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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dust smoke fly" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

Study of the combined effects of smoking and inhalation of uranium ore dust, radon daughters and diesel oil exhaust fumes in hamsters and dogs. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Exposure to particulates from uranium ore dust and diesel exhaust soot provoked inflammatory and proliferative responses in lungs. Also exposure to radon and radon daughters yielded increased occurrences of bronchiolar epithelial hyperplasia and metaplastic changes of alveolar epithelium. The data suggest that this cellular change is also a precursor of premalignant change in hamsters. The authors suggest an animal model other than the hamster based on two observations: (1) the Syrian golden hamster has been shown to be highly refractory to carcinoma induction; and (2) that when exposed to realistic levels of agents in life-span exposure regimens, the hamster does not develop lesions. Dog studies with cigarette smoke exposure showed mitigating effects on radon daughter induced respiratory tract cancer. Two reasons are suggested although no empirical evidence was gathered. A strict comparison of human and animal exposures and interpolative models are not possible at this time. (PCS)

Cross, F.T.; Palmer, R.F.; Filipy, R.E.; Busch, R.H.; Stuart, B.O.

1978-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

2

Flying fish  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Flying fish Name: Prairie View Location: NA Country: NA Date: NA Question: How does the flying fish get speed to fly? Replies: The "flying fish", like most fishes, gets its...

3

Blow Flies  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Blow Flies Blow Flies Nature Bulletin No. 76 July 27, 1946 Forest Preserve District of Cook County Clayton F. Smith, President Roberts Mann, Superintendent of Conservation BLOW FLIES The big flies you sometimes find buzzing loudly and crazily around in your basement, garage, barn, or even your living room, are not overgrown house flies. They are blow flies. Of the several species in this region the most common are the Blue Bottle Fly, Green Bottle Fly, Black Blow Fly and Screw-Worm Fly. Adult flies do not grow after they emerge from the pupa case. They lay small white or ivory-colored oblong eggs which hatch, in a day or two at ordinary temperatures, into maggots. These feed and grow and shed their skins several times before they form a brown pupa case shaped like a medicine capsule. Inside this case a transformation takes place which results grown fly. In the case of the blow flies the whole process, from egg to adult fly, takes from 14 to 18 days.

4

Measurement of nicotine in household dust  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An analytical method of measuring nicotine in house dust was optimized and associations among three secondhand smoking exposure markers were evaluated, i.e., nicotine concentrations of both house dust and indoor air, and the self-reported number of cigarettes smoked daily in a household. We obtained seven house dust samples from self-reported nonsmoking homes and 30 samples from smoking homes along with the information on indoor air nicotine concentrations and the number of cigarettes smoked daily from an asthma cohort study conducted by the Johns Hopkins Center for Childhood Asthma in the Urban Environment. House dust nicotine was analyzed by isotope dilution gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Using our optimized method, the median concentration of nicotine in the dust of self-reported nonsmoking homes was 11.7 ng/mg while that of smoking homes was 43.4 ng/mg. We found a substantially positive association (r=0.67, P<0.0001) between house dust nicotine concentrations and the numbers of cigarettes smoked daily. Optimized analytical methods showed a feasibility to detect nicotine in house dust. Our results indicated that the measurement of nicotine in house dust can be used potentially as a marker of longer term SHS exposure.

Kim, Sungroul [Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Institute for Global Tobacco Control, 627 N. Washington Street, 2nd Floor Baltimore, MD 21205 (United States); Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD 21205 (United States)], E-mail: srkim@jhsph.edu; Aung, Ther; Berkeley, Emily [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD 21205 (United States); Diette, Gregory B. [Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD 21205 (United States); Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine (United States); Breysse, Patrick N. [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD 21205 (United States)

2008-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

5

Flying Squirrels  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Flying Squirrels Flying Squirrels Nature Bulletin No. 176-A January 23, 1965 Forest Preserve District of Cook County Seymour Simon, President Roland F. Eisenbeis, Supt. of Conservation FLYING SQUIRRELS Few people ever see a Flying Squirrel, although they are widely distributed throughout the wooded areas of the northern hemisphere and numerous in many localities. Unlike other squirrels, they sleep all day in their dens, coming out at dusk to feed and play during the night -- less in winter than in summer. They spend more time in the trees and less on the ground than any other squirrel. Most distinctive, of course, is their ability to glide thru the air. Flying squirrels do not fly. On each side of the body is a loose elastic membrane or fold of skin, covered with fur and extending from the wrist of the foreleg to the ankle of the hind leg, with a delicate rod of cartilage, attached only to the wrist, at the edge. Another membrane fills the triangular space between the foreleg and the neck and sides of the head. When the animal leaps outward from a tree, it spreads its legs so that, in the flaring membranes stretched between them, it appears almost square and flat -- shape and sails diagonally downward in a long swooping glide. Its long bushy tail, broad' and flat, is used as a rudder and as a brake to make the short graceful swoop upward when it lands on another tree.

6

Smoke Control  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... This was followed by the idea of the “pressure sand- wich,” ie, venting or exhausting the fire floor ... Smoke control is less dependent on tight barriers. ...

1996-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

7

House Fly Ceiling  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

NA Date: NA Question: We are a public library and have had a question regarding house flies. The question is "How high in the atmosphere can a house fly, fly? Replies:...

8

Removal of Heavy Metals from Water by Fly Ash from Coal and Steel ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this work, iron dust from steelmaking process and coal fly ahs are used as an alternative adsorbent ... iNEMI Environmental Thrust; History, Challenges, & Opportunities ... Phosphorus Flow Analysis for Food Production and Consumption.

9

Activation of fly ash  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Fly ash is activated by heating a screened magnetic fraction of the ash in a steam atmosphere and then reducing, oxidizing and again reducing the hydrothermally treated fraction. The activated fly ash can be used as a carbon monoxide disproportionating catalyst useful in the production of hydrogen and methane.

Corbin, D.R.; Velenyi, L.J.; Pepera, M.A.; Dolhyj, S.R.

1986-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

10

Activation of fly ash  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Fly ash is activated by heating a screened magnetic fraction of the ash in a steam atmosphere and then reducing, oxidizing and again reducing the hydrothermally treated fraction. The activated fly ash can be used as a carbon monoxide disproportionating catalyst useful in the production of hydrogen and methane.

Corbin, David R. (New Castle, DE); Velenyi, Louis J. (Lyndhurst, OH); Pepera, Marc A. (Northfield, OH); Dolhyj, Serge R. (Parma, OH)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

11

Dust feed mechanism  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention is a dust feed device for delivery of a uniform supply of dust for long periods of time to an aerosolizing means for production of a dust suspension. The device utilizes at least two tandem containers having spiral brushes within the containers which transport the dust from a supply to the aerosolizer means.

Milliman, Edward M. (Benton City, WA)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

Dust-feed mechanism  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention is a dust feed device for delivery of a uniform supply of dust for long periods of time to an aerosolizing means for production of a dust suspension. The device utilizes at least two tandem containers having spiral brushes within the containers which transport the dust from a supply to the aerosolizer means.

Milliman, E.M.

1981-04-06T23:59:59.000Z

13

Homemade Fly Killer  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Homemade Fly Killer Homemade Fly Killer Name: Pam Location: N/A Country: N/A Date: N/A Question: What is a great homemade recipe for killing flies in the yard and house without endangering birds, dogs and cats? (we have many (flies, dogs, cats and birds, that is!!!!) Replies: Your best bet is one of the variants of traps. For example, the hanging strips of fly paper seem to stick a good number of flies. I have yet to see a bird dumb enough to run into and get stuck on one. Some of the funnel like traps (I've seen some for beetles, and yellow jackets) would likely work too if you stuck something attractive to flies inside. What you would do with captured flies, I'm not sure, but you definitely wouldn't want to leave it too long, if you put some real piece of food exposed inside as bait they would lay eggs on it, which would hatch as maggots, etc. There are ways to have the bait protected from any eggs (in a compartment screened off, for example). Then you could dunk the trap in water and leave it until they all died, or under an inverted bucket in a puddle of water with a lit candle, which would consume all the air and eventually choke them. You could just let them starve or dehydrate by leaving them in the trap, although that would take a while. The kids you teach maybe could think of other ways to kill them off without using toxic chemicals. Most of them would either be something mechanical (release into the blades of a high speed fan would be a little messy, but effective), or denial of the basics of life (air, water, food).

14

Integrated Pest Management of Flies in Texas Dairies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This publication identifies and gives management strategies for various species of flies infesting Texas dairies, including houseflies, stable flies, horn flies, garbage flies and blow flies.

Stevenson, Douglas; Cocke, Jesse

2000-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

15

Flying Squirrel Captive  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Flying Squirrel Captive Flying Squirrel Captive Name: Tammy Location: N/A Country: N/A Date: N/A Question: hello there, was looking around the internet for ideas on what to feed my daughters' pet flying squirrel when I happened across your page. When I saw the name Roland F. Eisenbeis, Supt. of Conservation I decided to send an email because my name is also Eisenbeis. My question is what types of fruits and veggies should I feed him and is there anything he should not have? Replies: Hello, I have been taking care of flying squirrels for twenty years as part of our nature center display. We feed our flying squirrels Purina Mouse Chow with an occasional supplement of acorns, when they are available, and/or sunflower seeds. Sunflower seeds can be unhealthy if fed in too large a quantity. The high oil content can lead to hair loss. Also, changes in diet can lead to a loose droppings and a "messy" cage. Avoid feeding large quantities of any fresh foods and only add them a couple times a week, if you do.

16

Novel instrument for Dust Astronomy: Dust Telescope  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The analysis of dust particles in space can tell us about their origin and interaction with the space environment that helps understanding the evolution of the solar system and the universe.1 2 There has been a significant advancement in dust detector/analyzer ...

Zoltan Sternovsky; Eberhard Grun; Keith Drake; Jianfeng Xie; Mihaly Horanyi; Ralf Srama; Sascha Kempf; Frank Postberg; Anna Mocker; Siegfried Auer; Harald Kruger

2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

Venus Fly Trap Experiment  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Venus Fly Trap Experiment Venus Fly Trap Experiment Name: Jeremy Bailey Status: N/A Age: N/A Location: N/A Country: N/A Date: N/A Question: My name is Jeremy Bailey, and I am a student of Dorseyville Middle School. I have been working on a science project about Venus' Fly Traps. A recent addition to the project involved designing an experiment about something I found interesting about them. However, I don't know where to get them or how to grow them in the moderate climate of Pittsburgh. Also, I don't know how a successful experiment could be designed. Replies: Jeremy, I believe Venus Fly traps can be found 'in the wild' in the coastal floodplain of the Carolinas. As far as where to buy them, look in the phonebook yellow pages under plants or houseplants and do some calling. I live in eastern Pennsylvania, and over here they even sell them in hardware stores like Hechinger's and Home Depot (in their garden departments). I don't think you will have luck trying to grow them outside, our winters here are a bit too harsh for them. From what I recall they require substantial moisture and more moderate climes. You might try looking for houseplant books at your local library for more detailed information.

18

Flying Squirrels and Houses  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Flying Squirrels and Houses Flying Squirrels and Houses Name: Kathy Location: N/A Country: N/A Date: N/A Question: How do you get rid of flying squirrels in the attic of a Cape style home that has limited access to the attic? There is blown in insulation so we cannot see to the end of the house where we hear them, nor can a person crawl in to see anything. We have used d-con bars, mouse traps and have-a-heart traps in the crawl spaces we can reach, but have caught nothing. Replies: Place a statue of an owl near the entrance the squirrels are using. Owls are their motal enemies and this technique works for birds as well. Steve Sample You will not be able to solve this problem until you find the way they go in and out. Usually the easiest way is to look for light coming in from outside while in the dark attic, but if you can't see it that way do a thorough search of the outside. A flying squirrel does not need a very big hole, maybe 2" or less diameter. They go out at night so once you find the hole close it up at night while they are out. Good luck.

19

Case Study 9 - Smoke Management  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... of the smoke control systems under varying HVAC and smoke system operating modes for different fire scenarios. This analysis revealed some ...

20

Insects and flies  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Insects and flies Insects and flies Name: Carol L Giles Age: N/A Location: N/A Country: N/A Date: N/A Question: What would the world be like without insects? How long can a fly hibernate being that its life span is very short? Name the insect that has the longest life span. Replies: If all insects were to suddenly die, then the insect-eating small animals (e.g. chickens, bats, birds, frogs) would die, as would most flowering plants (apple trees, corn, potatoes), from a lack of insects to carry the pollen from male to female plant. Higher animals that ate the flowering plants or insect-eating animals would then die. Given these facts, and starting from the fact that insects themselves constitute the majority of the life on the planet, it's a safe bet that the sudden death of all insects would mean the death of most or perhaps nearly all the life on Earth. If on the other hand the insects died off slowly, or had never been, probably some other small life form of very similar habits would evolve to fill the niche.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dust smoke fly" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

The Smart Dust Project  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

at putting a complete sensingcommunication platform inside a cubic millimeter, including power supply, analog and digital electronics, etc. Thousands or millions of these dust...

22

Smoking, Drinking, and Income  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A growing literature identifies a beneficial effect of moderate and even heavy drinking on wages and a negative effect of smoking on wages. An outstanding issue is whether these results obtain because of a causal effect of substance use on wages or whether the observed correlations reflect the effects of income on consumption or other endogeneity problems. This paper presents full information estimates of the structural parameters of a simultaneous model of drinking and smoking status and income using repeated cross--section data. With all else in the system held constant, both smoking and drinking behaviour still have large effects on income, and the income elasticities of smoking and drinking are shown to be larger in magnitude when controlling for endogeneity. JEL Classification: I12 Keywords: alcohol, tobacco, simultaneous equations, maximum simulated likelihood, multinomial probit, limited dependent variables 1 I thank Cam Donaldson, Herb Emery, David Feeny, Chris Ferrall, Jon ...

Mingshan Lu; James Mackinnon; Ken Mckenzie; Harry Paarsche; Seminar Participants; M. Christopher Auld; M. Christopher Auld

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

Electrostatic dust detector  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An apparatus for detecting dust in a variety of environments which can include radioactive and other hostile environments both in a vacuum and in a pressurized system. The apparatus consists of a grid coupled to a selected bias voltage. The signal generated when dust impacts and shorts out the grid is electrically filtered, and then analyzed by a signal analyzer which is then sent to a counter. For fine grids a correlation can be developed to relate the number of counts observed to the amount of dust which impacts the grid.

Skinner, Charles H. (Lawrenceville, NJ)

2006-05-02T23:59:59.000Z

24

Graphite Dust Deflagration  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The graphite moderators of retired gas-cooled nuclear reactors present a difficult challenge during demolition activities. As part of the EPRI graphite initiative on the technical issues involved in the management and disposal of irradiated nuclear graphite, this report examines the international data on dust deflagration relevant to the decommissioning of graphite-moderated reactors. The report concludes that the risk of an explosion involving graphite dust during decommissioning is extremely low, and s...

2007-03-27T23:59:59.000Z

25

Graphite Dust Deflagration  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The graphite moderators of retired gas-cooled nuclear reactors present a difficult challenge during demolition activities. As part of the EPRI graphite initiative on the technical issues involved in the management and disposal of irradiated nuclear graphite, EPRI Report 1014797 Graphite Dust Deflagration: A Review of International Data with Particular Reference to the Decommissioning of Graphite Moderated Reactors (March 2007) examined the international data on dust deflagration relevant to the decommiss...

2007-10-03T23:59:59.000Z

26

Fractal dust grains in plasma  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Fractal dust grains of different shapes are observed in a radially confined magnetized radio frequency plasma. The fractal dimensions of the dust structures in two-dimensional (2D) horizontal dust layers are calculated, and their evolution in the dust growth process is investigated. It is found that as the dust grains grow the fractal dimension of the dust structure decreases. In addition, the fractal dimension of the center region is larger than that of the entire region in the 2D dust layer. In the initial growth stage, the small dust particulates at a high number density in a 2D layer tend to fill space as a normal surface with fractal dimension D = 2. The mechanism of the formation of fractal dust grains is discussed.

Huang, F. [College of Science, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100083 (China); Peng, R. D. [State Key Laboratory of Coal Resources and Safe Mining, China University of Mining and Technology, Beijing 100083 (China); Liu, Y. H. [Institute of Complexity Science, Qingdao University, Qingdao 266071 (China); Chen, Z. Y. [Department of Physics, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Ye, M. F.; Wang, L. [Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing 100190 (China)

2012-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

27

Determining inert content in coal dust/rock dust mixture  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and apparatus for determining the inert content of a coal dust and rock dust mixture uses a transparent window pressed against the mixture. An infrared light beam is directed through the window such that a portion of the infrared light beam is reflected from the mixture. The concentration of the reflected light is detected and a signal indicative of the reflected light is generated. A normalized value for the generated signal is determined according to the relationship .phi.=(log i.sub.c `log i.sub.co) / (log i.sub.c100 -log i.sub.co) where i.sub.co =measured signal at 0% rock dust i.sub.c100 =measured signal at 100% rock dust i.sub.c =measured signal of the mixture. This normalized value is then correlated to a predetermined relationship of .phi. to rock dust percentage to determine the rock dust content of the mixture. The rock dust content is displayed where the percentage is between 30 and 100%, and an indication of out-of-range is displayed where the rock dust percent is less than 30%. Preferably, the rock dust percentage (RD%) is calculated from the predetermined relationship RD%=100+30 log .phi.. where the dust mixture initially includes moisture, the dust mixture is dried before measuring by use of 8 to 12 mesh molecular-sieves which are shaken with the dust mixture and subsequently screened from the dust mixture.

Sapko, Michael J. (Finleyville, PA); Ward, Jr., Jack A. (Oakmont, PA)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

Smoke Management for Prescribed Burning  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Smoke Management for Prescribed Burning E-1008 Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Service Division of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources Oklahoma State University Smoke Management for Prescribed Burning Extension #12;#12;Smoke Management for Prescribed Burning John R. Weir Research Associate Natural Resource

Balasundaram, Balabhaskar "Baski"

29

Integrated Fly Ash Pond Management  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report is directed toward solving new challenges to meeting U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) discharge limits for ammonia and selected metals from coal-fired power plants. Based on the field and laboratory study of fly ash ponds at five operating coal-fired power plants, the physical, chemical, and biological processes that occur in fly ash sluicing systems are discussed and recommendations are made as to how to best manage the pond...

2009-11-24T23:59:59.000Z

30

Dust cluster explosion  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A model for the dust cluster explosion where micron/sub-micron sized particles are accelerated at the expense of plasma thermal energy, in the afterglow phase of a complex plasma discharge is proposed. The model is tested by molecular dynamics simulations of dust particles in a confining potential. The nature of the explosion (caused by switching off the discharge) and the concomitant dust acceleration is found to depend critically on the pressure of the background neutral gas. At low gas pressure, the explosion is due to unshielded Coulomb repulsion between dust particles and yields maximum acceleration, while in the high pressure regime it is due to shielded Yukawa repulsion and yields much feebler acceleration. These results are in agreement with experimental findings. Our simulations also confirm a recently proposed electrostatic (ES) isothermal scaling relation, P{sub E}{proportional_to}V{sub d}{sup -2} (where P{sub E} is the ES pressure of the dust particles and V{sub d} is the confining volume).

Saxena, Vikrant [School of Mathematics and Physics, Queen's University Belfast, Belfast, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar (India); Avinash, K. [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, New Delhi (India); Sen, A. [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar (India)

2012-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

31

Dust control for draglines  

SciTech Connect

Monitoring dust levels inside draglines reveals room for improvement in how filtration systems are used and maintained. The Australian firm BMT conducted a field test program to measure airflow parameters, dust fallout rates and dust concentrations, inside and outside the machine house, on four draglines and one shovel. The study involved computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations. The article describes how the tests were made and gives results. It was not possible to say which of the two main filtration systems currently used on Australian draglines - Dynavane or Floseps - performs better. It would appear that more frequent maintenance and cleaning would increase the overall filtration performance and systems could be susceptible to repeat clogging in a short time. 2 figs., 1 photos.

Grad, P.

2009-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

32

TWO INTERSTELLAR DUST CANDIDATES FROM THE STARDUST AEROGEL INTERSTELLAR DUST  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

TWO INTERSTELLAR DUST CANDIDATES FROM THE STARDUST AEROGEL INTERSTELLAR DUST COLLECTOR A. J, and is expected to have collected several dozen contemporary interstellar dust particles in aerogel and aluminum@home, we have so far identified 28 tracks in the aerogel collectors. We report on the results

33

Smoke-Free Inside: Create and Enjoy 100% Smoke-Free Environments  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Montpellier/France Tobacco Free Initiative WHO/10 reasons for a smoke-free Europe. Belgium, EuropeanRoss H. Economics of smoke free policies. In Smoke free

World Health Organization

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

34

Performance of Home Smoke Alarms  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... 72 Figure 86. Heating ignition source with cooking oil . ... Estimated particle size from cooking oil fire scenario . . ... Performance of Home Smoke Alarms ...

2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

35

Fly ash chemical classification based on lime  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Typically, total lime content (CaO) of fly ash is shown in fly ash reports, but its significance is not addressed in US specifications. For certain applications a low lime ash is preferred. When a class C fly ash must be cementitious, lime content above 20% is required. A ternary S-A-C phase diagram pilot is given showing the location of fly ash compositions by coal rank and source in North America. Fly ashes from subbituminous coal from the Powder River Basin usually contain sufficient lime to be cementitious but blending with other coals may result in calcium being present in phases other than tricalcium aluminate. 9 refs., 1 fig.

Fox, J. [BASF Construction Chemicals, LLC (United States)

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

36

Dust in Protoplanetary Disks  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We critically examine the best lines of evidence for grain growth in protoplanetary disks, based on modelling of observed spectral energy distributions and images of T Tauri and Herbig Ae stars. The data are consistent with millimeter-sized grains near disk midplanes, and micron-sized grains near disk surfaces. We review three channels by which grains can grow, including direct condensation from the vapor phase, grain-grain collisional sticking, and gravitational instability. The utility of dust in identifying as yet unseen extrasolar planets is highlighted.

Chiang, E I

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

37

Dust in Protoplanetary Disks  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We critically examine the best lines of evidence for grain growth in protoplanetary disks, based on modelling of observed spectral energy distributions and images of T Tauri and Herbig Ae stars. The data are consistent with millimeter-sized grains near disk midplanes, and micron-sized grains near disk surfaces. We review three channels by which grains can grow, including direct condensation from the vapor phase, grain-grain collisional sticking, and gravitational instability. The utility of dust in identifying as yet unseen extrasolar planets is highlighted.

E. I. Chiang

2003-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

38

A Dust Prediction System with TOMS Initialization  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A dust prediction system, developed earlier at the University of Athens within the framework of the Mediterranean Dust Experiment (MEDUSE) project, was enhanced at Tel Aviv University to support the Israeli–American Mediterranean Israeli Dust ...

P. Alpert; S. O. Krichak; M. Tsidulko; H. Shafir; J. H. Joseph

2002-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

Climate Response to Soil Dust Aerosols  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The effect of radiative forcing by soil dust aerosols upon climate is calculated. Two atmospheric GCM (AGCM) simulations are compared, one containing a prescribed seasonally varying concentration of dust aerosols, and the other omitting dust. ...

R. L. Miller; I. Tegen

1998-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

40

Compositional Analysis of Beneficiated Fly Ashes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Fly ash is a byproduct of combustion of coal in coal-fired powerplants through ... to be disposed of at a significant cost to power plant companies, and ...

1997-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dust smoke fly" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Novel Explosively Driven Flying Plate System  

SciTech Connect

The authors describe a new technique for driving thick flying plates to high velocities without spall and with excellent flatness over a uniformly large area.

Forest, C.A.; Rabie, R.L.; Bennett, L.; Vorthman, J.

1998-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

42

Deep Space Formation Flying Spacecraft Path Planning  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Efficient algorithms for collision-free energy sub-optimal path planning for formations of spacecraft flying in deep space are presented. The idea is to introduce a set of way-points through which the spacecraft are required to pass, combined with ... Keywords: formation flying spacecraft, path planning for multiple mobile robot systems, trajectory generation

Cornel Sultan; Sanjeev Seereram; Raman K. Mehra

2007-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

Cement Additives from Fly Ash Opportunity  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Device and Method for Separating Minerals, Carbon and Device and Method for Separating Minerals, Carbon and Cement Additives from Fly Ash Opportunity Research is currently active on the patented technology "Device and Method for Separating Minerals, Carbon, and Cement Additives from Fly Ash." The technology is available for licensing and/or further collaborative research from the U.S. Depart- ment of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). Overview This invention includes a device, along with a method, to recover and use fly ash as a source of high purity carbon, ash, and minerals. The device and associated method can isolate components of the fly ash based on size and electrical charge. By improving beneficiation and usage methods, fly ash can be transformed from a waste material to a valuable by-product. Recent shifts to low nitrogen

44

Smoke-free ordinances increase restaurant profit and value  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Establishment of Smoke-Free Bars and Taverns. ’’ Journal ofS. A. Glantz. ‘‘Effect of Smoke- Free Workplaces on SmokingEconomic Effects of Smoke-Free Policies on the Hospitality

Alamar, B C; Glantz, Stanton A. Ph.D.

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

Treatment of fly ash for use in concrete  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for treating fly ash to render it highly usable as a concrete additive. A quantity of fly ash is obtained that contains carbon and which is considered unusable fly ash for concrete based upon foam index testing. The fly ash is mixed with an activator solution sufficient to initiate a geopolymerization reaction and for a geopolymerized fly ash. The geopolymerized fly ash is granulated. The geopolymerized fly ash is considered usable fly ash for concrete according to foam index testing. The geopolymerized fly ash may have a foam index less than 35% of the foam index of the untreated fly ash, and in some cases less than 10% of the foam index of the untreated fly ash. The activator solution may contain an alkali metal hydroxide, carbonate, silicate, aluminate, or mixtures thereof.

Boxley, Chett (Park City, UT); Akash, Akash (Salt lake City, UT); Zhao, Qiang (Natick, MA)

2012-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

46

Treatment of fly ash for use in concrete  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for treating fly ash to render it highly usable as a concrete additive. A quantity of fly ash is obtained that contains carbon and which is considered unusable fly ash for concrete based upon foam index testing. The fly ash is mixed with an activator solution sufficient to initiate a geopolymerization reaction and for a geopolymerized fly ash. The geopolymerized fly ash is granulated. The geopolymerized fly ash is considered usable fly ash for concrete according to foam index testing. The geopolymerized fly ash may have a foam index less than 35% of the foam index of the untreated fly ash, and in some cases less than 10% of the foam index of the untreated fly ash. The activator solution may contain an alkali metal hydroxide, carbonate, silicate, aluminate, or mixtures thereof.

Boxley, Chett; Akash, Akash; Zhao, Qiang

2013-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

47

Treatment of fly ash for use in concrete  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for treating fly ash to render it highly usable as a concrete additive. A quantity of fly ash is obtained that contains carbon and which is considered unusable fly ash for concrete based upon foam index testing. The fly ash is mixed with a quantity of spray dryer ash (SDA) and water to initiate a geopolymerization reaction and form a geopolymerized fly ash. The geopolymerized fly ash is granulated. The geopolymerized fly ash is considered usable fly ash for concrete according to foam index testing. The geopolymerized fly ash may have a foam index less than 40%, and in some cases less than 20%, of the foam index of the untreated fly ash. An optional alkaline activator may be mixed with the fly ash and SDA to facilitate the geopolymerization reaction. The alkaline activator may contain an alkali metal hydroxide, carbonate, silicate, aluminate, or mixtures thereof.

Boxley, Chett (Park City, UT)

2012-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

48

Smoke and Visible Emissions (New Mexico)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This rule establishes controls on smoke and visible emissions from certain sources.  This rule is not intended to preempt any more stringent controls on smoke and visible emissions provided in any...

49

Flying Cloud Wind Farm | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Flying Cloud Wind Farm Flying Cloud Wind Farm Jump to: navigation, search Name Flying Cloud Wind Farm Facility Flying Cloud Sector Wind energy Facility Type Commercial Scale Wind Facility Status In Service Owner PPM Energy Inc Developer Clipper Windpower Energy Purchaser Alliant/IES Utilities Location West of Spirit Lake IA Coordinates 43.416975°, -95.422282° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":43.416975,"lon":-95.422282,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

50

Virtual reality treatment of flying phobia  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Flying phobia (FP) might become a very incapacitating and disturbing problem in a person's social, working, and private areas. Psychological interventions based on exposure therapy have proved to be effective, but given the particular nature of this ...

R. M. Banos; C. Botella; C. Perpina; M. Alcaniz; J. A. Lozano; J. Osma; M. Gallardo

2002-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

A Simple Thermodynamical Theory for Dust Devils  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Based on the heat engine framework, a simple scaling theory for dust devils is proposed and compared to observations. This theory provides a simple physical interpretation for many of the observed characteristics of dust devils. In particular, it ...

Nilton O. Rennó; Matthew L. Burkett; Matthew P. Larkin

1998-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

Adding coal dust to coal batch  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The granulometric composition of coke dust from the dry-slaking machine is determined. The influence of additions of 3-7% coke dust on the quality of industrial coking batch and the coke obtained by box coking is estimated. Adding 1% coke dust to coking batch does not markedly change the coke quality. Industrial equipment for the supply of dry-slaking dust to the batch is described.

V.S. Shved; A.V.Berezin [OAO Koks, Kemerovo (Russian Federation)

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

53

Thermal Fly-height Control Slider Dynamics and Slider-Lubricant Interactions in Hard Disk Drives  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

3 Preliminary Experiments with Thermal Fly-height ControlConclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Thermal Fly-height5 Thermal Fly-height Control Slider Instability and Dynamics

Vangipuram Canchi, Sripathi

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

Extraction of trace metals from fly ash  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for recovering silver, gallium and/or other trace metals from a fine grained industrial fly ash associated with a process for producing phosphorous, the fly ash having a silicate base and containing surface deposits of the trace metals as oxides, chlorides or the like, with the process being carried out by contacting the fly ash with AlCl.sub.3 in an alkali halide melt to react the trace metals with the AlCl.sub.3 to form compositions soluble in the melt and a residue containing the silicate and aluminum oxide or other aluminum precipitate, and separating the desired trace metal or metals from the melt by electrolysis or other separation techniques.

Blander, Milton (Palos Park, IL); Wai, Chien M. (Moscow, ID); Nagy, Zoltan (Woodridge, IL)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

Extraction of trace metals from fly ash  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process is described for recovering silver, gallium and/or other trace metals from a fine grained industrial fly ash associated with a process for producing phosphorous. The fly ash has a silicate base and contains surface deposits of the trace metals as oxides, chlorides or the like. The process is carried out by contacting the fly ash with AlCl/sub 3/ in an alkali halide melt to react the trace metals with the AlCl/sub 3/ to form compositions soluble in the melt and a residue containing the silicate and aluminum oxide or other aluminum precipitate, and separating the desired trace metal or metals from the melt by electrolysis or other separation techniques.

Blander, M.; Wai, C.M.; Nagy, Z.

1983-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

56

Infrared emission from interplanetary dust  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Standard models of the interplanetary dust emission fail to account satisfactorily for IR observations. A new model of the dust, based on very simple assumptions on the grain structure (spherical and homogeneous) and chemical composition (astronomical silicates, graphite, blackbodies) is developed. Updated values of the refractive indexes have been included in the analysis. The predictions of the model (absolute values of the fluxes, spectral shape, elongation dependence of the emission) have then been compared with all the available IR observations performed by the ARGO (balloon-borne experiment by University of Rome), AFGL and Zodiacal Infrared Project (ZIP) (rocket experiments by Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Bedford, Mass.), and IRAS satellite. Good agreement is found when homogeneous data sets from single experiments (e.g., ZIP and ARGO) are considered separately. 19 references.

Temi, P.; De Bernardis, P.; Masi, S.; Moreno, G.; Salama, A.

1989-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

57

Menthol Cigarettes and the Initiation of Smoking: A White Paper  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Initiation of Smoking: A White Paper (15) Low Level Menthol.Initiation of Smoking: A White Paper (30) Bolton C. Subject:Initiation of Smoking: A White Paper (45) Gemma L. 1983 (

Klausner, Kim MA

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

Development of High-Volume Fly Ash Blended Cements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

High-volume fly ash (HVFA) blended cement can be produced either by intergrinding fly ash with portland cement clinker or by blending dry fly ash with portland cement. Production of HVFA cement using the intergrinding method may be the most cost-effective and practical of the two approaches. This report documents the results of commercial-scale production of HVFA blended cements using up to 55 percent fly ash to replace the portland cement.

2001-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

59

Dust Charging and Transport on Surfaces  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper, we review laboratory studies of dust transport on surfaces in plasmas, performed for a number of different mechanisms: 1) Dust particles were levitated in plasma sheaths by electrostatic forces balancing the gravitational force. 2) Dust was observed to spread over and lift off a surface that repels electrons in a plasma. 3) Dust was transported on surfaces having different secondary electron yields in plasma with an electron beam as a consequence of differential charging. 4) We also report a mechanism of dust transport by electric fields occurring at electron beam impact/shadow boundaries. These processes are candidates to explain the formation of dust ponds that were recently observed in craters on the asteroid Eros by the NEAR Shoemaker spacecraft.

Wang, X. [Colorado Center for Lunar Dust And Atmospheric Studies, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Robertson, S. [Colorado Center for Lunar Dust And Atmospheric Studies, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Department of Physics, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Horanyi, M. [Colorado Center for Lunar Dust And Atmospheric Studies, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Department of Physics, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States)

2011-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

60

Going Smoke-free in the Land of Lakes: Law and Politics in Minnesota Smoke-free Campaigns  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

orum , Nov. 18, 2004. Going Smoke-free in the Land of Lakes:Politics in Minnesota Smoke-free Campaigns | Case Studies ofengaged in the smoke-free ordinance campaigns during this

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dust smoke fly" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

T.F.O.: tangible flying objects  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present the prototype of an augmented game that uses an enhanced Frisbee-Disc as an interaction device to explore the capability of flying tangible user interfaces for increasing the attractiveness of physical games. While playing with the disc, a ... Keywords: HCI, athletic-tangible interfaces, computer-supported collaborative gaming, interaction design, music performance, physical interaction design

Rinat Mustafin; Jan Wehner; Wolfgang Sattler; Kristian Gohlke

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

62

Dust negative ion acoustic shock waves considering dust size distribution effect  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A multi-ion dusty plasma containing hot isothermal electrons, ions (light positive ions and heavy negative ions), and extremely and negatively charged dust grains is studied in the present paper. The dust negative ion acoustic shock waves have been investigated by employing the reductive perturbation method. How the dust size distribution affects the height and the thickness of the nonlinear shock wave is studied. It is noted that the different dust size distribution has different shock wave form and different moving speed.

Ma Yirong; Wang Canglong; Zhang Jianrong; Sun Jianan; Duan Wenshan [College of Physics and Electronic Engineering and Joint Laboratory of Atomic and Molecular Physics of NWNU and IMP CAS, Northwest Normal University, Lanzhou 730070, China and Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Yang Lei [College of Physics and Electronic Engineering and Joint Laboratory of Atomic and Molecular Physics of NWNU and IMP CAS, Northwest Normal University, Lanzhou 730070 (China) and Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Department of Physics, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China)

2012-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

63

A Model for Long-Range Transport of Desert Dust  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An Eulerian model for dust transport in the atmosphere is designed, and a new parameterization scheme for dust uptake is developed. The model results are quantitatively compared with satellite observations for an intense dust transport event that ...

Slobodan Ni?kovi?; Srdjan Dobri?i?

1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

64

Smoke and Dust Particles of Meteoric Origin in the Mesosphere and Stratosphere  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A height profile of ablated mass from meteors is calculated, assuming an incoming mass of 10?16 g cm?2 s?1 (44 metric tons per day) and the velocity distribution of Southworth and Sekanina, which has a mean of 14.5 km s?1. The profile peaks at 84 ...

Donald M. Hunten; Richard P. Turco; Owen B. Toon

1980-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

Observing Cold Dust with Herschel / SPIRE  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A major component of the emission of many galaxies is in the Far Infrared and the Sub?mmillimeter. UV photons from stars are absorbed by dust and re?emitted at longer wavelengths. Fairly cold dust was found in large spirals by the Infrared Space Observatory and the Spitzer Observatory but their longest wavelength filters were centered at 200 and 160 microns respectively

Bernhard Schulz; The SPIRE Consortium

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

Heavy metals hazardous components of Eaf dust  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Electric arc furnace (EAF) dust is a waste generated in the EAF during the steel production process. Among different wastes, EAF dust represents one of the most hazardous, since it contains heavy metals such as Zn, Fe, Cr, Cd and Pb. The goal of the ... Keywords: electric arc furnace (EAF), furnace additives, hazard components, heavy metals, scrap composition, x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy

Cristiana-Zizi Rizescu; Zorica Bacinschi; Elena Valentina Stoian; Aurora Poinescu; Dan Nicolae Ungureanu

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

Manufacture of ceramic tiles from fly ash  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention relates to a process for forming glass-ceramic tiles. Fly ash containing organic material, metal contaminants, and glass forming materials is oxidized under conditions effective to combust the organic material and partially oxidize the metallic contaminants and the glass forming materials. The oxidized glass forming materials are vitrified to form a glass melt. This glass melt is then formed into tiles containing metallic contaminants.

Hnat, James G. (Collegeville, PA); Mathur, Akshay (Tampa, FL); Simpson, James C. (Perkiomenville, PA)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

Manufacture of ceramic tiles from fly ash  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention relates to a process for forming glass-ceramic tiles. Fly ash containing organic material, metal contaminants, and glass forming materials is oxidized under conditions effective to combust the organic material and partially oxidize the metallic contaminants and the glass forming materials. The oxidized glass forming materials are vitrified to form a glass melt. This glass melt is then formed into tiles containing metallic contaminants. 6 figs.

Hnat, J.G.; Mathur, A.; Simpson, J.C.

1999-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

69

FALSE AIARM STUDY OF SMOKE DETECTORS IN ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... 1. Smoke detectors need testing and cleaning. ... vi, more Jtfinge~lt rc.'tl.lirclti.:: nts for environmental ... 0.007 optical density/m). This test was developed ...

2009-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

70

Fly ash and concrete: a study determines whether biomass, or coal co-firing fly ash, can be used in concrete  

SciTech Connect

Current US national standards for using fly ash in concrete (ASTM C618) state that fly ash must come from coal combustion, thus precluding biomass-coal co-firing fly ash. The co-fired ash comes from a large and increasing fraction of US power plants due to rapid increases in co-firing opportunity fuels with coal. The fly ashes include coal fly ash, wood fly ash from pure wood combustion, biomass and coal co-fired fly ash SW1 and SW2. Also wood fly ash is blended with Class C or Class F to produce Wood C and Wood E. Concrete samples were prepared with fly ash replacing cement by 25%. All fly ash mixes except wood have a lower water demand than the pure cement mix. Fly ashes, either from coal or non coal combustion, increase the required air entraining agent (AEA) to meet the design specification of the mixes. If AEA is added arbitrarily without considering the amount or existence of fly ash results could lead to air content in concrete that is either too low or too high. Biomass fly ash does not impact concrete setting behaviour disproportionately. Switch grass-coal co-fired fly ash and blended wood fly ash generally lie within the range of pure coal fly ash strength. The 56 day flexure strength of all the fly ash mixes is comparable to that of the pure cement mix. The flexure strength from the coal-biomass co-fired fly ash does not differ much from pure coal fly ash. All fly ash concrete mixes exhibit lower chloride permeability than the pure cement mixes. In conclusion biomass coal co-fired fly ash perform similarly to coal fly ash in fresh and hardened concrete. As a result, there is no reason to exclude biomass-coal co-fired fly ash in concrete.

Wang, Shuangzhen; Baxter, Larry

2006-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

Dust Combustion Safety Issues for Fusion Applications  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the results of a safety research task to identify the safety issues and phenomenology of metallic dust fires and explosions that are postulated for fusion experiments. There are a variety of metal dusts that are created by plasma erosion and disruptions within the plasma chamber, as well as normal industrial dusts generated in the more conventional equipment in the balance of plant. For fusion, in-vessel dusts are generally mixtures of several elements; that is, the constituent elements in alloys and the variety of elements used for in-vessel materials. For example, in-vessel dust could be composed of beryllium from a first wall coating, tungsten from a divertor plate, copper from a plasma heating antenna or diagnostic, and perhaps some iron and chromium from the steel vessel wall or titanium and vanadium from the vessel wall. Each of these elements has its own unique combustion characteristics, and mixtures of elements must be evaluated for the mixture’s combustion properties. Issues of particle size, dust temperature, and presence of other combustible materials (i.e., deuterium and tritium) also affect combustion in air. Combustion in other gases has also been investigated to determine if there are safety concerns with “inert” atmospheres, such as nitrogen. Several coolants have also been reviewed to determine if coolant breach into the plasma chamber would enhance the combustion threat; for example, in-vessel steam from a water coolant breach will react with metal dust. The results of this review are presented here.

L. C. Cadwallader

2003-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

Pebble Bed Reactor Dust Production Model  

SciTech Connect

The operation of pebble bed reactors, including fuel circulation, can generate graphite dust, which in turn could be a concern for internal components; and to the near field in the remote event of a break in the coolant circuits. The design of the reactor system must, therefore, take the dust into account and the operation must include contingencies for dust removal and for mitigation of potential releases. Such planning requires a proper assessment of the dust inventory. This paper presents a predictive model of dust generation in an operating pebble bed with recirculating fuel. In this preliminary work the production model is based on the use of the assumption of proportionality between the dust production and the normal force and distance traveled. The model developed in this work uses the slip distances and the inter-pebble forces computed by the authors’ PEBBLES. The code, based on the discrete element method, simulates the relevant static and kinetic friction interactions between the pebbles as well as the recirculation of the pebbles through the reactor vessel. The interaction between pebbles and walls of the reactor vat is treated using the same approach. The amount of dust produced is proportional to the wear coefficient for adhesive wear (taken from literature) and to the slip volume, the product of the contact area and the slip distance. The paper will compare the predicted volume with the measured production rates. The simulation tallies the dust production based on the location of creation. Two peak production zones from intra pebble forces are predicted within the bed. The first zone is located near the pebble inlet chute due to the speed of the dropping pebbles. The second peak zone occurs lower in the reactor with increased pebble contact force due to the weight of supported pebbles. This paper presents the first use of a Discrete Element Method simulation of pebble bed dust production.

Abderrafi M. Ougouag; Joshua J. Cogliati

2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

Recovery of aluminum and other metal values from fly ash  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention relates to a method for improving the acid leachability of aluminum and other metal values found in fly ash which comprises sintering the fly ash, prior to acid leaching, with a calcium sulfate-containing composition at a temperature at which the calcium sulfate is retained in said composition during sintering and for a time sufficient to quantitatively convert the aluminum in said fly ash into an acid-leachable form.

McDowell, W.J.; Seeley, F.G.

1979-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

Recovery of aluminum and other metal values from fly ash  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention described herein relates to a method for improving the acid leachability of aluminum and other metal values found in fly ash which comprises sintering the fly ash, prior to acid leaching, with a calcium sulfate-containing composition at a temperature at which the calcium sulfate is retained in said composition during sintering and for a time sufficient to quantitatively convert the aluminum in said fly ash into an acid-leachable form.

McDowell, William J. (Oak Ridge, TN); Seeley, Forest G. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

Dust Acoustic Shock Waves in Adiabatic Hot Dusty Plasmas  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

It is known that to have a monotonic or oscillatory shock wave a source of dissipation is needed. In this study, we considered the dust charge variation as a source of dissipation. By using the reductive perturbation technique, the nonlinear Burgers equation is derived and the shock-like solution is determined. The effects of dust temperature on different characteristics of dust acoustic shock wave are discussed. It is found out that dust thickness is not affected by dust temperature while for every dusty plasma systems there is dust critical temperature T{sub dc}, for which the dust acoustic shock height will be maximum.

Asgari, H.; Muniandy, S. V.; Wong, C. S. [Plasma Research Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

2011-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

76

Coal Fly Ash as Alternative Source of Smelter Grade Alumina  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

About this Abstract. Meeting, COM 2011. Symposium, COM 2011 (held with the World Gold Conference), POSTER SESSION. Presentation Title, Coal Fly Ash as

77

Kinetics of beneficiated fly ash by carbon burnout  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The presence of carbon in fly ash requires an increase in the dosage of the air-entraining admixture for concrete mix, and may cause the admixture to lose efficiency. Specifying authorities for the concrete producers have set maximum allowable levels of residual carbon. These levels are the so called Loss On Ignition (LOI). The concrete producers` day-to-day purchasing decisions sets the LOI at 4%. The objective of the project is to investigate the kinetics of oxidation of residual carbon present in coal fly ash as a possible first step toward producing low-carbon fly ash from high-carbon, low quality fly ash.

Okoh, J.M.; Dodoo, J.N.D.; Diaz, A. [Univ. of Maryland Eastern Shore, Princess Anne, MD (United States). Dept. of Natural Sciences; Ferguson, W.; Udinskey, J.R. Jr.; Christiana, G.A. [Delmarva Power, Wilmington, DE (United States)

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

78

Mechanical Activation of Deposited Fly Ash by Grinding  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

May 1, 2007 ... According to laboratory experience the breaking of fly ash particles is required to increase its hydraulic potential (Opoczky, 2001). Aim of the ...

79

Fine limestone additions to regulate setting in high volume fly ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... [11] ASTM C618-08a. Standard specification for coal fly ash and raw or calcined natural pozzolan for use in concrete; 2008. ...

