are confronted with those for neutral phosphatidylcholine (DOPC) bilayers. Both in DOTAP and DOPC H{sub 2}O/D{sub 2}O exchange prolongs hydrogen-bonding lifetime and does not disturb bilayer structure. These results are confirmed by MD simulations. TDFS experiments show, however, that for DOTAP this effect is cancelled in the presence of fluoride ions. We interpret these results as evidence that strongly hydrated fluoride is able to steal water molecules that bridge lipid carbonyls. Consequently, when attracted to DOTAP bilayer, fluoride disrupts the local hydrogen-bonding network, and the differences in TDFS kinetics between H{sub 2}O and D{sub 2}O hydrated bilayers are no longer observed. A distinct behavior of fluoride is also evidenced by MD simulations, which show different lipid-ion binding for Cl{sup ?} and F{sup ?}.

  2. Optical Fiber Sensors For Monitoring Joint Articulation And Chest Expansion Of A Human Body

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Muhs, Jeffrey D. (Lenoir City, TN); Allison, Stephen W. (Knoxville, TN)

    1997-12-23

    Fiber-optic sensors employing optical fibers of elastomeric material are incorporated in devices adapted to be worn by human beings in joint and chest regions for the purpose of monitoring and measuring the extent of joint articulation and chest expansion especially with respect to time.

  3. Ultracold plasma expansion as a function of charge neutrality

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Witte, Craig; Roberts, Jacob L.

    2014-10-15

    Ultracold plasmas (UCPs) are created under conditions of near but not perfect neutrality. In the limit of zero electron temperature, electron screening results in non-neutrality manifesting itself as an interior region of the UCP with both electrons and ions and an exterior region composed primarily of ions. The interior region is the region of the most scientific interest for 2-component ultracold plasma physics. This work presents a theoretical model through which the time evolution of non-neutral UCPs is calculated. Despite Debye screening lengths much smaller than the characteristic plasma spatial size, model calculations predict that the expansion rate and the electron temperature of the UCP interior is sensitive to the neutrality of the UCP. The predicted UCP dependence on neutrality has implications for the correct measurement of several UCP properties, such as electron temperature, and a proper understanding of evaporative cooling of the electrons in the UCP.

  4. Prolate spheroidal harmonic expansion of gravitational field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fukushima, Toshio

    2014-06-01

    As a modification of the oblate spheroidal case, a recursive method is developed to compute the point value and a few low-order derivatives of the prolate spheroidal harmonics of the second kind, Q{sub nm} (y), namely the unnormalized associated Legendre function (ALF) of the second kind with its argument in the domain, 1 < y < ∞. They are required in evaluating the prolate spheroidal harmonic expansion of the gravitational field in addition to the point value and the low-order derivatives of P-bar {sub nm}(t), the 4π fully normalized ALF of the first kind with its argument in the domain, |t| ≤ 1. The new method will be useful in the gravitational field computation of elongated celestial objects.

  5. Thermal expansion recovery microscopy: Practical design considerations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mingolo, N. Martnez, O. E.

    2014-01-15

    A detailed study of relevant parameters for the design and operation of a photothermal microscope technique recently introduced is presented. The technique, named thermal expansion recovery microscopy (ThERM) relies in the measurement of the defocusing introduced by a surface that expands and recovers upon the heating from a modulated source. A new two lens design is presented that can be easily adapted to commercial infinite conjugate microscopes and the sensitivity to misalignment is analyzed. The way to determine the beam size by means of a focus scan and the use of that same scan to verify if a thermoreflectance signal is overlapping with the desired ThERM mechanism are discussed. Finally, a method to cancel the thermoreflectance signal by an adequate choice of a nanometric coating is presented.

  6. Ultrafast free-carrier dynamics in Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4} single crystals studied using femtosecond time-resolved optical spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phuong, L. Q.; Kanemitsu, Y.; Okano, M.; Yamada, Y.; Yamashita, G.; Morimoto, T.; Nagai, M.; Ashida, M.; Nagaoka, A.; Yoshino, K.

    2014-12-08

    We studied the dynamics of photogenerated carriers in Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4} (CZTS) single crystals using femtosecond transient reflectivity (TR) and optical pump-THz probe transient absorption (THz-TA) spectroscopy. The TR and THz-TA decay dynamics consistently showed that free carriers have long lifetimes of up to a few nanoseconds. The excitation-photon-energy-dependent TR measurements revealed a slow picosecond energy relaxation of free carriers to the band edge in CZTS. The relaxation and recombination dynamics of free carriers were affected by nonradiative recombinations at the surface. Our results revealed a global feature of energy relaxation and recombination processes of free carriers in CZTS single crystals.

  7. Heat Flow Database Expansion for NGDS Data Development, Collection and

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Maintenance (SMU) | Department of Energy Heat Flow Database Expansion for NGDS Data Development, Collection and Maintenance (SMU) Heat Flow Database Expansion for NGDS Data Development, Collection and Maintenance (SMU) Heat Flow Database Expansion for NGDS Data Development, Collection and Maintenance (SMU) presentation at the April 2013 peer review meeting held in Denver, Colorado. PDF icon blackwell_smu_peer2013.pdf More Documents & Publications How to Utilize the National Geothermal

  8. January 16, 2009: Expansion of Spallation Neutron Source | Department of

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Energy 16, 2009: Expansion of Spallation Neutron Source January 16, 2009: Expansion of Spallation Neutron Source January 16, 2009: Expansion of Spallation Neutron Source January 16, 2009 The Department gives its initial approval to begin plans for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to build a second target station for the Spallation Neutron Source, expanding what is already the world's most powerful pulsed neutron scattering facility. The new station, which will cost approximately $1

  9. DOE Announces Expansion and Solicitation for Entrepreneur in Residence

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Program | Department of Energy Expansion and Solicitation for Entrepreneur in Residence Program DOE Announces Expansion and Solicitation for Entrepreneur in Residence Program November 19, 2008 - 4:58pm Addthis Entrepreneurs Accelerate Deployment of Advanced Clean Energy Technologies from DOE's Labs to the Marketplace WASHINGTON - U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Secretary Samuel W. Bodman today announced a competitive solicitation for five venture capital firms to participate in the expansion

  10. CX: Categorical Determination-Alcoa Tennessee Automotive Sheet Expansion

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Project | Department of Energy CX: Categorical Determination-Alcoa Tennessee Automotive Sheet Expansion Project CX: Categorical Determination-Alcoa Tennessee Automotive Sheet Expansion Project Categorical Determination Alcoa Tennessee Automotive Sheet Expansion Project CX(s) Applied: B1.31 Date: 05/06/2014 Location(s): Alcoa, Tennessee Offices(s): Loan Programs Office More Documents & Publications CX-012188: Categorical Exclusion Determination CX-012189: Categorical Exclusion

  11. Energy Department Authorizes Sabine Pass Liquefaction's Expansion Project

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    to Export Liquefied Natural Gas | Department of Energy Sabine Pass Liquefaction's Expansion Project to Export Liquefied Natural Gas Energy Department Authorizes Sabine Pass Liquefaction's Expansion Project to Export Liquefied Natural Gas June 26, 2015 - 1:01pm Addthis News Media Contact 202-586-4940 WASHINGTON - The Energy Department announced today that it has issued a final authorization for Sabine Pass Liquefaction, LLC's Expansion Project (Sabine Pass) to export domestically produced

  12. EA-1934: Expansion of Active Borrow Areas, Hanford Site, Richland,

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Washington | Department of Energy 34: Expansion of Active Borrow Areas, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington EA-1934: Expansion of Active Borrow Areas, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington SUMMARY This EA evaluates the potential environmental impacts of expansion or continued use of existing sand and gravel pits located on the Hanford Site (Pits F, H, N, 6, 9, 18, 21, 23, 24, 30, and 34) and establishing one new borrow area source in the 100 Area for ongoing construction activities and fill

  13. Load Expansion with Diesel/Gasoline RCCI for Improved Engine...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    with DieselGasoline RCCI for Improved Engine Efficiency and Emissions Load Expansion with DieselGasoline RCCI for Improved Engine Efficiency and Emissions This poster will...

  14. EIS-0498: Magnolia LNG and Lake Charles Expansion Projects; Calcasieu...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    which would reconfigure an existing pipeline system to serve the LNG terminal site. ... EIS-0498: Magnolia LNG and Lake Charles Expansion Projects Public Comment Opportunities No ...

  15. Cluster expansion modeling and Monte Carlo simulation of alnico...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Accepted Manuscript: Cluster expansion modeling and Monte Carlo simulation of alnico 5-7 permanent magnets This content will become publicly available on March 5, 2016 Prev Next...

  16. Tanzania Energy Development and Access Expansion Project | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    energy access expansion. The project is consistent with the latest Joint Assistance Strategy (2007-2010) by specifically supporting the goals of the Government's National...

  17. Secretary Chu Celebrates Expansion of Lithium-Ion Battery Production...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    the investments we're making are creating jobs and strengthening American ... Charlotte sees next-gen vehicle supply expansion: U.S. Energy Secretary Steve Chu speaks ...

  18. Heat Flow Database Expansion for NGDS Data Development, Collection...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Database Expansion for NGDS Data Development, Collection and Maintenance Geothermal Project Jump to: navigation, search Last modified on July 22, 2011. Project Title Heat Flow...

  19. Systematic expansion of porous crystals to include large molecules | Center

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    for Gas SeparationsRelevant to Clean Energy Technologies | Blandine Jerome Systematic expansion of porous crystals to include large molecules

  20. Expansion and Improvement of Solar Water Heating Technology in...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    and Improvement of Solar Water Heating Technology in China Project Management Office Jump to: navigation, search Name: Expansion and Improvement of Solar Water Heating Technology...

  1. Load Expansion of Stoichiometric HCCI Using Spark Assist and...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Stoichiometric HCCI Using Spark Assist and Hydraulic Valve Actuation Load Expansion of Stoichiometric HCCI Using Spark Assist and Hydraulic Valve Actuation Presentation given at...

  2. PHOTOSPHERIC RADIUS EXPANSION IN SUPERBURST PRECURSORS FROM NEUTRON STARS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keek, L.

    2012-09-10

    Thermonuclear runaway burning of carbon is in rare cases observed from accreting neutron stars as day-long X-ray flares called superbursts. In the few cases where the onset is observed, superbursts exhibit a short precursor burst at the start. In each instance, however, the data are of insufficient quality for spectral analysis of the precursor. Using data from the propane anti-coincidence detector of the Proportional Counter Array instrument on the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer, we perform the first detailed time-resolved spectroscopy of precursors. For a superburst from 4U 1820-30 we demonstrate the presence of photospheric radius expansion. We find the precursor to be 1.4-2 times more energetic than other short bursts from this source, indicating that the burning of accreted helium is insufficient to explain the full precursor. Shock heating would be able to account for the shortfall in energy. We argue that this precursor is a strong indication that the superburst starts as a detonation, and that a shock induces the precursor. Furthermore, we employ our technique to study the superexpansion phase of the same superburst in greater detail.

  3. Combustion instabilities in sudden expansion oxy-fuel flames

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ditaranto, Mario; Hals, Joergen

    2006-08-15

    An experimental study on combustion instability is presented with focus on oxy-fuel type combustion. Oxidants composed of CO{sub 2}/O{sub 2} and methane are the reactants flowing through a premixer-combustor system. The reaction starts downstream a symmetric sudden expansion and is at the origin of different instability patterns depending on oxygen concentration and Reynolds number. The analysis has been conducted through measurement of pressure, CH* chemiluminescence, and velocity. As far as stability is concerned, oxy-fuel combustion with oxygen concentration similar to that found in air combustion cannot be sustained, but requires at least 30% oxygen to perform in a comparable manner. Under these conditions and for the sudden expansion configuration used in this study, the instability is at low frequency and low amplitude, controlled by the flame length inside the combustion chamber. Above a threshold concentration in oxygen dependent on equivalence ratio, the flame becomes organized and concentrated in the near field. Strong thermoacoustic instability is then triggered at characteristic acoustic modes of the system. Different modes can be triggered depending on the ratio of flame speed to inlet velocity, but for all types of instability encountered, the heat release and pressure fluctuations are linked by a variation in mass-flow rate. An acoustic model of the system coupled with a time-lag-based flame model made it possible to elucidate the acoustic mode selection in the system as a function of laminar flame speed and Reynolds number. The overall work brings elements of reflection concerning the potential risk of strong pressure oscillations in future gas turbine combustors for oxy-fuel gas cycles. (author)

  4. Temporal Characterization of Hydrates System Dynamics beneath Seafloor Mounds. Integrating Time-Lapse Electrical Resistivity Methods and In Situ Observations of Multiple Oceanographic Parameters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lutken, Carol; Macelloni, Leonardo; D'Emidio, Marco; Dunbar, John; Higley, Paul

    2015-01-31

    This study was designed to investigate temporal variations in hydrate system dynamics by measuring changes in volumes of hydrate beneath hydrate-bearing mounds on the continental slope of the northern Gulf of Mexico, the landward extreme of hydrate occurrence in this region. Direct Current Resistivity (DCR) measurements were made contemporaneously with measurements of oceanographic parameters at Woolsey Mound, a carbonate-hydrate complex on the mid-continental slope, where formation and dissociation of hydrates are most vulnerable to variations in oceanographic parameters affected by climate change, and where changes in hydrate stability can readily translate to loss of seafloor stability, impacts to benthic ecosystems, and venting of greenhouse gases to the water-column, and eventually, the atmosphere. We focused our study on hydrate within seafloor mounds because the structurally-focused methane flux at these sites likely causes hydrate formation and dissociation processes to occur at higher rates than at sites where the methane flux is less concentrated and we wanted to maximize our chances of witnessing association/dissociation of hydrates. We selected a particularly well-studied hydrate-bearing seafloor mound near the landward extent of the hydrate stability zone, Woolsey Mound (MC118). This mid-slope site has been studied extensively and the project was able to leverage considerable resources from the teams research experience at MC118. The site exhibits seafloor features associated with gas expulsion, hydrates have been documented at the seafloor, and changes in the outcropping hydrates have been documented, photographically, to have occurred over a period of months. We conducted observatory-based, in situ measurements to 1) characterize, geophysically, the sub-bottom distribution of hydrate and its temporal variability, and 2) contemporaneously record relevant environmental parameters (temperature, pressure, salinity, turbidity, bottom currents) to detect short-term changes within the hydrates system, identify relationships/impacts of local oceanographic parameters on the hydrates system, and improve our understanding of how seafloor instability is affected by hydrates-driven changes. A 2009 DCR survey of MC118 demonstrated that we could image resistivity anomalies to a depth of 75m below the seafloor in water depths of 1km. We reconfigured this system to operate autonomously on the seafloor in a pre-programmed mode, for periods of months. We designed and built a novel seafloor lander and deployment capability that would allow us to investigate the seafloor at potential deployment sites and deploy instruments only when conditions met our criteria. This lander held the DCR system, controlling computers, and battery power supply, as well as instruments to record oceanographic parameters. During the first of two cruises to the study site, we conducted resistivity surveying, selected a monitoring site, and deployed the instrumented lander and DCR, centered on what appeared to be the most active locations within the site, programmed to collect a DCR profile, weekly. After a 4.5-month residence on the seafloor, the team recovered all equipment. Unfortunately, several equipment failures occurred prior to recovery of the instrument packages. Prior to the failures, however, two resistivity profiles were collected together with oceanographic data. Results show, unequivocally, that significant changes can occur in both hydrate volume and distribution during time periods as brief as one week. Occurrences appear to be controlled by both deep and near-surface structure. Results have been integrated with seismic data from the area and show correspondence in space of hydrate and structures, including faults and gas chimneys.

  5. Pyrotek Graphitization Facility Expansion Project | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting PDF icon arravt016_es_sekedat_2012_p.pdf More Documents & Publications Pyrotek Graphitization Facility Expansion Project Pyrotek Graphitization Facility Expansion Project Fabricate PHEV Cells for Testing & Diagnostics

  6. Expansion of Novolyte Capacity for Lithium Ion Electrolyte Production |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy 2 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting PDF icon arravt015_es_wise_2012_p.pdf More Documents & Publications Expansion of Novolyte Capacity for Lithium Ion Electrolyte Production Expansion of Novolyte Capacity for Lithium Ion Electrolyte Production FY 2011

  7. Expansion of Novolyte Capacity for Lithium Ion Electrolyte Production |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy 1 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation PDF icon arravt015_es_wise_2011_p.pdf More Documents & Publications Expansion of Novolyte Capacity for Lithium Ion Electrolyte Production Expansion of Novolyte Capacity for Lithium Ion Electrolyte Production FY 2012

  8. OPEC production: Untapped reserves, world demand spur production expansion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ismail, I.A.H. )

    1994-05-02

    To meet projected world oil demand, almost all members of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) have embarked on ambitious capacity expansion programs aimed at increasing oil production capabilities. These expansion programs are in both new and existing oil fields. In the latter case, the aim is either to maintain production or reduce the production decline rate. However, the recent price deterioration has led some major OPEC producers, such as Saudi Arabia and Iran, to revise downward their capacity plans. Capital required for capacity expansion is considerable. Therefore, because the primary source of funds will come from within each OPEC country, a reasonably stable and relatively high oil price is required to obtain enough revenue for investing in upstream projects. This first in a series of two articles discusses the present OPEC capacity and planned expansion in the Middle East. The concluding part will cover the expansion plans in the remaining OPEC countries, capital requirements, and environmental concerns.

  9. First-principles study on negative thermal expansion of PbTiO{sub 3}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Fangfang; Chen, Jun; Xing, Xianran; Xie, Ying; Fu, Honggang

    2013-11-25

    It is well known that perovskite-type PbTiO{sub 3} behaves negative thermal expansion in a wide temperature range from room temperature to Curie temperature (763?K). The present study reports the first-principles study of the anisotropic thermal expansion of PbTiO{sub 3}, in the framework of the density-functional theory and the density-functional perturbation theory. The curve of temperature dependence of the unit cell volume is presented from 20 to 520?K through the calculation of the minimum of total free energy at each temperature point. The negative thermal expansion of PbTiO{sub 3} is calculated without empirical parameters. Furthermore, the distinctive thermodynamic act of PbTiO{sub 3} from expanding to contracting at tetragonal phase is reproduced. The ab-initio calculations reveal that this unique appearance depends on the phonon vibration. The dynamical contributions of various atoms are also calculated to account for the disparate role of Pb-O and Ti-O bond.

  10. Spectral solver for multi-scale plasma physics simulations with dynamically adaptive number of moments

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Vencels, Juris; Delzanno, Gian Luca; Johnson, Alec; Peng, Ivy Bo; Laure, Erwin; Markidis, Stefano

    2015-06-01

    A spectral method for kinetic plasma simulations based on the expansion of the velocity distribution function in a variable number of Hermite polynomials is presented. The method is based on a set of non-linear equations that is solved to determine the coefficients of the Hermite expansion satisfying the Vlasov and Poisson equations. In this paper, we first show that this technique combines the fluid and kinetic approaches into one framework. Second, we present an adaptive strategy to increase and decrease the number of Hermite functions dynamically during the simulation. The technique is applied to the Landau damping and two-stream instabilitymore » test problems. Performance results show 21% and 47% saving of total simulation time in the Landau and two-stream instability test cases, respectively.« less

  11. Spectral solver for multi-scale plasma physics simulations with dynamically adaptive number of moments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vencels, Juris; Delzanno, Gian Luca; Johnson, Alec; Peng, Ivy Bo; Laure, Erwin; Markidis, Stefano

    2015-06-01

    A spectral method for kinetic plasma simulations based on the expansion of the velocity distribution function in a variable number of Hermite polynomials is presented. The method is based on a set of non-linear equations that is solved to determine the coefficients of the Hermite expansion satisfying the Vlasov and Poisson equations. In this paper, we first show that this technique combines the fluid and kinetic approaches into one framework. Second, we present an adaptive strategy to increase and decrease the number of Hermite functions dynamically during the simulation. The technique is applied to the Landau damping and two-stream instability test problems. Performance results show 21% and 47% saving of total simulation time in the Landau and two-stream instability test cases, respectively.

  12. Relativistic plasma expansion with Maxwell-Juettner distribution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Yongsheng; Wang, Naiyan; Tang, Xiuzhang; Shi, Yijin

    2013-11-15

    A self-similar analytical solution is proposed to describe the relativistic ion acceleration with the local Maxwell-Juettner relativistic distribution electrons. It is an alternative to the existing static model [M. Passoni and M. Lontano, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 115001 (2008)], which exploits a limited solution for the acceleration potential. With our model, the potential is finite naturally and has an upper limitation proportional to the square root of the electron temperature. The divergent potential in the non-relativistic case is the linear items of the Taylor expansion of that obtained relativistic one here. The energy distribution of ions and the dependence of the ion momentum on the acceleration time are obtained analytically. Maximum ion energy has an upper limitation decided by the finite potential difference. In the ultra-relativistic region, the ion energy at the ion front is proportional to t{sup 4/5} and the energy of the ions behind the ion front is proportional to t{sup 2/3} since the field there is shielded by the ions beyond them and the field at the ion front is the most intense.

  13. Employing time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy to analyze carrier dynamics in thin-film Cu{sub 2}ZnSn(S,Se){sub 4} absorber layers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guglietta, Glenn W.; Baxter, Jason B.; Choudhury, Kaushik Roy; Caspar, Jonathan V.

    2014-06-23

    We report the application of time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy (TRTS) to measure photoexcited carrier lifetimes and mobility, and to determine recombination mechanisms in Cu{sub 2}ZnSn(S,Se){sub 4} (CZTSSe) thin films fabricated from nanocrystal inks. Ultrafast time resolution permits tracking the evolution of carrier density to determine recombination rates and mechanisms. The carrier generation profile was manipulated by varying the photoexcitation wavelength and fluence to distinguish between surface, Shockley-Read-Hall (SRH), radiative, and Auger recombination mechanisms and determine rate constants. Surface and SRH recombination are the dominant mechanisms for the air/CZTSSe/SiO{sub 2}/Si film stack. Diffusion to, and then recombination at, the air-CZTSSe interface occurred on the order of 100 picoseconds, while SRH recombination lifetimes were 12 nanoseconds. TRTS measurements can provide information that is complementary to conventional time-resolved photoluminescence measurements and can direct the design of efficient thin film photovoltaics.

  14. Quasiparticle dynamics across the full Brillouin zone of Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+δ traced with ultrafast time and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Dakovski, Georgi L.; Durakiewicz, Tomasz; Zhu, Jian-Xin; Riseborough, Peter S.; Gu, Genda; Gilbertson, Steve M.; Taylor, Antoinette; Rodriguez, George

    2015-10-12

    A hallmark in the cuprate family of high-temperature superconductors is the nodal-antinodal dichotomy. In this regard, angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) has proven especially powerful, providing band structure information directly in energy-momentum space. Time-resolved ARPES (trARPES) holds great promise of adding ultrafast temporal information, in an attempt to identify different interaction channels in the time domain. Previous studies of the cuprates using trARPES were handicapped by the low probing energy which significantly limits the accessible momentum space. Using 20.15eV, 12 fs pulses we show for the first time the evolution of quasiparticles in the antinodal region of Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+δ and demonstrate thatmore »nonmonotonic relaxation dynamics dominates above a certain fluence threshold. The dynamics is heavily influenced by transient modification of the electron-phonon interaction and phase space restrictions, in severe contrast to the monotonic relaxation in the nodal and off-nodal regions.« less

  15. Quasiparticle dynamics across the full Brillouin zone of Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+δ traced with ultrafast time and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Dakovski, Georgi L.; Durakiewicz, Tomasz; Zhu, Jian-Xin; Riseborough, Peter S.; Gu, Genda; Gilbertson, Steve M.; Taylor, Antoinette; Rodriguez, George

    2015-10-12

    A hallmark in the cuprate family of high-temperature superconductors is the nodal-antinodal dichotomy. In this regard, angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) has proven especially powerful, providing band structure information directly in energy-momentum space. Time-resolved ARPES (trARPES) holds great promise of adding ultrafast temporal information, in an attempt to identify different interaction channels in the time domain. Previous studies of the cuprates using trARPES were handicapped by the low probing energy which significantly limits the accessible momentum space. Using 20.15eV, 12 fs pulses we show for the first time the evolution of quasiparticles in the antinodal region of Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+δ and demonstrate thatmore » nonmonotonic relaxation dynamics dominates above a certain fluence threshold. The dynamics is heavily influenced by transient modification of the electron-phonon interaction and phase space restrictions, in severe contrast to the monotonic relaxation in the nodal and off-nodal regions.« less

  16. On equivalence of high temperature series expansion and coupling parameter series expansion in thermodynamic perturbation theory of fluids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sai Venkata Ramana, A.

    2014-04-21

    The coupling parameter series expansion and the high temperature series expansion in the thermodynamic perturbation theory of fluids are shown to be equivalent if the interaction potential is pairwise additive. As a consequence, for the class of fluids with the potential having a hardcore repulsion, if the hard-sphere fluid is chosen as reference system, the terms of coupling parameter series expansion for radial distribution function, direct correlation function, and Helmholtz free energy follow a scaling law with temperature. The scaling law is confirmed by application to square-well fluids.

  17. F-Area Northeast Expansion Report, Volumes 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Syms, F.H.

    1999-08-23

    A geotechnical program has been complexed in F-Area at the Savannah River Site in South Carolina. This program investigated the subsurface conditions for the area known as the ''northeast expansion'' located in the F-Area.

  18. Generation and transmission expansion planning for renewable energy integration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bent, Russell W; Berscheid, Alan; Toole, G. Loren

    2010-11-30

    In recent years the expansion planning problem has become increasingly complex. As expansion planning (sometimes called composite or integrated resource planning) is a non-linear and non-convex optimization problem, researchers have traditionally focused on approximate models of power flows to solve the problem. The problem has also been split into generation expansion planning (GEP) and transmission network expansion planning (TNEP) to improve computational tractability. Until recently these approximations have produced results that are straight-forward to combine and adapt to the more complex and complete problem. However, the power grid is evolving towards a state where the adaptations are no longer easy (e.g. large amounts of limited control, renewable generation, comparable generation and transmission construction costs) and necessitates new approaches. Recent work on deterministic Discrepancy Bounded Local Search (DBLS) has shown it to be quite effective in addressing the TNEP. In this paper, we propose a generalization of DBLS to handle simultaneous generation and transmission planning.

  19. Construction Begins on the Expansion of the EMWMF

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Construction of a $35 million, 465,000 cubic yard expansion of the Environmental Management Waste Management Facility (EMWMF) is now underway, using funds from the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act.

  20. Seal assembly for materials with different coefficients of thermal expansion

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Minford, Eric (Laurys Station, PA)

    2009-09-01

    Seal assembly comprising (a) two or more seal elements, each element having having a coefficient of thermal expansion; and (b) a clamping element having a first segment, a second segment, and a connecting segment between and attached to the first and second segments, wherein the two or more seal elements are disposed between the first and second segments of the clamping element. The connecting segment has a central portion extending between the first segment of the clamping element and the second segment of the clamping element, and the connecting segment is made of a material having a coefficient of thermal expansion. The coefficient of thermal expansion of the material of the connecting segment is intermediate the largest and smallest of the coefficients of thermal expansion of the materials of the two or more seal elements.

  1. Filtering with Marked Point Process Observations via Poisson Chaos Expansion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun Wei; Zeng Yong; Zhang Shu

    2013-06-15

    We study a general filtering problem with marked point process observations. The motivation comes from modeling financial ultra-high frequency data. First, we rigorously derive the unnormalized filtering equation with marked point process observations under mild assumptions, especially relaxing the bounded condition of stochastic intensity. Then, we derive the Poisson chaos expansion for the unnormalized filter. Based on the chaos expansion, we establish the uniqueness of solutions of the unnormalized filtering equation. Moreover, we derive the Poisson chaos expansion for the unnormalized filter density under additional conditions. To explore the computational advantage, we further construct a new consistent recursive numerical scheme based on the truncation of the chaos density expansion for a simple case. The new algorithm divides the computations into those containing solely system coefficients and those including the observations, and assign the former off-line.

  2. INVESTIGATION OF HOLOCENE FAULTING PROPOSED C-746-U LANDFILL EXPANSION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lettis, William

    2006-07-01

    This report presents the findings of a fault hazard investigation for the C-746-U landfill's proposed expansion located at the Department of Energy's (DOE) Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP), in Paducah, Kentucky. The planned expansion is located directly north of the present-day C-746-U landfill. Previous geophysical studies within the PGDP site vicinity interpret possible northeast-striking faults beneath the proposed landfill expansion, although prior to this investigation the existence, locations, and ages of these inferred faults have not been confirmed through independent subsurface exploration. The purpose of this investigation is to assess whether or not Holocene-active fault displacement is present beneath the footprint of the proposed landfill expansion.

  3. Co-optimizing Generation and Transmission Expansion with Wind Power in Large-Scale Power Grids Implementation in the US Eastern Interconnection

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    You, Shutang; Hadley, Stanton W.; Shankar, Mallikarjun; Liu, Yilu

    2016-01-12

    This paper studies the generation and transmission expansion co-optimization problem with a high wind power penetration rate in the US Eastern Interconnection (EI) power grid. In this paper, the generation and transmission expansion problem for the EI system is modeled as a mixed-integer programming (MIP) problem. Our paper also analyzed a time series generation method to capture the variation and correlation of both load and wind power across regions. The obtained series can be easily introduced into the expansion planning problem and then solved through existing MIP solvers. Simulation results show that the proposed planning model and series generation methodmore » can improve the expansion result significantly through modeling more detailed information of wind and load variation among regions in the US EI system. Moreover, the improved expansion plan that combines generation and transmission will aid system planners and policy makers to maximize the social welfare in large-scale power grids.« less

  4. Cryogenic Thermal Expansion of Y-12 Graphite Fuel Elements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eash, D. T.

    2013-07-08

    Thermal expansion measurements betwccn 20K and 300K were made on segments of three uranium-loaded Y-12 uncoated graphite fuel elements. The thermal expansion of these fuel elements over this temperature range is represented by the equation: {Delta}L/L = -39.42 x 10{sup -5} + 1.10 x 10{sup -7} T + 6.47 x 10{sup -9} T{sup 2} - 8.30 x 10{sup -12} T{sup 3}.

  5. High Efficiency Full Expansion (FEx) Engine for Automotive Applications |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Full Expansion (FEx) Engine for Automotive Applications High Efficiency Full Expansion (FEx) Engine for Automotive Applications Large increases in engine thermal efficiency result from a new method of large reductions in both heat energy normally lost to the cooling medium and in heat energy in the exhaust system. PDF icon p-18_taylor.pdf More Documents & Publications Two-Stroke Engines: New Frontier in Engine Efficiency Two-Stroke Uniflow Turbo-Compound IC Engine

  6. ARM - Lesson Plans: Expansion of Population and Environment

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Expansion of Population and Environment Outreach Home Room News Publications Traditional Knowledge Kiosks Barrow, Alaska Tropical Western Pacific Site Tours Contacts Students Study Hall About ARM Global Warming FAQ Just for Fun Meet our Friends Cool Sites Teachers Teachers' Toolbox Lesson Plans Lesson Plans: Expansion of Population and Environment Objective The objective is to highlight the future population of the world in order to estimate its effect on the environment and on climate change.

  7. Clean Technology for Diesel Expansion | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Technology for Diesel Expansion Clean Technology for Diesel Expansion Presentation given at DEER 2006, August 20-24, 2006, Detroit, Michigan. Sponsored by the U.S. DOE's EERE FreedomCar and Fuel Partnership and 21st Century Truck Programs. PDF icon 2006_deer_sando.pdf More Documents & Publications Vehicle Emissions Review - 2012 Bringing the Low NOx Diesel Under Control Light Duty Diesels in the United States - Some Perspectives

  8. EIS-0498: Magnolia LNG and Lake Charles Expansion Projects; Calcasieu

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Parish, Louisiana | Department of Energy 8: Magnolia LNG and Lake Charles Expansion Projects; Calcasieu Parish, Louisiana EIS-0498: Magnolia LNG and Lake Charles Expansion Projects; Calcasieu Parish, Louisiana Summary The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission prepared an EIS that analyzes the potential environmental impacts of constructing and operating the proposed Magnolia LNG Project, an on-land liquefied natural gas (LNG) terminal and associated facilities near Lake Charles, Louisiana.

  9. Marine pipeline dynamic response to waves from directional wave spectra

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lambrakos, K.F.

    1982-07-01

    A methodology has been developed to calculate the dynamic probabilistic movement and resulting stresses for marine pipelines subjected to storm waves. A directional wave spectrum is used with a Fourier series expansion to simulate short-crested waves and calculate their loads on the pipeline. The pipeline displacements resulting from these loads are solutions to the time-dependent beam-column equation which also includes the soil resistance as external loading. The statistics of the displacements for individual waves are combined with the wave statistics for a given period of time, e.g. pipeline lifetime, to generate probabilistic estimates for net pipeline movement. On the basis of displacements for specified probability levels the pipeline configuration is obtained from which pipeline stresses can be estimated using structural considerations, e.g. pipeline stiffness, end restraints, etc.

  10. Gauge-invariant Green function dynamics: A unified approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swiecicki, Sylvia D. Sipe, J.E.

    2013-11-15

    We present a gauge-invariant description of Green function dynamics introduced by means of a generalized Peirels phase involving an arbitrary differentiable path in spacetime. Two other approaches to formulating a gauge-invariant description of systems, the Green function treatment of Levanda and Fleurov [M. Levanda, V. Fleurov, J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 6 (1994) 7889] and the usual multipolar expansion for an atom, are shown to arise as special cases of our formalism. We argue that the consideration of paths in the generalized Peirels phase that do not lead to introduction of an effective gauge-invariant Hamiltonian with polarization and magnetization fields may prove useful for the treatment of the response of materials with short electron correlation lengths. -- Highlights: Peirels phase for an arbitrary path in spacetime established. Gauge-invariant Green functions and the PowerZienauWooley transformation connected. Limitations on possible polarization and magnetization fields established.

  11. Evolution of context dependent regulation by expansion of feast/famine regulatory proteins

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Plaisier, Christopher L.; Lo, Fang -Yin; Ashworth, Justin; Brooks, Aaron N.; Beer, Karlyn D.; Kaur, Amardeep; Pan, Min; Reiss, David J.; Facciotti, Marc T.; Baliga, Nitin S.

    2014-11-14

    Expansion of transcription factors is believed to have played a crucial role in evolution of all organisms by enabling them to deal with dynamic environments and colonize new environments. We investigated how the expansion of the Feast/Famine Regulatory Protein (FFRP) or Lrp-like proteins into an eight-member family in Halobacterium salinarum NRC-1 has aided in niche-adaptation of this archaeon to a complex and dynamically changing hypersaline environment. We mapped genome-wide binding locations for all eight FFRPs, investigated their preference for binding different effector molecules, and identified the contexts in which they act by analyzing transcriptional responses across 35 growth conditions that mimic different environmental and nutritional conditions this organism is likely to encounter in the wild. Integrative analysis of these data constructed an FFRP regulatory network with conditionally active states that reveal how interrelated variations in DNA-binding domains, effector-molecule preferences, and binding sites in target gene promoters have tuned the functions of each FFRP to the environments in which they act. We demonstrate how conditional regulation of similar genes by two FFRPs, AsnC (an activator) and VNG1237C (a repressor), have striking environment-specific fitness consequences for oxidative stress management and growth, respectively. This study provides a systems perspective into the evolutionary process by which gene duplication within a transcription factor family contributes to environment-specific adaptation of an organism.

  12. Evolution of context dependent regulation by expansion of feast/famine regulatory proteins

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Plaisier, Christopher L.; Lo, Fang -Yin; Ashworth, Justin; Brooks, Aaron N.; Beer, Karlyn D.; Kaur, Amardeep; Pan, Min; Reiss, David J.; Facciotti, Marc T.; Baliga, Nitin S.

    2014-11-14

    Expansion of transcription factors is believed to have played a crucial role in evolution of all organisms by enabling them to deal with dynamic environments and colonize new environments. We investigated how the expansion of the Feast/Famine Regulatory Protein (FFRP) or Lrp-like proteins into an eight-member family in Halobacterium salinarum NRC-1 has aided in niche-adaptation of this archaeon to a complex and dynamically changing hypersaline environment. We mapped genome-wide binding locations for all eight FFRPs, investigated their preference for binding different effector molecules, and identified the contexts in which they act by analyzing transcriptional responses across 35 growth conditions thatmore » mimic different environmental and nutritional conditions this organism is likely to encounter in the wild. Integrative analysis of these data constructed an FFRP regulatory network with conditionally active states that reveal how interrelated variations in DNA-binding domains, effector-molecule preferences, and binding sites in target gene promoters have tuned the functions of each FFRP to the environments in which they act. We demonstrate how conditional regulation of similar genes by two FFRPs, AsnC (an activator) and VNG1237C (a repressor), have striking environment-specific fitness consequences for oxidative stress management and growth, respectively. This study provides a systems perspective into the evolutionary process by which gene duplication within a transcription factor family contributes to environment-specific adaptation of an organism.« less

  13. Copper Mountain Expansion I and II Solar Power Plant | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Mountain Expansion I and II Solar Power Plant Jump to: navigation, search Name Copper Mountain Expansion I and II Solar Power Plant Facility Copper Mountain Expansion I and II...

  14. Time-resolved Kα spectroscopy measurements of hot-electron equilibration dynamics in thin-foil solid targets: Collisional and collective effects

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Nilson, P. M.; Solodov, A. A.; Davies, J. R.; Theobald, W.; Mileham, C.; Stoeckl, C.; Begishev, I. A.; Zuegel, J. D.; Froula, D. H.; Betti, R.; et al

    2015-09-25

    Time-resolved Kα spectroscopy measurements from high-intensity laser interactions with thin-foil solid targets are reviewed. Thin Cu foils were irradiated with 1- to 10-J, 1-ps pulses at focused intensities from 1018 to 1019 W/cm2. The experimental data show Kα-emission pulse widths from 3 to 6 ps, increasing with laser intensity. The time-resolved Kα-emission data are compared to a hot-electron transport and Kα-production model that includes collisional electron-energy coupling, resistive heating, and electromagnetic field effects. The experimental data show good agreement with the model when a reduced ponderomotive scaling is used to describe the initial mean hot-electron energy over the relevant intensitymore » range.« less

  15. Dynamics of Propane in Silica Mesopores Formed upon PropyleneHydrogenation over Pt Nanoparticles by Time-Resolved FT-IRSpectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Waslylenko, Walter; Frei, Heinz

    2007-01-31

    Propylene hydrogenation over Pt nanoparticles supported onmesoporous silica type SBA-15 was monitored by time-resolved FT-IRspectroscopy at 23 ms resolution using short propylene gas pulses thatjoined a continuous flow of hydrogen in N2 (1 atm total pressure).Experiments were conducted in the temperature range 323-413 K. Propanewas formed within 100 milliseconds or faster. The CH stretching regionrevealed distinct bands for propane molecules emerging inside thenanoscale channels of the silica support. Spectral analysis gave thedistribution of the propane product between support and surrounding gasphase as function of time. Kinetic analysis showed that the escape ofpropane molecules from the channels occurred within hundreds ofmilliseconds (3.1 + 0.4 s-1 at 383 K). A steady state distribution ofpropane between gas phase and mesoporous support is established as theproduct is swept from the catalyst zone by the continuous flow ofhydrogen co-reactant. This is the first direct spectroscopic observationof emerging products of heterogeneous catalysis on nanoporous supportsunder reaction conditions.

