National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for dynamic organic light

  1. Dynamic Organic Light Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Light is a VCPE backed company that engages in R&D and licensing of materials for OLED displays and lights. Coordinates: 40.16394, -105.100504 Show Map Loading map......

  2. Organic electroluminescent devices having improved light extraction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shiang, Joseph John

    2007-07-17

    Organic electroluminescent devices having improved light extraction include a light-scattering medium disposed adjacent thereto. The light-scattering medium has a light scattering anisotropy parameter g in the range from greater than zero to about 0.99, and a scatterance parameter S less than about 0.22 or greater than about 3.

  3. Organic Rankine Cycle for Light Duty Passenger Vehicles | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy for Light Duty Passenger Vehicles Organic Rankine Cycle for Light Duty Passenger Vehicles Dynamic model of organic Rankine cycle with R245fa working fluid and conservative component efficiencies predict power generation in excess of electrical accessory load demand under highway drive cycle deer11_hussain.pdf (688.58 KB) More Documents & Publications Vehicle Fuel Economy Improvement through Thermoelectric Waste Heat Recovery Automotive Thermoelectric Generator Design Issues

  4. Stable blue phosphorescent organic light emitting devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Forrest, Stephen R.; Thompson, Mark; Giebink, Noel

    2014-08-26

    Novel combination of materials and device architectures for organic light emitting devices is provided. An organic light emitting device, is provided, having an anode, a cathode, and an emissive layer disposed between the anode and the cathode. The emissive layer includes a host and a phosphorescent emissive dopant having a peak emissive wavelength less than 500 nm, and a radiative phosphorescent lifetime less than 1 microsecond. Preferably, the phosphorescent emissive dopant includes a ligand having a carbazole group.

  5. Organic light emitting devices for illumination

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hack, Michael; Lu, Min-Hao Michael; Weaver, Michael S.

    2012-01-24

    An organic light emitting device an a method of obtaining illumination from such a device is provided. The device has a plurality of regions, each region having an organic emissive layer adapted to emit a different spectrum of light. The regions in combination emit light suitable for illumination purposes. The area of each region may be selected such that the device is more efficient than an otherwise equivalent device having regions of equal size. The regions may have an aspect ratio of at least about four. All parts of any given region may be driven at the same current.

  6. Organic light emitting devices for illumination

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hack, Michael; Lu, Min-Hao Michael; Weaver, Michael S.

    2010-02-16

    An organic light emitting device is provided. The device has a plurality of regions, each region having an organic emissive layer adapted to emit a different spectrum of light. The regions in combination emit light suitable for illumination purposes. The area of each region may be selected such that the device is more efficient that an otherwise equivalent device having regions of equal size. The regions may have an aspect ratio of at least about four. All parts of any given region may be driven at the same current.

  7. White light-emitting organic electroluminescent devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shiang, Joseph John; Duggal, Anil Raj; Parthasarathy, Gautam

    2006-06-20

    A light-emitting device comprises a light-emitting member, which comprises two electrodes, at least two organic electroluminescent ("EL") materials disposed between the electrodes, a charge blocking material disposed between the electrodes, and at least one photoluminescent ("PL") material. The light-emitting member emits electromagnetic ("EM") radiation having a first spectrum in response to a voltage applied across the two electrodes. The PL material absorbs a portion of the EM radiation emitted by the light-emitting member and emits EM radiation having second spectrum different than the first spectrum. Each of the organic EL materials emits EM radiation having a wavelength range selected from the group consisting of blue and red wavelength ranges.

  8. Method of making organic light emitting devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shiang, Joseph John; Janora, Kevin Henry; Parthasarathy, Gautam; Cella, James Anthony; Chichak, Kelly Scott

    2011-03-22

    The present invention provides a method for the preparation of organic light-emitting devices comprising a bilayer structure made by forming a first film layer comprising an electroactive material and an INP precursor material, and exposing the first film layer to a radiation source under an inert atmosphere to generate an interpenetrating network polymer composition comprising the electroactive material. At least one additional layer is disposed on the reacted first film layer to complete the bilayer structure. The bilayer structure is comprised within an organic light-emitting device comprising standard features such as electrodes and optionally one or more additional layers serving as a bipolar emission layer, a hole injection layer, an electron injection layer, an electron transport layer, a hole transport layer, exciton-hole transporting layer, exciton-electron transporting layer, a hole transporting emission layer, or an electron transporting emission layer.

  9. Dynamical model for light composite fermions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Derman, E.

    1981-04-01

    A simple dynamical model for the internal structure of the three light lepton and quark generations (..nu../sub e/,e,u,d), (..nu../sub ..mu../,..mu..,c,s), and (..nu../sub tau/,tau,t,b) is proposed. Each generation is constructed of only one fundamental massive generation F=(L-italic/sup 0/,L/sup -/,U,D) with the same (SU/sub 3/)/sub c/ x SU/sub 2/ x U/sub 1/ quantum numbers as the light generations, bound to a core of one or more massive Higgs bosons H, where H is the single physical Higgs boson necessary for spontaneous symmetry breaking in the standard model. For example, e/sup -/=L/sup -/H), ..mu../sup -/=L/sup -/HH), tau/sup -/=L/sup -/HHH). It is shown that the known binding force due to H exchange is attractive and strong enough to produce light bound states. Dynamical calculations for the bound-state composite fermions using the Bethe-Salpeter equation, together with some phenomenological imput, suggest M/sub H/approx.16 TeV and M/sub F/approx.100 GeV. It is likely that such bound states can have properties compatible with the up to now apparently elementary appearance of known fermions, for example, their Dirac magnetic moments and absence of intergeneration radiative decays (such as ..mu -->..e..gamma..). Phenomenological consequences and tests of the model are discussed.

  10. Organic Solid State Lighting | MIT-Harvard Center for Excitonics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Solid State Lighting March 15, 2011 at 3pm/36-428 Paul E. Burrows Reata Research burrows.p abstract: Many scientific papers and presentations in the field of organic electronic materials have kicked off with bold statements implying a route to low cost, large area manufacturing. Organic solid state lighting has recently become feasible due to dramatic improvements in the efficiency and operating lifetime of organic light emitting devices (OLEDs) and, again, dramatic visions of efficient, large

  11. Portable lamp with dynamically controlled lighting distribution

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Siminovitch, Michael J.; Page, Erik R.

    2001-01-01

    A double lamp table or floor lamp lighting system has a pair of compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs) arranged vertically with a reflective septum in between. By selectively turning on one or both of the CFLs, down lighting, up lighting, or both up and down lighting is produced. The control system can also vary the light intensity from each CFL. The reflective septum insures that almost all the light produced by each lamp will be directed into the desired light distribution pattern which is selected and easily changed by the user. Planar compact fluorescent lamps, e.g. circular CFLs, particularly oriented horizontally, are preferable. CFLs provide energy efficiency. The lighting system may be designed for the home, hospitality, office or other environments.

  12. Adhesion in flexible organic and hybrid organic/inorganic light emitting device and solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu, D.; Kwabi, D.; Akogwu, O.; Du, J.; Oyewole, O. K.; Tong, T.; Anye, V. C.; Rwenyagila, E.; Asare, J.; Fashina, A.; Soboyejo, W. O.

    2014-08-21

    This paper presents the results of an experimental study of the adhesion between bi-material pairs that are relevant to organic light emitting devices, hybrid organic/inorganic light emitting devices, organic bulk heterojunction solar cells, and hybrid organic/inorganic solar cells on flexible substrates. Adhesion between the possible bi-material pairs is measured using force microscopy (AFM) techniques. These include: interfaces that are relevant to organic light emitting devices, hybrid organic/inorganic light emitting devices, bulk heterojunction solar cells, and hybrid combinations of titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) and poly(3-hexylthiophene). The results of AFM measurements are incorporated into the Derjaguin-Muller-Toporov model for the determination of adhesion energies. The implications of the results are then discussed for the design of robust organic and hybrid organic/inorganic electronic devices.

  13. Organic light emitting diodes with structured electrodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mao, Samuel S.; Liu, Gao; Johnson, Stephen G.

    2012-12-04

    A cathode that contain nanostructures that extend into the organic layer of an OLED has been described. The cathode can have an array of nanotubes or a layer of nanoclusters extending out from its surface. In another arrangement, the cathode is patterned and etched to form protruding nanostructures using a standard lithographic process. Various methods for fabricating these structures are provided, all of which are compatible with large-scale manufacturing. OLEDs made with these novel electrodes have greatly enhanced electron injection, have good environmental stability.

  14. LCLS Users' Organization Executive Committee | Linac Coherent Light Source

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Users' Organization Executive Committee SAVE THE DATE: SSRL/LCLS Users' Conference and Workshops, October 5-7, 2016 Read summary of 2015 users' conference. During the annual meeting, users also have the opportunity to vote for their Users Executive Committee Representatives. The LCLS Users' Organization (LCLS UO) provides an organized framework and independent vehicle for interaction between the scientists who are interested in using the Linac Coherent Light Source (the users) and LCLS/SLAC

  15. Concave-hemisphere-patterned organic top-light emitting device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Forrest, Stephen R; Slootsky, Michael; Lunt, Richard

    2014-01-21

    A first device is provided. The first device includes an organic light emitting device, which further comprises a first electrode, a second electrode, and an organic emissive layer disposed between the first and second electrode. Preferably, the second electrode is more transparent than the first electrode. The organic emissive layer has a first portion shaped to form an indentation in the direction of the first electrode, and a second portion shaped to form a protrusion in the direction of the second electrode. The first device may include a plurality of organic light emitting devices. The indentation may have a shape that is formed from a partial sphere, a partial cylinder, a pyramid, or a pyramid with a mesa, among others. The protrusions may be formed between adjoining indentations or between an indentation and a surface parallel to the substrate.

  16. Concave-hemisphere-patterned organic top-light emitting device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Forrest, Stephen R.; Slootsky, Michael; Lunt, Richard

    2015-06-09

    A first device is provided. The first device includes an organic light emitting device, which further comprises a first electrode, a second electrode, and an organic emissive layer disposed between the first and second electrode. Preferably, the second electrode is more transparent than the first electrode. The organic emissive layer has a first portion shaped to form an indentation in the direction of the first electrode, and a second portion shaped to form a protrusion in the direction of the second electrode. The first device may include a plurality of organic light emitting devices. The indentation may have a shape that is formed from a partial sphere, a partial cylinder, a pyramid, or a pyramid with a mesa, among others. The protrusions may be formed between adjoining indentations or between an indentation and a surface parallel to the substrate.

  17. Phosphorescent organic light emitting diodes with high efficiency and brightness

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Forrest, Stephen R; Zhang, Yifan

    2015-11-12

    An organic light emitting device including a) an anode; b) a cathode; and c) an emissive layer disposed between the anode and the cathode, the emissive layer comprising an organic host compound and a phosphorescent compound exhibiting a Stokes Shift overlap greater than 0.3 eV. The organic light emitting device may further include a hole transport layer disposed between the emissive layer and the anode; and an electron transport layer disposed between the emissive layer and the cathode. In some embodiments, the phosphorescent compound exhibits a phosphorescent lifetime of less than 10 .mu.s. In some embodiments, the concentration of the phosphorescent compound ranges from 0.5 wt. % to 10 wt. %.

  18. Mechanically flexible organic electroluminescent device with directional light emission

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Duggal, Anil Raj; Shiang, Joseph John; Schaepkens, Marc

    2005-05-10

    A mechanically flexible and environmentally stable organic electroluminescent ("EL") device with directional light emission comprises an organic EL member disposed on a flexible substrate, a surface of which is coated with a multilayer barrier coating which includes at least one sublayer of a substantially transparent organic polymer and at least one sublayer of a substantially transparent inorganic material. The device includes a reflective metal layer disposed on the organic EL member opposite to the substrate. The reflective metal layer provides an increased external quantum efficiency of the device. The reflective metal layer and the multilayer barrier coating form a seal around the organic EL member to reduce the degradation of the device due to environmental elements.

  19. Organic light-emitting diodes from homoleptic square planar complexes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Omary, Mohammad A

    2013-11-12

    Homoleptic square planar complexes [M(N.LAMBDA.N).sub.2], wherein two identical N.LAMBDA.N bidentate anionic ligands are coordinated to the M(II) metal center, including bidentate square planar complexes of triazolates, possess optical and electrical properties that make them useful for a wide variety of optical and electrical devices and applications. In particular, the complexes are useful for obtaining white or monochromatic organic light-emitting diodes ("OLEDs"). Improved white organic light emitting diode ("WOLED") designs have improved efficacy and/or color stability at high brightness in single- or two-emitter white or monochrome OLEDs that utilize homoleptic square planar complexes, including bis[3,5-bis(2-pyridyl)-1,2,4-triazolato]platinum(II) ("Pt(ptp).sub.2").

  20. Organic light emitting device having multiple separate emissive layers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Forrest, Stephen R. (Ann Arbor, MI)

    2012-03-27

    An organic light emitting device having multiple separate emissive layers is provided. Each emissive layer may define an exciton formation region, allowing exciton formation to occur across the entire emissive region. By aligning the energy levels of each emissive layer with the adjacent emissive layers, exciton formation in each layer may be improved. Devices incorporating multiple emissive layers with multiple exciton formation regions may exhibit improved performance, including internal quantum efficiencies of up to 100%.

  1. Organic light emitting device structure for obtaining chromaticity stability

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tung, Yeh-Jiun; Ngo, Tan

    2007-05-01

    The present invention relates to organic light emitting devices (OLEDs). The devices of the present invention are efficient white or multicolored phosphorescent OLEDs which have a high color stability over a wide range of luminances. The devices of the present invention comprise an emissive region having at least two emissive layers, with each emissive layer comprising a different host and emissive dopant, wherein at least one of the emissive dopants emits by phosphorescence.

  2. Organic light emitting device structures for obtaining chromaticity stability

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tung, Yeh-Jiun; Lu, Michael; Kwong, Raymond C.

    2005-04-26

    The present invention relates to organic light emitting devices (OLEDs). The devices of the present invention are efficient white or multicolored phosphorescent OLEDs which have a high color stability over a wide range of luminances. The devices of the present invention comprise an emissive region having at least two emissive layers, with each emissive layer comprising a different host and emissive dopant, wherein at least one of the emissive dopants emits by phosphorescence.

  3. Efficient Light Extraction from Organic Light-Emitting Diodes Using Plasmonic Scattering Layers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rothberg, Lewis

    2012-11-30

    Our project addressed the DOE MYPP 2020 goal to improve light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) to 75% (Core task 6.3). As noted in the 2010 MYPP, the greatest opportunity for improvement is in the extraction of light from [OLED] panels. There are many approaches to avoiding waveguiding limitations intrinsic to the planar OLED structure including use of textured substrates, microcavity designs and incorporating scattering layers into the device structure. We have chosen to pursue scattering layers since it addresses the largest source of loss which is waveguiding in the OLED itself. Scattering layers also have the potential to be relatively robust to color, polarization and angular distributions. We note that this can be combined with textured or microlens decorated substrates to achieve additional enhancement.

  4. Ultrastrong light-matter coupling in electrically doped microcavity organic light emitting diodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mazzeo, M.; Genco, A.; Gambino, S.; Ballarini, D.; Mangione, F.; Sanvitto, D.; Di Stefano, O.; Patanè, S.; Savasta, S.; Gigli, G.

    2014-06-09

    The coupling of the electromagnetic field with an electronic transition gives rise, for strong enough light-matter interactions, to hybrid states called exciton-polaritons. When the energy exchanged between light and matter becomes a significant fraction of the material transition energy an extreme optical regime called ultrastrong coupling (USC) is achieved. We report a microcavity embedded p-i-n monolithic organic light emitting diode working in USC, employing a thin film of squaraine dye as active layer. A normalized coupling ratio of 30% has been achieved at room temperature. These USC devices exhibit a dispersion-less angle-resolved electroluminescence that can be exploited for the realization of innovative optoelectronic devices. Our results may open the way towards electrically pumped polariton lasers.

  5. High-Efficiency and Stable White Organic Light-Emitting Diode...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Efficiency and Stable White Organic Light-Emitting Diode Using a Single Emitter High-Efficiency and Stable White Organic Light-Emitting Diode Using a Single Emitter Lead Performer: ...

  6. Organic light-emitting devices using spin-dependent processes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vardeny, Z. Valy; Wohlgenannt, Markus

    2010-03-23

    The maximum luminous efficiency of organic light-emitting materials is increased through spin-dependent processing. The technique is applicable to all electro-luminescent processes in which light is produced by singlet exciton decay, and all devices which use such effects, including LEDs, super-radiant devices, amplified stimulated emission devices, lasers, other optical microcavity devices, electrically pumped optical amplifiers, and phosphorescence (Ph) based light emitting devices. In preferred embodiments, the emissive material is doped with an impurity, or otherwise modified, to increase the spin-lattice relaxation rate (i.e., decrease the spin-lattice time), and hence raise the efficiency of the device. The material may be a polymer, oligomer, small molecule, single crystal, molecular crystal, or fullerene. The impurity is preferably a magnetic or paramagnetic substance. The invention is applicable to IR, UV, and other electromagnetic radiation generation and is thus not limited to the visible region of the spectrum. The methods of the invention may also be combined with other techniques used to improve device performance.

  7. Nano-honeycomb structured transparent electrode for enhanced light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shi, Xiao-Bo; Qian, Min; Wang, Zhao-Kui E-mail: lsliao@suda.edu.cn; Liao, Liang-Sheng E-mail: lsliao@suda.edu.cn

    2015-06-01

    A universal nano-sphere lithography method has been developed to fabricate nano-structured transparent electrode, such as indium tin oxide (ITO), for light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). Perforated SiO{sub 2} film made from a monolayer colloidal crystal of polystyrene spheres and tetraethyl orthosilicate sol-gel is used as a template. Ordered nano-honeycomb pits on the ITO electrode surface are obtained by chemical etching. The proposed method can be utilized to form large-area nano-structured ITO electrode. More than two folds' enhancement in both current efficiency and power efficiency has been achieved in a red phosphorescent OLED which was fabricated on the nano-structured ITO substrate.

  8. Light-emitting device with organic electroluminescent material and photoluminescent materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McNulty, Thomas Francis; Duggal, Anil Raj; Turner, Larry Gene; Shiang, Joseph John

    2005-06-07

    A light-emitting device comprises a light-emitting member, which comprises two electrodes and an organic electroluminescent material disposed between the electrodes, and at least one organic photoluminescent ("PL") material. The light-emitting member emits light having a first spectrum in response to a voltage applied across the two electrodes. The organic PL material absorbs a portion of the light emitted by the light-emitting member and emits light having second spectrum different than the first spectrum. The light-emitting device can include an inorganic PL material that absorbs another portion of the light emitted from the light-emitting member and emits light having a third spectrum different than both the first and the second spectra.

  9. Soft holographic interference lithography microlens for enhanced organic light emitting diode light extraction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Park, Joong-Mok; Gan, Zhengqing; Leung, Wai Y.; Liu, Rui; Ye, Zhuo; Constant, Kristen; Shinar, Joseph; Shinar, Ruth; Ho, Kai-Ming

    2011-06-06

    Very uniform 2 {micro}m-pitch square microlens arrays ({micro}LAs), embossed on the blank glass side of an indium-tin-oxide (ITO)-coated 1.1 mm-thick glass, are used to enhance light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) by {approx}100%, significantly higher than enhancements reported previously. The array design and size relative to the OLED pixel size appear to be responsible for this enhancement. The arrays are fabricated by very economical soft lithography imprinting of a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) mold (itself obtained from a Ni master stamp that is generated from holographic interference lithography of a photoresist) on a UV-curable polyurethane drop placed on the glass. Green and blue OLEDs are then fabricated on the ITO to complete the device. When the {mu}LA is {approx}15 x 15 mm{sup 2}, i.e., much larger than the {approx}3 x 3 mm{sup 2} OLED pixel, the electroluminescence (EL) in the forward direction is enhanced by {approx}100%. Similarly, a 19 x 25 mm{sup 2} {mu}LA enhances the EL extracted from a 3 x 3 array of 2 x 2 mm{sup 2} OLED pixels by 96%. Simulations that include the effects of absorption in the organic and ITO layers are in accordance with the experimental results and indicate that a thinner 0.7 mm thick glass would yield a {approx}140% enhancement.

  10. Organic light emitting device architecture for reducing the number of organic materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    D'Andrade, Brian; Esler, James

    2011-10-18

    An organic light emitting device is provided. The device includes an anode and a cathode. A first emissive layer is disposed between the anode and the cathode. The first emissive layer includes a first non-emitting organic material, which is an organometallic material present in the first emissive layer in a concentration of at least 50 wt %. The first emissive layer also includes a first emitting organic material. A second emissive layer is disposed between the first emissive layer and the cathode, preferably, in direct contact with the first emissive layer. The second emissive material includes a second non-emitting organic material and a second emitting organic material. The first and second non-emitting materials, and the first and second emitting materials, are all different materials. A first non-emissive layer is disposed between the first emissive layer and the anode, and in direct contact with the first emissive layer. The first non- emissive layer comprises the first non-emissive organic material.

  11. Low Voltage, Low Power Organic Light Emitting Transistors for AMOLED Displays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCarthy, M. A. [University of Florida, Gainesville; Liu, B. [University of Florida, Gainesville; Donoghue, E. P. [University of Florida, Gainesville; Kravchenko, Ivan I [ORNL; Kim, D. Y. [University of Florida, Gainesville; Reynolds, J. R. [University of Florida, Gainesville; So, Franky [University of Florida, Gainesville; Rinzler, A. G. [University of Florida, Gainesville

    2011-01-01

    Low voltage, low power dissipation, high aperture ratio organic light emitting transistors are demonstrated. The high level of performance is enabled by a carbon nanotube source electrode that permits integration of the drive transistor and the organic light emitting diode into an efficient single stacked device. Given the demonstrated performance, this technology could break the technical logjam holding back widespread deployment of active matrix organic light emitting displays at flat panel screen sizes.

  12. Environmental barrier material for organic light emitting device and method of making

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Graff, Gordon L [West Richland, WA; Gross, Mark E [Pasco, WA; Affinito, John D [Kennewick, WA; Shi, Ming-Kun [Richland, WA; Hall, Michael [West Richland, WA; Mast, Eric [Richland, WA

    2003-02-18

    An encapsulated organic light emitting device. The device includes a first barrier stack comprising at least one first barrier layer and at least one first polymer layer. There is an organic light emitting layer stack adjacent to the first barrier stack. A second barrier stack is adjacent to the organic light emitting layer stack. The second barrier stack has at least one second barrier layer and at least one second polymer layer. A method of making the encapsulated organic light emitting device is also provided.

  13. Energy transfer dynamics in trimers and aggregates of light-harvesting...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Energy transfer dynamics in trimers and aggregates of light-harvesting complex II probed by 2D electronic spectroscopy Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Energy transfer ...

  14. Structurally Integrated Photoluminescence-Based Lactate Sensor Using Organic Light Emitting Devices (OLEDs) as the Light Source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chengliang Qian

    2006-08-09

    Multianalyte bio(chemical) sensors are extensively researched for monitoring analytes in complex systems, such as blood serum. As a step towards developing such multianalyte sensors, we studied a novel, structurally integrated, organic light emitting device (OLED)-based sensing platform for detection of lactate. Lactate biosensors have attracted numerous research efforts, due to their wide applications in clinical diagnosis, athletic training and food industry. The OLED-based sensor is based on monitoring the oxidation reaction of lactate, which is catalyzed by the lactate oxidase (LOX) enzyme. The sensing component is based on an oxygen-sensitive dye, Platinum octaethyl porphyrin (PtOEP), whose photoluminescence (PL) lifetime {tau} decreases as the oxygen level increases. The PtOEP dye was embedded in a thin film polystyrene (PS) matrix; the LOX was dissolved in solution or immobilized in a sol-gel matrix. {tau} was measured as a function of the lactate concentration; as the lactate concentration increases, {tau} increases due to increased oxygen consumption. The sensors performance is discussed in terms of the detection sensitivity, dynamic range, and response time. A response time of {approx}32 sec was achieved when the LOX was dissolved in solution and kept in a closed cell. Steps towards development of a multianalyte sensor array using an array of individually addressable OLED pixels were also presented.

  15. High-Efficiency and Stable White Organic Light-Emitting Diode Using a

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Single Emitter | Department of Energy and Stable White Organic Light-Emitting Diode Using a Single Emitter High-Efficiency and Stable White Organic Light-Emitting Diode Using a Single Emitter Lead Performer: Arizona State University - Tempe, AZ DOE Total Funding: $664,785 Cost Share: $170,547 Project Term: 10/1/2011 - 9/30/2015 Funding Opportunity: Solid State Lighting Core Technology Funding Opportunity Announcement (DE-FOA- 0000329) Project Objective This project will demonstrate an

  16. Light Absorption of Primary Organic Aerosol Paper Named ACS Editors...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Absorption of Primary Organic Aerosol Paper Named ACS Editors' Choice For original submission and image(s), see ARM Research Highlights http:www.arm.govsciencehighlights...

  17. Ultrafast image-based dynamic light scattering for nanoparticle...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    An ultrafast sizing method for nanoparticles is proposed, called as UIDLS (Ultrafast ... This method makes use of the intensity fluctuation of scattered light from nanoparticles ...

  18. Electroluminescence property of organic light emitting diode (OLED)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    zdemir, Orhan; Kavak, Pelin; Saatci, A. Evrim; Gkdemir, F. P?nar; Menda, U. Deneb; Can, Nursel; Kutlu, Kubilay; Tekin, Emine; Pravadal?, Selin

    2013-12-16

    Transport properties of electrons and holes were investigated not only in a anthracene-containing poly(p-phenylene-ethynylene)- alt - poly(p-phenylene-vinylene) (PPE-PPV) polymer (AnE-PVstat) light emitting diodes (OLED) but also in an ITO/Ag/polymer/Ag electron and ITO/PEDOT:PSS/polymer/Au hole only devices. Mobility of injected carriers followed the Poole-Frenkel type conduction mechanism and distinguished in the frequency range due to the difference of transit times in admittance measurement. Beginning of light output took place at the turn-on voltage (or flat band voltage), 1.8 V, which was the difference of energy band gap of polymer and two barrier offsets between metals and polymer.

  19. High efficiency and brightness fluorescent organic light emitting diode by triplet-triplet fusion

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Forrest, Stephen; Zhang, Yifan

    2015-02-10

    A first device is provided. The first device further comprises an organic light emitting device. The organic light emitting device further comprises an anode, a cathode, and an emissive layer disposed between the anode and the cathode. The emissive layer may include an organic host compound and at least one organic emitting compound capable of fluorescent emission at room temperature. Various configurations are described for providing a range of current densities in which T-T fusion dominates over S-T annihilation, leading to very high efficiency fluorescent OLEDs.

  20. Intermediate connector for stacked organic light emitting devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    D'Andrade, Brian

    2013-02-12

    A device is provided, having an anode, a cathode, and an intermediate connector disposed between the anode and the cathode. A first organic layer including an emissive sublayer is disposed between the anode and the intermediate connector, and a second including an emissive sublayer is disposed between the intermediate connector and the cathode. The intermediate connector includes a first metal having a work function lower than 4.0 eV and a second metal having a work function lower than 5.0 eV. The work function of the first metal is at least 0.5 eV less than the work function of the second metal. The first metal is in contact with a sublayer of the second organic layer that includes a material well adapted to receive holes from a low work function metal.

  1. Gas Diffusion in a Porous Organic Cage: Analysis of Dynamic Pore...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Diffusion in a Porous Organic Cage: Analysis of Dynamic Pore Connectivity Using Molecular Dynamics Simulations Previous Next List Daniel Holden, Kim E. Jelfs, Abbie Trewin, David...

  2. Organic light-emitting device with a phosphor-sensitized fluorescent emission layer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Forrest, Stephen; Kanno, Hiroshi

    2009-08-25

    The present invention relates to organic light emitting devices (OLEDs), and more specifically to OLEDS that emit light using a combination of fluorescent emitters and phosphorescent emitters. The emissive region of the devices of the present invention comprise at least one phosphor-sensitized layer which has a combined emission from a phosphorescent emitter and a fluorescent emitter. In preferred embodiments, the invention relates to white-emitting OLEDS (WOLEDs).

  3. Enhancing the emission directionality of organic light-emitting diodes by using photonic microstructures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Shuyu; Turnbull, Graham A., E-mail: gat@st-andrews.ac.uk, E-mail: idws@st-andrews.ac.uk; Samuel, Ifor D. W., E-mail: gat@st-andrews.ac.uk, E-mail: idws@st-andrews.ac.uk [Organic Semiconductor Centre, SUPA, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St Andrews, North Haugh, St Andrews, Fife KY16 9SS (United Kingdom)] [Organic Semiconductor Centre, SUPA, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St Andrews, North Haugh, St Andrews, Fife KY16 9SS (United Kingdom)

    2013-11-18

    We report microstructured organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) with directional emission based on efficient solution-processable europium-OLEDs patterned by solvent assisted microcontact molding. The angle dependence of the light emission is characterized for OLEDs with square-array photonic crystals with periods between 275?nm and 335?nm. The microstructured devices have emission patterns strongly modified from the Lambertian emission of planar OLEDs and can approximately double the emitted power in a desired angle range in both s- and p-polarizations. The modified emission is attributed to light diffracted out of the waveguide modes of the OLEDs.

  4. Device Optimization and Transient Electroluminescence Studies of Organic light Emitting Devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lijuan Zou

    2003-08-05

    Organic light emitting devices (OLEDs) are among the most promising for flat panel display technologies. They are light, bright, flexible, and cost effective. And while they are emerging in commercial product, their low power efficiency and long-term degradation are still challenging. The aim of this work was to investigate their device physics and improve their performance. Violet and blue OLEDs were studied. The devices were prepared by thermal vapor deposition in high vacuum. The combinatorial method was employed in device preparation. Both continuous wave and transient electroluminescence (EL) were studied. A new efficient and intense UV-violet light emitting device was developed. At a current density of 10 mA/cm{sup 2}, the optimal radiance R could reach 0.38 mW/cm{sup 2}, and the quantum efficiency was 1.25%. using the delayed EL technique, electron mobilities in DPVBi and CBP were determined to be {approx} 10{sup -5} cm{sup 2}/Vs and {approx} 10{sup -4} cm{sup 2}/Vs, respectively. Overshoot effects in the transient El of blue light emitting devices were also observed and studied. This effect was attributed to the charge accumulation at the organic/organic and organic/cathode interfaces.

  5. Lighting

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    One of the simplest ways to save energy and money is to switch to energy-efficient lights. Learn about your lighting choices that can save you money.

  6. Horizontal molecular orientation in solution-processed organic light-emitting diodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhao, L.; Inoue, M.; Komino, T.; Kim, J.-H.; Ribierre, J. C. E-mail: adachi@cstf.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Center for Organic Photonics and Electronics Research , Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Nishi, Fukuoka 819-0395; Japan Science and Technology Agency , ERATO, Adachi Molecular Exciton Engineering Project, c and others

    2015-02-09

    Horizontal orientation of the emission transition dipole moments achieved in glassy vapor-deposited organic thin films leads to an enhancement of the light out-coupling efficiency in organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). Here, our combined study of variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometry and angle dependent photoluminescence demonstrates that such a horizontal orientation can be achieved in glassy spin-coated organic films based on a composite blend of a heptafluorene derivative as a dopant and a 4,4′-bis(N-carbazolyl)-1,1′-biphenyl as a host. Solution-processed fluorescent OLEDs with horizontally oriented heptafluorene emitters were then fabricated and emitted deep blue electroluminescence with an external quantum efficiency as high as 5.3%.

  7. SciDAC advances in beam dynamics simulation: from light sources to colliders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qiang, Ji; Qiang, J.; Borland, M.; Kabel, A.; Li, R.; Ryne, R.; Stern, E.; Wang, Y.; Wasserman, H.; Zhang, Y.

    2008-06-16

    In this paper, we report on progress that has been made in beam dynamics simulation, from light sources to colliders, during the first year of SciDAC-II accelerator project,"Community Petascale Project for Accelerator Science and Simulation (ComPASS)." Several parallel computational tools for beam dynamics simulation will be described. A number of applications in current and future accelerator facilities, e.g., LCLS, RHIC, Tevatron, LHC, ELIC, are presented.

  8. High-efficiency white organic light-emitting diodes using thermally activated delayed fluorescence

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nishide, Jun-ichi; Hiraga, Yasuhide; Nakanotani, Hajime; Adachi, Chihaya

    2014-06-09

    White organic light-emitting diodes (WOLEDs) have attracted much attention recently, aimed for next-generation lighting sources because of their high potential to realize high electroluminescence efficiency, flexibility, and low-cost manufacture. Here, we demonstrate high-efficiency WOLED using red, green, and blue thermally activated delayed fluorescence materials as emissive dopants to generate white electroluminescence. The WOLED has a maximum external quantum efficiency of over 17% with Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage coordinates of (0.30, 0.38).

  9. Study of the nanobubble phase of aqueous NaCl solutions by dynamic light scattering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bunkin, N F; Shkirin, A V [A M Prokhorov General Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Burkhanov, I S; Chaikov, L L [P N Lebedev Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Lomkova, A K [N.E. Bauman Moscow State Technical University, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2014-11-30

    Aqueous NaCl solutions with different concentrations have been investigated by dynamic scattering of laser radiation. It is experimentally shown that these solutions contain scattering particles with a wide size distribution in a range of ?10 100 nm. The experimental results indirectly confirm the existence of quasi-stable gas nanobubbles in the bulk of aqueous ionic solutions. (light scattering)

  10. Textured micrometer scale templates as light managing fabrication platform for organic solar cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chaudhary, Sumit; Ho, Kai-Ming; Park, Joong-Mok; Nalwa, Kanwar Singh; Leung, Wai Y.

    2016-07-26

    A three-dimensional, microscale-textured, grating-shaped organic solar cell geometry. The solar cells are fabricated on gratings to give them a three-dimensional texture that provides enhanced light absorption. Introduction of microscale texturing has a positive effect on the overall power conversion efficiency of the devices. This grating-based solar cell having a grating of pre-determined pitch and height has shown improved power-conversion efficiency over a conventional flat solar cell. The improvement in efficiency is accomplished by homogeneous coverage of the grating with uniform thickness of the active layer, which is attributed to a sufficiently high pitch and low height of the underlying gratings. Also the microscale texturing leads to suppressed reflection of incident light due to the efficient coupling of the incident light into modes that are guided in the active layer.

  11. Preparatory steps for a robust dynamic model for organically bound tritium dynamics in agricultural crops

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Melintescu, A.; Galeriu, D.; Diabate, S.; Strack, S.

    2015-03-15

    The processes involved in tritium transfer in crops are complex and regulated by many feedback mechanisms. A full mechanistic model is difficult to develop due to the complexity of the processes involved in tritium transfer and environmental conditions. First, a review of existing models (ORYZA2000, CROPTRIT and WOFOST) presenting their features and limits, is made. Secondly, the preparatory steps for a robust model are discussed, considering the role of dry matter and photosynthesis contribution to the OBT (Organically Bound Tritium) dynamics in crops.

  12. Synthesis of visible light-activated TiO{sub 2} photocatalyst via surface organic modification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jiang Dong Xu Yao Hou Bo; Wu Dong; Sun Yuhan

    2007-05-15

    A visible light-activated TiO{sub 2} photocatalyst was successfully synthesized by the surface organic modification to sol-gel-hydrothermal synthesized TiO{sub 2}. The surface hydroxyls of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles reacted with the active -NCO groups of tolylene diisocyanate (TDI) to form a surface complex that was confirmed by the FT-IR and XPS spectra. Due to the existence of surface complex, the absorption edge of as-prepared TDI-modified TiO{sub 2} nanomaterial extended well into visible region. Compared with unmodified TiO{sub 2} and Degussa P25, the TDI-modified TiO{sub 2} photocatalysts showed higher activity for the photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue under visible light irradiation. - Graphical abstract: A visible light-activated TiO{sub 2} photocatalyst was successfully synthesized by the surface organic modification to TiO{sub 2}. The surface hydroxyls of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles reacted with the active -NCO groups of tolylene diisocyanate (TDI) to form a surface complex. The TDI-modified TiO{sub 2} photocatalysts showed higher activity for the photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue under visible light irradiation.

  13. Organic Light-Emitting Devices (OLEDS) and Their Optically Detected Magnetic Resonance (ODMR)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gang Li

    2003-12-12

    Organic Light-Emitting Devices (OLEDs), both small molecular and polymeric have been studied extensively since the first efficient small molecule OLED was reported by Tang and VanSlyke in 1987. Burroughes' report on conjugated polymer-based OLEDs led to another track in OLED development. These developments have resulted in full color, highly efficient (up to {approx} 20% external efficiency 60 lm/W power efficiency for green emitters), and highly bright (> 140,000 Cd/m{sup 2} DC, {approx}2,000,000 Cd/m{sup 2} AC), stable (>40,000 hr at 5 mA/cm{sup 2}) devices. OLEDs are Lambertian emitters, which intrinsically eliminates the view angle problem of liquid crystal displays (LCDs). Thus OLEDs are beginning to compete with the current dominant LCDs in information display. Numerous companies are now active in this field, including large companies such as Pioneer, Toyota, Estman Kodak, Philipps, DuPont, Samsung, Sony, Toshiba, and Osram, and small companies like Cambridge Display Technology (CDT), Universal Display Corporation (UDC), and eMagin. The first small molecular display for vehicular stereos was introduced in 1998, and polymer OLED displays have begun to appear in commercial products. Although displays are the major application for OLEDs at present, they are also candidates for nest generation solid-state lighting. In this case the light source needs to be white in most cases. Organic transistors, organic solar cells, etc. are also being developed vigorously.

