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1

Risk in agriculture : a study of crop yield distributions and crop insurance  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Agriculture is a business fraught with risk. Crop production depends on climatic, geographical, biological, political, and economic factors, which introduce risks that are quantifiable given the appropriate mathematical ...

Gayam, Narsi Reddy

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

2

Durability  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

defect assessment criteria will be adapted to take into account an increasing percentage of hydrogen in natural gas *A durability assessment tool will be developed to...

3

Cost Methodology for Biomass Feedstocks: Herbaceous Crops and Agricultural Residues  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report describes a set of procedures and assumptions used to estimate production and logistics costs of bioenergy feedstocks from herbaceous crops and agricultural residues. The engineering-economic analysis discussed here is based on methodologies developed by the American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers (ASABE) and the American Agricultural Economics Association (AAEA). An engineering-economic analysis approach was chosen due to lack of historical cost data for bioenergy feedstocks. Instead, costs are calculated using assumptions for equipment performance, input prices, and yield data derived from equipment manufacturers, research literature, and/or standards. Cost estimates account for fixed and variable costs. Several examples of this costing methodology used to estimate feedstock logistics costs are included at the end of this report.

Turhollow Jr, Anthony F [ORNL; Webb, Erin [ORNL; Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine [ORNL

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

4

Climate impacts on agriculture: Implications for crop production  

SciTech Connect

Changes in temperature, CO2, and precipitation under the scenarios of climate change for the next 30 years present a challenge to crop production. This review focuses on the impact of temperature, CO2, and ozone on agronomic crops and the implications for crop production. Understanding these implications for agricultural crops is critical for developing cropping systems resilient to stresses induced by climate change. There is variation among crops in their response to CO2, temperature, and precipitation changes and, with the regional differences in predicted climate, a situation is created in which the responses will be further complicated. For example, the temperature effects on soybean could potentially cause yield reductions of 2.4% in the South but an increase of 1.7% in the Midwest. The frequency of years when temperatures exceed thresholds for damage during critical growth stages is likely to increase for some crops and regions. The increase in CO2 contributes significantly to enhanced plant growth and improved water use efficiency; however, there may be a downscaling of these positive impacts due to higher temperatures plants will experience during their growth cycle. A challenge is to understand the interactions of the changing climatic parameters because of the interactions among temperature, CO2, and precipitation on plant growth and development and also on the biotic stresses of weeds, insects, and diseases. Agronomists will have to consider the variations in temperature and precipitation as part of the production system if they are to ensure the food security required by an ever increasing population.

Hatfield, Jerry L.; Boote, Kenneth J.; Kimball, B. A.; Ziska, Lewis A.; Izaurralde, Roberto C.; Ort, Don; Thomson, Allison M.; Wolfe, David W.

2011-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

5

Economic Analysis of Energy Crop Production in the U.S. - Location, Quantities, Price, and Impacts on Traditional Agricultural Crops  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

POLYSYS is used to estimate US locations where, for any given energy crop price, energy crop production can be economically competitive with conventional crops. POLYSYS is a multi-crop, multi-sector agricultural model developed and maintained by the University of Tennessee and used by the USDA-Economic Research Service. It includes 305 agricultural statistical districts (ASD) which can be aggregated to provide state, regional, and national information. POLYSYS is being modified to include switchgrass, hybrid poplar, and willow on all land suitable for their production. This paper summarizes the preliminary national level results of the POLYSYS analysis for selected energy crop prices for the year 2007 and presents the corresponding maps (for the same prices) of energy crop production locations by ASD. Summarized results include: (1) estimates of energy crop hectares (acres) and quantities (dry Mg, dry tons), (2) identification of traditional crops allocated to energy crop production and calculation of changes in their prices and hectares (acres) of production, and (3) changes in total net farm returns for traditional agricultural crops. The information is useful for identifying areas of the US where large quantities of lowest cost energy crops can most likely be produced.

Walsh, M.E.; De La Torre Ugarte, D.; Slinsky, S.; Graham, R.L.; Shapouri, H.; Ray, D.

1998-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

6

Environmental effects of growing short-rotation woody crops on former agricultural lands  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Field-scale studies in the Southeast have been addressing the environmental effects of converting agricultural lands to biomass crop production since 1994. Erosion, surface water quality and quantity and subsurface movement of water and nutrients from woody crops, switchgrass and agricultural crops are being compared. Nutrient cycling, soil physical changes and crop productivity are also being monitored at the three sites. Maximum sediment losses occurred in the spring and fall. Losses were greater from sweetgum planted without a cover crop than with a cover crop. Nutrient losses of N and P in runoff and subsurface water occurred primarily after spring fertilizer application.

Tolbert, V.R. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Thornton, F.C.; Joslin, J.D. [Tennessee Valley Authority, Muscle Shoals, AL (United States). Atmospheric Sciences Div.] [and others

1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

7

Implications of Three Biofuel Crops for Beneficial Arthropods in Agricultural Landscapes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Implications of Three Biofuel Crops for Beneficial Arthropods in Agricultural Landscapes Mary A Science+Business Media, LLC. 2010 Abstract Production of biofuel feedstocks in agricultural landscapes and generalist natural enemies in three model biofuel crops: corn, switch- grass, and mixed prairie, we tested

Landis, Doug

8

Environmental enhancement using short-rotation woody crops and perennial grasses as alternative agricultural crops  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Short-rotation woody crops and perennial grasses are grown as biomass feedstocks for energy and fiber. When replacing traditional row crops on similar lands, these alternative crops can provide multiple environmental benefits in addition to enhancing rural economies and providing valuable feedstock resources. The Department of Energy is supporting research to address how these crops can provide environmental benefits to soil, water and native wildlife species in addition to providing bioenergy feedstocks. Research is underway to address the potential for biomass crops to provide soil conservation and water quality improvements in crop settings. Replacement of traditional erosive row crops with biomass crops on marginal lands and establishment of biomass plantations as filter strips adjacent to streams and wetlands are being studied. The habitat value of different biomass crops for selected wildlife species is also under study. To date, these studies have shown that in comparison with row crops biomass plantings of both grass and tree crops increased biodiversity of birds; however, the habitat value of tree plantations is not equivalent to natural forests. The effects on native wildlife of establishing multiple plantations across a landscape are being studied. Combining findings on wildlife use of individual plantations with information on the cumulative effects of multiple plantations on wildlife populations can provide guidance for establishing and managing biomass crops to enhance biodiversity while providing biomass feedstocks. Data from site-specific environmental studies can provide input for evaluation of the probable effects of large-scale plantings at both landscape and regional levels of resolution.

Tolbert, V.R. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Schiller, A. [Oak Ridge Inst. for Science and Education, TN (United States)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

9

A novel framework for information technology based agricultural information dissemination system to improve crop productivity  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Indian farming community is facing a multitude of problems to maximize crop productivity. In spite of successful research on new agricultural practices concerning crop cultivation, the majority of farmers is not getting upper-bound yield due to several reasons. One of the reasons is that expert/scientific advice regarding crop cultivation is not reaching farming community in a timely manner. It is true that India possesses a valuable agricultural knowledge and expertise. However, a wide information gap exists between the research level and practice. Indian farmers need timely expert advice to make them more productive and competitive. In this paper, we made an effort to present a solution to bridge the information gap by exploiting advances in Information Technology (IT). We propose a framework of a cost-effective agricultural information dissemination system (AgrIDS) to disseminate expert agriculture knowledge to the farming community to improve the crop productivity. Some of the crucial benefits of AgrIDS are as follows. It is a scalable system which can be incrementally developed and extended to cover all the farmers (crops) of India in a cost effective manner. It enables the farmer to cultivate a crop with expertise, as that of an agricultural expert, by disseminating both crop and location specific expert advice in a personalized and timely manner. With AgrIDS, the lag period between research effort to practice can be reduced significantly. Finally, the proposed system assumes a great importance due to the trend of globalization, as it aims to provide expert advice which is crucial to for the Indian farmer to harvest different kinds of crop varieties based on the demand in the world market. 1

P. Krishna Reddy

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

10

Environmental enhancement using short-rotation woody crops and perennial grasses as alternative agricultural crops  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Short-rotation woody crops and perennial grasses are grown as biomass feedstocks for energy and fiber. When replacing traditional row crops on similar lands, these alternative crops can provide multiple environmental benefits in addition to enhancing rural economies and providing valuable resources. The DOE is supporting research to address how these crops can provide environmental benefits to soil, water, and native wildlife species in addition to providing bioenergy feedstocks. Research is underway to address the potential for biomass crops to provide soils conservation and water quality improvements in crop settings. Replacement of traditional erosive row drops with biomass crops on marginal lands and establishment of biomass plantations as filter strips adjacent to streams and wetlands are being studied. The habitat value of different crops for wildlife species is also considered. Combining findings on wildlife use of individual plantations with information on the cumulative effects of multiple plantations on wildlife populations can provide guidance for establishing and managing biomass crops to enhance biodiversity while providing feedstocks. Data from site-specific environmental studies can provide input for evaluation of the effects of large-scale plantings at both landscape and regional levels of resolution.

Tolbert, V.R. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Schiller, A. [Oak Ridge Inst. for Science and Education, TN (United States)

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

11

Using a Decision Support System to Optimize Production of Agricultural Crop Residue Biofeedstock  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

For several years the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has been developing a Decision Support System for Agriculture (DSS4Ag) which determines the economically optimum recipe of various fertilizers to apply at each site in a field to produce a crop, based on the existing soil fertility at each site, as well as historic production information and current prices of fertilizers and the forecast market price of the crop at harvest, for growing a crop such as wheat, potatoes, corn, or cotton. In support of the growing interest in agricultural crop residues as a bioenergy feedstock, we have extended the capability of the DSS4Ag to develop a variable-rate fertilizer recipe for the simultaneous economically optimum production of both grain and straw, and have been conducting field research to test this new DSS4Ag. In this paper we report the results of two years of field research testing and enhancing the DSS4Ag’s ability to economically optimize the fertilization for the simultaneous production of both grain and its straw, where the straw is an agricultural crop residue that can be used as a biofeedstock.

Reed L. Hoskinson; Ronald C. Rope; Raymond K. Fink

2007-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

Environmental effects of planting energy crops at larger scales on agricultural lands  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Increasing from research-scale to larger-scale plantings of herbaceous and short rotation woody crops on agricultural land in the United States has raised questions about the positive and negative environmental effects of farmland conversion. Research currently underway at experimental plot scales enables us examine runoff quality and quantity, erosion, and changes in soil characteristics associated with these energy crops compared to conventional row crops. A study of the fate of chemicals applied to the different crop types will enhance our knowledge of uptake, release, and off-site movement of nutrients and pesticides. Ongoing biodiversity studies in the North Central US allow us to compare differences in scale of plantings on bird and small mammal populations and habitat use. Plantings of 50--100 or more contiguous acres are needed to allow both researchers and producers to determine the benefits of including temporal energy crop rotations in the landscape. Results from these larger-scale plantings will help identify (1) the monitoring requirements needed to determine environmental effects of larger-scale plantings, (2) the best methods to determine the environmental effects of rotation length and the best crop management strategies for full-scale production. Because of the variations in soils, temperature, rainfall and other climatic conditions, as well as differences in the types of energy crops most suited for different regions, monitoring of large-scale plantings in these different regions of the US will be required to predict the environmental effects of regional agricultural land-use shifts for full-scale plantings.

Tolbert, V.R.; Downing, M.

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

13

Environmental effects of planting biomass crops at larger scales on agricultural lands  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Increasing from research-scale to larger-scale plantings of herbaceous. and short rotation woody crops on agricultural land in the United States has raised questions about the positive and negative environmental effects of farmland conversion. Research currently underway at experimental plot scales enables us examine runoff quality and quantity, erosion, and changes in soil characteristics associated with these energy crops compared to conventional row crops. A study of the fate of chemicals applied to the different crop types will enhance our knowledge of uptake, release, and off-site movement of nutrients and pesticides. Ongoing biodiversity studies in the North Central US allow us to compare differences in scale of plantings on bird and small mammal populations and habitat use. Plantings of 50--100 or more contiguous acres are needed to allow both researchers and producers to determine the benefits of including temporal energy crop rotations in the landscape. Results from these larger-scale plantings will help identify (1) the monitoring requirements needed to determine environmental effects of larger-scale plantings, (2) the best methods to determine the environmental effects of rotation length and the best crop management strategies for full-scale production. Because of the variations in soils, temperature, rainfall and other climatic conditions, as well as differences in the types of energy crops most suited for different regions, monitoring of large-scale plantings in these different regions of the US will be required to predict the environmental effects of regional agricultural land-use shifts for full-scale plantings.

Tolbert, V.R.; Downing, M.E.

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

14

Feasibility study for anaerobic digestion of agricultural crop residues. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This study provides cost estimates for the pretreatment/digestion of crop residues to fuel gas. Agricultural statistics indicate that the crop residues wheat straw, corn stover, and rice straw are available in sufficient quantity to provide meaningful supplies of gas. Engineering economic analyses were performed for digestion of sheat straw, corn stover, and rice straw for small farm, cooperative, and industrial scales. The results of the analyses indicate that the production of fuel gas from these residues is, at best, economically marginal, unless a credit can be obtained for digester effluent. The use of pretreatment can double the fuel gas output but will not be economically justifiable unless low chemical requirements or low-cost chemicals can be utilized. Use of low-cost hole-in-the-ground batch digestion results in improved economics for the small farm size digestion system, but not for the cooperative and industrial size systems. Recommendations arising from this study are continued development of autohydrolysis and chemical pretreatment of agricultural crop residues to improve fuel gas yields in an economically feasible manner; development of a low-cost controlled landfill batch digestion process for small farm applications; and determination of crop residue digestion by-product values for fertilizer and refeed.

