National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for dynamic thermal circuit

  1. Dynamic pulse difference circuit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Erickson, Gerald L.

    1978-01-01

    A digital electronic circuit of especial use for subtracting background activity pulses in gamma spectrometry comprises an up-down counter connected to count up with signal-channel pulses and to count down with background-channel pulses. A detector responsive to the count position of the up-down counter provides a signal when the up-down counter has completed one scaling sequence cycle of counts in the up direction. In an alternate embodiment, a detector responsive to the count position of the up-down counter provides a signal upon overflow of the counter.

  2. Thermally-induced voltage alteration for integrated circuit analysis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cole, Jr., Edward I.

    2000-01-01

    A thermally-induced voltage alteration (TIVA) apparatus and method are disclosed for analyzing an integrated circuit (IC) either from a device side of the IC or through the IC substrate to locate any open-circuit or short-circuit defects therein. The TIVA apparatus uses constant-current biasing of the IC while scanning a focused laser beam over electrical conductors (i.e. a patterned metallization) in the IC to produce localized heating of the conductors. This localized heating produces a thermoelectric potential due to the Seebeck effect in any conductors with open-circuit defects and a resistance change in any conductors with short-circuit defects, both of which alter the power demand by the IC and thereby change the voltage of a source or power supply providing the constant-current biasing. By measuring the change in the supply voltage and the position of the focused and scanned laser beam over time, any open-circuit or short-circuit defects in the IC can be located and imaged. The TIVA apparatus can be formed in part from a scanning optical microscope, and has applications for qualification testing or failure analysis of ICs.

  3. Thermometry and thermal management of carbon nanotube circuits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mayle, Scott; Gupta, Tanuj; Davis, Sam; Chandrasekhar, Venkat; Shafraniuk, Serhii

    2015-05-21

    Monitoring of the intrinsic temperature and the thermal management is discussed for the carbon nanotube nano-circuits. The experimental results concerning fabricating and testing of a thermometer able to monitor the intrinsic temperature on nanoscale are reported. We also suggest a model which describes a bi-metal multilayer system able to filter the heat flow, based on separating the electron and phonon components one from another. The bi-metal multilayer structure minimizes the phonon component of the heat flow, while retaining the electronic part. The method allows one to improve the overall performance of the electronic nano-circuits due to minimizing the energy dissipation.

  4. Dynamical Systems in Circuit Designer's Eyes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Odyniec, M.

    2011-05-09

    Examples of nonlinear circuit design are given. Focus of the design process is on theory and engineering methods (as opposed to numerical analysis). Modeling is related to measurements It is seen that the phase plane is still very useful with proper models Harmonic balance/describing function offers powerful insight (via the combination of simulation with circuit and ODE theory). Measurement and simulation capabilities increased, especially harmonics measurements (since sinusoids are easy to generate)

  5. Analytical Study on Thermal and Mechanical Design of Printed Circuit Heat Exchanger

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Su-Jong Yoon; Piyush Sabharwall; Eung-Soo Kim

    2013-09-01

    The analytical methodologies for the thermal design, mechanical design and cost estimation of printed circuit heat exchanger are presented in this study. In this study, three flow arrangements of parallel flow, countercurrent flow and crossflow are taken into account. For each flow arrangement, the analytical solution of temperature profile of heat exchanger is introduced. The size and cost of printed circuit heat exchangers for advanced small modular reactors, which employ various coolants such as sodium, molten salts, helium, and water, are also presented.

  6. Dynamic strain gages analysis of critical welds used in power plant circuit breakers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MacDougall, E.A. ); Wilhelm, W.G. )

    1990-01-01

    A history of failures in power plant circuit breakers associated with critical welds in the internal pole shafts has been investigated. This paper describes the test, equipment, and instrumentation and summarized the preliminary results of testing performed on these breakers at Brookhaven National Laboratory. It includes the description of the instrumentation including the use of a full bridge strain gage sensor and instrumentation amplifier connected to an oscilloscope. The combination provided a sensitive instrument capable of revealing subtle changes in circuit breaker performance. The strain gages were attached to pole shafts and monitored dynamically. The observed changes in wave signature were recorded as a function of accumulated operating cycles. Complex changes in wave shape recorded on an oscillograph indicate patterns related to impending weld failure. The life expectancy measured in the number of circuit breaker open and closing cycles is compared with the weld and other component failures. 8 refs., 4 figs.

  7. Creating dynamic equivalent PV circuit models with impedance spectroscopy for arc-fault modeling.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, Jay Dean; Kuszmaul, Scott S.; Strauch, Jason E.; Schoenwald, David Alan

    2011-06-01

    Article 690.11 in the 2011 National Electrical Code{reg_sign} (NEC{reg_sign}) requires new photovoltaic (PV) systems on or penetrating a building to include a listed arc fault protection device. Currently there is little experimental or empirical research into the behavior of the arcing frequencies through PV components despite the potential for modules and other PV components to filter or attenuate arcing signatures that could render the arc detector ineffective. To model AC arcing signal propagation along PV strings, the well-studied DC diode models were found to inadequately capture the behavior of high frequency arcing signals. Instead dynamic equivalent circuit models of PV modules were required to describe the impedance for alternating currents in modules. The nonlinearities present in PV cells resulting from irradiance, temperature, frequency, and bias voltage variations make modeling these systems challenging. Linearized dynamic equivalent circuits were created for multiple PV module manufacturers and module technologies. The equivalent resistances and capacitances for the modules were determined using impedance spectroscopy with no bias voltage and no irradiance. The equivalent circuit model was employed to evaluate modules having irradiance conditions that could not be measured directly with the instrumentation. Although there was a wide range of circuit component values, the complex impedance model does not predict filtering of arc fault frequencies in PV strings for any irradiance level. Experimental results with no irradiance agree with the model and show nearly no attenuation for 1 Hz to 100 kHz input frequencies.

  8. Packaging strategies for printed circuit board components. Volume I, materials & thermal stresses.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neilsen, Michael K.; Austin, Kevin N.; Adolf, Douglas Brian; Spangler, Scott W.; Neidigk, Matthew Aaron; Chambers, Robert S.

    2011-09-01

    Decisions on material selections for electronics packaging can be quite complicated by the need to balance the criteria to withstand severe impacts yet survive deep thermal cycles intact. Many times, material choices are based on historical precedence perhaps ignorant of whether those initial choices were carefully investigated or whether the requirements on the new component match those of previous units. The goal of this program focuses on developing both increased intuition for generic packaging guidelines and computational methodologies for optimizing packaging in specific components. Initial efforts centered on characterization of classes of materials common to packaging strategies and computational analyses of stresses generated during thermal cycling to identify strengths and weaknesses of various material choices. Future studies will analyze the same example problems incorporating the effects of curing stresses as needed and analyzing dynamic loadings to compare trends with the quasi-static conclusions.

  9. Thermal storage module for solar dynamic receivers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beatty, Ronald L. (Farragut, TN); Lauf, Robert J. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1991-01-01

    A thermal energy storage system comprising a germanium phase change material and a graphite container.

  10. Dynamic Mechanical Thermal Analysis of Virgin TR-55 Silicone Rubber

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Dynamic Mechanical Thermal Analysis of Virgin TR-55 Silicone Rubber Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Dynamic Mechanical Thermal Analysis of Virgin TR-55 Silicone Rubber Dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA) of virgin TR-55 silicone rubber specimens was conducted. Dynamic frequency/temperature sweep tests were conducted over the ranges 0.1-100 rad/s and 30-100 C using a parallel plate test geometry. A strain of 0.2% was used, which was near

  11. Thermal Cycling Combined with Dynamic Mechanical Load: Preliminary Report

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This PowerPoint presentation summarizes the efforts of the team led by ESPEC Corp. to investigate thermal cycling combined with dynamic mechanical load, a solar project funded by the SunShot Initiative.

  12. Residential solar-absorption chiller thermal dynamics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guertin, J.M.; Wood, B.D.; McNeill, B.W.

    1981-03-01

    Research is reported on the transient performance of a commercial residential 3 ton lithium bromide-water absorption chiller designed for solar firing. Emphasis was placed on separating the chiller response from that of the entire test facility so that its transient response could solely be observed and quantified. It was found that the entire system time response and thermal capacitance has a major impact on performance degradation due to transient operation. Tests run to ascertain computer algorithms which simulate system isolated chiller performance, revealed processes hitherto undocumented. Transient operation is simulated by three distinct algorithms associated with the three phases of chiller operation. The first phase is start up time. It was revealed during testing that the time required to reach steady state performance values, when the chiller was turned on, was a linear function of steady state water supply temperatures. The second phase is quasi steady state performance. Test facility's performance compared favorably with the manufacturer's published data. The third phase is the extra capacity produced during spin down. Spin down occurs when the hot water supply pump is turned off while the other system pumps remain operating for a few minutes, thus allowing extra chiller capacity to be realized. The computer algorithms were used to generate plots which show the operational surface of an isolated absorption chiller subjected to off design and transient operation.

  13. Electrical Circuit Simulation Code

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2001-08-09

    Massively-Parallel Electrical Circuit Simulation Code. CHILESPICE is a massively-arallel distributed-memory electrical circuit simulation tool that contains many enhanced radiation, time-based, and thermal features and models. Large scale electronic circuit simulation. Shared memory, parallel processing, enhance convergence. Sandia specific device models.

  14. Molecular nonlinear dynamics and protein thermal uncertainty quantification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xia, Kelin [Department of Mathematics, Michigan State University, Michigan 48824 (United States)] [Department of Mathematics, Michigan State University, Michigan 48824 (United States); Wei, Guo-Wei, E-mail: wei@math.msu.edu [Department of Mathematics, Michigan State University, Michigan 48824 (United States) [Department of Mathematics, Michigan State University, Michigan 48824 (United States); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Michigan State University, Michigan 48824 (United States); Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Michigan State University, Michigan 48824 (United States)

    2014-03-15

    This work introduces molecular nonlinear dynamics (MND) as a new approach for describing protein folding and aggregation. By using a mode system, we show that the MND of disordered proteins is chaotic while that of folded proteins exhibits intrinsically low dimensional manifolds (ILDMs). The stability of ILDMs is found to strongly correlate with protein energies. We propose a novel method for protein thermal uncertainty quantification based on persistently invariant ILDMs. Extensive comparison with experimental data and the state-of-the-art methods in the field validate the proposed new method for protein B-factor prediction.

  15. Sheath expansion and plasma dynamics in the presence of electrode evaporation: Application to a vacuum circuit breaker

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sarrailh, P.; Garrigues, L.; Hagelaar, G. J. M.; Boeuf, J. P.; Sandolache, G.; Rowe, S.

    2009-09-01

    During the postarc dielectric recovery phase in a vacuum circuit breaker, a cathode sheath forms and expels the plasma from the electrode gap. The success or failure of current breaking depends on how efficiently the plasma is expelled from the electrode gap. The sheath expansion in the postarc phase can be compared to sheath expansion in plasma immersion ion implantation except that collisions between charged particles and atoms generated by electrode evaporation may become important in a vacuum circuit breaker. In this paper, we show that electrode evaporation plays a significant role in the dynamics of the sheath expansion in this context not only because charged particle transport is no longer collisionless but also because the neutral flow due to evaporation and temperature gradients may push the plasma toward one of the electrodes. Using a hybrid model of the nonequilibrium postarc plasma and cathode sheath coupled with a direct simulation Monte Carlo method to describe collisions between heavy species, we present a parametric study of the sheath and plasma dynamics and of the time needed for the sheath to expel the plasma from the gap for different values of plasma density and electrode temperatures at the beginning of the postarc phase. This work constitutes a preliminary step toward understanding and quantifying the risk of current breaking failure of a vacuum arc.

  16. Squishy Circuits

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Squishy Circuits Squishy Circuits Inspire your inner Ben Franklin! Children of all ages create circuits and explore electronics-even making electricity flow with their own doughy wires. Learn about electricity, conductors and insulators by creating circuits with playdough. Squishy Circuits The museum educators taught an electric circuits program experimenting with Squishy Circuits. We used two different formulas of flour dough, one conducting, the other insulating, to create electronic circuits.

  17. Thermal hydraulic performance testing of printed circuit heat exchangers in a high-temperature helium test facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sai K. Mylavarapu; Xiaodong Sun; Richard E. Glosup; Richard N. Christensen; Michael W. Patterson

    2014-04-01

    In high-temperature gas-cooled reactors, such as a very high temperature reactor (VHTR), an intermediate heat exchanger (IHX) is required to efficiently transfer the core thermal output to a secondary fluid for electricity generation with an indirect power cycle and/or process heat applications. Currently, there is no proven high-temperature (750–800 °C or higher) compact heat exchanger technology for high-temperature reactor design concepts. In this study, printed circuit heat exchanger (PCHE), a potential IHX concept for high-temperature applications, has been investigated for their heat transfer and pressure drop characteristics under high operating temperatures and pressures. Two PCHEs, each having 10 hot and 10 cold plates with 12 channels (semicircular cross-section) in each plate are fabricated using Alloy 617 plates and tested for their performance in a high-temperature helium test facility (HTHF). The PCHE inlet temperature and pressure were varied from 85 to 390 °C/1.0–2.7 MPa for the cold side and 208–790 °C/1.0–2.7 MPa for the hot side, respectively, while the mass flow rate of helium was varied from 15 to 49 kg/h. This range of mass flow rates corresponds to PCHE channel Reynolds numbers of 950 to 4100 for the cold side and 900 to 3900 for the hot side (corresponding to the laminar and laminar-to-turbulent transition flow regimes). The obtained experimental data have been analyzed for the pressure drop and heat transfer characteristics of the heat transfer surface of the PCHEs and compared with the available models and correlations in the literature. In addition, a numerical treatment of hydrodynamically developing and hydrodynamically fully-developed laminar flow through a semicircular duct is presented. Relations developed for determining the hydrodynamic entrance length in a semicircular duct and the friction factor (or pressure drop) in the hydrodynamic entry length region for laminar flow through a semicircular duct are given. Various hydrodynamic entrance region parameters, such as incremental pressure drop number, apparent Fanning friction factor, and hydrodynamic entrance length in a semicircular duct have been numerically estimated.

  18. Dynamic Model Validation of PV Inverters Under Short-Circuit Conditions: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Muljadi, E.; Singh, M.; Bravo, R.; Gevorgian, V.

    2013-03-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) modules have dramatically decreased in price in the past few years, spurring the expansion of photovoltaic deployment. Residential and commercial rooftop installations are connected to the distribution network; large-scale installation PV power plants (PVPs) have benefited from tax incentives and the low cost of PV modules. As the level penetration of PV generation increases, the impact on power system reliability will also be greater. Utility power system planners must consider the role of PV generation in power systems more realistically by representing PV generation in dynamic stability analyses. Dynamic models of PV inverters have been developed in the positive sequence representation. NREL has developed a PV inverter dynamic model in PSCAD/EMTDC. This paper validates the dynamic model with an actual hardware bench test conducted by Southern California Edison's Distributed Energy Resources laboratory. All the fault combinations -- symmetrical and unsymmetrical -- were performed in the laboratory. We compare the simulation results with the bench test results.

  19. Statistics of voltage drop in distribution circuits: a dynamic programming approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turitsyn, Konstantin S

    2010-01-01

    We analyze a power distribution line with high penetration of distributed generation and strong variations of power consumption and generation levels. In the presence of uncertainty the statistical description of the system is required to assess the risks of power outages. In order to find the probability of exceeding the constraints for voltage levels we introduce the probability distribution of maximal voltage drop and propose an algorithm for finding this distribution. The algorithm is based on the assumption of random but statistically independent distribution of loads on buses. Linear complexity in the number of buses is achieved through the dynamic programming technique. We illustrate the performance of the algorithm by analyzing a simple 4-bus system with high variations of load levels.

  20. TWO-PHASE FLOW STUDIES IN NUCLEAR POWER PLANT PRIMARY CIRCUITS USING THE THREE-DIMENSIONAL THERMAL-HYDRAULIC CODE BAGIRA.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    KOHURT, P. , KALINICHENKO, S.D.; KROSHILIN, A.E.; KROSHILIN, V.E.; SMIRNOV, A.V.

    2006-06-04

    In this paper we present recent results of the application of the thermal-hydraulic code BAGIRA to the analysis of complex two-phase flows in nuclear power plants primary loops. In particular, we performed benchmark numerical simulation of an integral LOCA experiment performed on a test facility modeling the primary circuit of VVER-1000. In addition, we have also analyzed the flow patterns in the VVER-1000 steam generator vessel for stationary and transient operation regimes. For both of these experiments we have compared the numerical results with measured data. Finally, we demonstrate the capabilities of BAGIRA by modeling a hypothetical severe accident for a VVER-1000 type nuclear reactor. The numerical analysis, which modeled all stages of the hypothetical severe accident up to the complete ablation of the reactor cavity bottom, shows the importance of multi-dimensional flow effects.

  1. ADDER CIRCUIT

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jacobsohn, D.H.; Merrill, L.C.

    1959-01-20

    An improved parallel addition unit is described which is especially adapted for use in electronic digital computers and characterized by propagation of the carry signal through each of a plurality of denominationally ordered stages within a minimum time interval. In its broadest aspects, the invention incorporates a fast multistage parallel digital adder including a plurality of adder circuits, carry-propagation circuit means in all but the most significant digit stage, means for conditioning each carry-propagation circuit during the time period in which information is placed into the adder circuits, and means coupling carry-generation portions of thc adder circuit to the carry propagating means.

  2. Dynamic Mechanical Thermal Analysis of Virgin TR-55 Silicone...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Dynamic frequencytemperature sweep tests were conducted over the ranges 0.1-100 rads and 30-100 C using a parallel plate test geometry. A strain of 0.2% was used, which was near ...

  3. Thermal effects on transverse domain wall dynamics in magnetic nanowires

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leliaert, J.; Van de Wiele, B.; Vandermeulen, J.; Coene, A.; Dupré, L.; Vansteenkiste, A.; Waeyenberge, B. Van; Laurson, L.; Durin, G.

    2015-05-18

    Magnetic domain walls are proposed as data carriers in future spintronic devices, whose reliability depends on a complete understanding of the domain wall motion. Applications based on an accurate positioning of domain walls are inevitably influenced by thermal fluctuations. In this letter, we present a micromagnetic study of the thermal effects on this motion. As spin-polarized currents are the most used driving mechanism for domain walls, we have included this in our analysis. Our results show that at finite temperatures, the domain wall velocity has a drift and diffusion component, which are in excellent agreement with the theoretical values obtained from a generalized 1D model. The drift and diffusion component are independent of each other in perfect nanowires, and the mean square displacement scales linearly with time and temperature.

  4. Evaluation of Instrumentation and Dynamic Thermal Ratings for Overhead Lines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phillips, A.

    2013-01-31

    In 2010, a project was initiated through a partnership between the Department of Energy (DOE) and the New York Power Authority (NYPA) to evaluate EPRIïżœs rating technology and instrumentation that can be used to monitor the thermal states of transmission lines and provide the required real-time data for real-time rating calculations. The project included the installation and maintenance of various instruments at three 230 kV line sites in northern New York. The instruments were monitored, and data collection and rating calculations were performed for about a three year period.

  5. Thermal cleanups using dynamic underground stripping and hydrous pyrolysis oxidation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aines, R D; Knauss, K; Leif, R; Newmark, R L

    1999-05-01

    In the early 1990s, in collaboration with the School of Engineering at the University of California, Berkeley, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory developed dynamic underground stripping (DUS), a method for treating subsurface contaminants with heat that is much faster and more effective than traditional treatment methods. more recently, Livermore scientists developed hydrous pyrolysis/oxidation (HPO), which introduces both heat and oxygen to the subsurface to convert contaminants in the ground to such benign products as carbon dioxide, chloride ion, and water. This process has effectively destroyed all contaminants it encountered in laboratory tests. With dynamic underground stripping, the contaminants are vaporized and vacuumed out of the ground, leaving them still to be destroyed elsewhere. Hydrous pyrolysis/oxidation technology takes the cleanup process one step further by eliminating the treatment, handling, and disposal requirements and destroying the contamination in the ground. When used in combination, HPO is especially useful in the final polishing of a site containing significant free-product contaminant, once the majority of the contaminant has been removed.

  6. GATING CIRCUITS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Merrill, L.C.

    1958-10-14

    Control circuits for vacuum tubes are described, and a binary counter having an improved trigger circuit is reported. The salient feature of the binary counter is the application of the input signal to the cathode of each of two vacuum tubes through separate capacitors and the connection of each cathode to ground through separate diodes. The control of the binary counter is achieved in this manner without special pulse shaping of the input signal. A further advantage of the circuit is the simplicity and minimum nuruber of components required, making its use particularly desirable in computer machines.

  7. MULTIPLIER CIRCUIT

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thomas, R.E.

    1959-01-20

    An electronic circuit is presented for automatically computing the product of two selected variables by multiplying the voltage pulses proportional to the variables. The multiplier circuit has a plurality of parallel resistors of predetermined values connected through separate gate circults between a first input and the output terminal. One voltage pulse is applied to thc flrst input while the second voltage pulse is applied to control circuitry for the respective gate circuits. Thc magnitude of the second voltage pulse selects the resistors upon which the first voltage pulse is imprcssed, whereby the resultant output voltage is proportional to the product of the input voltage pulses

  8. Effect of parameter variations on the static and dynamic behaviour of a self-assembled quantum-dot laser using circuit-level modelling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Razm-Pa, M; Emami, F

    2015-01-31

    We report a new circuit model for a self-assembled quantum-dot (SAQD) laser made of InGaAs/GaAs structures. The model is based on the excited state and standard rate equations, improves the previously suggested circuit models and also provides and investigates the performance of this kind of laser. The carrier dynamic effects on static and dynamic characteristics of a SAQD laser are analysed. The phonon bottleneck problem is simulated. Quantum-dot lasers are shown to be quite sensitive to the crystal quality outside and inside quantum dots. The effects of QD coverage factor, inhomogeneous broadening, the physical source of which is the size fluctuation of quantum dots formed by self-assembly of atoms, and cavity length on the SAQD laser characteristics are analysed. The results of simulation show that an increase in the cavity length and in the QD coverage factor results in the growth of the output power. On the other hand, an increase in the coverage factor and a degradation of inhomogeneous broadening lead to an increase in the modulation bandwidth. The effect of the QD height (cylindrical shape) and stripe width of the laser cavity on QD laser modulation is also analysed. (lasers)

  9. Effect of point defects on the thermal conductivity of UO2: molecular dynamics simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Xiang-Yang; Stanek, Christopher Richard; Andersson, Anders David Ragnar

    2015-07-21

    The thermal conductivity of uranium dioxide (UO2) fuel is an important materials property that affects fuel performance since it is a key parameter determining the temperature distribution in the fuel, thus governing, e.g., dimensional changes due to thermal expansion, fission gas release rates, etc. [1] The thermal conductivity of UO2 nuclear fuel is also affected by fission gas, fission products, defects, and microstructural features such as grain boundaries. Here, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are carried out to determine quantitatively, the effect of irradiation induced point defects on the thermal conductivity of UO2, as a function of defect concentrations, for a range of temperatures, 300 – 1500 K. The results will be used to develop enhanced continuum thermal conductivity models for MARMOT and BISON by INL. These models express the thermal conductivity as a function of microstructure state-variables, thus enabling thermal conductivity models with closer connection to the physical state of the fuel [2].

  10. Testing thermal gradient driving force for grain boundary migration using molecular dynamics simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bai, Xian-Ming; Zhang, Yongfeng; Tonks, Michael R.

    2015-02-01

    Strong thermal gradients in low-thermal-conductivity ceramics may drive extended defects, such as grain boundaries and voids, to migrate in preferential directions. In this work, molecular dynamics simulations are conducted to study thermal gradient driven grain boundary migration and to verify a previously proposed thermal gradient driving force equation, using uranium dioxide as a model system. It is found that a thermal gradient drives grain boundaries to migrate up the gradient and the migration velocity increases under a constant gradient owing to the increase in mobility with temperature. Different grain boundaries migrate at very different rates due to their different intrinsic mobilities. The extracted mobilities from the thermal gradient driven simulations are compared with those calculated from two other well-established methods and good agreement between the three different methods is found, demonstrating that the theoretical equation of the thermal gradient driving force is valid, although a correction of one input parameter should be made. The discrepancy in the grain boundary mobilities between modeling and experiments is also discussed.

  11. Study on the thermal resistance in secondary particles chain of silica aerogel by molecular dynamics simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, M. [Institute of Engineering Thermophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing100190 (China); Department of Physics, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Qiu, L., E-mail: qiulin111@sina.com, E-mail: jzzhengxinghua@163.com; Zheng, X. H., E-mail: qiulin111@sina.com, E-mail: jzzhengxinghua@163.com; Zhu, J.; Tang, D. W. [Institute of Engineering Thermophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing100190 (China)

    2014-09-07

    In this article, molecular dynamics simulation was performed to study the heat transport in secondary particles chain of silica aerogel. The two adjacent particles as the basic heat transport unit were modelled to characterize the heat transfer through the calculation of thermal resistance and vibrational density of states (VDOS). The total thermal resistance of two contact particles was predicted by non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations (NEMD). The defects were formed by deleting atoms in the system randomly first and performing heating and quenching process afterwards to achieve the DLCA (diffusive limited cluster-cluster aggregation) process. This kind of treatment showed a very reasonable prediction of thermal conductivity for the silica aerogels compared with the experimental values. The heat transport was great suppressed as the contact length increased or defect concentration increased. The constrain effect of heat transport was much significant when contact length fraction was in the small range (<0.5) or the defect concentration is in the high range (>0.5). Also, as the contact length increased, the role of joint thermal resistance played in the constraint of heat transport was increasing. However, the defect concentration did not affect the share of joint thermal resistance as the contact length did. VDOS of the system was calculated by numerical method to characterize the heat transport from atomic vibration view. The smaller contact length and greater defect concentration primarily affected the longitudinal acoustic modes, which ultimately influenced the heat transport between the adjacent particles.

  12. MULTIPLIER CIRCUIT

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chase, R.L.

    1963-05-01

    An electronic fast multiplier circuit utilizing a transistor controlled voltage divider network is presented. The multiplier includes a stepped potentiometer in which solid state or transistor switches are substituted for mechanical wipers in order to obtain electronic switching that is extremely fast as compared to the usual servo-driven mechanical wipers. While this multiplier circuit operates as an approximation and in steps to obtain a voltage that is the product of two input voltages, any desired degree of accuracy can be obtained with the proper number of increments and adjustment of parameters. (AEC)

  13. Thermodynamic model of a thermal storage air conditioning system with dynamic behavior

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fleming, E; Wen, SY; Shi, L; da Silva, AK

    2013-12-01

    A thermodynamic model was developed to predict transient behavior of a thermal storage system, using phase change materials (PCMs), for a novel electric vehicle climate conditioning application. The main objectives of the paper are to consider the system's dynamic behavior, such as a dynamic air flow rate into the vehicle's cabin, and to characterize the transient heat transfer process between the thermal storage unit and the vehicle's cabin, while still maintaining accurate solution to the complex phase change heat transfer. The system studied consists of a heat transfer fluid circulating between either of the on-board hot and cold thermal storage units, which we refer to as thermal batteries, and a liquid-air heat exchanger that provides heat exchange with the incoming air to the vehicle cabin. Each thermal battery is a shell-and-tube configuration where a heat transfer fluid flows through parallel tubes, which are surrounded by PCM within a larger shell. The system model incorporates computationally inexpensive semianalytic solution to the conjugated laminar forced convection and phase change problem within the battery and accounts for airside heat exchange using the Number of Transfer Units (NTUs) method for the liquid-air heat exchanger. Using this approach, we are able to obtain an accurate solution to the complex heat transfer problem within the battery while also incorporating the impact of the airside heat transfer on the overall system performance. The implemented model was benchmarked against a numerical study for a melting process and against full system experimental data for solidification using paraffin wax as the PCM. Through modeling, we demonstrate the importance of capturing the airside heat exchange impact on system performance, and we investigate system response to dynamic operating conditions, e.g., air recirculation. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Federated Testbed Circuits

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Testbed Circuits Network R&D Overview Experimental Network Testbeds 100G SDN Testbed Dark Fiber Testbed Federated Testbed Circuits Test Circuit Service Performance (perfSONAR)...

  15. Nanocluster building blocks of artificial square spin ice: Stray-field studies of thermal dynamics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pohlit, Merlin Porrati, Fabrizio; Huth, Michael; MĂŒller, Jens

    2015-05-07

    We present measurements of the thermal dynamics of a Co-based single building block of an artificial square spin ice fabricated by focused electron-beam-induced deposition. We employ micro-Hall magnetometry, an ultra-sensitive tool to study the stray field emanating from magnetic nanostructures, as a new technique to access the dynamical properties during the magnetization reversal of the spin-ice nanocluster. The obtained hysteresis loop exhibits distinct steps, displaying a reduction of their “coercive field” with increasing temperature. Therefore, thermally unstable states could be repetitively prepared by relatively simple temperature and field protocols allowing one to investigate the statistics of their switching behavior within experimentally accessible timescales. For a selected switching event, we find a strong reduction of the so-prepared states' “survival time” with increasing temperature and magnetic field. Besides the possibility to control the lifetime of selected switching events at will, we find evidence for a more complex behavior caused by the special spin ice arrangement of the macrospins, i.e., that the magnetic reversal statistically follows distinct “paths” most likely driven by thermal perturbation.

  16. High open-circuit voltage small-molecule p-DTS(FBTTh 2 )2.ICBA bulk heterojunction solar cells – morphology, excited-state dynamics, and photovoltaic performance

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ko Kyaw, Aung Ko; Gehrig, Dominik; Zhang, Jie; Huang, Ye; Bazan, Guillermo C.; Laquai, Frédéric; Nguyen, Thuc -Quyen

    2014-11-27

    The photovoltaic performance of bulk heterojunction solar cells using the solution-processable small molecule donor 7,7'-(4,4-bis(2-ethylhexyl)-4H-silolo[3,2-b:4,5-b']dithiophene-2,6-diyl)bis(6-fluoro-4-(5'-hexyl-[2,2'-bithiophene]-5-yl)benzo[c][1,2,5]thiadiazole) (p-DTS(FBTTh2)2 in combination with indene-C60 bis-adduct (ICBA) as an acceptor is systematically optimized by altering the processing conditions. A high open-circuit voltage of 1 V, more than 0.2 V higher than that of a p-DTS(FBTTh2)2:PC70BM blend, is achieved. However, the power conversion efficiency remains around 5% and thus is lower than ~8% previously reported for p-DTS(FBTTh2)2:PC70BM. Transient absorption (TA) pump–probe spectroscopy over a wide spectral (Vis-NIR) and dynamic (fs to ÎŒs) range in combination with multivariate curve resolution analysis of the TA data reveals thatmore » generation of free charges is more efficient in the blend with PC70BM as an acceptor. In contrast, blends with ICBA create more coulombically bound interfacial charge transfer (CT) states, which recombine on the sub-nanosecond timescale by geminate recombination. Furthermore, the ns to ÎŒs charge carrier dynamics in p-DTS(FBTTh2)2:ICBA blends are only weakly intensity dependent implying a significant contribution of recombination from long-lived CT states and trapped charges, while those in p-DTS(FBTTh2)2:PC70BM decay via an intensity-dependent recombination mechanism indicating that spatially separated (free) charge carriers are observed, which can be extracted as photocurrent from the device.« less

  17. Commutation circuit for an HVDC circuit breaker

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Premerlani, W.J.

    1981-11-10

    A commutation circuit for a high voltage DC circuit breaker incorporates a resistor capacitor combination and a charging circuit connected to the main breaker, such that a commutating capacitor is discharged in opposition to the load current to force the current in an arc after breaker opening to zero to facilitate arc interruption. In a particular embodiment, a normally open commutating circuit is connected across the contacts of a main DC circuit breaker to absorb the inductive system energy trapped by breaker opening and to limit recovery voltages to a level tolerable by the commutating circuit components. 13 figs.

  18. Commutation circuit for an HVDC circuit breaker

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Premerlani, William J.

    1981-01-01

    A commutation circuit for a high voltage DC circuit breaker incorporates a resistor capacitor combination and a charging circuit connected to the main breaker, such that a commutating capacitor is discharged in opposition to the load current to force the current in an arc after breaker opening to zero to facilitate arc interruption. In a particular embodiment, a normally open commutating circuit is connected across the contacts of a main DC circuit breaker to absorb the inductive system energy trapped by breaker opening and to limit recovery voltages to a level tolerable by the commutating circuit components.

  19. Numerical and Experimental Investigation of Internal Short Circuit...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Battery Thermal Modeling and Testing Implantation, Activation, Characterization and PreventionMitigation of Internal Short Circuits in Lithium-Ion Cells Progress of DOE Materials, ...

  20. Prediction of Thermal Conductivity for Irradiated SiC/SiC Composites by Informing Continuum Models with Molecular Dynamics Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nguyen, Ba Nghiep; Gao, Fei; Henager, Charles H.; Kurtz, Richard J.

    2014-05-01

    This article proposes a new method to estimate the thermal conductivity of SiC/SiC composites subjected to neutron irradiation. The modeling method bridges different scales from the atomic scale to the scale of a 2D SiC/SiC composite. First, it studies the irradiation-induced point defects in perfect crystalline SiC using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to compute the defect thermal resistance as a function of vacancy concentration and irradiation dose. The concept of defect thermal resistance is explored explicitly in the MD data using vacancy concentrations and thermal conductivity decrements due to phonon scattering. Point defect-induced swelling for chemical vapor deposited (CVD) SiC as a function of irradiation dose is approximated by scaling the corresponding MD results for perfect crystal ?-SiC to experimental data for CVD-SiC at various temperatures. The computed thermal defect resistance, thermal conductivity as a function of grain size, and definition of defect thermal resistance are used to compute the thermal conductivities of CVD-SiC, isothermal chemical vapor infiltrated (ICVI) SiC and nearly-stoichiometric SiC fibers. The computed fiber and ICVI-SiC matrix thermal conductivities are then used as input for an Eshelby-Mori-Tanaka approach to compute the thermal conductivities of 2D SiC/SiC composites subjected to neutron irradiation within the same irradiation doses. Predicted thermal conductivities for an irradiated Tyranno-SA/ICVI-SiC composite are found to be comparable to available experimental data for a similar composite ICVI-processed with these fibers.

  1. Triple effect absorption chiller utilizing two refrigeration circuits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeVault, R.C.

    1988-03-22

    This patent describes a heat absorption method for an absorption chiller. It comprises: providing a firs absorption system circuit for operation within a first temperature range, providing a second absorption system circuit for operation within a second temperature range; heat exchanging refrigerant and absorber solution; thermal communication with an external heat load. This patent describes a heat absorption apparatus for use as an absorption chiller. It includes: a first absorption system circuit for operation within a first temperature range; a second absorption system circuit for operation within a second temperature range which has a lower maximum temperature relative to the first temperature range; the first circuit having generator means, condenser means, evaporator means, and absorber means operatively connected together; the second circuit having generator means condenser means, evaporator means, and absorber means operative connected together; and the first circuit condenser means and the first circuit absorber means being in heat exchange communication with the second circuit generator means.

  2. Technique for extending the range of a signal measuring circuit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chaprnka, Anthony G.; Sun, Shan C.; Vercellotti, Leonard C.

    1978-01-01

    An input signal supplied to a signal measuring circuit is either amplified or attenuated as necessary to establish the magnitude of the input signal within the defined dynamic range of the measuring circuit and the output signal developed by the measuring circuit is subsequently readjusted through amplification or attenuation to develop an output signal which corresponds to the magnitude of the initial input signal.

  3. Charge regulation circuit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ball, Don G. (Livermore, CA)

    1992-01-01

    A charge regulation circuit provides regulation of an unregulated voltage supply in the range of 0.01%. The charge regulation circuit is utilized in a preferred embodiment in providing regulated voltage for controlling the operation of a laser.

  4. Piezoelectric drive circuit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Treu, C.A. Jr.

    1999-08-31

    A piezoelectric motor drive circuit is provided which utilizes the piezoelectric elements as oscillators and a Meacham half-bridge approach to develop feedback from the motor ground circuit to produce a signal to drive amplifiers to power the motor. The circuit automatically compensates for shifts in harmonic frequency of the piezoelectric elements due to pressure and temperature changes. 7 figs.

  5. Piezoelectric drive circuit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Treu, Jr., Charles A.

    1999-08-31

    A piezoelectric motor drive circuit is provided which utilizes the piezoelectric elements as oscillators and a Meacham half-bridge approach to develop feedback from the motor ground circuit to produce a signal to drive amplifiers to power the motor. The circuit automatically compensates for shifts in harmonic frequency of the piezoelectric elements due to pressure and temperature changes.

  6. CIRCUITS FOR CURRENT MEASUREMENTS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cox, R.J.

    1958-11-01

    Circuits are presented for measurement of a logarithmic scale of current flowing in a high impedance. In one form of the invention the disclosed circuit is in combination with an ionization chamber to measure lonization current. The particular circuit arrangement lncludes a vacuum tube having at least one grid, an ionization chamber connected in series with a high voltage source and the grid of the vacuum tube, and a d-c amplifier feedback circuit. As the ionization chamber current passes between the grid and cathode of the tube, the feedback circuit acts to stabilize the anode current, and the feedback voltage is a measure of the logaritbm of the ionization current.

  7. Photo-thermal quartz tuning fork excitation for dynamic mode atomic force microscope

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bontempi, Alexia; Teyssieux, Damien; Thiery, Laurent; Hermelin, Damien; Vairac, Pascal; Friedt, Jean-Michel

    2014-10-13

    A photo-thermal excitation of a Quartz Tuning Fork (QTF) for topographic studies is introduced. The non-invasive photo-thermal excitation presents practical advantages compared to QTF mechanical and electrical excitations, including the absence of the anti-resonance and its associated phase rotation. Comparison between our theoretical model and experiments validate that the optical transduction mechanism is a photo-thermal rather than photo-thermoacoustic phenomenon. Topographic maps in the context of near-field microscopy distance control have been achieved to demonstrate the performance of the system.

  8. Remote reset circuit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gritzo, Russell E.

    1987-01-01

    A remote reset circuit acts as a stand-alone monitor and controller by clocking in each character sent by a terminal to a computer and comparing it to a given reference character. When a match occurs, the remote reset circuit activates the system's hardware reset line. The remote reset circuit is hardware based centered around monostable multivibrators and is unaffected by system crashes, partial serial transmissions, or power supply transients.

  9. Remote reset circuit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gritzo, R.E.

    1985-09-12

    A remote reset circuit acts as a stand-along monitor and controller by clocking in each character sent by a terminal to a computer and comparing it to a given reference character. When a match occurs, the remote reset circuit activates the system's hardware reset line. The remote reset circuit is hardware based centered around monostable multivibrators and is unaffected by system crashes, partial serial transmissions, or power supply transients. 4 figs.

  10. Regenerative feedback resonant circuit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jones, A. Mark; Kelly, James F.; McCloy, John S.; McMakin, Douglas L.

    2014-09-02

    A regenerative feedback resonant circuit for measuring a transient response in a loop is disclosed. The circuit includes an amplifier for generating a signal in the loop. The circuit further includes a resonator having a resonant cavity and a material located within the cavity. The signal sent into the resonator produces a resonant frequency. A variation of the resonant frequency due to perturbations in electromagnetic properties of the material is measured.

  11. Compensated gain control circuit for buck regulator command charge circuit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barrett, David M.

    1996-01-01

    A buck regulator command charge circuit includes a compensated-gain control signal for compensating for changes in the component values in order to achieve optimal voltage regulation. The compensated-gain control circuit includes an automatic-gain control circuit for generating a variable-gain control signal. The automatic-gain control circuit is formed of a precision rectifier circuit, a filter network, an error amplifier, and an integrator circuit.

  12. Compensated gain control circuit for buck regulator command charge circuit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barrett, D.M.

    1996-11-05

    A buck regulator command charge circuit includes a compensated-gain control signal for compensating for changes in the component values in order to achieve optimal voltage regulation. The compensated-gain control circuit includes an automatic-gain control circuit for generating a variable-gain control signal. The automatic-gain control circuit is formed of a precision rectifier circuit, a filter network, an error amplifier, and an integrator circuit. 5 figs.

  13. Sensor readout detector circuit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chu, D.D.; Thelen, D.C. Jr.

    1998-08-11

    A sensor readout detector circuit is disclosed that is capable of detecting sensor signals down to a few nanoamperes or less in a high (microampere) background noise level. The circuit operates at a very low standby power level and is triggerable by a sensor event signal that is above a predetermined threshold level. A plurality of sensor readout detector circuits can be formed on a substrate as an integrated circuit (IC). These circuits can operate to process data from an array of sensors in parallel, with only data from active sensors being processed for digitization and analysis. This allows the IC to operate at a low power level with a high data throughput for the active sensors. The circuit may be used with many different types of sensors, including photodetectors, capacitance sensors, chemically-sensitive sensors or combinations thereof to provide a capability for recording transient events or for recording data for a predetermined period of time following an event trigger. The sensor readout detector circuit has applications for portable or satellite-based sensor systems. 6 figs.

  14. Sensor readout detector circuit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chu, Dahlon D.; Thelen, Jr., Donald C.

    1998-01-01

    A sensor readout detector circuit is disclosed that is capable of detecting sensor signals down to a few nanoamperes or less in a high (microampere) background noise level. The circuit operates at a very low standby power level and is triggerable by a sensor event signal that is above a predetermined threshold level. A plurality of sensor readout detector circuits can be formed on a substrate as an integrated circuit (IC). These circuits can operate to process data from an array of sensors in parallel, with only data from active sensors being processed for digitization and analysis. This allows the IC to operate at a low power level with a high data throughput for the active sensors. The circuit may be used with many different types of sensors, including photodetectors, capacitance sensors, chemically-sensitive sensors or combinations thereof to provide a capability for recording transient events or for recording data for a predetermined period of time following an event trigger. The sensor readout detector circuit has applications for portable or satellite-based sensor systems.

  15. Approximate circuits for increased reliability

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hamlet, Jason R.; Mayo, Jackson R.

    2015-08-18

    Embodiments of the invention describe a Boolean circuit having a voter circuit and a plurality of approximate circuits each based, at least in part, on a reference circuit. The approximate circuits are each to generate one or more output signals based on values of received input signals. The voter circuit is to receive the one or more output signals generated by each of the approximate circuits, and is to output one or more signals corresponding to a majority value of the received signals. At least some of the approximate circuits are to generate an output value different than the reference circuit for one or more input signal values; however, for each possible input signal value, the majority values of the one or more output signals generated by the approximate circuits and received by the voter circuit correspond to output signal result values of the reference circuit.

  16. Approximate circuits for increased reliability

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hamlet, Jason R.; Mayo, Jackson R.

    2015-12-22

    Embodiments of the invention describe a Boolean circuit having a voter circuit and a plurality of approximate circuits each based, at least in part, on a reference circuit. The approximate circuits are each to generate one or more output signals based on values of received input signals. The voter circuit is to receive the one or more output signals generated by each of the approximate circuits, and is to output one or more signals corresponding to a majority value of the received signals. At least some of the approximate circuits are to generate an output value different than the reference circuit for one or more input signal values; however, for each possible input signal value, the majority values of the one or more output signals generated by the approximate circuits and received by the voter circuit correspond to output signal result values of the reference circuit.

  17. DIFFERENTIAL FAULT SENSING CIRCUIT

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Roberts, J.H.