  16. RECOVERY ACT: DYNAMIC ENERGY CONSUMPTION MANAGEMENT OF ROUTING TELECOM AND DATA CENTERS THROUGH REAL-TIME OPTIMAL CONTROL (RTOC): Final Scientific/Technical Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ron Moon

    2011-06-30

    This final scientific report documents the Industrial Technology Program (ITP) Stage 2 Concept Development effort on Data Center Energy Reduction and Management Through Real-Time Optimal Control (RTOC). Society is becoming increasingly dependent on information technology systems, driving exponential growth in demand for data center processing and an insatiable appetite for energy. David Raths noted, 'A 50,000-square-foot data center uses approximately 4 megawatts of power, or the equivalent of 57 barrels of oil a day1.' The problem has become so severe that in some cases, users are giving up raw performance for a better balance between performance and energy efficiency. Historically, power systems for data centers were crudely sized to meet maximum demand. Since many servers operate at 60%-90% of maximum power while only utilizing an average of 5% to 15% of their capability, there are huge inefficiencies in the consumption and delivery of power in these data centers. The goal of the 'Recovery Act: Decreasing Data Center Energy Use through Network and Infrastructure Control' is to develop a state of the art approach for autonomously and intelligently reducing and managing data center power through real-time optimal control. Advances in microelectronics and software are enabling the opportunity to realize significant data center power savings through the implementation of autonomous power management control algorithms. The first step to realizing these savings was addressed in this study through the successful creation of a flexible and scalable mathematical model (equation) for data center behavior and the formulation of an acceptable low technical risk market introduction strategy leveraging commercial hardware and software familiar to the data center market. Follow-on Stage 3 Concept Development efforts include predictive modeling and simulation of algorithm performance, prototype demonstrations with representative data center equipment to verify requisite performance and continued commercial partnering agreement formation to ensure uninterrupted development, and deployment of the real-time optimal control algorithm. As a software implementable technique for reducing power consumption, the RTOC has two very desirable traits supporting rapid prototyping and ultimately widespread dissemination. First, very little capital is required for implementation. No major infrastructure modifications are required and there is no need to purchase expensive capital equipment. Second, the RTOC can be rolled out incrementally. Therefore, the effectiveness can be proven without a large scale initial roll out. Through the use of the Impact Projections Model provided by the DOE, monetary savings in excess of $100M in 2020 and billions by 2040 are predicted. In terms of energy savings, the model predicts a primary energy displacement of 260 trillion BTUs (33 trillion kWh), or a 50% reduction in server power consumption. The model also predicts a corresponding reduction of pollutants such as SO2 and NOx in excess of 100,000 metric tonnes assuming the RTOC is fully deployed. While additional development and prototyping is required to validate these predictions, the relative low cost and ease of implementation compared to large capital projects makes it an ideal candidate for further investigation.

  17. State-to-state reaction dynamics of {sup 18}O+{sup 32}O{sub 2} studied by a time-dependent quantum wavepacket method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xie, Wenbo; Liu, Lan; Sun, Zhigang; Guo, Hua; Dawes, Richard

    2015-02-14

    The title isotope exchange reaction was studied by converged time-dependent wave packet calculations, where an efficient 4th order split operator was applied to propagate the initial wave packet. State-to-state differential and integral cross sections up to the collision energy of 0.35 eV were obtained with {sup 32}O{sub 2} in the hypothetical j{sub 0} = 0 state. It is discovered that the differential cross sections are largely forward biased in the studied collision energy range, due to the fact that there is a considerable part of the reaction occurring with large impact parameter and short lifetime relative to the rotational period of the intermediate complex. The oscillations of the forward scattering amplitude as a function of collision energy, which result from coherent contribution of adjacent resonances, may be a sensitive probe for examining the quality of the underlying potential energy surface. A good agreement between the theoretical and recent experimental integral and differential cross sections at collision energy of 7.3 kcal/mol is obtained. However, the theoretical results predict slightly too much forward scattering and colder rotational distributions than the experimental observations at collision energy of 5.7 kcal/mol.

  18. Self-similar expansion of a warm dense plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Djebli, Mourad; Moslem, Waleed M.

    2013-07-15

    The properties of an expanding plasma composed of degenerate electron fluid and non-degenerate ions are studied. For our purposes, we use fluid equations for ions together with the electron momentum equation that include quantum forces (e.g., the quantum statistical pressure, forces due to the electron-exchange and electron correlations effects) and the quasi-neutrality condition. The governing equation is written in a tractable form by using a self-similar transformation. Numerical results for typical beryllium plasma parameters revealed that, during the expansion, the ion acoustic speed decreases for both isothermal and adiabatic ion pressure. When compared with classical hydrodynamic plasma expansion model, the electrons and ions are found to initially escape faster in vacuum creating thus an intense electric field that accelerates most of the particles into the vacuum ahead of the plasma expansion. The relevancy of the present model to beryllium plasma produced by a femto-second laser is highlighted.

  19. Locally smeared operator product expansions in scalar field theory

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Monahan, Christopher; Orginos, Kostas

    2015-04-01

    We propose a new locally smeared operator product expansion to decompose non-local operators in terms of a basis of smeared operators. The smeared operator product expansion formally connects nonperturbative matrix elements determined numerically using lattice field theory to matrix elements of non-local operators in the continuum. These nonperturbative matrix elements do not suffer from power-divergent mixing on the lattice, which significantly complicates calculations of quantities such as the moments of parton distribution functions, provided the smearing scale is kept fixed in the continuum limit. The presence of this smearing scale complicates the connection to the Wilson coefficients of the standardmore » operator product expansion and requires the construction of a suitable formalism. We demonstrate the feasibility of our approach with examples in real scalar field theory.« less

  20. Secretary Bodman Meets with Qatari Officials to Promote Energy Expansion

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Efforts | Department of Energy Qatari Officials to Promote Energy Expansion Efforts Secretary Bodman Meets with Qatari Officials to Promote Energy Expansion Efforts January 22, 2008 - 10:53am Addthis Thanks U.S. Troops at Camp As-Sayliyah in Qatar for their service DOHA, QATAR - On his fourth stop of a six-nation swing through the Middle East and Europe, U.S. Secretary of Energy Samuel W. Bodman today met with Qatari Amir H.H. Sheikh Hamad Bin Khalifa Al Thani and Qatari Deputy Prime

  1. Derivative expansion at small mass for the spinor effective action

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dunne, Gerald V.; Huet, Adolfo; Hur, Jin; Min, Hyunsoo

    2011-05-15

    We study the small-mass limit of the one-loop spinor effective action, comparing the derivative expansion approximation with exact numerical results that are obtained from an extension to spinor theories of the partial-wave cutoff method. In this approach, one can compute numerically the renormalized one-loop effective action for radially separable gauge field background fields in spinor QED. We highlight an important difference between the small-mass limit of the derivative expansion for spinor and scalar theories.

  2. Energy At Work: Plant Expansion Creates Job Opportunities in Ohio |

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Department of Energy Energy At Work: Plant Expansion Creates Job Opportunities in Ohio Energy At Work: Plant Expansion Creates Job Opportunities in Ohio May 24, 2012 - 5:08pm Addthis Wade Reichelderfer is among the recent hires at DuPont's newly expanded solar manufacturing plant in Circleville, Ohio. | Photo courtesy of DuPont. Wade Reichelderfer is among the recent hires at DuPont's newly expanded solar manufacturing plant in Circleville, Ohio. | Photo courtesy of DuPont. Erin R. Pierce

  3. Sandia Energy - Photodissociation Dynamics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Photodissociation DynamicsAshley Otero2015-10-28T02:51:03+00:00 The time-resolved Fourier transform infrared emission spectrum of dicyclopropyl ketone after photodissociation...

  4. High order spatial expansion for the method of characteristics applied to 3-D geometries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Naymeh, L.; Masiello, E.; Sanchez, R.

    2013-07-01

    The method of characteristics is an efficient and flexible technique to solve the neutron transport equation and has been extensively used in two-dimensional calculations because it permits to deal with complex geometries. However, because of a very fast increase in storage requirements and number of floating operations, its direct application to three-dimensional routine transport calculations it is not still possible. In this work we introduce and analyze several modifications aimed to reduce memory requirements and to diminish the computing burden. We explore high-order spatial approximation, the use of intermediary trajectory-dependent flux expansions and the possibility of dynamic trajectory reconstruction from local tracking for typed subdomains. (authors)

  5. Application of asymptotic expansions for maximum likelihood estimators errors to gravitational waves from binary mergers: The single interferometer case

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zanolin, M.; Vitale, S.; Makris, N.

    2010-06-15

    In this paper we apply to gravitational waves (GW) from the inspiral phase of binary systems a recently derived frequentist methodology to calculate analytically the error for a maximum likelihood estimate of physical parameters. We use expansions of the covariance and the bias of a maximum likelihood estimate in terms of inverse powers of the signal-to-noise ration (SNR)s where the square root of the first order in the covariance expansion is the Cramer Rao lower bound (CRLB). We evaluate the expansions, for the first time, for GW signals in noises of GW interferometers. The examples are limited to a single, optimally oriented, interferometer. We also compare the error estimates using the first two orders of the expansions with existing numerical Monte Carlo simulations. The first two orders of the covariance allow us to get error predictions closer to what is observed in numerical simulations than the CRLB. The methodology also predicts a necessary SNR to approximate the error with the CRLB and provides new insight on the relationship between waveform properties, SNR, dimension of the parameter space and estimation errors. For example the timing match filtering can achieve the CRLB only if the SNR is larger than the Kurtosis of the gravitational wave spectrum and the necessary SNR is much larger if other physical parameters are also unknown.

  6. Spherical cavity-expansion forcing function in PRONTO 3D for application to penetration problems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Warren, T.L.; Tabbara, M.R.

    1997-05-01

    In certain penetration events the primary mode of deformation of the target can be approximated by known analytical expressions. In the context of an analysis code, this approximation eliminates the need for modeling the target as well as the need for a contact algorithm. This technique substantially reduces execution time. In this spirit, a forcing function which is derived from a spherical-cavity expansion analysis has been implemented in PRONTO 3D. This implementation is capable of computing the structural and component responses of a projectile due to three dimensional penetration events. Sample problems demonstrate good agreement with experimental and analytical results.

  7. The roles of the binodal curve and the spinodal curve in expansions from the supercritical state with flashing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Knuth, Eldon L.; Miller, David R.; Even, Uzi

    2014-12-09

    Data extracted from time-of-flight (TOF) measurements made on steady-state He free jets at Gttingen already in 1986 and for pulsed Ne free jets investigated recently at Tel Aviv have been added to an earlier plot of terminal condensed-phase mass fraction x{sub 2?} as a function of the dimensionless scaling parameter ?. ? characterizes the source (fluid species, temperature, pressure and throat diameter); values of x{sub 2?} are extracted from TOF measurements using conservation of energy in the free-jet expansion. For nozzles consisting of an orifice in a thin plate; the extracted data yield 22 data points which are correlated satisfactorily by a single curve. The Ne free jets were expanded from a conical nozzle with a 20 half angle; the three extracted data points stand together but apart from the aforementioned curve, indicating that the presence of the conical wall influences significantly the expansion and hence the condensation. The 22 data points for the expansions via an orifice consist of 15 measurements with expansions from the gas-phase side of the binodal curve which crossed the binodal curve downstream from the sonic point and 7 measurements with expansions of the gas-phase product of the flashing which occurred after an expansion from the liquid-phase side of the binodal curve crossed the binodal curve upstream from the sonic point. The association of these 22 points with a single curve supports the alternating-phase model for flows with flashing upstream from the sonic point proposed earlier. In order to assess the role of the spinodal curve in such expansions, the spinodal curves for He and Ne were computed using general multi-parameter Helmholtz-free-energy equation-of-state formulations. Then, for the several sets of source-chamber conditions used in the free-jet measurements, thermodynamic states at key locations in the free-jet expansions (binodal curve, sonic point and spinodal curve) were evaluated, with the expansion presumed to be metastable from the binodal curve to the spinodal curve. TOF distributions with more than two peaks (interpreted earlier as superimposed alternating-state TOF distributions) indicated flashing of the metastable flow downstream from the binodal curve but upstream from the sonic point. This relatively early flashing is due apparently to destabilizing interactions with the walls of the source. If the expansion crosses the binodal curve downstream from the nozzle, the metastable fluid does not interact with surfaces and flashing might be delayed until the expansion reaches the spinodal curve. It is concluded that, if the expansion crosses the binodal curve before reaching the sonic point, the resulting metastable fluid downstream from the binodal curve interacts with the adjacent surfaces and flashes into liquid and vapor phases which expand alternately through the nozzle; the two associated alternating TOF distributions are superposed by the chopping process so that the result has the appearance of a single distribution with three peaks.

  8. Sandia Energy - Scattering Dynamics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Scattering Dynamics Home Transportation Energy Predictive Simulation of Engines Combustion Chemistry Chemical Dynamics Scattering Dynamics Scattering DynamicsAshley...

  9. Viscosity of the QGP from a virial expansion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mattiello, S.

    2012-06-15

    In this work we calculate the shear viscosity {eta} in the quark-gluon plasma within a virial expansion approach with particular interest in the ratio of {eta} to the entropy density s, i.e. {eta}/s. We derive a realistic equation of state using a virial expansion approach which allows us to include the interactions between the partons in the deconfined phase. From the interaction we directly extract the effective coupling {alpha}{sub V} for the determination of {eta}. Our results for {eta}/s show a minimum near to T{sub c} very close with the lowest bound and, furthermore, in line with the experimental point from RHIC as well as with the lattice calculations.

  10. Theoretical model for plasma expansion generated by hypervelocity impact

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ju, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Qingming Zhang, Dongjiang; Long, Renrong; Chen, Li; Huang, Fenglei; Gong, Zizheng

    2014-09-15

    The hypervelocity impact experiments of spherical LY12 aluminum projectile diameter of 6.4?mm on LY12 aluminum target thickness of 23?mm have been conducted using a two-stage light gas gun. The impact velocity of the projectile is 5.2, 5.7, and 6.3?km/s, respectively. The experimental results show that the plasma phase transition appears under the current experiment conditions, and the plasma expansion consists of accumulation, equilibrium, and attenuation. The plasma characteristic parameters decrease as the plasma expands outward and are proportional with the third power of the impact velocity, i.e., (T{sub e}, n{sub e})???v{sub p}{sup 3}. Based on the experimental results, a theoretical model on the plasma expansion is developed and the theoretical results are consistent with the experimental data.

  11. Experiences using DAKOTA stochastic expansion methods in computational simulations.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Templeton, Jeremy Alan; Ruthruff, Joseph R.

    2012-01-01

    Uncertainty quantification (UQ) methods bring rigorous statistical connections to the analysis of computational and experiment data, and provide a basis for probabilistically assessing margins associated with safety and reliability. The DAKOTA toolkit developed at Sandia National Laboratories implements a number of UQ methods, which are being increasingly adopted by modeling and simulation teams to facilitate these analyses. This report disseminates results as to the performance of DAKOTA's stochastic expansion methods for UQ on a representative application. Our results provide a number of insights that may be of interest to future users of these methods, including the behavior of the methods in estimating responses at varying probability levels, and the expansion levels for the methodologies that may be needed to achieve convergence.

  12. account for intercalation-induced expansion/contraction

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    expansion/contraction - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced

  13. AIRIS Argonne In-flight Radioactive Ion Separator Expansion

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AIRIS - Argonne In-flight Radioactive Ion Separator Expansion of the ATLAS in-flight radioactive beam program is underway through the design of a separator comprised of a momentum achromat, a radio-frequency (RF) sweeper, and a bunching/rebunching resonator. The scientific motivation driving AIRIS stems from the increased demand for detailed spectroscopic informa- tion in nuclear structure, nuclear reactions, and astrophysics research, on nuclei off the valley of stability. Such studies require

  14. Energy Infrastructure Events and Expansions Infrastructure Security and Energy Restoration

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Year-in-Review: 2010 Energy Infrastructure Events and Expansions Infrastructure Security and Energy Restoration Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability U.S. Department of Energy August 2011 OE/ISER Report 8/31/11 i For Further Information This report was prepared by the Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability under the direction of Patricia Hoffman, Assistant Secretary, and William Bryan, Deputy Assistant Secretary. Specific questions about information in this report

  15. CORONAL MASS EJECTION PROPAGATION AND EXPANSION IN THREE-DIMENSIONAL SPACE IN THE HELIOSPHERE BASED ON STEREO/SECCHI OBSERVATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poomvises, Watanachak; Zhang Jie; Olmedo, Oscar

    2010-07-10

    We report on several new findings regarding the kinematic and morphological evolution of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) in the inner heliosphere using the unprecedented STEREO/SECCHI observations. The CME tracking is based on the three-dimensional Raytrace model, which is free of the projection effect, resulting in true CME velocities. We also measure the cross section size of the CME and hence its expansion velocity. For the four major CME events investigated, we find that their leading edge (LE) velocity converges from an initial range between 400 km s{sup -1} and 1500 km s{sup -1} at 5-10 R{sub sun} to a narrow range between 500 km s{sup -1} and 750 km s{sup -1} at 50 R{sub sun}. The expansion velocity is also found to converge into a narrow range between 75 km s{sup -1} and 175 km s{sup -1}. Both LE and expansion velocities are nearly constant after 50 R{sub sun}. We further find that the acceleration of CMEs in the inner heliosphere from {approx}10 to 90 R{sub sun} can be described by an exponential function, with an initial value as large as {approx}-80 m s{sup -2} but exponentially decreasing to almost zero (more precisely, less than {+-}5 m s{sup -2} considering the uncertainty of measurements). These results provide important observational constraints on understanding CME dynamics in interplanetary space.

  16. SEMI-ANNUAL REPORTS FOR FREEPORT LNG EXPANSION L.P. & FLNG LIQUEFACTIO...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    EXPANSION L.P. & FLNG LIQUEFACTION, LLC - FE DKT. NO. 12-06-LNG - ORDER 3066 SEMI-ANNUAL REPORTS FOR FREEPORT LNG EXPANSION L.P. & FLNG LIQUEFACTION, LLC - FE DKT. NO. 12-06-LNG - ...

  17. On eigenfunction expansion solutions for the start-up of fluid...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    On eigenfunction expansion solutions for the start-up of fluid flow Citation Details In-Document Search Title: On eigenfunction expansion solutions for the start-up of fluid flow...

  18. SEMI-ANNUAL REPORTS FOR FREEPORT LNG EXPANSION, L.P. & FLNG LIQUEFACTI...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    EXPANSION, L.P. & FLNG LIQUEFACTION, LLC - FE DKT. NO. 11-161-LNG - ORDER 3357 SEMI-ANNUAL REPORTS FOR FREEPORT LNG EXPANSION, L.P. & FLNG LIQUEFACTION, LLC - FE DKT. NO....

  19. SEMI-ANNUAL REPORTS - FREEPORT LNG EXPANSION L.P. & FLNG LIQUEFACTION...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    - FREEPORT LNG EXPANSION L.P. & FLNG LIQUEFACTION, LLC - FE DKT. 10-161-LNG - ORDER 3282 SEMI-ANNUAL REPORTS - FREEPORT LNG EXPANSION L.P. & FLNG LIQUEFACTION, LLC - FE DKT....

  20. SEMI-ANNUAL REPORTS FOR FREEPORT LNG EXPANSION L.P. & FLNG LIQUEFACTIO...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    EXPANSION L.P. & FLNG LIQUEFACTION, LLC - FE DKT. NO. 12-06-LNG - ORDER 3066 SEMI-ANNUAL REPORTS FOR FREEPORT LNG EXPANSION L.P. & FLNG LIQUEFACTION, LLC - FE DKT. NO. 12-06-LNG -...

  1. Quench dynamics near a quantum critical point: Application to the sine-Gordon model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    De Grandi, C.; Polkovnikov, A.; Gritsev, V.

    2010-06-01

    We discuss the quench dynamics near a quantum critical point focusing on the sine-Gordon model as a primary example. We suggest a unified approach to sudden and slow quenches, where the tuning parameter {lambda}(t) changes in time as {lambda}(t){approx}{upsilon}t{sup r}, based on the adiabatic expansion of the excitation probability in powers of {upsilon}. We show that the universal scaling of the excitation probability can be understood through the singularity of the generalized adiabatic susceptibility {chi}{sub 2r+2}({lambda}), which for sudden quenches (r=0) reduces to the fidelity susceptibility. In turn this class of susceptibilities is expressed through the moments of the connected correlation function of the quench operator. We analyze the excitations created after a sudden quench of the cosine potential using a combined approach of form-factors expansion and conformal perturbation theory for the low-energy and high-energy sector, respectively. We find the general scaling laws for the probability of exciting the system, the density of excited quasiparticles, the entropy and the heat generated after the quench. In the two limits where the sine-Gordon model maps to hard-core bosons and free massive fermions we provide the exact solutions for the quench dynamics and discuss the finite temperature generalizations.

  2. Energy recovery during expansion of compressed gas using power plant low-quality heat sources

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ochs, Thomas L. (Albany, OR); O'Connor, William K. (Lebanon, OR)

    2006-03-07

    A method of recovering energy from a cool compressed gas, compressed liquid, vapor, or supercritical fluid is disclosed which includes incrementally expanding the compressed gas, compressed liquid, vapor, or supercritical fluid through a plurality of expansion engines and heating the gas, vapor, compressed liquid, or supercritical fluid entering at least one of the expansion engines with a low quality heat source. Expansion engines such as turbines and multiple expansions with heating are disclosed.

  3. Modeling the thermal deformation of TATB-based explosives. Part 1: Thermal expansion of neat-pressed polycrystalline TATB

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luscher, Darby J.

    2014-05-08

    We detail a modeling approach to simulate the anisotropic thermal expansion of polycrystalline (1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene) TATB-based explosives that utilizes microstructural information including porosity, crystal aspect ratio, and processing-induced texture. This report, the first in a series, focuses on nonlinear thermal expansion of neat-pressed polycrystalline TATB specimens which do not contain any binder; additional complexities related to polymeric binder and irreversible ratcheting behavior are briefly discussed, however detailed investigation of these aspects are deferred to subsequent reports. In this work we have, for the first time, developed a mesoscale continuum model relating the thermal expansion of polycrystal TATB specimens to their microstructural characteristics. A self-consistent homogenization procedure is used to relate macroscopic thermoelastic response to the constitutive behavior of single-crystal TATB. The model includes a representation of grain aspect ratio, porosity, and crystallographic texture attributed to the consolidation process. A quantitative model is proposed to describe the evolution of preferred orientation of graphitic planes in TATB during consolidation and an algorithm constructed to develop a discrete representation of the associated orientation distribution function. Analytical and numerical solutions using this model are shown to produce textures consistent with previous measurements and characterization for isostatic and uniaxial die-pressed specimens. Predicted thermal strain versus temperature for textured specimens are shown to be in agreement with corresponding experimental measurements. Using the developed modeling approach, several simulations have been run to investigate the influence of microstructure on macroscopic thermal expansion behavior. Results from these simulations are used to identify qualitative trends. Implications of the identified trends are discussed in the context of thermal deformation of engineered components whose consolidation process is generally more complex than isostatic or die-pressed specimens. Finally, an envisioned application of the modeling approach to simulating thermal expansion of weapon systems and components is outlined along with necessary future work to introduce the effects of binder and ratcheting behavior. Key conclusions from this work include the following. Both porosity and grain aspect ratio have an influence on the thermal expansion of polycrystal TATB considering realistic material variability. Thepreferred orientation of the single crystal TATB [001] poles within a polycrystal gives rise to pronounced anisotropy of the macroscopic thermal expansion. The extent of this preferred orientation depends on the magnitude of deformation, and consequently, is expected to vary spatially throughout manufactured components much like porosity. The modeling approach presented here has utility toward bringing spatially variable microstructural features into macroscale system engineering modelsAbstract Not Provided

  4. Communication: Quantum molecular dynamics simulation of liquid para-hydrogen by nuclear and electron wave packet approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hyeon-Deuk, Kim; Japan Science and Technology Agency, PRESTO, 4-1-8 Honcho, Kawaguchi, Saitama 332-0012 ; Ando, Koji

    2014-05-07

    Liquid para-hydrogen (p-H{sub 2}) is a typical quantum liquid which exhibits strong nuclear quantum effects (NQEs) and thus anomalous static and dynamic properties. We propose a real-time simulation method of wave packet (WP) molecular dynamics (MD) based on non-empirical intra- and inter-molecular interactions of non-spherical hydrogen molecules, and apply it to condensed-phase p-H{sub 2}. The NQEs, such as WP delocalization and zero-point energy, are taken into account without perturbative expansion of prepared model potential functions but with explicit interactions between nuclear and electron WPs. The developed MD simulation for 100 ps with 1200 hydrogen molecules is realized at feasible computational cost, by which basic experimental properties of p-H{sub 2} liquid such as radial distribution functions, self-diffusion coefficients, and shear viscosities are all well reproduced.

  5. DLFM library tools for large scale dynamic applications

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    applications DLFM library tools for large scale dynamic applications Large scale Python and other dynamic applications may spend huge time at startup. The DLFM library,...

  6. Feasibility of wavelet expansion methods to treat the energy variable

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Van Rooijen, W. F. G.

    2012-07-01

    This paper discusses the use of the Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) to implement a functional expansion of the energy variable in neutron transport. The motivation of the work is to investigate the possibility of adapting the expansion level of the neutron flux in a material region to the complexity of the cross section in that region. If such an adaptive treatment is possible, 'simple' material regions (e.g., moderator regions) require little effort, while a detailed treatment is used for 'complex' regions (e.g., fuel regions). Our investigations show that in fact adaptivity cannot be achieved. The most fundamental reason is that in a multi-region system, the energy dependence of the cross section in a material region does not imply that the neutron flux in that region has a similar energy dependence. If it is chosen to sacrifice adaptivity, then the DWT method can be very accurate, but the complexity of such a method is higher than that of an equivalent hyper-fine group calculation. The conclusion is thus that, unfortunately, the DWT approach is not very practical. (authors)

  7. Aussie LNG players target NE Asia in expansion bid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-02-28

    Australia's natural gas players, keen to increase their presence in world liquefied natural gas trade, see Asia as their major LNG market in the decades to come. That's despite the fact that two spot cargoes of Australian Northwest Shelf LNG were shipped to Europe during the last 12 months and more are likely in 1994. Opportunities for growth are foreseen within the confines of the existing Northwest Shelf gas project for the rest of the 1990s. But the main focus for potential new grassroots project developers and expansions of the existing LNG plant in Australia is the expected shortfall in contract volumes of LNG to Japan, South Korea, and Taiwan during 2000--2010. Traditionally the price of crude oil has been used as a basis for calculating LNG prices. This means the economics of any new 21st century supply arrangements are delicately poised because of the current low world oil prices, a trend the market believes is likely to continue. In a bid to lessen the effect of high initial capital outlays and still meet projected demand using LNG from new projects and expansion of the existing plant, Australia's gas producers are working toward greater cooperation with prospective Asian buyers.

  8. Lattice thermal expansion for normal tetrahedral compound semiconductors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Omar, M.S. . E-mail: dr_m_s_omar@yahoo.com

    2007-02-15

    The cubic root of the deviation of the lattice thermal expansion from that of the expected value of diamond for group IV semiconductors, binary compounds of III-V and II-VI, as well as several ternary compounds from groups I-III-VI{sub 2}, II-IV-V{sub 2} and I-IV{sub 2}V{sub 3} semiconductors versus their bonding length are given straight lines. Their slopes were found to be 0.0256, 0.0210, 0.0170, 0.0259, 0.0196, and 0.02840 for the groups above, respectively. Depending on the valence electrons of the elements forming these groups, a formula was found to correlate all the values of the slopes mentioned above to that of group IV. This new formula which depends on the melting point and the bonding length as well as the number of valence electrons for the elements forming the compounds, will gives best calculated values for lattice thermal expansion for all compounds forming the groups mentioned above. An empirical relation is also found between the mean ionicity of the compounds forming the groups and their slopes mentioned above and that gave the mean ionicity for the compound CuGe{sub 2}P{sub 3} in the range of 0.442.

  9. Expansion joint for guideway for magnetic levitation transportation system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rossing, Thomas D. (DeKalb, IL)

    1993-01-01

    An expansion joint that allows a guideway of a magnetic levitation transportation system to expand and contract while minimizing transients occurring in the magnetic lift and drag forces acting on a magnetic levitation vehicle traveling over the joint includes an upper cut or recess extending downwardly from the upper surface of the guideway and a non-intersecting lower cut or recess that extends upwardly from the lower surface of the guideway. The sidewalls of the cuts can be parallel to each other and the vertical axis of the guideway; the depth of the lower cut can be greater than the depth of the upper cut; and the overall combined lengths of the cuts can be greater than the thickness of the guideway from the upper to lower surface so that the cuts will overlap, but be spaced apart from each other. The distance between the cuts can be determined on the basis of the force transients and the mechanical behavior of the guideway. A second pair of similarly configured upper and lower cuts may be disposed in the guideway; the expansion joint may consist of two upper cuts and one lower cut; or the cuts may have non-parallel, diverging sidewalls so that the cuts have a substantially dove-tail shape.

  10. Glass-ceramic hermetic seals to high thermal expansion metals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kramer, D.P.; Massey, R.T.

    1987-04-28

    A process for forming glass-ceramic materials from an alkaline silica-lithia glass composition comprising 60-72 mole-% SiO/sub 2/, 18-27 mole-% Li/sub 2/O, 0-5 mole-% Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/, 0-6 mole-% K/sub 2/O, 0-3 mole-% B/sub 2/O/sub 3/, and 0.5-2.5 mole-% P/sub 2/O/sub 5/, which comprises heating said glass composition at a first temperature within the 950-1050/degree/C range for 5-60 minutes, and then at a devitrification temperature within the 700-900/degree/C range for about 5-300 minutes to obtain a glass-ceramic having a thermal expansion coefficient of up to 210 x 10/sup /minus/7///degree/C. These ceramics form strong, hermetic seals with high expansion metals such as stainless steel alloys. An intermediate nucleation heating step conducted at a temperature within the range of 675-750/degree/C for 10-120 minutes may be employed between the first stage and the devitrification stage. 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  11. Expansion joint for guideway for magnetic levitation transportation system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rossing, T.D.

    1993-02-09

    An expansion joint that allows a guideway of a magnetic levitation transportation system to expand and contract while minimizing transients occurring in the magnetic lift and drag forces acting on a magnetic levitation vehicle traveling over the joint includes an upper cut or recess extending downwardly from the upper surface of the guideway and a non-intersecting lower cut or recess that extends upwardly from the lower surface of the guideway. The side walls of the cuts can be parallel to each other and the vertical axis of the guideway; the depth of the lower cut can be greater than the depth of the upper cut; and the overall combined lengths of the cuts can be greater than the thickness of the guideway from the upper to lower surface so that the cuts will overlap, but be spaced apart from each other. The distance between the cuts can be determined on the basis of the force transients and the mechanical behavior of the guideway. A second pair of similarly configured upper and lower cuts may be disposed in the guideway; the expansion joint may consist of two upper cuts and one lower cut; or the cuts may have non-parallel, diverging side walls so that the cuts have a substantially dove-tail shape.

  12. Modeling Dynamic Ductility: An Equation of State for Porous Metals

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Conference) | SciTech Connect Conference: Modeling Dynamic Ductility: An Equation of State for Porous Metals Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Modeling Dynamic Ductility: An Equation of State for Porous Metals Enhanced heating from shock compression of a porous material can potentially suppress or delay cracking of the material on subsequent expansion. In this paper we quantify the expected enhanced heating in an experiment in which a sector of a thin cylindrical shell is driven

  13. Mastering Uncertainty and Risk at Multiple Time Scales in the Future Electrical Grid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chertkov, Michael; Bent, Russell W.; Backhaus, Scott N.

    2012-07-10

    Today's electrical grids enjoy a relatively clean separation of spatio-temporal scales yielding a compartmentalization of grid design, optimization, control and risk assessment allowing for the use of conventional mathematical tools within each area. In contrast, the future grid will incorporate time-intermittent renewable generation, operate via faster electrical markets, and tap the latent control capability at finer grid modeling scales; creating a fundamentally new set of couplings across spatiotemporal scales and requiring revolutionary advances in mathematics techniques to bridge these scales. One example is found in decade-scale grid expansion planning in which today's algorithms assume accurate load forecasts and well-controlled generation. Incorporating intermittent renewable generation creates fluctuating network flows at the hourly time scale, inherently linking the ability of a transmission line to deliver electrical power to hourly operational decisions. New operations-based planning algorithms are required, creating new mathematical challenges. Spatio-temporal scales are also crossed when the future grid's minute-scale fluctuations in network flows (due to intermittent generation) create a disordered state upon which second-scale transient grid dynamics propagate effectively invalidating today's on-line dynamic stability analyses. Addressing this challenge requires new on-line algorithms that use large data streams from new grid sensing technologies to physically aggregate across many spatial scales to create responsive, data-driven dynamic models. Here, we sketch the mathematical foundations of these problems and potential solutions.

  14. Dynamics of laser-blow-off induced Li plume in confined geometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumar, Bhupesh; Singh, R K; Kumar, Ajai [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar-382 428 (India)] [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar-382 428 (India)

    2013-08-15

    Dynamics of Li plasma plume created by laser-blow-off technique in air ambient is reported. Plasma plume dynamics and its optical emission are investigated in planar and confined geometries using time resolved shadowgraph imaging and optical emission spectroscopy. Significant differences in the plasma characteristics in confined geometry are quantitatively investigated by comparing the plasma parameters (temperature and density) in free expansion and confined geometry configurations. Dynamics and physical parameters of the primary as well as the reflected shock waves (in confined geometry) and their interactions with expanding plasma are briefly addressed. A large enhancement in the emission intensities of Li I 610.3 nm (2p {sup 2}P{sub 1/2,3/2}? 3d {sup 2}P{sub 3/2,5/2}) and 670.8 nm (2s {sup 2}S{sub 1/2}? 2p {sup 2}P{sub 1/2,3/2}) is correlated with the shock wave dynamics in the two geometries. Strong self reversal in the neutral emission infers an increase in the population density of neutrals within the confined plasma plume.

  15. The expansion of a collisionless plasma into a plasma of lower density

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Perego, M.; Gunzburger, M. D.; Howell, P. D.; Ockendon, J. R.; Allen, J. E.

    2013-05-15

    This paper considers the asymptotic and numerical solution of a simple model for the expansion of a collisionless plasma into a plasma of lower density. The dependence on the density ratio of qualitative and quantitative features of solutions of the well-known cold-ion model is explored. In the cold-ion limit, we find that a singularity develops in the ion density in finite time unless the density ratio is zero or close to unity. The classical cold-ion model may cease to be valid when such a singularity occurs and we then regularize the model by the finite ion-temperature Vlasov-Poisson system. Numerical evidence suggests the emergence of a multi-modal velocity distribution.

  16. Detonation reaction steps frozen by free expansion and analyzed by mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greiner, N.R.; Fry, H.A.; Blais, N.C.; Engelke, R.P.

    1993-05-01

    Detonation reactions in small pellets of explosive are frozen by free expansion into a large vacuum chamber and analyzed by time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Sensitive explosives like PETN, RDX, and HMX show rapidly evolving reaction zones and mostly simple products like H{sub 2}O, CO, N{sub 2}, and CO{sub 2}. Less sensitive explosives like TATB, HNS, and TNT show slower evolution of the reaction zone, and more complex products in addition to the simple ones seen in PETN. Isotopic substitution shows that the more complex products contain moderate amounts of NH{sub 3}, HCN, NO, HNCO, and NO{sub 2}. Other observations include polymerization of aromatic explosive molecules, adducts to the explosive molecules, and explosive molecules with functional groups missing. The more complex products are reservoirs of unreleased energy that may affect performance.

  17. Detonation reaction steps frozen by free expansion and analyzed by mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greiner, N.R.; Fry, H.A.; Blais, N.C.; Engelke, R.P.

    1993-01-01

    Detonation reactions in small pellets of explosive are frozen by free expansion into a large vacuum chamber and analyzed by time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Sensitive explosives like PETN, RDX, and HMX show rapidly evolving reaction zones and mostly simple products like H[sub 2]O, CO, N[sub 2], and CO[sub 2]. Less sensitive explosives like TATB, HNS, and TNT show slower evolution of the reaction zone, and more complex products in addition to the simple ones seen in PETN. Isotopic substitution shows that the more complex products contain moderate amounts of NH[sub 3], HCN, NO, HNCO, and NO[sub 2]. Other observations include polymerization of aromatic explosive molecules, adducts to the explosive molecules, and explosive molecules with functional groups missing. The more complex products are reservoirs of unreleased energy that may affect performance.

  18. Dynamics of helium films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clements, B.E.; Epstein, J.L.; Krotscheck, E.; Tymczak, C.J.; Saarela, M.

    1992-11-01

    The authors present quantitative calculations for the static structure and the dynamics of quantum liquid films on a translationally invariant substrate. The excitation spectrum is calculated by solving the equations of motion for time-dependent one- and two-body densities. They find significant corrections to the Feynman spectrum for the phonon-like collective excitations. 8 refs., 2 figs.

  19. Ultra low thermal expansion, highly thermal shock resistant ceramic

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Limaye, Santosh Y. (1440 Sandpiper Cir. #38, Salt Lake City, UT 84117)

    1996-01-01

    Three families of ceramic compositions having the given formula: .phi..sub.1+X Zr.sub.4 P.sub.6-2X Si.sub.2X O.sub.24, .phi..sub.1+X Zr.sub.4-2X Y.sub.2X P.sub.6 O.sub.24 and .phi..sub.1+X Zr.sub.4-X Y.sub.X P.sub.6-2X Si.sub.X O.sub.24 wherein .phi. is either Strontium or Barium and X has a value from about 0.2 to about 0.8 have been disclosed. Ceramics formed from these compositions exhibit very low, generally near neutral, thermal expansion over a wide range of elevated temperatures.

  20. Portugal`s Petrogal eyes expansion amid continuing privatization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-10-16

    Portugal`s recently privatized state oil company Petrogal is about to embark on a major expansion worldwide. That comes against the backdrop of major change in Portugal`s energy sector and the rocky road to Petrogal`s partial privatization. Despite the controversy, there remain opportunities for foreign companies investing in Portugal`s energy sector. The most attractive opportunities are in Portugal`s downstream petroleum sector and in the country`s continuing campaign to develop its natural gas industry. Typical of the latter is Portugal`s participation in the Trans-Maghreb gas pipeline megaproject. The paper discusses the background to privatization, its current status, Petrogal strategy, modernization of refineries, a joint partnership with Venezuela, constraints, energy policy program, gas pipeline privatization, and concerns of the gas industry.

  1. Ultra low thermal expansion, highly thermal shock resistant ceramic

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Limaye, S.Y.

    1996-01-30

    Three families of ceramic compositions having the given formula: {phi}{sub 1+X}Zr{sub 4}P{sub 6{minus}2X}Si{sub 2X}O{sub 24}, {phi}{sub 1+X}Zr{sub 4{minus}2X}Y{sub 2X}P{sub 6}O{sub 24} and {phi}{sub 1+X}Zr{sub 4{minus}X}Y{sub X}P{sub 6{minus}2X}Si{sub X}O{sub 24} wherein {phi} is either strontium or barium and X has a value from about 0.2 to about 0.8 have been disclosed. Ceramics formed from these compositions exhibit very low, generally near neutral, thermal expansion over a wide range of elevated temperatures. 7 figs.

  2. HAZARDS OF THERMAL EXPANSION FOR RADIOLOGICAL CONTAINER ENGULFED IN FIRE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Donna Post Guillen

    2013-05-01

    Fire accidents pose a serious threat to nuclear facilities. It is imperative that transport casks or shielded containers designed to transport/contain radiological materials have the ability to withstand a hypothetical fire. A numerical simulation was performed for a shielded container constructed of stainless steel and lead engulfed in a hypothetical fire as outlined by 10 CFR 71.73. The purpose of this analysis was to determine the thermal response of the container during and after the fire. The thermal model shows that after 30 minutes of fire, the stainless steel will maintain its integrity and not melt. However, the lead shielding will melt since its temperature exceeds the melting point. Due to the method of construction of the container under consideration, ample void space must be provided to allow for thermal expansion of the lead upon heating and melting, so as to not overstress the weldment.