  14. Single Molecule Spectroelectrochemistry of Interfacial Charge Transfer Dynamics In Hybrid Organic Solar Cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pan, Shanlin

    2014-11-16

    Our research under support of this DOE grant is focused on applied and fundamental aspects of model organic solar cell systems. Major accomplishments are: 1) we developed a spectroelectorchemistry technique of single molecule single nanoparticle method to study charge transfer between conjugated polymers and semiconductor at the single molecule level. The fluorescence of individual fluorescent polymers at semiconductor surfaces was shown to exhibit blinking behavior compared to molecules on glass substrates. Single molecule fluorescence excitation anisotropy measurements showed the conformation of the polymer molecules did not differ appreciably between glass and semiconductor substrates. The similarities in molecular conformation suggest that the observed differences in blinking activity are due to charge transfer between fluorescent polymer and semiconductor, which provides additional pathways between states of high and low fluorescence quantum efficiency. Similar spectroelectrochemistry work has been done for small organic dyes for understand their charge transfer dynamics on various substrates and electrochemical environments; 2) We developed a method of transferring semiconductor nanoparticles (NPs) and graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets into organic solvent for a potential electron acceptor in bulk heterojunction organic solar cells which employed polymer semiconductor as the electron donor. Electron transfer from the polymer semiconductor to semiconductor and GO in solutions and thin films was established through fluorescence spectroscopy and electroluminescence measurements. Solar cells containing these materials were constructed and evaluated using transient absorption spectroscopy and dynamic fluorescence techniques to understand the charge carrier generation and recombination events; 3) We invented a spectroelectorchemistry technique using light scattering and electroluminescence for rapid size determination and studying electrochemistry of single NPs in an

  15. Organic Light-Emitting Diodes (OLEDs) and Optically-Detected Magnetic Resonance (ODMR) studies on organic materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cai, Min

    2011-11-30

    Organic semiconductors have evolved rapidly over the last decades and currently are considered as the next-generation technology for many applications, such as organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) in flat-panel displays (FPDs) and solid state lighting (SSL), and organic solar cells (OSCs) in clean renewable energy. This dissertation focuses mainly on OLEDs. Although the commercialization of the OLED technology in FPDs is growing and appears to be just around the corner for SSL, there are still several key issues that need to be addressed: (1) the cost of OLEDs is very high, largely due to the costly current manufacturing process; (2) the efficiency of OLEDs needs to be improved. This is vital to the success of OLEDs in the FPD and SSL industries; (3) the lifetime of OLEDs, especially blue OLEDs, is the biggest technical challenge. All these issues raise the demand for new organic materials, new device structures, and continued lower-cost fabrication methods. In an attempt to address these issues, we used solution-processing methods to fabricate highly efficient small molecule OLEDs (SMOLEDs); this approach is costeffective in comparison to the more common thermal vacuum evaporation. We also successfully made efficient indium tin oxide (ITO)-free SMOLEDs to further improve the efficiency of the OLEDs. We employed the spin-dependent optically-detected magnetic resonance (ODMR) technique to study the luminescence quenching processes in OLEDs and organic materials in order to understand the intrinsic degradation mechanisms. We also fabricated polymer LEDs (PLEDs) based on a new electron-accepting blue-emitting polymer and studied the effect of molecular weight on the efficiency of PLEDs. All these studies helped us to better understand the underlying relationship between the organic semiconductor materials and the OLEDs’ performance, and will subsequently assist in further enhancing the efficiency of OLEDs. With strongly improved device performance (in addition to

  16. Novel Low Cost Organic Vapor Jet Printing of Striped High Efficiency Phosphorescent OLEDs for White Lighting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mike Hack

    2008-12-31

    In this program, Universal Display Corporation and University of Michigan proposed to integrate three innovative concepts to meet the DOE's Solid State Lighting (SSL) goals: (1) high-efficiency phosphorescent organic light emitting device (PHOLED{trademark}) technology, (2) a white lighting design that is based on a series of red, green and blue OLED stripes, and (3) the use of a novel cost-effective, high rate, mask-less deposition process called organic vapor jet printing (OVJP). Our PHOLED technology offers up to four-times higher power efficiency than other OLED approaches for general lighting. We believe that one of the most promising approaches to maximizing the efficiency of OLED lighting sources is to produce stripes of the three primary colors at such a pitch (200-500 {mu}m) that they appear as a uniform white light to an observer greater than 1 meter (m) away from the illumination source. Earlier work from a SBIR Phase 1 entitled 'White Illumination Sources Using Striped Phosphorescent OLEDs' suggests that stripe widths of less than 500 {mu}m appear uniform from a distance of 1m without the need for an external diffuser. In this program, we intend to combine continued advances in this PHOLED technology with the striped RGB lighting design to demonstrate a high-efficiency, white lighting source. Using this background technology, the team has focused on developing and demonstrating the novel cost-effective OVJP process to fabricate these high-efficiency white PHOLED light sources. Because this groundbreaking OVJP process is a direct printing approach that enables the OLED stripes to be printed without a shadow mask, OVJP offers very high material utilization and high throughput without the costs and wastage associated with a shadow mask (i.e. the waste of material that deposits on the shadow mask itself). As a direct printing technique, OVJP also has the potential to offer ultra-high deposition rates (> 1,000 Angstroms/second) for any size or shaped

  17. OLED Fundamentals: Materials, Devices, and Processing of Organic Light-Emitting Diodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blochwitz-Nimoth, Jan; Bhandari, Abhinav; Boesch, Damien; Fincher, Curtis R.; Gaspar, Daniel J.; Gotthold, David W.; Greiner, Mark T.; Kido, Junji; Kondakov, Denis; Korotkov, Roman; Krylova, Valentina A.; Loeser, Falk; Lu, Min-Hao; Lu, Zheng-Hong; Lussem, Bjorn; Moro, Lorenza; Padmaperuma, Asanga B.; Polikarpov, Evgueni; Rostovtsev, Vsevolod V.; Sasabe, Hisahiro; Silverman, Gary; Thompson, Mark E.; Tietze, Max; Tyan, Yuan-Sheng; Weaver, Michael; Xin , Xu; Zeng, Xianghui

    2015-05-26

    What is an organic light emitting diode (OLED)? Why should we care? What are they made of? How are they made? What are the challenges in seeing these devices enter the marketplace in various applications? These are the questions we hope to answer in this book, at a level suitable for knowledgeable non-experts, graduate students and scientists and engineers working in the field who want to understand the broader context of their work. At the most basic level, an OLED is a promising new technology composed of some organic material sandwiched between two electrodes. When current is passed through the device, light is emitted. The stack of layers can be very thin and has many variations, including flexible and/or transparent. The organic material can be polymeric or composed small molecules, and may include inorganic components. The electrodes may consist of metals, metal oxides, carbon nanomaterials, or other species, though of course for light to be emitted, one electrode must be transparent. OLEDs may be fabricated on glass, metal foils, or polymer sheets (though polymeric substrates must be modified to protect the organic material from moisture or oxygen). In any event, the organic material must be protected from moisture during storage and operation. A control circuit, the exact nature of which depends on the application, drives the OLED. Nevertheless, the control circuit should have very stable current control to generate uniform light emission. OLEDs can be designed to emit a single color of light, white light, or even tunable colors. The devices can be switched on and off very rapidly, which makes them suitable for displays or for general lighting. Given the amazing complexity of the technical and design challenges for practical OLED applications, it is not surprising that applications are still somewhat limited. Although organic electroluminescence is more than 50 years old, the modern OLED field is really only about half that age – with the first high

  18. Heterogeneous nucleation and growth dynamics in the light-induced phase transition in vanadium dioxide

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Brady, Nathaniel F.; Appavoo, Kannatassen; Seo, Minah; Nag, Joyeeta; Prasankumar, Rohit P.; Haglund, Richard F.; Hilton, David J.

    2016-03-02

    Here we report on ultrafast optical investigations of the light-induced insulator-to-metal phase transition in vanadium dioxide with controlled disorder generated by substrate mismatch. These results reveal common dynamics of this optically-induced phase transition that are independent of this disorder. Lastly, above the fluence threshold for completing the transition to the rutile crystalline phase, we find a common time scale, independent of sample morphology, of 40.5 ± 2 ps that is consistent with nucleation and growth dynamics of the R phase from the parent M1 ground state.

  19. Injector Beam Dynamics for a High-Repetition Rate 4th-Generation Light Source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Papadopoulos, C. F.; Corlett, J.; Emma, P.; Filippetto, D.; Penn, G.; Qiang, J.; Reinsch, M.; Sannibale, F.; Steier, C.; Venturini, M.; Wells, R.

    2013-05-20

    We report on the beam dynamics studies and optimization methods for a high repetition rate (1 MHz) photoinjector based on a VHF normal conducting electron source. The simultaneous goals of beamcompression and reservation of 6-dimensional beam brightness have to be achieved in the injector, in order to accommodate a linac driven FEL light source. For this, a parallel, multiobjective optimization algorithm is used. We discuss the relative merits of different injector design points, as well as the constraints imposed on the beam dynamics by technical considerations such as the high repetition rate.

  20. Low Power, Red, Green and Blue Carbon Nanotube Enabled Vertical Organic Light Emitting Transistors for Active Matrix OLED Displays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCarthy, M. A. [University of Florida, Gainesville; Liu, B. [University of Florida, Gainesville; Donoghue, E. P. [University of Florida, Gainesville; Kravchenko, Ivan I [ORNL; Kim, D. Y. [University of Florida, Gainesville; So, Franky [University of Florida, Gainesville; Rinzler, A. G. [University of Florida, Gainesville

    2011-01-01

    Organic semiconductors are potential alternatives to polycrystalline silicon as the semiconductor used in the backplane of active matrix organic light emitting diode displays. Demonstrated here is a light-emitting transistor with an organic channel, operating with low power dissipation at low voltage, and high aperture ratio, in three colors: red, green and blue. The single-wall carbon nanotube network source electrode is responsible for the high level of performance demonstrated. A major benefit enabled by this architecture is the integration of the drive transistor, storage capacitor and light emitter into a single device. Performance comparable to commercialized polycrystalline-silicon TFT driven OLEDs is demonstrated.

  1. Quantum efficiency harmonic analysis of exciton annihilation in organic light emitting diodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Price, J. S.; Giebink, N. C.

    2015-06-29

    Various exciton annihilation processes are known to impact the efficiency roll-off of organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs); however, isolating and quantifying their contribution in the presence of other factors such as changing charge balance continue to be a challenge for routine device characterization. Here, we analyze OLED electroluminescence resulting from a sinusoidal dither superimposed on the device bias and show that nonlinearity between recombination current and light output arising from annihilation mixes the quantum efficiency measured at different dither harmonics in a manner that depends uniquely on the type and magnitude of the annihilation process. We derive a series of analytical relations involving the DC and first harmonic external quantum efficiency that enable annihilation rates to be quantified through linear regression independent of changing charge balance and evaluate them for prototypical fluorescent and phosphorescent OLEDs based on the emitters 4-(dicyanomethylene)-2-methyl-6-(4-dimethylaminostyryl)-4H-pyran and platinum octaethylporphyrin, respectively. We go on to show that, in most cases, it is sufficient to calculate the needed quantum efficiency harmonics directly from derivatives of the DC light versus current curve, thus enabling this analysis to be conducted solely from standard light-current-voltage measurement data.

  2. Light-front representation of chiral dynamics in peripheral transverse densities

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Granados, Carlos G.; Weiss, Christian

    2015-07-31

    The nucleon's electromagnetic form factors are expressed in terms of the transverse densities of charge and magnetization at fixed light-front time. At peripheral transverse distances b = O(M_pi^{-1}) the densities are governed by chiral dynamics and can be calculated model-independently using chiral effective field theory (EFT). We represent the leading-order chiral EFT results for the peripheral transverse densities as overlap integrals of chiral light-front wave functions, describing the transition of the initial nucleon to soft pion-nucleon intermediate states and back. The new representation (a) explains the parametric order of the peripheral transverse densities; (b) establishes an inequality between the spin-independentmore » and -dependent densities; (c) exposes the role of pion orbital angular momentum in chiral dynamics; (d) reveals a large left-right asymmetry of the current in a transversely polarized nucleon and suggests a simple interpretation. The light-front representation enables a first-quantized, quantum-mechanical view of chiral dynamics that is fully relativistic and exactly equivalent to the second-quantized, field-theoretical formulation. It relates the charge and magnetization densities measured in low-energy elastic scattering to the generalized parton distributions probed in peripheral high-energy scattering processes. The method can be applied to nucleon form factors of other operators, e.g. the energy-momentum tensor.« less

  3. Light-front representation of chiral dynamics in peripheral transverse densities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Granados, Carlos G.; Weiss, Christian

    2015-07-31

    The nucleon's electromagnetic form factors are expressed in terms of the transverse densities of charge and magnetization at fixed light-front time. At peripheral transverse distances b = O(M_pi^{-1}) the densities are governed by chiral dynamics and can be calculated model-independently using chiral effective field theory (EFT). We represent the leading-order chiral EFT results for the peripheral transverse densities as overlap integrals of chiral light-front wave functions, describing the transition of the initial nucleon to soft pion-nucleon intermediate states and back. The new representation (a) explains the parametric order of the peripheral transverse densities; (b) establishes an inequality between the spin-independent and -dependent densities; (c) exposes the role of pion orbital angular momentum in chiral dynamics; (d) reveals a large left-right asymmetry of the current in a transversely polarized nucleon and suggests a simple interpretation. The light-front representation enables a first-quantized, quantum-mechanical view of chiral dynamics that is fully relativistic and exactly equivalent to the second-quantized, field-theoretical formulation. It relates the charge and magnetization densities measured in low-energy elastic scattering to the generalized parton distributions probed in peripheral high-energy scattering processes. The method can be applied to nucleon form factors of other operators, e.g. the energy-momentum tensor.

  4. Charge injection and accumulation in organic light-emitting diode with PEDOT:PSS anode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weis, Martin; Otsuka, Takako; Taguchi, Dai; Manaka, Takaaki; Iwamoto, Mitsumasa

    2015-04-21

    Organic light-emitting diode (OLED) displays using flexible substrates have many attractive features. Since transparent conductive oxides do not fit the requirements of flexible devices, conductive polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(4-styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) has been proposed as an alternative. The charge injection and accumulation in OLED devices with PEDOT:PSS anodes are investigated and compared with indium tin oxide anode devices. Higher current density and electroluminescence light intensity are achieved for the OLED device with a PEDOT:PSS anode. The electric field induced second-harmonic generation technique is used for direct observation of temporal evolution of electric fields. It is clearly demonstrated that the improvement in the device performance of the OLED device with a PEDOT:PSS anode is associated with the smooth charge injection and accumulation.

  5. Color stable white phosphorescent organic light emitting diodes with red emissive electron transport layer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wook Kim, Jin; Yoo, Seung Il; Sung Kang, Jin; Eun Lee, Song; Kwan Kim, Young; Hwa Yu, Hyeong; Turak, Ayse; Young Kim, Woo

    2015-06-28

    We analyzed the performance of multi-emissive white phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes (PHOLEDs) in relation to various red emitting sites of hole and electron transport layers (HTL and ETL). The shift of the recombination zone producing stable white emission in PHOLEDs was utilized as luminance was increased with red emission in its electron transport layer. Multi-emissive white PHOLEDs including the red light emitting electron transport layer yielded maximum external quantum efficiency of 17.4% with CIE color coordinates (−0.030, +0.001) shifting only from 1000 to 10 000 cd/m{sup 2}. Additionally, we observed a reduction of energy loss in the white PHOLED via Ir(piq){sub 3} as phosphorescent red dopant in electron transport layer.

  6. SciDAC Advances in Beam Dynamics Simulation: From Light Sources to Colliders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qiang, J.; Borland, M.; Kabel, A.; Li, R.; Ryne, R.; Stern, E.; Wang, Y.; Wasserman, H.; Zhang, Y.; /SLAC

    2011-11-14

    In this paper, we report on progress that has been made in beam dynamics simulation, from light sources to colliders, during the first year of the SciDAC-2 accelerator project 'Community Petascale Project for Accelerator Science and Simulation (ComPASS).' Several parallel computational tools for beam dynamics simulation are described. Also presented are number of applications in current and future accelerator facilities (e.g., LCLS, RHIC, Tevatron, LHC, and ELIC). Particle accelerators are some of most important tools of scientific discovery. They are widely used in high-energy physics, nuclear physics, and other basic and applied sciences to study the interaction of elementary particles, to probe the internal structure of matter, and to generate high-brightness radiation for research in materials science, chemistry, biology, and other fields. Modern accelerators are complex and expensive devices that may be several kilometers long and may consist of thousands of beamline elements. An accelerator may transport trillions of charged particles that interact electromagnetically among themselves, that interact with fields produced by the accelerator components, and that interact with beam-induced fields. Large-scale beam dynamics simulations on massively parallel computers can help provide understanding of these complex physical phenomena, help minimize design cost, and help optimize machine operation. In this paper, we report on beam dynamics simulations in a variety of accelerators ranging from next generation light sources to high-energy ring colliders that have been studied during the first year of the SciDAC-2 accelerator project.

  7. Room-temperature spin-polarized organic light-emitting diodes with a single ferromagnetic electrode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ding, Baofu, E-mail: b.ding@ecu.edu.au; Alameh, Kamal, E-mail: k.alameh@ecu.edu.au [Electron Science Research Institute, Edith Cowan University, 270 Joondalup Drive, Joondalup WA 6027 Australia (Australia); Song, Qunliang [Institute for Clean Energy and Advanced Materials, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715 (China)

    2014-05-19

    In this paper, we demonstrate the concept of a room-temperature spin-polarized organic light-emitting diode (Spin-OLED) structure based on (i) the deposition of an ultra-thin p-type organic buffer layer on the surface of the ferromagnetic electrode of the Spin-OLED and (ii) the use of oxygen plasma treatment to modify the surface of that electrode. Experimental results demonstrate that the brightness of the developed Spin-OLED can be increased by 110% and that a magneto-electroluminescence of 12% can be attained for a 150?mT in-plane magnetic field, at room temperature. This is attributed to enhanced hole and room-temperature spin-polarized injection from the ferromagnetic electrode, respectively.

  8. Modified Baryonic Dynamics: two-component cosmological simulations with light sterile neutrinos

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Angus, G.W.; Gentile, G.; Diaferio, A.; Famaey, B.; Heyden, K.J. van der E-mail: diaferio@ph.unito.it E-mail: gianfranco.gentile@ugent.be

    2014-10-01

    In this article we continue to test cosmological models centred on Modified Newtonian Dynamics (MOND) with light sterile neutrinos, which could in principle be a way to solve the fine-tuning problems of the standard model on galaxy scales while preserving successful predictions on larger scales. Due to previous failures of the simple MOND cosmological model, here we test a speculative model where the modified gravitational field is produced only by the baryons and the sterile neutrinos produce a purely Newtonian field (hence Modified Baryonic Dynamics). We use two-component cosmological simulations to separate the baryonic N-body particles from the sterile neutrino ones. The premise is to attenuate the over-production of massive galaxy cluster halos which were prevalent in the original MOND plus light sterile neutrinos scenario. Theoretical issues with such a formulation notwithstanding, the Modified Baryonic Dynamics model fails to produce the correct amplitude for the galaxy cluster mass function for any reasonable value of the primordial power spectrum normalisation.

  9. Sensitivity of the threshold voltage of organic thin-film transistors to light and water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feng, Cong; Marinov, Ognian; Deen, M. Jamal; Selvaganapathy, Ponnambalam Ravi; Wu, Yiliang

    2015-05-14

    Analyses of extensive experiments with organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs) indicate that the threshold voltage V{sub T} of an OTFT has a temporal differential sensitivity. In particular, V{sub T} changes initially by changing the light illumination intensity or making/removing a contact of water with the organic semiconductor. Keeping the conditions stationary, then the initial shift of V{sub T} diminishes, since the time dependence of V{sub T} gradually recovers the OTFT to the state before applying the change in the environmental conditions. While still causing a differential and time-variant shift of V{sub T}, the deionized water does not have a dramatic impact on OTFTs that use the polymer DKPP-?T (diketopyrrolopyrrole ?-unsubstituted quaterthiophene) as the active semiconductor material. Observations for the impact of water are made from experiments with an OTFT that has a microfluidic channel on the top the electrical channel, with the water in the microfluidic channel in direct contact with the electrical channel of the OTFT. This arrangement of electrical and microfluidic channels is a novel structure of the microfluidic OTFT, suitable for sensing applications of liquid analytes by means of organic electronics.

  10. Modifying the organic/electrode interface in Organic Solar Cells (OSCs) and improving the efficiency of solution-processed phosphorescent Organic Light-Emitting Diodes (OLEDs)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xiao, Teng

    2012-04-27

    Organic semiconductors devices, such as, organic solar cells (OSCs), organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) and organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) have drawn increasing interest in recent decades. As organic materials are flexible, light weight, and potentially low-cost, organic semiconductor devices are considered to be an alternative to their inorganic counterparts. This dissertation will focus mainly on OSCs and OLEDs. As a clean and renewable energy source, the development of OSCs is very promising. Cells with 9.2% power conversion efficiency (PCE) were reported this year, compared to < 8% two years ago. OSCs belong to the so-called third generation solar cells and are still under development. While OLEDs are a more mature and better studied field, with commercial products already launched in the market, there are still several key issues: (1) the cost of OSCs/OLEDs is still high, largely due to the costly manufacturing processes; (2) the efficiency of OSCs/OLEDs needs to be improved; (3) the lifetime of OSCs/OLEDs is not sufficient compared to their inorganic counterparts; (4) the physics models of the behavior of the devices are not satisfactory. All these limitations invoke the demand for new organic materials, improved device architectures, low-cost fabrication methods, and better understanding of device physics. For OSCs, we attempted to improve the PCE by modifying the interlayer between active layer/metal. We found that ethylene glycol (EG) treated poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene): polystyrenesulfonate (PEDOT: PSS) improves hole collection at the metal/polymer interface, furthermore it also affects the growth of the poly(3- hexylthiophene) (P3HT):phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) blends, making the phase segregation more favorable for charge collection. We then studied organic/inorganic tandem cells. We also investigated the effect of a thin LiF layer on the hole-collection of copper phthalocyanine (CuPc)/C70-based small molecular OSCs. A

  11. Full phosphorescent white-light organic light-emitting diodes with improved color stability and efficiency by fine tuning primary emission contributions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hua, Wang, E-mail: wmsu2008@sinano.ac.cn, E-mail: wanghua001@tyut.edu.cn; Du, Xiaogang [Key Laboratory of Interface Science and Engineering in Advanced Materials, Taiyuan University of Technology, Ministry of Education, Taiyuan 030024 (China) [Key Laboratory of Interface Science and Engineering in Advanced Materials, Taiyuan University of Technology, Ministry of Education, Taiyuan 030024 (China); Research Center of Advanced Materials Science and Technology, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan 030024 (China); Su, Wenming, E-mail: wmsu2008@sinano.ac.cn, E-mail: wanghua001@tyut.edu.cn; Zhang, Dongyu [Printable Electronics Research Centre, Suzhou Institute of Nano-Tech and Nano-Bionics, CAS, suzhou 215123 (China)] [Printable Electronics Research Centre, Suzhou Institute of Nano-Tech and Nano-Bionics, CAS, suzhou 215123 (China); Lin, Wenjing [Key Laboratory of Interface Science and Engineering in Advanced Materials, Taiyuan University of Technology, Ministry of Education, Taiyuan 030024 (China) [Key Laboratory of Interface Science and Engineering in Advanced Materials, Taiyuan University of Technology, Ministry of Education, Taiyuan 030024 (China); Research Center of Advanced Materials Science and Technology, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan 030024 (China); Printable Electronics Research Centre, Suzhou Institute of Nano-Tech and Nano-Bionics, CAS, suzhou 215123 (China)

    2014-02-15

    In this paper, a novel type of white-light organic light emitting diode (OLED) with high color stability was reported, in which the yellow-light emission layer of (4,4{sup ?}-N,N{sup ?}-dicarbazole)biphenyl (CBP) : tris(2-phenylquinoline-C2,N{sup ?})iridium(III) (Ir(2-phq){sub 3}) was sandwiched by double blue-light emission layers of 1,1-bis-[(di-4-tolylamino)pheny1]cyclohexane (TAPC) : bis[4,6-(di-fluorophenyl)-pyridinato-N,C2{sup ?}]picolinate (FIrpic) and tris[3-(3-pyridyl)mesityl]borane (3TPYMB):FIrpic. And, it exhibited the maximum current efficiency of 33.1 cd/A, the turn-on voltage at about 3 V and the maximum luminance in excess of 20000 cd/m{sup 2}. More important, it realized very stable white-light emission, and its CIE(x, y) coordinates only shift from (0.34, 0.37) to (0.33, 0.37) as applied voltage increased from 5 V to 12 V. It is believed that the new scheme in emission layer of white-light OLED can fine tune the contribution of primary emission with applied voltage changed, resulting in high quality white-light OLED.

  12. Dynamic proteome analysis of Cyanothece sp. ATCC 51142 under constant light

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aryal, Uma K.; Stockel, Jana; Welsh, Eric A.; Gritsenko, Marina A.; Nicora, Carrie D.; Koppenaal, David W.; Smith, Richard D.; Pakrasi, Himadri B.; Jacobs, Jon M.

    2012-02-03

    Understanding the dynamic nature of protein abundances provides insights into protein turnover not readily apparent from conventional, static mass spectrometry measurements. This level of data is particularly informative when surveying protein abundances in biological systems subjected to large perturbations or alterations in environment such as cyanobacteria. Our current analysis expands upon conventional proteomic approaches in cyanobacteria by measuring dynamic changes of the proteome using a 13C15N-L-leucine metabolic labeling in Cyanothece ATCC51142. Metabolically labeled Cyanothece ATCC51142 cells grown under nitrogen sufficient conditions in continuous light were monitored longitudinally for isotope incorporation over a 48 h period, revealing 422 proteins with dynamic changes in abundances. In particular, proteins involved in carbon fixation, pentose phosphate pathway, cellular protection, redox regulation, protein folding, assembly and degradation showed higher levels of isotope incorporation suggesting that these biochemical pathways are important for growth under non-diazotrophic conditions. Calculation of relative isotope abundances (RIA) values allowed to measure actual active protein synthesis over time for different biochemical pathways under non-diazotrophic conditions. Overall results demonstrated the utility of 'non-steady state' pulsed metabolic labeling for systems-wide dynamic quantification of the proteome in Cyanothece ATCC51142 that can also be applied to other cyanobacteria.

  13. CO2 Dynamics in a Metal-Organic Framework with Open Metal Sites...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Dynamics in a Metal-Organic Framework with Open Metal Sites Previous Next List Xueqian Kong, Eric Scott, Wen Ding, Jarad A. Mason, Jeffrey R. Long, and Jeffrey A. Reimer, J. Am. ...

  14. Understanding CO2 Dynamics in Metal-Organic Frameworks wit Open...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    CO2 Dynamics in Metal-Organic Frameworks wit Open Metal Sites Previous Next List Li-Chiang Lin, Jihan Kim, Xueqian Kong, Eric Scott, Thomas M. McDonald, Jeffrey R. Long, Jeffrey A....

  15. White organic light-emitting diodes with 4 nm metal electrode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lenk, Simone; Schwab, Tobias; Schubert, Sylvio; Müller-Meskamp, Lars; Leo, Karl; Reineke, Sebastian; Gather, Malte C.

    2015-10-19

    We investigate metal layers with a thickness of only a few nanometers as anode replacement for indium tin oxide (ITO) in white organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). The ultrathin metal electrodes prove to be an excellent alternative that can, with regard to the angular dependence and efficiency of the OLED devices, outperform the ITO reference. Furthermore, unlike ITO, the thin composite metal electrodes are readily compatible with demanding architectures (e.g., top-emission or transparent OLEDs, device unit stacking, etc.) and flexible substrates. Here, we compare the sheet resistance of both types of electrodes on polyethylene terephthalate for different bending radii. The electrical performance of ITO breaks down at a radius of 10 mm, while the metal electrode remains intact even at radii smaller than 1 mm.

  16. Simulations of emission from microcavity tandem organic light-emitting diodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biswas, Rana; Xu, Chun; Zhao, Weijun; Liu, Rui; Shinar, Ruth; Shinar, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    Microcavity tandem organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) are simulated and compared to experimental results. The simulations are based on two complementary techniques: rigorous finite element solutions of Maxwell's equations and Fourier space scattering matrix solutions. A narrowing and blue shift of the emission spectrum relative to the noncavity single unit OLED is obtained both theoretically and experimentally. In the simulations, a distribution of emitting sources is placed near the interface of the electron transport layer tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) Al (Alq{sub 3}) and the hole transport layer (N,N'-bis(naphthalen-1-yl)-N,N'-bis(phenyl)benzidine) ({alpha}-NPB). Far-field electric field intensities are simulated. The simulated widths of the emission peaks also agree with the experimental results. The simulations of the 2-unit tandem OLEDs shifted the emission to shorter wavelength, in agreement with experimental measurements. The emission spectra's dependence on individual layer thicknesses also agreed well with measurements. Approaches to simulate and improve the light emission intensity from these OLEDs, in particular for white OLEDs, are discussed.

  17. Analyzing degradation effects of organic light-emitting diodes via transient optical and electrical measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schmidt, Tobias D. Jger, Lars; Brtting, Wolfgang; Noguchi, Yutaka; Ishii, Hisao

    2015-06-07

    Although the long-term stability of organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) under electrical operation made significant progress in recent years, the fundamental underlying mechanisms of the efficiency decrease during operation are not well understood. Hence, we present a comprehensive degradation study of an OLED structure comprising the well-known green phosphorescent emitter Ir(ppy){sub 3}. We use transient methods to analyze both electrical and optical changes during an accelerated aging protocol. Combining the results of displacement current measurements with time-resolved investigation of the excited states lifetimes of the emitter allows for a correlation of electrical (e.g., increase of the driving voltage due to trap formation) and optical (e.g., decrease of light-output) changes induced by degradation. Therewith, it is possible to identify two mechanisms resulting in the drop of the luminance: a decrease of the radiative quantum efficiency of the emitting system due to triplet-polaron-quenching at trapped charge carriers and a modified charge carrier injection and transport, as well as trap-assisted non-radiative recombination resulting in a deterioration of the charge carrier balance of the device.

  18. Enhancement of efficiencies for tandem green phosphorescent organic light-emitting devices with a p-type charge generation layer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoo, Byung Soo; Jeon, Young Pyo; Lee, Dae Uk; Kim, Tae Whan

    2014-10-15

    The operating voltage of the tandem green phosphorescent organic light-emitting device with a 1,4,5,8,9,11-hexaazatriphenylene-hexacarbonitrile layer was improved by 3% over that of the organic light-emitting device with a molybdenum trioxide layer. The maximum brightness of the tandem green phosphorescent organic light-emitting device at 21.9 V was 26,540 cd/m{sup 2}. The dominant peak of the electroluminescence spectra for the devices was related to the fac-tris(2-phenylpyridine) iridium emission. - Highlights: Tandem OLEDs with CGL were fabricated to enhance their efficiency. The operating voltage of the tandem OLED with a HAT-CN layer was improved by 3%. The efficiency and brightness of the tandem OLED were 13.9 cd/A and 26,540 cd/m{sup 2}. Efficiency of the OLED with a HAT-CN layer was lower than that with a MoO{sub 3} layer. - Abstract: Tandem green phosphorescent organic light-emitting devices with a 1,4,5,8,9,11-hexaazatriphenylene-hexacarbonitrile or a molybdenum trioxide charge generation layer were fabricated to enhance their efficiency. Current densityvoltage curves showed that the operating voltage of the tandem green phosphorescent organic light-emitting device with a 1,4,5,8,9,11-hexaazatriphenylene-hexacarbonitrile layer was improved by 3% over that of the corresponding organic light-emitting device with a molybdenum trioxide layer. The efficiency and the brightness of the tandem green phosphorescent organic light-emitting device were 13.9 cd/A and 26,540 cd/m{sup 2}, respectively. The current efficiency of the tandem green phosphorescent organic light-emitting device with a 1,4,5,8,9,11-hexaazatriphenylene-hexacarbonitrile layer was lower by 1.1 times compared to that of the corresponding organic light-emitting device with molybdenum trioxide layer due to the decreased charge generation and transport in the 1,4,5,8,9,11-hexaazatriphenylene-hexacarbonitrile layer resulting from triplettriplet exciton annihilation.

  19. Anomalous hole injection deterioration of organic light-emitting diodes with a manganese phthalocyanine layer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Hyunbok; Lee, Jeihyun; Yi, Yeonjin; Cho, Sang Wan; Kim, Jeong Won

    2015-01-21

    Metal phthalocyanines (MPcs) are well known as an efficient hole injection layer (HIL) in organic devices. They possess a low ionization energy, and so the low-lying highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) gives a small hole injection barrier from an anode in organic light-emitting diodes. However, in this study, we show that the hole injection characteristics of MPc are not only determined by the HOMO position but also significantly affected by the wave function distribution of the HOMO. We show that even with the HOMO level of a manganese phthalocyanine (MnPc) HIL located between the Fermi level of an indium tin oxide anode and the HOMO level of a N,N?-bis(1-naphthyl)-N,N?-diphenyl-1,1?-biphenyl-4,4?-diamine hole transport layer the device performance with the MnPc HIL is rather deteriorated. This anomalous hole injection deterioration is due to the contracted HOMO wave function, which leads to small intermolecular electronic coupling. The origin of this contraction is the significant contribution of the Mn d-orbital to the MnPc HOMO.

  20. Self-organization of network dynamics into local quantized states

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Nicolaides, Christos; Juanes, Ruben; Cueto-Felgueroso, Luis

    2016-02-17

    Self-organization and pattern formation in network-organized systems emerges from the collective activation and interaction of many interconnected units. A striking feature of these non-equilibrium structures is that they are often localized and robust: only a small subset of the nodes, or cell assembly, is activated. Understanding the role of cell assemblies as basic functional units in neural networks and socio-technical systems emerges as a fundamental challenge in network theory. A key open question is how these elementary building blocks emerge, and how they operate, linking structure and function in complex networks. Here we show that a network analogue of themore » Swift-Hohenberg continuum model—a minimal-ingredients model of nodal activation and interaction within a complex network—is able to produce a complex suite of localized patterns. Thus, the spontaneous formation of robust operational cell assemblies in complex networks can be explained as the result of self-organization, even in the absence of synaptic reinforcements.« less

  1. Highly efficient greenish-blue platinum-based phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes on a high triplet energy platform

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang, Y. L. Gong, S. White, R.; Lu, Z. H.; Wang, X.; Wang, S.; Yang, C.

    2014-04-28

    We have demonstrated high-efficiency greenish-blue phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes (PHOLEDs) based on a dimesitylboryl-functionalized C^N chelate Pt(II) phosphor, Pt(m-Bptrz)(t-Bu-pytrz-Me). Using a high triplet energy platform and optimized double emissive zone device architecture results in greenish-blue PHOLEDs that exhibit an external quantum efficiency of 24.0% and a power efficiency of 55.8?lm/W. This record high performance is comparable with that of the state-of-the-art Ir-based sky-blue organic light-emitting diodes.

  2. Dynamical Arrest, Structural Disorder, and Optimization of Organic Photovoltaic Devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gould, Ian; Dmitry, Matyushov

    2014-09-11

    This project describes fundamental experimental and theoretical work that relates to charge separation and migration in the solid, heterogeneous or aggregated state. Marcus theory assumes a system in equilibrium with all possible solvent (dipolar) configurations, with rapid interconversion among these on the ET timescale. This project has addressed the more general situation where the medium is at least partially frozen on the ET timescale, i.e. under conditions of dynamical arrest. The approach combined theory and experiment and includes: (1) Computer simulations of model systems, (2) Development of analytical procedures consistent with computer experiment and (3) Experimental studies and testing of the formal theories on this data. Electron transfer processes are unique as a consequence of the close connection between kinetics, spectroscopy and theory, which is an essential component of this work.

  3. Dopant effects on charge transport to enhance performance of phosphorescent white organic light emitting diodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhu, Liping; Chen, Jiangshan; Ma, Dongge

    2015-11-07

    We compared the performance of phosphorescent white organic light emitting diodes (WOLEDs) with red-blue-green and green-blue-red sequent emissive layers. It was found that the influence of red and green dopants on electron and hole transport in emissive layers leads to the large difference in the efficiency of fabricated WOLEDs. This improvement mechanism is well investigated by the current density-voltage characteristics of single-carrier devices based on dopant doped emissive layers and the comparison of electroluminescent and photoluminescence spectra, and attributed to the different change of charge carrier transport by the dopants. The optimized device achieves a maximum power efficiency, current efficiency, and external quantum efficiency of 37.0 lm/W, 38.7 cd/A, and 17.7%, respectively, which are only reduced to 32.8 lm/W, 38.5 cd/A, and 17.3% at 1000 cd/m{sup 2} luminance. The critical current density is as high as 210 mA/cm{sup 2}. It can be seen that the efficiency roll-off in phosphorescent WOLEDs can be well improved by effectively designing the structure of emissive layers.

  4. Simulation of mixed-host emitting layer based organic light emitting diodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Riku, C.; Kee, Y. Y.; Ong, T. S.; Tou, T. Y.; Yap, S. S.

    2015-04-24

    ‘SimOLED’ simulator is used in this work to investigate the efficiency of the mixed-host organic light emitting devices (MH-OLEDs). Tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum(3) (Alq{sub 3}) and N,N-diphenyl-N,N-Bis(3-methylphenyl)-1,1-diphenyl-4,4-diamine (TPD) are used as the electron transport layer (ETL) material and hole transport layer (HTL) material respectively, and the indium-doped tin oxide (ITO) and aluminum (Al) as anode and cathode. Three MH-OLEDs, A, B and C with the same structure of ITO / HTM (15 nm) / Mixed host (70 nm) / ETM (10 nm) /Al, are stimulated with ratios TPD:Alq{sub 3} of 3:5, 5:5, and 5:3 respectively. The Poole-Frenkel model for electron and hole mobilities is employed to compute the current density-applied voltage-luminance characteristics, distribution of the electric field, carrier concentrations and recombination rate.

  5. Fabrication and Characterization of New Hybrid Organic Light Emitting Diode (OLED): Europium-picrate-triethylene oxide Complex

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sarjidan, M. A. Mohd; Abu Zakaria, N. Z. A.; Abd. Majid, W. H. [Solid State Research Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Malaya, 50603, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Kusrini, Eny; Saleh, M. I. [School of Chemical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Penang (Malaysia)

    2009-07-07

    Thin-film light emitting devices based on organic materials have attracted vast interest in applications such as light emitting diode (LED) and flat-panel display. The organic material can be attached with inorganic material to enhance the performance of the light emitting device. A hybrid OLED based on a new complex of europium picrate (Eu-pic) with triethylene oxide (EO3) ligand is fabricated. The OLED is fabricated by using spin coating technique with acetone as the solvent and aluminum as the top electrode. The optical, photoluminescence (PL) and electrical properties of the sample are carried out by UV-Vis spectroscopy (Jasco V-750), luminescence spectroscopy (Perkin Elmer LS-500) and source measure unit (SMU)(Keithly), respectively.

  6. Comparison of light out-coupling enhancements in single-layer blue-phosphorescent organic light emitting diodes using small-molecule or polymer hosts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang, Yung-Ting; Liu, Shun-Wei; Yuan, Chih-Hsien; Lee, Chih-Chien; Ho, Yu-Hsuan; Wei, Pei-Kuen; Chen, Kuan-Yu; Lee, Yi-Ting; Wu, Min-Fei; Chen, Chin-Ti E-mail: chihiwu@cc.ee.ntu.edu.tw; Wu, Chih-I E-mail: chihiwu@cc.ee.ntu.edu.tw

    2013-11-07

    Single-layer blue phosphorescence organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) with either small-molecule or polymer hosts are fabricated using solution process and the performances of devices with different hosts are investigated. The small-molecule device exhibits luminous efficiency of 14.7?cd/A and maximum power efficiency of 8.39?lm/W, which is the highest among blue phosphorescence OLEDs with single-layer solution process and small molecular hosts. Using the same solution process for all devices, comparison of light out-coupling enhancement, with brightness enhancement film (BEF), between small-molecule and polymer based OLEDs is realized. Due to different dipole orientation and anisotropic refractive index, polymer-based OLEDs would trap less light than small molecule-based OLEDs internally, about 37% better based simulation results. In spite of better electrical and spectroscopic characteristics, including ambipolar characteristics, higher carrier mobility, higher photoluminescence quantum yield, and larger triplet state energy, the overall light out-coupling efficiency of small molecule-based devices is worse than that of polymer-based devices without BEF. However, with BEF for light out-coupling enhancement, the improved ratio in luminous flux and luminous efficiency for small molecule based device is 1.64 and 1.57, respectively, which are significantly better than those of PVK (poly-9-vinylcarbazole) devices. In addition to the theoretical optical simulation, the experimental data also confirm the origins of differential light-outcoupling enhancement. The maximum luminous efficiency and power efficiency are enhanced from 14.7?cd/A and 8.39?lm/W to 23?cd/A and 13.2?lm/W, respectively, with laminated BEF, which are both the highest so far for single-layer solution-process blue phosphorescence OLEDs with small molecule hosts.

  7. Organic light emitting diodes (OLEDS) and OLED-based structurally integrated optical sensors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cai, Yuankun

    2010-05-16

    General introduction to OLED basics and OLED-based structurally integrated sensors was provided in chapter 1 and chapter 2. As discussed in chapter 3, OLEDs were developed or improved using novel engineering methods for better charge injection (increased by over 1 order of magnitude) and efficiency. As the excitation sources, these OLEDs have preferred characteristics for sensor applications, including narrowed emission, emission at desired wavelength, and enhanced output for reduced EL background, higher absorption and improved device lifetime. In addition to OLEDs with desired performance, sensor integration requires oxidase immobilization with the sensor film for O{sub 2}-based biological and chemical sensing. Nanoparticles such as ZnO have large surface area and high isoelectric point ({approx}9.5), which favors enzyme immobilization via physical adsorption as well as Coulombic bonding. In chapter 4, it was demonstrated that ZnO could be used for this purpose, although future work is needed to further bond the ZnO to the sensor film. In chapter 5, single unit sensor was extended to multianalyte parallel sensing based on an OLED platform, which is compact and integrated with silicon photodiodes and electronics. Lactate and glucose were simultaneously monitored with a low limit of detection 0.02 mM, fast response time ({approx} 1 minute) and dynamic range from 0-8.6 ppm of dissolved oxygen. As discovered in previous work, the dynamic range covers 0-100% gas phase O{sub 2} or 0-40 ppm dissolved oxygen at room temperature. PL decay curve, which is used to extract the decay time, is usually not a simple exponential at high O{sub 2} concentration, which indicates that O{sub 2} is not equally accessible for different luminescent sites. This creates a challenge for data analysis, which however was successfully processed by stretched exponential as shown in chapter 6. This also provides an insight about the distribution of O{sub 2}:dye collisional quenching rate due to

  8. Market transformation opportunities for emerging dynamic facade and dimmable lighting control systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Eleanor S.; Selkowitz, Stephen E.; Hughes, Glenn D.; Thurm, David A.

    2004-06-04

    Automated shading and daylighting control systems have been commercially available for decades. The new challenge is to provide a fully functional and integrated fagade and lighting system that operates appropriately for all environmental conditions and meets a range of occupant subjective desires and objective performance requirements. These rigorous performance goals must be achieved with solutions that are cost effective and can operate over long periods with minimal maintenance. It will take time and effort to change the marketplace for these technologies and practices, particularly in building a series of documented success stories, and driving costs and risks to much lower levels at which their use becomes the norm. In recent years, the architectural trend toward highly-transparent all-glass buildings presents a unique challenge and opportunity to advance the market for emerging, smart, dynamic window and dimmable daylighting control technologies. We believe it is possible to accelerate product market transformation by developing projects where technical advances and the interests of motivated manufacturers and innovative owners converge. In this paper we present a case study example that explains a building owner's decision-making process to use dynamic window and dimmable daylighting controls. The case study project undertaken by a major building owner in partnership with a buildings R&D group was designed explicitly to use field test data in conjunction with the market influence of a major landmark building project in New York City to stimulate change in manufacturers' product offerings. Preliminary observations on the performance of these systems are made. A cost model that was developed with the building owner is explained.

