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Sample records for duty cycle key

  1. Heavy Duty & Medium Duty Drive Cycle Data Collection for Modeling...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Heavy Duty & Medium Duty Drive Cycle Data Collection for Modeling Expansion Heavy Duty & Medium Duty Drive Cycle Data Collection for Modeling Expansion 2009 DOE Hydrogen Program...

  2. Truck Duty Cycle and Performance Data Collection and Analysis...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Duty Cycle and Performance Data Collection and Analysis Program Heavy Duty & Medium Duty Drive Cycle Data Collection for Modeling Expansion Roadmap and Technical White Papers for...

  3. Light-Duty Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition Drive Cycle...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Light-Duty Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition Drive Cycle Fuel Economy and Emissions Estimates Light-Duty Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition Drive Cycle Fuel...

  4. Truck Duty Cycle and Performance Data Collection and Analysis...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    D.C. vss002knee2010o.pdf More Documents & Publications Heavy Duty & Medium Duty Drive Cycle Data Collection for Modeling Expansion Truck Duty Cycle and Performance Data...

  5. Duty Cycle Analysis & Tools: Maximizing Vehicle Performance (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walkowicz, K.

    2009-10-28

    Shows that the benefits of using hybrid vehicle trucks in fleets depends on the duty cycle, or how the vehicles will be driven (e.g., stop and go) over a particular route (e.g., urban or rural).

  6. Duty-Cycle-Aware Broadcast in Wireless Sensor Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Jiangchuan (JC)

    active and dormant states, so as to conserve energy and extend the network lifetime. Unfortunately fails to capture the uniqueness of energy-constrained wireless sensor networks. The sensor nodesDuty-Cycle-Aware Broadcast in Wireless Sensor Networks Feng Wang Jiangchuan Liu School of Computing

  7. Evaluation of a Local Air Conditioning Duty Cycling Device as a Load Management Tool 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schneider, K.; Thedford, M.

    1986-01-01

    During the summer of 1984, a test was performed to evaluate a local air conditioning duty cycling device as a tool to reduce TUEC's system summer peak demand. In addition to the local duty cycling device, a direct load ...

  8. Energy Efficient Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks with Ultra Low Duty Cycle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bahk, Saewoong

    Energy Efficient Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks with Ultra Low Duty Cycle Wooguil of high energy consumption mainly caused by the clock drift in ultra low duty cycled environments because most of them are designed without considering ultra low duty cycled environments. To achieve

  9. Opportunistic Flooding in Low-Duty-Cycle Wireless Sensor Networks with Unreliable Links

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minnesota, University of

    . Combined with unreliable links, flooding in low-duty-cycle networks is a new challenging issueOpportunistic Flooding in Low-Duty-Cycle Wireless Sensor Networks with Unreliable Links Shuo Guo, little work has yet been done on low-duty-cycle wireless sensor networks in which nodes stay asleep most

  10. Centralized Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks with Ultra Low Duty Cycle to Achieve Maximum Lifetime

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bahk, Saewoong

    Centralized Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks with Ultra Low Duty Cycle to Achieve performance because most of them are designed without considering a ultra low duty cycled environment to improve a network lifetime and a routing maintenance cost. We explain the issues of a ultra low duty

  11. MAC Design for Supporting Ultra Low Duty Cycle in Wireless Sensor Networks1 *Wooguil PakO

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bahk, Saewoong

    MAC Design for Supporting Ultra Low Duty Cycle in Wireless Sensor Networks1 *Wooguil PakO , *Hyuk.1%). Our proposed U-MAC (Ultra low duty cycle MAC) protocol targets achieving low energy consumption under. In this paper, we propose a new MAC algorithm called U-MAC (Ultra low duty cycle MAC) that works effectively

  12. Centralized route recovery based on multi-hop wakeup time estimation for wireless sensor networks with ultra low duty cycles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bahk, Saewoong

    with ultra low duty cycles Wooguil Pak, Saewoong Bahk Department of EECS & INMC, Seoul National University Keywords: Wireless sensor network Routing protocol Ultra low duty cycle Network lifetime Multi-hop wakeup time estimation to maximize the network lifetime of WSNs under ultra low duty cycles. It does not use

  13. On Combining Duty-cycling with Network Coding in Flood-based Sensor Networks 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chandanala, Roja Ramani

    2012-02-14

    Network coding and duty-cycling are two popular techniques for saving energy in wireless sensor networks. To the best of our knowledge, the idea to combine these two techniques, for even more aggressive energy savings, ...

  14. ORNL/TM-2011/455 Large Scale Duty Cycle (LSDC) Project

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and Results from Long-Haul Truck Drive Cycle Evaluations May 2011 Prepared by Tim LaClair #12;#12;ORNL/TM-2011 ANALYSIS METHODOLOGY AND RESULTS FROM LONG-HAUL TRUCK DRIVE CYCLE EVALUATIONS Tim LaClair Date PublishedORNL/TM-2011/455 Large Scale Duty Cycle (LSDC) Project: Tractive Energy Analysis Methodology

  15. Urban driving cycle results of retrofitted diesel oxidation catalysts on heavy duty vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, K.F. [Engine Control Systems Ltd., Aurora, Ontario (Canada); Rideout, G.

    1996-09-01

    This paper presents the emissions testing results of various heavy duty engines and vehicles with and without retrofitted diesel oxidation catalyst technology. 1987 Cummins L10 and 1991 DDC 6V92TA DDECII engine results over the US Heavy Duty Transient Test are presented for comparison to chassis test results. The vehicles in this study include two urban buses, two school buses and three heavy duty trucks. The Central Business District, New York Bus and New York Composite urban driving cycles have been used to evaluate baseline emissions and the catalyst performance on a heavy duty chassis dynamometer. The results demonstrate that 25--45% particulate reduction is readily achievable on a wide variety of heavy duty vehicles. Significant carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon reductions were also observed.

  16. Numerical investigation of pulse-modulated atmospheric radio frequency discharges in helium under different duty cycles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun Jizhong; Ding Zhengfen; Li Xuechun; Wang Dezhen [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116023 (China); Wang Qi [Dalian Institute of Semiconductor Technology, School of Electronics Science and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116023 (China)

    2011-12-15

    Experiments observed that the pulse duty cycle has effects on the plasma homogeneity in pulse-modulated radio frequency (rf) discharges. In this paper, pulse-modulated rf (13.56 MHz) helium discharges are theoretically investigated using a two dimensional fluid model. With the pulse period being fixed to 15 {mu}s, it is found that when the pulse-on duration is over 4 {mu}s, i.e., the duty cycle is larger than approximately 27%, the discharge transits from an inhomogeneous to a homogeneous mode in every specific part of each pulse cycle under currently-used simulation parameters. More quantitative analysis shows that the discharge becomes more homogeneous as the duty cycle is increased but does not reach complete homogeneity. Possible reasons for the homogeneity improvement are discussed.

  17. Life cycle air quality impacts of conventional and alternative light-duty transportation in the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mlllet, Dylan B.

    Life cycle air quality impacts of conventional and alternative light-duty transportation biofuels, diesel, and compressed natural gas (CNG) in internal combustion engines; the use of electricity of hybrid EV technology. Our approach combines spatially, temporally, and chemically detailed life cycle

  18. On Reliable Broadcast in Low Duty-Cycle Wireless Sensor Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Jiangchuan (JC)

    energy and extend the network lifetime. Unfortunately, the impact of such cycles has been largely ignored to the wireless loss with good scalability on the network size and density. In addition, it enables flexibleOn Reliable Broadcast in Low Duty-Cycle Wireless Sensor Networks Feng Wang, Student Member, IEEE

  19. Organic Rankine Cycle for Light Duty Passenger Vehicles

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Dynamic model of organic Rankine cycle with R245fa working fluid and conservative component efficiencies predict power generation in excess of electrical accessory load demand under highway drive cycle

  20. Large Scale Duty Cycle (LSDC) Project: Tractive Energy Analysis Methodology and Results from Long-Haul Truck Drive Cycle Evaluations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LaClair, Tim J

    2011-05-01

    This report addresses the approach that will be used in the Large Scale Duty Cycle (LSDC) project to evaluate the fuel savings potential of various truck efficiency technologies. The methods and equations used for performing the tractive energy evaluations are presented and the calculation approach is described. Several representative results for individual duty cycle segments are presented to demonstrate the approach and the significance of this analysis for the project. The report is divided into four sections, including an initial brief overview of the LSDC project and its current status. In the second section of the report, the concepts that form the basis of the analysis are presented through a discussion of basic principles pertaining to tractive energy and the role of tractive energy in relation to other losses on the vehicle. In the third section, the approach used for the analysis is formalized and the equations used in the analysis are presented. In the fourth section, results from the analysis for a set of individual duty cycle measurements are presented and different types of drive cycles are discussed relative to the fuel savings potential that specific technologies could bring if these drive cycles were representative of the use of a given vehicle or trucking application. Additionally, the calculation of vehicle mass from measured torque and speed data is presented and the accuracy of the approach is demonstrated.

  1. Optimal Duty Cycle Allocation for RMAC protocol in Wireless Sensor Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bahk, Saewoong

    , Saewoong Bahk School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Seoul National University, INMC {ktcho in energy capacity due to its characteristics of being battery-operated. Due to this reason, energy efficiency is regarded as the most important factor leading to the usage of duty cycling. Several synchronous

  2. On Minimum Delay Duty-Cycling Protocol in Sustainable Sensor Network

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Jie

    network. As is pointed out in [8], [13], [23], the harvested energy from solar panels is often not able networks, solar powered, duty- cycle, submodular. I. INTRODUCTION The wireless sensor network (WSN) is demonstrated to be a promising technology due to the rapid development in micro-electronics and sensor

  3. Ambient-RF-Energy-Harvesting Sensor Node with Capacitor-Leakage-Aware Duty Cycle Control

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tentzeris, Manos

    Ambient-RF-Energy-Harvesting Sensor Node with Capacitor-Leakage-Aware Duty Cycle Control Ryo (WSN) that are solely powered by ambient RF power. Different from all other energy harvesting WSN systems, RF powered systems present a new challenge for the energy management. A WSN node repeatedly

  4. Adaptive Control of Duty Cycling in Energy-Harvesting Wireless Sensor Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    Adaptive Control of Duty Cycling in Energy-Harvesting Wireless Sensor Networks Christopher M wireless sensor network deployments are using harvested environmental energy to extend system lifetime. Because the temporal profiles of such energy sources exhibit great variability due to dynamic weather

  5. ORNL/TM-2012/240 Medium Truck Duty Cycle Data from

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, Tim LaClair, Alan Barker, Helmut Knee #12;DOCUMENT AVAILABILITY Reports produced after January 1 Lascurain Oscar Franzese Gary Capps Adam Siekmann Neil Thomas Tim LaClair Alan Barker Helmut Knee DateORNL/TM-2012/240 Medium Truck Duty Cycle Data from Real-World Driving Environments: Project Final

  6. Modeling Heavy/Medium-Duty Fuel Consumption Based on Drive Cycle Properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Lijuan; Duran, Adam; Gonder, Jeffrey; Kelly, Kenneth

    2015-10-13

    This paper presents multiple methods for predicting heavy/medium-duty vehicle fuel consumption based on driving cycle information. A polynomial model, a black box artificial neural net model, a polynomial neural network model, and a multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS) model were developed and verified using data collected from chassis testing performed on a parcel delivery diesel truck operating over the Heavy Heavy-Duty Diesel Truck (HHDDT), City Suburban Heavy Vehicle Cycle (CSHVC), New York Composite Cycle (NYCC), and hydraulic hybrid vehicle (HHV) drive cycles. Each model was trained using one of four drive cycles as a training cycle and the other three as testing cycles. By comparing the training and testing results, a representative training cycle was chosen and used to further tune each method. HHDDT as the training cycle gave the best predictive results, because HHDDT contains a variety of drive characteristics, such as high speed, acceleration, idling, and deceleration. Among the four model approaches, MARS gave the best predictive performance, with an average absolute percent error of -1.84% over the four chassis dynamometer drive cycles. To further evaluate the accuracy of the predictive models, the approaches were first applied to real-world data. MARS outperformed the other three approaches, providing an average absolute percent error of -2.2% of four real-world road segments. The MARS model performance was then compared to HHDDT, CSHVC, NYCC, and HHV drive cycles with the performance from Future Automotive System Technology Simulator (FASTSim). The results indicated that the MARS method achieved a comparative predictive performance with FASTSim.

  7. Critical analysis of thermodynamic cycle modeling of adsorption cooling systems for light-duty vehicle air conditioning applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bahrami, Majid

    -duty vehicle air conditioning applications Amir Sharafian, Majid Bahrami n Laboratory for Alternative Energy Keywords: Adsorption cooling system Vehicle air conditioning Thermodynamic cycle Fully dynamic modeling a b different operating conditions for light-duty vehicles air conditioning applications. Available ACS

  8. Improving the Control Performance of an Organic Rankine Cycle System for Waste Heat Recovery from a Heavy-Duty

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Improving the Control Performance of an Organic Rankine Cycle System for Waste Heat Recovery from waste heat from a heavy- duty diesel engine. For this system, a hierarchical and modular control) for recovering waste heat from a heavy-duty diesel engine. For this system, a hierarchical and modular control

  9. Unveiling Microbial Carbon Cycling Processes in Key U.S. Soils...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Technical Report: Unveiling Microbial Carbon Cycling Processes in Key U.S. Soils using "Omics" Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Unveiling Microbial Carbon Cycling...

  10. Medium Truck Duty Cycle Data from Real-World Driving Environments: Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lascurain, Mary Beth; Franzese, Oscar; Capps, Gary J; Siekmann, Adam; Thomas, Neil; LaClair, Tim J; Barker, Alan M; Knee, Helmut E

    2012-11-01

    Since the early part of the 20th century, the US trucking industry has provided a safe and economical means of moving commodities across the country. At present, nearly 80% of US domestic freight movement involves the use of trucks. The US Department of Energy (DOE) is spearheading a number of research efforts to improve heavy vehicle fuel efficiencies. This includes research in engine technologies (including hybrid and fuel cell technologies), lightweight materials, advanced fuels, and parasitic loss reductions. In addition, DOE is developing advanced tools and models to support heavy vehicle research and is leading the 21st Century Truck Partnership and the SuperTruck development effort. Both of these efforts have the common goal of decreasing the fuel consumption of heavy vehicles. In the case of SuperTruck, a goal of improving the overall freight efficiency of a combination tractor-trailer has been established. This Medium Truck Duty Cycle (MTDC) project is a critical element in DOE s vision for improved heavy vehicle energy efficiency; it is unique in that there is no other existing national database of characteristic duty cycles for medium trucks based on collecting data from Class 6 and 7 vehicles. It involves the collection of real-world data on medium trucks for various situational characteristics (e.g., rural/urban, freeway/arterial, congested/free-flowing, good/bad weather) and looks at the unique nature of medium trucks drive cycles (stop-and-go delivery, power takeoff, idle time, short-radius trips). This research provides a rich source of data that can contribute to the development of new tools for FE and modeling, provide DOE a sound basis upon which to make technology investment decisions, and provide a national archive of real-world-based medium-truck operational data to support energy efficiency research. The MTDC project involved a two-part field operational test (FOT). For the Part-1 FOT, three vehicles each from two vocations (urban transit and dry-box delivery) were instrumented for the collection of one year of operational data. The Part-2 FOT involved the towing and recovery and utility vocations for a second year of data collection. The vehicles that participated in the MTDC project did so through gratis partnerships in return for early access to the results of this study. Partnerships such as these are critical to FOTs in which real-world data is being collected. In Part 1 of the project, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) established partnerships with the H.T. Hackney Company (HTH), one of the largest wholesale distributors in the country, distributing products to 21 states; and with Knoxville Area Transit (KAT), the city of Knoxville s transit system, which operates across Knoxville and parts of Knox County. These partnerships and agreements provided ORNL access to three Class-7 day-cab tractors that regularly haul 28 ft pup trailers (HTH) and three Class-7 buses for the collection of duty cycle data. In addition, ORNL collaborated with the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA) to determine if there were possible synergies between this duty cycle data collection effort and FMCSA s need to learn more about the operation and duty cycles of medium trucks. FMCSA s primary interest was in collecting safety data relative to the driver, carrier, and vehicle. In Part 2 of the project, ORNL partnered with the Knoxville Utilities Board, which made available three Class-8 trucks. Fountain City Wrecker Service was also a Part 2 partner, providing three Class-6 rollback trucks. In order to collect the duty cycle and safety-related data, ORNL developed a data acquisition system (DAS) that was placed on each test vehicle. Each signal recorded in this FOT was collected by means of one of the instruments incorporated into each DAS. Other signals were obtained directly from the vehicle s J1939 and J1708 data buses. A VBOX II Lite collected information available from a global positioning system (GPS), including speed, acceleration, and spatial location information at a rate of 5 Hz for the Part 1

  11. Medium Truck Duty Cycle Data from Real-World Driving Environments: Project Interim Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Franzese, Oscar [ORNL; Lascurain, Mary Beth [ORNL; Capps, Gary J [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    Since the early part of the 20th century, the US trucking industry has provided a safe and economical means of moving commodities across the country. At the present time, nearly 80% of the US domestic freight movement involves the use of trucks. The US Department of Energy (DOE) is spearheading a number of research efforts to improve heavy vehicle fuel efficiencies. This includes research in engine technologies (including hybrid and fuel cell technologies), lightweight materials, advanced fuels, and parasitic loss reductions. In addition, DOE is developing advanced tools and models to support heavy vehicle truck research, and is leading the 21st Century Truck Partnership whose stretch goals involve a reduction by 50% of the fuel consumption of heavy vehicles on a ton-mile basis. This Medium Truck Duty Cycle (MTDC) Project is a critical element in DOE s vision for improved heavy vehicle energy efficiency and is unique in that there is no other national database of characteristic duty cycles for medium trucks. It involves the collection of real-world data for various situational characteristics (rural/urban, freeway/arterial, congested/free-flowing, good/bad weather, etc.) and looks at the unique nature of medium trucks drive cycles (stop-and-go delivery, power takeoff, idle time, short-radius trips), to provide a rich source of data that can contribute to the development of new tools for fuel efficiency and modeling, provide DOE a sound basis upon which to make technology investment decisions, and provide a national archive of real-world-based medium-truck operational data to support heavy vehicle energy efficiency research. The MTDC project involves a two-part field operational test (FOT). For the Part-1 FOT, three vehicles, each from two vocations (urban transit and dry-box delivery) were instrumented for one year of data collection. The Part-2 FOT will involve the towing/recovery and utility vocations. The vehicles participating in the MTDC project are doing so through gratis partnerships in return for early access to the results of this study. Partnerships such as these are critical to FOTs in which real-world data is being collected. In Part 1 of the project, Oak Ridge National Laboratory(ORNL) established partnerships with the H.T. Hackney Company, one of the largest wholesale distributors in the country, distributing products to 21 states; and with the Knoxville Area Transit (KAT), the City of Knoxville s transit system, operating services across the city of Knoxville and parts of Knox co. These partnerships and agreements provided ORNL access to three Class-7 2005/2007 International day-cab tractors, model 8600, which regularly haul 28 ft pup trailers (H.T. Hackney Co) and three Class-7 2005 Optima LF-34 buses (KAT), for collection of duty cycle data. In addition, ORNL has collaborated with the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA) to determine if there were possible synergies between this duty cycle data collection effort and FMCSA s need to learn more about the operation and duty cycles of the second-largest fuel consuming commercial vehicle category in the US. FMCSA s primary interest was in collecting safety data relative to the driver, carrier, and vehicle. In order to collect the duty cycle and safety-related data, ORNL developed a data acquisition and wireless communication system that was placed on each test vehicle. Each signal recorded in this FOT was collected by means of one of the instruments incorporated into each data acquisition system (DAS). Native signals were obtained directly from the vehicle s J1939 and J1708 data buses. A VBOX II Lite collected Global Positioning System related information including speed, acceleration, and spatial location information at a rate of 5 Hz, and communicated this data via the CAN (J1939) protocol. The Air-Weigh LoadMaxx, a self-weighing system which determines the vehicle s gross weight by means of pressure transducers and posts the weight to the vehicle s J1939 data bus, was used to collect vehicle payload information. A cellular modem, the Raven X

  12. Methods, systems and apparatus for adjusting duty cycle of pulse width modulated (PWM) waveforms

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gallegos-Lopez, Gabriel; Kinoshita, Michael H; Ransom, Ray M; Perisic, Milun

    2013-05-21

    Embodiments of the present invention relate to methods, systems and apparatus for controlling operation of a multi-phase machine in a vector controlled motor drive system when the multi-phase machine operates in an overmodulation region. The disclosed embodiments provide a mechanism for adjusting a duty cycle of PWM waveforms so that the correct phase voltage command signals are applied at the angle transitions. This can reduce variations/errors in the phase voltage command signals applied to the multi-phase machine so that phase current may be properly regulated thus reducing current/torque oscillation, which can in turn improve machine efficiency and performance, as well as utilization of the DC voltage source.

  13. Time-Sensitive Utility-Based Routing in Duty-Cycle Wireless Sensor Networks with Unreliable Links

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Jie

    Time-Sensitive Utility-Based Routing in Duty-Cycle Wireless Sensor Networks with Unreliable Links}@ustc.edu.cn Abstract--Utility-based routing is a special routing approach, which takes the reliability and transmission costs into account at the same time. However, the existing utility-based routing algorithms have not yet

  14. Time-Sensitive Utility-Based Routing inTime-Sensitive Utility-Based Routing inTime-Sensitive Utility-Based Routing inTime-Sensitive Utility-Based Routing in Duty-Cycle Wireless Sensor Networks withDuty-Cycle Wireless Sensor Networks withDuty-Cycle Wireles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Jie

    Time-Sensitive Utility-Based Routing inTime-Sensitive Utility-Based Routing inTime-Sensitive Utility-Based Routing inTime-Sensitive Utility-Based Routing in Duty-Cycle Wireless Sensor Networks with TEMPLE UNIVERSITY #12;Introduction: utility-based routingIntroduction: utility-based routing

  15. Exhaust Heat Driven Rankine Cycle for a Heavy Duty Diesel Engine

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presents progress to date and plans to develop a viable Rankine engine to harness useful brake power from wasted heat energy in heavy duty truck engine exhaust

  16. Economic Life Cycle Assessment as element of sustainability certification – a key success factor moving beyond Life Cycle Costing 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Trinius, W.; Hirsch, H.

    2009-01-01

    Lakenbrink, DU Diederichs Project Management, Munich, Germany Title Economic Life Cycle Assessment as element of sustainability certification ? a key success factor moving beyond Life Cycle Costing The move from considering environmental impacts... on sustainability of construction works, and relating to the emerging European standards in this field, the recently established German Sustainable Building Council (GeSBC / DGNB) presented a certification scheme applying a holistic life cycle model. While...

  17. Comparative urban drive cycle simulations of light-duty hybrid vehicles with gasoline or diesel engines and emissions controls

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gao, Zhiming; Daw, C Stuart; Smith, David E

    2013-01-01

    Electric hybridization is a very effective approach for reducing fuel consumption in light-duty vehicles. Lean combustion engines (including diesels) have also been shown to be significantly more fuel efficient than stoichiometric gasoline engines. Ideally, the combination of these two technologies would result in even more fuel efficient vehicles. However, one major barrier to achieving this goal is the implementation of lean-exhaust aftertreatment that can meet increasingly stringent emissions regulations without heavily penalizing fuel efficiency. We summarize results from comparative simulations of hybrid electric vehicles with either stoichiometric gasoline or diesel engines that include state-of-the-art aftertreatment emissions controls for both stoichiometric and lean exhaust. Fuel consumption and emissions for comparable gasoline and diesel light-duty hybrid electric vehicles were compared over a standard urban drive cycle and potential benefits for utilizing diesel hybrids were identified. Technical barriers and opportunities for improving the efficiency of diesel hybrids were identified.

  18. Heat exchanger temperature response for duty-cycle transients in the NGNP/HTE.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vilim, R. B.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2009-03-12

    Control system studies were performed for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) interfaced to the High Temperature Electrolysis (HTE) plant. Temperature change and associated thermal stresses are important factors in determining plant lifetime. In the NGNP the design objective of a 40 year lifetime for the Intermediate Heat Exchanger (IHX) in particular is seen as a challenge. A control system was designed to minimize temperature changes in the IHX and more generally at all high-temperature locations in the plant for duty-cycle transients. In the NGNP this includes structures at the reactor outlet and at the inlet to the turbine. This problem was approached by identifying those high-level factors that determine temperature rates of change. First are the set of duty cycle transients over which the control engineer has little control but which none-the-less must be addressed. Second is the partitioning of the temperature response into a quasi-static component and a transient component. These two components are largely independent of each other and when addressed as such greater understanding of temperature change mechanisms and how to deal with them is achieved. Third is the manner in which energy and mass flow rates are managed. Generally one aims for a temperature distribution that minimizes spatial non-uniformity of thermal expansion in a component with time. This is can be achieved by maintaining a fixed spatial temperature distribution in a component during transients. A general rule of thumb for heat exchangers is to maintain flow rate proportional to thermal power. Additionally the product of instantaneous flow rate and heat capacity should be maintained the same on both sides of the heat exchanger. Fourth inherent mechanisms for stable behavior should not be compromised by active controllers that can introduce new feedback paths and potentially create under-damped response. Applications of these principles to the development of a plant control strategy for the reference NGNP/HTE plant can be found in the body of this report. The outcome is an integrated plant/control system design. The following conclusions are drawn from the analysis: (1) The plant load schedule can be managed to maintain near-constant hot side temperatures over the load range in both the nuclear and chemical plant. (2) The reactor open-loop response is inherently stable resulting mainly from a large Doppler temperature coefficient compared to the other reactivity temperature feedbacks. (3) The typical controller used to manage reactor power production to maintain reactor outlet temperature at a setpoint introduces a feedback path that tends to destabilize reactor power production in the NGNP. (4) A primary loop flow controller that forces primary flow to track PCU flow rate is effective in minimizing spatial temperature differentials within the IHX. (5) Inventory control in both the primary and PCU system during ramp load change transients is an effective means of maintaining high NGNP thermal efficiency while at reduced electric load. (6) Turbine bypass control is an effective means for responding to step changes in generator load when equipment capacity limitations prevent inventory control from being effective. (7) Turbine bypass control is effective in limiting PCU shaft over speed for the loss of generator load upset event. (8) The proposed control strategy is effective in limiting time variation of the differential spatial temperature distribution in the IHX during transients. Essentially the IHX can be made to behave in a manner where each point in the IHX experiences approximately the same temperature rate of change during a transient. (9) The stability of the closed-loop Brayton cycle was found to be sensitive to where one operates on the turbo-machine performance maps. There are competing interests: more stable operation means operating on the curves at points that reduce overall cycle efficiency. Future work should address in greater detail elements that came to light in the course of this work. Specifically: (1) A stability analysi

  19. GREET Bioenergy Life Cycle Analysis and Key Issues for Woody Feedstocks

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Breakout Session 2D—Building Market Confidence and Understanding II: Carbon Accounting and Woody Biofuels GREET Bioenergy Life Cycle Analysis and Key Issues for Woody Feedstocks Michael Wang, Senior Scientist, Energy Systems, Argonne National Laboratory

  20. Battery Wear from Disparate Duty-Cycles: Opportunities for Electric-Drive Vehicle Battery Health Management; Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, K.; Earleywine, M.; Wood, E.; Pesaran, A.

    2012-10-01

    Electric-drive vehicles utilizing lithium-ion batteries experience wholly different degradation patterns than do conventional vehicles, depending on geographic ambient conditions and consumer driving and charging patterns. A semi-empirical life-predictive model for the lithium-ion graphite/nickel-cobalt-aluminum chemistry is presented that accounts for physically justified calendar and cycling fade mechanisms. An analysis of battery life for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles considers 782 duty-cycles from travel survey data superimposed with climate data from multiple geographic locations around the United States. Based on predicted wear distributions, opportunities for extending battery life including modification of battery operating limits, thermal and charge control are discussed.

  1. ORC Closed Loop Control Systems for Transient and Steady State Duty Cycles

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    System-level models using iterative concept analysis are being used on a closed loop controlled, waste heat recovery system running automatically over various drive cycles.

  2. Light-Duty Drive Cycle Simulations of Diesel Engine-Out Exhaust Properties for an RCCI-Enabled Vehicle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gao, Zhiming; Curran, Scott; Daw, C Stuart; Wagner, Robert M

    2013-01-01

    In-cylinder blending of gasoline and diesel fuels to achieve low-temperature reactivity controlled compression ignition (RCCI) can reduce NOx and PM emissions while maintaining or improving brake thermal efficiency compared to conventional diesel combustion (CDC). Moreover, the dual-fueling RCCI is able to achieve these benefits by tailoring combustion reactivity over a wider range of engine operation than is possible with a single fuel. However, the currently demonstrated range of stable RCCI combustion just covers a portion of the engine speed-load range required in several light-duty drive cycles. This means that engines must switch from RCCI to CDC when speed and load fall outside of the stable RCCI range. In this study we investigated the impact of RCCI as it has recently been demonstrated on practical engine-out exhaust temperature and emissions by simulating a multi-mode RCCI-enabled vehicle operating over two urban and two highway driving cycles. To implement our simulations, we employed experimental engine maps for a multi-mode RCCI/CDC engine combined with a standard mid-size, automatic transmission, passenger vehicle in the Autonomie vehicle simulation platform. Our results include both detailed transient and cycle-averaged engine exhaust temperature and emissions for each case, and we note the potential implications of the modified exhaust properties on catalytic emissions control and utilization of waste heat recovery on future RCCI-enabled vehicles.

  3. arXiv:1010.4385v1[cs.AI]21Oct2010 A Protocol for Self-Synchronized Duty-Cycling in Sensor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fekete, Sándor P.

    equipped with batteries, which makes energy a scarce resource. A basic idea for saving energy {hherandez,mjblesa,cblum}@lsi.upc.edu 2 Algorithms Group Braunschweig Institute of Technology, Braunschweig-synchronized duty-cycling in wireless sensor net- works with energy harvesting capabilities. The protocol

  4. Emission Estimation of Heavy Duty Diesel Vehicles by Developing Texas Specific Drive Cycles with Moves 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gu, Chaoyi

    2013-07-31

    Driving cycles are acting as the basis of the evaluation of the vehicle performance from air quality point of view, such as fuel consumption or pollutant emission, especially in emission modeling and emission estimation. ...

  5. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Lean Miller Cycle System Development for Light-Duty Vehicles

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by General Motors at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about lean miller cycle system...

  6. Light duty vehicle full fuel cycle emissions analysis. Topical report, April 1993-April 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Darrow, K.G.

    1994-04-01

    The report provides a methodology for analyzing full fuel cycle emissions of alternative fuels for vehicles. Included in this analysis is an assessment of the following fuel cycles relevant to vehicle use: gasoline, reformulated gasoline, natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas, electric power (with onboard battery storage), ethanol, and methanol fuels. The analysis focuses on basic criteria pollutants (reactive organic gases, nitrous oxides, carbon monoxide, sulfurous oxides, and particulates less than 10 microns (PM10)). Emissions of greenhouse gases (carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide) are also defined. The analysis was conducted for two cases, United States and the State of California and two time frames, current and year 2000.

  7. Investigation of Path Dependence in Commercial Li-ion Cells Chosen for PHEV Duty Cycle Protocols (paper)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kevin L. Gering

    2011-04-01

    Path dependence is emerging as a premier issue of how electrochemical cells age in conditions that are diverse and variable in the time domain. For example, lithium-ion cells in a vehicle configuration will experience a variable combination of usage and rest periods over a range of temperature and state of charge (SOC). This is complicated by the fact that some aging can actually become worse (or better) when a lithium-ion cell is idle for extended periods under calendar-life (calL) aging, as opposed to cycle-life (cycL) conditions where the cell is used within a predictable schedule. The purpose of this study is to bridge the gap between highly idealized and controlled laboratory test conditions and actual field conditions regarding PHEV applications, so that field-type aging mechanisms can be mimicked and quantified in a repeatable laboratory setting. The main parameters are the magnitude and frequency of the thermal cycling, looking at isothermal, mild, and severe scenarios. To date, little is known about Li-ion aging effects caused by thermal cycling superimposed onto electrochemical cycling, and related path dependence. This scenario is representative of what Li-ion batteries will experience in vehicle service, where upon the typical start of a HEV/PHEV, the batteries will be cool or cold, will gradually warm up to normal temperature and operate there for a time, then will cool down after the vehicle is turned off. Such thermal cycling will occur thousands of times during the projected life of a HEV/PHEV battery pack. We propose to quantify the effects of thermal cycling on Li-ion batteries using a representative chemistry that is commercially available. The secondary Li-ion cells used in this study are of the 18650 configuration, have a nominal capacity rating of 1.9 Ah, and consist of a {LiMn2O4 + LiMn(1/3)Ni(1/3)Co(1/3)O2} cathode and a graphite anode. Electrochemical cycling is based on PHEV-relevant cycle-life protocols that are a combination of charge depleting (CD) and charge sustaining (CS) modes discussed in the Battery Test Manual for Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (INL, March 2008, rev0). A realistic duty cycle will involve both CD and CS modes, the proportion of each defined by the severity of the power demands. We assume that the cells will start each cycling day at 90% SOC, and that they will not be allowed to go below 35% SOC, with operation around 70% SOC being a nominal condition. The 35, 70, and 90% SOC conditions are also being used to define critical aspects of the related reference performance test (RPT) for this investigation. There are three primary components to the RPT, all assessed at room temperature: (A) static and residual capacity (SRC) over a matrix of current, (B) kinetics and pulse performance testing (PPT) over current for SOCs of interest, and (C) EIS for SOCs of interest. The RPT is performed on all cells every 30 day test interval, as well as a pulse-per-day to provide a quick diagnostic snapshot. Where feasible, we utilize various elements of Diagnostic Testing (DT) to characterize performance of the cells and to gain mechanistic-level knowledge regarding both performance features and limitations. We will present the rationale behind the experimental design, early data, and discuss the fundamental tools used to elucidate performance degradation mechanisms.