  3. Dynamics of polydots: Soft luminescent polymeric nanoparticles

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Maskey, Sabina; Osti, Naresh C.; Grest, Gary S.; Perahia, Dvora

    2016-03-04

    The conformation and dynamics of luminescent polymers collapsed into nanoparticles or polydots were studied using fully atomistic molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, providing a first insight into their internal dynamics. Controlling the conformation and dynamics of confined polymers is essential for realization of the full potential of polydots in nanomedicine and biotechnology. Specifically, the shape and internal dynamics of polydots that consist of highly rigid dialkyl p-phenylene ethynylene (PPE) are probed as a function of temperature. At room temperature, the polydots are spherical without any correlations between the aromatic rings on the PPE backbone. With increasing temperature, they expand and becomemore » slightly aspherical; however, the polymers remain confined. The coherent dynamic structure factor reveals that the internal motion of the polymer backbone is arrested, and the side chains dominate the internal dynamics of the polydots. Lastly, these new soft nanoparticles retain their overall shape and dynamics over an extended temperature range, and their conformation is tunable via their degree of expansion.« less

  4. Symptomatic Outcomes in Relation to Tumor Expansion After Fractionated Stereotactic Radiation Therapy for Vestibular Schwannomas: Single-Institutional Long-Term Experience

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aoyama, Hidefumi; Department of Radiology, Division of Radiation Oncology, Niigata University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Niigata ; Onodera, Shunsuke; Takeichi, Norihito; Onimaru, Rikiya; Terasaka, Shunsuke; Sawamura, Yutaka; Shirato, Hiroki

    2013-02-01

    Purpose: The effect of transient tumor expansion after conventionally fractionated stereotactic radiation therapy (SRT) on the symptomatic outcomes is not well-known. Methods and Materials: This study enrolled 201 consecutive patients who received SRT for vestibular schwannoma. A conventional fractionation schedule was applied in 194 patients (97%), and 142 (71%) received a total dose of 50 Gy. The median follow-up time was 72 months. Results: The maximum diameter was 9 mm or less in 13 patients, 10-19 mm in 79 patients, 20-29 mm in 87 patients, and 30 mm or greater in 22 patients. At presentation, tumor size of 20 mm or greater was significantly associated with loss of serviceable hearing and trigeminal neuropathy. After SRT, tumor expansion was observed in 42 patients (21%). By tumor size, tumor expansion was observed in 0%, 11.4%, 25.6%, and 50% of patients with tumors of 9 mm or less, 10-19 mm, 20-29 mm, and 30 mm or greater, respectively, in diameter. The tumor expansion was significantly associated with an increased risk of hydrocephalus requiring shunt placement (P=.004), loss of serviceable hearing (P=.0064), and worsening of facial (P<.0001) and trigeminal nerve (P<.0001) functions. Spontaneous tumor shrinkage was observed in 29 of those 42 patients, mostly within 2 years after the expansion, and the majority of the worsened symptoms except for hearing resolved once the tumor had shrunk. As a result, salvage surgical resection for symptomatic relief was required in only 5% of patients. Conclusions: Fractionated SRT could be safely applied even for medium- to large-sized ({>=}20 mm) tumors. However, greater knowledge of the risks and consequences, including transient symptomatic worsening, and the time span of expansion will be required for the follow-up of patients after SRT to avoid unnecessary surgical intervention.

  5. Tracking the origins and drivers of subclonal metastatic expansion in prostate cancer

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Hong, Matthew K. H.; Macintyre, Geoff; Wedge, David C.; Van Loo, Peter; Patel, Keval; Lunke, Sebastian; Alexandrov, Ludmil B.; Sloggett, Clare; Cmero, Marek; Marass, Francesco; et al

    2015-04-01

    Tumour heterogeneity in primary prostate cancer is a well-established phenomenon. However, how the subclonal diversity of tumours changes during metastasis and progression to lethality is poorly understood. Here we reveal the precise direction of metastatic spread across four lethal prostate cancer patients using whole-genome and ultra-deep targeted sequencing of longitudinally collected primary and metastatic tumours. We find one case of metastatic spread to the surgical bed causing local recurrence, and another case of cross-metastatic site seeding combining with dynamic remoulding of subclonal mixtures in response to therapy. By ultra-deep sequencing end-stage blood, we detect both metastatic and primary tumour clones,more » even years after removal of the prostate. As a result, analysis of mutations associated with metastasis reveals an enrichment of TP53 mutations, and additional sequencing of metastases from 19 patients demonstrates that acquisition of TP53 mutations is linked with the expansion of subclones with metastatic potential which we can detect in the blood.« less

  6. The principal component analysis method used with polynomial Chaos expansion to propagate uncertainties through critical transport problems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rising, M. E.; Prinja, A. K.

    2012-07-01

    A critical neutron transport problem with random material properties is introduced. The total cross section and the average neutron multiplicity are assumed to be uncertain, characterized by the mean and variance with a log-normal distribution. The average neutron multiplicity and the total cross section are assumed to be uncorrected and the material properties for differing materials are also assumed to be uncorrected. The principal component analysis method is used to decompose the covariance matrix into eigenvalues and eigenvectors and then 'realizations' of the material properties can be computed. A simple Monte Carlo brute force sampling of the decomposed covariance matrix is employed to obtain a benchmark result for each test problem. In order to save computational time and to characterize the moments and probability density function of the multiplication factor the polynomial chaos expansion method is employed along with the stochastic collocation method. A Gauss-Hermite quadrature set is convolved into a multidimensional tensor product quadrature set and is successfully used to compute the polynomial chaos expansion coefficients of the multiplication factor. Finally, for a particular critical fuel pin assembly the appropriate number of random variables and polynomial expansion order are investigated. (authors)

  7. TU-A-12A-01: Consistency of Lung Expansion and Contraction During Respiration: Implications for Quantitative Imaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Patton, T; Du, K; Bayouth, J; Christensen, G; Reinhardt, J

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Four-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) can be used to evaluate longitudinal changes in pulmonary function. The sensitivity of such measurements to identify function change may be improved with reproducible breathing patterns. The purpose of this study was to determine if inhale was more consistent than exhale, i.e., lung expansion during inhalation compared to lung contraction during exhalation. Methods: Repeat 4DCT image data acquired within a short time interval from 8 patients. Using a tissue volume preserving deformable image registration algorithm, Jacobian ventilation maps in two scanning sessions were computed and compared on the same coordinate for reproducibility analysis. Equivalent lung volumes (ELV) were used for 5 subjects and equivalent title volumes (ETV) for the 3 subjects who experienced a baseline shift between scans. In addition, gamma pass rate was calculated from a modified gamma index evaluation between two ventilation maps, using acceptance criterions of 2mm distance-to-agreement and 5% ventilation difference. The gamma pass rates were then compared using paired t-test to determine if there was a significant difference. Results: Inhalation was more reproducible than exhalation. In the 5 ELV subjects 78.5% of the lung voxels met the gamma criteria for expansion during inhalation when comparing the two scans, while significantly fewer (70.9% of the lung voxels) met the gamma criteria for contraction during exhalation (p = .027). In the 8 total subjects analyzed the average gamma pass rate for expansion during inhalation was 75.2% while for contraction during exhalation it was 70.3%; which trended towards significant (p = .064). Conclusion: This work implies inhalation is more reproducible than exhalation, when equivalent respiratory volumes are considered. The reason for this difference is unknown. Longitudinal investigation of pulmonary function change based on inhalation images appears appropriate for Jacobian-based measure of lung tissue expansion. NIH Grant: R01 CA166703.

  8. Scalar and tensor spherical harmonics expansion of the velocity correlation in homogeneous anisotropic turbulence

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Rubinstein, Robert; Kurien, Susan; Cambon, Claude

    2015-06-22

    The representation theory of the rotation group is applied to construct a series expansion of the correlation tensor in homogeneous anisotropic turbulence. The resolution of angular dependence is the main analytical difficulty posed by anisotropic turbulence; representation theory parametrises this dependence by a tensor analogue of the standard spherical harmonics expansion of a scalar. As a result, the series expansion is formulated in terms of explicitly constructed tensor bases with scalar coefficients determined by angular moments of the correlation tensor.

  9. Year-in-Review: 2012 Energy Infrastructure Events and Expansions (July

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2013) | Department of Energy 2 Energy Infrastructure Events and Expansions (July 2013) Year-in-Review: 2012 Energy Infrastructure Events and Expansions (July 2013) The Year-in-Review (YIR): 2012 Energy Infrastructure Events and Expansions report provides a summary of significant energy disruptions and infrastructure changes that occurred in the United States throughout 2012. The focus is on the United States, but international events that impacted the United States are also reported. The

  10. Year-in-Review: 2014 Energy Infrastructure Events and Expansions (May 2015)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    | Department of Energy 4 Energy Infrastructure Events and Expansions (May 2015) Year-in-Review: 2014 Energy Infrastructure Events and Expansions (May 2015) The Year-in-Review: 2014 Energy Infrastructure Events and Expansions report provides a summary of significant energy disruptions and infrastructure changes that occurred in the United States throughout 2014. While the focus is on the United States, international events that impacted the United States are also reported. This report is

  11. Energy Infrastructure Events and Expansions Year-in-Review 2011 Available

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    (April 2012) | Department of Energy Infrastructure Events and Expansions Year-in-Review 2011 Available (April 2012) Energy Infrastructure Events and Expansions Year-in-Review 2011 Available (April 2012) May 1, 2012 - 3:15pm Addthis The Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability has released the Energy Infrastructure Events and Expansions Year-in-Review: 2011. This publication provides a summary of significant energy disruptions and infrastructure changes that occurred in the

  12. Time Off

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Time Off Time Off A comprehensive benefits package with plan options for health care and retirement to take care of our employees today and tomorrow. Contact Benefits Office (505)...

  13. Resonant holographic measurements of laser ablation plume expansion in vacuum and argon gas backgrounds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lindley, R.A.

    1993-10-01

    This thesis discusses the following on resonant holographic measurements of laser ablation plume expansion: Introduction to laser ablation; applications of laser ablation; The study of plume expansion; holographic interferometry; resonant holographic interferometry; accounting for finite laser bandwidth; The solution for doppler broadening and finite bandwidth; the main optical table; the lumonics laser spot shape; developing and reconstructing the holograms; plume expansion in RF/Plasma Environments; Determining {lambda}{sub o}; resonant refraction effects; fringe shift interpretation; shot-to-shot consistency; laser ablation in vacuum and low pressure, inert, background gas; theoretically modeling plume expansion in vacuum and low pressure, inert, background gas; and laser ablation in higher pressure, inert, background gas.

  14. Freeport LNG Expansion, L.P. and FLNG Liquefaction, LLC - FE...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    (FLEX II Conditional Order) to Freeport LNG Expansion, L.P., FLNG Liquefaction, LLC, ... PDF icon Order 3357-B - Final Opinion and Order Granting LNG Export Authorization More ...

  15. Convergence of Legendre Expansion of Doppler-Broadened Double Differential Elastic Scattering Cross Section

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arbanas, Goran; Dunn, Michael E; Larson, Nancy M; Leal, Luiz C; Williams, Mark L

    2012-01-01

    Convergence properties of Legendre expansion of a Doppler-broadened double-differential elastic neutron scattering cross section of {sup 238}U near the 6.67 eV resonance at temperature 10{sup 3} K are studied. A variance of Legendre expansion from a reference Monte Carlo computation is used as a measure of convergence and is computed for as many as 15 terms in the Legendre expansion. When the outgoing energy equals the incoming energy, it is found that the Legendre expansion converges very slowly. Therefore, a supplementary method of computing many higher-order terms is suggested and employed for this special case.

  16. THERMAL EXPANSION AND PHASE INVERSION OF RARE-EARTH OXIDES By...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    are sufficient and binders are not required. 3 4. Measurements can be made on each crystalline phase in samples con- taining multiple components. Thermal expansion data are...

  17. Application of the GBFP Method to Electron Partial-Wave Expansion...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conference: Application of the GBFP Method to Electron Partial-Wave Expansion Elastic Scattering Differential Cross Sections Within the Geant4 Toolkit. Citation Details In-Document...

  18. VP 100: Charlotte Sees Next-Gen Vehicle Supply Expansion | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Charlotte Sees Next-Gen Vehicle Supply Expansion VP 100: Charlotte Sees Next-Gen Vehicle Supply Expansion March 12, 2010 - 2:47pm Addthis Charlotte sees next-gen vehicle supply expansion: U.S. Energy Secretary Steve Chu speaks at Celgard LLC in Charlotte, N.C. as Mitch Pulwer, Celgard’s vice president and general manager, looks on. | Photo courtesy of Celgard | Charlotte sees next-gen vehicle supply expansion: U.S. Energy Secretary Steve Chu speaks at Celgard LLC in Charlotte,

  19. Española entrepreneur breaks ground; expansion will create 50...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Department Cabinet Secretary Jon Barela. "That is why it is great that our Finance Development Team was able to help this business secure financing for this expansion, and ...

  20. Developing the model of laser ablation by considering the interplay between emission and expansion of aluminum plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rezaei, F.; Tavassoli, S. H.

    2013-01-15

    In the present study, the ablation behavior of aluminum target and its plasma radiation in noble ambient gases by a laser pulse with wavelength of 266 nm and pulse duration of 10 ns are numerically studied. A thermal model of laser ablation considering heat conduction, Euler equations, Saha-Eggert equations, Knudsen layer, mass and energy balance relations and optical shielding effects are used for calculation of plasma parameters. Effects of excitation energy on plasma expansion and its emissivity are investigated. Time and spatial-resolved plasma emission including bremsstrahlung, recombination and spectral emission at early delay times after laser irradiation is obtained. Effects of two ambient gases (He and Ar) as well as different gas pressures of 100, 300, 500, and 760 Torr on plasma expansion and its spectrum are studied. Results illustrate that at initial delay times, especially at high noble gas pressures, ionic lines have the maximum intensities, while at later times neutral lines dominate. When the pressure of ambient gas increases, a confinement of the plasma plume is predicted and the intensity of neutral lines decreases. Continuous emission increases with wavelength in both ambient gases. Spatially resolved analysis shows that an intense continuous emission is predicted next to the sample surface decreasing with distance from the latter.

  1. Exploring the prominence-corona connection and its expansion into the outer corona using total solar eclipse observations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Habbal, Shadia Rifai; Morgan, Huw; Druckmller, Miloslav

    2014-10-01

    Prominences constitute the most complex magnetic structures in the solar corona. The ubiquitous presence of their seemingly confined dense and cool plasma in an otherwise million-degree environment remains a puzzle. Using a decade of white light total solar eclipse observations, we show how these images reveal an intricate relationship between prominences and coronal structures both in their immediate vicinity, known as coronal cavities, and in the extended corona out to several solar radii. Observations of suspended prominences and twisted helical structures spanning several solar radii are central to these findings. The different manifestations of the prominence-corona interface that emerge from this study underscore the fundamental role played by prominences in defining and controlling the complex expansion and dynamic behavior of the solar magnetic field in the neighborhood of magnetic polarity reversal regions. This study suggests that the unraveling of prominences and the outward expansion of the helical twisted field lines linked to them could be the solar origin of twisted magnetic flux ropes detected in interplanetary space, and of the mechanism by which the Sun sheds its magnetic helicity. This work also underscores the likely role of the prominence-corona interface as a source of the slow solar wind.

  2. Dynamic Transmission Electron Microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Evans, James E.; Jungjohann, K. L.; Browning, Nigel D.

    2012-10-12

    Dynamic transmission electron microscopy (DTEM) combines the benefits of high spatial resolution electron microscopy with the high temporal resolution of ultrafast lasers. The incorporation of these two components into a single instrument provides a perfect platform for in situ observations of material processes. However, previous DTEM applications have focused on observing structural changes occurring in samples exposed to high vacuum. Therefore, in order to expand the pump-probe experimental regime to more natural environmental conditions, in situ gas and liquid chambers must be coupled with Dynamic TEM. This chapter describes the current and future applications of in situ liquid DTEM to permit time-resolved atomic scale observations in an aqueous environment, Although this chapter focuses mostly on in situ liquid imaging, the same research potential exists for in situ gas experiments and the successful integration of these techniques promises new insights for understanding nanoparticle, catalyst and biological protein dynamics with unprecedented spatiotemporal resolution.

  3. West Foster Creek Expansion Project 2007 HEP Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ashley, Paul R.

    2008-02-01

    During April and May 2007, the Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Authority's (CBFWA) Regional HEP Team (RHT) conducted baseline Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) (USFWS 1980, 1980a) analyses on five parcels collectively designated the West Foster Creek Expansion Project (3,756.48 acres). The purpose of the HEP analyses was to document extant habitat conditions and to determine how many baseline/protection habitat units (HUs) to credit Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) for funding maintenance and enhancement activities on project lands as partial mitigation for habitat losses associated with construction of Grand Coulee and Chief Joseph Dams. HEP evaluation models included mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), western meadowlark (Sturnella neglecta), sharp-tailed grouse, (Tympanuchus phasianellus), Bobcat (Lynx rufus), mink (Neovison vison), mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), and black-capped chickadee (Parus atricapillus). Combined 2007 baseline HEP results show that 4,946.44 habitat units were generated on 3,756.48 acres (1.32 HUs per acre). HEP results/habitat conditions were generally similar for like cover types at all sites. Unlike crediting of habitat units (HUs) on other WDFW owned lands, Bonneville Power Administration received full credit for HUs generated on these sites.

  4. Supply contracts for Italy prompt expansions, new construction plans

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    True, W.R.

    1998-02-23

    Italy`s natural-gas demand is growing faster than that of any other European country, according to Italian gas-transmission operator SNAM S.p.A., Milan. Gas demand in Italy, as a share of total energy demand, is likely to grow from slightly more than a quarter in 1996 to more than a third by 2010. As a result, SNAM is actively negotiating and signing new gas contracts with existing and new suppliers to ensure and diversify gas supply to the peninsula over that period. This article concludes a two-part series on gas supplies and pipeline infrastructure development for Europe`s two southern peninsulas. Part 1 set forth pipeline construction and gas-movement developments on the Iberian peninsula. For European supplies to Italy, expansions on two major cross-country pipelines will have been completed by 2001 along with a third new line in France that will tie into an existing line from The Netherlands. Additionally, early in the next decade, SNAM could be on its way to laying yet another pipeline across the Mediterranean Sea, setting again yet another deepwater pipelay record.

  5. Water Constraints in an Electric Sector Capacity Expansion Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Macknick, Jordan; Cohen, Stuart; Newmark, Robin; Martinez, Andrew; Sullivan, Patrick; Tidwell, Vince

    2015-07-17

    This analysis provides a description of the first U.S. national electricity capacity expansion model to incorporate water resource availability and costs as a constraint for the future development of the electricity sector. The Regional Energy Deployment System (ReEDS) model was modified to incorporate water resource availability constraints and costs in each of its 134 Balancing Area (BA) regions along with differences in costs and efficiencies of cooling systems. Water resource availability and cost data are from recently completed research at Sandia National Laboratories (Tidwell et al. 2013b). Scenarios analyzed include a business-as-usual 3 This report is available at no cost from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) at www.nrel.gov/publications. scenario without water constraints as well as four scenarios that include water constraints and allow for different cooling systems and types of water resources to be utilized. This analysis provides insight into where water resource constraints could affect the choice, configuration, or location of new electricity technologies.

  6. Project Fever - Fostering Electric Vehicle Expansion in the Rockies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swalnick, Natalia

    2013-06-30

    Project FEVER (Fostering Electric Vehicle Expansion in the Rockies) is a part of the Clean Cities Community Readiness and Planning for Plug-in Electric Vehicles and Charging Infrastructure Funding Opportunity funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) for the state of Colorado. Tasks undertaken in this project include: Electric Vehicle Grid Impact Assessment; Assessment of Electrical Permitting and Inspection for EV/EVSE (electric vehicle/electric vehicle supply equipment); Assessment of Local Ordinances Pertaining to Installation of Publicly Available EVSE;Assessment of Building Codes for EVSE; EV Demand and Energy/Air Quality Impacts Assessment; State and Local Policy Assessment; EV Grid Impact Minimization Efforts; Unification and Streamlining of Electrical Permitting and Inspection for EV/EVSE; Development of BMP for Local EVSE Ordinances; Development of BMP for Building Codes Pertaining to EVSE; Development of Colorado-Specific Assessment for EV/EVSE Energy/Air Quality Impacts; Development of State and Local Policy Best Practices; Create Final EV/EVSE Readiness Plan; Develop Project Marketing and Communications Elements; Plan and Schedule In-person Education and Outreach Opportunities.

  7. Three-dimensional photodissociation in strong laser fields: Memory-kernel effective-mode expansion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li Xuan; Thanopulos, Ioannis; Shapiro, Moshe

    2011-03-15

    We introduce a method for the efficient computation of non-Markovian quantum dynamics for strong (and time-dependent) system-bath interactions. The past history of the system dynamics is incorporated by expanding the memory kernel in exponential functions thereby transforming in an exact fashion the non-Markovian integrodifferential equations into a (larger) set of ''effective modes'' differential equations (EMDE). We have devised a method which easily diagonalizes the EMDE, thereby allowing for the efficient construction of an adiabatic basis and the fast propagation of the EMDE in time. We have applied this method to three-dimensional photodissociation of the H{sub 2}{sup +} molecule by strong laser fields. Our calculations properly include resonance-Raman scattering via the continuum, resulting in extensive rotational and vibrational excitations. The calculated final kinetic and angular distribution of the photofragments are in overall excellent agreement with experiments, both when transform-limited pulses and when chirped pulses are used.

  8. Photodissociation Dynamics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Photodissociation Dynamics - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management Programs

  9. Dynamics of femtosecond laser produced tungsten nanoparticle plumes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harilal, S. S.; Hassanein, A.; Farid, N.; School of Physics and Optical Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 ; Kozhevin, V. M.

    2013-11-28

    We investigated the expansion features of femtosecond laser generated tungsten nanoparticle plumes in vacuum. Fast gated images showed distinct two components expansion features, viz., plasma and nanoparticle plumes, separated by time of appearance. The persistence of plasma and nanoparticle plumes are ?500 ns and ?100 ?s, respectively, and propagating with velocities differed by 25 times. The estimated temperature of the nanoparticles showed a decreasing trend with increasing time and space. Compared to low-Z materials (e.g., Si), ultrafast laser ablation of high-Z materials like W provides significantly higher nanoparticle yield. A comparison between the nanoparticle plumes generated by W and Si is also discussed along with other metals.

  10. Accelerating Atomic Orbital-based Electronic Structure Calculation via Pole Expansion plus Selected Inversion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, Lin; Chen, Mohan; Yang, Chao; He, Lixin

    2012-02-10

    We describe how to apply the recently developed pole expansion plus selected inversion (PEpSI) technique to Kohn-Sham density function theory (DFT) electronic structure calculations that are based on atomic orbital discretization. We give analytic expressions for evaluating charge density, total energy, Helmholtz free energy and atomic forces without using the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the Kohn-Sham Hamiltonian. We also show how to update the chemical potential without using Kohn-Sham eigenvalues. The advantage of using PEpSI is that it has a much lower computational complexity than that associated with the matrix diagonalization procedure. We demonstrate the performance gain by comparing the timing of PEpSI with that of diagonalization on insulating and metallic nanotubes. For these quasi-1D systems, the complexity of PEpSI is linear with respect to the number of atoms. This linear scaling can be observed in our computational experiments when the number of atoms in a nanotube is larger than a few hundreds. Both the wall clock time and the memory requirement of PEpSI is modest. This makes it even possible to perform Kohn-Sham DFT calculations for 10,000-atom nanotubes on a single processor. We also show that the use of PEpSI does not lead to loss of accuracy required in a practical DFT calculation.

  11. Dynamic radioactive particle source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moore, Murray E.; Gauss, Adam Benjamin; Justus, Alan Lawrence

    2012-06-26

    A method and apparatus for providing a timed, synchronized dynamic alpha or beta particle source for testing the response of continuous air monitors (CAMs) for airborne alpha or beta emitters is provided. The method includes providing a radioactive source; placing the radioactive source inside the detection volume of a CAM; and introducing an alpha or beta-emitting isotope while the CAM is in a normal functioning mode.

  12. Zambia : long-term generation expansion study - executive summary.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Conzelmann, G.; Koritarov, V.; Buehring, W.; Veselka, T.; Decision and Information Sciences

    2008-02-28

    The objective of this study is to analyze possible long-term development options of the Zambian electric power system in the period up to 2015. The analysis involved the hydro operations studies of the Zambezi river basin and the systems planning studies for the least-cost generation expansion planning. Two well-known and widely accepted computer models were used in the analysis: PC-VALORAGUA model for the hydro operations and optimization studies and the WASP-III Plus model for the optimization of long-term system development. The WASP-III Plus model is a part of the Argonne National Laboratory's Energy and Power Evaluation Model (ENPEP). The analysis was conducted in close collaboration with the Zambia Electricity Supply Corporation (ZESCO). On the initiative from The World Bank, the sponsor of the study, ZESCO formed a team of experts that participated in the analysis and were trained in the use of computer models. Both models were transferred to ZESCO free of charge and installed on several computers in the ZESCO corporate offices in Lusaka. In September-October 1995, two members of the ZESCO National Team participated in a 4-week training course at Argonne National Laboratory near Chicago, U.S.A., focusing on the long-term system expansion planning using the WASP and VALORAGUA models. The hydropower operations studies were performed for the whole Zambezi river basin, including the full installation of the Kariba power station, and the Cahora Bassa hydro power station in Mozambique. The analysis also included possible future projects such as Itezhi-Tezhi, Kafue Gorge Lower, and Batoka Gorge power stations. As hydropower operations studies served to determine the operational characteristics of the existing and future hydro power plants, it was necessary to simulate the whole Zambezi river basin in order to take into account all interactions and mutual influences between the hydro power plants. In addition, it allowed for the optimization of reservoir management and optimization of hydro cascades, resulting in the better utilization of available hydro potential. Numerous analyses were performed for different stages of system development. These include system configurations that correspond to years 1997, 2001, 2015 and 2020. Additional simulations were performed in order to determine the operational parameters of the three existing hydro power stations Victoria Falls, Kariba, and Kafue Gorge Upper, that correspond to the situation before and after their rehabilitation. The rehabilitation works for these three major power stations, that would bring their operational parameters and availability back to the design level, are planned to be carried out in the period until 2000. The main results of the hydro operations studies are presented in Table ES-1. These results correspond to VALORAGUA simulations of system configurations in the years 2001 and 2015. The minimum, average, and maximum electricity generation is based on the simulation of monthly water inflows that correspond to the chronological series of unregulated water inflows at each hydro profile in the period from April 1961 to March 1990. The recommended hydrology dataset provided in the Hydrology Report of the SADC Energy Project AAA 3.8 was used for this study.

  13. Influence of Crystal Expansion/Contraction on Zeolite Membrane Permeation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sorenson, Stephanie G; Payzant, E Andrew; Noble, Richard D; Falconer, John L.

    2010-01-01

    X-ray diffraction was used to measure the unit cell parameters of B-ZSM-5, SAPO-34, and NaA zeolite powders as a function of adsorbate loading at 303 K, and in one case, at elevated temperatures. Most adsorbates expanded the zeolite crystals below saturation loading at 303 K: n-hexane and SF6 in B-ZSM-5, methanol and CO2 in SAPO-34, and methanol in NaA zeolite. As the loadings increased, the crystals expanded more. Changes in the unit cell volumes of B-ZSM-5 and SAPO-34 zeolite powders correlated with changes in permeation through zeolite membranes defects. When the zeolite crystals expanded or contracted upon adsorption, the defect sizes decreased or increased. In B-ZSM-5 membranes, the fluxes through defects decreased dramatically when n-hexane or SF6 adsorbed. In contrast, i-butane adsorption at 303 K contracted B-ZSM-5 crystals at low loadings and expanded them at higher loadings. Correspondingly, the flux through B-ZSM-5 membrane defects increased at low i-butane loadings and decreased at high loading because the defects increased in size at low loading and decreased at high loadings. At 398 K and 473 K, n-hexane expanded the B-ZSM-5 unit cell more as the temperature increased from 303 to 473 K. The silicalite-1 and B-ZSM-5 unit cell volumes expanded similarly upon n-hexane adsorption at 303 K; boron substitution had little effect on volume expansion.

  14. Scattering Dynamics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Scattering Dynamics - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced

  15. Chemical Dynamics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Dynamics - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced Nuclear Energy

  16. Representation of Solar Capacity Value in the ReEDS Capacity Expansion Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sigrin, B.; Sullivan, P.; Ibanez, E.; Margolis, R.

    2014-03-01

    An important issue for electricity system operators is the estimation of renewables' capacity contributions to reliably meeting system demand, or their capacity value. While the capacity value of thermal generation can be estimated easily, assessment of wind and solar requires a more nuanced approach due to the resource variability. Reliability-based methods, particularly assessment of the Effective Load-Carrying Capacity, are considered to be the most robust and widely-accepted techniques for addressing this resource variability. This report compares estimates of solar PV capacity value by the Regional Energy Deployment System (ReEDS) capacity expansion model against two sources. The first comparison is against values published by utilities or other entities for known electrical systems at existing solar penetration levels. The second comparison is against a time-series ELCC simulation tool for high renewable penetration scenarios in the Western Interconnection. Results from the ReEDS model are found to compare well with both comparisons, despite being resolved at a super-hourly temporal resolution. Two results are relevant for other capacity-based models that use a super-hourly resolution to model solar capacity value. First, solar capacity value should not be parameterized as a static value, but must decay with increasing penetration. This is because -- for an afternoon-peaking system -- as solar penetration increases, the system's peak net load shifts to later in the day -- when solar output is lower. Second, long-term planning models should determine system adequacy requirements in each time period in order to approximate LOLP calculations. Within the ReEDS model we resolve these issues by using a capacity value estimate that varies by time-slice. Within each time period the net load and shadow price on ReEDS's planning reserve constraint signals the relative importance of additional firm capacity.

  17. Testing the dynamics of B ->pi pi and constraints onalpha (Journal Article)

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    | SciTech Connect Testing the dynamics of B ->pi pi and constraints onalpha Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Testing the dynamics of B ->pi pi and constraints onalpha In charmless nonleptonic B decays to {pi}{pi} or {rho}{rho}, the ''color allowed'' and ''color suppressed'' tree amplitudes can be studied in a systematic expansion in {alpha}{sub s}(m{sub b}) and {Lambda}{sub QCD}/m{sub b}. At leading order in this expansion their relative strong phase vanishes. The

  18. Highly Anisotropic Thermal Expansion in Molecular Films of Dicarboxylic Fatty Acids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tamam L.; Ocko B.; Kraack, H.; Sloutskin, E.; Deutsch, M.

    2012-05-25

    Angstrom-resolution x-ray measurements reveal the existence of two-dimensional (2D) crystalline order in molecularly thin films of surface-parallel-oriented fatty diacid molecules supported on a liquid mercury surface. The thermal expansion coefficients along the two unit cell vectors are found to differ 17-fold. The high anisotropy of the 2D thermal expansion and the crystalline coherence length are traced to the different bonding in the two directions: van der Waals normal to, and covalent plus hydrogen bonding along the molecular backbone axis. Similarities with, and differences from, negative thermal expansion materials are discussed.

  19. Quantum field theory in the presence of a medium: Green's function expansions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kheirandish, Fardin; Salimi, Shahriar

    2011-12-15

    Starting from a Lagrangian and using functional-integration techniques, series expansions of Green's function of a real scalar field and electromagnetic field, in the presence of a medium, are obtained. The parameter of expansion in these series is the susceptibility function of the medium. Relativistic and nonrelativistic Langevin-type equations are derived. Series expansions for Lifshitz energy in finite temperature and for an arbitrary matter distribution are derived. Covariant formulations for both scalar and electromagnetic fields are introduced. Two illustrative examples are given.

  20. Matching the quark model to the 1/N{sub c} expansion (Journal Article) |

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    SciTech Connect Matching the quark model to the 1/N{sub c} expansion Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Matching the quark model to the 1/N{sub c} expansion We compute the coefficients of the effective mass operator of the 1/N{sub c} expansion for negative parity L = 1 excited baryons using the Isgur-Karl model in order to compare the general approach, where the coefficients are obtained by fitting to data, with a specific constituent quark model calculation. We discuss the physics

  1. Freeport LNG Expansion, L.P., FLNG Liquefaction, LLC, FLNG Liquefaction 2,

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    LLC and FLNG Liquefaction 3, LLC - 14-005-CIC | Department of Energy Freeport LNG Expansion, L.P., FLNG Liquefaction, LLC, FLNG Liquefaction 2, LLC and FLNG Liquefaction 3, LLC - 14-005-CIC Freeport LNG Expansion, L.P., FLNG Liquefaction, LLC, FLNG Liquefaction 2, LLC and FLNG Liquefaction 3, LLC - 14-005-CIC Application of Freeport LNG Expansion, L.P., FLNG Liquefaction, LLC, FLNG Liquefaction 2, LLC and FLNG Liquefaction 3, LLC to Transfer Control of Long-term Authorization to Export LNG

  2. SEMI-ANNUAL REPORTS - FREEPORT LNG EXPANSION L.P. & FLNG LIQUEFACTION, LLC

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    - FE DKT. 10-161-LNG - ORDER 3282 | Department of Energy - FREEPORT LNG EXPANSION L.P. & FLNG LIQUEFACTION, LLC - FE DKT. 10-161-LNG - ORDER 3282 SEMI-ANNUAL REPORTS - FREEPORT LNG EXPANSION L.P. & FLNG LIQUEFACTION, LLC - FE DKT. 10-161-LNG - ORDER 3282 PDF icon October 2013 PDF icon April 2014 PDF icon October 2014 PDF icon April 2015 PDF icon October 2015 More Documents & Publications SEMI-ANNUAL REPORTS FOR FREEPORT LNG EXPANSION L.P. & FLNG LIQUEFACTION, LLC - FE DKT.

  3. SEMI-ANNUAL REPORTS FOR FREEPORT LNG EXPANSION L.P. & FLNG LIQUEFACTION,

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    LLC - FE DKT. NO. 12-06-LNG - ORDER 3066 | Department of Energy EXPANSION L.P. & FLNG LIQUEFACTION, LLC - FE DKT. NO. 12-06-LNG - ORDER 3066 SEMI-ANNUAL REPORTS FOR FREEPORT LNG EXPANSION L.P. & FLNG LIQUEFACTION, LLC - FE DKT. NO. 12-06-LNG - ORDER 3066 PDF icon April 2013 PDF icon April 2014 PDF icon October 2014 PDF icon April 2015 PDF icon October 2015 More Documents & Publications SEMI-ANNUAL REPORTS FOR FREEPORT LNG EXPANSION, L.P. & FLNG LIQUEFACTION, LLC - FE DKT. NO.

  4. SEMI-ANNUAL REPORTS FOR FREEPORT LNG EXPANSION, L.P. & FLNG LIQUEFACTION,

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    LLC - FE DKT. NO. 11-161-LNG - ORDER 3357 | Department of Energy EXPANSION, L.P. & FLNG LIQUEFACTION, LLC - FE DKT. NO. 11-161-LNG - ORDER 3357 SEMI-ANNUAL REPORTS FOR FREEPORT LNG EXPANSION, L.P. & FLNG LIQUEFACTION, LLC - FE DKT. NO. 11-161-LNG - ORDER 3357 PDF icon April 2014 PDF icon October 2014 PDF icon April 2015 PDF icon October 2015 More Documents & Publications SEMI-ANNUAL REPORTS FOR FREEPORT LNG EXPANSION L.P. & FLNG LIQUEFACTION, LLC - FE DKT. NO. 12-06-LNG -

  5. Wave propagation in laminates using the nonhomogenized dynamic method of cells: An alternative to standard finite-difference hydrodynamic approaches

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clements, B.E.; Johnson, J.N.

    1997-09-01

    The nonhomogenized dynamic method of cells (NHDMOC) uses a truncated expansion for the particle displacement field; the expansion parameter is the local cell position vector. In the NHDMOC, specifying the cell structure is similar to specifying the spatial grid used in a finite-difference hydrodynamic calculation. The expansion coefficients for the particle displacement field are determined by the equation of motion, any relevant constitutive relations, plus continuity of traction and displacement at all cell boundaries. The authors derive and numerically solve the NHDMOC equations for the first, second, and third-order expansions, appropriate for modeling a plate-impact experiment. The performance of the NHDMOC is tested, at each order, for its ability to resolve a shock-wave front as it propagates through homogeneous and laminated targets. They find for both cases that the displacement field expansion converges rapidly: given the same cell widths, the first-order theory gives only a qualitative description of the propagating stress wave; the second-order theory performs much better; and the third-order theory gives small refinements over the second-order theory. The performance of the third-order NHDMOC is then compared to that of a standard finite-difference hydrodynamic calculation. The two methods differ in that the former uses a finite-difference solution to update the time dependence of the equations, whereas the hydrodynamic calculation uses finite-difference solutions for both the temporal and spatial variables. Both theories are used to model shock-wave propagation in stainless steel arising from high-velocity planar impact. To achieve the same high-quality resolution of the stress and particle velocity profiles, the NHDMOC consistently requires less fine spatial and temporal grids, and substantially less artificial viscosity to control unphysical high-frequency oscillations in the numerical solutions. Finally, the third-order NHDMOC theory is used to calculate the particle velocity for a shock-wave experiment involving an epoxy-graphite laminate. Constitutive relations suitable for the various materials are used. This includes linear and nonlinear elasticity, and when appropriate, viscoelasticity. The results agree well with the corresponding plate-impact experiment, and are compared to the second-order theory of Clements, Johnson, and Hixson.

  6. Predictive Dynamic Security Assessment through Advanced Computing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Zhenyu; Diao, Ruisheng; Jin, Shuangshuang; Chen, Yousu

    2014-11-30

    Abstract— Traditional dynamic security assessment is limited by several factors and thus falls short in providing real-time information to be predictive for power system operation. These factors include the steady-state assumption of current operating points, static transfer limits, and low computational speed. This addresses these factors and frames predictive dynamic security assessment. The primary objective of predictive dynamic security assessment is to enhance the functionality and computational process of dynamic security assessment through the use of high-speed phasor measurements and the application of advanced computing technologies for faster-than-real-time simulation. This paper presents algorithms, computing platforms, and simulation frameworks that constitute the predictive dynamic security assessment capability. Examples of phasor application and fast computation for dynamic security assessment are included to demonstrate the feasibility and speed enhancement for real-time applications.

  7. SEMI-ANNUAL REPORTS - FREEPORT LNG EXPANSION L.P. & FLNG LIQUEFACTION...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    More Documents & Publications SEMI-ANNUAL REPORTS FOR FREEPORT LNG EXPANSION L.P. & FLNG LIQUEFACTION, LLC - FE DKT. NO. 12-06-LNG - ORDER 3066 SEMI-ANNUAL REPORTS FOR FREEPORT LNG ...

  8. SEMI-ANNUAL REPORTS FOR FREEPORT LNG EXPANSION, L.P. & FLNG LIQUEFACTI...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    April 2015 PDF icon October 2015 More Documents & Publications SEMI-ANNUAL REPORTS FOR FREEPORT LNG EXPANSION L.P. & FLNG LIQUEFACTION, LLC - FE DKT. NO. 12-06-LNG - ORDER 3066

  9. Freeport LNG Expansion, L.P. and FLNG Liquefaction, LLC - FE...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    0-161-LNG Freeport LNG Expansion, L.P. and FLNG Liquefaction, LLC - FE Dkt. No. 10-161-LNG On May 17, 2013, the Office of Fossil Energy of the Department of Energy (DOEFE) issued ...

  10. Decay of theX(3872)into?cJand the operator product expansion...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Decay of theX(3872)intocJand the operator product expansion in effective field theory Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Decay of theX(3872)intocJand the operator...

  11. Pressurized heat treatment of glass-ceramic to control thermal expansion

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kramer, Daniel P. (Dayton, OH)

    1985-01-01

    A method of producing a glass-ceramic having a specified thermal expansion value is disclosed. The method includes the step of pressurizing the parent glass material to a predetermined pressure during heat treatment so that the glass-ceramic produced has a specified thermal expansion value. Preferably, the glass-ceramic material is isostatically pressed. A method for forming a strong glass-ceramic to metal seal is also disclosed in which the glass-ceramic is fabricated to have a thermal expansion value equal to that of the metal. The determination of the thermal expansion value of a parent glass material placed in a high-temperature environment is also used to determine the pressure in the environment.

  12. Alternative Fuel Infrastructure Expansion: Costs, Resources, Production Capacity, and Retail Availability for Low-Carbon Scenarios

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The petroleum-based transportation fuel system is complex and highly developed, in contrast to the nascent low-petroleum, low-carbon alternative fuel system. This report examines how expansion of the low-carbon transportation fuel infrastructure could contribute to deep reductions in petroleum use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions across the U.S. transportation sector. Three low-carbon scenarios, each using a different combination of low-carbon fuels, were developed to explore infrastructure expansion trends consistent with a study goal of reducing transportation sector GHG emissions to 80% less than 2005 levels by 2050.These scenarios were compared to a business-as-usual (BAU) scenario and were evaluated with respect to four criteria: fuel cost estimates, resource availability, fuel production capacity expansion, and retail infrastructure expansion.

  13. Incomplete Laplace integrals - uniform asymptotic expansion with application to the incomplete beta function

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Temme, N.M.