  9. STRUCTURE AND DYNAMICS OF THE 2009 JULY 22 ECLIPSE WHITE-LIGHT CORONA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pasachoff, J. M.; Babcock, B. A.; Rusin, V.; Saniga, M.; Druckmuellerova, H. E-mail: bryce.a.babcock@williams.edu E-mail: msaniga@ta3.sk

    2011-11-20

    The white-light corona (WLC) during the total solar eclipse of 2009 July 22 was observed by several teams in the Moon's shadow stretching from India and China across the Pacific Ocean with its many isolated islands. We present a comparison of the WLC as observed by eclipse teams located in China (Shanghai region) and on the Enewetak Atoll in the Marshall Islands, with observations taken 112 minutes apart, combined with near-simultaneous space observations. The eclipse was observed at the beginning of solar cycle 24, during a deep solar minimum (officially estimated as 2008 December according to the smoothed sunspot number, but very extended). The solar corona shows several different types of features (coronal holes, polar rays, helmet streamers, faint loops, voids, etc.), though it was extremely sparse in streamers as shown from Large-Angle Spectroscopic Coronagraph data. No large-scale dynamical phenomena were seen when comparing the observations from the two sites, confirming that the corona was quiescent. We measure a Ludendorff flattening coefficient of 0.238, typical of solar minimum.

  10. Table lamp with dynamically controlled lighting distribution and uniformly illuminated luminous shade

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Siminovitch, Michael J.; Page, Erik R.

    2002-01-01

    A double lamp table or floor lamp lighting system has a pair of compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs) or other lamps arranged vertically, i.e. one lamp above the other, with a reflective septum in between. By selectively turning on one or both of the CFLs, down lighting, up lighting, or both up and down lighting is produced. The control system can also vary the light intensity from each CFL. The reflective septum ensures that almost all the light produced by each lamp will be directed into the desired light distribution pattern which is selected and easily changed by the user. In a particular configuration, the reflective septum is bowl shaped, with the upper CFL sitting in the bowl, and a luminous shade hanging down from the bowl. The lower CFL provides both task lighting and uniform shade luminance. Planar compact fluorescent lamps, e.g. circular CFLs, particularly oriented horizontally, are preferable. CFLs provide energy efficiency. However, other types of lamps, including incandescent, halogen, and LEDs can also be used in the fixture. The lighting system may be designed for the home, hospitality, office or other environments.

  11. White top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes with solution-processed nano-particle scattering layers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schaefer, Tim; Schwab, Tobias; Lenk, Simone; Gather, Malte C.

    2015-12-07

    A random scattering approach to enhance light extraction in white top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) is reported. Through solution processing from fluorinated solvents, a nano-particle scattering layer (NPSL) can be deposited directly on top of small molecule OLEDs without affecting their electrical performance. The scattering length for light inside the NPSL is determined from transmission measurements and found to be in agreement with Mie scattering theory. Furthermore, the dependence of the light outcoupling enhancement on electron transport layer thickness is studied. Depending on the electron transport layer thickness, the NPSL enhances the external quantum efficiency of the investigated white OLEDs by between 1.5 and 2.3-fold. For a device structure that has been optimized prior to application of the NPSL, the maximum external quantum efficiency is improved from 4.7% to 7.4% (1.6-fold improvement). In addition, the scattering layer strongly reduces the undesired shift in emission color with viewing angle.

  12. Moisture exposure to different layers in organic light-emitting diodes and the effect on electroluminescence characteristics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liao, L. S.; Tang, C. W.

    2008-08-15

    Moisture effect on electroluminescence characteristics, including current density versus voltage, luminance versus voltage, luminous efficiency versus current density, dark spot formation, and operational stability of organic light-emitting diodes, has been systematically investigated by exposing each layer of the devices to moisture at room temperature. Moisture has a different effect on each of the interfaces or surfaces, and the influence increases as exposure time increases. There is a slight effect on the electroluminescence characteristics after the anode surface has been exposed to moisture. However, severe luminance decrease, dark spot formation, and operational stability degradation take place after the light-emitting layer or the electron-transporting layer is exposed to moisture. It is also demonstrated that the effect of moisture can be substantially reduced if the exposure to moisture is in a dark environment.

  13. Large-scale patterning of indium tin oxide electrodes for guided mode extraction from organic light-emitting diodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Geyer, Ulf; Hauss, Julian; Riedel, Boris; Gleiss, Sebastian; Lemmer, Uli; Gerken, Martina

    2008-11-01

    We describe a cost-efficient and large area scalable production process of organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) with photonic crystals (PCs) as extraction elements for guided modes. Using laser interference lithography and physical plasma etching, we texture the indium tin oxide (ITO) electrode layer of an OLED with one- and two-dimensional PC gratings. By optical transmission measurements, the resonant mode of the grating is shown to have a drift of only 0.4% over the 5 mm length of the ITO grating. By changing the lattice constant between 300 and 600 nm, the OLED emission angle of enhanced light outcoupling is tailored from -24.25 deg. to 37 deg. At these angles, the TE emission is enhanced up to a factor of 2.14.

  14. MoO3 as combined hole injection layer and tapered spacer in combinatorial multicolor microcavity organic light emitting diodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, R.; Xu, Chun; Biswas, Rana; Shinar, Joseph; Shinar, Ruth

    2011-09-01

    Multicolor microcavity ({mu}C) organic light-emitting diode (OLED) arrays were fabricated simply by controlling the hole injection and spacer MoO{sub 3} layer thickness. The normal emission was tunable from {approx}490 to 640 nm and can be further expanded. A compact, integrated spectrometer with two-dimensional combinatorial arrays of {mu}C OLEDs was realized. The MoO{sub 3} yields more efficient and stable devices, revealing a new breakdown mechanism. The pixel current density reaches {approx}4 A/cm{sup 2} and a maximal normal brightness {approx}140 000 Cd/m{sup 2}, which improves photoluminescence-based sensing and absorption measurements.

  15. General method for simultaneous optimization of light trapping and carrier collection in an ultra-thin film organic photovoltaic cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tsai, Cheng-Chia Grote, Richard R.; Beck, Jonathan H.; Kymissis, Ioannis; Osgood, Richard M.; Englund, Dirk

    2014-07-14

    We describe a general method for maximizing the short-circuit current in thin planar organic photovoltaic (OPV) heterojunction cells by simultaneous optimization of light absorption and carrier collection. Based on the experimentally obtained complex refractive indices of the OPV materials and the thickness-dependence of the internal quantum efficiency of the OPV active layer, we analyze the potential benefits of light trapping strategies for maximizing the overall power conversion efficiency of the cell. This approach provides a general strategy for optimizing the power conversion efficiency of a wide range of OPV structures. In particular, as an experimental trial system, the approach is applied here to a ultra-thin film solar cell with a SubPc/C{sub 60} photovoltaic structure. Using a patterned indium tin oxide (ITO) top contact, the numerically optimized designs achieve short-circuit currents of 0.790 and 0.980?mA/cm{sup 2} for 30?nm and 45?nm SubPc/C{sub 60} heterojunction layer thicknesses, respectively. These values correspond to a power conversion efficiency enhancement of 78% for the 30?nm thick cell, but only of 32% for a 45?nm thick cell, for which the overall photocurrent is actually higher. Applied to other material systems, the general optimization method can elucidate if light trapping strategies can improve a given cell architecture.

  16. Characterization of protein redox dynamics induced during light-to-dark transitions and nutrient limitation in cyanobacteria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ansong, Charles; Sadler, Natalie C.; Hill, Eric A.; Lewis, Michael P.; Zink, Erika M.; Smith, Richard D.; Beliaev, Alex S.; Konopka, Allan; Wright, Aaron T.

    2014-07-03

    Protein redox chemistry constitutes a major void in knowledge pertaining to photoautotrophic system regulation and signaling processes. We have employed a chemical biology approach to analyze redox sensitive proteins in live Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002 cells in both light and dark periods, and to understand how cellular redox balance is disrupted during nutrient perturbation. The present work identified several novel putative redox-sensitive proteins that are involved in the generation of reductant, macromolecule synthesis, and carbon flux through central metabolic pathways, and may be involved in cell signaling and response mechanisms. Furthermore, our research suggests that dynamic redox changes in response to specific nutrient limitations contribute to the regulatory changes driven by a shift from light to dark. Taken together, these results contribute to the high-level understanding of post-translational mechanisms regulating flux distributions and therefore present potential metabolic engineering targets for redirecting carbon towards biofuel precursors.

  17. Environmental chamber studies of atmospheric reactivities of volatile organic compounds: Effects of varying chamber and light source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carter, W.; Luo, D.; Malkina, I.; Pierce, J.

    1995-05-01

    Photochemical oxidant models are essential tools for assessing effects of emissions changes on ground-level ozone formation. Such models are needed for predicting the ozone impacts of increased alternative fuel use. The gas-phase photochemical mechanism is an important component of these models because ozone is not emitted directly, but is formed from the gas-phase photochemical reactions of the emitted volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}) in air. The chemistry of ground level ozone formation is complex; hundreds of types of VOCs being emitted into the atmosphere, and most of their atmospheric reactions are not completely understood. Because of this, no chemical model can be relied upon to give even approximately accurate predictions unless it has been evaluated by comparing its predictions with experimental data. Therefore an experimental and modeling study was conducted to assess how chemical mechanism evaluations using environmental chamber data are affected by the light source and other chamber characteristics. Xenon arc lights appear to give the best artificial representation of sunlight currently available, and experiments were conducted in a new Teflon chamber constructed using such a light source. Experiments were also conducted in an outdoor Teflon Chamber using new procedures to improve the light characterization, and in Teflon chambers using blacklights. These results, and results of previous runs other chambers, were compared with model predictions using an updated detailed chemical mechanism. The magnitude of the chamber radical source assumed when modeling the previous runs were found to be too high; this has implications in previous mechanism evaluations. Temperature dependencies of chamber effects can explain temperature dependencies in chamber experiments when Ta-300{degree}K, but not at temperatures below that.

  18. Molecular dynamics simulations of organic SIMS with Cu{sub n} (n=1-3) clusters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Townes, J. A.; White, A. K.; Krantzman, K. D.; Garrison, B. J.

    1999-06-10

    Molecular dynamics simulations have been performed to study the effect of cluster size on the emission yield and damage cross section in organic SIMS. A model system composed of a monolayer of biphenyl molecules on a Cu(001) substrate was bombarded with Cu{sub n} (n=1-3) projectiles at kinetic energies of 0.100 keV per atom. The yield increases with cluster size, but a nonlinear enhancement in yield is not observed. The yield-to-damage ratio, on the other hand, increases with the use of clusters, indicating that clusters have the potential to improve the sensitivity of SIMS.

  19. X-ray imaging of subsurface dynamics in high-Z materials at the Diamond Light Source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eakins, D. E. Chapman, D. J.

    2014-12-15

    In this paper, we describe a new approach enabling study of subsurface dynamics in high-Z materials using the unique combination of high-energy synchrotron X-rays, a hybrid bunch structure, and a new dynamic loading platform. We detail the design and operation of the purpose-built, portable small bore gas-gun, which was installed on the I12 high-energy beamline at the Diamond Light Source and used to drive compression waves into solid and porous metal targets. Using a hybrid bunch structure and broadband X-ray pulses of up to 300 keV, radiographic snapshots were captured during various dynamic deformation processes in cm-scale specimens, thereby contributing to a more complete understanding of the evolution of mesoscale damage. Importantly, we highlight strategies for overcoming the challenges associated with using high-energy X-rays, and suggest areas for improvement needed to advance dynamic imaging through large-scale samples of relevance to engineering scenarios. These preliminary measurements demonstrate the feasibility of probing highly transient phenomena using the presented methodology.

  20. Studies of solution-processed organic light-emitting diodes and their materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hellerich, Emily

    2013-01-01

    A hitherto unexplored approach is presented in which a small molecule is used as a host to polymer guests in solution-processed OLEDs. We find that the small molecule host results in much more efficient devices than the often-used alternative polymer host when used for the guests presented. It is likely that nano- and microstructural differences between the hosts contribute to the improvements, which highlights some interesting characteristics that can help to better understand the nature of these mixtures. A number of the guests used in this study were newly synthesized benzobisoxazole-based copolymers. New organic copolymers are presented that are based on the chemical structure of benzobisoxazoles, which have been shown in the past to have good electron transporting properties. The novel concept in this publication pertains to a change in the direction of polymerization, also known as the conjugation pathway, which we show increases the emission efficiency. This work highlights a unique and useful property of organic semiconducting materials in that they can be synthesized to create the desired characteristics. Earlier work is described that kick-started in our research group the use of small molecules in solution-processed OLEDs. Originally these devices were to be used in magnetoresistance studies, but the project took a different path when the devices were more efficient than expected. The efficient use of small molecules in solution-processed OLEDs is highlighted, which at the time was not often the case. Also, the important observation of the effect of solvent choice on the resultant film is emphasized, with discussion of the likely cause of these effects. Microcavity OLEDs are introduced in which the transparent anode ITO is replaced with semi-transparent thin silver, which creates an optical cavity within the devices. The goal was to expand a previous work that created an on-chip spectrometer covering wavelengths 493 to 639 nm. In this case, a spin

  1. Low-cost electrochemical treatment of indium tin oxide anodes for high-efficiency organic light-emitting diodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hui Cheng, Chuan, E-mail: chengchuanhui@dlut.edu.cn; Shan Liang, Ze; Gang Wang, Li; Dong Gao, Guo; Zhou, Ting; Ming Bian, Ji; Min Luo, Ying [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Tong Du, Guo, E-mail: dugt@dlut.edu.cn [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); State Key Laboratory on Integrated Optoelectronics, College of Electronic Science and Engineering, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China)

    2014-01-27

    We demonstrate a simple low-cost approach as an alternative to conventional O{sub 2} plasma treatment to modify the surface of indium tin oxide (ITO) anodes for use in organic light-emitting diodes. ITO is functionalized with F{sup ?} ions by electrochemical treatment in dilute hydrofluoric acid. An electrode with a work function of 5.2?eV is achieved following fluorination. Using this electrode, a maximum external quantum efficiency of 26.0% (91?cd/A, 102?lm/W) is obtained, which is 12% higher than that of a device using the O{sub 2} plasma-treated ITO. Fluorination also increases the transparency in the near-infrared region.

  2. Effect of Biodiesel Blending on the Speciation of Soluble Organic Fraction from a Light Duty Diesel Engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Strzelec, Andrea; Storey, John Morse; Lewis Sr, Samuel Arthur; Daw, C Stuart; Foster, Prof. Dave; Rutland, Prof. Christopher J.

    2010-01-01

    Soy methyl ester (SME) biodiesel was volumetrically blended with 2007 certification ultra low sulfur diesel (ULSD) fuel and run in a 1.7L direct-injection common rail diesel engine at one speed-load point (1500rpm, 2.6bar BMEP). Engine fueling rate and injection timing were adjusted to maintain a constant load, while particulate samples were collected in a diesel particulate filter (DPF) and with a dilution tunnel sampling train. The samples collected at these two locations were found to contain different levels of soluble organic fraction (SOF) and the different hydrocarbon species in the SOF. This observation indicates that traditional SOF measurements, in light of the specific sampling procedure used, may not be appropriate to DPF applications.

  3. Highly efficient inverted top emitting organic light emitting diodes using a transparent top electrode with color stability on viewing angle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Jung-Bum; Lee, Jeong-Hwan; Moon, Chang-Ki; Kim, Jang-Joo, E-mail: jjkim@snu.ac.kr [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-02-17

    We report a highly efficient phosphorescent green inverted top emitting organic light emitting diode with excellent color stability by using the 1,4,5,8,9,11-hexaazatriphenylene-hexacarbonitrile/indium zinc oxide top electrode and bis(2-phenylpyridine)iridium(III) acetylacetonate as the emitter in an exciplex forming co-host system. The device shows a high external quantum efficiency of 23.4% at 1000?cd/m{sup 2} corresponding to a current efficiency of 110?cd/A, low efficiency roll-off with 21% at 10?000?cd/m{sup 2} and low turn on voltage of 2.4?V. Especially, the device showed very small color change with the variation of ?x?=?0.02, ?y?=?0.02 in the CIE 1931 coordinates as the viewing angle changes from 0 to 60. The performance of the device is superior to that of the metal/metal cavity structured device.

  4. Tetra-methyl substituted copper (II) phthalocyanine as a hole injection enhancer in organic light-emitting diodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Yu-Long; Xu, Jia-Ju; Lin, Yi-Wei; Chen, Qian; Shan, Hai-Quan; Xu, Zong-Xiang E-mail: val.roy@cityu.edu.hk; Yan, Yan; Roy, V. A. L. E-mail: val.roy@cityu.edu.hk

    2015-10-15

    We have enhanced hole injection and lifetime in organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) by incorporating the isomeric metal phthalocyanine, CuMePc, as a hole injection enhancer. The OLED devices containing CuMePc as a hole injection layer (HIL) exhibited higher luminous efficiency and operational lifetime than those using a CuPc layer and without a HIL. The effect of CuMePc thickness on device performance was investigated. Atomic force microscope (AFM) studies revealed that the thin films were smooth and uniform because the mixture of CuMePc isomers depressed crystallization within the layer. This may have caused the observed enhanced hole injection, indicating that CuMePc is a promising HIL material for highly efficient OLEDs.

  5. Spectrally resolved hyperfine interactions between polaron and nuclear spins in organic light emitting diodes: Magneto-electroluminescence studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crooker, S. A.; Kelley, M. R.; Martinez, N. J. D.; Nie, W.; Mohite, A.; Nayyar, I. H.; Tretiak, S.; Smith, D. L.; Liu, F.; Ruden, P. P.

    2014-10-13

    We use spectrally resolved magneto-electroluminescence (EL) measurements to study the energy dependence of hyperfine interactions between polaron and nuclear spins in organic light-emitting diodes. Using layered devices that generate bright exciplex emission, we show that the increase in EL emission intensity I due to small applied magnetic fields of order 100 mT is markedly larger at the high-energy blue end of the EL spectrum (ΔI/I ∼ 11%) than at the low-energy red end (∼4%). Concurrently, the widths of the magneto-EL curves increase monotonically from blue to red, revealing an increasing hyperfine coupling between polarons and nuclei and directly providing insight into the energy-dependent spatial extent and localization of polarons.

  6. Operating organic light-emitting diodes imaged by super-resolution spectroscopy

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    King, John T.; Granick, Steve

    2016-06-21

    Super-resolution stimulated emission depletion microscopy is adapted here for materials characterization that would not otherwise be possible. With the example of organic lightemitting diodes (OLEDs), spectral imaging with pixel-by-pixel wavelength discrimination allows us to resolve local-chain environment encoded in the spectral response of the semiconducting polymer, and correlate chain packing with local electroluminescence by using externally applied current as the excitation source. We observe nanoscopic defects that would be unresolvable by traditional microscopy. They are revealed in electroluminescence maps in operating OLEDs with 50 nm spatial resolution. We find that brightest emission comes from regions with more densely packed chains.more » Conventional microscopy of an operating OLED would lack the resolution needed to discriminate these features, while traditional methods to resolve nanoscale features generally cannot be performed when the device is operating. Furthermore, this points the way towards real-time analysis of materials design principles in devices as they actually operate.« less

  7. The dynamic behavior of thin-film ionic transition metal complex-based light-emitting electrochemical cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meier, Sebastian B. E-mail: wiebke.sarfert@siemens.com; Hartmann, David; Sarfert, Wiebke E-mail: wiebke.sarfert@siemens.com; Winnacker, Albrecht

    2014-09-14

    Light-emitting electrochemical cells (LECs) have received increasing attention during recent years due to their simple architecture, based on solely air-stabile materials, and ease of manufacture in ambient atmosphere, using solution-based technologies. The LEC's active layer offers semiconducting, luminescent as well as ionic functionality resulting in device physical processes fundamentally different as compared with organic light-emitting diodes. During operation, electrical double layers (EDLs) form at the electrode interfaces as a consequence of ion accumulation and electrochemical doping sets in leading to the in situ development of a light-emitting p-i-n junction. In this paper, we comment on the use of impedance spectroscopy in combination with complex nonlinear squares fitting to derive key information about the latter events in thin-film ionic transition metal complex-based light-emitting electrochemical cells based on the model compound bis-2-phenylpyridine 6-phenyl-2,2´-bipyridine iridium(III) hexafluoridophosphate ([Ir(ppy)₂(pbpy)][PF₆]). At operating voltages below the bandgap potential of the ionic complex used, we obtain the dielectric constant of the active layer, the conductivity of mobile ions, the transference numbers of electrons and ions, and the thickness of the EDLs, whereas the transient thickness of the p-i-n junction is determined at voltages above the bandgap potential. Most importantly, we find that charge transport is dominated by the ions when carrier injection from the electrodes is prohibited, that ion movement is limited by the presence of transverse internal interfaces and that the width of the intrinsic region constitutes almost 60% of the total active layer thickness in steady state at a low operating voltage.

  8. STRUCTURE AND DYNAMICS OF THE 2012 NOVEMBER 13/14 ECLIPSE WHITE-LIGHT CORONA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pasachoff, J. M.; Rušin, V.; Saniga, M.; Babcock, B. A.; Lu, M.; Davis, A. B. E-mail: vrusin@ta3.sk; and others

    2015-02-20

    Continuing our series of observations of coronal motion and dynamics over the solar-activity cycle, we observed from sites in Queensland, Australia, during the 2012 November 13 (UT)/14 (local time) total solar eclipse. The corona took the low-ellipticity shape typical of solar maximum (flattening index ε = 0.01), a change from the composite coronal images we observed and analyzed in this journal and elsewhere for the 2006 and 2008-2010 eclipses. After crossing the northeast Australian coast, the path of totality was over the ocean, so further totality was seen only by shipborne observers. Our results include velocities of a coronal mass ejection (CME; during the 36 minutes of passage from the Queensland coast to a ship north of New Zealand, we measured 413 km s{sup –1}) and we analyze its dynamics. We discuss the shapes and positions of several types of coronal features seen on our higher-resolution composite Queensland coronal images, including many helmet streamers, very faint bright and dark loops at the bases of helmet streamers, voids, and radially oriented thin streamers. We compare our eclipse observations with models of the magnetic field, confirming the validity of the predictions, and relate the eclipse phenomenology seen with the near-simultaneous images from NASA's Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO/AIA), NASA's Extreme Ultraviolet Imager on Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory, ESA/Royal Observatory of Belgium's Sun Watcher with Active Pixels and Image Processing (SWAP) on PROBA2, and Naval Research Laboratory's Large Angle and Spectrometric Coronagraph Experiment on ESA's Solar and Heliospheric Observatory. For example, the southeastern CME is related to the solar flare whose origin we trace with a SWAP series of images.

  9. Selective Adsorption of CO2 from Light Gas Mixtures Using a Structurally Dynamic Porous Coordination Polymer**

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kristi L. Kauffman, Jeffrey T. Culp, Andrew J. Allen, Laura Espinal, Winnie Wong-Ng, Thomas D. Brown, Angela Goodman, Mark P. Bernardo, Russel J. Pancoast, Danielle Chirdon, Christopher Matranga*

    2010-01-01

    The selective adsorption of CO{sub 2} from mixtures with N{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, and N{sub 2}O in a dynamic porous coordination polymer (see monomer structure) was evaluated by ATR-FTIR spectroscopy, GC, and SANS. All three techniques indicate highly selective adsorption of CO{sub 2} from CO{sub 2}/CH{sub 4} and CO{sub 2}/N{sub 2} mixtures at 30 C, with no selectivity observed for the CO{sub 2}/N{sub 2}O system.

  10. Flow dynamics and potential for Biodegradation of Organic Contaminants in Fractured Rock Vadose Zones

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Geller, J.T.; Holman, H.-Y.; Su, T.-S.; Liou, M.S.; Conrad, M.S.; Pruess, K.; Hunter-Devera, J.C.

    1998-12-01

    We present an experimental approach for investigating the potential for bioremediation of volatile organic chemicals (VOCs) in fractured-rock vadose zones. This approach is based on the coupling of fluid flow dynamics and biotransformation processes. Fluid flow and distribution within fracture networks may be a significant factor in the ability of microorganisms to degrade VOCs, as they affect the availability of substrate, moisture and nutrients. Biological activity can change liquid surface tension and generate biofilms that may change the nettability of solid surfaces, locally alter fracture permeability and redirect infiltrating liquids. Our approach has four components: (1) establishing a conceptual model for fluid and contaminant distribution in the geologic matrix of interest; (2) physical and numerical experiments of liquid seepage in the fracture plane; (3) non-destructive monitoring of biotransformations on rock surfaces at the micron-scale; and, (4) integration of flow and biological activity in natural rock ''geocosms''. Geocosms are core-scale flow cells that incorporate some aspects of natural conditions, such as liquid seepage in the fracture plane and moisture content. The experimental work was performed with rock samples and indigenous microorganisms from the site of the US Department of Energy's Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), located in a basalt flow basin where VOC contamination threatens the Snake River Aquifer. The insights gained from this approach should contribute to the design of techniques to monitor and stimulate naturally occurring biological activity and control the spread of organic contaminants.

  11. Highly transparent and conductive double-layer oxide thin films as anodes for organic light-emitting diodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang Yu; Wang Lian; Yan He; Jin Shu; Marks, Tobin J.; Li Shuyou

    2006-07-31

    Double-layer transparent conducting oxide thin film structures containing In-doped CdO (CIO) and Sn-doped In{sub 2}O{sub 3} (ITO) layers were grown on glass by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition and ion-assisted deposition (IAD), respectively, and used as anodes for polymer light-emitting diodes (PLEDs). These films have a very low overall In content of 16 at. %. For 180-nm-thick CIO/ITO films, the sheet resistance is 5.6 {omega}/{open_square}, and the average optical transmittance is 87.1% in the 400-700 nm region. The overall figure of merit ({phi}=T{sup 10}/R{sub sheet}) of the double-layer CIO/ITO films is significantly greater than that of single-layer CIO, IAD-ITO, and commercial ITO films. CIO/ITO-based PLEDs exhibit comparable or superior device performance versus ITO-based control devices. CIO/ITO materials have a much lower sheet resistance than ITO, rendering them promising low In content electrode materials for large-area optoelectronic devices.

  12. Role of chemical reactions of arylamine hole transport materials in operational degradation of organic light-emitting diodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kondakov, Denis Y.

    2008-10-15

    We report that the representative arylamine hole transport materials undergo chemical transformations in operating organic light-emitting diode (OLED) devices. Although the underlying chemical mechanisms are too complex to be completely elucidated, structures of several identified degradation products point at dissociations of relatively weak carbon-nitrogen and carbon-carbon bonds in arylamine molecules as the initiating step. Considering the photochemical reactivities, the bond dissociation reactions of arylamines occur by the homolysis of the lowest singlet excited states formed by recombining charge carriers in the operating OLED device. The subsequent chemical reactions are likely to yield long-lived, stabilized free radicals capable of acting as deep traps--nonradiative recombination centers and fluorescence quenchers. Their presence in the hole transport layer results in irreversible hole trapping and manifests as a positive fixed charge. The extent and localization of chemical transformations in several exemplary devices suggest that the free radical reactions of hole transporting materials, arylamines, can be sufficient to account for the observed luminance efficiency loss and voltage rise in operating OLEDs. The relative bond strengths and excited state energies of OLED materials appear to have a determining effect on the operational stability of OLED devices.

  13. High performance flexible top-emitting warm-white organic light-emitting devices and chromaticity shift mechanism

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shi, Hongying; Deng, Lingling; Chen, Shufen E-mail: wei-huang@njupt.edu.cn; Xu, Ying; Zhao, Xiaofei; Cheng, Fan; Huang, Wei E-mail: wei-huang@njupt.edu.cn; Jiangsu-Singapore Joint Research Center for Organic/Bio- Electronics and Information Displays and Institute of Advanced Materials, Nanjing University of Technology, Nanjing 211816

    2014-04-15

    Flexible warm-white top-emitting organic light-emitting devices (TEOLEDs) are fabricated onto PET substrates with a simple semi-transparent cathode Sm/Ag and two-color phosphors respectively doped into a single host material TCTA. By adjusting the relative position of the orange-red EML sandwiched between the blue emitting layers, the optimized device exhibits the highest power/current efficiency of 8.07 lm/W and near 13 cd/A, with a correlated color temperature (CCT) of 4105 K and a color rendering index (CRI) of 70. In addition, a moderate chromaticity variation of (-0.025, +0.008) around warm white illumination coordinates (0.45, 0.44) is obtained over a large luminance range of 1000 to 10000 cd/m{sup 2}. The emission mechanism is discussed via delta-doping method and single-carrier device, which is summarized that the carrier trapping, the exciton quenching, the mobility change and the recombination zone alteration are negative to color stability while the energy transfer process and the blue/red/blue sandwiched structure are contributed to the color stability in our flexible white TEOLEDs.

  14. Suppression of external quantum efficiency roll-off of nanopatterned organic-light emitting diodes at high current densities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuwae, Hiroyuki; Kasahara, Takashi; Nitta, Atsushi; Yoshida, Kou; Inoue, Munetomo; Matsushima, Toshinori; Adachi, Chihaya; Shoji, Shuichi; Mizuno, Jun

    2015-10-21

    We developed organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) with nanopatterned current flow regions using electron-beam lithography with the aim of suppressing singlet–polaron annihilation (SPA). Nanopatterns composed of lines and circles were used in the current flow regions of nano-line and nano-dot OLEDs, respectively. Excitons partially escape from the current flow regions where SPA takes place. As such, current densities where external quantum efficiencies were half of their initial values (J{sub 0}) increased as line width and circle diameter were decreased to close to the exciton diffusion length. Circles were more efficient at enhancing exciton escape and increasing J{sub 0} than lines. The J{sub 0} increase in the nano-dot OLEDs containing nanopatterned circles with a diameter of 50 nm was approximately 41-fold that of a conventional OLED with a current flow region of 4 mm{sup 2}. The dependence of J{sub 0} on the size and shape of the nanopatterns was well explained by an SPA model that considered exciton diffusion. Nanopatterning of OLEDs is a feasible method of obtaining large J{sub 0}.

  15. Highly-selective wettability on organic light-emitting-diodes patterns by sequential low-power plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Svarnas, P.; Edwards, A. J.; Bradley, J. W.; Yang, L.; Munz, M.; Shard, A. G.

    2010-05-15

    Patterned organic light-emitting-diode substrates were treated by oxygen (O{sub 2}) and tetrafluoromethane (CF{sub 4}) radio-frequency (rf, 13.56 MHz) plasmas of low-power (close to 1 W) that were capacitively-coupled. An unexpected wettability contrast (water contact angle difference up to 90 deg. ) between the indium-tin-oxide anode and the bank resist regions was achieved, providing excellent conditioning prior to the ink-jet printing. This selectivity was found to be adjustable by varying the relative exposure time to the O{sub 2} and CF{sub 4} sequential plasmas. Static contact angle measurements and extensive x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses showed that the wetting properties depend on the carbon and fluorine chemical functional groups formed at the outermost surface layers, whereas atomic force microscopy images did not show a morphological change. Plasma optical emission spectroscopy and ion mass spectroscopy suggested that surface functionalization was initiated by energy transfer from ionic species (O{sup +}, O{sub 2}{sup +}, CF{sup +}, CF{sub 2}{sup +}, and CF{sub 3}{sup +}) and excited neutrals (O{sup *} and F{sup *}). The absolute ion fluxes measured on the substrates were up to 10{sup 14} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} and the ion energies up to 20 eV, despite the low powers applied during the process.

  16. The effect of the hole injection layer on the performance of single layer organic light-emitting diodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wenjin, Zeng; Ran, Bi; Hongmei, Zhang E-mail: iamwhuang@njupt.edu.cn; Wei, Huang E-mail: iamwhuang@njupt.edu.cn

    2014-12-14

    Efficient single-layer organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) were reported based on a green fluorescent dye 10-(2-benzothiazolyl)-2,3,6,7-tetrahydro-1,1,7,7tetramethyl-1H,5H,11H-(1) benzopyropyrano (6,7-8-I,j)quinolizin-11-one (C545T). Herein, poly(3,4-ethylenedioxy thiophene) poly(styrene sulfonate) were, respectively, applied as the injection layer for comparison. The hole transport properties of the emission layer with different hole injection materials are well investigated via current-voltage measurement. It was clearly found that the hole injection layers (HILs) play an important role in the adjustment of the electron/hole injection to attain transport balance of charge carriers in the single emission layer of OLEDs with electron-transporting host. The layer of tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum played a dual role of host and electron-transporting materials within the emission layer. Therefore, appropriate selection of hole injection layer is a key factor to achieve high efficiency OLEDs with single emission layer.

  17. Transcriptomic and proteomic dynamics in the metabolism of a diazotrophic cyanobacterium, Cyanothece sp. PCC 7822 during a diurnal lightdark cycle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Welkie, David; Zhang, Xiaohui; Markillie, Meng; Taylor, Ronald; Orr, Galya; Jacobs, Jon; Bhide, Ketaki; Thimmapuram, Jyothi; Gritsenko, Marina; Mitchell, Hugh; Smith, Richard D; Sherman, Louis A

    2014-12-29

    Cyanothece sp. PCC 7822 is an excellent cyanobacterial model organism with great potential to be applied as a biocatalyst for the production of high value compounds. Like other unicellular diazotrophic cyanobacterial species, it has a tightly regulated metabolism synchronized to the light-dark cycle. Utilizing transcriptomic and proteomic methods, we were able to quantify the relationships between transcription and translation underlying central and secondary metabolism in response to nitrogen free, 12 hour light and 12 hour dark conditions.

  18. Systematic analysis of proteindetergent complexes applying dynamic light scattering to optimize solutions for crystallization trials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meyer, Arne [University of Hamburg, c/o DESY, Building 22a, Notkestrasse 85, 22603 Hamburg (Germany); Dierks, Karsten [University of Hamburg, c/o DESY, Building 22a, Notkestrasse 85, 22603 Hamburg (Germany); XtalConcepts, Marlowring 19, 22525 Hamburg (Germany); Hussein, Rana [University of Hamburg, c/o DESY, Building 22a, Notkestrasse 85, 22603 Hamburg (Germany); Brillet, Karl [ESBS, Ple API, 300 Boulevard Sbastien Brant, CS10413, 67412 Illkirch CEDEX (France); Brognaro, Hevila [So Paulo State University, UNESP/IBILCE, Caixa Postal 136, So Jos do Rio Preto-SP, 15054 (Brazil); Betzel, Christian, E-mail: christian.betzel@uni-hamburg.de [University of Hamburg, c/o DESY, Building 22a, Notkestrasse 85, 22603 Hamburg (Germany)

    2015-01-01

    Application of in situ dynamic light scattering to solutions of proteindetergent complexes permits characterization of these complexes in samples as small as 2 l in volume. Detergents are widely used for the isolation and solubilization of membrane proteins to support crystallization and structure determination. Detergents are amphiphilic molecules that form micelles once the characteristic critical micelle concentration (CMC) is achieved and can solubilize membrane proteins by the formation of micelles around them. The results are presented of a study of micelle formation observed by in situ dynamic light-scattering (DLS) analyses performed on selected detergent solutions using a newly designed advanced hardware device. DLS was initially applied in situ to detergent samples with a total volume of approximately 2 l. When measured with DLS, pure detergents show a monodisperse radial distribution in water at concentrations exceeding the CMC. A series of all-transn-alkyl-?-d-maltopyranosides, from n-hexyl to n-tetradecyl, were used in the investigations. The results obtained verify that the application of DLS in situ is capable of distinguishing differences in the hydrodynamic radii of micelles formed by detergents differing in length by only a single CH{sub 2} group in their aliphatic tails. Subsequently, DLS was applied to investigate the distribution of hydrodynamic radii of membrane proteins and selected water-insoluble proteins in presence of detergent micelles. The results confirm that stable proteindetergent complexes were prepared for (i) bacteriorhodopsin and (ii) FetA in complex with a ligand as examples of transmembrane proteins. A fusion of maltose-binding protein and the Duck hepatitis B virus X protein was added to this investigation as an example of a non-membrane-associated protein with low water solubility. The increased solubility of this protein in the presence of detergent could be monitored, as well as the progress of proteolytic cleavage to

  19. Evaluation and prediction of color-tunable organic light-emitting diodes based on carrier/exciton adjusting interlayer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Shengqiang; Li, Jie; Yu, Junsheng; Du, Chunlei

    2015-07-27

    A color tuning index (I{sub CT}) parameter for evaluating the color change capability of color-tunable organic light-emitting diodes (CT-OLEDs) was proposed and formulated. And a series of CT-OLEDs, consisting of five different carrier/exciton adjusting interlayers (C/EALs) inserted between two complementary emitting layers, were fabricated and applied to disclose the relationship between I{sub CT} and C/EALs. The result showed that the trend of electroluminescence spectra behavior in CT-OLEDs has good accordance with I{sub CT} values, indicating that the I{sub CT} parameter is feasible for the evaluation of color variation. Meanwhile, by changing energy level and C/EAL thickness, the optimized device with the widest color tuning range was based on N,N′-dicarbazolyl-3,5-benzene C/EAL, exhibiting the highest I{sub CT} value of 41.2%. Based on carrier quadratic hopping theory and exciton transfer model, two fitting I{sub CT} formulas derived from the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) energy level and triplet energy level were simulated. Finally, a color tuning prediction (CTP) model was developed to deduce the I{sub CT} via C/EAL HOMO and triplet energy levels, and verified by the fabricated OLEDs with five different C/EALs. We believe that the CTP model assisted with I{sub CT} parameter will be helpful for fabricating high performance CT-OLEDs with a broad range of color tuning.

  20. Influences of wide-angle and multi-beam interference on the chromaticity and efficiency of top-emitting white organic light-emitting diodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deng, Lingling; Zhou, Hongwei; Chen, Shufen Liu, Bin; Wang, Lianhui; Shi, Hongying

    2015-02-28

    Wide-angle interference (WI) and multi-beam interference (MI) in microcavity are analyzed separately to improve chromaticity and efficiency of the top-emitting white organic light-emitting diodes (TWOLEDs). A classic electromagnetic theory is used to calculate the resonance intensities of WI and MI in top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes (TOLEDs) with influence factors (e.g., electrodes and exciton locations) being considered. The role of WI on the performances of TOLEDs is revealed through using ?-doping technology and comparing blue and red EML positions in top-emitting and bottom-emitting devices. The blue light intensity significantly increases and the chromaticity of TWOLEDs is further improved with the use of enhanced WI (the blue emitting layer moving towards the reflective electrode) in the case of a weak MI. In addition, the effect of the thicknesses of light output layer and carrier transport layers on WI and MI are also investigated. Apart from the microcavity effect, other factors, e.g., carrier balance and carrier recombination regions are considered to obtain TWOLEDs with high efficiency and improved chromaticity near white light equal-energy point.

  1. Vertically polarizing undulator with the dynamic compensation of magnetic forces for the next generation of light sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Strelnikov, N.; Trakhtenberg, E.; Vasserman, I.; Xu, J.; Gluskin, E.

    2014-11-15

    A short prototype (847-mm-long) of an Insertion Device (ID) with the dynamic compensation of ID magnetic forces has been designed, built, and tested at the Advanced Photon Source (APS) of the Argonne National Laboratory. The ID magnetic forces were compensated by the set of conical springs placed along the ID strongback. Well-controlled exponential characteristics of conical springs permitted a very close fit to the ID magnetic forces. Several effects related to the imperfections of actual springs, their mounting and tuning, and how these factors affect the prototype performance has been studied. Finally, series of tests to determine the accuracy and reproducibility of the ID magnetic gap settings have been carried out. Based on the magnetic measurements of the ID B{sub eff}, it has been demonstrated that the magnetic gaps within an operating range were controlled accurately and reproducibly within 1 ?m. Successful tests of this ID prototype led to the design of a 3-m long device based on the same concept. The 3-m long prototype is currently under construction. It represents R and D efforts by the APS toward APS Upgrade Project goals as well as the future generation of IDs for the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS)

  2. Study on copper phthalocyanine and perylene-based ambipolar organic light-emitting field-effect transistors produced using neutral beam deposition method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Dae-Kyu; Oh, Jeong-Do; Shin, Eun-Sol; Seo, Hoon-Seok; Choi, Jong-Ho

    2014-04-28

    The neutral cluster beam deposition (NCBD) method has been applied to the production and characterization of ambipolar, heterojunction-based organic light-emitting field-effect transistors (OLEFETs) with a top-contact, multi-digitated, long-channel geometry. Organic thin films of n-type N,N?-ditridecylperylene-3,4,9,10-tetracarboxylic diimide and p-type copper phthalocyanine were successively deposited on the hydroxyl-free polymethyl-methacrylate (PMMA)-coated SiO{sub 2} dielectrics using the NCBD method. Characterization of the morphological and structural properties of the organic active layers was performed using atomic force microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Various device parameters such as hole- and electron-carrier mobilities, threshold voltages, and electroluminescence (EL) were derived from the fits of the observed current-voltage and current-voltage-light emission characteristics of OLEFETs. The OLEFETs demonstrated good field-effect characteristics, well-balanced ambipolarity, and substantial EL under ambient conditions. The device performance, which is strongly correlated with the surface morphology and the structural properties of the organic active layers, is discussed along with the operating conduction mechanism.