2013-08-09T23:59:59.000Z

80

Study on Aluminum Foam with Fly Ash Increase Viscosity  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

May 1, 2007 ... Study on Aluminum Foam with Fly Ash Increase Viscosity by Yong Wang, Guang- chun Yao, and Bing Li. Publisher: TMS. Product Format: PDF.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dust smoke fly" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Proportioning CLSM Using Fly Ash and GGBS - Programmaster.org  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Proportioning CLSM Using Fly Ash and GGBS. Author(s), Udayashankar B C, Raghavendra T. On-Site Speaker (Planned), Udayashankar  ...

82

Dust Lofting and Ingestion by Supercell Storms  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Recent research pertaining to aerosol impacts on cloud microphysics has shown a need for understanding mineral dust entrainment into moist convection. The goal of this study is to examine the pathways in which nonmicrophysically active mineral ...

Robert B. Seigel; Susan C. van den Heever

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

83

Dust Intrusion Events into the Mediterranean Basin  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this study seven dust intrusion events were identified and analyzed in the central and eastern part of the Mediterranean Sea beginning August 1988 and ending September 1989. In order to locate their sources, characterize their mode, and ...

U. Dayan; J. Heffter; J. Miller; G. Gutman

1991-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

84

He Puff System For Dust Detector Upgrade  

SciTech Connect

Local detection of surface dust is needed for the safe operation of next-step magnetic fusion devices such as ITER. An electrostatic dust detector, based on a 5 cm x 5 cm grid of interlocking circuit traces biased to 50 V, has been developed to detect dust on remote surfaces and was successfully tested for the first time on the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX). We report on a helium puff system that clears residual dust from this detector and any incident debris or fibers that might cause a permanent short circuit. The entire surface of the detector was cleared of carbon particles by two consecutive helium puffs delivered by three nozzles of 0.45 mm inside diameter. The optimal configuration was found to be with the nozzles at an angle of 30o with respect to the surface of the detector and a helium backing pressure of 6 bar. __________________________________________________

B. Rais, C.H. Skinner A.L. Roquemore

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

Thermo-Oxidation of Tokamak Carbon Dust  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The oxidation of dust and flakes collected from the DIII-D tokamak, and various commercial dust specimens, has been measured at 350 ºC and 2.0 kPa O2 pressure. Following an initial small mass loss, most of the commercial dust specimens showed very little effect due to O2 exposure. Similarly, dust collected from underneath DIII-D tiles, which is thought to comprise largely Grafoil™ particulates, also showed little susceptibility to oxidation at this temperature. However, oxidation of the dust collected from tile surfaces has led to ~ 18% mass loss after 8 hours; thereafter, little change in mass was observed. This suggests that the surface dust includes some components of different composition and/or structure – possibly fragments of codeposited layers. The oxidation of codeposit flakes scraped form DIII-D upper divertor tiles showed an initial 25% loss in mass due to heating in vacuum, and the gradual loss of 30-38% mass during the subsequent 24 hours exposure to O2. This behavior is significantly different from that observed for the oxidation of thinner DIII-D codeposit specimens which were still adhered to tile surfaces, and this is thought to be related to the low deuterium content (D/C ~ 0.03 – 0.04) of the flakes.

J.W. Davis; B.W.N. Fitzpatrick; J.P. Sharpe; A.A. Haasz

2008-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

Dust trajectory sensor: Accuracy and data analysis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Dust Trajectory Sensor (DTS) instrument is developed for the measurement of the velocity vector of cosmic dust particles. The trajectory information is imperative in determining the particles' origin and distinguishing dust particles from different sources. The velocity vector also reveals information on the history of interaction between the charged dust particle and the magnetospheric or interplanetary space environment. The DTS operational principle is based on measuring the induced charge from the dust on an array of wire electrodes. In recent work, the DTS geometry has been optimized [S. Auer, E. Gruen, S. Kempf, R. Srama, A. Srowig, Z. Sternovsky, and V Tschernjawski, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79, 084501 (2008)] and a method of triggering was developed [S. Auer, G. Lawrence, E. Gruen, H. Henkel, S. Kempf, R. Srama, and Z. Sternovsky, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 622, 74 (2010)]. This article presents the method of analyzing the DTS data and results from a parametric study on the accuracy of the measurements. A laboratory version of the DTS has been constructed and tested with particles in the velocity range of 2-5 km/s using the Heidelberg dust accelerator facility. Both the numerical study and the analyzed experimental data show that the accuracy of the DTS instrument is better than about 1% in velocity and 1 deg. in direction.

Xie, J.; Horanyi, M. [NASA Lunar Science Institute: Colorado Center for Lunar Dust and Atmospheric Studies, and Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80303 (United States); Departments of Physics, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309 (United States); Sternovsky, Z. [NASA Lunar Science Institute: Colorado Center for Lunar Dust and Atmospheric Studies, and Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80303 (United States); Department of Aerospace Engineering Sciences, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309 (United States); Gruen, E.; Duncan, N.; Drake, K.; Le, H. [NASA Lunar Science Institute: Colorado Center for Lunar Dust and Atmospheric Studies, and Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80303 (United States); Auer, S. [A and M Associates, P. O. Box 421, Basye, Virginia 22810 (United States); Srama, R. [Max-Planck-Institute for Nuclear Physics, Heidelberg 69029 (Germany); Institute of Space Systems, University of Stuttgart, Stuttgart 70569 (Germany)

2011-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

87

Process for the recovery of alumina from fly ash  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improvement in the lime-sinter process for recovering alumina from pulverized coal fly ash is disclosed. The addition of from 2 to 10 weight percent carbon and sulfur to the fly ash-calcium carbonate mixture increase alumina recovery at lower sintering temperatures.

Murtha, M.J.

1983-08-09T23:59:59.000Z

88

Discrete mechanics, optimal control and formation flying spacecraft  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Discrete mechanics, optimal control and formation flying spacecraft Oliver Junge Center-Bl¨obaum partially supported by the CRC 376 Oliver Junge Discrete mechanics, optimal control and formation flying spacecraft p.1 #12;Outline mechanical optimal control problem direct discretization of the variational

Patrick, George

89

The recycling of the coal fly ash in glass production  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The recycling of fly ash obtained from the combustion of coal in thermal power plant has been studied. Coal fly ash was vitrified by melting at 1773 K for 5 hours without any additives. The properties of glasses produced from coal fly ash were investigated by means of Differential Thermal Analysis (DTA), X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) techniques. DTA study indicated that there was only one endothermic peak at 1003 K corresponding to the glass transition temperature. XRD analysis showed the amorphous state of the glass sample produced from coal fly ash. SEM investigations revealed that the coal fly ash based glass sample had smooth surface. The mechanical, physical and chemical properties of the glass sample were also determined. Recycling of coal fly ash by using vitrification technique resulted to a glass material that had good mechanical, physical and chemical properties. Toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) results showed that the heavy metals of Pb, Cr, Zn and Mn were successfully immobilized into the glass. It can be said that glass sample obtained by the recycling of coal fly ash can be taken as a non-hazardous material. Overall, results indicated that the vitrification technique is an effective way for the stabilization and recycling of coal fly ash.

Erol, M.M.; Kucukbayrak, S.; Ersoy-Mericboyu, A. [Istanbul Technical University, Istanbul (Turkey). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

2006-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

90

Estimating Environmental Exposures to Indoor Contaminants using Residential-Dust Samples  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

congeners measured in residential-dust samples from selectedcongeners measured in residential-dust samples from selecteda)pyrene measured in residential-dust samples from selected

Whitehead, Todd Patrick

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

Numerical Simulation of Dust Lifting within Dust Devils—Simulation of an Intense Vortex  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Based on an advanced dust devil–scale large-eddy simulation (LES) model, the atmosphere flow of a modeled dust devil in a quasi–steady state was first simulated to illustrate the characteristics of the gas phase field in the mature stage, ...

Zhaolin Gu; Yongzhi Zhao; Yun Li; Yongzhang Yu; Xiao Feng

2006-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

Iron mobilization in North African dust.  

SciTech Connect

Iron is an essential nutrient for phytoplankton. Although iron-containing dust mobilized from arid regions supplies the majority of the iron to the oceans, the key flux in terms of the biogeochemical response to atmospheric deposition is the amount of soluble or bioavailable iron. Atmospheric processing of mineral aerosols by anthropogenic pollutants (e.g. sulfuric acid) may transform insoluble iron into soluble forms. Previous studies have suggested higher iron solubility in smaller particles, as they are subject to more thorough atmospheric processing due to a longer residence time than coarse particles. On the other hand, the specific mineralogy of iron in dust may also influence the particulate iron solubility in size. Compared to mineral dust aerosols, iron from combustion sources could be more soluble, and found more frequently in smaller particles. Internal mixing of alkaline dust with iron-containing minerals could significantly reduce iron dissolution in large dust aerosols due to the buffering effect, which may, in contrast, yield higher solubility in smaller particles externally mixed with alkaline dust (Ito and Feng, 2010). Here, we extend the modeling study of Ito and Feng (2010) to investigate atmospheric processing of mineral aerosols from African dust. In contrast to Asian dust, we used a slower dissolution rate for African dust in the fine mode. We compare simulated fractional iron solubility with observations. The inclusion of alkaline compounds in aqueous chemistry substantially limits the iron dissolution during long-range transport to the Atlantic Ocean: only a small fraction of iron (<0.2%) dissolves from illite in coarsemode dust aerosols with 0.45% soluble iron initially. In contrast, a significant fraction (1-1.5%) dissolves in fine-mode dust aerosols due to the acid mobilization of the iron-containing minerals externally mixed with carbonate minerals. Consequently, the model generally reproduces higher iron solubility in smaller particles as suggested by measurements over the Atlantic Ocean. Our results imply that the dissolution of iron in African dust is generally slower than that in Asian dust. Conventionally, dust is assumed as the major supply of bioavailable iron with a constant solubility at 1-2% to the remote ocean. Therefore, the timing and location of the atmospheric iron input to the ocean with detailed modeling of atmospheric processing could be different from those previously assumed. Past and future changes in aerosol supply of bioavailable iron might play a greater role in the nutrient supply for phytoplankton production in the upper ocean, as global warming has been predicted to intensify stratification and reduce vertical mixing from the deep ocean. Thus the feedback of climate change through ocean uptake of carbon dioxide as well as via aerosol-cloud interaction might be modified by the inclusion of iron chemistry in the atmosphere.

Ito, A.; Feng, Y. (Environmental Science Division); (Research Inst. for Global Change)

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

93

Propagation of nonlinear dust magnetoacoustic waves in cylindrical geometry  

SciTech Connect

The cylindrical dust magnetoacoustic shocks in dissipative and solitons in non-dissipative dust-ion plasmas are studied. The dust particles are assumed to be fully negatively charged so that the density of electrons in comparison with dust and ions is negligible. The cylindrical Korteweg-de Vries Burgers and cylindrical Korteweg-de Vries equations are derived for dust magnetosonic waves by employing the reductive perturbation method. It is found that dust plasma parameters such as dust charge number, dust density, and ion temperature have strong influence on the profile of dust magnetoacoustic shocks and solitons. The results are also obtained numerically by using the data from laboratory experiments on dusty plasmas.

Hussain, S.; Mahmood, S. [Theoretical Plasma Physics Division (TPPD), PINSTECH, P.O. Nilore, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan) and Department of Physics and Applied Physics (DPAM), PIEAS, P.O. Nilore, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan)

2011-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

94

Smoke Flow Visualization in a Tributary of a Deep Valley  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Smoke pot and oil fog smoke tracers have been used to plan meteorological instrument placement and quantitatively estimate air volume flow from a tributary during nocturnal drainage wind conditions. The estimated volume flow agrees well with ...

W. M. Porch; S. Barr; W. E. Clements; J. A. Archuleta; A. B. Fernandez; C. W. King; W. D. Neff; R. P. Hosker

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

Behavior of Ammoniated Fly Ash: Effects of Ammonia on Fly Ash Handling, Disposal, and End-Use  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The implementation of ammonia-based nitrogen oxides (NOx) control technologies has had the undesired side effect of creating potential problems for operating units due to ammonia-contaminated fly ash. The work described in this report is a continuation of long-term EPRI efforts to address various industry concerns associated with ammoniated fly ash.

2002-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

96

INTERPRETATION OF (596) SCHEILA'S TRIPLE DUST TAILS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Strange-looking dust cloud around asteroid (596) Scheila was discovered on 2010 December 11.44-11.47. Unlike normal cometary tails, it consisted of three tails and faded within two months. We constructed a model to reproduce the morphology of the dust cloud based on the laboratory measurement of high-velocity impacts and the dust dynamics. As a result, we succeeded in reproducing the peculiar dust cloud by an impact-driven ejecta plume consisting of an impact cone and downrange plume. Assuming an impact angle of 45 Degree-Sign , our model suggests that a decameter-sized asteroid collided with (596) Scheila from the direction of ({alpha}{sub im}, {delta}{sub im}) = (60 Degree-Sign , -40 Degree-Sign ) in J2000 coordinates on 2010 December 3. The maximum ejection velocity of the dust particles exceeded 100 m s{sup -1}. Our results suggest that the surface of (596) Scheila consists of materials with low tensile strength.

Ishiguro, Masateru [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Gwanak, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Hanayama, Hidekazu; Watanabe, Jun-ichi; Miyaji, Takeshi; Fukushima, Hideo [Ishigakijima Astronomical Observatory, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Ishigaki, Okinawa 907-0024 (Japan); Hasegawa, Sunao; Sarugaku, Yuki [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS), JAXA, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan); Fujiwara, Hideaki; Terada, Hiroshi [Subaru Telescope, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Hsieh, Henry H. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Vaubaillon, Jeremie J. [Observatoire de Paris, I.M.C.C.E., Denfert Rochereau, Bat. A., FR-75014 Paris (France); Kawai, Nobuyuki [Department of Physics, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Meguro, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan); Yanagisawa, Kenshi; Kuroda, Daisuke [Okayama Astrophysical Observatory, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Asaguchi, Okayama 719-0232 (Japan); Ohta, Kouji [Department of Astronomy, Kyoto University, Sakyo, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Hamanowa, Hiromi [Hamanowa Astronomical Observatory, Motomiya, Fukushima 969-1204 (Japan); Kim, Junhan [Yangcheon-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Pyo, Jeonghyun [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute (KASI), Daejeon 305-348 (Korea, Republic of); Nakamura, Akiko M., E-mail: ishiguro@snu.ac.kr [Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Kobe University, Nada, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan)

2011-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

97

Going Smoke-free in the Land of Lakes: Law and Politics in Minnesota Smoke-free Campaigns  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

did not allow its restaurants to renovate to create enclosedAbout Tobacco Smoke in Restaurants and Bars, 76 M ayo Csupport a smoke-free restaurant ordinance in Rochester. 16 M

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

Bringing Fruit Flies in from the Cold  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

DOE Environmental Sustainability Award to Three from APS DOE Environmental Sustainability Award to Three from APS 2009 Chemistry Nobel to APS Users The First Experiment at the LCLS Linda Young Named to Head X-ray Science Division $7.9 M in ARRA Funding Brings New Instrumentation to the APS APS News Archives: 2012 | 2011 | 2010 | 2009 2008 | 2007 | 2006 | 2005 2004 | 2003 | 2002 | 2001 2000 Subscribe to APS News rss feed Bringing Fruit Flies in from the Cold DECEMBER 21, 2009 Bookmark and Share See the video of synchrotron x-ray visualization of ice formation in insects during lethal and non-lethal freezing at http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=m07CKU1XGdk Based on the University of Western Ontario press release Using a microscope the size of a football field, researchers from The University of Western Ontario, the University of Nevada-Las Vegas, Argonne

99

Dust Studies in DIII-D and TEXTOR  

SciTech Connect

Studies of naturally occurring and artificially introduced carbon dust are conducted in DIII-D and TEXTOR. In DIII-D, dust does not present operational concerns except immediately after entry vents. Submicron sized dust is routinely observed using Mie scattering from a Nd:Yag laser. The source is strongly correlated with the presence of Type I edge localized modes (ELMs). Larger size (0.005-1 mm diameter) dust is observed by optical imaging, showing elevated dust levels after entry vents. Inverse dependence of the dust velocity on the inferred dust size is found from the imaging data. Direct heating of the dust particles by the neutral beam injection (NBI) and acceleration of dust particles by the plasma flows are observed. Energetic plasma disruptions produce significant amounts of dust. Large flakes or debris falling into the plasma may result in a disruption. Migration of pre-characterized carbon dust is studied in DIII-D and TEXTOR by introducing micron-size dust in plasma discharges. In DIII-D, a sample holder filled with {approx}30 mg of dust is introduced in the lower divertor and exposed to high-power ELMing H-mode discharges with strike points swept across the divertor floor. After a brief exposure ({approx}0.1 s) at the outer strike point, part of the dust is injected into the plasma, raising the core carbon density by a factor of 2-3 and resulting in a twofold increase of the radiated power. In TEXTOR, instrumented dust holders with 1-45 mg of dust are exposed in the scrape-off layer 0-2 cm radially outside of the last closed flux surface in discharges heated with neutral beam injection (NBI) power of 1.4 MW. At the given configuration of the launch, the dust did not penetrate the core plasma and only moderately perturbed the edge plasma, as evidenced by an increase of the edge carbon content.

Rudakov, D L; Litnovsky, A; West, W P; Yu, J H; Boedo, J A; Bray, B D; Brezinsek, S; Brooks, N H; Fenstermacher, M E; Groth, M; Hollmann, E M; Huber, A; Hyatt, A W; Krasheninnikov, S I; Lasnier, C J; Moyer, R A; Pigarov, A Y; Philipps, V; Pospieszczyk, A; Smirnov, R D; Sharpe, J P; Solomon, W M; Watkins, J G; Wong, C C

2009-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

100

Misers gold dust collection and cloud characterization  

SciTech Connect

MISERS GOLD was a surface detonation of 2445 tons of ammonium nitrate-fuel oil blasting agent conducted by the Defense Nuclear Agency for a variety of research purposes. This report presents the results of an experiment designed to study the dust cloud over the 24-hour period following the detonation. The cloud was sampled by aircraft to obtain material needed to characterize the quantity of dust lofted, the source regions of the cloud, and the size, shape, and mineralogical characteristics of the particles. Elemental tracers and organic dyes were emplaced in the charge and in surrounding areas. Analyses were done by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA), fluorimetry, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and energy-dispersive spectrometry (EDS). Tracer data define the source regions of the dust cloud. Extensive particle size distribution data were obtained. 12 figs.

Mason, A.S.; Finnegan, D.L.; Bayhurst, G.K.; Raymond, R. Jr.; Hagan, R.C.; Luedemann, G.; Wohletz, K.H.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dust smoke fly" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

504 SOME PHENOLIC CONSTITUENTS OF CIGARETTE SMOKE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

PHENOLS have long been recognised as constituents of tobacco smoke although the conditions employed in obtaining the samples were in some cases very unlike those occurring in normal human smoking. Phenol, o-cresol, m-cresol, catechol,. guaiacol and less well defined constituents designated as polyphenols, phenolic acids and creosote have been identified and in some cases determined. Of this earlier work the most significant was that in which phenol, o-cresol and guaiacol were separated and determined by paper chromatography of the azo-dyes formed with p-nitraniline (Rayburn, Harlan and Hanmer, 1953). A well-designed smoking machine was employed to produce the smoke condensate in this investigation. The new method for determination of phenols (Commins and Lindsey, 1956) is especially suitable to separations on a microgram scale and depends upon the quantitative conversion of phenols into their methyl ethers by dimethyl sulphate in the presence of alkali, followed by chromatographic separation in cyclohexane solution on alumina columns. The detection and determination of the ethers in successive eluates is effected by the recognition of characteristic absorption peaks

B. T. Commins; A. J. Lindsey

1956-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

Impact of Transport Schemes on Modeled Dust Concentrations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A sensitivity study is performed with the CHIMERE-DUST chemistry transport model in order to evaluate the modeled mineral dust spread due to the horizontal transport scheme accuracy. Three different schemes are implemented in the model: the ...

Maria Raffaella Vuolo; Laurent Menut; Hélène Chepfer

2009-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

103

Historical Records of Asian Dust Events (Hwangsa) in Korea  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The observation of dust events in Korea must have been important through its long history because of its geographical and meteorological setting. Descriptions about dust events were well documented in historical archives, such as Samguk sagi (57 ...

Youngsin Chun; Hi-Ku Cho; Hyo-Sang Chung; Meehye Lee

2008-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

High Volume Fly Ash Blended Cements: Status Report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

At present, the production of high-volume fly ash (HVFA) concrete involves the addition of large volumes of fly ash as a separate ingredient at a ready-mixed concrete batch plant. This necessitates additional storage silos and quality control at the job site. In order to resolve these issues, CANMET, in partnership with Electric Power Research Institute, U.S.A., undertook a major research project to develop blended cements incorporating high volumes of ASTM Class fly ash. The blended cements are made by ...

1999-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

105

Recovery of iron oxide from coal fly ash  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A high quality iron oxide concentrate, suitable as a feed for blast and electric reduction furnaces is recovered from pulverized coal fly ash. The magnetic portion of the fly ash is separated and treated with a hot strong alkali solution which dissolves most of the silica and alumina in the fly ash, leaving a solid residue and forming a precipitate which is an acid soluble salt of aluminosilicate hydrate. The residue and precipitate are then treated with a strong mineral acid to dissolve the precipitate leaving a solid residue containing at least 90 weight percent iron oxide.

Dobbins, Michael S. (Ames, IA); Murtha, Marlyn J. (Ames, IA)

1983-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

106

Preliminary studies on the impact of smoke on digital equipment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Last year the USNRC initiated a program at Sandia National Laboratories to determine the potential impact of smoke on advanced safety-related digitial instrumentation. In recognition of the fact that the reliability of safety-related equipment during or shortly after a fire in a nuclear power plant is more risk significant than long-term effects, we are concentrating on short-term failures. We exposed a multiplexer module board to three different types of smoke to determine whether the smoke would affect its operation. The operation of the multiplexer board was halted by one out of the three smoke exposures. In coordination with Oak Ridge National Laboratory, an experimental digital safety system was also smoke tested. The series of tests showed that smoke can cause potentially serious failures of a safety system. Most of these failures were intermittent and showed that smoke can temporarily interrupt communication between digital systems.

Tanaka, T.J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Korsah, K. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Antonescu, C. [USNRC Office of Research, Washington, DC (United States)

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

Effects of plasma particle trapping on dust-acoustic solitary waves in an opposite polarity dust-plasma medium  

SciTech Connect

Dust acoustic solitary waves in a dusty plasma containing dust of opposite polarity (adiabatic positive and negative dust), non-isothermal electrons and ions (following vortex like distribution) are theoretically investigated by employing pseudo-potential approach, which is valid for arbitrary amplitude structures. The propagation of small but finite amplitude solitary structures is also examined by using the reductive perturbation method. The basic properties of large (small) amplitude solitary structures are investigated by analyzing the energy integral (modified Korteweg-de Vries equation). It is shown that the effects of dust polarity, trapping of plasma particles (electrons and ions), and temperatures of dust fluids significantly modify the basic features of the dust-acoustic solitary structures that are found to exist in such an opposite polarity dust-plasma medium. The relevance of the work in opposite polarity dust-plasma, which may occur in cometary tails, upper mesosphere, Jupiter's magnetosphere, is briefly discussed.

Ahmad, Zulfiqar [Institute of Physics and Electronics, University of Peshawar, 25000 Peshawar (Pakistan); Mushtaq, A. [Department of Physics, Abdul Wali Khan University, Mardan 23200 (Pakistan); National Center for Physics, Shahdrah Valley Road, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); Mamun, A. A. [Department of Physics, Jahangirnagar University Savar, Dhaka 1342 (Bangladesh)

2013-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

108

Factors Controlling the Solubility of Mercury Adsorbed on Fly Ash  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

N:\R&D_Projects_Partial\FlyAsh&CCBs\Meetings\2005_04_WorldOfCoalAsh\AnnKim\HgSol N:\R&D_Projects_Partial\FlyAsh&CCBs\Meetings\2005_04_WorldOfCoalAsh\AnnKim\HgSol ubility_Paper.doc Factors Controlling the Solubility of Mercury Adsorbed on Fly Ash Ann G. Kim 1 and Karl Schroeder 2 1 ORISE Research Fellow, National Energy Technology Laboratory, U.S. Department of Energy, 626 Cochrans Mill Rd., Pittsburgh, PA 15236-0940 2 Research Group Leader, National Energy Technology Laboratory, U.S. Department of Energy, 626 Cochrans Mill Rd., Pittsburgh, PA 15236-0940 KEYWORDS Coal Utilization By-Products, leaching, activated carbon, pH ABSTRACT It is expected that increased controls on Hg emissions will shift the environmental burden from the flue gas to the solid coal utilization by-products (CUB), such as fly ash and flue-gas

109

Compressive strength of concrete and mortar containing fly ash  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention relates to concrete, mortar and other hardenable mixtures comprising cement and fly ash for use in construction. The invention includes a method for predicting the compressive strength of such a hardenable mixture, which is very important for planning a project. The invention also relates to hardenable mixtures comprising cement and fly ash which can achieve greater compressive strength than hardenable mixtures containing only concrete over the time period relevant for construction. In a specific embodiment, a formula is provided that accurately predicts compressive strength of concrete containing fly ash out to 180 days. In other specific examples, concrete and mortar containing about 15% to 25% fly ash as a replacement for cement, which are capable of meeting design specifications required for building and highway construction, are provided. Such materials can thus significantly reduce construction costs.

Liskowitz, John W. (Belle Mead, NJ); Wecharatana, Methi (Parsippany, NJ); Jaturapitakkul, Chai (Bangkok, TH); Cerkanowicz, deceased, Anthony E. (late of Livingston, NJ)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

Compressive strength of concrete and mortar containing fly ash  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention relates to concrete, mortar and other hardenable mixtures comprising cement and fly ash for use in construction. The invention includes a method for predicting the compressive strength of such a hardenable mixture, which is very important for planning a project. The invention also relates to hardenable mixtures comprising cement and fly ash which can achieve greater compressive strength than hardenable mixtures containing only concrete over the time period relevant for construction. In a specific embodiment, a formula is provided that accurately predicts compressive strength of concrete containing fly ash out to 180 days. In other specific examples, concrete and mortar containing about 15% to 25% fly ash as a replacement for cement, which are capable of meeting design specification required for building and highway construction, are provided. Such materials can thus significantly reduce construction costs. 33 figs.

Liskowitz, J.W.; Wecharatana, M.; Jaturapitakkul, C.; Cerkanowicz, A.E.

1998-12-29T23:59:59.000Z

111

Compressive strength of concrete and mortar containing fly ash  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention relates to concrete, mortar and other hardenable mixtures comprising cement and fly ash for use in construction. The invention includes a method for predicting the compressive strength of such a hardenable mixture, which is very important for planning a project. The invention also relates to hardenable mixtures comprising cement and fly ash which can achieve greater compressive strength than hardenable mixtures containing only concrete over the time period relevant for construction. In a specific embodiment, a formula is provided that accurately predicts compressive strength of concrete containing fly ash out to 180 days. In other specific examples, concrete and mortar containing about 15% to 25% fly ash as a replacement for cement, which are capable of meeting design specification required for building and highway construction, are provided. Such materials can thus significantly reduce construction costs.

Liskowitz, John W. (Belle Mead, NJ); Wecharatana, Methi (Parsippany, NJ); Jaturapitakkul, Chai (Bangkok, TH); Cerkanowicz, deceased, Anthony E. (late of Livingston, NJ)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

112

Compressive strength of concrete and mortar containing fly ash  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention relates to concrete, mortar and other hardenable mixtures comprising cement and fly ash for use in construction. The invention includes a method for predicting the compressive strength of such a hardenable mixture, which is very important for planning a project. The invention also relates to hardenable mixtures comprising cement and fly ash which can achieve greater compressive strength than hardenable mixtures containing only concrete over the time period relevant for construction. In a specific embodiment, a formula is provided that accurately predicts compressive strength of concrete containing fly ash out to 180 days. In other specific examples, concrete and mortar containing about 15% to 25% fly ash as a replacement for cement, which are capable of meeting design specifications required for building and highway construction, are provided. Such materials can thus significantly reduce construction costs. 33 figs.

Liskowitz, J.W.; Wecharatana, M.; Jaturapitakkul, C.; Cerkanowicz, A.E.

1997-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

113

Guideline for Control and Prevention of Fly Ash Erosion  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Boiler tube failures (BTFs) represent the largest portion of availability loss in the fossil boiler industry at about 4%. Approximately 25% of all tube failures are due to fly ash erosion (FAE).

2011-11-04T23:59:59.000Z

114

Optical properties of fly ash. Volume 2, Final report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Research performed under this contract was divided into four tasks under the following headings: Task 1, Characterization of fly ash; Task 2, Measurements of the optical constants of slags; Task 3, Calculations of the radiant properties of fly ash dispersions; and Task 4, Measurements of the radiant properties of fly ash dispersions. Tasks 1 and 4 constituted the Ph.D. research topic of Sarbajit Ghosal, while Tasks 2 and 3 constituted the Ph.D. research topic of Jon Ebert. Together their doctoral dissertations give a complete account of the work performed. This final report, issued in two volumes consists of an executive summary of the whole program followed by the dissertation of Ghosal and Ebert. Volume 2 contains the dissertation of Ebert which covers the measurements of the optical constants of slags, and calculations of the radiant properties of fly ash dispersions. A list of publications and conference presentations resulting from the work is also included.

Self, S.A.

1994-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

Dust Mitigation Methods for Coal Combustion Products  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Coal-fired power plants generate coal combustion products (CCPs) requiring management for storage and disposal. These products are often stored in facilities such as landfills or placed in temporary storage pads for short or long durations. At these facilities, there is a need to address dust mitigation concerns in order to comply with environmental permits, ...

2013-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

116

A Model for Saharan Dust Transport  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper the source strength and the deposition rate of the dust emerging from the Sahara are assessed. For this purpose a multichannel sunphotometer has been developed and a turbidity network covering 11 stations has been set up in the ...

Guillaume A. d'Almeida

1986-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

117

Radiative Heating Rates for Saharan Dust  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A combined longwave and shortwave radiative transfer model was used to determine effects of Saharan dust on the radiative fluxes and heating/cooling rates in the atmosphere. Cases are treated for cloud-free and overcast conditions over the ocean ...

Toby N. Carlson; Stanley G. Benjamin

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

The Dust Accelerator Facility of the Colorado Center for Lunar Dust and Atmospheric Studies  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The NASA Lunar Institute's Colorado Center for Lunar Dust and Atmospheric Studies has recently completed the construction of a new experimental facility to study hypervelocity dust impacts. The installation includes a 3 MV Pelletron, accelerating small particles in the size range of 0.1 to few microns to velocities in the range of 1 to 100 km/s. Here we report the capabilities of our facility, and the results of our first experiments.

Horanyi, M.; Colette, A.; Drake, K.; Gruen, E.; Kempf, S.; Munsat, T.; Robertson, S.; Shu, A.; Sternovsky, Z.; Wang, X. [NASA Lunar Science Institute Colorado Center for Lunar Dust and Atmospheric Studies University of Colorado, Boulder, CO, 80309 (United States)

2011-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

119

KINETICS OF FLY ASH BENEFICIATION BY CARBON BURNOUT  

SciTech Connect

Surface area analyses performed on fly ash samples reveal that the surface area is controlled by carbon content. The higher surface areas found in large particles are due to the presence of highly porous carbonaceous particles. Adsorption-desorption isotherms and t-plots of fly ash samples indicate that fly ash is porous. BJH Adsorption/Desorption pore size analysis reveal that pore diameters are independent of sieve size. They appear to be dependent only on the nature of the material which confers porosity. Based on the results of Brown and Dykstra (41) it is reasonable to assume that calculations of reaction rates at temperatures above 550 C were confounded by weight losses from processes other than carbon oxidation and, therefore, are not useful in determination of the temperature dependence of carbon oxidation in fly ash. The results of the present study indicate that temperatures below 550 C should be used for future studies in order to satisfactorily assess the temperature dependence of carbon oxidation in fly ash. Furthermore, it is also advisable that percent carbon determinations be performed on fly ash samples after the oxidation reactions to determine whether all carbon present in fly ash is oxidized. This will ensure that reaction rates are representative of the complete oxidation of carbon. An inverse relationship was determined between reaction rates and oxygen concentration for this study. As discussed, this may be due to volatilization of volatiles from fly ash and ease of transport of products away from the reaction sites by the action of the vacuum applied to the samples. A more accurate determination of oxygen dependence of carbon oxidation can be accomplished by the use of specialty gases containing different concentrations of oxygen which could eliminate the need to apply vacuum to the samples.

Dr. Joseph N.D. Dodoo; Dr. Joseph M. Okoh

2000-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

The Effect of Ammonia on Mercury Partitioning in Fly Ash  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Management options and environmental assessments for fly ash are driven primarily by their physical and chemical characteristics. This report describes the results of a laboratory study on the leaching of mercury from several paired fly ash samples from facilities employing powdered activated carbon (PAC) injection for mercury control. While previous EPRI research has shown that mercury leaching from ash with PAC is negligible, it has also been found that ammonia complexes can increase the mobility of so...

2008-03-25T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dust smoke fly" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Fundamental Study of Low NOx Combustion Fly Ash Utilization  

SciTech Connect

This study is principally concerned with characterizing the organic part of coal combustion fly ashes. High carbon fly ashes are becoming more common as by-products of low-NOx combustion technology, and there is need to learn more about this fraction of the fly ash. The project team consists of two universities, Brown and Princeton, and an electrical utility, New England Power. A sample suite of over forty fly ashes has been gathered from utilities across the United States, and includes ashes from a coals ranging in rank from bituminous to lignite. The characterizations of these ashes include standard tests (LOI, Foam Index), as well as more detailed characterizations of their surface areas, porosity, extractability and adsorption behavior. The ultimate goal is, by better characterizing the material, to enable broadening the range of applications for coal fly ash re-use beyond the current main market as a pozzolanic agent for concretes. The potential for high carbon-content fly ashes to substitute for activated carbons is receiving particular attention. The work performed to date has already revealed how very different the surfaces of different ashes produced by the same utility can be, with respect to polarity of the residual carbon. This can help explain the large variations in acceptability of these ashes as concrete additives.

E. M. Suubert; I. Kuloats; K. Smith; N. Sabanegh; R.H. Hurt; W. D. Lilly; Y. M. Gao

1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

122

Use of Class C Fly Ash in High-Volume Fly Ash Concrete Applications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Although the use of fly ash in concrete is a well-established practice, the volume of high-calcium Class C ash used lags behind that of low-calcium Class F ash. Because Class C may be the only type of ash produced in some western states, this disparity can significantly limit its use potential. The literature results presented in this report represent the first phase of a longer term research effort to provide technical information supporting the increased use of Class C ash in concrete applications.

2007-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

123

3 MV hypervelocity dust accelerator at the Colorado Center for Lunar Dust and Atmospheric Studies  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A hypervelocity dust accelerator for studying micrometeorite impacts has been constructed at the Colorado Center for Lunar Dust and Atmospheric Studies (CCLDAS) at the University of Colorado. Based on the Max-Planck-Instituet fuer Kernphysik (MPI-K) accelerator, this accelerator is capable of emitting single particles of a specific mass and velocity selected by the user. The accelerator consists of a 3 MV Pelletron generator with a dust source, four image charge pickup detectors, and two interchangeable target chambers: a large high-vacuum test bed and an ultra-high vacuum impact study chamber. The large test bed is a 1.2 m diameter, 1.5 m long cylindrical vacuum chamber capable of pressures as low as 10{sup -7} torr while the ultra-high vacuum chamber is a 0.75 m diameter, 1.1 m long chamber capable of pressures as low as 10{sup -10} torr. Using iron dust of up to 2 microns in diameter, final velocities have been measured up to 52 km/s. The spread of the dust particles and the effect of electrostatic focusing have been measured using a long exposure CCD and a quartz target. Furthermore, a new technique of particle selection is being developed using real time digital filtering techniques. Signals are digitized and then cross-correlated with a shaped filter, resulting in a suppressed noise floor. Improvements over the MPI-K design, which include a higher operating voltage and digital filtering for detection, increase the available parameter space of dust emitted by the accelerator. The CCLDAS dust facility is a user facility open to the scientific community to assist with instrument calibrations and experiments.

Shu, Anthony; Horanyi, Mihaly; Kempf, Sascha; Thomas, Evan [Colorado Center for Lunar Dust and Atmospheric Studies, Boulder, Colorado 80303 (United States); Department of Physics, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309 (United States); Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics, 1234 Innovation Drive, Boulder, Colorado 80303 (United States); Collette, Andrew; Drake, Keith; Northway, Paige [Colorado Center for Lunar Dust and Atmospheric Studies, Boulder, Colorado 80303 (United States); Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics, 1234 Innovation Drive, Boulder, Colorado 80303 (United States); Gruen, Eberhard [Colorado Center for Lunar Dust and Atmospheric Studies, Boulder, Colorado 80303 (United States); MPI fuer Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Mocker, Anna [Colorado Center for Lunar Dust and Atmospheric Studies, Boulder, Colorado 80303 (United States); MPI fuer Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); IRS, Universitaet Stuttgart, Pfaffenwaldring 31, D-70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Munsat, Tobin [Colorado Center for Lunar Dust and Atmospheric Studies, Boulder, Colorado 80303 (United States); Department of Physics, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309 (United States); Srama, Ralf [MPI fuer Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); IRS, Universitaet Stuttgart, Pfaffenwaldring 31, D-70569 Stuttgart (Germany); and others

2012-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

124

Leaching of Mixtures of Biochar and Fly Ash  

SciTech Connect

Increasing atmospheric levels of greenhouse gases, especially CO2, and their effects on global temperature have led to interest in the possibility of carbon storage in terrestrial environments.2, 5, 6 Both the residual char from biomass pyrolysis7-9, 12 (biochar) and fly ash from coal combustion1, 13, 14 have the potential to significantly expand terrestrial sequestration options. Both biochar and fly ash also have potentially beneficial effects on soil properties. Fly ash has been shown to increase porosity, water-holding capacity, pH, conductivity, and dissolved SO42-, CO32-, Cl- and basic cations.10, 11, 16 Adding biochar to soil generally raises pH, increases total nitrogen and total phosphorous, encourages greater root development, improves cation exchange capacity and reduces available aluminum.3, 17 Combinations of these benefits likely lead to the observed increased yields for crops including corn and sugarcane.17 with biochar addition to soil. In addition, it has been found that soils with added biochar emit lower amounts of other greenhouse gases (methane and nitrous oxide) 8, 17 than do unammended soils. Biochar and fly ash amendments may be useful in promoting terrestrial carbon sequestration on currently underutilized and degraded lands. For example, about 1% of the US surface lands consist of previously mined lands or highway rights-of-way.18 Poorly managed lands could count for another 15% of US area. Biochar and fly ash amendments could increase productivity of these lands and increase carbon storage in the soil Previous results showed minimal leaching of organic carbon and metals from a variety of fly ashes.15 Here, we are examining the properties of mixtures of biochar, fly ash, and soil and evaluating leaching of organic carbon and metals from the mixtures.

Palumbo, Anthony Vito [ORNL; Porat, Iris [ORNL; Phillips, Jana Randolph [ORNL; Amonette, J. E. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Drake, Meghan M [ORNL; Brown, Steven D [ORNL; Schadt, Christopher Warren [ORNL

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

Indoor measurements of environmental tobacco smoke  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Indoor measurements of environmental tobacco smoke Indoor measurements of environmental tobacco smoke Title Indoor measurements of environmental tobacco smoke Publication Type Report Year of Publication 2004 Authors Apte, Michael G., Lara A. Gundel, S. Katharine Hammond, Raymond L. Dod, Marion L. Russell, Brett C. Singer, Michael D. Sohn, Douglas P. Sullivan, Gee-Minn Chang, and Richard G. Sextro Publisher Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Abstract The objective of this research project was to improve the basis for estimating environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposures in a variety of indoor environments. The research utilized experiments conducted in both laboratory and 'real-world' buildings to 1) study the transport of ETS species from room to room, 2) examine the viability of using various chemical markers as tracers for ETS, and 3) to evaluate to what extent re-emission of ETS components from indoor surfaces might add to the ETS exposure estimates. A three-room environmental chamber was used to examine multi-zone transport and behavior of ETS and its tracers. One room (simulating a smoker's living room) was extensively conditioned with ETS, while a corridor and a second room (simulating a child's bedroom) remained smoking-free. A series of 5 sets of replicate experiments were conducted under different door opening and flow configurations: sealed, leaky, slightly ajar, wide open, and under forced air-flow conditions. When the doors between the rooms were slightly ajar the particles dispersed into the other rooms, eventually reaching the same concentration. The particle size distribution took the same form in each room, although the total numbers of particles in each room depended on the door configurations. The particle number size distribution moved towards somewhat larger particles as the ETS aged. We also successfully modeled the inter-room transport of ETS particles from first principles - using size fractionated particle emission factors, predicted deposition rates, and thermal temperature gradient driven inter-room flows, This validation improved our understanding of bulk inter-room ETS particle transport. Four chemical tracers were examined: ultraviolet-absorbing particulate matter (UVPM), fluorescent particulate matter (FPM), nicotine and solanesol. Both (UVPM) and (FPM) traced the transport of ETS particles into the non-smoking areas. Nicotine, on the other hand, quickly adsorbed on unconditioned surfaces so that nicotine concentrations in these rooms remained very low, even during smoking episodes. These findings suggest that using nicotine as a tracer of ETS particle concentrations may yield misleading concentration and/or exposure estimates. The results of the solanesol analyses were compromised, apparently by exposure to light during collection (lights in the chambers were always on during the experiments). This may mean that the use of solanesol as a tracer is impractical in 'real-world' conditions. In the final phase of the project we conducted measurements of ETS particles and tracers in three residences occupied by smokers who had joined a smoking cessation program. As a pilot study, its objective was to improve our understanding of how ETS aerosols are transported in a small number of homes (and thus, whether limiting smoking to certain areas has an effect on ETS exposures in other parts of the building). As with the chamber studies, we examined whether measurements of various chemical tracers, such as nicotine, solanesol, FPM and UVPM, could be used to accurately predict ETS concentrations and potential exposures in 'real-world' settings, as has been suggested by several authors. The ultimate goal of these efforts, and a future larger multiple house study, is to improve the basis for estimating ETS exposures to the general public. Because we only studied three houses no firm conclusions can be developed from our data. However, the results for the ETS tracers are essentially the same as those for the chamber experiments. The use of nicotine was problematic as a marker for ETS exposure. In the smoking areas of the homes, nicotine appeared to be a suitable indicator; however in the non-smoking regions, nicotine behavior was very inconsistent. The other tracers, UVPM and FPM, provided a better basis for estimating ETS exposures in the 'real world'. The use of solanesol was compromised - as it had been in the chamber experiments.

126

Milky Way Tomography IV: Dissecting Dust  

SciTech Connect

We use SDSS photometry of 73 million stars to simultaneously obtain best-fit main-sequence stellar energy distribution (SED) and amount of dust extinction along the line of sight towards each star. Using a subsample of 23 million stars with 2MASS photometry, whose addition enables more robust results, we show that SDSS photometry alone is sufficient to break degeneracies between intrinsic stellar color and dust amount when the shape of extinction curve is fixed. When using both SDSS and 2MASS photometry, the ratio of the total to selective absorption, R{sub V}, can be determined with an uncertainty of about 0.1 for most stars in high-extinction regions. These fits enable detailed studies of the dust properties and its spatial distribution, and of the stellar spatial distribution at low Galactic latitudes (|b| < 30{sup o}). Our results are in good agreement with the extinction normalization given by the Schlegel et al. (1998, SFD) dust maps at high northern Galactic latitudes, but indicate that the SFD extinction map appears to be consistently overestimated by about 20% in the southern sky, in agreement with recent study by Schlafly et al. (2010). The constraints on the shape of the dust extinction curve across the SDSS and 2MASS bandpasses disfavor the reddening law of O'Donnell (1994), but support the models by Fitzpatrick (1999) and Cardelli et al. (1989). For the latter, we find a ratio of the total to selective absorption to be R{sub V} = 3.0 {+-} 0.1(random) {+-} 0.1 (systematic) over most of the high-latitude sky. At low Galactic latitudes (|b| < 5{sup o}), we demonstrate that the SFD map cannot be reliably used to correct for extinction because most stars are embedded in dust, rather than behind it, as is the case at high Galactic latitudes. We analyze three-dimensional maps of the best-fit R{sub V} and find that R{sub V} = 3.1 cannot be ruled out in any of the ten SEGUE stripes at a precision level of {approx} 0.1 - 0.2. Our best estimate for the intrinsic scatter of R{sub V} in the regions probed by SEGUE stripes is {approx} 0.2. We introduce a method for efficient selection of candidate red giant stars in the disk, dubbed 'dusty parallax relation', which utilizes a correlation between distance and the extinction along the line of sight. We make these best-fit parameters, as well as all the input SDSS and 2MASS data, publicly available in a user-friendly format. These data can be used for studies of stellar number density distribution, the distribution of dust properties, for selecting sources whose SED differs from SEDs for high-latitude main sequence stars, and for estimating distances to dust clouds and, in turn, to molecular gas clouds.

Berry, Michael; /Washington U., Seattle, Astron. Dept. /Rutgers U., Piscataway; Ivezic, Zeljko; /Washington U., Seattle, Astron. Dept.; Sesar, Branimir; /Caltech; Juric, Mario; /Harvard U., Phys. Dept.; Schlafly, Edward F.; /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys.; Bellovary, Jillian; /Michigan U.; Finkbeiner, Douglas; /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys.; Vrbanec, Dijana; /Zagreb U.; Beers, Timothy C.; /Natl. Solar Observ., Tucson; Brooks, Keira J.; /Washington U., Seattle, Astron. Dept.; Schneider, Donald P.; /Penn State U. /Washington U., Seattle, Astron. Dept.