    1961-09-01

    A differential fault sensing circuit is designed for detecting arcing in high-voltage vacuum tubes arranged in parallel. A circuit is provided which senses differences in voltages appearing between corresponding elements likely to fault. Sensitivity of the circuit is adjusted to some level above which arcing will cause detectable differences in voltage. For particular corresponding elements, a group of pulse transformers are connected in parallel with diodes connected across the secondaries thereof so that only voltage excursions are transmitted to a thyratron which is biased to the sensitivity level mentioned.

  18. CALUTRON CATHODE INTERLOCK CIRCUIT

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baldwin, L.W.

    1959-05-26

    A circuit arrangement is described which prevents application of the arc voltage to an ion source of a calutron before the cathode has been heated to operating temperature. (T.R.H.)

  19. CALUTRON PROTECTIVE CIRCUIT

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schmidt, F.H.

    1959-05-26

    A switch and relay circuit is described for protection of calutrons. By means of this arrangement no arc can be established in the arc chamber unless cooling water flow is established. (T.R.H.)

  20. Test Circuit Service

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Test Circuit Service Network R&D Software-Defined Networking (SDN) Experimental Network Testbeds 100G SDN Testbed Dark Fiber Testbed Test Circuit Service Testbed Results Current Testbed Research Previous Testbed Research Performance (perfSONAR) Software & Tools Development Data for Researchers Partnerships Publications Workshops Contact Us Technical Assistance: 1 800-33-ESnet (Inside US) 1 800-333-7638 (Inside US) 1 510-486-7600 (Globally) 1 510-486-7607 (Globally) Report Network

  1. Superconducting flux flow digital circuits

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hietala, V.M.; Martens, J.S.; Zipperian, T.E.

    1995-02-14

    A NOR/inverter logic gate circuit and a flip flop circuit implemented with superconducting flux flow transistors (SFFTs) are disclosed. Both circuits comprise two SFFTs with feedback lines. They have extremely low power dissipation, very high switching speeds, and the ability to interface between Josephson junction superconductor circuits and conventional microelectronics. 8 figs.

  2. Superconducting flux flow digital circuits

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hietala, Vincent M.; Martens, Jon S.; Zipperian, Thomas E.

    1995-01-01

    A NOR/inverter logic gate circuit and a flip flop circuit implemented with superconducting flux flow transistors (SFFTs). Both circuits comprise two SFFTs with feedback lines. They have extremely low power dissipation, very high switching speeds, and the ability to interface between Josephson junction superconductor circuits and conventional microelectronics.

  3. Computational fluid dynamics analysis of a wire-feed, high-velocity oxygen-fuel (HVOF) thermal spray torch

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lopez, A.R.; Hassan, B.; Oberkampf, W.L.; Neiser, R.A.; Roemer, T.J.

    1996-09-01

    The fluid and particle dynamics of a High-Velocity Oxygen-Fuel Thermal Spray torch are analyzed using computational and experimental techniques. Three-dimensional Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) results are presented for a curved aircap used for coating interior surfaces such as engine cylinder bores. The device analyzed is similar to the Metco Diamond Jet Rotating Wire (DJRW) torch. The feed gases are injected through an axisymmetric nozzle into the curved aircap. Premixed propylene and oxygen are introduced from an annulus in the nozzle, while cooling air is injected between the nozzle and the interior wall of the aircap. The combustion process is modeled using a single-step finite-rate chemistry model with a total of 9 gas species which includes dissociation of combustion products. A continually-fed steel wire passes through the center of the nozzle and melting occurs at a conical tip near the exit of the aircap. Wire melting is simulated computationally by injecting liquid steel particles into the flow field near the tip of the wire. Experimental particle velocity measurements during wire feed were also taken using a Laser Two-Focus (L2F) velocimeter system. Flow fields inside and outside the aircap are presented and particle velocity predictions are compared with experimental measurements outside of the aircap.

  4. Dynamic model verification studies for the thermal response of the Fort St. Vrain HTGR Core

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ball, S J

    1980-01-01

    The safety research program for high-temperature gas-cooled reactors at ORNL is directed primarily at addressing licensing questions on the Fort St. Vrain reactor near Denver, CO. An important part of the program is to make use of experimental data from the reactor to at least partially verify the dynamic simulations that are used to predict the effects of postulated accident sequences. Comparisons were made of predictions with data from four different reactor scram (trip) events from operating power levels between 30 and 50%. An optimization program was used to rationalize the differences between predictions and measurements, and, in general, excellent agreement can be obtained by adjustment of models and parameters within their uncertainty ranges. Although the optimized models are not necessarily unique, results of the study have identified areas in which some of the models were deficient.

  5. ELECTRONIC TRIGGER CIRCUIT

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Russell, J.A.G.

    1958-01-01

    An electronic trigger circuit is described of the type where an output pulse is obtained only after an input voltage has cqualed or exceeded a selected reference voltage. In general, the invention comprises a source of direct current reference voltage in series with an impedance and a diode rectifying element. An input pulse of preselected amplitude causes the diode to conduct and develop a signal across the impedance. The signal is delivered to an amplifier where an output pulse is produced and part of the output is fed back in a positive manner to the diode so that the amplifier produces a steep wave front trigger pulsc at the output. The trigger point of the described circuit is not subject to variation due to the aging, etc., of multi-electrode tabes, since the diode circuit essentially determines the trigger point.

  6. ELECTRONIC PHASE CONTROL CIRCUIT

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Salisbury, J.D.; Klein, W.W.; Hansen, C.F.

    1959-04-21

    An electronic circuit is described for controlling the phase of radio frequency energy applied to a multicavity linear accelerator. In one application of the circuit two cavities are excited from a single radio frequency source, with one cavity directly coupled to the source and the other cavity coupled through a delay line of special construction. A phase detector provides a bipolar d-c output signal proportional to the difference in phase between the voltage in the two cavities. This d-c signal controls a bias supply which provides a d-c output for varying the capacitnce of voltage sensitive capacitors in the delay line. The over-all operation of the circuit is completely electronic, overcoming the time response limitations of the electromechanical control systems, and the relative phase relationship of the radio frequency voltages in the two caviiies is continuously controlled to effect particle acceleration.

  7. ELECTRONIC MULTIPLIER CIRCUIT

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thomas, R.E.

    1959-08-25

    An electronic multiplier circuit is described in which an output voltage having an amplitude proportional to the product or quotient of the input signals is accomplished in a novel manner which facilitates simplicity of circuit construction and a high degree of accuracy in accomplishing the multiplying and dividing function. The circuit broadly comprises a multiplier tube in which the plate current is proportional to the voltage applied to a first control grid multiplied by the difference between voltage applied to a second control grid and the voltage applied to the first control grid. Means are provided to apply a first signal to be multiplied to the first control grid together with means for applying the sum of the first signal to be multiplied and a second signal to be multiplied to the second control grid whereby the plate current of the multiplier tube is proportional to the product of the first and second signals to be multiplied.

  8. Small circuits for cryptography.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Torgerson, Mark Dolan; Draelos, Timothy John; Schroeppel, Richard Crabtree; Miller, Russell D.; Anderson, William Erik

    2005-10-01

    This report examines a number of hardware circuit design issues associated with implementing certain functions in FPGA and ASIC technologies. Here we show circuit designs for AES and SHA-1 that have an extremely small hardware footprint, yet show reasonably good performance characteristics as compared to the state of the art designs found in the literature. Our AES performance numbers are fueled by an optimized composite field S-box design for the Stratix chipset. Our SHA-1 designs use register packing and feedback functionalities of the Stratix LE, which reduce the logic element usage by as much as 72% as compared to other SHA-1 designs.

  9. Electrical Circuit Tester

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Love, Frank

    2006-04-18

    An electrical circuit testing device is provided, comprising a case, a digital voltage level testing circuit with a display means, a switch to initiate measurement using the device, a non-shorting switching means for selecting pre-determined electrical wiring configurations to be tested in an outlet, a terminal block, a five-pole electrical plug mounted on the case surface and a set of adapters that can be used for various multiple-pronged electrical outlet configurations for voltages from 100 600 VAC from 50 100 Hz.

  10. Circuit breaker lockout device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kozlowski, L.J.; Shirey, L.A.

    1992-11-24

    An improved lockout assembly for locking a circuit breaker in a selected off or on position is provided. The lockout assembly includes a lock block and a lock pin. The lock block has a hollow interior which fits over the free end of a switch handle of the circuit breaker. The lock block includes at least one hole that is placed in registration with a hole in the free end of the switch handle. A lock tab on the lock block serves to align and register the respective holes on the lock block and switch handle. A lock pin is inserted through the registered holes and serves to connect the lock block to the switch handle. Once the lock block and the switch handle are connected, the position of the switch handle is prevented from being changed by the lock tab bumping up against a stationary housing portion of the circuit breaker. When the lock pin installed, an apertured-end portion of the lock pin is in registration with another hole on the lock block. Then a special scissors conforming to O.S.H.A. regulations can be installed, with one or more padlocks, on the lockout assembly to prevent removal of the lock pin from the lockout assembly, thereby preventing removal of the lockout assembly from the circuit breaker. 2 figs.

  11. Circuit breaker lockout device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kozlowski, Lawrence J.; Shirey, Lawrence A.

    1992-01-01

    An improved lockout assembly for locking a circuit breaker in a selected off or on position is provided. The lockout assembly includes a lock block and a lock pin. The lock block has a hollow interior which fits over the free end of a switch handle of the circuit breaker. The lock block includes at least one hole that is placed in registration with a hole in the free end of the switch handle. A lock tab on the lock block serves to align and register the respective holes on the lock block and switch handle. A lock pin is inserted through the registered holes and serves to connect the lock block to the switch handle. Once the lock block and the switch handle are connected, the position of the switch handle is prevented from being changed by the lock tab bumping up against a stationary housing portion of the circuit breaker. When the lock pin installed, an apertured-end portion of the lock pin is in registration with another hole on the lock block. Then a special scissors conforming to O.S.H.A. regulations can be installed, with one or more padlocks, on the lockout assembly to prevent removal of the lock pin from the lockout assembly, thereby preventing removal of the lockout assembly from the circuit breaker.

  12. Bioluminescent bioreporter integrated circuit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Simpson, Michael L.; Sayler, Gary S.; Paulus, Michael J.

    2000-01-01

    Disclosed are monolithic bioelectronic devices comprising a bioreporter and an OASIC. These bioluminescent bioreporter integrated circuit are useful in detecting substances such as pollutants, explosives, and heavy-metals residing in inhospitable areas such as groundwater, industrial process vessels, and battlefields. Also disclosed are methods and apparatus for environmental pollutant detection, oil exploration, drug discovery, industrial process control, and hazardous chemical monitoring.

  13. Automatic sweep circuit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Keefe, Donald J.

    1980-01-01

    An automatically sweeping circuit for searching for an evoked response in an output signal in time with respect to a trigger input. Digital counters are used to activate a detector at precise intervals, and monitoring is repeated for statistical accuracy. If the response is not found then a different time window is examined until the signal is found.

  14. The thermal conductivity of mixed fuel UxPu1-xO2: molecular dynamics simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Xiang-Yang; Cooper, Michael William Donald; Stanek, Christopher Richard; Andersson, Anders David Ragnar

    2015-10-16

    Mixed oxides (MOX), in the context of nuclear fuels, are a mixture of the oxides of heavy actinide elements such as uranium, plutonium and thorium. The interest in the UO2-PuO2 system arises from the fact that these oxides are used both in fast breeder reactors (FBRs) as well as in pressurized water reactors (PWRs). The thermal conductivity of UO2 fuel is an important material property that affects fuel performance since it is the key parameter determining the temperature distribution in the fuel, thus governing, e.g., dimensional changes due to thermal expansion, fission gas release rates, etc. For this reason it is important to understand the thermal conductivity of MOX fuel and how it differs from UO2. Here, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are carried out to determine quantitatively, the effect of mixing on the thermal conductivity of UxPu1-xO2, as a function of PuO2 concentrations, for a range of temperatures, 300 – 1500 K. The results will be used to develop enhanced continuum thermal conductivity models for MARMOT and BISON by INL. These models express the thermal conductivity as a function of microstructure state-variables, thus enabling thermal conductivity models with closer connection to the physical state of the fuel.

  15. High density electronic circuit and process for making

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morgan, William P.

    1999-01-01

    High density circuits with posts that protrude beyond one surface of a substrate to provide easy mounting of devices such as integrated circuits. The posts also provide stress relief to accommodate differential thermal expansion. The process allows high interconnect density with fewer alignment restrictions and less wasted circuit area than previous processes. The resulting substrates can be test platforms for die testing and for multi-chip module substrate testing. The test platform can contain active components and emulate realistic operational conditions, replacing shorts/opens net testing.

  16. High density electronic circuit and process for making

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morgan, W.P.

    1999-06-29

    High density circuits with posts that protrude beyond one surface of a substrate to provide easy mounting of devices such as integrated circuits are disclosed. The posts also provide stress relief to accommodate differential thermal expansion. The process allows high interconnect density with fewer alignment restrictions and less wasted circuit area than previous processes. The resulting substrates can be test platforms for die testing and for multi-chip module substrate testing. The test platform can contain active components and emulate realistic operational conditions, replacing shorts/opens net testing. 8 figs.

  17. Methods of fabricating applique circuits

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dimos, Duane B.; Garino, Terry J.

    1999-09-14

    Applique circuits suitable for advanced packaging applications are introduced. These structures are particularly suited for the simple integration of large amounts (many nanoFarads) of capacitance into conventional integrated circuit and multichip packaging technology. In operation, applique circuits are bonded to the integrated circuit or other appropriate structure at the point where the capacitance is required, thereby minimizing the effects of parasitic coupling. An immediate application is to problems of noise reduction and control in modern high-frequency circuitry.

  18. GAS PHOTOTUBE CIRCUIT

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Richardson, J.H.

    1958-03-01

    This patent pertains to electronic circuits for measuring the intensity of light and is especially concerned with measurement between preset light thresholds. Such a circuit has application in connection with devices for reading-out information stored on punch cards or tapes where the cards and tapes are translucent. By the novel arrangement of this invention thc sensitivity of a gas phototube is maintained at a low value when the light intensity is below a first threshold level. If the light level rises above the first threshold level, the tube is rendered highly sensitive and an output signal will vary in proportion to the light intensity change. When the light level decreases below a second threshold level, the gas phototube is automatically rendered highly insensitive. Each of these threshold points is adjustable.

  19. High voltage MOSFET switching circuit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McEwan, Thomas E.

    1994-01-01

    The problem of source lead inductance in a MOSFET switching circuit is compensated for by adding an inductor to the gate circuit. The gate circuit inductor produces an inductive spike which counters the source lead inductive drop to produce a rectangular drive voltage waveform at the internal gate-source terminals of the MOSFET.

  20. High voltage MOSFET switching circuit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McEwan, T.E.

    1994-07-26

    The problem of source lead inductance in a MOSFET switching circuit is compensated for by adding an inductor to the gate circuit. The gate circuit inductor produces an inductive spike which counters the source lead inductive drop to produce a rectangular drive voltage waveform at the internal gate-source terminals of the MOSFET. 2 figs.

  1. PARTICLE BEAM TRACKING CIRCUIT

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, O.A.

    1959-05-01

    >A particle-beam tracking and correcting circuit is described. Beam induction electrodes are placed on either side of the beam, and potentials induced by the beam are compared in a voltage comparator or discriminator. This comparison produces an error signal which modifies the fm curve at the voltage applied to the drift tube, thereby returning the orbit to the preferred position. The arrangement serves also to synchronize accelerating frequency and magnetic field growth. (T.R.H.)

  2. High open-circuit voltage small-molecule p-DTS(FBTTh 2 )2.ICBA bulk heterojunction solar cells – morphology, excited-state dynamics, and photovoltaic performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ko Kyaw, Aung Ko; Gehrig, Dominik; Zhang, Jie; Huang, Ye; Bazan, Guillermo C.; Laquai, Frédéric; Nguyen, Thuc -Quyen

    2014-11-27

    The photovoltaic performance of bulk heterojunction solar cells using the solution-processable small molecule donor 7,7'-(4,4-bis(2-ethylhexyl)-4H-silolo[3,2-b:4,5-b']dithiophene-2,6-diyl)bis(6-fluoro-4-(5'-hexyl-[2,2'-bithiophene]-5-yl)benzo[c][1,2,5]thiadiazole) (p-DTS(FBTTh2)2 in combination with indene-C60 bis-adduct (ICBA) as an acceptor is systematically optimized by altering the processing conditions. A high open-circuit voltage of 1 V, more than 0.2 V higher than that of a p-DTS(FBTTh2)2:PC70BM blend, is achieved. However, the power conversion efficiency remains around 5% and thus is lower than ~8% previously reported for p-DTS(FBTTh2)2:PC70BM. Transient absorption (TA) pump–probe spectroscopy over a wide spectral (Vis-NIR) and dynamic (fs to ÎŒs) range in combination with multivariate curve resolution analysis of the TA data reveals that generation of free charges is more efficient in the blend with PC70BM as an acceptor. In contrast, blends with ICBA create more coulombically bound interfacial charge transfer (CT) states, which recombine on the sub-nanosecond timescale by geminate recombination. Furthermore, the ns to ÎŒs charge carrier dynamics in p-DTS(FBTTh2)2:ICBA blends are only weakly intensity dependent implying a significant contribution of recombination from long-lived CT states and trapped charges, while those in p-DTS(FBTTh2)2:PC70BM decay via an intensity-dependent recombination mechanism indicating that spatially separated (free) charge carriers are observed, which can be extracted as photocurrent from the device.

  3. Development of a Novel Test Method for On-Demand Internal Short Circuit in a Li-Ion Cell (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keyser, M.; Long, D.; Jung, Y. S.; Pesaran, A.; Darcy, E.; McCarthy, B.; Patrick, L.; Kruger, C.

    2011-01-01

    This presentation describes a cell-level test method that simulates an emergent internal short circuit, produces consistent and reproducible test results, can establish the locations and temperatures/power/SOC conditions where an internal short circuit will result in thermal runaway, and provides relevant data to validate internal short circuit models.

  4. Integrated coherent matter wave circuits

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ryu, C.; Boshier, M. G.

    2015-09-21

    An integrated coherent matter wave circuit is a single device, analogous to an integrated optical circuit, in which coherent de Broglie waves are created and then launched into waveguides where they can be switched, divided, recombined, and detected as they propagate. Applications of such circuits include guided atom interferometers, atomtronic circuits, and precisely controlled delivery of atoms. We report experiments demonstrating integrated circuits for guided coherent matter waves. The circuit elements are created with the painted potential technique, a form of time-averaged optical dipole potential in which a rapidly moving, tightly focused laser beam exerts forces on atoms through theirmore »electric polarizability. Moreover, the source of coherent matter waves is a Bose–Einstein condensate (BEC). Finally, we launch BECs into painted waveguides that guide them around bends and form switches, phase coherent beamsplitters, and closed circuits. These are the basic elements that are needed to engineer arbitrarily complex matter wave circuitry.« less

  5. Power system with an integrated lubrication circuit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hoff, Brian D.; Akasam, Sivaprasad; Algrain, Marcelo C.; Johnson, Kris W.; Lane, William H.

    2009-11-10

    A power system includes an engine having a first lubrication circuit and at least one auxiliary power unit having a second lubrication circuit. The first lubrication circuit is in fluid communication with the second lubrication circuit.

  6. Base drive circuit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lange, A.C.

    1995-04-04

    An improved base drive circuit having a level shifter for providing bistable input signals to a pair of non-linear delays. The non-linear delays provide gate control to a corresponding pair of field effect transistors through a corresponding pair of buffer components. The non-linear delays provide delayed turn-on for each of the field effect transistors while an associated pair of transistors shunt the non-linear delays during turn-off of the associated field effect transistor. 2 figures.

  7. Base drive circuit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lange, Arnold C.

    1995-01-01

    An improved base drive circuit (10) having a level shifter (24) for providing bistable input signals to a pair of non-linear delays (30, 32). The non-linear delays (30, 32) provide gate control to a corresponding pair of field effect transistors (100, 106) through a corresponding pair of buffer components (88, 94). The non-linear delays (30, 32) provide delayed turn-on for each of the field effect transistors (100, 106) while an associated pair of transistors (72, 80) shunt the non-linear delays (30, 32) during turn-off of the associated field effect transistor (100, 106).

  8. Sequential circuit design for radiation hardened multiple voltage integrated circuits

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Clark, Lawrence T.; McIver, III, John K.

    2009-11-24

    The present invention includes a radiation hardened sequential circuit, such as a bistable circuit, flip-flop or other suitable design that presents substantial immunity to ionizing radiation while simultaneously maintaining a low operating voltage. In one embodiment, the circuit includes a plurality of logic elements that operate on relatively low voltage, and a master and slave latches each having storage elements that operate on a relatively high voltage.

  9. Jitter compensation circuit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sullivan, J.S.; Ball, D.G.

    1997-09-09

    The instantaneous V{sub co} signal on a charging capacitor is sampled and the charge voltage on capacitor C{sub o} is captured just prior to its discharge into the first stage of magnetic modulator. The captured signal is applied to an averaging circuit with a long time constant and to the positive input terminal of a differential amplifier. The averaged V{sub co} signal is split between a gain stage (G = 0.975) and a feedback stage that determines the slope of the voltage ramp applied to the high speed comparator. The 97.5% portion of the averaged V{sub co} signal is applied to the negative input of a differential amplifier gain stage (G = 10). The differential amplifier produces an error signal by subtracting 97.5% of the averaged V{sub co} signal from the instantaneous value of sampled V{sub co} signal and multiplying the difference by ten. The resulting error signal is applied to the positive input of a high speed comparator. The error signal is then compared to a voltage ramp that is proportional to the averaged V{sub co} values squared divided by the total volt-second product of the magnetic compression circuit. 11 figs.

  10. Jitter compensation circuit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sullivan, James S.; Ball, Don G.

    1997-01-01

    The instantaneous V.sub.co signal on a charging capacitor is sampled and the charge voltage on capacitor C.sub.o is captured just prior to its discharge into the first stage of magnetic modulator. The captured signal is applied to an averaging circuit with a long time constant and to the positive input terminal of a differential amplifier. The averaged V.sub. co signal is split between a gain stage (G=0.975) and a feedback stage that determines the slope of the voltage ramp applied to the high speed comparator. The 97.5% portion of the averaged V.sub.co signal is applied to the negative input of a differential amplifier gain stage (G=10). The differential amplifier produces an error signal by subtracting 97.5% of the averaged V.sub.co signal from the instantaneous value of sampled V.sub.co signal and multiplying the difference by ten. The resulting error signal is applied to the positive input of a high speed comparator. The error signal is then compared to a voltage ramp that is proportional to the averaged V.sub.co values squared divided by the total volt-second product of the magnetic compression circuit.

  11. PRECISION TIME-DELAY CIRCUIT

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Creveling, R.

    1959-03-17

    A tine-delay circuit which produces a delay time in d. The circuit a capacitor, an te back resistance, connected serially with the anode of the diode going to ground. At the start of the time delay a negative stepfunction is applied to the series circuit and initiates a half-cycle transient oscillatory voltage terminated by a transient oscillatory voltage of substantially higher frequency. The output of the delay circuit is taken at the junction of the inductor and diode where a sudden voltage rise appears after the initiation of the higher frequency transient oscillations.

  12. Magnetic compression laser driving circuit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ball, Don G. (Livermore, CA); Birx, Dan (Brentwood, CA); Cook, Edward G. (Livermore, CA)

    1993-01-01

    A magnetic compression laser driving circuit is disclosed. The magnetic compression laser driving circuit compresses voltage pulses in the range of 1.5 microseconds at 20 Kilovolts of amplitude to pulses in the range of 40 nanoseconds and 60 Kilovolts of amplitude. The magnetic compression laser driving circuit includes a multi-stage magnetic switch where the last stage includes a switch having at least two turns which has larger saturated inductance with less core material so that the efficiency of the circuit and hence the laser is increased.

  13. Magnetic compression laser driving circuit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ball, D.G.; Birx, D.; Cook, E.G.

    1993-01-05

    A magnetic compression laser driving circuit is disclosed. The magnetic compression laser driving circuit compresses voltage pulses in the range of 1.5 microseconds at 20 kilovolts of amplitude to pulses in the range of 40 nanoseconds and 60 kilovolts of amplitude. The magnetic compression laser driving circuit includes a multi-stage magnetic switch where the last stage includes a switch having at least two turns which has larger saturated inductance with less core material so that the efficiency of the circuit and hence the laser is increased.

  14. Photoconductive circuit element reflectometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rauscher, Christen (Alexandria, VA)

    1990-01-01

    A photoconductive reflectometer for characterizing semiconductor devices at millimeter wavelength frequencies where a first photoconductive circuit element (PCE) is biased by a direct current voltage source and produces short electrical pulses when excited into conductance by short first laser light pulses. The electrical pulses are electronically conditioned to improve the frequency related amplitude characteristics of the pulses which thereafter propagate along a transmission line to a device under test. Second PCEs are connected along the transmission line to sample the signals on the transmission line when excited into conductance by short second laser light pulses, spaced apart in time a variable period from the first laser light pulses. Electronic filters connected to each of the second PCEs act as low-pass filters and remove parasitic interference from the sampled signals and output the sampled signals in the form of slowed-motion images of the signals on the transmission line.

  15. Photoconductive circuit element reflectometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rauscher, C.

    1987-12-07

    A photoconductive reflectometer for characterizing semiconductor devices at millimeter wavelength frequencies where a first photoconductive circuit element (PCE) is biased by a direct current voltage source and produces short electrical pulses when excited into conductance by short first laser light pulses. The electrical pulses are electronically conditioned to improve the frequency related amplitude characteristics of the pulses which thereafter propagate along a transmission line to a device under test. Second PCEs are connected along the transmission line to sample the signals on the transmission line when excited into conductance by short second laser light pulses, spaced apart in time a determinable period from the first laser light pulses. Electronic filters connected to each of the second PCEs act as low-pass filters and remove parasitic interference from the sampled signals and output the sampled signals in the form of slowed-motion images of the signals on the transmission line. 4 figs.

  16. ELECTRONIC PULSE SCALING CIRCUITS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cooke-Yarborough, E.H.

    1958-11-18

    Electronic pulse scaling circults of the klnd comprlsing a serles of bi- stable elements connected ln sequence, usually in the form of a rlng so as to be cycllcally repetitive at the highest scallng factor, are described. The scaling circuit comprises a ring system of bi-stable elements each arranged on turn-off to cause, a succeeding element of the ring to be turned-on, and one being arranged on turn-off to cause a further element of the ring to be turned-on. In addition, separate means are provided for applying a turn-off pulse to all the elements simultaneously, and for resetting the elements to a starting condition at the end of each cycle.

  17. ELECTRONIC INTEGRATING CIRCUIT

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Englemann, R.H.

    1963-08-20

    An electronic integrating circuit using a transistor with a capacitor connected between the emitter and collector through which the capacitor discharges at a rate proportional to the input current at the base is described. Means are provided for biasing the base with an operating bias and for applying a voltage pulse to the capacitor for charging to an initial voltage. A current dividing diode is connected between the base and emitter of the transistor, and signal input terminal means are coupled to the juncture of the capacitor and emitter and to the base of the transistor. At the end of the integration period, the residual voltage on said capacitor is less by an amount proportional to the integral of the input signal. Either continuous or intermittent periods of integration are provided. (AEC)

  18. Thermal transport in UO2 with defects and fission products by molecular dynamics simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Xiang-Yang; Cooper, Michael William Donald; Mcclellan, Kenneth James; Lashley, Jason Charles; Byler, Darrin David; Stanek, Christopher Richard; Andersson, Anders David Ragnar

    2015-10-14

    The importance of the thermal transport in nuclear fuel has motivated a wide range of experimental and modelling studies. In this report, the reduction of thermal transport in UO2 due to defects and fission products has been investigated using non-equilibrium MD simulations, with two sets of empirical potentials for studying the degregation of UO2 thermal conductivity including a Buckingham type interatomic potential and a recently developed EAM type interatomic potential. Additional parameters for U5+ and Zr4+ in UO2 have been developed for the EAM potential. The thermal conductivity results from MD simulations are then corrected for the spin-phonon scattering through Callaway model formulations. To validate the modelling results, comparison was made with experimental measurements on single crystal hyper-stoichiometric UO2+x samples.

  19. Thermal conductivity of Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} tilted nanowires, a molecular dynamics study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Shen Lacroix, David; Termentzidis, Konstantinos; Chaput, Laurent; Stein, Nicolas; Frantz, Cedric

    2015-06-08

    Evidence for an excellent compromise between structural stability and low thermal conductivity has been achieved with tilted Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} nanowires. The latter ones were recently fabricated and there is a need in modeling and characterization. The structural stability and the thermal conductivity of Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} nanowires along the tilted [015]* direction and along the [010] direction have been explored. For the two configurations of nanowires, the effect of the length and the cross section on the thermal conductivity is discussed. The thermal conductivity of infinite size tilted nanowire is 0.34?W/m K, significantly reduced compared to nanowire along the [010] direction (0.59?W/m K). This reveals that in Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} nanowires the structural anisotropy can be as important as size effects to reduce the thermal conductivity. The main reason is the reduction of the phonon mean free path which is found to be 1.7?nm in the tilted nanowires, compared to 5.3?nm for the nanowires along the [010] direction. The fact that tilted Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} nanowire is mechanically stable and it has extremely low thermal conductivity suggests these nanowires as a promising material for future thermoelectric generation application.

  20. Tailored benzoxazines as novel resin systems for printed circuit boards in high temperature e-mobility applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Troeger, K. Darka, R. Khanpour Neumeyer, T. Altstaedt, V.

    2014-05-15

    This study focuses on the development of Bisphenol-F-benzoxazine resins blended with different ratios of a trifunctional epoxy resin suitable as matrix for substrates for high temperature printed circuit board (HT-PCB) applications. With the benzoxazine blends glass transition temperatures of more than 190 °C could be achieved in combination with a coefficient of thermal expansion in thickness direction (z-CTE) of less than 60 ppm/K without adding any fillers. This shows the high potential of the benzoxazine-epoxy blend systems as substrate materials for HT-PCBs. To understand the thermal behavior of the different formulations, the apparent crosslink density was calculated based on data from Dynamic Mechanical Analysis. Laminates in laboratory scale were prepared and characterized to demonstrate the transformation of the neat resin properties into real electronic substrate properties. The produced laminates exhibit a z-CTE below 40 ppm/K.

  1. Demultiplexer circuit for neural stimulation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wessendorf, Kurt O; Okandan, Murat; Pearson, Sean

    2012-10-09

    A demultiplexer circuit is disclosed which can be used with a conventional neural stimulator to extend the number of electrodes which can be activated. The demultiplexer circuit, which is formed on a semiconductor substrate containing a power supply that provides all the dc electrical power for operation of the circuit, includes digital latches that receive and store addressing information from the neural stimulator one bit at a time. This addressing information is used to program one or more 1:2.sup.N demultiplexers in the demultiplexer circuit which then route neural stimulation signals from the neural stimulator to an electrode array which is connected to the outputs of the 1:2.sup.N demultiplexer. The demultiplexer circuit allows the number of individual electrodes in the electrode array to be increased by a factor of 2.sup.N with N generally being in a range of 2-4.

  2. Dynamic

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Dynamic , and Static , Res.ponse of the Government Oil Shale Mine at ' , . , Rifle, Colorado, to the Rulison Event. , . ; . . DISCLAIMER Portions of this document may be illegible in electronic image products. Images are produced from the best available original document. p ( y c - - a 2-1 0 -4- REPORT AT (29-2) 914 USBM 1 0 0 1 UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT O F THE I NTERIOR BUREAU OF MINES e s.09 P. L. R U S S E L L RESEARCH D l RECTOR Februory 2, lB7O DYNAMIC AND STATIC RESPONSE 'OF THE GOVERNMENT

  3. PHOTOSENSITIVE RELAY CONTROL CIRCUIT

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Martin, C.F.

    1958-01-14

    adapted for the measurement of the time required for an oscillating member to pass through a preselected number of oscillations, after being damped to a certain maximum amplitude of oscillation. A mirror is attached to the moving member and directs light successively to a photocell which is part of a trigger unit and to first and second photocells which are part of a starter unit, as the member swings to its maximum amplitude. The starter and trigger units comprise thyratrons and relays so interconnected that the trigger circuit, although generating a counter pulse, does not register a count in the counter when the light traverses both photocells of the starter unit. When the amplitude of oscillation of the member decreases to where the second photocell is not transversed, the triggei pulse is received by the counter. The counter taen operates to register the desired number of oscillations and initiates and terminates a timer for measuring the time irterval for the preselected number of oscillations.

  4. Test results of a 90 MHZ integrated circuit sixteen channel analog pipeline for SSC detector calorimetry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kleinfelder, S.A.; Levi, M.; Milgrome, O.

    1990-10-01

    A sixteen channel analog transient recorder with 128 cells per channel has been fabricated as an integrated circuit and tested at speeds of up to 90 MHz. The circuit uses a switched capacitor array technology to achieve a simultaneous read and write capability and twelve bit dynamic range. The high performance of this part should satisfy the demanding electronics requirements of calorimeter detectors at the SSC. The circuit parameters and test results are presented. 2 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Overpulse railgun energy recovery circuit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Honig, E.M.

    1984-09-28

    The invention presented relates to a high-power pulsing circuit and more particularly to a repetitive pulse inductive energy storage and transfer circuit for an electromagnetic launcher. In an electromagnetic launcher such as a railgun for propelling a projectile at high velocity, an overpulse energy recovery circuit is employed to transfer stored inductive energy from a source inductor to the railgun inductance to propel the projectile down the railgun. Switching circuitry and an energy transfer capacitor are used to switch the energy back to the source inductor in readiness for a repetitive projectile propelling cycle.

  6. Counterpulse railgun energy recovery circuit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Honig, E.M.

    1984-09-28

    The invention presented relates to a high-power pulsing circuit and more particularly to a repetitive pulse inductive energy storage and transfer circuit for an electromagnetic launcher. In an electromagnetic launcher such as a railgun for propelling a projectile at high velocity, a counterpulse energy recovery circuit is employed to transfer stored inductive energy from a source inductor to the railgun inductance to propel the projectile down the railgun. Switching circuitry and an energy transfer capacitor are used to switch the energy back to the source inductor in readiness for a repetitive projectile propelling cycle.

  7. Integrated circuits, and design and manufacture thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Auracher, Stefan; Pribbernow, Claus; Hils, Andreas

    2006-04-18

    A representation of a macro for an integrated circuit layout. The representation may define sub-circuit cells of a module. The module may have a predefined functionality. The sub-circuit cells may include at least one reusable circuit cell. The reusable circuit cell may be configured such that when the predefined functionality of the module is not used, the reusable circuit cell is available for re-use.

  8. Picture of the Week: Circuits of light

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    5 Circuits of light This artistic conceptualization of circuits made of light represents a new capability that could lead to advanced sensor systems, quantum information processing technology, and more. March 25, 2016 circuits of light artist's conception Circuits of light: artist's conception View a super-large 300 dpi version of this image on our Lab Flickr site. Circuits of light This artistic conceptualization of circuits made of light represents a new capability that could lead to advanced

  9. printed-circuit heat exchanger PCHE

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    printed-circuit heat exchanger PCHE - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home ... SunShot Grand Challenge: Regional Test Centers printed-circuit heat exchanger PCHE Home...

  10. Timing control by redundant inhibitory neuronal circuits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tristan, I. Rulkov, N. F.; Huerta, R.; Rabinovich, M.

    2014-03-15

    Rhythms and timing control of sequential activity in the brain is fundamental to cognition and behavior. Although experimental and theoretical studies support the understanding that neuronal circuits are intrinsically capable of generating different time intervals, the dynamical origin of the phenomenon of functionally dependent timing control is still unclear. Here, we consider a new mechanism that is related to the multi-neuronal cooperative dynamics in inhibitory brain motifs consisting of a few clusters. It is shown that redundancy and diversity of neurons within each cluster enhances the sensitivity of the timing control with the level of neuronal excitation of the whole network. The generality of the mechanism is shown to work on two different neuronal models: a conductance-based model and a map-based model.

  11. Graybox and adaptative dynamic neural network identification models to infer the steady state efficiency of solar thermal collectors starting from the transient condition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roberto, Baccoli; Ubaldo, Carlini; Stefano, Mariotti; Roberto, Innamorati; Elisa, Solinas; Paolo, Mura

    2010-06-15

    This paper deals with the development of methods for non steady state test of solar thermal collectors. Our goal is to infer performances in steady-state conditions in terms of the efficiency curve when measures in transient conditions are the only ones available. We take into consideration the method of identification of a system in dynamic conditions by applying a Graybox Identification Model and a Dynamic Adaptative Linear Neural Network (ALNN) model. The study targets the solar collector with evacuated pipes, such as Dewar pipes. The mathematical description that supervises the functioning of the solar collector in transient conditions is developed using the equation of the energy balance, with the aim of determining the order and architecture of the two models. The input and output vectors of the two models are constructed, considering the measures of 4 days of solar radiation, flow mass, environment and heat-transfer fluid temperature in the inlet and outlet from the thermal solar collector. The efficiency curves derived from the two models are detected in correspondence to the test and validation points. The two synthetic simulated efficiency curves are compared with the actual efficiency curve certified by the Swiss Institute Solartechnik Puffung Forschung which tested the solar collector performance in steady-state conditions according to the UNI-EN 12975 standard. An acquisition set of measurements of only 4 days in the transient condition was enough to trace through a Graybox State Space Model the efficiency curve of the tested solar thermal collector, with a relative error of synthetic values with respect to efficiency certified by SPF, lower than 0.5%, while with the ALNN model the error is lower than 2.2% with respect to certified one. (author)

  12. Reverse engineering of integrated circuits

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chisholm, Gregory H.; Eckmann, Steven T.; Lain, Christopher M.; Veroff, Robert L.

    2003-01-01

    Software and a method therein to analyze circuits. The software comprises several tools, each of which perform particular functions in the Reverse Engineering process. The analyst, through a standard interface, directs each tool to the portion of the task to which it is most well suited, rendering previously intractable problems solvable. The tools are generally used iteratively to produce a successively more abstract picture of a circuit, about which incomplete a priori knowledge exists.

  13. Using field observations to inform thermal hydrology models of permafrost dynamics with ATS (v0.83)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Atchley, A. L.; Painter, S. L.; Harp, D. R.; Coon, E. T.; Wilson, C. J.; Liljedahl, A. K.; Romanovsky, V. E.

    2015-04-14

    Climate change is profoundly transforming the carbon-rich Arctic tundra landscape, potentially moving it from a carbon sink to a carbon source by increasing the thickness of soil that thaws on a seasonal basis. However, the modeling capability and precise parameterizations of the physical characteristics needed to estimate projected active layer thickness (ALT) are limited in Earth System Models (ESMs). In particular, discrepancies in spatial scale between field measurements and Earth System Models challenge validation and parameterization of hydrothermal models. A recently developed surface/subsurface model for permafrost thermal hydrology, the Advanced Terrestrial Simulator (ATS), is used in combination with field measurements to calibrate and identify fine scale controls of ALT in ice wedge polygon tundra in Barrow, Alaska. An iterative model refinement procedure that cycles between borehole temperature and snow cover measurements and simulations functions to evaluate and parameterize different model processes necessary to simulate freeze/thaw processes and ALT formation. After model refinement and calibration, reasonable matches between simulated and measured soil temperatures are obtained, with the largest errors occurring during early summer above ice wedges (e.g. troughs). The results suggest that properly constructed and calibrated one-dimensional thermal hydrology models have the potential to provide reasonable representation of the subsurface thermal response and can be used to infer model input parameters and process representations. The models for soil thermal conductivity and snow distribution were found to be the most sensitive process representations. However, information on lateral flow and snowpack evolution might be needed to constrain model representations of surface hydrology and snow depth.

  14. Using field observations to inform thermal hydrology models of permafrost dynamics with ATS (v0.83)

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Atchley, A. L.; Painter, S. L.; Harp, D. R.; Coon, E. T.; Wilson, C. J.; Liljedahl, A. K.; Romanovsky, V. E.

    2015-04-14

    Climate change is profoundly transforming the carbon-rich Arctic tundra landscape, potentially moving it from a carbon sink to a carbon source by increasing the thickness of soil that thaws on a seasonal basis. However, the modeling capability and precise parameterizations of the physical characteristics needed to estimate projected active layer thickness (ALT) are limited in Earth System Models (ESMs). In particular, discrepancies in spatial scale between field measurements and Earth System Models challenge validation and parameterization of hydrothermal models. A recently developed surface/subsurface model for permafrost thermal hydrology, the Advanced Terrestrial Simulator (ATS), is used in combination with field measurementsmore » to calibrate and identify fine scale controls of ALT in ice wedge polygon tundra in Barrow, Alaska. An iterative model refinement procedure that cycles between borehole temperature and snow cover measurements and simulations functions to evaluate and parameterize different model processes necessary to simulate freeze/thaw processes and ALT formation. After model refinement and calibration, reasonable matches between simulated and measured soil temperatures are obtained, with the largest errors occurring during early summer above ice wedges (e.g. troughs). The results suggest that properly constructed and calibrated one-dimensional thermal hydrology models have the potential to provide reasonable representation of the subsurface thermal response and can be used to infer model input parameters and process representations. The models for soil thermal conductivity and snow distribution were found to be the most sensitive process representations. However, information on lateral flow and snowpack evolution might be needed to constrain model representations of surface hydrology and snow depth.« less

  15. Using field observations to inform thermal hydrology models of permafrost dynamics with ATS (v0.83)

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Atchley, Adam L.; Painter, Scott L.; Harp, Dylan R.; Coon, Ethan T.; Wilson, Cathy J.; Liljedahl, Anna K.; Romanovsky, V. E.

    2015-09-01

    Climate change is profoundly transforming the carbon-rich Arctic tundra landscape, potentially moving it from a carbon sink to a carbon source by increasing the thickness of soil that thaws on a seasonal basis. Thus, the modeling capability and precise parameterizations of the physical characteristics needed to estimate projected active layer thickness (ALT) are limited in Earth system models (ESMs). In particular, discrepancies in spatial scale between field measurements and Earth system models challenge validation and parameterization of hydrothermal models. A recently developed surface–subsurface model for permafrost thermal hydrology, the Advanced Terrestrial Simulator (ATS), is used in combination with field measurementsmore » to achieve the goals of constructing a process-rich model based on plausible parameters and to identify fine-scale controls of ALT in ice-wedge polygon tundra in Barrow, Alaska. An iterative model refinement procedure that cycles between borehole temperature and snow cover measurements and simulations functions to evaluate and parameterize different model processes necessary to simulate freeze–thaw processes and ALT formation. After model refinement and calibration, reasonable matches between simulated and measured soil temperatures are obtained, with the largest errors occurring during early summer above ice wedges (e.g., troughs). The results suggest that properly constructed and calibrated one-dimensional thermal hydrology models have the potential to provide reasonable representation of the subsurface thermal response and can be used to infer model input parameters and process representations. The models for soil thermal conductivity and snow distribution were found to be the most sensitive process representations. However, information on lateral flow and snowpack evolution might be needed to constrain model representations of surface hydrology and snow depth.« less

  16. Using field observations to inform thermal hydrology models of permafrost dynamics with ATS (v0.83)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Atchley, Adam L.; Painter, Scott L.; Harp, Dylan R.; Coon, Ethan T.; Wilson, Cathy J.; Liljedahl, Anna K.; Romanovsky, V. E.