  3. Ag@AgHPW as a plasmonic catalyst for visible-light photocatalytic degradation of environmentally harmful organic pollutants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, Wenhui; Cao, Minhua Li, Na; Su, Shuangyue; Zhao, Xinyu; Wang, Jiangqiang; Li, Xianghua; Hu, Changwen

    2013-06-01

    Graphical abstract: Ag@Ag{sub x}H{sub 3?x}PW12O40 (Ag@AgHPW) nanoparticles (NPs), a new visible-light driven plasmonic photocatalyst, are prepared by a green photoreduction strategy without the addition of any surfactant, which show a high activity and stability for the degradation of methyl blue (MB) under visible light irradiation. - Highlights: A new visible-light driven photocatalyst Ag@Ag{sub x}H{sub 3?x}PW{sub 12}O{sub 40} was designed. The photocatalyst shows a high activity for the degradation of methyl blue. The high activity can be ascribed to the synergy of photoexcited AgHPW and Ag. - Abstract: Ag@Ag{sub x}H{sub 3?x}PW{sub 12}O{sub 40} (Ag@AgHPW) nanoparticles (NPs), a new visible-light driven plasmonic photocatalyst, are prepared by a green photoreduction strategy without the addition of any surfactant. They show strong absorption in the visible region because of the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) of Ag NPs. This plasmonic photocatalyst shows a high activity and stability for the degradation of methyl blue (MB) under visible light irradiation, which could be attributed to the highly synergy of photoexcited Ag{sub x}H{sub 3?x}PW{sub 12}O{sub 40} (AgHPW) and plasmon-excited Ag NPs and the confinement effects at interfaces between polyoxometalates (POMs) and silver. POM anions have redox ability and high photocatalytic activity, whereas Ag NPs could effectively accelerate the separation of electrons and holes, both of which contribute to their high activity.

  4. Self-organization is a dynamic and lineage-intrinsic property of mammary epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chanson, L.; Brownfield, D.; Garbe, J. C.; Kuhn, I.; Stampfer, M. R.; Bissell, M. J.; LaBarge, M. A.

    2011-02-07

    Loss of organization is a principle feature of cancers; therefore it is important to understand how normal adult multilineage tissues, such as bilayered secretory epithelia, establish and maintain their architectures. The self-organization process that drives heterogeneous mixtures of cells to form organized tissues is well studied in embryology and with mammalian cell lines that were abnormal or engineered. Here we used a micropatterning approach that confined cells to a cylindrical geometry combined with an algorithm to quantify changes of cellular distribution over time to measure the ability of different cell types to self-organize relative to each other. Using normal human mammary epithelial cells enriched into pools of the two principal lineages, luminal and myoepithelial cells, we demonstrated that bilayered organization in mammary epithelium was driven mainly by lineage-specific differential E-cadherin expression, but that P-cadherin contributed specifically to organization of the myoepithelial layer. Disruption of the actomyosin network or of adherens junction proteins resulted in either prevention of bilayer formation or loss of preformed bilayers, consistent with continual sampling of the local microenvironment by cadherins. Together these data show that self-organization is an innate and reversible property of communities of normal adult human mammary epithelial cells.

  5. Structural dynamics of phenylisothiocyanate in the light-absorbing excited states: Resonance Raman and complete active space self-consistent field calculation study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ouyang, Bing Xue, Jia-Dan Zheng, Xuming E-mail: zxm@zstu.edu.cn; Fang, Wei-Hai E-mail: fangwh@dnu.edu.cn

    2014-05-21

    The excited state structural dynamics of phenyl isothiocyanate (PITC) after excitation to the light absorbing S{sub 2}(A′), S{sub 6}(A′), and S{sub 7}(A′) excited states were studied by using the resonance Raman spectroscopy and complete active space self-consistent field method calculations. The UV absorption bands of PITC were assigned. The vibrational assignments were done on the basis of the Fourier transform (FT)-Raman and FT-infrared measurements, the density-functional theory computations, and the normal mode analysis. The A-, B-, and C-bands resonance Raman spectra in cyclohexane, acetonitrile, and methanol solvents were, respectively, obtained at 299.1, 282.4, 266.0, 252.7, 228.7, 217.8, and 208.8 nm excitation wavelengths to probe the corresponding structural dynamics of PITC. The results indicated that the structural dynamics in the S{sub 2}(A′), S{sub 6}(A′), and S{sub 7}(A′) excited states were very different. The conical intersection point CI(S{sub 2}/S{sub 1}) were predicted to play important role in the low-lying excited state decay dynamics. Two major decay channels were predicted for PITC upon excitation to the S{sub 2}(A′) state: the radiative S{sub 2,min} → S{sub 0} transition and the nonradiative S{sub 2} → S{sub 1} internal conversion via CI(S{sub 2}/S{sub 1}). The differences in the decay dynamics between methyl isothiocyanate and PITC in the first light absorbing excited state were discussed. The role of the intersystem crossing point ISC(S{sub 1}/T{sub 1}) in the excited state decay dynamics of PITC is evaluated.

  6. Using interlayer step-wise triplet transfer to achieve an efficient white organic light-emitting diode with high color-stability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Qi; Ma, Dongge Ding, Junqiao; Wang, Lixiang; Leo, Karl; Qiao, Qiquan; Jia, Huiping; Gnade, Bruce E.

    2014-05-12

    An efficient phosphorescent white organic light emitting-diode with a red-green-blue tri-emitting-layer structure is reported. The host of the red dopant possesses a lower triplet-energy than the green dye. An interlayer step-wise triplet transfer via blue dye ? green dye ? red host ? red dye is achieved. This mechanism allows an efficient triplet harvesting by the three dopants, thus maintaining a balanced white light and reducing energy loss. Moreover, the color stability of the device is improved significantly. The white device not only achieves a peak external quantum efficiency of 21.1??0.8% and power efficiency of 37.5??1.4?lm/W but shows no color shift over a wide range of voltages.

  7. Suppression of roll-off characteristics of organic light-emitting diodes by narrowing current injection/transport area to 50?nm

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hayashi, Kyohei Inoue, Munetomo; Yoshida, Kou; Nakanotani, Hajime; Mikhnenko, Oleksandr; Nguyen, Thuc-Quyen E-mail: adachi@cstf.kyushu-u.ac.jp; Adachi, Chihaya E-mail: adachi@cstf.kyushu-u.ac.jp

    2015-03-02

    Using e-beam nanolithography, the current injection/transport area in organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) was confined into a narrow linear structure with a minimum width of 50?nm. This caused suppression of Joule heating and partial separation of polarons and excitons, so the charge density where the electroluminescent efficiency decays to the half of the initial value (J{sub 0}) was significantly improved. A device with a narrow current injection width of 50?nm exhibited a J{sub 0} that was almost two orders of magnitude higher compared with that of the unpatterned OLED.

  8. Investigating potential efficiency improvement for light-duty transportation applications through simulation of an organic Rankine cycle for waste-heat recovery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edwards, Kevin Dean; Wagner, Robert M

    2010-01-01

    Modern diesel engines used in light-duty transportation applications have peak brake thermal efficiencies in the range of 40-42% for high-load operation with substantially lower efficiencies at realistic road-load conditions. Thermodynamic energy and exergy analysis reveals that the largest losses from these engines are due to heat loss and combustion irreversibility. Substantial improvement in overall engine efficiency requires reducing or recovering these losses. Unfortunately, much of the heat transfer either occurs at relatively low temperatures resulting in large entropy generation (such as in the air-charge cooler), is transferred to low-exergy flow streams (such as the oil and engine coolant), or is radiated or convected directly to the environment. While there are significant opportunities for recovery from the exhaust and EGR cooler for heavy-duty applications, the potential benefits of such a strategy for light-duty applications are unknown due to transient operation, low-load operation at typical driving conditions, and the added mass of the system. We have developed an organic Rankine cycle model using GT-Suite to investigate the potential for efficiency improvement through waste-heat recovery from the exhaust and EGR cooler of a light-duty diesel engine. Results from steady-state and drive-cycle simulations are presented, and we discuss strategies to address operational difficulties associated with transient drive cycles and competition between waste-heat recovery systems, turbochargers, aftertreatment devices, and other systems for the limited thermal resources.

  9. Influence of PEDOT:PSS on the effectiveness of barrier layers prepared by atomic layer deposition in organic light emitting diodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wegler, Barbara; Schmidt, Oliver; Hensel, Bernhard

    2015-01-15

    Organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) are well suited for energy saving lighting applications, especially when thinking about highly flexible and large area devices. In order to avoid the degradation of the organic components by water and oxygen, OLEDs need to be encapsulated, e.g., by a thin sheet of glass. As the device is then no longer flexible, alternative coatings are required. Atomic layer deposition (ALD) is a very promising approach in this respect. The authors studied OLEDs that were encapsulated by 100 nm Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} deposited by ALD. The authors show that this coating effectively protects the active surface area of the OLEDs from humidity. However, secondary degradation processes still occur at sharp edges of the OLED stack where the extremely thin encapsulation layer does not provide perfect coverage. Particularly, the swelling of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) mixed with poly(styrenesulfonate), which is a popular choice for the planarization of the bottom electrode and at the same time acts as a hole injection layer, affects the effectiveness of the encapsulation layer.

  10. Strong carrier localization effect in carrier dynamics of 585 nm InGaN amber light-emitting diodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Panpan; Li, Hongjian; Li, Zhi; Kang, Junjie; Yi, Xiaoyan; Li, Jinmin; Wang, Guohong

    2015-02-21

    Temperature dependence and time-resolved photoluminescence (TRPL) have been carried out to study carrier dynamics for 585 nm InGaN amber light-emitting diodes (LEDs). It is found that in InGaN amber LEDs, peak emission energy only shows a slight blueshift from 588 to 575 nm, as temperature increased from 10 K to 300 K. Moreover, radiative recombination lifetime has demonstrated independent of temperature based TRPL results. These two features indicate that a strong carrier localization effect plays a dominant role in carrier dynamics for InGaN amber LEDs. Also, activation energy of 40.3 meV is obtained through Arrhenius plot of PL intensity versus temperature.

  11. Charge Recombination, Transport Dynamics, and Interfacial Effects in Organic Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heeger, Alan; Bazan, Guillermo; Nguyen, Thuc-Quyen; Wudl, Fred

    2015-02-27

    The need for renewable sources of energy is well known. Conversion of sunlight to electricity using solar cells is one of the most important opportunities for creating renewable energy sources. The research carried out under DE-FG02-08ER46535 focused on the science and technology of “Plastic” solar cells comprised of organic (i.e. carbon based) semiconductors. The Bulk Heterojunction concept involves a phase separated blend of two organic semiconductors each with dimensions in the nano-meter length scale --- one a material that functions as a donor for electrons and the other a material that functions as an acceptor for electrons. The nano-scale inter-penetrating network concept for “Plastic” solar cells was created at UC Santa Barbara. A simple measure of the impact of this concept can be obtained from a Google search which gives 244,000 “hits” for the Bulk Heterojunction solar cell. Research funded through this program focused on four major areas: 1. Interfacial effects in organic photovoltaics, 2. Charge transfer and photogeneration of mobile charge carriers in organic photovoltaics, 3. Transport and recombination of the photogenerated charge carriers in organic photovoltaics, 4. Synthesis of novel organic semiconducting polymers and semiconducting small molecules, including conjugated polyelectrolytes. Following the discovery of ultrafast charge transfer at UC Santa Barbara in 1992, the nano-organic (Bulk Heterojunction) concept was formulated. The need for a morphology comprising two interpenetrating bicontinuous networks was clear: one network to carry the photogenerated electrons (negative charge) to the cathode and one network to carry the photo-generated holes (positive charge) to the anode. This remarkable self-assembled network morphology has now been established using Transmission electron Microscopy (TEM) either in the Phase Contrast mode or via TEM-Tomography. The steps involved in delivering power from a solar cell to an external circuit

  12. Dynamic

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  13. Structural influences on charge carrier dynamics for small-molecule organic photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Zhiping Shibata, Yosei; Yamanari, Toshihiro; Matsubara, Koji; Yoshida, Yuji; Miyadera, Tetsuhiko; Saeki, Akinori; Seki, Shu; Zhou, Ying

    2014-07-07

    We investigated the structural influences on the charge carrier dynamics in zinc phthalocyanine/fullerene (ZnPc/C{sub 60}) photovoltaic cells by introducing poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) and 2,5-bis(4-biphenylyl)-bithiophene (BP2T) between indium tin oxide and ZnPc layers. ZnPc films can be tuned to be round, long fiber-like, and short fiber-like structure, respectively. Time-resolved microwave conductivity measurements reveal that charge carrier lifetime in ZnPc/C{sub 60} bilayer films is considerably affected by the intra-grain properties. Transient photocurrent of ZnPc single films indicated that the charge carriers can transport for a longer distance in the long fiber-like grains than that in the round grains, due to the greatly lessened grain boundaries. By carefully controlling the structure of ZnPc films, the short-circuit current and fill factor of a ZnPc/C{sub 60} heterojunction solar cell with BP2T are significantly improved and the power conversion efficiency is increased to 2.6%, which is 120% larger than the conventional cell without BP2T.

  14. Enhancement of hole injection and electroluminescence by ordered Ag nanodot array on indium tin oxide anode in organic light emitting diode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jung, Mi E-mail: Dockha@kist.re.kr; Mo Yoon, Dang; Kim, Miyoung; Kim, Chulki; Lee, Taikjin; Hun Kim, Jae; Lee, Seok; Woo, Deokha E-mail: Dockha@kist.re.kr; Lim, Si-Hyung

    2014-07-07

    We report the enhancement of hole injection and electroluminescence (EL) in an organic light emitting diode (OLED) with an ordered Ag nanodot array on indium-tin-oxide (ITO) anode. Until now, most researches have focused on the improved performance of OLEDs by plasmonic effects of metal nanoparticles due to the difficulty in fabricating metal nanodot arrays. A well-ordered Ag nanodot array is fabricated on the ITO anode of OLED using the nanoporous alumina as an evaporation mask. The OLED device with Ag nanodot arrays on the ITO anode shows higher current density and EL enhancement than the one without any nano-structure. These results suggest that the Ag nanodot array with the plasmonic effect has potential as one of attractive approaches to enhance the hole injection and EL in the application of the OLEDs.

  15. Highly stable and efficient tandem organic light-emitting devices with intermediate connectors using lithium amide as n-type dopant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, Dong-Ying; Zu, Feng-Shuo; Shi, Xiao-Bo; Liao, Liang-Sheng E-mail: lsliao@suda.edu.cn; Zhang, Ying-Jie; Aziz, Hany E-mail: lsliao@suda.edu.cn

    2014-08-25

    In this work, we report thermally decomposable lithium amide (LiNH{sub 2}) feasible to function as an effective n-type dopant for intermediate connectors in tandem organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs). Metallic lithium, which is released from the decomposition process of LiNH{sub 2}, is proved by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and responsible for n-type electrical doping of electron transporting materials. We demonstrate that tandem OLEDs using LiNH{sub 2} and Cs{sub 2}CO{sub 3} as n-type dopants, respectively, give a comparable electroluminescence efficiency and, moreover, the device with LiNH{sub 2} has far longer operational lifetime. The results therefore highlight the significance of selecting suitable n-type dopant in intermediate connectors to fabricate high-stability tandem OLEDs.

  16. Top-emission Si-based phosphor organic light emitting diode with Au doped ultrathin n-Si film anode and bottom Al mirror

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Y. Z.; Xu, W. J.; Ran, G. Z. [State Key Laboratory for Mesoscopic Physics, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Qin, G. G. [State Key Laboratory for Mesoscopic Physics, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Key Lab of Semiconductor Materials, CAS, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2009-07-20

    We report a highly efficient top-emission Si-based phosphor organic light emitting diode (PhOLED) with an ultrathin polycrystalline n-Si:Au film anode and a bottom Al mirror. This anode is formed by magnetron sputtering followed by Ni induced crystallization and then Au diffusion. By optimizing the thickness of the n-Si:Au film anode, the Au diffusion temperature, and the other parameters of the PhOLED, the highest current and power efficiencies of the n-Si:Au film anode PhOLED reached 85{+-}9 cd/A and 80{+-}8 lm/W, respectively, corresponding to an external quantum efficiency of 21{+-}2% and a power conversion efficiency of 15{+-}2%, respectively, which are about 60% and 110% higher than those of the indium tin oxide anode counterpart and 70% and 50% higher than those of the bulk n{sup +}-Si:Au anode counterpart, respectively.

  17. Thermally activated delayed fluorescence from {sup 3}n?* to {sup 1}n?* up-conversion and its application to organic light-emitting diodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Jie; Zhang, Qisheng; Nomura, Hiroko [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, and Center for Organic Photonics and Electronics Research (OPERA), Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Nishi, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Miyazaki, Hiroshi [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, and Center for Organic Photonics and Electronics Research (OPERA), Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Nishi, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Functional Materials Laboratory, Nippon Steel and Sumikin Chemical Co., Ltd, 4680 Nakabaru, Sakinohama, Tobata, Kitakyushu, Fukuoka 8048503 (Japan); Adachi, Chihaya, E-mail: adachi@cstf.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, and Center for Organic Photonics and Electronics Research (OPERA), Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Nishi, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); International Institute for Carbon Neutral Energy Research (WPI-I2CNER), Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Nishi, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan)

    2014-07-07

    Intense n?* fluorescence from a nitrogen-rich heterocyclic compound, 2,5,8-tris(4-fluoro-3-methylphenyl)-1,3,4,6,7,9,9b-heptaazaphenalene (HAP-3MF), is demonstrated. The overlap-forbidden nature of the n?* transition and the higher energy of the {sup 3}??* state than the {sup 3}n?* one lead to a small energy difference between the lowest singlet (S{sub 1}) and triplet (T{sub 1}) excited states of HAP-3MF. Green-emitting HAP-3MF has a moderate photoluminescence quantum yield of 0.26 in both toluene and doped film. However, an organic light-emitting diode containing HAP-3MF achieved a high external quantum efficiency of 6.0%, indicating that HAP-3MF harvests singlet excitons through a thermally activated T{sub 1} ? S{sub 1} pathway in the electroluminescent process.

  18. Permanent polarization and charge distribution in organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs): Insights from near-infrared charge-modulation spectroscopy of an operating OLED

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marchetti, Alfred P.; Haskins, Terri L.; Young, Ralph H.; Rothberg, Lewis J.

    2014-03-21

    Vapor-deposited Alq{sub 3} layers typically possess a strong permanent electrical polarization, whereas NPB layers do not. (Alq{sub 3} is tris(8-quinolinolato)aluminum(III); NPB is 4,4?-bis[N-(1-naphthyl)-N-phenylamino]biphenyl.) The cause is a net orientation of the Alq{sub 3} molecules with their large dipole moments. Here we report on consequences for an organic light-emitting diode (OLED) with an NPB hole-transport layer and Alq{sub 3} electron-transport layer. The discontinuous polarization at the NPB|Alq{sub 3} interface has the same effect as a sheet of immobile negative charge there. It is more than compensated by a large concentration of injected holes (NPB{sup +}) when the OLED is running. We discuss the implications and consequences for the quantum efficiency and the drive voltage of this OLED and others. We also speculate on possible consequences of permanent polarization in organic photovoltaic devices. The concentration of NPB{sup +} was measured by charge-modulation spectroscopy (CMS) in the near infrared, where the NPB{sup +} has a strong absorption band, supplemented by differential-capacitance and current-voltage measurements. Unlike CMS in the visible, this method avoids complications from modulation of the electroluminescence and electroabsorption.

  19. Interfacial chemical reaction and multiple gap state formation on three layer cathode in organic light-emitting diode: Ca/BaF{sub 2}/Alq{sub 3}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Tae Gun; Kim, Jeong Won; Lee, Hyunbok; Yi, Yeonjin; Lee, Seung Mi

    2015-07-14

    A three layer cathode is a promising stack structure for long lifetime and high efficiency in organic light-emitting diodes. The interfacial chemical reactions and their effects on electronic structures for alkaline-earth metal (Ca, Ba)/Alq{sub 3} [tris(8-hydroxyquinolinato)aluminum] and Ca/BaF{sub 2}/Alq{sub 3} are investigated using in-situ X-ray and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy, as well as molecular model calculation. The BaF{sub 2} interlayer initially prevents direct contact between Alq{sub 3} and the reactive Ca metal, but it is dissociated into Ba and CaF{sub 2} by the addition of Ca. As the Ca thickness increases, the Ca penetrates the interlayer to directly participate in the reaction with the underlying Alq{sub 3}. This series of chemical reactions takes place irrespective of the BaF{sub 2} buffer layer thickness as long as the Ca overlayer thickness is sufficient. The interface reaction between the alkaline-earth metal and Alq{sub 3} generates two energetically separated gap states in a sequential manner. This phenomenon is explained by step-by-step charge transfer from the alkaline-earth metal to the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital states of Alq{sub 3}, forming new occupied states below the Fermi level.

  20. Monte Carlo study of efficiency roll-off of phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes: Evidence for dominant role of triplet-polaron quenching

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eersel, H. van, E-mail: h.v.eersel@tue.nl; Coehoorn, R. [Department of Applied Physics, Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Philips Research Laboratories, High Tech Campus 4, 5656 AE Eindhoven (Netherlands); Bobbert, P. A.; Janssen, R. A. J. [Department of Applied Physics, Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2014-10-06

    We present an advanced molecular-scale organic light-emitting diode (OLED) model, integrating both electronic and excitonic processes. Using this model, we can reproduce the measured efficiency roll-off for prototypical phosphorescent OLED stacks based on the green dye tris[2-phenylpyridine]iridium (Ir(ppy){sub 3}) and the red dye octaethylporphine platinum (PtOEP) and study the cause of the roll-off as function of the current density. Both the voltage versus current density characteristics and roll-off agree well with experimental data. Surprisingly, the results of the simulations lead us to conclude that, contrary to what is often assumed, not triplet-triplet annihilation but triplet-polaron quenching is the dominant mechanism causing the roll-off under realistic operating conditions. Simulations for devices with an optimized recombination profile, achieved by carefully tuning the dye trap depth, show that it will be possible to fabricate OLEDs with a drastically reduced roll-off. It is envisaged that J{sub 90}, the current density at which the efficiency is reduced to 90%, can be increased by almost one order of magnitude as compared to the experimental state-of-the-art.

  1. Distinguishing triplet energy transfer and trap-assisted recombination in multi-color organic light-emitting diode with an ultrathin phosphorescent emissive layer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xue, Qin, E-mail: xueqin19851202@163.com; Liu, Shouyin [Department of Physical Science and Technology, Central China Normal University, Wuhan 430079 (China); Xie, Guohua; Chen, Ping; Zhao, Yi; Liu, Shiyong [State Key Laboratory on Integrated Optoelectronics, College of Electronic Science and Engineering, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China)

    2014-03-21

    An ultrathin layer of deep-red phosphorescent emitter tris(1-phenylisoquinoline) iridium (III) (Ir(piq){sub 3}) is inserted within different positions of the electron blocking layer fac-tris (1-phenylpyrazolato-N,C{sup 2?})-iridium(III) (Ir(ppz){sub 3}) to distinguish the contribution of the emission from the triplet exciton energy transfer/diffusion from the adjacent blue phosphorescent emitter and the trap-assisted recombination from the narrow band-gap emitter itself. The charge trapping effect of the narrow band-gap deep-red emitter which forms a quantum-well-like structure also plays a role in shaping the electroluminescent characteristics of multi-color organic light-emitting diodes. By accurately controlling the position of the ultrathin sensing layer, it is considerably easy to balance the white emission which is quite challenging for full-color devices with multiple emission zones. There is nearly no energy transfer detectable if 7 nm thick Ir(ppz){sub 3} is inserted between the blue phosphorescent emitter and the ultrathin red emitter.

  2. Highly efficient blue organic light emitting device using indium-free transparent anode Ga:ZnO with scalability for large area coating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Liang; Matson, Dean W.; Polikarpov, Evgueni; Swensen, James S.; Bonham, Charles C.; Cosimbescu, Lelia; Berry, J. J.; Ginley, D. S.; Gaspar, Daniel J.; Padmaperuma, Asanga B.

    2010-02-15

    The availability of economically-produced and environmentally-stable transparent conductive oxide (TCO) coatings is critical for the development of a variety of electronic devices requiring transparent electrodes. Such devices include liquid crystal display pixels and organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs),[1, 2] solar cell applications,[3, 4] and electrically heated windows.[5, 6] The materials fulfilling these requirements are usually wide band gap inorganic transparent conductive oxides (TCOs). Tin-doped indium oxide, or ITO, has traditionally been used for electronic TCO applications because of its low resistivity, high work function and transparency. Due to the increasing cost and limited supply of indium and its tendency to migrate in to the device, there has been increasing research interest to substitute ITO with an indium-free material. A number of alternative metal oxides and doped oxides have been evaluated as TCO materials with varying degrees of success.[7, 8] Among these alternatives to ITO, gallium-doped zinc oxide (GZO) [2, 9] and aluminium-doped zinc oxide (AZO) [10, 11] have drawn particular attention. These materials have been demonstrated to have resistivities and transparencies approaching those of the best ITO, low toxicity, and much lower materials cost. Although AZO is attractive as a TCO electrode material, GZO features a greater resistance to oxidation as a result of gallium’s greater electronegativity compared to Submitted to 2 aluminum.[12, 13

  3. Atomistic Time-Domain Simulations of Light-Harvesting and Charge-Transfer Dynamics in Novel Nanoscale Materials for Solar Hydrogen Production.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prezhdo, Oleg V.

    2012-03-22

    Funded by the DOE grant (i) we continued to study and analyze the atomistic detail of the electron transfer (ET) across the chromophore-TiO2 interface in Gratzel cell systems for solar hydrogen production. (ii) We extensively investigated the nature of photoexcited states and excited state dynamics in semiconductor quantum dots (QD) designed for photovoltaic applications. (iii) We continued a newly initiated research direction focusing on excited state properties and electron-phonon interactions in nanoscale carbon materials. Over the past year, the results of the DOE funded research were summarized in 3 review articles. 12 original manuscripts were written. The research results were reported in 28 invited talks at conferences and university seminars. 20 invitations were accepted for talks in the near future. 2 symposia at national and international meetings have being organized this year on topics closely related to the DOE funded project, and 2 more symposia have been planned for the near future. We summarized the insights into photoinduced dynamics of semiconductor QDs, obtained from our time-domain ab initio studies. QDs exhibit both molecular and bulk properties. Unlike either bulk or molecular materials, QD properties can be modified continuously by changing QD shape and size. However, the chemical and physical properties of molecular and bulk materials often contradict each other, which can lead to differing viewpoints about the behavior of QDs. For example, the molecular view suggests strong electron-hole and charge-phonon interactions, as well as slow energy relaxation due to mismatch between electronic energy gaps and phonon frequencies. In contrast, the bulk view advocates that the kinetic energy of quantum confinement is greater than electron-hole interactions, that charge-phonon coupling is weak, and that the relaxation through quasi-continuous bands is rapid. By synthesizing the bulk and molecular viewpoints, we clarified the controversies and

  4. Solar Electric Light Fund | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Fund Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Solar Electric Light Fund AgencyCompany Organization: Solar Electric Light Fund Sector: Energy Focus Area: Solar...

  5. Micro-focused Brillouin light scattering study of the magnetization dynamics driven by Spin Hall effect in a transversely magnetized NiFe nanowire

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Madami, M. Carlotti, G.; Gubbiotti, G.; Tacchi, S.; Siracusano, G.; Finocchio, G.; Carpentieri, M.

    2015-05-07

    We employed micro-focused Brillouin light scattering to study the amplification of the thermal spin wave eigenmodes by means of a pure spin current, generated by the spin-Hall effect, in a transversely magnetized Pt(4 nm)/NiFe(4 nm)/SiO{sub 2}(5 nm) layered nanowire with lateral dimensions 500 × 2750 nm{sup 2}. The frequency and the cross section of both the center (fundamental) and the edge spin wave modes have been measured as a function of the intensity of the injected dc electric current. The frequency of both modes exhibits a clear redshift while their cross section is greatly enhanced on increasing the intensity of the injected dc. A threshold-like behavior is observed for a value of the injected dc of 2.8 mA. Interestingly, an additional mode, localized in the central part of the nanowire, appears at higher frequency on increasing the intensity of the injected dc above the threshold value. Micromagnetic simulations were used to quantitatively reproduce the experimental results and to investigate the complex non-linear dynamics induced by the spin-Hall effect, including the modification of the spatial profile of the spin wave modes and the appearance of the extra mode above the threshold.

  6. The generation of 4-hydroxynonenal, an electrophilic lipid peroxidation end product, in rabbit cornea organ cultures treated with UVB light and nitrogen mustard

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zheng, Ruijin; Po, Iris; Mishin, Vladimir; Black, Adrienne T.; Heck, Diane E.; Laskin, Debra L.; Sinko, Patrick J.; Gerecke, Donald R.; Gordon, Marion K.; Laskin, Jeffrey D.

    2013-10-15

    The cornea is highly sensitive to oxidative stress, a process that can lead to lipid peroxidation. Ultraviolet light B (UVB) and nitrogen mustard (mechlorethamine) are corneal toxicants known to induce oxidative stress. Using a rabbit air-lifted corneal organ culture model, the oxidative stress responses to these toxicants in the corneal epithelium was characterized. Treatment of the cornea with UVB (0.5 J/cm{sup 2}) or nitrogen mustard (100 nmol) resulted in the generation of 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE), a reactive lipid peroxidation end product. This was associated with increased expression of the antioxidant, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). In human corneal epithelial cells in culture, addition of 4-HNE or 9-nitrooleic acid, a reactive nitrolipid formed during nitrosative stress, caused a time-dependent induction of HO-1 mRNA and protein; maximal responses were evident after 10 h with 30 μM 4-HNE or 6 h with 10 μM 9-nitrooleic acid. 4-HNE and 9-nitrooleic acid were also found to activate Erk1/2, JNK and p38 MAP kinases, as well as phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3)/Akt. Inhibition of p38 blocked 4-HNE- and 9-nitrooleic acid-induced HO-1 expression. Inhibition of Erk1/2, and to a lesser extent, JNK and PI3K/Akt, suppressed only 4-HNE-induced HO-1, while inhibition of JNK and PI3K/Akt, but not Erk1/2, partly reduced 9-nitrooleic acid-induced HO-1. These data indicate that the actions of 4-HNE and 9-nitrooleic acid on corneal epithelial cells are distinct. The sensitivity of corneal epithelial cells to oxidative stress may be an important mechanism mediating tissue injury induced by UVB or nitrogen mustard. - Highlights: • UVB or nitrogen mustard causes rabbit corneal epithelial injury. • 4-Hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) was formed and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) was increased. • 4-HNE induced HO-1 mRNA and protein expression in human corneal epithelial cells. • The induction of HO-1 by 4-HNE was through MAP kinase activation.

  7. Controlling Light | Photosynthetic Antenna Research Center

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Controlling Light June 29, 2016 Controlling Light New protection for photosynthetic organisms VIEW ARTICLE HERE https://source.wustl.edu/2016/06/controlling-light-new-protection-photosynthetic...

  8. Commercial Lighting

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Commercial lighting accounts for more than 20 percent of total commercial building energy use. The Energy Department works to reduce lighting energy use through research and deployment.

  9. Monitoring the dynamics of miscible P3HT:PCBM blends: A quasi elastic neutron scattering study of organic photovoltaic active layers

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Etampawala, Thusitha; Ratnaweera, Dilru; Morgan, Brian; Diallo, Souleymane; Mamontov, Eugene; Dadmun, Mark

    2015-02-02

    Our work reports on the detailed molecular dynamic behavior of miscible blends of Poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) and their pure counterparts by quasi-elastic neutron scattering measurements (QENS). The study provides the measure of relaxation processes on pico-to-nanosecond time scales. A single relaxation process was observed in pure P3HT and PCBM while two relaxation processes, one fast and one slow, were observed in the blends. The fast process was attributed to the dynamics of P3HT while the slow process was correlated to the dynamics of PCBM. The results show that the relaxation process is a balance betweenmore » two opposing effects: increased mobility due to thermal activation of P3HT molecules and decrease mobility due to the presence of PCBM which is correlated to the percent crystallinity of P3HT and local packing density of PCBM in the amorphous phase. The threshold for the domination of the thermally activated relaxation is between 5 and 9 vol.% of PCBM loading. Two distinct spatial dependences of the relaxation processes, in which the crossover length scale depends neither on temperature nor composition, were observed for all the samples. They were attributed to the collective motions of the hexyl side chains and the rotational motions of the C-C single bonds of the side chains. Finally, these results provide an understanding of the effects of PCBM loading and temperature on the dynamics of the polymer-fullerene blends which provides a tool to optimize the efficiency of charge carrier and exciton transport within the organic photovoltaic (OPV) active layer to improve the high performance of organic solar cells.« less

  10. Electronic and chemical structure of an organic light emitter embedded in an inorganic wide-bandgap semiconductor: Photoelectron spectroscopy of layered and composite structures of Ir(BPA) and ZnSe

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dimamay, Mariel; Mayer, Thomas; Jaegermann, Wolfram; Hadziioannou, Georges

    2015-05-07

    Luminescent organic phases embedded in conductive inorganic matrices are proposed for hybrid organic-inorganic light-emitting diodes. In this configuration, the organic dye acts as the radiative recombination site for charge carriers injected into the inorganic matrix. Our investigation is aimed at finding a material combination where the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) of the organic dye are situated in between the valence and conduction bands of the inorganic matrix in order to promote electron and hole transfer from the matrix to the dye. Bilayer and composite thin films of zinc selenide (ZnSe) and a red iridium complex (Ir(BPA)) organic light emitter were prepared in situ via UHV thermal evaporation technique. The electronic and atomic structures were studied applying X-ray and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopies. The measured energy band alignments for the ZnSe/Ir(BPA) bilayer and ZnSe+Ir(BPA) composite reveal that the HOMO and LUMO of the organic dye are positioned in the ZnSe bandgap. For the initial steps of ZnSe deposition on a dye film to form Ir(BPA)/ZnSe bilayers, zinc atoms intercalate into the dye film leaving behind an excess of selenium at the interface that partly reacts with dye molecules. Photoelectron spectroscopy of the composites shows the same species suggesting a similar mechanism. This mechanism leads to composite films with increased content of amorphous phases in the inorganic matrix, thereby affecting its conductivity, as well as to the presence of nonradiative recombination sites provided by the intercalated Zn atoms.

  11. The structural organization of N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone + water mixtures: A densitometry, x-ray diffraction, and molecular dynamics study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Usula, M.; Marincola, F. Cesare; Porcedda, S.; Mocci, F.; Gontrani, L.; Caminiti, R.

    2014-03-28

    A combined approach of molecular dynamics simulations, wide angle X-ray scattering experiments, and density measurements was employed to study the structural properties of N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) + water mixtures over the whole concentration range. Remarkably, a very good agreement between computed and experimental densities and diffraction patterns was achieved, especially if the effect of the mixture composition on NMP charges is taken into account. Analysis of the intermolecular organization, as revealed by the radial and spatial distribution functions of relevant solvent atoms, nicely explained the density maximum observed experimentally.

  12. Organization | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Organization Organization Organization

  13. Selective Host-Guest Interaction between Metal Ions and Metal-Organic Frameworks Using Dynamic Nuclear Polarization Enhanced Solid-State NMR Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guo, Zhiyong; Kobayashi, Takeshi; Wang, Lin-Lin; Goh, Tian Wei; Xiao, Chaoxian; Caporini, Marc A.; Rosay, Melanie; Johnson, Duane D.; Pruski, Marek; Huang, Wenyu

    2014-10-08

    The host–guest interaction between metal ions (Pt²⁺ and Cu²⁺) and a zirconium metal–organic framework (UiO-66-NH₂) was explored using dynamic nuclear polarization-enhanced ¹⁵N{¹H} CPMAS NMR spectroscopy supported by X-ray absorption spectroscopy and density functional calculations. The combined experimental results conclude that each Pt²⁺ coordinates with two NH₂ groups from the MOF and two Cl⁻ from the metal precursor, whereas Cu²⁺ do not form chemical bonds with the NH₂ groups of the MOF framework. Density functional calculations reveal that Pt²⁺ prefers a square-planar structure with the four ligands and resides in the octahedral cage of the MOF in either cis or trans configurations.

  14. Selective Host-Guest Interaction between Metal Ions and Metal-Organic Frameworks using Dynamic Nuclear Polarization Enhanced Solid-State NMR Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guo, Zhiyong; Kobayashi, Takeshi; Wang, Lin-Lin; Goh, Tian Wei; Xiao, Chaoxian; Caporini, Marc A; Rosay, Melanie; Johnson, Duane D; Pruski, Marek; Huang, Wenyu

    2014-10-08

    The host–guest interaction between metal ions (Pt2+ and Cu2+) and a zirconium metal–organic framework (UiO-66-NH2) was explored using dynamic nuclear polarization-enhanced 15N{1H} CPMAS NMR spectroscopy supported by X-ray absorption spectroscopy and density functional calculations. The combined experimental results conclude that each Pt2+ coordinates with two NH2 groups from the MOF and two Cl- from the metal precursor, whereas Cu2+ do not form chemical bonds with the NH2 groups of the MOF framework. Density functional calculations reveal that Pt2+ prefers a square-planar structure with the four ligands and resides in the octahedral cage of the MOF in either cis or trans configurations.

  15. Ag/AgBr/g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}: A highly efficient and stable composite photocatalyst for degradation of organic contaminants under visible light

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cao, Jing; Zhao, Yijie; Lin, Haili; Xu, Benyan; Chen, Shifu

    2013-10-15

    Graphical abstract: Ag/AgBr/g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} composite photocatalysts displayed excellent photocatalytic activities on the degradation of methyl orange (MO) under visible light. The improved photocatalytic performance and stability of Ag/AgBr/g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} originated from the synergetic effects of AgBr/g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} interface and metallic Ag nanoparticles. O{sub 2}?, one of the reactive species, was responsible for the photodegradation of MO compared to H+ and OH. - Highlights: Novel Ag/AgBr/g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} composite photocatalyst was reported. Ag/AgBr/g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} had novel energy band combination between AgBr and g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}. Synergetic effects of AgBr/g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} interface and metallic Ag nanoparticles. Electron trapping role of metallic Ag dominated the stability of Ag/AgBr/g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}. - Abstract: Novel Ag/AgBr/g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} composite photocatalysts were constructed via depositionprecipitation method and extensively characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and UVvis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS). Under visible light (? > 420 nm), Ag/AgBr/g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} composite photocatalysts displayed much higher photocatalytic activities than those of Ag/AgBr and g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} for degradation of methyl orange (MO). 50% Ag/AgBr/g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} presented the best photocatalytic performance, which was mainly attributed to the synergistic effects of AgBr/g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} interface and the in situ metallic Ag nanoparticles for efficiently separating electronhole pairs. Furthermore, Ag/AgBr/g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} remained good photocatalytic activity through 5 times of cycle experiments. Additionally, the radical scavengers experiment indicated that O{sub 2}{sup ?} was the main reactive species for the MO degradation under visible light.

  16. Solid-State Lighting Patents Resulting from DOE-Funded Projects

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... Light Extraction Blocks for Thin Form Factor OLED Lighting ... Nitrides for Solid State Lighting Applications ... of Organic Semiconducting Films by Improved Solution ...

  17. Light Source

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    a Light Source Data and Analysis Framework at NERSC Jack Deslippe, Shane Canon, Eli Dart, Abdelilah Essiari, Alexander Hexemer, Dula Parkinson, Simon Patton, Craig Tull + Many More The ALS Data Needs September 21, 2010 - NIST (MD) Light source data volumes are growing many times faster than Moore's law. ● Light source luminosity ● Detector resolution & rep-rates ● Sample automation BES user facilities serve 10,000 scientists and engineers every year. Mostly composed of many small

  18. Lighting Renovations

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    When undertaking a lighting renovation in a Federal building, daylighting is the primary renewable energy opportunity. Photovoltaics (PV) also present an excellent opportunity. While this guide...

  19. Cerenkov Light

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Slifer, Karl

    2013-06-13

    The bright blue glow from nuclear reactors is Cerenkov light. Karl Slifer describes how nuclear physicists can use this phenomenon to study the nucleus of the atom.

  20. Cerenkov Light

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Slifer, Karl

    2014-05-22

    The bright blue glow from nuclear reactors is Cerenkov light. Karl Slifer describes how nuclear physicists can use this phenomenon to study the nucleus of the atom.

  1. Residential Lighting

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    & Events Expand News & Events Skip navigation links Residential Residential Lighting Energy Star Appliances Consumer Electronics Heat Pump Water Heaters Electric Storage Water...

  2. Enhanced performance of organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) and OLED-based photoluminescent sensing platforms by novel microstructures and device architectures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Rui

    2012-08-01

    After a general introduction to OLEDs and OLED-based PL sensors, the transient emission mechanism of guest-host OLEDs is described both experimentally and theoretically. A monolithic and easy-to-apply process is demonstrated for fabricating multicolor microcavity OLEDs (that improve the sensor platform). The outcoupling issues of OLEDs at the substrate/air interface are addressed by using a microstructured polymer film resulting from a PS and polyethylene glycol (PEG) mixture. Based on the understanding of OLEDs and their improvement, research was done in order to realize integrated all organic-based O{sub 2} and pH sensors with improved signal intensity and sensitivity. The sensor design modification and optimization are summarized

  3. Organic photosensitive devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rand, Barry P; Forrest, Stephen R

    2013-11-26

    The present invention generally relates to organic photosensitive optoelectronic devices. More specifically, it is directed to organic photosensitive optoelectronic devices having a photoactive organic region containing encapsulated nanoparticles that exhibit plasmon resonances. An enhancement of the incident optical field is achieved via surface plasmon polariton resonances. This enhancement increases the absorption of incident light, leading to a more efficient device.