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

127

The Dust Tail of Asteroid (3200) Phaethon  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We report the discovery of a comet-like tail on asteroid (3200) Phaethon when imaged at optical wavelengths near perihelion. In both 2009 and 2012, the tail appears >=350" (2.5x10^8 m) in length and extends approximately in the projected anti-solar direction. We interpret the tail as being caused by dust particles accelerated by solar radiation pressure. The sudden appearance and the morphology of the tail indicate that the dust particles are small, with an effective radius ~1 micrometer and a combined mass ~3x10^5 kg. These particles are likely products of thermal fracture and/or desiccation cracking under the very high surface temperatures (~1000 K) experienced by Phaethon at perihelion. The existence of the tail confirms earlier inferences about activity in this body based on the detection of anomalous brightening. Phaethon, the presumed source of the Geminid meteoroids, is still active.

Jewitt, David; Agarwal, Jessica

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

Data Acquisition-Manipulation At Valley Of Ten Thousand Smokes...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Data Acquisition-Manipulation At Valley Of Ten Thousand Smokes Region Area (Kodosky & Keith,...

129

Title: University Smoking Policy Code: 1-300-010  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

cigar, cigarette, pipe, or other tobacco product or smoking equipment. Hazardous areas include certain procedures set forth in the BOSTON COLLEGE EMPLOYEE HANDBOOK. These procedures encourage employees

Huang, Jianyu

130

Chemical Change in Secondhand Tobacco Smoke: Data from the Tobacco...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

of experimental approaches, RJ Reynolds and Philip Morris studied the effects of aging, dilution and contact with typical room surfaces on secondhand smoke chemistry. Most...

131

International Study of the Sublethal Effects of Fire Smoke on ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Study of the Sublethal Effects of Fire Smoke on Survival and Health” (SEFS) to provide scientific information on these effects for public policy makers ...

2002-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

132

Water Sampling At Valley Of Ten Thousand Smokes Region Area ...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Water Sampling At Valley Of Ten Thousand Smokes Region Area (Keith, Et Al., 1992)...

133

Lunar dust transport and potential interactions with power system components  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The lunar surface is covered by a thick blanket of fine dust. This dust may be readily suspended from the surface and transported by a variety of mechanisms. As a consequence, lunar dust can accumulate on sensitive power components, such as photovoltaic arrays and radiator surfaces, reducing their performance. In addition to natural mechanisms, human activities on the Moon will disturb significant amounts of lunar dust. Of all the mechanisms identified, the most serious is rocket launch and landing. The return of components from the Surveyor III provided a rare opportunity to observe the effects of the nearby landing of the Apollo 12 lunar module. The evidence proved that significant dust accumulation occurred on the Surveyor at a distance of 155 m. From available information on particle suspension and transport mechanisms, a series of models was developed to predict dust accumulation as a function of distance from the lunar module. The accumulation distribution was extrapolated to a future lunar lander scenario. These models indicate that accumulation is expected to be substantial even as far as 2 km from the landing site. Estimates of the performance penalties associated with lunar dust coverage on radiators and photovoltaic arrays are presented. Because of the lunar dust adhesive and cohesive properties, the most practical dust defensive strategy appears to be the protection of sensitive components from the arrival of lunar dust by location, orientation, or barriers.

Katzan, C.M.; Edwards, J.L.

1991-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

ALPHA ATTENUATION DUE TO DUST LOADING  

SciTech Connect

Previous studies had been done in order to show the attenuation of alpha particles in filter media. These studies provided an accurate correction for this attenuation, but there had not yet been a study with sufficient results to properly correct for attenuation due to dust loading on the filters. At the Savannah River Site, filter samples are corrected for attenuation due to dust loading at 20%. Depending on the facility the filter comes from and the duration of the sampling period, the proper correction factor may vary. The objective of this study was to determine self-absorption curves for each of three counting instruments. Prior work indicated significant decreases in alpha count rate (as much as 38%) due to dust loading, especially on filters from facilities where sampling takes place over long intervals. The alpha count rate decreased because of a decrease in the energy of the alpha. The study performed resulted in a set of alpha absorption curves for each of three detectors. This study also took into account the affects of the geometry differences in the different counting equipment used.

Dailey, A; Dennis Hadlock, D

2007-08-09T23:59:59.000Z

135

2003 Conference on Unburned Carbon on Utility Fly Ash  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

2003 Conference on Unburned Carbon on Utility Fly Ash 2003 Conference on Unburned Carbon on Utility Fly Ash October 28, 2003 Table of Contents Disclaimer Participants List [PDF-31KB] Papers and Presentations Control Measures Predictive Performance Tools (Including Instrumentation) Processing and Utilization of High-LOI Fly Ash Beneficiation of High-LOI Fly Ash Characterization of High-LOI Fly Ash Poster Presentations Disclaimer This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government or any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference herein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise does not necessarily constitute or imply its endorsement, recommendation, or favoring by the United States Government or any agency thereof. The views and opinions of authors expressed herein do not necessarily state or reflect those of the United States Government or any agency thereof.

136

Fly ash as a liming material for corn production  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Fly ash produced as a by-product of subbituminous coal combustion can potentially serve as an alternative liming material without negatively affecting corn (Zea mays L.) production in areas where use of conventional liming materials can be uneconomical due to transportation costs. A study was conducted to determine if fly ash produced from the Nebraska Public Power District Gerald Gentleman Power Station located in Sutherland, NE could be used as an alternative liming material. Combinations of dry fly ash (DFA), wet fly ash (WFA), beet lime (by-product of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) processing) (BL), and agricultural lime (AGL) were applied at rates ranging from 0.43 to 1.62 times the recommended lime rate to plots on four acidic soils (Anselmo fine sandy loam, Hord fine sandy loam, Holdrege sandy loam, and Valentine fine sand). Soil samples were collected to a depth of 0.2 m from plots and analyzed for pH before lime applications and twice periodically after lime application. The Hord and Valentine soils were analyzed for exchangeable Ca, Mg, K, Na,and Al for determination of percent Al saturation on selected treatments and sampling dates. Corn grain yields were determined annually. It is concluded that the fly ash utilized in this study and applied at rates in this study, increases soil pH comparable to agricultural lime and is an appropriate alternative liming material.

Tarkalson, D.D.; Hergert, G.W.; Stevens, W.B.; McCallister, D.L.; Kackman, S.D. [University of Nebraska, North Platte, NE (US)

2005-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

137

Smoking and high-risk mammographic parenchymal patterns: a case-control study  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

smoking causes an earlier menopause [1,26]. Smoking appears to alter the metabolism of oestradiol leading to enhanced formation of the inactive catechol estrogens [1]. Furthermore, smoking increases circulating androgens through adrenal cortical...

Sala, Evis; Warren, Ruth M L; McCann, Jenny; Duffy, Stephen; Luben, Robert; Day, Nicholas E

1999-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

138

Smoke-free law did not affect revenue from gaming in Delaware  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

industries work against smoke-free policies. Tobacco Controleconomic effects of smoke-free policies on the hospitalityR. No association of smoke-free ordinances with profits from

Mandel, Lev L MSc.; Alamar, Benjamin Ph.D.; Glantz, Stanton A. Ph.D.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

Estimating Environmental Exposures to Indoor Contaminants using Residential-Dust Samples  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

indoor combustion sources, including cigarette smoke, wood-combustion and there are a variety of indoor PAH sources including cigarette smoke, wood-combustion. Humans are exposed to PAHs from a variety of indoor sources including cigarette smoke, wood-

Whitehead, Todd Patrick

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

Fuel Economy on the Fly | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Fuel Economy on the Fly Fuel Economy on the Fly Fuel Economy on the Fly January 19, 2011 - 5:06pm Addthis Andy Oare Andy Oare Former New Media Strategist, Office of Public Affairs What does this mean for me? Fuel Economy information at your fingertips Cross Post from the Energy Savers Blog. Written by Shannon Brescher Shea. With the North American International Auto Show in Detroit kicking off the auto-show circuit last week, manufacturers are unveiling their future models. If you're inspired and in the market for a new car, FuelEconomy.gov can help you pick the most fuel-efficient vehicle for your needs. Although most people don't bring their computer with them to the dealership, you're in luck if you have a smartphone or other mobile internet device. FuelEconomy.gov has a mobile version of its popular Find and Compare Cars

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dust smoke fly" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Fuel Economy on the Fly | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Fuel Economy on the Fly Fuel Economy on the Fly Fuel Economy on the Fly January 18, 2011 - 1:45pm Addthis Shannon Brescher Shea Communications Manager, Clean Cities Program With the North American International Auto Show in Detroit kicking off the auto-show circuit last week, manufacturers are unveiling their future models. If you're inspired and in the market for a new car, FuelEconomy.gov can help you pick the most fuel-efficient vehicle for your needs. Although most people don't bring their computer with them to the dealership, you're in luck if you have a smartphone or other mobile internet device. FuelEconomy.gov has a mobile version of its popular Find and Compare Cars tool that allows you to search anytime, anywhere. The mobile tool works just like the one on the FuelEconomy.gov website. You

142

Glacier Girl flies again | Y-12 National Security Complex  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Glacier Girl flies again Glacier Girl flies again Glacier Girl flies again Posted: February 11, 2013 - 3:42pm | Y-12 Report | Volume 9, Issue 2 | 2013 On July 15, 1942, foul weather forced six P-38 fighters and two B-17 bombers to crash-land on Greenland. The squadron's crew, en route from Maine to England to support Allied war efforts, was rescued, but the aircraft were left behind on the arctic ice cap. For 50 years, an ice and snow cocoon enveloped six P-38 fighters and two B-17 bombers that crash-landed on Greenland during World War II. Then, in 1992, after 12 failed attempts to recover the planes, a group of adventurers tunneled through 268 feet of packed ice and raised one of the P-38 fighters piece by piece. Once brought to the surface, the sections were flown to Middlesboro, Ky. - home of the project's financier, Roy

143

Cementitious binder from fly ash and other industrial wastes  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, investigations were undertaken to formulate cementitious binder by judicious blending of fly ash with Portland cement as well as by admixing fly ash with calcined phosphogypsum, fluorogypsum, lime sludge, and chemical activators of different finenesses. The effect of addition of calcined clay in these types of binders was studied. Data showed that cementitious binders of high compressive strength and water retentivity can be produced. The strength of masonry mortars increased with the addition of chemical activators. The strength development of binders takes place through formation of ettringite. C-S-H, and C{sub 4}AH{sub 13}. The binders are eminently suitable for partial replacement (up to 25%) of the cement in concrete without any detrimental affect on the strength. The results showed that fly ash can be used in the range from 45% to 70% in formulating these binders along with other industrial wastes to help in mitigating environmental pollution.

Singh, M.; Garg, M. [Central Building Research Inst., Roorkee (India)] [Central Building Research Inst., Roorkee (India)

1999-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

144

Spatial distribution of the interplanetary dust deduced by infrared observations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

IR observations of the interplanetary dust performed by the ZIP rocket experiment are analyzed, focusing on the effect of experimental errors on the inversion procedure previously used to obtain the spatial distribution of the dust. Numerical simulation shows that the experimental errors are too large to reveal deviations of the dust density from a simple power-law radial distribution. The accuracy which would be required in future experiments is estimated. 9 refs.

De Bernardis, P.; Feminella, F.; Moreno, G. (Roma I Universita, Rome (Italy))

1991-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

Radiative Forcing of Climate By Ice-Age Atmospheric Dust  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

During glacial periods, dust deposition rates and inferred atmospheric concentrations were globally much higher than present. According to recent model results, the large enhancement of atmospheric dust content at the last glacial maximum (LGM) can be explained only if increases in the potential dust source areas are taken into account. Such increases are to be expected, due to e#ects of low precipitation and low atmospheric (CO 2 ) on plant growth. Here the modelled three-dimensional dust fields from Mahowald et al. and modelled seasonally varying surface-albedo fields derived in a parallel manner, are used to quantify the mean radiative forcing due to modern (non-anthropogenic) and LGM dust. The e#ect of mineralogical provenance on the radiative properties of the dust is taken into account, as is the range of optical properties associated with uncertainties about the mixing state of the dust particles. The high-latitude (poleward of 45#) mean change in forcing (LGM minus modern) is estimated to be small (--0.9 to +0.2 W m ), especially when compared to nearly --20 W m due to reflection from the extended ice sheets. Although the net e#ect of dust over ice sheets is a positive forcing (warming), much of the simulated high-latitude dust was not over the ice sheets, but over unglaciated regions close to the expanded dust source region in central Asia. In the tropics the change in forcing is estimated to be overall negative, and of similarly large magnitude (--2.2 to --3.2 W m ) to the radiative cooling e#ect of low atmospheric (CO 2 ). Thus, the largest long-term climatic e#ect of the LGM dust is likely to have been a cooling of the tropics. Low tropical sea-surface temperatures, low atmospheric (CO 2 ) and high atmospheric dust loading may be mutually reinforcin...

T. Claquin; C. Roelandt; K.E. Kohfeld; S.P. Harrison; I. Tegen; I.C. Prentice; Y. Balkanski; Prentice Æ Y. Balkanski; G. Bergametti; Æ N. Mahowald; Æ M. Schulz; M. Schulz; Æ K. E. Kohfeld; Æ K. E. Kohfeld; C. Roelandt; C. Roelandt; Æ S. P. Harrison; Æ S. P. Harrison; Æ S. P. Harrison; G. Bergametti; H. Rodhe; Æ H. Rodhe; M. Hansson; M. Hansson; N. Mahowald; N. Mahowald

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

Dust acoustic shock waves in two temperatures charged dusty grains  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The reductive perturbation method has been used to derive the Korteweg-de Vries-Burger equation and modified Korteweg-de Vries-Burger for dust acoustic shock waves in a homogeneous unmagnetized plasma having electrons, singly charged ions, hot and cold dust species with Boltzmann distributions for electrons and ions in the presence of the cold (hot) dust viscosity coefficients. The behavior of the shock waves in the dusty plasma has been investigated.

El-Shewy, E. K. [Theoretical Physics Group, Faculty of Science, Mansoura University, Mansoura (Egypt); Science and Arts College in Al-Rass, Physics Department, Qassim University, Al-Rass Province (Saudi Arabia); Abdelwahed, H. G. [Theoretical Physics Group, Faculty of Science, Mansoura University, Mansoura (Egypt); College of Science and Humanitarian Studies, Physics Department, Alkharj University, Al-kharj (Saudi Arabia); Elmessary, M. A. [Engineering Mathematics and Physics Department, Faculty of Engineering, Mansoura University, Mansoura (Egypt)

2011-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

147

The Unwelcome Guest: How Scotland invited the tobacco industry to smoke outside  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

How Scotland invited the tobacco industry to smoke outsideUK handover UK industry. British American Tobacco. Bates No.invited the tobacco industry to smoke outside Archived

Rachel Harrison; Julia Hurst

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

Smoke Wars: Anaconda Copper, Montana Air Pollution, and the Courts, 1890-1920  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Review: Smoke Wars: Anaconda Copper, Montana Air Pollution,Donald MacMillan. Smoke Wars: Anaconda Copper, Montana AirWashoe Copper Company and Anaconda Copper Mining Company).

Stirling, Dale A.

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

Continuous air Agglomeration Method for high Carbon fly ash Beneficiation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The carbon and mineral components of fly ash are effectively separated by a continuous air agglomeration method, resulting in a substantially carbon-free mineral stream and a highly concentrated carbon product. The method involves mixing the fly ash comprised of carbon and inorganic mineral matter with a liquid hydrocarbon to form a slurry, contacting the slurry with an aqueous solution, dispersing the hydrocarbon slurry into small droplets within the aqueous solution by mechanical mixing and/or aeration, concentrating the inorganic mineral matter in the aqueous solution, agglomerating the carbon and hydrocarbon in the form of droplets, collecting the droplets, separating the hydrocarbon from the concentrated carbon product, and recycling the hydrocarbon.

Gray, McMahan L.; Champagne, Kenneth J.; Finseth, Dennis H.

1998-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

150

Continuous air agglomeration method for high carbon fly ash beneficiation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The carbon and mineral components of fly ash are effectively separated by a continuous air agglomeration method, resulting in a substantially carboree mineral stream and a highly concentrated carbon product. The method involves mixing the fly ash comprised of carbon and inorganic mineral matter with a liquid hydrocarbon to form a slurry, contacting the slurry with an aqueous solution, dispersing the hydrocarbon slurry into small droplets within the aqueous solution by mechanical mixing and/or aeration, concentrating the inorganic mineral matter in the aqueous solution, agglomerating the carbon and hydrocarbon in the form of droplets, collecting the droplets, separating the hydrocarbon from the concentrated carbon product, and recycling the hydrocarbon.

Gray, McMahon L. (Pittsburgh, PA); Champagne, Kenneth J. (Monongahela, PA); Finseth, Dennis H. (Pittsburgh, PA)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

Recovering Zinc and Lead from Electric Arc Furnace Dust  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Aug 1, 2000 ... Non-member price: 25.00. TMS Student Member price: 10.00. Product In Stock. Description Increasing amounts of electric arc furnace dust ...

152

Dust-induced instability in a rotating plasma  

SciTech Connect

The effect of immobile dust on stability of a magnetized rotating plasma is analyzed. In the presence of dust, a term containing an electric field appears in the one-fluid equation of plasma motion. This electric field leads to an instability of the magnetized rotating plasma called the dust-induced rotational instability (DRI). The DRI is related to the charge imbalance between plasma ions and electrons introduced by the presence of charged dust. In contrast to the well-known magnetorotational instability requiring the decreasing radial profile of the plasma rotation frequency, the DRI can appear for an increasing rotation frequency profile.

Mikhailovskii, A. B.; Vladimirov, S. V.; Lominadze, J. G.; Tsypin, V. S.; Churikov, A. P.; Erokhin, N. N.; Galvao, R. M. O. [Institute of Nuclear Fusion, Russian Research Centre Kurchatov Institute, 1, Kurchatov Sq., Moscow 123182 (Russian Federation); School of Physics, University of Sydney, Sydney, N.S.W. 2006 (Australia); Kharadze Abastumani National Astrophysical Observatory, 2a, Kazbegi Ave., Tbilisi 0160 (Georgia); Brazilian Center for Physics Research, Rua Xavier Sigaud, 150, 22290-180, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Syzran Branch of Samara Technical University, 45, Sovetskaya Str., Syzran, Samara Region 446001 (Russian Federation); Institute of Nuclear Fusion, Russian Research Centre Kurchatov Institute, 1, Kurchatov Sq., Moscow 123182 (Russian Federation); Physics Institute, University of Sao Paulo, Cidade Universitaria, 05508-900, Sao Paulo, Brazil and Brazilian Center for Physics Research, Rua Xavier Sigaud, 150, 22290-180, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

2008-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

153

ESP Dust Recovery Process Test Works, Plant Trial, Commissioning ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Most of the volatile arsenic will report to Isasmelt Electrostatic Precipitator (ESP) or Waste Heat Boiler dusts where it will form a re-circulating load within the ...

154

Secondary Electron Emission from Dust and Its Effect on Charging  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Hydrogen plasma is produced in a plasma chamber by striking discharge between incandescent tungsten filaments and the permanent magnetic cage [1], which is grounded. The magnetic cage has a full line cusped magnetic field geometry used to confine the plasma elements. A cylindrical Langmuir probe is used to study the plasma parameters in various discharge conditions. The charge accumulated on the dust particles is calculated using the capacitance model and the dust current is measured by the combination of a Faraday cup and an electrometer at different discharge conditions. It is found Secondary electron emission from dust having low emission yield effects the charging of dust particles in presence of high energetic electrons.

Saikia, B. K.; Kakati, B.; Kausik, S. S. [Centre of Plasma Physics, Institute for Plasma Research, Nazirakhat, Sonapur-782402, Assam (India); Bandyopadhyay, M. [ITER-India, Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar-382 428 (India)

2011-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

155

Heterogeneous Reactions on Mineral Dust: Surface Reactions of...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Reactions on Mineral Dust: Surface Reactions of Sulfur Dioxide, Ozone, Nitric and Acetic Acid on Oxide and Carbonate Particles Speaker(s): Vicki Grassian Date: June 14,...

156

Applications of high-speed dust injection to magnetic fusion  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

It is now an established fact that a significant amount of dust is produced in magnetic fusion devices due to plasma-wall interactions. Dust inventory must be controlled, in particular for the next-generation steady-state fusion machines like ITER, as it can pose significant safety hazards and degrade performance. Safety concerns are due to tritium retention, dust radioactivity, toxicity, and flammability. Performance concerns include high-Z impurities carried by dust to the fusion core that can reduce plasma temperature and may even induce sudden termination of the plasma. We have recognized that dust transport, dust-plasma interactions in magnetic fusion devices can be effectively studied experimentally by injection of dust with known properties into fusion plasmas. Other applications of injected dust include diagnosis of fusion plasmas and edge localized mode (ELM)'s pacing. In diagnostic applications, dust can be regarded as a source of transient neutrals before complete ionization. ELM's pacing is a promising scheme to prevent disruptions and type I ELM's that can cause catastrophic damage to fusion machines. Different implementation schemes are available depending on applications of dust injection. One of the simplest dust injection schemes is through gravitational acceleration of dust in vacuum. Experiments at Los Alamos and Princeton will be described, both of which use piezoelectric shakers to deliver dust to plasma. In Princeton experiments, spherical particles (40 micron) have been dropped in a systematic and reproducible manner using a computer-controlled piezoelectric bending actuator operating at an acoustic (0,2) resonance. The circular actuator was constructed with a 2.5 mm diameter central hole. At resonance ({approx} 2 kHz) an applied sinusoidal voltage has been used to control the flux of particles exiting the hole. A simple screw throttle located {approx}1mm above the hole has been used to set the magnitude of the flux achieved for a given voltage. Particle fluxes ranging from a few tens of particle per second up to thousands of particles per second have been achieved using this simple device. To achieve higher dust injection speed, another key consideration is how to accelerate dust at controlled amount. In addition to gravity, other possible acceleration mechanisms include electrostatic, electromagnetic, gas-dragged, plasma-dragged, and laser-ablation-based acceleration. Features and limitations of the different acceleration methods will be discussed. We will also describe laboratory experiments on dust acceleration.

Wang, Zhehui [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Li, Yangfang [Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics, Germany

2012-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

157

Dust in the Indoor Environment: Physical and Chemical Changes...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Hottinger said: "Settled dust on hot surfaces above 70 degrees Celsius results in distillation products having irritating effect on mucous membranes, fairly equal to the effect...

158

Extracting Alumina from Coal Fly Ash Using Acid Sintering-Leaching ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Extracting Alumina from Coal Fly Ash Using Acid ... Coal fly- ash from coal-fired power plants is rich in Al2O3 content with potential use as a ...

159

Activation Of Fly Ash-Lime Reactions By Curing At Elevated Temperature And By Addition Of Phosphogypsum.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Pozzolanic reactions play a key role in improving the compressive strengths of compacted fly ash-lime specimens. Based on studies performed with cement amended fly ash… (more)

Asha, K

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

Infrared optical properties of diesel smoke plumes  

SciTech Connect

Far IR optical properties have been measured for smoke from diesel fires. Concentrations of both gaseous and particulate combustion products have been measured and chemical species contributing to the optical effects identified. To obtain these results, a variety of sampling instruments were lofted into large plumes on a mobile and open structure. The smoke plumes of diesel fires have been found to consist largely of carbonaceous material (in fibrous form) and heavy liquid hydrocarbons infused with the expected gaseous products of the combustion process. Strong attenuation at a wavelength of 10.6 {mu}m is found to be due largely to the carbonaceous aerosol. The absorption coefficient is typically {similar to}500 km{sup {minus}1} at 10 m from the source with a variable but often comparable total scattering coefficient. The extinction coefficient, normalized to the mass density of the aerosol in a unit volume of space, is found to be 1.2 m{sup 2}-g{sup {minus}1} with an estimated variance of 20%. Fluctuational spectra of the attenuation follow a form similar to turbulence spectra.

Bruce, C.W.; Crow, S.B.; Yee, Y.P.; Hinds, B.D. (U.S. Army Atmospheric Sciences Laboratory, White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico 88002 (US)); Marlin, D. (New Mexico State University, Physical Science Department, University Park, New Mexico 88003); Jelinek, A. (Optimetrics, Inc., 106 E. Idaho, Las Cruces, New Mexico 88001)

1989-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dust smoke fly" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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161

Chemical Change in Secondhand Tobacco Smoke: Data from the Tobacco  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Chemical Change in Secondhand Tobacco Smoke: Data from the Tobacco Chemical Change in Secondhand Tobacco Smoke: Data from the Tobacco Documents - and - Tobacco Companies Sucessfully Prevented Tobacco Control Legislation in Argentina Speaker(s): Ernesto Sebrie Suzaynn Schick Date: November 10, 2005 - 12:00pm Location: Bldg. 90 Two seminars will be presented by two speakers. "Chemical change in secondhand tobacco smoke...." (by Dr. Schick): The major US tobacco companies responded to Hirayama et al's 1981 paper showing secondhand smoke can cause lung cancer in nonsmokers by intensifying their study of the chemistry and toxicity of secondhand smoke. Using a variety of experimental approaches, RJ Reynolds and Philip Morris studied the effects of aging, dilution and contact with typical room surfaces on secondhand

162

Adsorption of Trace Elements on Fresh and Weathered Coal Fly Ash  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A variety of trace elements are associated with fly ash produced by coal combustion. These trace elements are potentially of concern for human health if they are released to the environment, and thus it is important to understand their mobility in coal fly ash management settings. In the fly ash management environment, the ash may react with meteoric fluid to release trace elements into groundwater or surface water. However, fly ash particles also have a relatively high surface area and have the ability ...

2012-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

163

Using Zeolites Synthesized from Fly Ash to Reduce Ammonia Loss to the Environment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This interim report describes studies using zeolites synthesized from fly ash to reduce ammonia loss to the environment.

2002-02-19T23:59:59.000Z

164

Mercury Leachability From Concretes That Contain Fly Ashes and Activated Carbon Sorbents  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report presents new laboratory data on the leaching of mercury from concrete that contains fly ash and powdered activated carbon (PAC) sorbents used to capture mercury. The concretes studied during this project were made with fly ashes from lignite and subbituminous coal, including fly ashes containing PAC. Only very low levels of mercuryless than 5 parts per trillionwere leached from the fly ash concretes in both 18-hour and 7-day laboratory leach tests.

2007-07-18T23:59:59.000Z

165

Measurements of the effects of smoke on active circuits  

SciTech Connect

Smoke has long been recognized as the most common source of fire damage to electrical equipment; however, most failures have been analyzed after the fire was out and the smoke vented. The effects caused while the smoke is still in the air have not been explored. Such effects have implications for new digital equipment being installed in nuclear reactors. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission is sponsoring work to determine the impact of smoke on digital instrumentation and control. As part of this program, Sandia National Laboratories has tested simple active circuits to determine how smoke affects them. These tests included the study of three possible failure modes on a functional board: (1) circuit bridging, (2) corrosion (metal loss), and (3) induction of stray capacitance. The performance of nine different circuits was measured continuously on bare and conformally coated boards during smoke exposures lasting 1 hour each and continued for 24 hours after the exposure started. The circuit that was most affected by smoke (100% change in measured values) was the one most sensitive to circuit bridging. Its high impedance (50 Mohm) was shorted during the exposure, but in some cases recovered after the smoke was vented. The other two failure modes, corrosion and induced stray capacitance, caused little change in the function of the circuits. The smoke permanently increased resistance of the circuit tested for corrosion, implying that the contacts were corroded. However, the change was very small (< 2%). The stray capacitance test circuit showed very little change after a smoke exposure in either the short or long term. The results of the tests suggest that conformal coatings and type of circuit are major considerations when designing digital circuitry to be used in critical control systems.

Tanaka, T.J.

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

166

Measurements of the Effects of Smoke on Active Circuits  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Smoke has long been recognized as the most common source of fire damage to electrical equipment; however, most failures have been analyzed after the fire was out and the smoke vented. The effects caused while the smoke is still in the air have not been explored. Such effects have implications for new digital equipment being installed in nuclear reactors. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission is sponsoring work to determine the impact of smoke on digital instrumentation and control. As part of this program, Sandia National Laboratories has tested simple active circuits to determine how smoke affects them. These tests included the study of three possible failure modes on a functional board: (1) circuit bridging, (2) corrosion (metal loss), and (3) induction of stray capacitance. The performance of nine different circuits was measured continuously on bare and conformably coated boards during smoke exposures lasting 1 hour each and continued for 24 hours after the exposure started. The circuit that was most affected by smoke (100% change in measured values) was the one most sensitive to circuit bridging. Its high impedance (50 M{Omega}) was shorted during the exposure, but in some cases recovered after the smoke was vented. The other two failure modes, corrosion and induced stray capacitance, caused little change in the function of the circuits. The smoke permanently increased resistance of the circuit tested for corrosion, implying that the cent acts were corroded. However, the change was very small (< 2%). The stray-capacitance test circuit showed very little change after a smoke exposure in either the short or long term. The results of the tests suggest that conformal coatings and type of circuit are major considerations when designing digital circuitry to be used in critical control systems.

Tanaka, T.J.

1999-02-09T23:59:59.000Z

167

THE DUST BUDGET OF THE SMALL MAGELLANIC CLOUD: ARE ASYMPTOTIC GIANT BRANCH STARS THE PRIMARY DUST SOURCE AT LOW METALLICITY?  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We estimate the total dust input from the cool evolved stars in the Small Magellanic Cloud, using the 8 {mu}m excess emission as a proxy for the dust-production rate (DPR). We find that asymptotic giant branch (AGB) and red supergiant (RSG) stars produce (8.6-9.5) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -7} M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1} of dust, depending on the fraction of far-infrared sources that belong to the evolved star population (with 10%-50% uncertainty in individual DPRs). RSGs contribute the least (budget, this suggests that dust must grow in the ISM or be formed by another unknown mechanism.

Boyer, M. L.; Gordon, K. D.; Meixner, M.; Sargent, B. A. [STScI, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Srinivasan, S. [UPMC-CNRS UMR7095, Institut d'Astrophysique de Paris, F-75014 Paris (France); Riebel, D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The Johns Hopkins University, Homewood Campus, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); McDonald, I. [Jodrell Bank Centre for Astrophysics, Alan Turing Building, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Van Loon, J. Th. [Astrophysics Group, Lennard-Jones Laboratories, Keele University, Staffordshire ST5 5BG (United Kingdom); Clayton, G. C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Louisiana State University, 233-A Nicholson Hall, Tower Dr., Baton Rouge, LA 70803-4001 (United States); Sloan, G. C., E-mail: mboyer@stsci.edu [Astronomy Department, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853-6801 (United States)

2012-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

168

Episodic Dust Events of Utah’s Wasatch Front and Adjoining Region  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Episodic dust events cause hazardous air quality along Utah’s Wasatch Front and dust loading of the snowpack in the adjacent Wasatch Mountains. This paper presents a climatology of episodic dust events of the Wasatch Front and adjoining region ...

W. James Steenburgh; Jeffrey D. Massey; Thomas H. Painter

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

169

Hydration and strength development of binder based on high-calcium oil shale fly ash  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The properties of high-calcium oil shale fly ash and low-calcium coal fly ash, which are produced in Israeli power stations, were investigated. High-calcium oil shale fly ash was found to contain a great amount of CaO{sub free} and SO{sub 3} in the form of lime and anhydrite. Mixtures of high-calcium oil shale fly ash and low-calcium coal fly ash, termed fly ash binder, were shown to cure and have improved strength. The influence of the composition and curing conditions on the compressive strength of fly ash binders was examined. The microstructure and the composition of fly ash binder after curing and long-term exposure in moist air, water and open air conditions were studied. It was determined that ettringite is the main variable in the strength and durability of cured systems. The positive effect of calcium silicate hydrates, CSH, which are formed by interaction of high-calcium oil shale fly ash and low-calcium coal fly ash components, on the carbonation and dehydration resistance of fly ash binder in open air is pronounced. It was concluded that high-calcium oil shale fly ash with high CaO{sub free} and SO{sub 3} content can be used as a binder for building products.

Freidin, C. [Ben-Gurion Univ. of the Negev, Sede-Boqer (Israel)

1998-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

Swirling Melting Characteristics of Fly Ashes from Co-Firing of MSWI in China  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Melting treatment is an efficient for heavy metal stabilization in MSW fly ash. The fly ashes from co-firing of municipal solid waste and coal incinerator were melted in the swirling melting furnace system under various temperatures. The melting characteristics ... Keywords: fly ash, co-firing, melting, melting temperature, heavy metals, fixation rate

Wang Xue-tao; Jiao You-zhou; Xu Bin; Jin Bao-sheng

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

Infiltration Processing of Metal Matrix-Fly Ash Particle Composites  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Metal Matrix composites can provide improved functional properties compared to solid metal castings while saving production energy and raw material costs. Ash-derived metal matrix composites, in particular, can provide high value-added use to coal fly ash. This report describes research on use of pressure infiltration techniques to produce composites for automotive component applications.

1997-09-16T23:59:59.000Z

172

Aluminum - Fly Ash Metal Matrix Composites as Advanced Automobile Material  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Metal matrix composites such as silicon carbide-aluminum, alumina-aluminum, and graphite-aluminum represent a class of emerging materials with significant potential for commercial use in the auto and aerospace industries. In industrial foundry trials, a joint industry and Department of Energy project demonstrated a promising new process for producing a low cost aluminum metal matrix composite containing fly ash particles.

2001-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

173

Flying Fast and Low Among Obstacles: Methodology and Experiments  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Safe autonomous flight is essential for widespread acceptance of aircraft that must fly close to the ground. We have developed a method of collision avoidance that can be used in three dimensions in much the same way as autonomous ground vehicles ... Keywords: Aerial robotics, learning

Sebastian Scherer; Sanjiv Singh; Lyle Chamberlain; Mike Elgersma

2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

174

Evolution of Dust Extinction and Supernova Cosmology  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We have made a quantitative calculation for the systematic evolution of average extinction by interstellar dust in host galaxies of high-redshift Type Ia supernovae, by using a realistic model of photometric and chemical evolution of galaxies and supernova rate histories in various galaxy types. We find that average B band extinction at z \\sim 0.5 is typically 0.1-0.2 mag larger than present, under a natural assumption that dust optical depth is proportional to gas column density and gas metallicity. This systematic evolution causes average reddening with E(B-V) \\sim 0.025-0.05 mag with the standard extinction curve, and this is comparable with the observational uncertainty of the reddening of high-redshift supernovae. Therefore, our result does not contradict the observations showing no significant reddening in high-z supernovae. However, the difference in apparent magnitude between an open universe and a \\Lambda-dominated flat universe is only \\sim 0.2 mag at z \\sim 0.5, and hence this systematic evolution of extinction should be taken into account in a reliable measurement of cosmological parameters. Considering this uncertainty, we show that it is difficult to discriminate between an open and \\Lambda-dominated flat cosmologies from the current data.

Tomonori Totani; Chiaki Kobayashi

1999-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

175

DUST-DRIVEN WIND FROM DISK GALAXIES  

SciTech Connect

We study gaseous outflows from disk galaxies driven by radiation pressure on dust grains. We include the effect of bulge and dark matter halo and show that the existence of such an outflow implies a maximum value of disk mass-to-light ratio. We show that the terminal wind speed is proportional to the disk rotation speed in the limit of a cold gaseous outflow, and that in general there is a contribution from the gas sound speed. Using the mean opacity of dust grains and the evolution of the luminosity of a simple stellar population, we then show that the ratio of the wind terminal speed (v{sub {infinity}}) to the galaxy rotation speed (v{sub c}) ranges between 2 and 3 for a period of {approx}10 Myr after a burst of star formation, after which it rapidly decays. This result is independent of any free parameter and depends only on the luminosity of the stellar population and the relation between disk and dark matter halo parameters. We briefly discuss the possible implications of our results.

Sharma, Mahavir; Nath, Biman B. [Raman Research Institute, Sadashiva Nagar, Bangalore 560080 (India); Shchekinov, Yuri, E-mail: mahavir@rri.res.in, E-mail: biman@rri.res.in, E-mail: yus@sfedu.ru [Department of Physics, Southern Federal University, Rostov on Don 344090 (Russian Federation)

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

Two-Component Dust in Spherically Symmetric Motion  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Two components of spherically symmetric, inhomogeneous dust penetrating each other are introduced as a generalization of the well-known Tolman-Bondi dust solution. The field equations of this model are formulated and general properties are discussed. inhomogeneous Special solutions with additional symmetries - an extra Killing- or homothetic vector - and their matching to the corresponding Tolman-Bondi solution are investigated.

Haager, G

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

177

Two-Component Dust in Spherically Symmetric Motion  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Two components of spherically symmetric, inhomogeneous dust penetrating each other are introduced as a generalization of the well-known Tolman-Bondi dust solution. The field equations of this model are formulated and general properties are discussed. inhomogeneous Special solutions with additional symmetries - an extra Killing- or homothetic vector - and their matching to the corresponding Tolman-Bondi solution are investigated.

Gernot Haager

1997-05-02T23:59:59.000Z

178

Dust en-route to Jupiter and the Galilean satellites  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Spacecraft investigations during the last ten years have vastly improved our knowledge about dust in the Jovian system. All Galilean satellites, and probably all smaller satellites as well, are sources of dust in the Jovian system. In-situ measurements with the dust detectors on board the Ulysses and Galileo spacecraft have for the first time demonstrated the electromagnetic interaction of charged dust grains with the interplanetary magnetic field and with a planetary magnetosphere. Jupiter's magnetosphere acts as a giant mass-velocity spectrometer for charged 10-nanometer dust grains. These dust grains are released from Jupiter's moon Io with typical rate of 1 kg s^1. The dust streams probe the plasma conditions in the Io plasma torus and can be used as a potential monitor of Io's volcanic plume activity. The other Galilean satellites are surrounded by tenuous impact-generated clouds of mostly sub-micrometer ejecta grains. Galileo measurements have demonstrated that impact-ejecta derived from hypervelocity impacts onto satellites are the major -- if not the only -- constituent of dusty planetary rings. We review the in-situ dust measurements at Jupiter and give an update of most recent results.

Harald Krueger; Eberhard Gruen

2002-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

179

Constraining oceanic dust deposition using surface ocean dissolved Al  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Constraining oceanic dust deposition using surface ocean dissolved Al Qin Han,1 J. Keith Moore,1; accepted 7 December 2007; published 12 April 2008. [1] We use measurements of ocean surface dissolved Al (DEAD) model to constrain dust deposition to the oceans. Our Al database contains all available

Moore, Keith

180

The Influence of Dust on the Absorptivity of Radiant Barriers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The purpose of this project was to model and quantify the increase of the absorptivity of radiant barriers caused by the accumulation of dust on the surface of radiant barriers. This research was the continuation of a previous work by the author at Texas A&M University in which a radiation energy balance inside the attic enclosure was developed. The particles were considered as flat, circular planes, all having the same radii. That early model showed that there was a linear relationship between the fraction of area of the foil covered by dust and the mean absorptivity of the dusty radiant barrier. In the present work, it was found that the assumption of treating the dust particles as plane circles, underestimated the effective area of the particles by about 20%. Experimental measurements indicated that dust particles achieved the same temperature as the radiant barrier. The new model used the linear relationship just described, and simulated the dust particles as flat circular planes having random radii and laying in random locations within the radiant barrier surface. The new model calculated the fraction of radiant barrier area covered by particles using a digital array in which the clean barrier was represented as zeroes and the dust particles were represented as a set of ones appropriately dimensioned inside the array. The experimentation used natural dust and Arizona Road Test Dust. Using an infrared emissometer, the emissivities (absorptivities) of the clean and dusty barriers were measured and using an electronic scale, the dust loading was measured. An electron microscope was used to experimentally find the fraction of radiant barrier covered by the dust particles to correlate the experimentally found absorptivity with the experimentally found fraction of dust coverage. The limited experimental data available were also used to correlate the absorptivity of the dusty radiant barrier with the time of dust accumulation and the location of the barrier inside the attic. A linear relationship between the absorptivity and the time of dust accumulation was found that can be applied to predict future barrier effectiveness based upon the rate of dust accumulation for a given location.

Noboa, Homero L.

1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dust smoke fly" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

INTERSTELLAR DUST MODULE FOR THE ESA METEOROID MODEL  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The ESA meteoroid model predicts impacts of meteoroids in the mass range between 10 ?18 to 10 0 g on spacecraft surfaces. It covers heliocentric distances from 0.3 to 20 AU. Measurements of the dust detector on board the highly successful joint ESA/NASA mission Ulysses have shown, that the flux of meteoroids with masses between 10 ?15 and 10 ?12 g is, at least in the outer Solar System, dominated by interstellar dust grains that traverse the Solar System as it travels through the local interstellar cloud. We present a simple semi-analytic interstellar dust model that can easily be included in the ESA meteoroid model, together with a more precise determination of the flux direction of the interstellar dust stream. The model is based on the assumption that interstellar dust dynamics have two effects: solar gravitation and radiation pressure determines the spatial distribution, and Lorentz-interaction of the charged particles creates a temporal variation. 1.

R. Jehn; N. Altobelli; V. Dikarev; E. Grün

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

The ecology of dust: local- to global-scale perspectives  

SciTech Connect

Emission and redistribution of dust due to wind erosion in drylands drives major biogeochemical dynamics and provides important aeolian environmental connectivity at scales from individual plants up to the global scale. Yet, perhaps because most relevant research on aeolian processes has been presented in a geosciences rather than ecological context, most ecological studies do not explicitly consider dust-driven processes. To bridge this disciplinary gap, we provide a general overview of the ecological importance of dust, examine complex interactions between wind erosion and ecosystem dynamics from the plant-interspace scale to regional and global scales, and highlight specific examples of how disturbance affects these interactions and their consequences. Changes in climate and intensification of land use will both likely lead to increased dust production. To address these challenges, environmental scientists, land managers and policy makers need to more explicitly consider dust in resource management decisions.

Whicker, Jeffrey J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Field, Jason P [UA; Belnap, Jayne [NON LANL; Breshears, David D [UA; Neff, Jason [CU; Okin, Gregory S [UCLA; Painter, Thomas H [UNIV OF ARIZONA; Ravi, Sujith [UNIV OF ARIZONA; Reheis, Marith C [UCLA; Reynolds, Richard L [NON LANL

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

183

Ionization-chamber smoke detector system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention relates to an improved smoke-detection system of the ionization-chamber type. In the preferred embodiment, the system utilizes a conventional detector head comprising a measuring ionization chamber, a reference ionization chamber, and a normally non-conductive gas triode for discharging when a threshold concentration of airborne particulates is present in the measuring chamber. The improved system is designed to reduce false alarms caused by fluctuations in ambient temperature. Means are provided for periodically firing the gas discharge triode and each time recording the triggering voltage required. A computer compares each triggering voltage with its predecessor. The computer is programmed to energize an alarm if the difference between the two compared voltages is a relatively large value indicative of particulates in the measuring chamber and to disregard smaller differences typically resulting from changes in ambient temperature.

Roe, Robert F. (Jackson, OH)

1976-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

184

Leaching of mixtures of biochar and fly ash  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Increasing atmospheric levels of greenhouse gases, especially CO2, and their effects on global temperature have led to interest in the possibility of carbon storage in terrestrial environments. Both the residual char from biomass pyrolysis (biochar) and fly ash from coal combustion have the potential to significantly expand terrestrial sequestration options. Both biochar and fly ash also have potentially beneficial effects on soil properties. Fly ash has been shown to increase porosity, water-holding capacity, pH, conductivity, and dissolved SO42-, CO32-, Cl- and basic cations. Adding biochar to soil generally raises pH, increases total nitrogen and total phosphorous, encourages greater root development, improves cation exchange capacity and decreases available aluminum. A combination of these benefits likely is responsible for observed increases in yields for crops such as corn and sugarcane. In addition, it has been found that soils with added biochar emit lower amounts of other greenhouse gases (methane and nitrous oxide) than do unamended soils. Biochar and fly ash amendments may be useful in promoting terrestrial carbon sequestration on currently underutilized and degraded lands. For example, about 1% of the US surface lands consist of previously mined lands or highway rights-of-way. Poorly managed lands could count for another 15% of US area. Biochar and fly ash amendments could increase productivity of these lands and increase carbon storage in the soil. Previous results showed minimal leaching of organic carbon and metals from a variety of fly ashes. In the present study, we examined the properties of mixtures of biochar, fly ash, and soil and evaluated the leaching of organic carbon and metals from these mixtures. The carbon sorption experiments showed release of carbon from biochar, rather than sorption, except at the highest concentrations in the Biochar HW sample. Similar results were obtained by others for oxidative leaching of bituminous coal, in which more C was released as dissolved C than was oxidized to CO2 by the oxygen in water. We confirmed that both fly ash and two types of biochar (oak char [OKEB], and hardwood [HW] char) exhibited minimal leaching of heavy metals including Cr, Ni, Zn, Ga, and Ag, and no detectable leaching of Pb or Cd (data not shown) under the conditions tested. The Biochar HW had a slightly higher C/N ratio (334) and pH (7.7) than did the Biochar OKEB (284 and 6.5). There was no toxicity exhibited by the fly ash (not shown) or biochar leachates as measured by the Microtox© assay under the conditions tested. In previous results no toxicity was reported in testing the fly ash samples except for one high-pH sample. The most notable leachate component from both types of biochar, but not the fly ash, was organic carbon with the HW biochar leaching less organic carbon than the OKEB biochar (5.71 ppm vs. 59.3 ppm). Alone (in batch sorption experiments), or in mixtures of 90% soil and 10% biochar (column studies), we noted significant loss of carbon from the biochar into soluble components. However, when we added fly ash to the column experiments (80% soil, 10% fly ash, and 10% biochar) we observed significant decreases in the amounts of C leached (20% for HW, and 47% for OKEB). The results indicate that applying a combination of fly ash and biochar may result in maximizing the amount of carbon sequestration in soil while also increasing beneficial soil properties and fertility. The lower amount of carbon leached from the HW biochar compared to the OKEB biochar is likely due to the more recalcitrant form of the carbon in the HW char, due to its preparation at a higher temperature (600 ºC) than the OKEB biochar (450 ºC). High heat treatment temperatures during biochar preparation increase both the total carbon content of the biochar and the proportion of the carbon that is present in fused aromatic rings resistant to chemical and physical degradation.