Ashare, E.; Buivid, M. G.; Wilson, E. H.

1979-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

15

Feasibility study for anaerobic digestion of agricultural crop residues. Dynatech report No. 1935  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of this study was to provide cost estimates for the pretreatment/digestion of crop residues to fuel gas. A review of agricultural statistics indicated that the crop residues wheat straw, corn stover, and rice straw are available in sufficient quantity to provide meaningful supplies of gas. Engineering economic analyses were performed for digestion of wheat straw, corn stover, and rice straw for small farm-, cooperative-, and industrial scales. The small farm scale processed the residue from an average size US farm (400 acres), and the other sizes were two and three orders of magnitude greater. The results of the analyses indicate that the production of fuel gas from these residues is, at best, economically marginal, unless a credit can be obtained for digester effluent. The use of pretreatment can double the fuel gas output but will not be economically justifiable unless low chemical requirements or low cost chemicals can be utilized. Additional development is necessary in this area. Use of low cost hole-in-the-ground batch digestion results in improved economics for the small farm size digestion system, but not for the cooperative and industrial size systems. Recommendations arising from this study are continued development of autohydrolysis and chemical pretreatment of agricultural crop residues to improve fuel gas yields in an economically feasible manner; development of a low cost controlled landfill batch digestion process for small farm applications; and determination of crop residue digestion by-product values for fertilizer and refeed.

Ashare, E.; Buivid, M. G.; Wilson, E. H.

1979-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

16

Fly ash-amended compost as a manure for agricultural crops  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Homemade organic compost prepared from lawn grass clippings was amended with fine fly ash collected from a coal-fired power plant (SRS 484.D. Savannah River Site, Aiken, SC) to investigate its usefulness as a manure in enhancing nutrient uptake and increasing dry matter yield in selected agricultural crops. Three treatments were compared: five crops (mustard, collard, string beans, bell pepper, and eggplant) were each grown on three kinds of soil: soil alone, soil amended with composted grass clippings, and soil amended with the mixed compost of grass clippings and 20% fly ash. The fly ash-amended compost was found to be effective in enhancing the dry matter yield of collard greens and mustard greens by 378% and 348%, respectively, but string beans, bell pepper, and eggplant did not show any significant increase in dry matter yield. Analysis of the above-ground biomass of these last three plants showed they assimilated high levels of boron, which is phytotoxic; and this may be the reason for their poor growth. Soils treated with fly ash-amended compost often gave higher concentrations than the control for K, Ca, Mg, S, Zn, and B in the Brassica crops. 18 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

Menon, M.P.; Sajwan, K.S.; Ghuman, G.S.; James, J.; Chandra, K. (Savannah State College, GA (United States))

1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

Effect of coal fly ash-amended organic compost as a manure for agricultural crops  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Coal-fired electric power plants generate large quantities of fly ash as a byproduct. In continuation of previous studies on the utilization of fly ash as an amendment to organic compost for use as a manure for agricultural crops, the authors have now determined the effects of this manure on the yield and uptake of selected elements by several plants including collard green, corn, mustard green, bell pepper, egg plant, and climbing beans. An amended compost containing 30-40% fly ash with a compost:soil ratio of 1:3 was found to be most effective to enhance the yield and nutrient uptake of most of the plants. At 20% fly ash level, no increase in yield of any of the above crops was observed. The uptake of K, Mg, Mn, and P was increased in most plants. Boron which is known to be detrimental to the growth of plants above certain level was also found to be increased in plants nourished with the manure.

Ghuman, G.S.; Menon, M.P.; James, J.; Chandra, K.; Sajwan, K. (Savannah State College, GA (United States))

1991-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

Developing Greenhouse Gas Emissions Offsets by Reducing Nitrous Oxide (N2O) Emissions in Agricultural Crop Production  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This Technical Update covers the first year of a three-year-long EPRI research project entitled Developing Greenhouse Gas Emissions Offsets by Reducing Nitrous Oxide (N2O) Emissions in Agricultural Crop Production. The report provides a project overview and explains the preliminary results yielded from the first year of on-farm research.

2007-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

19

Use of geothermal heat for crop drying and related agricultural applications. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Observations led to the selection of the alfalfa dehydration industry for in-depth analysis of the application of moderate-temperature geothermal heat. Six geothermal heat exchanger/dryer configurations were examined. A low-temperature conveyor dryer using geothermal water to supply all required heat was chosen for site-specific analysis, the retrofitting of a large alfalfa dehydration plant within the Heber KGRA in the Imperial Valley, California. Even in the most favorable scenario--sharing a geothermal pipeline with the neighboring fertilizer plant--geothermal retrofitting would increase the price of the alfalfa ''dehy'' about 40 percent. The geothermal brine is estimated to cost $2.58/million Btu's compared with a 1977 natural gas cost of $1.15. Capital cost for heat exchangers and the new dryers is estimated at $3.3 million. The Heber plant appeared to offer the only good opportunity for geothermal retrofitting of an existing alfalfa dehydration plant. Construction of new plants at geothermal resource sites cannot be justified due to the uncertain state of the ''dehy'' industry. Use of geothermal heat for drying other crops may be much more promising. The potato dehydration industry, which is concentrated in the geothermal-rich Snake River Valley of Idaho, appears to offer good potential for geothermal retrofitting; about 4.7 x 10{sup 12}Btu's are used annually by plants within 50 miles of resources. Drying together at the geothermal wellhead several crops that have interlocking processing seasons and drying-temperature requirements may be quite attractive. The best ''multicrop drying center'' site identified was at Power Ranch Wells, Arizona; 34 other sites were defined. Agricultural processing applications other than drying were investigated briefly.

Gordon, T.J.; Wright, T.C.; Fein, E.; Munson, T.R.; Richmond, R.C.

1978-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

Essays on U.S. agricultural policy : subsidies, crop insurance, and environmental auctions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis investigates the unintended consequences of government policy, specifically policy meant to benefit agricultural producers. The first chapter asks how agricultural subsidies affect farmland rental rates. Chapter ...

Kirwan, Barrett E., 1974-

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "durables agricultural crop" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Spatial and temporal responses of different crop-growing environments to agricultural drought: a study in Haryana state, India using NOAA AVHRR data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Spatial and temporal responses to agricultural drought of different districts with different crop-growing environments were assessed using National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR)-derived ...

C. S. Murthy; M. V. R. Sesha Sai; K. Chandrasekar; P. S. Roy

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

22

2 SPRAY OILS--BEYOND 2000 Modern use of petroleum-derived oils as agricultural crop  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of these products. Introduction Petroleum oils have been in use as crop protectants for over a hundred years of petroleum oils have re- sulted in the ability to virtually custom-manufacture effective oil products of vegetable and animal oils to certain crop protection needs. #12;3Agnello--Petroleum-derived spray oils

Agnello, Arthur M.

23

The effects of agricultural land use patterns on pollutant runoff from watersheds: rangeland/pastureland and row cropping  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Much attention is being focused on water quality in rivers, lakes and streams. One of the contributors of pollution to rivers, lakes and streams is runoff from agriculture in the form of nutrients, pesticides and suspended solids. This study was designed to look at the amount of these substances produced in subwatersheds from corn, grain sorghum and cotton farming along the Colorado River in Travis and Bastrop counties. The study also looked at rangeland and row cropped familand to estimate which land use type produced more runoff and pollution to receiving streams. Best management practices were also looked at as a means of limiting the amount of runoff and pollution transport from row cropped areas. Three automated sampling sites were set up to collect water samples after rainfall events. Two of the sites were set up to sample from streams that drained subwatersheds of a tributary to the Colorado River. The land use at one subwatershed consisted primarily of rangeland and pastureland while the land use at the other site consisted mainly of row cropped farmland. The third site was set up to sample on a row cropped farm that employed certain best management practices. The accepted convention is that rangeland produces less runoff @ row cropped areas and therefore contributes less pollutants to receiving waters. The findings from this project generally support this. Additionally, it was found, through computer modeling, that best management practices in the form of terracing, contour plowing and filter strips significantly reduced the amount of runoff and pollutants that move off site from row cropped areas during rainfall events. The implications of these findings are that, where possible, efforts should be made to implement best management practices to reduce the amount of runoff and pollution to receiving waters. Producers also need to be educated as to how to implement and maintain best management practices to obtain optimal benefits.

Jayne, Andrew A.

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

24

Early estimation of crop surfaces and agriculture monitoring using RADARSAT data  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Owing to the success of past experiments carried out using ERS SAR time-series from late fall to late winter [1-6], we herewith evaluate the potential of RADARSAT in substituting optical images for early crop identification and early crop surfaces estimation. This paper outlines the operational feasibility of very early RADARSAT based acreage estimation of noncultivated terrain (set-aside, fallow, bare soils) and economically important crops, already during the winter season. Also the monitoring of growing crops during spring and early summer has been also carried out to investigate RADARSAT potential for cereals discrimination. To this end, this pre-operational project has been carried out in a real-time environment (rapid data acquisition, delivery, processing and exploitation). From May 1997 to January 1998, the test site of the West-Flevoland polder in the Netherlands was monitored in the framework of ADRO Project #581. To discriminate between non-cultivated/cultivated surfaces and to identify the major crop types, the methodology already successfully applied with ERS SAR data [1-6] has been used. 1.

Francis Yakam-simen; Edmond Nezry; Francis Zagolski

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

25

Furrow Diking Technology for Agricultural Water Conservation and its Impact on Crop Yields in Texas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Furrow diking is a practical, efficient and low-cost technique to conserve water and increase crop yields. Improvements in diker design and the increased use of herbicides have resulted in the rapid spread of furrow diking in the Texas High Plains and other regions. To quantify the long-term effects of diking on crop yields, a computer simulation approach was used. Three crop models for sorghum, corn and cotton were combined with surface runoff hydrology algorithms, based on the USDA-SCS curve number methodology. The combination models called SORDIKE, CORDIKE and COTDIKE were run to determine the effects of conserving the runoff (by diking) on crop yields. Three scenarios of not diking, diking in the growing season, and diking all year were simulated. Daily weather data for 25 years from five Texas regions were used for the analyses. Depending on the location, furrow diking in the growing season increased average annual sorghum yields by 320 to 570 kg/ha, corn yields by 180 to 570 kg/ha, and cotton lint yields by 10 to 20 kg/ha. Diking the land throughout the year increased mean annual yields by 440 to 1080 kg/ha of sorghum, 210 to 800 kg/ha of corn and 10 to 30 kg/ha of cotton lint. The study indicated that furrow diking can be a valuable management practice for about 3.4 million ha of cropped area in the semi-arid and sub-humid regions of Texas. The practice may be useful in other areas also, to mitigate the effects of short duration moisture stress on crop yields.

Krishna, J. Hari; Arkin, Gerald F.

1988-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

ii The Economic Impacts of Bioenergy Crop Production on U.S. Agriculture.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Cover: Soil scientists Harry Pionke (left) and Ron Schnabel examine a switchgrass stand. If switchgrass were to become a major crop, it could add up to $5 billion to farmers ' income and contribute to the reduction of the United States ' dependence on oil imports.

Daniel G. De; La Torre Ugarte; Marie E. Walsh; Hosein Shapouri; Stephen P. Slinsky; G. De; La Torre Ugarte; Marie E. Walsh; Hosein Shapouri

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

Optimization-based trade-off analysis of biodiesel crop production for managing an agricultural catchment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Political agendas worldwide include increased production of biofuel, which multiplies the trade-offs among conflicting objectives, including food and fodder production, water quantity, water quality, biodiversity, and ecosystem services. Quantification ... Keywords: Bioenergy, Crop rotation schemes, Genetic algorithm, Land use, River basin management, Water quality

Sven Lautenbach, Martin Volk, Michael Strauch, Gerald Whittaker, Ralf Seppelt

2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

A review of methods and applications of the geometric characterization of tree crops in agricultural activities  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents the foundations and applications in agriculture of the main systems used for the geometrical characterization of tree plantations, including systems based on ultrasound, digital photographic techniques, light sensors, high-resolution ... Keywords: 3D plant modeling, LIDAR, Stereo vision, Terrestrial laser scanning, Ultrasonic sensors, Variable application

J. R. Rosell; R. Sanz

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

The Environmental Impacts of Subsidized Crop Insurance  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Impacts of Subsidized Crop Insurance page 17 ReferencesR.A. Kramer. “Experience with Crop Insurance Programs in theUnited States. ” Crop Insurance for Agricultural

LaFrance, Jeffrey T.; Shimshack, J. P.; Wu, S. Y.