    1987-11-01

    The analytical approach of Temme (1983 and 1985), based on uniform asymptotic expansions, is extended to an additional class of incomplete Laplace integrals. The terminology is introduced; the construction of the formal series is explained; representations for the remainders are derived; the asymptotic nature of the expansions is explored; and error bounds are determined. Numerical results are presented for the case of the incomplete beta function. 14 references.

  14. Year-in-Review: 2011 Energy Infrastructure Events and Expansions (April

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2012) | Department of Energy 1 Energy Infrastructure Events and Expansions (April 2012) Year-in-Review: 2011 Energy Infrastructure Events and Expansions (April 2012) The 2011 Year-in-Review (YIR) provides a summary of significant energy disruptions and infrastructure changes that occurred in the United States throughout 2011. The focus is on the United States, but international events that impacted the United States are also reported. The 2011 YIR is based primarily on information reported

  15. Secretary Chu Celebrates Expansion of Lithium-Ion Battery Production in

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    North Carolina | Department of Energy Celebrates Expansion of Lithium-Ion Battery Production in North Carolina Secretary Chu Celebrates Expansion of Lithium-Ion Battery Production in North Carolina July 26, 2011 - 3:15pm Addthis Secretary Chu joins local officials and dignitaries for Celgard's ribbon-cutting. | Photo courtesy of Celgard Secretary Chu joins local officials and dignitaries for Celgard's ribbon-cutting. | Photo courtesy of Celgard Niketa Kumar Niketa Kumar Public Affairs

  16. Decay of the X ( 3872 ) into χ c J and the operator product expansion in

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    effective field theory (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Decay of the X ( 3872 ) into χ c J and the operator product expansion in effective field theory Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Decay of the X ( 3872 ) into χ c J and the operator product expansion in effective field theory Authors: Fleming, Sean ; Mehen, Thomas Publication Date: 2012-01-13 OSTI Identifier: 1098949 Type: Publisher's Accepted Manuscript Journal Name: Physical Review D Additional Journal Information:

  17. Application of the GBFP Method to Electron Partial-Wave Expansion Elastic

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Scattering Differential Cross Sections Within the Geant4 Toolkit. (Conference) | SciTech Connect Application of the GBFP Method to Electron Partial-Wave Expansion Elastic Scattering Differential Cross Sections Within the Geant4 Toolkit. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Application of the GBFP Method to Electron Partial-Wave Expansion Elastic Scattering Differential Cross Sections Within the Geant4 Toolkit. Abstract not provided. Authors: Franke, Brian C. ; Dixon, David A. ; Prinja,

  18. U.S.-Chinese Agreement Provides Path to Further Expansion of Nuclear Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    in China | Department of Energy -Chinese Agreement Provides Path to Further Expansion of Nuclear Energy in China U.S.-Chinese Agreement Provides Path to Further Expansion of Nuclear Energy in China December 16, 2006 - 9:46am Addthis BEIJING, CHINA - U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Secretary Samuel W. Bodman and Chinese Chairman of National Development and Reform Commission (NDRC) Ma Kai today signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) that will pave the way for Westinghouse Electric Company

  19. State Heating Oil and Propane Program Expansion of Propane Data Collection

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    State Heating Oil and Propane Program Expansion of Propane Data Collection Marcela Rourk April 14, 2014 | Washington, DC Key Topics Marcela Rourk, Washington, DC April 14, 2014 2 * Overview and history of State Heating Oil and Propane Program (SHOPP) * Expansion of propane data collection * What is expected of SEOs that participate? * Benefits of participation What is SHOPP? Marcela Rourk, Washington, DC April 14, 2014 3 * State Heating Oil and Propane Program (SHOPP) - cooperative data

  20. THE INTER-ERUPTION TIMESCALE OF CLASSICAL NOVAE FROM EXPANSION OF THE Z

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    CAMELOPARDALIS SHELL (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect THE INTER-ERUPTION TIMESCALE OF CLASSICAL NOVAE FROM EXPANSION OF THE Z CAMELOPARDALIS SHELL Citation Details In-Document Search Title: THE INTER-ERUPTION TIMESCALE OF CLASSICAL NOVAE FROM EXPANSION OF THE Z CAMELOPARDALIS SHELL The dwarf nova Z Camelopardalis is surrounded by the largest known classical nova shell. This shell demonstrates that at least some dwarf novae must have undergone classical nova eruptions in the past, and that

  1. The cool component and the dichotomy, lateral expansion, and axial rotation of solar X-ray jets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moore, Ronald L.; Sterling, Alphonse C.; Falconer, David A.; Robe, Dominic

    2013-06-01

    We present results from a study of 54 polar X-ray jets that were observed in coronal X-ray movies from the X-ray Telescope on Hinode and had simultaneous coverage in movies of the cooler transition region (T ? 10{sup 5} K) taken in the He II 304 band of the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) on Solar Dynamics Observatory. These dual observations verify the standard-jet/blowout-jet dichotomy of polar X-ray jets previously found primarily from XRT movies alone. In accord with models of blowout jets and standard jets, the AIA 304 movies show a cool (T ? 10{sup 5} K) component in nearly all blowout X-ray jets and in a small minority of standard X-ray jets, obvious lateral expansion in blowout X-ray jets but none in standard X-ray jets, and obvious axial rotation in both blowout X-ray jets and standard X-ray jets. In our sample, the number of turns of axial rotation in the cool-component standard X-ray jets is typical of that in the blowout X-ray jets, suggesting that the closed bipolar magnetic field in the jet base has substantial twist not only in all blowout X-ray jets but also in many standard X-ray jets. We point out that our results for the dichotomy, lateral expansion, and axial rotation of X-ray jets add credence to published speculation that type-II spicules are miniature analogs of X-ray jets, are generated by granule-size emerging bipoles, and thereby carry enough energy to power the corona and solar wind.

  2. Fairness and dynamic pricing: comments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hogan, William W.

    2010-07-15

    In ''The Ethics of Dynamic Pricing,'' Ahmad Faruqui lays out a case for improved efficiency in using dynamic prices for retail electricity tariffs and addresses various issues about the distributional effects of alternative pricing mechanisms. The principal contrast is between flat or nearly constant energy prices and time-varying prices that reflect more closely the marginal costs of energy and capacity. The related issues of fairness criteria, contracts, risk allocation, cost allocation, means testing, real-time pricing, and ethical policies of electricity market design also must be considered. (author)

  3. Altering the volumetric expansion ratio of a Lysholm helical screw expander

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dunbar, M.K.

    1984-01-01

    This is an analysis of the effects of the volumetric expansion ratio on the operation of a Lysholm helical screw expander. Extensive testing of the University of California Lysholm engine with a 5.3 volumetric expansion ratio was performed. In this experiment, the expansion ratio has been reduced from 5.3 to 4.0. Tests were performed at a variety of speeds and qualities for a 5.0 pressure ratio and at a variety of speeds and pressure ratios for 99 percent quality. It was predicted that decreasing the volumetric expansion ratio would decrease the leakage fraction and thereby increase efficiency. This occurred as predicted. Isentropic efficiency increased 20 percent for 50 percent quality steam and 16 percent for 33 percent quality steam, all for an inlet pressure of 120 psia and a speed of 9000 rpm. A maximum efficiency of 47.2 percent was reached at 33 percent quality, 9000 rpm and a pressure ratio of 5.0. It was noted that the leakage rate did not appear to be a function of expansion ratio, as had been expected. Using this fact the previous empirical models of the engine were extended to include volumetric expansion ratio as a variable parameter.

  4. Thermal Expansion Behavior of Cerro Prieto Sandstones and Other Sedimentary Rocks Under Stress

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Contreras, E.; Bermejo, F.

    1983-12-15

    This paper describes the experimental work and presents the results of a research program carried out to investigate the thermal expansion behavior of sedimentary rocks under high stress conditions. The aspects that were investigated include the effects of temperature, temperature cycling, and confining pressure. Furthermore, the validity of the usual assumption on thermal expansion isotropy was investigated. On the other hand, the matrix thermal expansion concept is analyzed and its physical meaning and aplications are discussed. The effect of temperature on porosity is also a subject investigated regarding experimental methods for its estimation and comparison of earlier results. The experiments carried out consisted basically of thermal strain versus temperature measurements on jacketed and unjacketed samples subjected to different confining pressures and covering the temperature range from 25 C to 280 C and the pressure range from 3.0 MPa to 34.4 MPa. A review of earlier work is included as a reference frame to discuss and compare the results of this work, as well as to emphasize the limited extent of the research on thermal expansion behavior of sedimentary rocks that had been accomplished. Results are presented by means of thermal strain versus temperature curves and tabular data of thermal expansion coefficients. Several important conclusions for laborarory and field applications are reached from each of the aspects investigated. The wide research scope of considerable amount of data reported may represent an important contribution to the knowledge of thermal expansion behavior of sedimentary rocks.

  5. TU-F-17A-07: Real-Time Personalized Margins

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rottmann, J; Berbeco, R

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To maximize normal tissue sparing for treatments requiring motion encompassing margins. Motion mitigation techniques including DMLC or couch tracking can freeze tumor motion within the treatment aperture potentially allowing for smaller treatment margins and thus better sparing of normal tissue. To enable for a safe application of this concept in the clinic we propose adapting margins dynamically in real-time during radiotherapy delivery based on personalized tumor localization confidence. To demonstrate technical feasibility we present a phantom study. Methods: We utilize a realistic anthropomorphic dynamic thorax phantom with a lung tumor model embedded close to the spine. The tumor, a 3D-printout of a patient's GTV, is moved 15mm peak-to-peak by diaphragm compression and monitored by continuous EPID imaging in real-time. Two treatment apertures are created for each beam, one representing ITV -based and the other GTV-based margin expansion. A soft tissue localization (STiL) algorithm utilizing the continuous EPID images is employed to freeze tumor motion within the treatment aperture by means of DMLC tracking. Depending on a tracking confidence measure (TCM), the treatment aperture is adjusted between the ITV and the GTV leaf. Results: We successfully demonstrate real-time personalized margin adjustment in a phantom study. We measured a system latency of about 250 ms which we compensated by utilizing a respiratory motion prediction algorithm (ridge regression). With prediction in place we observe tracking accuracies better than 1mm. For TCM=0 (as during startup) an ITV-based treatment aperture is chosen, for TCM=1 a GTV-based aperture and for 0time. Normal tissue sparing is maximized. The worst case scenario results in delivering a plan with standard margins used in the clinic today.

  6. DLFM library tools for large scale dynamic applications

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    DLFM library tools for large scale dynamic applications DLFM library tools for large scale dynamic applications Large scale Python and other dynamic applications may spend huge time at startup. The DLFM library, developed by Mike Davis at Cray, Inc., is a set of functions that can be incorporated into a dynamically-linked application to provide improved performance during the loading of dynamic libraries when running the application at large scale on Edison. To access this library, do module

  7. Parallel Implementation of Power System Dynamic Simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jin, Shuangshuang; Huang, Zhenyu; Diao, Ruisheng; Wu, Di; Chen, Yousu

    2013-07-21

    Dynamic simulation of power system transient stability is important for planning, monitoring, operation, and control of electrical power systems. However, modeling the system dynamics and network involves the computationally intensive time-domain solution of numerous differential and algebraic equations (DAE). This results in a transient stability implementation that may not maintain the real-time constraints of an online security assessment. This paper presents a parallel implementation of the dynamic simulation on a high-performance computing (HPC) platform using parallel simulation algorithms and computation architectures. It enables the simulation to run even faster than real time, enabling the look-ahead capability of upcoming stability problems in the power grid.

  8. Towards a nonequilibrium Green's function description of nuclear reactions: One-dimensional mean-field dynamics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rios, Arnau; Barker, Brent; Buchler, Mark; Danielewicz, Pawel

    2011-05-15

    Research Highlights: > Dynamics of central nuclear reactions. > Nonequilibrium Green's functions and Kadanoff-Baym formalism. > Adiabatic switching on of interactions. > Mean-field time evolution of nuclear slabs. > Off-diagonal spatial structure of a collision density matrix. - Abstract: Nonequilibrium Green's function methods allow for an intrinsically consistent description of the evolution of quantal many-body body systems, with inclusion of different types of correlations. In this paper, we focus on the practical developments needed to build a Green's function methodology for nuclear reactions. We start out by considering symmetric collisions of slabs in one dimension within the mean-field approximation. We concentrate on two issues of importance for actual reaction simulations. First, the preparation of the initial state within the same methodology as for the reaction dynamics is demonstrated by an adiabatic switching on of the mean-field interaction, which leads to the mean-field ground state. Second, the importance of the Green's function matrix-elements far away from the spatial diagonal is analyzed by a suitable suppression process that does not significantly affect the evolution of the elements close to the diagonal. The relative lack of importance of the far-away elements is tied to system expansion. We also examine the evolution of the Wigner function and verify quantitatively that erasing of the off-diagonal elements corresponds to averaging out of the momentum-space details in the Wigner function.

  9. Ultrashort laser ablation of bulk copper targets: Dynamics and size distribution of the generated nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tsakiris, N.; Gill-Comeau, M.; Lewis, L. J.; Anoop, K. K.; Ausanio, G.; Bruzzese, R.; Amoruso, S.

    2014-06-28

    We address the role of laser pulse fluence on expansion dynamics and size distribution of the nanoparticles produced by irradiating a metallic target with an ultrashort laser pulse in a vacuum, an issue for which contrasting indications are present in the literature. To this end, we have carried out a combined theoretical and experimental analysis of laser ablation of a bulk copper target with ?50 fs, 800?nm pulses, in an interval of laser fluencies going from few to several times the ablation threshold. On one side, molecular dynamics simulations, with two-temperature model, describe the decomposition of the material through the analysis of the evolution of thermodynamic trajectories in the material phase diagram, and allow estimating the size distribution of the generated nano-aggregates. On the other side, atomic force microscopy of less than one layer nanoparticles deposits on witness plates, and fast imaging of the nanoparticles broadband optical emission provide the corresponding experimental characterization. Both experimental and numerical findings agree on a size distribution characterized by a significant fraction (?90%) of small nanoparticles, and a residual part (?10%) spanning over a rather large size interval, evidencing a weak dependence of the nanoparticles sizes on the laser pulse fluence. Numerical and experimental findings show a good degree of consistency, thus suggesting that modeling can realistically support the search for experimental methods leading to an improved control over the generation of nanoparticles by ultrashort laser ablation.

  10. Sandia Energy - Chemical Dynamics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Chemical Dynamics Home Transportation Energy Predictive Simulation of Engines Combustion Chemistry Chemical Dynamics Chemical DynamicsAshley Otero2015-10-28T02:45:37+00:00...

  11. Dynamical systems probabilistic risk assessment.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Denman, Matthew R.; Ames, Arlo Leroy

    2014-03-01

    Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) is the primary tool used to risk-inform nuclear power regulatory and licensing activities. Risk-informed regulations are intended to reduce inherent conservatism in regulatory metrics (e.g., allowable operating conditions and technical specifications) which are built into the regulatory framework by quantifying both the total risk profile as well as the change in the risk profile caused by an event or action (e.g., in-service inspection procedures or power uprates). Dynamical Systems (DS) analysis has been used to understand unintended time-dependent feedbacks in both industrial and organizational settings. In dynamical systems analysis, feedback loops can be characterized and studied as a function of time to describe the changes to the reliability of plant Structures, Systems and Components (SSCs). While DS has been used in many subject areas, some even within the PRA community, it has not been applied toward creating long-time horizon, dynamic PRAs (with time scales ranging between days and decades depending upon the analysis). Understanding slowly developing dynamic effects, such as wear-out, on SSC reliabilities may be instrumental in ensuring a safely and reliably operating nuclear fleet. Improving the estimation of a plant's continuously changing risk profile will allow for more meaningful risk insights, greater stakeholder confidence in risk insights, and increased operational flexibility.

  12. Growth of Cosmic Structure: Probing Dark Energy Beyond Expansion

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Huterer, Dragan; Kirkby, David; Bean, Rachel; Connolly, Andrew; Dawson, Kyle; Dodelson, Scott; Evrard, August; Jain, Bhuvnesh; Jarvis, Michael; Linder, Eric; et al

    2014-03-15

    The quantity and quality of cosmic structure observations have greatly accelerated in recent years, and further leaps forward will be facilitated by imminent projects. These will enable us to map the evolution of dark and baryonic matter density fluctuations over cosmic history. The way that these fluctuations vary over space and time is sensitive to several pieces of fundamental physics: the primordial perturbations generated by GUT-scale physics; neutrino masses and interactions; the nature of dark matter and dark energy. We focus on the last of these here: the ways that combining probes of growth with those of the cosmic expansionmoresuch as distance-redshift relations will pin down the mechanism driving the acceleration of the Universe.less

  13. Cantera Aerosol Dynamics Simulator

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2004-09-01

    The Cantera Aerosol Dynamics Simulator (CADS) package is a general library for aerosol modeling to address aerosol general dynamics, including formation from gas phase reactions, surface chemistry (growth and oxidation), bulk particle chemistry, transport by Brownian diffusion, thermophoresis, and diffusiophoresis with linkage to DSMC studies, and thermal radiative transport. The library is based upon Cantera, a C++ Cal Tech code that handles gas phase species transport, reaction, and thermodynamics. The method uses a discontinuous galerkinmore » formulation for the condensation and coagulation operator that conserves particles, elements, and enthalpy up to round-off error. Both O-D and 1-D time dependent applications have been developed with the library. Multiple species in the solid phase are handled as well. The O-D application, called Tdcads (Time Dependent CADS) is distributed with the library. Tdcads can address both constant volume and constant pressure adiabatic homogeneous problems. An extensive set of sample problems for Tdcads is also provided.« less

  14. Expansion of decline curve parameters for tight gas sands with massive hydraulic fractures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schaefer, T.

    1995-12-31

    With the advances in modern hydrocarbon technology and expansion of geologic settings for development, it is necessary to make changes to the conventional wisdoms that accompany production technology. This paper discusses some possible changes that necessitate implementation as observed both empirically and analytically. Specifically it discusses the time at which a decline curve can be implemented for production forecasting, the need for a dual decline model, and the severity of the decline variable that may be used for this model. It is the point of this paper to prove that for fight gas sands with massive hydraulic fractures that it is not only feasible to use decline variables that are greater than the traditional limit of harmonic or 1.0, but that the decline curve may also be implemented in the transient flow period of the well and decline both hyperbolically and exponentially. These ideas were not only proven through field study, but were additionally modeled with a fracture flow simulator. In order to prove these points this paper first introduces the Red Fork Formation and the development of an initial field model curve for this formation. After the initial model was developed, questions arose as to its feasibility. These questions were first addressed with a literature survey and further comparisons were made to test the models accuracy using pressure decline analysis and a fracture flow simulator. All of these methods were used to justify the implementation of a decline exponent as high as 2.1 for a hyperbolic curve during the early transient flow period, and regressing this hyperbolic into an exponential decline in the pseudo-steady state period.

  15. The impact of plasma dynamics on the self-magnetic-pinch diode impedance

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Bennett, Nichelle; Crain, M. Dale; Droemer, Darryl W.; Gignac, Raymond E.; Molina, Isidro; Obregon, Robert; Smith, Chase C.; Wilkins, Frank L.; Welch, Dale Robert; Cordova, Steve; et al

    2015-03-20

    In this study, the self-magnetic-pinch diode is being developed as an intense electron beam source for pulsed-power-driven x-ray radiography. The basic operation of this diode has long been understood in the context of pinched diodes, including the dynamic effect that the diode impedance decreases during the pulse due to electrode plasma formation and expansion. Experiments being conducted at Sandia National Laboratories' RITS-6 accelerator are helping to characterize these plasmas using time-resolved and time-integrated camera systems in the x-ray and visible. These diagnostics are analyzed in conjunction with particle-in-cell simulations of anode plasma formation and evolution. The results confirm the long-standingmore » theory of critical-current operation with the addition of a time-dependent anode-cathode gap length. The results may suggest that anomalous impedance collapse is driven by increased plasma radial drift, leading to larger-than-average ion vr × Bθ acceleration into the gap.« less

  16. Communication: A combined periodic density functional and incremental wave-function-based approach for the dispersion-accounting time-resolved dynamics of {sup 4}He nanodroplets on surfaces: {sup 4}He/graphene

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lara-Castells, María Pilar de; Stoll, Hermann; Civalleri, Bartolomeo; Causà, Mauro; Voloshina, Elena; Mitrushchenkov, Alexander O.; Pi, Martí

    2014-10-21

    In this work we propose a general strategy to calculate accurate He–surface interaction potentials. It extends the dispersionless density functional approach recently developed by Pernal et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 263201 (2009)] to adsorbate-surface interactions by including periodic boundary conditions. We also introduce a scheme to parametrize the dispersion interaction by calculating two- and three-body dispersion terms at coupled cluster singles and doubles and perturbative triples (CCSD(T)) level via the method of increments [H. Stoll, J. Chem. Phys. 97, 8449 (1992)]. The performance of the composite approach is tested on {sup 4}He/graphene by determining the energies of the low-lying selective adsorption states, finding an excellent agreement with the best available theoretical data. Second, the capability of the approach to describe dispersionless correlation effects realistically is used to extract dispersion effects in time-dependent density functional simulations on the collision of {sup 4}He droplets with a single graphene sheet. It is found that dispersion effects play a key role in the fast spreading of the {sup 4}He nanodroplet, the evaporation-like process of helium atoms, and the formation of solid-like helium structures. These characteristics are expected to be quite general and highly relevant to explain experimental measurements with the newly developed helium droplet mediated deposition technique.

  17. Apparatus and method for measuring the expansion properties of a cement composition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Spangle, Lloyd B. (Claremore, OK)

    1983-01-01

    An apparatus is disclosed which is useful for measuring the expansion properties of semi-solid materials which expand to a solid phase, upon curing, such as cement compositions. The apparatus includes a sleeve, preferably cylindrical, which has a vertical slit on one side, to allow the sleeve to expand. Mounted on the outside of the sleeve are several sets of pins, consisting of two pins each. The two pins in each set are located on opposite sides of the slit. In the test procedure, the sleeve is filled with wet cement, which is then cured to a solid. As the cement cures it causes the sleeve to expand. The actual expansion of the sleeve represents an expansion factor for the cement. This factor is calculated by measuring the distance across the pins of each set, when the sleeve is empty, and again after the cured cement expands the sleeve.

  18. Dynamics of Block Copolymer Nanocomposites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mochrie, Simon G. J.

    2014-09-09

    A detailed study of the dynamics of cadmium sulfide nanoparticles suspended in polystyrene homopolymer matrices was carried out using X-ray photon correlation spectroscopy for temperatures between 120 and 180 C. For low molecular weight polystyrene homopolymers, the observed dynamics show a crossover from diffusive to hyper-diffusive behavior with decreasing temperatures. For higher molecular weight polystyrene, the nanoparticle dynamics appear hyper-diffusive at all temperatures studied. The relaxation time and characteristic velocity determined from the measured hyper-diffusive dynamics reveal that the activation energy and underlying forces determined are on the order of 2.14 10?19 J and 87 pN, respectively. We also carried out a detailed X-ray scattering study of the static and dynamic behavior of a styrene isoprene diblock copolymer melt with a styrene volume fraction of 0.3468. At 115 and 120 C, we observe splitting of the principal Bragg peak, which we attribute to phase coexistence of hexagonal cylindrical and cubic double- gyroid structure. In the disordered phase, above 130 C, we have characterized the dynamics of composition fluctuations via X-ray photon correlation spectroscopy. Near the peak of the static structure factor, these fluctuations show stretched-exponential relaxations, characterized by a stretching exponent of about 0.36 for a range of temperatures immediately above the MST. The corresponding characteristic relaxation times vary exponentially with temperature, changing by a factor of 2 for each 2 C change in temperature. At low wavevectors, the measured relaxations are diffusive with relaxation times that change by a factor of 2 for each 8 C change in temperature.

  19. On eigenfunction expansion solutions for the start-up of fluid flow

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Conference) | SciTech Connect On eigenfunction expansion solutions for the start-up of fluid flow Citation Details In-Document Search Title: On eigenfunction expansion solutions for the start-up of fluid flow Authors: Christov, Ivan C. [1] + Show Author Affiliations Los Alamos National Laboratory [Los Alamos National Laboratory Publication Date: 2014-04-10 OSTI Identifier: 1127476 Report Number(s): LA-UR-14-22249 DOE Contract Number: AC52-06NA25396 Resource Type: Conference Resource

  20. Evidence of Abrupt Lattice Expansion in delta-Plutonium due to

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Self-Irradiation during the Aging Process (Conference) | SciTech Connect Conference: Evidence of Abrupt Lattice Expansion in delta-Plutonium due to Self-Irradiation during the Aging Process Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Evidence of Abrupt Lattice Expansion in delta-Plutonium due to Self-Irradiation during the Aging Process Authors: Saw, C K ; Wall, M A ; Chung, B W Publication Date: 2010-06-14 OSTI Identifier: 1158884 Report Number(s): LLNL-CONF-435984 DOE Contract Number:

  1. Thermal Expansion of the Orthorhombic Phase in the Ln[subscript

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    2]TiO[subscript 5] System (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Journal Article: Thermal Expansion of the Orthorhombic Phase in the Ln[subscript 2]TiO[subscript 5] System Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Thermal Expansion of the Orthorhombic Phase in the Ln[subscript 2]TiO[subscript 5] System Authors: Seymour, Kevin C. ; Hughes, Robert W. ; Kriven, Waltraud M. [1] + Show Author Affiliations (UIUC) Publication Date: 2015-12-10 OSTI Identifier: 1229897 Resource Type: Journal Article

  2. Thermal expansion of multiwall carbon nanotube reinforced nanocrystalline silver matrix composite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sharma, Manjula Sharma, Vimal; Pal, Hemant

    2014-04-24

    Multiwall carbon nanotube reinforced silver matrix composite was fabricated by novel molecular level mixing method, which involves nucleation of Ag ions inside carbon nanotube dispersion at the molecular level. As a result the carbon nanotubes get embedded within the powder rather than on the surfaces. Micro structural characterization by X- ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy reveals that the nanotubes are homogeneously dispersed and anchored within the matrix. The thermal expansion of the composite with the multiwall nanotube content (0, 1.5 vol%) were investigated and it is found that coefficient of thermal expansion decreases with the addition of multiwall nanotube content and reduce to about 63% to that of pure Ag.

  3. Statement from Energy Secretary Samuel W. Bodman on the Expansion of the

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Strategic Petroleum Reserve to 1.5 Billion | Department of Energy the Expansion of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve to 1.5 Billion Statement from Energy Secretary Samuel W. Bodman on the Expansion of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve to 1.5 Billion January 23, 2007 - 10:15am Addthis "Later today President Bush will announce his plan to double our nation's Strategic Petroleum Reserve to 1.5 billion barrels. I believe that expanding the Strategic Petroleum Reserve is a wise and prudent

  4. Uncertainty analyses of CO2 plume expansion subsequent to wellbore CO2

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    leakage into aquifers (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect analyses of CO2 plume expansion subsequent to wellbore CO2 leakage into aquifers Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Uncertainty analyses of CO2 plume expansion subsequent to wellbore CO2 leakage into aquifers In this study, we apply an uncertainty quantification (UQ) framework to CO2 sequestration problems. In one scenario, we look at the risk of wellbore leakage of CO2 into a shallow unconfined aquifer in an urban area; in

  5. Freeport LNG Expansion, L.P. and FLNG Liquefaction, LLC - FE Dkt. No.

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    10-161-LNG | Department of Energy 0-161-LNG Freeport LNG Expansion, L.P. and FLNG Liquefaction, LLC - FE Dkt. No. 10-161-LNG On May 17, 2013, the Office of Fossil Energy of the Department of Energy (DOE/FE) issued Order No. 3282 (FLEX I Conditional Order) to Freeport LNG Expansion, L.P. and FLNG Liquefaction, LLC, pursuant to section 3(a) of the Natural Gas Act (NGA). As discussed in the below PDF, DOE/FE subsequently amended Order No. 3282 to add FLNG Liquefaction 2, LLC and FLNG

  6. Freeport LNG Expansion, L.P. and FLNG Liquefaction, LLC - FE Dkt. No.

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    11-161-LNG | Department of Energy 1-161-LNG Freeport LNG Expansion, L.P. and FLNG Liquefaction, LLC - FE Dkt. No. 11-161-LNG On November 15, 2013, the Office of Fossil Energy of the Department of Energy (DOE/FE) issued Order No. 3357 (FLEX II Conditional Order) to Freeport LNG Expansion, L.P., FLNG Liquefaction, LLC, FLNG Liquefaction 2, LLC, and FLNG Liquefaction 3, LLC (collectively, FLEX) pursuant to section 3(a) of the Natural Gas Act (NGA). As discussed in the PDF below, DOE/FE

  7. Final Report: AST-0613577 "Experimental study of magnetic bubble expansion as a model for extragalactic radio lobes"

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lynn, Alan

    2011-02-18

    Final report for project "Experimental study of magnetic bubble expansion as a model for extragalactic radio lobes" supported by NSF/DOE Joint Program in Basic Plasma Science.

  8. X-ray Diffuse Scattering Measurements of Nucleation Dynamics...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    X-ray Diffuse Scattering Measurements of Nucleation Dynamics at Femtosecond Resolution Real-time measurement and control of the non-equilibrium properties of materials represents ...

  9. Effects of structure formation on the expansion rate of the Universe: An estimate from numerical simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhao Xinghai; Mathews, Grant J.

    2011-01-15

    General relativistic corrections to the expansion rate of the Universe arise when the Einstein equations are averaged over a spatial volume in a locally inhomogeneous cosmology. It has been suggested that they may contribute to the observed cosmic acceleration. In this paper, we propose a new scheme that utilizes numerical simulations to make a realistic estimate of the magnitude of these corrections for general inhomogeneities in (3+1) spacetime. We then quantitatively calculate the volume averaged expansion rate using N-body large-scale structure simulations and compare it with the expansion rate in a standard FRW cosmology. We find that in the weak gravitational field limit, the converged corrections are slightly larger than the previous claimed 10{sup -5} level, but not large enough nor even of the correct sign to drive the current cosmic acceleration. Nevertheless, the question of whether the cumulative effect can significantly change the expansion history of the Universe needs to be further investigated with strong-field relativity.

  10. Year-in-Review: 2013 Energy Infrastructure Events and Expansions (May 2014)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Year-in-Review (YIR): 2013 Energy Infrastructure Events and Expansions report provides a summary of significant energy disruptions and infrastructure changes that occurred in the United States throughout 2013. The 2013 YIR is based primarily on information reported in the Energy Assurance Daily (EAD) between January 1, 2013 and December 31, 2013.

  11. Year-in-Review: 2014 Energy Infrastructure Events and Expansions Report Now Available (May 2015)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability has released the Year-in-Review: 2014 Energy Infrastructure Events and Expansions. This publication provides a summary of significant energy disruptions and infrastructure changes that occurred in the United States throughout 2014.

  12. Capturing Dynamics in the Power Grid: Formulation of Dynamic State Estimation through Data Assimilation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, Ning; Huang, Zhenyu; Meng, Da; Elbert, Stephen T.; Wang, Shaobu; Diao, Ruisheng

    2014-03-31

    With the increasing complexity resulting from uncertainties and stochastic variations introduced by intermittent renewable energy sources, responsive loads, mobile consumption of plug-in vehicles, and new market designs, more and more dynamic behaviors are observed in everyday power system operation. To operate a power system efficiently and reliably, it is critical to adopt a dynamic paradigm so that effective control actions can be taken in time. The dynamic paradigm needs to include three fundamental components: dynamic state estimation; look-ahead dynamic simulation; and dynamic contingency analysis (Figure 1). These three components answer three basic questions: where the system is; where the system is going; and how secure the system is against accidents. The dynamic state estimation provides a solid cornerstone to support the other 2 components and is the focus of this study.

  13. Computational Fluid Dynamics Library

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2005-03-04

    CFDLib05 is the Los Alamos Computational Fluid Dynamics LIBrary. This is a collection of hydrocodes using a common data structure and a common numerical method, for problems ranging from single-field, incompressible flow, to multi-species, multi-field, compressible flow. The data structure is multi-block, with a so-called structured grid in each block. The numerical method is a Finite-Volume scheme employing a state vector that is fully cell-centered. This means that the integral form of the conservation lawsmore » is solved on the physical domain that is represented by a mesh of control volumes. The typical control volume is an arbitrary quadrilateral in 2D and an arbitrary hexahedron in 3D. The Finite-Volume scheme is for time-unsteady flow and remains well coupled by means of time and space centered fluxes; if a steady state solution is required, the problem is integrated forward in time until the user is satisfied that the state is stationary.« less

  14. Using System Dynamics to Define, Study, and Implement Smart Control Strategies on the Electric Power Grid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lyle G. Roybal; Robert F Jeffers

    2013-07-01

    The United States electric power grid is the most complex and expansive control system in the world. Local generation control occurs at individual units based on response time and unit economics, larger regional control coordinates unit response to error conditions, and high level large-area regional control is ultimately administered by a network of humans guided by economic and resiliency related factors. Under normal operating conditions, the grid is a relatively slow moving entity that exhibits high inertia to outside stimuli, and behaves along repeatable diurnal and seasonal patterns. However, that paradigm is quickly changing because of the increasing implementation of renewable generation sources. Renewable generators by nature cannot be tightly controlled or scheduled. They appear like a negative load to the system with all of the variability associated with load on a larger scale. Also, grid-reactive loads (i.e. smart devices) can alter their consumption based on price or demand rules adding more variability to system behavior. This paper demonstrates how a systems dynamic modeling approach capable of operating over multiple time scales, can provide valuable insight into developing new “smart-grid” control strategies and devices needed to accommodate renewable generation and regulate the frequency of the grid.

  15. Anisotropic Margin Expansions in 6 Anatomic Directions for Oropharyngeal Image Guided Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yock, Adam D. [Department of Radiation Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston, Texas (United States); Garden, Adam S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Court, Laurence E. [Department of Radiation Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston, Texas (United States); Beadle, Beth M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Zhang, Lifei [Department of Radiation Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Dong, Lei, E-mail: dong.lei@scrippshealth.org [Department of Radiation Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston, Texas (United States)

    2013-11-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this work was to determine the expansions in 6 anatomic directions that produced optimal margins considering nonrigid setup errors and tissue deformation for patients receiving image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT) of the oropharynx. Methods and Materials: For 20 patients who had received IGRT to the head and neck, we deformably registered each patient's daily images acquired with a computed tomography (CT)-on-rails system to his or her planning CT. By use of the resulting vector fields, the positions of volume elements within the clinical target volume (CTV) (target voxels) or within a 1-cm shell surrounding the CTV (normal tissue voxels) on the planning CT were identified on each daily CT. We generated a total of 15,625 margins by dilating the CTV by 1, 2, 3, 4, or 5 mm in the posterior, anterior, lateral, medial, inferior, and superior directions. The optimal margins were those that minimized the relative volume of normal tissue voxels positioned within the margin while satisfying 1 of 4 geometric target coverage criteria and 1 of 3 population criteria. Results: Each pair of geometric target coverage and population criteria resulted in a unique, anisotropic, optimal margin. The optimal margin expansions ranged in magnitude from 1 to 5 mm depending on the anatomic direction of the expansion and on the geometric target coverage and population criteria. Typically, the expansions were largest in the medial direction, were smallest in the lateral direction, and increased with the demand of the criteria. The anisotropic margin resulting from the optimal set of expansions always included less normal tissue than did any isotropic margin that satisfied the same pair of criteria. Conclusions: We demonstrated the potential of anisotropic margins to reduce normal tissue exposure without compromising target coverage in IGRT to the head and neck.

  16. Ionization of large homogeneous and heterogeneous clusters generated in acetylene-Ar expansions: Cluster ion polymerization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kocisek, J.; Lengyel, J.; Farnik, M.

    2013-03-28

    Pure acetylene and mixed Ar-acetylene clusters are formed in supersonic expansions of acetylene/argon mixtures and analysed using reflectron time-of-flight mass spectrometer with variable electron energy ionization source. Acetylene clusters composed of more than a hundred acetylene molecules are generated at the acetylene concentration of Almost-Equal-To 8%, while mixed species are produced at low concentrations ( Almost-Equal-To 0.7%). The electron energy dependence of the mass spectra revealed the ionization process mechanisms in clusters. The ionization above the threshold for acetylene molecule of 11.5 eV results in the main ionic fragment progression (C{sub 2}H{sub 2}){sub n}{sup +}. At the electron energies Greater-Than-Or-Slanted-Equal-To 21.5 eV above the CH+CH{sup +} dissociative ionization limit of acetylene the fragment ions nominally labelled as (C{sub 2}H{sub 2}){sub n}CH{sup +}, n Greater-Than-Or-Slanted-Equal-To 2, are observed. For n Less-Than-Or-Slanted-Equal-To 7 these fragments correspond to covalently bound ionic structures as suggested by the observed strong dehydrogenation [(C{sub 2}H{sub 2}){sub n}-k Multiplication-Sign H]{sup +} and [(C{sub 2}H{sub 2}){sub n}CH -k Multiplication-Sign H]{sup +}. The dehydrogenation is significantly reduced in the mixed clusters where evaporation of Ar instead of hydrogen can stabilize the nascent molecular ion. The C{sub 3}H{sub 3}{sup +} ion was previously assigned to originate from the benzene molecular ion; however, the low appearance energy of Almost-Equal-To 13.7 eV indicates that a less rigid covalently bound structure of C{sub 6}H{sub 6}{sup +} ion must also be formed upon the acetylene cluster electron ionization. The appearance energy of Ar{sub n}(C{sub 2}H{sub 2}){sup +} fragments above Almost-Equal-To 15.1 eV indicates that the argon ionization is the first step in the fragment ion production, and the appearance energy of Ar{sub n{>=}2}(C{sub 2}H{sub 2}){sub m{>=}2}{sup +} at Almost-Equal-To 13.7 eV is discussed in terms of an exciton transfer mechanism.

  17. Correlated electron dynamics with time-dependent quantum Monte...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Resource Relation: Journal Name: Journal of Chemical Physics; Journal Volume: 135; Journal Issue: 4; Other Information: (c) 2011 American Institute of Physics; Country of input: ...

  18. Hybrid function projective synchronization in complex dynamical networks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wei, Qiang; Wang, Xing-yuan, E-mail: wangxy@dlut.edu.cn; Hu, Xiao-peng [Faculty of Electronic Information and Electrical Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian, 116024 (China)] [Faculty of Electronic Information and Electrical Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian, 116024 (China)

    2014-02-15

    This paper investigates hybrid function projective synchronization in complex dynamical networks. When the complex dynamical networks could be synchronized up to an equilibrium or periodic orbit, a hybrid feedback controller is designed to realize the different component of vector of node could be synchronized up to different desired scaling function in complex dynamical networks with time delay. Hybrid function projective synchronization (HFPS) in complex dynamical networks with constant delay and HFPS in complex dynamical networks with time-varying coupling delay are researched, respectively. Finally, the numerical simulations show the effectiveness of theoretical analysis.

  19. Pipeline Expansions

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    1999-01-01

    This appendix examines the nature and type of proposed pipeline projects announced or approved for construction during the next several years in the United States. It also includes those projects in Canada and Mexico that tie-in with the U.S. markets or projects.

  20. Spectroscopy, Kinetics, and Dynamics of Combustion Radicals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nesbitt, David J.

    2013-08-06

    Spectroscopy, kinetics and dynamics of jet cooled hydrocarbon transients relevant to the DOE combustion mission have been explored, exploiting i) high resolution IR lasers, ii) slit discharge sources for formation of jet cooled radicals, and iii) high sensitivity detection with direct laser absorption methods and near the quantum shot noise limit. What makes this combination powerful is that such transients can be made under high concentrations and pressures characteristic of actual combustion conditions, and yet with the resulting species rapidly cooled (T ?10-15K) in the slit supersonic expansion. Combined with the power of IR laser absorption methods, this provides novel access to spectral detection and study of many critical combustion species.

  1. Experimental signatures of phase interference and subfemtosecond time

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    dynamics on the incident energy axis of resonant inelastic x-ray scattering (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Experimental signatures of phase interference and subfemtosecond time dynamics on the incident energy axis of resonant inelastic x-ray scattering Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Experimental signatures of phase interference and subfemtosecond time dynamics on the incident energy axis of resonant inelastic x-ray scattering Authors: Wray, L. Andrew ; Huang, Shih-Wen ; Xia,

  2. Shared and Dynamic Libraries

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    flag instructs the compiler wrappers (i.e., ftn, cc, CC) to prepare a dynamically linked executable. edison01% ftn -dynamic -o dynexample.x dynexample.f90 There used to be...