  8. Adaptive Duty Cycling in Sensor Networks via Continuous Time Markov Chain Modelling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gautam, Natarajan

    or uninterrupted operation of energy harvesting-powered sensor networks remains a major challenge, due-neutrality, whereby both energy supply and demand are balanced. This paper proposes a framework enabling an adaptive analytical expressions for key QoS metrics - such as latency, loss probability and power consumption. We

  9. AGN duty cycle estimates for the ultra-steep spectrum radio relic VLSS J1431.8+1331

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shulevski, A; Barthel, P D; Harwood, J J; Brunetti, G; van Weeren, R J; Röttgering, H J A; White, G J; Horellou, C; Kunert-Bajraszewska, M; Jamrozy, M; Chyzy, K T; Mahony, E; Miley, G; Brienza, M; Bîrzan, L; Rafferty, D A; Brüggen, M; Wise, M W; Conway, J; de Gasperin, F; Vilchez, N

    2015-01-01

    Steep spectrum radio sources associated with active galactic nuclei (AGN) may contain remnants of past AGN activity episodes. Novel instruments like the LOw Frequency ARray (LOFAR) are enabling studies of these fascinating structures to be made at tens to hundreds of MHz with sufficient resolution to analyse their complex morphology. Our goal is to characterize the integrated and resolved spectral properties of VLSS J1431+1331 and estimate source ages based on synchrotron radio emission models, thus putting constraints on the AGN duty cycle. Using a broad spectral coverage, we have derived spectral and curvature maps, and used synchrotron ageing models to determine the time elapsed from the last time the source plasma was energized. We used LOFAR, Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope (GMRT) and Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) data. Based on our ageing analysis, we infer that the AGN that created this source currently has very low levels of activity or that it is switched off. The derived ages for the larger source c...

  10. GHz Laser-free Time-resolved Transmission Electron Microscopy: a Stroboscopic High-duty-cycle Method

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qiu, Jiaqi; Jing, Chunguang; Baryshev, Sergey V; Reed, Bryan W; Zhu, Yimei; Lau, June W

    2015-01-01

    A device and a method for producing ultrashort electron pulses with GHz repetition rates via pulsing an input direct current (dc) electron beam are provided. The device and the method are based on an electromagnetic-mechanical pulser (EMMP) that consists of a series of transverse deflecting cavities and magnetic quadrupoles. The EMMP modulates and chops the incoming dc electron beam and converts it into pico- and sub-pico-second (100 fs to 10 ps) electron pulse sequences at >1 GHz repetition rates. Applying the EMMP to a transmission electron microscope (TEM) with any dc electron source, a GHz stroboscopic high-duty-cycle TEM can be realized. Unlike in many recent developments in time-resolved TEM that rely on a sample pumping laser paired with a laser launching electrons from a photocathode to probe the sample, there is no laser in the presented experimental set-up. This is expected to be a significant relief for electron microscopists who are not familiar with laser systems. The EMMP and the sample are exte...

  11. Life cycle air quality impacts of conventional and alternative light-duty transportation in the United States

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Tessum, Christopher W.; Hill, Jason D.; Marshall, Julian D.

    2014-12-30

    Commonly considered strategies for reducing the environmental impact of light-duty transportation include using alternative fuels and improving vehicle fuel economy. We evaluate the air quality-related human health impacts of 10 such options, including the use of liquid biofuels, diesel, and compressed natural gas (CNG) in internal combustion engines; the use of electricity from a range of conventional and renewable sources to power electric vehicles (EVs); and the use of hybrid EV technology. Our approach combines spatially, temporally, and chemically detailed life cycle emission inventories; comprehensive, fine-scale state-of-the-science chemical transport modeling; and exposure, concentration–response, and economic health impact modeling for ozonemore »(O3) and fine particulate matter (PM2.5). We find that powering vehicles with corn ethanol or with coal-based or “grid average” electricity increases monetized environmental health impacts by 80% or more relative to using conventional gasoline. Conversely, EVs powered by low-emitting electricity from natural gas, wind, water, or solar power reduce environmental health impacts by 50% or more. Consideration of potential climate change impacts alongside the human health outcomes described here further reinforces the environmental preferability of EVs powered by low-emitting electricity relative to gasoline vehicles.« less

  12. Life cycle air quality impacts of conventional and alternative light-duty transportation in the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tessum, Christopher W.; Hill, Jason D.; Marshall, Julian D.

    2014-12-30

    Commonly considered strategies for reducing the environmental impact of light-duty transportation include using alternative fuels and improving vehicle fuel economy. We evaluate the air quality-related human health impacts of 10 such options, including the use of liquid biofuels, diesel, and compressed natural gas (CNG) in internal combustion engines; the use of electricity from a range of conventional and renewable sources to power electric vehicles (EVs); and the use of hybrid EV technology. Our approach combines spatially, temporally, and chemically detailed life cycle emission inventories; comprehensive, fine-scale state-of-the-science chemical transport modeling; and exposure, concentration–response, and economic health impact modeling for ozone (O3) and fine particulate matter (PM2.5). We find that powering vehicles with corn ethanol or with coal-based or “grid average” electricity increases monetized environmental health impacts by 80% or more relative to using conventional gasoline. Conversely, EVs powered by low-emitting electricity from natural gas, wind, water, or solar power reduce environmental health impacts by 50% or more. Consideration of potential climate change impacts alongside the human health outcomes described here further reinforces the environmental preferability of EVs powered by low-emitting electricity relative to gasoline vehicles.

  13. Drive cycle analysis of butanol/diesel blends in a light-duty vehicle.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miers, S. A.; Carlson, R. W.; McConnell, S. S.; Ng, H. K.; Wallner, T.; LeFeber, J.; Energy Systems; Esper Images Video & Multimedia

    2008-10-01

    The potential exists to displace a portion of the petroleum diesel demand with butanol and positively impact engine-out particulate matter. As a preliminary investigation, 20% and 40% by volume blends of butanol with ultra low sulfur diesel fuel were operated in a 1999 Mercedes Benz C220 turbo diesel vehicle (Euro III compliant). Cold and hot start urban as well as highway drive cycle tests were performed for the two blends of butanol and compared to diesel fuel. In addition, 35 MPH and 55 MPH steady-state tests were conducted under varying road loads for the two fuel blends. Exhaust gas emissions, fuel consumption, and intake and exhaust temperatures were acquired for each test condition. Filter smoke numbers were also acquired during the steady-state tests.

  14. The Relationship Between X-ray Luminosity and Duty Cycle for Dwarf Novae and their Specific Frequency in the Inner Galaxy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Britt, C T; Pretorius, M L; Hynes, R I; Jonker, P G; Torres, M A P; Knigge, C; Heinke, C O; Johnson, C B; Steeghs, D; Greiss, S; Nelemans, G

    2015-01-01

    We measure the duty cycles for an existing sample of well observed, nearby dwarf novae using data from AAVSO, and present a quantitative empirical relation between the duty cycle of dwarf novae outbursts and the X-ray luminosity of the system in quiescence. We have found that $\\log DC=0.63(\\pm0.21)\\times(\\log L_{X}({\\rm erg\\,s^{-1}})-31.3)-0.95(\\pm0.1)$, where DC stands for duty cycle. We note that there is intrinsic scatter in this relation greater than what is expected from purely statistical errors. Using the dwarf nova X-ray luminosity functions from \\citet{Pretorius12} and \\citet{Byckling10}, we compare this relation to the number of dwarf novae in the Galactic Bulge Survey which were identified through optical outbursts during an 8-day long monitoring campaign. We find a specific frequency of X-ray bright ($L_{X}>10^{31}\\,{\\rm erg\\,s^{-1}}$) Cataclysmic Variables undergoing Dwarf Novae outbursts in the direction of the Galactic Bulge of $6.6\\pm4.7\\times10^{-5}\\,M_{\\odot}^{-1}$. Such a specific frequency...

  15. The Study of TeV Variability and Duty Cycle of Mrk 421 from 3 Years of Observations with the Milagro Observatory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abdo, A A; Allen, B T; Aune, T; Barber, A S; Berley, D; Braun, J; Chen, C; Christopher, G E; Delay, R S; DeYoung, T; Dingus, B L; Ellsworth, R W; Fraija, N; González, M M; Goodman, J A; Hays, E; Hoffman, C M; Hüntemeyer, P H; Imran, A; Kolterman, B E; Linnemann, J T; Marinelli, A; McEnery, J E; Morgan, T; Mincer, A I; Nemethy, P; Patricelli, B; Pretz, J; Ryan, J M; Parkinson, P M Saz; Schneider, M; Shoup, A; Sinnis, G; Smith, A J; Vasileiou, V; Walker, G P; Williams, D A; Yodh, G B

    2014-01-01

    TeV flaring activity with time scales as short as tens of minutes and an orphan TeV flare have been observed from the blazar Markarian 421 (Mrk 421). The TeV emission from Mrk 421 is believed to be produced by leptonic synchrotron self-Compton (SSC) emission. In this scenario, correlations between the X-ray and the TeV fluxes are expected, TeV orphan flares are hardly explained and the activity (measured as duty cycle) of the source at TeV energies is expected to be equal or less than that observed in X-rays if only SSC is considered. To estimate the TeV duty cycle of Mrk 421 and to establish limits on its variability at different time scales, we continuously observed Mrk 421 with the Milagro observatory. Mrk 421 was detected by Milagro with a statistical significance of 7.1 standard deviations between 2005 September 21 and 2008 March 15. The observed spectrum is consistent with previous observations by VERITAS. We estimate the duty cycle of Mrk 421 for energies above 1 TeV for different hypothesis of the bas...

  16. DRIVE CYCLE EFFICIENCY AND EMISSIONS ESTIMATES FOR REACTIVITY CONTROLLED COMPRESSION IGNITION IN A MULTI-CYLINDER LIGHT-DUTY DIESEL ENGINE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Curran, Scott; Briggs, Thomas E; Cho, Kukwon; Wagner, Robert M

    2011-01-01

    In-cylinder blending of gasoline and diesel to achieve Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) has been shown to reduce NOx and PM emissions while maintaining or improving brake thermal efficiency as compared to conventional diesel combustion (CDC). The RCCI concept has an advantage over many advanced combustion strategies in that by varying both the percent of premixed gasoline and EGR rate, stable combustion can be extended over more of the light-duty drive cycle load range. Changing the percent premixed gasoline changes the fuel reactivity stratification in the cylinder providing further control of combustion phasing and pressure rise rate than the use of EGR alone. This paper examines the combustion and emissions performance of light-duty diesel engine using direct injected diesel fuel and port injected gasoline to carry out RCCI for steady-state engine conditions which are consistent with a light-duty drive cycle. A GM 1.9L four-cylinder engine with the stock compression ratio of 17.5:1, common rail diesel injection system, high-pressure EGR system and variable geometry turbocharger was modified to allow for port fuel injection with gasoline. Engine-out emissions, engine performance and combustion behavior for RCCI operation is compared against both CDC and a premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI) strategy which relies on high levels of EGR dilution. The effect of percent of premixed gasoline, EGR rate, boost level, intake mixture temperature, combustion phasing and pressure rise rate is investigated for RCCI combustion for the light-duty modal points. Engine-out emissions of NOx and PM were found to be considerably lower for RCCI operation as compared to CDC and PCCI, while HC and CO emissions were higher. Brake thermal efficiency was similar or higher for many of the modal conditions for RCCI operation. The emissions results are used to estimate hot-start FTP-75 emissions levels with RCCI and are compared against CDC and PCCI modes.

  17. Performance of an Organic Rankine Cycle Waste Heat Recovery System...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Performance of an Organic Rankine Cycle Waste Heat Recovery System for Light Duty Diesel Engines Performance of an Organic Rankine Cycle Waste Heat Recovery System for Light Duty...

  18. Microbial respiration measurements Microbial respiration is a key process in the carbon cycling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and energy to the microbial as- semblage. We estimated that DMSP can satisfy 20-67% of the bacterial sulfur8 Highlight Microbial respiration measurements Microbial respiration is a key process in the carbon from the rest of the microbial community by means of size- fractionation, and long incubation times

  19. Light Duty Efficient, Clean Combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Donald Stanton

    2010-12-31

    Cummins has successfully completed the Light Duty Efficient Clean Combustion (LDECC) cooperative program with DoE. This program was established in 2007 in support of the Department of Energy's Vehicles Technologies Advanced Combustion and Emissions Control initiative to remove critical barriers to the commercialization of advanced, high efficiency, emissions compliant internal combustion (IC) engines for light duty vehicles. Work in this area expanded the fundamental knowledge of engine combustion to new regimes and advanced the knowledge of fuel requirements for these diesel engines to realize their full potential. All of the following objectives were met with fuel efficiency improvement targets exceeded: (1) Improve light duty vehicle (5000 lb. test weight) fuel efficiency by 10.5% over today's state-of-the-art diesel engine on the FTP city drive cycle; (2) Develop and design an advanced combustion system plus aftertreatment system that synergistically meets Tier 2 Bin 5 NOx and PM emissions standards while demonstrating the efficiency improvements; (3) Maintain power density comparable to that of current conventional engines for the applicable vehicle class; and (4) Evaluate different fuel components and ensure combustion system compatibility with commercially available biofuels. Key accomplishments include: (1) A 25% improvement in fuel efficiency was achieved with the advanced LDECC engine equipped with a novel SCR aftertreatment system compared to the 10.5% target; (2) An 11% improvement in fuel efficiency was achieved with the advanced LDECC engine and no NOx aftertreamtent system; (3) Tier 2 Bin 5 and SFTP II emissions regulations were met with the advanced LDECC engine equipped with a novel SCR aftertreatment system; (4) Tier 2 Bin 5 emissions regulations were met with the advanced LDECC engine and no NOx aftertreatment, but SFTP II emissions regulations were not met for the US06 test cycle - Additional technical barriers exist for the no NOx aftertreatment engine; (5) Emissions and efficiency targets were reached with the use of biodiesel. A variety of biofuel feedstocks (soy, rapeseed, etc.) was investigated; (6) The advanced LDECC engine with low temperature combustion was compatible with commercially available biofuels as evaluated by engine performance testing and not durability testing; (7) The advanced LDECC engine equipped with a novel SCR aftertreatment system is the engine system architecture that is being further developed by the Cummins product development organization. Cost reduction and system robustness activities have been identified for future deployment; (8) The new engine and aftertreatment component technologies are being developed by the Cummins Component Business units (e.g. fuel system, turbomachinery, aftertreatment, electronics, etc.) to ensure commercial viability and deployment; (9) Cummins has demonstrated that the technologies developed for this program are scalable across the complete light duty engine product offerings (2.8L to 6.7L engines); and (10) Key subsystems developed include - sequential two stage turbo, combustions system for low temperature combustion, novel SCR aftertreatment system with feedback control, and high pressure common rail fuel system. An important element of the success of this project was leveraging Cummins engine component technologies. Innovation in component technology coupled with system integration is enabling Cummins to move forward with the development of high efficiency clean diesel products with a long term goal of reaching a 40% improvement in thermal efficiency for the engine plus aftertreatment system. The 40% improvement is in-line with the current light duty vehicle efficiency targets set by the 2010 DoE Vehicle Technologies MYPP and supported through co-operative projects such as the Cummins Advanced Technology Powertrains for Light-Duty Vehicles (ATP-LD) started in 2010.

  20. Light Duty Efficient, Clean Combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stanton, Donald W

    2011-06-03

    Cummins has successfully completed the Light Duty Efficient Clean Combustion (LDECC) cooperative program with DoE. This program was established in 2007 in support of the Department of Energy’s Vehicles Technologies Advanced Combustion and Emissions Control initiative to remove critical barriers to the commercialization of advanced, high efficiency, emissions compliant internal combustion (IC) engines for light duty vehicles. Work in this area expanded the fundamental knowledge of engine combustion to new regimes and advanced the knowledge of fuel requirements for these diesel engines to realize their full potential. All of the following objectives were met with fuel efficiency improvement targets exceeded: 1. Improve light duty vehicle (5000 lb. test weight) fuel efficiency by 10.5% over today’s state-ofthe- art diesel engine on the FTP city drive cycle 2. Develop & design an advanced combustion system plus aftertreatment system that synergistically meets Tier 2 Bin 5 NOx and PM emissions standards while demonstrating the efficiency improvements. 3. Maintain power density comparable to that of current conventional engines for the applicable vehicle class. 4. Evaluate different fuel components and ensure combustion system compatibility with commercially available biofuels. Key accomplishments include: ? A 25% improvement in fuel efficiency was achieved with the advanced LDECC engine equipped with a novel SCR aftertreatment system compared to the 10.5% target ? An 11% improvement in fuel efficiency was achieved with the advanced LDECC engine and no NOx aftertreamtent system ? Tier 2 Bin 5 and SFTP II emissions regulations were met with the advanced LDECC engine equipped with a novel SCR aftertreatment system ? Tier 2 Bin 5 emissions regulations were met with the advanced LDECC engine and no NOx aftertreatment, but SFTP II emissions regulations were not met for the US06 test cycle – Additional technical barriers exist for the no NOx aftertreatment engine ? Emissions and efficiency targets were reached with the use of biodiesel. A variety of biofuel feedstocks (soy, rapeseed, etc.) was investigated. ? The advanced LDECC engine with low temperature combustion was compatible with commercially available biofuels as evaluated by engine performance testing and not durability testing. ? The advanced LDECC engine equipped with a novel SCR aftertreatment system is the engine system architecture that is being further developed by the Cummins product development organization. Cost reduction and system robustness activities have been identified for future deployment. ? The new engine and aftertreatment component technologies are being developed by the Cummins Component Business units (e.g. fuel system, turbomachinery, aftertreatment, electronics, etc.) to ensure commercial viability and deployment ? Cummins has demonstrated that the technologies developed for this program are scalable across the complete light duty engine product offerings (2.8L to 6.7L engines) ? Key subsystems developed include – sequential two stage turbo, combustions system for low temperature combustion, novel SCR aftertreatment system with feedback control, and high pressure common rail fuel system An important element of the success of this project was leveraging Cummins engine component technologies. Innovation in component technology coupled with system integration is enabling Cummins to move forward with the development of high efficiency clean diesel products with a long term goal of reaching a 40% improvement in thermal efficiency for the engine plus aftertreatment system. The 40% improvement is in-line with the current light duty vehicle efficiency targets set by the 2010 DoE Vehicle Technologies MYPP and supported through co-operative projects such as the Cummins Advanced Technology Powertrains for Light- Duty Vehicles (ATP-LD) started in 2010.

  1. Light Duty Combustion Research: Advanced Light-Duty Combustion...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Light Duty Combustion Research: Advanced Light-Duty Combustion Experiments Light Duty Combustion Research: Advanced Light-Duty Combustion Experiments 2009 DOE Hydrogen Program and...

  2. Life Cycle Assessment of a Parabolic Trough Concentrating Solar Power Plant and Impacts of Key Design Alternatives: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heath, G. A.; Burkhardt, J. J.; Turchi, C. S.

    2011-09-01

    Climate change and water scarcity are important issues for today's power sector. To inform capacity expansion decisions, hybrid life cycle assessment is used to evaluate a reference design of a parabolic trough concentrating solar power (CSP) facility located in Daggett, California, along four sustainability metrics: life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, water consumption, cumulative energy demand (CED), and energy payback time (EPBT). This wet-cooled, 103 MW plant utilizes mined nitrate salts in its two-tank, thermal energy storage (TES) system. Design alternatives of dry-cooling, a thermocline TES, and synthetically-derived nitrate salt are evaluated. During its life cycle, the reference CSP plant is estimated to emit 26 g CO2eq per kWh, consume 4.7 L/kWh of water, and demand 0.40 MJeq/kWh of energy, resulting in an EPBT of approximately 1 year. The dry-cooled alternative is estimated to reduce life cycle water consumption by 77% but increase life cycle GHG emissions and CED by 8%. Synthetic nitrate salts may increase life cycle GHG emissions by 52% compared to mined. Switching from two-tank to thermocline TES configuration reduces life cycle GHG emissions, most significantly for plants using synthetically-derived nitrate salts. CSP can significantly reduce GHG emissions compared to fossil-fueled generation; however, dry-cooling may be required in many locations to minimize water consumption.

  3. The heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) is a key component of Combined Cycle Power Plants (CCPP). The exhaust (flue gas) from the CCPP gas turbine flows through the HRSG -this gas typically contains a high

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) is a key component of Combined Cycle Power Plants (CCPP). The exhaust (flue gas) from the CCPP gas turbine flows through the HRSG - this gas typically contains a high

  4. Downspeeding a Heavy-Duty Pickup Truck with a Combined Supercharger...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Pickup Truck with a Combined Supercharger and Turbocharger Boosting System to Improve Drive Cycle Fuel Economy Downspeeding a Heavy-Duty Pickup Truck with a Combined...

  5. Statistical Characterization of School Bus Drive Cycles Collected via Onboard Logging Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duran, A.; Walkowicz, K.

    2013-10-01

    In an effort to characterize the dynamics typical of school bus operation, National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) researchers set out to gather in-use duty cycle data from school bus fleets operating across the country. Employing a combination of Isaac Instruments GPS/CAN data loggers in conjunction with existing onboard telemetric systems resulted in the capture of operating information for more than 200 individual vehicles in three geographically unique domestic locations. In total, over 1,500 individual operational route shifts from Washington, New York, and Colorado were collected. Upon completing the collection of in-use field data using either NREL-installed data acquisition devices or existing onboard telemetry systems, large-scale duty-cycle statistical analyses were performed to examine underlying vehicle dynamics trends within the data and to explore vehicle operation variations between fleet locations. Based on the results of these analyses, high, low, and average vehicle dynamics requirements were determined, resulting in the selection of representative standard chassis dynamometer test cycles for each condition. In this paper, the methodology and accompanying results of the large-scale duty-cycle statistical analysis are presented, including graphical and tabular representations of a number of relationships between key duty-cycle metrics observed within the larger data set. In addition to presenting the results of this analysis, conclusions are drawn and presented regarding potential applications of advanced vehicle technology as it relates specifically to school buses.

  6. Technology Assessment Report: Duty Cycling Controllers Revisited

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Webster, Tom; Benenson, Peter

    1998-01-01

    and Air Conditioners: Energy Savers or Energy Wasters? ,”controllers marketed as energy savers are in the range of $cost effectiveness of commercial energy saver controllers is

  7. Technology Assessment Report: Duty Cycling Controllers Revisited

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Webster, Tom; Benenson, Peter

    1998-01-01

    of Fossil Fuel Fired Boilers,” ASHRAE Proceedings, Paper6 . U. Bonne, “ Furnace and Boiler System Efficiency andEfficiency of a Gas-Fired Boiler,” ASHRAE Proceedings, Paper

  8. Duty Cycle Software - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would like submit theCovalentLaboratory |Sectorfor $1.14 Per1-E

  9. Heavy Truck Duty Cycle (HTDC) Project The Heavy Truck Duty Cycle (HTDC)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , location/direction/speed/time-of-day, fuel consumption, real-time weight, precipitation/ road condition in studying the effects on fuel consumption of their New Generation Single Wide-Based Tires (NGSWBTs) compared to standard dual tires. Two east-west runs were conducted from Kalamazoo, Michigan to Portland, Oregon

  10. Heavy-Duty Low-Temperature and Diesel Combustion & Heavy-Duty...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Heavy-Duty Low-Temperature and Diesel Combustion & Heavy-Duty Combustion Modeling Heavy-Duty Low-Temperature and Diesel Combustion &...

  11. Predicted Impact of Idling Reduction Options for Heavy-Duty Diesel...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Diesel Trucks: A Comparison of Full-Fuel-Cycle Emissions, Energy Use, and Proximity to Urban Populations in Five States Predicted Impact of Idling Reduction Options for Heavy-Duty...

  12. Ultra-Low Sulfur diesel Update & Future Light Duty Diesel | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Light Duty Diesel Vehicles BiodieselFuelManagementBestPracticesReport.pdf A Life-Cycle Assessment Comparing Select Gas-to-Liquid Fuels with Conventional Fuels in the...

  13. Sandia Energy - Heavy Duty

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home RoomPreservation of Fe(II)Geothermal Energy & Drilling TechnologyHeavy Duty Home Transportation

  14. Clinical Competence Assessments Fitness for Duty Evaluations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gleeson, Joseph G.

    Clinical Competence Assessments Fitness for Duty Evaluations Practice & Billing Monitoring Assessment· Program Fitness for Duty Evaluations· Physician Enhancement Program· (PEP) - Monitoring Custom Competence Assessment· Fitness For Duty (FFD) Evaluation· #12;PACE Clinical Competence Assessment Program2 3

  15. Lowest Engine-Out Emissions as the Key to the Future of the Heavy...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Lowest Engine-Out Emissions as the Key to the Future of the Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine: New Development Rersults Lowest Engine-Out Emissions as the Key to the Future of the...

  16. KEY PERSONNEL

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    KEY PERSONNEL 7062015 TITLE NAME President Christopher C. Gentile Vice President, Engineering Robin Stubenhofer Vice President, Integrated Supply Chain Rick Lavelock Director,...

  17. Lightweight Composite Materials for Heavy Duty Vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pruez, Jacky; Shoukry, Samir; Williams, Gergis; Shoukry, Mark

    2013-08-31

    The main objective of this project is to develop, analyze and validate data, methodologies and tools that support widespread applications of automotive lightweighting technologies. Two underlying principles are guiding the research efforts towards this objective: • Seamless integration between the lightweight materials selected for certain vehicle systems, cost-effective methods for their design and manufacturing, and practical means to enhance their durability while reducing their Life-Cycle-Costs (LCC). • Smooth migration of the experience and findings accumulated so far at WVU in the areas of designing with lightweight materials, innovative joining concepts and durability predictions, from applications to the area of weight savings for heavy vehicle systems and hydrogen storage tanks, to lightweighting applications of selected systems or assemblies in light–duty vehicles.

  18. Technology Development for Light Duty High Efficient Diesel Engines...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Light Duty High Efficient Diesel Engines Technology Development for Light Duty High Efficient Diesel Engines Improve the efficiency of diesel engines for light duty applications...

  19. Heavy-Duty Low-Temperature and Diesel Combustion & Heavy-Duty...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Heavy-Duty Low-Temperature and Diesel Combustion & Heavy-Duty Combustion Modeling Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014:...

  20. Heavy Duty & Medium Duty Drive Cycle Data Collection for Modeling Expansion

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum12,ExecutiveFinancing ProgramsDepartment of¡ ¢ £Space HeatingEmerging|

  1. Heavy Duty Vehicle Futures Analysis.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Askin, Amanda Christine; Barter, Garrett; West, Todd H.; Manley, Dawn Kataoka

    2014-05-01

    This report describes work performed for an Early Career Research and Development project. This project developed a heavy-duty vehicle (HDV) sector model to assess the factors influencing alternative fuel and efficiency technology adoption. This model builds on a Sandia light duty vehicle sector model and provides a platform for assessing potential impacts of technological advancements developed at the Combustion Research Facility. Alternative fuel and technology adoption modeling is typically developed around a small set of scenarios. This HDV sector model segments the HDV sector and parameterizes input values, such as fuel prices, efficiencies, and vehicle costs. This parameterization enables sensitivity and trade space analyses to identify the inputs that are most associated with outputs of interest, such as diesel consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. Thus this analysis tool enables identification of the most significant HDV sector drivers that can be used to support energy security and climate change goals.

  2. Building aggressively duty-cycled platforms to achieve energy efficiency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Agarwal, Yuvraj

    2009-01-01

    such as Bluetooth sni? mode and Wi-Fi PSM. . . . . . . . .to Wi-Fi in fully active mode (without PSM). . . . . . . . .AM) or Power Saving Mode(PSM). In the case of AM the radio

  3. Building aggressively duty-cycled platforms to achieve energy efficiency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Agarwal, Yuvraj

    2009-01-01

    Balakrishnan. Minimizing energy for wireless web access withoptimization for energy e?cient wireless embedded systems.time Detailed Energy Accounting for Wireless Sensor Nodes.

  4. Building aggressively duty-cycled platforms to achieve energy efficiency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Agarwal, Yuvraj

    2009-01-01

    Power Management in Mobile Devices . . . . . . . 2.3.2 PowerWi-Fi HotSpot, allow mobile devices to connect other devicesConsumption of Wireless Mobile Devices with Multiple Radio

  5. Truck Duty Cycle and Performance Data Collection and Analysis Program |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankADVANCEDInstallers/ContractorsPhotovoltaicsState ofSavingsTransmissioninofDepartmentTohonoI L L E P

  6. Truck Duty Cycle and Performance Data Collection and Analysis Program |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankADVANCEDInstallers/ContractorsPhotovoltaicsState ofSavingsTransmissioninofDepartmentTohonoI L L E

  7. Cycles and cycle modulations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brandenburg, Axel

    2011-01-01

    Some selected concepts for the solar activity cycle are briefly reviewed. Cycle modulations through a stochastic alpha effect are being identified with limited scale separation ratios. Three-dimensional turbulence simulations with helicity and shear are compared at two different scale separation ratios. In both cases the level of fluctuations shows relatively little variation with the dynamo cycle. Prospects for a shallow origin of sunspots are discussed in terms of the negative effective magnetic pressure instability. Tilt angles of bipolar active regions are discussed as a consequence of shear rather than the Coriolis force.

  8. Development of a Waste Heat Recovery System for Light Duty Diesel Engines

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Substantial increases in engine efficiency of a light-duty diesel engine, which require utilization of the waste energy found in the coolant, EGR, and exhaust streams, may be increased through the development of a Rankine cycle waste heat recovery system

  9. APBF-DEC Heavy Duty NOx Adsorber/DPF Project: Heavy Duty Linehaul...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    & Publications Status of APBF-DEC NOx AdsorberDPF Projects APBF- DEC Heavy-Duty NOx AdsorberDPF Project: Catalyst Aging Study APBF-DEC Light-duty NOx AdsorberDPF Project...

  10. Light Duty Vehicle CNG Tanks

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyTher i nAand DOE Safety StandardsLabor SeptemberofDepartmentDuty Vehicle CNG Tanks

  11. Sandia Energy - Heavy Duty Fuels

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home RoomPreservation of Fe(II)Geothermal Energy & Drilling TechnologyHeavy Duty Home

  12. A Waste Heat Recovery System for Light Duty Diesel Engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Briggs, Thomas E; Wagner, Robert M; Edwards, Kevin Dean; Curran, Scott; Nafziger, Eric J

    2010-01-01

    In order to achieve proposed fuel economy requirements, engines must make better use of the available fuel energy. Regardless of how efficient the engine is, there will still be a significant fraction of the fuel energy that is rejected in the exhaust and coolant streams. One viable technology for recovering this waste heat is an Organic Rankine Cycle. This cycle heats a working fluid using these heat streams and expands the fluid through a turbine to produce shaft power. The present work was the development of such a system applied to a light duty diesel engine. This lab demonstration was designed to maximize the peak brake thermal efficiency of the engine, and the combined system achieved an efficiency of 44.4%. The design of the system is discussed, as are the experimental performance results. The system potential at typical operating conditions was evaluated to determine the practicality of installing such a system in a vehicle.

  13. Technical Challenges and Opportunities Light-Duty Diesel Engines...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Challenges and Opportunities Light-Duty Diesel Engines in North America Technical Challenges and Opportunities Light-Duty Diesel Engines in North America 2005 Diesel Engine...

  14. NOx Adsorbers for Heavy Duty Truck Engines - Testing and Simulation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Adsorbers for Heavy Duty Truck Engines - Testing and Simulation NOx Adsorbers for Heavy Duty Truck Engines - Testing and Simulation This report provides the results of an...

  15. Light Duty Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Hydrogen Fueling Protocol...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Light Duty Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Hydrogen Fueling Protocol Light Duty Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Hydrogen Fueling Protocol Download the webinar slides from the U.S. Department...

  16. Emissions from the European Light Duty Diesel Vehicle During...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    the European Light Duty Diesel Vehicle During DPF Regeneration Events Emissions from the European Light Duty Diesel Vehicle During DPF Regeneration Events Repeated partial...

  17. Advanced Natural Gas Engine Technology for Heavy Duty Vehicles...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Natural Gas Engine Technology for Heavy Duty Vehicles Advanced Natural Gas Engine Technology for Heavy Duty Vehicles Natural gas engine technology has evolved to meet the...

  18. SCR Systems for Heavy Duty Trucks: Progress Towards Meeting Euro...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Systems for Heavy Duty Trucks: Progress Towards Meeting Euro 4 Emission Standards in 2005 SCR Systems for Heavy Duty Trucks: Progress Towards Meeting Euro 4 Emission Standards in...

  19. Integrated Virtual Lab in Supporting Heavy Duty Engine and Vehicle...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Virtual Lab in Supporting Heavy Duty Engine and Vehicle Emission Rulemaking Integrated Virtual Lab in Supporting Heavy Duty Engine and Vehicle Emission Rulemaking Presentation...

  20. Vehicle Technologies Office AVTA: Light Duty Alternative Fuel...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Office AVTA: Light Duty Alternative Fuel and Advanced Vehicle Data Vehicle Technologies Office AVTA: Light Duty Alternative Fuel and Advanced Vehicle Data The Vehicle Technologies...

  1. NAFTA Heavy Duty Engine and Aftertreatment Technology: Status...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    NAFTA Heavy Duty Engine and Aftertreatment Technology: Status and Outlook NAFTA Heavy Duty Engine and Aftertreatment Technology: Status and Outlook Presentation given at DEER 2006,...

  2. California Policy Stimulates Carbon Negative CNG for Heavy Duty...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Policy Stimulates Carbon Negative CNG for Heavy Duty Trucks California Policy Stimulates Carbon Negative CNG for Heavy Duty Trucks Describes system for fueling truck fleet with...

  3. Progress on DOE Vehicle Technologies Light-Duty Diesel Engine...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    on DOE Vehicle Technologies Light-Duty Diesel Engine Efficiency and Emissions Milestones Progress on DOE Vehicle Technologies Light-Duty Diesel Engine Efficiency and Emissions...

  4. WORKSHOP REPORT: Trucks and Heavy-Duty Vehicles Technical Requirements...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Trucks and Heavy-Duty Vehicles Technical Requirements and Gaps for Lightweight and Propulsion Materials WORKSHOP REPORT: Trucks and Heavy-Duty Vehicles Technical Requirements and...

  5. Fuel Efficiency and Emissions Optimization of Heavy-Duty Diesel...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and Emissions Optimization of Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines using Model-Based Transient Calibration Fuel Efficiency and Emissions Optimization of Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines using...

  6. Thermoelectric HVAC and Thermal Comfort Enablers for Light-Duty...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and Thermal Comfort Enablers for Light-Duty Vehicle Applications Thermoelectric HVAC and Thermal Comfort Enablers for Light-Duty Vehicle Applications 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel...

  7. Catalyzed Diesel Particulate Filter Performance in a Light-Duty Vehicle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sluder, C.S.