Palumbo, Anthony V.; Porat, Iris; Phillips, Jana R.; Amonette, James E.; Drake, Meghan M.; Brown, Steven D.; Schadt, Christopher W.

2009-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

185

Method for increasing the rate of compressive strength gain in hardenable mixtures containing fly ash  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention relates to concrete, mortar and other hardenable mixtures comprising cement and fly ash for use in construction. The invention provides a method for increasing the rate of strength gain of a hardenable mixture containing fly ash by exposing the fly ash to an aqueous slurry of calcium oxide (lime) prior to its incorporation into the hardenable mixture. The invention further relates to such hardenable mixtures, e.g., concrete and mortar, that contain fly ash pre-reacted with calcium oxide. In particular, the fly ash is added to a slurry of calcium oxide in water, prior to incorporating the fly ash in a hardenable mixture. The hardenable mixture may be concrete or mortar. In a specific embodiment, mortar containing fly ash treated by exposure to an aqueous lime slurry are prepared and tested for compressive strength at early time points. 2 figs.

Liskowitz, J.W.; Wecharatana, M.; Jaturapitakkul, C.; Cerkanowicz, A.E.

1997-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

186

Method for increasing the rate of compressive strength gain in hardenable mixtures containing fly ash  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention relates to concrete, mortar and other hardenable mixtures comprising cement and fly ash for use in construction. The invention provides a method for increasing the rate of strength gain of a hardenable mixture containing fly ash by exposing the fly ash to an aqueous slurry of calcium oxide (lime) prior to its incorporation into the hardenable mixture. The invention further relates to such hardenable mixtures, e.g., concrete and mortar, that contain fly ash pre-reacted with calcium oxide. In particular, the fly ash is added to a slurry of calcium oxide in water, prior to incorporating the fly ash in a hardenable mixture. The hardenable mixture may be concrete or mortar. In a specific embodiment, mortar containing fly ash treated by exposure to an aqueous lime slurry are prepared and tested for compressive strength at early time points.

Liskowitz, John W. (Belle Mead, NJ); Wecharatana, Methi (Parsippany, NJ); Jaturapitakkul, Chai (Bangkok, TH); Cerkanowicz, deceased, Anthony E. (late of Livingston, NJ)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

The Physical and Chemical Properties of Fly Ash from Coal Gasification and Study on Its Recycling Utilization  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Aiming at the difficulties in utilization of fly ash from coal gasification, the physical and chemical properties of fly ash were investigated. This research studied recycling utilization on using fly ash as one of cement raw materials for cement clinker. ... Keywords: fly ash, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), recycling utilization

Guohua Qiu; Weiqiang Zeng; Zhenglun Shi; Mengxiang Fang; Zhongyang Luo

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

THE ORIGIN OF DUST IN THE EARLY UNIVERSE: PROBING THE STAR FORMATION HISTORY OF GALAXIES BY THEIR DUST CONTENT  

SciTech Connect

Two distinct scenarios for the origin of the {approx}4 x 10{sup 8} M{sub sun} of dust observed in the high-redshift (z = 6.4) quasar J1148+5251 have been proposed. The first assumes that this galaxy is much younger than the age of the universe at that epoch so that only supernovae (SNe) could have produced this dust. The second scenario assumes a significantly older galactic age, so that the dust could have formed in lower-mass asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars. Presenting new integral solutions for the chemical evolution of metals and dust in galaxies, we offer a critical evaluation of these two scenarios and observational consequences that can discriminate between the two. We show that AGB stars can produce the inferred mass of dust in this object, however, the final mass of surviving dust depends on the galaxy's star formation history (SFH). In general, SNe cannot produce the observed amount of dust unless the average SN event creates over {approx}2 M{sub sun} of dust in its ejecta. However, special SFHs can be constructed in which SNe can produce the inferred dust mass with a reasonable average dust yield of {approx}0.15 M{sub sun}. The two scenarios propose different origins for the galaxy's spectral energy distribution, different star formation efficiencies and stellar masses, and consequently different comoving number densities of J1148+5251-type hyperluminous infrared (IR) objects. The detection of diagnostic mid-IR fine structure lines and more complete surveys determining the comoving number density of these objects can discriminate between the two scenarios.

Dwek, Eli [Observational Cosmology Lab, Code 665, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Cherchneff, Isabelle, E-mail: eli.dwek@nasa.gov, E-mail: isabelle.cherchneff@unibas.ch [Department Physik, Universitaet Basel, CH-4056 Basel (Switzerland)

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

189

Energy conditions, traversable wormholes and dust shells  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Firstly, we review the pointwise and averaged energy conditions, the quantum inequality and the notion of the ``volume integral quantifier'', which provides a measure of the ``total amount'' of energy condition violating matter. Secondly, we present a specific metric of a spherically symmetric traversable wormhole in the presence of a generic cosmological constant, verifying that the null and the averaged null energy conditions are violated, as was to be expected. Thirdly, a pressureless dust shell is constructed around the interior wormhole spacetime by matching the latter geometry to a unique vacuum exterior solution. In order to further minimize the usage of exotic matter, we then find regions where the surface energy density is positive, thereby satisfying all of the energy conditions at the junction surface. An equation governing the behavior of the radial pressure across the junction surface is also deduced. Lastly, taking advantage of the construction, specific dimensions of the wormhole, namely, the t...

Lobo, F S N

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

190

Contribution of organic carbon to wood smoke particulate matter absorption  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Contribution of organic carbon to wood smoke particulate matter absorption Contribution of organic carbon to wood smoke particulate matter absorption of solar radiation Title Contribution of organic carbon to wood smoke particulate matter absorption of solar radiation Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2012 Authors Kirchstetter, Thomas W., and Tracy L. Thatcher Journal Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Volume 12 Pagination 6067-6072 Abstract A spectroscopic analysis of 115 wintertime partic- ulate matter samples collected in rural California shows that wood smoke absorbs solar radiation with a strong spectral se- lectivity. This is consistent with prior work that has demon- strated that organic carbon (OC), in addition to black car- bon (BC), appreciably absorbs solar radiation in the visible and ultraviolet spectral regions. We apportion light absorp-

191

Valley Of Ten Thousand Smokes Region Geothermal Area | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Valley Of Ten Thousand Smokes Region Geothermal Area Valley Of Ten Thousand Smokes Region Geothermal Area (Redirected from Valley Of Ten Thousand Smokes Region Area) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Geothermal Resource Area: Valley Of Ten Thousand Smokes Region Geothermal Area Contents 1 Area Overview 2 History and Infrastructure 3 Regulatory and Environmental Issues 4 Exploration History 5 Well Field Description 6 Geology of the Area 7 Geofluid Geochemistry 8 NEPA-Related Analyses (0) 9 Exploration Activities (8) 10 References Area Overview Geothermal Area Profile Location: Alaska Exploration Region: Alaska Geothermal Region GEA Development Phase: 2008 USGS Resource Estimate Mean Reservoir Temp: Estimated Reservoir Volume: Mean Capacity: Click "Edit With Form" above to add content

192

Evaluating the Effectiveness of Smoke-free Policies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

smoking policy in workplaces, restaurants, bars, and homes.Nicotine in hair of bar and restaurant workers. N Z Med J,ordinances increase restaurant profit and value. Contemp

IARC World Health Organization

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

Fractal Geometry of Isoconcentration Surfaces in a Smoke Plume  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The fractal properties of isoconcentration surfaces in a smoke plume are studied in an atmospheric boundary layer wind tunnel. Instantaneous high-resolution two-dimensional images of the fine particle concentration at Schmidt number Sc ? ? were ...

Alexander A. Praskovsky; Walter F. Dabberdt; Eleanor A. Praskovskaya; Walter G. Hoydysh; Oleh Holynskyj

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

194

Smoke sheets for graph-structured vortex filaments  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Smoke is one of the core phenomena which fluid simulation techniques in computer graphics have attempted to capture. It is both well understood mathematically and important in lending realism to computer generated effects. In an attempt to overcome the ...

Alfred Barnat; Nancy S. Pollard

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

Imaging Study Reveals Effect of Smoking on Peripheral Organs  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

and smoking toxicity, we usually think of the lungs, said Brookhaven chemist Joanna Fowler, one of authors of the study, which will be published online by the Proceedings of the...

196

Evaluating the Effectiveness of Smoke-free Policies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

smoking (IARC, 2004). This Handbook does not seek to updateBoard, 2005); this Handbook does not add to this literature.does exposure to SHS at doses similar to exposure to humans accelerate the IARC Handbooks

IARC World Health Organization

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

Characterizing Diesel Smoke and other Aerosols using Polarized...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Characterizing Diesel Smoke and other Aerosols using Polarized Light Scattering Speaker(s): Arlon Hunt Date: November 17, 1998 - 12:00pm Location: 90-3148 Considerable information...

198

Aerosols: Smoke and Mirrors of the Climate System  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Aerosols: Smoke and Mirrors of the Climate System Speaker(s): Dr. Harshvardhan Date: May 16, 2011 - 3:00pm Location: 90-3075 Seminar HostPoint of Contact: Surabi Menon Solid and...

199

A new method to generate dust with astrophysical properties  

SciTech Connect

In interstellar and interplanetary space, the size distribution and composition of dust grains play an important role. For example, dust grains determine optical and ultraviolet extinction levels in astronomical observations, dominate the cooling rate of our Galaxy, and sets the thermal balance and radiative cooling rates in molecular clouds, which are the birth place of stars. Dust grains are also a source of damage and failure to space hardware and thus present a hazard to space flight. To model the size distribution and composition of dust grains, and their effect in the above scenarios, it is vital to understand the mechanism of dust-shock interaction. We demonstrate a new experiment which employs a laser to subject dust grains to pressure spikes similar to those of colliding astrophysical dust, and which accelerates the grains to astrophysical velocities. The new method generates much larger data sets than earlier methods; we show how large quantities (thousands) of grains are accelerated at once, rather than accelerating individual grains, as is the case of earlier methods using electric fields.

Hansen, J F; van Breugel, W; Bringa, E M; Graham, G A; Remington, B A; Taylor, E A; Tielens, A G

2010-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

200

Utilization of Biomineralization Processes with Fly Ash for Carbon Sequestration  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Utilization of Biomineralization Processes with Fly Ash Utilization of Biomineralization Processes with Fly Ash for Carbon Sequestration Y. Roh (rohy@ornl.gov; 865-576-9931) T. J. Phelps (phelpstj1@ornl.gov; 865-574-7290) Environmental Sciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory*, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6036 A. D. McMillan (mcmillanad@ornl.gov; 865-241-4554) R. J. Lauf (laufrj@ornl.gov; 865-574-5176) Metal and Ceramics Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6085 *Oak Ridge National Laboratory, managed by UT-Battelle, LLC, for the U.S. Department of Energy under contract number DE-AC05-00OR22725 Introduction The Department of Energy (DOE) Energy Information Administration estimates atmospheric greenhouse gas releases may exceed 8 billion metric tons by the year 2010 heightening its international environmental concern. Carbon dioxide will dominate the

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dust smoke fly" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Scale-Up and Demonstration of Fly Ash Ozonation Technology  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The disposal of fly ash from the combustion of coal has become increasingly important. When the fly ash does not meet the required specification for the product or market intended, it is necessary to beneficiate it to achieve the desired quality. This project, conducted at PPL's Montour SES, is the first near full-scale ({approx}10 ton/day), demonstration of ash ozonation technology. Bituminous and sub bituminous ashes, including two ash samples that contained activated carbon, were treated during the project. Results from the tests were very promising. The ashes were successfully treated with ozone, yielding concrete-suitable ash quality. Preliminary process cost estimates indicate that capital and operating costs to treat unburned carbon are competitive with other commercial ash beneficiation technologies at a fraction of the cost of lost sales and/or ash disposal costs. This is the final technical report under DOE Cooperative Agreement No.: DE-FC26-03NT41730.

Rui Afonso; R. Hurt; I. Kulaots

2006-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

Influence of Dust on the Emissivity of Radiant Barriers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A model of the radiant heat transfer in attics containing dusty radiant barriers was developed. The geometrical model was a triangular enclosure in which the temperatures of the enclosing surfaces were known. The dust particles were simulated as areas of diameter equal to the mean diameter of the real dust to be analyzed and an emissivity substantially larger than the emissivity of the radiant barrier. Several shape factors were calculated using shape factor algebra, including a procedure to find the shape factor between a small rectangle and a triangular surface perpendicular to the rectangular plane. The thermal model was developed using the "Net Radiation Method" in which the net heat exchange between the surfaces surrounding the enclosure was found by solving a system of equations that has as many equations as the number of surfaces involved in the calculations. This led to the necessity of solving a very large system of equations in order to account for the dust particles in a representative amount. The solution of the system of equations provided the heat flux for each element of the enclosure. Finally, replacing the radiant barrier and the dust particles for an equivalent surface corresponding to the dusty radiant barrier provided the means to calculate the emissivity of this dusty radiant barrier. The theoretical model was tested to assess its validity. The experimentation was carried out using a reflection emissometer to measure the increase of the emissivity of aluminum radiant barrier when known quantities of dust were artificially applied to it. The experimental results showed good agreement with the theoretical model. A linear relationship between the emissivity and the area of dust coverage was found. The simple relation developed can be used in future research which still has to deal with the determination of the area of dust coverage by using the geometrical model of dust superposition or other statistical model to simulate the random location of random size dust particles over the radiant barrier.

Noboa, Homero L.

1991-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

Triboelectric Fly Ash Beneficiation: Summary Report, Phase IV  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Center for Applied Energy Research (CAER) at the University of Kentucky has devised new approaches for extracting marketable fly ash from high carbon combustion ashes. Dry beneficiation technology based on pneumatic transport, triboelectric principles has emerged with the potential for high efficiency removal of carbon at low cost and with no secondary waste products. (EPRI Interim Report TR-109016, November, 1997; EPRI Interim Report TR-111647, November 1998; EPRI Report TE-113673, September 1999; E...

2000-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

204

Environmental tobacco smoke and canine urinary cotinine level  

SciTech Connect

Epidemiologic studies of companion animals such as dogs have been established as models for the relationship between exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and cancer risk in humans. While results from these studies are provocative, pet owner report of a dog's ETS exposure has not yet been validated. We have evaluated the relationship between dog owner's report of household smoking by questionnaire and dog's urinary cotinine level. Between January and October 2005, dog owners presenting their pet for non-emergency veterinary care at the Foster Hospital for Small Animals at Cummings School of Veterinary Medicine, Tufts University, were asked to complete a 10-page questionnaire measuring exposure to household ETS in the previous 24 h and other factors. A free-catch urine sample was also collected from dogs. Urinary cotinine level was assayed for 63 dogs, including 30 whose owners reported household smoking and 33 unexposed dogs matched on age and month of enrollment. Urinary cotinine level was significantly higher in dogs exposed to household smoking in the 24 h before urine collection compared to unexposed dogs (14.6 ng/ml vs. 7.4 ng/ml; P=0.02). After adjustment for other factors, cotinine level increased linearly with number of cigarettes smoked by all household members (P=0.004). Other canine characteristics including age, body composition and nose length were also associated with cotinine level. Findings from our study suggest that household smoking levels as assessed by questionnaire are significantly associated with canine cotinine levels.

Bertone-Johnson, Elizabeth R. [Department of Public Health, School of Public Health and Health Sciences, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States); Department of Clinical Sciences, Cummings School of Veterinary Medicine, Tufts University, North Grafton, MA (United States)], E-mail: ebertone@schoolph.umass.edu; Procter-Gray, Elizabeth; Gollenberg, Audra L. [Department of Public Health, School of Public Health and Health Sciences, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States); Ryan, Michele B. [Department of Public Health, School of Public Health and Health Sciences, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States); Division of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Endoscopy, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Barber, Lisa G. [Department of Clinical Sciences, Cummings School of Veterinary Medicine, Tufts University, North Grafton, MA (United States)

2008-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

205

Reducing dust emissions at OAO Alchevskkoks coke battery 10A  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Coke battery 10A with rammed batch is under construction at OAO Alchevskkoks. The design documentation developed by Giprokoks includes measures for reducing dust emissions to the atmosphere. Aspiration systems with dry dust trapping are employed in the new components of coke battery 10A and in the existing coke-sorting equipment. Two-stage purification of dusty air in cyclones and bag filters is employed for the coke-sorting equipment. This system considerably reduces coke-dust emissions to the atmosphere.

T.F. Trembach; E.N. Lanina [Giprokoks, the State Institute for the Design of Coke-Industry Enterprises, Kharkov (Ukraine)

2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

206

Fly Ranch Hot Springs Geothermal Area | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Fly Ranch Hot Springs Geothermal Area Fly Ranch Hot Springs Geothermal Area Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Geothermal Resource Area: Fly Ranch Hot Springs Geothermal Area Contents 1 Area Overview 2 History and Infrastructure 3 Regulatory and Environmental Issues 4 Exploration History 5 Well Field Description 6 Geology of the Area 7 Geofluid Geochemistry 8 NEPA-Related Analyses (0) 9 Exploration Activities (0) 10 References Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"TERRAIN","zoom":6,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"500px","height":"300px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":40.86666667,"lon":-119.3483333,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

207

Fly Ash and Mercury Oxidation/Chlorination Reactions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Mercury is a known pollutant that has detrimental effect on human health and environment. The anthropogenic emissions of mercury account for 10 to 30% of worldwide mercury emissions. There is a need to control/reduce anthropogenic mercury emissions. Many mercury control technologies are available but their effectiveness is dependent on the chemical form of mercury, because different chemical forms of mercury have different physical and chemical properties. Mercury leaves the boiler in its elemental form but goes through various transformations in the post-combustion zone. There is a need to understand how fly ash and flue gas composition affect speciation, partitioning, and reactions of mercury under the full range of post-combustion zone conditions. This knowledge can then be used to predict the chemical transformation of mercury (elemental, oxidized or particulate) in the post combustion zone and thus help with the control of mercury emissions from coal-burning power plants. To accomplish this goal present study was conducted using five coal fly ashes. These ashes were characterized and their catalytic activity was compared under selected reaction conditions in a fixed bed reactor. Based on the results from these fly ash experiments, three key components (carbon, iron oxide and calcium oxide) were chosen. These three components were then used to prepare model fly ashes. Silica/alumina was used as a base for these model fly ashes. One, two or three component model fly ashes were then prepared to investigate mercury transformation reactions. The third set of experiments was performed with CuO and CuCl2 catalysts to further understand the mercury oxidation process. Based on the results of these three studies the key components were predicted for different fly ash compositions under variety of flue gas conditions. A fixed bed reactor system was used to conduct this study. In all the experiments, the inlet concentration of Hg0(g) was maintained at 35 {micro}g/m3 using a diffusion tube as the source of Hg0(g). All experiments were conducted using 4% O2 in nitrogen mix as a reaction gas, and other reactants (HCl, H2O and SO2, NO2, Br2) were added as required. The fixed bed reactor was operated over a temperature range of 200 to 400 C. In each experiment, the reactor effluent was analyzed using the modified Ontario-Hydro method. After each experiment, fly ash particles were also analyzed for mercury. The results show that the ability of fly ash to adsorb and/or oxidize mercury is primarily dependent on its carbon, iron and calcium content. There can be either one or more than one key component at a particular temperature and flue gas condition. Surface area played a secondary role in effecting the mercury transformations when compared to the concentration of the key component in the fly ash. Amount of carbon and surface area played a key important role in the adsorption of mercury. Increased concentration of gases in the flue gas other than oxygen and nitrogen caused decreased the amount of mercury adsorbed on carbon surface. Mercury adsorption by iron oxide primarily depended on the crystalline structure of iron oxide. {alpha}-Iron oxide had no effect on mercury adsorption or oxidation under most of the flue gas conditions, but ?-iron oxide adsorbed mercury under most of the flue gas conditions. Bromine is a very good oxidizing agent for mercury. But in the presence of calcium oxide containing fly ashes, all the oxidized mercury would be reduced to elemental form. Among the catalysts, it was observed that presence of free lattice chlorine in the catalyst was very important for the oxidation of mercury. But instead of using the catalyst alone, using it along with carbon may better serve the purpose by providing the adsorption surface for mercury and also some extra surface area for the reaction to occur (especially for fly ashes with low surface area).

Sukh Sidhu; Patanjali Varanasi

2008-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

208

DIFFERENTIAL SENSITIVITY OF MALE GERM CELLS TO MAINSTREAM AND SIDESTREAM TOBACCO SMOKE IN THE MOUSE  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Cigarette smoking in men has been associated with increased chromosomal abnormalities in sperm and with increased risks for spontaneous abortions, birth defects and neonatal death. Little is known, however, about the reproductive consequences of paternal exposure to second-hand smoke. We used a mouse model to investigate the effects of paternal exposure to sidestream (SS) smoke, the main constituent of second-hand smoke, on the genetic integrity and function of sperm, and to determine whether male germ cells were equally sensitive to mainstream (MS) and SS smoke. A series of sperm DNA quality and reproductive endpoints were investigated after exposing male mice for two weeks to MS or SS smoke. Our results indicated that: (i) only SS smoke significantly affected sperm motility; (ii) only MS smoke induced DNA strand breaks in sperm; (iii) both MS and SS smoke increased sperm chromatin structure abnormalities; and (iv) MS smoke affected both fertilization and the rate of early embryonic development, while SS smoke affected fertilization only. These results show that MS and SS smoke have differential effects on the genetic integrity and function of sperm and provide further evidence that male exposure to second-hand smoke, as well as direct cigarette smoke, may diminish a couple's chance for a successful pregnancy and the birth of a healthy baby.

Polyzos, Aris; Schmid, Thomas Ernst; Pina-Guzman, Belem; Quintanilla-Vega, Betzabet; Marchetti, Francesco

2009-03-13T23:59:59.000Z

209

Air Pollution Control Regulations: No. 5 - Fugitive Dust (Rhode Island) |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

5 - Fugitive Dust (Rhode 5 - Fugitive Dust (Rhode Island) Air Pollution Control Regulations: No. 5 - Fugitive Dust (Rhode Island) < Back Eligibility Agricultural Commercial Construction Fed. Government Fuel Distributor General Public/Consumer Industrial Installer/Contractor Institutional Investor-Owned Utility Local Government Low-Income Residential Multi-Family Residential Municipal/Public Utility Nonprofit Residential Retail Supplier Rural Electric Cooperative Schools State/Provincial Govt Systems Integrator Transportation Tribal Government Utility Savings Category Alternative Fuel Vehicles Hydrogen & Fuel Cells Buying & Making Electricity Water Home Weatherization Wind Program Info State Rhode Island Program Type Environmental Regulations Provider Department of Environmental Management These regulations aim to prevent the release of fugitive dust by forbidding

210

Thermal Impact of Saharan Dust over Land. Part I: Simnulation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Simulations are carded out to verify a mesoscale model in order to perform sensitivity tests of satellite response to atmospheric dust content. The model chosen is the mesoscale model of Colorado State University with a modified radiation ...

Guy Cautenet; Michel Legrand; Sylvie Cautenet; Bernard Bonnel; Gérard Brogniez

1992-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

A Case Study of Mobilization and Transport of Saharan Dust  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Numerical models of the atmosphere and aerosols are used to investigate mobilization and transport of Saharan dust over West Africa and the tropical Atlantic Ocean for 23–28 August 1974. We have found that mobilization during this period was ...

Douglas L. Westphal; Owen B. Toon; Toby N. Carlson

1988-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

Aerobiology and the global transport of desert dust  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

misconception that all microorganisms in dust clouds are killed by solar UV-radiation, lack of nutrients and desiccation during their multi-day journey. In fact, some genera of bacteria (e.g. Bacillus) and most fungi

Ahmad, Sajjad

213

Metal Dusting [Corrosion and Mechanics of Materials] - Nuclear...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Site Map Help Join us on Facebook Follow us on Twitter NE on Flickr Corrosion and Mechanics of Materials Metal Dusting Bookmark and Share R&D 100 AWARD The "Materials resistant...

214

Saharan Dust Aerosol Radiative Forcing Measured from Space  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study uses data collected from the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instruments to determine Saharan dust broadband shortwave aerosol radiative forcing over ...

F. Li; A. M. Vogelmann; V. Ramanathan

2004-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

215

Morphological investigations of fibrogenic action of Estonian oil shale dust  

SciTech Connect

A review of morphological investigations carried out to clarify the pathogenicity of industrial dust produced in the mining and processing of Estonian oil shale is given. Histological examination of lungs of workers in the oil shale industry taken at necropsies showed that the inhalation of oil shale dust over a long period (more than 20 years) may cause the development of occupational pneumoconiotic changes in oil shale miners. The pneumoconiotic process develops slowly and is characterized by changes typical of the interstitial form of pneumoconiotic fibrosis in the lungs. Emphysematous changes and chronic bronchitis also occur. The average chemical content of oil shale as well as of samples of oil shale dust generated during mining and sorting procedures is given. The results of experiments in white rats are presented; these studies also indicate a mild fibrogenic action of Estonian oil shale dust.

Kung, V.A.

1979-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

216

Dust Accumulation Biases in PIRATA Shortwave Radiation Records  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Long-term and direct measurements of surface shortwave radiation (SWR) have been recorded by the Prediction and Research Moored Array in the Tropical Atlantic (PIRATA) since 1997. Previous studies have shown that African dust, transported westward ...

Gregory R. Foltz; Amato T. Evan; H. Paul Freitag; Sonya Brown; Michael J. McPhaden

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

217

Next Century Challenges: Mobile Networking for "Smart Dust"  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Next Century Challenges: Mobile Networking for "Smart Dust" J. M. Kahn, R. H. Katz (ACM Fellow), K be small enough to remain suspended in air, buoyed by air currents, sensing and communicating for hours

Kahn, Joseph M.

218

Magnetorotational instability in plasmas with mobile dust grains  

SciTech Connect

The magnetorotational instability of dusty plasmas is investigated using the multi-fluid model and the general dispersion relation is derived based on local approximation. The dust grains are found to play an important role in the dispersion relation in the low-frequency mode and exhibit destabilizing effects on the plasma. Both the instability criterion and growth rate are affected significantly by the dust and when the dust is heavy enough to be unperturbed, the reduced dispersion relations are obtained. The instability criteria show that the dust grains have stabilizing effects on the instability when the rotation frequency decreases outwards and conversely lead to destabilizing effects when the rotation frequency increases outwards. The results are relevant to accession and protoplanetary disks.

Ren Haijun [CAS Key Laboratory of Basic Plasma Physics, Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Cao Jintao [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics and CAS Key Laboratory of Soft Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Li Ding [CAS Key Laboratory of Basic Plasma Physics, Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics and CAS Key Laboratory of Soft Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Chu, Paul K. [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon (Hong Kong)

2013-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

219

An experimental study of deflagration to detonation transition supported by dust layers  

SciTech Connect

The roles which dust layers play in severe dust explosions were investigated in a 70-m-long and 30-cm-diameter horizontal Flame Acceleration Tube (FAT) with one end closed and the other end open to the atmosphere. A variety of dusts such as corn dust, cornstarch, Mira Gel starch, wheat dust, and wood flour were layered on the bottom half of the FAT. Flame and detonation propagation parameters were closely monitored at different locations along the FAT. The study demonstrated that the moisture content of the dust, the exposed area of the dust layers to the convective flow, and the physical characteristics of the dust are the factors that most determine the severity of layered dust explosions, indicating that prelayered dust combustion is dominated by the dust/air mixing process. While the dust explosion rate constant K{sub st} can be used to characterize dust explosibility in predispersed dust in constant volume enclosures, it does not appear to characterize the behavior of layered dust explosions. Qualitative measurements of the variation of dust concentration during a layered dust explosion were obtained. The measurements indicated that the dust concentration at the time of flame arrival is highly nonuniform. The maximum pressure rise (P{sub max} {minus} P{sub 0}) within the FAT during a layered dust explosion was found to vary linearly with the flame velocity V{sub f} when V{sub f} is subsonic. As V{sub f} reaches supersonic values the maximum pressure increase was found to vary with the V{sub f}{sup 2}, the square of the flame velocity. This result was found to be independent of dust type and concentration.

Li, Y.C.; Kauffman, C.W.; Sichel, M. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Dept. of Aerospace Engineering] [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Dept. of Aerospace Engineering

1995-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

A SPITZER SURVEY FOR DUST IN TYPE IIn SUPERNOVAE  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Recent observations suggest that Type IIn supernovae (SNe IIn) may exhibit late-time (>100 days) infrared (IR) emission from warm dust more than other types of core-collapse SNe. Mid-IR observations, which span the peak of the thermal spectral energy distribution, provide useful constraints on the properties of the dust and, ultimately, the circumstellar environment, explosion mechanism, and progenitor system. Due to the low SN IIn rate (<10% of all core-collapse SNe), few IR observations exist for this subclass. The handful of isolated studies, however, show late-time IR emission from warm dust that, in some cases, extends for five or six years post-discovery. While previous Spitzer/IRAC surveys have searched for dust in SNe, none have targeted the Type IIn subclass. This paper presents results from a warm Spitzer/IRAC survey of the positions of all 68 known SNe IIn within a distance of 250 Mpc between 1999 and 2008 that have remained unobserved by Spitzer more than 100 days post-discovery. The detection of late-time emission from 10 targets ({approx}15%) nearly doubles the database of existing mid-IR observations of SNe IIn. Although optical spectra show evidence for new dust formation in some cases, the data show that in most cases the likely origin of the mid-IR emission is pre-existing dust, which is continuously heated by optical emission generated by ongoing circumstellar interaction between the forward shock and circumstellar medium. Furthermore, an emerging trend suggests that these SNe decline at {approx}1000-2000 days post-discovery once the forward shock overruns the dust shell. The mass-loss rates associated with these dust shells are consistent with luminous blue variable progenitors.

Fox, Ori D. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Chevalier, Roger A.; Skrutskie, Michael F. [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Soderberg, Alicia M. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Filippenko, Alexei V.; Ganeshalingam, Mohan; Silverman, Jeffrey M.; Smith, Nathan; Steele, Thea N., E-mail: ori.d.fox@nasa.gov [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411 (United States)

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

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221

Photochemical Oxidant Processes in the Presence of Dust: An Evaluation of the Impact of Dust on Particulate Nitrate and Ozone Formation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The influence of dust on the tropospheric photochemical oxidant cycle is studied through the use of a detailed coupled aerosol and gas-phase chemistry model. Dust is a significant component of the troposphere throughout Asia and provides a ...

Yang Zhang; Young Sunwoo; Veerabhadra Kotamarthi; Gregory R. Carmichael

1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

Dust explosion hazards due to blasting of oil shale  

SciTech Connect

The conditions favoring secondary explosions of dust or gas accompanying the blasting of oil shale are the subject of continuing investigation by the Bureau of Mines. In the present study, oil shale dust was dispersed in a gallery and ignited by various blasting agents blown out of a cannon according to a standard testing procedure. Parallel tests were conducted in the Bureau's Experimental Mine to test propagation as well as ignition of oil shale dust. In both gallery and mine, the minimum explosion limits were determined as a function of dust loading, weight and type of blasting agent, and amount of added methane. The results of these experiments are compared with previous measurements using methane-air explosions as an initiation source. In view of recent mine dust sampling data, the main explosion hazard in nongassy oil shale mines is likely to be limited to the region of the face. But in gassy mines, dust-gas explosions could be expected to propagate considerable distances.

Richmond, J.K.; Beitel, F.P.

1984-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

Development of materials resistant to metal dusting degradation.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Metal dusting corrosion has been a serious problem in the petroleum and petrochemical industries, such as reforming and syngas production systems. This form of deterioration has led to worldwide material loss for 50 years. For the past three years, we have studied the mechanism of metal dusting for Fe- and Ni-base alloys. In this report, we present a correlation between the weight loss and depth of pits that form in Ni-base alloys. Nickel-base alloys were also tested at 1 and 14.8 atm (210 psi), in a high carbon activity environment. Higher system pressure was found to accelerate corrosion in most Ni-base alloys. To reduce testing time, a pre-pitting method was developed. Mechanical scratches on the alloy surface led to fast metal dusting corrosion. We have also developed preliminary data on the performance of weldments of several Ni-base alloys in a metal dusting environment. Finally, Alloy 800 tubes and plates used in a reformer plant were examined by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray, and Raman spectroscopy. The oxide scale on the surface of the Alloy 800 primarily consists of Fe{sub 1+x}Cr{sub 2-X}O{sub 4} spinel phase with high Fe content. Carbon can diffuse through this oxide scale. It was discovered that the growth of metal dusting pits could be stopped by means of a slightly oxidized alloy surface. This leads to a new way to solve metal dusting problem.

Natesan, K.; Zeng, Z.

2006-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

224

Secular Instability and Planetesimal Formation in the Dust Layer  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Late in the gaseous phase of a protostellar disk, centimeter-sized bodies probably settle into a thin ``dust layer'' at the midplane. A velocity difference between the dust layer and the gas gives rise to turbulence, which prevents further settling and direct gravitational instability of the layer. The associated drag on the surface of the layer causes orbital decay in a few thousand years---as opposed to a few hundred years for an isolated meter-sized body. Within this widely-accepted theoretical framework, we show that the turbulent drag causes radial instabilities even if the selfgravity of the layer is negligible. We formulate axisymmetric, height-integrated dynamical equations for the layer that incorporate turbulent diffusion of mass and momentum in radius and height, vertical settling, selfgravity, and resistance to compression due to gas entrained within the dust layer. In steady-state, the equations describe the inward radial drift of a uniform dust layer. In perturbation, overdense rings form on an orbital timescale with widths comparable to the dust-layer thickness. Selfgravity is almost irrelevant to the linear growth rate but will eventually fragment and collapse the rings into planetesimals larger than a kilometer. We estimate that the drag instability is most efficient at 1 AU when most of the ``dust'' mass lies in the size range 0.1-10 meters.

J. Goodman; B. Pindor

1999-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

225

Bipolar charging of dust particles under ultraviolet radiation  

SciTech Connect

The photoemission charging of dust particles under ultraviolet radiation from a xenon lamp has been investigated. The velocities of yttrium dust particles with a work function of 3.3 eV and their charges have been determined experimentally; the latter are about 400-500 and about 100 elementary charges per micron of radius for the positively and negatively charged fractions, respectively. The dust particle charging and the dust cloud evolution in a photoemission cell after exposure to an ultraviolet radiation source under the applied voltage have been simulated numerically. The photoemission charging of dust particles has been calculated on the basis of nonlocal and local charging models. Only unipolar particle charging is shown to take place in a system of polydisperse dust particles with the same photoemission efficiency. It has been established that bipolar charging is possible in the case of monodisperse particles with different quantum efficiencies. Polydispersity in this case facilitates the appearance of oppositely charged particles in a photoemission plasma.

Filippov, A. V., E-mail: fav@triniti.ru; Babichev, V. N. [Troitsk Institute for Innovation and Fusion Research, State Research Center of the Russian Federation (Russian Federation); Fortov, V. E.; Gavrikov, A. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Joint Institute for High Temperatures (Russian Federation); Pal', A. F. [Troitsk Institute for Innovation and Fusion Research, State Research Center of the Russian Federation (Russian Federation); Petrov, O. F. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Joint Institute for High Temperatures (Russian Federation); Starostin, A. N.; Sarkarov, N. E. [Troitsk Institute for Innovation and Fusion Research, State Research Center of the Russian Federation (Russian Federation)

2011-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

226

HTGR Dust Safety Issues and Needs for Research and Development  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report presents a summary of high temperature gas-cooled reactor dust safety issues. It draws upon a literature review and the proceedings of the Very High Temperature Reactor Dust Assessment Meeting held in Rockville, MD in March 2011 to identify and prioritize the phenomena and issues that characterize the effect of carbonaceous dust on high temperature reactor safety. It reflects the work and input of approximately 40 participants from the U.S. Department of Energy and its National Labs, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, industry, academia, and international nuclear research organizations on the topics of dust generation and characterization, transport, fission product interactions, and chemical reactions. The meeting was organized by the Idaho National Laboratory under the auspices of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant Project, with support from the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Information gleaned from the report and related meetings will be used to enhance the fuel, graphite, and methods technical program plans that guide research and development under the Next Generation Nuclear Plant Project. Based on meeting discussions and presentations, major research and development needs include: generating adsorption isotherms for fission products that display an affinity for dust, investigating the formation and properties of carbonaceous crust on the inside of high temperature reactor coolant pipes, and confirming the predominant source of dust as abrasion between fuel spheres and the fuel handling system.

Paul W. Humrickhouse

2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

227

Mercury Emissions from Curing Concretes that Contain Fly Ash and Activated Carbon Sorbents  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report presents new laboratory data on the release of mercury from concrete containing fly ash and powdered activated carbon sorbents used to capture mercury. The concretes studied in this project were made with fly ashes from lignite and subbituminous coal, including fly ashes containing powdered activated carbon (PAC). Minute quantities of mercury were emitted from five concretes during the standard 28-day curing process and throughout an additional 28 days of curing for two of these concretes. Ge...

2006-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

228

Fly Ash Carbon Burn-Out at TVA's Colbert and Shawnee Stations: Site Specific Application Study  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Fly ash beneficiation using Carbon Burn-Out (CBO) technology offers the opportunity to market fly ash that was previously landfilled. This site application study of beneficiating pulverized coal boiler fly ash at Tennessee Valley Authority's Colbert and Shawnee Stations indicates this process is a cost effective solution for decreasing solid waste disposal, increasing landfill life, improving boiler heat rate, and generating a positive revenue stream.

1996-07-02T23:59:59.000Z

229

Use of High Carbon Fly Ash as a Component of Raw Mix for Cement Manufacture  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In the production of concrete, fly ash often serves as a supplementary cementing material, but some fly ashes may not be suitable for this use due to excess unburned carbon. This report presents the results of a literature investigation, bench-scale laboratory study, and pilot-scale tests of the feasibility of using such high carbon fly ashes in the manufacture of portland cement.

1998-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

230

Energy conditions, traversable wormholes and dust shells  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Firstly, we review the pointwise and averaged energy conditions, the quantum inequality and the notion of the ``volume integral quantifier'', which provides a measure of the ``total amount'' of energy condition violating matter. Secondly, we present a specific metric of a spherically symmetric traversable wormhole in the presence of a generic cosmological constant, verifying that the null and the averaged null energy conditions are violated, as was to be expected. Thirdly, a pressureless dust shell is constructed around the interior wormhole spacetime by matching the latter geometry to a unique vacuum exterior solution. In order to further minimize the usage of exotic matter, we then find regions where the surface energy density is positive, thereby satisfying all of the energy conditions at the junction surface. An equation governing the behavior of the radial pressure across the junction surface is also deduced. Lastly, taking advantage of the construction, specific dimensions of the wormhole, namely, the throat radius and the junction interface radius, and estimates of the total traversal time and maximum velocity of an observer journeying through the wormhole, are also found by imposing the traversability conditions.

Francisco S. N. Lobo

2004-10-18T23:59:59.000Z

231

Thermal Barrier Coatings Resistant to Attack by Molten Fly Ash in ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Thermal Barrier Coatings Resistant to Attack by Molten Fly Ash in Integrated Gas Combined Cycle Turbine Engines. Author(s), Andrew D.

232

Evaluation of Leachate Chemistry from Coal Refuse Blended and Layered with Fly Ash.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Alkaline fly ash has been studied as a liming agent within coal refuse fills to reclaim acid-forming refuse. Previous studies focused on bulk blending ash… (more)

Hunt, Joseph Edward

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

Optimum Condition of Vanadium Recovery from Power Plant Fly-ash ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Abstract Scope, In this study, recovery of vanadium from power plant fly-ash was developed using a hydro metallurgical process consisted of acidic leaching ...

234

A Limnological Approach to the Management of Fly Ash Disposal Ponds  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Fly ash disposal ponds are found at half of the U.S. coal burning power plants and receive a mixture of fly ash and water used to sluice the ash from the power plant to the pond. Leaching of metals, notably Cu, As, and Se, from fly ash can be decreased by control of inflow pH, but their release through the discharge to surface waters remains a problem, particularly for Se. Comanagement of low volume wastes of varying chemical composition and volume with fly ash make the management of water quality at the...

2004-12-27T23:59:59.000Z

235

The effect of smoke from plastics on digital communications equipment  

SciTech Connect

Smoke from plastics can cause immediate problems in electrical equipment in the form of shorting and increased leakage currents, as well as long-term corrosion (metal loss). The short-term problems can be especially serious for critical control instrumentation such as that found in nuclear reactors or telecommunications systems. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Sandia National Laboratories are sponsoring a program to determine the modes and probabilities of digital equipment failure during exposure to smoke and up to 24 hours after the exposure. Early tests on computer systems have shown that the most common immediate problems are temporary and are likely to be caused by increased leakage currents. High-voltage circuits are especially vulnerable since the charged particles in smoke are drawn to those surfaces. To study failure probabilities, smoke exposure tests with real-time measurements will be carried out to determine how the electrical properties of the environment are affected by smoke concentration and content. Digital communication cable will be included in the tests because temporary shorts that cannot be detected through dc measurements may cause interruptions in communications between computers. The reaction of the equipment to changed electrical properties of the environment will be modeled. Equipment that can be used for testing and modeling is being solicited.

Tanaka, T.J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Accident and Consequence Analysis Dept.; Chapin, J.T. [Lucent Technologies, Norcross, GA (United States). Bell Labs.

1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

236

Development of materials resistant to metal dusting degradation.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The deposition of carbon from carbonaceous gaseous environments is prevalent in many chemical and petrochemical processes such as, hydrogen-, ammonia-, and methanol-reforming systems, syngas production systems, and iron-ore reduction plants. One of the major consequences of carbon deposition is the degradation of structural materials by a phenomenon known as ''metal dusting''. There are two major issues of importance in metal dusting. First is formation of coke and subsequent deposition of coke on metallic structural components. Second is the initiation and subsequent propagation of metal dusting degradation of the structural alloy. In the past, we reported on the mechanism for metal dusting of Fe- and Ni-base alloys. In this report, we present metal dusting data on both Fe- and Ni-base alloys after exposure in high and atmospheric pressure environments that simulate the gas chemistry in operating hydrogen reformers. We have also measured the progression of pits by measuring the depth as a function of exposure time for a variety of Fe- and Ni-base structural alloys. We have clearly established the role of transport of iron in forming a non-protective spinel phase in the initiation process and presence of carbon transfer channels in the oxide scale for the continued propagation of pits, by nano-beam X-ray analysis using the advance photon source (APS), Raman scattering, and SEM/EDX analysis. In this report, we have developed correlations between weight loss and pit progression rates and evaluated the effects of carbon activity, system pressure, and alloy chemistry, on weight loss and pit propagation. To develop pit propagation data for the alloys without incurring substantial time for the initiation of pits, especially for the Ni-base alloys that exhibit incubation times of thousands of hours, a pre-pitting method has been developed. The pre-pitted alloys exhibited pit propagation rates similar to those of materials tested without pre-pitting. We have also developed a substantial body of metal-dusting data on the performance of Fe- and Ni-base weldments. During the course of this project, we have developed new Ni-base and Cu-base alloys and tested them in simulated metal dusting environments at 1 atm and at high pressures. Results clearly showed superior performance of both classes of alloys in resisting metal dusting. We also developed an approach to mitigate metal dusting by performing an intermediate oxidation step for extending the life of alloys in which metal dusting has initiated and pits are in progression. Finally, we have analyzed several components that have failed in plants such as hydrogen plant, pilot plant reformer, and a gas boiler.

Natesan, K.; Zeng, Z.; Nuclear Engineering Division

2007-12-07T23:59:59.000Z

237

Global dust model intercomparison in AeroCom phase I  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Abstract. This study presents the results of a broad intercomparison of a total of 15 global aerosol models within the AeroCom project. Each model is compared to observations related to desert dust aerosols, their direct radiative effect, and their impact on the biogeochemical cycle, i.e., aerosol optical depth (AOD) and dust deposition. Additional comparisons to Angstr¨om exponent (AE), coarse mode AOD and dust surface concentrations are included to extend the assessment of model performance and to identify common biases present in models. These data comprise a benchmark dataset that is proposed for model inspection and future dust model development. There are large differences among the global models that simulate the dust cycle and its impact on climate. In general, models simulate the climatology of vertically integrated parameters (AOD and AE) within a factor of two whereas the total deposition and surface concentration are reproduced within a factor of 10. In addition, smaller mean normalized bias and root mean square errors are obtained for the climatology of AOD and AE than for total deposition and surface concentration. Characteristics of the datasets used and their uncertainties may influence these differences. Large uncertainties still exist with respect to the deposition fluxes in the southern oceans. Further measurements and model studies are necessary to assess the general model performance to reproduce dust deposition in ocean regions sensible to iron contributions. Models overestimate the wet deposition in regions dominated by dry deposition. They generally simulate more realistic surface concentration at stations downwind of the main sources than at remote ones. Most models simulate the gradient in AOD and AE between the different dusty regions. However the seasonality and magnitude of both variables is better simulated at African stations than Middle East ones. The models simulate the offshore transport of West Africa throughout the year but they overestimate the AOD and they transport too fine particles. The models also reproduce the dust transport across the Atlantic in the summer in terms of both AOD and AE but not so well in winter-spring nor the southward displacement of the dust cloud that is responsible of the dust transport into South America. Based on the dependency of AOD on aerosol burden and size distribution we use model bias with respect to AOD and AE to infer the bias of the dust emissions in Africa and the Middle East. According to this analysis we suggest that a range of possible emissions for North Africa is 400 to 2200 Tg yr?1 and in the Middle East 26 to 526 Tg yr?1.