    2015-09-01

    Climate change is profoundly transforming the carbon-rich Arctic tundra landscape, potentially moving it from a carbon sink to a carbon source by increasing the thickness of soil that thaws on a seasonal basis. Thus, the modeling capability and precise parameterizations of the physical characteristics needed to estimate projected active layer thickness (ALT) are limited in Earth system models (ESMs). In particular, discrepancies in spatial scale between field measurements and Earth system models challenge validation and parameterization of hydrothermal models. A recently developed surface–subsurface model for permafrost thermal hydrology, the Advanced Terrestrial Simulator (ATS), is used in combination with field measurements to achieve the goals of constructing a process-rich model based on plausible parameters and to identify fine-scale controls of ALT in ice-wedge polygon tundra in Barrow, Alaska. An iterative model refinement procedure that cycles between borehole temperature and snow cover measurements and simulations functions to evaluate and parameterize different model processes necessary to simulate freeze–thaw processes and ALT formation. After model refinement and calibration, reasonable matches between simulated and measured soil temperatures are obtained, with the largest errors occurring during early summer above ice wedges (e.g., troughs). The results suggest that properly constructed and calibrated one-dimensional thermal hydrology models have the potential to provide reasonable representation of the subsurface thermal response and can be used to infer model input parameters and process representations. The models for soil thermal conductivity and snow distribution were found to be the most sensitive process representations. However, information on lateral flow and snowpack evolution might be needed to constrain model representations of surface hydrology and snow depth.

  17. Tunable circuit for tunable capacitor devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rivkina, Tatiana; Ginley, David S.

    2006-09-19

    A tunable circuit (10) for a capacitively tunable capacitor device (12) is provided. The tunable circuit (10) comprises a tunable circuit element (14) and a non-tunable dielectric element (16) coupled to the tunable circuit element (16). A tunable capacitor device (12) and a method for increasing the figure of merit in a tunable capacitor device (12) are also provided.

  18. Electronic circuits having NiAl and Ni.sub.3 Al substrates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Deevi, Seetharama C.; Sikka, Vinod K.

    1999-01-01

    An electronic circuit component having improved mechanical properties and thermal conductivity comprises NiAl and/or Ni.sub.3 Al, upon which an alumina layer is formed prior to applying the conductive elements. Additional layers of copper-aluminum alloy or copper further improve mechanical strength and thermal conductivity.

  19. Method For Making Electronic Circuits Having Nial And Ni3al Substrates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Deevi, Seetharama C.; Sikka, Vinod K.

    2001-01-30

    A method for making electronic circuit component having improved mechanical properties and thermal conductivity comprises steps of providing NiAl and/or Ni.sub.3 Al, and forming an alumina layer thereupon prior to applying the conductive elements. Additional layers of copper-aluminum alloy or copper further improve mechanical strength and thermal conductivity.

  20. Vertically Integrated Circuits at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deptuch, Grzegorz; Demarteau, Marcel; Hoff, James; Lipton, Ronald; Shenai, Alpana; Trimpl, Marcel; Yarema, Raymond; Zimmerman, Tom; /Fermilab

    2009-01-01

    The exploration of the vertically integrated circuits, also commonly known as 3D-IC technology, for applications in radiation detection started at Fermilab in 2006. This paper examines the opportunities that vertical integration offers by looking at various 3D designs that have been completed by Fermilab. The emphasis is on opportunities that are presented by through silicon vias (TSV), wafer and circuit thinning and finally fusion bonding techniques to replace conventional bump bonding. Early work by Fermilab has led to an international consortium for the development of 3D-IC circuits for High Energy Physics. The consortium has submitted over 25 different designs for the Fermilab organized MPW run organized for the first time.

  1. Nuclear sensor signal processing circuit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kallenbach, Gene A.; Noda, Frank T.; Mitchell, Dean J.; Etzkin, Joshua L.

    2007-02-20

    An apparatus and method are disclosed for a compact and temperature-insensitive nuclear sensor that can be calibrated with a non-hazardous radioactive sample. The nuclear sensor includes a gamma ray sensor that generates tail pulses from radioactive samples. An analog conditioning circuit conditions the tail-pulse signals from the gamma ray sensor, and a tail-pulse simulator circuit generates a plurality of simulated tail-pulse signals. A computer system processes the tail pulses from the gamma ray sensor and the simulated tail pulses from the tail-pulse simulator circuit. The nuclear sensor is calibrated under the control of the computer. The offset is adjusted using the simulated tail pulses. Since the offset is set to zero or near zero, the sensor gain can be adjusted with a non-hazardous radioactive source such as, for example, naturally occurring radiation and potassium chloride.

  2. Three-dimensional fully-coupled electrical and thermal transport model of dynamic switching in oxide memristors

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Gao, Xujiao; Mamaluy, Denis; Mickel, Patrick R.; Marinella, Matthew

    2015-09-08

    In this paper, we present a fully-coupled electrical and thermal transport model for oxide memristors that solves simultaneously the time-dependent continuity equations for all relevant carriers, together with the time-dependent heat equation including Joule heating sources. The model captures all the important processes that drive memristive switching and is applicable to simulate switching behavior in a wide range of oxide memristors. The model is applied to simulate the ON switching in a 3D filamentary TaOx memristor. Simulation results show that, for uniform vacancy density in the OFF state, vacancies fill in the conduction filament till saturation, and then fill outmore » a gap formed in the Ta electrode during ON switching; furthermore, ON-switching time strongly depends on applied voltage and the ON-to-OFF current ratio is sensitive to the filament vacancy density in the OFF state.« less

  3. Three-dimensional fully-coupled electrical and thermal transport model of dynamic switching in oxide memristors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gao, Xujiao; Mamaluy, Denis; Mickel, Patrick R.; Marinella, Matthew

    2015-09-08

    In this paper, we present a fully-coupled electrical and thermal transport model for oxide memristors that solves simultaneously the time-dependent continuity equations for all relevant carriers, together with the time-dependent heat equation including Joule heating sources. The model captures all the important processes that drive memristive switching and is applicable to simulate switching behavior in a wide range of oxide memristors. The model is applied to simulate the ON switching in a 3D filamentary TaOx memristor. Simulation results show that, for uniform vacancy density in the OFF state, vacancies fill in the conduction filament till saturation, and then fill out a gap formed in the Ta electrode during ON switching; furthermore, ON-switching time strongly depends on applied voltage and the ON-to-OFF current ratio is sensitive to the filament vacancy density in the OFF state.

  4. Circuit breaker lock out assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gordy, Wade T.

    1984-01-01

    A lock out assembly for a circuit breaker which consists of a generally step-shaped unitary base with an aperture in the small portion of the step-shaped base and a roughly "S" shaped retaining pin which loops through the large portion of the step-shaped base. The lock out assembly is adapted to fit over a circuit breaker with the handle switch projecting through the aperture, and the retaining pin projecting into an opening of the handle switch, preventing removal.

  5. Sensor/source electrometer circuit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hughes, W.J.

    1991-12-31

    A multiple decade electrometer circuit is claimed which can measure low input currents or act as a current source and is comprised of a microprocessor controlled digital to analog converters to derive individual decades. A plurality of decades are created by multiple D-A voltage sources which generate electrometer currents through scaled resistors. After a first series of decades of current are successively produced, the converters are 10 cycled to generate current through new resistors scaled to produce another series decades of current. In this manner, the electrometer circuit generates or senses a plurality of decades of current without significant scale change.

  6. Thermally matched fluid cooled power converter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Radosevich, Lawrence D.; Kannenberg, Daniel G.; Kaishian, Steven C.; Beihoff, Bruce C.

    2005-06-21

    A thermal support may receive one or more power electronic circuits. The support may aid in removing heat from the circuits through fluid circulating through the support. Power electronic circuits are thermally matched, such as between component layers and between the circuits and the support. The support may form a shield from both external EMI/RFI and from interference generated by operation of the power electronic circuits. Features may be provided to permit and enhance connection of the circuitry to external circuitry, such as improved terminal configurations. Modular units may be assembled that may be coupled to electronic circuitry via plug-in arrangements or through interface with a backplane or similar mounting and interconnecting structures.

  7. Tunable Thermal Link - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Tunable Thermal Link Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Contact LBL About This Technology Technology Marketing SummaryThermal links are incorporated into everything from frying pans to internal combustion engine spark plugs and heat sinks on integrated circuit boards. Typically, the link's thermal resistance is fixed and cannot be tuned after manufacture. While the ability to tune electrical resistors is widespread, virtually no tunable thermal resistance link exists, which has held back the

  8. Two-dimensional lattice gauge theories with superconducting quantum circuits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marcos, D.; Widmer, P.; Rico, E.; Hafezi, M.; Rabl, P.; Wiese, U.-J.; Zoller, P.

    2014-12-15

    A quantum simulator of U(1) lattice gauge theories can be implemented with superconducting circuits. This allows the investigation of confined and deconfined phases in quantum link models, and of valence bond solid and spin liquid phases in quantum dimer models. Fractionalized confining strings and the real-time dynamics of quantum phase transitions are accessible as well. Here we show how state-of-the-art superconducting technology allows us to simulate these phenomena in relatively small circuit lattices. By exploiting the strong non-linear couplings between quantized excitations emerging when superconducting qubits are coupled, we show how to engineer gauge invariant Hamiltonians, including ring-exchange and four-body Ising interactions. We demonstrate that, despite decoherence and disorder effects, minimal circuit instances allow us to investigate properties such as the dynamics of electric flux strings, signaling confinement in gauge invariant field theories. The experimental realization of these models in larger superconducting circuits could address open questions beyond current computational capability.

  9. Driver circuit for solid state light sources

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Palmer, Fred; Denvir, Kerry; Allen, Steven

    2016-02-16

    A driver circuit for a light source including one or more solid state light sources, a luminaire including the same, and a method of so driving the solid state light sources are provided. The driver circuit includes a rectifier circuit that receives an alternating current (AC) input voltage and provides a rectified AC voltage. The driver circuit also includes a switching converter circuit coupled to the light source. The switching converter circuit provides a direct current (DC) output to the light source in response to the rectified AC voltage. The driver circuit also includes a mixing circuit, coupled to the light source, to switch current through at least one solid state light source of the light source in response to each of a plurality of consecutive half-waves of the rectified AC voltage.

  10. Post regulation circuit with energy storage

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ball, Don G.; Birx, Daniel L.; Cook, Edward G.

    1992-01-01

    A charge regulation circuit provides regulation of an unregulated voltage supply and provides energy storage. The charge regulation circuit according to the present invention provides energy storage without unnecessary dissipation of energy through a resistor as in prior art approaches.

  11. In-situ short-circuit protection system and method for high-energy electrochemical cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gauthier, Michel; Domroese, Michael K.; Hoffman, Joseph A.; Lindeman, David D.; Noel, Joseph-Robert-Gaetan; Radewald, Vern E.; Rouillard, Jean; Rouillard, Roger; Shiota, Toshimi; Trice, Jennifer L.

    2003-04-15

    An in-situ thermal management system for an energy storage device. The energy storage device includes a plurality of energy storage cells each being coupled in parallel to common positive and negative connections. Each of the energy storage cells, in accordance with the cell's technology, dimensions, and thermal/electrical properties, is configured to have a ratio of energy content-to-contact surface area such that thermal energy produced by a short-circuit in a particular cell is conducted to a cell adjacent the particular cell so as to prevent the temperature of the particular cell from exceeding a breakdown temperature. In one embodiment, a fuse is coupled in series with each of a number of energy storage cells. The fuses are activated by a current spike capacitively produced by a cell upon occurrence of a short-circuit in the cell, thereby electrically isolating the short-circuited cell from the common positive and negative connections.

  12. In-situ short circuit protection system and method for high-energy electrochemical cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gauthier, Michel; Domroese, Michael K.; Hoffman, Joseph A.; Lindeman, David D.; Noel, Joseph-Robert-Gaetan; Radewald, Vern E.; Rouillard, Jean; Rouillard, Roger; Shiota, Toshimi; Trice, Jennifer L.

    2000-01-01

    An in-situ thermal management system for an energy storage device. The energy storage device includes a plurality of energy storage cells each being coupled in parallel to common positive and negative connections. Each of the energy storage cells, in accordance with the cell's technology, dimensions, and thermal/electrical properties, is configured to have a ratio of energy content-to-contact surface area such that thermal energy produced by a short-circuit in a particular cell is conducted to a cell adjacent the particular cell so as to prevent the temperature of the particular cell from exceeding a breakdown temperature. In one embodiment, a fuse is coupled in series with each of a number of energy storage cells. The fuses are activated by a current spike capacitively produced by a cell upon occurrence of a short-circuit in the cell, thereby electrically isolating the short-circuited cell from the common positive and negative connections.

  13. Ionization tube simmer current circuit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Steinkraus, R.F. Jr.

    1994-12-13

    A highly efficient flash lamp simmer current circuit utilizes a fifty percent duty cycle square wave pulse generator to pass a current over a current limiting inductor to a full wave rectifier. The DC output of the rectifier is then passed over a voltage smoothing capacitor through a reverse current blocking diode to a flash lamp tube to sustain ionization in the tube between discharges via a small simmer current. An alternate embodiment of the circuit combines the pulse generator and inductor in the form of an FET off line square wave generator with an impedance limited step up output transformer which is then applied to the full wave rectifier as before to yield a similar simmer current. 6 figures.

  14. Ionization tube simmer current circuit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Steinkraus, Jr., Robert F.

    1994-01-01

    A highly efficient flash lamp simmer current circuit utilizes a fifty percent duty cycle square wave pulse generator to pass a current over a current limiting inductor to a full wave rectifier. The DC output of the rectifier is then passed over a voltage smoothing capacitor through a reverse current blocking diode to a flash lamp tube to sustain ionization in the tube between discharges via a small simmer current. An alternate embodiment of the circuit combines the pulse generator and inductor in the form of an FET off line square wave generator with an impedance limited step up output transformer which is then applied to the full wave rectifier as before to yield a similar simmer current.

  15. Delta connected resonant snubber circuit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lai, J.S.; Peng, F.Z.; Young, R.W. Sr.; Ott, G.W. Jr.

    1998-01-20

    A delta connected, resonant snubber-based, soft switching, inverter circuit achieves lossless switching during dc-to-ac power conversion and power conditioning with minimum component count and size. Current is supplied to the resonant snubber branches solely by the dc supply voltage through the main inverter switches and the auxiliary switches. Component count and size are reduced by use of a single semiconductor switch in the resonant snubber branches. Component count is also reduced by maximizing the use of stray capacitances of the main switches as parallel resonant capacitors. Resonance charging and discharging of the parallel capacitances allows lossless, zero voltage switching. In one embodiment, circuit component size and count are minimized while achieving lossless, zero voltage switching within a three-phase inverter. 36 figs.

  16. Delta connected resonant snubber circuit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lai, Jih-Sheng; Peng, Fang Zheng; Young, Sr., Robert W.; Ott, Jr., George W.

    1998-01-01

    A delta connected, resonant snubber-based, soft switching, inverter circuit achieves lossless switching during dc-to-ac power conversion and power conditioning with minimum component count and size. Current is supplied to the resonant snubber branches solely by the dc supply voltage through the main inverter switches and the auxiliary switches. Component count and size are reduced by use of a single semiconductor switch in the resonant snubber branches. Component count is also reduced by maximizing the use of stray capacitances of the main switches as parallel resonant capacitors. Resonance charging and discharging of the parallel capacitances allows lossless, zero voltage switching. In one embodiment, circuit component size and count are minimized while achieving lossless, zero voltage switching within a three-phase inverter.

  17. Photoconductive circuit element pulse generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rauscher, Christen

    1989-01-01

    A pulse generator for characterizing semiconductor devices at millimeter wavelength frequencies where a photoconductive circuit element (PCE) is biased by a direct current voltage source and produces short electrical pulses when excited into conductance by short laser light pulses. The electrical pulses are electronically conditioned to improve the frequency related amplitude characteristics of the pulses which thereafter propagate along a transmission line to a device under test.

  18. Overpulse railgun energy recovery circuit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Honig, Emanuel M.

    1989-01-01

    In an electromagnetic launcher such as a railgun for propelling a projectile at high velocity, an overpulse energy recovery circuit is employed to transfer stored inductive energy from a source inductor to the railgun inductance to propel the projectile down the railgun. Switching circuitry and an energy transfer capacitor are used to switch the energy back to the source inductor in readiness for a repetitive projectile propelling cycle.

  19. Counterpulse railgun energy recovery circuit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Honig, Emanuel M.

    1986-01-01

    In an electromagnetic launcher such as a railgun for propelling a projectile at high velocity, a counterpulse energy recovery circuit is employed to transfer stored inductive energy from a source inductor to the railgun inductance to propel the projectile down the railgun. Switching circuitry and an energy transfer capacitor are used to switch the energy back to the source inductor in readiness for a repetitive projectile propelling cycle.

  20. Additive manufacturing of hybrid circuits

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Bell, Nelson S.; Sarobol, Pylin; Cook, Adam; Clem, Paul G.; Keicher, David M.; Hirschfeld, Deidre; Hall, Aaron Christopher

    2016-03-26

    There is a rising interest in developing functional electronics using additively manufactured components. Considerations in materials selection and pathways to forming hybrid circuits and devices must demonstrate useful electronic function; must enable integration; and must complement the complex shape, low cost, high volume, and high functionality of structural but generally electronically passive additively manufactured components. This article reviews several emerging technologies being used in industry and research/development to provide integration advantages of fabricating multilayer hybrid circuits or devices. First, we review a maskless, noncontact, direct write (DW) technology that excels in the deposition of metallic colloid inks for electrical interconnects.more » Second, we review a complementary technology, aerosol deposition (AD), which excels in the deposition of metallic and ceramic powder as consolidated, thick conformal coatings and is additionally patternable through masking. As a result, we show examples of hybrid circuits/devices integrated beyond 2-D planes, using combinations of DW or AD processes and conventional, established processes.« less

  1. CONTROL AND FAULT DETECTOR CIRCUIT

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Winningstad, C.N.

    1958-04-01

    A power control and fault detectcr circuit for a radiofrequency system is described. The operation of the circuit controls the power output of a radio- frequency power supply to automatically start the flow of energizing power to the radio-frequency power supply and to gradually increase the power to a predetermined level which is below the point where destruction occurs upon the happening of a fault. If the radio-frequency power supply output fails to increase during such period, the control does not further increase the power. On the other hand, if the output of the radio-frequency power supply properly increases, then the control continues to increase the power to a maximum value. After the maximumn value of radio-frequency output has been achieved. the control is responsive to a ''fault,'' such as a short circuit in the radio-frequency system being driven, so that the flow of power is interrupted for an interval before the cycle is repeated.

  2. A two-dimensional model for the heat transfer on the external circuit of a Stirling engine for a dish/Stirling system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Makhkamov, K.K.; Ingham, D.B.

    1998-07-01

    In this paper the {kappa}-{var{underscore}epsilon} turbulent model for the incompressible fluid flow has been used to describe the heat transfer and gas dynamical processes on the external circuit of a Stirling Engine as used on a Solar Dish/Stirling System. The problem considered, in this work for a cavity-type heat receiver of the Stirling Engine, is that of the heat transfer in the body of the shell of the heat exchangers of the engine due to the thermal conductivity, the convective heat transfer between the working fluid and the walls of the engine internal gas circuit and the heat transfer due to the forced convection of the air in the cavity and in the attached air domain. The boundary conditions employed on the engines internal circuit were obtained using the developed one-dimensional second level mathematical model of the engine working cycle. Physical models for the distribution of the solar insolation on the bottom and side walls of the heat receiver have been taken into account and the temperature fields for the heat receiver and the air velocity have been obtained for the case when the heat receiver is affected by wind. The numerical results show that it is in the region of the boundary of the input window of the heat receiver where there is the largest reduction in the temperature in the shell of the heat exchangers and this is due to the convection of the air.

  3. Method of determining the open circuit voltage of a battery in a closed circuit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brown, William E.

    1980-01-01

    The open circuit voltage of a battery which is connected in a closed circuit is determined without breaking the circuit or causing voltage upsets therein. The closed circuit voltage across the battery and the current flowing through it are determined under normal load and then a fractional change is made in the load and the new current and voltage values determined. The open circuit voltage is then calculated, according to known principles, from the two sets of values.

  4. Printed circuit dispersive transmission line

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ikezi, H.; Lin-Liu, Y.R.; DeGrassie, J.S.

    1991-08-27

    A printed circuit dispersive transmission line structure is disclosed comprising an insulator, a ground plane formed on one surface of the insulator, a first transmission line formed on a second surface of the insulator, and a second transmission line also formed on the second surface of the insulator and of longer length than the first transmission line and periodically intersecting the first transmission line. In a preferred embodiment, the transmission line structure exhibits highly dispersive characteristics by designing the length of one of the transmission line between two adjacent periodic intersections to be longer than the other. 5 figures.

  5. Printed circuit dispersive transmission line

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ikezi, Hiroyuki (Rancho Santa Fe, CA); Lin-Liu, Yuh-Ren (San Diego, CA); DeGrassie, John S. (Encinitas, CA)

    1991-01-01

    A printed circuit dispersive transmission line structure is disclosed comprising an insulator, a ground plane formed on one surface of the insulator, a first transmission line formed on a second surface of the insulator, and a second transmission line also formed on the second surface of the insulator and of longer length than the first transmission line and periodically intersecting the first transmission line. In a preferred embodiment, the transmission line structure exhibits highly dispersive characteristics by designing the length of one of the transmission line between two adjacent periodic intersections to be longer than the other.

  6. Polysilicon photoconductor for integrated circuits

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hammond, R.B.; Bowman, D.R.

    1989-04-11

    A photoconductive element of polycrystalline silicon is provided with intrinsic response time which does not limit overall circuit response. An undoped polycrystalline silicon layer is deposited by LPCVD to a selected thickness on silicon dioxide. The deposited polycrystalline silicon is then annealed at a selected temperature and for a time effective to obtain crystal sizes effective to produce an enhanced current output. The annealed polycrystalline layer is subsequently exposed and damaged by ion implantation to a damage factor effective to obtain a fast photoconductive response. 6 figs.

  7. Polysilicon photoconductor for integrated circuits

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hammond, Robert B.; Bowman, Douglas R.

    1989-01-01

    A photoconductive element of polycrystalline silicon is provided with intrinsic response time which does not limit overall circuit response. An undoped polycrystalline silicon layer is deposited by LPCVD to a selected thickness on silicon dioxide. The deposited polycrystalline silicon is then annealed at a selected temperature and for a time effective to obtain crystal sizes effective to produce an enhanced current output. The annealed polycrystalline layer is subsequently exposed and damaged by ion implantation to a damage factor effective to obtain a fast photoconductive response.

  8. Polysilicon photoconductor for integrated circuits

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hammond, Robert B.; Bowman, Douglas R.

    1990-01-01

    A photoconductive element of polycrystalline silicon is provided with intrinsic response time which does not limit overall circuit response. An undoped polycrystalline silicon layer is deposited by LPCVD to a selected thickness on silicon dioxide. The deposited polycrystalline silicon is then annealed at a selected temperature and for a time effective to obtain crystal sizes effective to produce an enhanced current output. The annealed polycrystalline layer is subsequently exposed and damaged by ion implantation to a damage factor effective to obtain a fast photoconductive response.

  9. Inductive storage pulse circuit device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Parsons, William M.; Honig, Emanuel M.

    1984-01-01

    Inductive storage pulse circuit device which is capable of delivering a series of electrical pulses to a load in a sequential manner. Silicon controlled rectifiers as well as spark gap switches can be utilized in accordance with the present invention. A commutation switching array is utilized to produce a reverse current to turn-off the main opening switch. A commutation capacitor produces the reverse current and is initially charged to a predetermined voltage and subsequently charged in alternating directions by the inductive storage current.

  10. Realizing a supercapacitor in an electrical circuit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fukuhara, Mikio Kuroda, Tomoyuki; Hasegawa, Fumihiko

    2014-11-17

    Capacitors are commonly used in electronic resonance circuits; however, capacitors have not been used for storing large amounts of electrical energy in electrical circuits. Here, we report a superior RC circuit which serves as an electrical storage system characterized by quick charging and long-term discharging of electricity. The improved energy storage characteristics in this mixed electric circuit (R{sub 1}?+?R{sub 2}C{sub 1}) with small resistor R{sub 1}, large resistor R{sub 2}, and large capacitor C{sub 1} are derived from the damming effect by large R{sub 2} in simple parallel R{sub 2}C{sub 1} circuit. However, no research work has been carried out previously on the use of capacitors as electrical energy storage devices in circuits. Combined with nanotechnology, we hope that our finding will play a remarkable role in a variety of applications such as hybrid electric vehicles and backup power supplies.

  11. MULTI-ELECTRODE TUBE PULSE MEMORY CIRCUIT

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gundlach, J.C.; Reeves, J.B.

    1958-05-20

    Control circuits are described for pulse memory devices for scalers and the like, and more particularly to a driving or energizing circuit for a polycathode gaseous discharge tube having an elongated anode and a successive series of cathodes spaced opposite the anode along its length. The circuit is so arranged as to utilize an arc discharge between the anode and a cathode to count a series of pulses. Upon application of an input pulse the discharge is made to occur between the anode and the next successive cathode, and an output pulse is produced when a particular subsequent cathode is reached. The circuit means for transfering the discharge by altering the anode potential and potential of the cathodes and interconnecting the cathodes constitutes the novel aspects of the invention. A low response time and reduced number of circuit components are the practical advantages of the described circuit.

  12. Multiplexer and time duration measuring circuit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gray, Jr., James

    1980-01-01

    A multiplexer device is provided for multiplexing data in the form of randomly developed, variable width pulses from a plurality of pulse sources to a master storage. The device includes a first multiplexer unit which includes a plurality of input circuits each coupled to one of the pulse sources, with all input circuits being disabled when one input circuit receives an input pulse so that only one input pulse is multiplexed by the multiplexer unit at any one time.

  13. Monitoring transients in low inductance circuits

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Guilford, R.P.; Rosborough, J.R.

    1985-10-21

    The instant invention relates to methods of and apparatus for monitoring transients in low inductance circuits and to a probe utilized to practice said method and apparatus. More particularly, the instant invention relates to methods of and apparatus for monitoring low inductance circuits, wherein the low inductance circuits include a pair of flat cable transmission lines. The instant invention is further directed to a probe for use in monitoring pairs of flat cable transmission lines.

  14. Demultiplexer circuit for neural stimulation (Patent) | DOEPatents

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    all the dc electrical power for operation of the circuit, includes digital latches that receive and store addressing information from the neural stimulator one bit at a time. ...

  15. Vertical Circuits Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    and intellectual property for the manufacture of low cost ultra high-speedhigh-density semiconductor components. References: Vertical Circuits, Inc.1 This article is a...

  16. Hybrid stretchable circuits on silicone substrate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robinson, A., E-mail: adam.1.robinson@nokia.com; Aziz, A., E-mail: a.aziz1@lancaster.ac.uk [Nanoscience Centre, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB01FF (United Kingdom); Liu, Q.; Suo, Z. [School of Engineering and Applied Sciences and Kavli Institute for Bionano Science and Technology, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States); Lacour, S. P., E-mail: stephanie.lacour@epfl.ch [Centre for Neuroprosthetics and Laboratory for Soft Bioelectronics Interfaces, School of Engineering, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Lausanne 1015 (Switzerland)

    2014-04-14

    When rigid and stretchable components are integrated onto a single elastic carrier substrate, large strain heterogeneities appear in the vicinity of the deformable-non-deformable interfaces. In this paper, we report on a generic approach to manufacture hybrid stretchable circuits where commercial electronic components can be mounted on a stretchable circuit board. Similar to printed circuit board development, the components are electrically bonded on the elastic substrate and interconnected with stretchable electrical traces. The substrate—a silicone matrix carrying concentric rigid disks—ensures both the circuit elasticity and the mechanical integrity of the most fragile materials.

  17. Jabil Circuit Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Florida Zip: 33716 Sector: Services Product: Florida-based company offering manufacturing and product management services for electronic goods. References: Jabil Circuit...

  18. TIME CALIBRATED OSCILLOSCOPE SWEEP CIRCUIT

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, V.L.; Carstensen, H.K.

    1959-11-24

    An improved time calibrated sweep circuit is presented, which extends the range of usefulness of conventional oscilloscopes as utilized for time calibrated display applications in accordance with U. S. Patent No. 2,832,002. Principal novelty resides in the provision of a pair of separate signal paths, each of which is phase and amplitude adjustable, to connect a high-frequency calibration oscillator to the output of a sawtooth generator also connected to the respective horizontal deflection plates of an oscilloscope cathode ray tube. The amplitude and phase of the calibration oscillator signals in the two signal paths are adjusted to balance out feedthrough currents capacitively coupled at high frequencies of the calibration oscillator from each horizontal deflection plate to the vertical plates of the cathode ray tube.

  19. Beta-gamma discriminator circuit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Erkkila, B.H.; Wolf, M.A.; Eisen, Y.; Unruh, W.P.; Brake, R.J.

    1984-01-01

    The major difficulty encountered in the determination of beta-ray dose in field conditions is generally the presence of a relatively high gamma-ray component. Conventional dosimetry instruments use a shield on the detector to estimate the gamma-ray component in comparison with the beta-ray component. More accurate dosimetry information can be obtained from the measured beta spectrum itself. At Los Alamos, a detector and discriminator circuit suitable for use in a portable spectrometer have been developed. This instrument will discriminate between gammas and betas in a mixed field. The portable package includes a 256-channel MCA which can be programmed to give a variety of outputs, including a spectral display, and may be programmed to read dose directly.

  20. Sequential power-up circuit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kronberg, James W.

    1992-01-01

    A sequential power-up circuit for starting several electrical load elements in series to avoid excessive current surge, comprising a voltage ramp generator and a set of voltage comparators, each comparator having a different reference voltage and interfacing with a switch that is capable of turning on one of the load elements. As the voltage rises, it passes the reference voltages one at a time and causes the switch corresponding to that voltage to turn on its load element. The ramp is turned on and off by a single switch or by a logic-level electrical signal. The ramp rate for turning on the load element is relatively slow and the rate for turning the elements off is relatively fast. Optionally, the duration of each interval of time between the turning on of the load elements is programmable.

  1. Sequential power-up circuit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1992-06-02

    A sequential power-up circuit for starting several electrical load elements in series to avoid excessive current surge, comprising a voltage ramp generator and a set of voltage comparators, each comparator having a different reference voltage and interfacing with a switch that is capable of turning on one of the load elements. As the voltage rises, it passes the reference voltages one at a time and causes the switch corresponding to that voltage to turn on its load element. The ramp is turned on and off by a single switch or by a logic-level electrical signal. The ramp rate for turning on the load element is relatively slow and the rate for turning the elements off is relatively fast. Optionally, the duration of each interval of time between the turning on of the load elements is programmable. 2 figs.

  2. Shapeable short circuit resistant capacitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Taylor, Ralph S.; Myers, John D.; Baney, William J.

    2015-10-06

    A ceramic short circuit resistant capacitor that is bendable and/or shapeable to provide a multiple layer capacitor that is extremely compact and amenable to desirable geometries. The capacitor that exhibits a benign failure mode in which a multitude of discrete failure events result in a gradual loss of capacitance. Each event is a localized event in which localized heating causes an adjacent portion of one or both of the electrodes to vaporize, physically cleaning away electrode material from the failure site. A first metal electrode, a second metal electrode, and a ceramic dielectric layer between the electrodes are thin enough to be formed in a serpentine-arrangement with gaps between the first electrode and the second electrode that allow venting of vaporized electrode material in the event of a benign failure.

  3. Underhood Thermal Performance

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Underhood Thermal Performance This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. - Computational Fluid Dynamics Project Leader Background As vehicle technology advances, automakers need a better understanding of underhood heat loads, especially as they relate to emissions and fuel efficiency. Manufacturers of heavy-duty vehicles and off-road machines have similar concerns. Ineffective underhood thermal management can lead to higher emissions, reduced

  4. Reusable vibration resistant integrated circuit mounting socket

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Evans, Craig N.

    1995-01-01

    This invention discloses a novel form of socket for integrated circuits to be mounted on printed circuit boards. The socket uses a novel contact which is fabricated out of a bimetallic strip with a shape which makes the end of the strip move laterally as temperature changes. The end of the strip forms a barb which digs into an integrated circuit lead at normal temperatures and holds it firmly in the contact, preventing loosening and open circuits from vibration. By cooling the contact containing the bimetallic strip the barb end can be made to release so that the integrated circuit lead can be removed from the socket without damage either to the lead or to the socket components.

  5. Eddy current gauge for monitoring displacement using printed circuit coil

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Visioli, Jr., Armando J.

    1977-01-01

    A proximity detection system for non-contact displacement and proximity measurement of static or dynamic metallic or conductive surfaces is provided wherein the measurement is obtained by monitoring the change in impedance of a flat, generally spiral-wound, printed circuit coil which is excited by a constant current, constant frequency source. The change in impedance, which is detected as a corresponding change in voltage across the coil, is related to the eddy current losses in the distant conductive material target. The arrangement provides for considerable linear displacement range with increased accuracies, stability, and sensitivity over the entire range.

  6. Pressurizer with a mechanically attached surge nozzle thermal sleeve

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wepfer, Robert M

    2014-03-25

    A thermal sleeve is mechanically attached to the bore of a surge nozzle of a pressurizer for the primary circuit of a pressurized water reactor steam generating system. The thermal sleeve is attached with a series of keys and slots which maintain the thermal sleeve centered in the nozzle while permitting thermal growth and restricting flow between the sleeve and the interior wall of the nozzle.

  7. Solar thermal power system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bennett, Charles L.

    2010-06-15

    A solar thermal power generator includes an inclined elongated boiler tube positioned in the focus of a solar concentrator for generating steam from water. The boiler tube is connected at one end to receive water from a pressure vessel as well as connected at an opposite end to return steam back to the vessel in a fluidic circuit arrangement that stores energy in the form of heated water in the pressure vessel. An expander, condenser, and reservoir are also connected in series to respectively produce work using the steam passed either directly (above a water line in the vessel) or indirectly (below a water line in the vessel) through the pressure vessel, condense the expanded steam, and collect the condensed water. The reservoir also supplies the collected water back to the pressure vessel at the end of a diurnal cycle when the vessel is sufficiently depressurized, so that the system is reset to repeat the cycle the following day. The circuital arrangement of the boiler tube and the pressure vessel operates to dampen flow instabilities in the boiler tube, damp out the effects of solar transients, and provide thermal energy storage which enables time shifting of power generation to better align with the higher demand for energy during peak energy usage periods.

  8. Industrial Circuit Breakers |GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Journey Inside the Complex and Powerful World of Industrial Circuit Breakers Click to email this to a friend (Opens in new window) Share on Facebook (Opens in new window) Click to share (Opens in new window) Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window) Click to share on Tumblr (Opens in new window) A Journey Inside the Complex and Powerful World of Industrial Circuit Breakers Kathleen O'Brien 2015.04.21 Most of us only think about circuit breakers when one trips because we plugged in too

  9. Overload protection circuit for output driver

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stewart, Roger G.

    1982-05-11

    A protection circuit for preventing excessive power dissipation in an output transistor whose conduction path is connected between a power terminal and an output terminal. The protection circuit includes means for sensing the application of a turn on signal to the output transistor and the voltage at the output terminal. When the turn on signal is maintained for a period of time greater than a given period without the voltage at the output terminal reaching a predetermined value, the protection circuit decreases the turn on signal to, and the current conduction through, the output transistor.

  10. Serpentine and corduroy circuits to enhance the stretchability...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The apparatus comprises a stretchable polymer body, and at least one circuit line operatively connected to the stretchable polymer body, the at least one circuit line extending in ...

  11. Serpentine and corduroy circuits to enhance the stretchablity...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The apparatus comprises a stretchable polymer body, and at least one circuit line operatively connected to the stretchable polymer body, the at least one circuit line extending in ...

  12. Unitech Printed Circuit Board Corp UPCB | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Sector: Solar Product: Taiwan-based printed-circuit board maker with intent to enter into solar cell manufacturing industry. References: Unitech Printed Circuit Board Corp....

  13. Dynamic Provisioning for Terascale Science Applications Using Hybrid

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Circuit/Packet Technologies and 100G Transmission Systems (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Technical Report: Dynamic Provisioning for Terascale Science Applications Using Hybrid Circuit/Packet Technologies and 100G Transmission Systems Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Dynamic Provisioning for Terascale Science Applications Using Hybrid Circuit/Packet Technologies and 100G Transmission Systems Authors: Mukherjee, Biswanath [1] + Show Author Affiliations UC, Davis Publication

  14. The Development of an INL Capability for High Temperature Flow, Heat Transfer, and Thermal Energy Storage with Applications in Advanced Small Modular Reactors, High Temperature Heat Exchangers, Hybrid Energy Systems, and Dynamic Grid Energy Storage C

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Xiaodong; Zhang, Xiaoqin; Kim, Inhun; O'Brien, James; Sabharwall, Piyush

    2014-10-01

    The overall goal of this project is to support Idaho National Laboratory in developing a new advanced high temperature multi fluid multi loop test facility that is aimed at investigating fluid flow and heat transfer, material corrosion, heat exchanger characteristics and instrumentation performance, among others, for nuclear applications. Specifically, preliminary research has been performed at The Ohio State University in the following areas: 1. A review of fluoride molten salts’ characteristics in thermal, corrosive, and compatibility performances. A recommendation for a salt selection is provided. Material candidates for both molten salt and helium flow loop have been identified. 2. A conceptual facility design that satisfies the multi loop (two coolant loops [i.e., fluoride molten salts and helium]) multi purpose (two operation modes [i.e., forced and natural circulation]) requirements. Schematic models are presented. The thermal hydraulic performances in a preliminary printed circuit heat exchanger (PCHE) design have been estimated. 3. An introduction of computational methods and models for pipe heat loss analysis and cases studies. Recommendations on insulation material selection have been provided. 4. An analysis of pipe pressure rating and sizing. Preliminary recommendations on pipe size selection have been provided. 5. A review of molten fluoride salt preparation and chemistry control. An introduction to the experience from the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment at Oak Ridge National Laboratory has been provided. 6. A review of some instruments and components to be used in the facility. Flowmeters and Grayloc connectors have been included. This report primarily presents the conclusions drawn from the extensive review of literatures in material selections and the facility design progress at the current stage. It provides some useful guidelines in insulation material and pipe size selection, as well as an introductory review of facility process and components.

  15. Analog circuit for controlling acoustic transducer arrays

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Drumheller, Douglas S.

    1991-01-01

    A simplified ananlog circuit is presented for controlling electromechanical transducer pairs in an acoustic telemetry system. The analog circuit of this invention comprises a single electrical resistor which replaces all of the digital components in a known digital circuit. In accordance with this invention, a first transducer in a transducer pair of array is driven in series with the resistor. The voltage drop across this resistor is then amplified and used to drive the second transducer. The voltage drop across the resistor is proportional and in phase with the current to the transducer. This current is approximately 90 degrees out of phase with the driving voltage to the transducer. This phase shift replaces the digital delay required by the digital control circuit of the prior art.

  16. Demultiplexer circuit for neural stimulation (Patent) | DOEPatents

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    to an electrode array which is connected to the outputs of the 1:2.sup.N demultiplexer. The demultiplexer circuit allows the number of individual electrodes in the electrode array ...

  17. Industrial Circuit Breakers |GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    during a fault or short circuit, and varies based on the characteristics of the local power grid. As the fault current rating of the breaker increases, so does the power that...

  18. Method and apparatus for thermal power generation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mangus, James D.

    1979-01-01

    A method and apparatus for power generation from a recirculating superheat-reheat circuit with multiple expansion stages which alleviates complex control systems and minimizes thermal cycling of system components, particularly the reheater. The invention includes preheating cold reheat fluid from the first expansion stage prior to its entering the reheater with fluid from the evaporator or drum component.

  19. Communications circuit including a linear quadratic estimator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ferguson, Dennis D.

    2015-07-07

    A circuit includes a linear quadratic estimator (LQE) configured to receive a plurality of measurements a signal. The LQE is configured to weight the measurements based on their respective uncertainties to produce weighted averages. The circuit further includes a controller coupled to the LQE and configured to selectively adjust at least one data link parameter associated with a communication channel in response to receiving the weighted averages.

  20. Electrochemically controlled charging circuit for storage batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Onstott, E.I.

    1980-06-24

    An electrochemically controlled charging circuit for charging storage batteries is disclosed. The embodiments disclosed utilize dc amplification of battery control current to minimize total energy expended for charging storage batteries to a preset voltage level. The circuits allow for selection of Zener diodes having a wide range of reference voltage levels. Also, the preset voltage level to which the storage batteries are charged can be varied over a wide range.

  1. Equivalent Circuit Modeling of Hysteresis Motors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nitao, J J; Scharlemann, E T; Kirkendall, B A

    2009-08-31

    We performed a literature review and found that many equivalent circuit models of hysteresis motors in use today are incorrect. The model by Miyairi and Kataoka (1965) is the correct one. We extended the model by transforming it to quadrature coordinates, amenable to circuit or digital simulation. 'Hunting' is an oscillatory phenomenon often observed in hysteresis motors. While several works have attempted to model the phenomenon with some partial success, we present a new complete model that predicts hunting from first principles.

  2. Circuit level modeling of inductive elements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Muyshondt, G.P.; Portnoy, W.M.

    1989-01-01

    Design and analysis of spacecraft power systems have been difficult to perform because of the lack of circuit level models for nonlinear inductive elements. This paper reviews some of the models which have been proposed, their limitations, and applications. An improved saturation dependent model will be described. The model has been implemented in SPICE and with a commercial circuit program and demonstrated to be satisfactory in both implementations. 3 refs., 9 figs.

  3. Active shunt capacitance cancelling oscillator circuit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wessendorf, Kurt O.

    2003-09-23

    An oscillator circuit is disclosed which can be used to produce oscillation using a piezoelectric crystal, with a frequency of oscillation being largely independent of any shunt capacitance associated with the crystal (i.e. due to electrodes on the surfaces of the crystal and due to packaging and wiring for the crystal). The oscillator circuit is based on a tuned gain stage which operates the crystal at a frequency, f, near a series resonance frequency, f.sub.S. The oscillator circuit further includes a compensation circuit that supplies all the ac current flow through the shunt resistance associated with the crystal so that this ac current need not be supplied by the tuned gain stage. The compensation circuit uses a current mirror to provide the ac current flow based on the current flow through a reference capacitor that is equivalent to the shunt capacitance associated with the crystal. The oscillator circuit has applications for driving piezoelectric crystals for sensing of viscous, fluid or solid media by detecting a change in the frequency of oscillation of the crystal and a resonator loss which occur from contact of an exposed surface of the crystal by the viscous, fluid or solid media.

  4. Thermal Sciences

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Thermal Sciences NETL's Thermal Sciences competency provides the scientific, engineering, and technology development community with innovative and efficient approaches to measure, harness, and convert thermal energy. Research includes sensors, advanced energy concepts, and thermodynamic optimization, specifically: Sensors and Diagnostics Advanced sensor and diagnostic technology to develop and evaluate advanced methods for non-intrusive measurement and measurement in extreme environments.

  5. A compact design for the Josephson mixer: The lumped element circuit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pillet, J.-D.; Flurin, E.; Mallet, F. Huard, B.