    2001-04-23

    Light-duty chassis dynamometer driving cycle tests were conducted on a Mercedes A170 diesel vehicle with various sulfur-level fuels and exhaust emission control systems. Triplicate runs of a modified light-duty federal test procedure (FTP), US06 cycle, and SCO3 cycle were conducted with each exhaust configuration and fuel. Ultra-low sulfur (3-ppm) diesel fuel was doped to 30- and 150-ppm sulfur so that all other fuel properties remained the same. The fuels used in these experiments met the specifications of the fuels from the DECSE (Diesel Emission Control Sulfur Effects) program. Although the Mercedes A170 vehicle is not available in the US, its emissions in the as tested condition fell within the U.S. Tier 1 full useful life standards with the OEM catalysts installed. Tests with the OEM catalysts removed showed that the OEM catalysts reduced PM emissions from the engine-out condition by 30-40% but had negligible effects on NOx emissions. Fuel sulfur level had very little effect on th e OEM catalyst performance. A prototype catalyzed diesel particulate filter (CDPF) mounted in an underfloor configuration reduced particulate matter emissions by more than 90% compared to the factory emissions control system. The results show that the CDPF did not promote any significant amounts of SO{sub 2}-to-sulfate conversion during these light-duty drive cycles.

  8. Light Duty Utility Arm System hot test

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Howden, G.F.; Conrad, R.B.; Kiebel, G.R.

    1996-02-01

    This Engineering Task Plan describes the scope of work and cost for implementing a hot test of the Light Duty Utility Arm System in Tank T-106 in September 1996.

  9. Industrial Equipment Demand and Duty Factors 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dooley, E. S.; Heffington, W. M.

    1998-01-01

    Demand and duty factors have been measured for selected equipment (air compressors, electric furnaces, injection molding machines, centrifugal loads, and others) in industrial plants. Demand factors for heavily loaded air ...

  10. Duty-ratio of cooperative molecular motors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nadiv Dharan; Oded Farago

    2012-01-22

    Molecular motors are found throughout the cells of the human body, and have many different and important roles. These micro-machines move along filament tracks, and have the ability to convert chemical energy into mechanical work that powers cellular motility. Different types of motors are characterized by different duty-ratios, which is the fraction of time that a motor is attached to its filament. In the case of myosin II - a non-processive molecular machine with a low duty ratio - cooperativity between several motors is essential to induce motion along its actin filament track. In this work we use statistical mechanical tools to calculate the duty ratio of cooperative molecular motors. The model suggests that the effective duty ratio of non-processive motors that work in cooperation is lower than the duty ratio of the individual motors. The origin of this effect is the elastic tension that develops in the filament which is relieved when motors detach from the track.

  11. Model-Based Analysis of Electric Drive Options for Medium-Duty Parcel Delivery Vehicles: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barnitt, R. A.; Brooker, A. D.; Ramroth, L.

    2010-12-01

    Medium-duty vehicles are used in a broad array of fleet applications, including parcel delivery. These vehicles are excellent candidates for electric drive applications due to their transient-intensive duty cycles, operation in densely populated areas, and relatively high fuel consumption and emissions. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) conducted a robust assessment of parcel delivery routes and completed a model-based techno-economic analysis of hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicle configurations. First, NREL characterized parcel delivery vehicle usage patterns, most notably daily distance driven and drive cycle intensity. Second, drive-cycle analysis results framed the selection of drive cycles used to test a parcel delivery HEV on a chassis dynamometer. Next, measured fuel consumption results were used to validate simulated fuel consumption values derived from a dynamic model of the parcel delivery vehicle. Finally, NREL swept a matrix of 120 component size, usage, and cost combinations to assess impacts on fuel consumption and vehicle cost. The results illustrated the dependency of component sizing on drive-cycle intensity and daily distance driven and may allow parcel delivery fleets to match the most appropriate electric drive vehicle to their fleet usage profile.

  12. Geothermal Life Cycle Calculator

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Sullivan, John

    2014-03-11

    This calculator is a handy tool for interested parties to estimate two key life cycle metrics, fossil energy consumption (Etot) and greenhouse gas emission (ghgtot) ratios, for geothermal electric power production. It is based solely on data developed by Argonne National Laboratory for DOE’s Geothermal Technologies office. The calculator permits the user to explore the impact of a range of key geothermal power production parameters, including plant capacity, lifetime, capacity factor, geothermal technology, well numbers and depths, field exploration, and others on the two metrics just mentioned. Estimates of variations in the results are also available to the user.

  13. Geothermal Life Cycle Calculator

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Sullivan, John

    This calculator is a handy tool for interested parties to estimate two key life cycle metrics, fossil energy consumption (Etot) and greenhouse gas emission (ghgtot) ratios, for geothermal electric power production. It is based solely on data developed by Argonne National Laboratory for DOE’s Geothermal Technologies office. The calculator permits the user to explore the impact of a range of key geothermal power production parameters, including plant capacity, lifetime, capacity factor, geothermal technology, well numbers and depths, field exploration, and others on the two metrics just mentioned. Estimates of variations in the results are also available to the user.

  14. Fuel-cycle energy and emissions impacts of tripled fuel-economy vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mintz, M. M.; Vyas, A. D.; Wang, M. Q.

    1997-12-18

    This paper presents estimates of the fill fuel-cycle energy and emissions impacts of light-duty vehicles with tripled fuel economy (3X vehicles) as currently being developed by the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV). Seven engine and fuel combinations were analyzed: reformulated gasoline, methanol, and ethanol in spark-ignition, direct-injection engines; low-sulfur diesel and dimethyl ether in compression-ignition, direct-injection engines; and hydrogen and methanol in fuel-cell vehicles. Results were obtained for three scenarios: a Reference Scenario without PNGVs, a High Market Share Scenario in which PNGVs account for 60% of new light-duty vehicle sales by 2030, and a Low Market Share Scenario in which PNGVs account for half as many sales by 2030. Under the higher of these two, the fuel-efficiency gain by 3X vehicles translated directly into a nearly 50% reduction in total energy demand, petroleum demand, and carbon dioxide emissions. The combination of fuel substitution and fuel efficiency resulted in substantial reductions in emissions of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}), carbon monoxide (CO), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), sulfur oxide, (SO{sub x}), and particulate matter smaller than 10 microns (PM{sub 10}) for most of the engine-fuel combinations examined. The key exceptions were diesel- and ethanol-fueled vehicles for which PM{sub 10} emissions increased.

  15. UGE Scheduler Cycle Time

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    UGE Scheduler Cycle Time UGE Scheduler Cycle Time Genepool Cycle Time Genepool Daily Genepool Weekly Phoebe Cycle Time Phoebe Daily Phoebe Weekly What is the Scheduler Cycle? The...

  16. Medium- and Heavy-Duty Electric Drive Vehicle Simulation and...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Evaluation vss043barnitt2011o.pdf More Documents & Publications Medium- and Heavy-Duty Electric Drive Vehicle Simulation and Analysis Medium and Heavy-Duty Vehicle Field...

  17. Difficulty of Measuring Emissions from Heavy-Duty Engines Equipped...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Difficulty of Measuring Emissions from Heavy-Duty Engines Equipped with SCR and DPF Difficulty of Measuring Emissions from Heavy-Duty Engines Equipped with SCR and DPF In reference...

  18. HEAVY-DUTY TRUCK EMISSIONS AND FUEL CONSUMPTION SIMULATING REAL...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    HEAVY-DUTY TRUCK EMISSIONS AND FUEL CONSUMPTION SIMULATING REAL-WORLD DRIVING IN LABORATORY CONDITIONS HEAVY-DUTY TRUCK EMISSIONS AND FUEL CONSUMPTION SIMULATING REAL-WORLD DRIVING...

  19. Page 1 of 1 EMPLOYEE FITNESS FOR DUTY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Acton, Scott

    Page 1 of 1 EMPLOYEE FITNESS FOR DUTY INITIAL OBSERVATION REPORT Date of Incident: ___________ Time, confusion Threatening to harm self or others Document other observations related to Fitness for Duty

  20. Light-Duty Advanced Diesel Combustion Research | Department of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Light-Duty Advanced Diesel Combustion Research Light-Duty Advanced Diesel Combustion Research Presentation from the U.S. DOE Office of Vehicle Technologies "Mega" Merit Review 2008...

  1. Transient Simulation of a 2007 Prototype Heavy-Duty Engine |...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Simulation of a 2007 Prototype Heavy-Duty Engine Transient Simulation of a 2007 Prototype Heavy-Duty Engine 2004 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference PresentationL...

  2. Medium- and Heavy-Duty Vehicle Field Evaluations; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kelly, Kenneth; Cosgrove, Jon; Duran, Adam; Konan, Arnaud; Lammert, Mike; Prohaska, Bob

    2015-06-09

    This presentation summarizes medium-duty and heavy-duty vehicle field evaluation test results, aggregated data, and detailed analysis.

  3. Marketing Light-Duty Diesels to U.S. Consumers

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Overview of Volkswagen's approach in introducing light-duty diesels to the U.S. passenger vehicle market.

  4. Active Duty Military Tuition Waiver UNIVERSITY OF NEW MEXICO

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    New Mexico, University of

    Active Duty Military Tuition Waiver UNIVERSITY OF NEW MEXICO SEMESTER: __________ YEAR of the (DUTY STATION) State of New Mexico. This active duty assignment is for the period from _______________________________________________________ ORGANIZATION Return waiver to: The University of New Mexico Division of Enrollment Management Office

  5. Light duty utility arm startup plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barnes, G.A.

    1998-09-01

    This plan details the methods and procedures necessary to ensure a safe transition in the operation of the Light Duty Utility Arm (LDUA) System. The steps identified here outline the work scope and identify responsibilities to complete startup, and turnover of the LDUA to Characterization Project Operations (CPO).

  6. Jury Duty: Murder Trial Jerry R. Hobbs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hobbs, Jerry R.

    Jury Duty: Murder Trial Jerry R. Hobbs The first thing the prosecuting attorney at the murder that 187 is the section of the California Penal Code that defines murder. I asked Christine later if she because she knew too much about DNA. The defense excused a woman whose sister had been murdered

  7. Public Key Cryptography and Key Management

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2000-02-15

    The use and management of certificate-based public key cryptography for the Department of Energy (DOE) requires the establishment of a public key infrastructure (PKI). This chapter defines the policy related to roles, requirements, and responsibilities for establishing and maintaining a DOE PKI and the documentation necessary to ensure that all certificates are managed in a manner that maintains the overall trust required to support a viable PKI. Canceled by DOE N 251.112.

  8. Key Milestones/Outlook

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Key Milestones/Outlook per the Department of Energy 2015 Congressional Budget Request, Environmental Management, March 2014

  9. Solar cycle changes in coronal holes and space weather cycles J. G. Luhmann,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley, University of

    Solar cycle changes in coronal holes and space weather cycles J. G. Luhmann,1 Y. Li,1 C. N. Arge,2-heliolatitude solar wind over approximately the last three solar cycles. Related key parameters like interplanetary explain solar magnetic field control of long-term interplanetary variations. In particular, the enduring

  10. www.landesbioscience.com Cell Cycle 221 [Cell Cycle 4:2, 221-224; February 2005]; 2005 Landes Bioscience

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burgers, Peter M.

    more often during a cell cycle than all other DNA changes combined. During most DNA repair processeswww.landesbioscience.com Cell Cycle 221 [Cell Cycle 4:2, 221-224; February 2005]; ©2005 Landes Cycle E-publication: http://www.landesbioscience.com/journals/cc/abstract.php?id=1418 KEY WORDS DNA

  11. Key Events Timeline

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This document lists key events beginning with the April 20 fire on the Deepwater Horizon through July 28th. Updated July 28, 2010.

  12. Dose-Response Modeling for Life Cycle Impact Assessment: Findings of the Portland Review Workshop

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McKone, Thomas E.; Kyle, Amy D.; Jolliet, Olivier; Olsen, Stig Irving; Hauschild, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Key References Life cycle assessment (LCA) is a frameworkmeasure of impact in life- cycle assessment? When combiningHealth Response in Life Cycle Assessment Using ED10s and

  13. Selection of Light Duty Truck Engine Air Systems Using Virtual Lab Tests

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Houshun

    2000-08-20

    An integrated development approach using seasoned engine technology methodologies, virtual lab parametric investigations, and selected hardware verification tests reflects today's state-of-the-art R&D trends. This presentation will outline such a strategy. The use of this ''Wired'' approach results in substantial reduction in the development cycle time and hardware iterations. An example showing the virtual lab application for a viable design of the air-exhaust-turbocharger system of a light duty truck engine for personal transportation will be presented.

  14. Medium- and Heavy-Duty Electric Drive Vehicle Simulation and...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Meeting vss043gonder2012o.pdf More Documents & Publications Medium- and Heavy-Duty Electric Drive Vehicle Simulation and Analysis Battery Pack Requirements and Targets...

  15. Light-duty Diesels: Clean Enough? | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Diesel Passenger Car Technology for Low Emissions and CO2 Compliance EPA Mobile Source Rule Update Light Duty Diesels in the United States - Some...

  16. Light Duty Diesels in the United States - Some Perspectives ...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Emission Control Technology Review Update on Diesel Exhaust Emission Control Technology and Regulations Light Duty Diesels in the United States - Some Perspectives...

  17. Plug-In Hybrid Electric Medium Duty Commercial Fleet Demonstration...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Washington D.C. vssarravt068miyasato2010p.pdf More Documents & Publications Plug-In Hybrid Electric Medium Duty Commercial Fleet Demonstration and Evaluation Vehicle...

  18. Plug-In Hybrid Electric Medium Duty Commercial Fleet Demonstration...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Evaluation arravt068vssmiyasato2011o .pdf More Documents & Publications Plug-In Hybrid Electric Medium Duty Commercial Fleet Demonstration and Evaluation SCAQMD:Plug-In...

  19. Mixture Formation in a Light-Duty Diesel Engine

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presents quantitative measurements of evolution of in-cylinder equivalence ratio distributions in a light-duty engine where wall interactions and strong swirl are significant

  20. Business Case for Light-Duty Diesels | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Diesels Business Case for Light-Duty Diesels 2005 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentations and Posters 2005deergodwin.pdf More Documents & Publications...

  1. Light Duty Efficient Clean Combustion | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    25, 2008 in Bethesda, Maryland. merit08frazier.pdf More Documents & Publications Light Duty Efficient Clean Combustion Exhaust Energy Recovery: 2008 Semi-Mega Merit Review...

  2. Heavy-Duty Low Temperature Combustion Development Activities...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Low Temperature Combustion Development Activities at Caterpillar Heavy-Duty Low Temperature Combustion Development Activities at Caterpillar Presentation given at the 2007 Diesel...

  3. Reducing Light Duty Vehicle Fuel Consumption and Greenhouse Gas...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Greenhouse Gas Emissions: The Combined Potential of Hybrid Technology and Behavioral Adaptation Title Reducing Light Duty Vehicle Fuel Consumption and Greenhouse Gas...

  4. Pay and Leave Administration and Hours of Duty

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1996-09-30

    The order establishes policy, requirements and responsibilities for the management of pay, including overtime and compensatory time, leave administration, and hours of duty.

  5. Roadmapping Engine Technology for Post-2020 Heavy Duty Vehicles...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Vehicles Roadmapping Engine Technology for Post-2020 Heavy Duty Vehicles Discusses Detroit Diesel collaborative multi-year technology program which includes systematic...

  6. WORKSHOP REPORT:Light-Duty Vehicles Technical Requirements and...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Technical Requirements and Gaps for Lightweight and Propulsion Materials WORKSHOP REPORT:Light-Duty Vehicles Technical Requirements and Gaps for Lightweight and Propulsion...

  7. Heavy-Duty Engine Combustion Optimization for High Thermal Efficiency...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Combustion Optimization for High Thermal Efficiency Targeting EPA 2010 Emissions Heavy-Duty Engine Combustion Optimization for High Thermal Efficiency Targeting EPA 2010 Emissions...

  8. Physics challenges for advanced fuel cycle assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Giuseppe Palmiotti; Massimo Salvatores; Gerardo Aliberti

    2014-06-01

    Advanced fuel cycles and associated optimized reactor designs will require substantial improvements in key research area to meet new and more challenging requirements. The present paper reviews challenges and issues in the field of reactor and fuel cycle physics. Typical examples are discussed with, in some cases, original results.

  9. Optical key system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hagans, Karla G. (Livermore, CA); Clough, Robert E. (Danville, CA)

    2000-01-01

    An optical key system comprises a battery-operated optical key and an isolated lock that derives both its operating power and unlock signals from the correct optical key. A light emitting diode or laser diode is included within the optical key and is connected to transmit a bit-serial password. The key user physically enters either the code-to-transmit directly, or an index to a pseudorandom number code, in the key. Such person identification numbers can be retained permanently, or ephemeral. When a send button is pressed, the key transmits a beam of light modulated with the password information. The modulated beam of light is received by a corresponding optical lock with a photovoltaic cell that produces enough power from the beam of light to operate a password-screen digital logic. In one application, an acceptable password allows a two watt power laser diode to pump ignition and timing information over a fiberoptic cable into a sealed engine compartment. The receipt of a good password allows the fuel pump, spark, and starter systems to each operate. Therefore, bypassing the lock mechanism as is now routine with automobile thieves is pointless because the engine is so thoroughly disabled.

  10. Advanced Technologies for Light-Duty Vehicles (released in AEO2006)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2006-01-01

    A fundamental concern in projecting the future attributes of light-duty vehicles-passenger cars, sport utility vehicles, pickup trucks, and minivans-is how to represent technological change and the market forces that drive it. There is always considerable uncertainty about the evolution of existing technologies, what new technologies might emerge, and how consumer preferences might influence the direction of change. Most of the new and emerging technologies expected to affect the performance and fuel use of light-duty vehicles over the next 25 years are represented in the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS); however, the potential emergence of new, unforeseen technologies makes it impossible to address all the technology options that could come into play. The previous section of Issues in Focus discussed several potential technologies that currently are not represented in NEMS. This section discusses some of the key technologies represented in NEMS that are expected to be implemented in light-duty vehicles over the next 25 years.

  11. Emissions Benefits From Renewable Fuels and Other Alternatives for Heavy-Duty Vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hajbabaei, Maryam

    2013-01-01

    Creation of the Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine Test Schedule forfor the heavy-duty chassis and engine dynamometer tests wererather than a heavy-duty engine dynamometer test. 31 The GTL

  12. Emissions from In-Use NG, Propane, and Diesel Fueled Heavy Duty...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    In-Use NG, Propane, and Diesel Fueled Heavy Duty Vehicles Emissions from In-Use NG, Propane, and Diesel Fueled Heavy Duty Vehicles Emissions tests of in-use heavy-duty vehicles...

  13. Investigating potential light-duty efficiency improvements through simulation of turbo-compounding and waste-heat recovery systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edwards, Kevin Dean; Wagner, Robert M; Briggs, Thomas E

    2010-01-01

    Modern diesel engines used in light-duty transportation applications have peak brake thermal efficiencies in the range of 40-42% for high-load operation with substantially lower efficiencies at realistic road-load conditions. Thermodynamic energy and exergy analysis reveals that the largest losses from these engines are due to combustion irreversibility and heat loss to the coolant, through the exhaust, and by direct convection and radiation to the environment. Substantial improvement in overall engine efficiency requires reducing or recovering these losses. Unfortunately, much of the heat transfer either occurs at relatively low temperatures resulting in large entropy generation (such as in the air-charge cooler), is transferred to low-exergy flow streams (such as the oil and engine coolant), or is radiated or convected directly to the environment. While there are significant opportunities for recovery from the exhaust and EGR cooler for heavy-duty applications, achieving similar benefits for light-duty applications is complicated by transient, low-load operation at typical driving conditions and competition with the turbocharger and aftertreatment system for the limited thermal resources. We have developed an organic Rankine cycle model using GT-Suite to investigate the potential for efficiency improvement through waste-heat recovery from the exhaust and EGR cooler of a light-duty diesel engine. The model is used to examine the effects of efficiency-improvement strategies such as cylinder deactivation, use of advanced materials and improved insulation to limit ambient heat loss, and turbo-compounding on the steady-state performance of the ORC system and the availability of thermal energy for downstream aftertreatment systems. Results from transient drive-cycle simulations are also presented, and we discuss strategies to address operational difficulties associated with transient drive cycles and balancing the thermal requirements of waste-heat recovery, turbocharging or turbo-compounding, and exhaust aftertreatment.

  14. Natural Gas-optimized Advanced Heavy-duty Engine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Natural Gas-optimized Advanced Heavy-duty Engine Transportation Research PIER Transportation the research and development of an advanced natural gas engine concepts that can be used in the heavy duty Treatment System) simulations have been performed and reported. · The EATS hardware for engine tests has

  15. Using Time Perception to Measure Fitness for Duty

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Using Time Perception to Measure Fitness for Duty David M. Eagleman Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas Assessing fitness for duty (FFD) typically requires expensive equipment and large time result in avoidable accidents (Rigaud & Flynn, 1995). Currently, the main method for assessing fitness

  16. Variable Charge Motion for 2007-2010 Heavy Duty Diesel Engines...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Charge Motion for 2007-2010 Heavy Duty Diesel Engines Variable Charge Motion for 2007-2010 Heavy Duty Diesel Engines 2003 DEER Conference Presentation: AVL Powertrain Engineering...

  17. In-Use Performance Results of Medium Duty Electric Vehicles (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walkowicz, K.

    2012-07-01

    This presentation describes a DOE program to monitor and report on vehicle performance and energy utilization of medium-duty and heavy-duty electric vehicles.

  18. Lung Toxicity and Mutagenicity of Emissions From Heavy-Duty Compressed...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Lung Toxicity and Mutagenicity of Emissions From Heavy-Duty Compressed Natural Gas (CNG)-Powered Vehicles Lung Toxicity and Mutagenicity of Emissions From Heavy-Duty Compressed...

  19. 2007-2009 USA Emission Solutions for Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    -2009 USA Emission Solutions for Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines 2007-2009 USA Emission Solutions for Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines 2002 DEER Conference Presentation: Southwest Research...

  20. This form is interactive --complete electronically and print Notification of Fitness for Duty

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pillow, Jonathan

    This form is interactive -- complete electronically and print Notification of Fitness for Duty as written notification directing you to undergo a Fitness for Duty Evaluation. The reason

  1. Fueling U.S. Light Duty Diesel Vehicles | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fueling U.S. Light Duty Diesel Vehicles Fueling U.S. Light Duty Diesel Vehicles 2005 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentations and Posters...

  2. Improving the Efficiency of Light-Duty Vehicle HVAC Systems using...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Light-Duty Vehicle HVAC Systems using Zonal Thermoelectric Devices and Comfort Modeling Improving the Efficiency of Light-Duty Vehicle HVAC Systems using Zonal Thermoelectric...

  3. Medium Duty Electric Vehicle Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mackie, Robin J. D.

    2015-05-31

    The Smith Electric Vehicle Demonstration Project (SDP) was integral to the Smith business plan to establish a manufacturing base in the United States (US) and produce a portfolio of All Electric Vehicles (AEV’s) for the medium duty commercial truck market. Smith focused on the commercial depot based logistics market, as it represented the market that was most ready for the early adoption of AEV technology. The SDP enabled Smith to accelerate its introduction of vehicles and increase the size of its US supply chain to support early market adoption of AEV’s that were cost competitive, fully met the needs of a diverse set of end users and were compliant with Federal safety and emissions requirements. The SDP accelerated the development and production of various electric drive vehicle systems to substantially reduce petroleum consumption, reduce vehicular emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG), and increase US jobs.

  4. Emissions from Medium-Duty Conventional and Diesel-Electric Hybrid Vehicles; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ragatz, A.; Duran, A.; Thornton, M.; Walkowicz, K.

    2014-04-02

    This presentation discusses the results of emissions testing for medium-duty conventional and diesel-electric hybrid vehicles. Testing was based on a field evaluation approach that utilized the Fleet DNA drive cycle database and NREL’s Renewable Fuels and Lubricants (ReFUEL) Laboratory chassis dynamometer. Vehicles tested included parcel delivery (Class 6 step vans), beverage delivery (Class 8 tractors), and parcel delivery (Class 7 box trucks) vehicles, all with intended service class medium/heavy heavy-duty diesel (MHDD).
    Results for fuel economy and tailpipe NOx emissions included: diesel hybrid electric vehicles showed an average fuel economy advantage on identified test cycles: Class 6 Step Vans: 26%; Class 7 Box Trucks: 24.7%; Class 8 Tractors: 17.3%. Vehicle miles traveled is an important factor in determining total petroleum and CO2 displacement. Higher NOx emissions were observed over some test cycles: highly drive cycle dependent; engine-out differences may result from different engine operating point; and selective catalyst reduction temperature may play a role, but does not explain the whole story.

  5. Hydraulic Hybrid and Conventional Parcel Delivery Vehicles' Measured Laboratory Fuel Economy on Targeted Drive Cycles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lammert, M. P.; Burton, J.; Sindler, P.; Duran, A.

    2014-10-01

    This research project compares laboratory-measured fuel economy of a medium-duty diesel powered hydraulic hybrid vehicle drivetrain to both a conventional diesel drivetrain and a conventional gasoline drivetrain in a typical commercial parcel delivery application. Vehicles in this study included a model year 2012 Freightliner P100H hybrid compared to a 2012 conventional gasoline P100 and a 2012 conventional diesel parcel delivery van of similar specifications. Drive cycle analysis of 484 days of hybrid parcel delivery van commercial operation from multiple vehicles was used to select three standard laboratory drive cycles as well as to create a custom representative cycle. These four cycles encompass and bracket the range of real world in-use data observed in Baltimore United Parcel Service operations. The NY Composite cycle, the City Suburban Heavy Vehicle Cycle cycle, and the California Air Resources Board Heavy Heavy-Duty Diesel Truck (HHDDT) cycle as well as a custom Baltimore parcel delivery cycle were tested at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Renewable Fuels and Lubricants Laboratory. Fuel consumption was measured and analyzed for all three vehicles. Vehicle laboratory results are compared on the basis of fuel economy. The hydraulic hybrid parcel delivery van demonstrated 19%-52% better fuel economy than the conventional diesel parcel delivery van and 30%-56% better fuel economy than the conventional gasoline parcel delivery van on cycles other than the highway-oriented HHDDT cycle.

  6. Cryptographic Key Management System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    No, author

    2014-02-21

    This report summarizes the outcome of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) contract DE-OE0000543, requesting the design of a Cryptographic Key Management System (CKMS) for the secure management of cryptographic keys for the energy sector infrastructure. Prime contractor Sypris Electronics, in collaboration with Oak Ridge National Laboratories (ORNL), Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), Valicore Technologies, and Purdue University's Center for Education and Research in Information Assurance and Security (CERIAS) and Smart Meter Integration Laboratory (SMIL), has designed, developed and evaluated the CKMS solution. We provide an overview of the project in Section 3, review the core contributions of all contractors in Section 4, and discuss bene#12;ts to the DOE in Section 5. In Section 6 we describe the technical construction of the CKMS solution, and review its key contributions in Section 6.9. Section 7 describes the evaluation and demonstration of the CKMS solution in different environments. We summarize the key project objectives in Section 8, list publications resulting from the project in Section 9, and conclude with a discussion on commercialization in Section 10 and future work in Section 11.

  7. Key Reference Agilent Technologies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anlage, Steven

    is provided "as is", and is subject to being changed, without notice, in future editions. Further with the User and should any of the contract terms conflict with these terms, the contract terms shall control enables you to define the number of points in a step sweep. When you press this key, the current value

  8. Key Research Results Achievement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ) evaluated several common figures of merit used to compare the electrical and optical performance of TCsKey Research Results Achievement NREL research significantly contributed to inadequate existing not yet at performance levels of TCOs, demonstrate a much better combination of transmission

  9. Key Research Results Achievement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    % energy savings in new buildings and major renovations. Researchers at the National Renewable Energy%energysavingsovercode.NREL developedthesimulationtoolsandledthe committeethatproducedtheguides. Key Result TheAdvancedEnergy to use signifi- cantly less energy--reducing operating costs and greenhouse gas emissions. This new K-12

  10. Key Workplace Documents Federal Publications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    trade agreement (FTA) partners and certain developing country beneficiaries to receive duty-free Trade: Rules of Origin Vivian C. Jones Michael F. Martin Congressional Research Service; Foreign Affairs, Defense, and Trade Division Congressional Research Service; Foreign Affairs, Defense, and Trade Division

  11. Biological activity of exhaust emissions from two after-treatment device-equipped light-duty diesel engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carraro, E.; Locatelli, A.L.; Ferrero, C.; Fea, E.; Gilli, G. [Univ. of Turin (Italy)

    1995-10-01

    Whole diesel exhaust has recently been classified as a portable carcinogen, and particulate exhaust known to contain mutagenic and carcinogenic chemicals, has clearly shown to be mutagenic in several genotoxicity studies. The goal of this study was to determine whether, and to what extent, the installation of some exhaust aftertreatment devices on two light-duty diesel engines (1930 cc and 2500 cc) EGR-valve equipped may reduce mutagenic activity associated to particles collected during both USA and European driving cycles. The preliminary results point out the usefulness of mutagenicity tests in the research of even new more efficient automotive emission aftertreatment devices. The aim of this investigation is to determine whether, and to what range, the use of some new aftertreatment devices on light-duty diesel engines could reduce the particle-associated genotoxic potential of diesel emissions. 24 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  12. WORKSHOP REPORT:Light-Duty Vehicles Technical Requirements and Gaps for Lightweight and Propulsion Materials

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    WORKSHOP REPORT:Light-Duty Vehicles Technical Requirements and Gaps for Lightweight and Propulsion Materials

  13. Heavy-Duty Truck Engine: 2007 Emissions with Excellent Fuel Economy

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2004 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentation: Cummins Inc. Heavy-Duty Truck Engine Program

  14. International nuclear fuel cycle fact book. Revision 6

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harmon, K.M.; Lakey, L.T.; Leigh, I.W.; Jeffs, A.G.

    1986-01-01

    The International Fuel Cycle Fact Book has been compiled in an effort to provide (1) an overview of worldwide nuclear power and fuel cycle programs and (2) current data concerning fuel cycle and waste management facilities, R and D programs and key personnel. Additional information on each country's program is available in the International Source Book: Nuclear Fuel Cycle Research and Development, PNL-2478, Rev. 2.

  15. Medium- and Heavy-Duty Electric Drive Vehicle Simulation and...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Medium- and Heavy-Duty Electric Drive Vehicle Simulation and Analysis PI: Jeff Gonder (NREL) Team: Laurie Ramroth and Aaron Brooker May 15, 2012 Project ID : VSS043 This...

  16. Decontamination trade study for the Light Duty Utility Arm

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rieck, R.H.

    1994-09-29

    Various methods were evaluated for decontaminating the Light Duty Utility Arm (LDUA). Physical capabilities of each method were compared with the constraints and requirements for the LDUA Decontamination System. Costs were compared and a referred alternative was chosen.

  17. Pay and Leave Administration and Hours of Duty

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2005-01-14

    This Order establishes requirements and responsibilities for the management of pay, including overtime and compensatory time, leave administration, and hours of duty. Cancels DOE O 322.1A. Canceled by DOE O 322.1C.

  18. A Geographic Information Retrieval Approach to Locate Pharmacies on Duty

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rosso, Paolo

    Geographic Information Retrieval (GIR), Geographic Information Systems (GIS), Toponym Disambiguation 1 disciplines, in particular geographic information retrieval and geographical information systems, which playedGIRPharma: A Geographic Information Retrieval Approach to Locate Pharmacies on Duty Francisco M

  19. Heavy Duty Vehicle In-Use Emission Performance | Department of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    In-Use Emission Performance Heavy Duty Vehicle In-Use Emission Performance 2003 DEER Conference Presentation: VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland deer2003ikonen.pdf More...

  20. New Demands on Heavy Duty Engine Management Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The purpose of this research was to investigate the potential of emissions-based process control to meet future heavy-duty emissions legislation by identifying suitable actuated variables and developing hardware and related controllers.

  1. The Road to Improved Heavy Duty Fuel Economy

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Heavy duty diesel engine fuel economy is improved by lowering the viscosity of engine lubricant, especially when engine speed is increased or load is decreased, as in long distance on-highway driving

  2. Pay and Leave Administration and Hours of Duty

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2011-01-19

    The order establishes requirements and responsibilities for the management of pay, including overtime pay and compensatory time, leave administration, time and attendance reporting, and hours of duty. Cancels DOE O 322.1B and DOE O 535.1

  3. Development of the 2011MY Ford Super Duty Catalyst System

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Efforts leading to medium-duty truck aftertreatment system development, issues addressed, including catalyst layout to maximize NOx conversion and balance of precious metals for oxidation function during cold-start and filter regeneration

  4. Piston Bowl Optimization for RCCI Combustion in a Light-Duty Multi-Cylinder Engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hanson, Reed M; Curran, Scott; Wagner, Robert M; Reitz, Rolf; Kokjohn, Sage

    2012-01-01

    Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) is an engine combustion strategy that that produces low NO{sub x} and PM emissions with high thermal efficiency. Previous RCCI research has been investigated in single-cylinder heavy-duty engines. The current study investigates RCCI operation in a light-duty multi-cylinder engine at 3 operating points. These operating points were chosen to cover a range of conditions seen in the US EPA light-duty FTP test. The operating points were chosen by the Ad Hoc working group to simulate operation in the FTP test. The fueling strategy for the engine experiments consisted of in-cylinder fuel blending using port fuel-injection (PFI) of gasoline and early-cycle, direct-injection (DI) of diesel fuel. At these 3 points, the stock engine configuration is compared to operation with both the original equipment manufacturer (OEM) and custom machined pistons designed for RCCI operation. The pistons were designed with assistance from the KIVA 3V computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code. By using a genetic algorithm optimization, in conjunction with KIVA, the piston bowl profile was optimized for dedicated RCCI operation to reduce unburned fuel emissions and piston bowl surface area. By reducing these parameters, the thermal efficiency of the engine was improved while maintaining low NOx and PM emissions. Results show that with the new piston bowl profile and an optimized injection schedule, RCCI brake thermal efficiency was increased from 37%, with the stock EURO IV configuration, to 40% at the 2,600 rev/min, 6.9 bar BMEP condition, and NOx and PM emissions targets were met without the need for exhaust after-treatment.

  5. Design of a continuous duty cryopump

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sedgley, D.W.

    1985-05-01

    A continuous duty cryopump system was designed and developed that comprises a self-contained cryopump for installation into a vacuum chamber, and a microprocessor controller for automatic operation. This deuterium pump has two units in a single housing, arranged so that one is pumping while the other is being regenerated. Liquid helium-cooled, finned sections in each unit pump deuterium by condensation, and a third pump integral within the cryopump housing collects the regenerated gas. A microprocessor unit controls distribution of liquid and gaseous helium, used for conditioning the pumping units, and operates remote actuators for the regeneration. Software provides fully automatic, timed sequencing of the repetitive cryopump events which include: cooldown of the pumping units, opening of the louvers isolating the unit from the vacuum chamber, closing of the louvers, and warming up of the unit for regeneration. Default values in the software can be reprogrammed by the operator through the keyboard in response to prompts displayed on the computer. An override allows the operator to control the cryopump manually by activating switches on a control panel. Interlocks to prevent cryogen lockup are included in the software.