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

Low Cost, Durable Seal  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Cost, Durable Seal Cost, Durable Seal George M. Roberts UTC Power Corporation February 14, 2007 This presentation does not contain any proprietary or confidential information 1 LOW COST, DURABLE SEAL Outline * Project Objective * Technical Approach * Timeline * Team Roles * Budget * Q&A 2 LOW COST, DURABLE SEAL Project Objective Develop advanced, low cost, durable seal materials and sealing techniques amenable to high volume manufacture of PEM cell stacks. DOE Targets/Goals/Objectives Project Goal Durability Transportation: 5,000 hr Stationary: 40,000 hr Durability Improve mechanical and chemical stability to achieve 40,000 hr of useful operating life. Low Cost Low Cost A material cost equivalent to or less than the cost of silicones in common use. 3 LOW COST, DURABLE SEAL

31

The Durability of Conservation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Durability of Conservation Easements in Georgia Meghan Ryan & Michelle Godfrey November 3, 2008-0612 jroskie@uga.edu #12;1The Durability of Conservation Easements in Georgia The Durability of Conservation Easements in Georgia Meghan Ryan & Michelle Godfrey Fall 2008 I. Introduction Conservation easements

Radcliffe, David

32

Agriculture: Tendencies & Deficiencies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Agriculture: Tendencies & Deficiencies Tad Patzek, Petroleum & Geosystems Engineering, UT Austin of Conclusions, cntd. The main energy crops I have looked at are maize, sugarcane, soybeans, and oil palms are witnessing a global move away from food to energy crops. Diverting more land to pure energy crops

Patzek, Tadeusz W.

33

The Cost of Crop Damage Caused by Ozone Air Pollution From Motor Vehicles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

L. (1982). Assessment of crop loss from ozone. Journal of1984). Assessing impacts of ozone on agricultural crops: II.crop yield functions and alternative exposure statistics.

Murphy, James; Delucchi, Mark; McCubbin, Donald; Kim, H.J.

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

34

The impact of mineral fertilizers on the carbon footprint of crop production  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Impact of Agricultural Crop Production using the Life Cyclefield with the harvested crops and the nutrients supplied bysee Fig. 1). Supply of crop residues & organic fertilizer

Brentrup, Frank

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

35

The Cost of Crop Damage Caused by Ozone Air Pollution From Motor Vehicles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

D. T. Tingey, Assessment of Crop Loss From Air Pollutants,,Assessing Impacts of Ozone on Agricultural Crops: II.Crop Yield Functions and Alternative Exposure Statistics",

Delucchi, Mark A.; Murphy, James; Kim, Jin; McCubbin, Donald R.

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

36

Market Potential for Organic Crops in California: Almonds, Hay, and Winegrapes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and Agriculture. “State Organic Crop and Acreage Report. ”Market Potential for Organic Crops in California: Almonds,Market Potential for Organic Crops in California: Almonds,

Brodt, Sonja; Klonsky, Karen; Thrupp, Ann

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

37

Environmental and societal consequences of a possible CO/sub 2/-induced climate change. Volume II, Part 8. Impacts of rising atmospheric carbon dioxide levels on agricultural growing seasons and crop water use efficiencies  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The researchable areas addressed relate to the possible impacts of climate change on agricultural growing seasons and crop adaptation responses on a global basis. The research activities proposed are divided into the following two main areas of investigation: anticipated climate change impacts on the physical environmental characteristics of the agricultural growing seasons and, the most probable food crop responses to the possible changes in atmospheric CO/sub 2/ levels in plant environments. The main physical environmental impacts considered are the changes in temperature, or more directly, thermal energy levels and the growing season evapotranspiration-precipitation balances. The resulting food crop, commercial forest and rangeland species response impacts addressed relate to potential geographical shifts in agricultural growing seasons as determined by the length in days of the frost free period, thermal energy changes and water balance changes. In addition, the interaction of possible changes in plant water use efficiencies during the growing season in relationship to changing atmospheric CO/sub 2/ concentrations, is also considered under the scenario of global warming due to increases in atmospheric CO/sub 2/ concentration. These proposed research investigations are followed by adaptive response evaluations.

Newman, J. E.

1982-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

Charles County- Agricultural Preservation Districts- Renewable Generation Allowed  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Charles County provides that producing energy "from solar, wind, biomass, and farm waste and residue crops" is a permitted agricultural use in areas zoned as Agricultural Preservation Districts.

39

Bioeconomy Crop Initiative (Prince Edward Island)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The Bioeconomy Crop Initiative is being offered by the P.E.I. Department of Agriculture through the Agricultural Flexibility Fund, a cost-sharing agreement between the Government of Canada and the...

40

Durable metallized polymer mirror  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A metallized polymer mirror construction is disclosed having improved durability against delamination and tunneling, comprising: an outer layer of polymeric material; a metal oxide layer underlying the outer layer of polymeric material; a silver reflective layer underneath the metal oxide layer; and a layer of adhesive attaching the silver layer to a substrate. 6 figs.

Schissel, P.O.; Kennedy, C.E.; Jorgensen, G.J.; Shinton, Y.D.; Goggin, R.M.

1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "durables agricultural crop" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Global Seed and Crop Technology  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Adventitious presence deserves discussion to understand whether farmers engaged in conventional, organic, and transgenic agriculture can coexist as neighbors using known and practical agronomic practices. When a farmer buys and sows certified seed of his or her chosen crop variety, the crop starts with the highest degree of purity deemed commercially achievable, which then becomes increasingly less pure as various

L. Kershen; Alan Mchughen; Earl Sneed; Centennial Professor; Law Biotechnology Specialist; Thomas Parker Redick

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

Novel Techniques and Their Wide Applications to Health Foods, Medical and Agricultural Biotechnology in Relation to Policy Making on Genetically Modified Crops and Foods  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Selected applications of novel techniques in Agricultural Biotechnology, Health Food formulations and Medical Biotechnology are being reviewed with the aim of unraveling future developments and policy changes that are likely to open new markets for Biotechnology and prevent the shrinking or closing of existing ones. Amongst the selected novel techniques with applications in both Agricultural and Medical Biotechnology are: immobilized bacterial cells and enzymes, microencapsulation and liposome production, genetic manipulation of microorganisms, development of novel vaccines from plants, epigenomics of mammalian cells and organisms, and biocomputational tools for molecular modeling related to disease and Bioinformatics. Both fundamental and applied aspects of the emerging new techniques are being discussed in relation to their anticipated, marked impact on future markets and present policy changes that are needed for success in either Agricultural or Medical Biotechnology. The novel techniques are illustrated ...

Baianu, I C; Lozano, P; Lin, H C

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

Charles County - Agricultural Preservation Districts - Renewable...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Type Siting & Permitting Charles County provides that producing energy "from solar, wind, biomass, and farm waste and residue crops" is a permitted agricultural use in areas...

44

Agriculture and the greenhouse effect  

SciTech Connect

This article discusses research of the US Department of Agriculture's Agricultural Research Service and the US Department of Energy's Carbon Dioxide Research Division to anticipate the effects of increased atmospheric carbon dioxide on American agriculture. Experiments involving exposure of plants to elevated CO/sub 2/ and attempts to model the productivity of crops as atmospheric CO/sub 2/ increases are described. The scientists quoted in the article are optimistic, emphasizing the beneficial effects of the elevated CO/sub 2/ on crops and speculating that problems caused by associated climate changes can be accommodated by movement of crop regions and by introduction of new varieties.

1988-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

Food-Regional Crop Areas and Climatic Profiles | Data.gov  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Food-Regional Crop Areas and Climatic Profiles Agriculture Community Menu DATA APPS EVENTS DEVELOPER STATISTICS COLLABORATE ABOUT Agriculture You are here Data.gov Communities...

46

Low Cost, Durable Seal  

SciTech Connect

Seal durability is critical to achieving the 2010 DOE operational life goals for both stationary and transportation PEM fuel cell stacks. The seal material must be chemically and mechanically stable in an environment consisting of aggressive operating temperatures, humidified gases, and acidic membranes. The seal must also be producible at low cost. Currentlyused seal materials do not meet all these requirements. This project developed and demonstrated a high consistency hydrocarbon rubber seal material that was able to meet the DOE technical and cost targets. Significant emphasis was placed on characterization of the material and full scale molding demonstrations.

Roberts, George; Parsons, Jason; Friedman, Jake

2010-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

47

Crop Physiology  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this chapter, we review the physiology of switchgrass from seed dormancy till the effects of water and nutrients stress on grown plants. These characteristics are presented and discussed mainly at the canopy and whole-plant level with emphasis on the agro-physiology of the species in view of the possible contribution of crop physiology to agricultural development. Switchgrass is noted for the variable degrees of seed dormancy regulated by endogenous and exogenous factors that determine the successful seedling establishment. Plant growth rates are determined by temperature while the reproductive phase is controlled mainly by photoperiod. There is also evidence that some physiological attributes, such as photosynthesis, transpiration, and water use efficiency differ between tetraploid, hexaploid and octaploid ecotypes. But despite these differences, in general switchgrass combines important attributes of efficient use of nutrients and water with high yields thanks to its ability to acquire resources from extended soil volumes, especially at deep layers. Moreover at canopy level, resources capture and conservation are determined by morpho-physiological characteristics (C{sub 4} photosynthetic pathway, stomatal control of transpiration, high leaf area index, low light extinction coefficient) that enhance radiation use efficiency and reduce carbon losses. However, specific information on switchgrass physiology is still missing, in particular deeper understanding of physiological principles controlling the water and nutrients acquisition mechanisms and allocation under suboptimal growing conditions. The physiology of tillering and root respiration are also factors that need further investigation.

Zegada-Lizarazu, Walter [University of Bologna; Wullschleger, Stan D [ORNL; Nair, S. Surendran [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Monti, Andrea [University of Bologna

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

48

DURABILITY, RELIABILITY, AND SERVICE LIFE ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Kaipeng Liu, Xiaohong Gu. In practical applications of PV solar cells, long-term weathering durability and reliable performance are essential. ...

49

Reformate fuel cell system durability  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The goal of this research is to identify the factors limiting the durability of fuel cells and fuel processors. This includes identifying PEM fuel cell durability issues for operating on pure hydrogen, and those that arise from the fuel processing of liquid hydrocarbons (e.g., gasoline) as a function of fuel composition and impurity content. Benchmark comparisons with the durability of fuel cells operating on pure hydrogen are used to identify limiting factors unique to fuel processing. We describe the design, operation and operational results of the durability system, including the operating conditions for the system, fuel processor sub-section operation over 1000 hours, post-mortem characterization of the catalysts in the fuel processor, and single cell operation.

Borup, R. L. (Rodney L.); Inbody, M. A. (Michael A.); Uribe, F. A. (Francisco A.); Tafoya, J. (Jose I.)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

Agricultural Advisors: A Receptive Audience for Weather and Climate Information?  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

As the climate in the midwestern United States becomes increasingly variable because of global climate change, it is critical to provide tools to the agricultural community to ensure adaptability and profitability of agricultural cropping systems. ...

Linda Stalker Prokopy; Tonya Haigh; Amber Saylor Mase; Jim Angel; Chad Hart; Cody Knutson; Maria Carmen Lemos; Yun-Jia Lo; Jean McGuire; Lois Wright Morton; Jennifer Perron; Dennis Todey; Melissa Widhalm

2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

Soil and water quality implications of production of herbaceous and woody energy crops  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Field-scale studies in three physiographic regions of the Tennessee Valley in the Southeastern US are being used to address the environmental effects of producing biomass energy crops on former agricultural lands. Comparison of erosion, surface water quality and quantity, and subsurface movement of water and nutrients from woody crops, switchgrass and agricultural crops began with crop establishment in 1994. Nutrient cycling, soil physical changes, and productivity of the different crops are also being monitored at the three sites.

Tolbert, V.R. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Lindberg, J.E. [Oak Ridge Inst. of Science and Education, TN (United States); Green, T.H. [Alabama A and M Univ., Normal, AL (United States). Dept. of Plant and Soil Science] [and others

1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

Test of a solar crop dryer Danish Technological Institute  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Test of a solar crop dryer Danish Technological Institute Danish Institute of Agricultural Sciences Aidt Miljø A/S SEC-R-6 #12;Test of a solar crop dryer Søren �stergaard Jensen Danish Technological/S January 2001 #12;Preface The report describes the tests carried out on a solar crop dryer. The work

53

Agriculture, technology, and conflict  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Conflict and agriculture have a long, shared history. The purpose of this research is to look at the relationships between agriculture, agricultural technologies, and conflict during current and recent conflicts, large scale and localized. Agriculture and its related technologies are often affected by conflict, but rarely acknowledged as a cause or solution to conflict. Literature reviews in six topic areas illustrate various facets of the relationship between agriculture and conflict. Research conducted in Santa Cruz del Quiché, Guatemala illustrates the ways farmers were impacted by the country’s civil war. It also examines farmer survival strategies during the war, and reveals the presence of minor localized conflict over water resources. Conflict over land is not a major concern at present. Market access for inputs and outputs are shown to have been a problem for a number of farmers during the civil war. The poverty of Santa Cruz farmers indicates that much could be gained by rural development. Research is unable to support the hypotheses that agricultural technologies have prevented or caused conflict in Santa Cruz del Quiché, or that they have played a large role in recovery from the country’s civil war. The author recommends that future research be undertaken in regions with a diverse set of agricultural technologies, and/or a recent history of significant technological change in agriculture. Policy recommendations include providing secure access to markets during war time, increasing capacity for home-based rural production, and continuing research into resilient crops. Finally, the author suggests that the responsible decision to develop, adopt, or introduce an agricultural technology must take into account the social consequences of that decision, including how the new technology may alleviate or contribute to conflict.

Zilverberg, Cody John

2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

Compositional threshold for Nuclear Waste Glass Durability  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Within the composition space of glasses, a distinct threshold appears to exist that separates "good" glasses, i.e., those which are sufficiently durable, from "bad" glasses of a low durability. The objective of our research is to clarify the origin of this threshold by exploring the relationship between glass composition, glass structure and chemical durability around the threshold region.