    2015-06-01

    We present a compact and efficient design in terms of gain, bandwidth, and dynamical range for the Josephson mixer, the superconducting circuit performing three-wave mixing at microwave frequencies. In an all lumped-element based circuit with galvanically coupled ports, we demonstrate nondegenerate amplification for microwave signals over a bandwidth up to 50?MHz for a power gain of 20?dB. The quantum efficiency of the mixer is shown to be about 70%, and its saturation power reaches ?112 dBm.

  6. Differential transimpedance amplifier circuit for correlated differential amplification

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gresham, Christopher A.; Denton, M. Bonner; Sperline, Roger P.

    2008-07-22

    A differential transimpedance amplifier circuit for correlated differential amplification. The amplifier circuit increase electronic signal-to-noise ratios in charge detection circuits designed for the detection of very small quantities of electrical charge and/or very weak electromagnetic waves. A differential, integrating capacitive transimpedance amplifier integrated circuit comprising capacitor feedback loops performs time-correlated subtraction of noise.

  7. Triple effect absorption chiller utilizing two refrigeration circuits

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    DeVault, Robert C.

    1988-01-01

    A triple effect absorption method and apparatus having a high coefficient of performance. Two single effect absorption circuits are combined with heat exchange occurring between a condenser and absorber of a high temperature circuit, and a generator of a low temperature circuit. The evaporators of both the high and low temperature circuits provide cooling to an external heat load.

  8. Methods and systems for rapid prototyping of high density circuits

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Palmer, Jeremy A.; Davis, Donald W.; Chavez, Bart D.; Gallegos, Phillip L.; Wicker, Ryan B.; Medina, Francisco R.

    2008-09-02

    A preferred embodiment provides, for example, a system and method of integrating fluid media dispensing technology such as direct-write (DW) technologies with rapid prototyping (RP) technologies such as stereolithography (SL) to provide increased micro-fabrication and micro-stereolithography. A preferred embodiment of the present invention also provides, for example, a system and method for Rapid Prototyping High Density Circuit (RPHDC) manufacturing of solderless connectors and pilot devices with terminal geometries that are compatible with DW mechanisms and reduce contact resistance where the electrical system is encapsulated within structural members and manual electrical connections are eliminated in favor of automated DW traces. A preferred embodiment further provides, for example, a method of rapid prototyping comprising: fabricating a part layer using stereolithography and depositing thermally curable media onto the part layer using a fluid dispensing apparatus.

  9. Protective circuit for thyristor controlled systems and thyristor converter embodying such protective circuit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Downhower, Jr., Francis H. (Alden, NY); Finlayson, Paul T. (Depew, NY)

    1984-04-10

    A snubber circuit coupled across each thyristor to be gated in a chain of thyristors determines the critical output of a NOR LATCH whenever one snubber circuit could not be charged and discharged under normal gating conditions because of a short failure.

  10. Lockout device for high voltage circuit breaker

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kozlowski, L.J.; Shirey, L.A.

    1993-01-26

    An improved lockout assembly is provided for a circuit breaker to lock the switch handle into a selected switch position. The lockout assembly includes two main elements, each having a respective foot for engaging a portion of the upper housing wall of the circuit breaker. The first foot is inserted into a groove in the upper housing wall, and the second foot is inserted into an adjacent aperture (e.g., a slot) in the upper housing wall. The first foot is slid under and into engagement with a first portion, and the second foot is slid under and into engagement with a second portion of the upper housing wall. At the same time the respective two feet are placed in engagement with the respective portions of the upper housing wall, two holes, one on each of the respective two main elements of the assembly, are placed in registration; and a locking device, such as a special scissors equipped with a padlock, is installed through the registered holes to secure the lockout assembly on the circuit breaker. When the lockout assembly of the invention is secured on the circuit breaker, the switch handle of the circuit breaker is locked into the selected switch position and prevented from being switched to another switch position.

  11. Dual circuit embossed sheet heat transfer panel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morgan, G.D.

    1984-02-21

    A heat transfer panel provides redundant cooling for fusion reactors or the like environment requiring low-mass construction. Redundant cooling is provided by two independent cooling circuits, each circuit consisting of a series of channels joined to inlet and outlet headers. The panel comprises a welded joinder of two full-size and two much smaller partial-size sheets. The first full-size sheet is embossed to form first portions of channels for the first and second circuits, as well as a header for the first circuit. The second full-sized sheet is then laid over and welded to the first full-size sheet. The first and second partial-size sheets are then overlaid on separate portions of the second full-sized sheet, and are welded thereto. The first and second partial-sized sheets are embossed to form inlet and outlet headers, which communicate with channels of the second circuit through apertures formed in the second full-sized sheet. 6 figs.

  12. Dual circuit embossed sheet heat transfer panel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morgan, Grover D.

    1984-01-01

    A heat transfer panel provides redundant cooling for fusion reactors or the like environment requiring low-mass construction. Redundant cooling is provided by two independent cooling circuits, each circuit consisting of a series of channels joined to inlet and outlet headers. The panel comprises a welded joinder of two full-size and two much smaller partial-size sheets. The first full-size sheet is embossed to form first portions of channels for the first and second circuits, as well as a header for the first circuit. The second full-sized sheet is then laid over and welded to the first full-size sheet. The first and second partial-size sheets are then overlaid on separate portions of the second full-sized sheet, and are welded thereto. The first and second partial-sized sheets are embossed to form inlet and outlet headers, which communicate with channels of the second circuit through apertures formed in the second full-sized sheet.

  13. Adjustable direct current and pulsed circuit fault current limiter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boenig, Heinrich J.; Schillig, Josef B.

    2003-09-23

    A fault current limiting system for direct current circuits and for pulsed power circuit. In the circuits, a current source biases a diode that is in series with the circuits' transmission line. If fault current in a circuit exceeds current from the current source biasing the diode open, the diode will cease conducting and route the fault current through the current source and an inductor. This limits the rate of rise and the peak value of the fault current.

  14. Representative-Sandwich Model for Mechanical-Crush and Short-Circuit Simulation of Lithium-ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Chao; Santhanagopalan, Shriram; Sprague, Michael A.; Pesaran, Ahmad A.

    2015-07-28

    Lithium-ion batteries are currently the state-of-the-art power sources for a variety of applications, from consumer electronic devices to electric-drive vehicles (EDVs). Being an energized component, failure of the battery is an essential concern, which can result in rupture, smoke, fire, or venting. The failure of Lithium-ion batteries can be due to a number of external abusive conditions (impact/crush, overcharge, thermal ramp, etc.) or internal conditions (internal short circuits, excessive heating due to resistance build-up, etc.), of which the mechanical-abuse-induced short circuit is a very practical problem. In order to better understand the behavior of Lithium-ion batteries under mechanical abuse, a coupled modeling methodology encompassing the mechanical, thermal and electrical response has been developed for predicting short circuit under external crush.

  15. Package for integrated optic circuit and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kravitz, S.H.; Hadley, G.R.; Warren, M.E.; Carson, R.F.; Armendariz, M.G.

    1998-08-04

    A structure and method are disclosed for packaging an integrated optic circuit. The package comprises a first wall having a plurality of microlenses formed therein to establish channels of optical communication with an integrated optic circuit within the package. A first registration pattern is provided on an inside surface of one of the walls of the package for alignment and attachment of the integrated optic circuit. The package in one embodiment may further comprise a fiber holder for aligning and attaching a plurality of optical fibers to the package and extending the channels of optical communication to the fibers outside the package. In another embodiment, a fiber holder may be used to hold the fibers and align the fibers to the package. The fiber holder may be detachably connected to the package. 6 figs.

  16. Package for integrated optic circuit and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kravitz, Stanley H.; Hadley, G. Ronald; Warren, Mial E.; Carson, Richard F.; Armendariz, Marcelino G.

    1998-01-01

    A structure and method for packaging an integrated optic circuit. The package comprises a first wall having a plurality of microlenses formed therein to establish channels of optical communication with an integrated optic circuit within the package. A first registration pattern is provided on an inside surface of one of the walls of the package for alignment and attachment of the integrated optic circuit. The package in one embodiment may further comprise a fiber holder for aligning and attaching a plurality of optical fibers to the package and extending the channels of optical communication to the fibers outside the package. In another embodiment, a fiber holder may be used to hold the fibers and align the fibers to the package. The fiber holder may be detachably connected to the package.

  17. Radiation-hardened transistor and integrated circuit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ma, Kwok K.

    2007-11-20

    A composite transistor is disclosed for use in radiation hardening a CMOS IC formed on an SOI or bulk semiconductor substrate. The composite transistor has a circuit transistor and a blocking transistor connected in series with a common gate connection. A body terminal of the blocking transistor is connected only to a source terminal thereof, and to no other connection point. The blocking transistor acts to prevent a single-event transient (SET) occurring in the circuit transistor from being coupled outside the composite transistor. Similarly, when a SET occurs in the blocking transistor, the circuit transistor prevents the SET from being coupled outside the composite transistor. N-type and P-type composite transistors can be used for each and every transistor in the CMOS IC to radiation harden the IC, and can be used to form inverters and transmission gates which are the building blocks of CMOS ICs.

  18. Compact vehicle drive module having improved thermal control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Meyer, Andreas A.; Radosevich, Lawrence D.; Beihoff, Bruce C.; Kehl, Dennis L.; Kannenberg, Daniel G.

    2006-01-03

    An electric vehicle drive includes a thermal support may receive one or more power electronic circuits. The support may aid in removing heat from the circuits through fluid circulating through the support, which may be controlled in a closed-loop manner. Interfacing between circuits, circuit mounting structure, and the support provide for greatly enhanced cooling. The support may form a shield from both external EMI/RFI and from interference generated by operation of the power electronic circuits. Features may be provided to permit and enhance connection of the circuitry to external circuitry, such as improved terminal configurations. Modular units may be assembled that may be coupled to electronic circuitry via plug-in arrangements or through interface with a backplane or similar mounting and interconnecting structures.

  19. Internal cooling circuit for gas turbine bucket

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hyde, Susan Marie; Davis, Richard Mallory

    2005-10-25

    In a gas turbine bucket having a shank portion and an airfoil portion having leading and trailing edges and pressure and suction sides, an internal cooling circuit, the internal cooling circuit having a serpentine configuration including plural radial outflow passages and plural radial inflow passages, and wherein a coolant inlet passage communicates with a first of the radial outflow passages along the trailing edge, the first radial outflow passage having a plurality of radially extending and radially spaced elongated rib segments extending between and connecting the pressure and suction sides in a middle region of the first passage to prevent ballooning of the pressure and suction sides at the first radial outflow passage.

  20. Hybrid high direct current circuit interrupter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rockot, J.H.; Mikesell, H.E.; Jha, K.N.

    1998-08-11

    A device and a method are disclosed for interrupting very high direct currents (greater than 100,000 amperes) and simultaneously blocking high voltages (greater than 600 volts). The device utilizes a mechanical switch to carry very high currents continuously with low loss and a silicon controlled rectifier (SCR) to bypass the current around the mechanical switch while its contacts are separating. A commutation circuit, connected in parallel with the SCR, turns off the SCR by utilizing a resonant circuit to divert the SCR current after the switch opens. 7 figs.

  1. Hybrid high direct current circuit interrupter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rockot, Joseph H.; Mikesell, Harvey E.; Jha, Kamal N.

    1998-01-01

    A device and a method for interrupting very high direct currents (greater than 100,000 amperes) and simultaneously blocking high voltages (greater than 600 volts). The device utilizes a mechanical switch to carry very high currents continuously with low loss and a silicon controlled rectifier (SCR) to bypass the current around the mechanical switch while its contacts are separating. A commutation circuit, connected in parallel with the SCR, turns off the SCR by utilizing a resonant circuit to divert the SCR current after the switch opens.

  2. Circuit for measuring time differences among events

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Romrell, Delwin M.

    1977-01-01

    An electronic circuit has a plurality of input terminals. Application of a first input signal to any one of the terminals initiates a timing sequence. Later inputs to the same terminal are ignored but a later input to any other terminal of the plurality generates a signal which can be used to measure the time difference between the later input and the first input signal. Also, such time differences may be measured between the first input signal and an input signal to any other terminal of the plurality or the circuit may be reset at any time by an external reset signal.

  3. Up-and-down chopper circuit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goffeau, Jacques R.

    1979-01-01

    An improved Up-and-Down Chopper Circuit is provided which is useful for voltage regulation in a bi-directional DC power system. In the down mode, power is switched from a DC power source to a lower voltage energy storing load while in the up mode stored energy in the load is transferred to the higher voltage source. The system uses Darlington transistor switches in a conventional connection. The improvement relates to circuit additions to eliminate the effects of inter-electrode capacitance inherent with this Darlington transistor switching arrangement.

  4. Thermo-fluid dynamic design study of single and double-inflow radial and single-stage axial steam turbines for open-cycle thermal energy conversion net power-producing experiment facility in Hawaii

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schlbeiri, T. . Dept. of Mechanical Engineering)

    1990-03-01

    The results of the study of the optimum thermo-fluid dynamic design concept are presented for turbine units operating within the open-cycle ocean thermal energy conversion (OC-OTEC) systems. The concept is applied to the first OC-OTEC net power producing experiment (NPPE) facility to be installed at Hawaii's natural energy laboratory. Detailed efficiency and performance calculations were performed for the radial turbine design concept with single and double-inflow arrangements. To complete the study, the calculation results for a single-stage axial steam turbine design are also presented. In contrast to the axial flow design with a relatively low unit efficiency, higher efficiency was achieved for single-inflow turbines. Highest efficiency was calculated for a double-inflow radial design, which opens new perspectives for energy generation from OC-OTEC systems.

  5. Integrated Circuit Failure Analysis Hypertext Help System

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1995-02-23

    This software assists a failure analyst performing failure analysis on integrated circuits. The software can also be used to train inexperienced failure analysts. The software also provides a method for storing information and making it easily available to experienced failure analysts.

  6. Pulse circuit apparatus for gas discharge laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bradley, Laird P.

    1980-01-01

    Apparatus and method using a unique pulse circuit for a known gas discharge laser apparatus to provide an electric field for preconditioning the gas below gas breakdown and thereafter to place a maximum voltage across the gas which maximum voltage is higher than that previously available before the breakdown voltage of that gas laser medium thereby providing greatly increased pumping of the laser.

  7. Integrated Circuit Failure Analysis Expert System

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1995-10-03

    The software assists a failure analyst performing failure anaysis on intergrated circuits. The software can also be used to train inexperienced failure analysts. The software also provides a method for storing information and making it easily available to experienced failure analysts.

  8. Count-doubling time safety circuit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rusch, Gordon K.; Keefe, Donald J.; McDowell, William P.

    1981-01-01

    There is provided a nuclear reactor count-factor-increase time monitoring circuit which includes a pulse-type neutron detector, and means for counting the number of detected pulses during specific time periods. Counts are compared and the comparison is utilized to develop a reactor scram signal, if necessary.

  9. Bioluminescent bioreporter integrated circuit detection methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Simpson, Michael L.; Paulus, Michael J.; Sayler, Gary S.; Applegate, Bruce M.; Ripp, Steven A.

    2005-06-14

    Disclosed are monolithic bioelectronic devices comprising a bioreporter and an OASIC. These bioluminescent bioreporter integrated circuit are useful in detecting substances such as pollutants, explosives, and heavy-metals residing in inhospitable areas such as groundwater, industrial process vessels, and battlefields. Also disclosed are methods and apparatus for detection of particular analytes, including ammonia and estrogen compounds.

  10. Electronic circuit for measuring series connected electrochemical cell voltages

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ashtiani, Cyrus N.; Stuart, Thomas A.

    2000-01-01

    An electronic circuit for measuring voltage signals in an energy storage device is disclosed. The electronic circuit includes a plurality of energy storage cells forming the energy storage device. A voltage divider circuit is connected to at least one of the energy storage cells. A current regulating circuit is provided for regulating the current through the voltage divider circuit. A voltage measurement node is associated with the voltage divider circuit for producing a voltage signal which is proportional to the voltage across the energy storage cell.

  11. THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY ANALYSIS OF GASES

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Clark, W.J.

    1949-06-01

    This patent describes apparatus for the quantitative analysis of a gaseous mixture at subatmospheric pressure by measurement of its thermal conductivity. A heated wire forms one leg of a bridge circuit, while the gas under test is passed about the wire at a constant rate. The bridge unbalance will be a measure of the change in composition of the gas, if compensation is made for the effect due to gas pressure change. The apparatus provides a voltage varying with fluctuations of pressure in series with the indicating device placed across the bridge, to counterbalance the voltage change caused by fluctuations in the pressure of the gaseous mixture.

  12. Low thermal resistance power module assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hassani, Vahab; Vlahinos, Andreas; Bharathan, Desikan

    2007-03-13

    A power module assembly with low thermal resistance and enhanced heat dissipation to a cooling medium. The assembly includes a heat sink or spreader plate with passageways or openings for coolant that extend through the plate from a lower surface to an upper surface. A circuit substrate is provided and positioned on the spreader plate to cover the coolant passageways. The circuit substrate includes a bonding layer configured to extend about the periphery of each of the coolant passageways and is made up of a substantially nonporous material. The bonding layer may be solder material which bonds to the upper surface of the plate to provide a continuous seal around the upper edge of each opening in the plate. The assembly includes power modules mounted on the circuit substrate on a surface opposite the bonding layer. The power modules are positioned over or proximal to the coolant passageways.

  13. Noise isolation system for high-speed circuits

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McNeilly, D.R.

    1983-12-29

    A noise isolation circuit is provided that consists of a dual function bypass which confines high-speed switching noise to the component or circuit which generates it and isolates the component or circuit from high-frequency noise transients which may be present on the ground and power supply busses. A local circuit ground is provided which is coupled to the system ground by sufficient impedance to force the dissipation of the noise signal in the local circuit or component generating the noise. The dual function bypass network couples high-frequency noise signals generated in the local component or circuit through a capacitor to the local ground while isolating the component or circuit from noise signals which may be present on the power supply busses or system ground. The network is an effective noise isolating system and is applicable to both high-speed analog and digital circuits.

  14. Noise isolation system for high-speed circuits

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McNeilly, David R.

    1986-01-01

    A noise isolation circuit is provided that consists of a dual function bypass which confines high-speed switching noise to the component or circuit which generates it and isolates the component or circuit from high-frequency noise transients which may be present on the ground and power supply busses. A local circuit ground is provided which is coupled to the system ground by sufficient impedance to force the dissipation of the noise signal in the local circuit or component generating the noise. The dual function bypass network couples high-frequency noise signals generated in the local component or circuit through a capacitor to the local ground while isolating the component or circuit from noise signals which may be present on the power supply busses or system ground. The network is an effective noise isolating system and is applicable to both high-speed analog and digital circuits.

  15. Dual-circuit segmented rail phased induction motor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Marder, Barry M. (Albuquerque, NM); Cowan, Jr., Maynard (Albuquerque, NM)

    2002-01-01

    An improved linear motor utilizes two circuits, rather that one circuit and an opposed plate, to gain efficiency. The powered circuit is a flat conductive coil. The opposed segmented rail circuit is either a plurality of similar conductive coils that are shorted, or a plurality of ladders formed of opposed conductive bars connected by a plurality of spaced conductors. In each embodiment, the conductors are preferably cables formed from a plurality of intertwined insulated wires to carry current evenly.

  16. TRIAC/SCR proportional control circuit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hughes, W.J.

    1999-04-06

    A power controller device is disclosed which uses a voltage-to-frequency converter in conjunction with a zero crossing detector to linearly and proportionally control AC power being supplied to a load. The output of the voltage-to frequency converter controls the ``reset`` input of a R-S flip flop, while an ``0`` crossing detector controls the ``set`` input. The output of the flip flop triggers a monostable multivibrator controlling the SCR or TRIAC firing circuit connected to the load. Logic gates prevent the direct triggering of the multivibrator in the rare instance where the ``reset`` and ``set`` inputs of the flip flop are in coincidence. The control circuit can be supplemented with a control loop, providing compensation for line voltage variations. 9 figs.

  17. TRIAC/SCR proportional control circuit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hughes, Wallace J. (Boston Lake, NY)

    1999-01-01

    A power controller device which uses a voltage-to-frequency converter in conjunction with a zero crossing detector to linearly and proportionally control AC power being supplied to a load. The output of the voltage-to frequency converter controls the "reset" input of a R-S flip flop, while an "0" crossing detector controls the "set" input. The output of the flip flop triggers a monostable multivibrator controlling the SCR or TRIAC firing circuit connected to the load. Logic gates prevent the direct triggering of the multivibrator in the rare instance where the "reset" and "set" inputs of the flip flop are in coincidence. The control circuit can be supplemented with a control loop, providing compensation for line voltage variations.

  18. A Docking Casette For Printed Circuit Boards

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barringer, Dennis R. (Wallkill, NY); Seminaro, Edward J. (Milton, NY); Toffler, Harold M. (Newburgh, NY)

    2003-08-19

    A docking apparatus for printed circuit boards including a cassette housing, having a housing base, a housing cover and a housing wall, wherein the housing base and the housing wall are disposed relative to each other so as to define a housing cavity for containing a printed circuit board and wherein the housing wall includes a cable opening disposed so as to be communicated with the housing cavity, a linkage mechanism, wherein the linkage mechanism includes an engagement configuration and a disengagement configuration and wherein the linkage mechanism is disposed so as to be associated with the cassette housing and a housing bezel, wherein the housing bezel is disposed relative to the cassette housing so as to be associated with the cable opening.

  19. Vacuum die attach for integrated circuits

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schmitt, E.H.; Tuckerman, D.B.

    1991-09-10

    A thin film eutectic bond for attaching an integrated circuit die to a circuit substrate is formed by coating at least one bonding surface on the die and substrate with an alloying metal, assembling the die and substrate under compression loading, and heating the assembly to an alloying temperature in a vacuum. A very thin bond, 10 microns or less, which is substantially void free, is produced. These bonds have high reliability, good heat and electrical conduction, and high temperature tolerance. The bonds are formed in a vacuum chamber, using a positioning and loading fixture to compression load the die, and an IR lamp or other heat source. For bonding a silicon die to a silicon substrate, a gold silicon alloy bond is used. Multiple dies can be bonded simultaneously. No scrubbing is required. 1 figure.

  20. Vacuum die attach for integrated circuits

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schmitt, Edward H.; Tuckerman, David B.

    1991-01-01

    A thin film eutectic bond for attaching an integrated circuit die to a circuit substrate is formed by coating at least one bonding surface on the die and substrate with an alloying metal, assembling the die and substrate under compression loading, and heating the assembly to an alloying temperature in a vacuum. A very thin bond, 10 microns or less, which is substantially void free, is produced. These bonds have high reliability, good heat and electrical conduction, and high temperature tolerance. The bonds are formed in a vacuum chamber, using a positioning and loading fixture to compression load the die, and an IR lamp or other heat source. For bonding a silicon die to a silicon substrate, a gold silicon alloy bond is used. Multiple dies can be bonded simultaneously. No scrubbing is required.

  1. Single event upset protection circuit and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wallner, John; Gorder, Michael

    2016-03-22

    An SEU protection circuit comprises first and second storage means for receiving primary and redundant versions, respectively, of an n-bit wide data value that is to be corrected in case of an SEU occurrence; the correction circuit requires that the data value be a 1-hot encoded value. A parity engine performs a parity operation on the n bits of the primary data value. A multiplexer receives the primary and redundant data values and the parity engine output at respective inputs, and is arranged to pass the primary data value to an output when the parity engine output indicates `odd` parity, and to pass the redundant data value to the output when the parity engine output indicates `even` parity. The primary and redundant data values are suitably state variables, and the parity engine is preferably an n-bit wide XOR or XNOR gate.

  2. Nanoeletromechanical switch and logic circuits formed therefrom

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nordquist, Christopher D.; Czaplewski, David A.

    2010-05-18

    A nanoelectromechanical (NEM) switch is formed on a substrate with a source electrode containing a suspended electrically-conductive beam which is anchored to the substrate at each end. This beam, which can be formed of ruthenium, bows laterally in response to a voltage applied between a pair of gate electrodes and the source electrode to form an electrical connection between the source electrode and a drain electrode located near a midpoint of the beam. Another pair of gate electrodes and another drain electrode can be located on an opposite side of the beam to allow for switching in an opposite direction. The NEM switch can be used to form digital logic circuits including NAND gates, NOR gates, programmable logic gates, and SRAM and DRAM memory cells which can be used in place of conventional CMOS circuits, or in combination therewith.

  3. Custom VLSI circuits for high energy physics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parker, S.

    1998-06-01

    This article provides a brief guide to integrated circuits, including their design, fabrication, testing, radiation hardness, and packaging. It was requested by the Panel on Instrumentation, Innovation, and Development of the International Committee for Future Accelerators, as one of a series of articles on instrumentation for future experiments. Their original request emphasized a description of available custom circuits and a set of recommendations for future developments. That has been done, but while traps that stop charge in solid-state devices are well known, those that stop physicists trying to develop the devices are not. Several years spent dodging the former and developing the latter made clear the need for a beginner`s guide through the maze, and that is the main purpose of this text.

  4. Bioluminescent Bioreporter Integrated Circuits - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Vehicles and Fuels Vehicles and Fuels Startup America Startup America Industrial Technologies Industrial Technologies Hydropower, Wave and Tidal Hydropower, Wave and Tidal Biomass and Biofuels Biomass and Biofuels Find More Like This Return to Search Bioluminescent Bioreporter Integrated Circuits Oak Ridge National Laboratory Contact ORNL About This Technology Publications: PDF Document Publication 12-G00198_0370.pdf (529 KB) Technology Marketing SummaryTo address the need for fieldable

  5. THERMAL OSCILLATIONS IN LIQUID HELIUM TARGETS.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    WANG,L.; JIA,L.X.

    2001-07-16

    A liquid helium target for the high-energy physics was built and installed in the proton beam line at the Alternate Gradient Synchrotron of Brookhaven National Laboratory in 2001. The target flask has a liquid volume of 8.25 liters and is made of thin Mylar film. A G-M/J-T cryocooler of five-watts at 4.2K was used to produce liquid helium and refrigerate the target. A thermosyphon circuit for the target was connected to the J-T circuit by a liquid/gas separator. Because of the large heat load to the target and its long transfer lines, thermal oscillations were observed during the system tests. To eliminate the oscillation, a series of tests and analyses were carried out. This paper describes the phenomena and provides the understanding of the thermal oscillations in the target system.

  6. Base drive and overlap protection circuit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gritter, David J.

    1983-01-01

    An inverter (34) which provides power to an A. C. machine (28) is controlled by a circuit (36) employing PWM control strategy whereby A. C. power is supplied to the machine at a preselectable frequency and preselectable voltage. This is accomplished by the technique of waveform notching in which the shapes of the notches are varied to determine the average energy content of the overall waveform. Through this arrangement, the operational efficiency of the A. C. machine is optimized. The control circuit includes a microcomputer and memory element which receive various parametric inputs and calculate optimized machine control data signals therefrom. The control data is asynchronously loaded into the inverter through an intermediate buffer (38). A base drive and overlap protection circuit is included to insure that both transistors of a complimentary pair are not conducting at the same time. In its preferred embodiment, the present invention is incorporated within an electric vehicle (10) employing a 144 VDC battery pack (32) and a three-phase induction motor (18).

  7. Impact of thermal annealing on bulk InGaAsSbN materials grown by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, T. W.; Mawst, L. J.; Kim, K.; Lee, J. J.; Kuech, T. F.; Wells, N. P.; LaLumondiere, S. D.; Sin, Y.; Lotshaw, W. T.; Moss, S. C.

    2014-02-03

    Two different thermal annealing techniques (rapid thermal annealing (RTA) and in-situ post-growth annealing in the metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE) chamber) were employed to investigate their impact on the optical characteristics of double-heterostructures (DH) of InGaAsSbN/GaAs and on the performance of single-junction solar cell structures, all grown by MOVPE. We find that an optimized RTA procedure leads to a similar improvement in the photoluminescence (PL) intensity compared with material employing a multi-step optimized anneal within the MOVPE reactor. Time-resolved photoluminescence techniques at low temperature (LT) and room temperature (RT) were performed to characterize the carrier dynamics in bulk InGaAsSbN layers. Room temperature carrier lifetimes were found to be similar for both annealing methods, although the LT-PL (16?K) measurements of the MOVPE-annealed sample found longer lifetimes than the RTA-annealed sample (680?ps vs. 260?ps) for the PL measurement energy of 1.24?eV. InGaAsSbN-based single junction solar cells processed with the optimized RTA procedure exhibited an enhancement of the electrical performance, such as improvements in open circuit voltage, short circuit current, fill factor, and efficiency over solar cells subjected to the in-situ MOVPE annealing technique.

  8. Numerical techniques for steady two-dimensional transcritical stratified flow problems, with an application to the intermediate field dynamics of Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, J.M.; Jirka, G.H.; Caughey, D.A.

    1985-01-01

    The development of predictive techniques for the predominantly horizontal, layered fluid motions that result when a continuous buoyant source is discharged into an ambient fluid at a bounding surface, interface or equilibrium level is studied. Although the numerical techniques developed are applicable to general discharge configurations, the model development is focused on the particular case of a radial source of buoyancy and momentum discharged into a uniform ambient crossflow. The resulting density current is analyzed by application of the depth-integrated hydrodynamic equations. The density current dynamics are shown to vary with the relative intermediate- to near-field strengths, as characterized by the ratio of their respective length scales. The complete range of this interaction, from small near-field effects to large near-field effects, is investigated. Results are presented as the depth integrated velocity and current thickness distributions for different field strength values. The model predictions are compared to two sets of laboratory data and to limited field information, involving a river discharge and a submerged outfall into the ocean. Good agreement is obtained in all cases. Finally, the model results are applied to the prediction of a river plume into a coastal ocean current and to the continuous discharge from an OTEC plant operating in the stratified ocean. In both cases, the results indicate the significant horizontal extent (order of several kilometers) of the resulting current, together with their limited vertical extent (order of several meters). Their strong sensitivity to ambient current magnitude and stratification strength is demonstrated.

  9. High density printed electrical circuit board card connection system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baumbaugh, A.E.

    1997-05-06

    A zero insertion/extraction force printed circuit board card connection system comprises a cam-operated locking mechanism disposed along an edge portion of the printed circuit board. The extrusions along the circuit board mate with an extrusion fixed to the card cage having a plurality of electrical connectors. The card connection system allows the connectors to be held away from the circuit board during insertion/extraction and provides a constant mating force once the circuit board is positioned. The card connection system provides a simple solution to the need for a greater number of electrical signal connections. 12 figs.

  10. High density printed electrical circuit board card connection system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baumbaugh, Alan E.

    1997-01-01

    A zero insertion/extraction force printed circuit board card connection system comprises a cam-operated locking mechanism disposed along an edge portion of the printed circuit board. The extrusions along the circuit board mate with an extrusion fixed to the card cage having a plurality of electrical connectors. The card connection system allows the connectors to be held away from the circuit board during insertion/extraction and provides a constant mating force once the circuit board is positioned. The card connection system provides a simple solution to the need for a greater number of electrical signal connections.

  11. Evolution of the current wedge and the generator current circuit by fast reconnection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ugai, M.

    2009-01-15

    Temporal dynamics of the generator current circuit and the current wedge is studied on the basis of the spontaneous fast reconnection model. Once the fast reconnection jet causes magnetic field dipolarization, a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) generator arises ahead of the magnetic loop top. The generator effect is so powerful that a current circuit is strongly driven in the generator region and evolves to approach the loop footpoint through field-aligned currents along the loop boundary; simultaneously, the sheet current directed to the generator region turns its direction toward the loop footpoint, giving rise to current wedge evolution outside the generator current circuit. Both these current circuits are eventually connected to a layer around the separatrix in the loop footpoint, where the current is concentrated and intensified, leading to drastic energy dissipations. It is concluded that the MHD generator ahead of the magnetic loop top, provided and sustained by the fast reconnection jet, plays a crucial role in the two-ribbon heating observed in geomagentic substorms and solar flares.

  12. Accelerating functional verification of an integrated circuit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Deindl, Michael; Ruedinger, Jeffrey Joseph; Zoellin, Christian G

    2015-11-05

    Illustrative embodiments include a method, system, and computer program product for accelerating functional verification in simulation testing of an integrated circuit (IC). Using a processor and a memory, a serial operation is replaced with a direct register access operation, wherein the serial operation is configured to perform bit shifting operation using a register in a simulation of the IC. The serial operation is blocked from manipulating the register in the simulation of the IC. Using the register in the simulation of the IC, the direct register access operation is performed in place of the serial operation.

  13. Accelerating functional verification of an integrated circuit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Deindl, Michael; Ruedinger, Jeffrey Joseph; Zoellin, Christian G.

    2015-10-27

    Illustrative embodiments include a method, system, and computer program product for accelerating functional verification in simulation testing of an integrated circuit (IC). Using a processor and a memory, a serial operation is replaced with a direct register access operation, wherein the serial operation is configured to perform bit shifting operation using a register in a simulation of the IC. The serial operation is blocked from manipulating the register in the simulation of the IC. Using the register in the simulation of the IC, the direct register access operation is performed in place of the serial operation.

  14. Capacitive charge generation apparatus and method for testing circuits

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cole, E.I. Jr.; Peterson, K.A.; Barton, D.L.

    1998-07-14

    An electron beam apparatus and method for testing a circuit are disclosed. The electron beam apparatus comprises an electron beam incident on an outer surface of an insulating layer overlying one or more electrical conductors of the circuit for generating a time varying or alternating current electrical potential on the surface; and a measurement unit connected to the circuit for measuring an electrical signal capacitively coupled to the electrical conductors to identify and map a conduction state of each of the electrical conductors, with or without an electrical bias signal being applied to the circuit. The electron beam apparatus can further include a secondary electron detector for forming a secondary electron image for registration with a map of the conduction state of the electrical conductors. The apparatus and method are useful for failure analysis or qualification testing to determine the presence of any open-circuits or short-circuits, and to verify the continuity or integrity of electrical conductors buried below an insulating layer thickness of 1-100 {micro}m or more without damaging or breaking down the insulating layer. The types of electrical circuits that can be tested include integrated circuits, multi-chip modules, printed circuit boards and flexible printed circuits. 7 figs.

  15. Capacitive charge generation apparatus and method for testing circuits

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cole, Jr., Edward I.; Peterson, Kenneth A.; Barton, Daniel L.

    1998-01-01

    An electron beam apparatus and method for testing a circuit. The electron beam apparatus comprises an electron beam incident on an outer surface of an insulating layer overlying one or more electrical conductors of the circuit for generating a time varying or alternating current electrical potential on the surface; and a measurement unit connected to the circuit for measuring an electrical signal capacitively coupled to the electrical conductors to identify and map a conduction state of each of the electrical conductors, with or without an electrical bias signal being applied to the circuit. The electron beam apparatus can further include a secondary electron detector for forming a secondary electron image for registration with a map of the conduction state of the electrical conductors. The apparatus and method are useful for failure analysis or qualification testing to determine the presence of any open-circuits or short-circuits, and to verify the continuity or integrity of electrical conductors buried below an insulating layer thickness of 1-100 .mu.m or more without damaging or breaking down the insulating layer. The types of electrical circuits that can be tested include integrated circuits, multi-chip modules, printed circuit boards and flexible printed circuits.

  16. Circuit for monitoring temperature of high-voltage equipment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jacobs, Martin E.

    1976-01-01

    This invention relates to an improved circuit for measuring temperature in a region at high electric potential and generating a read-out of the same in a region at lower potential. The circuit is specially designed to combine high sensitivity, stability, and accuracy. A major portion of the circuit situated in the high-potential region can take the form of an integrated circuit. The preferred form of the circuit includes an input section which is situated in the high-potential region and comprises a temperature-compensated thermocouple circuit for sensing temperature, an oscillator circuit for generating a train of ramp voltages whose rise time varies inversely with the thermocouple output, a comparator and switching circuit for converting the oscillator output to pulses whose frequency is proportional to the thermocouple output, and a light-emitting diode which is energized by these pulses. An optical coupling transmits the light pulses generated by the diode to an output section of the circuit, situated in a region at ground. The output section comprises means for converting the transmitted pulses to electrical pulses of corresponding frequency, means for amplifying the electrical pulses, and means for displaying the frequency of the same. The preferred embodiment of the overall circuit is designed so that the frequency of the output signal in hertz and tenths of hertz is equal to the sensed temperature in degrees and tenths of degrees.

  17. Thermal indicator for wells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gaven, Jr., Joseph V.; Bak, Chan S.

    1983-01-01

    Minute durable plate-like thermal indicators are employed for precision measuring static and dynamic temperatures of well drilling fluids. The indicators are small enough and sufficiently durable to be circulated in the well with drilling fluids during the drilling operation. The indicators include a heat resistant indicating layer, a coacting meltable solid component and a retainer body which serves to unitize each indicator and which may carry permanent indicator identifying indicia. The indicators are recovered from the drilling fluid at ground level by known techniques.

  18. Thermal network reduction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balcomb, J.D.

    1983-01-01

    A method is presented for reducing the number of elements required in a thermal network representation of a building. The method is based on matching the actual building response at two frequencies, the diurnal response and 3-day response. The procedure provides a straightforward methodology for combining all the various materials inside a discrete building zone into a few nodes while retaining a high degree of accuracy in the dynamic response. An example is given showing a comparison between a large network and the reduced network.

  19. Thermal network reduction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balcomb, J.D.

    1983-06-01

    A method is presented for reducing the number of elements required in a thermal network representation of a building. The method is based on matching the actual building response at two frequencies, the diurnal response and 3-day response. The procedure provides a straightforward methodology for combining all the various materials inside a discrete building zone into a few nodes while retaining a high degree of accuracy in the dynamic response. An example is given showing a comparison between a large network and the reduced network.

  20. Choosing Actuators for Automatic Control Systems of Thermal Power Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gorbunov, A. I.; Serdyukov, O. V.

    2015-03-15

    Two types of actuators for automatic control systems of thermal power plants are analyzed: (i) pulse-controlled actuator and (ii) analog-controlled actuator with positioning function. The actuators are compared in terms of control circuit, control accuracy, reliability, and cost.

  1. Interrogator system for identifying electrical circuits

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jatko, W.B.; McNeilly, D.R.

    1988-04-12

    A system for interrogating electrical leads to correctly ascertain the identity of equipment attached to remote ends of the leads is disclosed. The system includes a source of a carrier signal generated in a controller/receiver to be sent over the leads and an identifier unit at the equipment. The identifier is activated by command of the carrier and uses a portion of the carrier to produce a supply voltage. Each identifier is uniquely programmed for a specific piece of equipment, and causes the impedance of the circuit to be modified whereby the carrier signal is modulated according to that program. The modulation can be amplitude, frequency or phase modulation. A demodulator in the controller/receiver analyzes the modulated carrier signal, and if a verified signal is recognized displays and/or records the information. This information can be utilized in a computer system to prepare a wiring diagram of the electrical equipment attached to specific leads. Specific circuit values are given for amplitude modulation, and the system is particularly described for use with thermocouples. 6 figs.

  2. Interrogator system for identifying electrical circuits

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jatko, William B.; McNeilly, David R.

    1988-01-01

    A system for interrogating electrical leads to correctly ascertain the identity of equipment attached to remote ends of the leads. The system includes a source of a carrier signal generated in a controller/receiver to be sent over the leads and an identifier unit at the equipment. The identifier is activated by command of the carrier and uses a portion of the carrier to produce a supply voltage. Each identifier is uniquely programmed for a specific piece of equipment, and causes the impedance of the circuit to be modified whereby the carrier signal is modulated according to that program. The modulation can be amplitude, frequency or phase modulation. A demodulator in the controller/receiver analyzes the modulated carrier signal, and if a verified signal is recognized displays and/or records the information. This information can be utilized in a computer system to prepare a wiring diagram of the electrical equipment attached to specific leads. Specific circuit values are given for amplitude modulation, and the system is particularly described for use with thermocouples.

  3. Hydraulic actuator for an electric circuit breaker

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Imam, Imdad

    1983-01-01

    This actuator comprises a fluid motor having a piston, a breaker-opening space at one side of the piston, and a breaker-closing space at its opposite side. An accumulator freely communicates with the breaker-opening space for supplying pressurized fluid thereto during a circuit breaker opening operation. The breaker-opening space and the breaker-closing space are connected by an impeded flow passage. A pilot valve opens to allow the pressurized liquid in the breaker-closing space to flow to a back chamber of a normally closed main valve to cause the main valve to be opened during a circuit breaker opening operation to release the pressurized liquid from the breaker-closing space. An impeded passage affords communication between the back chamber and a sump located on the opposite side of the main valve from the back chamber. The pilot valve and impeded passage allow rapid opening of the main valve with pressurized liquid from the breaker closing side of the piston.

  4. Hydraulic actuator for an electric circuit breaker

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Imam, I.

    1983-05-17

    This actuator comprises a fluid motor having a piston, a breaker-opening space at one side of the piston, and a breaker-closing space at its opposite side. An accumulator freely communicates with the breaker-opening space for supplying pressurized fluid thereto during a circuit breaker opening operation. The breaker-opening space and the breaker-closing space are connected by an impeded flow passage. A pilot valve opens to allow the pressurized liquid in the breaker-closing space to flow to a back chamber of a normally closed main valve to cause the main valve to be opened during a circuit breaker opening operation to release the pressurized liquid from the breaker-closing space. An impeded passage affords communication between the back chamber and a sump located on the opposite side of the main valve from the back chamber. The pilot valve and impeded passage allow rapid opening of the main valve with pressurized liquid from the breaker closing side of the piston. 3 figs.

  5. Internal Short Circuit Device for Improved Lithium-Ion Battery...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Internal Short Circuit Device for Improved Lithium-Ion Battery Design National Renewable ... any of the common lithium-ion, lithium sulfur, or lithium air electrochemical components. ...

  6. Safety and performance enhancement circuit for primary explosive detonators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Davis, Ronald W.

    2006-04-04

    A safety and performance enhancement arrangement for primary explosive detonators. This arrangement involves a circuit containing an energy storage capacitor and preset self-trigger to protect the primary explosive detonator from electrostatic discharge (ESD). The circuit does not discharge into the detonator until a sufficient level of charge is acquired on the capacitor. The circuit parameters are designed so that normal ESD environments cannot charge the protection circuit to a level to achieve discharge. When functioned, the performance of the detonator is also improved because of the close coupling of the stored energy.

  7. Legos for the Fabrication of Atomically Precise Electronic Circuits...

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    ... Such junctions within graphene nanoribbons could be used to produce high performance circuits for use in future electronics and solar cells. Contact Michael F. Crommie University ...

  8. High Temperature, High Voltage Fully Integrated Gate Driver Circuit...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    D.C. PDF icon ape003tolbert2010p.pdf More Documents & Publications High Temperature, High Voltage Fully Integrated Gate Driver Circuit Wide Bandgap Materials Smart ...

  9. High Temperature, High Voltage Fully Integrated Gate Driver Circuit...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    -- Washington D.C. PDF icon ape03marlino.pdf More Documents & Publications High Temperature, High Voltage Fully Integrated Gate Driver Circuit Smart Integrated Power Module ...

  10. High speed, long distance, data transmission multiplexing circuit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mariotti, Razvan

    1991-01-01

    A high speed serial data transmission multiplexing circuit, which is operable to accurately transmit data over long distances (up to 3 Km), and to multiplex, select and continuously display real time analog signals in a bandwidth from DC to 100 Khz. The circuit is made fault tolerant by use of a programmable flywheel algorithm, which enables the circuit to tolerate one transmission error before losing synchronization of the transmitted frames of data. A method of encoding and framing captured and transmitted data is used which has a low overhead and prevents some particular transmitted data patterns from locking an included detector/decoder circuit.