Huneeus, N.; Schulz, M.; Balkanski, Y.; Griesfeller, J.; Prospero, J.; Kinne, Stefan; Bauer, S.; Boucher, O.; Chin, M.; Dentener, F.; Diehl, T.; Easter, Richard C.; Fillmore, D.; Ghan, Steven J.; Ginnoux, P.; Grini, A.; Horowitz, L.; Koch, D.; Krol, M.; Landing, W.; Liu, Xiaohong; Mahowald, N.; Miller, R.; Morcrette, J. -J.; Myhre, G.; Penner, J.; Perlwitz, J.; Stier, P.; Takemura, T.; Zender, C. S.

2011-08-18T23:59:59.000Z

238

Arsenic and Selenium Speciation in Fly Ash and Wastewater  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The objective of the work is to predict As and Se behavior in pond wastewater based on coal and power plant characteristics so that utilities will have tools for selection of coals (and blends) that will allow them to meet applicable water quality regulations in the ash pond discharge. Arsenic and selenium were chosen as the focus of this work because the behavior of arsenic and selenium is not well correlated with pH in ash pond water, but with speciation of these oxyanions in the fly ash. Furthermore, ...

2005-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

239

Scale-up and Demonstration of Fly Ash Ozonation Technology  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This project is the first large pilot scale test of a new process to passivate the carbon in ash so that it can be used in concrete without physically removing the carbon from the ash. The tests were conducted at PPL's Montour SES, sponsored by DOE and supported by EPRI. Near full-scale industrial equipment was used to expose fly ash, carbon mixtures to ozone to see if ozone would passivate the surface of carbon so that it would not react with air entraining agents that are used by concrete manufacturers...

2005-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

240

Valley Of Ten Thousand Smokes Region Geothermal Area | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Valley Of Ten Thousand Smokes Region Geothermal Area Valley Of Ten Thousand Smokes Region Geothermal Area Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Geothermal Resource Area: Valley Of Ten Thousand Smokes Region Geothermal Area Contents 1 Area Overview 2 History and Infrastructure 3 Regulatory and Environmental Issues 4 Exploration History 5 Well Field Description 6 Geology of the Area 7 Geofluid Geochemistry 8 NEPA-Related Analyses (0) 9 Exploration Activities (8) 10 References Area Overview Geothermal Area Profile Location: Alaska Exploration Region: Alaska Geothermal Region GEA Development Phase: 2008 USGS Resource Estimate Mean Reservoir Temp: Estimated Reservoir Volume: Mean Capacity: Click "Edit With Form" above to add content History and Infrastructure Operating Power Plants: 0 No geothermal plants listed.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dust smoke fly" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Infiltration of Secondhand Smoke into Condominiums, Apartments and Other Multi-Unit Dwellings  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Protection of Persons Who Are Disabled by Secondhand Smoke (EI) could qualify as disabled under the Fair Housing Act. 25secondhand smoke as a disabled person. The federal Americans

Schoenmarklin, Susan

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

242

The Unwelcome Guest: How Scotland invited the tobacco industry to smoke outside  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of Health. Smoking Kills: A White Paper on Tobacco. 10thResponse to the White Paper on Tobacco Control. http://Smoking Kills’, the first White Paper on Tobacco Control.

Rachel Harrison; Julia Hurst

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

243

Tobacco smoke aging in the presence of ozone: a room-sized chamber...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Tobacco smoke aging in the presence of ozone: a room-sized chamber study Title Tobacco smoke aging in the presence of ozone: a room-sized chamber study Publication Type Journal...

244

Smoking Presentation Trends in U.S. Movies 1991-2008  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Smoking Presentation Trends in U.S. Movies 1991-2008 Korithis exposure. To examine trends i n the number of tobaccoparticular attention to smoking trends i n youth-rated films

Titus, Kori; Glantz, Stanton PhD; Polansky, Jonathan R.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

245

Pets and Smoking in the Home Associated with Asthma Symptoms and Asthma-Like Breathing Problems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

smoke exposures in the home. Allergy. Apr 2001;56(4):287-Pets and Smoking in the Home Associated with Asthma Symptomsenvironmental conditions in the home—such as the presence of

Hastert, Theresa A.; Babey, Susan H.; Brown, E. Richard; Meng, Ying-Ying

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

246

Attachment of radon progeny to cigarette-smoke aerosols  

SciTech Connect

The daughter products of radon gas are now recognized as a significant contributor to radiation exposure to the general public. It is also suspected that a synergistic effect exists with the combination cigarette smoking and radon exposure. We have conducted an experimental investigation to determine the physical nature of radon progeny interactions with cigarette smoke aerosols. The size distributions of the aerosols are characterized and attachment rates of radon progeny to cigarette-smoke aerosols are determined. Both the mainstream and sidestream portions of the smoke aerosol are investigated. Unattached radon progeny are very mobile and, in the presence of aerosols, readily attach to the particle surfaces. In this study, an aerosol chamber is used to contain the radon gas, progeny and aerosol mixture while allowing the attachment process to occur. The rate of attachment is dependent on the size distribution, or diffusion coefficient, of the radon progeny as well as the aerosol size distribution. The size distribution of the radon daughter products is monitored using a graded-screen diffusion battery. The diffusion battery also enables separation of the unattached radon progeny from those attached to the aerosol particles. Analysis of the radon decay products is accomplished using alpha spectrometry. The aerosols of interest are size fractionated with the aid of a differential mobility analyzer and cascade impactor. The measured attachment rates of progeny to the cigarette smoke are compared to those found in similar experiments using an ambient aerosol. The lowest attachment coefficients observed, {approximately}10{sup {minus}6} cm{sup 3}/s, occurred for the ambient aerosol. The sidestream and mainstream smoke aerosols exhibited higher attachment rates in that order. The results compared favorably with theories describing the coagulation process of aerosols.

Biermann, A.H.; Sawyer, S.R.

1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

247

Phenolic acids as bioindicators of fly ash deposit revegetation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The floristic composition, the abundance, and the cover of pioneer plant species of spontaneously formed plant communities and the content of total phenolics and phenolic acids, as humus constituents, of an ash deposit after 7 years of recultivation were studied. The restoration of both the soil and the vegetation on the ash deposits of the 'Nikola Tesla-A' thermoelectric power plant in Obrenovac (Serbia) is an extremely slow process. Unfavorable physical and chemical characteristics, the toxicity of fly ash, and extreme microclimatic conditions prevented the development of compact plant cover. The abundance and cover of plants increased from the central part of the deposit towards its edges. Festuca rubra L., Crepis setosa Hall., Erigeron canadensis L., Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop., Calamagrostis epigeios (L.) Roth., and Tamarix gallica L. were the most abundant species, thus giving the highest cover. Humus generated during the decomposition process of plant remains represents a completely new product absent in the ash as the starting material. The amount of total phenolics and phenolic acids in fly ash increased from the center of the deposit towards its edges in correlation with the increase in plant abundance and cover. The presence of phenolic acids indicates the ongoing process of humus formation in the ash, in which the most abundant pioneer plants of spontaneously formed plant communities play the main role. Phenolic compounds can serve as reliable bioindicators in an assessment of the success of the recultivation process of thermoelectric power plants' ash deposits.

L. Djurdjevic; M. Mitrovic; P. Pavlovic; G. Gajic; O. Kostic [Institute for Biological Research 'Sinisa Stankovic,' Belgrade (Serbia and Montenegro). Department of Ecology

2006-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

248

Characterization of Slag, Fly Ash and Portland Cement for Saltstone  

SciTech Connect

Batch-to-batch variability in the chemical and physical properties of the fly ash, slag and portland cement (binders) will be an ongoing concern over the many years that salt waste from Tank 50 will be processed into grout at the Saltstone Processing Facility. This batch-to-batch variability in the properties of the binder materials translates to variability in the fresh and cured properties of Saltstone. Therefore, it is important to quantify the batch-to-batch variability of the binder materials and the resultant variation in grout properties. This report is the starting point for that process by providing the baseline (reference point) binder properties to which future batches of binder materials can be compared. For this characterization effort, properties of fly ash, slag and portland cement were obtained and documented in this report. These properties included particle size distribution by laser light scattering and dry sieving, particle size and morphology by scanning electron microscopy, true, aerated and tapped densities, chemical composition, rheological properties of the water based slurries made from individual binder material, and volatility through thermogravimetric analysis and differential thermal analysis. The properties presented in this report also provide a baseline data set to assist in problem solving efforts when or if unanticipated and/or unwanted processing events occur at the Saltstone Processing Facility.

Harbour, J

2006-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

249

A new way to stabilize fly ash from municipal incinerators  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Heavy metals and toxic chlorinated organics, added to very low grain-size distributions, make fly ashes from municipal incinerators a very hazardous waste. For their disposal, the present general trend is, not only to stabilize chemically the ashes, i.e., to reduce the leachability of the toxic substances, but also to stabilize them mechanically, i.e., to convert them into massive, resistant, and unleachable solids. This paper describes various stabilization methods used on representative European fly ash samples, which led to the development of a new stabilization technique taking place in four stages: elimination of the alkali chlorides by dissolution; addition of a moderate quantity of phosphoric acid; calcination; and solidification with Portland clinker or cement. The principal advantages of the process are as follows: the polychlorodibenzodioxins-polychlorodibenzofurans are destroyed, the reactivity of the heavy metals is reduced drastically, the final solids have satisfactory mechanical properties, and the increase in weight of the waste to be disposed of does not exceed one fourth. Comparative results of TCLP extraction tests are presented.

Derie, R. [Free Univ. of Brussels (Belgium). Dept. of Ore Dressing

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

250

A Spitzer search for cold dust within globular clusters  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Globular cluster stars evolving off the main sequence are known to lose mass, and it is expected that some of the lost material should remain within the cluster as an intracluster medium (ICM). Most attempts to detect such an ICM have been unsuccessful. The Multiband Imaging Photometer for Spitzer on the Spitzer Space Telescope was used to observe eight Galactic globular clusters in an attempt to detect the thermal emission from ICM dust. Most clusters do not have significant detections at 70 microns; one cluster, NGC 6341, has tentative evidence for the presence of dust, but 90 micron observations do not confirm the detection. Individual 70 micron point sources which appear in several of the cluster images are likely to be background galaxies. The inferred dust mass and upper limits are solar masses, well below expectations for cluster dust production from mass loss in red and asymptotic giant branch stars. This implies that either globular cluster dust production is less efficient, or that ICM rem...

Barmby, P; Woodward, C E; Gehrz, R D; van Loon, J Th; Fazio, G G; Marengo, M; Polomski, E

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

251

Beam profile measurement with flying wires at the Fermilab Recycler Ring  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Flying wires were installed at the Fermilab Recycler Ring for transverse beam profile measurement for both proton and antiproton beams. The following note describes the system configuration, calibration and resolution of the flying wire system, interactions between the wires and the beam, as well as analysis of the transverse beam profile in the presence of a stochastic cooling system.

Carcagno, R.; Pishchalnikov, Yu.; Krider, J.; Hu, M.; Lorman, E.; Marchionni, A.; Pordes, S.; Wilson, P.; Zagel, J.; /Fermilab

2005-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

Release of Mercury During Curing of Concrete Containing Fly Ash and Mercury Sorbent Material  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report provides laboratory data on mercury release during the initial curing stage of concrete made with fly ash or mixtures of fly ash and activated carbon containing mercury. These experiments suggest that mercury is not released from these concretes during initial curing.

2002-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

253

Quantifying the availability and the stability of trace cationic elements in fly ash  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-Products Associated with Coal Mining Interactive Forum: Southern Illinois University at Carbondale, Carbondale, IL in this paper to deter- mine these parameters for model elements Cu(II), Cd(II), and Ni(II) in fly ash 50 mM EDTA extraction. Ã? 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. 1. Introduction Coal fly ash has

Ragsdell, Kenneth M.

254

Recognition of two-dimensional representation of urban environment for autonomous flying agents  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper the problem of a vision system implementation for autonomous flying agents is considered in the context of industrial inspection tasks performed by unmanned aerial vehicles. A syntactic algorithm of a two-dimensional object vectorization ... Keywords: Autonomous flying agents, Object recognition, Syntactic languages, Vectorization

Andrzej Bielecki; Tomasz Buratowski; Piotr Migielski

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

255

Fly Ash Construction Manual for Road and Site Applications, Volumes 1 and 2  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This two-volume construction manual details the use of fly ash in high-volume road construction and site development, covering all project elements from ash procurement to finishing. It addresses the use of fly ash in fills, embankments, backfills, subgrade stabilization, pavement base course, and slurried backfills, as well as its application as a soil amendment.

1988-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

256

Effect of particle size and volume fraction on tensile properties of fly ash/polyurea composites  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

particles. In addition, the composites filled with 20% fly ash became softer. These samples showed lower, composites, tensile properties 1. INTRODUCTION Fly ash, a waste by-product generated abundantly in electric processibility of the filled materials5 . Furthermore, as a waste by-product, its usage decreases the overall

Nemat-Nasser, Sia

257

High-Volume Fly Ash Utilization Projects in the United States and Canada: Second Edition  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Fly ash--an increasing disposal problem for utilities operating coal-fired power plants--has considerable unrealized potential as a construction material. In a wide-ranging survey, this study documented more than 250 U.S. and Canadian construction projects employing fly ash in high volume for backfill, landfill, hydraulic fill, embankments, pavement base courses, soil amendment, subgrade stabilization, and grout.

1986-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

258

Argonne CNM HighlightL Hard X-ray characterization of fly ash geopolymers  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Hard X-ray characterization of fly ash geopolymers Hard X-ray characterization of fly ash geopolymers Calcium Map Calcium map of an activated fly ash geopolymer displays regions of high calcium concentration (circled). Their distribution suggests localization as a discrete calcium-rich phase within the lower-calcium aluminosilicate geopolymer gel. Use of the Hard X-Ray Nanoprobe (HXN) has provided the first access to the nature of heterogeneity in real fly ash-derived geopolymers at the nanoscale. Direct evidence of the formation of discrete high-calcium nanometer-sized particles within a hydroxide-activated geopolymer synthesized from a low-calcium fly ash has been obtained using HXN fluorescence characterization. Additionally, the team of CNM users from the University of Melbourne, the Universidad del Valle of Colombia, and the

259

Mercury retention by fly ashes from coal combustion: Influence of the unburned carbon content  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of unburned carbon particles present in fly ashes produced by coal combustion on mercury retention. To achieve this objective, the work was divided into two parts. The aim of the first part of the study was to estimate the amount of mercury captured by the fly ashes during combustion in power stations and the relationship of this retention to the unburned carbon content. The second part was a laboratory-scale study aimed at evaluating the retention of mercury concentrations greater than those produced in power stations by fly ashes of different characteristics and by unburned carbon particles. From the results obtained it can be inferred that the unburned carbon content is not the only variable that controls mercury capture in fly ashes. The textural characteristics of these unburned particles and of other components of fly ashes also influence retention.

Lopez-Anton, M.A.; Diaz-Somoano, M.; Martinez-Tarazona, M.R. [CSIC, Oviedo (Spain)

2007-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

260

Modeling the Dust Spectral Energy Distributions of Dwarf Galaxies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Recent efforts on the modeling of the infrared spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of dwarf galaxies are summarised here. The characterisation of the dust properties in these low metallicity environments is just unfolding, as a result of recently available mid-infrared to millimetre observations. From the limited cases we know to date, it appears that the hard radiation fields that are present in these star-bursting dwarf galaxies, as well as the rampent energetics of supernovae shocks and winds have modified the dust properties, in comparison with those in the Galaxy, or other gas and dust rich galaxies. The sophistication of the SED models is limited by the availability of detailed data in the mid infrared and particularly in the submillimetre to millimetre regime, which will open up in the near future with space-based missions, such as Herschel.

Suzanne C. Madden

2005-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dust smoke fly" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Infrared Emission from Interstellar Dust. III. The Small Magellanic Cloud  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The infrared (IR) emission from interstellar dust in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) is modelled using a mixture of amorphous silicate and carbonaceous grains, including a population of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) molecules. (1) It is shown that this dust model is able to reproduce the spectral energy distribution from near-IR to far-IR for the entire SMC Bar region, provided the PAH abundance in the SMC Bar region is very low. (2) The IR spectrum of the SMCB1#1 molecular cloud can also be reproduced by our dust model provided the PAH abundance is increased relative to the overall SMC Bar. The PAHs in SMCB1#1 incorporate ~3% of the SMC C abundance, compared to environmental conditions. Other possibilities such as super-hydrogenation of PAHs and softening of the starlight spectrum are also discussed.

Aigen Li; B. T. Draine

2001-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

262

Lithium Wall Conditioning And Surface Dust Detection On NSTX  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Lithium evaporation onto NSTX plasma facing components (PFC) has resulted in improved energy confinement, and reductions in the number and amplitude of edge-localized modes (ELMs) up to the point of complete ELM suppression. The associated PFC surface chemistry has been investigated with a novel plasma material interface probe connected to an in-vacuo surface analysis station. Analysis has demonstrated that binding of D atoms to the polycrystalline graphite material of the PFCs is fundamentally changed by lithium - in particular deuterium atoms become weakly bonded near lithium atoms themselves bound to either oxygen or the carbon from the underlying material. Surface dust inside NSTX has been detected in real-time using a highly sensitive electrostatic dust detector. In a separate experiment, electrostatic removal of dust via three concentric spiral-shaped electrodes covered by a dielectric and driven by a high voltage 3-phase waveform was evaluated for potential application to fusion reactors

Skinner, C H; Bell, M G; Friesen, F.Q.L.; Heim, B; Jaworski, M A; Kugel, H; Maingi, R; Rais, B

2011-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

263

Speciation of Selenium, Arsenic, and Zinc in Class C Fly Ash  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A major environmental concern associated with coal fly ash is the mobilization of trace elements that may contaminate water. To better evaluate proper use of fly ash, determine appropriate disposal methods, and monitor postdisposal conditions, it is important to understand the speciation of trace elements in fly ash and their possible environmental impact. The speciation of selenium, arsenic, and zinc was determined in five representative Class C fly ash samples from combustion of sub-bituminous Powder River Basin coal using synchrotron-based X-ray absorption spectroscopy to provide an improved understanding of the mechanisms of trace element association with the fly ash. Selenium in all fly ash samples occurs predominantly as Se(IV), with the exception of one sample, in which there was a minor amount of Se(0). Se(0) is likely associated with the high content of unburned coal in the sample. Arsenic exists in the fly ash as a single phase most consistent with calcium pyroarsenate. In contrast, zinc occurs as two distinct species in the silicate glass matrix of the fly ash. This work demonstrates that residual carbon in fly ash may reduce potential Se mobility in the environment by retaining it as less soluble elemental Se instead of Se(IV). Further, this work suggests that As and Zn in Class C fly ash will display substantially different release and mobilization behaviors in aquatic environments. While As release will primarily depend upon the dissolution and hydrolysis of calcium pyroarsenate, Zn release will be controlled by the dissolution of alkaline aluminosilicate glass in the ash.

Luo, Yun; Giammar, Daniel E.; Huhmann, Brittany L.; Catalano, Jeffrey G. (WU)

2011-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

264

Gypsum treated fly ash as a liner for waste disposal facilities  

SciTech Connect

Fly ash has potential application in the construction of base liners for waste containment facilities. While most of the fly ashes improve in the strength with curing, the ranges of permeabilities they attain may often not meet the basic requirement of a liner material. An attempt has been made in the present context to reduce the hydraulic conductivity by adding lime content up to 10% to two selected samples of class F fly ashes. The use of gypsum, which is known to accelerate the unconfined compressive strength by increasing the lime reactivity, has been investigated in further improving the hydraulic conductivity. Hydraulic conductivities of the compacted specimens have been determined in the laboratory using the falling head method. It has been observed that the addition of gypsum reduces the hydraulic conductivity of the lime treated fly ashes. The reduction in the hydraulic conductivity of the samples containing gypsum is significantly more for samples with high amounts of lime contents (as high as 1000 times) than those fly ashes with lower amounts of lime. However there is a relatively more increase in the strengths of the samples with the inclusion of gypsum to the fly ashes at lower lime contents. This is due to the fact that excess lime added to fly ash is not effectively converted into pozzolanic compounds. Even the presence of gypsum is observed not to activate these reactions with excess lime. On the other hand the higher amount of lime in the presence of sulphate is observed to produce more cementitious compounds which block the pores in the fly ash. The consequent reduction in the hydraulic conductivity of fly ash would be beneficial in reducing the leachability of trace elements present in the fly ash when used as a base liner.

Sivapullaiah, Puvvadi V., E-mail: siva@civil.iisc.ernet.in [Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India); Baig, M. Arif Ali, E-mail: reach2arif@gmail.com [Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India)

2011-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

265

Quality of chilled, vacuum packed cold-smoked salmon  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

activity on spoilage of cold-smoked salmon was studied in a storage experiment using dry salted/g, and these spoilage characteristics therefore resulted from microbiological activity. However, the texture deteriorated regardless of microbiological loads, indicating the importance of autolytic activity

Mosegaard, Klaus

266

Coupling water and smoke to thin deformable and rigid shells  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present a novel method for solid/fluid coupling that can treat infinitesimally thin solids modeled by a lower dimensional triangulated surface. Since classical solid/fluid coupling algorithms rasterize the solid body onto the fluid grid, an entirely ... Keywords: cloth, rigid bodies, shells, smoke, water

Eran Guendelman; Andrew Selle; Frank Losasso; Ronald Fedkiw

2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

267

Investigation on the utilization of coal fly ash as amendment to compost for vegetation in acid soil  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The use of fly ash as amendment to compost is presented. Plant growth/yields of corn collard greens, mustard greens, and sorgum is described. The treatment parameters such as fly ash to compost ratio, fly ash-amended compost to soil ratio, type of compost used for treatment etc. are discussed. 2 refs., 5 figs., 8 tabs. (CBS)

Menon, M.P.

1990-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

268

Dust Tracking Using Composite Visible/IR Images: A Case Study  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Visible and infrared (IR) images from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA's) Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer are composited to improve the depiction of airborne dust over coastlines. On IR images, wind-raised dust ...

Thomas F. Lee

1989-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

269

Integrated impact analysis of yellow-dust storms : a regional case study in China  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The dust storm is a meteorological event that is caused by strong winds and proceeds from arid and semi-arid regions, transporting a thick cloud of fine sediments. In China, the sediments of dust storms mainly come from ...

Ai, Ning, 1978-

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

270

Multidecadal Covariability of North Atlantic Sea Surface Temperature, African Dust, Sahel Rainfall, and Atlantic Hurricanes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Most studies of African dust and North Atlantic climate have been limited to the short time period since the satellite era (1980 onward), precluding the examination of their relationship on longer time scales. Here a new dust dataset with the ...

Chunzai Wang; Shenfu Dong; Amato T. Evan; Gregory R. Foltz; Sang-Ki Lee

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

271

Radiative Effects of Airborne Dust on Regional Energy Budgets at the Top of the Atmosphere  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The effects of dust on the radiative energy budget at the top of the atmosphere were investigated using model calculations and measurements from the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE). Estimates of the dust optical depth were made from ...

Steven A. Ackerman; Hyosang Chung

1992-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

272

www.mdpi.com/journal/ijerph Restaurant and Bar Owners ’ Exposure to Secondhand Smoke and Attitudes Regarding Smoking Bans in Five Chinese Cities  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract: Despite the great progress made towards smoke-free environments, only 9 % of countries worldwide mandate smoke-free restaurants and bars. Smoking was generally not regulated in restaurants and bars in China before 2008. This study was designed to examine the public attitudes towards banning smoking in these places in China. A convenience sample of 814 restaurants and bars was selected in five Chinese cities and all owners of these venues were interviewed in person by questionnaire in 2007. Eighty six percent of current nonsmoking subjects had at least one-day exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) at work in the past week. Only 51 % of subjects knew SHS could cause heart disease. Only 17 % and 11 % of subjects supported prohibiting smoking completely in restaurants and in bars, respectively, while their support for restricting smoking to designated areas was much higher. Fifty three percent of subjects were willing to prohibit or restrict smoking in their own venues. Of those unwilling to do so, 82 % thought smokingInt. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2011, 8 1521

Ruiling Liu; S. Katharine Hammond; Andrew Hyl; Mark J. Travers; Yan Yang; Yi Nan; Guoze Feng; Qiang Li; Yuan Jiang

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

273

Results from the High Resolution Fly's Eye Experiment  

SciTech Connect

The High Resolution Fly's Eye (HiRes) Experiment operated two fluorescence detector sites in the western Utah desert between 1997 and 2006. The HiRes results on the cosmic ray spectrum are consistent with the GZK Suppression predicted at 10{sup 19.8} eV and observe an ankle structure at 10{sup 18.5} eV. These spectral features are consistent with a proton-dominated composition for cosmic rays at the highest energies. The HiRes composition studies of both the mean and the variance of the shower maximum depth (X{sub max}) also give results that are completely consistent with a predominately protonic composition, and inconsistent with heavy nuclei such as iron. We also report on the result of anisotropy studies.

Jui, C. C. H. [Department of Physics, University of Utah, 115 S. 1400 E. Rm. 201 Salt Lake City, Utah, 84112-0830 (United States)

2011-09-22T23:59:59.000Z

274

Frostbite Theater - Liquid Nitrogen Experiments - The Flying Ring!  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Liquid Nitrogen and the Tea Kettle Mystery! Liquid Nitrogen and the Tea Kettle Mystery! Previous Video (Liquid Nitrogen and the Tea Kettle Mystery!) Frostbite Theater Main Index Next Video (Pewter Bells) Pewter Bells The Flying Ring! A copper ring leaps off an electromagnet when it's turned on. What happens when the ring's resistance is lowered using liquid nitrogen? [ Show Transcript ] Announcer: Frostbite Theater presents... Cold Cuts! No baloney! Joanna and Steve: Just science! Joanna: Hi! I'm Joanna! Steve: And I'm Steve! Joanna: And this is an AC powered electromagnet. And this is a copper ring. When I place the copper ring on the electromagnet and turn it on, the magnet's changing magnetic field will induce an electric current in the copper ring. The current in the ring will then create it's own magnetic

275

Formation flying for a Fresnel lens observatory mission  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The employment of a large area Phase Fresnel Lens (PFL) in a gamma-ray telescope offers the potential to image astrophysical phenomena with micro-arcsecond angular resolution. In order to assess the feasibility of this concept, two detailed studies have been conducted of formation flying missions in which a Fresnel lens capable of focussing gamma-rays and the associated detector are carried on two spacecraft separated by up to 10$^6$ km. These studies were performed at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Integrated Mission Design Center (IMDC) which developed spacecraft, orbital dynamics, and mission profiles. The results of the studies indicated that the missions are challenging but could be accomplished with technologies available currently or in the near term. The findings of the original studies have been updated taking account of recent advances in ion thruster propulsion technology.

Krizmanic, J; Gehrels, N; Krizmanic, John; Skinner, Gerry; Gehrels, Neil

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

Formation flying for a Fresnel lens observatory mission  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The employment of a large area Phase Fresnel Lens (PFL) in a gamma-ray telescope offers the potential to image astrophysical phenomena with micro-arcsecond angular resolution. In order to assess the feasibility of this concept, two detailed studies have been conducted of formation flying missions in which a Fresnel lens capable of focussing gamma-rays and the associated detector are carried on two spacecraft separated by up to 10$^6$ km. These studies were performed at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Integrated Mission Design Center (IMDC) which developed spacecraft, orbital dynamics, and mission profiles. The results of the studies indicated that the missions are challenging but could be accomplished with technologies available currently or in the near term. The findings of the original studies have been updated taking account of recent advances in ion thruster propulsion technology.

John Krizmanic; Gerry Skinner; Neil Gehrels

2006-01-03T23:59:59.000Z

277

Excerpt from the ORNL Smoking Policy (issued 1/29/2010): ORNL is  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Excerpt from the ORNL Smoking Policy (issued 1/29/2010): ORNL is Excerpt from the ORNL Smoking Policy (issued 1/29/2010): ORNL is committed to ensuring the health and safety of its employees and to providing a comfortable and productive work environment. Medical evidence has recognized that smoking and environmental tobacco smoke can be harmful to smokers' and nonsmokers' health. Consistent with these concerns and with regulations, the following policy has been established to restrict smoking in most areas at ORNL, and to accommodate the preferences of both smokers and nonsmokers. In accordance with Tennessee Law, it is the policy of UT-Battelle, LLC, to prohibit smoking in all buildings, in government vehicles, and other enclosed structures or equipment managed by UT-Battelle. UT-Battelle Policy provides that smoking

278

On-the-Fly Decompression and Rendering of Multiresolution Terrain  

SciTech Connect

We present a streaming geometry compression codec for multiresolution, uniformly-gridded, triangular terrain patches that supports very fast decompression. Our method is based on linear prediction and residual coding for lossless compression of the full-resolution data. As simplified patches on coarser levels in the hierarchy already incur some data loss, we optionally allow further quantization for more lossy compression. The quantization levels are adaptive on a per-patch basis, while still permitting seamless, adaptive tessellations of the terrain. Our geometry compression on such a hierarchy achieves compression ratios of 3:1 to 12:1. Our scheme is not only suitable for fast decompression on the CPU, but also for parallel decoding on the GPU with peak throughput over 2 billion triangles per second. Each terrain patch is independently decompressed on the fly from a variable-rate bitstream by a GPU geometry program with no branches or conditionals. Thus we can store the geometry compressed on the GPU, reducing storage and bandwidth requirements throughout the system. In our rendering approach, only compressed bitstreams and the decoded height values in the view-dependent 'cut' are explicitly stored on the GPU. Normal vectors are computed in a streaming fashion, and remaining geometry and texture coordinates, as well as mesh connectivity, are shared and re-used for all patches. We demonstrate and evaluate our algorithms on a small prototype system in which all compressed geometry fits in the GPU memory and decompression occurs on the fly every rendering frame without any cache maintenance.

Lindstrom, P; Cohen, J D

2009-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

279

Existence domains of large amplitude dust-acoustic solitons in non-thermal plasmas with positive and negative dust  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Using the traditional Sagdeev pseudopotential approach, the existence of large amplitude solitons is investigated for a plasma composed of cold negative dust, adiabatic positive dust, non-thermal ions and Boltzmann electrons. The lower and upper soliton Mach number limitations are determined as a function of various parameters and physical reasons are provided as to why these Mach number limits occur. Some regions in parameter space have been identified where only negative or positive solitons occur, whereas, other regions support the coexistence of both positive and negative potential solitons.

Maharaj, S. K. [South African National Space Agency Space Science, P O Box 32, Hermanus 7200 (South Africa); Bharuthram, R. [University of the Western Cape, Modderdam Road, Bellville 7530 (South Africa); Singh, S. V.; Lakhina, G. S. [Indian Institute of Geomagnetism, New Panvel, Navi Mumbai 410218 (India); Pillay, S. R. [University of KwaZulu-Natal, Private Bag X54001, Durban 4000 (South Africa)

2011-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

280

Large amplitude dust-acoustic double layers in non-thermal plasmas with positive and negative dust  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The existence of large amplitude double layers in a plasma composed of cold negative dust, adiabatic positive dust, non-thermal ions and Boltzmann electrons is investigated using the Sagdeev pseudopotential technique. Both positive potential and negative potential double layers are found to be supported by the model. The variation of the maximum amplitudes of the double layers and corresponding Mach numbers are examined as a function of various plasma parameters. In particular, we investigate to what extent ion non-thermal effects are required for positive potential double layers to occur.

Maharaj, S. K. [South African National Space Agency Space Science, P O Box 32, Hermanus 7200 (South Africa); Bharuthram, R. [University of the Western Cape, Modderdam Road, Bellville 7530 (South Africa); Singh, S. V.; Lakhina, G. S. [Indian Institute of Geomagnetism, New Panvel, Navi Mumbai 410218 (India); Pillay, S. R. [University of KwaZulu-Natal, Private Bag X54001, Durban 4000 (South Africa)

2011-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dust smoke fly" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Optical Investigations of Dust Particles Distribution in RF and DC Discharges  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Optical emission spectroscopy is used to study dust particles movement and conditions of a formation of ordered plasma-dust structures in a capacitively coupled RF discharge. 3D binocular diagnostics of plasma-dust structures in dc discharge was made.

Ramazanov, T. S.; Dosbolayev, M. K.; Jumabekov, A. N.; Amangaliyeva, R. Zh. [Al-Farabi Kazakh National University, IETP, 96a Tole Bi St., Almaty 050012 (Kazakhstan); Filatova, I. I.; Azharonok, V. V. [B. I. Stepanov Institute of Physics NAS of Belarus, Nezavisimosti Ave., 68, 220072, Minsk (Belarus)

2008-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

282

The Diurnal and Seasonal Cycles of Wind-Borne Dust over Africa North of the Equator  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This article presents a study of the diurnal and seasonal cycles of dust over North Africa, using surface visibility as an indicator of dust. The diurnal cycle shows a reduction of visibility during the daytime hours in the areas where dust is ...

G. N’Tchayi Mbourou; J. J. Bertrand; S. E. Nicholson

1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

COAMPS Real-Time Dust Storm Forecasting during Operation Iraqi Freedom  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Dust storms are a significant weather phenomenon in the Iraq region in winter and spring. Real-time dust forecasting using the U.S. Navy’s Coupled Ocean–Atmospheric Mesoscale Prediction System (COAMPS) with an in-line dust aerosol model was ...

Ming Liu; Douglas L. Westphal; Annette L. Walker; Teddy R. Holt; Kim A. Richardson; Steven D. Miller

2007-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

284

Kinetic theory of magnetized dusty plasmas with dust particles charged by collisional processes and by photoionization  

SciTech Connect

In this work, we detail the derivation of a plasma kinetic theory leading to the components of the dielectric tensor for a magnetized dusty plasma with variable charge on the dust particles, considering that the dust component of the plasma contains spherical dust particles with different sizes, which are charged both by inelastic collisions of electrons and ions and by photoionization.

Galvao, R. A.; Ziebell, L. F. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Caixa Postal 15051, CEP 91501-970, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

2012-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

285

Dust and Black Carbon in Seasonal Snow Across Northern China  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Snow is the most reflective natural surface on Earth. Its albedo (the fraction of sunlight reflected) can be reduced by small amounts of dark impurities such as dust and black carbon (BC) particles. This effect is significant for climate and the ...

Jianping Huang; Qiang Fu; Wu Zhang; Xin Wang; Rudong Zhang; Hao Ye; Stephen G. Warren

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

286

An observational Study of the “Interstate 5” Dust Storm Case  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

On 29 November 1991 a series of collisions involving 164 vehicles occurred on Interstate 5 in the San Joaquin Valley in California in a dust storm that reduced the visibility to near zero. The accompanying high surface winds are hypothesized to ...

Patricia M. Pauley; Nancy L. Baker; Edward H. Barker

1996-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

287

Gas-cooling by dust during dynamical fragmentation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We suggest that the abrupt switch, from hierarchical clustering on scales larger than 0.04 pc, to binary (and occasionally higher multiple) systems on smaller scales, which Larson has deduced from his analysis of the grouping of pre-Main-Sequence stars in Taurus, arises because pre-protostellar gas becomes thermally coupled to dust at sufficiently high densities. The resulting change from gas-cooling by molecular lines at low densities to gas-cooling by dust at high densities enables the matter to radiate much more efficiently, and hence to undergo dynamical fragmentation. We derive the domain where gas-cooling by dust facilitates dynamical fragmentation. Low-mass (i.e. solar mass) clumps - those supported mainly by thermal pressure - can probably access this domain spontaneously, albeit rather quasistatically, provided they exist in a region where external perturbations are few and far between. More massive clumps probably require an impulsive external perturbation, for instance a supersonic collision with another clump, in order for the gas to reach sufficiently high density to couple thermally to the dust. Impulsive external perturbations should promote fragmentation, by generating highly non-line ar substructures which can then be amplified by gravity during the subsequent collapse.

A. P. Whitworth; H. M. J. Boffin; N. Francis

1998-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

288

SPATIAL VARIATIONS OF DUST ABUNDANCES ACROSS THE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD  

SciTech Connect

Using the data obtained with the Spitzer Space Telescope as part of the Surveying the Agents of a Galaxy's Evolution (SAGE) legacy survey, we have studied the variations of the dust composition and abundance across the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). Such variations are expected, as the explosive events which have lead to the formation of the many H I shells observed should have affected the dust properties. Using a model and comparing with a reference spectral energy distribution from our Galaxy, we deduce the relative abundance variations of small dust grains across the LMC. We examined the infrared color ratios as well as the relative abundances of very small grains (VSGs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) relative to the big grain abundance. Results show that each dust component could have different origins or evolution in the interstellar medium (ISM). The VSG abundance traces the star formation activity and could result from shattering of larger grains, whereas the PAH abundance increases around molecular clouds as well as in the stellar bar, where they could have been injected into the ISM during mass loss from old stars.

Paradis, Deborah; Reach, William T. [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Bernard, Jean-Philippe [Universite de Toulouse, UPS, CESR, 9 av. du Colonel Roche, F-31028 Toulouse cedex 9 (France); Block, Miwa; Engelbracht, Chad W.; Gordon, Karl [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Hora, Joseph L. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St., MS-65, Cambridge, MA, 02138-1516 (United States); Indebetouw, Remy [7 National Radio Astronomy Observatory and Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, P.O. Box 3818, Charlottesville, VA 22903-0818 (United States); Kawamura, Akiko [Nagoya University, Department of Astrophysics, Chikusa-Ku, Nagoya, 464-01 (Japan); Meade, Marilyn [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin, Madison, 475 N. Charter St., Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Meixner, Margaret; Sewilo, Marta [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Vijh, Uma P. [Ritter Astrophysical Research Center, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH 43606 (United States); Volk, Kevin [Gemini Observatory, Northern Operations Center, 670 N. Aohuku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States)

2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

289

Dust and the ultraviolet energy distribution of quasars  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The ultraviolet energy distribution of quasars shows a sharp steepening of the continuum shortward of 1000 A (rest-frame). We describe how we came to consider the possibility that this continuum break might be the result of absorption by carbon crystallite dust grains.

Luc Binette; Christophe Morisset; Sinhue Haro-Corzo

2005-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

290

Simulation of Transport and Removal Processes of the Saharan Dust  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A planetary boundary layer (PBL) model has been modified to include a Saharan air layer containing the bulk of Saharan dust. The Saharan air layer is recognized as a deep mixed layer which extends up to 4–6 km during hot summer months and is ...

In-Young Lee

1983-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

Stochastic fluctuations of dust particle charge in RF discharges  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In addition to RF oscillations, intrinsic stochastic fluctuations due to the discreteness of electrons and ions could be important to the charging of a dust particle in RF discharges. These fluctuations are studied in the present work for three cases [M. Bacharis et al., Plasma Sources Sci. Technol. 19, 025002 (2010)] relevant to RF discharges employing a recently proposed model [B. Shotorban, Phys. Rev. E 83, 066403 (2011)] valid for stochastic charging at nonstationary states. The cases are concerned with a time varying electron number density relevant to sheaths, a time varying electric field relevant to the bulk plasma, and a time-dependent bi-Maxwellian distribution of electrons in a low pressure discharge. Two dust particles with different sizes are individually studied in each case. The radius of one is ten times larger than the radius of the other. In all of the cases, for the larger dust particle, the root-mean-squre of charge stochastic fluctuations is about an order of magnitude smaller than the amplitude of RF charge oscillations, while for the smaller dust particle, they are comparable in magnitude.

Shotorban, B. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, Alabama 35899 (United States)

2012-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

292

Global observations of desert dust and biomass burning aerosols  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Global observations of desert dust and biomass burning aerosols Martin de Graaf KNMI #12; Outline · Absorbing Aerosol Index - Theory · Absorbing Aerosol Index - Reality · Biomass burning.6 Biomass burning over Angola, 09 Sep. 2004 Absorbing Aerosol Index PMD image #12;biomass burning ocean

Graaf, Martin de

293

Doppler Radar Observations of Dust Devils in Texas  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Analyses of a dust-devil dataset collected in northwest Texas are presented. The data were collected just above the ground at close range with a mobile, W-band (3-mm wavelength) Doppler radar having an azimuthal (radial) resolution of 3–5 m (30 m)...

Howard B. Bluestein; Christopher C. Weiss; Andrew L. Pazmany

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

294

Determining size-specific emission factors for environmental tobacco smoke  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Determining size-specific emission factors for environmental tobacco smoke Determining size-specific emission factors for environmental tobacco smoke particles Title Determining size-specific emission factors for environmental tobacco smoke particles Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2003 Authors Klepeis, Neil E., Michael G. Apte, Lara A. Gundel, Richard G. Sextro, and William W. Nazaroff Journal Aerosol Science & Technology Volume 37 Start Page Chapter Pagination 780-790 Date Published October 2003 Abstract Because size is a major controlling factor for indoor airborne particle behavior, human particle exposure assessments will benefit from improved knowledge of size-specific particle emissions. We report a method of inferring size-specific mass emission factors for indoor sources that makes use of an indoor aerosol dynamics model, measured particle concentration time series data, and an optimization routine. This approach provides -- in addition to estimates of the emissions size distribution and integrated emission factors -- estimates of deposition rate, an enhanced understanding of particle dynamics, and information about model performance. We applied the method to size-specific environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) particle concentrations measured every minute with an 8-channel optical particle counter (PMS-LASAIR; 0.1-2+ micrometer diameters) and every 10 or 30 min with a 34-channel differential mobility particle sizer (TSI-DMPS; 0.01-1+ micrometer diameters) after a single cigarette or cigar was machine-smoked inside a low air-exchange rate 20m^3 chamber. The aerosol dynamics model provided good fits to observed concentrations when using optimized values of mass emission rate and deposition rate for each particle size range as input. Small discrepancies observed in the first 1-2 hours after smoking are likely due to the effect of particle evaporation, a process neglected by the model. Size-specific ETS particle emission factors were fit with log-normal distributions, yielding an average mass median diameter of 0.2 micrometers and an average geometric standard deviation of 2.3 with no systematic differences between cigars and cigarettes. The equivalent total particle emission rate, obtained by integrating each size distribution, was 0.2-0.7 mg/min for cigars and 0.7-0.9 mg/min for cigarettes

295

Development of New Industrial Ashalloy Material Using Fly Ash Cenospheres "Lead-Lite" Project  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

One potential high-value utilization method for power plant fly ash is to mix it with an alloy to make a metal matrix composite. In the case of this project, the fly ash is mixed with lead to make a composite with low density and improved hardness. This new material can be used in the auto industry to make lighter battery components. This report describes the results of corrosion tests of several lead samples and lead-fly ash composite samples at room temperature for more than 1500 days. This long-term d...

1999-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

296

Salt-soda sinter process for recovering aluminum from fly ash  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for recovering aluminum values from fly ash comprises sintering the fly ash with a mixture of NaCl and Na.sub.2 CO.sub.3 to a temperature in the range 700.degree.-900.degree. C. for a period of time sufficient to convert greater than 90% of the aluminum content of the fly ash into an acid-soluble fraction and then contacting the thus-treated fraction with an aqueous solution of nitric or sulfuric acid to effect dissolution of aluminum and other metal values in said solution.

McDowell, William J. (Oak Ridge, TN); Seeley, Forest G. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

297

The spatial distribution of mineral dust and its shortwave radiative forcing over North Africa: Modeling sensitivities to dust emissions and aerosol size treatments  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A fully coupled meteorology-chemistry-aerosol model (WRF-Chem) with the implementation of two dust emission schemes (GOCART and DUSTRAN) into two aerosol models (MADE/SORGAM and MOSAIC) is applied over North Africa to investigate the modeling sensitivities to dust emissions and aerosol size treatments in simulating mineral dust and its shortwave (SW) radiative forcing. Model results of the spatial distribution of mineral dust and its radiative forcing are evaluated using measurements from the AMMA SOP0 campaign in January and February of 2006 over North Africa. Our study suggests that the size distribution of emitted dust can result in significant differences (up to 100%) in simulating mineral dust and its SW radiative forcing. With the same dust emission and dry deposition processes, two aerosol models, MADE/SORGAM and MOSAIC, can yield large difference in size distributions of dust particles due to their different aerosol size treatments using modal and sectional approaches respectively. However, the difference between the two aerosol models in simulating the mass concentrations and the SW radiative forcing of mineral dust is small (< 10%). The model simulations show that mineral dust increases AOD by a factor of 2, heats the lower atmosphere (1-3 km) with a maximum rate of 0.7?0.5 K day-1 below 1 km, and reduces the downwelling SW radiation by up to 25 W m-2 on 24-hour average at surface, highlighting the importance of including dust radiative impact in understanding the regional climate of North Africa. When compared to the available measurements, WRF-Chem simulations can generally capture the measured features of mineral dust and its radiative properties over North Africa, suggesting that the model can be used to perform more extensive simulations of regional climate over North Africa.

Zhao, Chun; Liu, Xiaohong; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Johnson, Ben; McFarlane, Sally A.; Gustafson, William I.; Fast, Jerome D.; Easter, Richard C.

2010-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

298

Airborne Sunphotometry and Integrated Analyses of Dust, Other Aerosols, and Water Vapor in the Puerto Rico Dust Experiment (PRIDE)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in the Puerto Rico Dust Experiment (PRIDE) PI: Philip B. Russell MS 245-5, NASA Ames Research Center Moffett new analyses of aerosol radiative forcing sensitivity, single scattering albedo, and the solar spectral radiative energy budget. (h) Derive aerosol size distributions from optical depth and extinction

299

Method and apparatus for measuring surface density of explosive and inert dust in stratified layers  

SciTech Connect

A method for determining the surface density of coal dust on top of rock dust or rock dust on top of coal dust is disclosed which comprises directing a light source at either a coal or rock dust layer overlaying a substratum of the other, detecting the amount of light reflected from the deposit, generating a signal from the reflected light which is converted into a normalized output (V), and calculating the surface density from the normalized output. The surface density S.sub.c of coal dust on top of rock dust is calculated according to the equation: S.sub.c =1/-a.sub.c ln(V) wherein a.sub.c is a constant for the coal dust particles, and the surface density S.sub.r of rock dust on top of coal dust is determined by the equation: ##EQU1## wherein a.sub.r is a constant based on the properties of the rock dust particles. An apparatus is also disclosed for carrying out the method of the present invention.