  6. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Heavy-Duty Low-Temperature and Diesel Combustion & Heavy-Duty Combustion Modeling

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Sandia National Laboratories at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about heavy-duty low...

  7. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Heavy-Duty Low-Temperature and Diesel Combustion & Heavy-Duty Combustion Modeling

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Sandia National Laboratories at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about heavy-duty low...

  8. Key Management in Historical Context

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ;Rolling Keys Why change keys? --- cryptoperiod (intrinsic to cryptosystem) --- management issuesKey Management in Historical Context Whitfield Diffie Internet Corporation for Assigned Names to become the security or insecurity of the message. #12;Key management systems both reflect and shape

  9. Light duty utility arm walkdown report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smalley, J.L.

    1998-09-25

    This document is a report of the Light Duty Utility Arm (LDUA) drawing walkdown. The purpose of this walkdown was to validate the essential configuration of the LDUA in preparation of deploying the equipment in a Hanford waste tank. The LDUA system has, over the course of its development, caused the generation of a considerable number of design drawings. The number of drawings is estimated to be well over 1,000. A large number consist of vendor type drawings, furnished by both Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and SPAR Aerospace Limited (SPAR). A smaller number, approximately 200, are H-6 type drawing sheets in the Project Hanford Management Contract (PHMC) document control system. A preliminary inspection of the drawings showed that the physical configuration of the LDUA did not match the documented configuration. As a result of these findings, a scoping walkdown of 20 critical drawing sheets was performed to determine if a problem existed in configuration management of the LDUA system. The results of this activity showed that 18 of the 20 drawing sheets were found to contain errors or omissions of varying concern. Given this, Characterization Engineering determined that a walkdown of the drawings necessary and sufficient to enable safe operation and maintenance of the LDUA should be performed. A review team was assembled to perform a review of all of the drawings and determine the set which would need to be verified through an engineering walkdown. The team determined that approximately 150 H-6 type drawing sheets would need to be verified, 12 SPAR/PNNL drawing sheets would need to be verified and converted to H-6 drawings, and three to six new drawings would be created (see Appendix A). This report documents the results of that walkdown.

  10. FUEL CONSUMPTION AND COST SAVINGS OF CLASS 8 HEAVY-DUTY TRUCKS POWERED BY NATURAL GAS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gao, Zhiming; LaClair, Tim J; Daw, C Stuart; Smith, David E

    2013-01-01

    We compare the fuel consumption and greenhouse gas emissions of natural gas and diesel heavy-duty (HD) class 8 trucks under consistent simulated drive cycle conditions. Our study included both conventional and hybrid HD trucks operating with either natural gas or diesel engines, and we compare the resulting simulated fuel efficiencies, fuel costs, and payback periods. While trucks powered by natural gas engines have lower fuel economy, their CO2 emissions and costs are lower than comparable diesel trucks. Both diesel and natural gas powered hybrid trucks have significantly improved fuel economy, reasonable cost savings and payback time, and lower CO2 emissions under city driving conditions. However, under freeway-dominant driving conditions, the overall benefits of hybridization are considerably less. Based on payback period alone, non-hybrid natural gas trucks appear to be the most economic option for both urban and freeway driving environments.

  11. Overcoming the Range Limitation of Medium-Duty Battery Electric Vehicles through the use of Hydrogen Fuel-Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wood, E.; Wang, L.; Gonder, J.; Ulsh, M.

    2013-10-01

    Battery electric vehicles possess great potential for decreasing lifecycle costs in medium-duty applications, a market segment currently dominated by internal combustion technology. Characterized by frequent repetition of similar routes and daily return to a central depot, medium-duty vocations are well positioned to leverage the low operating costs of battery electric vehicles. Unfortunately, the range limitation of commercially available battery electric vehicles acts as a barrier to widespread adoption. This paper describes the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's collaboration with the U.S. Department of Energy and industry partners to analyze the use of small hydrogen fuel-cell stacks to extend the range of battery electric vehicles as a means of improving utility, and presumably, increasing market adoption. This analysis employs real-world vocational data and near-term economic assumptions to (1) identify optimal component configurations for minimizing lifecycle costs, (2) benchmark economic performance relative to both battery electric and conventional powertrains, and (3) understand how the optimal design and its competitiveness change with respect to duty cycle and economic climate. It is found that small fuel-cell power units provide extended range at significantly lower capital and lifecycle costs than additional battery capacity alone. And while fuel-cell range-extended vehicles are not deemed economically competitive with conventional vehicles given present-day economic conditions, this paper identifies potential future scenarios where cost equivalency is achieved.

  12. Evaluation of fuel consumption potential of medium and heavy duty vehicles through modeling and simulation.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Delorme, A.; Karbowski, D.; Sharer, P.; Energy Systems

    2010-03-31

    The main objective of this report is to provide quantitative data to support the Committee in its task of establishing a report to support rulemaking on medium- and heavy-duty fuel efficiency improvement. In particular, it is of paramount importance for the Committee to base or illustrate their conclusions on established models and actual state-of-the art data. The simulations studies presented in the report have been defined and requested by the members of the National Academy committee to provide quantitative inputs to support their recommendations. As such, various technologies and usage scenarios were considered for several applications. One of the objective is to provide the results along with their associated assumptions (both vehicle and drive cycles), information generally missing from public discussions on literature search. Finally, the advantages and limitations of using simulation will be summarized. The study addresses several of the committee tasks, including: (1) Discussion of the implication of metric selection; (2) Assessing the impact of existing technologies on fuel consumption through energy balance analysis (both steady-state and standard cycles) as well as real world drive cycles; and (3) Impact of future technologies, both individually and collectively.

  13. Effect of B20 and Low Aromatic Diesel on Transit Bus NOx Emissions Over Driving Cycles with a Range of Kinetic Intensity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lammert, M. P.; McCormick, R. L.; Sindler, P.; Williams, A.

    2012-10-01

    Oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions for transit buses for up to five different fuels and three standard transit duty cycles were compared to establish whether there is a real-world biodiesel NOx increase for transit bus duty cycles and engine calibrations. Six buses representing the majority of the current national transit fleet and including hybrid and selective catalyst reduction systems were tested on a heavy-duty chassis dynamometer with certification diesel, certification B20 blend, low aromatic (California Air Resources Board) diesel, low aromatic B20 blend, and B100 fuels over the Manhattan, Orange County and UDDS test cycles. Engine emissions certification level had the dominant effect on NOx; kinetic intensity was the secondary driving factor. The biodiesel effect on NOx emissions was not statistically significant for most buses and duty cycles for blends with certification diesel, except for a 2008 model year bus. CARB fuel had many more instances of a statistically significant effect of reducing NOx. SCR systems proved effective at reducing NOx to near the detection limit on all duty cycles and fuels, including B100. While offering a fuel economy benefit, a hybrid system significantly increased NOx emissions over a same year bus with a conventional drivetrain and the same engine.

  14. ORNL/TM-2008/122 Class-8 Heavy Truck Duty Cycle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , are generally available free via the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Information Bridge. Web site http://www.osti 865-576-5728 E-mail reports@osti.gov Web site http://www.osti.gov/contact.html This report

  15. Performance of an Organic Rankine Cycle Waste Heat Recovery System for Light Duty Diesel Engines

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Poster presented at the 16th Directions in Engine-Efficiency and Emissions Research (DEER) Conference in Detroit, MI, September 27-30, 2010.

  16. On the Effects of Node Density and Duty Cycle on Energy Efficiency in Underwater Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stojanovic, Milica

    networks, with low or high traffic, call for the development of flexible networking solutions. Because in the design of underwater acoustic networks is energy efficiency, since the nodes are of- ten powered in [5], taking into account the relationship between distance, frequency, and transmission power [6

  17. ORNL/TM-2010/255 Medium Truck Duty Cycle Data from

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of Energy (DOE) Information Bridge. Web site http://www.osti.gov/bridge Reports produced before January 1 are available to DOE employees, DOE contractors, Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDE) representatives specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise, does

  18. The Characterization and Feasibility of a Low-Duty-Cycle Diaphragmless Shock Tube 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Taylor, David Christopher

    2012-10-19

    The feasibility and characterization of a novel diaphragmless shock tube was examined at the National Aerothermochemistry Laboratory at Texas A&M University. The goal was to design a facility that reliably produces shock ...

  19. Optimal unsteady convection over a duty cycle for arbitrary unsteady flow under dynamic thermal load

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bahrami, Majid

    power electronics and electric machines (APEEM) inside hybrid electric, electric, and fuel cell vehicles for the next generation advanced power electronics and electric machines (APEEM). APEEM has applications in emerging cleantech systems such as powertrain and propulsion systems of hybrid electric, electric vehi

  20. Duty-Cycling Buildings Aggressively: The Next Frontier in HVAC Control

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simunic, Tajana

    network across an entire floor of a university building and our data shows several periods of low energy savings of 7.59% to 12.85% for the HVAC system by controlling just one floor of our four floor- sumers can be lighting, computing infrastructure, or what is most often the case, heating ventilation

  1. Duty-Cycling Buildings Aggressively: The Next Frontier in HVAC Control

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gupta, Rajesh

    -time and Embedded Systems; J.7 [Computers in Other Systems]: [Industrial control] General Terms Design, Management periods of low occupancy. In this paper we present a novel control architecture that uses oc- cupancy, by interfacing with the building Energy Management System (EMS) directly and using real-time occupancy data

  2. A Protocol for Self-Synchronized Duty-Cycling in Sensor Networks: Generic Implementation in Wiselib

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kröller, Alexander

    , they are generally equipped with batteries, which makes energy a scarce resource. A basic idea for saving energy¨oller Algorithms Group Braunschweig Institute of Technology Braunschweig, Germany Email: {t networks with energy harvesting capabilities. The protocol is implemented in Wiselib, a library of generic

  3. Light-Duty Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition Drive Cycle Fuel Economy and Emissions Estimates

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Vehicle systems simulations using experimental data demonstrate improved modeled fuel economy of 15% for passenger vehicles solely from powertrain efficiency relative to a 2009 PFI gasoline baseline.

  4. Diesel Exhaust Emissions Control for Light-Duty Vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mital, R.; Li, J.; Huang, S. C.; Stroia, B. J.; Yu, R. C. (Cummins, Inc.); Anderson, J.A. (Argonne National Laboratory); Howden, Kenneth C. (U.S. Department of Energy)

    2003-03-01

    The objective of this paper is to present the results of diesel exhaust aftertreatment testing and analysis done under the FreedomCAR program. Nitrogen Oxides (NOx) adsorber technology was selected based on a previous investigation of various NOx aftertreatment technologies including non-thermal plasma, NOx adsorber and active lean NOx. Particulate Matter (PM) emissions were addressed by developing a catalyzed particulate filter. After various iterations of the catalyst formulation, the aftertreatment components were integrated and optimized for a light duty vehicle application. This compact exhaust aftertreatment system is dual leg and consists of a sulfur trap, NOx adsorbers, and catalyzed particulate filters (CPF). During regeneration, supplementary ARCO ECD low-sulfur diesel fuel is injected upstream of the adsorber and CPF in the exhaust. Steady state and transient emission test results with and without the exhaust aftertreatment system (EAS) are presented. Results of soot filter regeneration by injecting low-sulfur diesel fuel and slip of unregulated emissions, such as NH3, are discussed. Effects of adsorber size and bypass strategy on NOx conversion efficiency and fuel economy penalty are also presented in this paper. The results indicate that if the supplementary fuel injection is optimized, NH3 slip is negligible. During the FTP cycle, injection of low sulfur diesel fuel can create temperature exotherms high enough to regenerate a loaded CPF. With the optimized NOx adsorber regeneration strategies the fuel injection penalty can be reduced by 40 to 50%. Results for various other issues like low temperature light off, reductant optimization, exhaust sulfur management, system integration and design trade-off, are also presented and discussed in this paper. (SAE Paper SAE-2003-01-0041 © 2003 SAE International. This paper is published on this website with permission from SAE International. As a user of this website, you are permitted to view this paper on-line, download this pdf file and print one copy of this paper at no cost for your use only. The downloaded pdf file and printout of this SAE paper may not be copied, distributed or forwarded to others or for the use of others.)

  5. BIOTROPICA 35(2): 250261 2003 Biannual Cycles of the Cinnamon-bellied Flowerpiercer1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schondube, Jorge E.

    satisfacer los requisitos energe´ticos de su reproduccio´n durante la e´poca seca. Key words: biannual cycles

  6. Uncertainty in atmospheric CO? predictions from a parametric uncertainty analysis of a global carbon cycle model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Holian, Gary L.; Sokolov, Andrei P.; Prinn, Ronald G.

    Key uncertainties in the global carbon cycle are explored with a 2-D model for the oceanic carbon sink. By calibrating the key parameters of this ocean carbon sink model to widely referenced values, it produces an average ...

  7. Medium and Heavy Duty Vehicle Field Evaluations (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walkowicz, K.

    2014-06-01

    This presentation discusses field evaluations of medium- and heavy-duty vehicles performed by NREL. The project provides medium-duty (MD) and heavy-duty (HD) test results, aggregated data, and detailed analysis, including 3rd party unbiased data (data that would not normally be shared by industry in an aggregated and detailed manner). Over 5.6 million miles of advanced technology MD and HD truck data have been collected, documented, and analyzed on over 240 different vehicles since 2002. Data, analysis, and reports are shared within DOE, national laboratory partners, and industry for R&D planning and strategy. The results help guide R&D for new technology development, help define intelligent usage of newly developed technology, and help fleets/users understand all aspects of advanced technology.

  8. Research Life Cycle Max J. Egenhofer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Egenhofer, Max J.

    Research Life Cycle Max J. Egenhofer #12;Five Phases Research Orientation Phase Research Startup Phase Research Proposal Preparation Phase Active Research Phase Harvest #12;Research Orientation Phase Identify the field in which you want to do research Do some selected reading · Identify key concepts

  9. Sandia Energy - Heavy Duty Low-Temperature & Diesel Combustion

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home RoomPreservation of Fe(II)Geothermal Energy & Drilling TechnologyHeavy Duty HomeHeavy Duty

  10. Post Mortem of 120k mi Light-Duty Urea SCR and DPF System | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    DPF System for Tier 2 Diesel Light-Duty Trucks Urea SCR Durability Assessment for Tier 2 Light-Duty Truck Urea SCR and DPF System for Diesel Sport Utility Vehicle Meeting Tier II...

  11. 2013 Washington State Budget-Recession and Basic Education as a Constitutional Paramount Duty

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Benjamin, Francis; Chavez, Maria; Lovrich, Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    Paramount Duty: Funding Education for McCleary and Beyond. ”a-parmount-duty-funding-education-for- mccleary-and-beyond/the-state-isnt-fully-funding-education/>. Scheer, Alexander.

  12. Outlook for Light-Duty-Vehicle Fuel Demand | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Outlook for Light-Duty-Vehicle Fuel Demand Outlook for Light-Duty-Vehicle Fuel Demand Gasoline and distillate demand impact of the Energy Independance and Security Act of 2007...

  13. High-Efficiency, Ultra-Low Emission Combustion in a Heavy-Duty...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Efficiency, Ultra-Low Emission Combustion in a Heavy-Duty Engine via Fuel Reactivity Control High-Efficiency, Ultra-Low Emission Combustion in a Heavy-Duty Engine via Fuel...

  14. Creation and Testing of the ACES Heavy Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Creation and Testing of the ACES Heavy Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine Test Schedule for Representative Measurement of Heavy-Duty Engine Emissions Creation and Testing of the ACES Heavy...

  15. Measurement of Real-World Emissions from Heavy-Duty Diesel Vehicles...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Real-World Emissions from Heavy-Duty Diesel Vehicles: The State-of-the-Art Measurement of Real-World Emissions from Heavy-Duty Diesel Vehicles: The State-of-the-Art 2003 DEER...

  16. ARB's Study of Emissions from Diesel and CNG Heavy-duty Transit...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ARB's Study of Emissions from Diesel and CNG Heavy-duty Transit Buses ARB's Study of Emissions from Diesel and CNG Heavy-duty Transit Buses 2002 DEER Conference Presentation:...

  17. A Study of Emissions from a Light Duty Diesel Engine with the...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    A Study of Emissions from a Light Duty Diesel Engine with the European Particulate Measurement Programme A Study of Emissions from a Light Duty Diesel Engine with the European...

  18. Can We Accurately Measure In-Use Emissions from Heavy-Duty Diesel...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    We Accurately Measure In-Use Emissions from Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines? Can We Accurately Measure In-Use Emissions from Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines? Poster presentation at the 2007...

  19. Effects of Catalysts on Emissions from Heavy-Duty Diesel Retrofits...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Catalysts on Emissions from Heavy-Duty Diesel Retrofits for PM and NOX Control Effects of Catalysts on Emissions from Heavy-Duty Diesel Retrofits for PM and NOX Control The more...

  20. A Quantum Leap for Heavy-Duty Truck Engine Efficiency - Hybrid...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    A Quantum Leap for Heavy-Duty Truck Engine Efficiency - Hybrid Power System of Diesel and WHR-ORC Engines A Quantum Leap for Heavy-Duty Truck Engine Efficiency - Hybrid Power...

  1. Summary of In-Use Evaluation of Two Heavy Duty Hybrid Applications...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    NTE Windows and a Work-Based Method to Determine In-Use Emissions of a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine Emissions from In-Use NG, Propane, and Diesel Fueled Heavy Duty Vehicles Can We...

  2. This form is interactive --complete electronically and print! Certification of Fitness For Duty

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pillow, Jonathan

    This form is interactive -- complete electronically and print! Certification of Fitness For Duty referred to you for an evaluation and confirmation of fitness for duty based on the following observations

  3. Variability in baseline job duty measures as a component of worker control 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Philo, Joel Richard

    2002-01-01

    Naylor, Pritchard, and Ilgen's (1980) theory of motivation stresses the importance of worker control on productivity. Greater control over specific job duties is hypothesized to increase motivation to do those job duties. ...

  4. System-Response Issues Imposed by Biodiesel in a Medium-Duty...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    System-Response Issues Imposed by Biodiesel in a Medium-Duty Diesel Engine System-Response Issues Imposed by Biodiesel in a Medium-Duty Diesel Engine The objective of the current...

  5. Biodiesel Effects on the Operation of U.S. Light Duty Tier 2...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Light Duty Tier 2 Engine and Aftertreatment Systems Biodiesel Effects on the Operation of U.S. Light Duty Tier 2 Engine and Aftertreatment Systems Presentation given at 2007 Diesel...

  6. High Efficiency Clean Combustion in Multi-Cylinder Light-Duty...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of RCCI Operation on a Light-Duty Multi-Cylinder Engine High Efficiency Clean Combustion in Multi-Cylinder Light-Duty Engines Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014:...

  7. High-Load Partially Premixed Combustion in a Heavy-Duty Diesel...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High-Load Partially Premixed Combustion in a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine High-Load Partially Premixed Combustion in a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine 2005 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction...

  8. Fuel Effects on Low Temperature Combustion in a Light-Duty Diesel...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Low Temperature Combustion in a Light-Duty Diesel Engine Fuel Effects on Low Temperature Combustion in a Light-Duty Diesel Engine Six different fuels were investigated to study the...

  9. Measuring "Real World" Heavy-Duty Diesel Emissions with a Mobile...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    "Real World" Heavy-Duty Diesel Emissions with a Mobile Lab Measuring "Real World" Heavy-Duty Diesel Emissions with a Mobile Lab 2002 DEER Conference Presentation: University of...

  10. DOE Targets for Onboard Hydrogen Storage Systems for Light-Duty...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Targets for Onboard Hydrogen Storage Systems for Light-Duty Vehicles DOE Targets for Onboard Hydrogen Storage Systems for Light-Duty Vehicles This table lists the technical targets...

  11. Emissions from Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine with EGR using Oil Sands...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine with EGR using Oil Sands Derived Fuels Emissions from Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine with EGR using Oil Sands Derived Fuels 2003 DEER Conference Presentation:...

  12. Development of a Waste Heat Recovery System for Light Duty Diesel...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    a Waste Heat Recovery System for Light Duty Diesel Engines Development of a Waste Heat Recovery System for Light Duty Diesel Engines Substantial increases in engine efficiency of a...

  13. Reduction of Heavy-Duty Fuel Consumption and CO2 Generation ...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Heavy-Duty Fuel Consumption and CO2 Generation -- What the Industry Does and What the Government Can Do Reduction of Heavy-Duty Fuel Consumption and CO2 Generation -- What the...

  14. Marketable Credits for Light-Duty Vehicle Emission Control in California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Quanlu; Kling, Catherine; Sperling, Daniel

    1992-01-01

    for Light-Duty Vehicle Emission CQntrol, Ph.D dissertation,for Light-Duty Vehicle Emission Control in Califorr6a QuantuSince the beginning of vehicle emission regulation in the

  15. Non-uniform Aging on Super Duty Diesel Truck Aged Urea Cu/Zeolite...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    uniform Aging on Super Duty Diesel Truck Aged Urea CuZeolite SCR Catalysts Non-uniform Aging on Super Duty Diesel Truck Aged Urea CuZeolite SCR Catalysts CuZeolite SCR catalysts...

  16. APBF- DEC Heavy-Duty NOx Adsorber/DPF Project: Catalyst Aging...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    DEC Heavy-Duty NOx AdsorberDPF Project: Catalyst Aging Study APBF- DEC Heavy-Duty NOx AdsorberDPF Project: Catalyst Aging Study 2004 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER)...

  17. Assessing the Battery Cost at Which Plug-In Hybrid Medium-Duty Parcel Delivery Vehicles Become Cost-Effective

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramroth, L. A.; Gonder, J. D.; Brooker, A. D.

    2013-04-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) validated diesel-conventional and diesel-hybrid medium-duty parcel delivery vehicle models to evaluate petroleum reductions and cost implications of hybrid and plug-in hybrid diesel variants. The hybrid and plug-in hybrid variants are run on a field data-derived design matrix to analyze the effect of drive cycle, distance, engine downsizing, battery replacements, and battery energy on fuel consumption and lifetime cost. For an array of diesel fuel costs, the battery cost per kilowatt-hour at which the hybridized configuration becomes cost-effective is calculated. This builds on a previous analysis that found the fuel savings from medium duty plug-in hybrids more than offset the vehicles' incremental price under future battery and fuel cost projections, but that they seldom did so under present day cost assumptions in the absence of purchase incentives. The results also highlight the importance of understanding the application's drive cycle specific daily distance and kinetic intensity.

  18. Quantitative Effects of Vehicle Parameters on Fuel Consumption for Heavy-Duty Vehicle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Lijuan; Kelly, Kenneth; Walkowicz, Kevin; Duran, Adam

    2015-10-16

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) Fleet Test and Evaluations team recently conducted chassis dynamometer tests of a class 8 conventional regional delivery truck over the Heavy Heavy-Duty Diesel Truck (HHDDT), West Virginia University City (WVU City), and Composite International Truck Local and Commuter Cycle (CILCC) drive cycles. A quantitative study was conducted by analyzing the impacts of various factors on fuel consumption (FC) and fuel economy (FE) by modeling and simulating the truck using NREL's Future Automotive Systems Technology Simulator (FASTSim). Factors used in this study included vehicle weight, and the coefficients of rolling resistance and aerodynamic drag. The simulation results from a single parametric study revealed that FC was approximately a linear function of the weight, coefficient of aerodynamic drag, and rolling resistance over various drive cycles. Among these parameters, the truck weight had the largest effect on FC. The study of the impact of two technologies on FE suggested that, depending on the circumstances, it may be more cost effective to reduce one parameter (such as coefficient of aerodynamic drag) to increase fuel economy, or it may be more beneficial to reduce another (such as the coefficient of rolling resistance). It also provided a convenient way to estimate FE by interpolating within the parameter values and extrapolating outside of them. The simulation results indicated that the FC could be reduced from 38.70 L/100 km, 50.72 L/100 km, and 38.42 L/100 km in the baseline truck to 26.78 L/100 km, 43.14 L/100 km and 29.84 L/100 km over the HHDDT, WVU City and CILCC drive cycles, respectively, when the U.S. Department of Energy's three targeted new technologies were applied simultaneously.

  19. Low and high Temperature Dual Thermoelectric Generation Waste Heat Recovery System for Light-Duty Vehicles

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Developing a low and high temperature dual thermoelectric generation waste heat recovery system for light-duty vehicles.

  20. On-Going Comparison of Advanced Fuel Cycle Options

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Piet, S.J.; Bennett, R.G.; Dixon, B.W.; Herring, J.S.; Shropshire, D.E.; Roth, M.; Smith, J.D.; Finck, P.; Hill, R.; Laidler, J.; Pasamehmetoglu, K.

    2004-10-03

    This paper summarizes the current comprehensive comparison of four major fuel cycle strategies: once-through, thermal recycle, thermal+fast recycle, fast recycle. It then proceeds to summarize comparison of the major technology options for the key elements of the fuel cycle that can implement each of the four strategies - separation processing, transmutation reactors, and fuels.

  1. BEHAVIORAL DISTINCTIONS: THE USE OF LIGHT-DUTY TRUCKS AND PASSENGER CARS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kockelman, Kara M.

    BEHAVIORAL DISTINCTIONS: THE USE OF LIGHT-DUTY TRUCKS AND PASSENGER CARS by Kara Maria Kockelman as light-duty trucks (LDTs), resulting in a variety of regulatory protections. Production and purchase as light-duty trucks (LDTs), and they currently capture 51% of new U.S. passenger vehicle sales1 ­ much

  2. Remote Sensing of NO and NO2 Emissions from Heavy-Duty Diesel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jimenez, Jose-Luis

    Research Remote Sensing of NO and NO2 Emissions from Heavy-Duty Diesel Trucks Using Tunable Diode to measure the NOx emissions of heavy-duty diesel trucks (HDDTs). The remote sensor could operate tightly controlled, the relative importance of heavy-duty diesel trucks (HDDTs) as a NOx source has

  3. A Midwest Regional Inventory of Heavy-Duty Diesel Vehicle Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wisconsin at Madison, University of

    A Midwest Regional Inventory of Heavy-Duty Diesel Vehicle Emissions by Christopher D. Dresser OF WISCONSIN - MADISON Abstract A Midwest Regional Inventory of Heavy-Duty Diesel Vehicle Emissions Christopher-duty diesel vehicles (HDDV) for a ten-state Midwest region (Mississippi Valley Freight Coalition) using

  4. CyclePad Help System CyclePad License

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Forbus, Kenneth D.

    of Library Examples of Cycles Simple Steam Rankine Cycle Simple Refrigerator Cycle Basic Gas Turbine Cycle Steam Cycle with Reheat Combined Gas Turbine & Rankine Cycle Basic Engineering Thermodynamics Tables Turbine Compressor Pump Heater Cooler Heat Exchanger Throttle #12;CyclePad Help System 4 Splitter

  5. Impact of Heavy Duty Vehicle Emissions Reductions on Global Climate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Calvin, Katherine V.; Thomson, Allison M.

    2010-08-01

    The impact of a specified set of emissions reductions from heavy duty vehicles on climate change is calculated using the MAGICC 5.3 climate model. The integrated impact of the following emissions changes are considered: CO2, CH4, N2O, VOC, NOx, and SO2. This brief summarizes the assumptions and methods used for this calculation.

  6. Pay and Leave Administration and Hours of Duty

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2011-01-19

    The order establishes requirements and responsibilities for the management of pay, including overtime pay and compensatory time, leave administration, time and attendance reporting, and hours of duty. Admin Chg 1, dated 5-10-12, supersedes DOE O 322.1C.

  7. A coupled model of the global cycles of carbonyl sulfide and CO2: A possible new window on the carbon cycle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collett Jr., Jeffrey L.

    A coupled model of the global cycles of carbonyl sulfide and CO2: A possible new window] Carbonyl sulfide (COS) is an atmospheric trace gas that participates in some key reactions of the carbon model of the global cycles of carbonyl sulfide and CO2: A possible new window on the carbon cycle, J

  8. Policy on Keys and Keycards Policy on Keys and Keycards

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sridhar, Srinivas

    department is responsible for the total cost of lock changes and new keys/cards to secure areas compromised has been compromised, and avoid potentially significant costs due to theft, vandalism, or excessive be given access to keys/cards that permit entry to buildings and locked spaces on the University campuses

  9. Photovoltaics Life Cycle Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 Photovoltaics Life Cycle Analysis Vasilis Fthenakis Center of Life Cycle Analysis Earth & Environmental Engineering Department Columbia University and National Photovoltaic (PV) EHS Research Center (air, water, solid) M, Q E PV array Photovoltaic modules Balance of System (BOS) (Inverters

  10. Edgeworth cycles revisited

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doyle, Joseph J.

    Some gasoline markets exhibit remarkable price cycles, where price spikes are followed by a series of small price declines: a pattern consistent with a model of Edgeworth cycles described by Maskin and Tirole. We extend ...

  11. mathematics single cycle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ?umer, Slobodan

    47 mathematics education single cycle master's study programme #12;48 single cycle master's study program in Mathematics Education #12;49 single cycle master's study program in Mathematics Education MATHEMATICS EDUCATION The program is in tune with the principles of the Bologna Declaration. · Academic title

  12. Algebraic cycle complexes Marc Levine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levine, Marc

    Algebraic cycle complexes Marc Levine June 2, 2008 Marc Levine Cycle complexes #12;Outline's cycle complexes Marc Levine Cycle complexes #12;Algebraic cycles and algebraic K-theory Marc Levine on X. zq(X) := the group of dimenison q algebraic cycles on X. Marc Levine Cycle complexes #12

  13. The GREET Model Expansion for Well-to-Wheels Analysis of Heavy-Duty Vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cai, Hao; Burnham, Andrew; Wang, Michael; Hang, Wen; Vyas, Anant

    2015-05-01

    Heavy-duty vehicles (HDVs) account for a significant portion of the U.S. transportation sector’s fuel consumption, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and air pollutant emissions. In our most recent efforts, we expanded the Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREETTM) model to include life-cycle analysis of HDVs. In particular, the GREET expansion includes the fuel consumption, GHG emissions, and air pollutant emissions of a variety of conventional (i.e., diesel and/or gasoline) HDV types, including Class 8b combination long-haul freight trucks, Class 8b combination short-haul freight trucks, Class 8b dump trucks, Class 8a refuse trucks, Class 8a transit buses, Class 8a intercity buses, Class 6 school buses, Class 6 single-unit delivery trucks, Class 4 single-unit delivery trucks, and Class 2b heavy-duty pickup trucks and vans. These vehicle types were selected to represent the diversity in the U.S. HDV market, and specific weight classes and body types were chosen on the basis of their fuel consumption using the 2002 Vehicle Inventory and Use Survey (VIUS) database. VIUS was also used to estimate the fuel consumption and payload carried for most of the HDV types. In addition, fuel economy projections from the U.S. Energy Information Administration, transit databases, and the literature were examined. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s latest Motor Vehicle Emission Simulator was employed to generate tailpipe air pollutant emissions of diesel and gasoline HDV types.

  14. Eric Guilyardi El Nin~omean stateseasonal cycle interactions in a multi-model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guilyardi, Eric

    state and seasonal cycle could play a key role. Indeed the mechanisms that drive the mean stateEric Guilyardi El Nin~o­mean state­seasonal cycle interactions in a multi-model ensemble Received Abstract The modelled El Nin~ o­mean state­seasonal cycle interactions in 23 coupled ocean­atmosphere GCMs

  15. Fitness for duty in the nuclear power industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Durbin, N.; Moore, C.; Grant, T.; Fleming, T.; Hunt, P.; Martin, R.; Murphy, S.; Hauth, J.; Wilson, R.; Bittner, A.; Bramwell, A.; Macaulay, J.; Olson, J.; Terrill, E.; Toquam, J. )

    1991-09-01

    This report presents an overview of the NRC licensees' implementation of the FFD program during the first full year of the program's operation and provides new information on a variety of FFD technical issues. The purpose of this document is to contribute to appropriate changes to the rule, to the inspection process, and to other NRC activities. It describes the characteristics of licensee programs, discusses the results of NRC inspections, updates technical information covered in previous reports, and identifies lessons learned during the first year. Overall, the experience of the first full year of licensees' FFD program operations indicates that licensees have functioning fitness for duty programs devoted to the NRC rule's performance objectives of achieving drug-free workplaces in which nuclear power plant personnel are not impaired as they perform their duties. 96 refs., 14 tabs.

  16. NAME GRAD'NG KEY .

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    MA 165 EXAM 3 Fall 2002 Page 1/4. NAME GRAD'NG KEY . Page 1 / 18. STUDENT ID Page 2 / 32. Page 3 /18. RECITATION INSTRUCTOR. Page 4 / 32.

  17. Diversity & Flexibility Key to Sustainability | Department of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Diversity & Flexibility Key to Sustainability Diversity & Flexibility Key to Sustainability Plenary V: Biofuels and Sustainability: Acknowledging Challenges and Confronting...

  18. Comparison of Battery Life Across Real-World Automotive Drive-Cycles (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, K.; Earleywine, M.; Wood, E.; Pesaran, A.

    2011-11-01

    Laboratories run around-the-clock aging tests to try to understand as quickly as possible how long new Li-ion battery designs will last under certain duty cycles. These tests may include factors such as duty cycles, climate, battery power profiles, and battery stress statistics. Such tests are generally accelerated and do not consider possible dwell time at high temperatures and states-of-charge. Battery life-predictive models provide guidance as to how long Li-ion batteries may last under real-world electric-drive vehicle applications. Worst-case aging scenarios are extracted from hundreds of real-world duty cycles developed from vehicle travel surveys. Vehicles examined included PHEV10 and PHEV40 EDVs under fixed (28 degrees C), limited cooling (forced ambient temperature), and aggressive cooling (20 degrees C chilled liquid) scenarios using either nightly charging or opportunity charging. The results show that battery life expectancy is 7.8 - 13.2 years for the PHEV10 using a nightly charge in Phoenix, AZ (hot climate), and that the 'aggressive' cooling scenario can extend battery life by 1-3 years, while the 'limited' cooling scenario shortens battery life by 1-2 years. Frequent (opportunity) charging can reduce battery life by 1 year for the PHEV10, while frequent charging can extend battery life by one-half year.

  19. Power Plant Cycling Costs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumar, N.; Besuner, P.; Lefton, S.; Agan, D.; Hilleman, D.

    2012-07-01

    This report provides a detailed review of the most up to date data available on power plant cycling costs. The primary objective of this report is to increase awareness of power plant cycling cost, the use of these costs in renewable integration studies and to stimulate debate between policymakers, system dispatchers, plant personnel and power utilities.

  20. Life Cycle Cost Estimate

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-03-28

    Life-cycle costs (LCCs) are all the anticipated costs associated with a project or program alternative throughout its life. This includes costs from pre-operations through operations or to the end of the alternative.This chapter discusses life cycle costs and the role they play in planning.