  4. Adsorption and Separation of Light Gases on an Amino-Functionalized MetalOrganic Framework: An Adsorption and In Situ XRD Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Couck S.; Stavitski E.; Gobehiya, E.; Kirschhock, C.E.A.; Serra-Crespo, P.; Juan-Alcaniz, J.; Martinez Joaristi, A.; Gascon, J.; Kapteijn, F.; Baron, G. V.; Denayer J.F.M.

    2012-02-29

    The NH{sub 2}-MIL-53(Al) metal-organic framework was studied for its use in the separation of CO{sub 2} from CH{sub 4}, H{sub 2}, N{sub 2} C{sub 2}H{sub 6} and C{sub 3}H{sub 8} mixtures. Isotherms of methane, ethane, propane, hydrogen, nitrogen, and CO{sub 2} were measured. The atypical shape of these isotherms is attributed to the breathing properties of the material, in which a transition from a very narrow pore form to a narrow pore form and from a narrow pore form to a large pore form occurs, depending on the total pressure and the nature of the adsorbate, as demonstrated by in-situ XRD patterns measured during adsorption. Apart from CO{sub 2}, all tested gases interacted weakly with the adsorbent. As a result, they are excluded from adsorption in the narrow pore form of the material at low pressure. CO{sub 2} interacted much more strongly and was adsorbed in significant amounts at low pressure. This gives the material excellent properties to separate CO{sub 2} from other gases. The separation of CO{sub 2} from methane, nitrogen, hydrogen, or a combination of these gases has been demonstrated by breakthrough experiments using pellets of NH{sub 2}-MIL-53(Al). The effect of total pressure (1-30 bar), gas composition, temperature (303-403 K) and contact time has been examined. In all cases, CO{sub 2} was selectively adsorbed, whereas methane, nitrogen, and hydrogen nearly did not adsorb at all. Regeneration of the adsorbent by thermal treatment, inert purge gas stripping, and pressure swing has been demonstrated. The NH{sub 2}-MIL-53(Al) pellets retained their selectivity and capacity for more than two years.

  5. High Efficiency Organic Light Emitting Devices for Lighting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    So, Franky; Tansu, Nelson; Gilchrist, James

    2013-06-30

    Incorporate internal scattering layers and microlens arrays in high efficiency OLED to achieve up to 70% EQE.

  6. Enhanced Light Extraction from Organic Light Emitting Diodes - Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Systems » Enhanced Geothermal Systems Demonstration Projects Enhanced Geothermal Systems Demonstration Projects A significant long-term opportunity for widespread power production from new geothermal sources lies in Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS), where innovative technology development and deployment could facilitate access to 100+ GW of energy, exponentially more than today's current geothermal capacity. With EGS, we can tap otherwise inaccessible resources in areas that lack traditional

  7. Comparative study of field-dependent carrier dynamics and emission kinetics of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes grown on (112{sup }2) semipolar versus (0001) polar planes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ji, Yun; Liu, Wei; Chen, Rui; Tiam Tan, Swee; Zhang, Zi-Hui; Ju, Zhengang; Zhang, Xueliang; Sun, Handong; Wei Sun, Xiao; Erdem, Talha; Zhao, Yuji; DenBaars, Steven P. E-mail: volkan@stanfordalumni.org; Nakamura, Shuji; Volkan Demir, Hilmi E-mail: volkan@stanfordalumni.org

    2014-04-07

    The characteristics of electroluminescence (EL) and photoluminescence (PL) emission from GaN light-emitting diodes (LEDs) grown on (112{sup }2) semipolar plane and (0001) polar plane have been comparatively investigated. Through different bias-dependent shifting trends observed from the PL and time-resolved PL spectra (TRPL) for the two types of LEDs, the carrier dynamics within the multiple quantum wells (MQWs) region is systematically analyzed and the distinct field-dependent emission kinetics are revealed. Moreover, the polarization induced internal electric field has been deduced for each of the LEDs. The relatively stable emission behavior observed in the semipolar LED is attributed to the smaller polarization induced internal electric field. The study provides meaningful insight for the design of quantum well (QW) structures with high radiative recombination rates.

  8. Commercial Lighting and LED Lighting Incentives | Department...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Schools Institutional Savings Category Lighting Lighting ControlsSensors Other EE LED Lighting Maximum Rebate Up to 100% of cost; incentives that exceed 5,000 should be...

  9. Light's Darkness

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Padgett, Miles [University of Glasgow, Glasgow, Scotland

    2010-01-08

    Optical vortices and orbital angular momentum are currently topical subjects in the optics literature. Although seemingly esoteric, they are, in fact, the generic state of light and arise whenever three or more plane waves interfere. To be observed by eye the light must be monochromatic. Laser speckle is one such example, where the optical energy circulates around each black spot, giving a local orbital angular momentum. This talk with report three on-going studies. First, when considering a volume of interfering waves, the laser specs map out threads of complete darkness embedded in the light. Do these threads form loops? Links? Or even knots? Second, when looking through a rapidly spinning window, the image of the world on the other side is rotated: true or false? Finally, the entanglement of orbital angular momentum states means measuring how the angular position of one photons sets the angular momentum of another: is this an angular version of the EPR (Einstein, Podolsky, and Rosen) paradox?

  10. Global patterns and controls of soil organic carbon dynamics as simulated by multiple terrestrial biosphere models: Current status and future directions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tian, Hanqin; Lu, Chaoqun; Yang, Jia; Banger, Kamaljit; Huntzinger, Deborah N.; Schwalm, Christopher R.; Michalak, Anna M.; Cook, Robert; Ciais, Philippe; Hayes, Daniel; Huang, Maoyi; Ito, Akihiko; Jain, Atul K.; Lei, Huimin; Mao, Jiafu; Pan, Shufen; Post, Wilfred M.; Peng, Shushi; Poulter, Benjamin; Ren, Wei; Ricciuto, Daniel; Schaefer, Kevin; Shi, Xiaoying; Tao, Bo; Wang, Weile; Wei, Yaxing; Yang, Qichun; Zhang, Bowen; Zeng, Ning

    2015-06-05

    Soil is the largest organic carbon (C) pool of terrestrial ecosystems, and C loss from soil accounts for a large proportion of land-atmosphere C exchange. Therefore, a small change in soil organic C (SOC) can affect atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO₂) concentration and climate change. In the past decades, a wide variety of studies have been conducted to quantify global SOC stocks and soil C exchange with the atmosphere through site measurements, inventories, and empirical/process-based modeling. However, these estimates are highly uncertain, and identifying major driving forces controlling soil C dynamics remains a key research challenge. This study has compiled century-long (1901–2010) estimates of SOC storage and heterotrophic respiration (Rh) from 10 terrestrial biosphere models (TBMs) in the Multi-scale Synthesis and Terrestrial Model Intercomparison Project and two observation-based data sets. The 10 TBM ensemble shows that global SOC estimate ranges from 425 to 2111 Pg C (1 Pg = 10¹⁵ g) with a median value of 1158 Pg C in 2010. The models estimate a broad range of Rh from 35 to 69 Pg C yr⁻¹ with a median value of 51 Pg C yr⁻¹ during 2001–2010. The largest uncertainty in SOC stocks exists in the 40–65°N latitude whereas the largest cross-model divergence in Rh are in the tropics. The modeled SOC change during 1901–2010 ranges from –70 Pg C to 86 Pg C, but in some models the SOC change has a different sign from the change of total C stock, implying very different contribution of vegetation and soil pools in determining the terrestrial C budget among models. The model ensemble-estimated mean residence time of SOC shows a reduction of 3.4 years over the past century, which accelerate C cycling through the land biosphere. All the models agreed that climate and land use changes decreased SOC stocks, while elevated atmospheric CO₂ and nitrogen deposition over intact ecosystems increased SOC stocks—even though the responses varied significantly

  11. Global patterns and controls of soil organic carbon dynamics as simulated by multiple terrestrial biosphere models: Current status and future directions

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Tian, Hanqin; Lu, Chaoqun; Yang, Jia; Banger, Kamaljit; Huntzinger, Deborah N.; Schwalm, Christopher R.; Michalak, Anna M.; Cook, Robert; Ciais, Philippe; Hayes, Daniel; et al

    2015-06-05

    Soil is the largest organic carbon (C) pool of terrestrial ecosystems, and C loss from soil accounts for a large proportion of land-atmosphere C exchange. Therefore, a small change in soil organic C (SOC) can affect atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO₂) concentration and climate change. In the past decades, a wide variety of studies have been conducted to quantify global SOC stocks and soil C exchange with the atmosphere through site measurements, inventories, and empirical/process-based modeling. However, these estimates are highly uncertain, and identifying major driving forces controlling soil C dynamics remains a key research challenge. This study has compiled century-longmore » (1901–2010) estimates of SOC storage and heterotrophic respiration (Rh) from 10 terrestrial biosphere models (TBMs) in the Multi-scale Synthesis and Terrestrial Model Intercomparison Project and two observation-based data sets. The 10 TBM ensemble shows that global SOC estimate ranges from 425 to 2111 Pg C (1 Pg = 10¹⁵ g) with a median value of 1158 Pg C in 2010. The models estimate a broad range of Rh from 35 to 69 Pg C yr⁻¹ with a median value of 51 Pg C yr⁻¹ during 2001–2010. The largest uncertainty in SOC stocks exists in the 40–65°N latitude whereas the largest cross-model divergence in Rh are in the tropics. The modeled SOC change during 1901–2010 ranges from –70 Pg C to 86 Pg C, but in some models the SOC change has a different sign from the change of total C stock, implying very different contribution of vegetation and soil pools in determining the terrestrial C budget among models. The model ensemble-estimated mean residence time of SOC shows a reduction of 3.4 years over the past century, which accelerate C cycling through the land biosphere. All the models agreed that climate and land use changes decreased SOC stocks, while elevated atmospheric CO₂ and nitrogen deposition over intact ecosystems increased SOC stocks—even though the responses varied

  12. Organic light emitting device with conducting cover

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Silvernail, Jeffrey; Paynter, Jason; Rajan, Kamala

    2014-07-01

    The claimed invention was made by, on behalf of, and/or in connection with one or more of the following parties to a joint university corporation research agreement: Princeton University, The University of Southern California, The University of Michigan and Universal Display Corporation. The agreement was in effect on and before the date the claimed invention was made, and the claimed invention was made as a result of activities undertaken within the scope of the agreement.

  13. National Lighting Energy Consumption

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Lighting Energy National Lighting Energy Consumption Consumption 390 Billion kWh used for lighting in all 390 Billion kWh used for lighting in all commercial buildings in commercial buildings in 2001 2001 LED (<.1% ) Incandescent 40% HID 22% Fluorescent 38% Lighting Energy Consumption by Lighting Energy Consumption by Breakdown of Lighting Energy Breakdown of Lighting Energy Major Sector and Light Source Type Major Sector and Light Source Type Source: Navigant Consulting, Inc., U.S. Lighting

  14. Cathode encapsulation of organic light emitting diodes by atomic layer deposited Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/a-SiN{sub x}:H stacks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keuning, W.; Weijer, P. van de; Lifka, H.; Kessels, W. M. M.; Creatore, M. [Department of Applied Physics, Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Philips Research Laboratories, High Tech Campus 4, P.O. Box WAG12, 5656 AE Eindhoven (Netherlands); Department of Applied Physics, Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2012-01-15

    Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} thin films synthesized by plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition (ALD) at room temperature (25 deg. C) have been tested as water vapor permeation barriers for organic light emitting diode devices. Silicon nitride films (a-SiN{sub x}:H) deposited by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition served as reference and were used to develop Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/a-SiN{sub x}:H stacks. On the basis of Ca test measurements, a very low intrinsic water vapor transmission rate of {<=} 2 x 10{sup -6} g m{sup -2} day{sup -1} and 4 x 10{sup -6} g m{sup -2} day{sup -1} (20 deg. C/50% relative humidity) were found for 20-40 nm Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and 300 nm a-SiN{sub x}:H films, respectively. The cathode particle coverage was a factor of 4 better for the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films compared to the a-SiN{sub x}:H films and an average of 0.12 defects per cm{sup 2} was obtained for a stack consisting of three barrier layers (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/a-SiN{sub x}:H/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}).

  15. Light Show

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    9 Lightning - Nature's Light Show Lightning provides one of nature's most spectacular displays of energy. Though fascinating to observe, lightning can be dangerous and deadly. Protecting ARM instruments from lightning damage is vital. Putting equipment worth millions of dollars into open fields (Photo: NOAA) ARM Facilities Newsletter is published by Argonne National Laboratory, a multiprogram laboratory operated by The University of Chicago under contract W-31-109-Eng-38 with the U.S. Department

  16. PS2013 Satellite Workshop on Photosynthetic Light-Harvesting Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Niederman, Robert A.; Blankenship, Robert E.; Frank, Harry A.

    2015-02-07

    represented a diverse international and multidisciplinary group, with over 160 individuals attending from a total of 17 different countries. Attendees came from a wide range of fields assuring that the widest possible interdisciplinary exchanges. They included prominent biochemists, biophysicists, plant physiologists, chemical physicists, as well as theoretical and computational physical chemists, who presented their research findings or to hear the latest advances in this very dynamic field. In the choice of speakers, a balance was created between established scientists and young, emerging researchers, given this opportunity to showcase their results. Sessions were held on electronic and vibrational coherence including coherent sharing of excitations among donor and acceptor molecules during excitation energy transfer, nonphotochemical quenching, acclimation to light environments, evolution, adaptation and biodiversity of light-harvesting pigment-protein complexes, their structure and membrane organization, spectroscopy and dynamics, as well as artificial antenna systems. A joint session was also held with the participants from the Cyanobacterial Satellite Conference. A special issue of Photosynthesis Research devoted to light harvesting (Volume 121, Issue No. 1, July 2014) has recently appeared which contains peer-reviewed original research contributions arising from talks and posters presented at the PS2013 Satellite Workshop on Photosynthetic Light-Harvesting Systems. Edited by the Organizers of the Workshop, Robert E. Blankenship, Harry A. Frank and Robert A. Niederman, it includes topics ranging from the isolation of new bacteriochlorophyll species from green bacteria, temperature effects on the excited states of the newly discovered chlorophyll (Chl) ƒ, new architectures for enhancing energy capture by biohybrid light-harvesting complexes, forces governing the formation of light-harvesting rings, spectroscopy of carotenoids of algae and diatoms and the supramolecular

  17. Transformations in Lighting: The Sixth Annual Solid-State Lighting R&D

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Workshop | Department of Energy Sixth Annual Solid-State Lighting R&D Workshop Transformations in Lighting: The Sixth Annual Solid-State Lighting R&D Workshop Photo of large audience seated in a conference room. More than 400 SSL technology leaders from industry, research organizations, universities, national laboratories, manufacturing, energy efficiency organizations, utilities and municipalities gathered in San Francisco, CA to participate in the "Transformations in

  18. Reading Municipal Light Department - Business Lighting Rebate...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    with Electronic Ballasts: 100fixture De-lamping: 4 - 9lamp Lighting Sensors: 20sensor LED Exit Signs: 20fixture Summary Reading Municipal Light Department (RMLD) offers...

  19. White Light Creation Architectures

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Frontier Research Centers: Solid-State Lighting Science Center for Frontiers of ... White Light Creation Architectures HomeEnergy ResearchEFRCsSolid-State Lighting Science ...

  20. Light Creation Materials

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Frontier Research Centers: Solid-State Lighting Science Center for Frontiers of ... Light Creation Materials HomeEnergy ResearchEFRCsSolid-State Lighting Science EFRC...

  1. light-emitting diode

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Cost The high-brightness, rapidly pulsed, multicolor light-emitting diode (LED) driver delivers lighting performance that exceeds that of conventional (laserarc-light) sources ...

  2. Webinar: OLED Lighting Products—Capabilities, Challenges, Potential

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Organic light-emitting diodes are a solid-state technology that is entering the architectural lighting marketplace and experiencing some of the same issues that LEDs encountered a few years ago....

  3. Standards Development for Solid-State Lighting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2011-12-16

    To accelerate the development and implementation of needed standards for solid-state lighting products, DOE works closely with a network of standards-setting organizations and offers technical assistance and support

  4. New Morphological Paradigm Uncovered in Organic Solar Cells

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    New Morphological Paradigm Uncovered in Organic Solar Cells Print Organic solar cells are made of light, flexible, renewable materials; they require simple and inexpensive...

  5. Degradation of organic chemicals with titanium ceramic membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, Marc A.; Tunesi, Simonetta; Xu, Qunyin

    1991-01-01

    Complex organic molecules, such as polychlorinated biphenyls can be degraded on porous titanium ceramic membranes by photocatalysis under ultraviolet light.

  6. SEAD Street Lighting Evaluation Tool | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Name: SEAD Street Lighting Evaluation Tool AgencyCompany Organization: SEAD Sector: Energy Focus Area: Energy Efficiency Resource Type: Softwaremodeling tools User Interface:...

  7. Probing Organic Transistors with Infrared Beams

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    materials. Organic field-effect transistors (FETs) are ideal for special applications that require large areas, light ... The prospect of electronic devices incorporating lightweight...

  8. Energy Department Offers $10 Million for Energy-Saving Lighting

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Technologies | Department of Energy Offers $10 Million for Energy-Saving Lighting Technologies Energy Department Offers $10 Million for Energy-Saving Lighting Technologies December 11, 2013 - 12:00am Addthis The Energy Department on December 6 announced nearly $10 million to support U.S. research, development, and manufacturing of solid-state lighting (SSL) technologies. This funding will help accelerate the development of high-quality light-emitting diode (LED) and organic light-emitting

  9. Next Generation Light Source Workshops

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Next Generation Light Source Workshops A series of workshops will be held in late August with the goal of refining the scientific drivers for the facility and translating the scientific needs into the technical performance requirements. Feedback from these workshops will provide important input for advancing the design of the facility. Workshops are planned in the following areas Fundamental Atomic, Molecular, Optical Physics & Combustion Dynamics Mon. Aug. 20 - Tues. Aug 21, 2012 Physical

  10. Damage tolerant light absorbing material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lauf, R.J.; Hamby, C. Jr.; Akerman, M.A.; Seals, R.D.

    1993-09-07

    A light absorbing article comprised of a composite of carbon-bonded carbon fibers, is prepared by: blending carbon fibers with a carbonizable organic powder to form a mixture; dispersing the mixture into an aqueous slurry; vacuum molding the aqueous slurry to form a green article; drying and curing the green article to form a cured article; and, carbonizing the cured article at a temperature of at least about 1000 C to form a carbon-bonded carbon fiber light absorbing composite article having a bulk density less than 1 g/cm[sup 3]. 9 figures.

  11. Damage tolerant light absorbing material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lauf, Robert J.; Hamby, Jr., Clyde; Akerman, M. Alfred; Seals, Roland D.

    1993-01-01

    A light absorbing article comprised of a composite of carbon-bonded carbon fibers, prepared by: blending carbon fibers with a carbonizable organic powder to form a mixture; dispersing the mixture into an aqueous slurry; vacuum molding the aqueous slurry to form a green article; drying and curing the green article to form a cured article; and, carbonizing the cured article at a temperature of at least about 1000.degree. C. to form a carbon-bonded carbon fiber light absorbing composite article having a bulk density less than 1 g/cm.sup.3.

  12. Mobile lighting apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Roe, George Michael; Klebanoff, Leonard Elliott; Rea, Gerald W; Drake, Robert A; Johnson, Terry A; Wingert, Steven John; Damberger, Thomas A; Skradski, Thomas J; Radley, Christopher James; Oros, James M; Schuttinger, Paul G; Grupp, David J; Prey, Stephen Carl

    2013-05-14

    A mobile lighting apparatus includes a portable frame such as a moveable trailer or skid having a light tower thereon. The light tower is moveable from a stowed position to a deployed position. A hydrogen-powered fuel cell is located on the portable frame to provide electrical power to an array of the energy efficient lights located on the light tower.

  13. Custom Organic Electronics Out of the Printer

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Custom Organic Electronics Out of the Printer Custom Organic Electronics Out of the Printer Print Thursday, 03 December 2015 12:14 They are thin, light-weight, flexible, and can be...

  14. Prospects for LED lighting.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tsao, Jeffrey Yeenien; Gee, James Martin; Simmons, Jerry Alvon

    2003-08-01

    Solid-state lighting using light-emitting diodes (LEDs) has the potential to reduce energy consumption for lighting by 50% while revolutionizing the way we illuminate our homes, work places, and public spaces. Nevertheless, substantial technical challenges remain in order for solid-state lighting to significantly displace the well-developed conventional lighting technologies. We review the potential of LED solid-state lighting to meet the long-term cost goals.

  15. g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}/NaTaO{sub 3} organicinorganic hybrid nanocomposite: High-performance and recyclable visible light driven photocatalyst

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumar, Santosh; Kumar, Bharat; Surendar, T.; Shanker, Vishnu

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: High-performance and recyclable visible-light driven g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}/NaTaO{sub 3} hybrid nanocomposite photocatalysts have been prepared by a facile ultrasonic dispersion method. The hybrid nanocomposite photocatalyst can be promising photocatalytic material for practical application in water splitting and environmental remediation. - Highlights: Novel g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}/NaTaO{sub 3} nanocomposites as a high performance and recyclable photocatalysts. These catalysts exhibited significantly enhanced photocatalytic activity under UVvisible light irradiation. More attractively, dramatic activity is generated under visible light irradiation due to the g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} loaded. Interestingly, the as-prepared hybrid nanocomposites possess high reusability. - Abstract: Novel g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}/NaTaO{sub 3} hybrid nanocomposites have been prepared by a facile ultrasonic dispersion method. Our results clearly show the formation of interface between NaTaO{sub 3} and g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} and further loading of g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} did not affect the crystal structure and morphology of NaTaO{sub 3}. The g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}/NaTaO{sub 3} nanocomposites exhibited enhanced photocatalytic performance for the degradation of Rhodamine B under UVvisible and visible light irradiation compared to pure NaTaO{sub 3} and Degussa P25. Interestingly, the visible light photocatalytic activity is generated due to the loading of g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}. A mechanism is proposed to discuss the enhanced photocatalytic activity based on trapping experiments of photoinduced radicals and holes. Under visible light irradiation, electron excited from the valance band (VB) to conduction band (CB) of g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} could directly inject into the CB of NaTaO{sub 3}, making g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}/NaTaO{sub 3} visible light driven photocatalyst. Since the as-prepared hybrid nanocomposites possess high reusability therefore it can be promising photocatalyst for environmental

  16. LED Street Lighting

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    1, 2016 LED Street Lighting The American Medical Association's (AMA) recently adopted community guidance on street lighting adds another influential voice to issues that have been ...

  17. Lighting Developments to 2030

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Frontier Research Centers: Solid-State Lighting Science Center for Frontiers of ... Twitter Google + Vimeo Newsletter Signup SlideShare Lighting Developments to 2030 Home...

  18. Lighting in Commercial Buildings

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    more comprehensive understanding of commercial lighting and the potential for lighting energy savings. Steps to build on this analysis can be taken in many directions. One...

  19. Lighting Developments to 2030

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lighting Choices to Save You Money Lighting Choices to Save You Money This Energy 101 video explores the different lighting options available to consumers. Light your home using the same amount of light for less money. An average household dedicates about 5% of its energy budget to lighting. Switching to energy-efficient lighting is one of the fastest ways to cut your energy bills. By replacing your home's five most frequently used light fixtures or bulbs with models that have earned the ENERGY

  20. residential-lighting

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Efficiency Progress Report Evaluation Utility Toolkit Residential Lighting Market Research The Residential Lighting Market Research Project will estimate market savings from...

  1. Lighting in Commercial Buildings

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    are also under consideration. Outside the DOE, the Environmental Protection Agency's Green Lights program promotes energy-efficient lighting as a means to reducing...

  2. Lighting in Commercial Buildings

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Motivation and Computation of Lighting Measures Floorspace by Lighting Equipment Configuration As described in Appendix A, for each building b, the CBECS data set has the total...

  3. Exciting White Lighting

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Windows that emit light and are more energy efficient? Universal Display’s PHOLED technology enables windows that have transparent light-emitting diodes in them.

  4. Leavenworth Tree Lighting

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Join HERO for our annual Leavenworth Tree Lighting Ceremony & Shopping SATURDAY DECEMBER 12, 2015 Leavenworth Christmas Lighting Festival Visitors return year after year for some...

  5. Tips: Shopping for Lighting

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    When shopping for lighting, you can now use the Lighting Facts label and lumens to compare bulbs and purchase a bulb with the amount of brightness you want.

  6. Lighting in Commercial Buildings

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    light by passing electricity through mercury vapor, which causes the fluorescent coating to glow or fluoresce. High-Efficiency Ballast (HEB): A lighting conservation feature...

  7. Spectroscopy and Topological Phases for Organic Excitons | MIT-Harvard

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Center for Excitonics and Topological Phases for Organic Excitons April 21, 2015 at 4:30 PM/ RLE Haus 36-428 Joel Yuen The Research Laboratory of Electronics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology yuen_001 abstract The understanding and control of energy flow at the nanoscale via exciton dynamics is of fundamental chemical and physical interest, but is also technologically relevant for the design of novel light-harvesting materials. In the first part of my talk, I will explain some of our

  8. Light Duty Combustion Research: Advanced Light-Duty Combustion...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Light Duty Combustion Research: Advanced Light-Duty Combustion Experiments Light Duty Combustion Research: Advanced Light-Duty Combustion Experiments 2009 DOE Hydrogen Program and ...

  9. Solid-State Lighting-Lighting Facts | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Lighting Facts Solid-State Lighting-Lighting Facts Presenter: Marc Ledbetter, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory The LED Lighting Facts program provides credible, verified ...

  10. Cree LED Lighting Solutions Formerly LED Lighting Fixtures LLF...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    LED Lighting Solutions Formerly LED Lighting Fixtures LLF Jump to: navigation, search Name: Cree LED Lighting Solutions (Formerly LED Lighting Fixtures (LLF)) Place: Morrisville,...

  11. Multipulsed dynamic moire interferometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Deason, Vance A.

    1991-01-01

    An improved dynamic moire interferometer comprised of a lasing medium providing a plurality of beams of coherent light, a multiple q-switch producing multiple trains of 100,000 or more pulses per second, a combining means collimating multiple trains of pulses into substantially a single train and directing beams to specimen gratings affixed to a test material, and a controller, triggering and sequencing the emission of the pulses with the occurrence and recording of a dynamic loading event.

  12. PFP Emergency Lighting Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BUSCH, M.S.

    2000-02-02

    NFPA 101, section 5-9 mandates that, where required by building classification, all designated emergency egress routes be provided with adequate emergency lighting in the event of a normal lighting outage. Emergency lighting is to be arranged so that egress routes are illuminated to an average of 1.0 footcandle with a minimum at any point of 0.1 footcandle, as measured at floor level. These levels are permitted to drop to 60% of their original value over the required 90 minute emergency lighting duration after a power outage. The Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) has two designations for battery powered egress lights ''Emergency Lights'' are those battery powered lights required by NFPA 101 to provide lighting along officially designated egress routes in those buildings meeting the correct occupancy requirements. Emergency Lights are maintained on a monthly basis by procedure ZSR-12N-001. ''Backup Lights'' are battery powered lights not required by NFPA, but installed in areas where additional light may be needed. The Backup Light locations were identified by PFP Safety and Engineering based on several factors. (1) General occupancy and type of work in the area. Areas occupied briefly during a shiftly surveillance do not require backup lighting while a room occupied fairly frequently or for significant lengths of time will need one or two Backup lights to provide general illumination of the egress points. (2) Complexity of the egress routes. Office spaces with a standard hallway/room configuration will not require Backup Lights while a large room with several subdivisions or irregularly placed rooms, doors, and equipment will require Backup Lights to make egress safer. (3) Reasonable balance between the safety benefits of additional lighting and the man-hours/exposure required for periodic light maintenance. In some plant areas such as building 236-Z, the additional maintenance time and risk of contamination do not warrant having Backup Lights installed in all rooms

  13. Light source comprising a common substrate, a first led device and a second led device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Choong, Vi-En

    2010-02-23

    At least one stacked organic or polymeric light emitting diode (PLEDs) devices to comprise a light source is disclosed. At least one of the PLEDs includes a patterned cathode which has regions which transmit light. The patterned cathodes enable light emission from the PLEDs to combine together. The light source may be top or bottom emitting or both.

  14. Lithium Ion Solvation and Diffusion in Bulk Organic Electrolytes...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    in Bulk Organic Electrolytes from First Principles Molecular Dynamics Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Lithium Ion Solvation and Diffusion in Bulk Organic ...

  15. Efficient Lighting Design and Office Worker Productivity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, Carol C.; Gordon, Kelly L.

    2004-08-22

    This paper provides an overview of the research findings that will be used as the basis for changing customer buying behaviors and a recipe for success for lighting solutions that will yield both energy savings and non-energy benefits. The lighting energy savings of these new systems compared to strategies of the past is analyzed, along with a recommended market penetration strategy using market research and the dynamics of the construction market.

  16. Organic electrophosphorescence device having interfacial layers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Choulis, Stelios A.; Mathai, Mathew; Choong, Vi-En; So, Franky

    2010-08-10

    Techniques are described for forming an organic light emitting diode device with improved device efficiency. Materials having at least one energy level that is similar to those of a phosphorescent light emitting material in the diode are incorporated into the device to directly inject holes or electrons to the light emitting material.

  17. Pedestrian Friendly Outdoor Lighting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, N. J.; Koltai, R. N.; McGowan, T. K.

    2013-12-01

    The GATEWAY program followed two pedestrian-scale lighting projects that required multiple mockups – one at Stanford University in California and the other at Chautauqua Institution in upstate New York. The report provides insight into pedestrian lighting criteria, how they differ from street and area lighting criteria, and how solid-state lighting can be better applied in pedestrian applications.

  18. LED Lighting Facts Snapshot: Indoor Ambient Lighting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2013-04-01

    LED Lighting Facts Snapshot reports reveal how today's products really perform, drawing on analysis of verified performance data from the program's online product list.

  19. Global patterns and controls of soil organic carbon dynamics as simulated by multiple terrestrial biosphere models. Current status and future directions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tian, Hanqin; Lu, Chaoqun; Yang, Jia; Banger, Kamaljit; Huntzinger, Deborah N.; Schwalm, Christopher R.; Michalak, A. M.; Cook, Robert B.; Ciais, Philippe; Hayes, Daniel J.; Huang, Maoyi; Ito, Akihiko; Jain, Atul K.; Lei, Huimin; Mao, Jiafu; Pan, Shufen; Post, W. M.; Peng, Shushi; Poulter, Benjamin; Ren, Wei; Ricciuto, Daniel M.; Schaefer, Kevin; Shi, Xiaoying; Tao, Bo; Wang, Weile; Wei, Yaxing; Yang, Qichun; Zhang, Bowen; Zeng, Ning

    2015-06-05

    Soil is the largest organic carbon (C) pool of terrestrial ecosystems, and loss from soil accounts for a large pro portion of land-atmosphere C exchange. Due to large pool size and variable residence time from years to millennia, even small changes in soil organic C(SOC) have substantial effects on the terrestrial C budget, thereby affecting atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2)concentration and climate change. In the past decades, a wide variety of studies have been conducted to quantify global SOC stocks and soil exchange with the atmosphere through site measurements, inventories, and empirical/process-based modeling. However, these estimates are highly uncertain and identifying major driving forces controlling soil C storage and fluxes remains a key research challenge his study has compiled century-long (1901-2010)estimates of SOC storage and heterotrophic respiration (Rh) from ten terrestrial biosphere models (TBMs) in the Multi-scale Synthesis and Terrestrial Model Intercomparison Project (MsTMIP) and two observation based datasets. The ten-TBM ensemble shows that global SOC estimate range from 4 to 2111 Pg C (1 Pg = 1015g) with a median value of 1158 Pg C33 in 2010. Modeling approach estimates a broad range of Rh from 35 to 69 Pg C yr-1 with a median value of 51Pg C yr-1 during 200–2010. The largest uncertainty in SOC stocks exists in the 40–65°N latitude band while Rh differences are the largest in the tropics. All the models agreed that climate and land use changes have decreased SOC stocks while elevated CO2 and atmospheric nitrogen deposition have increased SOC stocks though the response varied significantly among models. Model representations of temperature and moisture sensitivity,nutrient limitation and land use partially explain the divergent estimates of global SOC stocks and soil fluxes in this study. In addition, major sources of uncertainty from model estimation include exclusion of SOC storage in

  20. lighting in the library

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The amount and quality of light around us affects our health, safety, comfort, and productivity. Our country spends more than $37 billion each year on electricity for lighting, but technologies developed during the past 10 years can help us cut lighting costs by 30% to 60% while enhancing lighting quality and reducing environmental impacts. In a typical indoor lighting system, 50 percent or more of the energy supplied to the lamp can be wasted by obsolete equipment, poor maintenance, or

  1. Standards Development for Solid-State Lighting | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Research & Development » Technology Application R&D » Standards Development for Solid-State Lighting Standards Development for Solid-State Lighting To accelerate the development and implementation of needed standards for solid-state lighting products, DOE works closely with a network of standards-setting organizations and offers technical assistance and support. Since 2006, DOE has facilitated ongoing dialogue with key standards development organizations to foster greater coordination

  2. Organizing Committee

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Organizing Committee Organizing Committee R. Todd Anderson Program Manager, BER Climate and Environmental Sciences Anjuli Barnzai Program Manager, BER Climate and Environmental...

  3. Liquid-phase exfoliation of chemical vapor deposition-grown single layer graphene and its application in solution-processed transparent electrodes for flexible organic light-emitting devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Chaoxing; Li, Fushan E-mail: gtl-fzu@hotmail.com; Wu, Wei; Chen, Wei; Guo, Tailiang E-mail: gtl-fzu@hotmail.com

    2014-12-15

    Efficient and low-cost methods for obtaining high performance flexible transparent electrodes based on chemical vapor deposition (CVD)-grown graphene are highly desirable. In this work, the graphene grown on copper foil was exfoliated into micron-size sheets through controllable ultrasonication. We developed a clean technique by blending the exfoliated single layer graphene sheets with conducting polymer to form graphene-based composite solution, which can be spin-coated on flexible substrate, forming flexible transparent conducting film with high conductivity (?8 ?/?), high transmittance (?81% at 550?nm), and excellent mechanical robustness. In addition, CVD-grown-graphene-based polymer light emitting diodes with excellent bendable performances were demonstrated.

  4. DOE Campaign Proves Commercial Lighting Upgrades Drive Savings | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy Campaign Proves Commercial Lighting Upgrades Drive Savings DOE Campaign Proves Commercial Lighting Upgrades Drive Savings July 11, 2016 - 12:08pm Addthis DOE Campaign Proves Commercial Lighting Upgrades Drive Savings By Monica Kanojia The Interior Lighting Campaign (Campaign) has seen tremendous success since its inception with more than 160 leading organizations signing on as participants and supporters. Launched as one of the Better Buildings Initiative's Technology Campaigns in

  5. Information for Media on Lighting Choices | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Media on Lighting Choices Information for Media on Lighting Choices Information for Media on Lighting Choices These videos, presentation, and images are available for use by media organizations. The materials are copyright-free, and you are welcome to cite the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy as the source. Videos A residential home is shown with newer lighting choices that save energy and money. All of the lightbulbs in this video meet the new energy

  6. LIGHT CURVES OF 32 LARGE TRANSNEPTUNIAN OBJECTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benecchi, Susan D.; Sheppard, Scott S.

    2013-05-15

    We present observations of 32 primarily bright, newly discovered Transneptunian objects (TNOs) observable from the Southern Hemisphere during 39 nights of observation with the Irenee du Pont 2.5 m telescope at Las Campanas Observatory. Our dataset includes objects in all dynamical classes, but is weighted toward scattered objects. We find 15 objects for which we can fit periods and amplitudes to the data, and place light curve amplitude upper limits on the other 17 objects. Combining our sample with the larger light curve sample in the literature, we find a 3{sigma} correlation between light curve amplitude and absolute magnitude with fainter objects having larger light curve amplitudes. We looked for correlations between light curve and individual orbital properties, but did not find any statistically significant results. However, if we consider light curve properties with respect to object dynamical classification, we find statistically different distributions between the classical-scattered and classical-resonant populations at the 95.60% and 94.64% level, respectively, with the classical objects having larger amplitude light curves. The significance is 97.05% if the scattered and resonant populations are combined. The properties of binary light curves are largely consistent with the greater TNO population except in the case of tidally locked systems. All the Haumea family objects measured so far have light curve amplitudes and rotation periods {<=}10 hr, suggesting that they are not significantly different from the larger TNO population. We expect multiple factors are influencing object rotations: object size dominates light curve properties except in the case of tidal, or proportionally large collisional interactions with other TNOs, the influence of the latter being different for each TNO sub-population. We also present phase curves and colors for some of our objects.

  7. Tips: Lighting | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Tips: Lighting Tips: Lighting Lighting choices save you money. Energy-efficient light bulbs are available in a wide variety of sizes and shapes. Lighting choices save you money....

  8. Differential regulation of duplicate light-dependent protochlorophyllide oxidoreductases in the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Hunsperger, Heather M.; Ford, Christopher J.; Miller, James S.; Cattolico, Rose Ann; Ianora, Adrianna

    2016-07-01

    Diatoms (Bacilliariophyceae) encode two light-dependent protochlorophyllide oxidoreductases (POR1 and POR2) that catalyze the penultimate step of chlorophyll biosynthesis in the light. Algae live in dynamic environments whose changing light levels induce photoacclimative metabolic shifts, including altered cellular chlorophyll levels. We hypothesized that the two POR proteins may be differentially adaptive under varying light conditions. Using the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum as a test system, differences in POR protein abundance and por gene expression were examined when this organism was grown on an alternating light:dark cycles at different irradiances; exposed to continuous light; and challenged by a significant decrease in light availability.more » As a result, for cultures maintained on a 12h light: 12h dark photoperiod at 200μEm–2 s–1 (200L/D), both por genes were up-regulated during the light and down-regulated in the dark, though por1 transcript abundance rose and fell earlier than that of por2. Little concordance occurred between por1 mRNA and POR1 protein abundance. In contrast, por2 mRNA and POR2 protein abundances followed similar diurnal patterns. When 200L/D P. tricornutum cultures were transferred to continuous light (200L/L), the diurnal regulatory pattern of por1 mRNA abundance but not of por2 was disrupted, and POR1 but not POR2 protein abundance dropped steeply. Under 1200μEm–2 s–1 (1200L/D), both por1 mRNA and POR1 protein abundance displayed diurnal oscillations. A compromised diel por2 mRNA response under 1200L/D did not impact the oscillation in POR2 abundance. When cells grown at 1200L/D were then shifted to 50μEm–2 s–1 (50L/D), por1 and por2 mRNA levels decreased swiftly but briefly upon light reduction. Thereafter, POR1 but not POR2 protein levels rose significantly in response to this light stepdown.« less

  9. Lighting Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Homes & Buildings » Lighting & Daylighting » Lighting Basics Lighting Basics August 15, 2013 - 5:12pm Addthis Text Version There are many different types of artificial lights (formally called "lamps" in the lighting industry,) which have different applications and uses. Types of lighting include: Fluorescent Lighting High-intensity Discharge Lighting Incandescent Lighting LED Lighting. New lamp designs that use energy-efficient technology are now readily available in the

  10. lighting in the library

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Determine the Feasibility of Installing Energy Efficient Lighting In this part of the exercise, you will plan a new approach to lighting your school library. This new plan will use ...

  11. lighting in the library

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Our country spends more than 37 billion each year on electricity for lighting, but technologies developed during the past 10 years can help us cut lighting costs by 30% to 60% ...

  12. Lighting in the Library

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The purpose of the Lighting in the Library Activity is to calculate the electricity used to provide lighting in the school library and determine the feasibility of saving energy ...

  13. CONNECTED LIGHTING SYSTEMS MEETING

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    There is a lot of buzz today about the Internet of Things and the convergence of intelligent controllable light sources, communication networks, sensors, and data exchange in future lighting...

  14. Connected Lighting Systems Meeting

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    There is a lot of buzz today about the Internet of Things and the convergence of intelligent controllable light sources, communication networks, sensors, and data exchange in future lighting...

  15. Commercial / Industrial Lighting

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    New Commercial Program Development Commercial Current Promotions Industrial Federal Agriculture Commercial & Industrial Lighting Efficiency Program The Commercial & Industrial...

  16. Light-Source Facilities

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Safety Light Source Facilities America ALS - Advanced Light Source, USA APS - Advanced Photon Source, USA CAMD - Center for Advanced Microstructures & Devices, USA CHESS - Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source, USA CLS - Canadian Light Source, Canada CTST - UCSB Center for Terahertz Science and Technology, USA DFELL - Duke Free Electron Laser Laboratory, USA Jlab - Jefferson Lab, USA LCLS - Linear Coherent Light Source, USA LNLS - Laboratorio Nacional de Luz Sincrotron, Brazil NSLS -

  17. lighting in the library

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Determine the Feasibility of Installing Energy Efficient Lighting In this part of the exercise, you will plan a new approach to lighting your school library. This new plan will use less energy, cost less, and result in less greenhouse gas. Your plan will also include bottom line calculations and decision factors such as: identifying the costs and payback for buying and installing new lighting equipment and making a determination about whether or not the new, more efficient lighting will provide

  18. Effective White Light Options for Parking Area Lighting | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Effective White Light Options for Parking Area Lighting Effective White Light Options for Parking Area Lighting Document details lighting technologies that provide low-maintenance alternatives to high-pressure sodium lighting. Download the document detailing effective white light options for parking area lighting. (189.54 KB) More Documents & Publications LED Provides Effective and Efficient Parking Area Lighting at the NAVFAC Engineering Service Center Demonstration Assessment of

  19. OLED Lighting in the Offices of Aurora Lighting Design, Inc.

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    the Offices of Aurora Lighting Design, Inc. DOE Booth Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Leslie North, DesignerPrincipal Aurora Lighting Design, Inc. 2 OLED Lighting at Aurora ...