Kruger, Albert A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Farooqi, Rahmatullah [Pohang Univ. of Science and Technology, (Korea, Republic of); Hrma, Pavel R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States), Pohang Univ. of Science and Technology, (Korea, Republic of)

2013-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

55

Indian Agriculture and Foods  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Agriculture and Foods Agriculture and Foods Nature Bulletin No. 387-A September 19, 1970 Forest Preserve District of Cook County George W. Dunne, President Roland F. Eisenbeis, Supt. of Conservation INDIAN AGRICULTURE AND FOODS Most of the Indian tribes east of the Great Plains were part-time farmers. Some of them cultivated sunflowers, giant ragweed, canary grass and pigweed for their seeds, which they used as food. Many grew tobacco. But corn, beans and squash -- wherever the climate permitted - - were the principal crops. There were several varieties of beans. They ate both the seeds and rinds of some dozens of kinds of squash and pumpkin. When game was not abundant there was a wealth of wild fruits, berries, and many kinds of wild plants with edible leaves, seeds, or roots. Corn, however, was the ' staff of life" and they depended on corn, beans and squash -- "the three sisters" -- for year-round food.

56

The impact of mineral fertilizers on the carbon footprint of crop production  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

emissions in fertiliser production. IFS (The InternationalImpact of Agricultural Crop Production using the Life CycleN fertilizer rates in cereal production. Europ. J. Agronomy

Brentrup, Frank

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

57

Using Metallurgical Analysis to Develop Durability Enhancement ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Using Metallurgical Analysis to Develop Durability Enhancement Opportunities for Gas Turbine Engines. Author(s), Doug Nagy. On- Site ...

58

Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Durability Working Group  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

About Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Durability Working Group to someone by E-mail Share Fuel Cell Technologies Office:...

59

PETRO: Higher Productivity Crops for Biofuels  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

PETRO Project: The 10 projects that comprise ARPA-E’s PETRO Project, short for “Plants Engineered to Replace Oil,” aim to develop non-food crops that directly produce transportation fuel. These crops can help supply the transportation sector with agriculturally derived fuels that are cost-competitive with petroleum and do not affect U.S. food supply. PETRO aims to redirect the processes for energy and carbon dioxide (CO2) capture in plants toward fuel production. This would create dedicated energy crops that serve as a domestic alternative to petroleum-based fuels and deliver more energy per acre with less processing prior to the pump.

None

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

Closing the gap: global potential for increasing biofuel production through agricultural intensification  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Closing the gap: global potential for increasing biofuel production through agricultural: global potential for increasing biofuel production through agricultural intensification Matt Johnston1 and biodiesel feedstock crops. With biofuels coming under increasing pressure to slow or eliminate indirect land

Wisconsin at Madison, University of

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "durables agricultural crop" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Review: Sensing technologies for precision specialty crop production  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

With the advances in electronic and information technologies, various sensing systems have been developed for specialty crop production around the world. Accurate information concerning the spatial variability within fields is very important for precision ... Keywords: Precision agriculture, Review, Sensing, Specialty crop

W. S. Lee; V. Alchanatis; C. Yang; M. Hirafuji; D. Moshou; C. Li

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

62

Addressing Durability with the Performance Approach  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Table 3   Materials used in high-performance concrete...material/durability; high strength Calcined shale Cementing material/durability; high strength Superplasticizers Flowability High-range water reducers Reduce water to cement ratio Hydration control admixtures Control setting Retarders Control setting Accelerators Accelerate setting Corrosion...

63

Highly Dispersed Alloy Catalyst for Durability  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Achieving DOE�¢����s stated 5000-hr durability goal for light-duty vehicles by 2015 will require MEAs with characteristics that are beyond the current state of the art. Significant effort was placed on developing advanced durable cathode catalysts to arrive at the best possible electrode for high performance and durability, as well as developing manufacturing processes that yield significant cost benefit. Accordingly, the overall goal of this project was to develop and construct advanced MEAs that will improve performance and durability while reducing the cost of PEMFC stacks. The project, led by UTC Power, focused on developing new catalysts/supports and integrating them with existing materials (membranes and gas diffusion layers (GDLs)) using state-of-the-art fabrication methods capable of meeting the durability requirements essential for automotive applications. Specifically, the project work aimed to lower platinum group metals (PGM) loading while increasing performance and durability. Appropriate catalysts and MEA configuration were down-selected that protects the membrane, and the layers were tailored to optimize the movements of reactants and product water through the cell to maximize performance while maintaining durability.

Vivek S. Murthi (Primary Contact), Elise Izzo, Wu Bi, Sandra Guerrero and Lesia Protsailo

2013-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

64

A GIS-based approach to evaluate biomass potential from energy crops at regional scale  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The aim of the paper is to propose a method to maximize energy production from arboreous and herbaceous dedicated crops given the characteristics of the local environment: geo-morphology, climate, natural heritage, current land use. The best energy crops ... Keywords: Agricultural land, Carbon mitigation, Energy crops, GIS, Land use, Spatial analysis

Giulia Fiorese; Giorgio Guariso

2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

Durability testing of antireflection coatings for solar applications  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Antireflection (AR) coatings can be incorporated into highly transmitting glazings that, depending on their cost, performance, and durability of optical properties, can be economically viable in solar collectors, agricultural greenhouses, and PV systems. A number of AR-coated glazings have been prepared under the auspices of the International Energy Agency (IEA) Working Group on Durability of Materials for Solar Thermal Collectors. The AR coatings are of two types, including (1) various sol-gels applied to glass and (2) an embossed treatment of sheet acrylic. Typically, for unweathered glazings, a 4%--5% increase in solar-weighted transmittance has been achieved. For AR-coated glass, reflectance values as low as 0.5%--0.7% at selected wavelengths (680--720 nm) were obtained. To determine the durability of the hemispherical transmittance, several collaborating countries are testing these materials both outdoors and in accelerated weathering chambers. All materials exposed outdoors are affixed to mini-collector boxes to simulate flat-plate collector conditions. Results for candidate AR coatings weathered at geographically disperse outdoor test sites exhibit changes in spectral transmittance primarily in the high visible range (600--700 nm). Accelerated testing at measured levels of simulated solar irradiance and at different constant levels of temperature and relative humidity have been performed in different countries. Parallel testing with different levels of laboratory-controlled relevant stress factors permits the time-dependent performance of these materials to be compared with measured results from in-service outdoor exposure conditions. Coating adhesion and performance loss resulting from dirt and dust retention are also discussed.

Jorgensen, G.; Brunold, S.; Koehl, M.; Nostell, P.; Roos, A.; Oversloot, H.

2000-01-05T23:59:59.000Z

66

A Synthesis of Agricultural Policies in Bangladesh | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Synthesis of Agricultural Policies in Bangladesh Synthesis of Agricultural Policies in Bangladesh Jump to: navigation, search Name A Synthesis of Agricultural Policies in Bangladesh Agency/Company /Organization Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Government of Bangladesh Sector Land Focus Area Agriculture Topics Policies/deployment programs, Background analysis Resource Type Publications Website http://www.un-bd.org/pub/unpub Country Bangladesh UN Region South-Eastern Asia References A Synthesis of Agricultural Policies in Bangladesh[1] Overview "There is a plethora of policy/ strategy documents relevant to broad agriculture and rural development in Bangladesh. These can be classified in three sub-categories- crops, noncrops and cross cutting policies (Table 1). As one would expect, about a half of the policy documents deal with crop

67

Method of determining glass durability  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process is described for determining one or more leachate concentrations of one or more components of a glass composition in an aqueous solution of the glass composition by identifying the components of the glass composition, including associated oxides, determining a preliminary glass dissolution estimator, {Delta}G{sub p}, based upon the free energies of hydration for the component reactant species, determining an accelerated glass dissolution function, {Delta}G{sub a}, based upon the free energy associated with weak acid dissociation, {Delta}G{sub a}{sup WA}, and accelerated matrix dissolution at high pH, {Delta}G{sub a}{sup SB} associated with solution strong base formation, and determining a final hydration free energy, {Delta}G{sub f}. This final hydration free energy is then used to determine leachate concentrations for elements of interest using a regression analysis and the formula log{sub 10}(N C{sub i}(g/L))=a{sub i} + b{sub i}{Delta}G{sub f}. The present invention also includes a method to determine whether a particular glass to be produced will be homogeneous or phase separated. The present invention is also directed to methods of monitoring and controlling processes for making glass using these determinations to modify the feedstock materials until a desired glass durability and homogeneity is obtained. 4 figs.

Jantzen, C.M.; Pickett, J.B.; Brown, K.G.; Edwards, T.B.

1998-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

68

Method of determining glass durability  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for determining one or more leachate concentrations of one or more components of a glass composition in an aqueous solution of the glass composition by identifying the components of the glass composition, including associated oxides, determining a preliminary glass dissolution estimator, .DELTA.G.sub.p, based upon the free energies of hydration for the component reactant species, determining an accelerated glass dissolution function, .DELTA.G.sub.a, based upon the free energy associated with weak acid dissociation, .DELTA.G.sub.a.sup.WA, and accelerated matrix dissolution at high pH, .DELTA.G.sub.a.sup.SB associated with solution strong base formation, and determining a final hydration free energy, .DELTA.G.sub.f. This final hydration free energy is then used to determine leachate concentrations for elements of interest using a regression analysis and the formula log.sub.10 (N C.sub.i (g/L))=a.sub.i +b.sub.i .DELTA.G.sub.f. The present invention also includes a method to determine whether a particular glass to be produced will be homogeneous or phase separated. The present invention is also directed to methods of monitoring and controlling processes for making glass using these determinations to modify the feedstock materials until a desired glass durability and homogeneity is obtained.

Jantzen, Carol Maryanne (Aiken, SC); Pickett, John Butler (Aiken, SC); Brown, Kevin George (Augusta, GA); Edwards, Thomas Barry (Aiken, SC)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

Agriculture Information at NIST  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

NIST Home > Agriculture Information at NIST. Agriculture Information at NIST. CCQM BAWG - P113, Relative Quantification ...

2010-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

70

Probabilistic analysis of turbine blade durability  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The effect of variability on turbine blade durability was assessed for seven design/operating parameters in three blade designs. The parameters included gas path and cooling convective parameters, metal and coating thermal ...

Kountras, Apostolos, 1970-

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

Durable, Low Cost, Improved Fuel Cell Membranes  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Durable, Low-cost, Improved Durable, Low-cost, Improved Fuel Cell Membranes US Department of Energy Office of Hydrogen, Fuel Cells and Infrastructure Technologies Kickoff Meeting, Washington DC, February 13, 2007 Michel Fouré Project Objectives z To develop a low cost (vs. perfluorosulfonated ionomers), durable membrane. z To develop a membrane capable at 80°C at low relative humidity (25-50%). z To develop a membrane capable of operating at 120°C for brief periods of time. z To elucidate membrane degradation and failure mechanisms. U:jen/slides/pres.07/FC kickoff Washington DC 2-13-07 2 Technical Barriers Addressed z Membrane Cost z Membrane Durability z Membrane capability to operate at low relative humidity. z Membrane capability to operate at 120ºC for brief period of times.

72

Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Durability Working Group  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Durability Working Group Durability Working Group The Durability Working Group meets twice per year to exchange information, create synergies, and collaboratively develop both an understanding of and tools for studying degradation mechanisms of polymer electrolyte fuel cell stacks. Its members include principle investigators and supporting personnel from U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)-funded durability projects. More information on DOE durability activities can be found in the Multi-Year Research, Development, and Demonstration Plan. Description Technical Targets Meetings Contacts Description DOE durability targets for stationary and transportation fuel cells are 40,000 hours and 5,000 hours, respectively, under realistic operating conditions. In the most demanding applications, realistic operating conditions include impurities in the fuel and air, starting and stopping, freezing and thawing, and humidity and load cycles that result in stresses on the chemical and mechanical stability of the fuel cell materials, components, and interfaces. Degradation-exacerbating conditions resulting from cyclic operation include hydrogen starvation, differential pressure imbalance, oxidation-reduction cycling, and oxygen ingress to the anode, resulting in high cathode potentials. Significant progress has been made in determining the degradation mechanisms of fuel cell components and developing improved materials. However, as stated in the 2008 DOE Fuel Cell Solicitation, there is a need for further research and development in the following areas:

73

SOLERAS: Rural/agricultural project technical overview  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the Rural and Agricultural Solar Applications Projects is to enhance the quality of rural life in hot, arid climates by providing systems that use renewable or regenerable energy sources for domestic or communal, agricultural, and local industrial applications. These systems must provide domestic services such as hot water, heat for cooking, and electric power for lighting, communications, and refrigeration. In addition, agricultural applications such as water desalination, irrigation pumping, and heat and electricity for crop or food processing and local industrial functions, can become the basis for improving the villagers' standard of living. 29 refs., 82 figs., 23 tabs.

Huraib, F.S.; Adcock, J.P.; Knect, R.D.

1987-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

CRC handbook of agricultural energy potential of developing countries  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This book provides background information on the agroenergetic potential of 65 countries and offers summaries of major crops planted, total area planted, yield per hectare, and total production. Total land area is categorized as to agriculture, forest, and woodland, and is discussed with demographic statistics for each country. The potential for agricultural by-products and biomass to contribute to energy availability is explored, with reference to each major crop. Vegetation and/or economic activity, or soil maps are presented for most countries, as are climatic data, with crop yields and residues which are compared with production elsewhere.