  3. Shared and Dynamic Libraries

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Shared and Dynamic Libraries Shared and Dynamic Libraries The Hopper system can support applications that use dynamic shared libraries (DSL) on the compute nodes. Some "out-of-the-box" applications require DSLs and some popular applications like Python use DSLs as well. Using System Shared and Dynamic Libraries "System" DSLs include those that support software packages found in "typical" Linux distributions, e.g. Python and Perl. To build an application that will

  4. TIME-RESOLVED VIBRATIONAL SPECTROSCOPY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andrei Tokmakoff, MIT; Paul Champion, Northeastern University; Edwin J. Heilweil, NIST; Keith A. Nelson, MIT; Larry Ziegler, Boston University

    2009-05-14

    This document contains the Proceedings from the 14th International Conference on Time-Resolved Vibrational Spectroscopy, which was held in Meredith, NH from May 9-14, 2009. The study of molecular dynamics in chemical reaction and biological processes using time-resolved spectroscopy plays an important role in our understanding of energy conversion, storage, and utilization problems. Fundamental studies of chemical reactivity, molecular rearrangements, and charge transport are broadly supported by the DOE’s Office of Science because of their role in the development of alternative energy sources, the understanding of biological energy conversion processes, the efficient utilization of existing energy resources, and the mitigation of reactive intermediates in radiation chemistry. In addition, time-resolved spectroscopy is central to all five of DOE’s grand challenges for fundamental energy science. The Time-Resolved Vibrational Spectroscopy conference is organized biennially to bring the leaders in this field from around the globe together with young scientists to discuss the most recent scientific and technological advances. The latest technology in ultrafast infrared, Raman, and terahertz spectroscopy and the scientific advances that these methods enable were covered. Particular emphasis was placed on new experimental methods used to probe molecular dynamics in liquids, solids, interfaces, nanostructured materials, and biomolecules.

  5. UGE Scheduler Cycle Time

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    UGE Scheduler Cycle Time UGE Scheduler Cycle Time Genepool Cycle Time Genepool Daily Genepool Weekly Phoebe Cycle Time Phoebe Daily Phoebe Weekly What is the Scheduler Cycle? The...

  6. Chemical expansion affected oxygen vacancy stability in different oxide structures from first principles calculations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aidhy, Dilpuneet S.; Liu, Bin; Zhang, Yanwen; Weber, William J.

    2015-03-01

    We study the chemical expansion for neutral and charged oxygen vacancies in fluorite, rocksalt, perovskite and pyrochlores materials using first principles calculations. We show that the neutral oxygen vacancy leads to lattice expansion whereas the charged vacancy leads to lattice contraction. In addition, we show that there is a window of strain within which an oxygen vacancy is stable; beyond that range, the vacancy can become unstable. Using CeO2|ZrO2 interface structure as an example, we show that the concentration of oxygen vacancies can be manipulated via strain, and the vacancies can be preferentially stabilized. These results could serve as guiding principles in predicting oxygen vacancy stability in strained systems and in the design of vacancy stabilized materials.

  7. The effect of 150?m expandable graphite on char expansion of intumescent fire retardant coating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ullah, Sami Shariff, A. M. E-mail: azmibustam@petronas.com.my; Bustam, M. A. E-mail: azmibustam@petronas.com.my; Ahmad, Faiz

    2014-10-24

    Intumescent is defined as the swelling of certain substances to insulate the underlying substrate when they are heated. In this research work the effect of 150?m expandable graphite (EG) was studied on char expansion, char morphology and char composition of intumescent coating formulations (ICFs). To study the expansion and thermal properties of the coating, nine different formulations were prepared. The coatings were tested at 500 C for one hour and physically were found very stable and well bound with the steel substrate. The morphology was studied by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The char composition was analysed by X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) techniques. EG above than 10.8wt% expands the char abruptly with uniform network structure and affect the outer surface of the char.

  8. Representation of the Solar Capacity Value in the ReEDS Capacity Expansion Model: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sigrin, B.; Sullivan, P.; Ibanez, E.; Margolis, R.

    2014-08-01

    An important emerging issue is the estimation of renewables' contributions to reliably meeting system demand, or their capacity value. While the capacity value of thermal generation can be estimated easily, assessment of wind and solar requires a more nuanced approach due to resource variability. Reliability-based methods, particularly, effective load-carrying capacity (ELCC), are considered to be the most robust techniques for addressing this resource variability. The Regional Energy Deployment System (ReEDS) capacity expansion model and other long-term electricity capacity planning models require an approach to estimating CV for generalized PV and system configurations with low computational and data requirements. In this paper we validate treatment of solar photovoltaic (PV) capacity value by ReEDS capacity expansion model by comparing model results to literature for a range of energy penetration levels. Results from the ReEDS model are found to compare well with both comparisons--despite not being resolved at an hourly scale.

  9. Thermal barrier characteristics of partially stabilized zirconia coatings on INCOLOY alloy 909; A controlled expansion alloy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, G.D. )

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on INCOLOY{sup 1} alloy 909 which is a low-expansion alloy used in critical seal and shaft applications within the gas turbine engine. However, because of its poor oxidation resistance at elevated temperatures, the maximum service temperature is limited. Since its coefficient of expansion is similar to that of partially stabilized zirconia for temperatures to 1200{degrees}F (649{degrees}C), it has been proposed to use this metal-ceramic combination for dimensionally critical, air-cooled jet engine components. This coating system should extend temperature limitations by reducing metal temperatures and providing oxidation resistance. The performance advantage offered by a thermal barrier coating has been investigated at temperatures up to 2000{degrees}F (1093{degrees}C) and the results are presented in this paper. Metal temperatures and heat flow rates of coated and bare specimens are compared for two air-cooling flow rates.

  10. Capricious Cables: Understanding the Key Concepts in Transmission Expansion Planning and Its Models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Donohoo, P.; Milligan, M.

    2014-06-01

    The extra-high-voltage transmission network is the bulk transport network of the electric power system. To understand how the future power system may react to planning decisions today, wide-area transmission models are increasingly used to aid decision makers and stakeholders. The goal of this work is to illuminate these models for a broader audience that may include policy makers or relative newcomers to the field of transmission planning. This paper explains the basic transmission expansion planning model formulation. It highlights six of the major simplifications made in transmission expansion planning models and the resulting need to contextualize model results using knowledge from other models and knowledge not captured in the modeling process.

  11. Time Reversal of Bose-Einstein Condensates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martin, J.; Georgeot, B.; Shepelyansky, D. L. [Laboratoire de Physique Theorique, Universite de Toulouse III, CNRS, 31062 Toulouse (France)

    2008-08-15

    Using Gross-Pitaevskii equation, we study the time reversibility of Bose-Einstein condensates (BEC) in kicked optical lattices, showing that in the regime of quantum chaos, the dynamics can be inverted from explosion to collapse. The accuracy of time reversal decreases with the increase of atom interactions in BEC, until it is completely lost. Surprisingly, quantum chaos helps to restore time reversibility. These predictions can be tested with existing experimental setups.

  12. History-dependent thermal expansion in NbO{sub 2}F

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilkinson, Angus P.; Josefsberg, Ryan E.; Gallington, Leighanne C.; Morelock, Cody R.; Monaco, Christopher M.

    2014-05-01

    Materials with cubic ReO{sub 3}-type structures are of interest for their low or negative thermal expansion characteristics. TaO{sub 2}F is known to display almost zero thermal expansion over a wide temperature range. On heating NbO{sub 2}F, its volume coefficient of thermal expansion decreases from ?+45 ppm K{sup ?1} at 100 K to almost zero at 400 K. NbO{sub 2}F is cubic between 100 and 500 K. Samples of NbO{sub 2}F prepared by the digestion of Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} in aqueous HF followed by mild drying contain hydroxyl defects and metal vacancies. On heating, they can undergo irreversible chemical changes while maintaining a cubic ReO{sub 3}-type structure. The possibility of hydroxyl defect incorporation should be considered when preparing oxyfluorides for evaluation as battery materials. - Graphical abstract: NbO{sub 2}F prepared by the digestion of Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} in HF contains cation vacancies and hydroxyl groups. It undergoes irreversible changes on heating to low temperatures, unlike NbO{sub 2}F prepared by the solid state reaction of Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} and NbF{sub 5}. - Highlights: The digestion of Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} in aqueous HF followed by mild drying does not produce NbO{sub 2}F. The ReO{sub 3}-type product from the HF digestion of Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} contains metal vacancies and hydroxyl. The thermal expansion coefficient of NbO{sub 2}F decreases on heating and approaches zero at ?400 K.

  13. Load Expansion with Diesel/Gasoline RCCI for Improved Engine Efficiency and

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Emissions | Department of Energy with Diesel/Gasoline RCCI for Improved Engine Efficiency and Emissions Load Expansion with Diesel/Gasoline RCCI for Improved Engine Efficiency and Emissions This poster will describe preliminary emission results of gasoline/diesel RCCI in a medium-duty diesel engine. PDF icon p-13_jacobs.pdf More Documents & Publications Overview of the Advanced Combustion Engine R&D The Opposed-Piston Two-Stroke Engine Alternative: Performance and Emissions Results

  14. An asymptotic expansion of the solution of amatrix difference equation of general form

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sgibnev, M S

    2014-12-31

    An asymptotic expansion of the solution of an inhomogeneous matrix difference equation of general form is obtained. The case when there is no bound on the differences of the arguments is considered. The effect of the roots of the characteristic equation is taken into account. An integral estimate with asubmultiplicative weight is established for the remainder in terms of the submultiplicative moment of the free term of the equation. Bibliography: 14 titles.

  15. Hydrogen Infrastructure Expansion: Consumer Demand and Cost-Reduction Potential (Presentation), NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Infrastructure Expansion: Consumer Demand and Cost-Reduction Potential Hydrogen Infrastructure Investment Forum- Palo Alto, California Dr. Marc Melaina Senior Engineer April 16, 2014 NREL/PR-5400-61966 2 Presentation Overview * How much do consumers value hydrogen station availability? * How much will station costs decline with volume? * What kind of market growth is needed to ensure station cost reductions (and adequate return on investment, or ROI)? How much do consumers value hydrogen station

  16. FINDING OF NO SIGNIFICANT IMPACT FOR SABINE PASS LIQUEFACTION EXPANSION PROJECT REGARDING

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    FINDING OF NO SIGNIFICANT IMPACT FOR SABINE PASS LIQUEFACTION EXPANSION PROJECT REGARDING SABINE PASS LIQUEFACTION, LLC, APPLICATIONS SEEKING DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY AUTHORIZATION TO EXPORT LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS FROM SABINE PASS LNG TERMINAL TO NON-FREE TRADE AGREEMENT NATIONS AGENCY: U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Fossil Energy ACTION: Finding of No Significant Impact SUMMARY: Pursuant to section 1501.6 of the regulations of the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ), 40 CFR 1501.6, the U.S.

  17. Year-in-Review: 2012 Energy Infrastructure Events and Expansions Now

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Available (July 2013) | Department of Energy 2 Energy Infrastructure Events and Expansions. This publication provides a summary of significant energy disruptions and infrastructure changes that occurred in the United States throughout 2012. The focus is on the United States, but international events that impacted the United States are also reported. The 2012 YIR is based primarily on information reported in the Energy Assurance Daily (EAD) between January 1, 2012 and December 31, 2012. The

  18. Year-in-Review: 2013 Energy Infrastructure Events and Expansions Now

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Available (May 2014) | Department of Energy 3 Energy Infrastructure Events and Expansions. This publication provides a summary of significant energy disruptions and infrastructure changes that occurred in the United States throughout 2013. The focus is on the United States, but international events that impacted the United States are also reported. The 2013 YIR is based primarily on information reported in the Energy Assurance Daily (EAD) between January 1, 2013 and December 31, 2013. The

  19. Impact of Sequential Ammonia Fiber Expansion (AFEX) Pretreatment and Pelletization on the Moisture Sorption Properties of Corn Stover

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bonner, Ian J.; Thompson, David N.; Teymouri, Farzaneh; Campbell, Timothy; Bals, Bryan; Tumuluru, Jaya Shankar

    2015-05-01

    Combining ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX) pretreatment with a depot processing facility is a promising option for delivering high-value densified biomass to the emerging bioenergy industry. However, because the pretreatment process results in a high moisture material unsuitable for pelleting or storage (40% wet basis), the biomass must be immediately dried. If AFEX pretreatment results in a material that is difficult to dry, the economics of this already costly operation would be at risk. This work tests the nature of moisture sorption isotherms and thin-layer drying behavior of corn (Zea mays L.) stover at 20C to 60C before and after sequential AFEX pretreatment and pelletization to determine whether any negative impacts to material drying or storage may result from the AFEX process. The equilibrium moisture content to equilibrium relative humidity relationship for each of the materials was determined using dynamic vapor sorption isotherms and modeled with modified Chung-Pfost, modified Halsey, and modified Henderson temperature-dependent models as well as the Double Log Polynomial (DLP), Peleg, and Guggenheim Anderson de Boer (GAB) temperature-independent models. Drying kinetics were quantified under thin-layer laboratory testing and modeled using the Modified Page's equation. Water activity isotherms for non-pelleted biomass were best modeled with the Peleg temperature-independent equation while isotherms for the pelleted biomass were best modeled with the Double Log Polynomial equation. Thin-layer drying results were accurately modeled with the Modified Page's equation. The results of this work indicate that AFEX pretreatment results in drying properties more favorable than or equal to that of raw corn stover, and pellets of superior physical stability in storage.

  20. High-expansion foam for LNG vapor mitigation. Topical report, September 1987-December 1989

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Atallah, S.; Shah, J.N.; Peterlinz, M.E.

    1990-05-01

    One of the purposes of these high expansion foam systems is to reduce the extent of the hazardous vapor cloud generated during an accidental LNG release. Should the LNG ignite, these systems serve the additional function of controlling the LNG fire and minimizing its radiation to the surroundings. Foam generators have been installed along the tops of dike walls surrounding some LNG storage tanks, and around other fenced containment areas where LNG may be accidentally released, such as LNG pump pits and pipe rack trenches. To date there are no technically justifiable guidelines for the design and installation of these systems. Furthermore, there are no models that may be used describe the vapor source so as to be able to predict the reduction in the hazardous vapor cloud zone when high expansion foam is applied to an LNG spill. Information is essential not only for the optimal design of high expansion foam systems, but also for comparing the cost effectiveness of alternative LNG vapor mitigation measures.

  1. Soft Expansion of Double-Real-Virtual Corrections to Higgs Production at N$^3$LO

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Anastasiou, Charalampos; Duhr, Claude; Dulat, Falko; Furlan, Elisabetta; Herzog, Franz; Mistlberger, Bernhard

    2015-05-15

    We present methods to compute higher orders in the threshold expansion for the one-loop production of a Higgs boson in association with two partons at hadron colliders. This process contributes to the N3LO Higgs production cross section beyond the soft-virtual approximation. We use reverse unitarity to expand the phase-space integrals in the small kinematic parameters and to reduce the coefficients of the expansion to a small set of master integrals. We describe two methods for the calculation of the master integrals. The first was introduced for the calculation of the soft triple-real radiation relevant to N3LO Higgs production. The secondmore » uses a particular factorization of the three body phase-space measure and the knowledge of the scaling properties of the integral itself. Our result is presented as a Laurent expansion in the dimensional regulator, although some of the master integrals are computed to all orders in this parameter.« less

  2. Negative thermal expansion and anomalies of heat capacity of LuB 50 at low temperatures

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Novikov, V. V.; Zhemoedov, N. A.; Matovnikov, A. V.; Mitroshenkov, N. V.; Kuznetsov, S. V.; Bud'ko, S. L.

    2015-07-20

    Heat capacity and thermal expansion of LuB50 boride were experimentally studied in the 2300 K temperature range. The data reveal an anomalous contribution to the heat capacity at low temperatures. The value of this contribution is proportional to the first degree of temperature. It was identified that this anomaly in heat capacity is caused by the effect of disorder in the LuB50crystalline structure and it can be described in the soft atomic potential model (SAP). The parameters of the approximation were determined. The temperature dependence of LuB50 heat capacity in the whole temperature range was approximated by the sum ofmoreSAP contribution, Debye and two Einstein components. The parameters of SAP contribution for LuB50 were compared to the corresponding values for LuB66, which was studied earlier. Negative thermal expansion at low temperatures was experimentally observed for LuB50. The analysis of the experimental temperature dependence for the Gruneisen parameter of LuB50 suggested that the low-frequency oscillations, described in SAP mode, are responsible for the negative thermal expansion. Thus, the glasslike character of the behavior of LuB50 thermal characteristics at low temperatures was confirmed.less

  3. Models for mean bonding length, melting point and lattice thermal expansion of nanoparticle materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Omar, M.S.

    2012-11-15

    Graphical abstract: Three models are derived to explain the nanoparticles size dependence of mean bonding length, melting temperature and lattice thermal expansion applied on Sn, Si and Au. The following figures are shown as an example for Sn nanoparticles indicates hilly applicable models for nanoparticles radius larger than 3 nm. Highlights: ? A model for a size dependent mean bonding length is derived. ? The size dependent melting point of nanoparticles is modified. ? The bulk model for lattice thermal expansion is successfully used on nanoparticles. -- Abstract: A model, based on the ratio number of surface atoms to that of its internal, is derived to calculate the size dependence of lattice volume of nanoscaled materials. The model is applied to Si, Sn and Au nanoparticles. For Si, that the lattice volume is increases from 20 ?{sup 3} for bulk to 57 ?{sup 3} for a 2 nm size nanocrystals. A model, for calculating melting point of nanoscaled materials, is modified by considering the effect of lattice volume. A good approach of calculating size-dependent melting point begins from the bulk state down to about 2 nm diameter nanoparticle. Both values of lattice volume and melting point obtained for nanosized materials are used to calculate lattice thermal expansion by using a formula applicable for tetrahedral semiconductors. Results for Si, change from 3.7 10{sup ?6} K{sup ?1} for a bulk crystal down to a minimum value of 0.1 10{sup ?6} K{sup ?1} for a 6 nm diameter nanoparticle.

  4. Negative thermal expansion and anomalies of heat capacity of LuB50 at low temperatures

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Novikov, V. V.; Zhemoedov, N. A.; Matovnikov, A. V.; Mitroshenkov, N. V.; Kuznetsov, S. V.; Bud'ko, S. L.

    2015-07-20

    Heat capacity and thermal expansion of LuB50 boride were experimentally studied in the 2–300 K temperature range. The data reveal an anomalous contribution to the heat capacity at low temperatures. The value of this contribution is proportional to the first degree of temperature. It was identified that this anomaly in heat capacity is caused by the effect of disorder in the LuB50 crystalline structure and it can be described in the soft atomic potential model (SAP). The parameters of the approximation were determined. The temperature dependence of LuB50 heat capacity in the whole temperature range was approximated by the summore » of SAP contribution, Debye and two Einstein components. The parameters of SAP contribution for LuB50 were compared to the corresponding values for LuB66, which was studied earlier. Negative thermal expansion at low temperatures was experimentally observed for LuB50. The analysis of the experimental temperature dependence for the Gruneisen parameter of LuB50 suggested that the low-frequency oscillations, described in SAP mode, are responsible for the negative thermal expansion. As a result, the glasslike character of the behavior of LuB50 thermal characteristics at low temperatures was confirmed.« less

  5. Cluster virial expansion for the equation of state of partially ionized hydrogen plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Omarbakiyeva, Y. A.; Fortmann, C.; Ramazanov, T. S.; Roepke, G.

    2010-08-15

    We study the contribution of electron-atom interaction to the equation of state for partially ionized hydrogen plasma using the cluster-virial expansion. We use the Beth-Uhlenbeck approach to calculate the second virial coefficient for the electron-atom (bound cluster) pair from the corresponding scattering phase shifts and binding energies. Experimental scattering cross-sections as well as phase shifts calculated on the basis of different pseudopotential models are used as an input for the Beth-Uhlenbeck formula. By including Pauli blocking and screening in the phase shift calculation, we generalize the cluster-virial expansion in order to cover also near solid density plasmas. We present results for the electron-atom contribution to the virial expansion and the corresponding equation of state, i.e. pressure, composition, and chemical potential as a function of density and temperature. These results are compared with semiempirical approaches to the thermodynamics of partially ionized plasmas. Avoiding any ill-founded input quantities, the Beth-Uhlenbeck second virial coefficient for the electron-atom interaction represents a benchmark for other, semiempirical approaches.

  6. Effective-range expansion for two coupled channels and properties of bound states

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blokhintsev, L. D.

    2011-07-15

    The S matrix and the scattering-amplitude matrix (F matrix) are considered for the case of two coupled elastic-scattering channels differing by the values of the orbital angular momentum (l{sub 1} and l{sub 2} = l{sub 1} + 2). The matrix elements of the S and F matrices in the absence of Coulomb interaction are expressed in terms of the matrix elements of the matrix K{sup -1} inverse to the reaction K matrix. The elements of the K{sup -1} matrix are written in the form of expansions that are generalizations of the single-channel effective-range expansion. If there is a bound state in the system of colliding particles, then an analytic continuation of these expansions to the region of negative energies makes it possible to obtain both the position of the pole corresponding to this bound state and the residues of scattering amplitudes at this pole, the respective vertex constants and asymptotic normalization coefficients being expressed in terms of these residues. By way of example, the developed formalism is applied to describing triplet neutron-proton scattering.

  7. Thermoacoustic wave propagation modeling using a dynamically adaptive wavelet collocation method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vasilyev, O.V.; Paolucci, S.

    1996-12-31

    When a localized region of a solid wall surrounding a compressible medium is subjected to a sudden temperature change, the medium in the immediate neighborhood of that region expands. This expansion generates pressure waves. These thermally-generated waves are referred to as thermoacoustic (TAC) waves. The main interest in thermoacoustic waves is motivated by their property to enhance heat transfer by inducing convective motion away from the heated area. Thermoacoustic wave propagation in a two-dimensional rectangular cavity is studied numerically. The thermoacoustic waves are generated by raising the temperature locally at the walls. The waves, which decay at large time due to thermal and viscous diffusion, propagate and reflect from the walls creating complicated two-dimensional patterns. The accuracy of numerical simulation is ensured by using a highly accurate, dynamically adaptive, multilevel wavelet collocation method, which allows local refinements to adapt to local changes in solution scales. Subsequently, high resolution computations are performed only in regions of large gradients. The computational cost of the method is independent of the dimensionality of the problem and is O(N), where N is the total number of collation points.

  8. Underground collocation of nuclear power plant reactors and repository to facilitate the post-renaissance expansion of nuclear power

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Myers, Carl W; Elkins, Ned Z

    2008-01-01

    Underground collocation of nuclear power reactors and the nuclear waste management facilities supporting those reactors, termed an underground nuclear park (UNP), appears to have several advantages compared to the conventional approach to siting reactors and waste management facilities. These advantages include the potential to lower reactor capital and operating cost, lower nuclear waste management cost, and increase margins of physical security and safety. Envirorunental impacts related to worker health, facility accidents, waste transportation, and sabotage and terrorism appear to be lower for UNPs compared to the current approach. In-place decommissioning ofUNP reactors appears to have cost, safety, envirorunental and waste disposal advantages. The UNP approach has the potential to lead to greater public acceptance for the deployment of new power reactors. Use of the UNP during the post-nuclear renaissance time frame has the potential to enable a greater expansion of U.S. nuclear power generation than might otherwise result. Technical and economic aspects of the UNP concept need more study to determine the viability of the concept.

  9. Uranium hexafluoride liquid thermal expansion, elusive eutectic with hydrogen fluoride, and very first production using chlorine trifluoride

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rutledge, G.P.

    1991-12-31

    Three unusual incidents and case histories involving uranium hexafluoride in the enrichment facilities of the USA in the late 1940`s and early 1950`s are presented. The history of the measurements of the thermal expansion of liquids containing fluorine atoms within the molecule is reviewed with special emphasis upon uranium hexafluoride. A comparison is made between fluorinated esters, fluorocarbons, and uranium hexafluoride. The quantitative relationship between the thermal expansion coefficient, a, of liquids and the critical temperature, T{sub c} is presented. Uranium hexafluoride has an a that is very high in a temperature range that is used by laboratory and production workers - much higher than any other liquid measured. This physical property of UF{sub 6} has resulted in accidents involving filling the UF{sub 6} containers too full and then heating with a resulting rupture of the container. Such an incident at a uranium gaseous diffusion plant is presented. Production workers seldom {open_quotes}see{close_quotes} uranium hexafluoride. The movement of UF{sub 6} from one container to another is usually trailed by weight, not sight. Even laboratory scientists seldom {open_quotes}see{close_quotes} solid or liquid UF{sub 6} and this can be a problem at times. This inability to {open_quotes}see{close_quotes} the UF{sub 6}-HF mixtures in the 61.2{degrees}C to 101{degrees}C temperature range caused a delay in the understanding of the phase diagram of UF{sub 6}-HF which has a liquid - liquid immiscible region that made the eutectic composition somewhat elusive. Transparent fluorothene tubes solved the problem both for the UF{sub 6}-HF phase diagram as well as the UF{sub 6}-HF-CIF{sub 3} phase diagram with a miscibility gap starting at 53{degrees}C. The historical background leading to the first use of CIF{sub 3} to produce UF{sub 6} in both the laboratory and plant at K-25 is presented.

  10. Dynamic imaging with electron microscopy

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Campbell, Geoffrey; McKeown, Joe; Santala, Melissa

    2014-05-30

    Livermore researchers have perfected an electron microscope to study fast-evolving material processes and chemical reactions. By applying engineering, microscopy, and laser expertise to the decades-old technology of electron microscopy, the dynamic transmission electron microscope (DTEM) team has developed a technique that can capture images of phenomena that are both very small and very fast. DTEM uses a precisely timed laser pulse to achieve a short but intense electron beam for imaging. When synchronized with a dynamic event in the microscope's field of view, DTEM allows scientists to record and measure material changes in action. A new movie-mode capability, which earned a 2013 R&D 100 Award from R&D Magazine, uses up to nine laser pulses to sequentially capture fast, irreversible, even one-of-a-kind material changes at the nanometer scale. DTEM projects are advancing basic and applied materials research, including such areas as nanostructure growth, phase transformations, and chemical reactions.

  11. Dynamical principles in neuroscience

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rabinovich, Mikhail I.; Varona, Pablo; Selverston, Allen I.; Abarbanel, Henry D. I.

    2006-10-15

    Dynamical modeling of neural systems and brain functions has a history of success over the last half century. This includes, for example, the explanation and prediction of some features of neural rhythmic behaviors. Many interesting dynamical models of learning and memory based on physiological experiments have been suggested over the last two decades. Dynamical models even of consciousness now exist. Usually these models and results are based on traditional approaches and paradigms of nonlinear dynamics including dynamical chaos. Neural systems are, however, an unusual subject for nonlinear dynamics for several reasons: (i) Even the simplest neural network, with only a few neurons and synaptic connections, has an enormous number of variables and control parameters. These make neural systems adaptive and flexible, and are critical to their biological function. (ii) In contrast to traditional physical systems described by well-known basic principles, first principles governing the dynamics of neural systems are unknown. (iii) Many different neural systems exhibit similar dynamics despite having different architectures and different levels of complexity. (iv) The network architecture and connection strengths are usually not known in detail and therefore the dynamical analysis must, in some sense, be probabilistic. (v) Since nervous systems are able to organize behavior based on sensory inputs, the dynamical modeling of these systems has to explain the transformation of temporal information into combinatorial or combinatorial-temporal codes, and vice versa, for memory and recognition. In this review these problems are discussed in the context of addressing the stimulating questions: What can neuroscience learn from nonlinear dynamics, and what can nonlinear dynamics learn from neuroscience?.

  12. Protein Dynamics and Biocatalysis

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Protein Dynamics and Biocatalysis Protein Dynamics and Biocatalysis 1998 Annual Report Grand Challenge Projects biocatalysis.gif A model of the Michaelis complex for the TEM-1/penicillin system from molecular dynamics simulations. Investigators: P. A. Bash, Northwestern University Medical School and M. Karplus, Harvard University Research Objectives A guiding principle of molecular biology is that the structure of a biomolecule defines its function. This principle is especially true in the case

  13. Computational Fluid Dynamics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    scour-tracc-cfd TRACC RESEARCH Computational Fluid Dynamics Computational Structural Mechanics Transportation Systems Modeling Computational Fluid Dynamics Overview of CFD: Video Clip with Audio Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) research uses mathematical and computational models of flowing fluids to describe and predict fluid response in problems of interest, such as the flow of air around a moving vehicle or the flow of water and sediment in a river. Coupled with appropriate and prototypical

  14. Protein Dynamics and Biocatalysis

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    biocatalysis.gif A model of the Michaelis complex for the TEM-1penicillin system from molecular dynamics simulations. Investigators: P. A. Bash, Northwestern University Medical...

  15. Shared and Dynamic Libraries

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Some "out-of-the-box" applications require DSLs and some popular applications like Python use DSLs as well. Using System Shared and Dynamic Libraries "System" DSLs include...

  16. THERMAL EXPANSION AND PHASE INVERSION OF RARE-EARTH OXIDES By Stephan Stecura and William J. Campbell

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    EXPANSION AND PHASE INVERSION OF RARE-EARTH OXIDES By Stephan Stecura and William J. Campbell * * * * * * * * * * * report of investigations 5847 UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Stewart L. Udall, Secretary BUREAU OF MINES Marling J. Ankeny, Director DISTRIBUTION OF THIS DOCUMENT IS UNLIMITED This publication has been cataloged as follows: Stecura, Stephan Thermal expansion and phase inversion of rare-earth oxides, by Stephan Stecura and William J. Campbell. [Washington] U. S. Dept. of

  17. Dynamic analysis of tension-leg platforms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morgan, J.R.

    1983-01-01

    The dynamic response of tension-leg platforms subjected to wave loading was investigated using a deterministic dynamic analysis. The model employed in this study is based on coupled nonlinear stiffness coefficients and closed form inertia and drag forcing functions derived using Morison's equation. The forcing functions include relative motion behavior between the fluid particles and the structure. These forcing functions are integrated manually thereby avoiding the need for expensive numerical integration. A set of coupled nonlinear differential equations was integrated sequentially in the time domain using the Newmark beta-method. A computer program was developed to simulate the time history response of the platform motion.

  18. Application of wavelet scaling function expansion continuous-energy resonance calculation method to MOX fuel problem

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, W.; Wu, H.; Cao, L.

    2012-07-01

    More and more MOX fuels are used in all over the world in the past several decades. Compared with UO{sub 2} fuel, it contains some new features. For example, the neutron spectrum is harder and more resonance interference effects within the resonance energy range are introduced because of more resonant nuclides contained in the MOX fuel. In this paper, the wavelets scaling function expansion method is applied to study the resonance behavior of plutonium isotopes within MOX fuel. Wavelets scaling function expansion continuous-energy self-shielding method is developed recently. It has been validated and verified by comparison to Monte Carlo calculations. In this method, the continuous-energy cross-sections are utilized within resonance energy, which means that it's capable to solve problems with serious resonance interference effects without iteration calculations. Therefore, this method adapts to treat the MOX fuel resonance calculation problem natively. Furthermore, plutonium isotopes have fierce oscillations of total cross-section within thermal energy range, especially for {sup 240}Pu and {sup 242}Pu. To take thermal resonance effect of plutonium isotopes into consideration the wavelet scaling function expansion continuous-energy resonance calculation code WAVERESON is enhanced by applying the free gas scattering kernel to obtain the continuous-energy scattering source within thermal energy range (2.1 eV to 4.0 eV) contrasting against the resonance energy range in which the elastic scattering kernel is utilized. Finally, all of the calculation results of WAVERESON are compared with MCNP calculation. (authors)

  19. NONUNIFORM EXPANSION OF THE YOUNGEST GALACTIC SUPERNOVA REMNANT G1.9+0.3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Borkowski, Kazimierz J.; Reynolds, Stephen P. [Department of Physics, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695-8202 (United States); Green, David A. [Cavendish Laboratory, 19 J.J. Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Hwang, Una [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Petre, Robert [NASA/GSFC, Code 660, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Krishnamurthy, Kalyani [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708 (United States); Willett, Rebecca, E-mail: kborkow@unity.ncsu.edu [Department of Electrical and Computing Engineering, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53706 (United States)

    2014-08-01

    We report measurements of the X-ray expansion of the youngest Galactic supernova remnant, G1.9+0.3, using Chandra observations in 2007, 2009, and 2011. The measured rates strongly deviate from uniform expansion, decreasing radially by about 60% along the X-ray bright SE-NW axis from 0.84% 0.06% yr{sup 1} to 0.52% 0.03% yr{sup 1}. This corresponds to undecelerated ages of 120-190yr, confirming the young age of G1.9+0.3 and implying a significant deceleration of the blast wave. The synchrotron-dominated X-ray emission brightens at a rate of 1.9% 0.4% yr{sup 1}. We identify bright outer and inner rims with the blast wave and reverse shock, respectively. Sharp density gradients in either the ejecta or ambient medium are required to produce the sudden deceleration of the reverse shock or the blast wave implied by the large spread in expansion ages. The blast wave could have been decelerated recently by an encounter with a modest density discontinuity in the ambient medium, such as may be found at a wind termination shock, requiring strong mass loss in the progenitor. Alternatively, the reverse shock might have encountered an order-of-magnitude density discontinuity within the ejecta, such as may be found in pulsating delayed-detonation Type Ia models. We demonstrate that the blast wave is much more decelerated than the reverse shock in these models for remnants at ages similar to G1.9+0.3. Similar effects may also be produced by dense shells possibly associated with high-velocity features in Type Ia spectra. Accounting for the asymmetry of G1.9+0.3 will require more realistic three-dimensional Type Ia models.

  20. Applications of laser-induced gratings to spectroscopy and dynamics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rohlfing, E.A.

    1993-12-01

    This program has traditionally emphasized two principal areas of research. The first is the spectroscopic characterization of large-amplitude motion on the ground-state potential surface of small, transient molecules. The second is the reactivity of carbonaceous clusters and its relevance to soot and fullerene formation in combustion. Motivated initially by the desire to find improved methods of obtaining stimulated emission pumping (SEP) spectra of transients, most of our recent work has centered on the use of laser-induced gratings or resonant four-wave mixing in free-jet expansions. These techniques show great promise for several chemical applications, including molecular spectroscopy and photodissociation dynamics. The author describes recent applications of two-color laser-induced grating spectroscopy (LIGS) to obtain background-free SEP spectra of transients and double resonance spectra of nonfluorescing species, and the use of photofragment transient gratings to probe photodissociation dynamics.

  1. High efficiency, quasi-instantaneous steam expansion device utilizing fossil or nuclear fuel as the heat source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Claudio Filippone, Ph.D.

    1999-06-01

    Thermal-hydraulic analysis of a specially designed steam expansion device (heat cavity) was performed to prove the feasibility of steam expansions at elevated rates for power generation with higher efficiency. The steam expansion process inside the heat cavity greatly depends on the gap within which the steam expands and accelerates. This system can be seen as a miniaturized boiler integrated inside the expander where steam (or the proper fluid) is generated almost instantaneously prior to its expansion in the work-producing unit. Relatively cold water is pulsed inside the heat cavity, where the heat transferred causes the water to flash to steam, thereby increasing its specific volume by a large factor. The gap inside the heat cavity forms a special nozzle-shaped system in which the fluid expands rapidly, accelerating toward the system outlet. The expansion phenomenon is the cause of ever-increasing fluid speed inside the cavity system, eliminating the need for moving parts (pumps, valves, etc.). In fact, the subsequent velocity induced by the sudden fluid expansion causes turbulent conditions, forcing accelerating Reynolds and Nusselt numbers which, in turn, increase the convective heat transfer coefficient. When the combustion of fossil fuels constitutes the heat source, the heat cavity concept can be applied directly inside the stator of conventional turbines, thereby greatly increasing the overall system efficiency.

  2. Representation of correlation statistics functions in heterogeneous materials using layered fast spherical harmonics expansion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Dongsheng; Khaleel, Mohammad A.; Sun, Xin; Garmestani, Hamid

    2010-03-01

    Statistical correlation function, including two-point function, is one of the popular methods to digitize microstructure quantitatively. This paper investigated how to represent statistical correlations using layered fast spherical harmonics expansion. A set of spherical harmonics coefficients may be used to represent the corresponding microstructures. It is applied to represent carbon nanotube composite microstructures to demonstrate how efficiently and precisely the harmonics coefficients will characterize the microstructure. This microstructure representation methodology will dramatically improve the computational efficiencies for future works in microstructure reconstruction and property prediction.

  3. Controlled temperature expansion in oxygen production by molten alkali metal salts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Erickson, Donald C.

    1985-06-04

    A continuous process is set forth for the production of oxygen from an oxygen containing gas stream, such as air, by contacting a feed gas stream with a molten solution of an oxygen acceptor to oxidize the acceptor and cyclically regenerating the oxidized acceptor by releasing oxygen from the acceptor wherein the oxygen-depleted gas stream from the contact zone is treated sequentially to temperature reduction by heat exchange against the feed stream so as to condense out entrained oxygen acceptor for recycle to the process, combustion of the gas stream with fuel to elevate its temperature and expansion of the combusted high temperature gas stream in a turbine to recover power.

  4. Partial decay widths of negative parity baryons in the 1/N{sub c} expansion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gonzalez de Urreta, E. J.; Scoccola, N. N.; Jayalath, C. P.; Goity, J. L.

    2013-03-25

    The partial decay widths of lowest lying negative parity baryons belonging to the 70-plet of SU(6) are analyzed in the framework of the 1/N{sub c} expansion. The channels considered are those with single pseudoscalar meson emission. The analysis is carried out to sub-leading order in 1/N{sub c} and to first order in SU(3) symmetry breaking. Conclusions about the magnitude of SU(3) breaking effects along with predictions for some unknown or poorly determined partial decay widths of known resonances are given.

  5. Negative parity baryon decays in the 1/N{sub c} expansion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jayalath, C.; Goity, J. L.; Gonzalez de Urreta, E.; Scoccola, N. N.

    2011-10-01

    The partial decay widths of lowest lying negative parity baryons belonging to the 70-plet of SU(6) are analyzed in the framework of the 1/N{sub c} expansion. The channels considered are those with single pseudoscalar meson emission. The analysis is carried out to sub-leading order in 1/N{sub c} and to first order in SU(3) symmetry breaking. Conclusions about the magnitude of SU(3) breaking effects along with predictions for some unknown or poorly determined partial decay widths of known resonances are obtained.

  6. Partial Decay Widths of Negative Parity Baryons in the 1/N{sub c} Expansion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gonzalez de Urreta, Emiliano; Scoccola, Norberto; Jayalath, Chandala; Goity, Jose

    2013-04-01

    The partial decay widths of lowest lying negative parity baryons belonging to the 70-plet of SU(6) are analyzed in the framework of the 1/N{sub c} expansion. The channels considered are those with single pseudoscalar meson emission. The analysis is carried out to sub-leading order in 1/N{sub c} and to first order in SU(3) symmetry breaking. Conclusions about the magnitude of SU(3) breaking effects along with predictions for some unknown or poorly determined partial decay widths of known resonances are given.

  7. Aspects of excited baryon phenomenology in the 1/N{sub c} expansion of QCD

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gonzalez de Urreta, E. J.; Scoccola, Norberto N.

    2010-11-12

    We report on the application of the 1/N{sub c} expansion of QCD to the description of the properties of non-strange excited baryons belonging to the [70, 1{sup -}]-plet. In particular, we present the results of an improved determination of the corresponding mixing angles obtained by performing a simultaneous fit of masses and strong decay widths. We find {theta}{sub 1} 0.47{+-}0.06 and {theta}{sub 3} = 2.74{+-}0.07. These values are within the range of those determined in previous non-global analyses but have smaller uncertainties.

  8. Formation of surface nano-structures by plasma expansion induced by highly charged ions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moslem, W. M.; El-Said, A. S.

    2012-12-15

    Slow highly charged ions (HCIs) create surface nano-structures (nano-hillocks) on the quartz surface. The formation of hillocks was only possible by surpassing a potential energy threshold. By using the plasma expansion approach with suitable hydrodynamic equations, the creation mechanism of the nano-hillocks induced by HCIs is explained. Numerical analysis reveal that within the nanoscale created plasma region, the increase of the temperature causes an increase of the self-similar solution validity domain, and consequently the surface nano-hillocks become taller. Furthermore, the presence of the negative (positive) nano-dust particles would lead to increase (decrease) the nano-hillocks height.