  11. ELECTRICAL CIRCUITS USING COLD-CATHODE TRIODE VALVES

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goulding, F.S.

    1957-11-26

    An electrical circuit which may be utilized as a pulse generator or voltage stabilizer is presented. The circuit employs a cold-cathode triode valve arranged to oscillate between its on and off stages by the use of selected resistance-capacitance time constant components in the plate and trigger grid circuits. The magnitude of the d-c voltage applied to the trigger grid circuit effectively controls the repetition rate of the output pulses. In the voltage stabilizer arrangement the d-c control voltage is a portion of the supply voltage and the rectified output voltage is substantially constant.

  12. DSOPilot project Automatic receipt of short circuiting indicators...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    project Automatic receipt of short circuiting indicators Country Denmark Coordinates 56.26392, 9.501785 Loading map... "minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type...

  13. Automatic ranging circuit for a digital panel meter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mueller, Theodore R.; Ross, Harley H.

    1976-01-01

    This invention relates to a range changing circuit that operates in conjunction with a digital panel meter of fixed sensitivity. The circuit decodes the output of the panel meter and uses that information to change the gain of an input amplifier to the panel meter in order to insure that the maximum number of significant figures is always displayed in the meter. The circuit monitors five conditions in the meter and responds to any of four combinations of these conditions by means of logic elements to carry out the function of the circuit.

  14. Printable, flexible and stretchable diamond for thermal management

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rogers, John A; Kim, Tae Ho; Choi, Won Mook; Kim, Dae Hyeong; Meitl, Matthew; Menard, Etienne; Carlisle, John

    2013-06-25

    Various heat-sinked components and methods of making heat-sinked components are disclosed where diamond in thermal contact with one or more heat-generating components are capable of dissipating heat, thereby providing thermally-regulated components. Thermally conductive diamond is provided in patterns capable of providing efficient and maximum heat transfer away from components that may be susceptible to damage by elevated temperatures. The devices and methods are used to cool flexible electronics, integrated circuits and other complex electronics that tend to generate significant heat. Also provided are methods of making printable diamond patterns that can be used in a range of devices and device components.

  15. Developing 300°C Ceramic Circuit Boards

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Normann, Randy A

    2015-02-15

    This paper covers the development of a geothermal ceramic circuit board technology using 3D traces in a machinable ceramic. Test results showing the circuit board to be operational to at least 550°C. Discussion on producing this type of board is outlined along with areas needing improvement.

  16. Short-Circuit Modeling of a Wind Power Plant: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Muljadi, E.; Gevorgian, V.

    2011-03-01

    This paper investigates the short-circuit behavior of a WPP for different types of wind turbines. The short-circuit behavior will be presented. Both the simplified models and detailed models are used in the simulations and both symmetrical faults and unsymmetrical faults are discussed.

  17. High Resolution PV Power Modeling for Distribution Circuit Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Norris, B. L.; Dise, J. H.

    2013-09-01

    NREL has contracted with Clean Power Research to provide 1-minute simulation datasets of PV systems located at three high penetration distribution feeders in the service territory of Southern California Edison (SCE): Porterville, Palmdale, and Fontana, California. The resulting PV simulations will be used to separately model the electrical circuits to determine the impacts of PV on circuit operations.

  18. Multi-channel detector readout method and integrated circuit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moses, William W.; Beuville, Eric; Pedrali-Noy, Marzio

    2004-05-18

    An integrated circuit which provides multi-channel detector readout from a detector array. The circuit receives multiple signals from the elements of a detector array and compares the sampled amplitudes of these signals against a noise-floor threshold and against one another. A digital signal is generated which corresponds to the location of the highest of these signal amplitudes which exceeds the noise floor threshold. The digital signal is received by a multiplexing circuit which outputs an analog signal corresponding the highest of the input signal amplitudes. In addition a digital control section provides for programmatic control of the multiplexer circuit, amplifier gain, amplifier reset, masking selection, and test circuit functionality on each input thereof.

  19. Multi-channel detector readout method and integrated circuit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moses, William W.; Beuville, Eric; Pedrali-Noy, Marzio

    2006-12-12

    An integrated circuit which provides multi-channel detector readout from a detector array. The circuit receives multiple signals from the elements of a detector array and compares the sampled amplitudes of these signals against a noise-floor threshold and against one another. A digital signal is generated which corresponds to the location of the highest of these signal amplitudes which exceeds the noise floor threshold. The digital signal is received by a multiplexing circuit which outputs an analog signal corresponding the highest of the input signal amplitudes. In addition a digital control section provides for programmatic control of the multiplexer circuit, amplifier gain, amplifier reset, masking selection, and test circuit functionality on each input thereof.

  20. Leaky insulating paint for preventing discharge anomalies on circuit boards

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frederickson, A.R.; Enloe, C.L.; Mullen, E.G. ); Nanevicz, J.E.; Thayer, J.S. )

    1989-12-01

    This paper reports on a semi-insulating paint formulated and tested for preventing pulse discharges from causing damage to circuits on heavily irradiated circuit boards. The paint is tin oxide filled phenoxy resin with a bulk resistivity of 10{sup 8} ohm-cm. A typical coating is then 10{sup 10} ohms per square. It is applied over the finished, conformally coated circuit board and connected to ground where possible on the board. It works by minimizing the stored electric field energy prior to the discharge. With such high resistivity it can not load down most circuits. Tests were performed on circuit boards with and without the paint using energetic electron beams to simulate very high space exposure levels. Many potentially damaging pulses were seen without the paint, but application of the paint removed all large pulses and only a few small pulses were seen.

  1. Magneto-Seebeck effect in spin-valve with in-plane thermal gradient

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jain, S. Bose, A. Palkar, V. R. Tulapurkar, A. A.; Lam, D. D. Suzuki, Y.; Sharma, H. Tomy, C. V.

    2014-12-15

    We present measurements of magneto-Seebeck effect on a spin valve with in-plane thermal gradient. We measured open circuit voltage and short circuit current by applying a temperature gradient across a spin valve stack, where one of the ferromagnetic layers is pinned. We found a clear hysteresis in these two quantities as a function of magnetic field. From these measurements, the magneto-Seebeck effect was found to be same as magneto-resistance effect.

  2. Lithium-ion battery cell-level control using constrained model predictive control and equivalent circuit models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xavier, MA; Trimboli, MS

    2015-07-01

    This paper introduces a novel application of model predictive control (MPC) to cell-level charging of a lithium-ion battery utilizing an equivalent circuit model of battery dynamics. The approach employs a modified form of the MPC algorithm that caters for direct feed-though signals in order to model near-instantaneous battery ohmic resistance. The implementation utilizes a 2nd-order equivalent circuit discrete-time state-space model based on actual cell parameters; the control methodology is used to compute a fast charging profile that respects input, output, and state constraints. Results show that MPC is well-suited to the dynamics of the battery control problem and further suggest significant performance improvements might be achieved by extending the result to electrochemical models. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Screening technology reduces ash in spiral circuits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brodzik, P.

    2007-05-15

    In 2006, the James River Coal Co. selected the Stack Sizer to remove the minus 100 mesh high ash clay fraction from the clean coal spiral product circuits at the McCoy-Elkhorn Bevins Branch prep plant and at the Blue Diamond Leatherwood prep plant in Kentucky. The Stack Sizer is a multi-deck, high-frequency vibrating screen capable of separations as fine as 75 microns when fitted with Derrick Corp.'s patented high open area urethane screen panels. Full-scale lab tests and more than 10 months of continuous production have confirmed that the Stack Sizer fitted with Derrick 100 micron urethane screen panels consistently produces a clean coal fraction that ranges from 8 to 10% ash. Currently, each five-deck Stack Sizer operating at the Bevins Branch and Leatherwood prep plants is producing approximately 33 tons per hour of clean coal containing about 9% ash. This represents a clean coal yield of about 75% and an ash reduction of about 11% from the feed slurry. 3 figs. 2 tabs.

  4. Engine lubrication circuit including two pumps

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lane, William H.

    2006-10-03

    A lubrication pump coupled to the engine is sized such that the it can supply the engine with a predetermined flow volume as soon as the engine reaches a peak torque engine speed. In engines that operate predominately at speeds above the peak torque engine speed, the lubrication pump is often producing lubrication fluid in excess of the predetermined flow volume that is bypassed back to a lubrication fluid source. This arguably results in wasted power. In order to more efficiently lubricate an engine, a lubrication circuit includes a lubrication pump and a variable delivery pump. The lubrication pump is operably coupled to the engine, and the variable delivery pump is in communication with a pump output controller that is operable to vary a lubrication fluid output from the variable delivery pump as a function of at least one of engine speed and lubrication flow volume or system pressure. Thus, the lubrication pump can be sized to produce the predetermined flow volume at a speed range at which the engine predominately operates while the variable delivery pump can supplement lubrication fluid delivery from the lubrication pump at engine speeds below the predominant engine speed range.

  5. An in-depth noise model for giant magnetoresistance current sensors for circuit design and complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor integration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roldán, A. Roldán, J. B.; Reig, C.; Cardoso, S.; Cardoso, F.; Ferreira, R.; Freitas, P. P.

    2014-05-07

    Full instrumentation bridges based on spin valve of giant magnetoresistance and magnetic tunnel junction devices have been microfabricated and experimentally characterized from the DC and noise viewpoint. A more realistic model of these devices was obtained in this work, an electrical and thermal model previously developed have been improved in such a way that noise effects are also included. We have implemented the model in a circuit simulator and reproduced the experimental measurements accurately. This provides a more realistic and complete tool for circuit design where magnetoresistive elements are combined with well-known complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor modules.

  6. Compact fluid cooled power converter supporting multiple circuit boards

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Radosevich, Lawrence D.; Meyer, Andreas A.; Beihoff, Bruce C.; Kannenberg, Daniel G.

    2005-03-08

    A support may receive one or more power electronic circuits. The support may aid in removing heat from the circuits through fluid circulating through the support. The support, in conjunction with other packaging features may form a shield from both external EMI/RFI and from interference generated by operation of the power electronic circuits. Features may be provided to permit and enhance connection of the circuitry to external circuitry, such as improved terminal configurations. Modular units may be assembled that may be coupled to electronic circuitry via plug-in arrangements or through interface with a backplane or similar mounting and interconnecting structures.

  7. Induced natural convection thermal cycling device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Heung, Leung Kit

    2002-08-13

    A device for separating gases, especially isotopes, by thermal cycling of a separation column using a pressure vessel mounted vertically and having baffled sources for cold and heat. Coils at the top are cooled with a fluid such as liquid nitrogen. Coils at the bottom are either electrical resistance coils or a tubular heat exchange. The sources are shrouded with an insulated "top hat" and simultaneously opened and closed at the outlets to cool or heat the separation column. Alternatively, the sources for cold and heat are mounted separately outside the vessel and an external loop is provided for each circuit.

  8. SOFC seal and cell thermal management

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Potnis, Shailesh Vijay; Rehg, Timothy Joseph

    2011-05-17

    The solid oxide fuel cell module includes a manifold, a plate, a cathode electrode, a fuel cell and an anode electrode. The manifold includes an air or oxygen inlet in communication with divergent passages above the periphery of the cell which combine to flow the air or oxygen radially or inwardly for reception in the center of the cathode flow field. The latter has interconnects providing circuitous cooling passages in a generally radial outward direction cooling the fuel cell and which interconnects are formed of different thermal conductivity materials for a preferential cooling.

  9. Effects of thermal fluctuations on thermal inflation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hiramatsu, Takashi; Miyamoto, Yuhei; Yokoyama, Jun’ichi

    2015-03-12

    The mechanism of thermal inflation, a relatively short period of accelerated expansion after primordial inflation, is a desirable ingredient for a certain class of particle physics models if they are not to be in contention with the cosmology of the early Universe. Though thermal inflation is most simply described in terms of a thermal effective potential, a thermal environment also gives rise to thermal fluctuations that must be taken into account. We numerically study the effects of these thermal fluctuations using lattice simulations. We conclude that though they do not ruin the thermal inflation scenario, the phase transition at the end of thermal inflation proceeds through phase mixing and is therefore not accompanied by the formations of bubbles nor appreciable amplitude of gravitational waves.

  10. Triple inverter pierce oscillator circuit suitable for CMOS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wessendorf; Kurt O.

    2007-02-27

    An oscillator circuit is disclosed which can be formed using discrete field-effect transistors (FETs), or as a complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) integrated circuit. The oscillator circuit utilizes a Pierce oscillator design with three inverter stages connected in series. A feedback resistor provided in a feedback loop about a second inverter stage provides an almost ideal inverting transconductance thereby allowing high-Q operation at the resonator-controlled frequency while suppressing a parasitic oscillation frequency that is inherent in a Pierce configuration using a "standard" triple inverter for the sustaining amplifier. The oscillator circuit, which operates in a range of 10 50 MHz, has applications for use as a clock in a microprocessor and can also be used for sensor applications.

  11. High Temperature Thermal Array for Next Generation Solar Thermal...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High Temperature Thermal Array for Next Generation Solar Thermal Power Production High Temperature Thermal Array for Next Generation Solar Thermal Power Production This ...

  12. Pyrometer mount for a closed-circuit thermal medium cooled gas turbine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jones, Raymond Joseph; Kirkpatrick, Francis Lawrence; Burns, James Lee; Fulton, John Robert

    2002-01-01

    A steam-cooled second-stage nozzle segment has an outer band and an outer cover defining a plenum therebetween for receiving cooling steam for flow through the nozzles to the inner band and cover therefor and return flow through the nozzles. To measure the temperature of the buckets of the stage forwardly of the nozzle stage, a pyrometer boss is electron beam-welded in an opening through the outer band and TIG-welded to the outer cover plate. By machining a hole through the boss and seating a linearly extending tube in the boss, a line of sight between a pyrometer mounted on the turbine frame and the buckets is provided whereby the temperature of the buckets can be ascertained. The welding of the boss to the outer band and outer cover enables steam flow through the plenum without leakage, while providing a line of sight through the outer cover and outer band to measure bucket temperature.

  13. Cooling circuit for a gas turbine bucket and tip shroud

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Willett, Fred Thomas; Itzel, Gary Michael; Stathopoulos, Dimitrios; Plemmons, Larry Wayne; Plemmons, Helen M.; Lewis, Doyle C.

    2002-01-01

    An open cooling circuit for a gas turbine bucket wherein the bucket has an airfoil portion, and a tip shroud, the cooling circuit including a plurality of radial cooling holes extending through the airfoil portion and communicating with an enlarged internal area within the tip shroud before exiting the tip shroud such that a cooling medium used to cool the airfoil portion is subsequently used to cool the tip shroud.

  14. Design and Modeling of Pulsed Power Accelerators Via Circuit Analysis

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1996-12-05

    SCREAMER simulates electrical circuits which may contain elements of variable resistance, capacitance and inductance. The user may add variable circuit elements in a simulation by choosing from a library of models or by writing a subroutine describing the element. Transmission lines, magnetically insulated transmission lines (MITLs) and arbitrary voltage and current sources may also be included. Transmission lines are modeled using pi-sections connected in series. Many models of switches and loads are included.

  15. Low Power Photomultiplier Tube Circuit And Method Thereor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bochenski, Edwin B.; Skinner, Jack L.; Dentinger, Paul M.; Lindblom, Scott C.

    2006-04-18

    An electrical circuit for a photomultiplier tube (PMT) is disclosed that reduces power consumption to a point where the PMT may be powered for extended periods with a battery. More specifically, the invention concerns a PMT circuit comprising a low leakage switch and a high voltage capacitor positioned between a resistive divider and each of the PMT dynodes, and a low power control scheme for recharging the capacitors.

  16. Ultra-low power microwave CHFET integrated circuit development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baca, A.G.; Hietala, V.M.; Greenway, D.; Sloan, L.R.; Shul, R.J.; Muyshondt, G.P.; Dubbert, D.F.

    1998-04-01

    This report summarizes work on the development of ultra-low power microwave CHFET integrated circuit development. Power consumption of microwave circuits has been reduced by factors of 50--1,000 over commercially available circuits. Positive threshold field effect transistors (nJFETs and PHEMTs) have been used to design and fabricate microwave circuits with power levels of 1 milliwatt or less. 0.7 {micro}m gate nJFETs are suitable for both digital CHFET integrated circuits as well as low power microwave circuits. Both hybrid amplifiers and MMICs were demonstrated at the 1 mW level at 2.4 GHz. Advanced devices were also developed and characterized for even lower power levels. Amplifiers with 0.3 {micro}m JFETs were simulated with 8--10 dB gain down to power levels of 250 microwatts ({mu}W). However 0.25 {micro}m PHEMTs proved superior to the JFETs with amplifier gain of 8 dB at 217 MHz and 50 {mu}W power levels but they are not integrable with the digital CHFET technology.

  17. Low thermal resistance power module assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hassani, Vahab; Vlahinos, Andreas; Bharathan, Desikan

    2010-12-28

    A power module assembly (400) with low thermal resistance and enhanced heat dissipation to a cooling medium. The assembly includes a heat sink or spreader plate (410) with passageways or openings (414) for coolant that extend through the plate from a lower surface (411) to an upper surface (412). A circuit substrate (420) is provided and positioned on the spreader plate (410) to cover the coolant passageways. The circuit substrate (420) includes a bonding layer (422) configured to extend about the periphery of each of the coolant passageways and is made up of a substantially nonporous material. The bonding layer (422) may be solder material which bonds to the upper surface (412) of the plate to provide a continuous seal around the upper edge of each opening (414) in the plate. The assembly includes power modules (430) mounted on the circuit substrate (420) on a surface opposite the bonding layer (422). The power modules (430) are positioned over or proximal to the coolant passageways.

  18. Direct write with microelectronic circuit fabrication

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Drummond, Timothy; Ginley, David

    1992-01-01

    In a process for deposition of material onto a substrate, for example, the deposition of metals or dielectrics onto a semiconductor laser, the material is deposited by providing a colloidal suspension of the material and directly writing the suspension onto the substrate surface by ink jet printing techniques. This procedure minimizes the handling requirements of the substrate during the deposition process and also minimizes the exchange of energy between the material to be deposited and the substrate at the interface. The deposited material is then resolved into a desired pattern, preferably by subjecting the deposit to a laser annealing step. The laser annealing step provides high resolution of the resultant pattern while minimizing the overall thermal load of the substrate and permitting precise control of interface chemistry and interdiffusion between the substrate and the deposit.

  19. Direct write with microelectronic circuit fabrication

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Drummond, T.; Ginley, D.

    1988-05-31

    In a process for deposition of material onto a substrate, for example, the deposition of metals for dielectrics onto a semiconductor laser, the material is deposited by providing a colloidal suspension of the material and directly writing the suspension onto the substrate surface by ink jet printing techniques. This procedure minimizes the handling requirements of the substrate during the deposition process and also minimizes the exchange of energy between the material to be deposited and the substrate at the interface. The deposited material is then resolved into a desired pattern, preferably by subjecting the deposit to a laser annealing step. The laser annealing step provides high resolution of the resultant pattern while minimizing the overall thermal load of the substrate and permitting precise control of interface chemistry and interdiffusion between the substrate and the deposit. 3 figs.

  20. Safety control circuit for a neutronic reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ellsworth, Howard C. (Richland, WA)

    2004-04-27

    A neutronic reactor comprising an active portion containing material fissionable by neutrons of thermal energy, means to control a neutronic chain reaction within the reactor comprising a safety device and a regulating device, a safety device including means defining a vertical channel extending into the reactor from an aperture in the upper surface of the reactor, a rod containing neutron-absorbing materials slidably disposed within the channel, means for maintaining the safety rod in a withdrawn position relative to the active portion of the reactor including means for releasing said rod on actuation thereof, a hopper mounted above the active portion of the reactor having a door disposed at the bottom of the hopper opening into the vertical channel, a plurality of bodies of neutron-absorbing materials disposed within the hopper, and means responsive to the failure of the safety rod on actuation thereof to enter the active portion of the reactor for opening the door in the hopper.

  1. Thermal Control & System Integration

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The thermal control and system integration activity focuses on issues such as the integration of motor and power control technologies and the development of advanced thermal control technologies....

  2. THERMAL RELAY DEVICE

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Murdoch, R.O.; Record, F.A.

    1963-01-29

    This invention relates to a fast-acting spring-loaded electrical switch which can break a 1500-volt circuit in one millisecond without arcing. In particular, a springloaded shorting bar is held in tension by a fusible wire. Passage of an electrical current pulse through the fusible wire breaks the fuse thereby releasing the shorting bar to open one and close another electrical circuit. (AEC)

  3. Electrical and thermal conductivities in dense plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Faussurier, G. Blancard, C.; Combis, P.; Videau, L.

    2014-09-15

    Expressions for the electrical and thermal conductivities in dense plasmas are derived combining the Chester-Thellung-Kubo-Greenwood approach and the Kramers approximation. The infrared divergence is removed assuming a Drude-like behaviour. An analytical expression is obtained for the Lorenz number that interpolates between the cold solid-state and the hot plasma phases. An expression for the electrical resistivity is proposed using the Ziman-Evans formula, from which the thermal conductivity can be deduced using the analytical expression for the Lorenz number. The present method can be used to estimate electrical and thermal conductivities of mixtures. Comparisons with experiment and quantum molecular dynamics simulations are done.

  4. Science Highlights- Center for Solar and Thermal Energy Conversion

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    3 - Abstracts and Highlight Slides Improving Thermoelectric Efficiency via Low Thermal Boundary Conductance Reduction of Open Circuit Voltage Loss in a Polymer Photovoltaic Cell via Interfacial Molecular Design Mechanisms of Quantum Dot Formation During Annealing of Metallic Islands Improved Measurements of Ultrafast Pulses of Light Recovering Lost Excitons in Organic Photovoltaics using a Transparent Dissociation Layer A Predictive approach for Calculating Electron Charge Transfer within

  5. Attachment method for stacked integrated circuit (IC) chips

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bernhardt, Anthony F. (Berkeley, CA); Malba, Vincent (Livermore, CA)

    1999-01-01

    An attachment method for stacked integrated circuit (IC) chips. The method involves connecting stacked chips, such as DRAM memory chips, to each other and/or to a circuit board. Pads on the individual chips are rerouted to form pads on the side of the chip, after which the chips are stacked on top of each other whereby desired interconnections to other chips or a circuit board can be accomplished via the side-located pads. The pads on the side of a chip are connected to metal lines on a flexible plastic tape (flex) by anisotropically conductive adhesive (ACA). Metal lines on the flex are likewise connected to other pads on chips and/or to pads on a circuit board. In the case of a stack of DRAM chips, pads to corresponding address lines on the various chips may be connected to the same metal line on the flex to form an address bus. This method has the advantage of reducing the number of connections required to be made to the circuit board due to bussing; the flex can accommodate dimensional variation in the alignment of chips in the stack; bonding of the ACA is accomplished at low temperature and is otherwise simpler and less expensive than solder bonding; chips can be bonded to the ACA all at once if the sides of the chips are substantially coplanar, as in the case for stacks of identical chips, such as DRAM.

  6. Attachment method for stacked integrated circuit (IC) chips

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bernhardt, A.F.; Malba, V.

    1999-08-03

    An attachment method for stacked integrated circuit (IC) chips is disclosed. The method involves connecting stacked chips, such as DRAM memory chips, to each other and/or to a circuit board. Pads on the individual chips are rerouted to form pads on the side of the chip, after which the chips are stacked on top of each other whereby desired interconnections to other chips or a circuit board can be accomplished via the side-located pads. The pads on the side of a chip are connected to metal lines on a flexible plastic tape (flex) by anisotropically conductive adhesive (ACA). Metal lines on the flex are likewise connected to other pads on chips and/or to pads on a circuit board. In the case of a stack of DRAM chips, pads to corresponding address lines on the various chips may be connected to the same metal line on the flex to form an address bus. This method has the advantage of reducing the number of connections required to be made to the circuit board due to bussing; the flex can accommodate dimensional variation in the alignment of chips in the stack; bonding of the ACA is accomplished at low temperature and is otherwise simpler and less expensive than solder bonding; chips can be bonded to the ACA all at once if the sides of the chips are substantially coplanar, as in the case for stacks of identical chips, such as DRAM. 12 figs.

  7. Dual-circuit embossed-sheet heat-transfer panel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morgan, G.D.

    1982-08-23

    A heat transfer panel provides redundant cooling for fusion reactors or the like environment requiring low-mass construction. Redundant cooling is provided by two independent cooling circuits, each circuit consisting of a series of channels joined to inlet and outlet headers. The panel comprises a welded joinder of two full-size and two much smaller partial-size sheets. The first full-size sheet is embossed for form first portions of channels for the first and second circuits, as well as a header for the first circuit. The second full-sized sheet is then laid over and welded to the first full-size sheet. The first and second partial-size sheets are then overlaid on separate portions of the second full-sized sheet, and are welded thereto. The first and second partial-sized sheets are embossed to form inlet and outlet headers, which communicate with channels of the second circuit through apertures formed in the second full-sized sheet.

  8. System Dynamics Model | NISAC

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    NISACSystem Dynamics Model

  9. Reduced circuit implementation of encoder and syndrome generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Trager, Barry M; Winograd, Shmuel

    2014-05-27

    An error correction method and system includes an Encoder and Syndrome-generator that operate in parallel to reduce the amount of circuitry used to compute check symbols and syndromes for error correcting codes. The system and method computes the contributions to the syndromes and check symbols 1 bit at a time instead of 1 symbol at a time. As a result, the even syndromes can be computed as powers of the odd syndromes. Further, the system assigns symbol addresses so that there are, for an example GF(2.sup.8) which has 72 symbols, three (3) blocks of addresses which differ by a cube root of unity to allow the data symbols to be combined for reducing size and complexity of odd syndrome circuits. Further, the implementation circuit for generating check symbols is derived from syndrome circuit using the inverse of the part of the syndrome matrix for check locations.

  10. 3D circuit integration for Vertex and other detectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yarema, Ray; /Fermilab

    2007-09-01

    High Energy Physics continues to push the technical boundaries for electronics. There is no area where this is truer than for vertex detectors. Lower mass and power along with higher resolution and radiation tolerance are driving forces. New technologies such as SOI CMOS detectors and three dimensional (3D) integrated circuits offer new opportunities to meet these challenges. The fundamentals for SOI CMOS detectors and 3D integrated circuits are discussed. Examples of each approach for physics applications are presented. Cost issues and ways to reduce development costs are discussed.

  11. Base drive circuit for a four-terminal power Darlington

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, Fred C.; Carter, Roy A.

    1983-01-01

    A high power switching circuit which utilizes a four-terminal Darlington transistor block to improve switching speed, particularly in rapid turn-off. Two independent reverse drive currents are utilized during turn off in order to expel the minority carriers of the Darlington pair at their own charge sweep-out rate. The reverse drive current may be provided by a current transformer, the secondary of which is tapped to the base terminal of the power stage of the Darlington block. In one application, the switching circuit is used in each power switching element in a chopper-inverter drive of an electric vehicle propulsion system.

  12. Online tuning of impedance matching circuit for long pulse inductively coupled plasma source operation—An alternate approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sudhir, Dass; Bandyopadhyay, M. Chakraborty, A.; Kraus, W.; Gahlaut, A.; Bansal, G.

    2014-01-15

    Impedance matching circuit between radio frequency (RF) generator and the plasma load, placed between them, determines the RF power transfer from RF generator to the plasma load. The impedance of plasma load depends on the plasma parameters through skin depth and plasma conductivity or resistivity. Therefore, for long pulse operation of inductively coupled plasmas, particularly for high power (?100 kW or more) where plasma load condition may vary due to different reasons (e.g., pressure, power, and thermal), online tuning of impedance matching circuit is necessary through feedback. In fusion grade ion source operation, such online methodology through feedback is not present but offline remote tuning by adjusting the matching circuit capacitors and tuning the driving frequency of the RF generator between the ion source operation pulses is envisaged. The present model is an approach for remote impedance tuning methodology for long pulse operation and corresponding online impedance matching algorithm based on RF coil antenna current measurement or coil antenna calorimetric measurement may be useful in this regard.

  13. Use of inverse time, adjustable instantaneous pickup circuit breakers for short circuit and ground fault protection of energy efficient motors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heath, D.W.; Bradfield, H.L.

    1995-12-31

    Many energy efficient low voltage motors exhibit first half cycle instantaneous inrush current values greater than the National Electrical Code`s 13 times motor full load amperes maximum permissible setting for instantaneous trip circuit breakers. The alternate use of an inverse time circuit breaker could lead to inadequate protection if the breaker does not have adjustable instantaneous settings. Recent innovations in digital solid state trip unit technology have made available an inverse time, adjustable instantaneous trip circuit breaker in 15A to 150A ratings. This allows the instantaneous pickup to be adjusted to a value slightly above motor inrush so that low level faults will be cleared instantaneously while avoiding nuisance tripping at startup. Applications, settings and comparisons are discussed.

  14. HEATS: Thermal Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-01-01

    HEATS Project: The 15 projects that make up ARPA-E’s HEATS program, short for “High Energy Advanced Thermal Storage,” seek to develop revolutionary, cost-effective ways to store thermal energy. HEATS focuses on 3 specific areas: 1) developing high-temperature solar thermal energy storage capable of cost-effectively delivering electricity around the clock and thermal energy storage for nuclear power plants capable of cost-effectively meeting peak demand, 2) creating synthetic fuel efficiently from sunlight by converting sunlight into heat, and 3) using thermal energy storage to improve the driving range of electric vehicles (EVs) and also enable thermal management of internal combustion engine vehicles.

  15. Compensated count-rate circuit for radiation survey meter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Todd, R.A.

    1980-05-12

    A count-rate compensating circuit is provided which may be used in a portable Geiger-Mueller (G-M) survey meter to ideally compensate for couting loss errors in the G-M tube detector. In a G-M survey meter, wherein the pulse rate from the G-M tube is converted into a pulse rate current applied to a current meter calibrated to indicate dose rate, the compensation circuit generates and controls a reference voltage in response to the rate of pulses from the detector. This reference voltage is gated to the current-generating circuit at a rate identical to the rate of pulses coming from the detector so that the current flowing through the meter is varied in accordance with both the frequency and amplitude of the reference voltage pulses applied thereto so that the count rate is compensated ideally to indicate a true count rate within 1% up to a 50% duty cycle for the detector. A positive feedback circuit is used to control the reference voltage so that the meter output tracks true count rate indicative of the radiation dose rate.

  16. Compensated count-rate circuit for radiation survey meter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Todd, Richard A.

    1981-01-01

    A count-rate compensating circuit is provided which may be used in a portable Geiger-Mueller (G-M) survey meter to ideally compensate for counting loss errors in the G-M tube detector. In a G-M survey meter, wherein the pulse rate from the G-M tube is converted into a pulse rate current applied to a current meter calibrated to indicate dose rate, the compensated circuit generates and controls a reference voltage in response to the rate of pulses from the detector. This reference voltage is gated to the current-generating circuit at a rate identical to the rate of pulses coming from the detector so that the current flowing through the meter is varied in accordance with both the frequency and amplitude of the reference voltage pulses applied thereto so that the count rate is compensated ideally to indicate a true count rate within 1% up to a 50% duty cycle for the detector. A positive feedback circuit is used to control the reference voltage so that the meter output tracks true count rate indicative of the radiation dose rate.

  17. Demodulation circuit for AC motor current spectral analysis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hendrix, Donald E.; Smith, Stephen F.

    1990-12-18

    A motor current analysis method for the remote, noninvasive inspection of electric motor-operated systems. Synchronous amplitude demodulation and phase demodulation circuits are used singly and in combination along with a frequency analyzer to produce improved spectral analysis of load-induced frequencies present in the electric current flowing in a motor-driven system.

  18. Integrated circuit with dissipative layer for photogenerated carriers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Myers, D.R.

    1988-04-20

    The sensitivity of an integrated circuit to single-event upsets is decreased by providing a dissipative layer of silicon nitride between a silicon substrate and the active device. Free carriers generated in the substrate are dissipated by the layer before they can build up charge on the active device. 1 fig.

  19. Integrated circuit with dissipative layer for photogenerated carriers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Myers, D.R.

    1989-09-12

    The sensitivity of an integrated circuit to single-event upsets is decreased by providing a dissi The U.S. Government has rights in this invention pursuant to Contract No. DE-ACO4-76DP00789 between the Department of Energy and AT&T Technologies, Inc.

  20. Integrated circuit with dissipative layer for photogenerated carriers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Myers, David R.

    1989-01-01

    The sensitivity of an integrated circuit to single-event upsets is decreased by providing a dissi The U.S. Government has rights in this invention pursuant to Contract No. DE-ACO4-76DP00789 between the Department of Energy and AT&T Technologies, Inc.

  1. Bioluminescent bioreporter integrated circuit devices and methods for detecting ammonia

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Simpson, Michael L [Knoxville, TN; Paulus, Michael J [Knoxville, TN; Sayler, Gary S [Blaine, TN; Applegate, Bruce M [West Lafayette, IN; Ripp, Steven A [Knoxville, TN

    2007-04-24

    Monolithic bioelectronic devices for the detection of ammonia includes a microorganism that metabolizes ammonia and which harbors a lux gene fused with a heterologous promoter gene stably incorporated into the chromosome of the microorganism and an Optical Application Specific Integrated Circuit (OASIC). The microorganism is generally a bacterium.

  2. Gas microstrip detectors based on flexible printed circuit technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Salomon, M.; Crowe, K.; Faszer, W.; Lindsay, P.; Maier, J.M.C.

    1996-06-01

    The authors have studied the properties of a new type of Gas Microstrip Counter built using flexible printed circuit technology. They describe the manufacturing procedures, the assembly of the device, as well as its operation under a variety of conditions, gases and types of radiation. They also describe two new passivation materials, tantalum and niobium, which produce effective surfaces.

  3. Thermal Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rutberg, Michael; Hastbacka, Mildred; Cooperman, Alissa; Bouza, Antonio

    2013-06-05

    The article discusses thermal energy storage technologies. This article addresses benefits of TES at both the building site and the electricity generation source. The energy savings and market potential of thermal energy store are reviewed as well.

  4. thermal energy power conversion

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    National Solar Thermal Test Facility Nuclear ... Climate & Earth Systems Climate Measurement & Modeling ... Tribal Energy Program Intellectual Property Current EC ...

  5. Thermal neutron detection system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Peurrung, Anthony J. (Richland, WA); Stromswold, David C. (West Richland, WA)

    2000-01-01

    According to the present invention, a system for measuring a thermal neutron emission from a neutron source, has a reflector/moderator proximate the neutron source that reflects and moderates neutrons from the neutron source. The reflector/moderator further directs thermal neutrons toward an unmoderated thermal neutron detector.

  6. Thermal Performance Benchmarking (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moreno, G.

    2014-11-01

    This project will benchmark the thermal characteristics of automotive power electronics and electric motor thermal management systems. Recent vehicle systems will be benchmarked to establish baseline metrics, evaluate advantages and disadvantages of different thermal management systems, and identify areas of improvement to advance the state-of-the-art.

  7. Thermal Effusivity Tomography from Pulsed Thermal Imaging

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2006-12-01

    The software program generates 3D volume distribution of thermal effusivity within a test material from one-sided pulsed thermal imaging data. Thsi is the first software capable of accurate, fast and automated thermal tomographic imaging of inhomogeneous materials to produce 3D images similar to those obtained from 3D X-ray CT (all previous thermal-imaging software can only produce 2D results). Because thermal effusivity is an intrisic material property that is related to material constituent, density, conductivity, etc.,more » quantitative imaging of effusivity allowed direct visualization of material's internal constituent/structure and damage distributions, thereby potentially leading to quantitative prediction of other material properties such as strength. I can be therefre be used for 3D imaging of material structure in fundamental material studies, nondestructive characterization of defects/flaws in structural engineering components, health monitoring of material damage and degradation during service, and medical imaging and diagnostics. This technology is one-sided, non contact and sensitive to material's thermal property and discontinuity. One major advantage of this tomographic technology over x-ray CT and ultrasounds is its natural efficiency for 3D imaging of the volume under a large surface area. This software is implemented with a method for thermal computed tomography of thermal effusivity from one-sided pulsed thermal imaging (or thermography) data. The method is based on several solutions of the governing heat transfer equation under pulsed thermography test condition. In particular, it consists of three components. 1) It utilized the thermal effusivity as the imaging parameter to construct the 3D image. 2) It established a relationship between the space (depth) and the time, because thermography data are in the time domain. 3) It incorporated a deconvolution algorithm to solve the depth porfile of the material thermal effusivity from the measured (temporal) surface temperature data. The predicted effusivity is a direct function of depth, not an average or convolved parameter, so it is an accurate (and more sensitive) representation of local property along depth.« less

  8. Process for fabricating composite material having high thermal conductivity

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Colella, Nicholas J.; Davidson, Howard L.; Kerns, John A.; Makowiecki, Daniel M.

    2001-01-01

    A process for fabricating a composite material such as that having high thermal conductivity and having specific application as a heat sink or heat spreader for high density integrated circuits. The composite material produced by this process has a thermal conductivity between that of diamond and copper, and basically consists of coated diamond particles dispersed in a high conductivity metal, such as copper. The composite material can be fabricated in small or relatively large sizes using inexpensive materials. The process basically consists, for example, of sputter coating diamond powder with several elements, including a carbide forming element and a brazeable material, compacting them into a porous body, and infiltrating the porous body with a suitable braze material, such as copper-silver alloy, thereby producing a dense diamond-copper composite material with a thermal conductivity comparable to synthetic diamond films at a fraction of the cost.

  9. Thermal Effusivity Tomography from Pulsed Thermal Imaging

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2008-11-05

    The software program generates 3D volume distribution of thermal effusivity within a test material from one—sided pulsed thermal imaging data. Thsi is the first software capable of accurate, fast and automated thermal tomographic imaging of inhomogeneoirs materials to produce 3D images similar to those obtained from 3D X—ray CT (all previous thepnal—imaging software can only produce 20 results) . Because thermal effusivity is an Intrisic material property that is related to material constituent, density, conductivity,more » etc., quantitative imaging of eftusivity allowed direct visualization of material’s internal constituent/structure and damage distributions, thereby potentially leading to quantitative prediction of other material properties such as strength. I can be therefre be used for 3D imaging of material structure in fundamental material studies, nondestructive characterization of defects/flaws in structural engineering components, health monitoring of material damage and degradation during service, and medical imaging and diagnostics. This technology is one—sided, non contact and sensitive to material’s thermal property and discontinuity. One major advantage of this tomographic technology over x-ray CT and ultrasounds is its natural efficiency for 3D imaging of the volume under a large surface area. This software is implemented with a method for thermal computed tomography of thermal effusivity from one—sided pulsed thermal imaging (or thermography) data. The method is based on several solutions of the governing heat transfer equation under pulsed thermography test condition. In particular, it consists of three components. 1) It utilized the thermal effusivity as the imaging parameter to construct the 3D image. 2) It established a relationship between the space (depth) and the time, because thermography data are in the time domain. 3) It incorporated a deconvolution algorithm to solve the depth porfile of the material thermal effusivity from the measured (temporal) surface temperature data. The predicted effusivity is a direct function of depth, not an average or convolved parameter, so it is an accurate (and more sensitive) representation of local property along depth.« less

  10. High-Temperature Circuit Boards for Use in Geothermal Well Monitoring Applications

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Project objective: Develop and demonstrate high-temperature; multilayer electronic circuits capable of sustained operation at 300˚ C.

  11. Particle sorter comprising a fluid displacer in a closed-loop fluid circuit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Perroud, Thomas D.; Patel, Kamlesh D.; Renzi, Ronald F.

    2012-04-24

    Disclosed herein are methods and devices utilizing a fluid displacer in a closed-loop fluid circuit.

  12. Coaxial connector for use with printed circuit board edge connector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Howard, Donald R. (Danville, CA); MacGill, Robert A. (Richmond, CA)

    1989-01-01

    A coaxial cable connector for interfacing with an edge connector for a printed circuit board whereby a coaxial cable can be interconnected with a printed circuit board through the edge connector. The coaxial connector includes a body having two leg portions extending from one side for receiving the edge connector therebetween, and a tubular portion extending from an opposing side for receiving a coaxial cable. A cavity within the body receives a lug of the edge connector and the center conductor of the coaxial cable. Adjacent lugs of the edge connector can be bend around the edge connector housing to function as spring-loaded contacts for receiving the coaxial connector. The lugs also function to facilitate shielding of the center conductor where fastened to the edge connector lug.

  13. Area-efficient physically unclonable function circuit architecture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gurrieri, Thomas; Hamlet, Jason; Bauer, Todd; Helinski, Ryan; Pierson, Lyndon G

    2015-04-28

    Generating a physically a physically unclonable function ("PUF") circuit value includes comparing each of first identification components in a first bank to each of second identification components in a second bank. A given first identification component in the first bank is not compared to another first identification component in the first bank and a given second identification component in the second bank is not compared to another second identification component in the second bank. A digital bit value is generated for each comparison made while comparing each of the first identification components to each of the second identification components. A PUF circuit value is generated from the digital bit values from each comparison made.

  14. Methods for improving solar cell open circuit voltage

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jordan, John F.; Singh, Vijay P.

    1979-01-01

    A method for producing a solar cell having an increased open circuit voltage. A layer of cadmium sulfide (CdS) produced by a chemical spray technique and having residual chlorides is exposed to a flow of hydrogen sulfide (H.sub.2 S) heated to a temperature of 400.degree.-600.degree. C. The residual chlorides are reduced and any remaining CdCl.sub.2 is converted to CdS. A heterojunction is formed over the CdS and electrodes are formed. Application of chromium as the positive electrode results in a further increase in the open circuit voltage available from the H.sub.2 S-treated solar cell.

  15. Gas microstrip detectors based on flexible printed circuit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Salomon, M.; Crowe, K.; Faszer, W.; Lindsay, P.; Curran Maier, J.M.

    1995-09-01

    Microstrip Gas Detectors (MSGC`s) were introduced some years ago as position sensitive detectors capable of operating at very high rates. The authors have studied the properties of a new type of Gas Microstrip Counter built using flexible printed circuit technology. They describe the manufacturing procedures, the assembly of the device, as well as its operation under a variety of conditions, gases and types of radiation. They also describe two new passivation materials, tantalum and niobium, which produce effective surfaces.

  16. Double sided circuit board and a method for its manufacture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lindenmeyer, Carl W.

    1989-01-01

    Conductance between the sides of a large double sided printed circuit board is provided using a method which eliminates the need for chemical immersion or photographic exposure of the entire large board. A plurality of through-holes are drilled or punched in a substratum according to the desired pattern, conductive laminae are made to adhere to both sides of the substratum covering the holes and the laminae are pressed together and permanently joined within the holes, providing conductive paths.

  17. Double sided circuit board and a method for its manufacture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lindenmeyer, C.W.

    1988-04-14

    Conductance between the sides of a large double sided printed circuit board is provided using a method which eliminates the need for chemical immersion or photographic exposure of the entire large board. A plurality of through-holes are drilled or punched in a substratum according to the desired pattern, conductive laminae are made to adhere to both sides of the substratum covering the holes and the laminae are pressed together and permanently joined within the holes, providing conductive paths. 4 figs.

  18. Reversing-counterpulse repetitive-pulse inductive storage circuit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Honig, Emanuel M.