  20. Light emitting device comprising phosphorescent materials for white light generation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thompson, Mark E.; Dapkus, P. Daniel

    2014-07-22

    The present invention relates to phosphors for energy downconversion of high energy light to generate a broadband light spectrum, which emit light of different emission wavelengths.

  1. Light-storing photocatalyst

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang Junying; Pan Feng; Hao Weichang; Ge Qi; Wang Tianmian

    2004-12-06

    Light-storing photocatalyst was prepared by coating light-storing phosphor and TiO{sub 2} photocatalyst in sequence on ceramic. The light-storing photocatalyst can store light irradiation and emit slowly. Consequently, the photocatalyst remains active when the irradiation source is cut off. Rhodamine B (RhB) can be decomposed efficiently by this photocatalyst in the dark after it absorbs light irradiation. This photocatalyst is photoreactive in an outdoor environment or can save energy by supplying irradiation intermittently for the photocatalyst.

  2. Secretary Chu Announces More than $37 Million for Next Generation Lighting

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    | Department of Energy 37 Million for Next Generation Lighting Secretary Chu Announces More than $37 Million for Next Generation Lighting January 15, 2010 - 12:00am Addthis WASHINGTON, DC - Energy Secretary Steven Chu today announced more than $37 million in funding from the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act to support high-efficiency solid-state lighting projects. Solid-state lighting, which uses light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) instead of

  3. Photonic crystal light source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fleming, James G.; Lin, Shawn-Yu; Bur, James A.

    2004-07-27

    A light source is provided by a photonic crystal having an enhanced photonic density-of-states over a band of frequencies and wherein at least one of the dielectric materials of the photonic crystal has a complex dielectric constant, thereby producing enhanced light emission at the band of frequencies when the photonic crystal is heated. The dielectric material can be a metal, such as tungsten. The spectral properties of the light source can be easily tuned by modification of the photonic crystal structure and materials. The photonic crystal light source can be heated electrically or other heating means. The light source can further include additional photonic crystals that exhibit enhanced light emission at a different band of frequencies to provide for color mixing. The photonic crystal light source may have applications in optical telecommunications, information displays, energy conversion, sensors, and other optical applications.

  4. Light-Material Interactions in Energy Conversion - Energy Frontier Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Center (LMI-EFRC) Malvern Nano Zetasizer The Malvern Nano Zetasizer measures particle and molecule size from below a nanometer to several microns using dynamic light scattering, zeta potential and electrophoretic mobility using electrophoretic light scattering, and molecular weight using static light scattering. This equipment is used to support several EFRC research projects that utilize colloidal and nanoparticle building blocks, including work based on colloidal crystal templating and

  5. Light metal production

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fan, Qinbai

    2016-04-19

    An electrochemical process for the production of light metals, particularly aluminum. Such a process involves contacting a light metal source material with an inorganic acid to form a solution containing the light metal ions in high concentration. The solution is fed to an electrochemical reactor assembly having an anode side containing an anode and a cathode side containing a cathode, with anode side and the cathode side separated by a bipolar membrane, with the solution being fed to the anode side. Light metal ions are electrochemically transferred through the bipolar membrane to the cathode side. The process further involves reducing the light metal ions to light metal powder. An associated processing system is also provided.

  6. Light diffusing fiber optic chamber (Patent) | DOEPatents

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Country of Publication: United States Language: English Subject: light; diffusing; fiber; optic; chamber; light; diffusion; transmitting; light; target; light; transmitted; ...

  7. High efficiency incandescent lighting

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bermel, Peter; Ilic, Ognjen; Chan, Walker R.; Musabeyoglu, Ahmet; Cukierman, Aviv Ruben; Harradon, Michael Robert; Celanovic, Ivan; Soljacic, Marin

    2014-09-02

    Incandescent lighting structure. The structure includes a thermal emitter that can, but does not have to, include a first photonic crystal on its surface to tailor thermal emission coupled to, in a high-view-factor geometry, a second photonic filter selected to reflect infrared radiation back to the emitter while passing visible light. This structure is highly efficient as compared to standard incandescent light bulbs.

  8. National Synchrotron Light Source

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    BNL

    2009-09-01

    A tour of Brookhaven's National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS), hosted by Associate Laboratory Director for Light Sources, Stephen Dierker. The NSLS is one of the world's most widely used scientific research facilities, hosting more than 2,500 guest researchers each year. The NSLS provides intense beams of infrared, ultraviolet, and x-ray light for basic and applied research in physics, chemistry, medicine, geophysics, environmental, and materials sciences.

  9. Lighting in Commercial Buildings

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Illuminance Assignments for CBECS Building Activity Categories Illuminance ranges were adopted from the 1987 Illuminating Engineering Society (IES) Lighting Handbook. The IES...

  10. Lighting in Commercial Buildings

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    from the engineering literature, based on CBECS building activity.) 4. Efficacy: an energy efficiency measure. Technically, the amount of light produced per unit of energy...

  11. Lighting in Commercial Buildings

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    (CEC), March 1990. Advanced Lighting Technologies Application Guidelines (ALTAG), Building and Appliance Efficiency Office. 3. Dubin, F.S., Mindell, H.L., and Bloome, S., 1976....

  12. Lighting in Commercial Buildings

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    energy are presented in this section. Statistics are presented by subgroups based on building characteristics, and by subgroups based on lighting equipment. The three sets of...

  13. FEMP Lighting Initiative

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Federal Outdoor Lighting Energy Use by Application (Total 5.0 TWh) * Federal Sector Outdoor Lamps by Technology ... * Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR 23.2 and FAR ...

  14. And there was light

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bertulani, C. A.

    2015-02-24

    I discuss the use of light as a collection of real and virtual photons to study some lingering questions in particle and nuclear physics.

  15. Extragalactic Background Light

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Extragalactic Background Light from Hierarchical Galaxy Formation: Gamma-ray Attenuation up to the Epoch of Cosmic Reionization and the First Stars Yoshiyuki Inoue 1 , Susumu Inoue...

  16. Lighting Test Facilities

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lighting-Test-Facilities Sign In About | Careers | Contact | Investors | bpa.gov Search Policy & Reporting Expand Policy & Reporting EE Sectors Expand EE Sectors Technology &...

  17. Comparing Light Bulbs

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    In this exercise, students will use a light to demonstrate the difference between being energy-efficient and energy-wasteful, and learn what energy efficiency means.

  18. Private Companies, Local Government, and Utilities to Work with Energy Department to Upgrade Interior Lighting

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Energy Department today announced over 65 organizations are participating in the Better Buildings Alliance's Interior Lighting Campaign (ILC) and committing to drive greater energy efficiency through new interior lighting technologies.

  19. Materials and architectures for efficient harvesting of singlet and triplet excitons for white light emitting OLEDs

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thompson, Mark E; Forrest, Stephen

    2015-02-03

    The present invention relates to organic light emitting devices (OLEDs), and more specifically to OLEDS that emit light using a combination of fluorescent emitters and phosphorescent emitters for the efficient utilization of all of the electrically generated excitons.

  20. Incandescent Lighting | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Lighting » Incandescent Lighting Incandescent Lighting Incandescent lighting is the most common, and least energy efficient, type of lighting used in homes. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto/TokenPhoto. Incandescent lighting is the most common, and least energy efficient, type of lighting used in homes. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto/TokenPhoto. Incandescent lamps are often considered the least energy efficient type of electric lighting commonly found in residential buildings. Although

  1. Degradation of organic chemicals with titanium ceramic membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, M.A.; Tunesi, S.; Xu, Q.

    1991-07-30

    Complex organic molecules, such as polychlorinated biphenyls can be degraded on porous titanium ceramic membranes by photocatalysis under ultraviolet light. 3 figures.

  2. Electroluminescent device having improved light output

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tyan; Yuan-Sheng; Preuss, Donald R.; Farruggia, Giuseppe; Kesel, Raymond A.; Cushman, Thomas R.

    2011-03-22

    An OLED device including a transparent substrate having a first surface and a second surface, a transparent electrode layer disposed over the first surface of the substrate, a short reduction layer disposed over the transparent electrode layer, an organic light-emitting element disposed over the short reduction layer and including at least one light-emitting layer and a charge injection layer disposed over the light emitting layer, a reflective electrode layer disposed over the charge injection layer and a light extraction enhancement structure disposed over the first or second surface of the substrate; wherein the short reduction layer is a transparent film having a through-thickness resistivity of 10.sup.-9 to 10.sup.2 ohm-cm.sup.2; wherein the reflective electrode layer includes Ag or Ag alloy containing more than 80% of Ag; and the total device size is larger than 10 times the substrate thickness.

  3. Dynamical principles in neuroscience

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rabinovich, Mikhail I.; Varona, Pablo; Selverston, Allen I.; Abarbanel, Henry D. I.

    2006-10-15

    Dynamical modeling of neural systems and brain functions has a history of success over the last half century. This includes, for example, the explanation and prediction of some features of neural rhythmic behaviors. Many interesting dynamical models of learning and memory based on physiological experiments have been suggested over the last two decades. Dynamical models even of consciousness now exist. Usually these models and results are based on traditional approaches and paradigms of nonlinear dynamics including dynamical chaos. Neural systems are, however, an unusual subject for nonlinear dynamics for several reasons: (i) Even the simplest neural network, with only a few neurons and synaptic connections, has an enormous number of variables and control parameters. These make neural systems adaptive and flexible, and are critical to their biological function. (ii) In contrast to traditional physical systems described by well-known basic principles, first principles governing the dynamics of neural systems are unknown. (iii) Many different neural systems exhibit similar dynamics despite having different architectures and different levels of complexity. (iv) The network architecture and connection strengths are usually not known in detail and therefore the dynamical analysis must, in some sense, be probabilistic. (v) Since nervous systems are able to organize behavior based on sensory inputs, the dynamical modeling of these systems has to explain the transformation of temporal information into combinatorial or combinatorial-temporal codes, and vice versa, for memory and recognition. In this review these problems are discussed in the context of addressing the stimulating questions: What can neuroscience learn from nonlinear dynamics, and what can nonlinear dynamics learn from neuroscience?.

  4. Electromagnetic effects on the light hadron spectrum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Basak, S.; et al.

    2015-10-16

    Calculations studying electromagnetic eff ects on light mesons are reported. The calculations use fully dynamical QCD, but only quenched photons, which suffi ces to NLO in χ PT; that is, the sea quarks are electrically neutral, while the valence quarks carry charge. The non-compact formalism is used for photons. New results are obtained with lattice spacing as small as 0.045 fm and a large range of volumes. The success of chiral perturbation theory in describing these results and the implications for light quark masses are considered.

  5. Polarized Light in Nature George W. Kattawar

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Polarized Light in Nature George W. Kattawar Department of Physics and Institute for Quantum Science and Engineering Texas A&M University Research Colleagues: Meng Gao, Ping Yang,and Yu You Electromagnetic waves were first postulated by James Clerk Maxwell in 1862 and subsequently confirmed by Heinrich Hertz in 1887. In 1864, Maxwell wrote "A dynamical theory of the electromagnetic field", where he first proposed that light was in fact undulations in the same medium that is the

  6. Lab Organizations

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Organizations Lab Organizations National security depends on science and technology. The United States relies on Los Alamos National Laboratory for the best of both. No place on Earth pursues a broader array of world-class scientific endeavors. Los Alamos National Security, LLC Leadership Team Organization Chart PRINCIPAL ASSOCIATE DIRECTORATES Capital Projects, Larry Simmons Global Security, Terry Wallace Operations and Business, Craig Leasure Science, Technology, and Engineering, Alan Bishop

  7. Probing Organic Transistors with Infrared Beams

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Probing Organic Transistors with Infrared Beams Probing Organic Transistors with Infrared Beams Print Wednesday, 26 July 2006 00:00 Silicon-based transistors are well-understood, basic components of contemporary electronic technology. In contrast, there is growing need for the development of electronic devices based on organic polymer materials. Organic field-effect transistors (FETs) are ideal for special applications that require large areas, light weight, and structural flexibility. They also

  8. Transformations in Lighting: The Fifth Annual Solid-State Lighting R&D

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Workshop | Department of Energy Fifth Annual Solid-State Lighting R&D Workshop Transformations in Lighting: The Fifth Annual Solid-State Lighting R&D Workshop Photo of a man and a woman, standing, smiling at the camera. The woman, on the left, is wearing a colorful blue and gray outfit. The man, on the right, is wearing a suit. More than 300 SSL technology leaders from industry, research organizations, universities, and national laboratories gathered in Atlanta, GA, along with

  9. Light intensity compressor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rushford, Michael C.

    1990-01-01

    In a system for recording images having vastly differing light intensities over the face of the image, a light intensity compressor is provided that utilizes the properties of twisted nematic liquid crystals to compress the image intensity. A photoconductor or photodiode material that is responsive to the wavelength of radiation being recorded is placed adjacent a layer of twisted nematic liquid crystal material. An electric potential applied to a pair of electrodes that are disposed outside of the liquid crystal/photoconductor arrangement to provide an electric field in the vicinity of the liquid crystal material. The electrodes are substantially transparent to the form of radiation being recorded. A pair of crossed polarizers are provided on opposite sides of the liquid crystal. The front polarizer linearly polarizes the light, while the back polarizer cooperates with the front polarizer and the liquid crystal material to compress the intensity of a viewed scene. Light incident upon the intensity compressor activates the photoconductor in proportion to the intensity of the light, thereby varying the field applied to the liquid crystal. The increased field causes the liquid crystal to have less of a twisting effect on the incident linearly polarized light, which will cause an increased percentage of the light to be absorbed by the back polarizer. The intensity of an image may be compressed by forming an image on the light intensity compressor.

  10. Explosively pumped laser light

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Piltch, Martin S.; Michelotti, Roy A.

    1991-01-01

    A single shot laser pumped by detonation of an explosive in a shell casing. The shock wave from detonation of the explosive causes a rare gas to luminesce. The high intensity light from the gas enters a lasing medium, which thereafter outputs a pulse of laser light to disable optical sensors and personnel.

  11. Polymer and small molecule based hybrid light source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Choong, Vi-En; Choulis, Stelios; Krummacher, Benjamin Claus; Mathai, Mathew; So, Franky

    2010-03-16

    An organic electroluminescent device, includes: a substrate; a hole-injecting electrode (anode) coated over the substrate; a hole injection layer coated over the anode; a hole transporting layer coated over the hole injection layer; a polymer based light emitting layer, coated over the hole transporting layer; a small molecule based light emitting layer, thermally evaporated over the polymer based light emitting layer; and an electron-injecting electrode (cathode) deposited over the electroluminescent polymer layer.

  12. Lighting Principles and Terms | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Lighting Principles and Terms Light quantity, energy consumption, and light quality are ... Light quantity, energy consumption, and light quality are the basic principles of ...

  13. Photochemical deterioration of the organic/metal contacts in organic optoelectronic devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang Qi; Williams, Graeme; Aziz, Hany; Tsui Ting

    2012-09-15

    We study the effect of exposure to light on a wide range of organic/metal contacts that are commonly used in organic optoelectronic devices and found that irradiation by light in the visible and UV range results in a gradual deterioration in their electrical properties. This photo-induced contact degradation reduces both charge injection (i.e., from the metal to the organic layer) and charge extraction (i.e., from the organic layer to the metal). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements reveal detectable changes in the interface characteristics after irradiation, indicating that the photo-degradation is chemical in nature. Changes in XPS characteristics after irradiation suggests a possible reduction in bonds associated with organic-metal complexes. Measurements of interfacial adhesion strength using the four-point flexure technique reveal a decrease in organic/metal adhesion in irradiated samples, consistent with a decrease in metal-organic bond density. The results shed the light on a new material degradation mechanism that appears to have a wide presence in organic/metal interfaces in general, and which likely plays a key role in limiting the stability of various organic optoelectronic devices such as organic light emitting devices, organic solar cells, and organic photo-detectors.

  14. Organizing Committee

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Organizing Committee Organizing Committee Large Scale Computing and Storage Requirements for Nuclear Physics May 26-27, 2011 Ted Barnes DOE Office of Nuclear Physics Yukiko Sekine NERSC Program Manager, DOE Office of Advanced Computational Research Kathy Yelick NERSC Director Richard Gerber NERSC User Services Harvey Wasserman NERSC User Services Last edited: 2016-04-29 11:35:21

  15. Fermilab | About | Organization | Fermilab Organization | Explanation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of Symbols Line Organization: sectors, divisions, sections Line Organization Matrix Organization: centers, projects and programs utilizing resources spanning the entire...

  16. Method of doping organic semiconductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kloc, Christian Leo; Ramirez, Arthur Penn; So, Woo-Young

    2012-02-28

    A method includes the steps of forming a contiguous semiconducting region and heating the region. The semiconducting region includes polyaromatic molecules. The heating raises the semiconducting region to a temperature above room temperature. The heating is performed in the presence of a dopant gas and the absence of light to form a doped organic semiconducting region.

  17. Low-Cost Light-Emitting Diode Luminaire for General Illumination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This project is demonstrating an efficient and stable white organic light-emitting diode (WOLED) using a single emitter on a planar glass substrate.

  18. Solid-State Lighting Patents Resulting from DOE-Funded Projects

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Array Interconnect * Ultra-Thin Ohmic Contacts for P-type ... patent applications filed SOLID-STATE LIGHTING: Solid-State ... of Organic Semiconducting Films by Improved Solution ...

  19. Simultaneous monitoring of singlet and triplet exciton variations in solid organic semiconductors driven by an external static magnetic field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ding, Baofu Alameh, Kamal

    2014-07-07

    The research field of organic spintronics has remarkably and rapidly become a promising research area for delivering a range of high-performance devices, such as magnetic-field sensors, spin valves, and magnetically modulated organic light emitting devices (OLEDs). Plenty of microscopic physical and chemical models based on exciton or charge interactions have been proposed to explain organic magneto-optoelectronic phenomena. However, the simultaneous observation of singlet- and triplet-exciton variations in an external magnetic field is still unfeasible, preventing a thorough theoretical description of the spin dynamics in organic semiconductors. Here, we show that we can simultaneously observe variations of singlet excitons and triplet excitons in an external magnetic field, by designing an OLED structure employing a singlet-exciton filtering and detection layer in conjunction with a separate triplet-exciton detection layer. This OLED structure enables the observation of a Lorentzian and a non-Lorentzian line-shape magnetoresponse for singlet excitons and triplet excitons, respectively.

  20. Organization | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    About Us » Organization Organization Organization OCIO Organizational Chart (Printable) News & Blog CIO Leadership Organization Contact Us

  1. Lighting fundamentals handbook: Lighting fundamentals and principles for utility personnel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eley, C.; Tolen, T. Associates, San Francisco, CA ); Benya, J.R. )

    1992-12-01

    Lighting accounts for approximately 30% of overall electricity use and demand in commercial buildings. This handbook for utility personnel provides a source of basic information on lighting principles, lighting equipment, and other considerations related to lighting design. The handbook is divided into three parts. Part One, Physics of Light, has chapters on light, vision, optics, and photometry. Part Two, Lighting Equipment and Technology, focuses on lamps, luminaires, and lighting controls. Part Three, Lighting Design Decisions, deals with the manner in which lighting design decisions are made and reviews relevant methods and issues. These include the quantity and quality of light needed for visual tasks, calculation methods for verifying that lighting needs are satisfied, lighting economics and methods for evaluating investments in efficient lighting systems, and miscellaneous design issues including energy codes, power quality, photobiology, and disposal of lighting equipment. The handbook contains a discussion of the role of the utility in promoting the use of energy-efficient lighting. The handbook also includes a lighting glossary and a list of references for additional information. This convenient and comprehensive handbook is designed to enable utility lighting personnel to assist their customers in developing high-quality, energy-efficient lighting systems. The handbook is not intended to be an up-to-date reference on lighting products and equipment.

  2. Green Light Pulse Oximeter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Scharf, John Edward

    1998-11-03

    A reflectance pulse oximeter that determines oxygen saturation of hemoglobin using two sources of electromagnetic radiation in the green optical region, which provides the maximum reflectance pulsation spectrum. The use of green light allows placement of an oximetry probe at central body sites (e.g., wrist, thigh, abdomen, forehead, scalp, and back). Preferably, the two green light sources alternately emit light at 560 nm and 577 nm, respectively, which gives the biggest difference in hemoglobin extinction coefficients between deoxyhemoglobin, RHb, and oxyhemoglobin, HbO.sub.2.

  3. Lighting in the Library

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    lores.pdf (1.43

    hires.pdf (1.65

    The purpose of the Lighting in the Library Activity is to calculate the electricity used to provide lighting in the school library and determine the feasibility of saving energy and money by using energy efficient lighting fixtures. Your students will assume the role of an energy auditor assigned the task of assessing the current situation and making a recommendation for energy-efficient improvements. This activitity requires a trip to the library, an

  4. White light velocity interferometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Erskine, D.J.

    1997-06-24

    The invention is a technique that allows the use of broadband and incoherent illumination. Although denoted white light velocimetry, this principle can be applied to any wave phenomenon. For the first time, powerful, compact or inexpensive sources can be used for remote target velocimetry. These include flash and arc lamps, light from detonations, pulsed lasers, chirped frequency lasers, and lasers operating simultaneously in several wavelengths. The technique is demonstrated with white light from an incandescent source to measure a target moving at 16 m/s. 41 figs.

  5. White light velocity interferometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Erskine, David J.

    1997-01-01

    The invention is a technique that allows the use of broadband and incoherent illumination. Although denoted white light velocimetry, this principle can be applied to any wave phenomenon. For the first time, powerful, compact or inexpensive sources can be used for remote target velocimetry. These include flash and arc lamps, light from detonations, pulsed lasers, chirped frequency lasers, and lasers operating simultaneously in several wavelengths. The technique is demonstrated with white light from an incandescent source to measure a target moving at 16 m/s.

  6. White light velocity interferometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Erskine, David J.

    1999-01-01

    The invention is a technique that allows the use of broadband and incoherent illumination. Although denoted white light velocimetry, this principle can be applied to any wave phenomenon. For the first time, powerful, compact or inexpensive sources can be used for remote target velocimetry. These include flash and arc lamps, light from detonations, pulsed lasers, chirped frequency lasers, and lasers operating simultaneously in several wavelengths. The technique is demonstrated with white light from an incandescent source to measure a target moving at 16 m/s.

  7. White light velocity interferometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Erskine, D.J.

    1999-06-08

    The invention is a technique that allows the use of broadband and incoherent illumination. Although denoted white light velocimetry, this principle can be applied to any wave phenomenon. For the first time, powerful, compact or inexpensive sources can be used for remote target velocimetry. These include flash and arc lamps, light from detonations, pulsed lasers, chirped frequency lasers, and lasers operating simultaneously in several wavelengths. The technique is demonstrated with white light from an incandescent source to measure a target moving at 16 m/s. 41 figs.

  8. LightWeight KerneL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Catamount n-Way LightWeight KerneL 1 R&D 100 Entry Catamount n-Way LightWeight KerneL 2 R&D 100 Entry Submitting organization Sandia National Laboratories PO Box 5800 Albuquerque, NM 87185-1319 USA Ron Brightwell Phone: (505) 844-2099 Fax: (505) 845-7442 rbbrigh@sandia.gov AFFIRMATION: I affirm that all information submitted as a part of, or supplemental to, this entry is a fair and accurate representation of this product. _____________________________ Ron Brightwell Joint entry

  9. Lighting Controls | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Controls Lighting Controls Use lighting controls to automatically turn lights on and off as needed, and save energy. Use lighting controls to automatically turn lights on and off as needed, and save energy. Use lighting controls to automatically turn lights on and off as needed, and save energy. Of course you can save energy by turning off lights when they're not needed, but sometimes we forget or don't notice that we've left them on. The most common types of lighting controls include: Dimmers

  10. Lighting in Commercial Buildings

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    5.2 152.6 160.5 54.6 Assembly Health Care Lodging Office 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 Energy Information Administration Energy Consumption Series: Lighting in Commercial...

  11. National Synchrotron Light Source

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2010-01-08

    A tour of Brookhaven's National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS). The NSLS is one of the world's most widely used scientific research facilities, hosting more than 2,500 guest researchers each year. The NSLS provides intense beams of infrared, ultraviole

  12. Peninsula Light Company PenLight | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Company PenLight Jump to: navigation, search Name: Peninsula Light Company (PenLight) Place: Gig Harbor, Washington State Zip: 98335-0078 Product: Member-owned electric cooperative...

  13. Lakeview Light and Power- Commercial Lighting Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Lakeview Light and Power offers a commercial lighting rebate program. Rebates apply to the installation of energy efficient lighting retrofits in non-residential buildings. The rebate program is...

  14. Demonstration Assessment of Light-Emitting Diode (LED) Roadway Lighting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kinzey, B. R.; Myer, M. A.

    2009-11-01

    A U.S. Department of Energy Solid-State Lighting Gateway Report on a Demonstration Assessment of Light-Emitting Diode (LED) Roadway Lighting in Lija Loop, Portland, Oregon.

  15. Organic Superconductors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Charles Mielke

    2009-02-27

    Intense magnetic fields are an essential tool for understanding layered superconductors. Fundamental electronic properties of organic superconductors are revealed in intense (60 tesla) magnetic fields. Properties such as the topology of the Fermi surface and the nature of the superconducting order parameter are revealed. With modest maximum critical temperatures~13K the charge transfer salt organic superconductors prove to be incredibly valuable materials as their electronically clean nature and layered (highly anisotropic) structures yield insights to the high temperature superconductors. Observation of de Haas-van Alphen and Shubnikov-de Haas quantum oscillatory phenomena, magnetic field induced superconductivity and re-entrant superconductivity are some of the physical phenomena observed in the charge transfer organic superconductors. In this talk, I will discuss the nature of organic superconductors and give an overview of the generation of intense magnetic fields; from the 60 tesla millisecond duration to the extreme 1000 tesla microsecond pulsed magnetic fields.

  16. Solid state lighting component

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yuan, Thomas; Keller, Bernd; Ibbetson, James; Tarsa, Eric; Negley, Gerald

    2010-10-26

    An LED component comprising an array of LED chips mounted on a planar surface of a submount with the LED chips capable of emitting light in response to an electrical signal. The LED chips comprise respective groups emitting at different colors of light, with each of the groups interconnected in a series circuit. A lens is included over the LED chips. Other embodiments can comprise thermal spreading structures included integral to the submount and arranged to dissipate heat from the LED chips.

  17. Solid state lighting component

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Keller, Bernd; Ibbetson, James; Tarsa, Eric; Negley, Gerald; Yuan, Thomas

    2012-07-10

    An LED component comprising an array of LED chips mounted on a planar surface of a submount with the LED chips capable of emitting light in response to an electrical signal. The LED chips comprise respective groups emitting at different colors of light, with each of the groups interconnected in a series circuit. A lens is included over the LED chips. Other embodiments can comprise thermal spreading structures included integral to the submount and arranged to dissipate heat from the LED chips.

  18. Organizing Committee

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Organizing Committee Organizing Committee Large Scale Computing and Storage Requirements for Advanced Scientific Computing Research An ASCR / NERSC Workshop January 5-6, 2011 Dr. Karen Pao ASCR Yukiko Sekine NERSC Program Manager, ASCR Kathy Yelick NERSC Director Francesca Verdier NERSC Department Head for Services Richard Gerber NERSC User Services John Shalf NERSC Advanced Technologies Group Harvey Wasserman NERSC User Services Last edited: 2016-04-29 11:35:22

  19. Organizing Committee

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Organizing Committee Organizing Committee R. Todd Anderson Program Manager, BER Climate and Environmental Sciences Anjuli Barnzai Program Manager, BER Climate and Environmental Sciences Susan Gregurick Program Manager, BER Biological Systems Yukiko Sekine NERSC Program Manager, ASCR Kathy Yelick NERSC Director Francesca Verdier NERSC Department Head for Services Richard Gerber NERSC User Services Harvey Wasserman NERSC System Architecture Last edited: 2016-04-29 11:35:21

  20. Organizing Committee

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Organizing Committee Organizing Committee Large Scale Computing and Storage Requirements for Fusion Energy Science August 3-4, 2010 Dr. John Mandrekas Advanced Fusion Simulations; FES HPC Allocations Yukiko Sekine NERSC Program Manager, ASCR Kathy Yelick NERSC Director Francesca Verdier NERSC Department Head for Services Richard Gerber NERSC User Services Alice Koniges NERSC Advanced Technologies Harvey Wasserman NERSC User Services Last edited: 2016-04-29 11:35:21

  1. Organizing Committee

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Organizing Committee Organizing Committee Large Scale Computing and Storage Requirements for High Energy Physics November 12-13, 2009 Amber Boehnlein Division Scientist, Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, on assignment to DOE Office of HEP. Glen Crawford Program Manager, Research and Technology Division, DOE Office of HEP. Yukiko Sekine NERSC Program Manager, ASCR Kathy Yelick NERSC Director Francesca Verdier NERSC Department Head for Services Richard Gerber NERSC User Services Harvey

  2. Organizing Committee

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Organizing Committee Organizing Committee Large Scale Computing and Storage Requirements for Basic Energy Sciences An ASCR / BES / NERSC Workshop February 9-10, 2010 Jim Davenport Program Manager for Theoretical Condensed Material Physics Mark R. Pederson Program Manager for Theoretical and Computational Chemistry Nicholas B. Woodward Program Manager, Geosciences Research Program Yukiko Sekine NERSC Program Manager, ASCR Kathy Yelick NERSC Director Francesca Verdier NERSC Department Head for

  3. (Lighting and) Solid-State Lighting: Science, Technology, Economic...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lighting and) Solid-State Lighting: Science, Technology, Economic Perspectives - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate ...

  4. Columbia Water & Light- HVAC and Lighting Efficiency Rebates

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Columbia Water & Light (CWL) offers rebates to its commercial and industrial customers for the purchase of high efficiency HVAC installations and efficient lighting. Incentives for certain...

  5. Peninsula Light Company- Commercial Efficient Lighting Rebate Program

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Peninsula Light Company (PLC) offers a rebate program for commercial customers who wish to upgrade to energy efficient lighting. Participating customers must be served by PLC commercial service....

  6. And the Oscar for Sustainable Mobile Lighting Goes to.... Lighting...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    There are about 100,000 diesel-powered mobile lighting towers in the United States, ... building, and testing a mobile lighting tower powered by hydrogen fuel cell ...

  7. Energy Savings Estimates of Light Emitting Diodes in Niche Lighting...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Estimates of Light Emitting Diodes in Niche Lighting Applications Prepared for: Building Technologies Program Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy U.S. Department of ...

  8. LED Lighting | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    focusing light in ways that are useful in homes and commercial settings. The light-emitting diode (LED) is one of today's most energy-efficient and rapidly-developing lighting...

  9. Lighting Design | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Design Lighting Design Energy-efficient indoor and outdoor lighting design focuses on ways ... Energy-efficient indoor and outdoor lighting design focuses on ways to improve both the ...

  10. Conversion of organic solids to hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Greenbaum, E.

    1995-05-23

    A method of converting organic solids to liquid and gaseous hydrocarbons includes impregnating an organic solid with photosensitizing ions and exposing the impregnated solid to light in a non-oxidizing atmosphere for a time sufficient to photocatalytically reduce the solid to at least one of a liquid and a gaseous hydrocarbon. 5 Figs.

  11. Conversion of organic solids to hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Greenbaum, Elias

    1995-01-01

    A method of converting organic solids to liquid and gaseous hydrocarbons includes impregnating an organic solid with photosensitizing ions and exposing the impregnated solid to light in a non-oxidizing atmosphere for a time sufficient to photocatalytically reduce the solid to at least one of a liquid and a gaseous hydrocarbon.

  12. Lighting Control Energy Savings

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1985-01-01

    CONTROLITE 1.0 is a lighting energy analysis program designed to calculate the energy savings and cost benefits obtainable using lighting controls in buildings. The program can compute the lighting energy reductions that result from using daylighting, scheduling, and other control strategies. When modeling daylight control systems, the program uses QUICKLITE to compute the daylight illuminances at specified points 5 times a day, 12 days a year (the 21st of each month), and for two skymore » conditions (clear and overcast skies). Fourier series techniques are used to fit a continuous curve through the computed illuminance points. The energy use for each of the 12 days is then computed given user-specified power-in/light-out characteristics of the modeled control system. The monthly and annual energy usage for overcast and clear conditions are found separately by fitting two long-term Fourier series curves to the energy use computed for each of the 12 days. Finally, the monthly energy use is calculated by taking a weighted average for the monthly energy use computed for the overcast and clear sky conditions. The program only treats the energy use directly attributable to lighting. The impact of lighting control strategies on building thermal loads is not computed. The program allows input of different control schedules (i.e., on/off times for the lighting system) for each day of the week, but every week of the year is treated the same; thus, holidays cannot be modeled explicitly. When used for daylighting purposes, CONTROLITE1.0 understands only clear and overcast conditions. User-supplied values for the proportion of clear and overcast hours for each month of the year are required to accommodate different climatic conditions.« less

  13. Another Side of Light - D

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    D. Three quantum phenomena In fluorescence, matter absorbs light waves of a high frequency and then emits light of the same or lower frequency. This process was studied and named by George Gabriel Stokes in the mid-19th century. Today, fluorescence is familiar to us from fluorescent light bulbs. A fluorescent bulb's filament produces ultraviolet light, which is absorbed by the bulb's inner coating, which then emits lower-frequency visible light-more visible light than an incandescent bulb

  14. Light diffusing fiber optic chamber

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maitland, Duncan J.

    2002-01-01

    A light diffusion system for transmitting light to a target area. The light is transmitted in a direction from a proximal end to a distal end by an optical fiber. A diffusing chamber is operatively connected to the optical fiber for transmitting the light from the proximal end to the distal end and transmitting said light to said target area. A plug is operatively connected to the diffusing chamber for increasing the light that is transmitted to the target area.

  15. Lighting Design | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Design Lighting Design Energy-efficient indoor and outdoor lighting design focuses on ways to improve both the quality and efficiency of lighting. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto.com/chandlerphoto. Energy-efficient indoor and outdoor lighting design focuses on ways to improve both the quality and efficiency of lighting. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto.com/chandlerphoto. Energy-efficient indoor and outdoor lighting design focuses on ways to improve both the quality and efficiency of

  16. Outdoor Lighting | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Outdoor Lighting Outdoor Lighting Outdoor lighting consumes a significant amount of energy-about 1.3 quadrillion Btu annually-costing about $10 billion per year. In the last five years, a number of municipalities have switched to new LED technologies that can reduce energy costs by approximately 50% over conventional lighting technologies and provide additional savings of 20 to 40% with advance lighting controls. Beyond cost and energy savings, the higher efficiency of LED lights provides other

  17. Fermilab | About | Organization | Fermilab Organization

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Organization Fermilab Organization < Back to About Fermilab Fermilab Org Chart Accelerator Division Accelerator Physics Center CMS Center Core Computing Division ESH&Q FESS Finance Section LBNF Project Far-Site LBNF Project Near-Site LBNF Project Office LBNF Project LCLS-II Project Neutrino Division Office of Communication Office of Integrated Planning and Performance Management Office of Project Support Services Office of the CFO Office of the CIO Office of the CPO PIP-II Project PPD

  18. Universal light-switchable gene promoter system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Quail, Peter H.; Huq, Enamul; Tepperman, James; Sato, Sae

    2005-02-22

    An artificial promoter system that can be fused upstream of any desired gene enabling reversible induction or repression of the expression of the gene at will in any suitable host cell or organisms by light is described. The design of the system is such that a molecule of the plant photoreceptor phytochrome is targeted to the specific DNA binding site in the promoter by a protein domain that is fused to the phytochrome and that specifically recognizes this binding site. This bound phytochrome, upon activation by light, recruits a second fusion protein consisting of a protein that binds to phytochrome only upon light activation and a transcriptional activation domain that activates expression of the gene downstream of the promoter.

  19. Organization Chart | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Organization Chart Organization Chart Organization Chart Printable PDF Mission Leadership

  20. Demonstration of LED Street Lighting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kinzey, B. R.; Royer, M. P.; Hadjian, M.; Kauffman, R.

    2013-06-01

    GATEWAY program and Municipal Solid-State Street Lighting Consortium report on a demonstration of LED street lighting in Kansas City, MO.

  1. Lighting Controls | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    fluorescent lighting fixtures rather than replace them. Dimmers and LEDs Some light-emitting diode (LED) lightbulbs can be used with dimmers. LED bulbs and fixtures must be...

  2. LED Lighting | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    of lighting in the United States. Residential LEDs -- especially ENERGY STAR rated products -- use at least 75% less energy, and last 25 times longer, than incandescent lighting. ...

  3. Lighting Design | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    as part of your whole-house design -- an approach for building an energy-efficient home. Indoor Lighting Design When designing indoor lighting for energy efficiency,...

  4. Lighting in Commercial Buildings, 1986

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Lighting in Commercial Buildings --1986 Overview Full Report and Tables Detailed analysis of energy consumption for lighting for U.S. commercial buildings. previous page...

  5. GATEWAY Demonstrations: LED Street Lighting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cook, Tyson; Shackelford, Jordan; Pang, Terrance Pang

    2008-12-01

    This report summarizes an assessment project conducted to study the performance of light emitting diode (LED) luminaires in a street lighting application in San Francisco, CA.

  6. Shedding Light on Nanocrystal Defects

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Shedding Light on Nanocrystal Defects Shedding Light on Nanocrystal Defects Print Thursday, 20 June 2013 10:41 Nanocrystals have been the focus of much scientific interest lately,...

  7. New light on human evolution

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    light on human evolution New light on human evolution Scientists recently unearthed 8 million-year-old gorilla fossils from the Chorora Formation in Ethiopia, which indicate the ...

  8. ORGANIC SPECIES IN GEOTHERMAL WATERS IN LIGHT OF FLUID INCLUSION...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    that indicate H2 concentrations > 0.001 mol % typically have ethane > ethylene, propane > propylene, and butane > butylene. There are three end member fluid compositions:...

  9. Stable, High-Efficiency White Electrophosphorescent Organic Light Emitting

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Devices by Reduced Molecular Dissociation | Department of Energy University of Michigan - Ann Arbor - Ann Arbor, MI Partners: -- University of California - City, CA -- Universal Display Corporation - Ewing, NJ DOE Total Funding: $1,314,240 Cost Share: $433,398 Project Term: September 1, 2015 - August 31, 2017 Funding Opportunity: SSL R&D Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) (DE-FOA-0001171) Project Objective This project will focus on new strategies for increasing the lifetime of blue

  10. Lithium Ion Solvation and Diffusion in Bulk Organic Electrolytes...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Lithium Ion Solvation and Diffusion in Bulk Organic Electrolytes from First Principles and Classical Reactive Molecular Dynamics Authors: Ong, M T ; Verners, O ; Draeger, E ...

  11. Sneaky light stop

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eifert, Till; Nachman, Benjamin

    2015-02-20

    A light supersymmetric top quark partner (stop) with a mass nearly degenerate with that of the standard model (SM) top quark can evade direct searches. The precise measurement of SM top properties such as the cross-section has been suggested to give a handle for this ‘stealth stop’ scenario. We present an estimate of the potential impact a light stop may have on top quark mass measurements. The results indicate that certain light stop models may induce a bias of up to a few GeV, and that this effect can hide the shift in, and hence sensitivity from, cross-section measurements. Due to the different initial states, the size of the bias is slightly different between the LHC and the Tevatron. The studies make some simplifying assumptions for the top quark measurement technique, and are based on truth-level samples.

  12. Sneaky light stop

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eifert, Till; Nachman, Benjamin

    2015-04-01

    A light supersymmetric top quark partner (stop) with a mass nearly degenerate with that of the standard model (SM) top quark can evade direct searches. The precise measurement of SM top properties such as the cross-section has been suggested to give a handle for this ‘stealth stop’ scenario. We present an estimate of the potential impact a light stop may have on top quark mass measurements. The results indicate that certain light stop models may induce a bias of up to a few GeV, and that this effect can hide the shift in, and hence sensitivity from, cross-section measurements. Due to the different initial states, the size of the bias is slightly different between the LHC and the Tevatron. The studies make some simplifying assumptions for the top quark measurement technique, and are based on truth-level samples.

  13. Pupillary efficient lighting system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berman, Samuel M.; Jewett, Don L.

    1991-01-01

    A lighting system having at least two independent lighting subsystems each with a different ratio of scotopic illumination to photopic illumination. The radiant energy in the visible region of the spectrum of the lighting subsystems can be adjusted relative to each other so that the total scotopic illumination of the combined system and the total photopic illumination of the combined system can be varied independently. The dilation or contraction of the pupil of an eye is controlled by the level of scotopic illumination and because the scotopic and photopic illumination can be separately controlled, the system allows the pupil size to be varied independently of the level of photopic illumination. Hence, the vision process can be improved for a given level of photopic illumination.