  9. Surface nanostructuring by ion-induced localized plasma expansion in zinc oxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    El-Said, A. S. E-mail: a.s.el-said@hzdr.de; Moslem, W. M.; Djebli, M.

    2014-06-09

    Creation of hillock-like nanostructures on the surface of zinc oxide single crystals by irradiation with slow highly charged ions is reported. At constant kinetic energy, the nanostructures were only observed after irradiation with ions of potential energies above a threshold between 19.1?keV and 23.3?keV. The size of the nanostructures increases as a function of potential energy. A plasma expansion approach is used to explain the nanostructures creation. The calculations showed that the surface nanostructures became taller with the increase of ionic temperature. The influence of charged cluster formation and the relevance of their polarity are discussed.

  10. Isentropic expansion of copper plasma in Mbar pressure range at Luch laser facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bel'kov, S. A.; Derkach, V. N.; Garanin, S. G.; Mitrofanov, E. I.; Voronich, I. N.; Fortov, V. E.; Levashov, P. R.; Minakov, D. V.

    2014-01-21

    We present experimental results on thermodynamic properties of dense copper plasma in Mbar pressure range. The laser facility Luch with laser intensity 10{sup 14}?W/cm{sup 2} is used to compress copper up to ?8?Mbar by a strong shock wave; subsequent expansion of copper plasma into Al, Ti, Sn allows us to obtain release isentropes of copper by the impedancematching method. A theoretical analysis and quantum simulations show that in our experiments strongly coupled quantum plasma is generated.

  11. Correlation-function asymptotic expansions: Universality of prefactors of the one-dimensional Hubbard model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carmelo, J. M. P.; Penc, K.

    2006-03-15

    We show that the prefactors of all terms of the one-dimensional (1D) Hubbard model correlation-function asymptotic expansions have a universal form, as the corresponding critical exponents. In addition to calculating such prefactors, our study clarifies the relation of the low-energy Tomonaga-Luttinger-liquid behavior to the scattering mechanisms which control the spectral properties of the model at all energy scales. Our results are of general nature for many integrable interacting models and provide a broader understanding of the unusual properties of quasi-1D nanostructures, organic conductors, and optical lattices of fermionic atoms.

  12. Large mass expansion in two-loop QCD corrections of paracharmonium decay

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hasegawa, K.; Pak, Alexey

    2008-01-01

    We calculate the two-loop QCD corrections to paracharmonium decays {eta}{sub c}{yields}{gamma}{gamma} and {eta}{sub c}{yields}gg involving light-by-light scattering diagrams with light quark loops. Artificial large mass expansion and convergence improvement techniques are used to evaluate these corrections. The obtained corrections to the decays {eta}{sub c}{yields}{gamma}{gamma} and {eta}{sub c}{yields}gg account for -1.25% and -0.73% of the leading order contribution, respectively.

  13. Magnolia LNG and Lake Charles Expansion Projects Final Environmental Impact Statement

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Energy Regulatory Commission Office of Energy Projects Washington, DC 20426 Magnolia LNG and Lake Charles Expansion Projects Final Environmental Impact Statement Magnolia LNG, LLC and Kinder Morgan Louisiana Pipeline LLC FERC Docket Nos. CP14-347-000 and CP14-511-000 DOE Docket Nos. 12-183-LNG, 13-131-LNG, and 13-132-LNG FERC/EIS-0260F, DOE/EIS-0498 Cooperating Agencies: U.S. Coast Guard U.S. Department of Energy U.S. Department of Transportation U.S. Army Corps of Engineers U.S. Environmental

  14. Timing control by redundant inhibitory neuronal circuits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tristan, I. Rulkov, N. F.; Huerta, R.; Rabinovich, M.

    2014-03-15

    Rhythms and timing control of sequential activity in the brain is fundamental to cognition and behavior. Although experimental and theoretical studies support the understanding that neuronal circuits are intrinsically capable of generating different time intervals, the dynamical origin of the phenomenon of functionally dependent timing control is still unclear. Here, we consider a new mechanism that is related to the multi-neuronal cooperative dynamics in inhibitory brain motifs consisting of a few clusters. It is shown that redundancy and diversity of neurons within each cluster enhances the sensitivity of the timing control with the level of neuronal excitation of the whole network. The generality of the mechanism is shown to work on two different neuronal models: a conductance-based model and a map-based model.

  15. Lagrangian continuum dynamics in ALEGRA.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wong, Michael K. W.; Love, Edward

    2007-12-01

    Alegra is an ALE (Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian) multi-material finite element code that emphasizes large deformations and strong shock physics. The Lagrangian continuum dynamics package in Alegra uses a Galerkin finite element spatial discretization and an explicit central-difference stepping method in time. The goal of this report is to describe in detail the characteristics of this algorithm, including the conservation and stability properties. The details provided should help both researchers and analysts understand the underlying theory and numerical implementation of the Alegra continuum hydrodynamics algorithm.

  16. Feasibility of a wavelet expansion method to treat energy in cell calculations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Van Rooijen, W. F. G.

    2012-07-01

    This paper discusses the application of the Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) for the functional expansion of the energy variable in a cell calculation. The motivation of the work is the desire to obtain a self-shielding methodology in which the treatment of the energy variable in a given material region can be automatically adapted to the complexity of the cross section in that region. Unfortunately, the work presented in this paper shows that it is generally not possible to obtain the desired adaptivity. The most fundamental reason is that in a multi-region system, the energy dependence of the flux in a given material region is a function of the energy dependent cross sections and sources in all material regions through which the neutrons have crossed before entering into the present material. The complexity of the energy dependence of the cross section in a material region is thus not necessarily linked to the energy dependence of the flux in that region. If one sacrifices the objective of adaptivity, then an accurate method can be obtained using the DWT as a functional expansion. However, the resulting system of equations is more complicated than the direct solution of a hyper-fine group calculation. The conclusion is thus that the DWT approach is not very practical. (authors)

  17. Expansion solution of Laplace`s equation: Technique and application to hollow beam gun design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jackson, R.H.; Taccetti, J.M.

    1996-12-31

    This paper presents a flexible algorithm for the general calculation of expansion solutions to Laplace`s equation. The limiting factor in application of the technique is shown to be series truncation error and not errors in calculating numerical derivatives. Application of the algorithm to the accurate computation of arbitrary magnetic fields in cylindrical geometry from on-axis or coil data will be presented. For an ideal current loop, magnetic field accuracies of better than 0.01% of the exact elliptic integral solution can be obtained out to approximately 70--80% of the loop radius. Accuracy improves dramatically for radii closer to the axis. Results also is shown for thin current disks, thin solenoids and thick coils. Other aspects of the technique is illustrated by application to the design of a coil system for a hollow beam electron gun. With some reasonable assumptions about the overlay of the electron trajectories and the magnetic flux contours, it is possible to generate an estimate for the on-axis profile of the gun magnetic field. The expansion technique can then be applied to calculate the off-axis field and its impact on the trajectories without assuming any particular coil system. The initial estimate can then be refined and retested. Finally, an optimization technique is used to develop a coil system which closely reproduces the refined field. The results of carrying out this set of calculations on a 150 kV, 20 A hollow electron gun design for an FEL experiment is reported.

  18. Brownian dynamics without Green's functions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Delong, Steven; Donev, Aleksandar; Usabiaga, Florencio Balboa; Delgado-Buscalioni, Rafael; Griffith, Boyce E.; Leon H. Charney Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, New York University School of Medicine, New York, New York 10016

    2014-04-07

    We develop a Fluctuating Immersed Boundary (FIB) method for performing Brownian dynamics simulations of confined particle suspensions. Unlike traditional methods which employ analytical Green's functions for Stokes flow in the confined geometry, the FIB method uses a fluctuating finite-volume Stokes solver to generate the action of the response functions on the fly. Importantly, we demonstrate that both the deterministic terms necessary to capture the hydrodynamic interactions among the suspended particles, as well as the stochastic terms necessary to generate the hydrodynamically correlated Brownian motion, can be generated by solving the steady Stokes equations numerically only once per time step. This is accomplished by including a stochastic contribution to the stress tensor in the fluid equations consistent with fluctuating hydrodynamics. We develop novel temporal integrators that account for the multiplicative nature of the noise in the equations of Brownian dynamics and the strong dependence of the mobility on the configuration for confined systems. Notably, we propose a random finite difference approach to approximating the stochastic drift proportional to the divergence of the configuration-dependent mobility matrix. Through comparisons with analytical and existing computational results, we numerically demonstrate the ability of the FIB method to accurately capture both the static (equilibrium) and dynamic properties of interacting particles in flow.

  19. Time Reversal in Solids (Linear and Nonlinear Elasticity): Multimedia Resources in Time Reversal

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Dynamic nonlinear elastic behavior, nonequilibrium dynamics, first observed as a curiosity in earth materials has now been observed in a great variety of solids. The primary manifestations of the behavior are characteristic wave distortion, and slow dynamics, a recovery process to equilibrium that takes place linearly with the logarithm of time, over hours to days after a wave disturbance. The link between the diverse materials that exhibit nonequilibrium dynamics appears to be the presence of soft regions, thought to be 'damage' at many scales, ranging from order 10-9 m to 10-1 m at least. The regions of soft matter may be distributed as in a rock sample, or isolated, as in a sample with a single crack [LANLhttp://www.lanl.gov/orgs/ees/ees11/geophysics/nonlinear/nonlinear.shtml]. The Geophysics Group (EES-11) at Los Alamos National Laboratory has posted two or more multimedia items under each of the titles below to demonstrate aspects of their work: 1) Source Reconstruction Using Time Reversal; 2) Robustness and Efficiency of Time Reversal Acoustics in Solid Media; 3) Audio Example of Time Reversal - Speech Privacy; 4) Crack Imagining with Time Reversal - Experimental Results; 5) Time Reversal of the 2004 (M9.0) Sumatra Earthquake.

  20. A study of the HEB longitudinal dynamics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Larson, D.J.

    1993-12-01

    A study of the High Energy Booster (HEB) longitudinal dynamics is presented. Full derivations of ramp dependent longitudinal variables are given. The formulas assume that the input magnetic field and beam longitudinal emittance are known as a function of time, and that either the rf voltage or the rf bucket area are known as a function of time. Once these three inputs are specified, the formulas can be used to calculate values for all other longitudinal dynamics variables. The formulas have been incorporated into a single computer code named ELVIRA: Evaluation of Longitudinal Variables in Relativistic Accelerators. The ELVIRA code is documented here in detail. The ELVIRA code is used under two initial longitudinal emittance assumptions to plot ramp functions for the longitudinal dynamics design of the HEB as of May 5, 1992.

  1. Dynamic Model Validation of PV Inverters Under Short-Circuit Conditions: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Muljadi, E.; Singh, M.; Bravo, R.; Gevorgian, V.

    2013-03-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) modules have dramatically decreased in price in the past few years, spurring the expansion of photovoltaic deployment. Residential and commercial rooftop installations are connected to the distribution network; large-scale installation PV power plants (PVPs) have benefited from tax incentives and the low cost of PV modules. As the level penetration of PV generation increases, the impact on power system reliability will also be greater. Utility power system planners must consider the role of PV generation in power systems more realistically by representing PV generation in dynamic stability analyses. Dynamic models of PV inverters have been developed in the positive sequence representation. NREL has developed a PV inverter dynamic model in PSCAD/EMTDC. This paper validates the dynamic model with an actual hardware bench test conducted by Southern California Edison's Distributed Energy Resources laboratory. All the fault combinations -- symmetrical and unsymmetrical -- were performed in the laboratory. We compare the simulation results with the bench test results.

  2. Pulsed laser stereophotography of plasmas and dynamically moving surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paisley, D.L.

    1987-01-01

    A pulsed laser is used as a light source for illuminating the surface of a dynamic event of less than or equal to1 mm/sup 2/ moving at >3 mm/..mu..s. At a predetermined time during the dynamic action, a stereo camera is used to record a pair of images of the dynamically moving surface. The stereoimage pair can be quantified for surface contour. 3 refs., 8 figs.

  3. Solar Dynamics | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Dynamics Jump to: navigation, search Name: Solar Dynamics Place: Ottumwa, Iowa Zip: IA 52501 Sector: Solar Product: Solar Dynamics is a US-based solar powered attic roof vents...

  4. Daylight Savings Time Starts

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Daylight Savings Time Starts Daylight Savings Time Starts WHEN: Mar 08, 2015 3:00 AM - 11:59 PM WHERE: World Time Zones CATEGORY: Holiday INTERNAL: Calendar Login Daylight Savings...

  5. Effect of noise on time-dependent quantum chaos

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ott, E.; Antonsen T.M. Jr.; Hanson, J.D.

    1984-12-03

    The dynamics of a time-dependent quantum system can be qualitatively different from that of its classical counterpart when the latter is chaotic. It is shown that small noise can strongly alter this situation.

  6. The Role of Demand Resources In Regional Transmission Expansion Planning and Reliable Operations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kirby, Brendan J

    2006-07-01

    Investigating the role of demand resources in regional transmission planning has provided mixed results. On one hand there are only a few projects where demand response has been used as an explicit alternative to transmission enhancement. On the other hand there is a fair amount of demand response in the form of energy efficiency, peak reduction, emergency load shedding, and (recently) demand providing ancillary services. All of this demand response reduces the need for transmission enhancements. Demand response capability is typically (but not always) factored into transmission planning as a reduction in the load which must be served. In that sense demand response is utilized as an alternative to transmission expansion. Much more demand response is used (involuntarily) as load shedding under extreme conditions to prevent cascading blackouts. The amount of additional transmission and generation that would be required to provide the current level of reliability if load shedding were not available is difficult to imagine and would be impractical to build. In a very real sense demand response solutions are equitably treated in every region - when proposed, demand response projects are evaluated against existing reliability and economic criteria. The regional councils, RTOs, and ISOs identify needs. Others propose transmission, generation, or responsive load based solutions. Few demand response projects get included in transmission enhancement plans because few are proposed. But this is only part of the story. Several factors are responsible for the current very low use of demand response as a transmission enhancement alternative. First, while the generation, transmission, and load business sectors each deal with essentially the same amount of electric power, generation and transmission companies are explicitly in the electric power business but electricity is not the primary business focus of most loads. This changes the institutional focus of each sector. Second, market and reliability rules have, understandably, been written around the capabilities and limitations of generators, the historic reliability resources. Responsive load limitations and capabilities are often not accommodated in markets or reliability criteria. Third, because of the institutional structure, demand response alternatives are treated as temporary solutions that can delay but not replace transmission enhancement. Financing has to be based on a three to five year project life as opposed to the twenty to fifty year life of transmission facilities. More can be done to integrate demand response options into transmission expansion planning. Given the societal benefits it may be appropriate for independent transmission planning organizations to take a more proactive role in drawing demand response alternatives into the resource mix. Existing demand response programs provide a technical basis to build from. Regulatory and market obstacles will have to be overcome if demand response alternatives are to be routinely considered in transmission expansion planning.

  7. UGE Scheduler Cycle Time

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    UGE Scheduler Cycle Time UGE Scheduler Cycle Time Genepool Cycle Time Genepool Daily Genepool Weekly Phoebe Cycle Time Phoebe Daily Phoebe Weekly What is the Scheduler Cycle? The Univa Grid Engine Scheduler cycle performs a number of important tasks, including: Prioritizing Jobs Reserving Resources for jobs requesting more resources (slots / memory) Dispatching jobs or tasks to the compute nodes Evaluating job dependencies The "cycle time" is the length of time it takes the scheduler

  8. System Dynamics Model | NISAC

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Dynamics Model content top Chemical Supply Chain Analysis Posted by Admin on Mar 1, 2012 in | Comments 0 comments Chemical Supply Chain Analysis NISAC has developed a range of...

  9. Roaming Molecule Dynamics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... The recent discovery of roaming atom dynamics in the photodissociation of formaldehyde (Arthur Suits, Joel Bowman, and co-workers) led to a study at the CRF to determine whether ...

  10. Multipulsed dynamic moire interferometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Deason, Vance A. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1991-01-01

    An improved dynamic moire interferometer comprised of a lasing medium providing a plurality of beams of coherent light, a multiple q-switch producing multiple trains of 100,000 or more pulses per second, a combining means collimating multiple trains of pulses into substantially a single train and directing beams to specimen gratings affixed to a test material, and a controller, triggering and sequencing the emission of the pulses with the occurrence and recording of a dynamic loading event.

  11. Los Alamos Dynamics Application

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Los Alamos Dynamics Summer School Application Form Do not use MAC Preview tool to edit this form as it corrupts the data. Application deadline is January 10, 2016 5:00 PM (US Mountain Standard) A complete application package includes: * This Application Form * Cover Letter - Page cover letter describing your interest in this summer school and multi-disciplinary cyber- physical dynamic systems research as well as your near term (1-3 year) academic and professional goals. * CV (resume) * One (1)

  12. Rotary gas expander for energy recovery from natural gas expansion. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-12-15

    The specific purpose of this project was to develop a positive-displacement rotary expansion device (based on the Wankel Engine principle) and demonstrate that it could be used as an economical alternative to sophisticated turboexpanders for low gas flow and small pressure differential stations. The positive-displacement rotary expander would operate at much lower speeds than conventional turboexpanders. It would therefore be more efficient at lower pressure differentials and gas flows, and could cost significantly less because inefficient and costly gear-reduction equipment would not be required. Another purpose of this project was to develop a fail safe control system for operation in hazardous atmospheres. Design considerations for the rotary gas expander and the control system are discussed. A projection is made of the electrical generation potential and the economics of recovering the energy present in the high temperature gas. (MCW)

  13. Apparatus and process for the separation of gases using supersonic expansion and oblique wave compression

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    VanOsdol, John G.

    2014-07-08

    The disclosure provides an apparatus and method for gas separation through the supersonic expansion and subsequent deceleration of a gaseous stream. The gaseous constituent changes phase from the gaseous state by desublimation or condensation during the acceleration producing a collectible constituent, and an oblique shock diffuser decelerates the gaseous stream to a subsonic velocity while maintain the collectible constituent in the non-gaseous state. Following deceleration, the carrier gas and the collectible constituent at the subsonic velocity are separated by a separation means, such as a centrifugal, electrostatic, or impingement separator. In an embodiment, the gaseous stream issues from a combustion process and is comprised of N.sub.2 and CO.sub.2.

  14. Controlled temperature expansion in oxygen production by molten alkali metal salts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Erickson, D.C.

    1985-06-04

    A continuous process is set forth for the production of oxygen from an oxygen containing gas stream, such as air, by contacting a feed gas stream with a molten solution of an oxygen acceptor to oxidize the acceptor and cyclically regenerating the oxidized acceptor by releasing oxygen from the acceptor wherein the oxygen-depleted gas stream from the contact zone is treated sequentially to temperature reduction by heat exchange against the feed stream so as to condense out entrained oxygen acceptor for recycle to the process, combustion of the gas stream with fuel to elevate its temperature and expansion of the combusted high temperature gas stream in a turbine to recover power. 1 fig.

  15. Stability and error analysis of nodal expansion method for convection-diffusion equation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deng, Z.; Rizwan-Uddin; Li, F.; Sun, Y.

    2012-07-01

    The development, and stability and error analyses of nodal expansion method (NEM) for one dimensional steady-state convection diffusion equation is presented. Following the traditional procedure to develop NEM, the discrete formulation of the convection-diffusion equation, which is similar to the standard finite difference scheme, is derived. The method of discrete perturbation analysis is applied to this discrete form to study the stability of the NEM. The scheme based on the NEM is found to be stable for local Peclet number less than 4.644. A maximum principle is proved for the NEM scheme, followed by an error analysis carried out by applying the Maximum principle together with a carefully constructed comparison function. The scheme for the convection diffusion equation is of second-order. Numerical experiments are carried and the results agree with the conclusions of the stability and error analyses. (authors)

  16. Ceramic membranes for catalytic membrane reactors with high ionic conductivities and low expansion properties

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mackay, Richard (Lafayette, CO); Sammells, Anthony F. (Boulder, CO)

    2000-01-01

    Ceramics of the composition: Ln.sub.x Sr.sub.2-x-y Ca.sub.y B.sub.z M.sub.2-z O.sub.5+.delta. where Ln is an element selected from the fblock lanthanide elements and yttrium or mixtures thereof; B is an element selected from Al, Ga, In or mixtures thereof; M is a d-block transition element of mixtures thereof; 0.01.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.1.0; 0.01.ltoreq.y.ltoreq.0.7; 0.01.ltoreq.z.ltoreq.1.0 and .delta. is a number that varies to maintain charge neutrality are provided. These ceramics are useful in ceramic membranes and exhibit high ionic conductivity, high chemical stability under catalytic membrane reactor conditions and low coefficients of expansion. The materials of the invention are particularly useful in producing synthesis gas.

  17. Development of low-expansion ceramics with strength retention to elevated temperatures. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hirschfeld, D.A.; Brown, J.J. Jr.

    1994-09-01

    The development of advanced engines has resulted in the need for new ceramic compositions which exhibit thermo-mechanical properties suitable for the engine environment, e.g., low thermal expansion, stability to 1,200 C, and thermal shock resistance. To meet these goals, a two phase research program was instituted. In the first phase, new oxide ceramics were identified in the AlPO{sub 4}-{beta}-eucryptite, {beta}-cristobalite, mullite and zircon systems. This research focused on screening and property characterization of ceramics in the four systems. The most promising compositions in the AlPO{sub 4}-{beta}-eucryptite and zircon systems were then further evaluated and developed in the second phase with the goal of being ready for prototype testing in actual engines. Of the compositions, calcium magnesium zirconium phosphate (zircon system) exhibits the most desirable properties and is presently being developed for commercialization.

  18. Assemblies and methods for mitigating effects of reactor pressure vessel expansion

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Challberg, R.C.; Gou, P.F.; Chu, C.L.; Oliver, R.P.

    1999-07-27

    Support assemblies for allowing RPV radial expansion while simultaneously limiting horizontal, vertical, and azimuthal movement of the RPV within a nuclear reactor are described. In one embodiment, the support assembly includes a support block and a guide block. The support block includes a first portion and a second portion, and the first portion is rigidly coupled to the RPV adjacent the first portion. The guide block is rigidly coupled to a reactor pressure vessel support structure and includes a channel sized to receive the second portion of the support block. The second portion of the support block is positioned in the guide block channel to movably couple the guide block to the support block. 6 figs.

  19. Method for fabricating an ultra-low expansion mask blank having a crystalline silicon layer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cardinale, Gregory F. (Oakland, CA)

    2002-01-01

    A method for fabricating masks for extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) using Ultra-Low Expansion (ULE) substrates and crystalline silicon. ULE substrates are required for the necessary thermal management in EUVL mask blanks, and defect detection and classification have been obtained using crystalline silicon substrate materials. Thus, this method provides the advantages for both the ULE substrate and the crystalline silicon in an Extreme Ultra-Violet (EUV) mask blank. The method is carried out by bonding a crystalline silicon wafer or member to a ULE wafer or substrate and thinning the silicon to produce a 5-10 .mu.m thick crystalline silicon layer on the surface of the ULE substrate. The thinning of the crystalline silicon may be carried out, for example, by chemical mechanical polishing and if necessary or desired, oxidizing the silicon followed by etching to the desired thickness of the silicon.

  20. Coherent states, 6j symbols and properties of the next to leading order asymptotic expansions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kami?ski, Wojciech; Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, 31 Caroline Street North, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 2Y5; Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics, Am Mhlenberg 1, D-14476 Potsdam ; Steinhaus, Sebastian; Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics, Am Mhlenberg 1, D-14476 Potsdam

    2013-12-15

    We present the first complete derivation of the well-known asymptotic expansion of the SU(2) 6j symbol using a coherent state approach, in particular we succeed in computing the determinant of the Hessian matrix. To do so, we smear the coherent states and perform a partial stationary point analysis with respect to the smearing parameters. This allows us to transform the variables from group elements to dihedral angles of a tetrahedron resulting in an effective action, which coincides with the action of first order Regge calculus associated to a tetrahedron. To perform the remaining stationary point analysis, we compute its Hessian matrix and obtain the correct measure factor. Furthermore, we expand the discussion of the asymptotic formula to next to leading order terms, prove some of their properties and derive a recursion relation for the full 6j symbol.

  1. High thermal expansion sealing glass for use in radio frequency applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kilgo, Riley D. (Albuquerque, NM); Brow, Richard K. (Rolla, MO); Kovacic, Larry (Albuquerque, NM)

    1999-01-01

    The present invention provides a glass composition for hermetically sealing to high thermal expansion materials such as aluminum alloys, stainless steels, and copper alloys, which includes between about 10 and about 25 mole percent Na.sub.2 O, between about 10 and about 25 mole percent K.sub.2 O, between about 4 and about 15 mole percent Al.sub.2 O.sub.3, between about 35 and about 50 mole percent P.sub.2 O.sub.5, B.sub.2 O.sub.3 in a concentration not exceeding 10 mole percent, and MXO in a concentration not exceeding 12 mole percent, wherein MXO is a metal oxide selected from the group consisting of PbO, BaO, CaO and MgO or a mixture thereof. This composition is suitable to hermetically seal to components for use in RF-interconnection applications.

  2. Assemblies and methods for mitigating effects of reactor pressure vessel expansion

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Challberg, Roy C. (Livermore, CA); Gou, Perng-Fei (Saratoga, CA); Chu, Cherk Lam (San Jose, CA); Oliver, Robert P. (Topsham, ME)

    1999-01-01

    Support assemblies for allowing RPV radial expansion while simultaneously limiting horizontal, vertical, and azimuthal movement of the RPV within a nuclear reactor are described. In one embodiment, the support assembly includes a support block and a guide block. The support block includes a first portion and a second portion, and the first portion is rigidly coupled to the RPV adjacent the first portion. The guide block is rigidly coupled to a reactor pressure vessel support structure and includes a channel sized to receive the second portion of the support block. The second portion of the support block is positioned in the guide block channel to movably couple the guide block to the support block.

  3. Cluster expansion modeling and Monte Carlo simulation of alnico 57 permanent magnets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nguyen, Manh Cuong; Zhao, Xin; Wang, Cai -Zhuang; Ho, Kai -Ming

    2015-03-05

    The concerns about the supply and resource of rare earth (RE) metals have generated a lot of interests in searching for high performance RE-free permanent magnets. Alnico alloys are traditional non-RE permanent magnets and have received much attention recently due their good performance at high temperature. In this paper, we develop an accurate and efficient cluster expansion energy model for alnico 57. Monte Carlo simulations using the cluster expansion method are performed to investigate the structure of alnico 57 at atomistic and nano scales. The alnico 57 master alloy is found to decompose into FeCo-rich and NiAl-rich phases at low temperature. The boundary between these two phases is quite sharp (~2 nm) for a wide range of temperature. The compositions of the main constituents in these two phases become higher when the temperature gets lower. Both FeCo-rich and NiAl-rich phases are in B2 ordering with Fe and Al on ?-site and Ni and Co on ?-site. The degree of order of the NiAl-rich phase is much higher than that of the FeCo-rich phase. In addition, a small magnetic moment is also observed in NiAl-rich phase but the moment reduces as the temperature is lowered, implying that the magnetic properties of alnico 57 could be improved by lowering annealing temperature to diminish the magnetism in NiAl-rich phase. Furthermore, the results from our Monte Carlo simulations are consistent with available experimental results.

  4. Cluster expansion modeling and Monte Carlo simulation of alnico 5–7 permanent magnets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nguyen, Manh Cuong; Zhao, Xin; Wang, Cai -Zhuang; Ho, Kai -Ming

    2015-03-05

    The concerns about the supply and resource of rare earth (RE) metals have generated a lot of interests in searching for high performance RE-free permanent magnets. Alnico alloys are traditional non-RE permanent magnets and have received much attention recently due their good performance at high temperature. In this paper, we develop an accurate and efficient cluster expansion energy model for alnico 5–7. Monte Carlo simulations using the cluster expansion method are performed to investigate the structure of alnico 5–7 at atomistic and nano scales. The alnico 5–7 master alloy is found to decompose into FeCo-rich and NiAl-rich phases at low temperature. The boundary between these two phases is quite sharp (~2 nm) for a wide range of temperature. The compositions of the main constituents in these two phases become higher when the temperature gets lower. Both FeCo-rich and NiAl-rich phases are in B2 ordering with Fe and Al on α-site and Ni and Co on β-site. The degree of order of the NiAl-rich phase is much higher than that of the FeCo-rich phase. In addition, a small magnetic moment is also observed in NiAl-rich phase but the moment reduces as the temperature is lowered, implying that the magnetic properties of alnico 5–7 could be improved by lowering annealing temperature to diminish the magnetism in NiAl-rich phase. Furthermore, the results from our Monte Carlo simulations are consistent with available experimental results.

  5. Ceramic materials with low thermal conductivity and low coefficients of thermal expansion

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brown, Jesse (Christiansburg, VA); Hirschfeld, Deidre (Elliston, VA); Liu, Dean-Mo (Blacksburg, VA); Yang, Yaping (Blacksburg, VA); Li, Tingkai (Blacksburg, VA); Swanson, Robert E. (Blacksburg, VA); Van Aken, Steven (Blacksburg, VA); Kim, Jin-Min (Seoul, KR)

    1992-01-01

    Compositions having the general formula (Ca.sub.x Mg.sub.1-x)Zr.sub.4 (PO.sub.4).sub.6 where x is between 0.5 and 0.99 are produced by solid state and sol-gel processes. In a preferred embodiment, when x is between 0.5 and 0.8, the MgCZP materials have near-zero coefficients of thermal expansion. The MgCZPs of the present invention also show unusually low thermal conductivities, and are stable at high temperatures. Macrostructures formed from MgCZP are useful in a wide variety of high-temperature applications. In a preferred process, calcium, magnesium, and zirconium nitrate solutions have their pH adjusted to between 7 and 9 either before or after the addition of ammonium dihydrogen phosphate. After dehydration to a gel, and calcination at temperatures in excess of 850.degree. C. for approximately 16 hours, single phase crystalline MgCZP powders with particle sizes ranging from approximately 20 nm to 50 nm result. The MgCZP powders are then sintered at temperatures ranging from 1200.degree. C. to 1350.degree. C. to form solid macrostructures with near-zero bulk coefficients of thermal expansion and low thermal conductivities. Porous macrostructures of the MgCZP powders of the present invention are also formed by combination with a polymeric powder and a binding agent, and sintering at high temperatures. The porosity of the resulting macrostructures can be adjusted by varying the particle size of the polymeric powder used.

  6. Ceramic materials with low thermal conductivity and low coefficients of thermal expansion

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brown, J.; Hirschfeld, D.; Liu, D.M.; Yang, Y.; Li, T.; Swanson, R.E.; Van Aken, S.; Kim, J.M.

    1992-04-07

    Compositions, having the general formula (Ca[sub x]Mg[sub 1[minus]x])Zr[sub 4](PO[sub 4])[sub 6] where x is between 0.5 and 0.99, are produced by solid state and sol-gel processes. In a preferred embodiment, when x is between 0.5 and 0.8, the MgCZP materials have near-zero coefficients of thermal expansion. The MgCZPs of the present invention also show unusually low thermal conductivities, and are stable at high temperatures. Macrostructures formed from MgCZP are useful in a wide variety of high-temperature applications. In a preferred process, calcium, magnesium, and zirconium nitrate solutions have their pH adjusted to between 7 and 9 either before or after the addition of ammonium dihydrogen phosphate. After dehydration to a gel, and calcination at temperatures in excess of 850 C for approximately 16 hours, single phase crystalline MgCZP powders with particle sizes ranging from approximately 20 nm to 50 nm result. The MgCZP powders are then sintered at temperatures ranging from 1200 C to 1350 C to form solid macrostructures with near-zero bulk coefficients of thermal expansion and low thermal conductivities. Porous macrostructures of the MgCZP powders of the present invention are also formed by combination with a polymeric powder and a binding agent, and sintering at high temperatures. The porosity of the resulting macrostructures can be adjusted by varying the particle size of the polymeric powder used. 7 figs.

  7. Cluster expansion modeling and Monte Carlo simulation of alnico 5–7 permanent magnets

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Nguyen, Manh Cuong; Zhao, Xin; Wang, Cai -Zhuang; Ho, Kai -Ming

    2015-03-05

    The concerns about the supply and resource of rare earth (RE) metals have generated a lot of interests in searching for high performance RE-free permanent magnets. Alnico alloys are traditional non-RE permanent magnets and have received much attention recently due their good performance at high temperature. In this paper, we develop an accurate and efficient cluster expansion energy model for alnico 5–7. Monte Carlo simulations using the cluster expansion method are performed to investigate the structure of alnico 5–7 at atomistic and nano scales. The alnico 5–7 master alloy is found to decompose into FeCo-rich and NiAl-rich phases at lowmore » temperature. The boundary between these two phases is quite sharp (~2 nm) for a wide range of temperature. The compositions of the main constituents in these two phases become higher when the temperature gets lower. Both FeCo-rich and NiAl-rich phases are in B2 ordering with Fe and Al on α-site and Ni and Co on β-site. The degree of order of the NiAl-rich phase is much higher than that of the FeCo-rich phase. In addition, a small magnetic moment is also observed in NiAl-rich phase but the moment reduces as the temperature is lowered, implying that the magnetic properties of alnico 5–7 could be improved by lowering annealing temperature to diminish the magnetism in NiAl-rich phase. Furthermore, the results from our Monte Carlo simulations are consistent with available experimental results.« less

  8. Derivative expansion of the effective action for quantum electrodynamics in 2+1 and 3+1 dimensions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gusynin, V.P.; Shovkovy, I.A.

    1999-11-01

    The derivative expansion of the one-loop effective action in QED{sub 3} and QED{sub 4} (quantum electrodynamics) is considered. The first term in such an expansion is the effective action for a constant electromagnetic field. An explicit expression for the next term containing two derivatives of the field strength F{sub {mu}{nu}}, but exact in the magnitude of the field strength, is obtained. The general results for both fermion and scalar electrodynamics are presented. The cases of pure electric and pure magnetic external fields are considered in detail. The Feynman technique for the perturbative expansion of the one-loop effective action in the number of derivatives is developed. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}

  9. Suppression of somatic expansion delays the onset of pathophysiology in a mouse model of Huntington’s Disease

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Budworth, Helen; Harris, Faye R.; Williams, Paul; Lee, Do Yup; Holt, Amy; Pahnke, Jens; Szczesny, Bartosz; Acevedo-Torres, Karina; Ayala-Peña, Sylvette; McMurray, Cynthia T.; et al

    2015-08-06

    Huntington’s Disease (HD) is caused by inheritance of a single disease-length allele harboring an expanded CAG repeat, which continues to expand in somatic tissues with age. The inherited disease allele expresses a toxic protein, and whether further somatic expansion adds to toxicity is unknown. We have created an HD mouse model that resolves the effects of the inherited and somatic expansions. We show here that suppressing somatic expansion substantially delays the onset of disease in littermates that inherit the same disease-length allele. Furthermore, a pharmacological inhibitor, XJB-5-131, inhibits the lengthening of the repeat tracks, and correlates with rescue of motormore » decline in these animals. The results provide evidence that pharmacological approaches to offset disease progression are possible.« less

  10. Suppression of somatic expansion delays the onset of pathophysiology in a mouse model of Huntington’s Disease

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Budworth, Helen; Harris, Faye R.; Williams, Paul; Lee, Do Yup; Holt, Amy; Pahnke, Jens; Szczesny, Bartosz; Acevedo-Torres, Karina; Ayala-Peña, Sylvette; McMurray, Cynthia T.; McKinnon, Peter

    2015-08-06

    Huntington’s Disease (HD) is caused by inheritance of a single disease-length allele harboring an expanded CAG repeat, which continues to expand in somatic tissues with age. The inherited disease allele expresses a toxic protein, and whether further somatic expansion adds to toxicity is unknown. We have created an HD mouse model that resolves the effects of the inherited and somatic expansions. We show here that suppressing somatic expansion substantially delays the onset of disease in littermates that inherit the same disease-length allele. Furthermore, a pharmacological inhibitor, XJB-5-131, inhibits the lengthening of the repeat tracks, and correlates with rescue of motor decline in these animals. The results provide evidence that pharmacological approaches to offset disease progression are possible.

  11. Advanced Methods for Incorporating Solar Energy Technologies into Electric Sector Capacity-Expansion Models: Literature Review and Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sullivan, P.; Eurek, K.; Margolis, R.

    2014-07-01

    Because solar power is a rapidly growing component of the electricity system, robust representations of solar technologies should be included in capacity-expansion models. This is a challenge because modeling the electricity system--and, in particular, modeling solar integration within that system--is a complex endeavor. This report highlights the major challenges of incorporating solar technologies into capacity-expansion models and shows examples of how specific models address those challenges. These challenges include modeling non-dispatchable technologies, determining which solar technologies to model, choosing a spatial resolution, incorporating a solar resource assessment, and accounting for solar generation variability and uncertainty.

  12. Evolution of entanglement under echo dynamics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prosen, Tomaz; Znidaric, Marko [Physics Department, FMF, University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Seligman, Thomas H. [Centro de Ciencias Fisicas, University of Mexico (UNAM), Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    2003-04-01

    Echo dynamics and fidelity are often used to discuss stability in quantum-information processing and quantum chaos. Yet fidelity yields no information about entanglement, the characteristic property of quantum mechanics. We study the evolution of entanglement in echo dynamics. We find qualitatively different behavior between integrable and chaotic systems on one hand and between random and coherent initial states for integrable systems on the other. For the latter the evolution of entanglement is given by a classical time scale. Analytic results are illustrated numerically in a Jaynes-Cummings model.

  13. Very Large System Dynamics Models - Lessons Learned

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jacob J. Jacobson; Leonard Malczynski

    2008-10-01

    This paper provides lessons learned from developing several large system dynamics (SD) models. System dynamics modeling practice emphasize the need to keep models small so that they are manageable and understandable. This practice is generally reasonable and prudent; however, there are times that large SD models are necessary. This paper outlines two large SD projects that were done at two Department of Energy National Laboratories, the Idaho National Laboratory and Sandia National Laboratories. This paper summarizes the models and then discusses some of the valuable lessons learned during these two modeling efforts.

  14. Dynamics of capillary condensation in aerogels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nomura, R.; Miyashita, W.; Yoneyama, K.; Okuda, Y. [Department of Condensed Matter Physics, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 O-okayama, Meguro, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan)

    2006-03-15

    Dynamics of capillary condensation of liquid {sup 4}He in various density silica aerogels was investigated systematically. Interfaces were clearly visible when bulk liquid was rapidly sucked into the aerogel. Time evolution of the interface positions was consistent with the Washburn model and their effective pore radii were obtained. Condensation was a single step in a dense aerogel and two steps in a low density aerogel. Crossover between the two types of condensation was observed in an intermediate density aerogel. Variety of the dynamics may be the manifestation of the fractal nature of aerogels which had a wide range of distribution of pore radii.

  15. Influence of magnetic field on laser-produced barium plasmas: Spectral and dynamic behaviour of neutral and ionic species

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Raju, Makaraju Srinivasa; Gopinath, Pramod, E-mail: pramod@iist.ac.in [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Space Science and Technology, Thiruvananthapuram 695547 (India); Singh, R. K.; Kumar, Ajai [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382428 (India)

    2014-10-21

    The expansion dynamics and spectral behaviour of plasma produced by a Nd:YAG laser (?=1.064 ?m, pulse width: 8 ns) from barium target and expanding in 0.45 T transverse magnetic field in vacuum (10??Torr pressure) are investigated using time-of-flight optical emission spectroscopy. The experiments are carried out at various laser fluences from 12 to 31 J/cm. The temporal profiles of neutral (Ba I 553.5 and 577.7 nm) lines are temporally broadened, while that of ionic (Ba II 413.0 and 455.4 nm) lines show strong confinement in the presence of a magnetic field. In the absence of magnetic field, the temporal profile of Ba I 553.5 nm is exactly reproduced by fitting with two Shifted Maxwell Boltzmann (SMB) Distribution components, while in the presence of a magnetic field the profile could only be fitted with three components. The field enhanced and field induced SMB components of neutral profile are correlated with populations of ground state, metastable states, and long-lived Rydberg states present in the barium plasma, while SMB components of ionic lines are explained on the basis of the presence of super-elastic collisions among the excited species in the plasma. The spatial variation of electron temperature and temporal variation of electron density are deduced and correlated to the different collisional processes in the barium plasma. The ionic profiles show efficient confinement in the presence of a magnetic field at higher fluences.