  1. Key China Energy Statistics 2012

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levine, Mark; Fridley, David; Lu, Hongyou; Fino-Chen, Cecilia

    2012-05-01

    The China Energy Group at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) was established in 1988. Over the years the Group has gained recognition as an authoritative source of China energy statistics through the publication of its China Energy Databook (CED). The Group has published seven editions to date of the CED (http://china.lbl.gov/research/chinaenergy-databook). This handbook summarizes key statistics from the CED and is expressly modeled on the International Energy Agency’s “Key World Energy Statistics” series of publications. The handbook contains timely, clearly-presented data on the supply, transformation, and consumption of all major energy sources.

  2. Key China Energy Statistics 2011

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levine, Mark; Fridley, David; Lu, Hongyou; Fino-Chen, Cecilia

    2012-01-15

    The China Energy Group at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) was established in 1988. Over the years the Group has gained recognition as an authoritative source of China energy statistics through the publication of its China Energy Databook (CED). In 2008 the Group published the Seventh Edition of the CED (http://china.lbl.gov/research/chinaenergy-databook). This handbook summarizes key statistics from the CED and is expressly modeled on the International Energy Agency’s “Key World Energy Statistics” series of publications. The handbook contains timely, clearly-presented data on the supply, transformation, and consumption of all major energy sources.

  3. Key Issues | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on DeliciousMathematicsEnergyInterested Parties - WAPA Public CommentInverted253.16582104) Kenmore:Key2: ProjectKey

  4. Key Steps | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room NewsInformationJesse Bergkamp Graduate student Subtask 4Photo4> TheKevin MorrisKeyKey Steps

  5. APBF-DEC NOx Adsorber/DPF Project: Light-Duty Passenger Car Platform

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tomazic, D; Tatur, M; Thornton, M

    2003-08-24

    A 1.9L turbo direct injection (TDI) diesel engine was modified to achieve the upcoming Tier 2 Bin 5 emission standard in combination with a NOx adsorber catalyst (NAC) and a diesel particulate filter (DPF). The primary objective for developing this test bed is to investigating the effects of different fuel sulfur contents on the performance of an advanced emission control system (ECS) in a light-duty application. During the development process, the engine-out emissions were minimized by applying a state-of-the-art combustion system in combination with cooled exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). The subsequent calibration effort resulted in emission levels requiring 80-90 percent nitrogen-oxide (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) conversion rates by the corresponding ECS. The strategy development included ean/rich modulation for NAC regeneration, as well as, the desulfurization of the NAC and the regeneration of the DPF. Two slightly different ECS were investigated and calibrated. The initial vehicle results in an Audi A4 station wagon over the federal test procedure (FTP), US 06, and the highway fuel economy test (HFET) cycle indicate the potential of these configuration to meet the future Tier 2 emission standard.

  6. Heavy-Duty Engine Technology for High Thermal Efficiency at EPA...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Technology for High Thermal Efficiency at EPA 2010 Emissions Regulations Heavy-Duty Engine Technology for High Thermal Efficiency at EPA 2010 Emissions Regulations Presentation...

  7. Heavy Duty Diesel Particulate Matter and Fuel Consumption Modeling for Transportation Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scora, George Alexander

    2011-01-01

    Model for Heavy Duty Diesel Vehicles. TransportationAir Contaminant Emissions from Diesel- fueled Engines. Factfor Measuring Emissions from Diesel Engines. 1. Regulated

  8. Plasma-Activated Lean NOx Catalysis for Heavy-Duty Diesel Emissions...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Heavy-Duty NOx Emissions Control: Reformer-Assisted vs. Plasma-Facilitated Lean NOx Catalysis Selective reduction of NOx in oxygen rich environments with plasma-assisted...

  9. Development of NOx Adsorber System for Dodge Ram 2007 Heavy duty...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    an Integrated Diesel NOx Adsorber AT Subsystem at Light-Duty Operation Oxidation State Optimization for Maximum Efficiency of NOx Adsorber Catalysts Enhanced High Temperature...

  10. Heavy-Duty Truck Engine: 2007 Emissions with Excellent Fuel Economy...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Truck Engine: 2007 Emissions with Excellent Fuel Economy Heavy-Duty Truck Engine: 2007 Emissions with Excellent Fuel Economy 2004 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER)...

  11. TECHNICAL NOTE HEAVY-DUTY DIESEL VEHICLE (HDDV) IDLING ACTIVITY AND

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    #12;#12;TECHNICAL NOTE HEAVY-DUTY DIESEL VEHICLE (HDDV) IDLING ACTIVITY AND EMISSIONS STUDY: PHASE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Current Diesel Idling Emissions Factors

  12. Desulfurization Effects on a Light-Duty Diesel Vehicle NOx Adsorber Exhaust Emission Control System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tatur, M.; Tomazic, D.; Tyrer, H.; Thornton, M.; Kubsh, J.

    2006-05-01

    Analyzes the effects on gaseous emissions, before and after desulfurization, on a light-duty diesel vehicle with a NOx adsorber catalyst.

  13. Clean Cities' Guide to Alternative Fuel and Advanced Medium- and Heavy-Duty Vehicles (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2010-09-01

    Guide describes the alternative fuel and advanced medium- and heavy-duty vehicles available on the market, including buses, vans, refuse haulers, and more.

  14. High Efficiency Clean Combustion in Multi-Cylinder Light-Duty...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Engine Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: High Efficiency Clean Combustion in Multi-Cylinder Light-Duty Engines Gasoline-Like Fuel Effects on Advanced...

  15. Non-Light Duty Energy and Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions Accounting...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Non-Light Duty Energy and Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions Accounting Tool (NEAT) for Long Term Energy and GHG Impacts Evaluation: Domestic Freight Component Documentation and User's...

  16. Heavy-Duty Powertrain and Vehicle Development- A Look Toward 2020

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Globalization in emissions regulation will be driving freight efficiency improvements and will require heavy-duty engine and powertrain advancements, vehicle improvements, and optimized system integration

  17. High-Efficiency Clean Combustion in Light-Duty Multi-Cylinder...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Combustion and Emissions Performance of Dual-Fuel Gasoline and Diesel HECC on a Multi-Cylinder Light Duty Diesel Engine Addressing...

  18. Technologies for a Sustainable Heavy-Duty On-Road Fleet

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Only selected energy pathways for the heavy-duty on-road fleet are consistent with the joint objectives of reducing petroleum dependence and mitigating climate change

  19. The Diesel Engine Powering Light-Duty Vehicles: Today and Tomorrow...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentation: Volkwagen AG, Wolfsburg, Germany 2004deerschindler.pdf More Documents & Publications Accelerating Light-Duty Diesel...

  20. Impacts of Oxygenated Gasoline Use on California Light-Duty Vehicle Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kirchstetter, Thomas W.; Singer, Brett C.; Harley, Robert A.

    1996-01-01

    on-road motor vehicle emissions (BURDEN7F). Mobile Sourcespeciation profile for vehicle emissions agrees with cold=Light-Duty Vehicle Emissions Thomas W. Kirchstetter Brett C°

  1. Light-Duty Vehicle Exhaust Emission Control Cost Estimates Using a Part-Pricing Approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Quanlu; Kling, Catherine; Sperling, Daniel

    1993-01-01

    System for Light-Duty Vehicle: Emission Control," Ph.D.reductions motor in vehicle emissions have that Today’scorresponding to consumers vehicle emission one path over

  2. Fuel Cycle System Analysis Handbook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steven J. Piet; Brent W. Dixon; Dirk Gombert; Edward A. Hoffman; Gretchen E. Matthern; Kent A. Williams

    2009-06-01

    This Handbook aims to improve understanding and communication regarding nuclear fuel cycle options. It is intended to assist DOE, Campaign Managers, and other presenters prepare presentations and reports. When looking for information, check here. The Handbook generally includes few details of how calculations were performed, which can be found by consulting references provided to the reader. The Handbook emphasizes results in the form of graphics and diagrams, with only enough text to explain the graphic, to ensure that the messages associated with the graphic is clear, and to explain key assumptions and methods that cause the graphed results. Some of the material is new and is not found in previous reports, for example: (1) Section 3 has system-level mass flow diagrams for 0-tier (once-through), 1-tier (UOX to CR=0.50 fast reactor), and 2-tier (UOX to MOX-Pu to CR=0.50 fast reactor) scenarios - at both static and dynamic equilibrium. (2) To help inform fast reactor transuranic (TRU) conversion ratio and uranium supply behavior, section 5 provides the sustainable fast reactor growth rate as a function of TRU conversion ratio. (3) To help clarify the difference in recycling Pu, NpPu, NpPuAm, and all-TRU, section 5 provides mass fraction, gamma, and neutron emission for those four cases for MOX, heterogeneous LWR IMF (assemblies mixing IMF and UOX pins), and a CR=0.50 fast reactor. There are data for the first 10 LWR recycle passes and equilibrium. (4) Section 6 provides information on the cycle length, planned and unplanned outages, and TRU enrichment as a function of fast reactor TRU conversion ratio, as well as the dilution of TRU feedstock by uranium in making fast reactor fuel. (The recovered uranium is considered to be more pure than recovered TRU.) The latter parameter impacts the required TRU impurity limits specified by the Fuels Campaign. (5) Section 7 provides flows for an 800-tonne UOX separation plant. (6) To complement 'tornado' economic uncertainty diagrams, which show at a glance combined uncertainty information, section 9.2 has a new set of simpler graphs that show the impact on fuel cycle costs for once through, 1-tier, and 2-tier scenarios as a function of key input parameters.

  3. Architecture BA (Hons) Key details

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Painter, Kevin

    Architecture BA (Hons) Key details Duration: 4 years (honours degree) Delivery type: Day Intake in the subject of Architecture, including a portfolio of Design, Technical and Theoretical courses covering all aspects of Architectural Theory and Practice. The course has been designed with reference to the RIBA

  4. INFORMATION: THE KEY TO SUSTAINABILITY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bateman, Ian J.

    of construction and demolition wastes and the introduction of demolition plans. Examples of information sources in the UK, Europe and the US are provided. Key words: waste management, construction, demolition, secondary sector so are concerned with re-use and recycling construction and demolition waste (C & D). However many

  5. The Anderson Quin Cycle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, J.H.; Bilbow, W.M.

    1993-03-18

    The objective of this study was to make a more refined evaluation of the Anderson Quin Cycle based on most recent information on the performance of various elements that will be used in the Anderson Quin Cycle. My original estimate of the work plan for evaluating and optimizing the Anderson Quin Cycle called for 7000 man hours of work. Since this grant was limited to 2150 man hours, we could not expect to achieve all the objectives within the allotted period of work. However, the most relevant program objectives have been completed as reported here. The analysis generally confirms the results originally estimated in my paper on the subject. (Ref. 2) Further optimizations should show even higher efficiencies. The Anderson Quin Cycle (US Patent applied for) basically consists of 5 elements in the power cycle: A refrigeration system to cool and clean the inlet air before it enters the compressor that supplies air for the gas turbine; a gas turbine consisting of a compressor, combustor, and turbine; a steam boiler and steam turbine system using the heat from the exhaust gas out of the gas turbine; a vapor turbine cycle, which utilizes the condensed heat from the exhaust of the steam turbine and the exhaust gas heat leaving the steam boiler to operate a vapor turbine cycle which utilizes another fluid than water, in this case isobutane; and the fifth element consists of a gas cooler and heat pump system, which removes the heat from the exhaust gas to lower its temperature essentially to atmospheric temperature, and at the same time permits treatment of the exhaust gas to remove acid components such as sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides. Current industry accepted component characteristics were incorporated in the performance analysis of the overall cycle, ensuring accurate and meaningful operating predictions. The characteristics and performance of each of the elements are described. The thermal efficiency of the optimized calculated Anderson Quin Cycle is 62 percent.

  6. Few-key Text Entry Revisited: Mnemonic Gestures on Four Keys

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wobbrock, Jacob O.

    of Roman letters for high learnability. We compare this new 4-key method to predominant 3-key and 5-key present a new 4-key method that relies on mnemonic gestures reminiscent of Roman letters. Our method-key methods rely on two keys to move a selector left and right and a third key to select a letter. Although

  7. 3M heavy duty roto peen: Baseline report; Summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-07-31

    The roto peen scaler allows for the selective removal of concrete substrates. The peen is a tungsten carbide shot brazed to a hardened steel rivet that is supported by a heavy duty flexible flap. The peens are coupled with a commercially available piece of equipment that is used to scabble or remove the concrete. The scabbled debris is then collected into 55 gallon drums by means of a vacuum system. The safety and health evaluation during the human factors assessment focused on two main areas: noise and dust.

  8. Energy 101: Heavy Duty Vehicle Efficiency | Department of Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room NewsInformation Current HABFES ScienceInformationInformation AdministrationHeavy Duty

  9. Overview of Light-Duty Vehicle Studies | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankADVANCED MANUFACTURINGEnergy Bills andOrder 422.1, CONDUCT OFER-B-00-020 DOEProgram |&|Light-Duty

  10. Cycle isolation monitoring

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Svensen, L.M. III; Zeigler, J.R.; Todd, F.D.; Alder, G.C. [Santee Copper, Moncks Corner, SC (United States)

    2009-07-15

    There are many factors to monitor in power plants, but one that is frequently overlooked is cycle isolation. Often this is an area where plant personnel can find 'low hanging fruit' with great return on investment, especially high energy valve leakage. This type of leakage leads to increased heat rate, potential valve damage and lost generation. The fundamental question to ask is 'What is 100 Btu/kW-hr of heat rate worth to your plant? On a 600 MW coal-fired power plant, a 1% leakage can lead to an 81 Btu/kW-hr impact on the main steam cycle and a 64 Btu/kW-hr impact on the hot reheat cycle. The article gives advice on methods to assist in detecting leaking valves and to monitor cycle isolation. A software product, TP. Plus-CIM was designed to estimate flow rates of potentially leaking valves.

  11. The Energy Strategy Cycle 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Korich, R. D.

    1983-01-01

    an interrelated 'cycle' that once started and controlled in the proper direction is almost self-building in improvement. Energy conservation is the driving force to create additive progress involving system flexibility, process integration, and less energy...

  12. Identify key design elements of desired function

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nawroth, Janna C.

    DESIGN Identify key design elements of desired function Identify functionally equivalent implementation of key design elements (e.g. structure, physiology, kinematics etc.) Quantify functional and standardize fabrication for repeatability . Test phase: Quantify implementation of key design elements

  13. IFR fuel cycle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Battles, J.E.; Miller, W.E. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Lineberry, M.J.; Phipps, R.D. [Argonne National Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1992-04-01

    The next major milestone of the IFR program is engineering-scale demonstration of the pyroprocess fuel cycle. The EBR-II Fuel Cycle Facility has just entered a startup phase, which includes completion of facility modifications and installation and cold checkout of process equipment. This paper reviews the development of the electrorefining pyroprocess, the design and construction of the facility for the hot demonstration, the design and fabrication of the equipment, and the schedule and initial plan for its operation.

  14. IFR fuel cycle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Battles, J.E.; Miller, W.E. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)); Lineberry, M.J.; Phipps, R.D. (Argonne National Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States))

    1992-01-01

    The next major milestone of the IFR program is engineering-scale demonstration of the pyroprocess fuel cycle. The EBR-II Fuel Cycle Facility has just entered a startup phase, which includes completion of facility modifications and installation and cold checkout of process equipment. This paper reviews the development of the electrorefining pyroprocess, the design and construction of the facility for the hot demonstration, the design and fabrication of the equipment, and the schedule and initial plan for its operation.

  15. GPS Data Filtration Method for Drive Cycle Analysis Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duran, A.; Earleywine, M.

    2013-02-01

    When employing GPS data acquisition systems to capture vehicle drive-cycle information, a number of errors often appear in the raw data samples, such as sudden signal loss, extraneous or outlying data points, speed drifting, and signal white noise, all of which limit the quality of field data for use in downstream applications. Unaddressed, these errors significantly impact the reliability of source data and limit the effectiveness of traditional drive-cycle analysis approaches and vehicle simulation software. Without reliable speed and time information, the validity of derived metrics for drive cycles, such as acceleration, power, and distance, become questionable. This study explores some of the common sources of error present in raw onboard GPS data and presents a detailed filtering process designed to correct for these issues. Test data from both light and medium/heavy duty applications are examined to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed filtration process across the range of vehicle vocations. Graphical comparisons of raw and filtered cycles are presented, and statistical analyses are performed to determine the effects of the proposed filtration process on raw data. Finally, an evaluation of the overall benefits of data filtration on raw GPS data and present potential areas for continued research is presented.

  16. Materials-Enabled High-Efficiency (MEHE) Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kass, M.; Veliz, M.

    2011-09-30

    The purpose of this Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between UTBattelle, Inc. and Caterpillar, Inc. was to improve diesel engine efficiency by incorporating advanced materials to enable higher combustion pressures and temperatures necessary for improved combustion. The project scope also included novel materials for use in advanced components and designs associated with waste-heat recovery and other concepts for improved thermal efficiency. Caterpillar initially provided ORNL with a 2004 Tier 2 C15 ACERT diesel engine (designed for on-highway use) and two 600 hp motoring dynamometers. The first year of the CRADA effort was focused on establishing a heavy-duty experimental engine research cell. First year activities included procuring, installing and commissioning the cell infrastructure. Infrastructure components consisted of intake air handling system, water tower, exhaust handling system, and cell air conditioning. Other necessary infrastructure items included the fuel delivery system and bottled gas handling to support the analytical instrumentation. The second year of the CRADA focused on commissioning the dynamometer system to enable engine experimentation. In addition to the requirements associated with the dynamometer controller, the electrical system needed a power factor correction system to maintain continuity with the electrical grid. During the second year the engine was instrumented and baseline operated to confirm performance and commission the dynamometer. The engine performance was mapped and modeled according to requirements provided by Caterpillar. This activity was further supported by a Work-for-Others project from Caterpillar to evaluate a proprietary modeling system. A second Work-for-Others activity was performed to evaluate a novel turbocharger design. This project was highly successful and may lead to new turbocharger designs for Caterpillar heavy-duty diesel engines. During the third (and final) year of the CRADA, a novel valve material was evaluated to assess high temperature performance and durability. A series of prototype valves, composed of a unique nickel-alloy was placed in the engine head. The engine was aggressively operated using a transient test cycle for 200 hours. The valve recession was periodically measured to determine valve performance. Upon completion of the test the valves were removed and returned to Caterpillar for additional assessment. Industrial in-kind support was available throughout the project period. Review of the status and research results were carried out on a regular basis (meetings and telecons) which included direction for future work activities. A significant portion of the industrial support was in the form of information exchange and technical consultation.

  17. Key Activities | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on DeliciousMathematicsEnergyInterested Parties - WAPA Public CommentInverted253.16582104) Kenmore:Key

  18. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Development for Auxiliary Power in Heavy Duty Vehicle Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daniel T. Hennessy

    2010-06-15

    Changing economic and environmental needs of the trucking industry is driving the use of auxiliary power unit (APU) technology for over the road haul trucks. The trucking industry in the United States remains the key to the economy of the nation and one of the major changes affecting the trucking industry is the reduction of engine idling. Delphi Automotive Systems, LLC (Delphi) teamed with heavy-duty truck Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) PACCAR Incorporated (PACCAR), and Volvo Trucks North America (VTNA) to define system level requirements and develop an SOFC based APU. The project defines system level requirements, and subsequently designs and implements an optimized system architecture using an SOFC APU to demonstrate and validate that the APU will meet system level goals. The primary focus is on APUs in the range of 3-5 kW for truck idling reduction. Fuels utilized were derived from low-sulfur diesel fuel. Key areas of study and development included sulfur remediation with reformer operation; stack sensitivity testing; testing of catalyst carbon plugging and combustion start plugging; system pre-combustion; and overall system and electrical integration. This development, once fully implemented and commercialized, has the potential to significantly reduce the fuel idling Class 7/8 trucks consume. In addition, the significant amounts of NOx, CO2 and PM that are produced under these engine idling conditions will be virtually eliminated, inclusive of the noise pollution. The environmental impact will be significant with the added benefit of fuel savings and payback for the vehicle operators / owners.

  19. Brain Receptor Structures Key to Future Therapeutics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Brain Receptor Structures Key to Future Therapeutics Brain Receptor Structures Key to Future Therapeutics Print Wednesday, 28 January 2015 00:00 With an aging population in...

  20. Key Opportunities and Challenges for Program Sustainability ...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Key Opportunities and Challenges for Program Sustainability Key Opportunities and Challenges for Program Sustainability Better Buildings Neighborhood Program, Peer Exchange Call:...

  1. The Effects of Altitude on Heavy-Duty Diesel Truck On-Road

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Denver, University of

    The Effects of Altitude on Heavy-Duty Diesel Truck On-Road Emissions G A R Y A . B I S H O P , * J oxide from 5772 heavy-duty diesel trucks at five locations in the United States and Europe show slightly emissions has largely been focused on the regulation and control of exhaust emissions from light

  2. Department of Mechanical Engineering Fall 2011 Heavy Duty Diesel Engine Friction Reduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Demirel, Melik C.

    PENNSTATE Department of Mechanical Engineering Fall 2011 Heavy Duty Diesel Engine Friction the friction losses of a heavy duty diesel engine. In addition, a tear down procedure needed to be created in order to guide the engine disassembly and testing. The overall goal was to improve fuel economy

  3. Guaranteeing safety for heavy duty vehicle platooning: Safe set computations and experimental evaluations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johansson, Karl Henrik

    be increased and emissions can be reduced. Additionally, when governing vehicle platoons by an automatedGuaranteeing safety for heavy duty vehicle platooning: Safe set computations and experimental December 2013 Keywords: Heavy duty vehicle Platooning Game theory Safety analysis Vehicle-to-vehicle

  4. Sandia Energy - Nuclear Fuel Cycle Options Catalog

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nuclear Fuel Cycle Options Catalog Home Stationary Power Nuclear Fuel Cycle Nuclear Energy Workshops Nuclear Fuel Cycle Options Catalog Nuclear Fuel Cycle Options CatalogAshley...

  5. Sandia Energy - Nuclear Fuel Cycle Options Catalog

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Fuel Cycle Options Catalog Home Stationary Power Nuclear Fuel Cycle Advanced Nuclear Energy Nuclear Fuel Cycle Options Catalog Nuclear Fuel Cycle Options CatalogAshley...

  6. WORKSHOP REPORT: Trucks and Heavy-Duty Vehicles Technical Requirements and Gaps for Lightweight and Propulsion Materials

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    WORKSHOP REPORT: Trucks and Heavy-Duty Vehicles Technical Requirements and Gaps for Lightweight and Propulsion Materials

  7. Helium process cycle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ganni, Venkatarao (Yorktown, VA)

    2008-08-12

    A unique process cycle and apparatus design separates the consumer (cryogenic) load return flow from most of the recycle return flow of a refrigerator and/or liquefier process cycle. The refrigerator and/or liquefier process recycle return flow is recompressed by a multi-stage compressor set and the consumer load return flow is recompressed by an independent consumer load compressor set that maintains a desirable constant suction pressure using a consumer load bypass control valve and the consumer load return pressure control valve that controls the consumer load compressor's suction pressure. The discharge pressure of this consumer load compressor is thereby allowed to float at the intermediate pressure in between the first and second stage recycle compressor sets. Utilizing the unique gas management valve regulation, the unique process cycle and apparatus design in which the consumer load return flow is separate from the recycle return flow, the pressure ratios of each recycle compressor stage and all main pressures associated with the recycle return flow are allowed to vary naturally, thus providing a naturally regulated and balanced floating pressure process cycle that maintains optimal efficiency at design and off-design process cycle capacity and conditions automatically.

  8. Helium process cycle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ganni, Venkatarao (Yorktown, VA)

    2007-10-09

    A unique process cycle and apparatus design separates the consumer (cryogenic) load return flow from most of the recycle return flow of a refrigerator and/or liquefier process cycle. The refrigerator and/or liquefier process recycle return flow is recompressed by a multi-stage compressor set and the consumer load return flow is recompressed by an independent consumer load compressor set that maintains a desirable constant suction pressure using a consumer load bypass control valve and the consumer load return pressure control valve that controls the consumer load compressor's suction pressure. The discharge pressure of this consumer load compressor is thereby allowed to float at the intermediate pressure in between the first and second stage recycle compressor sets. Utilizing the unique gas management valve regulation, the unique process cycle and apparatus design in which the consumer load return flow is separate from the recycle return flow, the pressure ratios of each recycle compressor stage and all main pressures associated with the recycle return flow are allowed to vary naturally, thus providing a naturally regulated and balanced floating pressure process cycle that maintains optimal efficiency at design and off-design process cycle capacity and conditions automatically.

  9. Key Activities | Department of Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would likeUniverseIMPACTThousand Cubic Feet) SoldDepartment ofKenThousandtheKevlar andKey

  10. Key Terms | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuelsof EnergyApril 2014 | International NuclearKaren AtkinsonAbout the FuelKey

  11. MULTIVARIATE PUBLIC KEY CRYPTOSYSTEMS FROM DIOPHANTINE EQUATIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gao, Shuhong

    MULTIVARIATE PUBLIC KEY CRYPTOSYSTEMS FROM DIOPHANTINE EQUATIONS SHUHONG GAO AND RAYMOND HEINDL for multivariate public key cryptosystems, which combines ideas from both triangular and oil-vinegar schemes. We the framework. 1. Introduction 1.1. Multivariate Public Key Cryptography. Public key cryptography plays

  12. Fitness for Duty Procedures These procedures are intended to be a guide for implementing University Policy HRM-037, "Evaluating

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Acton, Scott

    1 Fitness for Duty Procedures These procedures are intended to be a guide for implementing University Policy HRM-037, "Evaluating Employee Fitness for Duty". That policy applies to all employees's fitness for duty must report their observations to the employee's supervisor. 2. The supervisor

  13. Quantum Key Distribution with Qubit Pairs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohd Asad Siddiqui; Tabish Qureshi

    2014-07-17

    We propose a new Quantum Key Distribution method in which Alice sends pairs of qubits to Bob, each in one of four possible states. Bob uses one qubit to generate a secure key and the other to generate an auxiliary key. For each pair he randomly decides which qubit to use for which key. The auxiliary key has to be added to Bob's secure key in order to match Alice's secure key. This scheme provides an additional layer of security over the standard BB84 protocol.

  14. Superfluid thermodynamic cycle refrigerator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Swift, G.W.; Kotsubo, V.Y.

    1992-12-22

    A cryogenic refrigerator cools a heat source by cyclically concentrating and diluting the amount of [sup 3]He in a single phase [sup 3]He-[sup 4]He solution. The [sup 3]He in superfluid [sup 4]He acts in a manner of an ideal gas in a vacuum. Thus, refrigeration is obtained using any conventional thermal cycle, but preferably a Stirling or Carnot cycle. A single phase solution of liquid [sup 3]He at an initial concentration in superfluid [sup 4]He is contained in a first variable volume connected to a second variable volume through a superleak device that enables free passage of [sup 4]He while restricting passage of [sup 3]He. The [sup 3]He is compressed (concentrated) and expanded (diluted) in a phased manner to carry out the selected thermal cycle to remove heat from the heat load for cooling below 1 K. 12 figs.

  15. Superfluid thermodynamic cycle refrigerator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Swift, Gregory W. (Santa Fe, NM); Kotsubo, Vincent Y. (La Canada, CA)

    1992-01-01

    A cryogenic refrigerator cools a heat source by cyclically concentrating and diluting the amount of .sup.3 He in a single phase .sup.3 He-.sup.4 He solution. The .sup.3 He in superfluid .sup.4 He acts in a manner of an ideal gas in a vacuum. Thus, refrigeration is obtained using any conventional thermal cycle, but preferably a Stirling or Carnot cycle. A single phase solution of liquid .sup.3 He at an initial concentration in superfluid .sup.4 He is contained in a first variable volume connected to a second variable volume through a superleak device that enables free passage of .sup.4 He while restricting passage of .sup.3 He. The .sup.3 He is compressed (concentrated) and expanded (diluted) in a phased manner to carry out the selected thermal cycle to remove heat from the heat load for cooling below 1 K.

  16. Simulating Study of Premixed Charge Compression Ignition on Light-Duty Diesel Fuel Economy and Emissions Control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gao, Zhiming [ORNL] [ORNL; Daw, C Stuart [ORNL] [ORNL; Wagner, Robert M [ORNL] [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    We utilize the Powertrain Systems Analysis Toolkit (PSAT) combined with transient engine and aftertreatment component models to simulate the impact of premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI) on the fuel economy and emissions of light-duty (LD) diesel-powered conventional and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). Our simulated aftertreatment train consists of a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC), lean NOx trap (LNT), and catalyzed diesel particulate filter (DPF). The results indicate that utilizing PCCI combustion significantly reduces fuel consumption and tailpipe emissions for the conventional diesel-powered vehicle with NOx and particulate emissions controls. These benefits result from a favorable engine speed-load distribution over the cycle combined with a corresponding reduction in the need to regenerate the LNT and DPF. However, the current PCCI technology appears to offer less potential benefit for diesel HEVs equipped with similar emissions controls. This is because PCCI can only be activated over a relatively small part of the drive cycle. Thus we conclude that future utilization of PCCI in diesel HEVs will require significant extension of the available speed-load range for PCCI and revision of current HEV engine management strategies before significant benefits can be realized.

  17. Carbon cycling, fire and phenology in a tropical savanna woodland in Nhambita, Mozambique 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ryan, Casey Merlin

    2009-01-01

    In the savanna woodlands of Southern Africa, locally know as miombo, carbon cycling is poorly quantified and many of the key processes remain obscure. For example, seasonal constraints on productivity and leaf display ...

  18. Regulatory Cohesion of Cell Cycle and Cell Differentiation through Interlinked Phosphorylation and Second Messenger Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abel, Sören

    In Caulobacter crescentus, phosphorylation of key regulators is coordinated with the second messenger cyclic di-GMP to drive cell-cycle progression and differentiation. The diguanylate cyclase PleD directs pole morphogenesis, ...

  19. Medium Duty ARRA Data Reporting and Analysis (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walkowicz, K.

    2014-06-01

    This project compiles medium-duty (MD) aggregated deployment data and provides the compiled detailed analyses to industry. The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) deployment and demonstration projects are helping to commercialize technologies for all-electric vehicles, electrified accessories, and electric charging infrastructure. Over 3.2 million miles of in-service all-electric MD truck data from 560 different vehicles have been collected since 2011, and usage data from over 1,000 truck electrification sites have been collected since 2013. Through the DOE's Vehicle Technologies Office, NREL is working to analyze real-time data from these deployment and demonstration projects to quantify the benefits: results and summary statistics are made available through the NREL website as quarterly and annual reports; 23 aggregated reports have been published on the performance and operation of these vehicles; and detailed data are being extracted to help further understand battery use and performance.

  20. Using LNG as a Fuel in Heavy-Duty Tractors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liquid Carbonic, Inc. and Trucking Research Institute

    1999-08-09

    Recognizing the lack of operational data on alternative fuel heavy-truck trucks, NREL contracted with the Trucking Research Institute (TRI) in 1994 to obtain a cooperative agreement with Liquid Carbonic. The purpose of this agreement was to (1) purchase and operate liquid natural gas- (LNG-) powered heavy-duty tractor-trailers with prototype Detroit Diesel Corporation (DDC) Series 60 natural gas (S60G) engines in over-the-road commercial service applications; and (2) collect and provide operational data to DDC to facilitate the on-road prototype development of the engine and to NREL for the Alternative Fuels Data Center. The vehicles operated from August 1994 through April of 1997 and led to a commercially available, emissions-certified S60G in 1998. This report briefly documents the engine development, the operational characteristics of LNG, and the lessons learned during the project.

  1. Transportable Heavy Duty Emissions Testing Laboratory and Research Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David Lyons

    2008-03-31

    The objective of this program was to quantify the emissions from heavy-duty vehicles operating on alternative fuels or advanced fuel blends, often with novel engine technology or aftertreatment. In the first year of the program West Virginia University (WVU) researchers determined that a transportable chassis dynamometer emissions measurement approach was required so that fleets of trucks and buses did not need to be ferried across the nation to a fixed facility. A Transportable Heavy-Duty Vehicle Emissions Testing Laboratory (Translab) was designed, constructed and verified. This laboratory consisted of a chassis dynamometer semi-trailer and an analytic trailer housing a full scale exhaust dilution tunnel and sampling system which mimicked closely the system described in the Code of Federal Regulations for engine certification. The Translab was first used to quantify emissions from natural gas and methanol fueled transit buses, and a second Translab unit was constructed to satisfy research demand. Subsequent emissions measurement was performed on trucks and buses using ethanol, Fischer-Tropsch fuel, and biodiesel. A medium-duty chassis dynamometer was also designed and constructed to facilitate research on delivery vehicles in the 10,000 to 20,000lb range. The Translab participated in major programs to evaluate low-sulfur diesel in conjunction with passively regenerating exhaust particulate filtration technology, and substantial reductions in particulate matter were recorded. The researchers also participated in programs to evaluate emissions from advanced natural gas engines with closed loop feedback control. These natural gas engines showed substantially reduced levels of oxides of nitrogen. For all of the trucks and buses characterized, the levels of carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen, hydrocarbons, carbon dioxide and particulate matter were quantified, and in many cases non-regulated species such as aldehydes were also sampled. Particle size was also quantified during selected studies. A laboratory was established at WVU to provide for studies which supported and augmented the Translab research, and to provide for development of superior emissions measurement systems. This laboratory research focused on engine control and fuel sulfur issues. In recent years, as engine and aftertreatment technologies advanced, emissions levels were reduced such that they were at or below the Translab detectable limits, and in the same time frame the US Environmental Protection Agency required improved measurement methodologies for engine emissions certification. To remain current and relevant, the researchers designed a new Translab analytic system, housed in a container which can be transported on a semi-trailer. The new system's dilution tunnel flow was designed to use a subsonic venturi with closed loop control of blower speed, and the secondary dilution and particulate matter filter capture were designed to follow new EPA engine certification procedures. A further contribution of the program has been the development of techniques for creating heavy-duty vehicle test schedules, and the creation of schedules to mimic a variety of truck and bus vocations.