Sapko, Michael J. (Finleyville, PA); Perlee, Henry E. (Bethel Park, PA)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

300

Dust Deserves More than the Brush-Off | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Dust Deserves More than the Brush-Off Dust Deserves More than the Brush-Off Dust Deserves More than the Brush-Off July 6, 2012 - 10:35am Addthis The dust particles act as a "heat pump" drawing heat from the sun and surface, and attracting moisture from the Gulf of California and the Gulf of Mexico. Without dust, rainfall would be up to 40 percent less over Arizona, New Mexico and Texas. | Creative Commons photo by Jared The dust particles act as a "heat pump" drawing heat from the sun and surface, and attracting moisture from the Gulf of California and the Gulf of Mexico. Without dust, rainfall would be up to 40 percent less over Arizona, New Mexico and Texas. | Creative Commons photo by Jared

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dust smoke fly" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Dust-acoustic shock formation in adiabatic hot dusty plasmas with variable charge  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Shocklike structure can be formed after a certain transient time due to the self-steepening of the negative potential. In order to have a monotonic or oscillatory shock wave, it is known that a source of dissipation is needed. In this study, we considered the variation of dust charge as a source of dissipation. By using the reductive perturbation technique, the nonlinear Burgers equation is derived and the shocklike solution is determined. The effects of dust temperature on different characteristics of dust-acoustic shock structure are discussed. It is found out that the dust thickness is not affected by dust temperature. By considering a dusty plasma system with a set of parameters, it is shown that there exists a specific dust critical temperature T{sub dc} which gives maximum height for the dust-acoustic shock structure. The effects of the plasma species temperature on shock formation are also investigated.

Asgari, H.; Muniandy, S. V.; Wong, C. S. [Department of Physics, Plasma Research Laboratory, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

2011-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

302

Effect of energetic electrons on dust charging in hot cathode filament discharge  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The effect of energetic electrons on dust charging for different types of dust is studied in hydrogen plasma. The hydrogen plasma is produced by hot cathode filament discharge method in a dusty plasma device. A full line cusped magnetic field cage is used to confine the plasma elements. To study the plasma parameters for various discharge conditions, a cylindrical Langmuir probe having 0.15 mm diameter and 10.0 mm length is used. An electronically controlled dust dropper is used to drop the dust particles into the plasma. For different discharge conditions, the dust current is measured using a Faraday cup connected to an electrometer. The effect of secondary emission as well as discharge voltage on charging of dust grains in hydrogen plasma is studied with different dust.

Kakati, B.; Kausik, S. S.; Saikia, B. K. [Centre of Plasma Physics, Institute for Plasma Research, Nazirakhat, Sonapur 782 402, Kamrup, Assam (India); Bandyopadhyay, M. [ITER-India, Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382 428 (India)

2011-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

303

Kinetics of fly ash beneficiation by carbon burnout. Quarterly report, October 1996--December 1996  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The presence of carbon in fly ash requires an increase in the dosage of the air-entraining admixture for concrete mix, and may cause the admixture to lose efficiency. Specifying authorities for the concrete producers have set maximum allowable levels of residual carbon. These levels are the so called {open_quotes}Loss On Ignition{close_quotes} (LOI). The concrete producer`s day-to-day purchasing decisions sets the LOI at 4%. The objective of the project is to investigate the kinetics of oxidation of residual carbon present in coal fly ash as a possible first step toward producing low-carbon fly ash from high-carbon, low quality fly ash.

Dodoo, J.N.; Okoh, J.M.; Diaz, A. [and others

1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

304

STATE-OF-THE-ART: FLY ASH, SILICA FUME AND SLAG UTILIZATION IN USA  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Backfill. 1.0 Introduction At the present time, coal fired electric power plants in the USA produce, ease of handling, and moisture insensitivity, etc. [2,11]. 2.1.2 Backfills Fly ash is used

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

305

M-2: Extracting Alumina from Coal Fly Ash with Ammonium Sulfate ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Abstract Scope, The whole process of extracting alumina from coal fly ash ... Decrease of Heat Consumption at Nepheline Processing to Alumina and By- Products ... Flash -and CFB Calciners, History and Difficulties of Development of Two ...

306

Recovery of Metal Oxides From Fly Ash, Volumes 1-3  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

By processing fly ash to obtain metal oxides and other commercial products, utilities can realize both sales revenues and reduced disposal costs. A commercial-scale processing plant could be ready for demonstration by 1992.

1984-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

Fly and Be Damned: What Now for Aviation and Climate Change?  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Fly and Be Damned gets underneath the well-known facts about the unsustainable nature of the aviation industry and argues for fundamental change to our traveling habits. The first book to transcend the emotional debate between the entrenched positions ...

Peter McManners

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

Utilizing fly ash particles to produce low-cost metal matrix composites  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Metal matrix composites (MMCs) are a blend of fine ceramic particles mixed with metals such as aluminium or magnesium. Fly ash is considerably cheaper than ceramics; aluminium-fly ash composites cost less than 60% of conventional aluminium-SiC composites making them attractive to automakers striving for lower weight and cheaper materials for brake rotors or brake drums. Ultalite.com has consulted with US researchers to to find the optimum requirements of the fly ash needed to make MMCs. Particle size 20-40 microns, low calcium oxide content and spherical particles were identified. The desired particles once extracted are stirred into molten aluminum and the resulting composite is into ingots for shipment to a casting facility. Dynamometer testing has shown that aluminium-fly ash composite brake drums have better performance and wear than cast iron drums. 6 figs., 1 tab.

Withers, G. [Ultalite.com, Melbourne, Vic. (Australia)

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

309

Mitigation of SCR-Ammonia Related Aqueous Effects in a Fly Ash Pond  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Contaminated fly ash resulting from secondary injection of ammonia to mitigate SO3 produced by a selective catalytic reduction (SCR) system altered the water quality of a fly ash pond at a coal-fired power generation station. This project attempted to improve water quality by encouraging the growth of algae in the pond to remove ammonia, while keeping other important parameters (pH, total suspended solids, Biological Oxygen Demand, and metals) within allowable limits.

2006-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

310

Field Test of a Semi-Continuous Fly Ash Unburned Carbon Monitor: Cyclone Boiler Application  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Unburned carbon (UBC) is the measure of the carbon level in the fly ash of a coal-fired boiler—with increased carbon indicating less-complete and less-efficient combustion. Boiler design is one important factor that affects UBC levels. Cyclone boilers burn coal at high combustion temperatures (ca. 1650°C) and exhibit relatively high, but quite variable, fly ash UBC levels. Recently, because of competitive fuel pricing and reduced SO2 and NOX emissions, cyclone boilers ...

2013-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

311

Investigation of Ammonia Adsorption on Fly Ash and Potential Impacts of Ammoniated Ash  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Problems associated with ammoniated fly ash have become a major concern for coal-fired facilities in recent years due to the increased use of ammonia-based environmental control technologies. Of particular note is more frequent use of ammonia-based NOx control systems and electrostatic precipitator (ESP) conditioning with ammonia. To help power producers evaluate and mitigate the impacts of ammoniated ash, this project provides crucial information in the areas of fly ash characterization, adsorption test...

1999-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

312

Data Acquisition-Manipulation At Valley Of Ten Thousand Smokes Region Area  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Ten Thousand Smokes Region Area Ten Thousand Smokes Region Area (Kodosky & Keith, 1993) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Data Acquisition-Manipulation At Valley Of Ten Thousand Smokes Region Area (Kodosky & Keith, 1993) Exploration Activity Details Location Valley Of Ten Thousand Smokes Region Area Exploration Technique Data Acquisition-Manipulation Activity Date Usefulness not indicated DOE-funding Unknown Notes Statistical analyses of geochemical data. References Lawrence G. Kodosky, Terry E. C. Keith (1993) Factors Controlling The Geochemical Evolution Of Fumarolic Encrustations, Valley Of Ten Thousand Smokes, Alaska Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Data_Acquisition-Manipulation_At_Valley_Of_Ten_Thousand_Smokes_Region_Area_(Kodosky_%26_Keith,_1993)&oldid=389784"

313

Water Sampling At Valley Of Ten Thousand Smokes Region Area (Keith, Et Al.,  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Of Ten Thousand Smokes Region Area (Keith, Et Al., Of Ten Thousand Smokes Region Area (Keith, Et Al., 1992) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Water Sampling At Valley Of Ten Thousand Smokes Region Area (Keith, Et Al., 1992) Exploration Activity Details Location Valley Of Ten Thousand Smokes Region Area Exploration Technique Water Sampling Activity Date Usefulness not indicated DOE-funding Unknown References T. E. C. Keith, J. M. Thompson, R. A. Hutchinson, L. D. White (1992) Geochemistry Of Waters In The Valley Of Ten Thousand Smokes Region, Alaska Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Water_Sampling_At_Valley_Of_Ten_Thousand_Smokes_Region_Area_(Keith,_Et_Al.,_1992)&oldid=386869" Categories: Exploration Activities DOE Funded Activities

314

Flying Triangulation - towards the 3D movie camera  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Flying Triangulation sensors enable a free-hand and motion-robust 3D data acquisition of complex shaped objects. The measurement principle is based on a multi-line light-sectioning approach and uses sophisticated algorithms for real-time registration (S. Ettl et al., Appl. Opt. 51 (2012) 281-289). As "single-shot principle", light sectioning enables the option to get surface data from one single camera exposure. But there is a drawback: A pixel-dense measurement is not possible because of fundamental information-theoretical reasons. By "pixel-dense" we understand that each pixel displays individually measured distance information, neither interpolated from its neighbour pixels nor using lateral context information. Hence, for monomodal single-shot principles, the 3D data generated from one 2D raw image display a significantly lower space-bandwidth than the camera permits. This is the price one must pay for motion robustness. Currently, our sensors project about 10 lines (each with 1000 pixels), reaching an co...

Willomitzer, Florian; Faber, Christian; Häusler, Gerd

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

Effects of polarization force and effective dust temperature on dust-acoustic solitary and shock waves in a strongly coupled dusty plasma  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A strongly coupled dusty plasma containing strongly correlated negatively charged dust grains and weakly correlated (Maxwellian) electrons and ions has been considered. The effects of polarization force (which arises due to the interaction between thermal ions and highly negatively charged dust grains) and effective dust temperature (which arises from the electrostatic interactions among highly negatively charged dust and from the dust thermal pressure) on the dust-acoustic (DA) solitary and shock waves propagating in such a strongly coupled dusty plasma are taken into account. The DA solitary and shock waves are found to exist with negative potential only. It has been shown that the strong correlation among the charged dust grains is a source of dissipation and is responsible for the formation of the DA shock waves. It has also been shown that the effects of polarization force and effective dust-temperature significantly modify the basic features (e.g., amplitude, width, and speed) of the DA solitary and shock waves. It has been suggested that a laboratory experiment be performed to test the theory presented in this work.

Mamun, A. A.; Ashrafi, K. S.; Shukla, P. K. [Department of Physics, Jahangirnagar University, Savar, Dhaka 1342 (Bangladesh); RUB International Chair, International Centre for Advanced Studies in Physical Sciences, Faculty of Physics and Astronomy, Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, D-44780 Bochum (Germany)

2010-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

316

Effect of Direct Radiative Forcing of Asian Dust on the Meteorological Fields in East Asia during an Asian Dust Event Period  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Coupled and noncoupled models in a grid of 60 × 60 km2 in the eastern Asian domain have been employed to examine the effect of the direct radiative forcing of the Asian dust aerosol on meteorological fields for an intense Asian dust event ...

Hyun-Ju Ahn; Soon-Ung Park; Lim-Seok Chang

2007-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

Canadian House Dust Study: Lead Bioaccessibility and Speciation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Vacuum samples were collected from 1025 randomly selected urban Canadian homes to investigate bioaccessible Pb (Pb{sub S}) concentrations in settled house dust. Results indicate a polymodal frequency distribution, consisting of three lognormally distributed subpopulations defined as 'urban background' (geomean 58 {micro}g g{sup -1}), 'elevated' (geomean 447 {micro}g g{sup -1}), and 'anomalous' (geomean 1730 {micro}g g{sup -1}). Dust Pb{sub S} concentrations in 924 homes (90%) fall into the 'urban background' category. The elevated and anomalous subpopulations predominantly consist of older homes located in central core areas of cities. The influence of house age is evidenced by a moderate correlation between house age and dust Pb{sub S} content (R{sup 2} = 0.34; n = 1025; p < 0.01), but it is notable that more than 10% of homes in the elevated/anomalous category were built after 1980. Conversely, the benefit of home remediation is evidenced by the large number of homes (33%) in the background category that were built before 1960. The dominant dust Pb species determined using X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy were as follows: Pb carbonate, Pb hydroxyl carbonate, Pb sulfate, Pb chromate, Pb oxide, Pb citrate, Pb metal, Pb adsorbed to Fe- and Al-oxyhydroxides, and Pb adsorbed to humate. Pb bioaccessibility estimated from solid phase speciation predicts Pb bioaccessibility measured using a simulated gastric extraction (R{sup 2} = 0.85; n = 12; p < 0.0001). The trend toward increased Pb bioaccessibility in the elevated and anomalous subpopulations (75% {+-} 18% and 81% {+-} 8%, respectively) compared to background (63% {+-} 18%) is explained by the higher proportion of bioaccessible compounds used as pigments in older paints (Pb carbonate and Pb hydroxyl carbonate). This population-based study provides a nationally representative urban baseline for applications in human health risk assessment and risk management.

P Rasmussen; S Beauchemin; M Chenier; C Levesque; L MacLean; L Marrow; H Jones-Otazo; S Petrovic; L McDonald; H Gardner

2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

318

Dust Static Spherically Symmetric Solution in $f(R)$ Gravity  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this paper, we take dust matter and investigate static spherically symmetric solution of the field equations in metric f(R) gravity. The solution is found with constant Ricci scalar curvature and its energy distribution is evaluated by using Landau-Lifshitz energy-momentum complex. We also discuss the stability condition and constant scalar curvature condition for some specific popular choices of f(R) models in addition to their energy distribution.

Muhammad Sharif; Hafiza Rizwana Kausar

2011-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

319

Carbon formation and metal dusting in advanced coal gasification processes  

SciTech Connect

The product gases generated by coal gasification systems contain high concentrations of CO and, characteristically, have relatively high carbon activities. Accordingly, carbon deposition and metal dusting can potentially degrade the operation of such gasifier systems. Therefore, the product gas compositions of eight representative gasifier systems were examined with respect to the carbon activity of the gases at temperatures ranging from 480 to 1,090 C. Phase stability calculations indicated that Fe{sub 3}C is stable only under very limited thermodynamic conditions and with certain kinetic assumptions and that FeO and Fe{sub 0.877}S tend to form instead of the carbide. As formation of Fe{sub 3}C is a necessary step in the metal dusting of steels, there are numerous gasifier environments where this type of carbon-related degradation will not occur, particularly under conditions associated with higher oxygen and sulfur activities. These calculations also indicated that the removal of H{sub 2}S by a hot-gas cleanup system may have less effect on the formation of Fe{sub 3}C in air-blown gasifier environments, where the iron oxide phase can exist and is unaffected by the removal of sulfur, than in oxygen-blown systems, where iron sulfide provides the only potential barrier to Fe{sub 3}C formation. Use of carbon- and/or low-alloy steels dictates that the process gas composition be such that Fe{sub 3}C cannot form if the potential for metal dusting is to be eliminated. Alternatively, process modifications could include the reintroduction of hydrogen sulfide, cooling the gas to perhaps as low as 400 C and/or steam injection. If higher-alloy steels are used, a hydrogen sulfide-free gas may be processed without concern about carbon deposition and metal dusting.

DeVan, J.H.; Tortorelli, P.F.; Judkins, R.R.; Wright, I.G.

1997-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

320

The Use of Oil Refinery Wastes as a Dust Suppression Surfactant for Use in Mining  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this research, the suitability of a selection of petroleum refinery wastes as a dust suppressant were examined. Dust is a significant problem in surface and underground mining mainly because of its adverse effects on human health and machinery. Hence, dust control and suppression is a vital part of mine planning for mining engineers. Water is the oldest and the cheapest suppressant in dealing with the mine dusts. However, surfactant use has recently been used for a wider range of applications in the mining industry. In order to carry out laboratory experiments, a dust chamber was designed and manufactured. The chamber has an inlet for coal dust entrance and a nozzle for spraying water and the oil refinery wastes. Water and the surfactants were mixed at various ratios and then sprayed onto the coal dusts within the cell. Dust concentration was measured systematically to determine the effects of surfactant containing solution on the coal dust and the data obtained by the measurements were analyzed. The results showed that the oil refinery wastes could be used as a dust suppressant, which may create an economical utilization for the wastes concerned.

Dixon-Hardy, D.W.; Beyhan, S.; Ediz, I.G.; Erarslan, K. [University of Leeds, Leeds (United Kingdom)

2008-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dust smoke fly" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Smoking and Ischemic Heart Disease Disparities Between Studies, Genders, Times, and Socioeconomic Strata  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

predictors of coronary heart disease among women. Americanon the risk for coronary heart disease even stronger thanx Smoking and Ischemic Heart Disease Disparities Between

Leistikow, Bruce N.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

322

Cost-effectiveness of bupropion, nortriptyline, and psychological intervention in smoking cessation.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

+ Placebo + Nortrip + Bup + MM MM/PI MM MM Table 2 Cost andincremental cost-effectiveness of smoking cessationestimates) Subjects Cost per person treated Percent Mean

Hall, Sharon M; Lightwood, James M; Humfleet, Gary L; Bostrom, Alan; Reus, Victor I; Muñoz, Ricardo

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

323

Smoke-free Movies from Evidence to Action 2nd Edition  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

TFI as follows: Tobacco Free Initiative (TFI) World Healthwww.who.int/tobacco Tobacco Free Initiative (TFI) 20, Avenuesecond edition Smoke-free movies: From evidence to action

WHO

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

324

GRAIN SORTING IN COMETARY DUST FROM THE OUTER SOLAR NEBULA  

SciTech Connect

Most young stars are surrounded by a disk of gas and dust. Close to the hot stars, amorphous dust grains from the parent molecular cloud are reprocessed into crystals that are then distributed throughout the accretion disk. In some disks, there is a reduction in crystalline grain size with heliocentric distance from the star. We investigated crystalline grain size distributions in chondritic porous (CP) interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) believed to be from small, icy bodies that accreted in outer regions of the solar nebula. The grains are Mg-rich silicates and Fe-rich sulfides, the two most abundant minerals in CP IDPs. We find that they are predominantly <0.25 {mu}m in radius with a mean grain size that varies from one CP IDP to another. We report a size-density relationship between the silicates and sulfides. A similar size-density relationship between much larger silicate and sulfide grains in meteorites from the asteroid belt is ascribed to aerodynamic sorting. Since the silicate and sulfide grains in CP IDPs are theoretically too small for aerodynamic sorting, their size-density relationship may be due to another process capable of sorting small grains.

Wozniakiewicz, P. J.; Bradley, J. P.; Ishii, H. A. [Institute of Geophysics and Planetary Physics, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Brownlee, D. E. [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Kearsley, A. T. [Department of Mineralogy, Natural History Museum, London SW7 5BD (United Kingdom); Burchell, M. J.; Price, M. C., E-mail: P.Wozniakiewicz@kent.ac.uk [School of Physical Sciences, University of Kent, Canterbury, Kent CT2 7NH (United Kingdom)

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

325

Low intensity dust ion-acoustic shock waves due to dust charge fluctuation in a nonextensive dusty plasma  

SciTech Connect

The properties of low intensity dust ion acoustic shock waves are studied in a charge varying dusty plasma with nonextensive electrons. Owing to the departure from the Maxwellian electron distribution to a nonextensive one, the modified electrostatic charging of a spherical dust particle in plasma with ion streaming speed is considered. Based on the weakly nonlinear analysis, a new relationship between the low intensity localized disturbances and nonextensive electrons is derived. It is found that both strength and steepness of shock structures arise as the electrons evolve far from their thermodynamic equilibrium in such plasma with parameter ranges corresponding to Saturn's rings. It is also shown that the ion temperature and population of electrons reduce the possibility of the formation of the shock profile.

Alinejad, H. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Basic Science, Babol University of Technology, Babol 47148-71167 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shahmansory, M. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Arak University, Arak 38156-8-8349 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2012-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

326

The collision effect between dust grains and ions to the dust ion acoustic waves in a dusty plasma  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Damping solitary wave in dusty plasma is studied by considering the collision effect between dust grains and ions. It can be described by a KdV type equation in which a damping term of {phi}{sup 2} exist. It is found that both the amplitude and propagation velocity of the solitary wave decrease with time exponentially. Our results are compared with another KdV type equation with the damping term of {phi}. It is noted that the damping rate of the KdV type equation with the damping term of {phi}{sup 2} is larger than that with the term of {phi}. It is found that the damping rate is proportional to the collision frequency between dust grains and ions.

Yang Xue; Wang Canglong; Liu Congbo; Zhang Jianrong; Shi Yuren; Duan Wenshan [College of Physics and Electronic Engineering and Joint Laboratory of Atomic and Molecular Physics of NWNU and IMP CAS, Northwest Normal University, Lanzhou 730070 (China) and Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Yang Lei [College of Physics and Electronic Engineering and Joint Laboratory of Atomic and Molecular Physics of NWNU and IMP CAS, Northwest Normal University, Lanzhou 730070 (China) and Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Department of Physics, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China)

2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

327

Growth and elemental accumulation by canola on soil amended with coal fly ash  

SciTech Connect

To explore the agronomic potential of an Australian coal fly ash, we conducted two glasshouse experiments in which we measured chlorophyll fluorescence, CO{sub 2} assimilation (A), transpiration, stomatal conductance, biomass accumulation, seed yield, and elemental uptake for canola (Brassica napus) grown on soil amended with an alkaline fly ash. In Experiment 1, application of up to 25 Mg/ha of fly ash increased A and plant weight early in the season before flowering and seed yield by up to 21%. However, at larger rates of ash application A, plant growth, chlorophyll concentration, and yield were all reduced. Increases in early vigor and seed yield were associated with enhanced uptake of phosphorus (P) by the plants treated with fly ash. Fly ash application did not influence accumulation of B, Cu, Mo, or Zn in the stems at any stage of plant growth or in the seed at harvest, except Mo concentration, which was elevated in the seed. Accumulation of these elements was mostly in the leaves, where concentrations of Cu and Mo increased with any amount of ash applied while that of B occurred only with ash applied at 625 Mg/ha. In Experiment 2, fly ash applied at 500 Mg/ha and mixed into the whole 30 cm soil core was detrimental to growth and yield of canola, compared with restricting mixing to 5 or 15 cm depth. In contrast, application of ash at 250 Mg/ha with increasing depth of mixing increased A and seed yield. We concluded that fly ash applied at not more than 25 Mg/ha and mixed into the top 10 to 15 cm of soil is sufficient to obtain yield benefits.

Yunusa, I.A.M.; Manoharan, V.; DeSilva, D.L.; Eamus, D.; Murray, B.R.; Nissanka, S.P. [University of Technology Sydney, Sydney, NSW (Australia)

2008-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

328

Assessing the Exposure and Health Risks of Secondhand Smoke in Restaurants and Bars by Workers and Patrons & Evaluating the Efficacy of Different Smoking Policies in Beijing Restaurants and Bars  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Ban in Minnesota Bars and Restaurants." American Journal ofof second-hand smoke in restaurants and bars in five citiesof second-hand smoke in restaurants and bars in five cities

Liu, Ruiling

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

329

A dichotomy in the orientation of dust and radio jets in nearby low-power radio galaxies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We examine the properties of central dust in nearby quiescent and active early-type galaxies. The active galaxies are low-power radio galaxies with Fanaroff & Riley Type I or I/II radio jets. We focus on the comparison of the dust distributions in the active and quiescent galaxy samples and the relation between the radio jet and dust orientations. Our main observational conclusions are: (a) radio galaxies contain a higher fraction of regular dust 'ellipses' compared to quiescent galaxies which contain more often irregular dust distributions; (b) the morphology, size and orientation of dust ellipses and lanes in quiescent early-types and active early-types with kpc-scale radio jets is very similar; (c) dust ellipses are aligned with the major axis of the galaxy, dust lanes do not show a preferred alignment except for large (>kpc) dust lanes which are aligned with the minor axis of the galaxy. Dust morphologies can be classified as regular 'ellipses' and filamentary 'lanes'. We show that the dust ellipses are consistent with being nearly circular thin disks viewed at random viewing angles. The lanes are likely warped dust structures, which may be in the process of settling down to become regular disks or are being perturbed by a non-gravitational force. We use the observed dust-jet orientations to constrain the three-dimensional angle $\\theta_{\\rm DJ}$ between jet and dust. For dust-lane galaxies, the jet is approximately perpendicular to the dust structure, while for dust-ellipse galaxies there is a much wider distribution of $\\theta_{\\rm DJ}$. We discuss two scenarios that could explain the dust/jet/galaxy orientation dichotomy. (abridged)

Gijs Verdoes Kleijn; Tim de Zeeuw

2005-02-03T23:59:59.000Z

330

ITP Materials: Poster - Development of Materials Resistant to Metal Dusting Degradation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

metal dusting phenomenon metal dusting phenomenon in simulated process environments ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ ITP Materials, Sensors, and Automation, and Glass Project and Portfolio Review Meeting, June 21-24, Arlington, Virginia. K. Natesan, Z. Zeng, and D. L. Rink Energy Technology Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois, 60439 Introduction Metal dusting is a metal loss process that occurs in hot reactive gases The prerequisite for metal dusting is that carbon activity in the gas phase has to be >>1 Metal ends up as fine powder Pitting and crevice attack are common forms

331

Clementine Observations of the Zodiacal Light and the Dust Content of the Inner Solar System  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Using the Moon to occult the Sun, the Clementine spacecraft used its navigation cameras to map the inner zodiacal light at optical wavelengths over elongations of 3-30 degrees from the Sun. This surface brightness map is then used to infer the spatial distribution of interplanetary dust over heliocentric distances of about 10 solar radii to the orbit of Venus. We also apply a simple model that attributes the zodiacal light as being due to three dust populations having distinct inclination distributions, namely, dust from asteroids and Jupiter-family comets (JFCs), dust from Halley-type comets, and an isotropic cloud of dust from Oort Cloud comets. The best-fitting scenario indicates that asteroids + JFCs are the source of about 45% of the optical dust cross-section seen in the ecliptic at 1 AU, but that at least 89% of the dust cross-section enclosed by a 1 AU radius sphere is of a cometary origin. When these results are extrapolated out to the asteroid belt, we find an upper limit on the mass of the light-reflecting asteroidal dust that is equivalent to a 12 km asteroid, and a similar extrapolation of the isotropic dust cloud out to Oort Cloud distances yields a mass equivalent to a 30 km comet, although the latter mass is uncertain by orders of magnitude.

J. M. Hahn; H. A. Zook; B. Cooper; B. Sunkara

2002-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

332

Heterogeneous chemistry of atmospheric mineral dust particles and their resulting cloud-nucleation properties  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

global emissions of reactive chlorine from anthropogenic andnatural sources: Reactive Chlorine Emissions Inventory, J.Mineral dust is a sink for chlorine in the marine boundary

Sullivan, Ryan Christopher

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

333

Coal dust exposure among power station workers during normal operations at Hatfield's Ferry Power Station.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Changes in coal composition could produce higher levels of coal dust exposure thanthose found in the past at Hatfield's Ferry Power Station. Air sampling was… (more)

Lewis, Christian S.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

334

A Fluorescent Aerogel for Capture and Identification of Interplanetary and Interstellar Dust  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Contemporary interstellar dust has never been analyzed in the laboratory, despite its obvious astronomical importance and its potential as a probe of stellar nucleosynthesis and galactic chemical evolution. Here we report the discovery of a novel fluorescent aerogel which is capable of capturing hypervelocity dust grains and passively recording their kinetic energies. An array of these “calorimetric” aerogel collectors in low earth orbit would lead to the capture and identification of large numbers of interstellar dust grains. Subject headings: astrochemistry — instrumentation: detectors — interplanetary medium — dust, extinction — meteors, meteoroids — techniques: image processing 1.

Gerardo Domínguez; Andrew J. Westphal; Mark L. F. Phillips; Steven M. Jones

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

Tobacco Interests or the Public Interests: Twenty-years of Tobacco Industry Strategies to Undermine Airline Smoking Restrictions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Science Monitor. The Tobacco Industry's Smoke Screen. 16 AugMar 2005. The Tobacco Industry's Smoke Screen. CongressionalAccessed 22 Mar 2005. Tobacco Industry Awards Its Friends. 5

Lopipero, Peggy M.P.H.; Bero, Lisa A. Ph.D.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

336

Role of fly ash in the removal of organic pollutants from wastewater  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Fly ash, a relatively abundant and inexpensive material, is currently being investigated as an adsorbent for the removal of various organic pollutants from wastewater. The wastewater contains various types of phenolic compounds, such as chloro, nitro, amino, and other substituted compounds. Various types of pesticides, such as lindane, malathion, carbofuran, etc., and dyes, such as, methylene blue, crystal violet, malachite green, etc., are also present in the wastewater. These contaminants pollute the water stream. These organic pollutants, such as phenolic compounds, pesticides, and dyes, etc., can be removed very effectively using fly ash as adsorbent. This article presents a detailed review on the role of fly ash in the removal of organic pollutants from wastewater. Adsorption of various pollutants using fly ash has been reviewed. The adsorption mechanism and other influencing factors, favorable conditions, and competitive ions, etc., on the adsorption process have also been discussed in this paper. It is evident from the review that fly ash has demonstrated good removal capabilities for various organic compounds. 171 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.

M. Ahmaruzzaman [National Institute of Technology, Silchar (India). Department of Chemistry

2009-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

337

Dynamics of fire plumes and smoke clouds associated with peat and deforestation fires in Indonesia  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Dynamics of fire plumes and smoke clouds associated with peat and deforestation fires in Indonesia), Dynamics of fire plumes and smoke clouds associated with peat and deforestation fires in Indonesia, J in Indonesia occur more frequently during El Niño droughts, when farmers take advantage of drier fuels

Zender, Charles

338

Nucleation Scavenging of Smoke Particles and Simulated Drop Size Distributions over Large Biomass Fires  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A prescribed burn experiment was conducted in Hardiman Township, Ontario, Canada in August 1987. The fire was of adequate intensity to force the formation of a cumulus cloud, and much of the smoke passed through this cloud. The smoke plume and ...

Catherine C. Chuang; Yoyce E. Penner; Leslie L. Edwards

1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

339

Influence of charging process and size distribution of dust grain on the electric conductivity of dusty plasma  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The effects of dust size distribution and charging process of dust grains on the complex electric conductivity of dusty plasmas have been investigated in the present paper. Comparisons are made between real dusty plasma in which there are many different dust grain species and the mono-sized dusty plasma (MDP) in which there is only one kind of dust grain whose size is the average dust size. In some cases the complex electric conductivity of real dusty plasma is larger than that of MDP, while in other cases it is smaller than that of MDP, it depends on the dust size distribution function.

Duan Jizheng; Wang Canglong; Zhang Jianrong; Ma Shengqian; Hong Xueren; Sun Jianan [College of Physics and Electronic Engineering and Joint Laboratory of Atomic and Molecular Physics of NWNU and IMP CAS, Northwest Normal University, Lanzhou 730070 (China) and Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Duan Wenshan [College of Physics and Electronic Engineering and Joint Laboratory of Atomic and Molecular Physics of NWNU and IMP CAS, Northwest Normal University, Lanzhou 730070 (China) and Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Key Laboratory of Atomic and Molecular Physics and Functional Materials of Gansu Province, College of Physics and Electronic Engineering, Northwest Normal University, Lanzhou 730070 (China); Yang Lei [College of Physics and Electronic Engineering and Joint Laboratory of Atomic and Molecular Physics of NWNU and IMP CAS, Northwest Normal University, Lanzhou 730070 (China) and Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Department of Physics, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China)

2012-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

340

Home radon monitor modeled after the common smoke detector  

SciTech Connect

The EPA has declared that five million or so of the nation`s 80 million homes may have indoor radon levels that pose an unacceptably high risk of lung cancer to occupants. They estimate that four times as many people die from radon-induced lung cancers as from fires in the home. Therefore the EPA has recommended that all homes be tested and that action be taken to reduce the radon concentration in homes that test above the 4 pCi/L level. The push to have homeowners voluntarily test for elevated radon levels has been only marginally successful. A reliable, inexpensive, and accurate in-home radon monitor designed along the same general lines as a home smoke detector might overcome much of the public reluctance to test homes for radon. Such a Home Radon Monitor (HRM) is under development at Los Alamos National Laboratory. To be acceptable to the public, HRMs should have the following characteristics in common with smoke detectors: low cost, small size, ease of installation and use, low maintenance, and high performance. Recent advances in Long-Range Alpha Detection technology are being used in the design of a HRM that should meet or exceed all these characteristics. A proof-of-principle HRM detector prototype has been constructed and results from tests of this prototype will be presented.

Bolton, R.D.; Arnone, G.J.; Johnson, J.P.

1995-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dust smoke fly" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

A classification of spherically symmetric self-similar dust models  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We classify all spherically symmetric dust solutions of Einstein's equations which are self-similar in the sense that all dimensionless variables depend only upon $z\\equiv r/t$. We show that the equations can be reduced to a special case of the general perfect fluid models with equation of state $p=\\alpha \\mu$. The most general dust solution can be written down explicitly and is described by two parameters. The first one (E) corresponds to the asymptotic energy at large $|z|$, while the second one (D) specifies the value of z at the singularity which characterizes such models. The E=D=0 solution is just the flat Friedmann model. The 1-parameter family of solutions with z>0 and D=0 are inhomogeneous cosmological models which expand from a Big Bang singularity at t=0 and are asymptotically Friedmann at large z; models with E>0 are everywhere underdense relative to Friedmann and expand forever, while those with E0 ones. The 2-parameter solutions with D>0 again represent inhomogeneous cosmological models but the Big Bang singularity is at $z=-1/D$, the Big Crunch singularity is at $z=+1/D$, and any particular solution necessarily spans both z0. While there is no static model in the dust case, all these solutions are asymptotically ``quasi-static'' at large $|z|$. As in the D=0 case, the ones with $E \\ge 0$ expand or contract monotonically but the latter may now contain a naked singularity. The ones with E<0 expand from or recollapse to a second singularity, the latter containing a black hole.

B. J. Carr

2000-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

342

Novel methods for respirable dust removal. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Two novel devices with potential for controlling emissions of dust particles in the respirable size range (0.3 to 3 microns) are the electrostatically enhanced cyclone (or electrocyclone) and acoustic agglomeration. The electrocyclone combines electrostatic, inertial forces and larger unit size compared to conventional cyclones to achieve improved performance. The acoustic agglomerator uses an oscillating acoustic flow field to cause particle collision and agglomeration. The resulting large particles are then more readily separable by conventional methods. The application of these novel methods to respirable dust control in pressurized fluidized-bed combustion and conventional pulverized coal combustion for electric power generation is explored in this study. In a PFBC power plant, dust particles entrained in the combustion gases must be removed at high temperature and pressure in order to protect a gas turbine from erosion. A key technical issue in this application is whether the hot gas cleanup equipment can satisfy the NSPS, or whether supplementary stack gas cleanup, such as a baghouse, is required downstream of the gas turbine. The potential of both the electrocyclone and the acoustic agglomerator for achieving NSPS ahead of the gas turbine has been assessed. In conventional PC power plants, particulate cleanup is normally accomplished with electrostatic precipitators. However, plants burning low sulfur western coals have experienced difficulty achieving adequate particulate emissions control with electrostatic precipitators, due to the high resistivity of the coal ash. For these applications the electrocyclone or an acoustic agglomerator coupled with either an electrocyclone or more conventional removal technique, might prove attractive. The principal conclusions drawn from the work performed and the recommendations based on the results are detailed. (LTN)

1980-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

343

Volumetric measurements of a spatially growing dust acoustic wave  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this study, tomographic particle image velocimetry (tomo-PIV) techniques are used to make volumetric measurements of the dust acoustic wave (DAW) in a weakly coupled dusty plasma system in an argon, dc glow discharge plasma. These tomo-PIV measurements provide the first instantaneous volumetric measurement of a naturally occurring propagating DAW. These measurements reveal over the measured volume that the measured wave mode propagates in all three spatial dimensional and exhibits the same spatial growth rate and wavelength in each spatial direction.

Williams, Jeremiah D. [Physics Department, Wittenberg University, Springfield, Ohio 45504 (United States)

2012-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

344

Collapsing Inhomogeneous Dust Fluid in the Background of Dark Energy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In the present work, gravitational collapse of an inhomogeneous spherical star model, consisting of inhomogeneous dust fluid (dark matter) in the background of dark energy is considered. The collapsing process is examined first separately for both dark matter and dark energy and then under the combined effect of dark matter and dark energy with or without interaction. The dark energy is considered in the form of perfect fluid and both marginally and non-marginally bound cases are considered for the collapsing model. Finally dark energy in the form of anisotropic fluid is investigated and it is found to be similar to ref. [12

Tanwi Bandyopadhyay; Subenoy Chakraborty

2006-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

345

Particle creation in (2+1) circular dust collapse  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We investigate the quantum particle creation during the circularly symmetric collapse of a 2+1 dust cloud, for the cases when the cosmological constant is either zero or negative. We derive the Ford-Parker formula for the 2+1 case, which can be used to compute the radiated quantum flux in the geometric optics approximation. It is shown that no particles are created when the collapse ends in a naked singularity, unlike in the 3+1 case. When the collapse ends in a BTZ black hole, we recover the expected Hawking radiation. 1

Sashideep Gutti; T. P. Singh

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

346

The FlyBase database of the Drosophila genome projects andcommunity literature  

SciTech Connect

FlyBase (http://flybase.bio.indiana.edu/) provides an integrated view of the fundamental genomic and genetic data on the major genetic model Drosophila melanogaster and related species. FlyBase has primary responsibility for the continual reannotation of the D.melanogaster genome. The ultimate goal of the reannotation effort is to decorate the euchromatic sequence of the genome with as much biological information as is available from the community and from the major genome project centers. A complete revision of the annotations of the now-finished euchromatic genomic sequence has been completed. There are many points of entry to the genome within FlyBase, most notably through maps, gene products and ontologies, structured phenotypic and gene expression data, and anatomy.

Gelbart, William; Bayraktaroglu, Leyla; Bettencourt, Brian; Campbell, Kathy; Crosby, Madeline; Emmert, David; Hradecky, Pavel; Huang,Yanmei; Letovsky, Stan; Matthews, Beverly; Russo, Susan; Schroeder,Andrew; Smutniak, Frank; Zhou, Pinglei; Zytkovicz, Mark; Ashburner,Michael; Drysdale, Rachel; de Grey, Aubrey; Foulger, Rebecca; Millburn,Gillian; Yamada, Chihiro; Kaufman, Thomas; Matthews, Kathy; Gilbert, Don; Grumbling, Gary; Strelets, Victor; Shemen, C.; Rubin, Gerald; Berman,Brian; Frise, Erwin; Gibson, Mark; Harris, Nomi; Kaminker, Josh; Lewis,Suzanna; Marshall, Brad; Misra, Sima; Mungall, Christopher; Prochnik,Simon; Richter, John; Smith, Christopher; Shu, ShengQiang; Tupy,Jonathan; Wiel, Colin

2002-09-16T23:59:59.000Z

347

Evaluating the Effects of the Kingston Fly Ash Release on Fish Reproduction: Spring 2009 - 2010 Studies  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

On December 22, 2008, a dike containing fly ash and bottom ash at the Tennessee Valley Authority's (TVA) Kingston Fossil Plant in East Tennessee failed and released a large quantity of ash into the adjacent Emory River. Ash deposits from the spill extended 4 miles upstream of the facility to Emory River mile 6 and downstream to Tennessee River mile 564 ({approx}8.5 miles downstream of the confluence of the Emory River with the Clinch River, and {approx}4 miles downstream of the confluence of the Clinch River with the Tennessee River). A byproduct of coal combustion, fly ash contains a variety of metals and other elements which, at sufficient concentrations and in specific forms, can be harmful to biological systems. The ecological effects of fly ash contamination on exposed fish populations depend on the magnitude and duration of exposure, with the most significant risk considered to come from elevated levels of certain metals in the ash, particularly selenium, on fish reproduction and fish early life stages (Lemly 1993; Besser and others 1996). The ovaries of adult female fish in a lake contaminated by coal ash were reported to have an increased frequency of atretic oocytes (dead or damaged immature eggs) and reductions in the overall numbers of developing oocytes (Sorensen 1988) associated with elevated body burdens of selenium. Larval fish exposed to selenium through maternal transfer of contaminants to developing eggs in either contaminated bodies of water (Lemly 1999) or in experimental laboratory exposures (Woock and others 1987, Jezierska and others 2009) have significantly increased incidences of developmental abnormalities. Contact of fertilized eggs and developing embryos to ash in water and sediments may also pose an additional risk to the early life stages of exposed fish populations through direct uptake of metals and other ash constituents (Jezierska and others 2009). The establishment and maintenance of fish populations is intimately associated with the ability of individuals within a population to reproduce. Reproduction is thus generally considered to be the most critical life function affected by environmental contamination. From a regulatory perspective, the issue of potential contaminant-related effects on fish reproduction from the Kingston fly ash spill has particular significance because the growth and propagation of fish and other aquatic life is a specific classified use of the affected river systems. To address the potential effects of fly ash from the Kingston spill on the reproductive health of exposed fish populations, ORNL has undertaken a series of studies in collaboration with TVA that include: (1) a combined field study of metal bioaccumulation in ovaries and other fish tissues (Adams and others 2012) and the reproductive condition of sentinel fish species in reaches of the Emory and Clinch Rivers affected by the fly ash spill (the current report); (2) laboratory tests of the potential toxicity of fly ash from the spill area on fish embryonic and larval development (Greeley and others 2012); (3) additional laboratory experimentation focused on the potential effects of long-term exposures to fly ash on fish survival and reproductive competence (unpublished); and (4) a combined field and laboratory study examining the in vitro developmental success of embryos and larvae obtained from fish exposed in vivo for over two years to fly ash in the Emory and Clinch Rivers (unpublished). The current report focuses on the reproductive condition of adult female fish in reaches of the Emory and Clinch Rivers influenced by the fly ash spill at the beginning of the spring 2009 breeding season - the first breeding season immediately following the fly ash release - and during the subsequent spring 2010 breeding season. Data generated from this and related reproductive/early life stage studies provide direct input to ecological risk assessment efforts and complement and support other phases of the overall biomonitoring program associated with the fly ash spill.

Greeley Jr, Mark Stephen [ORNL; Adams, Marshall [ORNL; McCracken, Kitty [ORNL

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

348

The Effects of Trona Use in Flue Gas on Fly Ash Pond Management  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this study, researchers analyzed the effect of the use of trona on the dynamics of a fly ash pond (FAP) at a plant in Ohio, using both field and laboratory measurements. They compared the chemical concentrations and biological dynamics in the FAP from four years before the onset of trona use with those from two years after trona use was implemented. They compared the chemical composition of fly ash from two generating units with trona injection systems with that from a generating unit without trona. T...

2011-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

349

Leaching Assessment of Fly Ash, Flue Gas Desulfurization Filter Cake, and Fixated Scrubber Solids  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The by-products of coal combustion (for example, fly ash and flue gas desulfurization filter cake) are an important environmental concern due to potential leaching of trace constituents and the large volume of residues produced. About 40% of these by-products may be utilized as raw materials outside of the energy sector; the remaining 60% of the coal combustion products (CCPs) are disposed of as waste. At Plant 14090, the subject of this report, fly ash and scrubber sludge are blended with quicklime ...

2012-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

350

The role of ammonia on mercury leaching from coal fly ash Jianmin Wang a,*, Tian Wang a  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

analysis of fly ash disposal in mined areas. In: Proceedings of the 12th International Symposium on CoalThe role of ammonia on mercury leaching from coal fly ash Jianmin Wang a,*, Tian Wang a , Harmanjit, 2005). CAIR permanently caps emissions of NOx and SOx from large stationary sources including coal

Ragsdell, Kenneth M.

351

Impact of Desert Dust Radiative Forcing on Sahel Precipitation: Relative Importance of Dust Compared to Sea Surface Temperature Variations, Vegetation Changes, and Greenhouse Gas Warming  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The role of direct radiative forcing of desert dust aerosol in the change from wet to dry climate observed in the African Sahel region in the last half of the twentieth century is investigated using simulations with an atmospheric general ...

Masaru Yoshioka; Natalie M. Mahowald; Andrew J. Conley; William D. Collins; David W. Fillmore; Charles S. Zender; Dani B. Coleman

2007-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

352

Roles of saltation, sandblasting, and wind speed variability on mineral dust aerosol size distribution during the Puerto Rican Dust Experiment (PRIDE)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Plumes arriving at Puerto Rico during the night would not beD > 5 µm) modeled at Puerto Rico. Assuming that the coarsetechniques during the Puerto Rico Dust Experiment (PRIDE)

Grini, A; Zender, C S

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

353

Mechanical Properties and Durability of Concrete Made with High-Volume Fly Ash Blended Cement Produced in a Cement Plant: Commercial -Scale Trial Results  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This interim report documents the preliminary results of the commercial-scale production of a high-volume fly ash (HVFA) blended cement, using up to 55 percent fly ash to replace the portland cement.