  14. Light emitting ceramic device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Valentine, Paul; Edwards, Doreen D.; Walker, Jr., William John; Slack, Lyle H.; Brown, Wayne Douglas; Osborne, Cathy; Norton, Michael; Begley, Richard

    2010-05-18

    A light-emitting ceramic based panel, hereafter termed "electroceramescent" panel, is herein claimed. The electroceramescent panel is formed on a substrate providing mechanical support as well as serving as the base electrode for the device. One or more semiconductive ceramic layers directly overlay the substrate, and electrical conductivity and ionic diffusion are controlled. Light emitting regions overlay the semiconductive ceramic layers, and said regions consist sequentially of a layer of a ceramic insulation layer and an electroluminescent layer, comprised of doped phosphors or the equivalent. One or more conductive top electrode layers having optically transmissive areas overlay the light emitting regions, and a multi-layered top barrier cover comprising one or more optically transmissive non-combustible insulation layers overlay said top electrode regions.

  15. Light harvesting arrays

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lindsey, Jonathan S.

    2002-01-01

    A light harvesting array useful for the manufacture of devices such as solar cells comprises: (a) a first substrate comprising a first electrode; and (b) a layer of light harvesting rods electrically coupled to the first electrode, each of the light harvesting rods comprising a polymer of Formula I: X.sup.1.paren open-st.X.sup.m+1).sub.m (I) wherein m is at least 1, and may be from two, three or four to 20 or more; X.sup.1 is a charge separation group (and preferably a porphyrinic macrocycle, which may be one ligand of a double-decker sandwich compound) having an excited-state of energy equal to or lower than that of X.sup.2, and X.sup.2 through X.sup.m+1 are chromophores (and again are preferably porphyrinic macrocycles).

  16. Sneaky light stop

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Eifert, Till; Nachman, Benjamin

    2015-02-20

    A light supersymmetric top quark partner (stop) with a mass nearly degenerate with that of the standard model (SM) top quark can evade direct searches. The precise measurement of SM top properties such as the cross-section has been suggested to give a handle for this ‘stealth stop’ scenario. We present an estimate of the potential impact a light stop may have on top quark mass measurements. The results indicate that certain light stop models may induce a bias of up to a few GeV, and that this effect can hide the shift in, and hence sensitivity from, cross-section measurements. Duemore » to the different initial states, the size of the bias is slightly different between the LHC and the Tevatron. The studies make some simplifying assumptions for the top quark measurement technique, and are based on truth-level samples.« less

  17. Probing Organic Transistors with Infrared Beams

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Probing Organic Transistors with Infrared Beams Print Silicon-based transistors are well-understood, basic components of contemporary electronic technology. In contrast, there is growing need for the development of electronic devices based on organic polymer materials. Organic field-effect transistors (FETs) are ideal for special applications that require large areas, light weight, and structural flexibility. They also have the advantage of being easy to mass-produce at very low cost. However,

  18. Probing Organic Transistors with Infrared Beams

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Probing Organic Transistors with Infrared Beams Print Silicon-based transistors are well-understood, basic components of contemporary electronic technology. In contrast, there is growing need for the development of electronic devices based on organic polymer materials. Organic field-effect transistors (FETs) are ideal for special applications that require large areas, light weight, and structural flexibility. They also have the advantage of being easy to mass-produce at very low cost. However,

  19. Probing Organic Transistors with Infrared Beams

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Probing Organic Transistors with Infrared Beams Print Silicon-based transistors are well-understood, basic components of contemporary electronic technology. In contrast, there is growing need for the development of electronic devices based on organic polymer materials. Organic field-effect transistors (FETs) are ideal for special applications that require large areas, light weight, and structural flexibility. They also have the advantage of being easy to mass-produce at very low cost. However,

  20. Radioluminescent lighting technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    The glow-in-the-dark stereotype that characterizes the popular image of nuclear materials is not accidental. When the French scientist, Henri Becquerel, first discovered radioactivity in 1896, he was interested in luminescence. Radioluminescence, the production of light from a mixture of energetic and passive materials, is probably the oldest practical application of the unstable nucleus. Tritium-based radioluminescent lighting, in spite of the biologically favorable character of the gaseous tritium isotope, was included in the general tightening of environmental and safety regulations. Tritium light manufacturers would have to meet two fundamental conditions: (1) The benefit clearly outweighed the risk, to the extent that even the perceived risk of a skeptical public would be overcome. (2) The need was significant enough that the customer/user would be willing and able to afford the cost of regulation that was imposed both in the manufacture, use and eventual disposal of nuclear materials. In 1981, researchers at Oak Ridge National Laboratory were investigating larger radioluminescent applications using byproduct nuclear material such as krypton-85, as well as tritium. By 1982, it appeared that large source, (100 Curies or more) tritium gas tube, lights might be useful for marking runways and drop zones for military operations and perhaps even special civilian aviation applications. The successful development of this idea depended on making the light bright enough and demonstrating that large gas tube sources could be used and maintained safely in the environment. This successful DOE program is now in the process of being completed and closed-out. Working closely with the tritium light industry, State governments and other Federal agencies, the basic program goals have been achieved. This is a detailed report of what they have learned, proven, and discovered. 91 refs., 29 figs., 5 tabs. (JF)

  1. Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program | Department...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Nuclear Reactor Technologies Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) ...

  2. CONNECTED LIGHTING SYSTEMS RESOURCES | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    CONNECTED LIGHTING SYSTEMS RESOURCES CONNECTED LIGHTING SYSTEMS RESOURCES The following resources provide information about outdoor lighting control systems. 2014 Presentation:...

  3. Advanced Light Extraction Material for OLED Lighting | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Light Extraction Material for OLED Lighting Advanced Light Extraction Material for OLED Lighting Lead Performer: Pixelligent Technologies LLC - Baltimore, MD Partners: OLEDWorks LLC DOE Total Funding: $1,000,000 Project Term: April 6, 2015 - April 5, 2017 Funding Opportunity: FY2015 Phase II Release 1 SBIR Awards PROJECT OBJECTIVE The primary goal of this Phase II project is to develop a viable commercial process to manufacture an internal light extraction (ILE) layer to be supplied to OLED

  4. Lighting the Way with Compact Fluorescent Lighting | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Lighting the Way with Compact Fluorescent Lighting Lighting the Way with Compact Fluorescent Lighting April 28, 2009 - 5:00am Addthis John Lippert There is a major push today to get homeowners to adopt compact fluorescent lamp (CFL) light bulbs. They have been on the market for nearly three decades, and many homeowners still do not use them widely. But the tide is definitely turning. Their availability and the percentage of homeowners familiar with the technology and purchasing them for their

  5. Demonstration Assessment of Light-Emitting Diode Parking Structure Lighting

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    at U.S. Department of Labor Headquarters (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Demonstration Assessment of Light-Emitting Diode Parking Structure Lighting at U.S. Department of Labor Headquarters Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Demonstration Assessment of Light-Emitting Diode Parking Structure Lighting at U.S. Department of Labor Headquarters This report documents a solid-state lighting (SSL) technology demonstration at the parking structure of the U.S. Department of Labor (DOL)

  6. New Directions in X-Ray Light Sources

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Falcone, Roger

    2010-01-08

    July 15, 2008 Berkeley Lab lecture: Molecular movies of chemical reactions and material phase transformations need a strobe of x-rays, the penetrating light that reveals how atoms and molecules assemble in chemical and biological systems and complex materials. Roger Falcone, Director of the Advanced Light Source,will discuss a new generation of x ray sources that will enable a new science of atomic dynamics on ultrafast timescales.

  7. Connected Lighting Systems Workshop | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Lighting Systems Workshop Connected Lighting Systems Workshop 2016 Connected Lighting Systems Workshop Agenda.pdf (373.88 KB) More Documents & Publications Connected Lighting ...

  8. Demonstration Assessment of LED Roadway Lighting: Philadelphia...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    LED Roadway Lighting: Philadelphia, PA Royer, Michael P.; Tuenge, Jason R.; Poplawski, Michael E. Roadway Lighting; Solid-state lighting; LED lighting; SSL; LED; GATEWAY Roadway...

  9. Lighting Principles and Terms | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Principles and Terms Lighting Principles and Terms Light quantity, energy consumption, and light quality are the basic principles of lighting. | Photo courtesy of

  10. Light Duty Efficient, Clean Combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Donald Stanton

    2010-12-31

    aftertreatment engine; (5) Emissions and efficiency targets were reached with the use of biodiesel. A variety of biofuel feedstocks (soy, rapeseed, etc.) was investigated; (6) The advanced LDECC engine with low temperature combustion was compatible with commercially available biofuels as evaluated by engine performance testing and not durability testing; (7) The advanced LDECC engine equipped with a novel SCR aftertreatment system is the engine system architecture that is being further developed by the Cummins product development organization. Cost reduction and system robustness activities have been identified for future deployment; (8) The new engine and aftertreatment component technologies are being developed by the Cummins Component Business units (e.g. fuel system, turbomachinery, aftertreatment, electronics, etc.) to ensure commercial viability and deployment; (9) Cummins has demonstrated that the technologies developed for this program are scalable across the complete light duty engine product offerings (2.8L to 6.7L engines); and (10) Key subsystems developed include - sequential two stage turbo, combustions system for low temperature combustion, novel SCR aftertreatment system with feedback control, and high pressure common rail fuel system. An important element of the success of this project was leveraging Cummins engine component technologies. Innovation in component technology coupled with system integration is enabling Cummins to move forward with the development of high efficiency clean diesel products with a long term goal of reaching a 40% improvement in thermal efficiency for the engine plus aftertreatment system. The 40% improvement is in-line with the current light duty vehicle efficiency targets set by the 2010 DoE Vehicle Technologies MYPP and supported through co-operative projects such as the Cummins Advanced Technology Powertrains for Light-Duty Vehicles (ATP-LD) started in 2010.

  11. Solid State Lighting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hastbacka, Mildred; Dieckmann, John; Bouza, Antonio

    2013-03-30

    The article discusses solid state lighting technologies. This topic was covered in two previous ASHRAE Journal columns (2010). This article covers advancements in technologies and the associated efficacies. The life-cycle, energy savings and market potential of these technologies are addressed as well.

  12. Light water reactor program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Franks, S.M.

    1994-12-31

    The US Department of Energy`s Light Water Reactor Program is outlined. The scope of the program consists of: design certification of evolutionary plants; design, development, and design certification of simplified passive plants; first-of-a-kind engineering to achieve commercial standardization; plant lifetime improvement; and advanced reactor severe accident program. These program activities of the Office of Nuclear Energy are discussed.

  13. Second user workshop on high-power lasers at the Linac Coherent Light Source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heimann, Phil; Glenzer, Siegfried

    2015-05-28

    The second international workshop on the physics enabled by the unique combination of high-power lasers with the world-class Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) free-electron X-ray laser beam was held in Stanford, CA, on October 7–8, 2014. The workshop was co-organized by UC Berkeley, Lawrence Berkeley, Lawrence Livermore, and SLAC National Accelerator Laboratories. More than 120 scientists, including 40 students and postdoctoral scientists who are working in high-intensity laser-matter interactions, fusion research, and dynamic high-pressure science came together from North America, Europe, and Asia. The focus of the second workshop was on scientific highlights and the lessons learned from 16 new experiments that were performed on the Matter in Extreme Conditions (MEC) instrument since the first workshop was held one year ago.

  14. Second user workshop on high-power lasers at the Linac Coherent Light Source

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Heimann, Phil; Glenzer, Siegfried

    2015-05-28

    The second international workshop on the physics enabled by the unique combination of high-power lasers with the world-class Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) free-electron X-ray laser beam was held in Stanford, CA, on October 7–8, 2014. The workshop was co-organized by UC Berkeley, Lawrence Berkeley, Lawrence Livermore, and SLAC National Accelerator Laboratories. More than 120 scientists, including 40 students and postdoctoral scientists who are working in high-intensity laser-matter interactions, fusion research, and dynamic high-pressure science came together from North America, Europe, and Asia. The focus of the second workshop was on scientific highlights and the lessons learned from 16 newmore » experiments that were performed on the Matter in Extreme Conditions (MEC) instrument since the first workshop was held one year ago.« less

  15. Fluorescent Lighting | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Electricity & Fuel » Lighting » Fluorescent Lighting Fluorescent Lighting Fluorescent Lighting Fluorescent lamps use 25%-35% of the energy used by incandescent products to provide a similar amount of light. They also last about 10 times longer (7,000-24,000 hours). The two general types of fluorescent lamps are: Compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs) -- commonly found with integral ballasts and screw bases, these are popular lamps often used in household fixtures Fluorescent tube and circline

  16. Organization | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    About Us Organization Organization Organization Download Printable PDF PDF icon Organization Chart - Dated: 07122015 Key Resources PMCDP EVMS PARS IIe FPD Resource Center PM ...

  17. Method and system for reducing device performance degradation of organic devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Teague, Lucile C.

    2014-09-02

    Methods and systems for reducing the deleterious effects of gate bias stress on the drain current of an organic device, such as an organic thin film transistor, are provided. In a particular aspect, the organic layer of an organic device is illuminated with light having characteristics selected to reduce the gate bias voltage effects on the drain current of the organic device. For instance, the wavelength and intensity of the light are selected to provide a desired recovery of drain current of the organic device. If the characteristics of the light are appropriately matched to the organic device, recovery of the deleterious effects caused by gate bias voltage stress effects on the drain current of the organic device can be achieved. In a particular aspect, the organic device is selectively illuminated with light to operate the organic device in multiple modes of operation.

  18. Fusion pumped light source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pappas, Daniel S.

    1989-01-01

    Apparatus is provided for generating energy in the form of light radiation. A fusion reactor is provided for generating a long, or continuous, pulse of high-energy neutrons. The neutron flux is coupled directly with the lasing medium. The lasing medium includes a first component selected from Group O of the periodic table of the elements and having a high inelastic scattering cross section. Gamma radiation from the inelastic scattering reactions interacts with the first component to excite the first component, which decays by photon emission at a first output wavelength. The first output wavelength may be shifted to a second output wavelength using a second liquid component responsive to the first output wavelength. The light outputs may be converted to a coherent laser output by incorporating conventional optics adjacent the laser medium.

  19. Scattering Of Light Nuclei

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Quaglioni, S; Navratil, P; Roth, R

    2009-12-15

    The exact treatment of nuclei starting from the constituent nucleons and the fundamental interactions among them has been a long-standing goal in nuclear physics. Above all nuclear scattering and reactions, which require the solution of the many-body quantum-mechanical problem in the continuum, represent an extraordinary theoretical as well as computational challenge for ab initio approaches.We present a new ab initio many-body approach which derives from the combination of the ab initio no-core shell model with the resonating-group method [4]. By complementing a microscopic cluster technique with the use of realistic interactions, and a microscopic and consistent description of the nucleon clusters, this approach is capable of describing simultaneously both bound and scattering states in light nuclei. We will discuss applications to neutron and proton scattering on sand light p-shell nuclei using realistic nucleon-nucleon potentials, and outline the progress toward the treatment of more complex reactions.

  20. The Eighth Annual DOE Solid-State Lighting Market Introduction Workshop |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Eighth Annual DOE Solid-State Lighting Market Introduction Workshop The Eighth Annual DOE Solid-State Lighting Market Introduction Workshop More than 200 lighting leaders from across North America gathered in Portland, OR, November 12-14, 2013, for the eighth annual Solid-State Lighting (SSL) Market Introduction Workshop, hosted by DOE. The diverse audience spanned the spectrum: industry, government, efficiency organizations, utilities, municipalities, designers,

  1. Materials processing with light

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Materials processing with light, plasmas and other sources of energy At the ARC various processing technologies are used to create materials, struc- tures, and devices that play an increasingly important role in high value-added manufacturing of computer and communications equipment, physical and chemical sensors, biomedical instruments and treatments, semiconductors, thin films, photovoltaics, electronic components and optical components. For example, making coatings, including paint, chrome,

  2. Lighting Energy Conservation Measures | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Technology Deployment » Efficient Technologies & Products » Lighting Energy Conservation Measures Lighting Energy Conservation Measures Lighting Improvements Lighting technologies are constantly innovating and improving in cost and energy consumption. Lighting upgrades can be simple to install and immediately reduce energy consumption. Lighting Technologies Replace lighting with more efficient lamp types and lower wattages, where cost effective and without compromising light quality for

  3. Reading Municipal Light Department- Commercial Lighting Retrofit Program

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Reading Municipal Light Department (RMLD) offers incentives for non-residential customers to install energy-efficient lighting and sensors in existing facilities. Rebates are limited to $20,000 per...

  4. SSL EVALUATION: OLED Lighting in the Offices of Aurora Lighting...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    EVALUATION: OLED Lighting in the Offices of Aurora Lighting Design, Inc. The first GATEWAY demonstra- tion involving OLEDs is also the first office test site for the use of OLEDs ...

  5. Making fuel from light: Argonne research sheds light on photosynthesis...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Making fuel from light: Argonne research sheds light on photosynthesis and creation of solar fuel By Jo Napolitano * September 1, 2015 Tweet EmailPrint Refined by nature over a ...

  6. Luminescent Concentration of Diffuse Light

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lumens and the Lighting Facts Label Lumens and the Lighting Facts Label Energy 101 Lumens: The new way to shop for light lighting_sub.jpg When you're shopping for lightbulbs, compare lumens to be sure you're getting the amount of light, or level of brightness, you want. The Lighting Facts Label will help. This new label will make it easy to compare bulb brightness, color, life, and estimated operating cost for the year. Buy Lumens, Not Watts In the past, we bought lightbulbs based on how much

  7. Light front NJL model at finite temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Strauss, S.; Beyer, M.; Mattiello, S.

    2005-06-14

    We investigate the properties of qq and qq-bar states in hot and dense quark matter in the framework of light-front finite temperature field theory. Presently we consider the Nambu Jona-Lasinio (NJL) model and derive the gap equation at finite temperature and density. We study pionic and scalar diquark dynamics in quark matter and compute the two-body masses and the Mott dissociation using a t-matrix approach. For the scalar diquark we determine the critical temperature of color superconductivity.

  8. Light-front representation of chiral dynamics in peripheral transverse...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The method can be applied to nucleon form factors of other operators, e.g. the energy-momentum tensor. Authors: Granados, Carlos G. 1 ; Weiss, Christian 2 + Show Author ...

  9. Solar lighting | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    only need to place the lights in a sunny location. Others have the lights separate from a solar cell panel. Only the panel needs to be placed in a sunny location. Units vary in...

  10. LED Lighting | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    comparable or better light quality than other types of lighting. Check out the top 8 things you didn't know about LEDs to learn more. Energy Savings LED is a highly energy...

  11. Plasmonic light yield enhancement of a liquid scintillator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bignell, Lindsey J.; Jackson, Timothy W.; Mume, Eskender; Center of Excellence in Anti-matter Matter Studies, Research School of Physics and Engineering, The Australian National University, Canberra ; Lee, George P.

    2013-05-27

    We demonstrate modifications to the light yield properties of an organic liquid scintillator due to the localization of the tertiary fluorophore component to the surface of Ag-core silica-shell nanoparticles. We attribute this enhancement to the near-field interaction of Ag nanoparticle plasmons with these fluor molecules. The scintillation light yield enhancement is shown to be equal to the fluorescence enhancement within measurement uncertainties. With a suitable choice of plasmon energy and scintillation fluor, this effect may be used to engineer scintillators with enhanced light yields for radiation detection applications.

  12. Use of a fiber optic probe for organic species determination

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ekechukwu, Amy A.

    1996-01-01

    A fiber optic probe for remotely detecting the presence and concentration organic species in aqueous solutions. The probe includes a cylindrical housing with an organic species indicator, preferably diaminonaphthyl sulfonic acid adsorbed in a silica gel (DANS-modified gel), contained in the probe's distal end. The probe admits aqueous solutions to the probe interior for mixing within the DANS-modified gel. An optical fiber transmits light through the DANS-modified gel while the indicator reacts with organic species present in the solution, thereby shifting the location of the fluorescent peak. The altered light is reflected to a receiving fiber that carries the light to a spectrophotometer or other analysis device.

  13. Photodetector with enhanced light absorption

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kane, James

    1985-01-01

    A photodetector including a light transmissive electrically conducting layer having a textured surface with a semiconductor body thereon. This layer traps incident light thereby enhancing the absorption of light by the semiconductor body. A photodetector comprising a textured light transmissive electrically conducting layer of SnO.sub.2 and a body of hydrogenated amorphous silicon has a conversion efficiency about fifty percent greater than that of comparative cells. The invention also includes a method of fabricating the photodetector of the invention.

  14. Organic materials with nonlinear optical properties

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stupp, Samuel I.; Son, Sehwan; Lin, Hong-Cheu

    1995-01-01

    The present invention is directed to organic materials that have the ability to double or triple the frequency of light that is directed through the materials. Particularly, the present invention is directed to the compound 4-[4-(2R)-2-cyano-7-(4'-pentyloxy-4-biphenylcarbonyloxy)phenylheptylidene) phenylcarbonyloxy]benzaldehyde, which can double the frequency of light that is directed through the compound. The invention is also directed to the compound (12-hydroxy-5,7-dodecadiynyl) 4'-[(4'-pentyloxy-4-biphenyl)carbonyloxy]-4-biphenylcarboxylate, and its polymeric form. The polymeric form can triple the frequency of light directed through it.

  15. Organic materials with nonlinear optical properties

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stupp, S.I.; Son, S.; Lin, H.C.

    1995-05-02

    The present invention is directed to organic materials that have the ability to double or triple the frequency of light that is directed through the materials. Particularly, the present invention is directed to the compound 4-[4-(2R)-2-cyano-7-(4{prime}-pentyloxy-4-biphenylcarbonyloxy)phenylheptylidenephenylcarbonyloxy]benzaldehyde, which can double the frequency of light that is directed through the compound. The invention is also directed to the compound (12-hydroxy-5,7-dodecadiynyl)-4{prime}-[(4{prime}-pentyloxy-4-biphenyl)carbonyloxy]-4-biphenylcarboxylate, and its polymeric form. The polymeric form can triple the frequency of light directed through it. 4 figs.

  16. Assessment of boreal forest historical C dynamics in Yukon River...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    this study we applied a large-scale ecosystem model that included dynamics of organic soil horizons and soil organic matter characteristics of multiple pools to assess forest C...

  17. Coherent white light amplification

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jovanovic, Igor; Barty, Christopher P.

    2004-05-25

    A system for coherent simultaneous amplification of a broad spectral range of light that includes an optical parametric amplifier and a source of a seed pulse is described. A first angular dispersive element is operatively connected to the source of a seed pulse. A first imaging telescope is operatively connected to the first angular dispersive element and operatively connected to the optical parametric amplifier. A source of a pump pulse is operatively connected to the optical parametric amplifier. A second imaging telescope is operatively connected to the optical parametric amplifier and a second angular dispersive element is operatively connected to the second imaging telescope.

  18. Pedestrian Friendly Outdoor Lighting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, Naomi J.; Koltai, Rita; McGowan, Terry

    2013-12-31

    This GATEWAY report discusses the problems of pedestrian lighting that occur with all technologies with a focus on the unique optical options and opportunities offered by LEDs through the findings from two pedestrian-focused projects, one at Stanford University in California, and one at the Chautauqua Institution in upstate New York. Incorporating user feedback this report reviews the tradeoffs that must be weighed among visual comfort, color, visibility, efficacy and other factors to stimulate discussion among specifiers, users, energy specialists, and in industry in hopes that new approaches, metrics, and standards can be developed to support pedestrian-focused communities, while reducing energy use.

  19. MaRIE: Probing Dynamic Processes in Soft Materials Using Advanced...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: MaRIE: Probing Dynamic Processes in Soft Materials Using Advanced Light Sources Los ... Authors: Sykora, Milan 1 ; Kober, Edward Martin 1 + Show Author Affiliations Los ...

  20. Organic Matter Management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Izaurralde, Roberto C.; Cerri, Carlos C.

    2002-01-01

    Soil organic matter (S)M) is an essential attribute of soil quality with a key role in soil conservation and sustainable agriculture. Many practices-some involving land use changes-have been shown to increase SOM and thus received considerable attention for their possible role in climate change mitigation. Carbon sequestration in managed soils occurs when there is a net removal of atmospheric CO2 because of the balance between carbon inputs (net primary productivity) and outputs (soil respiration, management-related C emissions). Soil C sequestration has the additional appeal that all its practices conform to principles of sustainable agriculture (e.g., reduced tillage, erosion control, diverse cropping systems, improved soil fertility). Long-term field experiments have been instrumental to increase our understanding of SOM dynamics. This chapter presents fundamental concepts to guide readers on the role of SOM in sustainable agriculture and climate change mitigation.

  1. Light-front holographic QCD and emerging confinement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brodsky, Stanley J.; de Téramond, Guy F.; Dosch, Hans Günter; Erlich, Joshua

    2015-05-21

    In this study we explore the remarkable connections between light-front dynamics, its holographic mapping to gravity in a higher-dimensional anti-de Sitter (AdS) space, and conformal quantum mechanics. This approach provides new insights into the origin of a fundamental mass scale and the physics underlying confinement dynamics in QCD in the limit of massless quarks. The result is a relativistic light-front wave equation for arbitrary spin with an effective confinement potential derived from a conformal action and its embedding in AdS space. This equation allows for the computation of essential features of hadron spectra in terms of a single scale. The light-front holographic methods described here give a precise interpretation of holographic variables and quantities in AdS space in terms of light-front variables and quantum numbers. This leads to a relation between the AdS wave functions and the boost-invariant light-front wave functions describing the internal structure of hadronic bound-states in physical spacetime. The pion is massless in the chiral limit and the excitation spectra of relativistic light-quark meson and baryon bound states lie on linear Regge trajectories with identical slopes in the radial and orbital quantum numbers. In the light-front holographic approach described here currents are expressed as an infinite sum of poles, and form factors as a product of poles. At large q2 the form factor incorporates the correct power-law fall-off for hard scattering independent of the specific dynamics and is dictated by the twist. At low q2 the form factor leads to vector dominance. The approach is also extended to include small quark masses. We briefly review in this report other holographic approaches to QCD, in particular top-down and bottom-up models based on chiral symmetry breaking. We also include a discussion of open problems and future applications.

  2. Organic Photovoltaics Experiments Showcase 'Superfacility' Concept

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Organic Photovoltaics Experiments Showcase 'Superfacility' Concept Organic Photovoltaics Experiments Showcase 'Superfacility' Concept Collaboration Key to Enabling On-The-Fly HPC Data Analysis at Multiple Sites March 17, 2015 Contact: Kathy Kincade, +1 510 495 2124, kkincade@lbl.gov A collaborative effort linking the Advanced Light Source (ALS) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) with supercomputing resources at the National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC)

  3. Organization Chart - Home

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    LSD Logo About Us People & Organization Research News & Events Safety Internal Resources Organization Chart Departments Scientific Staff Directory Committees Organization Chart...

  4. Light modulating device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rauh, R. David; Goldner, Ronald B.

    1989-01-01

    In a device for transmitting light, means for controlling the transmissivity of the device, including a ceramic, reversibly electrochromic, crystalline element having a highly reflective state when injected with electrons and charge compensating ions and a highly transmissive state when the electrons and ions are removed, the crystalline element being characterized as having a reflectivity of at least 50% in the reflective state and not greater than 10% in the transmissive state, and means for modulating the crystalline element between the reflective and transmissive states by injecting ions into the crystalline element in response to an applied electrical current of a first polarity and removing the ions in response to an applied electrical current of a second polarity.

  5. Directed light fabrication

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lewis, G.K.; Nemec, R.; Milewski, J.; Thoma, D.J.; Cremers, D.; Barbe, M.

    1994-09-01

    Directed Light Fabrication (DLF) is a rapid prototyping process being developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory to fabricate metal components. This is done by fusing gas delivered metal powder particles in the focal zone of a laser beam that is, programmed to move along or across the part cross section. Fully dense metal is built up a layer at a time to form the desired part represented by a 3 dimensional solid model from CAD software. Machine ``tool paths`` are created from the solid model that command the movement and processing parameters specific to the DLF process so that the part can be built one layer at a time. The result is a fully dense, near net shape metal part that solidifies under rapid solidification conditions.

  6. Light modulating device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rauh, R.D.; Goldner, R.B.

    1989-12-26

    In a device for transmitting light, means for controlling the transmissivity of the device, including a ceramic, reversibly electrochromic, crystalline element having a highly reflective state when injected with electrons and charge compensating ions and a highly transmissive state when the electrons and ions are removed, the crystalline element being characterized as having a reflectivity of at least 50% in the reflective state and not greater than 10% in the transmissive state, and means for modulating the crystalline element between the reflective and transmissive states by injecting ions into the crystalline element in response to an applied electrical current of a first polarity and removing the ions in response to an applied electrical current of a second polarity are disclosed. 1 fig.

  7. Controlling X-rays With Light

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glover, Ernie; Hertlein, Marcus; Southworth, Steve; Allison, Tom; van Tilborg, Jeroen; Kanter, Elliot; Krassig, B.; Varma, H.; Rude, Bruce; Santra, Robin; Belkacem, Ali; Young, Linda

    2010-08-02

    Ultrafast x-ray science is an exciting frontier that promises the visualization of electronic, atomic and molecular dynamics on atomic time and length scales. A largelyunexplored area of ultrafast x-ray science is the use of light to control how x-rays interact with matter. In order to extend control concepts established for long wavelengthprobes to the x-ray regime, the optical control field must drive a coherent electronic response on a timescale comparable to femtosecond core-hole lifetimes. An intense field is required to achieve this rapid response. Here an intense optical control pulse isobserved to efficiently modulate photoelectric absorption for x-rays and to create an ultrafast transparency window. We demonstrate an application of x-ray transparencyrelevant to ultrafast x-ray sources: an all-photonic temporal cross-correlation measurement of a femtosecond x-ray pulse. The ability to control x-ray/matterinteractions with light will create new opportunities at current and next-generation x-ray light sources.

  8. Light-cone quantization and hadron structure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brodsky, S.J.

    1996-04-01

    Quantum chromodynamics provides a fundamental description of hadronic and nuclear structure and dynamics in terms of elementary quark and gluon degrees of freedom. In practice, the direct application of QCD to reactions involving the structure of hadrons is extremely complex because of the interplay of nonperturbative effects such as color confinement and multi-quark coherence. In this talk, the author will discuss light-cone quantization and the light-cone Fock expansion as a tractable and consistent representation of relativistic many-body systems and bound states in quantum field theory. The Fock state representation in QCD includes all quantum fluctuations of the hadron wavefunction, including fax off-shell configurations such as intrinsic strangeness and charm and, in the case of nuclei, hidden color. The Fock state components of the hadron with small transverse size, which dominate hard exclusive reactions, have small color dipole moments and thus diminished hadronic interactions. Thus QCD predicts minimal absorptive corrections, i.e., color transparency for quasi-elastic exclusive reactions in nuclear targets at large momentum transfer. In other applications, such as the calculation of the axial, magnetic, and quadrupole moments of light nuclei, the QCD relativistic Fock state description provides new insights which go well beyond the usual assumptions of traditional hadronic and nuclear physics.

  9. Philips Lumileds Lighting Co | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    of high-power LEDs and solid-state lighting solutions for automotive lighting, computer displays, LCD televisions, signs and signaling and architectural lighting....

  10. Universal Lighting Technologies | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Lighting Technologies Jump to: navigation, search Name: Universal Lighting Technologies Place: Nashville, Tennessee Zip: 37214-3683 Product: Universal Lighting Technologies...

  11. Lighting Control Types | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Lighting Control Types Lighting Control Types Characteristics of the most common lighting controls for offices and other public buildings are outlined below. Also provided is a ...

  12. Detroit Public Lighting Department - Commercial and Industrial...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    PublicLightingEnergyWis... Expiration Date 11302012 State Michigan Program Type Rebate Program Rebate Amount Light Fixtures: 2-130 Lighting Controls: 0.10-65...

  13. How Do You Light Your Home Efficiently?

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    An average household dedicates 11% of its energy budget to lighting. Installing efficient lighting technologies, using task lighting, flipping the switch, and taking advantage of natural daylight...

  14. OLED Lighting Products Webinar Presentation Slides | Department...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    OLED Lighting Products Webinar Presentation Slides OLED Lighting Products Webinar Presentation Slides OLED-Lighting-Products-Webinar7-28-16.pdf (2.23 MB) More Documents & ...

  15. Emerging Lighting Technology | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Emerging Lighting Technology Emerging Lighting Technology Presentation covers emergying light technologies and is given at the Spring 2011 Federal Utility Partnership Working Group ...

  16. Lighting Principles and Terms | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Light quantity, energy consumption, and light quality are the basic principles of lighting. | Photo courtesy of

  17. Advanced Lighting Systems | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Minnesota Zip: 56378 Product: Advanced Lighting Systems (ALS) provides a number of LED and fiber optic lighting solutions. It was acquired by Nexxus Lighting in September...

  18. Silescent Lighting Corp | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Lighting Corp Place: Fort Lauderdale, Florida Zip: 33315 Product: Florida-based LED lighting fixtures maker. References: Silescent Lighting Corp1 This article is a stub....

  19. Hull Municipal Light Plant | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Hull Municipal Light Plant Jump to: navigation, search Logo: Hull Municipal Light Plant Name: Hull Municipal Light Plant Place: Massachusetts Phone Number: 781-925-0051 Website:...

  20. Light at Night and Human Health

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-01-01

    Solid-state lighting program technology fact sheet that discusses potential health implications of light at night (LAN) exposure and how it may affect lighting practice and design.

  1. Light-cone quantization and QCD phenomenology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brodsky, S.J.; Robertson, D.G.

    1995-12-31

    In principle, quantum chromodynamics provides a fundamental description of hadronic and nuclear structure and dynamics in terms of their elementary quark and gluon degrees of freedom. In practice, the direct application of QCD to reactions involving the structure of hadrons is extremely complex because of the interplay of nonperturbative effects such as color confinement and multi-quark coherence. A crucial tool in analyzing such phenomena is the use of relativistic light-cone quantum mechanics and Fock state methods to provide tractable and consistent treatments of relativistic many-body systems. In this article we present an overview of this formalism applied to QCD, focusing in particular on applications to the final states in deep inelastic lepton scattering that will be relevant for the proposed European Laboratory for Electrons (ELFE), HERMES, HERA, SLAC, and CEBAF. We begin with a brief introduction to light-cone field theory, stressing how it many allow the derivation of a constituent picture, analogous to the constituent quark model, from QCD. We then discuss several applications of the light-cone Fock state formalism to QCD phenomenology. The Fock state representation includes all quantum fluctuations of the hadron wavefunction, including far off-shell configurations such as intrinsic charm and, in the case of nuclei, hidden color. In some applications, such as exclusive processes at large momentum transfer, one can make first-principle predictions using factorization theorems which separate the hard perturbative dynamics from the nonpertubative physics associated with hadron binding. The Fock state components of the hadron with small transverse size, which dominate hard exclusive reactions, have small color dipole moments and thus diminished hadronic interactions. Thus QCD predicts minimal absorptive corrections, i.e., color transparency for quasi-elastic exclusive reactions in nuclear targets at large momentum transfer.

  2. New Morphological Paradigm Uncovered in Organic Solar Cells

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    New Morphological Paradigm Uncovered in Organic Solar Cells New Morphological Paradigm Uncovered in Organic Solar Cells Print Wednesday, 27 April 2011 00:00 Organic solar cells are made of light, flexible, renewable materials; they require simple and inexpensive processing steps and could produce an economically competitive and environmentally friendly energy source. Understanding the fundamentals of organic solar cell function is therefore vital to uncovering their maximum potential. Models

  3. Performance of an Organic Rankine Cycle Waste Heat Recovery System...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Performance of an Organic Rankine Cycle Waste Heat Recovery System for Light Duty Diesel Engines Poster presented at the 16th Directions in Engine-Efficiency and Emissions Research ...

  4. Adoption of Light-Emitting Diodes in Common Lighting Applications

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Adoption of Light-Emitting Diodes in Common Lighting Applications Prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy Solid-State Lighting Program July 2015 Prepared by Navigant This page intentionally left blank i | P a g e Disclaimer This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government, nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, nor any of their contractors, subcontractors, or their employees, makes any

  5. Advanced Light Extraction Structure for OLED Lighting | Department of

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Energy Pixelligent Technologies, LLC - Baltimore, MD Partner: OLEDWorks, LLC - Rochester, NY DOE Total Funding: $1,000,000 Cost Share: $250,000 Project Term: September 10, 2014 - August 31, 2016 Funding Opportunity: SSL R&D Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) (DE-FOA-0000973) Project Objective This project will develop a novel internal light extraction (ILE) design to improve the light extraction efficiency of OLED lighting devices to 70% without negatively impacting the device

  6. DOE Science Showcase - Light-emitting Diode (LED) Lighting Research | OSTI,

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    US Dept of Energy Office of Scientific and Technical Information Light-emitting Diode (LED) Lighting Research Light-emitting diode (LED) lighting is a type of solid-state lighting that uses a semiconductor to convert electricity to light. LED lighting products are beginning to appear in a wide variety of home, business, and industrial products such as holiday lighting, replacement bulbs for incandescent lamps, street lighting, outdoor area lighting and indoor ambient lighting. Over the past

  7. Solar optics: light as energy; energy as light

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bennett, D.J.; Eijadi, D.A.

    1980-05-01

    a prominent characteristic of earth-sheltered and underground buildings, as well as buildings designed to accommodate more uses within the same perimeters, is the prominence of interior space without direct access to natural light and view opportunities. Solar Optics, a technique for illuminating interior spaces with natural light, offers a way to satisfy the well-documented human affinity for natural light. The system, which uses a heliostat to track the sun and lenses and mirrors to direct the light to remote interior spaces, is more efficient than converting solar radiation into electricity. Through the use of cold mirrors, it is also possible to separate the infrared portion of the spectrum from visible light, thereby creating a cool light source that can reduce a building's space cooling demand. Solar Optics also offers energy savings by transmitting light through a small aperture, as opposed to a large window. Several design problems must still be addressed. The system will be demonstrated in a new building at the University of Minnesota. Because this is a limited demonstration, it does not include the integration of a natural light system with a central source light system...another promising application of Solar Optics.

  8. LED Lighting Facts/CALiPER Snapshot. Outdoor Ambient Lighting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2013-07-01

    Snapshot reports reveal how today's products really perform, drawing on analysis of verified performance data from the LED Lighting Facts program's online product list.

  9. Radioluminescent lighting for Alaskan runway lighting and marking

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jensen, G.A.; Leonard, L.E.

    1985-03-01

    Alaska and other far northern areas have special logistical, environmental, and economic problems that make radioluminescent (RL) lighting applications, especially in the area of airport lighting, an attractive alternative to electrical systems and flare pots. Tests and demonstrations of prototype systems conducted in Alaska over the past two years have proved the basic technological worth of RL airport lighting systems for civilian and military use. If regulatory issues and other factors identified during these tests can be favorably resolved and if the system and its components can be refined through production engineering, attractive applications for RL airfield lighting systems in Alaska and other remote locations could result.

  10. Liquid-phase and vapor-phase dehydration of organic/water solutions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Huang, Yu; Ly, Jennifer; Aldajani, Tiem; Baker, Richard W.

    2011-08-23

    Processes for dehydrating an organic/water solution by pervaporation or vapor separation using fluorinated membranes. The processes are particularly useful for treating mixtures containing light organic components, such as ethanol, isopropanol or acetic acid.

  11. Structured organic materials and devices using low-energy particle beams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vardeny, Z. Valy; Li, Sergey; Delong, Matthew C.; Jiang, Xiaomei

    2005-09-13

    Organic materials exposed to an electron beam for patterning a substrate (1) to make an optoelectronic organic device which includes a source, a drain, gate dielectric layer (4), and a substrate for emitting light.

  12. Tunable light source for use in photoacoustic spectrometers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bisson, Scott E.; Kulp, Thomas J.; Armstrong, Karla M.

    2005-12-13

    The present invention provides a photoacoustic spectrometer that is field portable and capable of speciating complex organic molecules in the gas phase. The spectrometer has a tunable light source that has the ability to resolve the fine structure of these molecules over a large wavelength range. The inventive light source includes an optical parametric oscillator (OPO) having combined fine and coarse tuning. By pumping the OPO with the output from a doped-fiber optical amplifier pumped by a diode seed laser, the inventive spectrometer is able to speciate mixtures having parts per billion of organic compounds, with a light source that has a high efficiency and small size, allowing for portability. In an alternative embodiment, the spectrometer is scanned by controlling the laser wavelength, thus resulting in an even more compact and efficient design.

  13. Standard Measurement and Verification Plan for Lighting Retrofit Projects for Buildings and Building Sites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richman, Eric E.

    2012-10-31

    This document provides a framework for standard measurement and verification (M&V) of lighting retrofit and replacement projects. It was developed to provide site owners, contractors, and other involved organizations with the essential elements of a robust M&V plan for lighting projects. It includes details on all aspects of effectively measuring light levels of existing and post-retrofit projects, conducting power measurement, and developing cost-effectiveness analysis. This framework M&V plan also enables consistent comparison among similar lighting projects, and may be used to develop M&V plans for non--lighting-technology retrofits and new installations.