  2. Kansas Consortium Plug-in Hybrid Medium Duty

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None, None

    2012-03-31

    On September 30, 2008, the US Department of Energy (DoE), issued a cooperative agreement award, DE-FC26-08NT01914, to the Metropolitan Energy Center (MEC), for a project known as “Kansas Consortium Plug-in Hybrid Medium Duty Certification” project. The cooperative agreement was awarded pursuant to H15915 in reference to H. R. 2764 Congressionally Directed Projects. The original agreement provided funding for The Consortium to implement the established project objectives as follows: (1) to understand the current state of the development of a test protocol for PHEV configurations; (2) to work with industry stakeholders to recommend a medium duty vehicle test protocol; (3) to utilize the Phase 1 Eaton PHEV F550 Chassis or other appropriate PHEV configurations to conduct emissions testing; (4) and to make an industry PHEV certification test protocol recommendation for medium duty trucks. Subsequent amendments to the initial agreement were made, the most significant being a revised Scope of Project Objectives (SOPO) that did not address actual field data since it was not available as originally expected. This project was mated by DOE with a parallel project award given to the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) in California. The SCAQMD project involved designing, building and testing of five medium duty plug-in hybrid electric trucks. SCAQMD had contracted with the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) to manage the project. EPRI provided the required match to the federal grant funds to both the SCAQMD project and the Kansas Consortium project. The rational for linking the two projects was that the data derived from the SCAQMD project could be used to validate the protocols developed by the Kansas Consortium team. At the same time, the consortium team would be a useful resource to SCAQMD in designating their test procedures for emissions and operating parameters and determining vehicle mileage. The years between award of the cooperative agreements and their completion were problematic for the US and world economies. This resulted in the President and Congress implementing the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009, abbreviated ARRA (Pub.L. 111-5), commonly referred to as the Stimulus or The Recovery Act. The stimulus money available for transportation projects encouraged the SCAQMD to seek additional funds. In August of 2009, they eventually were awarded an additional $45.5 M, and the scope of their project was expanded to 378 vehicles. However, as a consequence of the stimulus money and the inundation of DOE with applications for new project under the ARRA, the expected time table for producing and testing vehicles was significantly delayed. As a result, these vehicles were not available for validating the protocols developed by the Kansas Consortium. Therefore, in April of 2011, the Scope of Project Objectives (SOPO) for the project was revised, and limited to producing the draft protocol for PHEV certification as its deliverable.

  3. Fuel Cycle Technologies 2014 Achievement Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hong, Bonnie C.

    2015-01-01

    The Fuel Cycle Technologies (FCT) program supports the Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) mission to: “Enhance U.S. security and economic growth through transformative science, technology innovation, and market solutions to meet our energy, nuclear security, and environmental challenges.” Goal 1 of DOE’s Strategic Plan is to innovate energy technologies that enhance U.S. economic growth and job creation, energy security, and environmental quality. FCT does this by investing in advanced technologies that could transform the nuclear fuel cycle in the decades to come. Goal 2 of DOE’s Strategic Plan is to strengthen national security by strengthening key science, technology, and engineering capabilities. FCT does this by working closely with the National Nuclear Security Administration and the U.S Department of State to develop advanced technologies that support the Nation’s nuclear nonproliferation goals.

  4. International nuclear fuel cycle fact book: Revision 9

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leigh, I.W.

    1989-01-01

    The International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Fact Book has been compiled in an effort to provide current data concerning fuel cycle and waste management facilities, R and D programs and key personnel. The Fact Book contains: national summaries in which a section for each country which summarizes nuclear policy, describes organizational relationships and provides addresses, names of key personnel, and facilities information; and international agencies in which a section for each of the international agencies which has significant fuel cycle involvement, and a listing of nuclear societies. The national summaries, in addition to the data described above, feature a small map for each country as well as some general information. The latter is presented from the perspective of the Fact Book user in the United States.

  5. Heavy Duty Diesel Particulate Matter and Fuel Consumption Modeling for Transportation Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scora, George Alexander

    2011-01-01

    300 vehicles and three drive cycles. The model framework wasover a 1000 second drive cycle with two apparent drivingrepresenting individual drive cycles, characterized by their

  6. International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Fact Book. Revision 5

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harmon, K.M.; Lakey, L.T.; Leigh, I.W.; Jeffs, A.G.

    1985-01-01

    This Fact Book has been compiled in an effort to provide: (1) an overview of worldwide nuclear power and fuel cycle programs; and (2) current data concerning fuel cycle and waste management facilities, R and D programs, and key personnel in countries other than the United States. Additional information on each country's program is available in the International Source Book: Nuclear Fuel Cycle Research and Development, PNL-2478, Rev. 2. The Fact Book is organized as follows: (1) Overview section - summary tables which indicate national involvement in nuclear reactor, fuel cycle, and waste management development activities; (2) national summaries - a section for each country which summarizes nuclear policy, describes organizational relationships and provides addresses, names of key personnel, and facilities information; (3) international agencies - a section for each of the international agencies which has significant fuel cycle involvement; (4) energy supply and demand - summary tables, including nuclear power projections; (5) fuel cycle - summary tables; and (6) travel aids international dialing instructions, international standard time chart, passport and visa requirements, and currency exchange rate.

  7. International nuclear fuel cycle fact book. Revision 4

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harmon, K.M.; Lakey, L.T.; Leigh, I.W.

    1984-03-01

    This Fact Book has been compiled in an effort to provide (1) an overview of worldwide nuclear power and fuel cycle programs and (2) current data concerning fuel cycle and waste management facilities, R and D programs, and key personnel in countries other than the United States. Additional information on each country's program is available in the International Source Book: Nuclear Fuel Cycle Research and Development, PNL-2478, Rev. 2. The Fact Book is organized as follows: (1) Overview section - summary tables which indicate national involvement in nuclear reactor, fuel cycle, and waste management development activities; (2) national summaries - a section for each country which summarizes nuclear policy, describes organizational relationships and provides addresses, names of key personnel, and facilities information; (3) international agencies - a section for each of the international agencies which has significant fuel cycle involvement; (4) energy supply and demand - summary tables, including nuclear power projections; (5) fuel cycle - summary tables; and (6) travel aids - international dialing instructions, international standard time chart, passport and visa requirements, and currency exchange rate.

  8. Plant Molecular Biology 43: 621633, 2000. Dirk Inz (Ed.), The Plant Cell Cycle.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Murray, J.A.H.

    Plant Molecular Biology 43: 621­633, 2000. Dirk Inzé (Ed.), The Plant Cell Cycle. © 2000 Kluwer Academic Publishers. Printed in the Netherlands. 621 The role and regulation of D-type cyclins in the plant.murray@biotech.cam.ac.uk) Key words: D-type cyclins, differentiation, G1/S control, plant cell cycle, proliferation

  9. Nuclear Fuel Cycle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dale, Deborah J.

    2014-10-28

    These slides will be presented at the training course “International Training Course on Implementing State Systems of Accounting for and Control (SSAC) of Nuclear Material for States with Small Quantity Protocols (SQP),” on November 3-7, 2014 in Santa Fe, New Mexico. The slides provide a basic overview of the Nuclear Fuel Cycle. This is a joint training course provided by NNSA and IAEA.

  10. Stirling cycle engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lundholm, Gunnar

    1983-01-01

    In a Stirling cycle engine having a plurality of working gas charges separated by pistons reciprocating in cylinders, the total gas content is minimized and the mean pressure equalization among the serial cylinders is improved by using two piston rings axially spaced at least as much as the piston stroke and by providing a duct in the cylinder wall opening in the space between the two piston rings and leading to a source of minimum or maximum working gas pressure.

  11. Ultra-Low Duty Cycle MAC with Scheduled Channel Polling Wei Ye, Fabio Silva, and John Heidemann

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heidemann, John

    ., and by Chevron Co. through the USC Center for Interactive Smart Oilfield Technologies (CiSoft). Permission

  12. Abstract--Long-term, low duty cycle monitoring of patients with a variety of disabilities or health concerns is often

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    in integrated circuit (IC) technology that have produced microcontrollers, wireless transceivers, and MEMS

  13. Ignition assist systems for direct-injected, diesel cycle, medium-duty alternative fuel engines: Final report phase 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chan, A.K.

    2000-02-23

    This report is a summary of the results of Phase 1 of this contract. The objective was to evaluate the potential of assist technologies for direct-injected alternative fuel engines vs. glow plug ignition assist. The goal was to demonstrate the feasibility of an ignition system life of 10,000 hours and a system cost of less than 50% of the glow plug system, while meeting or exceeding the engine thermal efficiency obtained with the glow plug system. There were three tasks in Phase 1. Under Task 1, a comprehensive review of feasible ignition options for DING engines was completed. The most promising options are: (1) AC and the ''SmartFire'' spark, which are both long-duration, low-power (LDLP) spark systems; (2) the short-duration, high-power (SDHP) spark system; (3) the micropilot injection ignition; and (4) the stratified charge plasma ignition. Efforts concentrated on investigating the AC spark, SmartFire spark, and short-duration/high-power spark systems. Using proprietary pricing information, the authors predicted that the commercial costs for the AC spark, the short-duration/high-power spark and SmartFire spark systems will be comparable (if not less) to the glow plug system. Task 2 involved designing and performing bench tests to determine the criteria for the ignition system and the prototype spark plug for Task 3. The two most important design criteria are the high voltage output requirement of the ignition system and the minimum electrical insulation requirement for the spark plug. Under Task 3, all the necessary hardware for the one-cylinder engine test was designed. The hardware includes modified 3126 cylinder heads, specially designed prototype spark plugs, ignition system electronics, and parts for the system installation. Two 3126 cylinder heads and the SmartFire ignition system were procured, and testing will begin in Phase 2 of this subcontract.

  14. Hash-based Multivariate Public Key Cryptosystems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    International Association for Cryptologic Research (IACR)

    Hash-based Multivariate Public Key Cryptosystems WANG Hou-Zhen and ZHANG Huan-Guo The Key for the traditional multivariate public key cryp- tosystems. For example, the signature scheme SFLASH was broken. at ASIACRYPTO'09. Most multivariate schemes known so far are insecure, except maybe the sigature schemes UOV

  15. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Light-Duty Diesel Combustion

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Sandia National Laboratories at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about light-duty...

  16. Light-Duty Diesel EngineTechnology to Meet Future Emissions and...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    to Meet Future Emissions and Performance Requirements of the U.S. Market Light-Duty Diesel EngineTechnology to Meet Future Emissions and Performance Requirements of the U.S....

  17. Heavy-Duty NOx Emissions Control: Reformer-Assisted vs. Plasma...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    NOx Emissions Control: Reformer-Assisted vs. Plasma-Facilitated Lean NOx Catalysis Heavy-Duty NOx Emissions Control: Reformer-Assisted vs. Plasma-Facilitated Lean NOx Catalysis...

  18. Impact of Fuel Properties on Light-Duty Engine Performance and...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    effects of seven fuels with significantly different fuel properties on a state-of-the-art light-duty diesel engine. Cetane numbers range between 26 and 76 for the investigated...

  19. On-Road Development of the C-Gas Plus Engine in Heavy-Duty Vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2003-06-01

    Fact sheet details on-road development of C-Gas Plus natural gas engine in Viking Freight heavy-duty trucks, including emissions, fuel costs, and petroleum displacement.

  20. The role of the duty factor in ultrasound-mediated cardiac stimulation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, University of

    @illinois.edu, wdo@illinois.edu Abstract: The role of the duty factor (DF) in ultrasound-mediated car- diac- controlled platform in dorsal recumbency for ultrasonic cardiac exposure. Respiratory rate, heart rate

  1. Biodiesel Effects on the Operation of U.S. Light-Duty Tier 2...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    the Operation of U.S. Light-Duty Tier 2 Engine and Aftertreatment Systems Results of the NOx adsorber system with catalyst aged to useful life conditions (simulated 120k miles),...

  2. Emissions from In-Use NG, Propane, and Diesel Fueled Heavy Duty Vehicles

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Emissions tests of in-use heavy-duty vehicles showed that, natural gas- and propane-fueled vehicles have high emissions of NH3 and CO, compared to diesel vehicles, while meeting certification requirements

  3. Implementation of the Joint Duty Program at CIA: Analysis and Recommendations 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burk, Judah; Ericson, Paige; Fillman, Kara; Graber, Jon; Jones, Elizabeth; Mitchell, Cheryl; Rodgers, Randy; Wilson, Naomi

    2012-01-01

    This report assesses the strengths and weaknesses of the Joint Duty (JD) program as it is currently implemented at the CIA. Over the course of approximately six weeks, the Bush School 2012 Capstone interviewed - in-person ...

  4. High Efficiency Clean Combustion in Multi-Cylinder Light-Duty...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    D.C. ace17wagner.pdf More Documents & Publications High-Efficiency Clean Combustion in Light-Duty Multi-Cylinder Diesel Engines High Efficiency Clean Combustion in...

  5. Increasing the Fuel Economy and Safety of New Light-Duty Vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wenzel, Tom; Ross, Marc

    2006-01-01

    Automotive Technology and Fuel Economy Trends: 1975 Through2004. “The effect of fuel economy on automobile safety: aM. , 2002. “Near-term fuel economy potential for light-duty

  6. Business Case for Light-Duty Diesel in the U.S. | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Cleaning Up Non-Road Diesel Vehicles: A Public Health Imperative Future Potential of Hybrid and Diesel Powertrains in the U.S. Light-Duty Vehicle Market Opportunity Assessment...

  7. Urea SCR and DPF System for Tier 2 Diesel Light-Duty Trucks ...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Tier 2 Diesel Light-Duty Trucks Presentation given at DEER 2006, August 20-24, 2006, Detroit, Michigan. Sponsored by the U.S. DOE's EERE FreedomCar and Fuel Partnership and 21st...

  8. SCReaming for Low NOx - SCR for the Light Duty Market | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    - SCR for the Light Duty Market Presentation given at DEER 2006, August 20-24, 2006, Detroit, Michigan. Sponsored by the U.S. DOE's EERE FreedomCar and Fuel Partnership and 21st...

  9. Fuel Effects on Low Temperature Combustion in a Light-Duty Diesel Engine

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Six different fuels were investigated to study the influence of fuel properties on engine out emissions and performance of low temperature premixed compression ignition combustion light-duty HSDI engines

  10. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Heavy Duty Roots Expander Heat Energy Recovery (HD-REHER)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Eaton Corporation at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about heavy duty roots expander...

  11. Difficulty of Measuring Emissions from Heavy-Duty Engines Equipped with SCR and DPF

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In reference to legacy heavy-duty vehicles, emissions and fuel use are less closely related to immediate engine load than was the case without the use of aftertreatments.

  12. Renewable Energy, Nuclear Power and Galileo: Do Scientists Have a Duty to Expose Popular Misconceptions?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hansen, James E.

    1 OPINION Renewable Energy, Nuclear Power and Galileo: Do Scientists Have a Duty to Expose Popular misconception discussed below concerns the fallacy that renewable energy is rapidly supplanting conventional energy. Total non-hydro renewables today offset o

  13. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Zero-Emission Heavy-Duty Drayage Truck Demonstration

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by SCAQMD at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about zero-emission heavy-duty drayage truck...

  14. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Ultra Efficient Light Duty Powertrain with Gasoline Low Temperature Combustion

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Delphi Powertrain at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about ultra efficient light duty...

  15. APBF-DEC Light-duty NOx Adsorber/DPF Project | Department of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Status of APBF-DEC NOx AdsorberDPF Projects APBF-DEC NOx AdsorberDPF Project: SUVPick-Up Platform APBF- DEC Heavy-Duty NOx AdsorberDPF Project: Catalyst Aging Study...

  16. Operation and analysis of a supercritical CO2 Brayton cycle.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wright, Steven Alan; Radel, Ross F.; Vernon, Milton E.; Pickard, Paul S.; Rochau, Gary Eugene

    2010-09-01

    Sandia National Laboratories is investigating advanced Brayton cycles using supercritical working fluids for use with solar, nuclear or fossil heat sources. The focus of this work has been on the supercritical CO{sub 2} cycle (S-CO2) which has the potential for high efficiency in the temperature range of interest for these heat sources, and is also very compact, with the potential for lower capital costs. The first step in the development of these advanced cycles was the construction of a small scale Brayton cycle loop, funded by the Laboratory Directed Research & Development program, to study the key issue of compression near the critical point of CO{sub 2}. This document outlines the design of the small scale loop, describes the major components, presents models of system performance, including losses, leakage, windage, compressor performance, and flow map predictions, and finally describes the experimental results that have been generated.

  17. Green Building- Efficient Life Cycle 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kohns, R.

    2008-01-01

    the components “Sustainable Building Design”, “Life Cycle Cost Analysis”, “Green Building Certification” and “Natural Resources Management”. These components are deliberately arranged around the life cycle of the real estate concerned. This allows a different...

  18. Sandia National Laboratories: Partnerships, mission synergy key...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    - the Accelerated Climate Modeling for Energy - to examine "big science" questions that drive climate change: water cycle, biogeochemistry, and the cryosphere. In the years...

  19. Light Duty Utility Arm System applications for tank waste remediation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carteret, B.A.

    1994-10-01

    The Light Duty Utility Arm (LDUA) System is being developed by the US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Office of Technology Development (OTD, EM-50) to obtain information about the conditions and contents of the DOE`s underground storage tanks. Many of these tanks are deteriorating and contain hazardous, radioactive waste generated over the past 50 years as a result of defense materials production at a member of DOE sites. Stabilization and remediation of these waste tanks is a high priority for the DOE`s environmental restoration program. The LDUA System will provide the capability to obtain vital data needed to develop safe and cost-effective tank remediation plans, to respond to ongoing questions about tank integrity and leakage, and to quickly investigate tank events that raise safety concerns. In-tank demonstrations of the LDUA System are planned for three DOE sites in 1996 and 1997: Hanford, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). This paper provides a general description of the system design and discusses a number of planned applications of this technology to support the DOE`s environmental restoration program, as well as potential applications in other areas. Supporting papers by other authors provide additional in-depth technical information on specific areas of the system design.

  20. Unveiling Microbial Carbon Cycling Processes in Key U.S. Soils...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ability to predict the kinds of regional environmental changes that will accompany global climate change, it is not clear how the microbial community will respond to...

  1. THE TRANSPOSED CRITICAL TEMPERATURE RANKINE THERMODYNAMIC CYCLE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pope, William L.

    2012-01-01

    and Optimize Geothermal Power Cycles," presented at the 1lthbinary) Rankine power cycle based on our observations on ageothermal binary Rankine power cycles for the isobutane/

  2. Life-cycle Assessment of Semiconductors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyd, Sarah B.

    2009-01-01

    4 Life-cycle Assessment of CMOS Logic5 Life-cycle Assessment of Flash Memory6 Life-cycle Assessment of Dynamic Random Access Memory

  3. Life Cycle Inventory of a CMOS Chip

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyd, Sarah; Dornfeld, David; Krishnan, Nikhil

    2006-01-01

    E. ; Zappa, S. ; “Life cycle assessment of an integratedare shown. Keywords- Life Cycle Assessment (LCA); Life Cycleindustry, and Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is emerging as a

  4. Truck Essential Power Systems Efficiency Improvements for Medium-Duty Trucks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Larry Slone; Jeffery Birkel

    2007-12-31

    With a variety of hybrid vehicles available in the passenger car market, electric technologies and components of that scale are becoming readily available. Commercial vehicle segments have lagged behind passenger car markets, leaving opportunities for component and system development. Escalating fuel prices impact all markets and provide motivation for OEMs, suppliers, customers, and end-users to seek new techniques and technologies to deliver reduced fuel consumption. The research presented here specifically targets the medium-duty (MD), Class 4-7, truck market with technologies aimed at reducing fuel consumption. These technologies could facilitate not only idle, but also parasitic load reductions. The development efforts here build upon the success of the More Electric Truck (MET) demonstration program at Caterpillar Inc. Employing a variety of electric accessories, the MET demonstrated the improvement seen with such technologies on a Class 8 truck. The Truck Essential Power Systems Efficiency Improvements for Medium-Duty Trucks (TEPS) team scaled the concepts and successes of MET to a MD chassis. The team designed an integrated starter/generator (ISG) package and energy storage system (ESS), explored ways to replace belt and gear-driven accessory systems, and developed supervisory control algorithms to direct the usage of the generated electricity and system behavior on the vehicle. All of these systems needed to fit within the footprint of a MD vehicle and be compatible with the existing conventional systems to the largest extent possible. The overall goal of this effort was to demonstrate a reduction in fuel consumption across the drive cycle, including during idle periods, through truck electrification. Furthermore, the team sought to evaluate the benefits of charging the energy storage system during vehicle braking. The vehicle features an array of electric accessories facilitating on-demand, variable actuation. Removal of these accessories from the belt or geartrain of the engine yields efficiency improvements for the engine while freeing those accessories to perform at their individual peak efficiencies to meet instantaneous demand. The net result is a systems approach to fuel usage optimization. Unique control algorithms were specifically developed to capitalize on the flexibility afforded by the TEPS architecture. Moreover, the TEPS truck technology mixture exhibits a means to supplant current accessory power sources such as on-board or trailer-mounted gasoline-powered generators or air compressors. Such functionality further enhances the value of the electric systems beyond the fuel savings alone. To demonstrate the fuel economy improvement wrought via the TEPS components, vehicle fuel economy testing was performed on the nearly stock (baseline) truck and the TEPS truck. Table 1 illustrates the fuel economy gains produced by the TEPS truck electrification. While the fuel economy results shown in Table 1 do reflect specific test conditions, they show that electrification of accessory hardware can yield significant fuel savings. In this case, the savings equated to a 15 percent reduction in fuel consumption during controlled on-road testing. Truck electrification allows engine shutdown during idle conditions as well as independent on-demand actuation of accessory systems. In some cases, independent actuation may even include lack of operation, a feature not always present in mechanically driven components. This combination of attributes allows significant improvements in system efficiency and the fuel economy improvements demonstrated by the TEPS team.

  5. Are solar cycles predictable?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Manfred Schuessler

    2007-12-12

    Various methods (or recipes) have been proposed to predict future solar activity levels - with mixed success. Among these, some precursor methods based upon quantities determined around or a few years before solar minimum have provided rather high correlations with the strength of the following cycles. Recently, data assimilation with an advection-dominated (flux-transport) dynamo model has been proposed as a predictive tool, yielding remarkably high correlation coefficients. After discussing the potential implications of these results and the criticism that has been raised, we study the possible physical origin(s) of the predictive skill provided by precursor and other methods. It is found that the combination of the overlap of solar cycles and their amplitude-dependent rise time (Waldmeier's rule) introduces correlations in the sunspot number (or area) record, which account for the predictive skill of many precursor methods. This explanation requires no direct physical relation between the precursor quantity and the dynamo mechanism (in the sense of the Babcock-Leighton scheme or otherwise).

  6. President Obama Announces More Key Administration Posts | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Chief Warrant Officer, Helicopter Pilot, serving in both Korea and Taiwan during the Vietnam-era conflict. Following his military tours of duty, Mr. Heddell served for 29 years...

  7. Brain Receptor Structures Key to Future Therapeutics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Brain Receptor Structures Key to Future Therapeutics Print With an aging population in America, it is more important than ever to discover ways to treat or prevent diseases...

  8. Wind Vision: Analysis Highlights and Key Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Highlights and Key Results Eric Lantz (NREL) Ryan Wiser (LBNL) July 15, 2015 2 | Wind and Water Power Technologies Office eere.energy.gov Presentation Overview Wind...

  9. Monroe County Extension Services Key West Office

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hill, Jeffrey E.

    potable water is pumped to the Keys from the mainland through a 130-mile long transmission line irrigation and fertilizer, and are more

  10. D-Cycle- 4-Differential-Stroke Cycle

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The D-Cycle offers the opportunity to use less fuel and gain more power while being able to be retrofit to an OEM and aftermarket engines

  11. Simulated fuel economy and emissions performance during city and interstate driving for a heavy-duty hybrid truck

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daw, C Stuart; Gao, Zhiming; Smith, David E; LaClair, Tim J; Pihl, Josh A; Edwards, Kevin Dean

    2013-01-01

    We compare simulated fuel economy and emissions for both conventional and hybrid class 8 heavy-duty diesel trucks operating over multiple urban and highway driving cycles. Both light and heavy freight loads were considered, and all simulations included full aftertreatment for NOx and particulate emissions controls. The aftertreatment components included a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC), urea-selective catalytic NOx reduction (SCR), and a catalyzed diesel particulate filter (DPF). Our simulated hybrid powertrain was configured with a pre-transmission parallel drive, with a single electric motor between the clutch and gearbox. A conventional HD truck with equivalent diesel engine and aftertreatment was also simulated for comparison. Our results indicate that hybridization can significantly increase HD fuel economy and improve emissions control in city driving. However, there is less potential hybridization benefit for HD highway driving. A major factor behind the reduced hybridization benefit for highway driving is that there are fewer opportunities to utilize regenerative breaking. Our aftertreatment simulations indicate that opportunities for passive DPF regeneration are much greater for both hybrid and conventional trucks during highway driving due to higher sustained exhaust temperatures. When passive DPF regeneration is extensively utilized, the fuel penalty for particulate control is virtually eliminated, except for the 0.4%-0.9% fuel penalty associated with the slightly higher exhaust backpressure.

  12. Improving the Efficiency of Light-Duty Vehicle HVAC Systems using Zonal Thermoelectric Devices and Comfort Modeling

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Summarizes results from a study to identify and demonstrate technical and commercial approaches necessary to accelerate the deployment of zonal TE HVAC systems in light-duty vehicles

  13. Evaluation of the European PMP Methodologies Using Chassis Dynamometer and On-road Testing of Heavy-duty Vehicles

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Critical evaluation of new protocol for measurement of heavy-duty diesel engine particulate matter emissions proposed for potential use in California.

  14. An Emission Saved is an Emission Earned: An Empirical Study of Emission Banking for Light-Duty Vehicle Manufacturers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rubin, Jonathan D.; Kling, Catherine

    1993-01-01

    System for Light-Duty Vehicle Emission Control," Ph.D.the same number of vehicles and emissions in each category.estimates for vehicle emissions, unpublished manuscript,

  15. Open cycle thermoacoustics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reid, Robert Stowers

    2000-01-01

    A new type of thermodynamic device combining a thermodynamic cycle with the externally applied steady flow of an open thermodynamic process is discussed and experimentally demonstrated. The gas flowing through this device can be heated or cooled in a series of semi-open cyclic steps. The combination of open and cyclic flows makes possible the elimination of some or all of the heat exchangers (with their associated irreversibility). Heat is directly exchanged with the process fluid as it flows through the device when operating as a refrigerator, producing a staging effect that tends to increase First Law thermodynamic efficiency. An open-flow thermoacoustic refrigerator was built to demonstrate this concept. Several approaches are presented that describe the physical characteristics of this device. Tests have been conducted on this refrigerator with good agreement with a proposed theory.

  16. Stirling cycle rotary engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chandler, J.A.

    1988-06-28

    A Stirling cycle rotary engine for producing mechanical energy from heat generated by a heat source external to the engine, the engine including: an engine housing having an interior toroidal cavity with a central housing axis for receiving a working gas, the engine housing further having a cool as inlet port, a compressed gas outlet port, a heated compressed gas inlet port, and a hot exhaust gas outlet port at least three rotors each fixedly mounted to a respective rotor shaft and independently rotatable within the toroidal cavity about the central axis; each of the rotors including a pair of rotor blocks spaced radially on diametrically opposing sides of the respective rotor shaft, each rotor block having a radially fixed curva-linear outer surface for sealed rotational engagement with the engine housing.

  17. Unifying classical and quantum key distillation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Matthias Christandl; Artur Ekert; Michal Horodecki; Pawel Horodecki; Jonathan Oppenheim; Renato Renner

    2007-02-28

    Assume that two distant parties, Alice and Bob, as well as an adversary, Eve, have access to (quantum) systems prepared jointly according to a tripartite state. In addition, Alice and Bob can use local operations and authenticated public classical communication. Their goal is to establish a key which is unknown to Eve. We initiate the study of this scenario as a unification of two standard scenarios: (i) key distillation (agreement) from classical correlations and (ii) key distillation from pure tripartite quantum states. Firstly, we obtain generalisations of fundamental results related to scenarios (i) and (ii), including upper bounds on the key rate. Moreover, based on an embedding of classical distributions into quantum states, we are able to find new connections between protocols and quantities in the standard scenarios (i) and (ii). Secondly, we study specific properties of key distillation protocols. In particular, we show that every protocol that makes use of pre-shared key can be transformed into an equally efficient protocol which needs no pre-shared key. This result is of practical significance as it applies to quantum key distribution (QKD) protocols, but it also implies that the key rate cannot be locked with information on Eve's side. Finally, we exhibit an arbitrarily large separation between the key rate in the standard setting where Eve is equipped with quantum memory and the key rate in a setting where Eve is only given classical memory. This shows that assumptions on the nature of Eve's memory are important in order to determine the correct security threshold in QKD.

  18. Economics of Organic Rankine Cycle 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Brien, W. J.

    1988-01-01

    RANKINE CYCLE WILLIAM J. O'BRIEN Energy Ccnsultant Encon Associates 231 Torrey Pines Drive Toms River, New Jersey ABSTRACT This report determines the conditions needed for an Organic Rankine Cycle to be economically attractive to recover heat... going to air fins or cooling water. It includes discussion of some installations, and the impact of pinch technology on the analysis of Rankine Cycle opportunities. Some graphs to assist in deciding whether a poten tial application is economic...

  19. Advanced regenerative absorption refrigeration cycles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dao, Kim (14 Nace Ave., Piedmont, CA 94611)

    1990-01-01

    Multi-effect regenerative absorption cycles which provide a high coefficient of performance (COP) at relatively high input temperatures. An absorber-coupled double-effect regenerative cycle (ADR cycle) (10) is provided having a single-effect absorption cycle (SEA cycle) (11) as a topping subcycle and a single-effect regenerative absorption cycle (1R cycle) (12) as a bottoming subcycle. The SEA cycle (11) includes a boiler (13), a condenser (21), an expansion device (28), an evaporator (31), and an absorber (40), all operatively connected together. The 1R cycle (12) includes a multistage boiler (48), a multi-stage resorber (51), a multisection regenerator (49) and also uses the condenser (21), expansion device (28) and evaporator (31) of the SEA topping subcycle (11), all operatively connected together. External heat is applied to the SEA boiler (13) for operation up to about 500 degrees F., with most of the high pressure vapor going to the condenser (21) and evaporator (31) being generated by the regenerator (49). The substantially adiabatic and isothermal functioning of the SER subcycle (12) provides a high COP. For higher input temperatures of up to 700 degrees F., another SEA cycle (111) is used as a topping subcycle, with the absorber (140) of the topping subcycle being heat coupled to the boiler (13) of an ADR cycle (10). The 1R cycle (12) itself is an improvement in that all resorber stages (50b-f) have a portion of their output pumped to boiling conduits (71a-f) through the regenerator (49), which conduits are connected to and at the same pressure as the highest pressure stage (48a) of the 1R multistage boiler (48).

  20. Plant Design and Cost Assessment of Forced Circulation Lead-Bismuth Cooled Reactor with Conventional Power Conversion Cycles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dostal, Vaclav

    Cost of electricity is the key factor that determines competitiveness of a power plant. Thus the proper selection, design and optimization of the electric power generating cycle is of main importance. This report makes an ...

  1. Soil metagenomics and carbon cycling

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    stands to improve climate modeling Environmental microbiology In 2009, the Department of Energy established the Los Alamos Science Focus Area in Soil Metagenomics & Carbon Cycling...

  2. On multivariate signatureonly public key cryptosystems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    International Association for Cryptologic Research (IACR)

    On multivariate signature­only public key cryptosystems Nicolas T. Courtois 1,2 courtois we argument that the problem has many natural solutions within the framework of the multivariate cryptography. First of all it seems that virtually any non­injective multivariate public key is inherently

  3. Deniable Internet Key Exchange Andrew C. Yao

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    International Association for Cryptologic Research (IACR)

    Deniable Internet Key Exchange Andrew C. Yao Frances F. Yao Yunlei Zhao§ Bin Zhu¶ Abstract In this work, we develop a family of protocols for deniable Internet Key-Exchange (IKE) with the following of privacy protection (especially for E-commerce over Internet), this work is naturally of practical interest

  4. Safety equipment list for the light duty utility arm system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barnes, G.A.

    1998-03-02

    The initial issue (Revision 0) of this Safety Equipment List (SEL) for the Light Duty Utility Arm (LDUA) requires an explanation for both its existence and its being what it is. All LDUA documentation leading up to creation of this SEL, and the SEL itself, is predicated on the LDUA only being approved for use in waste tanks designated as Facility Group 3, i.e., it is not approved for use in Facility Group 1 or 2 waste tanks. Facility Group 3 tanks are those in which a spontaneous or induced hydrogen gas release would be small, localized, and would not exceed 25% of the LFL when mixed with the remaining air volume in the dome space; exceeding these parameters is considered unlikely. Thus, from a NFPA flammable gas environment perspective the waste tank interior is not classified as a hazardous location. Furthermore, a hazards identification and evaluation (HNF-SD-WM-HIE-010, REV 0) performed for the LDUA system concluded that the consequences of actual LDUA system postulated accidents in Flammable Gas Facility Group 3 waste tanks would have either NO IMPACT or LOW IMPACT on the offsite public and onsite worker. Therefore, from a flammable gas perspective, there is not a rationale for classifying any of SSCs associated with the LDUA as either Safety Class (SC) or Safety Significant (SS) SSCs, which, by default, categorizes them as General Service (GS) SSCs. It follows then, based on current PHMC procedures (HNF-PRO-704 and HNF-IP-0842, Vol IV, Section 5.2) for SEL creation and content, and from a flammable gas perspective, that an SEL is NOT REQ@D HOWEVER!!! There is both a precedent and a prudency to capture all SSCS, which although GS, contribute to a Defense-In-Depth (DID) approach to the design and use of equipment in potentially flammable gas environments. This Revision 0 of the LDUA SEL has been created to capture these SSCs and they are designated as GS-DID in this document. The specific reasons for doing this are listed.

  5. GREET 1.0 -- Transportation fuel cycles model: Methodology and use

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, M.Q.

    1996-06-01

    This report documents the development and use of the Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation (GREET) model. The model, developed in a spreadsheet format, estimates the full fuel-cycle emissions and energy use associated with various transportation fuels for light-duty vehicles. The model calculates fuel-cycle emissions of five criteria pollutants (volatile organic compounds, Co, NOx, SOx, and particulate matter measuring 10 microns or less) and three greenhouse gases (carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide). The model also calculates the total fuel-cycle energy consumption, fossil fuel consumption, and petroleum consumption using various transportation fuels. The GREET model includes 17 fuel cycles: petroleum to conventional gasoline, reformulated gasoline, clean diesel, liquefied petroleum gas, and electricity via residual oil; natural gas to compressed natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas, methanol, hydrogen, and electricity; coal to electricity; uranium to electricity; renewable energy (hydropower, solar energy, and wind) to electricity; corn, woody biomass, and herbaceous biomass to ethanol; and landfill gases to methanol. This report presents fuel-cycle energy use and emissions for a 2000 model-year car powered by each of the fuels that are produced from the primary energy sources considered in the study.