Duke, J.A.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

Biomass Crop Assistance Program (BCAP) | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Biomass Crop Assistance Program (BCAP) Biomass Crop Assistance Program (BCAP) Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary Name: Biomass Crop Assistance Program (BCAP) Agency/Company /Organization: United States Department of Agriculture Partner: Farm Service Agency Sector: Energy, Land Focus Area: Biomass, - Biomass Combustion, - Biomass Gasification, - Biomass Pyrolysis, - Biofuels Phase: Develop Finance and Implement Projects Resource Type: Guide/manual User Interface: Website Website: www.fsa.usda.gov/FSA/webapp?area=home&subject=ener&topic=bcap Cost: Free The Biomass Crop Assistance provides financial assistance to offset, for a period of time, the fuel costs for a biomass facility. Overview The Biomass Crop Assistance provides financial assistance to offset, for a period of time, the fuel costs for a biomass facility. The Biomass Crop

76

Microbially derived crop protection products  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of the Project: Microbially derived crop protection productstransferred into major crop plants. Following greenhouseMicrobial Diversity-Based Novel Crop Protection Products " A

Torok, Tamas

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

Agricultural Microscopy Division Of Interest  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Agricultural Microscopy, Reports, Journals, Websites Agricultural Microscopy Division Of Interest Agricultural Microscopy agri-food sector agricultural Agricultural Microscopy analytical aocs articles biotechnology courses detergents division divisions f

78

Sorghums as energy crops  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The botanical, physiological, and agronomic characteristics of sorghum are described. Integration concepts to improve sorghum prospects are discussed as follows: multiple sweet sorghum crops each year, integration with sugarcane, integration with sugar beets, integration with starch crops, sweet stemmed grain sorghum, and integration with lignocellulosic crops. (MHR)

Lipinsky, E.S.; Kresovich, S.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

Cover Crops for the Garden  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

photosynthesis. When the cover crops decompose, the nitrogenthe nodules becomes available for growing crops to draw on.to a fall planting of cover crops. Cover crops are grown not

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

DURABLE GLASS FOR THOUSANDS OF YEARS  

SciTech Connect

The durability of natural glasses on geological time scales and ancient glasses for thousands of years is well documented. The necessity to predict the durability of high level nuclear waste (HLW) glasses on extended time scales has led to various thermodynamic and kinetic approaches. Advances in the measurement of medium range order (MRO) in glasses has led to the understanding that the molecular structure of a glass, and thus the glass composition, controls the glass durability by establishing the distribution of ion exchange sites, hydrolysis sites, and the access of water to those sites. During the early stages of glass dissolution, a 'gel' layer resembling a membrane forms through which ions exchange between the glass and the leachant. The hydrated gel layer exhibits acid/base properties which are manifested as the pH dependence of the thickness and nature of the gel layer. The gel layer ages into clay or zeolite minerals by Ostwald ripening. Zeolite mineral assemblages (higher pH and Al{sup 3+} rich glasses) may cause the dissolution rate to increase which is undesirable for long-term performance of glass in the environment. Thermodynamic and structural approaches to the prediction of glass durability are compared versus Ostwald ripening.

Jantzen, C.

2009-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "durables agricultural crop" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Optical durability testing of candidate solar mirrors  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Durability testing of a variety of candidate solar reflector materials at outdoor test sites and in laboratory accelerated weathering chambers is the main activity within the Advanced Materials task of the Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) Program. Outdoor exposure testing (OET) at up to eight outdoor, worldwide exposure sites has been underway for several years. This includes collaboration under the auspices of the International Energy Agency (IEA) Solar Power and Chemical Energy Systems (SolarPACES) agreement. Outdoor sites are fully instrumented in terms of monitoring meteorological conditions and solar irradiance. Candidate materials are optically characterized prior to being subjected to exposure in real and simulated weathering environments. Optical durability is quantified by periodically re-measuring hemispherical and specular reflectance as a function of exposure time. By closely monitoring the site- and time-dependent environmental stress conditions experienced by the material samples, site-dependent loss of performance may be quantified. In addition, accelerated exposure testing (AET) of these materials in parallel under laboratory-controlled conditions may permit correlating the outdoor results with AET, and subsequently predicting service lifetimes. Test results to date for a large number of candidate solar reflector materials are presented in this report. Acronyms are defined. Based upon OET and AET results to date, conclusions can be drawn about the optical durability of the candidate reflector materials. The optical durability of thin glass, thick glass, and two metallized polymers can be characterized as excellent. The all-polymeric construction, several of the aluminized reflectors, and a metallized polymer can be characterized as having intermediate durability and require further improvement, testing and evaluation, or both.

Jorgensen, G.; Kennedy, C.; King, D.; Terwilliger, K.

2000-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

82

An Analysis of the Link between Ethanol, Energy, and Crop Markets Simla Tokgoz and Amani Elobeid  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An Analysis of the Link between Ethanol, Energy, and Crop Markets Simla Tokgoz and Amani Elobeid that the composition of a country'svehiclefleetdeterminesthedirectionoftheresponseofethanolconsumptionto changes in the sugar market affect the competing ethanol market. Keywords: agricultural markets, energy, ethanol

Beresnev, Igor

83

Potential Impacts of Shifts in Climate on the Crop Insurance Industry  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Several studies have estimated the possible impacts and adjustments in U.S. agriculture resulting from a future change in climate. This paper examines how these adjustments and shifting climate conditions could affect the nation's crop weather ...

E. Ray Fosse; Stanley A. Changnon

1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

84

Nebraska shows potential to produce biofuel crops | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Nebraska shows potential to produce biofuel crops Nebraska shows potential to produce biofuel crops Nebraska shows potential to produce biofuel crops December 9, 2009 - 11:12am Addthis Joshua DeLung What are the key facts? Utilizing sites in Nevada that are currently used as buffers around roads for biofuel production instead could meet up to 22 percent of the state's energy requirements. That's 11 times the energy the state currently produces from biomass. Nebraska is known for its rolling cornfields in America's heartland, and agriculture is so thick in the state that people there can smell the fresh produce in the air. Many more in the U.S. might end up tasting the hearty vegetables as well. But one concern about new technologies that use crops for fuel is that those crops, and the land on which they're grown,

85

Nebraska shows potential to produce biofuel crops | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Nebraska shows potential to produce biofuel crops Nebraska shows potential to produce biofuel crops Nebraska shows potential to produce biofuel crops December 9, 2009 - 11:12am Addthis Joshua DeLung What are the key facts? Utilizing sites in Nevada that are currently used as buffers around roads for biofuel production instead could meet up to 22 percent of the state's energy requirements. That's 11 times the energy the state currently produces from biomass. Nebraska is known for its rolling cornfields in America's heartland, and agriculture is so thick in the state that people there can smell the fresh produce in the air. Many more in the U.S. might end up tasting the hearty vegetables as well. But one concern about new technologies that use crops for fuel is that those crops, and the land on which they're grown,

86

Soil and Crop Response to Power Line Construction Traffic and Shallow and Deep Tillage in New York State  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A large percentage of New York State is agricultural land. In many instances, electric transmission lines must be constructed on or across agricultural lands to provide electric service. This study was commissioned by member utilities of the Empire State Electric Energy Research Corporation (ESEERCO) to determine the effect of electric transmission construction traffic on agricultural lands and crops.

1999-09-18T23:59:59.000Z

87

Greenhouse gases and agriculture. Book chapter  

SciTech Connect

Agriculture ranks third in its contribution to Earth's anthropogenically enhanced greenhouse effect. (Energy use and production and chlorofluorocarbons are ranked first and second, respectively.) Specifically, greenhouse gas sources and sinks are increased, and sinks are decreased, by conversion of land to agricultural use, using fertilizers, cultivating paddy rice, producing other plant and animal crops, and by creating and managing animal and plant wastes. However, some of these same activities increase greenhouse gas sinks and decrease greenhouse gas sources so the net effects are not obvious. The paper identifies the agricultural inputs, outputs, and wastes that alter atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxides, and discusses agriculture's net impact on greenhouse gas fluxes.

Jackson, R.B.

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

88

Stakeholder Engagement and Outreach: Agricultural Outreach Articles  

Wind Powering America (EERE)

Outreach Articles Outreach Articles Electricity from the Wind series of articles was designed to support agricultural outreach efforts. The articles explore wind energy issues as they relate to the rural/agricultural community. These articles are available to media outlets in your state, especially agricultural media outlets. The articles may also be used as handouts when attending agricultural group meetings. Electricity from the Wind: A New Lesson for Schools Electricity from the Wind: What Landowners Should Know Electricity from the Wind: The New Cash Crop Electricity from the Wind: Wind Energy and the Natural Gas Crisis Electricity from the Wind: Economic Development for Rural Communities Electricity from the Wind: USDA Farm Bill Section 9006 Provides Funding for Farm and Ranch Wind Projects

89

Minutes from Durability Working Group Kick-off meeting  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Minutes from Durability Working Group (DWG) Kick-off Meeting 6/9/10 Contaminants Discussion on effect of air and system contaminants on performance and durability, initiated by S. Blanchet (Nuvera) Question of extent of impurity work in six newly-awarded durability projects represented at this meeting. None of the projects are specifically looking at the effect of system and air impurities on long- term performance degradation. New Argonne durability project does include task on effect of impurities introduced during catalyst synthesis on degradation mechanisms. Discussion on inclusion of newly-funded contaminant projects on durability working group - as these

90

Intermediate Ethanol Blends Catalyst Durability Program  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In the summer of 2007, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) initiated a test program to evaluate the potential impacts of intermediate ethanol blends (also known as mid-level blends) on legacy vehicles and other engines. The purpose of the test program was to develop information important to assessing the viability of using intermediate blends as a contributor to meeting national goals for the use of renewable fuels. Through a wide range of experimental activities, DOE is evaluating the effects of E15 and E20 - gasoline blended with 15% and 20% ethanol - on tailpipe and evaporative emissions, catalyst and engine durability, vehicle driveability, engine operability, and vehicle and engine materials. This report provides the results of the catalyst durability study, a substantial part of the overall test program. Results from additional projects will be reported separately. The principal purpose of the catalyst durability study was to investigate the effects of adding up to 20% ethanol to gasoline on the durability of catalysts and other aspects of the emissions control systems of vehicles. Section 1 provides further information about the purpose and context of the study. Section 2 describes the experimental approach for the test program, including vehicle selection, aging and emissions test cycle, fuel selection, and data handling and analysis. Section 3 summarizes the effects of the ethanol blends on emissions and fuel economy of the test vehicles. Section 4 summarizes notable unscheduled maintenance and testing issues experienced during the program. The appendixes provide additional detail about the statistical models used in the analysis, detailed statistical analyses, and detailed vehicle specifications.

West, Brian H; Sluder, Scott; Knoll, Keith; Orban, John; Feng, Jingyu

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

(Durability of building materials and components)  

SciTech Connect

The traveler participated in the fourth meeting of RILEM 100-TSL, Techniques for Service Life Prediction,'' and The Fifth International Conference on Durability of Building Materials and Components.'' In addition, the traveler met with staff members at Taywood Engineering Ltd., Electricite de France, and AEA Technology. The meeting pertained to performance of concrete materials in nuclear power plant structures, time variation of concrete material properties, methods for evaluating concrete structures, and modeling to predict the effects of degradation factors on concrete materials. As many of the concrete structures in general civil engineering applications as well as nuclear power plant applications in Europe are aging, there is increasing emphasis on assessing the durability of these structures. Information was provided of direct application to the Structural Aging Program which would not have been available without these visits. Of equal, or possibly more importance, was the individual contacts established at the organizations visited. Each organization was extremely interested in both the approach and scope of the Structural Aging Program and requested that they be informed of progress. The initial steps were taken to cooperate with several of these researchers and this should help the Structural Aging Program keep abreast of related European activities. In summary, information obtained during this trip will benefit the ongoing Structural Aging Program by informing Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) of the extensive European research programs addressing the durability of concrete structures, and also by forming and strengthening acquaintances with counterparts in other countries, thus enhancing the basis for possible international cooperation.

Naus, D.J.

1990-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

92

Short Course Agricultural Microscopy  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Short Course in Agricultural Microscopy. Fargo North Dakota held June 13-16 2011. Sponsored by the Agricultural Microscopy Division of AOCS and the Great Plains Institute of Food Safety. Short Course Agricultural Microscopy Short Courses ...

93

Multiobjective hierarchical control architecture for greenhouse crop growth  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The problem of determining the trajectories to control greenhouse crop growth has traditionally been solved by using constrained optimization or applying artificial intelligence techniques. The economic profit has been used as the main criterion in most ... Keywords: Agriculture, Hierarchical systems, Optimization methods, Process control, Yield optimization

A. Ramírez-Arias; F. Rodríguez; J. L. Guzmán; M. Berenguel

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

94

Agricultural Improvement Loan Program  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The Agricultural Improvement Loan Program is administered by the Minnesota Department of Agriculture through the Minnesota Rural Finance Authority (RFA) and provides loans to farmers for...