    1987-01-01

    A high-power reversing-counterpulse repetitive-pulse inductive storage and transfer circuit includes an opening switch, a main energy storage coil, a counterpulse capacitor and a small inductor. After counterpulsing the opening switch off, the counterpulse capacitor is recharged by the main energy storage coil before the load pulse is initiated. This gives the counterpulse capacitor sufficient energy for the next counterpulse operation, although the polarity of the capacitor's voltage must be reversed before that can occur. By using a current-zero switch as the counterpulse start switch, the capacitor is disconnected from the circuit (with a full charge) when the load pulse is initiated, preventing the capacitor from depleting its energy store by discharging through the load. After the load pulse is terminated by reclosing the main opening switch, the polarity of the counterpulse capacitor voltage is reversed by discharging the capacitor through a small inductor and interrupting the discharge current oscillation at zero current and peak reversed voltage. The circuit enables high-power, high-repetition-rate operation with reusable switches and features total control (pulse-to-pulse) over output pulse initiation, duration, repetition rate, and, to some extent, risetime.

  19. Ambient temperature cadmium zinc telluride radiation detector and amplifier circuit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McQuaid, J.H.; Lavietes, A.D.

    1998-05-26

    A low noise, low power consumption, compact, ambient temperature signal amplifier for a Cadmium Zinc Telluride (CZT) radiation detector is disclosed. The amplifier can be used within a larger system (e.g., including a multi-channel analyzer) to allow isotopic analysis of radionuclides in the field. In one embodiment, the circuit stages of the low power, low noise amplifier are constructed using integrated circuit (IC) amplifiers , rather than discrete components, and include a very low noise, high gain, high bandwidth dual part preamplification stage, an amplification stage, and an filter stage. The low noise, low power consumption, compact, ambient temperature amplifier enables the CZT detector to achieve both the efficiency required to determine the presence of radionuclides and the resolution necessary to perform isotopic analysis to perform nuclear material identification. The present low noise, low power, compact, ambient temperature amplifier enables a CZT detector to achieve resolution of less than 3% full width at half maximum at 122 keV for a Cobalt-57 isotope source. By using IC circuits and using only a single 12 volt supply and ground, the novel amplifier provides significant power savings and is well suited for prolonged portable in-field use and does not require heavy, bulky power supply components. 9 figs.

  20. Ambient temperature cadmium zinc telluride radiation detector and amplifier circuit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McQuaid, James H.; Lavietes, Anthony D.

    1998-05-29

    A low noise, low power consumption, compact, ambient temperature signal amplifier for a Cadmium Zinc Telluride (CZT) radiation detector. The amplifier can be used within a larger system (e.g., including a multi-channel analyzer) to allow isotopic analysis of radionuclides in the field. In one embodiment, the circuit stages of the low power, low noise amplifier are constructed using integrated circuit (IC) amplifiers , rather than discrete components, and include a very low noise, high gain, high bandwidth dual part preamplification stage, an amplification stage, and an filter stage. The low noise, low power consumption, compact, ambient temperature amplifier enables the CZT detector to achieve both the efficiency required to determine the presence of radio nuclides and the resolution necessary to perform isotopic analysis to perform nuclear material identification. The present low noise, low power, compact, ambient temperature amplifier enables a CZT detector to achieve resolution of less than 3% full width at half maximum at 122 keV for a Cobalt-57 isotope source. By using IC circuits and using only a single 12 volt supply and ground, the novel amplifier provides significant power savings and is well suited for prolonged portable in-field use and does not require heavy, bulky power supply components.

  1. Cryogenic CMOS circuits for single charge digital readout.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gurrieri, Thomas M.; Longoria, Erin Michelle; Eng, Kevin; Carroll, Malcolm S.; Hamlet, Jason R.; Young, Ralph Watson

    2010-03-01

    The readout of a solid state qubit often relies on single charge sensitive electrometry. However the combination of fast and accurate measurements is non trivial due to large RC time constants due to the electrometers resistance and shunt capacitance from wires between the cold stage and room temperature. Currently fast sensitive measurements are accomplished through rf reflectrometry. I will present an alternative single charge readout technique based on cryogenic CMOS circuits in hopes to improve speed, signal-to-noise, power consumption and simplicity in implementation. The readout circuit is based on a current comparator where changes in current from an electrometer will trigger a digital output. These circuits were fabricated using Sandia's 0.35 {micro}m CMOS foundry process. Initial measurements of comparators with an addition a current amplifier have displayed current sensitivities of < 1nA at 4.2K, switching speeds up to {approx}120ns, while consuming {approx}10 {micro}W. I will also discuss an investigation of noise characterization of our CMOS process in hopes to obtain a better understanding of the ultimate limit in signal to noise performance.

  2. Reversing-counterpulse repetitive-pulse inductive storage circuit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Honig, E.M.

    1984-06-05

    A high power reversing-counterpulse repetitive-pulse inductive storage and transfer circuit includes an opening switch, a main energy storage coil, a counterpulse capacitor and a small inductor. After counterpulsing the opening switch off, the counterpulse capacitor is recharged by the main energy storage coil before the load pulse is initiated. This gives the counterpulse capacitor sufficient energy for the next counterpulse operation, although the polarity of the capacitor's voltage must be reversed before that can occur. By using a current-zero switch as the counterpulse start switch, the capacitor is disconnected from the circuit (with a full charge) when the load pulse is initiated, preventing the capacitor from depleting its energy store by discharging through the load. After the load pulse is terminated by reclosing the main opening switch, the polarity of the counterpulse capacitor voltage is reversed by discharging the capacitor through a small inductor and interrupting the discharge current oscillation at zero current and peak reversed voltage. The circuit enables high-power, high-repetition-rate operation with reusable switches and features total control (pulse-to-pulse) over output pulse initiation, duration, repetition rate, and, to some extent, risetime.

  3. Reversing-counterpulse repetitive-pulse inductive storage circuit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Honig, E.M.

    1987-02-10

    A high-power reversing-counterpulse repetitive-pulse inductive storage and transfer circuit includes an opening switch, a main energy storage coil, a counterpulse capacitor and a small inductor. After counterpulsing the opening switch off, the counterpulse capacitor is recharged by the main energy storage coil before the load pulse is initiated. This gives the counterpulse capacitor sufficient energy for the next counterpulse operation, although the polarity of the capacitor's voltage must be reversed before that can occur. By using a current-zero switch as the counterpulse start switch, the capacitor is disconnected from the circuit (with a full charge) when the load pulse is initiated, preventing the capacitor from depleting its energy store by discharging through the load. After the load pulse is terminated by reclosing the main opening switch, the polarity of the counterpulse capacitor voltage is reversed by discharging the capacitor through a small inductor and interrupting the discharge current oscillation at zero current and peak reversed voltage. The circuit enables high-power, high-repetition-rate operation with reusable switches and features total control (pulse-to-pulse) over output pulse initiation, duration, repetition rate, and, to some extent, risetime. 10 figs.

  4. Catalytic thermal barrier coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kulkarni, Anand A.; Campbell, Christian X.; Subramanian, Ramesh

    2009-06-02

    A catalyst element (30) for high temperature applications such as a gas turbine engine. The catalyst element includes a metal substrate such as a tube (32) having a layer of ceramic thermal barrier coating material (34) disposed on the substrate for thermally insulating the metal substrate from a high temperature fuel/air mixture. The ceramic thermal barrier coating material is formed of a crystal structure populated with base elements but with selected sites of the crystal structure being populated by substitute ions selected to allow the ceramic thermal barrier coating material to catalytically react the fuel-air mixture at a higher rate than would the base compound without the ionic substitutions. Precious metal crystallites may be disposed within the crystal structure to allow the ceramic thermal barrier coating material to catalytically react the fuel-air mixture at a lower light-off temperature than would the ceramic thermal barrier coating material without the precious metal crystallites.

  5. Scattering Solar Thermal Concentrators

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    sunshot DOEGO-102012-3669 * September 2012 MOTIVATION All thermal concentrating solar power (CSP) systems use solar tracking, which involves moving large mirror surfaces...

  6. Sandia Thermal Program

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2005-11-23

    Thermal analysis in 1-D planar, cylindrical and spherical geometries using control volume finite element spatial discretization with 1st and 2nd order implicit time integrators.

  7. Battery Thermal Characterization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saxon, Aron; Powell, Mitchell; Shi, Ying

    2015-06-09

    This presentation provides an update of NREL's battery thermal characterization efforts for the 2015 U.S. Department of Energy Annual Merit Reviews.

  8. Turbine Thermal Management

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Key Contacts Turbine Thermal Management The gas turbine is the workhorse of power generation, and technology ... could result in a 4 - 6 percent gain in overall system efficiency. ...

  9. Integrated Thermal Analysis of the FRIB Cryomodule Design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Y. Xu, M. Barrios, F. Casagrande, M.J. Johnson, M. Leitner, D. Arenius, V. Ganni, W.J. Schneider, M. Wiseman

    2012-07-01

    Thermal analysis of the FRIB cryomodule design is performed to determine the heat load to the cryogenic plant, to minimize the cryogenic plant load, to simulate thermal shield cool down as well as to determine the pressure relief sizes for failure conditions. Static and dynamic heat loads of the cryomodules are calculated and the optimal shield temperature is determined to minimize the cryogenic plant load. Integrated structural and thermal simulations of the 1100-O aluminium thermal shield are performed to determine the desired cool down rate to control the temperature profile on the thermal shield and to minimize thermal expansion displacements during the cool down. Pressure relief sizing calculations for the SRF helium containers, solenoids, helium distribution piping, and vacuum vessels are also described.

  10. Variable pressure thermal insulating jacket

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nelson, Paul A. (Wheaton, IL); Malecha, Richard F. (Naperville, IL); Chilenskas, Albert A. (Chicago, IL)

    1994-01-01

    A device for controlled insulation of a thermal device. The device includes a thermal jacket with a closed volume able to be evacuated to form an insulating jacket around the thermal source. A getter material is in communcation with the closed volume of the thermal jacket. The getter material can absorb and desorb a control gas to control gas pressure in the volume of the thermal jacket to control thermal conductivity in the thermal jacket.

  11. Variable pressure thermal insulating jacket

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nelson, P.A.; Malecha, R.F.; Chilenskas, A.A.

    1994-09-20

    A device for controlled insulation of a thermal device is disclosed. The device includes a thermal jacket with a closed volume able to be evacuated to form an insulating jacket around the thermal source. A getter material is in communication with the closed volume of the thermal jacket. The getter material can absorb and desorb a control gas to control gas pressure in the volume of the thermal jacket to control thermal conductivity in the thermal jacket. 10 figs.

  12. Thermally actuated wedge block

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Queen, Jr., Charles C.

    1980-01-01

    This invention relates to an automatically-operating wedge block for maintaining intimate structural contact over wide temperature ranges, including cryogenic use. The wedging action depends on the relative thermal expansion of two materials having very different coefficients of thermal expansion. The wedge block expands in thickness when cooled to cryogenic temperatures and contracts in thickness when returned to room temperature.

  13. Thermal protection apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bennett, G.A.; Elder, M.G.; Kemme, J.E.

    1984-03-20

    The disclosure is directed to an apparatus for thermally protecting sensitive components in tools used in a geothermal borehole. The apparatus comprises a Dewar within a housing. The Dewar contains heat pipes such as brass heat pipes for thermally conducting heat from heat sensitive components such as electronics to a heat sink such as ice.

  14. Thermal protection apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bennett, Gloria A.; Elder, Michael G.; Kemme, Joseph E.

    1985-01-01

    An apparatus which thermally protects sensitive components in tools used in a geothermal borehole. The apparatus comprises a Dewar within a housing. The Dewar contains heat pipes such as brass heat pipes for thermally conducting heat from heat sensitive components to a heat sink such as ice.

  15. Dynamic Underground Stripping Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aines, R.; Newmark, R.; McConachie, W.; Udell, K.; Rice, D.; Ramirez, A.; Siegel, W.; Buettner, M.; Daily, W.; Krauter, P.; Folsom, E.; Boegel, A.J.; Bishop, D.; Udell, K.

    1992-01-01

    LLNL is collaborating with the UC Berkeley College of Engineering to develop and demonstrate a system of thermal remediation and underground imaging techniques for use in rapid cleanup of localized underground spills. Called ``Dynamic Stripping`` to reflect the rapid and controllable nature of the process, it will combine steam injection, direct electrical heating, and tomographic geophysical imaging in a cleanup of the LLNL gasoline spill. In the first 8 months of the project, a Clean Site engineering test was conducted to prove the field application of the techniques before moving the contaminated site in FY 92.

  16. Tunable thermal link

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chang, Chih-Wei; Majumdar, Arunava; Zettl, Alexander K.

    2014-07-15

    Disclosed is a device whereby the thermal conductance of a multiwalled nanostructure such as a multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) can be controllably and reversibly tuned by sliding one or more outer shells with respect to the inner core. As one example, the thermal conductance of an MWCNT dropped to 15% of the original value after extending the length of the MWCNT by 190 nm. The thermal conductivity returned when the tube was contracted. The device may comprise numbers of multiwalled nanotubes or other graphitic layers connected to a heat source and a heat drain and various means for tuning the overall thermal conductance for applications in structure heat management, heat flow in nanoscale or microscale devices and thermal logic devices.

  17. Solar thermal aircraft

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bennett, Charles L.

    2007-09-18

    A solar thermal powered aircraft powered by heat energy from the sun. A heat engine, such as a Stirling engine, is carried by the aircraft body for producing power for a propulsion mechanism, such as a propeller. The heat engine has a thermal battery in thermal contact with it so that heat is supplied from the thermal battery. A solar concentrator, such as reflective parabolic trough, is movably connected to an optically transparent section of the aircraft body for receiving and concentrating solar energy from within the aircraft. Concentrated solar energy is collected by a heat collection and transport conduit, and heat transported to the thermal battery. A solar tracker includes a heliostat for determining optimal alignment with the sun, and a drive motor actuating the solar concentrator into optimal alignment with the sun based on a determination by the heliostat.

  18. Thermal treatment wall

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aines, Roger D.; Newmark, Robin L.; Knauss, Kevin G.

    2000-01-01

    A thermal treatment wall emplaced to perform in-situ destruction of contaminants in groundwater. Thermal destruction of specific contaminants occurs by hydrous pyrolysis/oxidation at temperatures achievable by existing thermal remediation techniques (electrical heating or steam injection) in the presence of oxygen or soil mineral oxidants, such as MnO.sub.2. The thermal treatment wall can be installed in a variety of configurations depending on the specific objectives, and can be used for groundwater cleanup, wherein in-situ destruction of contaminants is carried out rather than extracting contaminated fluids to the surface, where they are to be cleaned. In addition, the thermal treatment wall can be used for both plume interdiction and near-wellhead in-situ groundwater treatment. Thus, this technique can be utilized for a variety of groundwater contamination problems.

  19. Thermal hydraulics development for CASL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lowrie, Robert B

    2010-12-07

    This talk will describe the technical direction of the Thermal-Hydraulics (T-H) Project within the Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors (CASL) Department of Energy Innovation Hub. CASL is focused on developing a 'virtual reactor', that will simulate the physical processes that occur within a light-water reactor. These simulations will address several challenge problems, defined by laboratory, university, and industrial partners that make up CASL. CASL's T-H efforts are encompassed in two sub-projects: (1) Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD), (2) Interface Treatment Methods (ITM). The CFD subproject will develop non-proprietary, scalable, verified and validated macroscale CFD simulation tools. These tools typically require closures for their turbulence and boiling models, which will be provided by the ITM sub-project, via experiments and microscale (such as DNS) simulation results. The near-term milestones and longer term plans of these two sub-projects will be discussed.

  20. Light-induced voltage alteration for integrated circuit analysis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cole, E.I. Jr.; Soden, J.M.

    1995-07-04

    An apparatus and method are described for analyzing an integrated circuit (IC). The invention uses a focused light beam that is scanned over a surface of the IC to generate a light-induced voltage alteration (LIVA) signal for analysis of the IC. The LIVA signal may be used to generate an image of the IC showing the location of any defects in the IC; and it may be further used to image and control the logic states of the IC. The invention has uses for IC failure analysis, for the development of ICs, for production-line inspection of ICs, and for qualification of ICs. 18 figs.

  1. Dual-circuit, multiple-effect refrigeration system and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    DeVault, Robert C.

    1995-01-01

    A dual circuit absorption refrigeration system comprising a high temperature single-effect refrigeration loop and a lower temperature double-effect refrigeration loop separate from one another and provided with a double-condenser coupling therebetween. The high temperature condenser of the single-effect refrigeration loop is double coupled to both of the generators in the double-effect refrigeration loop to improve internal heat recovery and a heat and mass transfer additive such as 2-ethyl-1-hexanol is used in the lower temperature double-effect refrigeration loop to improve the performance of the absorber in the double-effect refrigeration loop.

  2. Amplifier circuit operable over a wide temperature range

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kelly, Ronald D.; Cannon, William L.

    1979-01-01

    An amplifier circuit having stable performance characteristics over a wide temperature range from approximately 0.degree. C up to as high as approximately 500.degree. C, such as might be encountered in a geothermal borehole. The amplifier utilizes ceramic vacuum tubes connected in directly coupled differential amplifier pairs having a common power supply and a cathode follower output stage. In an alternate embodiment, for operation up to 500.degree. C, positive and negative power supplies are utilized to provide improved gain characteristics, and all electrical connections are made by welding. Resistor elements in this version of the invention are specially heat treated to improve their stability with temperature.

  3. Method for deposition of a conductor in integrated circuits

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Creighton, J.R.; Dominguez, F.; Johnson, A.W.; Omstead, T.R.

    1997-09-02

    A method is described for fabricating integrated semiconductor circuits and, more particularly, for the selective deposition of a conductor onto a substrate employing a chemical vapor deposition process. By way of example, tungsten can be selectively deposited onto a silicon substrate. At the onset of loss of selectivity of deposition of tungsten onto the silicon substrate, the deposition process is interrupted and unwanted tungsten which has deposited on a mask layer with the silicon substrate can be removed employing a halogen etchant. Thereafter, a plurality of deposition/etch back cycles can be carried out to achieve a predetermined thickness of tungsten. 2 figs.

  4. Method for deposition of a conductor in integrated circuits

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Creighton, J. Randall; Dominguez, Frank; Johnson, A. Wayne; Omstead, Thomas R.

    1997-01-01

    A method is described for fabricating integrated semiconductor circuits and, more particularly, for the selective deposition of a conductor onto a substrate employing a chemical vapor deposition process. By way of example, tungsten can be selectively deposited onto a silicon substrate. At the onset of loss of selectivity of deposition of tungsten onto the silicon substrate, the deposition process is interrupted and unwanted tungsten which has deposited on a mask layer with the silicon substrate can be removed employing a halogen etchant. Thereafter, a plurality of deposition/etch back cycles can be carried out to achieve a predetermined thickness of tungsten.

  5. Trap seal for open circuit liquid cooled turbines

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grondahl, Clayton M.; Germain, Malcolm R.

    1980-01-01

    An improved trap seal for open circuit liquid cooled turbines is disclosed. The trap seal of the present invention includes an annular recess formed in the supply conduit of cooling channels formed in the airfoil of the turbine buckets. A cylindrical insert is located in the annular recesses and has a plurality of axial grooves formed along the outer periphery thereof and a central recess formed in one end thereof. The axial grooves and central recess formed in the cylindrical insert cooperate with the annular recess to define a plurality of S-shaped trap seals which permit the passage of liquid coolant but prohibit passage of gaseous coolant.

  6. Light-induced voltage alteration for integrated circuit analysis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cole, Jr., Edward I. (Albuquerque, NM); Soden, Jerry M. (Placitas, NM)

    1995-01-01

    An apparatus and method are described for analyzing an integrated circuit (IC), The invention uses a focused light beam that is scanned over a surface of the IC to generate a light-induced voltage alteration (LIVA) signal for analysis of the IC, The LIVA signal may be used to generate an image of the IC showing the location of any defects in the IC; and it may be further used to image and control the logic states of the IC. The invention has uses for IC failure analysis, for the development of ICs, for production-line inspection of ICs, and for qualification of ICs.

  7. Numerical Study on Crossflow Printed Circuit Heat Exchanger for Advanced Small Modular Reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoon, Su-Jong; Sabharwall, Piyush; Kim, Eung-Soo

    2014-03-01

    Various fluids such as water, gases (helium), molten salts (FLiNaK, FLiBe) and liquid metal (sodium) are used as a coolant of advanced small modular reactors (SMRs). The printed circuit heat exchanger (PCHE) has been adopted as the intermediate and/or secondary heat exchanger of SMR systems because this heat exchanger is compact and effective. The size and cost of PCHE can be changed by the coolant type of each SMR. In this study, the crossflow PCHE analysis code for advanced small modular reactor has been developed for the thermal design and cost estimation of the heat exchanger. The analytical solution of single pass, both unmixed fluids crossflow heat exchanger model was employed to calculate a two dimensional temperature profile of a crossflow PCHE. The analytical solution of crossflow heat exchanger was simply implemented by using built in function of the MATLAB program. The effect of fluid property uncertainty on the calculation results was evaluated. In addition, the effect of heat transfer correlations on the calculated temperature profile was analyzed by taking into account possible combinations of primary and secondary coolants in the SMR systems. Size and cost of heat exchanger were evaluated for the given temperature requirement of each SMR.

  8. Internal Short Circuit Device Helps Improve Lithium-Ion Battery...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    some failures simply result in the cells getting very hot, in extreme cases cells go into thermal runaway, igniting the device in which they are installed. The most publicized...

  9. Thermally-related safety issues associated with thermal batteries.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guidotti, Ronald Armand

    2006-06-01

    Thermal batteries can experience thermal runaway under certain usage conditions. This can lead to safety issues for personnel and cause damage to associated test equipment if the battery thermally self destructs. This report discusses a number of thermal and design related issues that can lead to catastrophic destruction of thermal batteries under certain conditions. Contributing factors are identified and mitigating actions are presented to minimize or prevent undesirable thermal runaway.

  10. Chemical Dynamics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ARPA-E Basic Energy Sciences Materials Sciences and Engineering Chemical Sciences ... Twitter Google + Vimeo GovDelivery SlideShare Chemical Dynamics HomeTransportation ...

  11. System and method for filling a plurality of isolated vehicle fluid circuits through a common fluid fill port

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sullivan, Scott C; Fansler, Douglas

    2014-10-14

    A vehicle having multiple isolated fluid circuits configured to be filled through a common fill port includes a first fluid circuit disposed within the vehicle, the first fluid circuit having a first fill port, a second fluid circuit disposed within the vehicle, and a conduit defining a fluid passageway between the first fluid circuit and second fluid circuit, the conduit including a valve. The valve is configured such that the first and second fluid circuits are fluidly coupled via the passageway when the valve is open, and are fluidly isolated when the valve is closed.

  12. Hydraulically-activated operating system for an electric circuit breaker

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Imam, Imdad; Barkan, Philip

    1979-01-01

    This operating system comprises a fluid motor having a piston, a breaker-opening space at one side of the piston, and a breaker-closing space at its opposite side. An accumulator freely communicates with the breaker-opening space for supplying pressurized fluid thereto during a circuit-breaker opening operation. A normally-closed valve located on the breaker-closing-side of the piston is openable to release liquid from the breaker-closing space so that pressurized liquid in the breaker-opening space can drive the piston in an opening direction. Means is provided for restoring the valve to its closed position following the circuit-breaker opening operation. An impeded passage affords communication between the accumulator and the breaker-closing space to allow pressurized liquid to flow from the accumulator to the breaker-closing space and develop a pressure therein substantially equal to accumulator pressure when the valve is restored to closed position following breaker-opening. This passage is so impeded that the flow therethrough from the accumulator into the breaker-closing space is sufficiently low during initial opening motion of the piston through a substantial portion of its opening stroke as to avoid interference with said initial opening motion of the piston.

  13. Fault current limiter and alternating current circuit breaker

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boenig, Heinrich J.

    1998-01-01

    A solid-state circuit breaker and current limiter for a load served by an alternating current source having a source impedance, the solid-state circuit breaker and current limiter comprising a thyristor bridge interposed between the alternating current source and the load, the thyristor bridge having four thyristor legs and four nodes, with a first node connected to the alternating current source, and a second node connected to the load. A coil is connected from a third node to a fourth node, the coil having an impedance of a value calculated to limit the current flowing therethrough to a predetermined value. Control means are connected to the thyristor legs for limiting the alternating current flow to the load under fault conditions to a predetermined level, and for gating the thyristor bridge under fault conditions to quickly reduce alternating current flowing therethrough to zero and thereafter to maintain the thyristor bridge in an electrically open condition preventing the alternating current from flowing therethrough for a predetermined period of time.

  14. Fault current limiter and alternating current circuit breaker

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boenig, H.J.

    1998-03-10

    A solid-state circuit breaker and current limiter are disclosed for a load served by an alternating current source having a source impedance, the solid-state circuit breaker and current limiter comprising a thyristor bridge interposed between the alternating current source and the load, the thyristor bridge having four thyristor legs and four nodes, with a first node connected to the alternating current source, and a second node connected to the load. A coil is connected from a third node to a fourth node, the coil having an impedance of a value calculated to limit the current flowing therethrough to a predetermined value. Control means are connected to the thyristor legs for limiting the alternating current flow to the load under fault conditions to a predetermined level, and for gating the thyristor bridge under fault conditions to quickly reduce alternating current flowing therethrough to zero and thereafter to maintain the thyristor bridge in an electrically open condition preventing the alternating current from flowing therethrough for a predetermined period of time. 9 figs.

  15. Hydraulically-actuated operating system for an electric circuit breaker

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barkan, Philip; Imam, Imdad

    1978-01-01

    This hydraulically-actuated operating system comprises a cylinder, a piston movable therein in an opening direction to open a circuit breaker, and an accumulator for supplying pressurized liquid to a piston-actuating space within the cylinder. A normally-closed valve between the accumulator and the actuating space is openable to allow pressurized liquid from the accumulator to flow through the valve into the actuating space to drive the piston in an opening direction. A vent is located hydraulically between the actuating space and the valve for affording communication between said actuating space and a low pressure region. Flow control means is provided for restricting leakage through said vent to a rate that prevents said leakage from substantially detracting from the development of pressure within said actuatng space during the period from initial opening of the valve to the time when said piston has moved through most of its opening stroke. Following such period and while the valve is still open, said flow control means allows effective leakage through said vent. The accumulator has a limited capacity that results in the pressure within said actuating space decaying promptly to a low value as a result of effective leakage through said vent after the piston has moved through a circuit-breaker opening stroke and while the valve is in its open state. Means is provided for resetting the valve to its closed state in response to said pressure decay in the actuating space.

  16. Thermal Hydraulic Characteristics of Fuel Defects in Plate Type Nuclear

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Research Reactors (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Technical Report: Thermal Hydraulic Characteristics of Fuel Defects in Plate Type Nuclear Research Reactors Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Thermal Hydraulic Characteristics of Fuel Defects in Plate Type Nuclear Research Reactors Turbulent flow coupled with heat transfer is investigated for a High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) fuel plate. The Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes Models are used for fluid dynamics and the transfer of

  17. Multilayer thermal barrier coating systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vance, Steven J.; Goedjen, John G.; Sabol, Stephen M.; Sloan, Kelly M.

    2000-01-01

    The present invention generally describes multilayer thermal barrier coating systems and methods of making the multilayer thermal barrier coating systems. The thermal barrier coating systems comprise a first ceramic layer, a second ceramic layer, a thermally grown oxide layer, a metallic bond coating layer and a substrate. The thermal barrier coating systems have improved high temperature thermal and chemical stability for use in gas turbine applications.

  18. Thermal Properties Measurement Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carmack, Jon; Braase, Lori; Papesch, Cynthia; Hurley, David; Tonks, Michael; Zhang, Yongfeng; Gofryk, Krzysztof; Harp, Jason; Fielding, Randy; Knight, Collin; Meyer, Mitch

    2015-08-01

    The Thermal Properties Measurement Report summarizes the research, development, installation, and initial use of significant experimental thermal property characterization capabilities at the INL in FY 2015. These new capabilities were used to characterize a U3Si2 (candidate Accident Tolerant) fuel sample fabricated at the INL. The ability to perform measurements at various length scales is important and provides additional data that is not currently in the literature. However, the real value of the data will be in accomplishing a phenomenological understanding of the thermal conductivity in fuels and the ties to predictive modeling. Thus, the MARMOT advanced modeling and simulation capability was utilized to illustrate how the microstructural data can be modeled and compared with bulk characterization data. A scientific method was established for thermal property measurement capability on irradiated nuclear fuel samples, which will be installed in the Irradiated Material Characterization Laboratory (IMCL).

  19. Thermal insulations using vacuum panels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Glicksman, Leon R.; Burke, Melissa S.

    1991-07-16

    Thermal insulation vacuum panels are formed of an inner core of compressed low thermal conductivity powders enclosed by a ceramic/glass envelope evaluated to a low pressure.

  20. Push-pull radio frequency circuit with integral transistion to waveguide output

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bennett, Wilfred P.

    1987-01-01

    A radio frequency circuit for ICRF heating includes a resonant push-pull circuit, a double ridged rectangular waveguide, and a coupling transition which joins the waveguide to the resonant circuit. The resonant circuit includes two cylindrical conductors mounted side by side and two power vacuum tubes attached to respective ends of a cylindrical conductor. A conductive yoke is located at the other end of the cylindrical conductors to short circuit the two cylindrical conductors. The coupling transition includes two relatively flat rectangular conductors extending perpendicular to the longitudinal axes of a respective cylindrical conductor to which the flat conductor is attached intermediate the ends thereof. Conductive side covers and end covers are also provided for forming pockets in the waveguide into which the flat conductors extend when the waveguide is attached to a shielding enclosure surrounding the resonant circuit.

  1. Ripple gate drive circuit for fast operation of series connected IGBTs

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rockot, Joseph H.; Murray, Thomas W.; Bass, Kevin C.

    2005-09-20

    A ripple gate drive circuit includes a plurality of transistors having their power terminals connected in series across an electrical potential. A plurality of control circuits, each associated with one of the transistors, is provided. Each control circuit is responsive to a control signal and an optical signal received from at least one other control circuit for controlling the conduction of electrical current through the power terminals of the associated transistor. The control circuits are responsive to a first state of the control circuit for causing each transistor in series to turn on sequentially and responsive to a second state of the control signal for causing each transistor in series to turn off sequentially.

  2. Printed circuit board impedance matching step for microwave (millimeter wave) devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pao, Hsueh-Yuan; Aguirre, Jerardo; Sargis, Paul

    2013-10-01

    An impedance matching ground plane step, in conjunction with a quarter wave transformer section, in a printed circuit board provides a broadband microwave matching transition from board connectors or other elements that require thin substrates to thick substrate (>quarter wavelength) broadband microwave (millimeter wave) devices. A method of constructing microwave and other high frequency electrical circuits on a substrate of uniform thickness, where the circuit is formed of a plurality of interconnected elements of different impedances that individually require substrates of different thicknesses, by providing a substrate of uniform thickness that is a composite or multilayered substrate; and forming a pattern of intermediate ground planes or impedance matching steps interconnected by vias located under various parts of the circuit where components of different impedances are located so that each part of the circuit has a ground plane substrate thickness that is optimum while the entire circuit is formed on a substrate of uniform thickness.

  3. Turbine Thermal Management

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Turbine Thermal Management Fact Sheets Research Team Members Key Contacts Turbine Thermal Management The gas turbine is the workhorse of power generation, and technology advances to current land-based turbines are directly linked to our country's economic and energy security. Technical advancement for any type of gas turbine generally implies better performance, greater efficiency, and extended component life. From the standpoint of cycle efficiency and durability, this suggests that a continual

  4. Photovoltaic-thermal collectors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cox, III, Charles H. (Carlisle, MA)

    1984-04-24

    A photovoltaic-thermal solar cell including a semiconductor body having antireflective top and bottom surfaces and coated on each said surface with a patterned electrode covering less than 10% of the surface area. A thermal-absorbing surface is spaced apart from the bottom surface of the semiconductor and a heat-exchange fluid is passed between the bottom surface and the heat-absorbing surface.

  5. Three Dimensional Thermal Abuse Reaction Model for Lithium Ion Batteries

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2006-06-29

    Three dimensional computer models for simulating thermal runaway of lithium ion battery was developed. The three-dimensional model captures the shapes and dimensions of cell components and the spatial distributions of materials and temperatures, so we could consider the geometrical features, which are critical especially in large cells. An array of possible exothermic reactions, such as solid-electrolyte-interface (SEI) layer decomposition, negative active/electrolyte reaction, and positive active/electrolyte reaction, were considered and formulated to fit experimental data frommore » accelerating rate calorimetry and differential scanning calorimetry. User subroutine code was written to implement NREL developed approach and to utilize a commercially available solver. The model is proposed to use for simulation a variety of lithium-ion battery safety events including thermal heating and short circuit.« less

  6. Resonant circuit which provides dual-frequency excitation for rapid cycling of an electromagnet

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Praeg, W.F.

    1982-03-09

    Disclosed is a novel ring-magnet control circuit that permits synchrotron repetition rates much higher than the frequency of the sinusoidal guide field of the ring magnet during particle acceleration. The control circuit generates sinusoidal excitation currents of different frequencies in the half waves. During radio-frequency acceleration of the synchrotron, the control circuit operates with a lower frequency sine wave and, thereafter, the electromagnets are reset with a higher-frequency half sine wave.

  7. Circuit for echo and noise suppression of acoustic signals transmitted through a drill string

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Drumheller, D.S.; Scott, D.D.

    1993-12-28

    An electronic circuit for digitally processing analog electrical signals produced by at least one acoustic transducer is presented. In a preferred embodiment of the present invention, a novel digital time delay circuit is utilized which employs an array of First-in-First-out (FiFo) microchips. Also, a bandpass filter is used at the input to this circuit for isolating drill string noise and eliminating high frequency output. 20 figures.

  8. Circuit for echo and noise suppression of accoustic signals transmitted through a drill string

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Drumheller, Douglas S.; Scott, Douglas D.

    1993-01-01

    An electronic circuit for digitally processing analog electrical signals produced by at least one acoustic transducer is presented. In a preferred embodiment of the present invention, a novel digital time delay circuit is utilized which employs an array of First-in-First-out (FiFo) microchips. Also, a bandpass filter is used at the input to this circuit for isolating drill string noise and eliminating high frequency output.

  9. Note: A simple model for thermal management in solenoids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McIntosh, E. M. Ellis, J.

    2013-11-15

    We describe a model of the dynamical temperature evolution in a solenoid winding. A simple finite element analysis is calibrated by accurately measuring the thermally induced resistance change of the solenoid, thus obviating the need for accurate knowledge of the mean thermal conductivity of the windings. The model predicts quasi thermal runaway for relatively modest current increases from the normal operating conditions. We demonstrate the application of this model to determine the maximum current that can be safely applied to solenoids used for helium spin-echo measurements.

  10. High-Temperature Circuit Boards for Use in Geothermal Well Monitoring...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Project objective: Develop and demonstrate high-temperature; multilayer electronic circuits capable of sustained operation at 300 C. PDF icon highhookerhtcircuitboards.pdf...

  11. Apparatus for and method of testing an electrical ground fault circuit interrupt device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Andrews, Lowell B.

    1998-01-01

    An apparatus for testing a ground fault circuit interrupt device includes a processor, an input device connected to the processor for receiving input from an operator, a storage media connected to the processor for storing test data, an output device connected to the processor for outputting information corresponding to the test data to the operator, and a calibrated variable load circuit connected between the processor and the ground fault circuit interrupt device. The ground fault circuit interrupt device is configured to trip a corresponding circuit breaker. The processor is configured to receive signals from the calibrated variable load circuit and to process the signals to determine a trip threshold current and/or a trip time. A method of testing the ground fault circuit interrupt device includes a first step of providing an identification for the ground fault circuit interrupt device. Test data is then recorded in accordance with the identification. By comparing test data from an initial test with test data from a subsequent test, a trend of performance for the ground fault circuit interrupt device is determined.

  12. Apparatus for and method of testing an electrical ground fault circuit interrupt device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Andrews, L.B.

    1998-08-18

    An apparatus for testing a ground fault circuit interrupt device includes a processor, an input device connected to the processor for receiving input from an operator, a storage media connected to the processor for storing test data, an output device connected to the processor for outputting information corresponding to the test data to the operator, and a calibrated variable load circuit connected between the processor and the ground fault circuit interrupt device. The ground fault circuit interrupt device is configured to trip a corresponding circuit breaker. The processor is configured to receive signals from the calibrated variable load circuit and to process the signals to determine a trip threshold current and/or a trip time. A method of testing the ground fault circuit interrupt device includes a first step of providing an identification for the ground fault circuit interrupt device. Test data is then recorded in accordance with the identification. By comparing test data from an initial test with test data from a subsequent test, a trend of performance for the ground fault circuit interrupt device is determined. 17 figs.

  13. Apparatus And Method Of Using Flexible Printed Circuit Board In Optical Transceiver Device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, Gene R.; Armendariz, Marcelino G.; Bryan, Robert P.; Carson, Richard F.; Duckett, III, Edwin B.; McCormick, Frederick B.; Peterson, David W.; Peterson, Gary D.; Reysen, Bill H.

    2005-03-15

    This invention relates to a flexible printed circuit board that is used in connection with an optical transmitter, receiver or transceiver module. In one embodiment, the flexible printed circuit board has flexible metal layers in between flexible insulating layers, and the circuit board comprises: (1) a main body region orientated in a first direction having at least one electrical or optoelectronic device; (2) a plurality of electrical contact pads integrated into the main body region, where the electrical contact pads function to connect the flexible printed circuit board to an external environment; (3) a buckle region extending from one end of the main body region; and (4) a head region extending from one end of the buckle region, and where the head region is orientated so that it is at an angle relative to the direction of the main body region. The electrical contact pads may be ball grid arrays, solder balls or land-grid arrays, and they function to connect the circuit board to an external environment. A driver or amplifier chip may be adapted to the head region of the flexible printed circuit board. In another embodiment, a heat spreader passes along a surface of the head region of the flexible printed circuit board, and a window is formed in the head region of the flexible printed circuit board. Optoelectronic devices are adapted to the head spreader in such a manner that they are accessible through the window in the flexible printed circuit board.

  14. Docket No. EO-05-01: Further Notice of 230kV Circuit Planned Outages |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Further Notice of 230kV Circuit Planned Outages Docket No. EO-05-01: Further Notice of 230kV Circuit Planned Outages Docket No. EO-05-01. Pursuant to the United States Department of Energy Order No. 202-05-03, issued December 20, 2005 directing Mirant Potomac River to generate electricity at Potomac River Generating Station, PEPCO hereby files this Further Notice of 230kV Circuit Planned Outages. PDF icon Docket No. EO-05-01: Further Notice of 230kV Circuit Planned

  15. Series-counterpulse repetitive-pulse inductive storage circuit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Honig, E.M.

    1984-06-05

    A high-power series-counterpulse repetitive-pulse inductive energy storage and transfer circuit includes an opening switch, a main energy storage coil, and a counterpulse capacitor. The local pulse is initiated simultaneously with the initiation of the counterpulse used to turn the opening switch off. There is no delay from command to output pulse. During the load pulse, the counterpulse capacitor is automatically charged with sufficient energy to accomplish the load counterpulse which terminates the load pulse and turns the load switch off. When the main opening switch is reclosed to terminate the load pulse, the counterpulse capacitor discharges through the load, causing a rapid, sharp cutoff of the load pulse as well as recovering any energy remaining in the load inductance. The counterpulse capacitor is recharged to its original condition by the main energy storage coil after the load pulse is over, not before it begins.

  16. Apparatus and method for defect testing of integrated circuits

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cole, Jr., Edward I.; Soden, Jerry M.

    2000-01-01

    An apparatus and method for defect and failure-mechanism testing of integrated circuits (ICs) is disclosed. The apparatus provides an operating voltage, V.sub.DD, to an IC under test and measures a transient voltage component, V.sub.DDT, signal that is produced in response to switching transients that occur as test vectors are provided as inputs to the IC. The amplitude or time delay of the V.sub.DDT signal can be used to distinguish between defective and defect-free (i.e. known good) ICs. The V.sub.DDT signal is measured with a transient digitizer, a digital oscilloscope, or with an IC tester that is also used to input the test vectors to the IC. The present invention has applications for IC process development, for the testing of ICs during manufacture, and for qualifying ICs for reliability.

  17. Programmable Differential Delay Circuit With Fine Delay Adjustment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    DeRyckere, John F.; Jenkins, Philip Nord; Cornett, Frank Nolan

    2002-07-09

    Circuitry that provides additional delay to early arriving signals such that all data signals arrive at a receiving latch with same path delay. The delay of a forwarded clock reference is also controlled such that the capturing clock edge will be optimally positioned near quadrature (depending on latch setup/hold requirements). The circuitry continuously adapts to data and clock path delay changes and digital filtering of phase measurements reduce errors brought on by jittering data edges. The circuitry utilizes only the minimum amount of delay necessary to achieve objective thereby limiting any unintended jitter. Particularly, this programmable differential delay circuit with fine delay adjustment is designed to allow the skew between ASICS to be minimized. This includes skew between data bits, between data bits and clocks as well as minimizing the overall skew in a channel between ASICS.

  18. Cooling circuit for a gas turbine bucket and tip shroud

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Willett, Fred Thomas

    2004-07-13

    An open cooling circuit for a gas turbine airfoil and associated tip shroud includes a first group of cooling holes internal to the airfoil and extending in a radially outward direction generally along a leading edge of the airfoil; a second group of cooling holes internal to the airfoil and extending in a radially outward direction generally along a trailing edge of the airfoil. A common plenum is formed in the tip shroud in direct communication with the first and second group of cooling holes, but a second plenum may be provided for the second group of radial holes. A plurality of exhaust holes extends from the plenum(s), through the tip shroud and opening along a peripheral edge of the tip shroud.

  19. A robust and well shielded thermal conductivity device for low temperature measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Toews, W. H.; Hill, R. W.

    2014-04-15

    We present a compact mechanically robust thermal conductivity measurement apparatus for measurements at low temperatures (<1 K) and high magnetic fields on small high-purity single crystal samples. A high-conductivity copper box is used to enclose the sample and all the components. The box provides protection for the thermometers, heater, and most importantly the sample increasing the portability of the mount. In addition to physical protection, the copper box is also effective at shielding radio frequency electromagnetic interference and thermal radiation, which is essential for low temperature measurements. A printed circuit board in conjunction with a braided ribbon cable is used to organize the delicate wiring and provide mechanical robustness.

  20. A computational model for thermal fluid design analysis of nuclear thermal rockets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Given, J.A.; Anghaie, S.

    1997-01-01

    A computational model for simulation and design analysis of nuclear thermal propulsion systems has been developed. The model simulates a full-topping expander cycle engine system and the thermofluid dynamics of the core coolant flow, accounting for the real gas properties of the hydrogen propellant/coolant throughout the system. Core thermofluid studies reveal that near-wall heat transfer models currently available may not be applicable to conditions encountered within some nuclear rocket cores. Additionally, the possibility of a core thermal fluid instability at low mass fluxes and the effects of the core power distribution are investigated. Results indicate that for tubular core coolant channels, thermal fluid instability is not an issue within the possible range of operating conditions in these systems. Findings also show the advantages of having a nonflat centrally peaking axial core power profile from a fluid dynamic standpoint. The effects of rocket operating conditions on system performance are also investigated. Results show that high temperature and low pressure operation is limited by core structural considerations, while low temperature and high pressure operation is limited by system performance constraints. The utility of these programs for finding these operational limits, optimum operating conditions, and thermal fluid effects is demonstrated.