  6. Light Duty Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Validation Data. Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jelen, Deborah; Odom, Sara

    2015-04-30

    Electricore, along with partners from Quong & Associates, Inc., Honda R&D Americas (Honda), Nissan Technical Center North America (Nissan), and Toyota Motor Engineering & Manufacturing North America, Inc. (Toyota), participated in the Light Duty Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle (FCEV) Validation Data program sponsored by the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (Cooperative Agreement No. DE-EE0005968). The goal of this program was to provide real world data from the operation of past and current FCEVs, in order to measure their performance and improvements over time. The program was successful; 85% of the data fields requested were provided and not restricted due to proprietary reasons. Overall, the team from Electricore provided at least 4.8 GB of data to DOE, which was combined with data from other participants to produce over 33 key data products. These products included vehicle performance and fuel cell stack performance/durability. The data were submitted to the National Renewable Energy Laboratory’s National Fuel Cell Technology Evaluation Center (NREL NFCTEC) and combined with input from other participants. NREL then produced composite data products (CDP) which anonymized the data in order to maintain confidentiality. The results were compared with past data, which showed a measurable improvement in FCEVs over the past several years. The results were presented by NREL at the 2014 Fuel Cell Seminar, and 2014 and 2015 (planned) DOE Annual Merit Review. The project was successful. The team provided all of the data agreed upon and met all of its goals. The project finished on time and within budget. In addition, an extra $62,911 of cost sharing was provided by the Electricore team. All participants believed that the method used to collect, combine, anonymize, and present the data was technically and economically effective. This project helped EERE meet its mission of ensuring America’s security and prosperity by documenting progress in addressing energy and environmental challenges. Information from this project will be used by the hydrogen and vehicle industries to help advance the introduction of FCEVs and associated hydrogen infrastructure.

  7. Clean Cities Guide to Alternative Fuel and Advanced Medium- and Heavy-Duty Vehicles (Book)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2013-08-01

    Today's fleets are increasingly interested in medium-duty and heavy-duty vehicles that use alternative fuels or advanced technologies that can help reduce operating costs, meet emissions requirements, improve fleet sustainability, and support U.S. energy independence. Vehicle and engine manufacturers are responding to this interest with a wide range of options across a steadily growing number of vehicle applications. This guide provides an overview of alternative fuel power systems?including engines, microturbines, electric motors, and fuel cells?and hybrid propulsion systems. The guide also offers a list of individual medium- and heavy-duty vehicle models listed by application, along with associated manufacturer contact information, fuel type(s), power source(s), and related information.

  8. Clean Cities Guide to Alternative Fuel and Advanced Medium- and Heavy-Duty Vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2013-08-01

    Today's fleets are increasingly interested in medium-duty and heavy-duty vehicles that use alternative fuels or advanced technologies that can help reduce operating costs, meet emissions requirements, improve fleet sustainability, and support U.S. energy independence. Vehicle and engine manufacturers are responding to this interest with a wide range of options across a steadily growing number of vehicle applications. This guide provides an overview of alternative fuel power systems--including engines, microturbines, electric motors, and fuel cells--and hybrid propulsion systems. The guide also offers a list of individual medium- and heavy-duty vehicle models listed by application, along with associated manufacturer contact information, fuel type(s), power source(s), and related information.

  9. Fuel Economy Improvement Potential of a Heavy Duty Truck using V2x Communication

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LaClair, Tim J; Verma, Rajeev; Norris, Sarah; Cochran, Robert

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce an intelligent driver assistance system to reduce fuel consumption in heavy duty vehicles irrespective of the driving style of the driver. We specifically study the potential of V2I and V2V communications to reduce fuel consumption in heavy duty trucks. Most ITS communications today are oriented towards vehicle safety, with communications strategies and hardware that tend to focus on low latency. This has resulted in technologies emerging with a relatively limited range for the communications. For fuel economy, it is expected that most benefits will be derived with greater communications distances, at the scale of many hundred meters or several kilometers, due to the large inertia of heavy duty vehicles. It may therefore be necessary to employ different communications strategies for ITS applications aimed at fuel economy and other environmental benefits than what is used for safety applications in order to achieve the greatest benefits.

  10. Transportation Energy Futures Series. Potential for Energy Efficiency Improvement Beyond the Light-Duty-Vehicle Sector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vyas, A. D.; Patel, D. M.; Bertram, K. M.

    2013-02-01

    Considerable research has focused on energy efficiency and fuel substitution options for light-duty vehicles, while much less attention has been given to medium- and heavy-duty trucks, buses, aircraft, marine vessels, trains, pipeline, and off-road equipment. This report brings together the salient findings from an extensive review of literature on future energy efficiency options for these non-light-duty modes. Projected activity increases to 2050 are combined with forecasts of overall fuel efficiency improvement potential to estimate the future total petroleum and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions relative to current levels. This is one of a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency project initiated to pinpoint underexplored strategies for abating GHGs and reducing petroleum dependence related to transportation.

  11. Transportation Energy Futures Series: Potential for Energy Efficiency Improvement Beyond the Light-Duty-Vehicle Sector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vyas, A. D.; Patel, D. M.; Bertram, K. M.

    2013-03-01

    Considerable research has focused on energy efficiency and fuel substitution options for light-duty vehicles, while much less attention has been given to medium- and heavy-duty trucks, buses, aircraft, marine vessels, trains, pipeline, and off-road equipment. This report brings together the salient findings from an extensive review of literature on future energy efficiency options for these non-light-duty modes. Projected activity increases to 2050 are combined with forecasts of overall fuel efficiency improvement potential to estimate the future total petroleum and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions relative to current levels. This is one of a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency project initiated to pinpoint underexplored strategies for abating GHGs and reducing petroleum dependence related to transportation.

  12. Life Cycle Asset Management

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1998-10-14

    (The following directives are deleted or consolidated into this Order and shall be phased out as noted in Paragraph 2: DOE 1332.1A; DOE 4010.1A; DOE 4300.1C; DOE 4320.1B; DOE 4320.2A; DOE 4330.4B; DOE 4330.5; DOE 4540.1C; DOE 4700.1). This Order supersedes specific project management provisions within DOE O 430.1A, LIFE CYCLE ASSET MANAGEMENT. The specific paragraphs canceled by this Order are 6e(7); 7a(3); 7b(11) and (14); 7c(4),(6),(7),(11), and (16); 7d(4) and (8); 7e(3),(10), and (17); Attachment 1, Definitions (item 30 - Line Item Project, item 42 - Project, item 48 - Strategic System); and Attachment 2, Contractor Requirements Document (paragraph 1d regarding a project management system). The remainder of DOE O 430.1A remains in effect. Cancels DOE O 430.1. Canceled by DOE O 413.3.

  13. Organic rankine cycle fluid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brasz, Joost J.; Jonsson, Ulf J.

    2006-09-05

    A method of operating an organic rankine cycle system wherein a liquid refrigerant is circulated to an evaporator where heat is introduced to the refrigerant to convert it to vapor. The vapor is then passed through a turbine, with the resulting cooled vapor then passing through a condenser for condensing the vapor to a liquid. The refrigerant is one of CF.sub.3CF.sub.2C(O)CF(CF.sub.3).sub.2, (CF.sub.3).sub.2 CFC(O)CF(CF.sub.3).sub.2, CF.sub.3(CF.sub.2).sub.2C(O)CF(CF.sub.3).sub.2, CF.sub.3(CF.sub.2).sub.3C(O)CF(CG.sub.3).sub.2, CF.sub.3(CF.sub.2).sub.5C(O)CF.sub.3, CF.sub.3CF.sub.2C(O)CF.sub.2CF.sub.2CF.sub.3, CF.sub.3C(O)CF(CF.sub.3).sub.2.

  14. Captured key electrical safety lockout system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Darimont, Daniel E. (Aurora, IL)

    1995-01-01

    A safety lockout apparatus for an electrical circuit includes an electrical switch, a key, a lock and a blocking mechanism. The electrical switch is movable between an ON position at which the electrical circuit is energized and an OFF position at which the electrical circuit is deactivated. The lock is adapted to receive the key and is rotatable among a plurality of positions by the key. The key is only insertable and removable when the lock is at a preselected position. The lock is maintained in the preselected position when the key is removed from the lock. The blocking mechanism physically maintains the switch in its OFF position when the key is removed from the lock. The blocking mechanism preferably includes a member driven by the lock between a first position at which the electrical switch is movable between its ON and OFF positions and a second position at which the member physically maintains the electrical switch in its OFF position. Advantageously, the driven member's second position corresponds to the preselected position at which the key can be removed from and inserted into the lock.

  15. Captured key electrical safety lockout system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Darimont, D.E.

    1995-10-31

    A safety lockout apparatus for an electrical circuit includes an electrical switch, a key, a lock and a blocking mechanism. The electrical switch is movable between an ON position at which the electrical circuit is energized and an OFF position at which the electrical circuit is deactivated. The lock is adapted to receive the key and is rotatable among a plurality of positions by the key. The key is only insertable and removable when the lock is at a preselected position. The lock is maintained in the preselected position when the key is removed from the lock. The blocking mechanism physically maintains the switch in its OFF position when the key is removed from the lock. The blocking mechanism preferably includes a member driven by the lock between a first position at which the electrical switch is movable between its ON and OFF positions and a second position at which the member physically maintains the electrical switch in its OFF position. Advantageously, the driven member`s second position corresponds to the preselected position at which the key can be removed from and inserted into the lock. 7 figs.

  16. Power Converters for Cycling Machines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bouteille, J F

    2015-01-01

    Cycling accelerators require power converters that are capable of storing the energy that oscillates between lattice magnets and the converter during the acceleration process. This paper presents the basic requirements for such systems and reviews the various electrical circuits that have been used for a variety of differing applications. The designs currently used for fast-, medium- and slow-cycling accelerators are presented.

  17. Fuel Economy of the Light-Duty Vehicle Fleet (released in AEO2005)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2005-01-01

    The U.S. fleet of light-duty vehicles consists of cars and light trucks, including minivans, sport utility vehicles (SUVs) and trucks with gross vehicle weight less than 8,500 pounds. The fuel economy of light-duty vehicles is regulated by the (Corporate Average Fuel Economy) CAFE standards set by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. Currently, the CAFE standard is 27.5 miles per gallon (mpg) for cars and 20.7 mpg for light trucks. The most recent increase in the CAFE standard for cars was in 1990, and the most recent increase in the CAFE standard for light trucks was in 1996.

  18. Design criteria for the light duty utility arm system end effectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pardini, A.F.

    1995-01-03

    This document provides the criteria for the design of end effectors that will be used as part of the Light Duty Utility Arm (LDUA) System. The LDUA System consists of a deployment vehicle, a vertical positioning mast, a light duty multi-axis robotic arm, a tank riser interface and confinement, a tool interface plate, a control system, and an operations control trailer. The criteria specified in this document will apply to all end effector systems being developed for use on or with the LDUA system at the Hanford site. The requirement stipulated in this document are mandatory.

  19. California Greenhouse Gas Emissions Standards for Light-Duty Vehicles (Update) (released in AEO2006)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2006-01-01

    The state of California was given authority under the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA90) to set emissions standards for light-duty vehicles that exceed federal standards. In addition, other states that do not comply with the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) set by the Environmental Protection Agency under CAAA90 were given the option to adopt Californias light-duty vehicle emissions standards in order to achieve air quality compliance. CAAA90 specifically identifies hydrocarbon, carbon monoxide, and NOx as vehicle-related air pollutants that can be regulated. California has led the nation in developing stricter vehicle emissions standards, and other states have adopted the California standards.

  20. Key Renewable Energy Opportunities for Oklahoma Tribes

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on DeliciousMathematicsEnergyInterested Parties - WAPA Public CommentInverted253.16582104) Kenmore:Key2: ProjectKeyKEY

  1. Fuel cycle cost uncertainty from nuclear fuel cycle comparison

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, J.; McNelis, D. [Institute for the Environment, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill (United States); Yim, M.S. [Department of Nuclear and Quantum Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-07-01

    This paper examined the uncertainty in fuel cycle cost (FCC) calculation by considering both model and parameter uncertainty. Four different fuel cycle options were compared in the analysis including the once-through cycle (OT), the DUPIC cycle, the MOX cycle and a closed fuel cycle with fast reactors (FR). The model uncertainty was addressed by using three different FCC modeling approaches with and without the time value of money consideration. The relative ratios of FCC in comparison to OT did not change much by using different modeling approaches. This observation was consistent with the results of the sensitivity study for the discount rate. Two different sets of data with uncertainty range of unit costs were used to address the parameter uncertainty of the FCC calculation. The sensitivity study showed that the dominating contributor to the total variance of FCC is the uranium price. In general, the FCC of OT was found to be the lowest followed by FR, MOX, and DUPIC. But depending on the uranium price, the FR cycle was found to have lower FCC over OT. The reprocessing cost was also found to have a major impact on FCC.

  2. Combined surface solar brightening and increasing greenhouse effect support recent intensification of the global land-based hydrological cycle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fischlin, Andreas

    Combined surface solar brightening and increasing greenhouse effect support recent intensification of the global land-based hydrological cycle Martin Wild,1 Ju¨rgen Grieser,2 and Christoph Scha¨r1 Received 30 radiation (surface radiation balance) is the key driver behind the global hydrological cycle. Here we

  3. BACK TO BASICS: YOUR KEYS TO SAFE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kirschner, Denise

    BACK TO BASICS: YOUR KEYS TO SAFE DRIVING FINE-TUNE THE FUNDAMENTALS DRIVE SAFELY WORK WEEK: FRIDAY an occasional refresher. In fact, most company fleet safety programs emphasize basic skills and defensive

  4. Civil Engineering BEng (Hons) Key details

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Painter, Kevin

    Civil Engineering BEng (Hons) Key details Duration: Full-time: 4 years (BEng Hons) Delivery type engineering disciplines of Structures, Geotechnics, Water Engineering and Transportation Engineering civil or structural engineers. After graduation, students are equipped to work for consultants

  5. Extracting secret keys from integrated circuits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lim, Daihyun, 1976-

    2004-01-01

    Modern cryptographic protocols are based on the premise that only authorized participants can obtain secret keys and access to information systems. However, various kinds of tampering methods have been devised to extract ...

  6. Controlling cycle-by-cycle variation in a pulse combustor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daw, C.S.; Thomas, J.F. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Rhode, M.A.; Rollins, R.W. [Ohio Univ., Athens, OH (United States); Markworth, A.J. [Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH (United States)

    1995-06-01

    We describe a method for controlling chaos-generated cyclic variations in a pulse combustor. The method is applied to a recently developed thermal pulse combustor model and utilizes a map-based, adaptive proportional feedback algorithm. With this technique we show that it is possible to greatly reduce cycle-by-cycle pulse variation. We further show that minimizing cyclic variation allows combustor operation at conditions well beyond the normal flameout limit.

  7. Texas A&M AgriLife Research Procedures 31.01.04.A0.01 Longevity and Hazardous Duty Pay

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Texas A&M AgriLife Research Procedures 31.01.04.A0.01 Longevity and Hazardous Duty Pay Approved Procedures 31.01.04.A0.01 Longevity and Hazardous Duty Pay Page 1 of 1 PROCEDURE STATEMENT Each regular officers eligible for hazardous duty pay under state law, is entitled to longevity pay as outlined

  8. FIT FOR DUTY/EMPLOYEE ASSISTANCE EVALUATIONS When a resident/fellow has been identified as having serious academic or behavioral

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Page 136 ` FIT FOR DUTY/EMPLOYEE ASSISTANCE EVALUATIONS When a resident/fellow has been identified by the "Employee Assistance Program" (EAP) or a "Fit for Duty" evaluation of the resident/fellow. These evaluations that the resident/fellow requires a Fit for Duty evaluation, EAP personnel will notify the Program Director

  9. 1/Documents/Word/WSH forms/LSUHSC Supervisor Instruction DT and Fitness for Duty RV 2 March 4, 2009 LSUHSC NEW ORLEANS CAMPUS -SUPERVISOR'S INSTRUCTIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1/Documents/Word/WSH forms/LSUHSC Supervisor Instruction DT and Fitness for Duty ­ RV 2 March 4, 2009 LSUHSC NEW ORLEANS CAMPUS - SUPERVISOR'S INSTRUCTIONS DRUG TESTING & FITNESS FOR DUTY REFERRAL. The length of time for completing a Fitness for Duty Evaluation will vary. If there are no complicating

  10. Coupling fuel cycles with repositories: how repository institutional choices may impact fuel cycle design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Forsberg, C.; Miller, W.F.

    2013-07-01

    The historical repository siting strategy in the United States has been a top-down approach driven by federal government decision making but it has been a failure. This policy has led to dispatching fuel cycle facilities in different states. The U.S. government is now considering an alternative repository siting strategy based on voluntary agreements with state governments. If that occurs, state governments become key decision makers. They have different priorities. Those priorities may change the characteristics of the repository and the fuel cycle. State government priorities, when considering hosting a repository, are safety, financial incentives and jobs. It follows that states will demand that a repository be the center of the back end of the fuel cycle as a condition of hosting it. For example, states will push for collocation of transportation services, safeguards training, and navy/private SNF (Spent Nuclear Fuel) inspection at the repository site. Such activities would more than double local employment relative to what was planned for the Yucca Mountain-type repository. States may demand (1) the right to take future title of the SNF so if recycle became economic the reprocessing plant would be built at the repository site and (2) the right of a certain fraction of the repository capacity for foreign SNF. That would open the future option of leasing of fuel to foreign utilities with disposal of the SNF in the repository but with the state-government condition that the front-end fuel-cycle enrichment and fuel fabrication facilities be located in that state.

  11. 22 March 2012 Employee Information Lost Time No Lost Time Modified Duties

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Machel, Hans

    22 March 2012 Employee Information Lost Time No Lost Time Modified Duties Last Name First Name the injured worker have personal coverage? Yes No Is the injured worker a partner or director in this business OR Did this condition develop over a period of time? Yes No Hours of employment on the day of accident

  12. Hydrogen/Natural Gas Blends for Heavy and Light-Duty Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    89502 Abstract NRG Tech is developing engine technology that is applicable for use in heavy-duty vehicle candidate engine platforms, ranging from 7.4 to 8.4 liters displacement, of its own for evaluation. Testing Current Results Tests on engine compression ratio ranged from 9.1 to 15.0 to 1. The desirable range

  13. Reconstructing the duty of water: a study of emergent norms in socio-hydrology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wescoat, James

    This paper assesses the changing norms of water use known as the duty of water. It is a case study in historical socio-hydrology, or more precisely the history of socio-hydrologic ideas, a line of research that is useful ...

  14. Remote Sensing of In-Use Heavy-Duty Diesel Trucks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Denver, University of

    -road measurements in 2005 of carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons, nitric oxide, nitrogen dioxide, and sulfur dioxideRemote Sensing of In-Use Heavy-Duty Diesel Trucks D A N I E L A . B U R G A R D , G A R Y A . B I. Carbon monoxide and nitric oxide show increasing emissions with increased altitude. Oxides of nitrogen

  15. QUANTIFYING THE EXTERNAL COSTS OF VEHICLE USE: EVIDENCE FROM AMERICA'S TOP SELLING LIGHT-DUTY MODELS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kockelman, Kara M.

    -selling passenger cars and light-duty trucks in the U.S. Among these external costs, those associated with crashes estimated for several other vehicles of particular interest, including GM's Hummer and several hybrid drive: small cars, mid-sized cars, large cars, luxury cars, crossover utility vehicles (CUVs), sport

  16. On-Road Remote Sensing of Heavy-duty Diesel Truck

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Denver, University of

    measure the concentrations of CO, HC, NO, and CO2 in automobile and truck emissions while in route, HC, and NO to CO2 and to get percent opacity readings for heavy-duty diesel trucks with elevated the source. The data show, on average, a correlation between high CO emissions and reported opacity

  17. REAL-WORLD EFFICACY OF HEAVY DUTY DIESEL TRUCK NOX AND PM EMISSIONS CONTROLS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Frey, H. Christopher

    REAL-WORLD EFFICACY OF HEAVY DUTY DIESEL TRUCK NOX AND PM EMISSIONS CONTROLS Gurdas Sandhu H 0121 NOx(g/gal) Truck Number Highway Arterial Comparison of Trucks: Fuel-Based NO Emission Rates NOx emissions are substantially lower than Truck 5715. 1999 2005 2007 2009 2010 Fuel-Based Emission

  18. TRB 08-1311 Link-Based Emission Factors for Heavy-Duty Diesel Trucks Based

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Frey, H. Christopher

    for approximately 46% of NOx and 54% of PM10 of the nationwide on-road vehicle emission inventory (2). ThereforeTRB 08-1311 Link-Based Emission Factors for Heavy-Duty Diesel Trucks Based on Real-World Data H and particulate matter to on-road vehicle emission inventory. The objectives of this study are to estimate roadway

  19. TEST: DOE Hydrogen Storage Technical Performance Targets for Light-Duty Vehicles

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This table summarizes technical performance targets for hydrogen storage systems onboard light-duty vehicles. These targets were established through the U.S. DRIVE Partnership, a partnership between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the U.S. Council for Automotive Research (USCAR), energy companies, and utility companies and organizations.

  20. CHAPTER FSU-1 ORGANIZATION, POWERS, DUTIES AND FUNCTIONS FSU-1.004 University Constitution.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McQuade, D. Tyler

    CHAPTER FSU-1 ORGANIZATION, POWERS, DUTIES AND FUNCTIONS FSU-1.004 University Constitution. FSU-1.055 Waiver of Certain Administrative Procedures. FSU-1.057 Public Records - Final Orders; Index and Listing be entitled to at least one representative. b. The library staff shall be entitled to one elected

  1. Request for Base Salary Change -For Filled Positions Only Additional Duties

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stuart, Steven J.

    Request for Base Salary Change - For Filled Positions Only Additional Duties Reclassification Administrative/Temporary Salary Adjustment Amendment to FTE of Filled Position Increase to Level Please check here if salary includes any PSA funding: (Additional approval may be required) Employee Name: Empl

  2. Classification of Duty Pulses Affecting Energy Storage Systems in Vehicular Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Classification of Duty Pulses Affecting Energy Storage Systems in Vehicular Applications Arnaud, the energy storage system (ESS) remains the most expensive and the most critical part among the entire in real-world conditions or blindly oversize the energy storage system in order to compensate for reduced

  3. Fuel-efficient heavy-duty vehicle platooning by look-ahead control

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johansson, Karl Henrik

    Fuel-efficient heavy-duty vehicle platooning by look-ahead control Valerio Turri, Bart Besselink intervehicular distances (known as platoons) has been shown to be an effective way of reducing fuel consumption be exploited to obtain fuel savings. The current paper aims at the inclusion of preview information

  4. Assessment of Fuel Economy Technologies for Light-Duty Vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greene, David L [ORNL

    2008-01-01

    An analysis of the number of stations and vehicles necessary to achieve future goals for sales of ethanol fuel (E85) is presented. Issues related to the supply of ethanol, which may turn out to be of even greater concern, are not analyzed here. A model of consumers decisions to purchase E85 versus gasoline based on prices, availability, and refueling frequency is derived, and preliminary results for 2010, 2017, and 2030 consistent with the president s 2007 biofuels program goals are presented. A limited sensitivity analysis is carried out to indicate key uncertainties in the trade-off between the number of stations and fuels. The analysis indicates that to meet a 2017 goal of 26 billion gallons of E85 sold, on the order of 30% to 80% of all stations may need to offer E85 and that 125 to 200 million flexible-fuel vehicles (FFVs) may need to be on the road, even if oil prices remain high. These conclusions are tentative for three reasons: there is considerable uncertainty about key parameter values, such as the price elasticity of choice between E85 and gasoline; the future prices of E85 and gasoline are uncertain; and the method of analysis used is highly aggregated it does not consider the potential benefits of regional strategies or the possible existence of market segments predisposed to purchase E85. Nonetheless, the preliminary results indicate that the 2017 biofuels program goals are ambitious and will require a massive effort to produce enough FFVs and ensure widespread availability of E85.

  5. Optimization of Air Conditioning Cycling 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Seshadri, Swarooph

    2012-10-19

    Systems based on the vapor compression cycle are the most widely used in a variety of air conditioning applications. Despite the vast growth of modern control systems in the field of air conditioning systems, industry standard control is still...

  6. American business cycles and innovation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hood, Michael

    2013-02-22

    Economists have long studied innovation and its effects on business cycles. Economist Joseph Alois Schumpeter (1883-1950) was the first economist to thoroughly discuss these ideas in his Theorie der wirtschaftlichen Entwicklung, published in 1911...

  7. The DOE Water Cycle Pilot Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2003-01-01

    The DOE Water Cycle Pilot Study N.L. Miller 1 *, A.W. KingCycle Research Strategy, DOE SC-0043, Office of BiologicalLBNL Report LBNL-53826. The DOE Water Cycle Pilot Study is

  8. Sustainability Features of Nuclear Fuel Cycle Options

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Passerini, Stefano

    The nuclear fuel cycle is the series of stages that nuclear fuel materials go through in a cradle to grave framework. The Once Through Cycle (OTC) is the current fuel cycle implemented in the United States; in which an ...

  9. M. Bahrami ENSC 461 (S 11) Stirling Cycle 1 Stirling Cycle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bahrami, Majid

    internal combustion engines, a Stirling cycle does not exchange the working gas in each cycle, the gas energy, nuclear power, etc. Stirling engine can reach higher thermal efficiencies than Otto and DieselM. Bahrami ENSC 461 (S 11) Stirling Cycle 1 Stirling Cycle In Stirling cycle, Carnot cycle

  10. THE TRANSPOSED CRITICAL TEMPERATURE RANKINE THERMODYNAMIC CYCLE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pope, William L.

    2012-01-01

    al. , "Combined Diesel-Organic Rankine Cycle Power Plant",now. applications - Organic Rankine bottoming cycles canand in supercritical organic Rankine heat recovery bottoming

  11. Geodetic Imaging of the Earthquake Cycle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tong, Xiaopeng

    5.3 3-dimensional earthquake cycle2 1.2 Earthquake cycle study . . . . . . . .thrust - Mw 7.9 Wenchuan earthquake . . . 3 1.2.2 Subduction

  12. A computational investigation of diesel and biodiesel combustion and NOx formation in a light-duty compression ignition engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Zihan; Srinivasan, Kalyan K.; Krishnan, Sundar R.; Som, Sibendu

    2012-04-24

    Diesel and biodiesel combustion in a multi-cylinder light duty diesel engine were simulated during a closed cycle (from IVC to EVO), using a commercial computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code, CONVERGE, coupled with detailed chemical kinetics. The computational domain was constructed based on engine geometry and compression ratio measurements. A skeletal n-heptane-based diesel mechanism developed by researchers at Chalmers University of Technology and a reduced biodiesel mechanism derived and validated by Luo and co-workers were applied to model the combustion chemistry. The biodiesel mechanism contains 89 species and 364 reactions and uses methyl decanoate, methyl-9- decenoate, and n-heptane as the surrogate fuel mixture. The Kelvin-Helmholtz and Rayleigh-Taylor (KH-RT) spray breakup model for diesel and biodiesel was calibrated to account for the differences in physical properties of the fuels which result in variations in atomization and spray development characteristics. The simulations were able to capture the experimentally observed pressure and apparent heat release rate trends for both the fuels over a range of engine loads (BMEPs from 2.5 to 10 bar) and fuel injection timings (from 0���° BTDC to 10���° BTDC), thus validating the overall modeling approach as well as the chemical kinetic models of diesel and biodiesel surrogates. Moreover, quantitative NOx predictions for diesel combustion and qualitative NOx predictions for biodiesel combustion were obtained with the CFD simulations and the in-cylinder temperature trends were correlated to the NOx trends."

  13. Design Considerations of Fast-cycling Synchrotrons Based on Superconducting Transmission Line Magnets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Piekarz, H.; Hays, S.; Huang, Y.; Shiltsev, V.; /Fermilab

    2008-06-01

    Fast-cycling synchrotrons are key instruments for accelerator based nuclear and high-energy physics programs. We explore a possibility to construct fast-cycling synchrotrons by using super-ferric, {approx}2 Tesla B-field dipole magnets powered with a superconducting transmission line. We outline both the low temperature (LTS) and the high temperature (HTS) superconductor design options and consider dynamic power losses for an accelerator with operation cycle of 0.5 Hz. We also briefly outline possible power supply system for such accelerator, and discuss the quench protection system for the magnet string powered by a transmission line conductor.

  14. Sandia Energy - Brayton Cycle Workshop and Industry Day

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Brayton Cycle Workshop and Industry Day Home Stationary Power Nuclear Fuel Cycle Nuclear Energy Workshops Brayton Cycle Workshop and Industry Day Brayton Cycle Workshop and...

  15. VISION -- A Dynamic Model of the Nuclear Fuel Cycle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. J. Jacobson; A. M. Yacout; S. J. Piet; D. E. Shropshire; G. E. Matthern

    2006-02-01

    The Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative’s (AFCI) fundamental objective is to provide technology options that – if implemented – would enable long-term growth of nuclear power while improving sustainability and energy security. The AFCI organization structure consists of four areas; Systems Analysis, Fuels, Separations and Transmutations. The Systems Analysis Working Group is tasked with bridging the program technical areas and providing the models, tools, and analyses required to assess the feasibility of design and deploy¬ment options and inform key decision makers. An integral part of the Systems Analysis tool set is the development of a system level model that can be used to examine the implications of the different mixes of reactors, implications of fuel reprocessing, impact of deployment technologies, as well as potential “exit” or “off ramp” approaches to phase out technologies, waste management issues and long-term repository needs. The Verifiable Fuel Cycle Simulation Model (VISION) is a computer-based simulation model that allows performing dynamic simulations of fuel cycles to quantify infrastructure requirements and identify key trade-offs between alternatives. VISION is intended to serve as a broad systems analysis and study tool applicable to work conducted as part of the AFCI (including costs estimates) and Generation IV reactor development studies.

  16. Drive Cycle Analysis, Measurement of Emissions and Fuel Consumption...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    promulgated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency ensures that heavy-duty engine emissions are controlled over the full range of speed and load combinations commonly...

  17. Control system options and strategies for supercritical CO2 cycles.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moisseytsev, A.; Kulesza, K. P.; Sienicki, J. J.; Nuclear Engineering Division; Oregon State Univ.

    2009-06-18

    The Supercritical Carbon Dioxide (S-CO{sub 2}) Brayton Cycle is a promising alternative to Rankine steam cycle and recuperated gas Brayton cycle energy converters for use with Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactors (SFRs), Lead-Cooled Fast Reactors (LFRs), as well as other advanced reactor concepts. The S-CO{sub 2} Brayton Cycle offers higher plant efficiencies than Rankine or recuperated gas Brayton cycles operating at the same liquid metal reactor core outlet temperatures as well as reduced costs or size of key components especially the turbomachinery. A new Plant Dynamics Computer Code has been developed at Argonne National Laboratory for simulation of a S-CO{sub 2} Brayton Cycle energy converter coupled to an autonomous load following liquid metal-cooled fast reactor. The Plant Dynamics code has been applied to investigate the effectiveness of a control strategy for the S-CO{sub 2} Brayton Cycle for the STAR-LM 181 MWe (400 MWt) Lead-Cooled Fast Reactor. The strategy, which involves a combination of control mechanisms, is found to be effective for controlling the S-CO{sub 2} Brayton Cycle over the complete operating range from 0 to 100 % load for a representative set of transient load changes. While the system dynamic analysis of control strategy performance for STARLM is carried out for a S-CO{sub 2} Brayton Cycle energy converter incorporating an axial flow turbine and compressors, investigations of the S-CO{sub 2} Brayton Cycle have identified benefits from the use of centrifugal compressors which offer a wider operating range, greater stability near the critical point, and potentially further cost reductions due to fewer stages than axial flow compressors. Models have been developed at Argonne for the conceptual design and performance analysis of centrifugal compressors for use in the SCO{sub 2} Brayton Cycle. Steady state calculations demonstrate the wider operating range of centrifugal compressors versus axial compressors installed in a S-CO{sub 2} Brayton Cycle as well as the benefits in expanding the range over which individual control mechanisms are effective for cycle control. However, a combination of mechanisms is still required for control of the S-CO{sub 2} Brayton Cycle between 0 and 100 % load. An effort is underway to partially validate the Argonne models and codes by means of comparison with data from tests carried out using the small-scale Sandia Brayton Loop (SBL) recuperated gas closed Brayton cycle facility. The centrifugal compressor model has been compared with data from the SBL operating with nitrogen gas and good agreement is obtained between calculations and the measured data for the compressor outlet pressure versus flow rate, although it is necessary to assume values for certain model parameters which require information about the configuration or dimensions of the compressor components that is unavailable. Unfortunately, the compressor efficiency cannot be compared with experiment data due to the lack of outlet temperature data. A radial inflow turbine model has been developed to enable further comparison of calculations with data from the SBL which incorporates both a radial inflow turbine as well as a radial compressor. Preliminary calculations of pressure ratio and efficiency versus flow rate have been carried out using the radial inflow turbine model.

  18. BACK TO BASICS: YOUR KEYS TO SAFE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kirschner, Denise

    BACK TO BASICS: YOUR KEYS TO SAFE DRIVING BUCKLE UP! Seat belts should never have time off DRIVE the back seat to the front seat.4 ·The back is the best place for pets. According to AAA, similar. Never place the shoulder portion under your arm or behind your back! ·Drivers should sit with at least

  19. Mechanical Engineering BEng / BEng (Hons) Key details

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Painter, Kevin

    Mechanical engineers play key roles in all industrial sectors, from aerospace and oil and gas, through food for Mechanical Engineering graduates in many sectors, including power production, oil and petrochemicals, manufacturing, power plant, medical engineering and many others l Whatever your final career path, developing

  20. Fashion Marketing & Retailing BA (Hons) Key details

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Painter, Kevin

    Fashion Marketing & Retailing BA (Hons) Key details Duration: Full-time: 3 years (BA) / 4 years (BA Hons) Delivery type: Day Intake date: September Fees: 54000 AED per year Overview Our Fashion Marketing and Retailing programme confidently prepares students for a career within the marketing and retailing industry

  1. Key Management Challenges in Smart Grid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sheldon, Frederick T; Duren, Mike

    2012-01-01

    Agenda Awarded in February 2011 Team of industry and research organizations Project Objectives Address difficult issues Complexity Diversity of systems Scale Longevity of solution Participate in standards efforts and working groups Develop innovative key management solutions Modeling and simulation ORNL Cyber Security Econometric Enterprise System Demonstrate effectiveness of solution Demonstrate scalability

  2. Organisational Change -Key Steps LocalCollege/

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Botea, Adi

    Resources Division START Version 1.0 X:\\Employment Strategies\\Workplace Change & Innovation\\Change Management Frameworks\\Change Management - Key Steps 021111.vsd FINISH NOTES: * For information on formal vs informal change refer to the managing change clause in the ANU Enterprise Agreement and the managing change policy

  3. Chemical Engineering BEng (Hons) Key details

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Painter, Kevin

    Chemical Engineering BEng (Hons) Key details Duration: Full-time: 3 years (BEng) / 4 years (BEng Hons) Delivery type: Day Intake date: September Fees: 58000 AED per year Overview Chemical engineering successful and thriving types of business in the world. Chemical engineers play a vital role in achieving

  4. Management strategies for endangered Florida Key deer 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peterson, Markus Nils

    2004-09-30

    species. These data were used to address my study objectives. I found the most commonly cited FSR (2.67:1, male:female) for Florida Key deer to be inaccurate. A male biased FSR of 1.45:1 was more probable. Modified drop and drive nets were appropriate...