  16. Want to Put an End to Capacity Markets? Think Real-Time Pricing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reeder, Mark

    2006-07-15

    The amount of generation capacity that must be installed to meet resource adequacy requirements often causes the energy market to be suppressed to the point that it fails to produce sufficient revenues to attract new entry. A significant expansion in the use of real-time pricing can, over time, cause the energy market to become a more bountiful source of revenues for generators, allowing the elimination of the capacity market. (author)

  17. Brownian Dynamics Simulation of Protein Solutions: Structural and Dynamical Properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mereghetti, Paolo; Gabdoulline, Razif; Wade, Rebecca C.

    2010-12-01

    The study of solutions of biomacromolecules provides an important basis for understanding the behavior of many fundamental cellular processes, such as protein folding, self-assembly, biochemical reactions, and signal transduction. Here, we describe a Brownian dynamics simulation procedure and its validation for the study of the dynamic and structural properties of protein solutions. In the model used, the proteins are treated as atomically detailed rigid bodies moving in a continuum solvent. The protein-protein interaction forces are described by the sum of electrostatic interaction, electrostatic desolvation, nonpolar desolvation, and soft-core repulsion terms. The linearized Poisson-Boltzmann equation is solved to compute electrostatic terms. Simulations of homogeneous solutions of three different proteins with varying concentrations, pH, and ionic strength were performed. The results were compared to experimental data and theoretical values in terms of long-time self-diffusion coefficients, second virial coefficients, and structure factors. The results agree with the experimental trends and, in many cases, experimental values are reproduced quantitatively. There are no parameters specific to certain protein types in the interaction model, and hence the model should be applicable to the simulation of the behavior of mixtures of macromolecules in cell-like crowded environments.

  18. Modeling of Reactor Kinetics and Dynamics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matthew Johnson; Scott Lucas; Pavel Tsvetkov

    2010-09-01

    In order to model a full fuel cycle in a nuclear reactor, it is necessary to simulate the short time-scale kinetic behavior of the reactor as well as the long time-scale dynamics that occur with fuel burnup. The former is modeled using the point kinetics equations, while the latter is modeled by coupling fuel burnup equations with the kinetics equations. When the equations are solved simultaneously with a nonlinear equation solver, the end result is a code with the unique capability of modeling transients at any time during a fuel cycle.

  19. MATHEMATICAL MODELS OF HYSTERESIS (DYNAMIC PROBLEMS IN HYSTERESIS)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Professor Isaak Mayergoyz

    2006-08-21

    This research has further advanced the current state of the art in the areas of dynamic aspects of hysteresis and nonlinear large scale magnetization dynamics. The results of this research will find important engineering applications in the areas of magnetic data storage technology and the emerging technology of “spintronics”. Our research efforts have been focused on the following tasks: • Study of fast (pulse) precessional switching of magnetization in magnetic materials. • Analysis of critical fields and critical angles for precessional switching of magnetization. • Development of inverse problem approach to the design of magnetic field pulses for precessional switching of magnetization. • Study of magnetization dynamics induced by spin polarized current injection. • Construction of complete stability diagrams for spin polarized current induced magnetization dynamics. • Development of the averaging technique for the analysis of the slow time scale magnetization dynamics. • Study of thermal effects on magnetization dynamics by using the theory of stochastic processes on graphs.

  20. Time of Flight

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    beam is pulsed, the energy of the neutrons that are produced can be determined by Time-of-Flight (TOF) techniques. Neutron Time-of-Flight Since the LANSCE proton beam is...

  1. Drama in Dynamics: Boom, Splash, and Speed

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heather Marie Netzloff

    2004-12-19

    The full nature of chemistry and physics cannot be captured by static calculations alone. Dynamics calculations allow the simulation of time-dependent phenomena. This facilitates both comparisons with experimental data and the prediction and interpretation of details not easily obtainable from experiments. Simulations thus provide a direct link between theory and experiment, between microscopic details of a system and macroscopic observed properties. Many types of dynamics calculations exist. The most important distinction between the methods and the decision of which method to use can be described in terms of the size and type of molecule/reaction under consideration and the type and level of accuracy required in the final properties of interest. These considerations must be balanced with available computational codes and resources as simulations to mimic ''real-life'' may require many time steps. As indicated in the title, the theme of this thesis is dynamics. The goal is to utilize the best type of dynamics for the system under study while trying to perform dynamics in the most accurate way possible. As a quantum chemist, this involves some level of first principles calculations by default. Very accurate calculations of small molecules and molecular systems are now possible with relatively high-level ab initio quantum chemistry. For example, a quantum chemical potential energy surface (PES) can be developed ''on-the-fly'' with dynamic reaction path (DRP) methods. In this way a classical trajectory is developed without prior knowledge of the PES. In order to treat solvation processes and the condensed phase, large numbers of molecules are required, especially in predicting bulk behavior. The Effective Fragment Potential (EFP) method for solvation decreases the cost of a fully quantum mechanical calculation by dividing a chemical system into an ab initio region that contains the solute and an ''effective fragment'' region that contains the remaining solvent molecules. But, despite the reduced cost relative to fully QM calculations, the EFP method, due to its complex, QM-based potential, does require more computation time than simple interaction potentials, especially when the method is used for large scale molecular dynamics simulations. Thus, the EFP method was parallelized to facilitate these calculations within the quantum chemistry program GAMESS. The EFP method provides relative energies and structures that are in excellent agreement with the analogous fully quantum results for small water clusters. The ability of the method to predict bulk water properties with a comparable accuracy is assessed by performing EFP molecular dynamics simulations. Molecular dynamics simulations can provide properties that are directly comparable with experimental results, for example radial distribution functions. The molecular PES is a fundamental starting point for chemical reaction dynamics. Many methods can be used to obtain a PES; for example, assuming a global functional form for the PES or, as mentioned above, performing ''on-the-fly'' dynamics with Al or semi-empirical calculations at every molecular configuration. But as the size of the system grows, using electronic structure theory to build a PES and, therefore, study reaction dynamics becomes virtually impossible. The program Grow builds a PES as an interpolation of Al data; the goal is to attempt to produce an accurate PES with the smallest number of Al calculations. The Grow-GAMESS interface was developed to obtain the Al data from GAMESS. Classical or quantum dynamics can be performed on the resulting surface. The interface includes the novel capability to build multi-reference PESs; these types of calculations are applicable to problems ranging from atmospheric chemistry to photochemical reaction mechanisms in organic and inorganic chemistry to fundamental biological phenomena such as photosynthesis.

  2. Time-Resolved

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and time) three correspond to the three broad categories of synchrotron experimental measurement techniques: spectroscopy (energy), scattering (momentum), and imaging...

  3. A Numerical Model For The Dynamics Of Pyroclastic Flows At Galeras...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    with the time; (2) dynamic pressure change; and (3) particle concentration along the computer domain from the eruption to the impact with a topographic barrier located more than...

  4. Substructured multibody molecular dynamics.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grest, Gary Stephen; Stevens, Mark Jackson; Plimpton, Steven James; Woolf, Thomas B. (Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD); Lehoucq, Richard B.; Crozier, Paul Stewart; Ismail, Ahmed E.; Mukherjee, Rudranarayan M. (Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY); Draganescu, Andrei I.

    2006-11-01

    We have enhanced our parallel molecular dynamics (MD) simulation software LAMMPS (Large-scale Atomic/Molecular Massively Parallel Simulator, lammps.sandia.gov) to include many new features for accelerated simulation including articulated rigid body dynamics via coupling to the Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute code POEMS (Parallelizable Open-source Efficient Multibody Software). We use new features of the LAMMPS software package to investigate rhodopsin photoisomerization, and water model surface tension and capillary waves at the vapor-liquid interface. Finally, we motivate the recipes of MD for practitioners and researchers in numerical analysis and computational mechanics.

  5. Dynamic cable analysis models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Palo, P.A.; Meggitt, D.J.; Nordell, W.J.

    1983-05-01

    This paper presents a summary of the development and validation of undersea cable dynamics computer models by the Naval Civil Engineering Laboratory (NCEL) under the sponsorship of the Naval Facilities Engineering Command. These models allow for the analysis of both small displacement (strumming) and large displacement (static and dynamic) deformations of arbitrarily configured cable structures. All of the large displacement models described in this paper are available to the public. This paper does not emphasize the theoretical development of the models (this information is available in other references) but emphasizes the various features of the models, the comparisons between model output and experimental data, and applications for which the models have been used.

  6. Ultrafast studies of solution dynamics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Woodruff, W.H.; Dyer, R.B.; Callender, R.H.

    1997-10-01

    This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Fast chemical dynamics generally must be initiated photochemically. This limits the applicability of modern laser methods for following the structural changes that occur during chemical and biological reactions to those systems that have an electronic chromophore that has a significant yield of photoproduct when excited. This project has developed a new and entirely general approach to ultrafast initiation of reactions in solution: laser-induced temperature jump (T-jump). The results open entire new fields of study of ultrafast molecular dynamics in solution. The authors have demonstrated the T-jump technique on time scales of 50 ps and longer, and have applied it to study of the fast events in protein folding. They find that a general lifetime of alpha-helix formation is ca 100 ns, and that tertiary folds (in apomyoglobin) form in ca 100 {mu}s.

  7. LHC RF System Time-Domain Simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mastorides, T.; Rivetta, C.

    2010-09-14

    Non-linear time-domain simulations have been developed for the Positron-Electron Project (PEP-II) and the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). These simulations capture the dynamic behavior of the RF station-beam interaction and are structured to reproduce the technical characteristics of the system (noise contributions, non-linear elements, and more). As such, they provide useful results and insight for the development and design of future LLRF feedback systems. They are also a valuable tool for the study of diverse longitudinal beam dynamics effects such as coupled-bunch impedance driven instabilities and single bunch longitudinal emittance growth. Results from these studies and related measurements from PEP-II and LHC have been presented in multiple places. This report presents an example of the time-domain simulation implementation for the LHC.

  8. Measurements of the asymmetric, dynamic sheath around a pulse biased sphere immersed in flowing metal plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anders, Andre; Wu, Hongchen; Anders, Andre

    2008-06-13

    A long-probe technique was utilized to record the expansion and retreat of the dynamic sheath around a spherical substrate immersed in pulsed cathode arc metal plasma. Positively biased, long cylindrical probes were placed on the side and downstream of a negatively pulsed biased stainless steel sphere of 1" (25.4 mm) diameter. The amplitude and width of the negative high voltage pulses (HVP) were 2 kV, 5 kV, 10 kV, and 2 mu s, 4 mu s, 10 mu s, respectively. The variation of the probe (electron) current during the HVP is a direct measure for the sheath expansion and retreat. Maximum sheath sizes were determined for the different parameters of the HVP. The expected rarefaction zone behind the biased sphere (wake) due to the fast plasma flow was clearly established and quantified.

  9. Gas/solvent-induced transformation and expansion of a nonporous solid to 1:1 host guest form

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thallapally, Praveen K.; McGrail, B. Peter; Dalgarno, Scott J.; Atwood, Jerry L.

    2008-07-01

    Herein we report the gas (CO2, N2O and propane) and solvent (CS2 and acetone) induced transformation and expansion of guest free thermodynamic form of a p-tert-butylcalix [4]arene to 1:1 host guest form.

  10. Extrusion-formed uranium-2.4 wt. % article with decreased linear thermal expansion and method for making the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, Robert C. (Crossville, TN); Jones, Jack M. (Oak Ridge, TN); Kollie, Thomas G. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1982-01-01

    The present invention is directed to the fabrication of an article of uranium-2.4 wt. % niobium alloy in which the linear thermal expansion in the direction transverse to the extrusion direction is less than about 0.98% between 22.degree. C. and 600.degree. C. which corresponds to a value greater than the 1.04% provided by previous extrusion operations over the same temperature range. The article with the improved thermal expansion possesses a yield strength at 0.2% offset of at least 400 MPa, an ultimate tensile strength of 1050 MPa, a compressive yield strength of at least 0.2% offset of at least 675 MPa, and an elongation of at least 25% over 25.4 mm/sec. To provide this article with the improved thermal expansion, the uranium alloy billet is heated to 630.degree. C. and extruded in the alpha phase through a die with a reduction ratio of at least 8.4:1 at a ram speed no greater than 6.8 mm/sec. These critical extrusion parameters provide the article with the desired decrease in the linear thermal expansion while maintaining the selected mechanical properties without encountering crystal disruption in the article.

  11. Application of optimal prediction to molecular dynamics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barber IV, John Letherman

    2004-12-01

    Optimal prediction is a general system reduction technique for large sets of differential equations. In this method, which was devised by Chorin, Hald, Kast, Kupferman, and Levy, a projection operator formalism is used to construct a smaller system of equations governing the dynamics of a subset of the original degrees of freedom. This reduced system consists of an effective Hamiltonian dynamics, augmented by an integral memory term and a random noise term. Molecular dynamics is a method for simulating large systems of interacting fluid particles. In this thesis, I construct a formalism for applying optimal prediction to molecular dynamics, producing reduced systems from which the properties of the original system can be recovered. These reduced systems require significantly less computational time than the original system. I initially consider first-order optimal prediction, in which the memory and noise terms are neglected. I construct a pair approximation to the renormalized potential, and ignore three-particle and higher interactions. This produces a reduced system that correctly reproduces static properties of the original system, such as energy and pressure, at low-to-moderate densities. However, it fails to capture dynamical quantities, such as autocorrelation functions. I next derive a short-memory approximation, in which the memory term is represented as a linear frictional force with configuration-dependent coefficients. This allows the use of a Fokker-Planck equation to show that, in this regime, the noise is {delta}-correlated in time. This linear friction model reproduces not only the static properties of the original system, but also the autocorrelation functions of dynamical variables.

  12. Dynamic Event Tree Analysis Through RAVEN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    A. Alfonsi; C. Rabiti; D. Mandelli; J. Cogliati; R. A. Kinoshita; A. Naviglio

    2013-09-01

    Conventional Event-Tree (ET) based methodologies are extensively used as tools to perform reliability and safety assessment of complex and critical engineering systems. One of the disadvantages of these methods is that timing/sequencing of events and system dynamics is not explicitly accounted for in the analysis. In order to overcome these limitations several techniques, also know as Dynamic Probabilistic Risk Assessment (D-PRA), have been developed. Monte-Carlo (MC) and Dynamic Event Tree (DET) are two of the most widely used D-PRA methodologies to perform safety assessment of Nuclear Power Plants (NPP). In the past two years, the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has developed its own tool to perform Dynamic PRA: RAVEN (Reactor Analysis and Virtual control ENvironment). RAVEN has been designed in a high modular and pluggable way in order to enable easy integration of different programming languages (i.e., C++, Python) and coupling with other application including the ones based on the MOOSE framework, developed by INL as well. RAVEN performs two main tasks: 1) control logic driver for the new Thermo-Hydraulic code RELAP-7 and 2) post-processing tool. In the first task, RAVEN acts as a deterministic controller in which the set of control logic laws (user defined) monitors the RELAP-7 simulation and controls the activation of specific systems. Moreover, RAVEN also models stochastic events, such as components failures, and performs uncertainty quantification. Such stochastic modeling is employed by using both MC and DET algorithms. In the second task, RAVEN processes the large amount of data generated by RELAP-7 using data-mining based algorithms. This paper focuses on the first task and shows how it is possible to perform the analysis of dynamic stochastic systems using the newly developed RAVEN DET capability. As an example, the Dynamic PRA analysis, using Dynamic Event Tree, of a simplified pressurized water reactor for a Station Black-Out scenario is presented.

  13. Plasma channel and Z-pinch dynamics for heavy ion transport

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ponce-Marquez, David

    2002-07-09

    A self stabilized, free standing, z-pinch plasma channel has been proposed to deliver the high intensity heavy ion beam from the end of a driver to the fuel target in a heavy ion inertial fusion power plant. The z-pinch relaxes emittance and energy spread requirements requiring a lower cost driver. A z-pinch transport would reduce the number of beam entry port holes to the target chamber from over a hundred to four as compared to neutralized ballistic focusing thus reducing the driver hardware exposure to neutron flux. Experiments where a double pulse discharge technique is used, z-pinch plasma channels with enhanced stability are achieved. Typical parameters are 7 kV pre-pulse discharge and 30 kV main bank discharge with 50 kA of channel current in a 7 torr background gas atmosphere. This work is an experimental study of these plasma channels examining the relevant physics necessary to understand and model such plasmas. Laser diagnostics measured the dynamical properties of neutrals and plasma. Schlieren and phase contrast techniques probe the pre-pulse gas dynamics and infrared interferometry and faraday effect polarimetry are used on the z-pinch to study its electron density and current distribution. Stability and repeatability of the z-pinch depend on the initial conditions set by the pre-pulse. Results show that the z-pinch channel is wall stabilized by an on-axis gas density depression created by the pre-pulse through hydrodynamic expansion where the ratio of the initial gas density to the final gas density is > 10/1. The low on-axis density favors avalanching along the desired path for the main bank discharge. Pinch time is around 2 s from the main bank discharge initiation with a FWHM of {approx} 2 cm. Results also show that typical main bank discharge plasma densities reach 10{sup 17} cm{sup -3} peak on axis for a 30 kV, 7 torr gas nitrogen discharge. Current rise time is limited by the circuit-channel inductance with the highest contribution to the impedance due to the plasma. There is no direct evidence of surface currents due to high frequency skin effects and magnetic field experiments indicate that > 70% of the current carried by the channel is enclosed within FWHM of the channel. Code-experiment benchmark comparisons show that simulations capture the main mechanisms of the channel evolution, but complete atomic models need to be incorporated.

  14. Computational simulation of dynamic impact problems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Muenz, T.W.; Rix, K.S.; Willam, K.J.

    1996-12-31

    Recent advances of computing methods make it possible to examine dynamic failure and complicated contact-impact load scenarios in time and space. The response simulation for these extreme load conditions needs to capture dynamic contact between the impactor and the deformable target and progressive failure in the target. Independently from the impact scenario, two basic approaches may be used to describe the failure process in an appropriate manner, namely the Discrete Failure Approach and the Smeared Failure Approach. In the contribution the dynamic impact of a pendulum test and the failure scenario in notched cylindrical specimens (Charpy-type IZOD test) are examined using the explicit dynamic finite element code DYNA3D. The study focuses on the question, whether the smeared crack approach is able to capture the dynamic failure process using von Mises plasticity with a plastic strain-based failure limiter. The computational results indicate that upon consistent mesh refinement the overall energy dissipation approaches the value observed in laboratory experiments.

  15. Real Time Simulation of Power Grid Disruptions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chinthavali, Supriya; Dimitrovski, Aleksandar D; Fernandez, Steven J; Groer, Christopher S; Nutaro, James J; Olama, Mohammed M; Omitaomu, Olufemi A; Shankar, Mallikarjun; Spafford, Kyle L; Vacaliuc, Bogdan

    2012-11-01

    DOE-OE and DOE-SC workshops (Reference 1-3) identified the key power grid problem that requires insight addressable by the next generation of exascale computing is coupling of real-time data streams (1-2 TB per hour) as the streams are ingested to dynamic models. These models would then identify predicted disruptions in time (2-4 seconds) to trigger the smart grid s self healing functions. This project attempted to establish the feasibility of this approach and defined the scientific issues, and demonstrated example solutions to important smart grid simulation problems. These objectives were accomplished by 1) using the existing frequency recorders on the national grid to establish a representative and scalable real-time data stream; 2) invoking ORNL signature identification algorithms; 3) modeling dynamically a representative region of the Eastern interconnect using an institutional cluster, measuring the scalability and computational benchmarks for a national capability; and 4) constructing a prototype simulation for the system s concept of smart grid deployment. The delivered ORNL enduring capability included: 1) data processing and simulation metrics to design a national capability justifying exascale applications; 2) Software and intellectual property built around the example solutions; 3) demonstrated dynamic models to design few second self-healing.

  16. Dynamics of charge clouds ejected from laser-induced warm dense gold nanofilms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, Jun; Li, Junjie; Correa, Alfredo A.; Tang, Shao; Ping, Yuan; Ogitsu, Tadashi; Li, Dong; Zhou, Qiong; Cao, Jianming

    2014-10-24

    We report the first systematic study of the ejected charge dynamics surrounding laser-produced 30- nm warm dense gold films using single-shot femtosecond electron shadow imaging and deflectometry. The results reveal a two-step dynamical process of the ejected electrons under the high pump fluence conditions: an initial emission and accumulation of a large amount of electrons near the pumped surface region followed by the formation of hemispherical clouds of electrons on both sides of the film, which are escaping into the vacuum at a nearly isotropic and constant velocity with an unusually high kinetic energy of more than 300 eV. We also developed a model of the escaping charge distribution that not only reproduces the main features of the observed charge expansion dynamics but also allows us to extract the number of ejected electrons remaining in the cloud.

  17. Dynamics of charge clouds ejected from laser-induced warm dense gold nanofilms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, Jun; Li, Junjie; Correa, Alfredo A.; Tang, Shao; Ping, Yuan; Ogitsu, Tadashi; Li, Dong; Zhou, Qiong; Cao, Jianming

    2014-10-24

    We report the first systematic study of the ejected charge dynamics surrounding laser-produced 30-nm warm dense gold films using single-shot femtosecond electron shadow imaging and deflectometry. The results reveal a two-step dynamical process of the ejected electrons under the high pump fluence conditions: an initial emission and accumulation of a large amount of electrons near the pumped surface region followed by the formation of hemispherical clouds of electrons on both sides of the film, which are escaping into the vacuum at a nearly isotropic and constant velocity with an unusually high kinetic energy of more than 300 eV. We also developed a model of the escaping charge distribution that not only reproduces the main features of the observed charge expansion dynamics but also allows us to extract the number of ejected electrons remaining in the cloud.

  18. Dynamics of charge clouds ejected from laser-induced warm dense gold nanofilms

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhou, Jun; Li, Junjie; Correa, Alfredo A.; Tang, Shao; Ping, Yuan; Ogitsu, Tadashi; Li, Dong; Zhou, Qiong; Cao, Jianming

    2014-10-24

    We report the first systematic study of the ejected charge dynamics surrounding laser-produced 30-nm warm dense gold films using single-shot femtosecond electron shadow imaging and deflectometry. The results reveal a two-step dynamical process of the ejected electrons under the high pump fluence conditions: an initial emission and accumulation of a large amount of electrons near the pumped surface region followed by the formation of hemispherical clouds of electrons on both sides of the film, which are escaping into the vacuum at a nearly isotropic and constant velocity with an unusually high kinetic energy of more than 300 eV. We alsomore » developed a model of the escaping charge distribution that not only reproduces the main features of the observed charge expansion dynamics but also allows us to extract the number of ejected electrons remaining in the cloud.« less

  19. Influence of NaA Zeolite Crystal Expansion/Contraction on Zeolite Membrane Separations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sorenson, Stephanie G; Payzant, E Andrew; Gibbons, Will T; Soydas, Belma; Kita, Hidetoshi; Noble, Richard D; Falconer, John L.

    2011-01-01

    In-situ powder XRD measurements showed that the NaA zeolite unit cell contracts and expands upon adsorption, and these changes in zeolite crystal size correlate with permeation changes through NaA zeolite membranes. These membranes had high pervaporation selectivities, even though gas permeation was mainly through defects, as indicated by Knudsen selectivities for gases. At 300 K and a thermodynamic activity of 0.03, water contracted the NaA crystals by 0.22 vol%, and this contraction increased the helium flux through two NaA membranes by approximately 80%. Crystal contraction also increased the fluxes of i-butane during vapor permeation and i-propanol (IPA) during pervaporation (~ 0.03 wt% water). At activities above 0.07, water expanded NaA crystals and correspondingly decreased the membrane fluxes of helium, i-butane, and IPA. Similarly, methanol contracted NaA crystals by 0.05 vol% at an activity of 0.02, and this contraction slightly increased the helium and i-butane fluxes through a NaA membrane. Above an activity of 0.06, methanol expanded the crystals, and the fluxes of helium and i-butane through a NaA membrane decreased. The adsorbate-induced changes explain some pervaporation behavior reported by others, and they indicate that crystal expansion and contraction may increase or decrease zeolite NaA membrane selectivity by changing the defect sizes.

  20. Expansion of the 5 DE Noviembre hydroelectric project, El Salvador, C.A.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fuerte, E.G.; Mendoza, V.; Wang, L.L.

    1995-12-31

    With an area of 21,050 square kilometers, the Republic of El Salvador is the smallest country in Central American. El Salvador, independent since 1821, is a democratic country with its President elected by popular vote for a five-year term. The population in El Salvador was estimated at 5.1 million in 1992. Over the period of 1984 to 1993, the peak load of the Comision Ejecutiva Hidroelectrica del Rio Lempa (CEL) system, which serves about 98 percent of the country`s power needs, grew 6.5 percent per year. During the same period the energy generation increased at an annual rate of 6.8 percent. These growths were achieved in spite of the political turmoil and civil war that had gripped the country from 1980 to 1992. Since the end of the civil war, the country has witnessed significant economic recovery and growth. System demands will continue to increase at a rapid rate, due primarily to continued economic recovery and expansion resulting from establishment of the now political system. CEL generating facilities will be undergoing significant rehabilitation to correct the problems accumulated over the civil war period.

  1. Implementation and validation of the variational nodal expansion method core simulator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mullet, S.; Tsuiki, M.; Beere, W.; Sandberg, U.; Nylen, H.

    2012-07-01

    The variational nodal expansion method (VNEM) has been developed by the OECD Halden Reactor Project for the purpose of implementation into a full-core simulator. This version of the VNEM does not make use of the diffusion approximation, but instead provides a fast converged solution to the even-parity neutron transport equation in several minutes using nodal methods and variational techniques. This 'method to simulator' implementation has been completed and the VNEM-simulator is currently undergoing continued validation efforts to ensure that it can track more nuclear reactor cycles effectively. This paper presents the results of the most recent development on the 3D VNEM core simulator implementation and validation efforts. The method is briefly described and data is presented and discussed for three cases for the initial criticality tests at the beginning of life, hot stand-by state for the Ringhals-3 PWR. Also presented here are the results for one year of operation of the maiden cycle of this unit. The effective neutron multiplication factor, k{sub eff}, and relative neutron detector readings are compared showing excellent agreement. (authors)

  2. Measurement of total ultrasonic power using thermal expansion and change in buoyancy of an absorbing target

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dubey, P. K. Kumar, Yudhisther; Gupta, Reeta; Jain, Anshul; Gohiya, Chandrashekhar

    2014-05-15

    The Radiation Force Balance (RFB) technique is well established and most widely used for the measurement of total ultrasonic power radiated by ultrasonic transducer. The technique is used as a primary standard for calibration of ultrasonic transducers with relatively fair uncertainty in the low power (below 1 W) regime. In this technique, uncertainty comparatively increases in the range of few watts wherein the effects such as thermal heating of the target, cavitations, and acoustic streaming dominate. In addition, error in the measurement of ultrasonic power is also caused due to movement of absorber at relatively high radiated force which occurs at high power level. In this article a new technique is proposed which does not measure the balance output during transducer energized state as done in RFB. It utilizes the change in buoyancy of the absorbing target due to local thermal heating. The linear thermal expansion of the target changes the apparent mass in water due to buoyancy change. This forms the basis for the measurement of ultrasonic power particularly in watts range. The proposed method comparatively reduces uncertainty caused by various ultrasonic effects that occur at high power such as overshoot due to momentum of target at higher radiated force. The functionality of the technique has been tested and compared with the existing internationally recommended RFB technique.

  3. The baryon vector current in the combined chiral and 1/Nc expansions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Flores-Mendieta, Ruben; Goity, Jose L

    2014-12-01

    The baryon vector current is computed at one-loop order in large-Nc baryon chiral perturbation theory, where Nc is the number of colors. Loop graphs with octet and decuplet intermediate states are systematically incorporated into the analysis and the effects of the decuplet-octet mass difference and SU(3) flavor symmetry breaking are accounted for. There are large-Nc cancellations between different one-loop graphs as a consequence of the large-Nc spin-flavor symmetry of QCD baryons. The results are compared against the available experimental data through several fits in order to extract information about the unknown parameters. The large-Nc baryon chiral perturbation theory predictions are in very good agreement both with the expectations from the 1/Nc expansion and with the experimental data. The effect of SU(3) flavor symmetry breaking for the |Delta S|=1 vector current form factors f1(0) results in a reduction by a few percent with respect to the corresponding SU(3) symmetric values.

  4. The relative variational model: A topological view of matter and its properties: Thermal expansion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dias, M. S.; De Vasconcelos, V.; Mattos, J. R. L.; Jordao, E.

    2012-07-01

    Formal definitions of convergence, connected-ness and continuity were established to characterize and describe the crystalline solid and its properties as a unified notion in the topological space. The crystalline solid is a previously empty space that has been filled with atoms and phonons, i.e., the crystal is built with packages of matter and energy in a regular and orderly repetitive pattern along three orthogonal dimensions of the space. The spatial occupation of the atom in the crystal structure is determined by its mean vibrational volume. Thus, the changes of volume and the changes of internal energy are intrinsically linked. In fact, physical and material properties are the interdependent and bijective quantifications associated with variations of the internal energy. These properties are modeled by means of an intrinsic and invariable form function: the Relative Variational Model. In this paper, the experimental data of the thermal expansion for the oxides Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and UO{sub 2} were analytically depicted by means of this model in the temperature range of 0 K up to the melting point. (authors)

  5. High-resolution thermal expansion measurements under helium-gas pressure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Manna, Rudra Sekhar; Wolf, Bernd; Souza, Mariano de; Lang, Michael

    2012-08-15

    We report on the realization of a capacitive dilatometer, designed for high-resolution measurements of length changes of a material for temperatures 1.4 K Less-Than-Or-Slanted-Equal-To T Less-Than-Or-Slanted-Equal-To 300 K and hydrostatic pressure P Less-Than-Or-Slanted-Equal-To 250 MPa. Helium ({sup 4}He) is used as a pressure-transmitting medium, ensuring hydrostatic-pressure conditions. Special emphasis has been given to guarantee, to a good approximation, constant-pressure conditions during temperature sweeps. The performance of the dilatometer is demonstrated by measurements of the coefficient of thermal expansion at pressures P Asymptotically-Equal-To 0.1 MPa (ambient pressure) and 104 MPa on a single crystal of azurite, Cu{sub 3}(CO{sub 3}){sub 2}(OH){sub 2}, a quasi-one-dimensional spin S = 1/2 Heisenberg antiferromagnet. The results indicate a strong effect of pressure on the magnetic interactions in this system.

  6. Modeling Climate-Water Impacts on Electricity Sector Capacity Expansion: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cohen, S. M.; Macknick, J.; Averyt, K.; Meldrum, J.

    2014-05-01

    Climate change has the potential to exacerbate water availability concerns for thermal power plant cooling, which is responsible for 41% of U.S. water withdrawals. This analysis describes an initial link between climate, water, and electricity systems using the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Regional Energy Deployment System (ReEDS) electricity system capacity expansion model. Average surface water projections from Coupled Model Intercomparison Project 3 (CMIP3) data are applied to surface water rights available to new generating capacity in ReEDS, and electric sector growth is compared with and without climate-influenced water rights. The mean climate projection has only a small impact on national or regional capacity growth and water use because most regions have sufficient unappropriated or previously retired water rights to offset climate impacts. Climate impacts are notable in southwestern states that purchase fewer water rights and obtain a greater share from wastewater and other higher-cost water resources. The electric sector climate impacts demonstrated herein establish a methodology to be later exercised with more extreme climate scenarios and a more rigorous representation of legal and physical water availability.

  7. ON THE ANISOTROPY IN EXPANSION OF MAGNETIC FLUX TUBES IN THE SOLAR CORONA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malanushenko, A.; Schrijver, C. J.

    2013-10-01

    Most one-dimensional hydrodynamic models of plasma confined to magnetic flux tubes assume circular tube cross sections. We use potential field models to show that flux tubes in circumstances relevant to the solar corona do not, in general, maintain the same cross-sectional shape through their length and therefore the assumption of a circular cross section is rarely true. We support our hypothesis with mathematical reasoning and numerical experiments. We demonstrate that lifting this assumption in favor of realistic, non-circular loops makes the apparent expansion of magnetic flux tubes consistent with that of observed coronal loops. We propose that in a bundle of ribbon-like loops, those that are viewed along the wide direction would stand out against those that are viewed across the wide direction due to the difference in their column depths. That result would impose a bias toward selecting loops that appear not to be expanding, seen projected in the plane of sky. An implication of this selection bias is that the preferentially selected non-circular loops would appear to have increased pressure scale heights even if they are resolved by current instruments.

  8. A study of the mechanism of laser welding defects in low thermal expansion superalloy GH909

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yan, Fei; Wang, Chunming, E-mail: yanxiangfei225@163.com; Wang, Yajun; Hu, Xiyuan; Wang, Tianjiao; Li, Jianmin; Li, Guozhu

    2013-04-15

    In this paper, we describe experimental laser welding of low-thermal-expansion superalloy GH909. The main welding defects of GH909 by laser in the weld are liquation cracks and porosities, including hydrogen and carbon monoxide porosity. The forming mechanism of laser welding defects was investigated. This investigation was conducted using an optical microscope, scanning electron microscope, energy diffraction spectrum, X-ray diffractometer and other methodologies. The results demonstrated that porosities appearing in the central weld were related to incomplete removal of oxide film on the surface of the welding samples. The porosities produced by these bubbles were formed as a result of residual hydrogen or oxygenium in the weld. These elements failed to escape from the weld since laser welding has both a rapid welding speed and cooling rate. The emerging crack in the heat affected zone is a liquation crack and extends along the grain boundary as a result of composition segregation. LavesNi{sub 2}Ti phase with low melting point is a harmful phase, and the stress causes grain boundaries to liquefy, migrate and even crack. Removing the oxides on the surface of the samples before welding and carefully controlling technological parameters can reduce welding defects and improve formation of the GH909 alloy weld. - Highlights: ? It is a new process for the forming of GH909 alloy via laser welding. ? The forming mechanism of laser welding defects in GH909 has been studied. ? It may be a means to improve the efficiency of aircraft engine production.

  9. A compact and miniaturized high resolution capacitance dilatometer for measuring thermal expansion and magnetostriction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuechler, R.; Bauer, T.; Brando, M.; Steglich, F.

    2012-09-15

    We describe the design, construction, calibration, and two different applications of a miniature capacitance dilatometer. The device is suitable for thermal expansion and magnetostriction measurements from 300 K down to about 25 mK, with a resolution of 0.02 A at low temperatures. The main body of the dilatometer is fabricated from a single block of a Be-Cu alloy by electrical discharge milling. This creates an extremely compact high-resolution measuring cell. We have successfully tested and operated dilatometers of this new type with the commonly used physical property measurement system by quantum design, as well as with several other cryogenic refrigeration systems down to 25 mK and in magnetic fields up to 20 T. Here, the capacitance is measured with a commercially available capacitance bridge. Using a piezoelectric rotator from Attocube Systems, the cell can be rotated at T= 25 mK inside of an inner vacuum chamber of 40 mm diameter. The miniaturized design for the one-axis rotation setup allows a rotation of 360 Degree-Sign .

  10. Computing confidence intervals on solution costs for stochastic grid generation expansion problems.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Woodruff, David L..; Watson, Jean-Paul

    2010-12-01

    A range of core operations and planning problems for the national electrical grid are naturally formulated and solved as stochastic programming problems, which minimize expected costs subject to a range of uncertain outcomes relating to, for example, uncertain demands or generator output. A critical decision issue relating to such stochastic programs is: How many scenarios are required to ensure a specific error bound on the solution cost? Scenarios are the key mechanism used to sample from the uncertainty space, and the number of scenarios drives computational difficultly. We explore this question in the context of a long-term grid generation expansion problem, using a bounding procedure introduced by Mak, Morton, and Wood. We discuss experimental results using problem formulations independently minimizing expected cost and down-side risk. Our results indicate that we can use a surprisingly small number of scenarios to yield tight error bounds in the case of expected cost minimization, which has key practical implications. In contrast, error bounds in the case of risk minimization are significantly larger, suggesting more research is required in this area in order to achieve rigorous solutions for decision makers.

  11. Geographic Visualization of Power-Grid Dynamics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2015-06-18

    The visualization enables the simulation analyst to see changes in the frequency through time and space. With this technology, the analyst has a bird's eye view of the frequency at loads and generators as the simulated power system responds to the loss of a generator, spikes in load, and other contingencies. The significance of a contingency to the operation of an electrical power system depends critically on how the resulting tansients evolve in time and space. Consequently, these dynamic events can only be understood when seen in their proper geographic context. this understanding is indispensable to engineers working on the next generation of distributed sensing and control systems for the smart grid. By making possible a natural and intuitive presentation of dynamic behavior, our new visualization technology is a situational-awareness tool for power-system engineers.

  12. Ultrafast carriers dynamics in filled-skutterudites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guo, Liang; Xu, Xianfan; Salvador, James R.

    2015-06-08

    Carrier dynamics of filled-skutterudites, an important class of thermoelectric materials, is investigated using ultrafast optical spectroscopy. By tuning the wavelength of the probe laser, charge transfers at different electronic energy levels are interrogated. Analysis based on the Kramers-Kronig relation explains the complex spectroscopy data, which is mainly due to band filling caused by photo-excited carriers and free carrier absorption. The relaxation time of hot carriers is found to be about 0.40.6 ps, depending on the electronic energy level, and the characteristic time for carrier-phonon equilibrium is about 0.95 ps. These studies of carrier dynamics, which fundamentally determines the transport properties of thermoelectric material, can provide guidance for the design of materials.

  13. Dynamic Line Rating: Research and Policy Evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jake P. Gentle; Kurt S. Myers; Michael R. West

    2014-07-01

    Dynamic Line Rating (DLR) is a smart grid technology that allows the rating of electrical conductors to be increased based on local weather conditions. Overhead lines are conventionally given a conservative rating based on worst case scenarios. We demonstrate that observing the conditions in real time leads to additional capacity and safer operation. This paper provides a report of a pioneering scheme in the United States of America in which DLR has been applied. Thereby, we demonstrate that observing the local weather conditions in real time leads to additional capacity and safer operation. Secondly, we discuss limitations involved. In doing so, we arrive at novel insights which will inform and improve future DLR projects. Third, we provide a policy background and discussion to clarify the technology’s potential and identifies barriers to the imminent adoption of dynamic line rating systems. We provide suggestions for regulatory bodies about possible improvements in policy to encourage adoption of this beneficial technology.

  14. Geographic Visualization of Power-Grid Dynamics

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2015-06-18

    The visualization enables the simulation analyst to see changes in the frequency through time and space. With this technology, the analyst has a bird's eye view of the frequency at loads and generators as the simulated power system responds to the loss of a generator, spikes in load, and other contingencies. The significance of a contingency to the operation of an electrical power system depends critically on how the resulting tansients evolve in time andmore » space. Consequently, these dynamic events can only be understood when seen in their proper geographic context. this understanding is indispensable to engineers working on the next generation of distributed sensing and control systems for the smart grid. By making possible a natural and intuitive presentation of dynamic behavior, our new visualization technology is a situational-awareness tool for power-system engineers.« less

  15. REAL TIME SYSTEM OPERATIONS 2006-2007

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eto, Joseph H.; Parashar, Manu; Lewis, Nancy Jo

    2008-08-15

    The Real Time System Operations (RTSO) 2006-2007 project focused on two parallel technical tasks: (1) Real-Time Applications of Phasors for Monitoring, Alarming and Control; and (2) Real-Time Voltage Security Assessment (RTVSA) Prototype Tool. The overall goal of the phasor applications project was to accelerate adoption and foster greater use of new, more accurate, time-synchronized phasor measurements by conducting research and prototyping applications on California ISO's phasor platform - Real-Time Dynamics Monitoring System (RTDMS) -- that provide previously unavailable information on the dynamic stability of the grid. Feasibility assessment studies were conducted on potential application of this technology for small-signal stability monitoring, validating/improving existing stability nomograms, conducting frequency response analysis, and obtaining real-time sensitivity information on key metrics to assess grid stress. Based on study findings, prototype applications for real-time visualization and alarming, small-signal stability monitoring, measurement based sensitivity analysis and frequency response assessment were developed, factory- and field-tested at the California ISO and at BPA. The goal of the RTVSA project was to provide California ISO with a prototype voltage security assessment tool that runs in real time within California ISO?s new reliability and congestion management system. CERTS conducted a technical assessment of appropriate algorithms, developed a prototype incorporating state-of-art algorithms (such as the continuation power flow, direct method, boundary orbiting method, and hyperplanes) into a framework most suitable for an operations environment. Based on study findings, a functional specification was prepared, which the California ISO has since used to procure a production-quality tool that is now a part of a suite of advanced computational tools that is used by California ISO for reliability and congestion management.