  14. Energy Department Invests More Than $10 Million in Efficient Lighting R&D |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy More Than $10 Million in Efficient Lighting R&D Energy Department Invests More Than $10 Million in Efficient Lighting R&D June 13, 2014 - 8:29am Addthis The Energy Department today announced nine research and development projects that will receive funding to support solid-state lighting (SSL) core technology research and product development. The projects will help accelerate the development of high-quality light-emitting diode (LED) and organic light-emitting

  15. Apply: Solid-State Lighting Advanced Technology R&D - 2014

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    (DE-FOA-0000973) | Department of Energy Apply: Solid-State Lighting Advanced Technology R&D - 2014 (DE-FOA-0000973) Apply: Solid-State Lighting Advanced Technology R&D - 2014 (DE-FOA-0000973) December 6, 2013 - 4:27pm Addthis This funding opportunity is closed. Through research and development of solid-state lighting (SSL),including both light-emitting diode (LED) and organic light emitting diode (OLED) technologies, the objectives of this opportunity are to: Maximize the

  16. Highly Active TiO2-Based Visible-Light Photocatalyst with Nonmetal Doping and Plasmonic Metal Decoration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Qiao; Lima, Diana Q.; Chi, Miaofang; Yin, Yadong

    2011-01-01

    A sandwich-structured photocatalyst shows an excellent performance in degradation reactions of a number of organic compounds under UV, visible light, and direct sunlight (see picture). The catalyst was synthesized by a combination of nonmetal doping and plasmonic metal decoration of TiO2 nanocrystals, which improves visible-light activity and enhances light harvesting and charge separation, respectively.

  17. Automatic Mechetronic Wheel Light Device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Khan, Mohammed John Fitzgerald

    2004-09-14

    A wheel lighting device for illuminating a wheel of a vehicle to increase safety and enhance aesthetics. The device produces the appearance of a "ring of light" on a vehicle's wheels as the vehicle moves. The "ring of light" can automatically change in color and/or brightness according to a vehicle's speed, acceleration, jerk, selection of transmission gears, and/or engine speed. The device provides auxiliary indicator lights by producing light in conjunction with a vehicle's turn signals, hazard lights, alarm systems, and etc. The device comprises a combination of mechanical and electronic components and can be placed on the outer or inner surface of a wheel or made integral to a wheel or wheel cover. The device can be configured for all vehicle types, and is electrically powered by a vehicle's electrical system and/or battery.

  18. Photodissociation Dynamics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Photodissociation Dynamics - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Energy Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced

  19. Novel Perspectives from Light-Front QCD, Super-Conformal Algebra, and Light-Front Holography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brodsky, Stanley J.

    2015-12-01

    Light-Front Quantization – Dirac’s “Front Form” – provides a physical, frame-independent formalism for hadron dynamics and structure. Observables such as structure functions, transverse momentum distributions, and distribution amplitudes are defined from the hadronic LFWFs. One obtains new insights into the hadronic mass scale, the hadronic spectrum, and the functional form of the QCD running coupling in the nonperturbative domain using light-front holography. In addition, superconformal algebra leads to remarkable supersymmetric relations between mesons and baryons. I also discuss evidence that the antishadowing of nuclear structure functions is nonuniversal; i.e., flavor dependent, and why shadowing and antishadowing phenomena may be incompatible with the momentum and other sum rules for the nuclear parton distribution functions.

  20. EECBG Success Story: Lighting Retrofit Improving Visibility,...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    New LED lighting fixtures (right) emit a whiter light than existing high-pressure sodium ... New LED lighting fixtures (right) emit a whiter light than existing high-pressure sodium ...

  1. Smart Street Lights | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    LightGrid Provides Real-Time Feedback From Street Lights Click to email this to a friend ... LightGrid Provides Real-Time Feedback From Street Lights You use a GPS to provide ...

  2. What's Next for Solid-State Lighting?

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Photo courtesy of GE Lighting What's Next for Solid-State Lighting? A s we stand on the brink of a lighting revolution spearheaded by light-emitting diode (LED) technology, one ...

  3. Fluorescent Lighting | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    - by far the most common form of fluorescent lighting but rarely found in residential buildings -- are much more energy efficient than incandescent lamps and are ideally suited...

  4. Incandescent Lighting | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    courtesy of iStockphotoTokenPhoto. Incandescent lamps are often considered the least energy efficient type of electric lighting commonly found in residential buildings....

  5. Common Industrial Lighting Upgrade Technologies

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    The current causes mercury atoms to ionize generating ultraviolet photons otherwise known as ultraviolet light invisible to the human eye. These photons react with a phosphor ...

  6. Solid-State Lighting Webcasts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2011-12-16

    Links to past webcast presentations related to solid-state lighting, including presentation slides and question-and-answer sessions, where available.

  7. LED Lighting Facts®

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... and NGL * Constantly changing based on feedback and input from stakeholders - Data ... the program value - 684 manufacturers, 360 retailersdistributors, 300 lighting ...

  8. Linac Coherent Light Source Overview

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2013-05-29

    Take an animated tour of the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS). Follow the laser pulse from the injector gun all the way through to the Far Experimental Hall.

  9. Presentation: Synchrotron Radiation Light Sources

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A briefing to the Secretary's Energy Advisory Board on Synchrotron Radiation Light Sources delivered by Patricia Dehmer, U.S. Department of Energy

  10. Shedding Light on Nanocrystal Defects

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Shedding Light on Nanocrystal Defects Print Nanocrystals have been the focus of much scientific interest lately, given their various advantageous mechanical properties. Their...

  11. Connected Lighting Systems Workshop Registration

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The registration fee for the 2016 DOE Connected Lighting Systems Workshop includes admission to all sessions, networking breakfasts and lunches, and an evening networking reception.

  12. Linac Coherent Light Source Overview

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Take an animated tour of the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS). Follow the laser pulse from the injector gun all the way through to the Far Experimental Hall.

  13. Energy Savings Activities-Lighting

    K-12 Energy Lesson Plans and Activities Web site (EERE)

    Students use the scientific method to examine school lighting technologies and determine if there are opportunities to save energy and money.

  14. Northeast Energy Efficiency Partnerships: Advanced Lighting Controls...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Northeast Energy Efficiency Partnerships: Advanced Lighting Controls Northeast Energy Efficiency Partnerships: Advanced Lighting Controls Credit: Northeast Energy Efficiency...

  15. Why Lighting Systems Need to Evolve

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Lighting Systems Need to Evolve DOE Connected Lighting Systems Meeting November 16, 2015 Lighting Controls - A Lost Opportunity 1 18% 16% 7% 2% 4% 4% Light scheduling Occupancy sensors Multi-level lighting or dimming Daylight harvesting Demand responsive lighting Building automation system (BAS) for lighting2 Percent of Buildings with Control Strategy Source: 2012 Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey, US Energy Information Administration Lighting Controls - A Lost Opportunity 2 Source:

  16. LED Lighting: Just the Facts, Please!

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Now there's another arsenal in the toolbox to help consumers find LED lights they can trust: the Lighting Facts™ label.

  17. Have You Used LED Light Strings?

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This week, you read about LED holiday light strings, which can use 90% less energy than regular incandescent light strings.

  18. Influence of Solvent-Like Sidechains on the Adsorption of Light...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Influence of Solvent-Like Sidechains on the Adsorption of Light Hydrocarbons in Metal-Organic ... Here, we present a new approach in which the pores of a framework are lined with four ...

  19. Low-Cost Light-Emitting Diode Luminaire for General Illumination...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    organic light-emitting diode (WOLED) using a single emitter on a planar glass substrate. ... A single-doped WOLED that addresses manufacturing and performance issues can help meet the ...

  20. Development of a Waste Heat Recovery System for Light Duty Diesel...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Performance of an Organic Rankine Cycle Waste Heat Recovery System for Light Duty Diesel Engines A Quantum Leap for Heavy-Duty Truck Engine Efficiency - Hybrid Power System of ...

  1. Scattering Dynamics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Scattering Dynamics - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Energy Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced Nuclear

  2. The Linac Coherent Light Source

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    White, William E.; Robert, Aymeric; Dunne, Mike

    2015-05-01

    The Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory was the first hard X-ray free-electron laser (FEL) to operate as a user facility. After five years of operation, LCLS is now a mature FEL user facility. Our personal views about opportunities and challenges inherent to these unique light sources are discussed.

  3. Installing a Light Source 'Racetrack'

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This month, workers at Brookhaven National Laboratory’s National Synchrotron Light Source II (NSLS-II), the half-mile electron racetrack for one of the world’s most advanced light sources, will begin filling the facility’s steel and concrete shell.

  4. DOE Technical Targets for Onboard Hydrogen Storage for Light-Duty Vehicles

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    | Department of Energy Onboard Hydrogen Storage for Light-Duty Vehicles DOE Technical Targets for Onboard Hydrogen Storage for Light-Duty Vehicles This table summarizes technical performance targets for hydrogen storage systems onboard light-duty vehicles. These targets were established through the U.S. DRIVE Partnership, a partnership between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the U.S. Council for Automotive Research (USCAR), energy companies, and utility companies and organizations. View

  5. The Fifth Annual DOE Solid-State Lighting Market Introduction Workshop |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Market Introduction Workshop The Fifth Annual DOE Solid-State Lighting Market Introduction Workshop More than 300 lighting leaders from across the continent gathered in Philadelphia July 20-22, 2010, for the fifth annual Solid-State Lighting (SSL) Market Introduction Workshop, hosted by DOE. The audience was diverse, spanning the spectrum from industry, to government, to efficiency organizations, to utilities, to municipalities, to designers and specifiers, to retailers

  6. The Sixth Annual DOE Solid-State Lighting Market Introduction Workshop |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Market Introduction Workshop The Sixth Annual DOE Solid-State Lighting Market Introduction Workshop Photo of a room full of people seated at tables, at a conference. More than 275 lighting leaders from across North America gathered in Seattle July 12-14, 2011, for the sixth annual Solid-State Lighting (SSL) Market Introduction Workshop, hosted by DOE. The diverse audience spanned the spectrum from industry, to government, to efficiency organizations, to utilities, to

  7. Light beam frequency comb generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Priatko, G.J.; Kaskey, J.A.

    1992-11-24

    A light beam frequency comb generator uses an acousto-optic modulator to generate a plurality of light beams with frequencies which are uniformly separated and possess common noise and drift characteristics. A well collimated monochromatic input light beam is passed through this modulator to produce a set of both frequency shifted and unshifted optical beams. An optical system directs one or more frequency shifted beams along a path which is parallel to the path of the input light beam such that the frequency shifted beams are made incident on the modulator proximate to but separated from the point of incidence of the input light beam. After the beam is thus returned to and passed through the modulator repeatedly, a plurality of mutually parallel beams are generated which are frequency-shifted different numbers of times and possess common noise and drift characteristics. 2 figs.

  8. Light beam frequency comb generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Priatko, Gordon J.; Kaskey, Jeffrey A.

    1992-01-01

    A light beam frequency comb generator uses an acousto-optic modulator to generate a plurality of light beams with frequencies which are uniformly separated and possess common noise and drift characteristics. A well collimated monochromatic input light beam is passed through this modulator to produce a set of both frequency shifted and unshifted optical beams. An optical system directs one or more frequency shifted beams along a path which is parallel to the path of the input light beam such that the frequency shifted beams are made incident on the modulator proximate to but separated from the point of incidence of the input light beam. After the beam is thus returned to and passed through the modulator repeatedly, a plurality of mutually parallel beams are generated which are frequency-shifted different numbers of times and possess common noise and drift characteristics.

  9. Ordered organic-organic multilayer growth

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Forrest, Stephen R; Lunt, Richard R

    2015-01-13

    An ordered multilayer crystalline organic thin film structure is formed by depositing at least two layers of thin film crystalline organic materials successively wherein the at least two thin film layers are selected to have their surface energies within .+-.50% of each other, and preferably within .+-.15% of each other, whereby every thin film layer within the multilayer crystalline organic thin film structure exhibit a quasi-epitaxial relationship with the adjacent crystalline organic thin film.

  10. Ordered organic-organic multilayer growth

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Forrest, Stephen R.; Lunt, Richard R.

    2016-04-05

    An ordered multilayer crystalline organic thin film structure is formed by depositing at least two layers of thin film crystalline organic materials successively wherein the at least two thin film layers are selected to have their surface energies within .+-.50% of each other, and preferably within .+-.15% of each other, whereby every thin film layer within the multilayer crystalline organic thin film structure exhibit a quasi-epitaxial relationship with the adjacent crystalline organic thin film.

  11. Supersymmetry across the light and heavy-light hadronic spectrum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dosch, Hans Gunter; de Teramond, Guy F.; Brodsky, Stanley J.

    2015-10-07

    Relativistic light-front bound-state equations for mesons and baryons can be constructed in the chiral limit from the supercharges of a superconformal algebra which connect baryon and meson spectra. Quark masses break the conformal invariance, but the basic underlying supersymmetric mechanism, which transforms meson and baryon wave functions into each other, still holds and gives remarkable connections across the entire spectrum of light and heavy-light hadrons. As a result, we also briefly examine the consequences of extending the supersymmetric relations to double-heavy mesons and baryons.

  12. Light water detritiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fedorchenko, O.A.; Aleksee, I.A.; Bondarenko, S.D.; Vasyanina, T.V.

    2015-03-15

    Hundreds of thousands of tons of tritiated light water have been accumulating from the enterprises of nuclear fuel cycles around the world. The Dual-Temperature Water-Hydrogen (DTWH) process looks like the only practical alternative to Combined Electrolysis and Catalytic Exchange (CECE). In DTWH power-consuming lower reflux device (electrolytic cell) is replaced by a so-called 'hot tower' (LPCE column operating at conditions which ensure relatively small value of elementary separation factor α(hot)). In the upper, cold tower, the tritium transfers from hydrogen to water while in the lower, hot tower - in the opposite direction - from water to hydrogen. The DTWH process is much more complicated compared to CECE; it must be thoroughly computed and strictly controlled by an automatic control system. The use of a simulation code for DTWH is absolutely important. The simulation code EVIO-5 deals with 3 flows inside a column (hydrogen gas, water vapour and liquid water) and 2 simultaneous isotope exchange sub-processes (counter-current phase exchange and co-current catalytic exchange). EVIO-5 takes into account the strong dependence of process performance on given conditions (temperature and pressure). It calculates steady-state isotope concentration profiles considering a full set of reversible exchange reactions between different isotope modifications of water and hydrogen (12 molecular species). So the code can be used for simulation of LPCE column operation for detritiation of hydrogen and water feed, which contains H and D not only at low concentrations but above 10 at.% also. EVIO-5 code is used to model a Tritium Removal Facility with a throughput capacity of about 400 m{sup 3}/day. Simulation results show that a huge amount of wet-proofed catalyst is required (about 6000 m{sup 3}), mainly (90%) in the first stage. One reason for these large expenses (apart from a big scale of the problem itself) is the relatively high tritium separation factor in the hot tower

  13. Revealing the Dynamics of Thylakoid Membranes in Living Cyanobacterial Cells

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Stingaciu, Laura-Roxana; O’Neill, Hugh; Liberton, Michelle; Urban, Volker S.; Pakrasi, Himadri B.; Ohl, Michael

    2016-01-21

    Cyanobacteria are photosynthetic prokaryotes that make major contributions to the production of the oxygen in the Earth atmosphere. The photosynthetic machinery in cyanobacterial cells is housed in flattened membrane structures called thylakoids. The structural organization of cyanobacterial cells and the arrangement of the thylakoid membranes in response to environmental conditions have been widely investigated. However, there is limited knowledge about the internal dynamics of these membranes in terms of their flexibility and motion during the photosynthetic process. We present a direct observation of thylakoid membrane undulatory motion in vivo and show a connection between membrane mobility and photosynthetic activity. High-resolutionmore » inelastic neutron scattering experiments on the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 assessed the flexibility of cyanobacterial thylakoid membrane sheets and the dependence of the membranes on illumination conditions. We observed softer thylakoid membranes in the dark that have three-to four fold excess mobility compared to membranes under high light conditions. We find our analysis indicates that electron transfer between photosynthetic reaction centers and the associated electrochemical proton gradient across the thylakoid membrane result in a significant driving force for excess membrane dynamics. Lastly, these observations provide a deeper understanding of the relationship between photosynthesis and cellular architecture.« less

  14. Method of photocatalytic conversion of C-H organics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Camaioni, Donald M.; Lilga, Michael A.

    1998-01-01

    The present invention is the addition of a semiconductor material and energy to the reaction mixture of organic, acid (for example, trifluoroacetate), and oxygen. A transition metal ion may be added to the reaction mixture. The semiconductor material converts energy to oxidants thereby promoting oxidation of the organic. Alternatively, using metal in combination with exposure to light may be used.

  15. Method of photocatalytic conversion of C-H organics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Camaioni, D.M.; Lilga, M.A.

    1998-01-13

    The present invention is the addition of a semiconductor material and energy to the reaction mixture of organic, acid (for example, trifluoroacetate), and oxygen. A transition metal ion may be added to the reaction mixture. The semiconductor material converts energy to oxidants thereby promoting oxidation of the organic. Alternatively, using metal in combination with exposure to light may be used.

  16. Connected Lighting and beyond, Self-Configuration

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Connected Lighting and beyond, Self-Configuration Dagnachew Birru, PhD Head of Lighting Research Department Philips Research North America, Cambridge, MA Nov 16, 2015 DoE Connected Lighting Meeting 2 Outline * Connected Lighting and self-configuration * Examples of current state - Cities - Buildings * Next wave * Summary 3 Lighting has gone digital, redefining what is possible with light Energy efficiency Creating amazing experiences Enhancing attractiveness of cities 4 The Future of Lighting:

  17. Fluorescent Lighting Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fluorescent Lighting Basics Fluorescent Lighting Basics October 17, 2013 - 5:39pm Addthis Light from a fluorescent lamp is first created by an electric current conducted through an inert gas producing ultraviolet light that is invisible to the human eye. The ultraviolet light in turn interacts with special blends of phosphors coating the interior surface of the fluorescent lamp tube that efficiently converts the invisible light into useful white light. Fluorescent lamps require a special power

  18. Fluorescent Lighting Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fluorescent Lighting Basics Fluorescent Lighting Basics October 17, 2013 - 5:39pm Addthis Light from a fluorescent lamp is first created by an electric current conducted through an inert gas producing ultraviolet light that is invisible to the human eye. The ultraviolet light in turn interacts with special blends of phosphors coating the interior surface of the fluorescent lamp tube that efficiently converts the invisible light into useful white light. Fluorescent lamps require a special power

  19. Commercial Lighting Solutions, Webtool Peer Review Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, Carol C.; Meyer, Tracy A.

    2009-06-17

    The Commercial Lighting Solutions (CLS) project directly supports the U.S. Department of Energys Commercial Building Energy Alliance efforts to design high performance buildings. CLS creates energy efficient best practice lighting designs for widespread use, and they are made available to users via an interactive webtool that both educates and guides the end user through the application of the Lighting Solutions. This report summarizes the peer review of the beta version of the CLS webtool, which contains retail box lighting solutions. The methodology for the peer review process included data collection (stakeholder input), analysis of the comments, and organization of the input into categories for prioritization of the comments against a set of criteria. Based on this process, recommendations were developed about which feedback should be addressed for the release of version 1.0 of the webtool at the Lightfair conference in New York City in May 2009. Due to the volume of data (~500 comments) the methodology for addressing the peer review comments was central to the success of the ultimate goal of improving the tool. The comments were first imported into a master spreadsheet, and then grouped and organized in several layers. Solutions to each comment were then rated by importance and feasibility to determine the practicality of resolving the concerns of the commenter in the short-term or long-term. The rating system was used as an analytical tool, but the results were viewed thoughtfully to ensure that they were not the sole the factor in determining which comments were recommended for near-term resolution. The report provides a list of the top ten most significant and relevant improvements that will be made within the webtool for version 1.0 as well as appendices containing the short-term priorities in additional detail. Peer review comments that are considered high priority by the reviewers and the CLS team but cannot be completed for Version 1.0 are listed as

  20. Types of Lighting in Commercial Buildings - Lighting Characteristics

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    "coolness" of the color appearance of the lamp's light. The CCT is given in the Kelvin (K) temperature scale, and the higher the color temperature, the cooler the appearance of...

  1. Effective White Light Options for Parking Area Lighting

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... The areas directly under the light poles are not overlit compared to the rest of the ... www.eere.energy.govinformationcenter PNNL-SA-74415 * August 2010 Produced for the U.S. ...

  2. Adoption of Light-Emitting Diodes in Common Lighting Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yamada, Mary; Chwastyk, Dan

    2013-05-01

    Report estimating LED energy savings in nine applications where LEDs compete with traditional lighting sources such as incandescent, halogen, high-pressure sodium, and certain types of fluorescent. The analysis includes indoor lamp, indoor luminaire, and outdoor luminaire applications.

  3. Induction Lighting: An Old Lighting Technology Made New Again...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    The technology, however, is far from new. Nikola Tesla demonstrated induction lighting in the late 1890s around the same time that his rival, Thomas Edison, was working to improve ...

  4. Light-Front Holography, Light-Front Wavefunctions, and Novel QCD Phenomena

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brodsky, Stanley J.; de Teramond, Guy F.; /Costa Rica U.

    2012-02-16

    Light-Front Holography is one of the most remarkable features of the AdS/CFT correspondence. In spite of its present limitations it provides important physical insights into the nonperturbative regime of QCD and its transition to the perturbative domain. This novel framework allows hadronic amplitudes in a higher dimensional anti-de Sitter (AdS) space to be mapped to frame-independent light-front wavefunctions of hadrons in physical space-time. The model leads to an effective confining light-front QCD Hamiltonian and a single-variable light-front Schroedinger equation which determines the eigenspectrum and the light-front wavefunctions of hadrons for general spin and orbital angular momentum. The coordinate z in AdS space is uniquely identified with a Lorentz-invariant coordinate {zeta} which measures the separation of the constituents within a hadron at equal light-front time and determines the off-shell dynamics of the bound-state wavefunctions, and thus the fall-off as a function of the invariant mass of the constituents. The soft-wall holographic model modified by a positive-sign dilaton metric, leads to a remarkable one-parameter description of nonperturbative hadron dynamics - a semi-classical frame-independent first approximation to the spectra and light-front wavefunctions of meson and baryons. The model predicts a Regge spectrum of linear trajectories with the same slope in the leading orbital angular momentum L of hadrons and the radial quantum number n. The hadron eigensolutions projected on the free Fock basis provides the complete set of valence and non-valence light-front Fock state wavefunctions {Psi}{sub n/H} (x{sub i}, k{sub {perpendicular}i}, {lambda}{sub i}) which describe the hadron's momentum and spin distributions needed to compute the direct measures of hadron structure at the quark and gluon level, such as elastic and transition form factors, distribution amplitudes, structure functions, generalized parton distributions and transverse

  5. Light-duty vehicle summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, L.S. ); Hu, P.S. )

    1990-07-01

    This document brings you up to date on the most recent fuel economy and market share data for the new light-duty vehicle fleet. Model year 1990 fuel economies are weighted based on the sales of the first six months of model year 1990 (from September 1989 to March 1990). Sales-weighted fuel economy of all new automobiles decreased in the first six months of model year 1990, from 28.0 mpg in model year 1989 to 27.7 mpg. The compact, midsize, and large size classes, which together claimed 75% of the new automobile market, each showed fuel economy declines of 0.4 mpg or more. Unlike automobiles, new 1990 light trucks showed an overall 0.4 mpg gain from model year 1989. This increase was primarily due to the increased fuel economy of the small van size class. In the first half of model year 1990, small van replaced small pickup as the second most popular light truck size class. Although the fuel economy of light trucks improved, the larger market share of automobiles in the light-duty vehicle market (automobiles and light trucks combined) and the decreased fuel economy in automobiles resulted in an overall reduction of 0.2 mpg for the entire light-duty vehicle fleet in the first half of model year 1990. Also, in the first half of model year 1990, light trucks claimed more than 33% of the light-duty vehicle market--a considerable increase from the 19.8% share in 1976. 9 figs., 18 tabs.

  6. (Lighting and) Solid-State Lighting: Science, Technology, Economic

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Perspectives Lighting and) Solid-State Lighting: Science, Technology, Economic Perspectives - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization

  7. Inorganic volumetric light source excited by ultraviolet light

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reed, Scott; Walko, Robert J.; Ashley, Carol S.; Brinker, C. Jeffrey

    1994-01-01

    The invention relates to a composition for the volumetric generation of radiation. The composition comprises a porous substrate loaded with a component capable of emitting radiation upon interaction with an exciting radiation. Preferably, the composition is an aerogel substrate loaded with a component, e.g., a phosphor, capable of interacting with exciting radiation of a first energy, e.g., ultraviolet light, to produce radiation of a second energy, e.g., visible light.

  8. Inorganic volumetric light source excited by ultraviolet light

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reed, S.; Walko, R.J.; Ashley, C.S.; Brinker, C.J.

    1994-04-26

    The invention relates to a composition for the volumetric generation of radiation. The composition comprises a porous substrate loaded with a component capable of emitting radiation upon interaction with an exciting radiation. Preferably, the composition is an aerogel substrate loaded with a component, e.g., a phosphor, capable of interacting with exciting radiation of a first energy, e.g., ultraviolet light, to produce radiation of a second energy, e.g., visible light. 4 figures.

  9. Another Side of Light - A

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The fact that light is a kind of wave is common knowledge today, and a hundred years ago the theory that light is some kind of wave was already well confirmed by experiment. But at that time Einstein found, in a newly-discovered physical law, a clue that there was more to light than the wave theory of those days seemed to suggest. A B C D A. An inconsistency Drop a rock in a lake, and you'll stir up waves. Drop two rocks in different places, and you'll stir up two sets of waves. If you look

  10. Light metal explosives and propellants

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wood, Lowell L.; Ishikawa, Muriel Y.; Nuckolls, John H.; Pagoria, Phillip F.; Viecelli, James A.

    2005-04-05

    Disclosed herein are light metal explosives, pyrotechnics and propellants (LME&Ps) comprising a light metal component such as Li, B, Be or their hydrides or intermetallic compounds and alloys containing them and an oxidizer component containing a classic explosive, such as CL-20, or a non-explosive oxidizer, such as lithium perchlorate, or combinations thereof. LME&P formulations may have light metal particles and oxidizer particles ranging in size from 0.01 .mu.m to 1000 .mu.m.

  11. Standard Measurement & Verification Plan for Lighting Equipment Retrofit or Replacement Projects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richman, Eric E.

    2009-11-04

    This document provides a framework for a standard Measurement and Verification (M&V) plan for lighting projects. It was developed to support cost-effective retrofits (partial and complete replacements) of lighting systems and is intended to provide a foundation for an M&V plan for a lighting retrofit utilizing a "best practice" approach, and to provide guidance to site owners, contractors, and other involved organizations on what is essential for a robust M&V plan for lighting projects. This document provides examples of appropriate elements of an M&V plan, including the calculation of expected energy savings. The standard M&V plan, as provided, also allows for consistent comparison with other similar lighting projects. Although intended for lighting retrofit applications, M&V plans developed per this framework document may also be used for other non-lighting technology retrofits and new installations.

  12. Pion optical potential with Δ dynamics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karaoglu, B.; Moniz, Ernest J.

    1986-03-01

    A pion optical potential is constructed which incorporates the Δ dynamics found to be important in Δ-hole analyses of pion scattering from light nuclei. These dynamics include Δ propagation, binding and Pauli blocking, and a Δ spreading potential. We employ a local density approximation for the medium-modified Δ propagator, resulting in a computationally flexible tool for the analysis of pion-nucleus data. We reproduce the Δ-hole results for π-16O scattering satisfactorily. Elastic π±-208Pb scattering is described very well with the same strongly damping spreading potential found for light nuclei. The pion wave functions in the medium are substantially modified by the Δ dynamics.

  13. Fifth-Generation Free-Electron Laser Light Sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pellegrini, Claudio

    2011-03-02

    During the past few years, the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) and the Free-Electron Laser in Hamburg (FLASH) have demonstrated the outstanding capability of free-electron lasers (FELs) as sources of coherent radiation in the soft and hard x-ray region. The high intensity, tens of GW, short pulses (few to less than 100 femtoseconds, and the unique transverse coherence properties are opening a new window to study the structure and dynamics of atomic and molecular systems. The LCLS, FLASH, and the other FELs now under construction are only the beginning of the development of these light sources. The next generations will reach new levels of performance: terawatt, atto-second, ultra-small line-width, high repetition rate, full longitudinal and transverse coherence. These future developments and the R&D needed to successfully build and operate the next generation of FEL light sources will be discussed.

  14. OLED lighting devices having multi element light extraction and luminescence conversion layer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Krummacher, Benjamin Claus; Antoniadis, Homer

    2010-11-16

    An apparatus such as a light source has a multi element light extraction and luminescence conversion layer disposed over a transparent layer of the light source and on the exterior of said light source. The multi-element light extraction and luminescence conversion layer includes a plurality of light extraction elements and a plurality of luminescence conversion elements. The light extraction elements diffuses the light from the light source while luminescence conversion elements absorbs a first spectrum of light from said light source and emits a second spectrum of light.

  15. Device structure for OLED light device having multi element light extraction and luminescence conversion layer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Antoniadis; Homer , Krummacher; Benjamin Claus

    2008-01-22

    An apparatus such as a light source has a multi-element light extraction and luminescence conversion layer disposed over a transparent layer of the light source and on the exterior of said light source. The multi-element light extraction and luminescence conversion layer includes a plurality of light extraction elements and a plurality of luminescence conversion elements. The light extraction elements diffuses the light from the light source while luminescence conversion elements absorbs a first spectrum of light from said light source and emits a second spectrum of light.

  16. Optical Properties of Moderately-Absorbing Organic and Mixed Organic/Inorganic Particles at Very High Humidities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bond, Tami C; Rood, Mark J; Brem, Benjamin T; Mena-Gonzalez, Francisco C; Chen, Yanju

    2012-04-16

    Relative humidity (RH) affects the water content of an aerosol, altering its ability to scatter and absorb light, which is important for aerosol effects on climate and visibility. This project involves in situ measurement and modeling of aerosol optical properties including absorption, scattering and extinction at three visible wavelengths (467, 530, 660 nm), for organic carbon (OC) generated by pyrolysis of biomass, ammonium sulfate and sodium chloride, and their mixtures at controlled RH conditions. Novel components of this project include investigation of: (1) Changes in all three of these optical properties at scanned RH conditions; (2) Optical properties at RH values up to 95%, which are usually extrapolated instead of measured; and (3) Examination of aerosols generated by the pyrolysis of wood, which is representative of primary atmospheric organic carbon, and its mixture with inorganic aerosol. Scattering and extinction values were used to determine light absorption by difference and single scattering albedo values. Extensive instrumentation development and benchmarking with independently measured and modeled values were used to obtain and evaluate these new results. The single scattering albedo value for a dry absorbing polystyrene microsphere benchmark agreed within 0.02 (absolute value) with independently published results at 530 nm. Light absorption by a nigrosin (sample light-absorbing) benchmark increased by a factor of 1.24 +/-0.06 at all wavelengths as RH increased from 38 to 95%. Closure modeling with Mie theory was able to reproduce this increase with the linear volume average (LVA) refractive index mixing rule for this water soluble compound. Absorption by biomass OC aerosol increased by a factor of 2.1 +/- 0.7 and 2.3 +/- 1.2 between 32 and 95% RH at 467 nm and 530 nm, but there was no detectable absorption at 660 nm. Additionally, the spectral dependence of absorption by OC that was observed with filter measurements was confirmed qualitatively

  17. Organization | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Organization Organization The organizational structure of the Office of International Affairs (IA) is as follows: Office of Resource Management (IA-10) Office of the Deputy ...

  18. Pulsed laser stereophotography of plasmas and dynamically moving surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paisley, D.L.

    1987-01-01

    A pulsed laser is used as a light source for illuminating the surface of a dynamic event of less than or equal to1 mm/sup 2/ moving at >3 mm/..mu..s. At a predetermined time during the dynamic action, a stereo camera is used to record a pair of images of the dynamically moving surface. The stereoimage pair can be quantified for surface contour. 3 refs., 8 figs.

  19. Light ESCO | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    ESCO Jump to: navigation, search Name: Light ESCO Place: Rio de Janeiro, Brazil Zip: Caixa Postal 0571 Product: Rio de Janeiro-based energy service company that specialises in...

  20. The Momentum of Light - A

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The theory of relativity suggested that the energy quanta of light should also be quanta ... A. Momentum Any material object is a lump of energy. That is a major implication of ...

  1. Columbia Water & Light- Solar Rebates

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Columbia Water & Light electric customers are eligible for a $400 rebate for the purchase of a new solar water heater. To apply for this rebate, a customer submits a pre-approval application to...

  2. Incandescent Lighting | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    These lamps produce visible light by heating a tiny coil or filament of tungsten wire that glows when it is heated by an electrical current. "Long-life" lamps are an example of ...

  3. Next Generation Light Source Workshops

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Next Generation Light Source Workshops A series of workshops will be held in late August with the goal of refining the scientific drivers for the facility and translating the...

  4. Tips: Lighting | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    bulbs and can last up to three times longer than traditional incandescent light bulbs. ... ENERGY STAR-qualified CFLs use about 75% less energy and last up to 10 times longer than ...

  5. Lighting Controls | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    LED bulbs and fixtures must be designed for dimming, and you may need to replace existing dimmer switches with ones that are compatible with an LED lighting product. The packaging ...

  6. Projection screen having reduced ambient light scattering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sweatt, William C.

    2010-05-11

    An apparatus and method for improving the contrast between incident projected light and ambient light reflected from a projection screen are described. The efficiency of the projection screen for reflection of the projected light remains high, while permitting the projection screen to be utilized in a brightly lighted room. Light power requirements from the projection system utilized may be reduced.

  7. New Morphological Paradigm Uncovered in Organic Solar Cells

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    New Morphological Paradigm Uncovered in Organic Solar Cells Print Organic solar cells are made of light, flexible, renewable materials; they require simple and inexpensive processing steps and could produce an economically competitive and environmentally friendly energy source. Understanding the fundamentals of organic solar cell function is therefore vital to uncovering their maximum potential. Models describing critical device functions such as charge separation and transport often depend on

  8. New Morphological Paradigm Uncovered in Organic Solar Cells

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    New Morphological Paradigm Uncovered in Organic Solar Cells Print Organic solar cells are made of light, flexible, renewable materials; they require simple and inexpensive processing steps and could produce an economically competitive and environmentally friendly energy source. Understanding the fundamentals of organic solar cell function is therefore vital to uncovering their maximum potential. Models describing critical device functions such as charge separation and transport often depend on

  9. New Morphological Paradigm Uncovered in Organic Solar Cells

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    New Morphological Paradigm Uncovered in Organic Solar Cells Print Organic solar cells are made of light, flexible, renewable materials; they require simple and inexpensive processing steps and could produce an economically competitive and environmentally friendly energy source. Understanding the fundamentals of organic solar cell function is therefore vital to uncovering their maximum potential. Models describing critical device functions such as charge separation and transport often depend on

  10. New Morphological Paradigm Uncovered in Organic Solar Cells

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    New Morphological Paradigm Uncovered in Organic Solar Cells Print Organic solar cells are made of light, flexible, renewable materials; they require simple and inexpensive processing steps and could produce an economically competitive and environmentally friendly energy source. Understanding the fundamentals of organic solar cell function is therefore vital to uncovering their maximum potential. Models describing critical device functions such as charge separation and transport often depend on

  11. New Morphological Paradigm Uncovered in Organic Solar Cells

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    New Morphological Paradigm Uncovered in Organic Solar Cells Print Organic solar cells are made of light, flexible, renewable materials; they require simple and inexpensive processing steps and could produce an economically competitive and environmentally friendly energy source. Understanding the fundamentals of organic solar cell function is therefore vital to uncovering their maximum potential. Models describing critical device functions such as charge separation and transport often depend on

  12. New Morphological Paradigm Uncovered in Organic Solar Cells

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    New Morphological Paradigm Uncovered in Organic Solar Cells Print Organic solar cells are made of light, flexible, renewable materials; they require simple and inexpensive processing steps and could produce an economically competitive and environmentally friendly energy source. Understanding the fundamentals of organic solar cell function is therefore vital to uncovering their maximum potential. Models describing critical device functions such as charge separation and transport often depend on

  13. New Morphological Paradigm Uncovered in Organic Solar Cells

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    New Morphological Paradigm Uncovered in Organic Solar Cells Print Organic solar cells are made of light, flexible, renewable materials; they require simple and inexpensive processing steps and could produce an economically competitive and environmentally friendly energy source. Understanding the fundamentals of organic solar cell function is therefore vital to uncovering their maximum potential. Models describing critical device functions such as charge separation and transport often depend on

  14. Series cell light extinction monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Novick, Vincent J.

    1990-01-01

    A method and apparatus for using the light extinction measurements from two or more light cells positioned along a gasflow chamber in which the gas volumetric rate is known to determine particle number concentration and mass concentration of an aerosol independent of extinction coefficient and to determine estimates for particle size and mass concentrations. The invention is independent of particle size. This invention has application to measurements made during a severe nuclear reactor fuel damage test.

  15. Energy Efficiency Through Lighting Upgrades

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Chickasaw Nation Energy Efficiency Through Lighting Upgrades The Chickasaw Nation  The Chickasaw Nation consists of 13 counties in southeastern Oklahoma  Tribal enrollment exceeds 35,000  The Tribal headquarters complex is located in Ada, Oklahoma  The Division of Commerce operates 17 facilities which are included in this grant Chickasaw Nation Boundaries Main Objectives  Retrofit Casino Lighting to the most energy efficient option available  Reduce energy consumption and

  16. Energy Efficiency through Lighting Upgrades

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Through Lighting Upgrades The Chickasaw Nation The Chickasaw Nation * The Chickasaw Nation consists of 13.5 counties in southeastern Oklahoma * Tribal enrollment exceeds 35,000 * The Tribal headquarters complex is located in Ada, Oklahoma * The Division of Commerce operates 17 facilities most of which are included in this grant Chickasaw Nation Boundaries Main Objectives * Retrofit Casino Lighting to the most energy efficient option available * Reduce energy consumption and energy bills by 30%

  17. Shedding Light on Nanocrystal Defects

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Shedding Light on Nanocrystal Defects Shedding Light on Nanocrystal Defects Print Thursday, 20 June 2013 10:41 Nanocrystals have been the focus of much scientific interest lately, given their various advantageous mechanical properties. Their resistance to stress has had researchers proposing nanocrystals as a promising new protective coating for advanced gas turbine and jet engines. But recent studies conducted at the ALS show that the tiny size of nanocrystals does not safeguard them from

  18. Chemical Dynamics, Molecular Energetics, and Kinetics at the Synchrotron

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leone, Stephen R.; Ahmed, Musahid; Wilson, Kevin R.

    2010-03-14

    Scientists at the Chemical Dynamics Beamline of the Advanced Light Source in Berkeley are continuously reinventing synchrotron investigations of physical chemistry and chemical physics with vacuum ultraviolet light. One of the unique aspects of a synchrotron for chemical physics research is the widely tunable vacuum ultraviolet light that permits threshold ionization of large molecules with minimal fragmentation. This provides novel opportunities to assess molecular energetics and reaction mechanisms, even beyond simple gas phase molecules. In this perspective, significant new directions utilizing the capabilities at the Chemical Dynamics Beamline are presented, along with an outlook for future synchrotron and free electron laser science in chemical dynamics. Among the established and emerging fields of investigations are cluster and biological molecule spectroscopy and structure, combustion flame chemistry mechanisms, radical kinetics and product isomer dynamics, aerosol heterogeneous chemistry, planetary and interstellar chemistry, and secondary neutral ion-beam desorption imaging of biological matter and materials chemistry.

  19. Lighting system replacement brings energy costs down, light levels up

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Radmer, D.J.

    1984-11-08

    The R.J. Frisby Mfg. Co. operates on three shifts and produces precision screw machine products for a variety of industries, including automotive, marine, machine tool, hydraulics and pneumatics, business machines, electrical and electronics, photography, and precision instruments. The required degree of manufacturing precision demands high light levels in manufacturing areas. When the 100,000 sq ft plant was built in 1973, mercury vapor lighting was installed consistent with the current state of the art for lighting such facilities. In the ensuing years, it became apparent that the soaring electric bills that came in the wake of the Arab oil embargo of 1973-74 would have to be controlled. Estimates by the U.S. Department of Energy indicated that electric energy costs were likely to rise by 160 percent over the next 10 yr. Based on this estimate, and the fact that lighting accounted for $70,000, or half of the annual electric bill, it was estimated that $900,000 to $1,000,000 would be spent for lighting energy over the next decade. The concern over the probability of rapidly escalating electrical costs was soon justified when, in three steps over one 12 mo period, the electric energy rate increased from $0.0305/kwh to $0.0416/kwh -more than a 36 percent increase. During that same period, the demand charge was raised in two steps from $3.75/kw to $4.85/kw --more than a 29 percent increase.

  20. Save Money with LED Holiday Light Strings

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    LED (or light emitting diode) light strings can use 90% less energy than regular incandescent light strings. They also last about ten times longer, are cooler than incandescents (reducing fire hazards), and are more durable.