  5. Psychology with Management BSc (Hons) Key details

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Painter, Kevin

    Psychology with Management BSc (Hons) Key details Duration: Full-time: 4 years Delivery type: Day% Psychology with 25% Business and Management modules. Psychology modules cover a range of core approaches to psychology as well as research design and analysis and applied specialist topics. The curriculum is based

  6. Roadmap for selected key measurements of LHCb

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The LHCb Collaboration; B. Adeva; M. Adinolfi; A. Affolder; Z. Ajaltouni; J. Albrecht; F. Alessio; M. Alexander; P. Alvarez Cartelle; A. A. Alves Jr; S. Amato; Y. Amhis; J. Amoraal; J. Anderson; O. Aquines Gutierrez; L. Arrabito; M. Artuso; E. Aslanides; G. Auriemma; S. Bachmann; Y. Bagaturia; D. S. Bailey; V. Balagura; W. Baldini; MdC. Barandela Pazos; R. J. Barlow; S. Barsuk; A. Bates; C. Bauer; Th. Bauer; A. Bay; I. Bediaga; K. Belous; I. Belyaev; M. Benayoun; G. Bencivenni; R. Bernet; M. -O. Bettler; A. Bizzeti; T. Blake; F. Blanc; C. Blanks; J. Blouw; S. Blusk; A. Bobrov; V. Bocci; A. Bondar; N. Bondar; W. Bonivento; S. Borghi; A. Borgia; E. Bos; T. J. V. Bowcock; C. Bozzi; J. Bressieux; S. Brisbane; M. Britsch; N. H. Brook; H. Brown; A. Büchler-Germann; J. Buytaert; J. -P. Cachemiche; S. Cadeddu; J. M. Caicedo Carvajal; O. Callot; M. Calvi; M. Calvo Gomez; A. Camboni; W. Cameron; P. Campana; A. Carbone; G. Carboni; A. Cardini; L. Carson; K. Carvalho Akiba; G. Casse; M. Cattaneo; M. Charles; Ph. Charpentier; A. Chlopik; P. Ciambrone; X. Cid Vidal; P. J. Clark; P. E. L. Clarke; M. Clemencic; H. V. Cliff; J. Closier; C. Coca; V. Coco; J. Cogan; P. Collins; F. Constantin; G. Conti; A. Contu; G. Corti; G. A. Cowan; B. D'Almagne; C. D'Ambrosio; D. G. d'Enterria; W. Da Silva; P. David; I. De Bonis; S. De Capua; M. De Cian; F. De Lorenzi; J. M. De Miranda; L. De Paula; P. De Simone; H. De Vries; D. Decamp; H. Degaudenzi; M. Deissenroth; L. Del Buono; C. Deplano; O. Deschamps; F. Dettori; J. Dickens; H. Dijkstra; M. Dima; S. Donleavy; A. C. dos Reis; A. Dovbnya; T. Du Pree; P. -Y. Duval; L. Dwyer; R. Dzhelyadin; C. Eames; S. Easo; U. Egede; V. Egorychev; F. Eisele; S. Eisenhardt; L. Eklund; D. Esperante Pereira; L. Estève; S. Eydelman; E. Fanchini; C. Färber; G. Fardell; C. Farinelli; S. Farry; V. Fave; V. Fernandez Albor; M. Ferro-Luzzi; S. Filippov; C. Fitzpatrick; F. Fontanelli; R. Forty; M. Frank; C. Frei; M. Frosini; J. L. Fungueirino Pazos; S. Furcas; A. Gallas Torreira; D. Galli; M. Gandelman; Y. Gao; J-C. Garnier; L. Garrido; C. Gaspar; N. Gauvin; M. Gersabeck; T. Gershon; Ph. Ghez; V. Gibson; Yu. Gilitsky; V. V. Gligorov; C. Göbel; D. Golubkov; A. Golutvin; A. Gomes; M. Grabalosa Gándara; R. Graciani Diaz; L. A. Granado Cardoso; E. Graugés; G. Graziani; A. Grecu; G. Guerrer; E. Gushchin; Yu. Guz; Z. Guzik; T. Gys; F. Hachon; G. Haefeli; S. C. Haines; T. Hampson; S. Hansmann-Menzemer; R. Harji; N. Harnew; P. F. Harrison; J. He; K. Hennessy; P. Henrard; J. A. Hernando Morata; A. Hicheur; E. Hicks; W. Hofmann; K. Holubyev; P. Hopchev; W. Hulsbergen; P. Hunt; T. Huse; R. S. Huston; D. Hutchcroft; V. Iakovenko; C. Iglesias Escudero; J. Imong; R. Jacobsson; M. Jahjah Hussein; E. Jans; F. Jansen; P. Jaton; B. Jean-Marie; M. John; C. R. Jones; B. Jost; F. Kapusta; T. M. Karbach; J. Keaveney; U. Kerzel; T. Ketel; A. Keune; S. Khalil; B. Khanji; Y. M. Kim; M. Knecht; J. Knopf; S. Koblitz; A. Konoplyannikov; P. Koppenburg; I. Korolko; A. Kozlinskiy; M. Krasowski; L. Kravchuk; P. Krokovny; K. Kruzelecki; M. Kucharczyk; I. Kudryashov; T. Kvaratskheliya; D. Lacarrere; A. Lai; R. W. Lambert; G. Lanfranchi; C. Langenbruch; T. Latham; R. Le Gac; R. Lefevre; A. Leflat; J. Lefrançois; O. Leroy; K. Lessnoff; L. Li; Y. Y. Li; J. Libby; M. Lieng; R. Lindner; S. Lindsey; C. Linn; B. Liu; G. Liu; J. H. Lopes; E. Lopez Asamar; J. Luisier; F. Machefert; I. Machikhiliyan; F. Maciuc; O. Maev; J. Magnin; A. Maier; R. M. D. Mamunur; G. Manca; G. Mancinelli; N. Mangiafave; U. Marconi; F. Marin; J. Marks; G. Martellotti; A. Martens; L. Martin; D. Martinez Santos; Z. Mathe; C. Matteuzzi; V. Matveev; A. Mazurov; G. McGregor; B. Mcharek; C. Mclean; R. McNulty; M. Merk; J. Merkel; M. Merkin; R. Messi; F. C. D. Metlica; J. Michalowski; S. Miglioranzi; M. -N. Minard; S. Monteil; D. Moran; J. V. Morris; R. Mountain; I. Mous; F. Muheim; R. Muresan; F. Murtas; B. Muryn; M. Musy; J. Mylroie-Smith; P. Naik; T. Nakada; R. Nandakumar; J. Nardulli; Z. Natkaniec; M. Nedos; M. Needham; N. Neufeld; L. Nicolas; S. Nies; V. Niess; N. Nikitin; A. Noor; A. Oblakowska-Mucha; V. Obraztsov; S. Oggero; O. Okhrimenko; R. Oldeman; M. Orlandea; A. Ostankov; J. Palacios; M. Palutan; J. Panman; A. Papadelis; A. Papanestis; M. Pappagallo; C. Parkes; G. Passaleva; G. D. Patel; M. Patel; S. K. Paterson; G. N. Patrick; E. Pauna; C. Pauna; C. Pavel; A. Pazos Alvarez; A. Pellegrino; G. Penso; M. Pepe Altarelli; S. Perazzini; D. L. Perego; A. Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo; E. Perez Trigo; P. Perret; G. Pessina; A. Petrella; A. Petrolini; B. Pietrzyk; D. Pinci; S. Playfer; M. Plo Casasus; G. Polok; A. Poluektov; E. Polycarpo; D. Popov; B. Popovici; S. Poss; C. Potterat; A. Powell; S. Pozzi; V. Pugatch; A. Puig Navarro; W. Qian; J. H. Rademacker; B. Rakotomiaramanana; I. Raniuk; G. Raven; S. Redford; W. Reece

    2010-11-23

    Six of the key physics measurements that will be made by the LHCb experiment, concerning CP asymmetries and rare B decays, are discussed in detail. The "road map" towards the precision measurements is presented, including the use of control channels and other techniques to understand the performance of the detector with the first data from the LHC.

  7. Business Management BA / MA (Hons) Key details

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Painter, Kevin

    Business Management BA / MA (Hons) Key details Duration: Full-time: 3 years (BA) / 4 years (MSc Management degree programme follows a number of guiding principles that mirror the values of managers of leading organisations and reflect current business management thinking. In the first two years of all

  8. Vermont's Changing Forests Key Findings on the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Keeton, William S.

    1 Vermont's Changing Forests Key Findings on the Health of Forested Ecosystems from the Vermont Members Anne Archie, USDA Forest Service Douglas Lantagne, University of Vermont Ed O'Leary, Vermont, USDA Farm Service Agency Charles Scott, USDA Forest Service Steven Sinclair, Vermont Agency of Natural

  9. Automotive Engineering BEng (Hons) Key details

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Painter, Kevin

    Automotive Engineering BEng (Hons) Key details Duration: Full-time: 3 years (BEng) / 4 years (BEng programme, but allows students in the later years to specialise in subjects relating to automotive technology. Automotive engineering continues to be a major employer of professional engineers, owing

  10. CAREER RESOURCES Canadian Key Business Directory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thompson, Michael

    CAREER RESOURCES BOOKS Canadian Key Business Directory - Includes the largest companies in Canada companies - Search by name, geography, SIC code and more! - Online version available through library: http://www.jobsetc.gc.ca/eng/ - Training, career and worker information - Career Exploration resources

  11. NCLC November 1999 Cem Kaner Page 1 UCITA: Key Consumer IssuesUCITA: Key Consumer Issues

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    NCLC November 1999 Cem Kaner Page 1 UCITA: Key Consumer IssuesUCITA: Key Consumer Issues Cem Kaner, J.D., Ph.D., ASQ-CQE November 1999 Contact Information: kaner@kaner.com www.kaner.com (testing November 1999 Cem Kaner Page 2 UCITA? Huh?UCITA? Huh? · Uniform Computer Information Transactions Act

  12. Modeling the Nuclear Fuel Cycle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jacob J. Jacobson; A. M. Yacout; G. E. Matthern; S. J. Piet; A. Moisseytsev

    2005-07-01

    The Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative is developing a system dynamics model as part of their broad systems analysis of future nuclear energy in the United States. The model will be used to analyze and compare various proposed technology deployment scenarios. The model will also give a better understanding of the linkages between the various components of the nuclear fuel cycle that includes uranium resources, reactor number and mix, nuclear fuel type and waste management. Each of these components is tightly connected to the nuclear fuel cycle but usually analyzed in isolation of the other parts. This model will attempt to bridge these components into a single model for analysis. This work is part of a multi-national laboratory effort between Argonne National Laboratory, Idaho National Laboratory and United States Department of Energy. This paper summarizes the basics of the system dynamics model and looks at some results from the model.

  13. Life-cycle Assessment of Semiconductors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyd, Sarah B.

    2009-01-01

    Environmental Impacts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Abatement Environmental impactLife-cycle Environmental Impacts . . . . . . . LCA of

  14. SNMR pulse sequence phase cycling

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Walsh, David O; Grunewald, Elliot D

    2013-11-12

    Technologies applicable to SNMR pulse sequence phase cycling are disclosed, including SNMR acquisition apparatus and methods, SNMR processing apparatus and methods, and combinations thereof. SNMR acquisition may include transmitting two or more SNMR pulse sequences and applying a phase shift to a pulse in at least one of the pulse sequences, according to any of a variety cycling techniques. SNMR processing may include combining SNMR from a plurality of pulse sequences comprising pulses of different phases, so that desired signals are preserved and indesired signals are canceled.

  15. Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycle Options

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roald Wigeland; Temitope Taiwo; Michael Todosow; William Halsey; Jess Gehin

    2010-06-01

    A systematic evaluation has been conducted of the potential for advanced nuclear fuel cycle strategies and options to address the issues ascribed to the use of nuclear power. Issues included nuclear waste management, proliferation risk, safety, security, economics and affordability, and sustainability. The two basic strategies, once-through and recycle, and the range of possibilities within each strategy, are considered for all aspects of the fuel cycle including options for nuclear material irradiation, separations if needed, and disposal. Options range from incremental changes to today’s implementation to revolutionary concepts that would require the development of advanced nuclear technologies.

  16. Heavy-duty diesel vehicle Nox? aftertreatment in 2010 : the infrastructure and compliance challenges of urea-SCR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bodek, Kristian M

    2008-01-01

    Increasingly stringent heavy-duty vehicle emission regulations are prompting the use of PM and NOx aftertreatment systems in the US, the EU and Japan. In the US, the EPA Highway Diesel Rule, which will be fully implemented ...

  17. Evaluating the impact of advanced vehicle and fuel technologies in U.S. light duty vehicle fleet

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bandivadekar, Anup P

    2008-01-01

    The unrelenting increase in oil use by the U.S. light-duty vehicle (LDV) fleet presents an extremely challenging energy and environmental problem. A variety of propulsion technologies and fuels have the promise to reduce ...

  18. Assessing deployment strategies for ethanol and flex fuel vehicles in the U.S. light-duty vehicle fleet

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McAulay, Jeffrey L. (Jeffrey Lewis)

    2009-01-01

    Within the next 3-7 years the US light duty fleet and fuel supply will encounter what is commonly referred to as the "blend wall". This phenomenon describes the situation when more ethanol production has been mandated than ...

  19. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Plug-In Hybrid Medium-Duty Truck Demonstration and Evaluation Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by SCAQMD at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about plug-in hybrid medium-duty truck...

  20. Chemical and Petroleum Engineering Key and Lab Space Agreement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chemical and Petroleum Engineering Key and Lab Space Agreement Key Holder Information Last Name and Petroleum Engineering remain the property of the Department. I agree to pay a deposit for the keys

  1. Development and Demonstration of a Low Cost Hybrid Drive Train for Medium and Heavy Duty Vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Strangas, Elias; Schock, Harold; Zhu, Guoming; Moran, Kevin; Ruckle, Trevor; Foster, Shanelle; Cintron-Rivera, Jorge; Tariq, Abdul; Nino-Baron, Carlos

    2011-04-30

    The DOE sponsored effort is part of a larger effort to quantify the efficiency of hybrid powertrain systems through testing and modeling. The focus of the DOE sponsored activity was the design, development and testing of hardware to evaluate the efficiency of the electrical motors relevant to medium duty vehicles. Medium duty hybrid powertrain motors and generators were designed, fabricated, setup and tested. The motors were a permanent magnet configuration, constructed at Electric Apparatus Corporation in Howell, Michigan. The purpose of this was to identify the potential gains in terms of fuel cost savings that could be realized by implementation of such a configuration. As the electric motors constructed were prototype designs, the scope of the project did not include calculation of the costs of mass production of the subject electrical motors or generator.

  2. Application for certification, 1991 model-year light-duty vehicles - Sterling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    Every year, each manufacturer of passenger cars, light-duty trucks, motorcycles, or heavy-duty engines submits to EPA an application for certification. In the application, the manufacturer gives a detailed technical description of the vehicles or engineering data include explanations and/or drawings which describe engine/vehicle parameters such as basic engine design, fuel systems, ignition systems or exhaust and evaporative emission control systems. It also provides information on emission test procedures, service accumulation procedures, fuels to be used, and proposed maintenance requirements to be followed during testing. Section 16 of the application contains the results of emission testing, a statement of compliance to the regulations, production engine parameters, and a Summary Sheet Input Form on which issuance of a Certificate of Conformity is based.

  3. High temperature solid lubricant materials for heavy duty and advanced heat engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DellaCorte, C.; Wood, J.C.

    1994-10-01

    Advanced engine designs incorporate higher mechanical and thermal loading to achieve efficiency improvements. This approach often leads to higher operating temperatures of critical sliding elements (e.g. piston ring/cylinder wall contacts and valve guides) which compromise the use of conventional and even advanced synthetic liquid lubricants. For these applications solid lubricants must be considered. Several novel solid lubricant composites and coatings designated PS/PM200 have been employed to dry and marginally oil lubricated contacts in advanced heat engines. These applications include cylinder kits of heavy duty diesels, and high temperature sterling engines, sidewall seals of rotary engines and various exhaust valve and exhaust component applications. The following paper describes the tribological and thermophysical properties of these tribomaterials and reviews the results of applying them to engine applications. Other potential tribological materials and applications are also discussed with particular emphasis to heavy duty and advanced heat engines.

  4. Development of Pillared M(IV) Phosphate Phosphonate Inorganic Organic Hybrid Ion Exchange Materials for Applications in Separations found in the Nuclear Fuel Cycle 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burns, Jonathan

    2012-10-02

    This dissertation focuses on key intergroup and intragroup separations found in the back end of the nuclear fuel cycle, specifically americium from lanthanides and americium from other actinides, most importantly americium from curium. Our goal...

  5. Fuel Cycle Technologies Annual Review Meeting Transactions Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lori Braase; W. Edgar May

    2014-11-01

    The Fuel Cycle Technologies (FCT) program supports the Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) mission to: “Enhance U.S. security and economic growth through transformative science, technology innovation, and market solutions to meet our energy, nuclear security, and environmental challenges.” Goal 1 of DOE’s Strategic Plan is to innovate energy technologies that enhance U.S. economic growth and job creation, energy security, and environmental quality. FCT does this by investing in advanced technologies that could transform the nuclear fuel cycle in the decades to come. Goal 2 of DOE’s Strategic Plan is to strengthen national security by strengthening key science, technology, and engineering capabilities. FCT does this by working closely with the National Nuclear Security Administration and the U.S Department of State to develop advanced technologies that support the Nation’s nuclear nonproliferation goals.

  6. Light-Duty Diesel Vehicles: Market Issues and Potential Energy and Emissions Impacts

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2009-01-01

    This report responds to a request from Senator Jeff Sessions for an analysis of the environmental and energy efficiency attributes of light-duty diesel vehicles. Specifically, the inquiry asked for a comparison of the characteristics of diesel-fueled vehicles with those of similar gasoline-fueled, E85-fueled, and hybrid vehicles, as well as a discussion of any technical, economic, regulatory, or other obstacles to increasing the use of diesel-fueled vehicles in the United States.

  7. Registrations and vehicle miles of travel of light duty vehicles, 1985--1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hu, P.S.; Davis, S.C.; Schmoyer, R.L.

    1998-02-01

    To obtain vehicle registration data that consistently and accurately reflect the distinction between automobiles and light-duty trucks, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) was asked by FHWA to estimate the current and historical vehicle registration numbers of automobiles and of other two-axle four-tire vehicles (i.e., light-duty trucks), and their associated travel. The term automobile is synonymous with passenger car. Passenger cars are defined as all sedans, coupes, and station wagons manufactured primarily for the purpose of carrying passengers. This includes taxicabs, rental cars, and ambulances and hearses on an automobile chassis. Light-duty trucks refer to all two-axle four-tire vehicles other than passenger cars. They include pickup trucks, panel trucks, delivery and passenger vans, and other vehicles such as campers, motor homes, ambulances on a truck chassis, hearses on a truck chassis, and carryalls. In this study, light-duty trucks include four major types: (1) pickup truck, (2) van, (3) sport utility vehicle, and (4) other 2-axle 4-tire truck. Specifically, this project re-estimates statistics that appeared in Tables MV-1 and MV-9 of the 1995 Highway Statistics. Given the complexity of the approach developed in this effort and the incompleteness and inconsistency of the state-submitted data, it is recommended that alternatives be considered by FHWA to obtain vehicle registration data. One alternative is the Polk`s NVPP data (via the US Department of Transportation`s annual subscription to Polk). The second alternative is to obtain raw registration files from individual states` Departments of Motor Vehicles and to decode individual VINs.

  8. California Greenhouse Gas Emissions Standards for Light-Duty Vehicles (released in AEO2005)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2005-01-01

    In July 2002, California Assembly Bill 1493 (A.B. 1493) was signed into law. The law requires that the California Air Resources Board (CARB) develop and adopt, by January 1, 2005, greenhouse gas emission standards for light-duty vehicles that provide the maximum feasible reduction in emissions. In estimating the feasibility of the standard, CARB is required to consider cost-effectiveness, technological capability, economic impacts, and flexibility for manufacturers in meeting the standard.

  9. Sizes, graphitic structures and fractal geometry of light-duty diesel engine particulates.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, K. O.; Zhu, J.; Ciatti, S.; Choi, M. Y.; Energy Systems; Drexel Univ.

    2003-01-01

    The particulate matter of a light-duty diesel engine was characterized in its morphology, sizes, internal microstructures, and fractal geometry. A thermophoretic sampling system was employed to collect particulates directly from the exhaust manifold of a 1.7-liter turbocharged common-rail direct-injection diesel engine. The particulate samples collected at various engine-operating conditions were then analyzed by using a high-resolution transmission electron microscope (TEM) and an image processing/data acquisition system. Results showed that mean primary particle diameters (dp), and radii of gyration (Rg), ranged from 19.4 nm to 32.5 nm and 77.4 nm to 134.1 nm, respectively, through the entire engine-operating conditions of 675 rpm (idling) to 4000 rpm and 0% to 100% loads. It was also revealed that the other important parameters sensitive to the particulate formation, such as exhaust-gas recirculation (EGR) rate, equivalence ratio, and temperature, affected particle sizes significantly. Bigger primary particles were measured at higher EGR rates, higher equivalence ratios (fuel-rich), and lower exhaust temperatures. Fractal dimensions (D{sup f}) were measured at a range of 1.5 - 1.7, which are smaller than those measured for heavy-duty direct-injection diesel engine particulates in our previous study. This finding implies that the light-duty diesel engine used in this study produces more stretched chain-like shape particles, while the heavy-duty diesel engine emits more spherical particles. The microstructures of diesel particulates were observed at high TEM magnifications and further analyzed by a Raman spectroscope. Raman spectra revealed an atomic structure of the particulates produced at high engine loads, which is similar to that of typical graphite.

  10. Detector LifeCycle Costs and Considerations Mobility Measurement in Urban Transportation Pooled Fund Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Detector LifeCycle Costs and Considerations Mobility Measurement in Urban Transportation tool of typical data collection devices along with estimated lifecycle costs. The objectives of the costestimating detector tool are: 1. Provide an overview of the key issues and cost elements one needs

  11. Identification of Key Barriers in Workforce Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2008-03-31

    This report documents the identification of key barriers in the development of an adequate national security workforce as part of the National Security Preparedness Project, being performed under a Department of Energy/National Nuclear Security Administration grant. Many barriers exist that prevent the development of an adequate number of propertly trained national security personnel. Some barriers can be eliminated in a short-term manner, whereas others will involve a long-term strategy that takes into account public policy.

  12. Key Physical Mechanisms in Nanostructured Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr Stephan Bremner

    2010-07-21

    The objective of the project was to study both theoretically and experimentally the excitation, recombination and transport properties required for nanostructured solar cells to deliver energy conversion efficiencies well in excess of conventional limits. These objectives were met by concentrating on three key areas, namely, investigation of physical mechanisms present in nanostructured solar cells, characterization of loss mechanisms in nanostructured solar cells and determining the properties required of nanostructured solar cells in order to achieve high efficiency and the design implications.

  13. Do myoepithelial cells hold the key for breast tumorprogression?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Polyak, Kornelia; Hu, Min

    2005-11-18

    Mammary myoepithelial cells have been the foster child of breast cancer biology and have been largely ignored since they were considered to be less important for tumorigenesis than luminal epithelial cells from which most of breast carcinomas are thought to arise. In recent years as our knowledge in stem cell biology and the cellular microenvironment has been increasing myoepithelial cells are slowly starting to gain more attention. Emerging data raise the hypothesis if myoepithelial cells play a key role in breast tumor progression by regulating the in situ to invasive carcinoma transition and if myoepithelial cells are part of the mammary stem cell niche. Paracrine interactions between myoepithelial and luminal epithelial cells are known to be important for cell cycle arrest, establishing epithelial cell polarity, and inhibiting migration and invasion. Based on these functions normal mammary myoepithelial cells have been called ''natural tumor suppressors''. However, during tumor progression myoepithelial cells seem to loose these properties and eventually they themselves diminish as tumors become invasive. Better understanding of myoepithelial cell function and their role in tumor progression may lead to their exploitation for cancer therapeutic and preventative measures.

  14. Rapid Compression Machine ? A Key Experimental Device to Effectively...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Compression Machine A Key Experimental Device to Effectively Collaborate with Basic Energy Sciences Rapid Compression Machine A Key Experimental Device to Effectively...

  15. Cooling Towers: Understanding Key Components of Cooling Towers...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Cooling Towers: Understanding Key Components of Cooling Towers and How to Improve Water Efficiency Cooling Towers: Understanding Key Components of Cooling Towers and How to Improve...

  16. Single, Key Gene Discovery Could Streamline Production of Biofuels...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Single, Key Gene Discovery Could Streamline Production of Biofuels Single, Key Gene Discovery Could Streamline Production of Biofuels August 11, 2011 - 3:51pm Addthis WASHINGTON,...

  17. Building America Expert Meeting: Key Innovations for Adding Energy...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Expert Meeting: Key Innovations for Adding Energy Efficiency to Maintenance Projects Building America Expert Meeting: Key Innovations for Adding Energy Efficiency to Maintenance...

  18. Thailand-Key Results and Policy Recommendations for Future Bioenergy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Thailand-Key Results and Policy Recommendations for Future Bioenergy Development Jump to: navigation, search Name Thailand-Key Results and Policy Recommendations for Future...

  19. Technology Key to Harnessing Natural Gas Potential | Department...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Technology Key to Harnessing Natural Gas Potential Technology Key to Harnessing Natural Gas Potential July 18, 2012 - 3:52pm Addthis Deputy Secretary Daniel Poneman tours Proinlosa...

  20. Key Energy-Saving Projects for Smaller Facilities | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Key Energy-Saving Projects for Smaller Facilities Key Energy-Saving Projects for Smaller Facilities This presentation discusses how smaller industrial facilities can save energy...

  1. Single-cycle nonlinear optics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goulielmakis, E.; Max-Planck-Institut fur Quantenoptik

    2008-01-01

    g l e - C y c l e Nonlinear Optics E. G o u l i e l m a k iSingle-Cycle Nonlinear Optics E. Goulielmakis *, M.D-85748 Garching. Center for X-Ray Optics, Lawrence Berkeley

  2. M. Bahrami ENSC 461 (S 11) Refrigeration Cycle 1 Refrigeration Cycle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bahrami, Majid

    COP W Q COP , , The Reversed Carnot Cycle Reversing the Carnot cycle does reverse the directions of heat and work interactions. A refrigerator or heat pump that operates on the reversed Carnot cycle refrigerator. The reversed Carnot cycle is the most efficient refrigeration cycle operating between two

  3. M. Bahrami ENSC 461 (S 11) Jet Propulsion Cycle 1 Ideal JetPropulsion Cycle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bahrami, Majid

    M. Bahrami ENSC 461 (S 11) Jet Propulsion Cycle 1 Ideal JetPropulsion Cycle Gas-turbine engines. Aircraft gas turbines operate on an open cycle called jet-propulsion cycle. Some of the major differences between the gas-turbine and jet-propulsion cycles are: gases are expanded in the turbine to a pressure

  4. Fuel-cycle energy and emissions impacts of tripled fuel economy vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mintz, M.M.; Wang, M.Q.; Vyas, A.D.

    1998-12-31

    This paper presents estimates of the full cycle energy and emissions impacts of light-duty vehicles with tripled fuel economy (3X vehicles) as currently being developed by the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV). Seven engine and fuel combinations were analyzed: reformulated gasoline, methanol, and ethanol in spark-ignition, direct-injection engines; low sulfur diesel and dimethyl ether in compression-ignition, direct-injection engines; and hydrogen and methanol in fuel-cell vehicles. The fuel efficiency gain by 3X vehicles translated directly into reductions in total energy demand, petroleum demand, and carbon dioxide emissions. The combination of fuel substitution and fuel efficiency resulted in substantial reductions in emissions of nitrogen oxide, carbon monoxide, volatile organic compounds, sulfur oxide, and particulate matter smaller than 10 microns, particularly under the High Market Share Scenario.

  5. Prediction of future fifteen solar cycles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    K. M. Hiremath

    2007-04-11

    In the previous study (Hiremath 2006a), the solar cycle is modeled as a forced and damped harmonic oscillator and from all the 22 cycles (1755-1996), long-term amplitudes, frequencies, phases and decay factor are obtained. Using these physical parameters of the previous 22 solar cycles and by an {\\em autoregressive model}, we predict the amplitude and period of the future fifteen solar cycles. Predicted amplitude of the present solar cycle (23) matches very well with the observations. The period of the present cycle is found to be 11.73 years. With these encouraging results, we also predict the profiles of future 15 solar cycles. Important predictions are : (i) the period and amplitude of the cycle 24 are 9.34 years and 110 ($\\pm 11$), (ii) the period and amplitude of the cycle 25 are 12.49 years and 110 ($\\pm$ 11), (iii) during the cycles 26 (2030-2042 AD), 27 (2042-2054 AD), 34 (2118-2127 AD), 37 (2152-2163 AD) and 38 (2163-2176 AD), the sun might experience a very high sunspot activity, (iv) the sun might also experience a very low (around 60) sunspot activity during cycle 31 (2089-2100 AD) and, (v) length of the solar cycles vary from 8.65 yrs for the cycle 33 to maximum of 13.07 yrs for the cycle 35.

  6. Multi-cycle boiling water reactor fuel cycle optimization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ottinger, K.; Maldonado, G.I.

    2013-07-01

    In this work a new computer code, BWROPT (Boiling Water Reactor Optimization), is presented. BWROPT uses the Parallel Simulated Annealing (PSA) algorithm to solve the out-of-core optimization problem coupled with an in-core optimization that determines the optimum fuel loading pattern. However it uses a Haling power profile for the depletion instead of optimizing the operating strategy. The result of this optimization is the optimum new fuel inventory and the core loading pattern for the first cycle considered in the optimization. Several changes were made to the optimization algorithm with respect to other nuclear fuel cycle optimization codes that use PSA. Instead of using constant sampling probabilities for the solution perturbation types throughout the optimization as is usually done in PSA optimizations the sampling probabilities are varied to get a better solution and/or decrease runtime. The new fuel types available for use can be sorted into an array based on any number of parameters so that each parameter can be incremented or decremented, which allows for more precise fuel type selection compared to random sampling. Also, the results are sorted by the new fuel inventory of the first cycle for ease of comparing alternative solutions. (authors)

  7. Analysing ZigBee Key Establishment Protocols

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yüksel, Ender

    2012-01-01

    In this report, we present our approach for protocol analysis together with a real example where we find an important flow in a contemporary wireless sensor network security protocol. We start by modelling protocols using a specific process algebraic formalism called LySa process calculus. We then apply an analysis based on a special program analysis technique called control flow analysis. We apply this technique to the ZigBee-2007 End-to-End Application Key Establishment Protocol and with the help of the analysis discover an unknown flaw. Finally we suggest a fix for the protocol, and verify that the fix works by using the same technique.

  8. Another key Y-12 General Foreman remembered

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 OutreachProductswsicloudwsiclouddenDVA N C E D B L O O D S TAPropaneandAn319Another key Y-12 General Foreman

  9. Keyes, California: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History View NewTexas: Energy ResourcesOrder atHills,NewKeithDelaware:DLRKettering,KeyTex Energy LLCKeyes,

  10. NERSC.COE.key.actions-4.pptx

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass map shines light on77 PAGEMissionStressMoveMuncriefB ONERSCNERSC8 CoE Key Actions

  11. Composite keys? | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTIONRobertsdale, Alabama (Utility Company)| Open EnergyColoradoBiomassPlusComposite keys? Home >

  12. Fermilab | Science | Particle Physics | Key Discoveries

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfateSciTechtail.Theory ofDid you not find whatGasEnergyfeature photo featureParticleDark matterKey

  13. Key Agency Targets Summary _FY 2012_.doc

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would likeUniverseIMPACTThousand Cubic Feet) SoldDepartment ofKenThousandtheKevlar andKey5 B

  14. Key Actions for Optimizing for KNL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room NewsInformationJesse Bergkamp Graduate student Subtask 4Photo4> TheKevin Morris Title:AnaKey

  15. Bioenergy Key Publications | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative FuelsofProgram:Y-12Power, IncBio Centers Announcement at theproduceƈ GOAL:Key

  16. Fair Encryption of RSA Keys Guillaume Poupard and Jacques Stern

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stern, Jacques

    based on verifiable encryption of secret keys using double decker exponentiation which makes the proofs

  17. Session-Key Generation using Human Passwords Only Oded Goldreich

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    International Association for Cryptologic Research (IACR)

    Session-Key Generation using Human Passwords Only Oded Goldreich Department of Computer Science present session-key generation protocols in a model where the legitimate parties share only a human assumptions. Keywords: Session-key generation (authenticated key-exchange), mutual authentication proto- cols

  18. SessionKey Generation using Human Passwords Only # Oded Goldreich +

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    International Association for Cryptologic Research (IACR)

    Session­Key Generation using Human Passwords Only # Oded Goldreich + Department of Computer Science present session­key generation protocols in a model where the legitimate parties share only a human setup assumptions. Keywords: Session­key generation (authenticated key­exchange), mutual authentication

  19. The impacts of urbanization on endangered florida key deer 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harveson, Patricia Moody

    2006-04-12

    of peninsular Florida. Key deer range is restricted to the Lower Florida Keys with approximately 60% residing on Big Pine Key and 15% residing on No Name Key which have undergone rapid human population growth and development over the past 30 years. Urban...

  20. Carnot cycle for an oscillator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arnaud, J; Philippe, F

    2002-01-01

    Carnot established in 1824 that the efficiency of cyclic engines operating between a hot bath at absolute temperature Th and a cold bath at temperature Tc cannot exceed 1-Tc/Th. This result implies the existence of an entropy function S(U) with the property that d^2S/dU^2 less equal 0, where U denotes the average energy. Linear single-mode systems alternately in contact with hot and cold baths obey these principles. A specific expression of the work done per cycle by an oscillator is derived from a prescription established by Einstein in 1906: heat baths may exchange energy with oscillators at angular frequency omega only by amounts hbar *omega, where 2*pi*hbar denotes the Planck constant. Non-reversible cycles are illustrated. The paper is essentially self-contained.