  16. Task Time Tracker

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2013-07-24

    This client-side web app tracks the amount of time spent on arbitrary tasks. It allosw the creation of an unlimited number of arbitrarily named tasks ans via simple interactions, tracks the amount of time spent working on the drfined tasks.

  17. Effects of sudden expansion and contraction flow on pressure drops in the Stirling engine regenerator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hamaguchi, K.; Yamashita, I.; Hirata, K.

    1998-07-01

    The flow losses in the regenerators greatly influence the performance of the Stirling engine. The losses mainly depend on fluid friction through the regenerator matrix, but are also generated in sudden expansion and contraction flow at the regenerator ends. The latter losses can't be neglected in the case of small area ratio (entrance area/cross-sectional area in regenerator). The pressure drops in regenerators are usually estimated assuming a uniform velocity distribution of working gas in the matrices. The estimation results, however, are generally smaller than practical data. The cross-sectional flow areas of the heater and cooler of typical Stirling engines are smaller than the cross- sectional area of the regenerator. The effects of the small flow passage on the velocity distribution of working fluid in the matrix, that is, a flow transition from tubes or channels to a regenerator matrix, can be often confirmed by the discolored matrix. Especially, the lack of a uniform distribution of velocity in the matrix causes increased flow loss and decreased thermal performance. So, it is necessary to understand the quantitative effects of the sudden change in flow area at the regenerator ends on the velocity distribution and pressure drop. In this paper, using matrices made of stacks of wire screens, the effects of the entrance and exit areas and the length of the regenerator on pressure drops are examined by an unidirectional steady flow apparatus. The experimental data are arranged in an empirical equation. The lack of a uniformity of velocity distribution is visualized using smoke-wire methods. The empirical equation presented is applied to the estimation of pressure loss in an actual engine regenerator. The applicability of the equation is examined by comparison of estimated value with engine data in pressure loss.

  18. The GREET Model Expansion for Well-to-Wheels Analysis of Heavy-Duty Vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cai, Hao; Burnham, Andrew; Wang, Michael; Hang, Wen; Vyas, Anant

    2015-05-01

    Heavy-duty vehicles (HDVs) account for a significant portion of the U.S. transportation sector’s fuel consumption, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and air pollutant emissions. In our most recent efforts, we expanded the Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREETTM) model to include life-cycle analysis of HDVs. In particular, the GREET expansion includes the fuel consumption, GHG emissions, and air pollutant emissions of a variety of conventional (i.e., diesel and/or gasoline) HDV types, including Class 8b combination long-haul freight trucks, Class 8b combination short-haul freight trucks, Class 8b dump trucks, Class 8a refuse trucks, Class 8a transit buses, Class 8a intercity buses, Class 6 school buses, Class 6 single-unit delivery trucks, Class 4 single-unit delivery trucks, and Class 2b heavy-duty pickup trucks and vans. These vehicle types were selected to represent the diversity in the U.S. HDV market, and specific weight classes and body types were chosen on the basis of their fuel consumption using the 2002 Vehicle Inventory and Use Survey (VIUS) database. VIUS was also used to estimate the fuel consumption and payload carried for most of the HDV types. In addition, fuel economy projections from the U.S. Energy Information Administration, transit databases, and the literature were examined. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s latest Motor Vehicle Emission Simulator was employed to generate tailpipe air pollutant emissions of diesel and gasoline HDV types.

  19. Use of supercritical fluid solution expansion processes for drug delivery, particle synthesis, and thin film deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hybertson, B.M.

    1992-01-01

    Properties of the gases and aerosols resulting from the expansion of supercritical fluid solutions were studied. Film deposition, particle formation, and drug delivery processes using supercritical fluids were developed. Thin films of palladium, copper, aluminum, silver, and silicon dioxide were deposited by a method called supercritical fluid transport-chemical deposition (SFT-CD). In each case, a precursor compound was dissolved in a supercritical fluid and the solution was allowed to expand through a restrictor nozzle into a reaction chamber at subcritical pressure, resulting in the formation of aerosol particles of the precursor. A chemical reaction was induced to occur at the surface of a substrate, resulting in deposition of a thin film. Micron-sized particles of aluminum fluoride and copper oxide were synthesized by a method called supercritical fluid transport-chemical formation of particles (SFT-CFP). The process was similar to that in SFT-CD, but the chemical reactions were induced to occur in the gas phase instead of at a substrate surface, resulting in the formation of fine particles. A new method of pulmonary drug delivery called supercritical fluid drug delivery (SFDD) was conceived and demonstrated. In SFDD a drug compound is dissolved in a supercritical fluid, and the solution is allowed to expand through a restrictor nozzle. The resultant aerosol is directly inhaled by a human or animal subject and the fine drug particles are deposited in the lungs. Menthol, vanillin, camphor, cholesterol, Sudan III, and Oil Blue N were used as model drug compounds for SFDD. Delivery of [alpha]-tocopherol to rat lung tissue was demonstrated, with observed increases of 80-290% above background levels.

  20. Entanglement dynamics in chaotic systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ghose, Shohini [Institute for Quantum Information Science, University of Calgary, Alberta, T2N 1N4 (Canada); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87131 (United States); Sanders, Barry C. [Institute for Quantum Information Science, University of Calgary, Alberta, T2N 1N4 (Canada); Centre for Quantum Computer Technology, Macquarie University, Sydney, New South Wales (Australia)

    2004-12-01

    We study quantum chaos for systems with more than one degree of freedom, for which we present an analysis of the dynamics of entanglement. Our analysis explains the main features of entanglement dynamics and identifies entanglement-based signatures of quantum chaos. We discuss entanglement dynamics for a feasible experiment involving an atom in a magneto-optical trap and compare the results with entanglement dynamics for the well-studied quantum kicked top.

  1. Fluid Dynamics and Solid Mechanics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Solid Mechanics Basic and applied research in theoretical continuum dynamics, modern hydrodynamic theory, materials modeling, global climate modeling, numerical...

  2. Roaming Molecule Dynamics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Roaming Molecule Dynamics - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management Programs

  3. Dynamic Windows Program

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Dynamic Windows Program 2014 Building Technologies Office Peer Review Robert C. Tenent, robert.tenent@nrel.gov National Renewable Energy Laboratory Project Summary Timeline: Start date: October, 2009 Planned end date: September, 2014 Key Milestones 1. Transfer next generation materials to Sage Electrochromics (09/2013) 2. Formation of a laminated electrochromic device employing a PVB based gel electrolyte layer and initial testing under inert condition.(09/2013) 3. Demonstrate new reflective

  4. Beam Dynamics for ARIA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ekdahl, Carl August Jr.

    2014-10-14

    Beam dynamics issues are assessed for a new linear induction electron accelerator being designed for flash radiography of large explosively driven hydrodynamic experiments. Special attention is paid to equilibrium beam transport, possible emittance growth, and beam stability. It is concluded that a radiographic quality beam will be produced possible if engineering standards and construction details are equivalent to those on the present radiography accelerators at Los Alamos.

  5. Dynamical impurity problems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Emery, V.J.; Kivelson, S.A.

    1993-12-31

    In the past few years there has been a resurgence of interest in dynamical impurity problems, as a result of developments in the theory of correlated electron systems. The general dynamical impurity problem is a set of conduction electrons interacting with an impurity which has internal degrees of freedom. The simplest and earliest example, the Kondo problem, has attracted interest since the mid-sixties not only because of its physical importance but also as an example of a model displaying logarithmic divergences order by order in perturbation theory. It provided one of the earliest applications of the renormalization group method, which is designed to deal with just such a situation. As we shall see, the antiferromagnetic Kondo model is controlled by a strong-coupling fixed point, and the essence of the renormalization group solution is to carry out the global renormalization numerically starting from the original (weak-coupling) Hamiltonian. In these lectures, we shall describe an alternative route in which we identify an exactly solvable model which renormalizes to the same fixed point as the original dynamical impurity problem. This approach is akin to determining the critical behavior at a second order phase transition point by solving any model in a given universality class.

  6. Injected Beam Dynamics in SPEAR3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Corbett, Jeff; Fisher, Alan; Huang, Xiaobiao; Safranek, James; Westerman, Stuart; Cheng, Weixing; Mok, Walter; /Unlisted

    2012-06-21

    For the top-off operation it is important to understand the time evolution of charge injected into the storage ring. The large-amplitude horizontal oscillation quickly filaments and decoheres, and in some cases exhibits non-linear x-y coupling before damping to the stored orbit. Similarly, in the longitudinal dimension, any mismatch in beam arrival time, beam energy or phase-space results in damped, non-linear synchrotron oscillations. In this paper we report on measurements of injection beam dynamics in the transverse and longitudinal planes using turn-by-turn BPMs, a fast-gated, image-intensified CCD camera and a Hamamatsu C5680 streak camera.

  7. Method for discovering relationships in data by dynamic quantum clustering

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weinstein, Marvin; Horn, David

    2014-10-28

    Data clustering is provided according to a dynamical framework based on quantum mechanical time evolution of states corresponding to data points. To expedite computations, we can approximate the time-dependent Hamiltonian formalism by a truncated calculation within a set of Gaussian wave-functions (coherent states) centered around the original points. This allows for analytic evaluation of the time evolution of all such states, opening up the possibility of exploration of relationships among data-points through observation of varying dynamical-distances among points and convergence of points into clusters. This formalism may be further supplemented by preprocessing, such as dimensional reduction through singular value decomposition and/or feature filtering.

  8. Digital time delay

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Martin, A.D.

    1986-05-09

    Method and apparatus are provided for generating an output pulse following a trigger pulse at a time delay interval preset with a resolution which is high relative to a low resolution available from supplied clock pulses. A first lumped constant delay provides a first output signal at predetermined interpolation intervals corresponding to the desired high resolution time interval. Latching circuits latch the high resolution data to form a first synchronizing data set. A selected time interval has been preset to internal counters and corrected for circuit propagation delay times having the same order of magnitude as the desired high resolution. Internal system clock pulses count down the counters to generate an internal pulse delayed by an internal which is functionally related to the preset time interval. A second LCD corrects the internal signal with the high resolution time delay. A second internal pulse is then applied to a third LCD to generate a second set of synchronizing data which is complementary with the first set of synchronizing data for presentation to logic circuits. The logic circuits further delay the internal output signal with the internal pulses. The final delayed output signal thereafter enables the output pulse generator to produce the desired output pulse at the preset time delay interval following input of the trigger pulse.

  9. Parallel time integration software

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2014-07-01

    This package implements an optimal-scaling multigrid solver for the (non) linear systems that arise from the discretization of problems with evolutionary behavior. Typically, solution algorithms for evolution equations are based on a time-marching approach, solving sequentially for one time step after the other. Parallelism in these traditional time-integrarion techniques is limited to spatial parallelism. However, current trends in computer architectures are leading twards system with more, but not faster. processors. Therefore, faster compute speeds mustmore » come from greater parallelism. One approach to achieve parallelism in time is with multigrid, but extending classical multigrid methods for elliptic poerators to this setting is a significant achievement. In this software, we implement a non-intrusive, optimal-scaling time-parallel method based on multigrid reduction techniques. The examples in the package demonstrate optimality of our multigrid-reduction-in-time algorithm (MGRIT) for solving a variety of parabolic equations in two and three sparial dimensions. These examples can also be used to show that MGRIT can achieve significant speedup in comparison to sequential time marching on modern architectures.« less

  10. VARIABLE TIME DELAY MEANS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Clemensen, R.E.

    1959-11-01

    An electrically variable time delay line is described which may be readily controlled simuitaneously with variable impedance matching means coupied thereto such that reflections are prevented. Broadly, the delay line includes a signal winding about a magnetic core whose permeability is electrically variable. Inasmuch as the inductance of the line varies directly with the permeability, the time delay and characteristic impedance of the line both vary as the square root of the permeability. Consequently, impedance matching means may be varied similariy and simultaneously w:th the electrically variable permeability to match the line impedance over the entire range of time delay whereby reflections are prevented.

  11. X Time Series

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    11 Figure 5-11: 1-Hour Ozone Time Series Observed (C506) v. Predicted (CAMx) for WRF AACOG Base Case Run 3, 2006 5-12 5.3.2 Hourly NO X Time Series Time series plots of modeled and predicted hourly NO X for each monitor located in the San Antonio MSA were constructed. The model over predicted NO X emissions at the C58 monitor on almost every day during the June 2006 episode. The average predicted hourly NO X was 7.3 ppb, while the average observed hourly NO X was only 3.9 ppb. Likewise, the

  12. Anomaly Detection in Dynamic Networks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turcotte, Melissa

    2014-10-14

    Anomaly detection in dynamic communication networks has many important security applications. These networks can be extremely large and so detecting any changes in their structure can be computationally challenging; hence, computationally fast, parallelisable methods for monitoring the network are paramount. For this reason the methods presented here use independent node and edge based models to detect locally anomalous substructures within communication networks. As a first stage, the aim is to detect changes in the data streams arising from node or edge communications. Throughout the thesis simple, conjugate Bayesian models for counting processes are used to model these data streams. A second stage of analysis can then be performed on a much reduced subset of the network comprising nodes and edges which have been identified as potentially anomalous in the first stage. The first method assumes communications in a network arise from an inhomogeneous Poisson process with piecewise constant intensity. Anomaly detection is then treated as a changepoint problem on the intensities. The changepoint model is extended to incorporate seasonal behavior inherent in communication networks. This seasonal behavior is also viewed as a changepoint problem acting on a piecewise constant Poisson process. In a static time frame, inference is made on this extended model via a Gibbs sampling strategy. In a sequential time frame, where the data arrive as a stream, a novel, fast Sequential Monte Carlo (SMC) algorithm is introduced to sample from the sequence of posterior distributions of the change points over time. A second method is considered for monitoring communications in a large scale computer network. The usage patterns in these types of networks are very bursty in nature and dont fit a Poisson process model. For tractable inference, discrete time models are considered, where the data are aggregated into discrete time periods and probability models are fitted to the communication counts. In a sequential analysis, anomalous behavior is then identified from outlying behavior with respect to the fitted predictive probability models. Seasonality is again incorporated into the model and is treated as a changepoint model on the transition probabilities of a discrete time Markov process. Second stage analytics are then developed which combine anomalous edges to identify anomalous substructures in the network.

  13. A novel femtosecond-gated, high-resolution, frequency-shifted shearing interferometry technique for probing pre-plasma expansion in ultra-intense laser experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feister, S. Orban, C.; Nees, J. A.; Morrison, J. T.; Frische, K. D.; Chowdhury, E. A.; Roquemore, W. M.

    2014-11-15

    Ultra-intense laser-matter interaction experiments (>10{sup 18} W/cm{sup 2}) with dense targets are highly sensitive to the effect of laser noise (in the form of pre-pulses) preceding the main ultra-intense pulse. These system-dependent pre-pulses in the nanosecond and/or picosecond regimes are often intense enough to modify the target significantly by ionizing and forming a plasma layer in front of the target before the arrival of the main pulse. Time resolved interferometry offers a robust way to characterize the expanding plasma during this period. We have developed a novel pump-probe interferometry system for an ultra-intense laser experiment that uses two short-pulse amplifiers synchronized by one ultra-fast seed oscillator to achieve 40-fs time resolution over hundreds of nanoseconds, using a variable delay line and other techniques. The first of these amplifiers acts as the pump and delivers maximal energy to the interaction region. The second amplifier is frequency shifted and then frequency doubled to generate the femtosecond probe pulse. After passing through the laser-target interaction region, the probe pulse is split and recombined in a laterally sheared Michelson interferometer. Importantly, the frequency shift in the probe allows strong plasma self-emission at the second harmonic of the pump to be filtered out, allowing plasma expansion near the critical surface and elsewhere to be clearly visible in the interferograms. To aid in the reconstruction of phase dependent imagery from fringe shifts, three separate 120 phase-shifted (temporally sheared) interferograms are acquired for each probe delay. Three-phase reconstructions of the electron densities are then inferred by Abel inversion. This interferometric system delivers precise measurements of pre-plasma expansion that can identify the condition of the target at the moment that the ultra-intense pulse arrives. Such measurements are indispensable for correlating laser pre-pulse measurements with instantaneous plasma profiles and for enabling realistic Particle-in-Cell simulations of the ultra-intense laser-matter interaction.

  14. Drug Retention Times

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Center for Human Reliability Studies

    2007-05-01

    The purpose of this monograph is to provide information on drug retention times in the human body. The information provided is based on plausible illegal drug use activities that might be engaged in by a recreational drug user.

  15. Drug Retention Times

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Center for Human Reliability Studies

    2007-05-01

    The purpose of this monograph is to provide information on drug retention times in the human body. The information provided is based on plausible illegal drug use activities that might be engaged in by a recreational drug user

  16. Time-Resolved

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Ultrafast Spectroscopy of Warm Dense Matter Real-Time Chemical Imaging of Bacterial Biofilm Development Using Light to Control How X Rays Interact with Matter X-Ray Imaging of...

  17. Transportation Energy Futures Series: Alternative Fuel Infrastructure Expansion: Costs, Resources, Production Capacity, and Retail Availability for Low-Carbon Scenarios

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Melaina, M. W.; Heath, G.; Sandor, D.; Steward, D.; Vimmerstedt, L.; Warner, E.; Webster, K. W.

    2013-04-01

    Achieving the Department of Energy target of an 80% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions by 2050 depends on transportation-related strategies combining technology innovation, market adoption, and changes in consumer behavior. This study examines expanding low-carbon transportation fuel infrastructure to achieve deep GHG emissions reductions, with an emphasis on fuel production facilities and retail components serving light-duty vehicles. Three distinct low-carbon fuel supply scenarios are examined: Portfolio: Successful deployment of a range of advanced vehicle and fuel technologies; Combustion: Market dominance by hybridized internal combustion engine vehicles fueled by advanced biofuels and natural gas; Electrification: Market dominance by electric drive vehicles in the LDV sector, including battery electric, plug-in hybrid, and fuel cell vehicles, that are fueled by low-carbon electricity and hydrogen. A range of possible low-carbon fuel demand outcomes are explored in terms of the scale and scope of infrastructure expansion requirements and evaluated based on fuel costs, energy resource utilization, fuel production infrastructure expansion, and retail infrastructure expansion for LDVs. This is one of a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency project initiated to pinpoint underexplored transportation-related strategies for abating GHGs and reducing petroleum dependence.

  18. Negative thermal expansion and anomalies of heat capacity of LuB50 at low temperatures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Novikov, V. V.; Zhemoedov, N. A.; Matovnikov, A. V.; Mitroshenkov, N. V.; Kuznetsov, S. V.; Bud'ko, S. L.

    2015-07-20

    Heat capacity and thermal expansion of LuB50 boride were experimentally studied in the 2300 K temperature range. The data reveal an anomalous contribution to the heat capacity at low temperatures. The value of this contribution is proportional to the first degree of temperature. It was identified that this anomaly in heat capacity is caused by the effect of disorder in the LuB50 crystalline structure and it can be described in the soft atomic potential model (SAP). The parameters of the approximation were determined. The temperature dependence of LuB50 heat capacity in the whole temperature range was approximated by the sum of SAP contribution, Debye and two Einstein components. The parameters of SAP contribution for LuB50 were compared to the corresponding values for LuB66, which was studied earlier. Negative thermal expansion at low temperatures was experimentally observed for LuB50. The analysis of the experimental temperature dependence for the Gruneisen parameter of LuB50 suggested that the low-frequency oscillations, described in SAP mode, are responsible for the negative thermal expansion. As a result, the glasslike character of the behavior of LuB50 thermal characteristics at low temperatures was confirmed.

  19. Modeling Improvements for Air Source Heat Pumps using Different Expansion Devices at Varied Charge Levels Part II

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shen, Bo [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes steady-state performance simulations performed on a 3-ton R-22 split heat pump in heating mode. In total, 150 steady-state points were simulated, which covers refrigerant charge levels from 70 % to 130% relative to the nominal value, the outdoor temperatures at 17 F (-8.3 C), 35 F (1.7 C) and 47 F (8.3 C), indoor air flow rates from 60% to 150% of the rated air flow rate, and two types of expansion devices (fixed orifice and thermostatic expansion valve). A charge tuning method, which is to calibrate the charge inventory model based on measurements at two operation conditions, was applied and shown to improve the system simulation accuracy significantly in an extensive range of charge levels. In addition, we discuss the effects of suction line accumulator in modeling a heat pump system using either a fixed orifice or thermal expansion valve. Last, we identify the issue of refrigerant mass flow mal-distribution at low charge levels and propose an improved modeling approach.

  20. Effect of a detailed radial core expansion reactivity feedback model on ATWS calculations using SASSYS/SAS4A

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wigeland, R.A.

    1986-01-01

    The present emphasis on inherent safety and inherently safe designs for liquid-metal reactors has resulted in a need to represent the various reactivity feedback mechanisms as accurately as possible. In particular, the reactivity feedback from radial core expansion has been found to provide the dominant negative feedback contribution in postulated anticipated transient without scram (ATWS) events. Review of the existing modeling in the SASSYS/SAS4A computer code system revealed that while the modeling may be adequate for the early phases of various unprotected transients, the accuracy would be less than desirable for the extended transients which typically occur for inherently safe designs. The existing model for calculating the reactivity feedback from radial core expansion uses a feedback from radial core expansion uses a feedback coefficient in conjunction with changes in the temperatures of the grid support plate and the above-core load pad. The accuracy of this approach is determined partly by the conditions used in deriving the feedback coefficient, and their relevance to the transient being investigated. Accuracy is also affected by the need to include effects other than those that could be directly related to changes in the grid plate and above-core load pad temperatures, such as subassembly bowing and the potential for clearances to occur between subassemblies in the above-core load pad region. As a result, a detailed model was developed in an attempt to account for these and other effects in a more mechanistic form.

  1. Time Card Entry System

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1996-05-07

    The Time Card Entry System was developed for the Department of Enegy, Idaho Operations Office (DOE-ID) to interface with the DOE headquarters (DOE-HQ) Electronic Time and Attendance (ETA) system for payroll. It features pop-up window pick lists for Work Breakdown Structure numbers and Hour Codes and has extensive processing that ensures that time and attendance reported by the employee fulfills U.S. Government/OMB requirements before Timekeepers process the data at the end of the two weekmore » payroll cycle using ETA. A tour of duty profile (e.g., ten hour day, four day week with Sunday, friday and Saturday off), previously established in the ETA system, is imported into the Time Card Entry System by the timekeepers. An individual''s profile establishes the basis for validation of time of day and number of hours worked per day. At the end of the two cycle, data is exported by the timekeepers from the Time Card Entry System into ETA files.« less

  2. Transportation properties of a high-current magnetically insulated transmission line and dynamics of the electrode plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anan'ev, S. S.; Bakshaev, Yu. L.; Bartov, A. V.; Blinov, P. I.; Dan'ko, S. A.; Zhuzhunashvili, A. I.; Kazakov, E. D.; Kalinin, Yu. G.; Kingsep, A. S.; Korolev, V. D.; Mizhiritskii, V. I.; Smirnov, V. P.; Tkachenko, S. I.; Chernenko, A. S.

    2008-07-15

    Results are presented from experimental studies of a section of a magnetically insulated transmission line (MITL) with a current density of up to 500 MA/cm{sup 2} and linear current density of up to 7 MA/cm (the parameters close to those in a fast-Z-pinch-driven fusion reactor projected at Sandia Laboratories). The experiments were performed in the S-300 facility (3 MA, 0.15 {Omega}, 100 ns). At high linear current densities, the surface of the ohmically heated MITL electrode can explode and a plasma layer can form near the electrode surface. As a result, the MITL can lose its transmission properties due to the shunting of the vacuum gap by the plasma produced. In this series of experiments, the dynamics of the electrode plasma and the dependence of the transmission properties of the MITL on the material and cleanness of the electrode surface were studied. It is shown experimentally that, when the current with a linear density of up to 7 MA/cm begins to flow along a model MITL, the input and output currents differ by less than 10% over a time interval of up to 230 ns for nickel electrodes and up to 350 ns for a line with a gold central electrode. No effect of the oil film present on the electrode surface on the loss of the transmission properties of the line was observed. It is also shown that electron losses insignificantly contribute to the total current balance. The experimental results are compared with calculations of the electrode explosion and the subsequent expansion of the plasma layer. A conclusion is made that the life-time of the model MITL satisfies the requirements imposed on the transmission lines intended for use in the projected thermonuclear reactor.

  3. Optimized Uncertainty Quantification Algorithm Within a Dynamic Event Tree Framework

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. W. Nielsen; Akira Tokuhiro; Robert Hiromoto

    2014-06-01

    Methods for developing Phenomenological Identification and Ranking Tables (PIRT) for nuclear power plants have been a useful tool in providing insight into modelling aspects that are important to safety. These methods have involved expert knowledge with regards to reactor plant transients and thermal-hydraulic codes to identify are of highest importance. Quantified PIRT provides for rigorous method for quantifying the phenomena that can have the greatest impact. The transients that are evaluated and the timing of those events are typically developed in collaboration with the Probabilistic Risk Analysis. Though quite effective in evaluating risk, traditional PRA methods lack the capability to evaluate complex dynamic systems where end states may vary as a function of transition time from physical state to physical state . Dynamic PRA (DPRA) methods provide a more rigorous analysis of complex dynamic systems. A limitation of DPRA is its potential for state or combinatorial explosion that grows as a function of the number of components; as well as, the sampling of transition times from state-to-state of the entire system. This paper presents a method for performing QPIRT within a dynamic event tree framework such that timing events which result in the highest probabilities of failure are captured and a QPIRT is performed simultaneously while performing a discrete dynamic event tree evaluation. The resulting simulation results in a formal QPIRT for each end state. The use of dynamic event trees results in state explosion as the number of possible component states increases. This paper utilizes a branch and bound algorithm to optimize the solution of the dynamic event trees. The paper summarizes the methods used to implement the branch-and-bound algorithm in solving the discrete dynamic event trees.

  4. Light-front representation of chiral dynamics in peripheral transverse

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    densities (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Light-front representation of chiral dynamics in peripheral transverse densities Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Light-front representation of chiral dynamics in peripheral transverse densities The nucleon's electromagnetic form factors are expressed in terms of the transverse densities of charge and magnetization at fixed light-front time. At peripheral transverse distances b = O(M_pi^{-1}) the densities are governed by chiral

  5. First principles molecular dynamics without self-consistent field optimization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Souvatzis, Petros; Niklasson, Anders M. N.

    2014-01-28

    We present a first principles molecular dynamics approach that is based on time-reversible extended Lagrangian Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics [A. M. N. Niklasson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 123004 (2008)] in the limit of vanishing self-consistent field optimization. The optimization-free dynamics keeps the computational cost to a minimum and typically provides molecular trajectories that closely follow the exact Born-Oppenheimer potential energy surface. Only one single diagonalization and Hamiltonian (or Fockian) construction are required in each integration time step. The proposed dynamics is derived for a general free-energy potential surface valid at finite electronic temperatures within hybrid density functional theory. Even in the event of irregular functional behavior that may cause a dynamical instability, the optimization-free limit represents a natural starting guess for force calculations that may require a more elaborate iterative electronic ground state optimization. Our optimization-free dynamics thus represents a flexible theoretical framework for a broad and general class of ab initio molecular dynamics simulations.

  6. Dynamic Underground Stripping Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aines, R.; Newmark, R.; McConachie, W.; Udell, K.; Rice, D.; Ramirez, A.; Siegel, W.; Buettner, M.; Daily, W.; Krauter, P.; Folsom, E.; Boegel, A.J.; Bishop, D.; Udell, K.

    1992-01-01

    LLNL is collaborating with the UC Berkeley College of Engineering to develop and demonstrate a system of thermal remediation and underground imaging techniques for use in rapid cleanup of localized underground spills. Called ``Dynamic Stripping`` to reflect the rapid and controllable nature of the process, it will combine steam injection, direct electrical heating, and tomographic geophysical imaging in a cleanup of the LLNL gasoline spill. In the first 8 months of the project, a Clean Site engineering test was conducted to prove the field application of the techniques before moving the contaminated site in FY 92.

  7. Schwarz method for earthquake source dynamics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Badea, Lori Ionescu, Ioan R. Wolf, Sylvie

    2008-04-01

    Dynamic faulting under slip-dependent friction in a linear elastic domain (in-plane and 3D configurations) is considered. The use of an implicit time-stepping scheme (Newmark method) allows much larger values of the time step than the critical CFL time step, and higher accuracy to handle the non-smoothness of the interface constitutive law (slip weakening friction). The finite element form of the quasi-variational inequality is solved by a Schwarz domain decomposition method, by separating the inner nodes of the domain from the nodes on the fault. In this way, the quasi-variational inequality splits into two subproblems. The first one is a large linear system of equations, and its unknowns are related to the mesh nodes of the first subdomain (i.e. lying inside the domain). The unknowns of the second subproblem are the degrees of freedom of the mesh nodes of the second subdomain (i.e. lying on the domain boundary where the conditions of contact and friction are imposed). This nonlinear subproblem is solved by the same Schwarz algorithm, leading to some local nonlinear subproblems of a very small size. Numerical experiments are performed to illustrate convergence in time and space, instability capturing, energy dissipation and the influence of normal stress variations. We have used the proposed numerical method to compute source dynamics phenomena on complex and realistic 2D fault models (branched fault systems)

  8. Accurate high level ab initio-based global potential energy surface and dynamics calculations for ground state of CH{sub 2}{sup +}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Y. Q.; Zhang, P. Y.; Han, K. L.

    2015-03-28

    A global many-body expansion potential energy surface is reported for the electronic ground state of CH{sub 2}{sup +} by fitting high level ab initio energies calculated at the multireference configuration interaction level with the aug-cc-pV6Z basis set. The topographical features of the new global potential energy surface are examined in detail and found to be in good agreement with those calculated directly from the raw ab initio energies, as well as previous calculations available in the literature. In turn, in order to validate the potential energy surface, a test theoretical study of the reaction CH{sup +}(X{sup 1}Σ{sup +})+H({sup 2}S)→C{sup +}({sup 2}P)+H{sub 2}(X{sup 1}Σ{sub g}{sup +}) has been carried out with the method of time dependent wavepacket on the title potential energy surface. The total integral cross sections and the rate coefficients have been calculated; the results determined that the new potential energy surface can both be recommended for dynamics studies of any type and as building blocks for constructing the potential energy surfaces of larger C{sup +}/H containing systems.

  9. Well-observed dynamics of flaring and peripheral coronal magnetic loops during an M-class limb flare

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shen, Jinhua; Zhou, Tuanhui; Ji, Haisheng; Feng, Li; Wiegelmann, Thomas; Inhester, Bernd

    2014-08-20

    In this paper, we present a variety of well-observed dynamic behaviors for the flaring and peripheral magnetic loops of the M6.6 class extreme limb flare that occurred on 2011 February 24 (SOL2011-02-24T07:20) from EUV observations by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly on the Solar Dynamics Observatory and X-ray observations by RHESSI. The flaring loop motion confirms the earlier contraction-expansion picture. We find that the U-shaped trajectory delineated by the X-ray corona source of the flare roughly follows the direction of a filament eruption associated with the flare. Different temperature structures of the coronal source during the contraction and expansion phases strongly suggest different kinds of magnetic reconnection processes. For some peripheral loops, we discover that their dynamics are closely correlated with the filament eruption. During the slow rising to abrupt, fast rising of the filament, overlying peripheral magnetic loops display different responses. Two magnetic loops on the elbow of the active region had a slow descending motion followed by an abrupt successive fast contraction, while magnetic loops on the top of the filament were pushed outward, slowly being inflated for a while and then erupting as a moving front. We show that the filament activation and eruption play a dominant role in determining the dynamics of the overlying peripheral coronal magnetic loops.

  10. Current developments in soil organic matter modeling and the expansion of model applications. A review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Campbell, Eleanor E.; Paustian, Keith

    2015-12-23

    It is important to note that Soil organic matter (SOM) is a great natural resource. It is fundamental to soil and ecosystem functions across a wide range of scales, from site-specific soil fertility and water holding capacity to global biogeochemical cycling. It is also a highly complex material that is sensitive to direct and indirect human impacts. In our SOM research, simulation models play an important role by providing a mathematical framework to integrate, examine, and test the understanding of SOM dynamics. Simulation models of SOM are also increasingly used in more applied settings to evaluate human impacts on ecosystem function, and to manage SOM for greenhouse gas mitigation, improved soil health, and sustainable use as a natural resource. Within this context, there is a need to maintain a robust connection between scientific developments in SOM modeling approaches and SOM model applications. This need forms the basis of this review. In this review we first provide an overview of SOM modeling, focusing on SOM theory, data-model integration, and model development as evidenced by a quantitative review of SOM literature. Second, we present the landscape of SOM model applications, focusing on examples in climate change policy. Finally, we conclude by discussing five areas of recent developments in SOM modeling including: (1) microbial roles in SOM stabilization; (2) modeling SOM saturation kinetics; (3) temperature controls on decomposition; (4)SOM dynamics in deep soil layers; and (5)SOM representation in earth system models. Our aim is to comprehensively connect SOM model development to its applications, revealing knowledge gaps in need of focused interdisciplinary attention and exposing pitfalls that, if avoided, can lead to best use of SOM models to support policy initiatives and sustainable land management solutions.

  11. Current developments in soil organic matter modeling and the expansion of model applications. A review

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Campbell, Eleanor E.; Paustian, Keith

    2015-12-23

    It is important to note that Soil organic matter (SOM) is a great natural resource. It is fundamental to soil and ecosystem functions across a wide range of scales, from site-specific soil fertility and water holding capacity to global biogeochemical cycling. It is also a highly complex material that is sensitive to direct and indirect human impacts. In our SOM research, simulation models play an important role by providing a mathematical framework to integrate, examine, and test the understanding of SOM dynamics. Simulation models of SOM are also increasingly used in more ‘applied’ settings to evaluate human impacts on ecosystemmore » function, and to manage SOM for greenhouse gas mitigation, improved soil health, and sustainable use as a natural resource. Within this context, there is a need to maintain a robust connection between scientific developments in SOM modeling approaches and SOM model applications. This need forms the basis of this review. In this review we first provide an overview of SOM modeling, focusing on SOM theory, data-model integration, and model development as evidenced by a quantitative review of SOM literature. Second, we present the landscape of SOM model applications, focusing on examples in climate change policy. Finally, we conclude by discussing five areas of recent developments in SOM modeling including: (1) microbial roles in SOM stabilization; (2) modeling SOM saturation kinetics; (3) temperature controls on decomposition; (4)SOM dynamics in deep soil layers; and (5)SOM representation in earth system models. Our aim is to comprehensively connect SOM model development to its applications, revealing knowledge gaps in need of focused interdisciplinary attention and exposing pitfalls that, if avoided, can lead to best use of SOM models to support policy initiatives and sustainable land management solutions.« less

  12. Genepool Time Heatmaps

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Genepool Time Heatmaps Heatmap of Time and Slots Requested vs Time Waited (in hours) | Queue: All | Last 7 Days Time Requested Slots <1h 1-2h 2-6h 6-12h 12-24h 24-36h 36-48h 48h-1wk >1wk Job Count Longest Wait 1 23.0 (233) 0.37 (1819) 27.54 (49888) 5.85 (124593) 1.23 (39835) 0.34 (732) 0 0.4 (224) 0.02 (1) 217325 538.96 2 0 0.01 (19) 2.54 (78) 0.2 (140) 0.99 (2683) 0 0 0 0 2920 9.1 4 0.08 (1) 0 2.82 (141) 0.36 (143) 1.07 (12) 0.06 (5) 0.01 (5) 0.06 (1) 1.3 (5) 313 20.48 6 0.01 (2) 0 0.09

  13. Time reversal communication system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Candy, James V. (Danville, CA); Meyer, Alan W. (Danville, CA)

    2008-12-02

    A system of transmitting a signal through a channel medium comprises digitizing the signal, time-reversing the digitized signal, and transmitting the signal through the channel medium. The channel medium may be air, earth, water, tissue, metal, and/or non-metal.

  14. Time-Encoded Imagers.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marleau, Peter; Brubaker, Erik

    2014-11-01

    This report provides a short overview of the DNN R&D funded project, Time-Encoded Imagers. The project began in FY11 and concluded in FY14. The Project Description below provides the overall motivation and objectives for the project as well as a summary of programmatic direction. It is followed by a short description of each task and the resulting deliverables.

  15. Time and Attendance Reporting

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2004-10-22

    DOE O 535.1 establishes the Department's requirements and responsibilities governing time and attendance reporting. The purpose of this revision is to reflect the transition of payroll processing from the Capital Accounting Center to the Defense Finance and Accounting System. Cancels DOE O 3600.1B. Canceled by DOE O 322.1C.

  16. From Entropic Dynamics to Quantum Theory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Caticha, Ariel

    2009-12-08

    Non-relativistic quantum theory is derived from information codified into an appropriate statistical model. The basic assumption is that there is an irreducible uncertainty in the location of particles so that the configuration space is a statistical manifold. The dynamics then follows from a principle of inference, the method of Maximum Entropy. The concept of time is introduced as a convenient way to keep track of change. The resulting theory resembles both Nelson's stochastic mechanics and general relativity. The statistical manifold is a dynamical entity: its geometry determines the evolution of the probability distribution which, in its turn, reacts back and determines the evolution of the geometry. There is a new quantum version of the equivalence principle: 'osmotic' mass equals inertial mass. Mass and the phase of the wave function are explained as features of purely statistical origin.

  17. Dynamical effects in proton breakup from exotic nuclei

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bonaccorso, Angela; Kumar, Ravinder

    2012-10-20

    This contribution discusses dynamical effects in proton breakup from a weakly bound state in an exotic nucleus on a heavy target. The Coulomb interactions between the proton and the core and the proton and the target are treated to all orders, including also the full multipole expansion of the Coulomb potential. The dynamics of proton Coulomb breakup is compared to that of an equivalent neutron of larger binding energy in order to elucidate the differences with the well understood neutron breakup mechanism. A number of experimentally measurable observables such as parallel momentum distributions, proton angular distributions and total breakup cross sections can be calculated. With respect to nuclear breakup it is found that a proton behaves exactly as a neutron of larger binding energy. The extra 'effective energy' is due to the combined core-target Coulomb barrier. In Coulomb breakup we distinguish the effect of the core-target Coulomb potential (called recoil effect), with respect to which the proton behaves again as a more bound neutron, from the direct proton-target Coulomb potential. The latter gives cross sections about an order of magnitude larger than the recoil term. The two effects give rise to complicated interferences in the parallel momentum distributions. They are instead easily separable in the proton angular distributions which are therefore suggested as a very useful observable for future experimental studies.

  18. Large Deformation Dynamic Response

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1993-08-23

    HONDO2-SLA is used to compute the time-dependent displacements, velocities, accelerations, and stresses within elastic or inelastic, two-dimensional or axisymmetric or planar bodies of arbitrary shape and materials.

  19. Los Alamos Dynamics Summer School

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Los Alamos Dynamics Summer School The Seventeenth Los Alamos Dynamics Summer School School overview and focus. Contact Institute Director Charles Farrar (505) 665-0860 Email Executive Administrator Ellie Vigil (505) 667-2818 Email Administrative Assistant Rebecca Duran (505) 665-8899 Email The Los Alamos Dynamics Summer School is a very selective summer school in which top upper-level US-citizen undergraduate students from universities around the nation attend lectures and work in teams of three

  20. Los Alamos Dynamics Summer School

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Los Alamos Dynamics Summer School » Los Alamos Dynamics Summer School The Seventeenth Los Alamos Dynamics Summer School Program Information and Application Process Contact Institute Director Charles Farrar (505) 665-0860 Email Executive Administrator Ellie Vigil (505) 667-2718 Email Administrative Assistant Rebecca Duran (505) 665-8899 Email How to Apply Students should email the following documents to LADSSApply@lanl.gov Application Form (pdf) A one-page cover letter describing your interest