95

Agricultural Industrial Relations Bibliography  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Relations Act: Report. Sacramento, CA: Office of the AuditorLabor Relations Law. Sacramento, CA: California Agricultural1975-76 and 1976-77. Sacramento, CA: California Agricultural

Brown, Cheryl L.; Dote, Grace; Edmonds, Christopher M.; Perloff, Jeffrey M.; Rosenberg, Howard R.; Xiong, Nanyan

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

A farm-focused calculator for emissions from crop and livestock production  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Agriculture and deforestation contribute approximately one third of global greenhouse gas emissions. Major sources of emissions in this sector are from loss of soil carbon due to repeated soil disturbance under typical crop cultivation, fossil fuel use ... Keywords: Agriculture, Cool farm tool, Emissions, GHG

Jonathan Hillier; Christof Walter; Daniella Malin; Tirma Garcia-Suarez; Llorenç Mila-i-Canals; Pete Smith

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

Biomass resource potential using energy crops  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Biomass energy crops can provide a significant and environmentally beneficial source of renewable energy feedstocks for the future. They can revitalize the agricultural sector of the US economy by providing profitable uses for marginal cropland. Energy crops include fast-growing trees, perennial grasses, and annual grasses, all capable of collecting solar energy and storing it as cellulosic compounds for several months to several years. Once solar energy is thus captured, it can be converted by means of currently available technologies to a wide variety of energy products such as electricity, heat, liquid transportation fuels, and gases. Experimental results from field trials have generated optimism that selected and improved energy crops, established on cropland with moderate limitations for crop production, have the potential for producing high yields. Both trees and grasses, under very good growing conditions, have produced average annual yields of 20 to 40 dry Mg ha{sup {minus}1} year{sup {minus}1}. Sorghum has shown especially high yields in the Midwest. Hybrids between sugar cane and its wild relatives, called energy cane, have yielded as much as 50 dry Mg ha{sup {minus}1} year{sup {minus}1} in Florida. These experimental results demonstrate that some species have the genetic potential for very rapid growth rates. New wood energy crop systems developed by the Department of Energy`s Biofuels Feedstock Development Program offer, at a minimum, a 100% increase in biomass production rates over the 2 to 4 Mg ha{sup {minus}1} year{sup {minus}1} of dry leafless woody biomass produced by most natural forest systems. Experimental data indicate that short rotation wood crops established on cropland with moderate limitations are capable of producing biomass yields of 8--20 dry Mg ha{sup {minus}1} year{sup {minus}1} with a present average about 11 dry Mg ha{sup {minus}1} year{sup {minus}1} on typical cropland sites.

Wright, L.L.; Cushman, J.H.; Martin, S.A.

1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

The economic potential of producing energy from agricultural biomass  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Agricultural biomass is a substitute for fossil fuels, which could provide a sustained energy feedstock and possibly reduce further accumulations of greenhouse gases. However, these feedstocks currently face a market dominated by low cost fossil fuels; hence, are largely unable to be supplied at a competitive price. This study examined how forcing increased biomass energy generation, along with improvements in biomass production technology, will impact agricultural feedstock prices and economically impact the well-being of the agricultural sector. An U.S. agricultural sector model, a dynamic, nonlinear, mathematical program, determined the economic effects of using increased supplies of agricultural biomass for energy. The model incorporated production and use of potential biomass energy feedstocks, such as switchgrass and short rotation poplar. Also, the model introduced future biomass technologies, based on current research involving more productive biomass crops and more efficient conversion activities which produce ethanol and biomass electricity. The forced supply of new biomass crops, along with corn, involves several levels of energy production. This forced supply was based on projected ethanol demands and land capability for biomass production. The model determined the optimal mix of corn and energy crops to meet the biomass feedstock goals for energies. The resultant model appraises the effects of increasing biomass feedstocks for the years 1990, 2000, 2010, and 2020. The results show that initially, fuel prices using biomass feedstocks may be as much as 50 % greater than equivalent fossil fuel supplied energy. But due to technology the price of biomass feedstocks decreases over time. The analysis predicts that the agricultural feedstock price and the price of fossil fuels may equalize between the years 201 0 and 2020. The forced production of agricultural energy crops changes cropping patterns and prices for conventional crops as well. The agricultural energy crops and corn receive a greater allocation of farm land to meet the forced biomass energy supplies. Most conventional crop prices rise and all biomass feedstock prices rise with increasing feedstock production. As a consequence, farmers receive increased profits. Consumers, however, experience a loss in well-being due to the higher cost of energy feedstock and food products. National well-being experiences a net loss.

Jerko, Christine

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

Water, Agriculture + settlement design in the arid lower Colorado River Basin : 3 new models  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis investigates possible conversions of an increasingly unviable type of irrigated agricultural landscape, seen under the influences of three simultaneous processes: urban growth, change of cropping practice and ...

Wirth, Timo Matti

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

Analysis of Agricultural Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Options within a Multi-sector Economic Framework  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

National-scale analysis of greenhouse gas mitigation options is generally carried out using top-down economic models with moderate energy detail but very limited detail in agriculture and forestry. However, a complete analysis of greenhouse gas mitigation options requires an improved representation of agriculture within the top-down economic models used for analysis of climate policy. Greenhouse gas mitigation options within the agricultural sector include changes in afforestation of agricultural lands, crop and livestock management practices, harvesting of biomass crops for fuel, and the sequestration of carbon in agricultural soils. Analysis of such options is usually carried out in a bottom-up model such as the Agricultural Sector Model (ASM). We report on activities to combine the bottom-up agricultural detail from ASM with the top-down economic and energy structure used at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), which has been used extensively for analysis of alternative carbon mitigation strategies.

Sands, Ronald D.; Mccarl, Bruce A.; Gillig, Dhazn; Blanford, Geoffrey J.; Gale, J.; Kaya, Y.

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "durables agricultural crop" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Durability of Polymeric Glazing and Absorber Materials  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Solar Heating and Lighting Program has set the goal of reducing the cost of solar water heating systems by at least 50%. An attractive approach to such large cost reduction is to replace glass and metal parts with less-expensive, lighter-weight, more-integrated polymeric components. The key challenge with polymers is to maintain performance and assure requisite durability for extended lifetimes. We have begun evaluation of several new UV-screened polycarbonate sheet glazing constructions. This has involved interactions with several major polymer industry companies to obtain improved candidate samples. Proposed absorber materials were tested for UV resistance, and appear adequate for unglazed ICS absorbers.

Jorgensen, G.; Terwilliger, K.; Bingham, C.; Lindquist, C.; Milbourne, M.

2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

1981 Winter Meeting - American Society of Agricultural Engineers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The 13 volumes contain 372 papers presented at the meeting. Subjects covered include agricultural machinery developments and applications, irrigation, drainage, water supply, water pollution control, farm buildings, energy conservation, agricultural wastes management, biogas and other biomass fuels production, food products and good products plants, grain drying, solar energy applications, engineering economics, crop yield studies, agronomy, agrometeorology, livestock production and management, computer applications, field and laboratory studies, engineering education, and others. 108 papers are abstracted separately.

Not Available

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

103

Regional uptake and release of crop carbon in the United States  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Carbon fixed by agricultural crops in the US creates regional CO(2) sinks where it is harvested and regional CO(2) sources where it is released back to the atmosphere. The quantity and location of these fluxes differ depending on the annual supply and demand of crop commodities. Data on the harvest of crop biomass, storage, import and export, and on the use of biomass for food, feed, fiber, and fuel were compiled to estimate an annual crop carbon budget for 2000 to 2008. With respect to US Farm Resource Regions, net sources of CO(2) associated with the consumption of crop commodities occurred in the Eastern Uplands, Southern Seaboard, and Fruitful Rim regions. Net sinks associated with the production of crop commodities occurred in the Heartland, Northern Great Plains, and Mississippi Portal regions. The national crop carbon budget was balanced to within 0.3 to 6.1% yr(-1) during the period of this analysis.

West, Tristram O. [ORNL; Bandaru, Vara Prasad [ORNL; Branstetter, Marcia L. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Brandt, Craig C [ORNL; Schuh, Andrew [Colorado State University, Fort Collins; Ogle, Stephan [Colorado State University, Fort Collins

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

Regional Uptake and Release of Crop Carbon in the United States  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Carbon fixed by agricultural crops in the US creates regional CO2 sinks where it is harvested and regional CO2 sources where it is released back to the atmosphere. The quantity and location of these fluxes differ depending on the annual supply and demand of crop commodities. Data on the harvest of crop biomass, storage, import and export, and on the use of biomass for food, feed, fiber, and fuel were compiled to estimate an annual crop carbon budget for 2000 to 2008. Net sources of CO2 associated with the consumption of crop commodities occurred in the Eastern Uplands, Southern Seaboard, and Fruitful Rim regions. Net sinks associated with the production of crop commodities occurred in the Heartland, Northern Crescent, Northern Great Plains, and Mississippi Portal regions. The national crop carbon budget was balanced to within 0.7 to 6.6% yr-1 during the period of this analysis.

West, Tristram O.; Bandaru, Varaprasad; Brandt, Craig C.; Schuh, A.E.; Ogle, S.M.

2011-08-03T23:59:59.000Z

105

2nd Atlas/NIST Workshop on Photovoltaic Materials Durability ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... 8:45. Performance and durability of photovoltaic backsheets and comparison to outdoor performance, Bill Gambogi (DuPont). 9:20. ...

2013-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

106

Expanded production of labor-intensive crops increases agricultural employment  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Specialist, Labor Market Information Division, Cali- forniaResearch Manager, Labor Market Information Di- vision, EDD.CES). Labor Market Information Division, Sacramento, CA.

Khan, Akhtar; Martin, Philip; Hardiman, Phil

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

Radioactivity in food crops  

SciTech Connect

Published levels of radioactivity in food crops from 21 countries and 4 island chains of Oceania are listed. The tabulation includes more than 3000 examples of 100 different crops. Data are arranged alphabetically by food crop and geographical origin. The sampling date, nuclide measured, mean radioactivity, range of radioactivities, sample basis, number of samples analyzed, and bibliographic citation are given for each entry, when available. Analyses were reported most frequently for /sup 137/Cs, /sup 40/K, /sup 90/Sr, /sup 226/Ra, /sup 228/Ra, plutonium, uranium, total alpha, and total beta, but a few authors also reported data for /sup 241/Am, /sup 7/Be, /sup 60/Co, /sup 55/Fe, /sup 3/H, /sup 131/I, /sup 54/Mn, /sup 95/Nb, /sup 210/Pb, /sup 210/Po, /sup 106/Ru, /sup 125/Sb, /sup 228/Th, /sup 232/Th, and /sup 95/Zr. Based on the reported data it appears that radioactivity from alpha emitters in food crops is usually low, on the order of 0.1 Bq.g/sup -1/ (wet weight) or less. Reported values of beta radiation in a given crop generally appear to be several orders of magnitude greater than those of alpha emitters. The most striking aspect of the data is the great range of radioactivity reported for a given nuclide in similar food crops with different geographical origins.

Drury, J.S.; Baldauf, M.F.; Daniel, E.W.; Fore, C.S.; Uziel, M.S.

1983-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

Effect of crop residue harvest on long-term crop yield, soil erosion, and carbon balance: tradeoffs for a sustainable bioenergy feedstock  

SciTech Connect

Agricultural residues are a potential feedstock for bioenergy production, if residue harvest can be done sustainably. The relationship between crop residue harvest, soil erosion, crop yield and carbon balance was modeled with the Erosion Productivity Impact Calculator/ Environment Policy Integrated Climate (EPIC) using a factorial design. Four crop rotations (winter wheat [Triticum aestivum (L.)] – sunflower [Helianthus annuus]; spring wheat [Triticum aestivum (L.)] – canola [Brassica napus]; corn [Zea mays L.] – soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.]; and cotton [Gossypium hirsutum] – peanut [Arachis hypogaea]) were simulated at four US locations each, under different topographies (0-10% slope), and management practices [crop residue removal rates (0-75%), conservation practices (no till, contour cropping, strip cropping, terracing)].

Gregg, Jay S.; Izaurralde, Roberto C.

2010-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

109

Integrated description of agricultural field experiments and production: The ICASA Version 2.0 data standards  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Agricultural research increasingly seeks to quantify complex interactions of processes for a wide range of environmental conditions and crop management scenarios, leading to investigation where multiple sets of experimental data are examined using tools ... Keywords: ACE, ASCII, AgMIP, Climate change, Crop modeling, DSSAT, Data management, Databases, IBSNAT, ICASA, JSON, NASA/POWER, Software, WISE, XML

Jeffrey W. White, L. A. Hunt, Kenneth J. Boote, James W. Jones, Jawoo Koo, Soonho Kim, Cheryl H. Porter, Paul W. Wilkens, Gerrit Hoogenboom

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

A crop model and fuzzy rule based approach for optimizing maize planting dates in Burkina Faso, West Africa  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In Sub-Saharan Africa with high rainfall variability and little irrigation options, the crop planting date is a crucial tactical decision for farmers and therefore a major concern in agricultural decision making. To support decision making in ...

Moussa Waongo; Patrick Laux; Seydou B. Traoré; Moussa Sanon; Harald Kunstmann

111

Seasonal Prediction of Air Temperature Associated with the Growing-Season Start of Warm-Season Crops across Canada  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Seasonal prediction of growing-season start of warm-season crops (GSSWC) is an important task for the agriculture sector to identify risks and opportunities in advance. On the basis of observational daily surface air temperature at 210 stations ...

Zhiwei Wu; Hai Lin; Ted O’Brien

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

112

Seasonal Prediction of Killing-Frost Frequency in South-Central Canada during the Cool/Overwintering-Crop Growing Season  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Seasonal killing-frost frequency (KFF) during the cool/overwintering-crop growing season is important for the Canadian agricultural sector to prepare and respond to such extreme agrometeorological events. On the basis of observed daily surface air ...