2000-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

354

Dust Grain-Size Distributions From MRN to MEM  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Employing the Maximum Entropy Method algorithm, we fit interstellar extinction measurements which span the wavelength range 0.125-3 micron. We present a uniform set of MEM model fits, all using the same grain materials, optical constants and abundance constraints. In addition, we are taking advantage of improved UV and IR data and better estimates of the gas-to-dust ratio. The model fits cover the entire range of extinction properties that have been seen in the Galaxy and the Magellanic Clouds. The grain models employed for this presentation are the simplistic homogeneous spheres models (i.e., Mathis, Rumpl, & Nordsieck 1977) with two (graphite, silicate) or three (graphite, silicate, amorphous carbon) components. Though such usage is only a first step, the results do provide interesting insight into the use of grain size as a diagnostic of dust environment. We find that the SMC Bar extinction curve cannot be fit using carbon grains alone. This is a challenge to the recent observational result indicating little silicon depletion in the SMC.

Geoffrey C. Clayton; Michael J. Wolff; Ulysses J. Sofia; K. D. Gordon; K. A. Misselt

2003-01-24T23:59:59.000Z

355

Growth of Dust as the Initial Step Toward Planet Formation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We discuss the results of laboratory measurements and theoretical models concerning the aggregation of dust in protoplanetary disks, as the initial step toward planet formation. Small particles easily stick when they collide and form aggregates with an open, often fractal structure, depending on the growth process. Larger particles are still expected to grow at collision velocities of about 1m/s. Experiments also show that, after an intermezzo of destructive velocities, high collision velocities above 10m/s on porous materials again lead to net growth of the target. Considerations of dust-gas interactions show that collision velocities for particles not too different in surface-to-mass ratio remain limited up to sizes about 1m, and growth seems to be guaranteed to reach these sizes quickly and easily. For meter sizes, coupling to nebula turbulence makes destructive processes more likely. Global aggregation models show that in a turbulent nebula, small particles are swept up too fast to be consistent with observations of disks. An extended phase may therefore exist in the nebula during which the small particle component is kept alive through collisions driven by turbulence which frustrates growth to planetesimals until conditions are more favorable for one or more reasons.

C. Dominik; J. Blum; J. Cuzzi; G. Wurm

2006-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

356

Distribution of Cold dust in Orion A and B  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Large scale far-infrared (FIR) observations of the Orion complex at 205 and 138 micron are presented with an aim of studying the distribution of cold (< 25 K) dust. The maps in these FIR bands extend over approximately 3600 sq. arcmin and cover regions around OMC-1, 2, 3 in Orion A and NGC 2023 and NGC 2024 in Orion B. Some limited regions have also been mapped at 57 micron. A total of 15 sources in Orion A and 14 in Orion B (south) have been identified from our FIR maps. Dust temperature distribution in both Orion A and Orion B (south) have been determined reliably using the maps at 205 & 138 micron obtained from simultaneous observations using almost identical beams (1.6 dia). These temperatures have been used to generate map of the optical depth at 150 micron, for the Orion B region. The coldest source detected is in OMC-3 and has a temperature of about 15 K. The diffuse FIR emission in the different sub-regions is found to vary between 25% to 50% of the total FIR emission from that sub-region.

Mookerjea, B; Rengarajan, T N; Tandon, S N; Verma, R P

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

357

Distribution of Cold dust in Orion A and B  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Large scale far-infrared (FIR) observations of the Orion complex at 205 and 138 micron are presented with an aim of studying the distribution of cold (< 25 K) dust. The maps in these FIR bands extend over approximately 3600 sq. arcmin and cover regions around OMC-1, 2, 3 in Orion A and NGC 2023 and NGC 2024 in Orion B. Some limited regions have also been mapped at 57 micron. A total of 15 sources in Orion A and 14 in Orion B (south) have been identified from our FIR maps. Dust temperature distribution in both Orion A and Orion B (south) have been determined reliably using the maps at 205 & 138 micron obtained from simultaneous observations using almost identical beams (1.6 dia). These temperatures have been used to generate map of the optical depth at 150 micron, for the Orion B region. The coldest source detected is in OMC-3 and has a temperature of about 15 K. The diffuse FIR emission in the different sub-regions is found to vary between 25% to 50% of the total FIR emission from that sub-region.

B. Mookerjea; S. K. Ghosh; T. N. Rengarajan; S. N. Tandon; R. P. Verma

2000-07-24T23:59:59.000Z

358

Ice Nuclei in Marine Air: Biogenic Particles or Dust?  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Ice nuclei impact clouds, but their sources and distribution in the atmosphere are still not well known. Particularly little attention has been paid to IN sources in marine environments, although evidence from field studies suggests that IN populations in remote marine regions may be dominated by primary biogenic particles associated with sea spray. In this exploratory model study, we aim to bring attention to this long-neglected topic and identify promising target regions for future field campaigns. We assess the likely global distribution of marine biogenic ice nuclei using a combination of historical observations, satellite data and model output. By comparing simulated marine biogenic immersion IN distributions and dust immersion IN distributions, we predict strong regional differences in the importance of marine biogenic IN relative to dust IN. Our analysis suggests that marine biogenic IN are most likely to play a dominant role in determining IN concentrations in near-surface-air over the Southern Ocean, so future field campaigns aimed at investigating marine biogenic IN should target that region. Climate related changes in the abundance and emission of biogenic marine IN could affect marine cloud properties, thereby introducing previously unconsidered feedbacks that influence the hydrological cycle and the Earth’s energy balance. Furthermore, marine biogenic IN may be an important aspect to consider in proposals for marine cloud brightening by artificial sea spray production.

Burrows, Susannah M.; Hoose, C.; Poschl, U.; Lawrence, M.

2013-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

359

Three-dimensional reconstruction of dust particle trajectories in the NSTXa... W. U. Boeglin,1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. Roquemore,2 and R. Maqueda3 1 Physics Department, Florida International University, 11200 SW 8th Street to be controlled for safety reasons.1 Research into dust behavior in fusion devices includes the formation of dust ac- curately the difference of the particle's brightness and the surrounding background light should

Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory

360

Understanding the Transport and Impact of African Dust on the Caribbean Basin  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Every year huge quantities of soil dust are carried by winds from Africa, across the Atlantic, and to the Caribbean. No other ocean region is so extensively and persistently impacted by such high concentrations of dust, a region that extends over 7000 km ...

Joseph M. Prospero; Olga L. Mayol-Bracero

2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

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361

The March 2009 Dust Event in Saudi Arabia: Precursor and Supportive Environment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A case study is presented of the environmental background for a massive Saudi Arabian dust storm event that took place on 10 and 11 March 2009. The dust storm was large enough to be clearly seen from outer space and caused a widespread heavy atmospheric ...

B. H. Alharbi; A. Maghrabi; N. Tapper

2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

362

Anomalous kinetic energy of a system of dust particles in a gas discharge plasma  

SciTech Connect

The system of equations of motion of dust particles in a near-electrode layer of a gas discharge has been formulated taking into account fluctuations of the charge of a dust particle and the features of the nearelectrode layer of the discharge. The molecular dynamics simulation of the system of dust particles has been carried out. Performing a theoretical analysis of the simulation results, a mechanism of increasing the average kinetic energy of dust particles in the gas discharge plasma has been proposed. According to this mechanism, the heating of the vertical oscillations of dust particles is initiated by induced oscillations generated by fluctuations of the charge of dust particles, and the energy transfer from vertical to horizontal oscillations can be based on the parametric resonance phenomenon. The combination of the parametric and induced resonances makes it possible to explain an anomalously high kinetic energy of dust particles. The estimate of the frequency, amplitude, and kinetic energy of dust particles are close to the respective experimental values.

Norman, G. E., E-mail: norman@ihed.ras.ru; Stegailov, V. V., E-mail: stegailov@gmail.com; Timofeev, A. V., E-mail: timofeevalvl@gmail.com [Russian Academy of Sciences, Joint Institute for High Temperatures (Russian Federation)

2011-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

363

Study on plasma parameters and dust charging in an electrostatically plugged multicusp plasma device  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The effect of the electrostatic confinement potential on the charging of dust grains and its relationship with the plasma parameters has been studied in an electrostatically plugged multicusp dusty plasma device. Electrostatic plugging is implemented by biasing the electrically isolated magnetic multicusp channel walls. The experimental results show that voltage applied to the channel walls can be a controlling parameter for dust charging.

Kakati, B.; Kausik, S. S.; Saikia, B. K. [Centre of Plasma Physics, Institute for Plasma Research, Nazirakhat, Sonapur-782 402, Kamrup, Assam (India); Bandyopadhyay, M. [ITER-India, Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar- 382 428 (India)

2011-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

364

Constraining Oceanic dust deposition using surface 1 ocean dissolved Al 2  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Constraining Oceanic dust deposition using surface 1 ocean dissolved Al 2 Qin Han, J. Keith Moore, Charles Zender, Chris Measures, David Hydes 3 Abstract 4 We use measurements of ocean surface dissolved Al and Deposition 6 (DEAD) model, to constrain dust deposition to the oceans. Our Al database contains 7 all

Zender, Charles

365

Modeled Downward Transport of a Passive Tracer over Western North America during an Asian Dust Event in April 1998  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An intense Gobi Desert dust storm in April 1998 loaded the midtroposphere with dust that was transported across the Pacific to western North America. The Mesoscale Compressible Community (MC2) model was used to investigate mechanisms causing ...

Joshua P. Hacker; Ian G. McKendry; Roland B. Stull

2001-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

Two Case Studies of the Transport of Dust Storm Aerosol and the Potential for Incorporation into Precipitation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

To investigate the hypothesis that dust storms enhanced the calcium concentrations in precipitation in the mid-1950s, two case studies were performed for major dust events in the southern Plains of the United States during March and April of ...

Kevin G. Doty; Richard G. Semonin

1987-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

367

Examining the Effects of Dust Aerosols on Satellite Sea Surface Temperatures in the Mediterranean Sea Using the Medspiration Matchup Database  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Dust aerosol plumes from the Sahara cover the Mediterranean Sea regularly during the summer months (June–August) and occasionally during other seasons. Dust can absorb infrared longwave radiation, thus causing a drop in sea surface temperature (...

Ana B. Ruescas; Manuel Arbelo; Jose A. Sobrino; Cristian Mattar

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

Generation of concentration density maxima of small dispersive coal dust particles in horizontal iodine air filter at air-dust aerosol blow  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The spatial distributions of the small dispersive coal dust particles with the nano and micro sizes in the granular filtering medium with the cylindrical coal granules in the absorber in the horizontal iodine air filter during its long term operation at the nuclear power plant are researched. It is shown that the concentration density maxima of the small dispersive coal dust particles appear in the granular filtering medium with the cylindrical coal absorbent granules in the horizontal iodine air filter at an action by the air dust aerosol blow. The comparison of the measured aerodynamic resistances of the horizontal and vertical iodine air filters is conducted. The main conclusion is that the magnitude of the aerodynamic resistance of the horizontal iodine air filters is much smaller in comparison with the magnitude of the aerodynamic resistance of the vertical iodine air filters at the same loads of the air dust aerosol volumes. It is explained that the direction of the air dust aerosol blow and the direction of the gravitation force in the horizontal iodine air filter are orthogonal, hence the effective accumulation of the small dispersive coal dust particles takes place at the bottom of absorber in the horizontal iodine air filter. It is found that the air dust aerosol stream flow in the horizontal iodine air filter is not limited by the appearing structures, made of the precipitated small dispersive coal dust particles, in distinction from the vertical iodine air filter, in the process of long term operation of the iodine air filters at the nuclear power plant.

I. M. Neklyudov; O. P. Ledenyov; L. I. Fedorova; P. Ya. Poltinin

2013-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

369

Bioaccumulation Studies Associated with the Kingston Fly Ash Spill, Spring 2009 - Fall 2010  

SciTech Connect

In December 2008, an ash dike at the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) Kingston Fossil Plant ruptured, releasing over one billion gallons of coal fly ash into the Emory and Clinch Rivers. Coal fly ash may contain several contaminants of concern, but of these selenium (Se) and arsenic (As) have been highlighted because of their toxicity and tendency to bioaccumulate in aquatic food chains. To assess the potential impact of the spilled fly ash on humans and the environment, a comprehensive biological and environmental monitoring program was established, for which resident aquatic organisms (among other sample media) are collected to determine contaminant exposure and evaluate the risk to humans and wildlife. Studies on bioaccumulation and fish health are major components of the TVA Biological Monitoring Program for the Kingston fly ash project. These studies were initiated in early Spring 2009 for the purposes of: (1) documenting the levels of fly ash-associated metals in various tissues of representative sentinel fish species in the area of the fly ash spill, (2) determining if exposure to fly ash-associated metals causes short, intermediate, or long-term health effects on these sentinel fish species, (3) assessing if there are causal relationships between exposure (to metals) and effects on fish, (4) evaluating, along with information regarding other ecological and physicochemical studies, the nature and route of contaminant transfer though food chains into higher level consumers, (5) providing important information for the Ecological Risk Assessment (ERA) for the Kingston fly ash project, and (6) serving as an important technology transfer or model study focused on how to best evaluate the environmental effects of fly ash, not only at the Kingston site, but also at sites on other aquatic systems where coal-fired generating stations are located. This report summarizes the bioaccumulation results from the first two years of study after the fly ash spill, including four seasonal collections: Spring 2009, Fall 2009, Spring 2010, and Fall 2010. Both the Spring and Fall studies have focused on 3-4 sentinel fish species that represent different feeding habits, behaviors, and home ranges. In addition to bioaccumulation studies, the Spring investigations also included evaluation of fish health and reproductive integrity on the same fish used for bioaccumulation. Two associated reports present the fish health (Adams et al 2012) and reproductive studies (Greeley et al 2012) conducted in 2009 and 2010. The fish health study conducted in conjunction with the bioaccumulation and reproductive study is critical for assessing and evaluating possible causal relationships between contaminant exposure (bioaccumulation) and the response of fish to exposure as reflected by the various measurements of fish health. This report emphasizes evaluation of arsenic and selenium bioaccumulation in fish and consists of four related studies (Sections 2-5) including, (1) bioaccumulation in liver and ovaries, (2) bioaccumulation in whole body gizzard shad (Dorosoma cepedianum), (3) bioaccumulation in muscle tissue or fillets, and (4) a reconstruction analysis which establishes the relationship between selenium in muscle tissue and that of the whole body of bluegill (Lepomis machrochirus). Metals other than arsenic and selenium are evaluated separately in Section 6. This report focuses on selenium and arsenic for the following reasons: (1) based on baseline studies conducted in early 2009 in the Emory and Clinch River, only two potentially fly-ash related metals, selenium and arsenic, appeared to be elevated above background or reference levels, (2) selenium and arsenic are two of the metals in coal ash that are known to bioaccumulate and cause toxicity in wildlife, and (3) based on bioaccumulation studies of bluegill and carp (Cyprinus carpio) in the Stilling Pond during Spring 2009, which would represent a worst case situation for metal bioaccumulation, selenium and arsenic were the only two metals consistently elevated above background levels in fish. E

Adams, Marshall [ORNL; Brandt, Craig C [ORNL; Fortner, Allison M [ORNL

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

370

Radiative impact of mineral dust on monsoon precipitation variability over West Africa  

SciTech Connect

The radiative forcing of dust and its impact on precipitation over the West Africa monsoon (WAM) region is simulated using a coupled meteorology and aerosol/chemistry model (WRF-Chem). During the monsoon season, dust is a dominant contributor to AOD over West Africa. In the standard simulation, on 24-hour domain average, dust has a cooling effect (-6.11 W/m2) at the surface, a warming effect (6.94 W/m2) in the atmosphere, and a relatively small TOA forcing (0.83 W/m2). Dust modifies the surface energy budget and atmospheric diabatic heating and hence causes lower atmospheric cooling in the daytime but warming in the nighttime. As a result, atmospheric stability is increased in the daytime and reduced in the nighttime, leading to a reduction of late afternoon precipitation by up to 0.14 mm/hour (30%) and an increase of nocturnal and early morning precipitation by up to 0.04 mm/hour (23%) over the WAM region. Dust-induced reduction of diurnal precipitation variation improves the simulated diurnal cycle of precipitation when compared to measurements. However, daily precipitation is only changed by a relatively small amount (-0.14 mm/day or -4%). On the other hand, sensitivity simulations show that, for weaker-to-stronger absorbing dust, dust longwave warming effect in the nighttime surpasses its shortwave cooling effect in the daytime at the surface, leading to a less stable atmosphere associated with more convective precipitation in the nighttime. As a result, the dust-induced change of daily WAM precipitation varies from a significant reduction of -0.40 mm/day (-12%, weaker absorbing dust) to a small increase of 0.05 mm/day (1%, stronger absorbing dust). This variation originates from the competition between dust impact on daytime and nighttime precipitation, which depends on dust shortwave absorption. Dust reduces the diurnal variation of precipitation regardless of its absorptivity, but more reduction is associated with stronger absorbing dust.

Zhao, Chun; Liu, Xiaohong; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Hagos, Samson M.

2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

Geek-Up[6.24.11]: Dust-sized 'Dragonfly' Device and Tiny Microvalves |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Dust-sized 'Dragonfly' Device and Tiny Dust-sized 'Dragonfly' Device and Tiny Microvalves Geek-Up[6.24.11]: Dust-sized 'Dragonfly' Device and Tiny Microvalves June 24, 2011 - 7:15pm Addthis A computer simulation of the "dragonfly-inspired" device. | Courtesy of Sandia Laboratory A computer simulation of the "dragonfly-inspired" device. | Courtesy of Sandia Laboratory Niketa Kumar Niketa Kumar Public Affairs Specialist, Office of Public Affairs What are the key facts? A dust-size "dragonfly-inspired" device -- which won a Sandia Lab design contest -- may ultimately enable the creation of tiny microvalves for experiments in biological research laboratories and medical facilities. In Sandia National Laboratories' MEMS (microelectromechanical system) University Alliance design contest, a dust-sized dragonfly and a super

372

Roles of polarization force and nonthermal electron on dust-acoustic waves in an inhomogeneous dusty plasma with positively charged dust  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The influence of polarization force (PF) (arises due to dust density inhomogeneity), nonthermal electrons, and dust density inhomogeneity associated with positively charged dust on linear dust-acoustic (DA) waves in an inhomogeneous unmagnetized dusty plasma are investigated. By taking the normal mode analysis, the dispersion relation in such a non-Maxwellian inhomogeneous plasma is obtained, and that the dispersion properties of the DA waves are significantly modified by the presence of PF and nonthermal electrons. The PF is increased with the increase of nonthermal electrons. It is found that the phase speed of the DA waves is significantly decreased with the presence of PF and nonthermal electrons. The potential associated with the DA waves is de-enhanced with the increase of equilibrium dust number density. The role of positive dust number density on dispersion properties is also shown. The present findings relevant to different scenarios in laboratory and space dusty plasma, such as Martian ionosphere, solar flares, TEXTOR-94 tokamak plasmas, rf excited argon magnetoplasma, etc., can be useful to understand the properties of localized electrostatic disturbances in those dusty plasma system, are also briefly addressed.

Asaduzzaman, M.; Mamun, A. A. [Department of Physics, Jahangirnagar University, Savar, Dhaka 1342 (Bangladesh)

2012-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

373

THE PHYSICS OF PROTOPLANETESIMAL DUST AGGLOMERATES. VII. THE LOW-VELOCITY COLLISION BEHAVIOR OF LARGE DUST AGGLOMERATES  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We performed micro-gravity collision experiments in our laboratory drop tower using 5 cm sized dust agglomerates with volume filling factors of 0.3 and 0.4, respectively. This work is an extension of our previous experiments reported in Beitz et al. to aggregates of more than one order of magnitude higher masses. The dust aggregates consisted of micrometer-sized silica particles and were macroscopically homogeneous. We measured the coefficient of restitution for collision velocities ranging from 1 cm s{sup -1} to 0.5 m s{sup -1}, and determined the fragmentation velocity. For low velocities, the coefficient of restitution decreases with increasing impact velocity, in contrast to findings by Beitz et al. At higher velocities, the value of the coefficient of restitution becomes constant, before the aggregates break at the onset of fragmentation. We interpret the qualitative change in the coefficient of restitution as the transition from a solid-body-dominated to a granular-medium-dominated behavior. We complement our experiments by molecular-dynamics simulations of porous aggregates and obtain a reasonable match to the experimental data. We discuss the importance of our experiments for protoplanetary disks, debris disks, and planetary rings. This work is an extension to the previous work of our group and gives new insight into the velocity dependency of the coefficient of restitution due to improved measurements, better statistics, and a theoretical approach.

Schraepler, Rainer; Blum, Juergen [Institut fuer Geophysik und extraterrestrische Physik, University of Braunschweig Mendelssohnstr. 3, D-38106 Braunschweig (Germany); Seizinger, Alexander; Kley, Wilhelm, E-mail: r.schraepler@tu-bs.de [Institut fuer Astronomie und Astrophysik, University of Tuebingen Auf der Morgenstelle 10, D-72076 Tuebingen (Germany)

2012-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

374

Development of Fly Ash Derived Sorbents to Capture CO2 from Flue Gas of Power Plants  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This research program focused on the development of fly ash derived sorbents to capture CO{sub 2} from power plant flue gas emissions. The fly ash derived sorbents developed represent an affordable alternative to existing methods using specialized activated carbons and molecular sieves, that tend to be very expensive and hinder the viability of the CO{sub 2} sorption process due to economic constraints. Under Task 1 'Procurement and characterization of a suite of fly ashes', 10 fly ash samples, named FAS-1 to -10, were collected from different combustors with different feedstocks, including bituminous coal, PRB coal and biomass. These samples presented a wide range of LOI value from 0.66-84.0%, and different burn-off profiles. The samples also spanned a wide range of total specific surface area and pore volume. These variations reflect the difference in the feedstock, types of combustors, collection hopper, and the beneficiation technologies the different fly ashes underwent. Under Task 2 'Preparation of fly ash derived sorbents', the fly ash samples were activated by steam. Nitrogen adsorption isotherms were used to characterize the resultant activated samples. The cost-saving one-step activation process applied was successfully used to increase the surface area and pore volume of all the fly ash samples. The activated samples present very different surface areas and pore volumes due to the range in physical and chemical properties of their precursors. Furthermore, one activated fly ash sample, FAS-4, was loaded with amine-containing chemicals (MEA, DEA, AMP, and MDEA). The impregnation significantly decreased the surface area and pore volume of the parent activated fly ash sample. Under Task 3 'Capture of CO{sub 2} by fly ash derived sorbents', sample FAS-10 and its deashed counterpart before and after impregnation of chemical PEI were used for the CO{sub 2} adsorption at different temperatures. The sample FAS-10 exhibited a CO{sub 2} adsorption capacity of 17.5mg/g at 30 C, and decreases to 10.25mg/g at 75 C, while those for de-ashed counterpart are 43.5mg/g and 22.0 mg/g at 30 C and 75 C, respectively. After loading PEI, the CO{sub 2} adsorption capacity increased to 93.6 mg/g at 75 C for de-ashed sample and 62.1 mg/g at 75 C for raw fly ash sample. The activated fly ash, FAS-4, and its chemical loaded counterparts were tested for CO{sub 2} capture capacity. The activated carbon exhibited a CO{sub 2} adsorption capacity of 40.3mg/g at 30 C that decreased to 18.5mg/g at 70 C and 7.7mg/g at 120 C. The CO{sub 2} adsorption capacity profiles changed significantly after impregnation. For the MEA loaded sample the capacity increased to 68.6mg/g at 30 C. The loading of MDEA and DEA initially decreased the CO{sub 2} adsorption capacity at 30 C compared to the parent sample but increased to 40.6 and 37.1mg/g, respectively, when the temperature increased to 70 C. The loading of AMP decrease the CO{sub 2} adsorption capacity compared to the parent sample under all the studied temperatures. Under Task 4 'Comparison of the CO{sub 2} capture by fly ash derived sorbents with commercial sorbents', the CO{sub 2} adsorption capacities of selected activated fly ash carbons were compared to commercial activated carbons. The CO{sub 2} adsorption capacity of fly ash derived activated carbon, FAS-4, and its chemical loaded counterpart presented CO{sub 2} capture capacities close to 7 wt%, which are comparable to, and even better than, the published values of 3-4%.

M. Mercedes Maroto-Valer; John M. Andresen; Yinzhi Zhang; Zhe Lu

2003-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

375

New Air-Entraining Admixtures for Concrete Using High-Carbon Fly Ash  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A promising new air-entraining admixture has been developed by the leading North American admixture producer. Independent, EPRI-sponsored testing indicated the admixture was suitable for use with concretes that contain fly ashes with levels of unburned carbon higher than the typical 3-4 percent allowed in the concrete industry.

2002-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

376

Use of High-Calcium Fly Ash in Cement-Based Construction Materials  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in blended cements with minimum (less than 10%) portland cement in the blend. Keywords: Fly ash; concrete impact assessments. INTRODUCTION #12;3 Coal is the most widely used source of energy for power production, total coal ash production in the world was estimated to be 600 million tons, of which 100 million tons

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

377

Fly ash-amended compost as a manure for agricultural crops  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Homemade organic compost prepared from lawn grass clippings was amended with fine fly ash collected from a coal-fired power plant (SRS 484.D. Savannah River Site, Aiken, SC) to investigate its usefulness as a manure in enhancing nutrient uptake and increasing dry matter yield in selected agricultural crops. Three treatments were compared: five crops (mustard, collard, string beans, bell pepper, and eggplant) were each grown on three kinds of soil: soil alone, soil amended with composted grass clippings, and soil amended with the mixed compost of grass clippings and 20% fly ash. The fly ash-amended compost was found to be effective in enhancing the dry matter yield of collard greens and mustard greens by 378% and 348%, respectively, but string beans, bell pepper, and eggplant did not show any significant increase in dry matter yield. Analysis of the above-ground biomass of these last three plants showed they assimilated high levels of boron, which is phytotoxic; and this may be the reason for their poor growth. Soils treated with fly ash-amended compost often gave higher concentrations than the control for K, Ca, Mg, S, Zn, and B in the Brassica crops. 18 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

Menon, M.P.; Sajwan, K.S.; Ghuman, G.S.; James, J.; Chandra, K. (Savannah State College, GA (United States))

1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

378

Effect of coal fly ash-amended organic compost as a manure for agricultural crops  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Coal-fired electric power plants generate large quantities of fly ash as a byproduct. In continuation of previous studies on the utilization of fly ash as an amendment to organic compost for use as a manure for agricultural crops, the authors have now determined the effects of this manure on the yield and uptake of selected elements by several plants including collard green, corn, mustard green, bell pepper, egg plant, and climbing beans. An amended compost containing 30-40% fly ash with a compost:soil ratio of 1:3 was found to be most effective to enhance the yield and nutrient uptake of most of the plants. At 20% fly ash level, no increase in yield of any of the above crops was observed. The uptake of K, Mg, Mn, and P was increased in most plants. Boron which is known to be detrimental to the growth of plants above certain level was also found to be increased in plants nourished with the manure.

Ghuman, G.S.; Menon, M.P.; James, J.; Chandra, K.; Sajwan, K. (Savannah State College, GA (United States))

1991-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

379

Mercury Control Research: Effects of Fly Ash and Flue Gas Parameters on Mercury Speciation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and fly ash parameters on the oxidation of HgOin simulated flue gases containing hydrogen chloride (Hel-combustion region are unknown, and the major reaction pathways for Hg oxidation in combustion flue gases remain in the oxidation ofHgo in flue gases containingHC!. Thus, an important parameter that influences the oxidation of

Columbia University

380

Development of Fly Ash Derived Sorbents to Capture CO2 from Flue Gas of Power Plants  

SciTech Connect

This research program focused on the development of fly ash derived sorbents to capture CO{sub 2} from power plant flue gas emissions. The fly ash derived sorbents developed represent an affordable alternative to existing methods using specialized activated carbons and molecular sieves, that tend to be very expensive and hinder the viability of the CO{sub 2} sorption process due to economic constraints. Under Task 1 'Procurement and characterization of a suite of fly ashes', 10 fly ash samples, named FAS-1 to -10, were collected from different combustors with different feedstocks, including bituminous coal, PRB coal and biomass. These samples presented a wide range of LOI value from 0.66-84.0%, and different burn-off profiles. The samples also spanned a wide range of total specific surface area and pore volume. These variations reflect the difference in the feedstock, types of combustors, collection hopper, and the beneficiation technologies the different fly ashes underwent. Under Task 2 'Preparation of fly ash derived sorbents', the fly ash samples were activated by steam. Nitrogen adsorption isotherms were used to characterize the resultant activated samples. The cost-saving one-step activation process applied was successfully used to increase the surface area and pore volume of all the fly ash samples. The activated samples present very different surface areas and pore volumes due to the range in physical and chemical properties of their precursors. Furthermore, one activated fly ash sample, FAS-4, was loaded with amine-containing chemicals (MEA, DEA, AMP, and MDEA). The impregnation significantly decreased the surface area and pore volume of the parent activated fly ash sample. Under Task 3 'Capture of CO{sub 2} by fly ash derived sorbents', sample FAS-10 and its deashed counterpart before and after impregnation of chemical PEI were used for the CO{sub 2} adsorption at different temperatures. The sample FAS-10 exhibited a CO{sub 2} adsorption capacity of 17.5mg/g at 30 C, and decreases to 10.25mg/g at 75 C, while those for de-ashed counterpart are 43.5mg/g and 22.0 mg/g at 30 C and 75 C, respectively. After loading PEI, the CO{sub 2} adsorption capacity increased to 93.6 mg/g at 75 C for de-ashed sample and 62.1 mg/g at 75 C for raw fly ash sample. The activated fly ash, FAS-4, and its chemical loaded counterparts were tested for CO{sub 2} capture capacity. The activated carbon exhibited a CO{sub 2} adsorption capacity of 40.3mg/g at 30 C that decreased to 18.5mg/g at 70 C and 7.7mg/g at 120 C. The CO{sub 2} adsorption capacity profiles changed significantly after impregnation. For the MEA loaded sample the capacity increased to 68.6mg/g at 30 C. The loading of MDEA and DEA initially decreased the CO{sub 2} adsorption capacity at 30 C compared to the parent sample but increased to 40.6 and 37.1mg/g, respectively, when the temperature increased to 70 C. The loading of AMP decrease the CO{sub 2} adsorption capacity compared to the parent sample under all the studied temperatures. Under Task 4 'Comparison of the CO{sub 2} capture by fly ash derived sorbents with commercial sorbents', the CO{sub 2} adsorption capacities of selected activated fly ash carbons were compared to commercial activated carbons. The CO{sub 2} adsorption capacity of fly ash derived activated carbon, FAS-4, and its chemical loaded counterpart presented CO{sub 2} capture capacities close to 7 wt%, which are comparable to, and even better than, the published values of 3-4%.

M. Mercedes Maroto-Valer; John M. Andresen; Yinzhi Zhang; Zhe Lu

2003-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dust smoke fly" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

How carbon-based sorbents will impact fly ash utilization and disposal  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The injection of activated carbon flue gas to control mercury emissions will result in a fly ash and activated carbon mixture. The potential impact of this on coal combustion product disposal and utilization is discussed. The full paper (and references) are available at www.acaa-usa.org. 1 tab., 2 photos.

Pflughoeft-Hassett, D.F.; Hassett, D.J.; Buckley, T.D.; Heebink, L.V.; Pavlish, J.H. [Energy and Environmental Research Center (United States)

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

382

Fly Ash Design Manual for Road and Site Applications: Volumes 1 and 2  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This two-volume design manual describes the use of fly ash as a construction material in high-volume applications like structural fills, highway embankments, grouting, roller-compacted concrete, and land reclamation. The engineering data and construction procedures presented should help coal ash managers and power plant managers incorporate such applications in by-product management plans.

1992-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

383

Fly Ash Design Manual for Road and Site Applications: Volumes 1 and 2  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This two-volume design manual describes the use of fly ash as a construction material in high-volume applications like structural fills, highway embankments, grouting, roller-compacted concrete, and land reclamation. The engineering data and construction procedures presented should help coal ash managers and power plant managers incorporate such applications in by-product management plans.

1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

FlySPEC: a multi-user video camera system with hybrid human and automatic control  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

FlySPEC is a video camera system designed for real-time remote operation. A hybrid design combines the high resolution of an optomechanical video camera with the wide field of view always available from a panoramic camera. The control system integrates ... Keywords: collaborative and automatic camera control, distance learning, gesture based camera control, panoramic video, video communication, video conferencing, video production, webcams

Qiong Liu; Don Kimber; Jonathan Foote; Lynn Wilcox; John Boreczky

2002-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

385

Flying on Hydrogen GeorgiaTech researchers use fuel cells to power unmanned aerial vehicle.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and the GeorgiaTech Research Institute (GTRI), the project was attractive as energy sources because of their high energy density. Higher energy density translates into longer endurance. Though fuel cells don't produce: Researchers have developed a hydro- gen-powered unmanned aircraft believed to be the largest to fly

Sherrill, David

386

Evaluation of leaching and ecotoxicological properties of sewage sludge-fly ash mixtures  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The objectives of this work were the evaluation of sewage sludge stabilization by mixing with fly ash, the examination of the physicochemical properties of the produced materials and their leachates and the assessment of their environmental impact by the evaluation of the ecotoxic characteristics. Different ratios of fly ash and sewage sludge (1:1, 1:2, 1:3, 1:6, and 1:9) were mixed for 48 and 72 h. After mixing, the liquid phase of the produced materials was analyzed for total coliforms and Escherichia coli, while the solid residue was dried and tested for the leaching characteristics by the application of TCLP and EN 12457-2 standard leaching methods. Furthermore, the produced leachates were analyzed for their content of specific metals, while their ecotoxicological characteristics were determined by the use of toxicity bioassays, using the marine photobacterium Vibrio fischeri and the crustacean Daphnia magna. The phytotoxicity of sewage sludge-fly ash mixtures was also determined by utilizing seeds of three higher plants (one monocotyl and two dicotyls). The mixtures exhibited low metal leaching in all cases, while the ecotoxic properties increased with the increase of fly ash/sewage sludge ratio. The phytotoxicity testing showed increased root length growth inhibition.

C.A. Papadimitriou; I. Haritou; P. Samaras; A.I. Zouboulis [Technological Educational Institute of West Macedonia, Kozani (Greece)

2008-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

387

Risk ranking of bioaccessible metals from fly ash dissolved in simulated lung and gut fluids  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Power plant fly ash from two fuels, coal and a mixture of coal and shredded tires were evaluated for trace metal solubility in simulated human lung and gut fluids (SLF and SGF, respectively) to estimate bioaccessibility. The proportion of bioaccessible to total metal ranged from zero (V) to 80% (Zn) for coal-derived ash in SLF and from 2 (Th) to 100% (Cu) for tire-derived fly ash in SGF. The tire-derived ash contained much more Zn. However, Zn ranked only 5th of the various toxic metals in SGF compared with international regulations for ingestion. On the basis of total concentrations, the metals closest to exceeding limits based on international regulations for inhalation were Cr, Pb, and Al. On dissolution in SLF, the most limiting metals were Pb, Cu, and Zn. For metals exposed to SGF there was no relative change in the top metal, Al, before and after dissolution but the second-ranked metal shifted from Pb to Ni. In most cases only a proportion of the total metal concentrations in either fly ash was soluble, and hence bioaccessible, in either biofluid. When considering the regulatory limits for inhalation of particulates, none of the metal concentrations measured were as hazardous as the fly ash particulates themselves. However, on the basis of the international ingestion regulations for Al, the maximum mass of fly ash that could be ingested is only 1 mg per day (10 mg based on bioaccessibility). It is possible that such a small mass could be consumed by exposed individuals or groups. 39 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

John Twining; Peter McGlinn; Elaine Loi; Kath Smith; Reto Giere [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Menai, NSW (Australia)

2005-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

388

Hamiltonian spacetime dynamics with a spherical null-dust shell  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We consider the Hamiltonian dynamics of spherically symmetric Einstein gravity with a thin null-dust shell, under boundary conditions that fix the evolution of the spatial hypersurfaces at the two asymptotically flat infinities of a Kruskal-like manifold. The constraints are eliminated via a Kuchar-type canonical transformation and Hamiltonian reduction. The reduced phase space $\\tilde\\Gamma$ consists of two disconnected copies of $R^4$, each associated with one direction of the shell motion. The right-moving and left-moving test shell limits can be attached to the respective components of right-hand-side and left-hand-side masses as configuration variables provides a global canonical chart on each component of $\\tilde\\Gamma$, and renders the Hamiltonian simple, but encodes the shell dynamics in the momenta in a convoluted way. Choosing the shell curvature radius and the "interior" mass as configuration variables renders the shell dynamics transparent in an arbitrarily specifiable stationary gauge "exterior" ...

Louko, J; Friedman, J L; Louko, Jorma; Whiting, Bernard F.; Friedman, John L.

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

389

Harrison transformation of hyperelliptic solutions and charged dust disks  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We use a Harrison transformation on solutions to the stationary axisymmetric Einstein equations to generate solutions of the Einstein-Maxwell equations. The case of hyperelliptic solutions to the Ernst equation is studied in detail. Analytic expressions for the metric and the multipole moments are obtained. As an example we consider the transformation of a family of counter-rotating dust disks. The resulting solutions can be interpreted as disks with currents and matter with a purely azimuthal pressure or as two streams of freely moving charged particles. We discuss interesting limiting cases as the extreme limit where the charge becomes identical to the mass, and the ultrarelativistic limit where the central redshift diverges.

C. Klein

2005-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

390

PHOTOELECTRIC CROSS-SECTIONS OF GAS AND DUST IN PROTOPLANETARY DISKS  

SciTech Connect

We provide simple polynomial fits to the X-ray photoelectric cross-sections (0.03 keV < E < 10 keV) for mixtures of gas and dust found in protoplanetary disks. Using the solar elemental abundances of Asplund et al., we treat the gas and dust components separately, facilitating the further exploration of evolutionary processes such as grain settling and gain growth. We find that blanketing due to advanced grain growth (a{sub max} > 1 {mu}m) can reduce the X-ray opacity of dust appreciably at E{sub X} {approx} 1 keV, coincident with the peak of typical T Tauri X-ray spectra. However, the reduction of dust opacity by dust settling, which is known to occur in protoplanetary disks, is probably a more significant effect. The absorption of 1-10 keV X-rays is dominated by gas opacity once the dust abundance has been reduced to about 1% of its diffuse interstellar value. The gas disk establishes a floor to the opacity at which point X-ray transport becomes insensitive to further dust evolution. Our choice of fitting function follows that of Morrison and McCammon, providing a degree of backward compatibility.

Bethell, T. J.; Bergin, Edwin A., E-mail: tbethell@umich.edu [Astronomy Department, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States)

2011-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

391

Dust-to-gas ratio and star formation history of blue compact dwarf galaxies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper investigates the origin of the observed large variety in dust-to-gas ratio among blue compact dwarf galaxies (BCDs). By applying our chemical evolution model, we find that the dust destruction can largely suppress the dust-to-gas ratio when the metallicity of a BCD reaches $12+\\log{\\rm (O/H)}\\sim 8$, i.e., a typical metallicity level of BCDs. We also show that dust-to-gas ratio is largely varied owing to the change of dust destruction efficiency that has two effects: (i) a significant contribution of Type Ia supernovae to total supernova rate; (ii) variation of gas mass contained in a star-forming region. While mass loss from BCDs was previously thought to be the major cause for the variance of dust-to-gas ratio, we suggest that the other two effects are also important. We finally discuss the intermittent star formation history, which naturally explains the large dispersion of dust-to-gas ratio among BCDs.

H. Hirashita; Y. Y. Tajiri; H. Kamaya

2002-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

392

Dispersion relation for pure dust Bernstein waves in a non-Maxwellian magnetized dusty plasma  

SciTech Connect

Pure dust Bernstein waves are investigated using non-Maxwellian kappa and (r,q) distribution functions in a collisionless, uniform magnetized dusty plasma. Dispersion relations for both the distributions are derived by considering waves whose frequency is of the order of dust cyclotron frequency, and dispersion curves are plotted. It is observed that the propagation band for dust Bernstein waves is rather narrow as compared with that of the electron Bernstein waves. However, the band width increases for higher harmonics, for both kappa and (r,q) distributions. Effect of dust charge on dispersion curves is also studied, and one observes that with increasing dust charge, the dispersion curves shift toward the lower frequencies. Increasing the dust to ion density ratio ((n{sub d0}/n{sub i0})) causes the dispersion curve to shift toward the higher frequencies. It is also found that for large values of spectral index kappa ({kappa}), the dispersion curves approach to the Maxwellian curves. The (r,q) distribution approaches the kappa distribution for r = 0, whereas for r > 0, the dispersion curves show deviation from the Maxwellian curves as expected. Relevance of this work can be found in astrophysical plasmas, where non-Maxwellian velocity distributions as well as dust particles are commonly observed.

Deeba, F. [National Tokamak Fusion Program, PAEC, P.O. Box 3329, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); Department of Physics, G.C. University, Lahore 54000 (Pakistan); Ahmad, Zahoor [National Tokamak Fusion Program, PAEC, P.O. Box 3329, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); Murtaza, G. [Salam Chair in Physics, G.C. University, Lahore 54000 (Pakistan)

2011-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

393

Coal dust contiguity-induced changes in the concentration of TNF- and NF- B p65 on the ocular surface  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

To observe the influence of coal dust on ocular surface of coal miners and rabbits with coal dust contiguity on expression TNF- and NF- Bp65 and dry eye occurrence. Expression TNF- and NF- Bp65 in ocular surface were determined. Results showed tear production, BUT and lysozyme decreased for coal miners and rabbits with coal dust contiguity. Coal dust exposure was linked to development of xerophthalmia, and induced a higher expression of NF- B p65 and TNF- perhaps as a mechanism to resist coal dust ocular surface injury.

Sun, Z.Y.; Hong, J.; Liu, Z.Y.; Jin, X.D.; Gu, C.H. [China Medical University, Shenyang (China)

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

394

Apparatus for dusting off gas by filtration and aspiration cleaning of filter, and application to combustion gases  

SciTech Connect

Method and apparatus for dusting off gases by filtration and cleaning of filter by aspiration and application thereof to combustion gases are disclosed. This invention relates to the filtration of dust loaded gases, and, in particular, combustion gases in the hot state. It consists of passing gases to be dusted off from top to bottom over a bed of pulverulent material, in particular, a sand bed and cleaning the upper layer of said bed by aspiration of dusts deposited thereon. This invention is particularly adapted for dusting off combustion gases from boilers or thermal power stations or gases to be supplied to gas turbines.

Merry, J.

1982-07-06T23:59:59.000Z

395

Geochemistry Of Waters In The Valley Of Ten Thousand Smokes Region, Alaska  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Waters In The Valley Of Ten Thousand Smokes Region, Alaska Waters In The Valley Of Ten Thousand Smokes Region, Alaska Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Journal Article: Geochemistry Of Waters In The Valley Of Ten Thousand Smokes Region, Alaska Details Activities (3) Areas (1) Regions (0) Abstract: Meteoric waters from cold springs and streams outside of the 1912 eruptive deposits filling the Valley of Ten Thousand Smokes (VTTS) and in the upper parts of the two major rivers draining the 1912 deposits have similar chemical trends. Thermal springs issue in the mid-valley area along a 300-m lateral section of ash-flow tuff, and range in temperature from 21 to 29.8°C in early summer and from 15 to 17°C in mid-summer. Concentrations of major and minor chemical constituents in the thermal waters are nearly identical regardless of temperature. Waters in the

396

Mercury Vapor At Valley Of Ten Thousand Smokes Region Area (Kodosky, 1989)  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Mercury Vapor At Valley Of Ten Thousand Smokes Region Area (Kodosky, 1989) Mercury Vapor At Valley Of Ten Thousand Smokes Region Area (Kodosky, 1989) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Mercury Vapor At Valley Of Ten Thousand Smokes Region Area (Kodosky, 1989) Exploration Activity Details Location Valley Of Ten Thousand Smokes Region Area Exploration Technique Mercury Vapor Activity Date Usefulness useful DOE-funding Unknown Notes One-hundred twelve samples were collected from relatively unaltered air-fall ejecta along two Novarupta Basin traverse lines (Fig. 5). One hundred eighty-two samples were taken from active/fossil fumaroles in Novarupta Basin (22 sites, Fig. 5), fossil fumaroles (41 sites) and air-fall tephra (2 sites) within and immediately adjacent to the remainder of the VTTS (Fig. 6). In total, 294 samples were collected from 127 sites

397

Estimation of Horizontal Diffusion from Oblique Aerial Photographs of Smoke Clouds  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A photogrammetric method is described for obtaining estimates of the horizontal diffusion parameter ?y from oblique aerial photographs of smoke clouds. The method requires three reference markers on the ground to determine the geometry in each ...

Richard M. Eckman; Torben Mikkelsen

1991-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

398

Soil Sampling At Valley Of Ten Thousand Smokes Region Area (Kodosky &  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Soil Sampling At Valley Of Ten Thousand Smokes Region Area (Kodosky & Soil Sampling At Valley Of Ten Thousand Smokes Region Area (Kodosky & Keith, 1993) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Soil Sampling At Valley Of Ten Thousand Smokes Region Area (Kodosky & Keith, 1993) Exploration Activity Details Location Valley Of Ten Thousand Smokes Region Area Exploration Technique Soil Sampling Activity Date Usefulness not indicated DOE-funding Unknown Notes The purpose of this paper is to examine whether statistical analysis of encrustation chemistries, when supplemented with petrologic data, can identify the individual processes that generate and degrade fumarolic encrustations. Knowledge of these specific processes broadens the applications of fumarolic alteration studies. Geochemical data for a

399

Description and Verification of the NOAA Smoke Forecasting System: The 2007 Fire Season  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An overview of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s (NOAA) current operational Smoke Forecasting System (SFS) is presented. This system is intended as guidance to air quality forecasters and the public for fine particulate matter ...