  1. Highly directional thermal emitter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ribaudo, Troy; Shaner, Eric A; Davids, Paul; Peters, David W

    2015-03-24

    A highly directional thermal emitter device comprises a two-dimensional periodic array of heavily doped semiconductor structures on a surface of a substrate. The array provides a highly directional thermal emission at a peak wavelength between 3 and 15 microns when the array is heated. For example, highly doped silicon (HDSi) with a plasma frequency in the mid-wave infrared was used to fabricate nearly perfect absorbing two-dimensional gratings structures that function as highly directional thermal radiators. The absorption and emission characteristics of the HDSi devices possessed a high degree of angular dependence for infrared absorption in the 10-12 micron range, while maintaining high reflectivity of solar radiation (.about.64%) at large incidence angles.

  2. Thermal insulated glazing unit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Selkowitz, S.E.; Arasteh, D.K.; Hartmann, J.L.

    1988-04-05

    An improved insulated glazing unit is provided which can attain about R5 to about R10 thermal performance at the center of the glass while having dimensions about the same as those of a conventional double glazed insulated glazing unit. An outer glazing and inner glazing are sealed to a spacer to form a gas impermeable space. One or more rigid, non-structural glazings are attached to the inside of the spacer to divide the space between the inner and outer glazings to provide insulating gaps between glazings of from about 0.20 inches to about 0.40 inches. One or more glazing surfaces facing each thermal gap are coated with a low emissivity coating. Finally, the thermal gaps are filled with a low conductance gas such as krypton gas. 2 figs.

  3. Thermal insulated glazing unit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Selkowitz, Stephen E. (Piedmont, CA); Arasteh, Dariush K. (Oakland, CA); Hartmann, John L. (Seattle, WA)

    1991-01-01

    An improved insulated glazing unit is provided which can attain about R5 to about R10 thermal performance at the center of the glass while having dimensions about the same as those of a conventional double glazed insulated glazing unit. An outer glazing and inner glazing are sealed to a spacer to form a gas impermeable space. One or more rigid, non-structural glazings are attached to the inside of the spacer to divide the space between the inner and outer glazings to provide insulating gaps between glazings of from about 0.20 inches to about 0.40 inches. One or more glazing surfaces facing each thermal gap are coated with a low emissivity coating. Finally, the thermal gaps are filled with a low conductance gas such as krypton gas.

  4. Thermal trim for luminaire

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bazydola, Sarah; Ghiu, Camil-Daniel; Harrison, Robert; Jeswani, Anil

    2013-11-19

    A luminaire with a thermal pathway to reduce the junction temperature of the luminaire's light source, and methods for so doing, are disclosed. The luminaire includes a can, a light engine, and a trim, that define a substantially continuous thermal pathway from the light engine to a surrounding environment. The can defines a can cavity and includes a can end region. The light engine is within the can cavity and includes a light source and a heat sink, including a heat sink end region, coupled thereto. The trim is at least partially disposed within the can cavity and includes a first trim end region coupled to the heat sink end region and a second trim end region coupled to the can end region. Thermal interface material may be located between: the heat sink and the trim, the trim and the can, and/or the heat sink and the light source.

  5. Article for thermal energy storage

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Salyer, Ival O.

    2000-06-27

    A thermal energy storage composition is provided which is in the form of a gel. The composition includes a phase change material and silica particles, where the phase change material may comprise a linear alkyl hydrocarbon, water/urea, or water. The thermal energy storage composition has a high thermal conductivity, high thermal energy storage, and may be used in a variety of applications such as in thermal shipping containers and gel packs.

  6. Thermal conductivity of configurable two-dimensional carbon nanotube architecture and strain modulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhan, H. F.; Bell, J. M.; Gu, Y. T., E-mail: yuantong.gu@qut.edu.au [School of Chemistry, Physics and Mechanical Engineering, Queensland University of Technology, 2 George St., Brisbane, Queensland 4000 (Australia); Zhang, G. [Institute of High Performance Computing, Agency for Science, Technology and Research, 1 Fusionopolis Way, Singapore 138632 (Singapore)

    2014-10-13

    We reported the thermal conductivity of the two-dimensional carbon nanotube (CNT)-based architecture, which can be constructed through welding of single-wall CNTs by electron beam. Using large-scale nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations, the thermal conductivity is found to vary with different junction types due to their different phonon scatterings at the junction. The strong length and strain dependence of the thermal conductivity suggests an effective avenue to tune the thermal transport properties of the CNT-based architecture, benefiting the design of nanoscale thermal rectifiers or phonon engineering.

  7. Thermal ignition combustion system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kamo, Roy; Kakwani, Ramesh M.; Valdmanis, Edgars; Woods, Melvins E.

    1988-01-01

    The thermal ignition combustion system comprises means for providing walls defining an ignition chamber, the walls being made of a material having a thermal conductivity greater than 20 W/m.degree. C. and a specific heat greater than 480 J/kg.degree. C. with the ignition chamber being in constant communication with the main combustion chamber, means for maintaining the temperature of the walls above a threshold temperature capable of causing ignition of a fuel, and means for conducting fuel to the ignition chamber.

  8. Thermal ignition combustion system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kamo, R.; Kakwani, R.M.; Valdmanis, E.; Woods, M.E.

    1988-04-19

    The thermal ignition combustion system comprises means for providing walls defining an ignition chamber, the walls being made of a material having a thermal conductivity greater than 20 W/m C and a specific heat greater than 480 J/kg C with the ignition chamber being in constant communication with the main combustion chamber, means for maintaining the temperature of the walls above a threshold temperature capable of causing ignition of a fuel, and means for conducting fuel to the ignition chamber. 8 figs.

  9. Engine with hydraulic fuel injection and ABS circuit using a single high pressure pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bartley, Bradley E.; Blass, James R.; Gibson, Dennis H.

    2001-01-01

    An engine system comprises a hydraulically actuated fuel injection system and an ABS circuit connected via a fluid flow passage that provides hydraulic fluid to both the fuel injection system and to the ABS circuit. The hydraulically actuated system includes a high pressure pump. The fluid control passage is in fluid communication with an outlet from the high pressure pump.

  10. Thermal transport across graphene and single layer hexagonal boron nitride

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Jingchao E-mail: yyue@whu.edu.cn; Hong, Yang; Yue, Yanan E-mail: yyue@whu.edu.cn

    2015-04-07

    As the dimensions of nanocircuits and nanoelectronics shrink, thermal energies are being generated in more confined spaces, making it extremely important and urgent to explore for efficient heat dissipation pathways. In this work, the phonon energy transport across graphene and hexagonal boron-nitride (h-BN) interface is studied using classic molecular dynamics simulations. Effects of temperature, interatomic bond strength, heat flux direction, and functionalization on interfacial thermal transport are investigated. It is found out that by hydrogenating graphene in the hybrid structure, the interfacial thermal resistance (R) between graphene and h-BN can be reduced by 76.3%, indicating an effective approach to manipulate the interfacial thermal transport. Improved in-plane/out-of-plane phonon couplings and broadened phonon channels are observed in the hydrogenated graphene system by analyzing its phonon power spectra. The reported R results monotonically decrease with temperature and interatomic bond strengths. No thermal rectification phenomenon is observed in this interfacial thermal transport. Results reported in this work give the fundamental knowledge on graphene and h-BN thermal transport and provide rational guidelines for next generation thermal interface material designs.

  11. Design structure for in-system redundant array repair in integrated circuits

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bright, Arthur A.; Crumley, Paul G.; Dombrowa, Marc; Douskey, Steven M.; Haring, Rudolf A.; Oakland, Steven F.; Quellette, Michael R.; Strissel, Scott A.

    2008-11-25

    A design structure for repairing an integrated circuit during operation of the integrated circuit. The integrated circuit comprising of a multitude of memory arrays and a fuse box holding control data for controlling redundancy logic of the arrays. The design structure provides the integrated circuit with a control data selector for passing the control data from the fuse box to the memory arrays; providing a source of alternate control data, external of the integrated circuit; and connecting the source of alternate control data to the control data selector. The design structure further passes the alternate control data from the source thereof, through the control data selector and to the memory arrays to control the redundancy logic of the memory arrays.

  12. Low Insertion HVDC Circuit Breaker: Magnetically Pulsed Hybrid Breaker for HVDC Power Distribution Protection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-01-09

    GENI Project: General Atomics is developing a direct current (DC) circuit breaker that could protect the grid from faults 100 times faster than its alternating current (AC) counterparts. Circuit breakers are critical elements in any electrical system. At the grid level, their main function is to isolate parts of the grid where a fault has occurred—such as a downed power line or a transformer explosion—from the rest of the system. DC circuit breakers must interrupt the system during a fault much faster than AC circuit breakers to prevent possible damage to cables, converters and other grid-level components. General Atomics’ high-voltage DC circuit breaker would react in less than 1/1,000th of a second to interrupt current during a fault, preventing potential hazards to people and equipment.

  13. Logarithmic current measurement circuit with improved accuracy and temperature stability and associated method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ericson, M. Nance; Rochelle, James M.

    1994-01-01

    A logarithmic current measurement circuit for operating upon an input electric signal utilizes a quad, dielectrically isolated, well-matched, monolithic bipolar transistor array. One group of circuit components within the circuit cooperate with two transistors of the array to convert the input signal logarithmically to provide a first output signal which is temperature-dependant, and another group of circuit components cooperate with the other two transistors of the array to provide a second output signal which is temperature-dependant. A divider ratios the first and second output signals to provide a resultant output signal which is independent of temperature. The method of the invention includes the operating steps performed by the measurement circuit.

  14. Offset-free rail-to-rail derandomizing peak detect-and-hold circuit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    DeGeronimo, Gianluigi; O'Connor, Paul; Kandasamy, Anand

    2003-01-01

    A peak detect-and-hold circuit eliminates errors introduced by conventional amplifiers, such as common-mode rejection and input voltage offset. The circuit includes an amplifier, three switches, a transistor, and a capacitor. During a detect-and-hold phase, a hold voltage at a non-inverting in put terminal of the amplifier tracks an input voltage signal and when a peak is reached, the transistor is switched off, thereby storing a peak voltage in the capacitor. During a readout phase, the circuit functions as a unity gain buffer, in which the voltage stored in the capacitor is provided as an output voltage. The circuit is able to sense signals rail-to-rail and can readily be modified to sense positive, negative, or peak-to-peak voltages. Derandomization may be achieved by using a plurality of peak detect-and-hold circuits electrically connected in parallel.

  15. Ocean thermal energy conversion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Avery, W.H.

    1983-03-17

    A brief explanation of the Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) concept and an estimate of the amount of energy that can be produced from the ocean resource without introducing environmental concerns are presented. Use of the OTEC system to generate electric power and products which can replace fossil fuels is shown. The OTEC program status and its prospects for the future are discussed.

  16. Thermal Reactor Safety

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-06-01

    Information is presented concerning fire risk and protection; transient thermal-hydraulic analysis and experiments; class 9 accidents and containment; diagnostics and in-service inspection; risk and cost comparison of alternative electric energy sources; fuel behavior and experiments on core cooling in LOCAs; reactor event reporting analysis; equipment qualification; post facts analysis of the TMI-2 accident; and computational methods.

  17. Thermal barrier coating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bowker, Jeffrey Charles; Sabol, Stephen M.; Goedjen, John G.

    2001-01-01

    A thermal barrier coating for hot gas path components of a combustion turbine based on a zirconia-scandia system. A layer of zirconium scandate having the hexagonal Zr.sub.3 Sc.sub.4 O.sub.12 structure is formed directly on a superalloy substrate or on a bond coat formed on the substrate.

  18. Evaluation of an enhanced gravity-based fine-coal circuit for high-sulfur coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mohanty, M.K.; Samal, A.R.; Palit, A.

    2008-02-15

    One of the main objectives of this study was to evaluate a fine-coal cleaning circuit using an enhanced gravity separator specifically for a high sulfur coal application. The evaluation not only included testing of individual unit operations used for fine-coal classification, cleaning and dewatering, but also included testing of the complete circuit simultaneously. At a scale of nearly 2 t/h, two alternative circuits were evaluated to clean a minus 0.6-mm coal stream utilizing a 150-mm-diameter classifying cyclone, a linear screen having a projected surface area of 0.5 m{sup 2}, an enhanced gravity separator having a bowl diameter of 250 mm and a screen-bowl centrifuge having a bowl diameter of 500 mm. The cleaning and dewatering components of both circuits were the same; however, one circuit used a classifying cyclone whereas the other used a linear screen as the classification device. An industrial size coal spiral was used to clean the 2- x 0.6-mm coal size fraction for each circuit to estimate the performance of a complete fine-coal circuit cleaning a minus 2-mm particle size coal stream. The 'linear screen + enhanced gravity separator + screen-bowl circuit' provided superior sulfur and ash-cleaning performance to the alternative circuit that used a classifying cyclone in place of the linear screen. Based on these test data, it was estimated that the use of the recommended circuit to treat 50 t/h of minus 2-mm size coal having feed ash and sulfur contents of 33.9% and 3.28%, respectively, may produce nearly 28.3 t/h of clean coal with product ash and sulfur contents of 9.15% and 1.61 %, respectively.

  19. Internal Short Circuits in Lithium-Ion Cells for PHEVs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sriramulu, Suresh; Stringfellow, Richard

    2013-05-25

    Development of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs) has recently become a high national priority because of their potential to enable significantly reduced petroleum consumption by the domestic transportation sector in the relatively near term. Lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries are a critical enabling technology for PHEVs. Among battery technologies with suitable operating characteristics for use in vehicles, Li-ion batteries offer the best combination of energy, power, life and cost. Consequently, worldwide, leading corporations and government agencies are supporting the development of Li-ion batteries for PHEVs, as well as the full spectrum of vehicular applications ranging from mild hybrid to all-electric. In this project, using a combination of well-defined experiments, custom designed cells and simulations, we have improved the understanding of the process by which a Li-ion cell that develops an internal short progresses to thermal runaway. Using a validated model for thermal runaway, we have explored the influence of environmental factors and cell design on the propensity for thermal runaway in full-sized PHEV cells. We have also gained important perspectives about internal short development and progression; specifically that initial internal shorts may be augmented by secondary shorts related to separator melting. Even though the nature of these shorts is very stochastic, we have shown the critical and insufficiently appreciated role of heat transfer in influencing whether a developing internal short results in a thermal runaway. This work should lead to enhanced perspectives on separator design, the role of active materials and especially cathode materials with respect to safety and the design of automotive cooling systems to enhance battery safety in PHEVs.

  20. Series-counterpulse repetitive-pulse inductive storage circuit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Honig, Emanuel M.

    1986-01-01

    A high-power series-counterpulse repetitive-pulse inductive energy storage and transfer circuit includes an opening switch, a main energy storage coil, and a counterpulse capacitor. The load pulse is initiated simultaneously with the initiation of the counterpulse which is used to turn the opening switch off. There is no delay from command to output pulse. During the load pulse, the counterpulse capacitor is first discharged and then recharged in the opposite polarity with sufficient energy to accomplish the load counterpulse which terminates the load pulse and turns the load switch off. When the main opening switch is triggered closed again to terminate the load pulse, the counterpulse capacitor discharges in the reverse direction through the load switch and through the load, causing a rapid, sharp cutoff of the load pulse as well as recovering any energy remaining in the load inductance. The counterpulse capacitor is recharged to its original condition by the main energy storage coil after the load pulse is over, not before it begins.

  1. Dynamic Mechanical Thermal Analysis of Virgin TR-55 Silicone...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The activation energy calculated from an Arrhenius fit to the horizontal shift factors was 178-355 kJmol. The calculated percent load retention at approx50 years was 61-68%. ...

  2. Thermal Cycling Combined with Dynamic Mechanical Load: Preliminary...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Failure and Degradation Modes of PV Modules in a Hot Dry Climate: Results After 12 to 26 Years of Field Exposure Accelerated Stress Testing, Qualification Testing, HAST, Field ...

  3. Thermal Cycling Combined with Dynamic Mechanical Load: Preliminary...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    o f C ell C rack) Modules: T ype A B ( MulM---c---Si) ( Module t ypes a re s ame w ith t hose i n T C600 T esMng) D ML---TC: E ach 2 M odules o f 2 T ypes R eference: E...

  4. Compton effect thermally activated depolarization dosimeter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moran, Paul R.

    1978-01-01

    A dosimetry technique for high-energy gamma radiation or X-radiation employs the Compton effect in conjunction with radiation-induced thermally activated depolarization phenomena. A dielectric material is disposed between two electrodes which are electrically short circuited to produce a dosimeter which is then exposed to the gamma or X radiation. The gamma or X-radiation impinging on the dosimeter interacts with the dielectric material directly or with the metal composing the electrode to produce Compton electrons which are emitted preferentially in the direction in which the radiation was traveling. A portion of these electrons becomes trapped in the dielectric material, consequently inducing a stable electrical polarization in the dielectric material. Subsequent heating of the exposed dosimeter to the point of onset of ionic conductivity with the electrodes still shorted through an ammeter causes the dielectric material to depolarize, and the depolarization signal so emitted can be measured and is proportional to the dose of radiation received by the dosimeter.

  5. Photodissociation Dynamics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Photodissociation Dynamics - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management Programs

  6. Statistical circuit simulation with measurement-based active device models: Implications for process control and IC manufacturability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Root, D.E.; McGinty, D.; Hughes, B.

    1995-12-31

    This paper presents a new approach to statistical active circuit design which unifies device parametric-based process control and non-parametric circuit simulation. Predictions of circuit sensitivity to process variation and yield-loss of circuits fabricated in two different GaAs IC processes are described. The simulations make use of measurement-based active device models which are not formulated in terms of conventional parametric statistical variables. The technique is implemented in commercially available simulation software (HP MDS).

  7. Prediction of Multi-Physics Behaviors of Large Lithium-Ion Batteries During Internal and External Short Circuit (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, G. H.; Lee, K. J.; Chaney, L.; Smith, K.; Darcy, E.; Pesaran, A.; Darcy, E.

    2010-11-01

    This presentation describes the multi-physics behaviors of internal and external short circuits in large lithium-ion batteries.

  8. Thermal transport in tantalum oxide films for memristive applications

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Landon, Colin Donald; Wilke, Rudeger H. T.; Brumbach, Michael T.; Brennecka, Geoffrey L.; Blea-Kirby, Mia Angelica; Ihlefeld, Jon; Marinella, Matthew; Thomas Edwin Beechem

    2015-07-15

    The thermal conductivity of amorphous TaOx memristive films having variable oxygen content is measured using time domain thermoreflectance. Furthermore, the thermal transport is described by a two-partmodel where the electrical contribution is quantified via the Wiedemann-Franz relation and the vibrational contribution by the minimum thermal conductivity limit for amorphous solids. Additionally, the vibrational contribution remains constant near 0.9 W/mK regardless of oxygen concentration, while the electrical contribution varies from 0 to 3.3 W/mK. Thus, the dominant thermal carrier in TaOx switches between vibrations and charge carriers and is controllable either by oxygen content during deposition, or dynamically by field-induced chargemore » state migration.« less

  9. Thermal transport in tantalum oxide films for memristive applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Landon, Colin Donald; Wilke, Rudeger H. T.; Brumbach, Michael T.; Brennecka, Geoffrey L.; Blea-Kirby, Mia Angelica; Ihlefeld, Jon; Marinella, Matthew; Thomas Edwin Beechem

    2015-07-15

    The thermal conductivity of amorphous TaOx memristive films having variable oxygen content is measured using time domain thermoreflectance. Furthermore, the thermal transport is described by a two-partmodel where the electrical contribution is quantified via the Wiedemann-Franz relation and the vibrational contribution by the minimum thermal conductivity limit for amorphous solids. Additionally, the vibrational contribution remains constant near 0.9 W/mK regardless of oxygen concentration, while the electrical contribution varies from 0 to 3.3 W/mK. Thus, the dominant thermal carrier in TaOx switches between vibrations and charge carriers and is controllable either by oxygen content during deposition, or dynamically by field-induced charge state migration.

  10. Electric Motor Thermal Management for Electric Traction Drives (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bennion, K.; Cousineau, J.; Moreno, G.

    2014-09-01

    Thermal constraints place significant limitations on how electric motors ultimately perform. Finite element analysis and computational fluid dynamics modeling approaches are being increasingly utilized in the design and analysis of electric motors. As the models become more sophisticated, it is important to have detailed and accurate knowledge of material thermal properties and convective heat transfer coefficients. In this work, the thermal properties and inter-lamination thermal contact resistances were measured for different stator lamination materials. Also, convective heat transfer coefficients of automatic transmission fluid (ATF) jets were measured to better understand the heat transfer of ATF impinging on motor copper windings. Experiments were carried out at various ATF temperatures and jet velocities to quantify the influence of these parameters on heat transfer coefficients.

  11. Underground Coal Thermal Treatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, P.; Deo, M.; Eddings, E.; Sarofim, A.; Gueishen, K.; Hradisky, M.; Kelly, K.; Mandalaparty, P.; Zhang, H.

    2012-01-11

    The long-term objective of this work is to develop a transformational energy production technology by insitu thermal treatment of a coal seam for the production of substitute natural gas (SNG) while leaving much of the coal's carbon in the ground. This process converts coal to a high-efficiency, low-GHG emitting gas fuel. It holds the potential of providing environmentally acceptable access to previously unusable coal resources. This topical report discusses the development of experimental capabilities, the collection of available data, and the development of simulation tools to obtain process thermo-chemical and geo-thermal parameters in preparation for the eventual demonstration in a coal seam. It also includes experimental and modeling studies of CO2 sequestration.

  12. Thermal synthesis apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fincke, James R. [Idaho Falls, ID; Detering, Brent A. [Idaho Falls, ID

    2009-08-18

    An apparatus for thermal conversion of one or more reactants to desired end products includes an insulated reactor chamber having a high temperature heater such as a plasma torch at its inlet end and, optionally, a restrictive convergent-divergent nozzle at its outlet end. In a thermal conversion method, reactants are injected upstream from the reactor chamber and thoroughly mixed with the plasma stream before entering the reactor chamber. The reactor chamber has a reaction zone that is maintained at a substantially uniform temperature. The resulting heated gaseous stream is then rapidly cooled by passage through the nozzle, which "freezes" the desired end product(s) in the heated equilibrium reaction stage, or is discharged through an outlet pipe without the convergent-divergent nozzle. The desired end products are then separated from the gaseous stream.

  13. Thermally stable diamond brazing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Radtke, Robert P. (Kingwood, TX)

    2009-02-10

    A cutting element and a method for forming a cutting element is described and shown. The cutting element includes a substrate, a TSP diamond layer, a metal interlayer between the substrate and the diamond layer, and a braze joint securing the diamond layer to the substrate. The thickness of the metal interlayer is determined according to a formula. The formula takes into account the thickness and modulus of elasticity of the metal interlayer and the thickness of the TSP diamond. This prevents the use of a too thin or too thick metal interlayer. A metal interlayer that is too thin is not capable of absorbing enough energy to prevent the TSP diamond from fracturing. A metal interlayer that is too thick may allow the TSP diamond to fracture by reason of bending stress. A coating may be provided between the TSP diamond layer and the metal interlayer. This coating serves as a thermal barrier and to control residual thermal stress.

  14. Thermal reactor safety

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-06-01

    Information is presented concerning new trends in licensing; seismic considerations and system structural behavior; TMI-2 risk assessment and thermal hydraulics; statistical assessment of potential accidents and verification of computational methods; issues with respect to improved safety; human factors in nuclear power plant operation; diagnostics and activities in support of recovery; LOCA transient analysis; unresolved safety issues and other safety considerations; and fission product transport.

  15. Thermally actuated thermionic switch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barrus, Donald M.; Shires, Charles D.

    1988-01-01

    A thermally actuated thermionic switch which responds to an increase of temperature by changing from a high impedance to a low impedance at a predictable temperature set point. The switch has a bistable operation mode switching only on temperature increases. The thermionic material may be a metal which is liquid at the desired operation temperature and held in matrix in a graphite block reservoir, and which changes state (ionizes, for example) so as to be electrically conductive at a desired temperature.

  16. Thermally actuated thermionic switch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barrus, D.M.; Shires, C.D.

    1982-09-30

    A thermally actuated thermionic switch which responds to an increase of temperature by changing from a high impedance to a low impedance at a predictable temperature set point. The switch has a bistable operation mode switching only on temperature increases. The thermionic material may be a metal which is liquid at the desired operation temperature and held in matrix in a graphite block reservoir, and which changes state (ionizes, for example) so as to be electrically conductive at a desired temperature.

  17. Liquid metal thermal electric converter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Abbin, Joseph P.; Andraka, Charles E.; Lukens, Laurance L.; Moreno, James B.

    1989-01-01

    A liquid metal thermal electric converter which converts heat energy to electrical energy. The design of the liquid metal thermal electric converter incorporates a unique configuration which directs the metal fluid pressure to the outside of the tube which results in the structural loads in the tube to be compressive. A liquid metal thermal electric converter refluxing boiler with series connection of tubes and a multiple cell liquid metal thermal electric converter are also provided.

  18. Superior model for fault tolerance computation in designing nano-sized circuit systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singh, N. S. S. Muthuvalu, M. S.; Asirvadam, V. S.

    2014-10-24

    As CMOS technology scales nano-metrically, reliability turns out to be a decisive subject in the design methodology of nano-sized circuit systems. As a result, several computational approaches have been developed to compute and evaluate reliability of desired nano-electronic circuits. The process of computing reliability becomes very troublesome and time consuming as the computational complexity build ups with the desired circuit size. Therefore, being able to measure reliability instantly and superiorly is fast becoming necessary in designing modern logic integrated circuits. For this purpose, the paper firstly looks into the development of an automated reliability evaluation tool based on the generalization of Probabilistic Gate Model (PGM) and Boolean Difference-based Error Calculator (BDEC) models. The Matlab-based tool allows users to significantly speed-up the task of reliability analysis for very large number of nano-electronic circuits. Secondly, by using the developed automated tool, the paper explores into a comparative study involving reliability computation and evaluation by PGM and, BDEC models for different implementations of same functionality circuits. Based on the reliability analysis, BDEC gives exact and transparent reliability measures, but as the complexity of the same functionality circuits with respect to gate error increases, reliability measure by BDEC tends to be lower than the reliability measure by PGM. The lesser reliability measure by BDEC is well explained in this paper using distribution of different signal input patterns overtime for same functionality circuits. Simulation results conclude that the reliability measure by BDEC depends not only on faulty gates but it also depends on circuit topology, probability of input signals being one or zero and also probability of error on signal lines.

  19. Transport properties of nanocomposite and its simulation with L-R-C circuit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gangopadhyay, Arnab Sarkar, Aditi Sarkar, A.

    2014-04-24

    The nano particles are represented in this communication by L-R-C equivalent circuit. The dc current voltage characteristics (CVC) of the proposed circuit have simulated using Circuit-Maker Âź 2000. Experimental investigation on ZnO nano-composite with capping material gum acacia shows similar CVC. NPs are represented by C-R combinations to manifest the Coulomb blockade effect of a quantum dot. The capping material is represented by an inductor along with a resistance in series. Nine NPs with capping matrix are simulated. The dc current voltage characteristics (CVC) and gross feature of polarization nature obtained by experiment and simulation study are consistent.

  20. Solar Thermal Electric | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Thermal Electric Jump to: navigation, search TODO: Add description List of Solar Thermal Electric Incentives Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleSolarThermalEl...

  1. Power Electronic Thermal System Performance and Integration ...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Motor Thermal Control Thermal Stress and Reliability for Advanced Power Electronics and Electric Machines Integrated Vehicle Thermal Management

  2. Ocean Thermal Extractable Energy Visualization: Final Technical...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Ocean Thermal Extractable Energy Visualization: Final Technical Report Ocean Thermal Extractable Energy Visualization: Final Technical Report Report about the Ocean Thermal ...

  3. Methods of forming thermal management systems and thermal management methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gering, Kevin L.; Haefner, Daryl R.

    2012-06-05

    A thermal management system for a vehicle includes a heat exchanger having a thermal energy storage material provided therein, a first coolant loop thermally coupled to an electrochemical storage device located within the first coolant loop and to the heat exchanger, and a second coolant loop thermally coupled to the heat exchanger. The first and second coolant loops are configured to carry distinct thermal energy transfer media. The thermal management system also includes an interface configured to facilitate transfer of heat generated by an internal combustion engine to the heat exchanger via the second coolant loop in order to selectively deliver the heat to the electrochemical storage device. Thermal management methods are also provided.

  4. Cantera Aerosol Dynamics Simulator

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2004-09-01

    The Cantera Aerosol Dynamics Simulator (CADS) package is a general library for aerosol modeling to address aerosol general dynamics, including formation from gas phase reactions, surface chemistry (growth and oxidation), bulk particle chemistry, transport by Brownian diffusion, thermophoresis, and diffusiophoresis with linkage to DSMC studies, and thermal radiative transport. The library is based upon Cantera, a C++ Cal Tech code that handles gas phase species transport, reaction, and thermodynamics. The method uses a discontinuous galerkinmore » formulation for the condensation and coagulation operator that conserves particles, elements, and enthalpy up to round-off error. Both O-D and 1-D time dependent applications have been developed with the library. Multiple species in the solid phase are handled as well. The O-D application, called Tdcads (Time Dependent CADS) is distributed with the library. Tdcads can address both constant volume and constant pressure adiabatic homogeneous problems. An extensive set of sample problems for Tdcads is also provided.« less

  5. Electric Motor Thermal Management R&D (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bennion, K.

    2014-11-01

    Thermal constraints place significant limitations on how electric motors ultimately perform. Without the ability to remove heat, the motor cannot operate without sacrificing performance, efficiency, and reliability. Finite element analysis and computational fluid dynamics modeling approaches are being increasingly utilized in the design and analysis of electric motors. As the models become more sophisticated, it is important to have detailed and accurate knowledge of both the passive thermal performance and the active cooling performance. In this work, we provide an overview of research characterizing both passive and active thermal elements related to electric motor thermal management. To better characterize the passive thermal performance, the effective thermal properties and inter-lamination thermal contact resistances were measured for different stator lamination materials. The active cooling performance of automatic transmission fluid (ATF) jets was also measured to better understand the heat transfer coefficients of ATF impinging on motor copper windings. Ford's Mercon LV was the ATF evaluated in this study. The presentation provides an overview of prior work with a focus on describing future plans for research to be performed during FY15.

  6. Age-related degradation of Westinghouse 480-volt circuit breakers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Subudhi, M.; Shier, W.; MacDougall, E. )

    1990-07-01

    An aging assessment of Westinghouse DS-series low-voltage air circuit breakers was performed as part of the Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) program. The objectives of this study are to characterize age-related degradation within the breaker assembly and to identify maintenance practices to mitigate their effect. Since this study has been promulgated by the failures of the reactor trip breakers at the McGuire Nuclear Station in July 1987, results relating to the welds in the breaker pole lever welds are also discussed. The design and operation of DS-206 and DS-416 breakers were reviewed. Failure data from various national data bases were analyzed to identify the predominant failure modes, causes, and mechanisms. Additional operating experiences from one nuclear station and two industrial breaker-service companies were obtained to develop aging trends of various subcomponents. The responses of the utilities to the NRC Bulletin 88-01, which discusses the center pole lever welds, were analyzed to assess the final resolution of failures of welds in the reactor trips. Maintenance recommendations, made by the manufacturer to mitigate age-related degradation were reviewed, and recommendations for improving the monitoring of age-related degradation are discussed. As described in Volume 2 of this NUREG, the results from a test program to assess degradation in breaker parts through mechanical cycling are also included. The testing has characterized the cracking of center-pole lever welds, identified monitoring techniques to determine aging in breakers, and provided information to augment existing maintenance programs. Recommendations to improve breaker reliability using effective maintenance, testing, and inspection programs are suggested. 13 refs., 21 figs., 8 tabs.

  7. Electric Motor Thermal Management R&D; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bennion, Kevin

    2015-06-09

    Thermal constraints place significant limitations on how electric motors ultimately perform. Without the ability to remove heat, the motor cannot operate without sacrificing performance, efficiency, and reliability. Finite element analysis and computational fluid dynamics modeling approaches are being increasingly utilized in the design and analysis of electric motors. As the models become more sophisticated, it is important to have detailed and accurate knowledge of both the passive thermal performance and the active cooling performance. In this work, we provide an overview of research characterizing both passive and active thermal elements related to electric motor thermal management. To better characterize the passive thermal performance, work is being performed to measure motor material thermal properties and thermal contact resistances. The active cooling performance of automatic transmission fluid (ATF) jets is also being measured to better understand the heat transfer coefficients of ATF impinging on motor copper windings.

  8. Oscillator circuit for use with high loss quartz resonator sensors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wessendorf, Otto

    1995-01-01

    The disclosure is directed to a Lever oscillator for use in high resistance resonator applications, especially for use with quartz resonator sensors. The oscillator is designed to operate over a wide dynamic range of resonator resistance due to damping of the resonator in mediums such as liquids. An oscillator design is presented that allows both frequency and loss (R.sub.m) of the resonator to be determined over a wide dynamic range of resonator loss. The Lever oscillator uses negative feedback in a differential amplifier configuration to actively and variably divide (or leverage) the resonator impedance such that the oscillator can maintain the phase and gain of the loop over a wide range of resonator resistance.

  9. Scattering Dynamics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Scattering Dynamics - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced

  10. Chemical Dynamics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Dynamics - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced Nuclear Energy

  11. Data center thermal management

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hamann, Hendrik F.; Li, Hongfei

    2016-02-09

    Historical high-spatial-resolution temperature data and dynamic temperature sensor measurement data may be used to predict temperature. A first formulation may be derived based on the historical high-spatial-resolution temperature data for determining a temperature at any point in 3-dimensional space. The dynamic temperature sensor measurement data may be calibrated based on the historical high-spatial-resolution temperature data at a corresponding historical time. Sensor temperature data at a plurality of sensor locations may be predicted for a future time based on the calibrated dynamic temperature sensor measurement data. A three-dimensional temperature spatial distribution associated with the future time may be generated based on the forecasted sensor temperature data and the first formulation. The three-dimensional temperature spatial distribution associated with the future time may be projected to a two-dimensional temperature distribution, and temperature in the future time for a selected space location may be forecasted dynamically based on said two-dimensional temperature distribution.

  12. Power spectrum analysis for defect screening in integrated circuit devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tangyunyong, Paiboon; Cole Jr., Edward I.; Stein, David J.

    2011-12-01

    A device sample is screened for defects using its power spectrum in response to a dynamic stimulus. The device sample receives a time-varying electrical signal. The power spectrum of the device sample is measured at one of the pins of the device sample. A defect in the device sample can be identified based on results of comparing the power spectrum with one or more power spectra of the device that have a known defect status.

  13. Thermal control structure and garment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Klett, James W.; Cameron, Christopher Stan

    2012-03-13

    A flexible thermally conductive structure. The structure generally includes a plurality of thermally conductive yarns, at least some of which are at least partially disposed adjacent to an elastomeric material. Typically, at least a portion of the plurality of thermally conductive yarns is configured as a sheet. The yarns may be constructed from graphite, metal, or similar materials. The elastomeric material may be formed from urethane or silicone foam that is at least partially collapsed, or from a similar material. A thermal management garment is provided, the garment incorporating a flexible thermally conductive structure.

  14. Thermal management systems and methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gering, Kevin L.; Haefner, Daryl R.

    2006-12-12

    A thermal management system for a vehicle includes a heat exchanger having a thermal energy storage material provided therein, a first coolant loop thermally coupled to an electrochemical storage device located within the first coolant loop and to the heat exchanger, and a second coolant loop thermally coupled to the heat exchanger. The first and second coolant loops are configured to carry distinct thermal energy transfer media. The thermal management system also includes an interface configured to facilitate transfer of heat generated by an internal combustion engine to the heat exchanger via the second coolant loop in order to selectively deliver the heat to the electrochemical storage device. Thermal management methods are also provided.

  15. Resonant circuit which provides dual frequency excitation for rapid cycling of an electromagnet

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Praeg, Walter F.

    1984-01-01

    Disclosed is a ring magnet control circuit that permits synchrotron repetition rates much higher than the frequency of the cosinusoidal guide field of the ring magnet during particle acceleration. the control circuit generates cosinusoidal excitation currents of different frequencies in the half waves. During radio frequency acceleration of the particles in the synchrotron, the control circuit operates with a lower frequency cosine wave and thereafter the electromagnets are reset with a higher frequency half cosine wave. Flat-bottom and flat-top wave shaping circuits maintain the magnetic guide field in a relatively time-invariant mode during times when the particles are being injected into the ring magnets and when the particles are being ejected from the ring magnets.

  16. Integrated circuit failure analysis by low-energy charge-induced voltage alteration

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cole, E.I. Jr.

    1996-06-04

    A scanning electron microscope apparatus and method are described for detecting and imaging open-circuit defects in an integrated circuit (IC). The invention uses a low-energy high-current focused electron beam that is scanned over a device surface of the IC to generate a charge-induced voltage alteration (CIVA) signal at the location of any open-circuit defects. The low-energy CIVA signal may be used to generate an image of the IC showing the location of any open-circuit defects. A low electron beam energy is used to prevent electrical breakdown in any passivation layers in the IC and to minimize radiation damage to the IC. The invention has uses for IC failure analysis, for production-line inspection of ICs, and for qualification of ICs. 5 figs.

  17. Integrated circuit failure analysis by low-energy charge-induced voltage alteration

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cole, Jr., Edward I.

    1996-01-01

    A scanning electron microscope apparatus and method are described for detecting and imaging open-circuit defects in an integrated circuit (IC). The invention uses a low-energy high-current focused electron beam that is scanned over a device surface of the IC to generate a charge-induced voltage alteration (CIVA) signal at the location of any open-circuit defects. The low-energy CIVA signal may be used to generate an image of the IC showing the location of any open-circuit defects. A low electron beam energy is used to prevent electrical breakdown in any passivation layers in the IC and to minimize radiation damage to the IC. The invention has uses for IC failure analysis, for production-line inspection of ICs, and for qualification of ICs.

  18. Composite material having high thermal conductivity and process for fabricating same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Colella, Nicholas J.; Davidson, Howard L.; Kerns, John A.; Makowiecki, Daniel M.

    1998-01-01

    A process for fabricating a composite material such as that having high thermal conductivity and having specific application as a heat sink or heat spreader for high density integrated circuits. The composite material produced by this process has a thermal conductivity between that of diamond and copper, and basically consists of coated diamond particles dispersed in a high conductivity metal, such as copper. The composite material can be fabricated in small or relatively large sizes using inexpensive materials. The process basically consists, for example, of sputter coating diamond powder with several elements, including a carbide forming element and a brazeable material, compacting them into a porous body, and infiltrating the porous body with a suitable braze material, such as copper-silver alloy, thereby producing a dense diamond-copper composite material with a thermal conductivity comparable to synthetic diamond films at a fraction of the cost.

  19. Composite material having high thermal conductivity and process for fabricating same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Colella, N.J.; Davidson, H.L.; Kerns, J.A.; Makowiecki, D.M.

    1998-07-21

    A process is disclosed for fabricating a composite material such as that having high thermal conductivity and having specific application as a heat sink or heat spreader for high density integrated circuits. The composite material produced by this process has a thermal conductivity between that of diamond and copper, and basically consists of coated diamond particles dispersed in a high conductivity metal, such as copper. The composite material can be fabricated in small or relatively large sizes using inexpensive materials. The process basically consists, for example, of sputter coating diamond powder with several elements, including a carbide forming element and a brazeable material, compacting them into a porous body, and infiltrating the porous body with a suitable braze material, such as copper-silver alloy, thereby producing a dense diamond-copper composite material with a thermal conductivity comparable to synthetic diamond films at a fraction of the cost. 7 figs.

  20. Electrochemical aging of humectant-treated thermal-sprayed zinc anodes for cathodic protection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Covino, B.S. Jr.; Holcomb, G.R.; Bullard, S.J.; Russell, J.H.; Cramer, S.D.; Bennett, J.E.; Laylor, H.M.

    1999-07-01

    Humectants, substances that promote the retention of moisture, were studied to determine their effectiveness in improving the performance and extending the service life of both new and previously-aged thermal-sprayed Zn anodes used in impressed current (ICCP) and galvanic cathodic protection (GCP) systems for steel-reinforced concrete structures. Potassium acetate, lithium nitrate, and lithium bromide were applied to a series of thermal-sprayed Zn-coated concrete slabs before starting the ICCP or GCP experiment. All of the humectants altered the behavior of the thermal-sprayed Zn anodes. LiNO{sub 3} was the most beneficial for ICCP anodes and LiBr was the most beneficial for GCP anodes. Circuit resistances for ICCP anodes and galvanic current density for GCP anodes are compared on the basis of electrochemical aging, humidity, and type of humectant.

  1. Thermally cleavable surfactants

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McElhanon, James R.; Simmons, Blake A.; Zifer, Thomas; Jamison, Gregory M.; Loy, Douglas A.; Rahimian, Kamyar; Long, Timothy M.; Wheeler, David R.; Staiger, Chad L.

    2006-04-04

    Two new surfactant molecules are reported which contain thermally labile Diels-Alder adducts connecting the polar and non-polar sections of each molecule. The two surfactants possess identical non-polar dodecyl tail segments but exhibit different polar headgroups. The surfactants become soluble in water when anionic salts are formed through the deprotonation of the surfactant headgroups by the addition of potassium hydroxide. When either surfactant is exposed to temperature above about 60.degree. C., the retro Diels-Alder reaction occurs, yielding hydrophilic and hydrophobic fragments and the aqueous solutions of the surfactants subsequently exhibit loss of all surface-active behavior.

  2. Thermally cleavable surfactants

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McElhanon, James R.; Simmons, Blake A.; Zifer, Thomas; Jamison, Gregory M.; Loy, Douglas A.; Rahimian, Kamyar; Long, Timothy M.; Wheeler, David R.; Staiger, Chad L.

    2009-09-29

    Two new surfactant molecules are reported which contain thermally labile Diels-Alder adducts connecting the polar and non-polar sections of each molecule. The two surfactants possess identical non-polar dodecyl tail segments but exhibit different polar headgroups. The surfactants become soluble in water when anionic salts are formed through the deprotonation of the surfactant headgroups by the addition of potassium hydroxide. When either surfactant is exposed to temperature above about 60.degree. C., the retro Diels-Alder reaction occurs, yielding hydrophilic and hydrophobic fragments or the aqueous solutions of the surfactants subsequently exhibit loss of all surface-active behavior.

  3. Thermally cleavable surfactants

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McElhanon, James R.; Simmons, Blake A.; Zifer, Thomas; Jamison, Gregory M.; Loy, Douglas A.; Rahimian, Kamyar; Long, Timothy M.; Wheeler, David R.; Staiger, Chad L.

    2009-11-24

    Two new surfactant molecules are reported which contain thermally labile Diels-Alder adducts connecting the polar and non-polar sections of each molecule. The two surfactants possess identical non-polar dodecyl tail segments but exhibit different polar headgroups. The surfactants become soluble in water when anionic salts are formed through the deprotonation of the surfactant headgroups by the addition of potassium hydroxide. When either surfactant is exposed to temperature above about 60.degree. C., the retro Diels-Alder reaction occurs, yielding hydrophilic and hydrophobic fragments or the aqueous solutions of the surfactants subsequently exhibit loss of all surface-active behavior.