Zhiwei Wu; Hai Lin; Yun Li; Youmin Tang

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

Impacts of Future Climate Change on California Perennial Crop Yields: Model Projections with Climate and Crop Uncertainties  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Most research on the agricultural impacts of climate change has focused on the major annual crops, yet perennial cropping systems are less adaptable and thus potentially more susceptible to damage. Improved assessments of yield responses to future climate are needed to prioritize adaptation strategies in the many regions where perennial crops are economically and culturally important. These impact assessments, in turn, must rely on climate and crop models that contain often poorly defined uncertainties. We evaluated the impact of climate change on six major perennial crops in California: wine grapes, almonds, table grapes, oranges, walnuts, and avocados. Outputs from multiple climate models were used to evaluate climate uncertainty, while multiple statistical crop models, derived by resampling historical databases, were used to address crop response uncertainties. We find that, despite these uncertainties, climate change in California is very likely to put downward pressure on yields of almonds, walnuts, avocados, and table grapes by 2050. Without CO{sub 2} fertilization or adaptation measures, projected losses range from 0 to >40% depending on the crop and the trajectory of climate change. Climate change uncertainty generally had a larger impact on projections than crop model uncertainty, although the latter was substantial for several crops. Opportunities for expansion into cooler regions are identified, but this adaptation would require substantial investments and may be limited by non-climatic constraints. Given the long time scales for growth and production of orchards and vineyards ({approx}30 years), climate change should be an important factor in selecting perennial varieties and deciding whether and where perennials should be planted.

Lobell, D; Field, C; Cahill, K; Bonfils, C

2006-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

114

DOE Durability Working Group February 2013 Meeting Agenda  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

DOE Durability Working Group (DWG) DOE Durability Working Group (DWG) Meeting Agenda Thursday, February 28, 2013 Crystal City Marriott Crystal City, VA 8:30 am Welcome and introductory comments Debbie Myers (Argonne) and Rod Borup (Los Alamos) - co-chairs 8:45 am Introduction to meeting objectives Dimitrios Papageorgopoulos, Department of Energy, Fuel Cell Technologies Office Summary of what has been learned in DOE durability-related projects and durability R&D needs/gaps (PI's or project representatives; 10 min talks per person) 9:00 am Session I. Durability: Nuvera (Olga Polevaya), Ballard (Silvia Wessel), LANL (Rod Borup), and ANL (Debbie Myers) 9:40 am Session II. Modeling: LBNL (Adam Weber), ANL (Rajesh Ahluwalia) 10:00 am Session III. Catalyst and Impurities: 3M (Radoslav Atanasoski),

115

Lightweight, durable lead-acid batteries  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A lightweight, durable lead-acid battery is disclosed. Alternative electrode materials and configurations are used to reduce weight, to increase material utilization and to extend service life. The electrode can include a current collector having a buffer layer in contact with the current collector and an electrochemically active material in contact with the buffer layer. In one form, the buffer layer includes a carbide, and the current collector includes carbon fibers having the buffer layer. The buffer layer can include a carbide and/or a noble metal selected from of gold, silver, tantalum, platinum, palladium and rhodium. When the electrode is to be used in a lead-acid battery, the electrochemically active material is selected from metallic lead (for a negative electrode) or lead peroxide (for a positive electrode).

Lara-Curzio, Edgar (Lenoir City, TN); An, Ke (Knoxville, TX); Kiggans, Jr., James O. (Oak Ridge, TN); Dudney, Nancy J. (Knoxville, TN); Contescu, Cristian I. (Knoxville, TN); Baker, Frederick S. (Oak Ridge, TN); Armstrong, Beth L. (Clinton, TN)

2011-09-13T23:59:59.000Z

116

Lightweight, durable lead-acid batteries  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A lightweight, durable lead-acid battery is disclosed. Alternative electrode materials and configurations are used to reduce weight, to increase material utilization and to extend service life. The electrode can include a current collector having a buffer layer in contact with the current collector and an electrochemically active material in contact with the buffer layer. In one form, the buffer layer includes a carbide, and the current collector includes carbon fibers having the buffer layer. The buffer layer can include a carbide and/or a noble metal selected from of gold, silver, tantalum, platinum, palladium and rhodium. When the electrode is to be used in a lead-acid battery, the electrochemically active material is selected from metallic lead (for a negative electrode) or lead peroxide (for a positive electrode).

Lara-Curzio, Edgar; An, Ke; Kiggans, Jr., James O; Dudney, Nancy J; Contescu, Cristian I; Baker, Frederick S; Armstrong, Beth L

2013-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

117

Durability of Polymeric Glazing and Absorber Materials  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Solar Heating and Lighting Program has set the goal of reducing the cost of solar water heating systems by at least 50%. An attractive approach to such large cost reduction is to replace glass and metal parts with less-expensive, lighter-weight, more-integrated polymeric components. The key challenge with polymers is to maintain performance and assure requisite durability for extended lifetimes. The objective of this task is to quantify lifetimes through measurement of the optical and mechanical stability of candidate polymeric glazing and absorber materials. Polycarbonate sheet glazings, as proposed by two industry partners, have been tested for resistance to UV radiation with three complementary methods. Incorporation of a specific 2-mil thick UV-absorbing screening layer results in glazing lifetimes of at least 15 years; improved screens promise even longer lifetimes. Proposed absorber materials were tested for creep and embrittlement under high temperature, and appear adequate for planned ICS absorbers.

Jorgensen, G.; Terwilliger, K.; Bingham, C.; Milbourne, M.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

Kheti: mobile multimedia in an agricultural co-operative  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Kheti is a mobile phone-based, multimedia communication system to support sharing of agricultural knowledge and advice within a producers' co-operative. The first version of this system was designed with, and was tested by, the Sironj Crop Producers ...

Andy Dearden; Paul Matthews; Haider Rizvi

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

Agricultural Microscopy Division  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Agricultural Microscopy Division advances visual imaging in discerning the quality and content of ingredients and finished products of the feed, fertilizer, seed, and agri-food sectors. Agricultural Microscopy Division Divisions achievement ag

120

The Annual Agricultural Cycle  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. Sman shad agriculture 1.WAV Length of track 00:44:03 Related tracks (include description/relationship if appropriate) Title of track The Annual Agricultural Cycle Translation of title Description (to be used in archive entry...

Zla ba sgrol ma

2009-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "durables agricultural crop" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Potential supply and cost of biomass from energy crops in the TVA region  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The economic and supply structures of energy crop markets have not been established. Establishing the likely price and supply of energy crop biomass in a region is a complex task because biomass is not an established commodity as are oil, natural gas, and coal. In this study, the cost and supply of short-rotation woody crop (SRWC) and switchgrass biomass for the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) region-a 276-county area that includes portions of 11 states in the southeastern United States - are projected. Projected prices and quantities of biomass are assumed to be a function of the amount and quality of crop and pasture land available in a region, expected energy crop yields and production costs on differing soils and land types, and the profit that could be obtained from current conventional crop production on these same lands. Results include the supply curves of SRWC and switchgrass biomass that are projected to be available from the entire region, the amount and location of crop and pasture land that would be used, and the conventional agricultural crops that would be displaced as a function of energy crop production. Finally, the results of sensitivity analysis on the projected cost and supply of energy crop biomass are shown. In particular, the separate impacts of varying energy crop production costs and yields, and interest rates are examined.

Graham, R.L.; Downing, M.E.

1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

122

CWEX (Crop/Wind-Energy Experiment): Measurements of the interaction between crop agriculture and wind power.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The current expansion of wind farms in the U.S. Midwest promotes an alternative renewable energy portfolio to conventional energy sources derived from fossil fuels. The… (more)

Rajewski, Daniel Andrew

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

Spatial Patterns Confound Experiments in Orchard Crops  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

patterns differ among sites, crops, and process of interest,currently lacking in the tree crops, specifically, and thecommonly used in tree crop experiments and in fertilizer

Rosenstock, Todd S; Plant, Richard E; Brown, Patrick H

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

124

Economic analysis of wind-powered crop drying. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Potential applications of wind energy include not only large central turbines that can be utilized by utilities, but also dispersed systems for farms and other applications. The US Departments of Energy (DOE) and Agriculture (USDA) currently are establishing the feasibility of wind energy use in applications where the energy can be used as available, or stored in a simple form. These applications include production of hot water for rural sanitation, heating and cooling of rural structures and products, drying agricultural products, and irrigation. This study, funded by USDA, analyzed the economic feasibility of wind power in crop drying. Drying of corn, soybeans, rice, peanuts, tobacco, and dehydrated alfalfa were addressed.

Garling, W.S.; Harper, M.R.; Merchant-Geuder, L.; Welch, M.

1980-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

Legume Crop Genomics  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This book will present this technical theme in a manner that should help many readers answer the question, "What is genomics?" And finally, this book should help readers formulate an opinion on the question, "Why is genomic research needed?" Legume Crop Ge

126

Crop Insurance Terms and Definitions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This publication is a glossary of terms used by the crop insurance industry. There are definitions for terms used in crop insurance documents and for terms pertaining to coverage levels, farming, reports, units and parties to contracts.

Stokes, Kenneth; Waller, Mark L.; Outlaw, Joe; Barnaby, G. A. Art

2008-10-17T23:59:59.000Z

127

Identifying the requirements of an agricultural robot for sensing and adjusting soil nutrient and pH levels  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The nutrient requirements of soils using in agriculture for crop production were examined to determine the needs of a robotic system used to detect and regulate the nutrition levels of the soil. Nitrogen, phosphorus, and ...

Teague, Nicole (Nicole Dawn)

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

Agricultural Bio-Fueled Generation of Electricity and Development of Durable and Efficent NOx Reduction  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Caterpillar Power Generation adapted an off-the-shelf Diesel Generator to run on BioDiesel and various Petroleum Diesel/BioDiesel blends. EmeraChem developed and installed an exhaust gas cleanup system to reduce NOx, SOx, volatile organics, and particulates. The system design and function was optimized for emissions reduction with results in the 90-95% range;

Boyd, Rodney

2007-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

129

Agricultural Bio-Fueled Generation of Electricity and Development of Durable and Efficent NOx Reduction  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The objective of this project was to define the scope and cost of a technology research and development program that will demonstrate the feasibility of using an off-the-shelf, unmodified, large bore diesel powered generator in a grid-connected application, utilizing various blends of BioDiesel as fuel. Furthermore, the objective of project was to develop an emissions control device that uses a catalytic process and BioDiesel (without the presence of Ammonia or Urea)to reduce NOx and other pollutants present in a reciprocating engine exhaust stream with the goal of redefining the highest emission reduction efficiencies possible for a diesel reciprocating generator. Process: Caterpillar Power Generation adapted an off-the-shelf Diesel Generator to run on BioDiesel and various Petroleum Diesel/BioDiesel blends. EmeraChem developed and installed an exhaust gas cleanup system to reduce NOx, SOx, volatile organics, and particulates. The system design and function was optimized for emissions reduction with results in the 90-95% range;

Boyd, Rodney

2007-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

130

Sustainable agricultural residue removal for bioenergy: A spatially comprehensive US national assessment  

SciTech Connect

This study provides a spatially comprehensive assessment of sustainable agricultural residue removal potential across the United States for bioenergy production. Earlier assessments determining the quantity of agricultural residue that could be sustainably removed for bioenergy production at the regional and national scale faced a number of computational limitations. These limitations included the number of environmental factors, the number of land management scenarios, and the spatial fidelity and spatial extent of the assessment. This study utilizes integrated multi-factor environmental process modeling and high fidelity land use datasets to perform the sustainable agricultural residue removal assessment. Soil type represents the base spatial unit for this study and is modeled using a national soil survey database at the 10–100 m scale. Current crop rotation practices are identified by processing land cover data available from the USDA National Agricultural Statistics Service Cropland Data Layer database. Land management and residue removal scenarios are identified for each unique crop rotation and crop management zone. Estimates of county averages and state totals of sustainably available agricultural residues are provided. The results of the assessment show that in 2011 over 150 million metric tons of agricultural residues could have been sustainably removed across the United States. Projecting crop yields and land management practices to 2030, the assessment determines that over 207 million metric tons of agricultural residues will be able to be sustainably removed for bioenergy production at that time. This biomass resource has the potential for producing over 68 billion liters of cellulosic biofuels.

Muth, David J. [Idaho National Laboratory; Bryden, Kenneth Mark [Ames L; Nelson, R. G. [Kansas State University

2012-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

131

Weed Management in Pulse Crops  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

During At harvest #12;GoldSky ­ Crop Rotation · 9 Months: alfalfa, barley, canola, chickpea, dry bean PEA CAMELINA CANOLA BARLEY GOLDSKY Crop Rotation Study #12;GoldSky Crop Rotation Study ­ Herbicide #12;0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 Lentil Canola Camelina Barley Field Pea Oat VisualDamage(%) GoldSky 1

Maxwell, Bruce D.

132

Biomass Energy Crops: Massachusetts' Potential  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Biomass Energy Crops: Massachusetts' Potential Prepared for: Massachusetts Division of Energy;#12;Executive Summary In Massachusetts, biomass energy has typically meant wood chips derived from the region's extensive forest cover. Yet nationally, biomass energy from dedicated energy crops and from crop residues

Schweik, Charles M.