Glenn D. Rolph; Roland R. Draxler; Ariel F. Stein; Albion Taylor; Mark G. Ruminski; Shobha Kondragunta; Jian Zeng; Ho-Chun Huang; Geoffrey Manikin; Jeffery T. McQueen; Paula M. Davidson

2009-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

400

Lightning in wildfire smoke plumes observed in Colorado during summer 2012  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Pyrocumulus clouds above three Colorado wildfires (Hewlett Gulch, High Park, and Waldo Canyon; all in summer 2012) electrified and produced localized intracloud discharges whenever the smoke plumes grew above 10 km MSL (above mean sea level; ...

Timothy J. Lang; Steven A. Rutledge; Brenda Dolan; Paul Krehbiel; William Rison; Daniel T. Lindsey

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dust smoke fly" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Retrieval of Optical Depth for Heavy Smoke Aerosol Plumes: Uncertainties and Sensitivities to the Optical Properties  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper is concerned with uncertainties in the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR)-based retrieval of optical depth for heavy smoke aerosol plumes generated from forest fires that occurred in Canada due to a lack of knowledge on ...

Jeff Wong; Zhanqing Li

2002-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

402

Gender modifies the relationship between social networks and smoking among adults in Seoul, South Korea  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

adults in Seoul, South Korea John W. Ayers • C. Richardbehaviors in Seoul, South Korea, where smoking is commonKyonggi-Do, Republic of Korea H. -Y. Paik Department of Food

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

403

Some Effects of the Yellowstone Fire Smoke Cloud on Incident Solar Irradiance  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The influence of the 1988 Yellowstone National Park fire, smoke cloud on incident broadband and spectral solar irradiance was studied using measurements made at the Solar Energy Research Institute's Solar Radiation Research Laboratory, Golden, ...

Roland L. Hulstrom; Thomas L. Stoffel

1990-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

404

Effect of Amazon Smoke on Cloud Microphysics and Albedo-Analysis from Satellite Imagery  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

NOAA Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer images taken over the Brazilian Amazon Basin during the biomass burning season of 1987 are used to study the effect of smoke aerosol particles on the properties of low cumulus and stratocumulus ...

Yoram J. Kaufman; Teruyuki Nakajima

1993-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

405

Soil Sampling At Valley Of Ten Thousand Smokes Region Area (Kodosky, 1989)  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Valley Of Ten Thousand Smokes Region Area (Kodosky, 1989) Valley Of Ten Thousand Smokes Region Area (Kodosky, 1989) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Soil Sampling At Valley Of Ten Thousand Smokes Region Area (Kodosky, 1989) Exploration Activity Details Location Valley Of Ten Thousand Smokes Region Area Exploration Technique Soil Sampling Activity Date Usefulness useful DOE-funding Unknown Notes One-hundred twelve samples were collected from relatively unaltered air-fall ejecta along two Novarupta Basin traverse lines (Fig. 5). One hundred eighty-two samples were taken from active/fossil fumaroles in Novarupta Basin (22 sites, Fig. 5), fossil fumaroles (41 sites) and air-fall tephra (2 sites) within and immediately adjacent to the remainder of the VTTS (Fig. 6). In total, 294 samples were collected from 127 sites

406

EFFECT OF DUST ON Ly{alpha} PHOTON TRANSFER IN AN OPTICALLY THICK HALO  

SciTech Connect

We investigate the effects of dust on Ly{alpha} photons emergent from an optically thick medium by solving the integro-differential equation of radiative transfer of resonant photons. To solve the differential equations numerically, we use the weighted essentially non-oscillatory method. Although the effects of dust on radiative transfer are well known, the resonant scattering of Ly{alpha} photons makes the problem non-trivial. For instance, if the medium has an optical depth of dust absorption and scattering of {tau}{sub a} >> 1, {tau} >> 1, and {tau} >> {tau}{sub a}, the effective absorption optical depth in a random walk scenario would be equal to {radical}({tau}{sub a}({tau}{sub a}+{tau})). We show, however, that for a resonant scattering at frequency {nu}{sub 0}, the effective absorption optical depth would be even larger than {tau}({nu}{sub 0}). If the cross section of dust scattering and absorption is frequency-independent, the double-peaked structure of the frequency profile given by the resonant scattering is basically dust-independent. That is, dust causes neither narrowing nor widening of the width of the double-peaked profile. One more result is that the timescales of the Ly{alpha} photon transfer in an optically thick halo are also basically independent of the dust scattering, even when the scattering is anisotropic. This is because those timescales are mainly determined by the transfer in the frequency space, while dust scattering, either isotropic or anisotropic, does not affect the behavior of the transfer in the frequency space when the cross section of scattering is wavelength-independent. This result does not support the speculation that dust will lead to the smoothing of the brightness distribution of a Ly{alpha} photon source with an optically thick halo.

Yang Yang; Shu Chiwang [Division of Applied Mathematics, Brown University, Providence, RI 02912 (United States); Roy, Ishani [Computing Laboratory, University of Oxford, Oxford, OX1 3QD (United Kingdom); Fang Lizhi [Department of Physics, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

407

Extraplanar Dust in the Edge-On Spiral NGC 891 1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present high-resolution (0.6 ? ?-0.65 ? ? ) optical broad-band images of the edge-on Sb galaxy NGC 891 obtained with the WIYN 3.5-m telescope. These BVR images reveal a complex network of hundreds of dust absorbing structures far from the mid-plane of the galaxy. The dust structures have a wide range of morphologies and are clearly visible to |z | ? 1021 cm ?2, with masses estimated to be more than 2 × 10 5 ? 5 × 10 6 M?, assuming Galactic gas-to-dust relationships. The gravitational potential energies of the individual dust structures, given their observed heights and derived masses, lie in the range of 20 ? 200 × 10 51 ergs, which represents the energy input of at least tens to hundreds of supernovae. Rough number counts of extraplanar dust features find ?>120 structures at |z |> 400 pc with apparent B-band extinction ?> 0.25 mag. If these have similar properties to those structures studied in detail, the mass of high-z gas associated with extraplanar dust in NGC 891 likely exceeds 2 × 10 8 M?, which is ?2 % of the total neutral ISM mass of the galaxy. The absorbing properties of extraplanar dust structures in NGC 891 are best fit with RV ? AV /E(B ? V) = 3.6 ± 0.4. A comparison of the new WIYN images with an archival Hubble Space Telescope image of the central region of NGC 891 suggests that the quantities we measure for the extraplanar dust features are not seriously affected by atmospheric blurring in the WIYN images. Some of the dust features seen in NGC 891 suggest supernova-driven galactic fountain or chimney phenomena are responsible for their production and are clearly associated with ionized gas structures thought to be tracing the violent disk-halo interface of this galaxy. However, other structures are not so readily associated with

J. Christopher Howk; Blair D. Savage

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

408

Impaired mitochondrial respiration and protein nitration in the rat hippocampus after acute inhalation of combustion smoke  

SciTech Connect

Survivors of massive inhalation of combustion smoke endure critical injuries, including lasting neurological complications. We have previously reported that acute inhalation of combustion smoke disrupts the nitric oxide homeostasis in the rat brain. In this study, we extend our findings and report that a 30-minute exposure of awake rats to ambient wood combustion smoke induces protein nitration in the rat hippocampus and that mitochondrial proteins are a sensitive nitration target in this setting. Mitochondria are central to energy metabolism and cellular signaling and are critical to proper cell function. Here, analyses of the mitochondrial proteome showed elevated protein nitration in the course of a 24-hour recovery following exposure to smoke. Mass spectrometry identification of several significantly nitrated mitochondrial proteins revealed diverse functions and involvement in central aspects of mitochondrial physiology. The nitrated proteins include the ubiquitous mitochondrial creatine kinase, F1-ATP synthase {alpha} subunit, dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase (E3), succinate dehydrogenase Fp subunit, and voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC1) protein. Furthermore, acute exposure to combustion smoke significantly compromised the respiratory capacity of hippocampal mitochondria. Importantly, elevated protein nitration and reduced mitochondrial respiration in the hippocampus persisted beyond the time required for restoration of normal oxygen and carboxyhemoglobin blood levels after the cessation of exposure to smoke. Thus, the time frame for intensification of the various smoke-induced effects differs between blood and brain tissues. Taken together, our findings suggest that nitration of essential mitochondrial proteins may contribute to the reduction in mitochondrial respiratory capacity and underlie, in part, the brain pathophysiology after acute inhalation of combustion smoke.

Lee, Heung M.; Reed, Jason; Greeley, George H. [Department of Surgery, University of Texas Medical Branch (United States); Englander, Ella W. [Department of Surgery, University of Texas Medical Branch (United States); Shriners Hospitals for Children, Galveston, TX (United States)], E-mail: elenglan@utmb.edu

2009-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

Direct observation of dynamics of single spinning dust grains in weakly magnetized complex plasma  

SciTech Connect

The rotational dynamics of single dust grains in a weak magnetic field is investigated on a kinetic level. Experiments reveal spin-up of spherical dust grains and alignment of their magnetic moments parallel to the magnetic induction vector. The angular velocity of spinning prolate grains varies as magnetic induction increases to 250 G. Spinning dust grains are found to flip over only when the magnetic field magnitude is changing. The results demonstrate that dusty plasma has paramagnetic properties. Qualitative interpretations are proposed to explain newly discovered phenomena.

Dzlieva, E. S.; Karasev, V. Yu., E-mail: plasmadust@yandex.ru [St. Petersburg State University, Institute of Physics (Russian Federation); Petrov, O. F. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute for High Energy Densities, Joint Institute for High Temperatures (Russian Federation)

2012-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

410

African Dust Influence on Atlantic Hurricane Activity and the Peculiar Behaviour of Category 5 Hurricanes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study the specific influence of African dust on each one of the categories of Atlantic hurricanes. By applying wavelet analysis, we find a strong decadal modulation of African dust on Category 5 hurricanes and an annual modulation on all other categories of hurricanes. We identify the formation of Category 5 hurricanes occurring mainly around the decadal minimum variation of African dust and in deep water areas of the Atlantic Ocean, where hurricane eyes have the lowest pressure. According to our results, future tropical cyclones will not evolve to Category 5 until the next decadal minimum that is, by the year 2015 +/- 2.

Herrera, Victor M Velasco; H., Graciela Velasco; Gonzalez, Laura Luna

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

411

Water uptake of clay and desert dust aerosol particles at sub- and supersaturated water vapor conditions  

SciTech Connect

Airborne mineral dust particles serve as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN), thereby influencing the formation and properties of warm clouds. It is therefore of particular interest how dust aerosols with different mineralogy behave when exposed to high relative humidity (RH) or supersaturation with respect to liquid water similar to atmospheric conditions. In this study the sub-saturated hygroscopic growth and the supersaturated cloud condensation nucleus activity of pure clays and real desert dust aerosols was determined using a hygroscopicity tandem differential mobility analyzer (HTDMA) and a cloud condensation nuclei counter (CCNC), respectively. Five different illite, montmorillonite and kaolinite clay samples as well as three desert dust samples (Saharan dust (SD), Chinese dust (CD) and Arizona test dust (ATD)) were used. Aerosols were generated both with a wet and a dry disperser and the water uptake was parameterized via the hygroscopicity parameter, ?. The hygroscopicity of dry generated dust aerosols was found to be negligible when compared to processed atmospheric aerosols, with CCNC derived ? values between 0.00 and 0.02. The latter value can be idealized as a particle consisting of 96.7% (by volume) insoluble material and ~3.3% ammonium sulfate. Pure clay aerosols were found to be generally less hygroscopic than real desert dust particles. All illite and montmorillonite samples had ?~0.003, kaolinites were least hygroscopic and had ?=0.001. SD (?=0.023) was found to be the most hygroscopic dry-generated desert dust followed by CD (?=0.007) and ATD (?=0.003). Wet-generated dust showed an increased water uptake when compared to dry-generated samples. This is considered to be an artifact introduced by redistribution of soluble material between the particles while immersed in an aqueous medium during atomization, thus indicating that specification of the generation method is critically important when presenting such data. Any atmospheric processing of fresh mineral dust which leads to the addition of more than ~3% soluble material is expected to significantly enhance hygroscopicity and CCN activity.

Herich, Hanna; Tritscher, Torsten; Wiacek, Aldona; Gysel, Martin; Weingartner, E.; Lohmann, U.; Baltensperger, Urs; Cziczo, Daniel J.

2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

412

Ion beam driven ion-acoustic waves in a plasma cylinder with negatively charged dust grains  

SciTech Connect

An ion beam propagating through a magnetized potassium plasma cylinder having negatively charged dust grains drives electrostatic ion-acoustic waves to instability via Cerenkov interaction. The phase velocity of sound wave increases with the relative density of negatively charged dust grains. The unstable wave frequencies and the growth rate increase, with the relative density of negatively charged dust grains. The growth rate of the unstable mode scales as one-third power of the beam density. The real part of frequency of the unstable mode increases with the beam energy and scales as almost the one-half power of the beam energy.

Sharma, Suresh C.; Walia, Ritu [Department of Physics, Maharaja Agrasen Institute of Technology, PSP Area Plot No.-1, Sector-22, Rohini, Delhi 110 086 (India); Sharma, Kavita [Department of Physics, Bhagwan Parshuram Institute of Technology, Sector-17, Rohini, New Delhi 110 089 (India)

2012-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

413

Analysis of cancer risk related to longitudinal information on smoking habits  

SciTech Connect

Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF) has followed the RERF Life Span Study (LSS) cohort consisting of atomic bomb survivors and unexposed subjects for more than 40 years. The information on their lifestyles, including smoking habits, has been collected in the past 25 years through two mail surveys of the entire LSS cohort and three interview surveys of a subcohort for the biennial medical examination program. In the present study an attempt was made to consolidate the information on smoking habits obtained from the five serial surveys, and then a risk analysis was conducted to evaluate the effect of updating the smoking information on the smoking-related risk estimates for lung cancer. The estimates of smoking-related risk became larger and estimates of dose response became sharper by updating smoking information using all of the data obtained from the five serial surveys. Analyses were also conducted for cancer sites other than lung. The differences in risk estimates between the two approaches were not as evident for the other cancer sites as for lung. 13 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs.

Akiba, Suminori [Radiation Effects Research Foundation, Hiroshima (Japan)

1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

414

Generation of concentration density maxima of small dispersive coal dust particles in horizontal iodine air filter at air-dust aerosol blow  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The spatial distributions of the small dispersive coal dust particles with the nano and micro sizes in the granular filtering medium with the cylindrical coal granules in the absorber in the horizontal iodine air filter during its long term operation at the nuclear power plant are researched. It is shown that the concentration density maxima of the small dispersive coal dust particles appear in the granular filtering medium with the cylindrical coal absorbent granules in the horizontal iodine air filter at an action by the air dust aerosol blow. The comparison of the measured aerodynamic resistances of the horizontal and vertical iodine air filters is conducted. The main conclusion is that the magnitude of the aerodynamic resistance of the horizontal iodine air filters is much smaller in comparison with the magnitude of the aerodynamic resistance of the vertical iodine air filters at the same loads of the air dust aerosol volumes. It is explained that the direction of the air dust aerosol blow and the directi...

Neklyudov, I M; Fedorova, L I; Poltinin, P Ya

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

415

Physical and Chemical Characterization of Kuwaiti Atmospheric Dust and Synthetic Dusts: Effects on the Pressure Drop and Fractional Efficiency of HEPA Filters  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The importance of clean air to the indoor air quality affecting the well-being of human occupants and rising energy consumption has highlighted the critical role of air filter performance. Actual performance of air filters installed in air handling units in Kuwait tends to deviate from the performance predicted by laboratory results. Therefore, accurate filter performance prediction is important to estimate filter lifetime, and to reduce energy and maintenance operating costs. To ensure appropriate filter selection for a specific application, particulate contaminants existing in the Kuwaiti atmospheric dust were identified and characterized both physically and chemically and compared to the synthetic dust used in laboratories. This paper compares the physical and chemical characterization Kuwaiti atmospheric dust with the available commercial synthetic dusts. It also tests full scale HEPA pleated V-shaped filters used in Heating Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC) and gas turbine applications to study the effect of different synthetic dust types and their particle size distributions on the pressure drop and fractional efficiency using DEHS testing according to DIN 1822.

Al-Attar, I.; Wakeman, R. J.; Tarleton, E. S.; Husain, A.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

416

Fish Health Studies Associated with the Kingston Fly Ash Spill, Spring 2009 - Fall 2010  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

On December 22, 2008, over 4 million cubic meters of fly ash slurry was released into the Emory River when a dike surrounding a solid waste containment area at the Tennessee Valley Authority's (TVA) Kingston Fossil Plant ruptured. One component of TVA's response to the spill is a biological monitoring program to assess short- and long-term ecological responses to the ash and associated chemicals, including studies on fish health and contaminant bioaccumulation. These studies were initiated in early Spring 2009 for the purposes of: (1) documenting the levels of fly ash-associated metals in various tissues of representative sentinel fish species in the area of the fly ash spill, (2) determining if exposure to fly ash-associated metals causes short, intermediate, or long-term health effects on these sentinel fish species, (3) assessing if there are causal relationships between exposure to metals and health effects on fish, (4) evaluating, along with information from other ecological and physicochemical studies, the nature and route of contaminant transfer though food chains into higher level consumers, (5) providing important information for the Ecological Risk Assessment (ERA) for the Kingston fly ash project, and (6) serving as an important technology information transfer or model study focused on how to best evaluate the environmental effects of fly ash (and related environmental stressors), not only at the Kingston site, but also at sites on other aquatic systems where coal-fired generating stations are located. This report presents the results of the first two years of the fish health study. To date, fish health and bioaccumulation studies have been conducted from Spring 2009 though Fall 2011 and includes 6 seasonal studies: Spring 2009, Fall 2009, Spring 2010, Fall 2010, Spring 2011, and Fall 2011. Both the Spring and Fall studies have focused on 3-4 sentinel fish species that represent different feeding habits, behaviors, and home ranges. In addition to fish health and bioaccumulation, the Spring investigations also included reproductive integrity studies on the same fish used for bioaccumulation and fish health. In this report, results of the fish health studies from Spring 2009 through Fall 2010 are presented while an associated report will present the fish reproductive studies conducted during Spring 2009 and Spring 2010. A report on fish bioaccumulation was submitted to TVA in June 2011. The fish health study conducted in conjunction with the bioaccumulation and reproductive study is critical for assessing and evaluating possible causal relationships between contaminant exposure (bioaccumulation) and the response of fish to exposure as reflected by the various measurements of fish health.

Adams, Marshall [ORNL; Fortner, Allison M [ORNL

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

417

Tracking shocked dust: State estimation for a complex plasma during a shock wave  

SciTech Connect

We consider a two-dimensional complex (dusty) plasma crystal excited by an electrostatically-induced shock wave. Dust particle kinematics in such a system are usually determined using particle tracking velocimetry. In this work we present a particle tracking algorithm which determines the dust particle kinematics with significantly higher accuracy than particle tracking velocimetry. The algorithm uses multiple extended Kalman filters to estimate the particle states and an interacting multiple model to assign probabilities to the different filters. This enables the determination of relevant physical properties of the dust, such as kinetic energy and kinetic temperature, with high precision. We use a Hugoniot shock-jump relation to calculate a pressure-volume diagram from the shocked dust kinematics. Calculation of the full pressure-volume diagram was possible with our tracking algorithm, but not with particle tracking velocimetry.

Oxtoby, Neil P.; Ralph, Jason F.; Durniak, Celine; Samsonov, Dmitry [Department of Electrical Engineering and Electronics, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, L69 3GJ (United Kingdom)

2012-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

418

High-Resolution Measurement of Size Distributions of Asian Dust Using a Coulter Multisizer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A Coulter Multisizer, which is based on the electrical sensing zone (ESZ) or the Coulter principle, was used to measure the size distribution of Asian dust. Coulter Multisizer analysis provides high-resolution size measurements of water-insoluble ...

Hiroshi Kobayashi; Kimio Arao; Toshiyuki Murayama; Kengo Iokibe; Ryuji Koga; Masataka Shiobara

2007-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

419

The WIRED Survey. IV. New Dust Disks from the McCook & Sion White Dwarf Catalog  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We have compiled photometric data from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer All Sky Survey and other archival sources for the more than 2200 objects in the original McCook & Sion Catalog of Spectroscopically Identified White Dwarfs. We applied color-selection criteria to identify 28 targets whose infrared spectral energy distributions depart from the expectation for the white dwarf photosphere alone. Seven of these are previously known white dwarfs with circumstellar dust disks, five are known central stars of planetary nebulae, and six were excluded for being known binaries or having possible contamination of their infrared photometry. We fit white dwarf models to the spectral energy distributions of the remaining ten targets, and find seven new candidates with infrared excess suggesting the presence of a circumstellar dust disk. We compare the model dust disk properties for these new candidates with a comprehensive compilation of previously published parameters for known white dwarfs with dust disks....

Hoard, D W; Wachter, Stefanie; Leisawitz, David T; Cohen, Martin

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

420

Tanpopo cosmic dust collector: Silica aerogel production and bacterial DNA contamination analysis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Hydrophobic silica aerogels with ultra-low densities have been designed and developed as cosmic dust capture media for the Tanpopo mission which is proposed to be carried out on the International Space Station. Glass particles as a simulated cosmic dust with 30 \\mu m in diameter and 2.4 g/cm^3 in density were successfully captured by the novel aerogel at a velocity of 6 km/s. Background levels of contaminated DNA in the ultra-low density aerogel were lower than the detection limit of a polymerase chain reaction assay. These results show that the manufactured aerogel has good performance as a cosmic dust collector and sufficient quality in respect of DNA contamination. The aerogel is feasible for the biological analyses of captured cosmic dust particles in the astrobiological studies.

Tabata, Makoto; Yokobori, Shin-ichi; Kawai, Hideyuki; Takahashi, Jun-ichi; Yano, Hajime; Yamagishi, Akihiko

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dust smoke fly" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

ACE-ASIA: Regional Climatic and Atmospheric Chemical Effects of Asian Dust and Pollution  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Although continental-scale plumes of Asian dust and pollution reduce the amount of solar radiation reaching the earth's surface and perturb the chemistry of the atmosphere, our ability to quantify these effects has been limited by a lack of ...

John H. Seinfeld; Gregory R. Carmichael; Richard Arimoto; William C. Conant; Frederick J. Brechtel; Timothy S. Bates; Thomas A. Cahill; Antony D. Clarke; Sarah J. Doherty; Piotr J. Flatau; Barry J. Huebert; Jiyoung Kim; Krzysztof M. Markowicz; Patricia K. Quinn; Lynn M. Russell; Philip B. Russell; Atsushi Shimizu; Yohei Shinozuka; Chul H. Song; Youhua Tang; Itsushi Uno; Andrew M. Vogelmann; Rodney J. Weber; Jung-Hun Woo; Xiao Y. Zhang

2004-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

422

Comparison Between Dust Particle Generation In CH4 or CH4/N2 Mixing RF Plasmas  

SciTech Connect

Dust particles have been spontaneously generated either in pure CH4 or in CH4/N2 r.f. plasmas. The dust particle formation results from homogeneous nucleation in the plasma and is detected by laser light scattering (Ar+, {lambda} = 514.5 nm). The temporal and spatial behaviour of dust particles is studied. In pure methane gas, particles are trapped in well defined clouds at the plasma sheath boundaries. In a CH4/N2 mixture, the nitrogen addition leads to an expansion of the clouds. For nitrogen contents higher than 50%, the space between the electrodes is nearly completely filled with dust particles leading to plasma instabilities and a void appears in the center of the discharge. The particles are spherical with diameters in the range 0.8-2 {mu}m. For nitrogen-rich plasmas, the particles growth is improved and leads to a rough shape with an orange-peel-type surface texture.

Pereira, Jeremy; Massereau-Guilbaud, Veronique; Geraud-Grenier, Isabelle; Plain, Andre [LASEP, Faculte des Sciences, Universite d'Orleans, Site de Bourges, rue G.Berger, BP 4043, 18028 Bourges Cedex (France)

2005-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

423

Radiative Forcing of Saharan Dust: GOCART Model Simulations Compared with ERBE Data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study uses information on Saharan aerosol from a dust transport model to calculate radiative forcing values. The transport model is driven by assimilated meteorological fields from the Goddard Earth Observing System Data Assimilation System. ...

Clark J. Weaver; Paul Ginoux; N. Christina Hsu; Ming-Dah Chou; Joanna Joiner

2002-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

424

Radiative Forcing of a Tropical Direct Circulation by Soil Dust Aerosols  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The effect of soil dust aerosols upon the tropical climate is estimated by forcing a simple model of a tropical direct circulation. The model consists of a region vertically mixed by deep convection and a nonconvecting region, for which budgets ...

R. L. Miller; I. Tegen

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

425

Properties of Sharav (Khamsin) Dust–Comparison of Optical and Direct Sampling Data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Simultaneous measurements of optical depth and Size distribution in a dust storm are presented. The measured and derived properties of the aerosol are compared with each other and with other results published in the scientific literature. We ...

Zev Levin; Joachim H. Joseph; Yuri Mekler

1980-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

426

Influence of Mesoscale Dynamics and Turbulence on Fine Dust Transport in Owens Valley  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Fine dust particles emitted from Owens (dry) Lake in California documented during the Terrain-Induced Rotor Experiment (T-REX) of 2006 have been examined using surface observations and a mesoscale aerosol model. Air quality stations around Owens (...

Qingfang Jiang; Ming Liu; James D. Doyle

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

427

On Absorption by Circumstellar Dust, With the Progenitor of SN2012aw as a Case Study  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We use the progenitor of SN2012aw to illustrate the consequences of modeling circumstellar dust using Galactic (interstellar) extinction laws that (1) ignore dust emission in the near-IR and beyond; (2) average over dust compositions, and (3) mis-characterize the optical/UV absorption by assuming that scattered photons are lost to the observer. The primary consequences for the progenitor of SN2012aw are that both the luminosity and the absorption are significantly over-estimated. In particular, the stellar luminosity is most likely in the range 10^4.8 0.3 micron) and total (absorption plus scattering) V-band optical depth (tau < 20). These do not include the contributions of dust emission, but provide a simple, physical alternative to incorrectly using interstellar extinction laws.

Kochanek, C S; Dai, X

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

428

File:KITE FLYING POSTER RUBRIC.pdf | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

source source History View New Pages Recent Changes All Special Pages Semantic Search/Querying Get Involved Help Apps Datasets Community Login | Sign Up Search File Edit History Facebook icon Twitter icon » File:KITE FLYING POSTER RUBRIC.pdf Jump to: navigation, search File File history File usage Metadata File:KITE FLYING POSTER RUBRIC.pdf Size of this preview: 463 × 599 pixels. Other resolution: 464 × 600 pixels. Full resolution ‎(1,275 × 1,650 pixels, file size: 45 KB, MIME type: application/pdf) File history Click on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. Date/Time Thumbnail Dimensions User Comment current 18:11, 2 January 2014 Thumbnail for version as of 18:11, 2 January 2014 1,275 × 1,650 (45 KB) Foteri (Talk | contribs) Category:Wind for Schools Portal CurriculaCategory:Wind for Schools Elementary School Curricula

429

File:Kite flying wind facts.pdf | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

File File Edit History Facebook icon Twitter icon » File:Kite flying wind facts.pdf Jump to: navigation, search File File history File usage Metadata File:Kite flying wind facts.pdf Size of this preview: 463 × 599 pixels. Other resolution: 464 × 600 pixels. Full resolution ‎(1,275 × 1,650 pixels, file size: 29 KB, MIME type: application/pdf) File history Click on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. Date/Time Thumbnail Dimensions User Comment current 18:11, 2 January 2014 Thumbnail for version as of 18:11, 2 January 2014 1,275 × 1,650 (29 KB) Foteri (Talk | contribs) Category:Wind for Schools Portal CurriculaCategory:Wind for Schools Elementary School Curricula You cannot overwrite this file. Edit this file using an external application (See the setup

430

Preferential Acidic, Alkaline and Neutral Solubility of Metallic Elements In Fly Ash  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Preferential Acidic, Alkaline and Neutral Solubility of Preferential Acidic, Alkaline and Neutral Solubility of Metallic Elements in Fly Ash Ann G. Kim 1 1 ORISE Research Fellow, National Energy Technology Laboratory, US Department of Energy, 626 Cochrans Mill Rd., Pittsburgh, PA 15236-0940 KEYWORDS: Coal Utilization By-Products, leaching, pH ABSTRACT In the US, over 100 million tons of coal utilization by-products (CUB) are generated annually. To determine if exposure of these materials to aqueous fluids poses an environmental threat, researchers at the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) have conducted extensive leaching tests. Five 1 kg samples of 35 PC fly ashes have been leached with acid, neutral and alkaline solutions at an approximate rate of 130 mL/d for 1 to 3 months. The leachates are

431

Formation processes and main properties of hollow aluminosilicate microspheres in fly ash from thermal power stations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The main parameters of aluminosilicate microspheres formed at thermal power stations in Russia were studied. These parameters are responsible for the prospective industrial application of these microspheres. A comparative analysis of the properties of mineral coal components, the conditions of coal combustion, and the effects of chemical and phase-mineralogical compositions of mineral impurities in coals from almost all of the main coal deposits on the formation of microspheres was performed. The effects of thermal treatment conditions on gas evolution processes in mineral particles and on the fraction of aluminosilicate microspheres in fly ash were considered. It was found that the yield of microspheres was higher in pulverized coal combustion in furnaces with liquid slag removal, all other factors being equal. The regularities of microsphere formation were analyzed, and the mechanism of microsphere formation in fly ash during the combustion of solid fuels was considered.

V.S. Drozhzhin; M.Ya. Shpirt; L.D. Danilin; M.D. Kuvaev; I.V. Pikulin; G.A. Potemkin; S.A. Redyushev [Russian Federal Nuclear Center VNIIEF, Nizhegorodskaya oblast (Russia)

2008-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

432

Removal of radium from acidic solutions containing same by adsorption on coal fly ash  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention is a process for the removal of radium from acidic aqueous solutions. In one aspect, the invention is a process for removing radium from an inorganic-acid solution. The process comprises contacting the solution with coal fly ash to effect adsorption of the radium on the ash. The radium-containing ash then is separated from the solution. The process is simple, comparatively inexpensive, and efficient. High radium-distribution coefficients are obtained even at room temperature. Coal fly ash is an inexpensive, acid-resistant, high-surface-area material which is available in large quantities throughout the United States. The invention is applicable, for example, to the recovery of .sup.226 Ra from nitric acid solutions which have been used to leach radium from uranium-mill tailings.

Scheitlin, Frank M. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

433

Impaired Transcriptional Response of the Murine Heart to Cigarette Smoke in the Setting of High Fat Diet and Obesity  

SciTech Connect

Smoking and obesity are each well-established risk factors for cardiovascular heart disease, which together impose earlier onset and greater severity of disease. To identify early signaling events in the response of the heart to cigarette smoke exposure within the setting of obesity, we exposed normal weight and high fat diet-induced obese (DIO) C57BL/6 mice to repeated inhaled doses of mainstream (MS) or sidestream (SS) cigarette smoke administered over a two week period, monitoring effects on both cardiac and pulmonary transcriptomes. MS smoke (250 ?g wet total particulate matter (WTPM)/L, 5 h/day) exposures elicited robust cellular and molecular inflammatory responses in the lung with 1466 differentially expressed pulmonary genes (p < 0.01) in normal weight animals and a much-attenuated response (463 genes) in the hearts of the same animals. In contrast, exposures to SS smoke (85 ?g WTPM/L) with a CO concentration equivalent to that of MS smoke (250 CO ppm) induced a weak pulmonary response (328 genes) but an extensive cardiac response (1590 genes). SS smoke and to a lesser extent MS smoke preferentially elicited hypoxia- and stress-responsive genes as well as genes predicting early changes of vascular smooth muscle and endothelium, precursors of cardiovascular disease. The most sensitive smoke-induced cardiac transcriptional changes of normal weight mice were largely absent in DIO mice after smoke exposure, while genes involved in fatty acid utilization were unaffected. At the same time, smoke exposure suppressed multiple proteome maintenance genes induced in the hearts of DIO mice. Together, these results underscore the sensitivity of the heart to SS smoke and reveal adaptive responses in healthy individuals that are absent in the setting of high fat diet and obesity.

Tilton, Susan C.; Karin, Norman J.; Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo M.; Waters, Katrina M.; Mikheev, Vladimir B.; Lee, K. M.; Corley, Richard A.; Pounds, Joel G.; Bigelow, Diana J.

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

434

Impact of the Desert Dust on the Summer Monsoon System over Southwestern North America  

SciTech Connect

The radiative forcing of dust emitted from the Southwest United States (US) deserts and its impact on monsoon circulation and precipitation over the North America monsoon (NAM) region are simulated using a coupled meteorology and aerosol/chemistry model (WRF-Chem) for 15 years (1995-2009). During the monsoon season, dust has a cooling effect (-0.90 W m{sup -2}) at the surface, a warming effect (0.40 W m{sup -2}) in the atmosphere, and a negative top-of-the-atmosphere (TOA) forcing (-0.50 W m{sup -2}) over the deserts on 24-h average. Most of the dust emitted from the deserts concentrates below 800 hPa and accumulates over the western slope of the Rocky Mountains and Mexican Plateau. The absorption of shortwave radiation by dust heats the lower atmosphere by up to 0.5 K day{sup -1} over the western slope of the Mountains. Model sensitivity simulations with and without dust for 15 summers (June-July-August) show that dust heating of the lower atmosphere over the deserts strengthens the low-level southerly moisture fluxes on both sides of the Sierra Madre Occidental. It also results in an eastward migration of NAM-driven moisture convergence over the western slope of the Mountains. These monsoonal circulation changes lead to a statistically significant increase of precipitation by up to {approx}40% over the eastern slope of the Mountains (Arizona-New Mexico-Texas regions). This study highlights the interaction between dust and the NAM system and motivates further investigation of possible dust feedback on monsoon precipitation under climate change and the megadrought conditions projected for the future.

Zhao, Chun; Liu, Xiaohong; Leung, Lai-Yung R.

2012-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

435

Filamentation instability of current-driven dust ion-acoustic waves in a collisional dusty plasma  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A theoretical investigation has been made of the dust ion-acoustic filamentation instability in an unmagnetized current-driven dusty plasma by using the Lorentz transformation formulas. The effect of collision between the charged particles with neutrals and their thermal motion on this instability is considered. Developing the filamentation instability of the current-driven dust ion-acoustic wave allows us to determine the period and the establishment time of the filamentation structure and threshold for instability development.

Niknam, A. R. [Laser and Plasma Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University, G.C., Tehran 19839-63113 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Haghtalab, T.; Khorashadizadeh, S. M. [Physics Department, Birjand University, Birjand 97179-63384 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2011-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

436

Dust and Ventilation Effects on Radiant Barriers: Cooling Season Energy Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study on the effects of attic ventilation area and type and dust buildup on horizontal and truss radiant barriers in insulated homes can help utilities reduce cooling season electric energy requirements. Increasing the ventilation area ratio and changing ventilation types had little effect on radiant barrier performance. Dust did degrade performance, but insulated homes with radiant barriers still had lower energy requirements than those without radiant barriers.

1990-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

437

Investigation on the utilization of coal fly ash as amendment to compost for vegetation in acid soil. Technical terminal report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Application of fly ash-amended composts as manure enhances the crop yield of certain plants like corn, sorghum, collard and mustard greens. Organic compost made out of grass and leaves (home-made) is better than the commercial composts for amendment with fly ash. A 20--40% fly ash in the amended compost and a soil to ash-amended compost ratio of 3:1 are recommended for making bed for plantation. Organic compost mixed with fly ash, due to reduced porosity, will help the bed to retain water and conserve water supply to plants. Organic compost will release to the manure additional quantities of N, P, and S that are not substantially available in fly ash. It appears that chemical reaction and/or mineralization occurs during composting of fly ash with organic manure to release more N, P, K and S to the system. Potassium is more elevated in all plants grown in potted soil treated with fly ash-amended compost than in those grown in soil or soil treated with organic manure. Contrary to expectation Ca in fly ash is not effectively used by plants as the latter treated with ash- amended compost is not rich in Ca. This suggests that Ca may be tied up as insoluble CaSO{sub 4} in the manure so that it may not be bioavailable to the plant. Uptake of boron by bean, bell pepper and egg plant is considerably higher than that absorbed by corn, sorghum and greens resulting in poor yield for the former.

Menon, M.P.

1991-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

438

Investigation on the utilization of coal fly ash as amendment to compost for vegetation in acid soil  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Application of fly ash-amended composts as manure enhances the crop yield of certain plants like corn, sorghum, collard and mustard greens. Organic compost made out of grass and leaves (home-made) is better than the commercial composts for amendment with fly ash. A 20--40% fly ash in the amended compost and a soil to ash-amended compost ratio of 3:1 are recommended for making bed for plantation. Organic compost mixed with fly ash, due to reduced porosity, will help the bed to retain water and conserve water supply to plants. Organic compost will release to the manure additional quantities of N, P, and S that are not substantially available in fly ash. It appears that chemical reaction and/or mineralization occurs during composting of fly ash with organic manure to release more N, P, K and S to the system. Potassium is more elevated in all plants grown in potted soil treated with fly ash-amended compost than in those grown in soil or soil treated with organic manure. Contrary to expectation Ca in fly ash is not effectively used by plants as the latter treated with ash- amended compost is not rich in Ca. This suggests that Ca may be tied up as insoluble CaSO{sub 4} in the manure so that it may not be bioavailable to the plant. Uptake of boron by bean, bell pepper and egg plant is considerably higher than that absorbed by corn, sorghum and greens resulting in poor yield for the former.

Menon, M.P.

1991-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

439

Development of New Industrial Ashalloy Material Using Fly-Ash Cenospheres  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Metal matrix composites can provide improved functional properties compared to solid metal castings, while saving production energy and raw material costs in the process. In particular, ash-derived metal matrix composites can provide utilities a high value-added market for their coal fly ash. This report describes research on a promising manufacturing process for one such application -- pressure infiltration techniques to produce lead-ash composites for automotive battery applications.

1997-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

440

The Role of High Calcium Fly Ashes in Controlling Alkali-Silica Reactions in Concrete  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The alkali-silica reaction (ASR) is a deleterious chemical reaction that can result in the deterioration of concrete structures. This report builds upon the results of a research and development study, funded by a broadly-based multi-national industry consortium, that is developing an engineering database on the long-term effectiveness of Class F fly ash and other supplementary cementing materials (SCMs) in counteracting ASR in concrete.

2002-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

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441

Potential Health Effects of Crystalline Silica Exposures from Coal Fly Ash: A Literature Review  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The amount of crystalline silica in coal fly ash (CFA) depends on a variety of factors, including the amount of silica in the pre-combustion coal, the combustion process, and emission control technologies among others. Occupational exposures to crystalline silica in CFA are related to these factors as well as activities associated with exposures and durations of exposure. This review summarizes the occupational and environmental health literature relevant to the presence of crystalline silica in CFA from...

2006-03-27T23:59:59.000Z

442

Linear trap with three orthogonal quadrupole fields for dust charging experiments  

SciTech Connect

Investigations of charging processes on a single dust grain under controlled conditions in laboratory experiments are the unique way to understand the behavior of dust grains in complex plasma (in space, in laboratory, or in technological applications). An electrodynamic trap is often utilized for both holding a single grain and continuously measuring its charge-to-mass ratio. We propose a modified design of the linear quadrupole trap with the electrodes split into two parts; each of them being supplied by a designated source. The paper presents basic calculations and the results of the trap prototype tests. These tests have confirmed our expectations and have shown that the suggested solution is fully applicable for the dust charging experiments. The uncertainty of determination of the dust grain charge does not exceed 10{sup -3}. The main advantages of the suggested design in comparison with other traps used for dust investigations can be summarized as: The trap (i) is more opened, thus it is suitable for a simultaneous application of the ion and electron beams and UV source; (ii) facilitates investigations of dust grains in a broader range of parameters; and (iii) allows the grain to move along the axis in a controlled way.

Beranek, Martin; Nemecek, Zdenek; Safrankova, Jana; Jerab, Martin; Pavlu, Jiri [Charles University, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Prague (Czech Republic); Cermak, Ivo [CGC Instruments, Chemnitz (Germany)

2012-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

443

Evolution of Thermally Pulsing Asymptotic Giant Branch Stars III. Dust production at supersolar metallicities  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We extend the formalism presented in our recent calculations of dust ejecta from the Thermally Pulsing Asymptotic Giant Branch (TP-AGB) phase, to the case of super-solar metallicity stars. The TP-AGB evolutionary models are computed with the COLIBRI code. We adopt our preferred scheme for dust growth. For M-giants, we neglect chemisputtering by H$_2$ molecules and, for C-stars we assume a homogeneous growth scheme which is primarily controlled by the carbon over oxygen excess. At super-solar metallicities, dust forms more efficiently and silicates tend to condense significantly closer to the photosphere (r~1.5 R$_*$) - and thus at higher temperatures and densities - than at solar and sub-solar metallicities (r~2-3 R$_*$). In such conditions, the hypothesis of thermal decoupling between gas and dust becomes questionable, while dust heating due to collisions plays an important role. The heating mechanism delays dust condensation to slightly outer regions in the circumstellar envelope. We find that the same mech...

Nanni, Ambra; Marigo, Paola; Girardi, Léo

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

444

The Spectral Energy Distribution of HH30 IRS: Constraining The Circumstellar Dust Size Distribution  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present spectral energy distribution (SED) models for the edge-on classical T Tauri star HH30 IRS that indicate dust grains have grown to larger than 50 microns within its circumstellar disk. The disk geometry and inclination are known from previous modeling of multiwavelength Hubble Space Telescope images and we use the SED to constrain the dust size distribution. Model spectra are shown for different circumstellar dust models: a standard ISM mixture and larger grain models. As compared to ISM grains, the larger dust grain models have a shallower wavelength dependent opacity. Models with the larger dust grains provide a good match to the currently available data, but mid and far-IR observations are required to more tightly constrain the dust size distribution. The accretion luminosity in our models is L_accdistributions that are simple power-law extensions (i.e., no exponential cutoff) yield acceptable fits to the optical/near-IR but too much emission at mm wavelengths and require larger disk masses. Such a simple size distribution would not be expected in an environment such as the disk of HH30 IRS, particularly over such a large range in grain sizes. However, its ability to adequately characterize the grain populations may be determined from more complete observational sampling of the SED in the mid to far-IR.

Kenneth Wood; Michael J. Wolff; J. E. Bjorkman; Barbara Whitney

2001-09-04T23:59:59.000Z

445

Quantifying the Impact of Dust on Heterogeneous Ice Generation in Midlevel Supercooled Stratiform Clouds  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Dust aerosols have been regarded as effective ice nuclei (IN), but large uncertainties regarding their efficiencies remain. Here, four years of collocated CALIPSO and CloudSat measurements are used to quantify the impact of dust on heterogeneous ice generation in midlevel supercooled stratiform clouds (MSSCs) over the ‘dust belt’. The results show that the dusty MSSCs have an up to 20% higher mixed-phase cloud occurrence, up to 8 dBZ higher mean maximum Ze (Ze_max), and up to 11.5 g/m2 higher ice water path (IWP) than similar MSSCs under background aerosol conditions. Assuming similar ice growth and fallout history in similar MSSCs, the significant differences in Ze_max between dusty and non-dusty MSSCs reflect ice particle number concentration differences. Therefore, observed Ze_max differences indicate that dust could enhance ice particle concentration in MSSCs by a factor of 2 to 6 at temperatures colder than ?12°C. The enhancements are strongly dependent on the cloud top temperature, large dust particle concentration and chemical compositions. These results imply an important role of dust particles in modifying mixed-phase cloud properties globally.

Zhang, Damao; Wang, Zhien; Heymsfield, Andrew J.; Fan, Jiwen; Liu, Dong; Zhao, Ming

2012-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

446

Cooling season energy measurements of dust and ventilation effects on radiant barriers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Cooling season tests were conducted in three unoccupied ranch-style houses in Karns, Tennessee, to determine the effects on attic radiant barrier performance incurred by changes in attic ventilation area ratio, attic ventilation type, and the buildup of dust on horizontal radiant barriers. All three houses had R-19 fiberglass batt insulation in their attics. Horizontal radiant barriers were artificially dusted and the dusted barriers showed measurable performance degradations, although the dusted barriers were still superior to no radiant barriers. Dust loadings of 0.34 and 0.74 mg/cm{sup 2} reduced a clean radiant barrier surface emissivity of 0.055 to 0.125 and 0.185, respectively. Total house cooling load increases amounted to 2.3 and 8.4% compared to house loads with clean horizontal barriers, respectively. When compared to R-19 with no horizontal radiant barrier conditions, the dusted horizontal radiant barriers reduced cooling loads by about 7%. Testing showed that increasing the attic ventilation area ratio from the minimum recommended of 1/300 (1 ft{sup 2} of effective ventilation area per 300 ft{sup 2} of attic area) to 1/150 had little if any effect on the house cooling load with either truss or horizontal barriers present in the attics. Radiant barriers, however, still reduced the house cooling load. 18 refs., 17 figs., 26 tabs.

Levins, W.P.; Karnitz, M.A. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); Hall, J.A. (Tennessee Valley Authority, Chattanooga, TN (USA))

1990-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

447

Cooling season energy measurements of dust and ventilation effects on radiant barriers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Cooling season tests were conducted in three unoccupied ranch-style houses in Karns, Tennessee, to determine the effects on attic radiant barrier performance incurred by changes in attic ventilation area ratio, attic ventilation type, and the buildup of dust on horizontal radiant barriers. All three houses had R-19 fiberglass batt insulation in their attics. Horizontal radia