  4. Thermal transient anemometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bailey, J.L.; Vresk, J.

    1989-07-18

    A thermal transient anemometer is disclosed having a thermocouple probe which is utilized to measure the change in temperature over a period of time to provide a measure of fluid flow velocity. The thermocouple probe is located in the fluid flow path and pulsed to heat or cool the probe. The cooling of the heated probe or the heating of the cooled probe from the fluid flow over a period of time is measured to determine the fluid flow velocity. The probe is desired to be locally heated near the tip to increase the efficiency of devices incorporating the probe. 12 figs.

  5. Response microcantilever thermal detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cunningham, Joseph P.; Rajic, Slobodan; Datskos, Panagiotis G.; Evans III, Boyd M.

    2004-10-19

    A "folded leg" thermal detector microcantilever constructed of a substrate with at least one leg interposed between a fixed end and a deflective end, each leg having at least three essentially parallel leg segments interconnected on alternate opposing ends and aligned in a serpentine pattern with only the first leg segment attached to the fixed end and only the last leg segment attached to the deflective end. Alternate leg segment are coated on the pentalever with coating applied to the top of the first, third, and fifth leg segments of each leg and to the bottom of the second and fourth leg segments of each leg.

  6. Thermal transient anemometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bailey, James L.; Vresk, Josip

    1989-01-01

    A thermal transient anemometer having a thermocouple probe which is utilized to measure the change in temperature over a period of time to provide a measure of fluid flow velocity. The thermocouple probe is located in the fluid flow path and pulsed to heat or cool the probe. The cooling of the heated probe or the heating of the cooled probe from the fluid flow over a period of time is measured to determine the fluid flow velocity. The probe is desired to be locally heated near the tip to increase the efficiency of devices incorporating the probe.

  7. Thermally switchable dielectrics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dirk, Shawn M.; Johnson, Ross S.

    2013-04-30

    Precursor polymers to conjugated polymers, such as poly(phenylene vinylene), poly(poly(thiophene vinylene), poly(aniline vinylene), and poly(pyrrole vinylene), can be used as thermally switchable capacitor dielectrics that fail at a specific temperature due to the non-conjugated precursor polymer irreversibly switching from an insulator to the conjugated polymer, which serves as a bleed resistor. The precursor polymer is a good dielectric until it reaches a specific temperature determined by the stability of the leaving groups. Conjugation of the polymer backbone at high temperature effectively disables the capacitor, providing a `built-in` safety mechanism for electronic devices.

  8. Thermally-induced voltage alteration for analysis of microelectromechanical devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Walraven, Jeremy A.; Cole, Jr., Edward I.

    2002-01-01

    A thermally-induced voltage alteration (TIVA) apparatus and method are disclosed for analyzing a microelectromechanical (MEM) device with or without on-board integrated circuitry. One embodiment of the TIVA apparatus uses constant-current biasing of the MEM device while scanning a focused laser beam over electrically-active members therein to produce localized heating which alters the power demand of the MEM device and thereby changes the voltage of the constant-current source. This changing voltage of the constant-current source can be measured and used in combination with the position of the focused and scanned laser beam to generate an image of any short-circuit defects in the MEM device (e.g. due to stiction or fabrication defects). In another embodiment of the TIVA apparatus, an image can be generated directly from a thermoelectric potential produced by localized laser heating at the location of any short-circuit defects in the MEM device, without any need for supplying power to the MEM device. The TIVA apparatus can be formed, in part, from a scanning optical microscope, and has applications for qualification testing or failure analysis of MEM devices.

  9. Ultratough, Thermally Stable Polycrystalline Diamond/Silicon...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Ultratough, Thermally Stable Polycrystalline DiamondSilicon Carbide Nanocomposites for Drill Bits Ultratough, Thermally Stable Polycrystalline DiamondSilicon Carbide ...

  10. Thermomechanical measurements on thermal microactuators. (Technical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Thermal and mechanical measurements for the bent-beam polycrystalline silicon thermal ... SANDIA NATIONAL LABORATORIES; SILICON; VALIDATION Microactuators.; Ceramic ...

  11. Integrated Vehicle Thermal Management Systems (VTMS) Analysis...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Integrated Vehicle Thermal Management Power Electronic Thermal System Performance and Integration Characterization and Development of Advanced...

  12. NREL Works to Increase Electric Vehicle Efficiency Through Enhanced Thermal Management (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2014-06-01

    Researchers at NREL are providing new insight into how heating and cooling systems affect the distance that electric vehicles can travel on a single charge. Electric vehicle range can be reduced by as much as 68% per charge because of climate-control demands. NREL engineers are investigating opportunities to change this dynamic and increase driving range by improving vehicle thermal management. NREL experts are collaborating with automotive industry partners to investigate promising thermal management technologies and strategies, including zone-based cabin temperature controls, advanced heating and air conditioning controls, seat-based climate controls, vehicle thermal preconditioning, and thermal load reduction technologies.

  13. Thermal decomposition of electronic wastes: Mobile phone case and other parts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Molto, Julia; Egea, Silvia; Conesa, Juan Antonio; Font, Rafael

    2011-12-15

    Highlights: > Pyrolysis and combustion of different parts of mobile phones produce important quantities of CO and CO{sub 2}. > Naphthalene is the most abundant PAH obtained in the thermal treatment of mobile phones. > Higher combustion temperature increases the chlorinated species evolved. - Abstract: Pyrolysis and combustion runs at 850 {sup o}C in a horizontal laboratory furnace were carried out on different parts of a mobile phone (printed circuit board, mobile case and a mixture of both materials). The analyses of the carbon oxides, light hydrocarbons, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, polychlorodibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), and dioxin-like PCBs are shown. Regarding semivolatile compounds, phenol, styrene, and its derivatives had the highest yields. In nearly all the runs the same PAHs were identified, naphthalene being the most common component obtained. Combustion of the printed circuit board produced the highest emission factor of PCDD/Fs, possibly due to the high copper content.

  14. Dynamic Underground Stripping Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aines, R.; Newmark, R.; McConachie, W.; Rice, D.; Ramirez, A.; Siegel, W.; Buettner, M.; Daily, W.; Krauter, P.; Folsom, E.; Boegel, A.J.; Bishop, D. ); udel, K. . Dept. of Mechanical Engineering)

    1992-03-01

    LLNL is collaborating with the UC Berkeley College of Engineering to develop and demonstrate a system of thermal remediation and underground imaging techniques for use in rapid cleanup of localized underground spills. Called Dynamic Stripping'' to reflect the rapid and controllable nature of the process, it will combine steam injection, direct electrical heating, and tomographic geophysical imaging in a cleanup of the LLNL gasoline spill. In the first 8 months of the project, a Clean Site engineering test was conducted to prove the field application of the techniques before moving to the contaminated site in FY 92.

  15. Electric Vehicle Battery Thermal Issues and Thermal Management Techniques (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rugh, J. P.; Pesaran, A.; Smith, K.

    2013-07-01

    This presentation examines the issues concerning thermal management in electric drive vehicles and management techniques for improving the life of a Li-ion battery in an EDV.

  16. Simple Dynamic Gasifier Model That Runs in Aspen Dynamics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robinson, P.J.; Luyben, W.L.

    2008-10-15

    Gasification (or partial oxidation) is a vital component of 'clean coal' technology. Sulfur and nitrogen emissions can be reduced, overall energy efficiency is increased, and carbon dioxide recovery and sequestration are facilitated. Gasification units in an electric power generation plant produce a fuel for driving combustion turbines. Gasification units in a chemical plant generate gas, which can be used to produce a wide spectrum of chemical products. Future plants are predicted to be hybrid power/chemical plants with gasification as the key unit operation. The widely used process simulator Aspen Plus provides a library of models that can be used to develop an overall gasifier model that handles solids. So steady-state design and optimization studies of processes with gasifiers can be undertaken. This paper presents a simple approximate method for achieving the objective of having a gasifier model that can be exported into Aspen Dynamics. The basic idea is to use a high molecular weight hydrocarbon that is present in the Aspen library as a pseudofuel. This component should have the same 1:1 hydrogen-to-carbon ratio that is found in coal and biomass. For many plantwide dynamic studies, a rigorous high-fidelity dynamic model of the gasifier is not needed because its dynamics are very fast and the gasifier gas volume is a relatively small fraction of the total volume of the entire plant. The proposed approximate model captures the essential macroscale thermal, flow, composition, and pressure dynamics. This paper does not attempt to optimize the design or control of gasifiers but merely presents an idea of how to dynamically simulate coal gasification in an approximate way.

  17. THERMAL ANALYSIS OF GEOLOGIC HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE PACKAGES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hensel, S.; Lee, S.

    2010-04-20

    The engineering design of disposal of the high level waste (HLW) packages in a geologic repository requires a thermal analysis to provide the temperature history of the packages. Calculated temperatures are used to demonstrate compliance with criteria for waste acceptance into the geologic disposal gallery system and as input to assess the transient thermal characteristics of the vitrified HLW Package. The objective of the work was to evaluate the thermal performance of the supercontainer containing the vitrified HLW in a non-backfilled and unventilated underground disposal gallery. In order to achieve the objective, transient computational models for a geologic vitrified HLW package were developed by using a computational fluid dynamics method, and calculations for the HLW disposal gallery of the current Belgian geological repository reference design were performed. An initial two-dimensional model was used to conduct some parametric sensitivity studies to better understand the geologic system's thermal response. The effect of heat decay, number of co-disposed supercontainers, domain size, humidity, thermal conductivity and thermal emissivity were studied. Later, a more accurate three-dimensional model was developed by considering the conduction-convection cooling mechanism coupled with radiation, and the effect of the number of supercontainers (3, 4 and 8) was studied in more detail, as well as a bounding case with zero heat flux at both ends. The modeling methodology and results of the sensitivity studies will be presented.

  18. Thermal protection apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bennett, Gloria A.; Moore, Troy K.

    1988-01-01

    An apparatus for thermally protecting heat sensitive components of tools. The apparatus comprises a Dewar for holding the heat sensitive components. The Dewar has spaced-apart inside and outside walls, an open top end and a bottom end. An insulating plug is located in the top end. The inside wall has portions defining an inside wall aperture located at the bottom of the Dewar and the outside wall has portions defining an outside wall aperture located at the bottom of the Dewar. A bottom connector has inside and outside components. The inside component sealably engages the inside wall aperture and the outside component sealably engages the outside wall aperture. The inside component is operatively connected to the heat sensitive components and to the outside component. The connections can be made with optical fibers or with electrically conducting wires.

  19. THERMALLY OPERATED VAPOR VALVE

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dorward, J.G. Jr.

    1959-02-10

    A valve is presented for use in a calutron to supply and control the vapor to be ionized. The invention provides a means readily operable from the exterior of the vacuum tank of the apparatuss without mechanical transmission of forces for the quick and accurate control of the ionizing arc by a corresponding control of gas flow theretos thereby producing an effective way of carefully regulating the operation of the calutron. The invention consists essentially of a tube member extending into the charge bottle of a calutron devices having a poppet type valve closing the lower end of the tube. An electrical heating means is provided in the valve stem to thermally vary the length of the stem to regulate the valve opening to control the flow of material from the charge bottle.

  20. SUPERFAST THERMALIZATION OF PLASMA

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chang, C.C.

    1962-06-12

    A method is given for the superfast thermalization of plasma by shock conversion of the kinetic energy stored in rotating plasma rings or plasmoids colliding at near supersonic speeds in a containment field to heat energy in the resultant confined plasma mass. The method includes means for generating rotating plasmoids at the opposite ends of a Pyrotron or Astron containment field. The plasmoids are magnetically accelerated towards each other into the opposite ends of time containment field. During acceleration of the plasmoids toward the center of the containment field, the intensity of the field is sequentially increased to adiabatically compress the plasmoids and increase the plasma energy. The plasmoids hence collide with a violent shock at the eenter of the containment field, causing the substantial kinetic energy stored in the plasmoids to be converted to heat in the resultant plasma mass. (AEC)

  1. Thermally stabilized heliostat

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, Alfred J.

    1983-01-01

    An improvement in a heliostat having a main support structure and pivoting and tilting motors and gears and a mirror module for reflecting solar energy onto a collector, the improvement being characterized by an internal support structure within each mirror module and front and back sheets attached to the internal support structure, the front and back sheets having the same coefficient of thermal expansion such that no curvature is induced by temperature change, and a layer of adhesive adhering the mirror to the front sheet. The adhesive is water repellent and has adequate set strength to support the mirror but has sufficient shear tolerance to permit the differential expansion of the mirror and the front sheet without inducing stresses or currature effect. The adhesive also serves to dampen fluttering of the mirror and to protect the mirror backside against the adverse effects of weather. Also disclosed are specific details of the preferred embodiment.

  2. Thermal barrier coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alvin, Mary Anne

    2010-06-22

    This disclosure addresses the issue of providing a metallic-ceramic overlay coating that potentially serves as an interface or bond coat layer to provide enhanced oxidation resistance to the underlying superalloy substrate via the formation of a diffusion barrier regime within the supporting base material. Furthermore, the metallic-ceramic coating is expected to limit the growth of a continuous thermally grown oxide (TGO) layer that has been primarily considered to be the principal cause for failure of existing TBC systems. Compositional compatibility of the metallic-ceramic with traditional yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) top coats is provided to further limit debond or spallation of the coating during operational use. A metallic-ceramic architecture is disclosed wherein enhanced oxidation resistance is imparted to the surface of nickel-based superalloy or single crystal metal substrate, with simultaneous integration of the yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) within the metallic-ceramic overlayer.

  3. Actively driven thermal radiation shield

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Madden, Norman W. (Livermore, CA); Cork, Christopher P. (Pleasant Hill, CA); Becker, John A. (Alameda, CA); Knapp, David A. (Livermore, CA)

    2002-01-01

    A thermal radiation shield for cooled portable gamma-ray spectrometers. The thermal radiation shield is located intermediate the vacuum enclosure and detector enclosure, is actively driven, and is useful in reducing the heat load to mechanical cooler and additionally extends the lifetime of the mechanical cooler. The thermal shield is electrically-powered and is particularly useful for portable solid-state gamma-ray detectors or spectrometers that dramatically reduces the cooling power requirements. For example, the operating shield at 260K (40K below room temperature) will decrease the thermal radiation load to the detector by 50%, which makes possible portable battery operation for a mechanically cooled Ge spectrometer.

  4. Overview of solar thermal technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None, None

    2009-01-18

    The solar-thermal overview section of the Renewable Energy Technology Characterizations describes the technical and economic status of this emerging renewable energy option for electricity supply.

  5. The Envelope Thermal Test Unit (ETTU): Full Measurement of WallPerform ance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sonderegger, R.C.; Sherman, M.H.; Adams, J.W.

    1981-10-01

    There are many ways of calculating the dynamic thermal performance of walls and many ways of measuring the performance of walls in the laboratory, relatively few field measurements have been made of the dynamic performance of wall in situ. Measuring the thermal performance of walls in situ poses two separate problems: measuring the heat fluxes and surface temperatures of the wall, and reducing this data set into usable parameters. We have solved the first problem by developing the Envelope Thermal Test Unit (ETTU). ETTU consists of two specially constructed polystyrene blankets, 1.2m square, placed on either side of the test wall that both control and measure the surface fluxes and surface temperatures of the wall. To solve the second problem we have developed a simplified dynamic model that describes the thermal performance of a wall in terms of its steady-state conductance, a time constant, and some storage terms. We have used ETTU in the field to measure the thermal performance of walls, and have applied our simplified analysis to calculate simplified thermal parameters from this data set. In this report, we present the in-situ measurements made to date using ETTU, and the resulting model predictions. The agreement between measured and predicted surface fluxes demonstrates the ability of our test unit and analytic model to describe the dynamic performance of walls in situ.

  6. Three-Dimensional Integration Technology for Advanced Focal Planes and Integrated Circuits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keast, Craig

    2007-02-28

    Over the last five years MIT Lincoln Laboratory (MIT-LL) has developed a three-dimensional (3D) circuit integration technology that exploits the advantages of silicon-on-insulator (SOI) technology to enable wafer-level stacking and micrometer-scale electrical interconnection of fully fabricated circuit wafers. Advanced focal plane arrays have been the first applications to exploit the benefits of this 3D integration technology because the massively parallel information flow present in 2D imaging arrays maps very nicely into a 3D computational structure as information flows from circuit-tier to circuit-tier in the z-direction. To date, the MIT-LL 3D integration technology has been used to fabricate four different focal planes including: a 2-tier 64 x 64 imager with fully parallel per-pixel A/D conversion; a 3-tier 640 x 480 imager consisting of an imaging tier, an A/D conversion tier, and a digital signal processing tier; a 2-tier 1024 x 1024 pixel, 4-side-abutable imaging modules for tiling large mosaic focal planes, and a 3-tier Geiger-mode avalanche photodiode (APD) 3-D LIDAR array, using a 30 volt APD tier, a 3.3 volt CMOS tier, and a 1.5 volt CMOS tier. Recently, the 3D integration technology has been made available to the circuit design research community through DARPA-sponsored Multiproject fabrication runs. The first Multiproject Run (3DL1) completed fabrication in early 2006 and included over 30 different circuit designs from 21 different research groups. 3D circuit concepts explored in this run included stacked memories, field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs), and mixed-signal circuits. The second Multiproject Run (3DM2) is currently in fabrication and includes particle detector readouts designed by Fermilab. This talk will provide a brief overview of MIT-LL's 3D-integration process, discuss some of the focal plane applications where the technology is being applied, and provide a summary of some of the Multiproject Run circuit results.

  7. Computational design and experimental validation of new thermal barrier systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guo, Shengmin

    2015-03-31

    The focus of this project is on the development of a reliable and efficient ab initio based computational high temperature material design method which can be used to assist the Thermal Barrier Coating (TBC) bond-coat and top-coat design. Experimental evaluations on the new TBCs are conducted to confirm the new TBCs’ properties. Southern University is the subcontractor on this project with a focus on the computational simulation method development. We have performed ab initio density functional theory (DFT) method and molecular dynamics simulation on screening the top coats and bond coats for gas turbine thermal barrier coating design and validation applications. For experimental validations, our focus is on the hot corrosion performance of different TBC systems. For example, for one of the top coatings studied, we examined the thermal stability of TaZr2.75O8 and confirmed it’s hot corrosion performance.

  8. NREL: Transportation Research - Vehicle Thermal Management Models and Tools

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Models and Tools image of three models of semi truck cabs. Truck cab models drawn from CAD geometry using CoolCalc (left and center), and a model with overlay of computational fluid dynamics flow (right) indicate areas of heat absorption and loss. Illustrations by Jason Lustbader, Matt Jeffers, and Larry Chaney, NREL The National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) vehicle thermal management modeling tools allow researchers to assess the trade-offs and calculate the potential benefits of

  9. Solar Thermal Collector Manufacturing Activities

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    6 Number of companies expecting to introduce new solar new solar thermal collector products in 2010 Low-Temperature Collectors 4 Medium-Temperature Collectors 16 High-Temperature Collectors 11 Noncollector Components 12 Form EIA-63A, "Annual Solar Thermal Collector Manufacturers Survey." New Product Type Number of Companies Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration,

  10. Solar Thermal Collector Manufacturing Activities

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    8 Employment in the solar thermal collector industry, 2000 - 2009 2000 284 2001 256 2002 356 2003 287 2004 317 2005 353 2006 1,069 2007 686 2008 1,083 2009 1,321 Year Person-Years Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-63A, "Annual Solar Thermal

  11. Peg supported thermal insulation panel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nowobilski, J.J.; Owens, W.J.

    1985-04-30

    A thermal insulation panel which is lightweight, load bearing, accommodates thermal stress, and has excellent high temperature insulation capability comprises high performance insulation between thin metal walls supported by high density, high strength glass pegs made in compliance with specified conditions of time, temperature and pressure. 2 figs.

  12. Peg supported thermal insulation panel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nowobilski, Jeffert J.; Owens, William J.

    1985-01-01

    A thermal insulation panel which is lightweight, load bearing, accommodates thermal stress, and has excellent high temperature insulation capability comprising high performance insulation between thin metal walls supported by high density, high strength glass pegs made in compliance with specified conditions of time, temperature and pressure.

  13. Characterization of near-terahertz complementary metal-oxide semiconductor circuits using a Fourier-transform interferometer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arenas, D. J.; Shim, Dongha; Koukis, D. I.; Seok, Eunyoung; Tanner, D. B.; O, Kenneth K.

    2011-10-24

    Optical methods for measuring of the emission spectra of oscillator circuits operating in the 400-600 GHz range are described. The emitted power from patch antennas included in the circuits is measured by placing the circuit in the source chamber of a Fourier-transform interferometric spectrometer. The results show that this optical technique is useful for measuring circuits pushing the frontier in operating frequency. The technique also allows the characterization of the circuit by measuring the power radiated in the fundamental and in the harmonics. This capability is useful for oscillator architectures designed to cancel the fundamental and use higher harmonics. The radiated power was measured using two techniques: direct measurement of the power by placing the device in front of a bolometer of known responsivity, and by comparison to the estimated power from blackbody sources. The latter technique showed that these circuits have higher emission than blackbody sources at the operating frequencies, and, therefore, offer potential spectroscopy applications.

  14. Thermal energy storage apparatus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thoma, P.E.

    1980-04-22

    A thermal energy storage apparatus and method employs a container formed of soda lime glass and having a smooth, defectfree inner wall. The container is filled substantially with a material that can be supercooled to a temperature greater than 5* F., such as ethylene carbonate, benzophenone, phenyl sulfoxide, di-2-pyridyl ketone, phenyl ether, diphenylmethane, ethylene trithiocarbonate, diphenyl carbonate, diphenylamine, 2benzoylpyridine, 3-benzoylpyridine, 4-benzoylpyridine, 4methylbenzophenone, 4-bromobenzophenone, phenyl salicylate, diphenylcyclopropenone, benzyl sulfoxide, 4-methoxy-4prmethylbenzophenone, n-benzoylpiperidine, 3,3pr,4,4pr,5 pentamethoxybenzophenone, 4,4'-bis-(Dimethylamino)-benzophenone, diphenylboron bromide, benzalphthalide, benzophenone oxime, azobenzene. A nucleating means such as a seed crystal, a cold finger or pointed member is movable into the supercoolable material. A heating element heats the supercoolable material above the melting temperature to store heat. The material is then allowed to cool to a supercooled temperature below the melting temperature, but above the natural, spontaneous nucleating temperature. The liquid in each container is selectively initiated into nucleation to release the heat of fusion. The heat may be transferred directly or through a heat exchange unit within the material.

  15. Microelectromechanical (MEM) thermal actuator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Garcia, Ernest J.; Fulcher, Clay W. G.

    2012-07-31

    Microelectromechanical (MEM) buckling beam thermal actuators are disclosed wherein the buckling direction of a beam is constrained to a desired direction of actuation, which can be in-plane or out-of-plane with respect to a support substrate. The actuators comprise as-fabricated, linear beams of uniform cross section supported above the substrate by supports which rigidly attach a beam to the substrate. The beams can be heated by methods including the passage of an electrical current through them. The buckling direction of an initially straight beam upon heating and expansion is controlled by incorporating one or more directional constraints attached to the substrate and proximal to the mid-point of the beam. In the event that the beam initially buckles in an undesired direction, deformation of the beam induced by contact with a directional constraint generates an opposing force to re-direct the buckling beam into the desired direction. The displacement and force generated by the movement of the buckling beam can be harnessed to perform useful work, such as closing contacts in an electrical switch.

  16. Solar Thermal Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biesinger, K.; Cuppett, D.; Dyer, D.

    2012-01-30

    HVAC Retrofit and Energy Efficiency Upgrades at Clark High School, Las Vegas, Nevada The overall objectives of this project are to increase usage of alternative/renewable fuels, create a better and more reliable learning environment for the students, and reduce energy costs. Utilizing the grant resources and local bond revenues, the District proposes to reduce electricity consumption by installing within the existing limited space, one principal energy efficient 100 ton adsorption chiller working in concert with two 500 ton electric chillers. The main heating source will be primarily from low nitrogen oxide (NOX), high efficiency natural gas fired boilers. With the use of this type of chiller, the electric power and cost requirements will be greatly reduced. To provide cooling to the information technology centers and equipment rooms of the school during off-peak hours, the District will install water source heat pumps. In another measure to reduce the cooling requirements at Clark High School, the District will replace single pane glass and metal panels with ñ€˜Kalwallñ€™ building panels. An added feature of the ñ€œKalwallñ€ system is that it will allow for natural day lighting in the student center. This system will significantly reduce thermal heat/cooling loss and control solar heat gain, thus delivering significant savings in heating ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) costs.

  17. Dynamic Modeling in Solid-Oxide Fuel Cells Controller Design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Ning; Li, Qinghe; Sun, Xin; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

    2007-06-28

    In this paper, a dynamic model of the solid-oxide fuel cell (SOFC) power unit is developed for the purpose of designing a controller to regulate fuel flow rate, fuel temperature, air flow rate, and air temperature to maintain the SOFC stack temperature, fuel utilization rate, and voltage within operation limits. A lumped model is used to consider the thermal dynamics and the electro-chemial dynamics inside an SOFC power unit. The fluid dynamics at the fuel and air inlets are considered by using the in-flow ramp-rates.

  18. Serpentine and corduroy circuits to enhance the stretchablity of a stretchable electronic device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maghribi, Mariam N.; Krulevitch, Peter A.; Wilson, Thomas S.; Hamilton, Julie K.; Park, Christina

    2011-01-18

    A stretchable electronic apparatus and method of producing the apparatus. The apparatus has a central longitudinal axis and the apparatus is stretchable in a longitudinal direction generally aligned with the central longitudinal axis. The apparatus comprises a stretchable polymer body, and at least one circuit line operatively connected to the stretchable polymer body, the at least one circuit line extending in the longitudinal direction and having a longitudinal component that extends in the longitudinal direction and having an offset component that is at an angle to the longitudinal direction, the longitudinal component and the offset component allowing the apparatus to stretch in the longitudinal direction while maintaining the integrity of the at least one circuit line.

  19. Serpentine and corduroy circuits to enhance the stretchability of a stretchable electronic device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maghribi, Mariam N.; Krulevitch, Peter A.; Wilson, Thomas S.; Hamilton, Julie K. , Park; Christina

    2007-09-04

    A stretchable electronic apparatus and method of producing the apparatus. The apparatus has a central longitudinal axis and the apparatus is stretchable in a longitudinal direction generally aligned with the central longitudinal axis. The apparatus comprises a stretchable polymer body, and at least one circuit line operatively connected to the stretchable polymer body, the at least one circuit line extending in the longitudinal direction and having a longitudinal component that extends in the longitudinal direction and having an offset component that is at an angle to the longitudinal direction, the longitudinal component and the offset component allowing the apparatus to stretch in the longitudinal direction while maintaining the integrity of the at least one circuit line.

  20. Variable cooling circuit for thermoelectric generator and engine and method of control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prior, Gregory P

    2012-10-30

    An apparatus is provided that includes an engine, an exhaust system, and a thermoelectric generator (TEG) operatively connected to the exhaust system and configured to allow exhaust gas flow therethrough. A first radiator is operatively connected to the engine. An openable and closable engine valve is configured to open to permit coolant to circulate through the engine and the first radiator when coolant temperature is greater than a predetermined minimum coolant temperature. A first and a second valve are controllable to route cooling fluid from the TEG to the engine through coolant passages under a first set of operating conditions to establish a first cooling circuit, and from the TEG to a second radiator through at least some other coolant passages under a second set of operating conditions to establish a second cooling circuit. A method of controlling a cooling circuit is also provided.

  1. Circuits and methods for determination and control of signal transition rates in electrochemical cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jamison, David Kay

    2016-04-12

    A charge/discharge input is for respectively supplying charge to, or drawing charge from, an electrochemical cell. A transition modifying circuit is coupled between the charge/discharge input and a terminal of the electrochemical cell and includes at least one of an inductive constituent, a capacitive constituent and a resistive constituent selected to generate an adjusted transition rate on the terminal sufficient to reduce degradation of a charge capacity characteristic of the electrochemical cell. A method determines characteristics of the transition modifying circuit. A degradation characteristic of the electrochemical cell is analyzed relative to a transition rate of the charge/discharge input applied to the electrochemical cell. An adjusted transition rate is determined for a signal to be applied to the electrochemical cell that will reduce the degradation characteristic. At least one of an inductance, a capacitance, and a resistance is selected for the transition modifying circuit to achieve the adjusted transition rate.

  2. Rotor bore and turbine rotor wheel/spacer heat exchange flow circuit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Caruso, Philip M.; Eldrid, Sacheverel Quentin; Ladhani, Azad A.; DeMania, Alan Richard; Palmer, Gene David; Wilson, Ian David; Rathbun, Lisa Shirley; Akin, Robert Craig

    2002-01-01

    In a turbine having closed-circuit steam-cooling passages about the rim of the rotor during steady-state operation, compressor discharge air is supplied to the rotor bore for passage radially outwardly into the wheel space cavities between the wheels and spacers. Communicating slots and channels in the spacers and wheels at circumferentially spaced positions enable egress of the compressor discharge air into the hot gas flow path. At turbine startup, cooling air flows through the closed-circuit steam passages to cool the outer rim of the rotor while compressor discharge air pre-warms the wheels and spacers. At steady-state, cooling steam is supplied in the closed-circuit steam-cooling passages and compressor discharge air is supplied through the bore and into the wheel space cavities to cool the rotor.

  3. Method and apparatus for in-system redundant array repair on integrated circuits

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bright, Arthur A.; Crumley, Paul G.; Dombrowa, Marc B.; Douskey, Steven M.; Haring, Rudolf A.; Oakland, Steven F.; Ouellette, Michael R.; Strissel, Scott A.

    2008-07-29

    Disclosed is a method of repairing an integrated circuit of the type comprising of a multitude of memory arrays and a fuse box holding control data for controlling redundancy logic of the arrays. The method comprises the steps of providing the integrated circuit with a control data selector for passing the control data from the fuse box to the memory arrays; providing a source of alternate control data, external of the integrated circuit; and connecting the source of alternate control data to the control data selector. The method comprises the further step of, at a given time, passing the alternate control data from the source thereof, through the control data selector and to the memory arrays to control the redundancy logic of the memory arrays.

  4. Method and apparatus for in-system redundant array repair on integrated circuits

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bright, Arthur A.; Crumley, Paul G.; Dombrowa, Marc B.; Douskey, Steven M.; Haring, Rudolf A.; Oakland, Steven F.; Ouellette, Michael R.; Strissel, Scott A.

    2008-07-08

    Disclosed is a method of repairing an integrated circuit of the type comprising of a multitude of memory arrays and a fuse box holding control data for controlling redundancy logic of the arrays. The method comprises the steps of providing the integrated circuit with a control data selector for passing the control data from the fuse box to the memory arrays; providing a source of alternate control data, external of the integrated circuit; and connecting the source of alternate control data to the control data selector. The method comprises the further step of, at a given time, passing the alternate control data from the source thereof, through the control data selector and to the memory arrays to control the redundancy logic of the memory arrays.

  5. Method and apparatus for in-system redundant array repair on integrated circuits

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bright, Arthur A.; Crumley, Paul G.; Dombrowa, Marc B.; Douskey, Steven M.; Haring, Rudolf A.; Oakland, Steven F.; Ouellette, Michael R.; Strissel, Scott A.

    2007-12-18

    Disclosed is a method of repairing an integrated circuit of the type comprising of a multitude of memory arrays and a fuse box holding control data for controlling redundancy logic of the arrays. The method comprises the steps of providing the integrated circuit with a control data selector for passing the control data from the fuse box to the memory arrays; providing a source of alternate control data, external of the integrated circuit; and connecting the source of alternate control data to the control data selector. The method comprises the further step of, at a given time, passing the alternate control data from the source thereof, through the control data selector and to the memory arrays to control the redundancy logic of the memory arrays.

  6. Method for etching thin films of niobium and niobium-containing compounds for preparing superconductive circuits

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kampwirth, Robert T.; Schuller, Ivan K.; Falco, Charles M.

    1981-01-01

    An improved method of preparing thin film superconducting electrical circuits of niobium or niobium compounds in which a thin film of the niobium or niobium compound is applied to a nonconductive substrate, and covered with a layer of photosensitive material. The sensitive material is in turn covered with a circuit pattern exposed and developed to form a mask of the circuit in photoresistive material on the surface of the film. The unmasked excess niobium film is removed by contacting the substrate with an aqueous etching solution of nitric acid, sulfuric acid and hydrogen fluoride, which will rapidly etch the niobium compound without undercutting the photoresist. A modification of the etching solution will permit thin films to be lifted from the substrate without further etching.

  7. Method for etching thin films of niboium and niobium-containing compounds for preparing superconductive circuits

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kampwirth, R.T.; Schuller, I.K.; Falco, C.M.

    1979-11-23

    An improved method of preparing thin film superconducting electrical circuits of niobium or niobium compounds is provided in which a thin film of the niobium or niobium compound is applied to a nonconductive substrate and covered with a layer of photosensitive material. The sensitive material is in turn covered with a circuit pattern exposed and developed to form a mask of the circuit in photoresistive material on the surface of the film. The unmasked excess niobium film is removed by contacting the substrate with an aqueous etching solution of nitric acid, sulfuric acid, and hydrogen fluoride, which will rapidly etch the niobium compound without undercutting the photoresist. A modification of the etching solution will permit thin films to be lifted from the substrate without further etching.

  8. Thermal to electricity conversion using thermal magnetic properties

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    West, Phillip B [Idaho Falls, ID; Svoboda, John [Idaho Falls, ID

    2010-04-27

    A system for the generation of Electricity from Thermal Energy using the thermal magnetic properties of a Ferromagnetic, Electrically Conductive Material (FECM) in one or more Magnetic Fields. A FECM is exposed to one or more Magnetic Fields. Thermal Energy is applied to a portion of the FECM heating the FECM above its Curie Point. The FECM, now partially paramagnetic, moves under the force of the one or more Magnetic Fields. The movement of the FECM induces an electrical current through the FECM, generating Electricity.

  9. Review of computational thermal-hydraulic modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keefer, R.H.; Keeton, L.W.

    1995-12-31

    Corrosion of heat transfer tubing in nuclear steam generators has been a persistent problem in the power generation industry, assuming many different forms over the years depending on chemistry and operating conditions. Whatever the corrosion mechanism, a fundamental understanding of the process is essential to establish effective management strategies. To gain this fundamental understanding requires an integrated investigative approach that merges technology from many diverse scientific disciplines. An important aspect of an integrated approach is characterization of the corrosive environment at high temperature. This begins with a thorough understanding of local thermal-hydraulic conditions, since they affect deposit formation, chemical concentration, and ultimately corrosion. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) can and should play an important role in characterizing the thermal-hydraulic environment and in predicting the consequences of that environment,. The evolution of CFD technology now allows accurate calculation of steam generator thermal-hydraulic conditions and the resulting sludge deposit profiles. Similar calculations are also possible for model boilers, so that tests can be designed to be prototypic of the heat exchanger environment they are supposed to simulate. This paper illustrates the utility of CFD technology by way of examples in each of these two areas. This technology can be further extended to produce more detailed local calculations of the chemical environment in support plate crevices, beneath thick deposits on tubes, and deep in tubesheet sludge piles. Knowledge of this local chemical environment will provide the foundation for development of mechanistic corrosion models, which can be used to optimize inspection and cleaning schedules and focus the search for a viable fix.

  10. Tuning Interfacial Thermal Conductance of Graphene Embedded in Soft Materials by Vacancy Defects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Ying; Hu, Chongze; Huang, Jingsong; Sumpter, Bobby G; Qiao, Rui

    2015-01-01

    Nanocomposites based on graphene dispersed in matrices of soft materials are promising thermal management materials. Their effective thermal conductivity depends on both the thermal conductivity of graphene and the conductance of the thermal transport across graphene-matrix interfaces. Here we report on molecular dynamics simulations of the thermal transport across the interfaces between defected graphene and soft materials in two different modes: in the across mode, heat enters graphene from one side of its basal plane and leaves through the other side; in the non-across mode, heat enters or leaves a graphene simultaneously from both sides of its basal plane. We show that, as the density of vacancy defects in graphene increases from 0 to 8%, the conductance of the interfacial thermal transport in the across mode increases from 160.4 16 to 207.8 11 MW/m2K, while that in the non-across mode increases from 7.2 0.1 to 17.8 0.6 MW/m2K. The molecular mechanisms for these variations of thermal conductance are clarified by using the phonon density of states and structural characteristics of defected graphenes. On the basis of these results and effective medium theory, we show that it is possible to enhance the effective thermal conductivity of thermal nanocomposites by tuning the density of vacancy defects in graphene despite the fact that graphene s thermal conductivity always decreases as vacancy defects are introduced.

  11. Tuning Interfacial Thermal Conductance of Graphene Embedded in Soft Materials by Vacancy Defects

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Liu, Ying; Hu, Chongze; Huang, Jingsong; Sumpter, Bobby G; Qiao, Rui

    2015-01-01

    Nanocomposites based on graphene dispersed in matrices of soft materials are promising thermal management materials. Their effective thermal conductivity depends on both the thermal conductivity of graphene and the conductance of the thermal transport across graphene-matrix interfaces. Here we report on molecular dynamics simulations of the thermal transport across the interfaces between defected graphene and soft materials in two different modes: in the across mode, heat enters graphene from one side of its basal plane and leaves through the other side; in the non-across mode, heat enters or leaves a graphene simultaneously from both sides of its basal plane. Wemore » show that, as the density of vacancy defects in graphene increases from 0 to 8%, the conductance of the interfacial thermal transport in the across mode increases from 160.4 16 to 207.8 11 MW/m2K, while that in the non-across mode increases from 7.2 0.1 to 17.8 0.6 MW/m2K. The molecular mechanisms for these variations of thermal conductance are clarified by using the phonon density of states and structural characteristics of defected graphenes. On the basis of these results and effective medium theory, we show that it is possible to enhance the effective thermal conductivity of thermal nanocomposites by tuning the density of vacancy defects in graphene despite the fact that graphene s thermal conductivity always decreases as vacancy defects are introduced.« less

  12. Solid-state circuit breaker with current-limiting characteristic using a superconducting coil

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boenig, H.J.

    1982-08-16

    A thyristor bridge interposes an ac source and a load. A series connected DC source and superconducting coil within the bridge biases the thyristors thereof so as to permit bidirectional ac current flow therethrough under normal operating conditions. Upon a fault condition a control circuit triggers the thyristors so as to reduce ac current flow therethrough to zero in less than two eyeles and to open the bridge thereafter. Upon a temporary overload condition the control circuit triggers the thyristors so as to limit ac current flow therethrough to an acceptable level.

  13. Solid-state circuit breaker with current limiting characteristic using a superconducting coil

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boenig, Heinrich J.

    1984-01-01

    A thyristor bridge interposes an ac source and a load. A series connected DC source and superconducting coil within the bridge biases the thyristors thereof so as to permit bidirectional ac current flow therethrough under normal operating conditions. Upon a fault condition a control circuit triggers the thyristors so as to reduce ac current flow therethrough to zero in less than two cycles and to open the bridge thereafter. Upon a temporary overload condition the control circuit triggers the thyristors so as to limit ac current flow therethrough to an acceptable level.

  14. Magnetic force microscopy method and apparatus to detect and image currents in integrated circuits

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Campbell, A.N.; Anderson, R.E.; Cole, E.I. Jr.

    1995-11-07

    A magnetic force microscopy method and improved magnetic tip for detecting and quantifying internal magnetic fields resulting from current of integrated circuits are disclosed. Detection of the current is used for failure analysis, design verification, and model validation. The interaction of the current on the integrated chip with a magnetic field can be detected using a cantilevered magnetic tip. Enhanced sensitivity for both ac and dc current and voltage detection is achieved with voltage by an ac coupling or a heterodyne technique. The techniques can be used to extract information from analog circuits. 17 figs.

  15. Equivalent circuit analysis of radiative coupling in monolithic tandem solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lan, Dongchen E-mail: d.lan@unswalumni.com; Green, Martin A.

    2015-06-29

    As solar cell efficiency improves towards the Shockley-Queisser limit, so does the radiative efficiency of the cell. For tandem stacks of cells where energy conversion efficiency now exceeds 46%, radiative coupling between the cells is becoming increasingly important to consider in cell design, measurement, and performance prediction. We show how an equivalent circuit model can capture the complex radiative interactions between cells in such tandem stacks, allowing more insight into the impact on cell performance. The circuit's use is demonstrated by deriving results relevant to the critical step of eliminating coupling effects from measured cell spectral responses.

  16. Comparator circuits with local ramp buffering for a column-parallel single slope ADC

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Milkov, Mihail M.

    2016-04-26

    A comparator circuit suitable for use in a column-parallel single-slope analog-to-digital converter comprises a comparator, an input voltage sampling switch, a sampling capacitor arranged to store a voltage which varies with an input voltage when the sampling switch is closed, and a local ramp buffer arranged to buffer a global voltage ramp applied at an input. The comparator circuit is arranged such that its output toggles when the buffered global voltage ramp exceeds the stored voltage. Both DC- and AC-coupled comparator embodiments are disclosed.

  17. Apparatus for controlling the firing of rectifiers in polyphase rectifying circuits

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yarema, R.J.

    1979-09-18

    A polyphase rectifier is controlled with precision by a circuit that filters and shifts a reference signal associated with each phase and that starts a ramp signal at a zero crossing of the shifted reference signal. The difference between the ramp signal and an external trigger signal is used to generate a pulse that switches power rectifiers into conduction. The circuit reduces effects of variations that introduce subharmonics into a rectified signal and it can be used for constant or time-varying external trigger signals.

  18. Turbine combustor with fuel nozzles having inner and outer fuel circuits

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Uhm, Jong Ho; Johnson, Thomas Edward; Kim, Kwanwoo

    2013-12-24

    A combustor cap assembly for a turbine engine includes a combustor cap and a plurality of fuel nozzles mounted on the combustor cap. One or more of the fuel nozzles would include two separate fuel circuits which are individually controllable. The combustor cap assembly would be controlled so that individual fuel circuits of the fuel nozzles are operated or deliberately shut off to provide for physical separation between the flow of fuel delivered by adjacent fuel nozzles and/or so that adjacent fuel nozzles operate at different pressure differentials. Operating a combustor cap assembly in this fashion helps to reduce or eliminate the generation of undesirable and potentially harmful noise.

  19. Magnetic force microscopy method and apparatus to detect and image currents in integrated circuits

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Campbell, Ann. N.; Anderson, Richard E.; Cole, Jr., Edward I.

    1995-01-01

    A magnetic force microscopy method and improved magnetic tip for detecting and quantifying internal magnetic fields resulting from current of integrated circuits. Detection of the current is used for failure analysis, design verification, and model validation. The interaction of the current on the integrated chip with a magnetic field can be detected using a cantilevered magnetic tip. Enhanced sensitivity for both ac and dc current and voltage detection is achieved with voltage by an ac coupling or a heterodyne technique. The techniques can be used to extract information from analog circuits.

  20. High-voltage crowbar circuit with cascade-triggered series ignitrons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baker, W.R.

    A series string of ignitrons for switching a large current at high voltage to ground is discussed. Switching is initiated by means of a negative trigger pulse applied to the cathode of the lowest voltage level ignitron next to ground to draw ground current through diodes in the ignitor circuit. The trigger pulse is applied thereby to the next higher ignitron cathode and sequentially to the remainder of the ignitrons in the string through diodes in respective ignitor circuits. Full line voltage is held off of nonconducting diodes and ignitrons by means of varistors.