133

Long-Term Durability of Polymeric Matrix Composites  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Long-Term Durability of Polymeric Matrix Composites presents a comprehensive knowledge-set of matrix, fiber and interphase behavior under long-term aging conditions, theoretical modeling and experimental methods.This bookcovers long-term constituent ...

Kishore V. Pochiraju; Gyaneshwar P. Tandon; Gregory A. Schoeppner

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

DOE-EERE Durability Working Group Meeting Notes  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

DOE-EERE Durability Working Group (DWG) Meeting Thursday, October 13, 2011 Boston, MA Meeting Notes D. Myers and R. Borup Meeting Agenda 6:30 pm Welcome and introductory comments...

135

Durability of Hydrophobic Coatings for Superhydrophobic Aluminum Oxide  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Robust and easily produced Superhydrophobic surfaces are of great interest for mechanical applications, including drag reduction and MEMS. We produce novel superhydrophobic surfaces with several different coatings and tested the durability of each of these coatings with respect to long term immersion in water in order to determine the most long-lasting surface preparation. A pair of combinations of spin on polymers, surface features, and adhesion promoters was found that provide long term durability.

Jenner, Elliot [University of Pittsburgh; Barbier, Charlotte N [ORNL; D'Urso, Brian R [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

136

Effect of System and Air Contaminants on PEMFC Performance and Durability (Presentation)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This presentation summarizes Effect of System and Air Contaminants on PEMFC Performance and Durability.

Dinh, H.

2010-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

137

Analysis of the impact of energy crops on water quality. Final report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report consists of two separate papers. The first, ``The potential use of agricultural simulation models in predicting the fate of nitrogen and pesticides applied to switchgrass and poplars,`` describes three models (CREAMS, GLEAMS, and EPIC) for the evaluation of the relationships which determine water quality in the agroecosystem. Case studies are presented which demonstrate the utility of these models in evaluating the potential impact of alternative crop management practices. The second paper, ``Energy crops as part of a sustainable landscape,`` discusses concepts of landscape management and the linkage among agricultural practices and environmental quality.

Hatfield, J.L.; Gale, W.J.

1993-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

138

Agronomy Research Assistant Biofuels The Hawaii Agriculture Research Center (HARC) is seeking a qualified applicant to fill a full time  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Agronomy Research Assistant ­ Biofuels The Hawaii Agriculture Research Center (HARC) is seeking a qualified applicant to fill a full time Research Assistant position to work with biofuel crops to assist in the evaluation of multiple crops of interest to the biofuels research program. The position

Kaye, Jason P.

139

Slow-Moving Vehicle Emblem The Society for engineering in agricultural, food, and biological systems (ASAE), which  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

systems (ASAE), which develops standards for specific agricultural equipment and materials, has a standard and durability of the yellow-orange fluorescent triangle that provides daylight identification of slow of at least 600 feet day or night. The fluorescent yellow-orange center is the most visible color in daylight

140

Sustainable Agriculture Loan Program  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The Minnesota Sustainable Agriculture Loan program will provide loans to Minnesota residents actively engaged in farming for capital expenditures which enhance the environmental and economic...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "durables agricultural crop" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

The role of short-rotation woody crops in sustainable development  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

One answer to increase wood production is by increasing management intensity on existing timberland, especially in plantation forests. Another is to convert land currently in agriculture to timberland. Short-rotation woody crops can be used in both cases. But, what are the environmental consequences? Short-rotation woody crops can provide a net improvement in environmental quality at both local and global scales. Conversion of agricultural land to short-rotation woody crops can provide the most environmental quality enhancement by reducing erosion, improving soil quality, decreasing runoff, improving groundwater quality, and providing better wildlife habitat. Forest products companies can use increased production from intensively managed short-rotation woody crop systems to offset decreased yield from the portion of their timberland that is managed less intensively, e.g. streamside management zones and other ecologically sensitive or unique areas. At the global scale, use of short-rotation woody crops for bioenergy is part of the solution to reduce greenhouse gases produced by burning fossil fuels. Incorporating short-rotation woody crops into the agricultural landscape also increases storage of carbon in the soil, thus reducing atmospheric concentrations. In addition, use of wood instead of alternatives such as steel, concrete, and plastics generally consumes less energy and produces less greenhouse gases. Cooperative research can be used to achieve energy, fiber, and environmental goals. This paper will highlight several examples of ongoing cooperative research projects that seek to enhance the environmental aspects of short-rotation woody crop systems. Government, industry, and academia are conducting research to study soil quality, use of mill residuals, nutrients in runoff and groundwater, and wildlife use of short-rotation woody crop systems in order to assure the role of short-rotation crops as a sustainable way of meeting society`s needs.

Shepard, J.P. [National Council of the Paper Industry for Air and Stream Improvement, Medford, MA (United States); Tolbert, V.R. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

142

Agriculture model development to improve performance of the Community Land  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Agriculture model development to improve performance of the Community Land Agriculture model development to improve performance of the Community Land Model April 3, 2013 The important relationships between climate change and agriculture are uncertain, particularly the feedbacks related to the carbon cycle. Nevertheless, vegetation models have not yet considered the full impacts of management practices and nitrogen feedbacks on the carbon cycle. We are working to meet this need. We have integrated three crop types (corn, soybean, and spring wheat) into the Community Land Model (CLM). In developing the agriculture version of CLM, we added plant processes related to management practices and nitrogen cycling. A manuscript documenting our changes to CLM has been accepted for publication in Geoscientific Model Development Discussions ("Modeling

143

Stakeholder Engagement and Outreach: Agricultural and Rural Communities  

Wind Powering America (EERE)

and Rural Communities and Rural Communities Wind Powering America continues to develop and strengthen alliances with the agricultural sector and organizational alliances, including 25x'25, the American Corn Growers Foundation, the National Association of Counties, and the National Association of Farm Broadcasters. Agricultural lands in the United States are ripe for generating and utilizing renewable energy resources. With net farm and ranch income down and drought conditions throughout much of the United States, farmers and ranchers and others in the agricultural community are taking a serious look at how wind energy can become their new cash crop. The agricultural community includes not only farmers and ranchers, but also rural community leaders such as banks, rural economic development

144

Agricultural sector impacts of making ethanol from grain  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report presents the results of a model of the effects on the agricultural sector of producing ethanol from corn in the United States between 1979 and 1983. The model is aggregated at the national level, and results are given for all of the major food and feed crops, ethanol joint products, farm income, government payment, and agricultural exports. A stochastic simulation was performed to ascertain the impacts of yield and demand variations on aggregate performance figures. Results indicate minimal impacts on the agricultural sector for production levels of less than 1 billion gallons of ethanol per year. For higher production levels, corn prices will rise sharply, the agricultural sector will be more vulnerable to variations in yields and demands, and joint-product values will fall. Possibilities for ameliorating such effects are discussed, and such concepts as net energy and the biomass refinery are explored.

Hertzmark, D.; Ray, D.; Parvin, G.

1980-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

Climatic impacts of land-use change due to crop yield increases and a universal carbon tax from a scenario model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Future land cover will have a significant impact on climate and is strongly influenced by the extent of agricultural land-use. Differing assumptions of crop yield increase and carbon pricing mitigation strategies affect projected expansion of ...

T. Davies-Barnard; P. J. Valdes; J. S. Singarayer; C. D. Jones

146

Short rotation woody crops: Using agroforestry technology for energy in the United States  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Agroforestry in the United States is being primarily defined as the process of using trees in agricultural systems for conservation purposes and multiple products. The type of agroforestry most commonly practiced in many parts of the world, that is the planting of tree crops in combination with food crops or pasture, is the type least commonly practiced in the United States. One type of agroforestry technique, which is beginning now and anticipated to expand to several million acres in the United States, is the planting of short-rotation woody crops (SRWCs) primarily to provide fiber and fuel. Research on SRWC`s and environmental concerns are described.

Wright, L.L.; Ranney, J.W.

1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

147

Short rotation woody crops: Using agroforestry technology for energy in the United States  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Agroforestry in the United States is being primarily defined as the process of using trees in agricultural systems for conservation purposes and multiple products. The type of agroforestry most commonly practiced in many parts of the world, that is the planting of tree crops in combination with food crops or pasture, is the type least commonly practiced in the United States. One type of agroforestry technique, which is beginning now and anticipated to expand to several million acres in the United States, is the planting of short-rotation woody crops (SRWCs) primarily to provide fiber and fuel. Research on SRWC's and environmental concerns are described.

Wright, L.L.; Ranney, J.W.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

Developing Switchgrass as a Bioenergy Crop  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The utilization of energy crops produced on American farms as a source of renewable fuels is a concept with great relevance to current ecological and economic issues at both national and global scales. Development of a significant national capacity to utilize perennial forage crops, such as switchgrass (Panicum virgatum, L.) as biofuels could benefit our agricultural economy by providing an important new source of income for farmers. In addition energy production from perennial cropping systems, which are compatible with conventional fining practices, would help reduce degradation of agricultural soils, lower national dependence on foreign oil supplies, and reduce emissions of greenhouse gases and toxic pollutants to the atmosphere (McLaughlin 1998). Interestingly, on-farm energy production is a very old concept, extending back to 19th century America when both transpofiation and work on the farm were powered by approximately 27 million draft animals and fueled by 34 million hectares of grasslands (Vogel 1996). Today a new form of energy production is envisioned for some of this same acreage. The method of energy production is exactly the same - solar energy captured in photosynthesis, but the subsequent modes of energy conversion are vastly different, leading to the production of electricity, transportation fuels, and chemicals from the renewable feedstocks. While energy prices in the United States are among the cheapest in the world, the issues of high dependency on imported oil, the uncertainties of maintaining stable supplies of imported oil from finite reserves, and the environmental costs associated with mining, processing, and combusting fossil fuels have been important drivers in the search for cleaner burning fuels that can be produced and renewed from the landscape. At present biomass and bioenergy combine provide only about 4% of the total primary energy used in the U.S. (Overend 1997). By contrast, imported oil accounts for approximately 44% of the foreign trade deficit in the U.S. and about 45% of the total annual U.S. oil consumption of 34 quads (1 quad = 1015 Btu, Lynd et al. 1991). The 22 quads of oil consumed by transportation represents approximately 25% of all energy use in the US and excedes total oil imports to the US by about 50%. This oil has environmental and social costs, which go well beyond the purchase price of around $15 per barrel. Renewable energy from biomass has the potential to reduce dependency on fossil fhels, though not to totally replace them. Realizing this potential will require the simultaneous development of high yielding biomass production systems and bioconversion technologies that efficiently convert biomass energy into the forms of energy and chemicals usable by industry. The endpoint criterion for success is economic gain for both agricultural and industrial sectors at reduced environmental cost and reduced political risk. This paper reviews progress made in a program of research aimed at evaluating and developing a perennial forage crop, switchgrass as a regional bioenergy crop. We will highlight here aspects of research progress that most closely relate to the issues that will determine when and how extensively switchgrass is used in commercial bioenergy production.

Bouton, J.; Bransby, D.; Conger, B.; McLaughlin, S.; Ocumpaugh, W.; Parrish, D.; Taliaferro, C.; Vogel, K.; Wullschleger, S.

1998-11-08T23:59:59.000Z

149

Integrated Agricultural Technologies Demonstrations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Major challenges currently face California's agricultural community. Increasingly stringent environmental and regulatory controls mandate changes in the use and disposal of agricultural chemicals, require the more aggressive management of farm wastes, and impose new responsibilities for water use. This program demonstrated a number of energy efficient and environmentally friendly technologies designed to address these issues.

2002-08-02T23:59:59.000Z

150

Agricultural Microscopy Division List  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Name AffiliationCity, State, CountryAgricultural Microscopy Division2013 Members72 Members as of October 1, 2013Ajbani, RutviInstitute of Chemical TechnologyMumbai, MH, IndiaAlonso, CarmenPuerto Rico Dept ofAgricultureDorado, Puerto RicoArmbrust, KevinLoui

151

Publications Agricultural Economics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. (2012). Economics of IPM Decisions. Stored Product Protection (1- 9). Manhattan, KS: Kansas State (1-11). Manhattan, KS: Kansas State. http://entomology.k-state.edu/doc/finished- chapters/s156-ch-27 of Food and Agriculture­ Conservation Effects Assessment Project. How to Build Better Agricultural

152

Crop to wild introgression in lettuce: following the fate of crop genome segments in backcross populations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

article as: Uwimana et al. : Crop to wild introgression infollowing the fate of crop genome segments in backcrossto the wild parent reduces the crop genome content in amount

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

153

Crop specific micronutrient formulations for limited resource situation for horticultural crops  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

management in horticultural crops, but this approach is nothectares under horticultural crops are managed in about 2.2monitoring was done for crops (mango, banana, orange) for

Muthaia, Edward Raja Dr

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

Conservation tillage and cover cropping influence soil properties in San Joaquin Valley cotton-tomato crop  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

STNO Fertilizer Cover crop Total Harvest Balance . . . . . .conservation tillage, cover crop CTNO: conservation tillagestandard tillage, cover crop STNO: standard tillage only

Veenstra, Jessica; Horwath, William; Mitchell, Jeffrey; Munk, Dan

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

College of Agriculture Departments and Degree Programs Agricultural  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Agricultural Education Animal & Range Sciences Land Resources & Environmental Sciences Immunology & Infectious Diseases Multi Disciplinary Agricultural Business Agricultural Education Animal Science Natural Resources & Rangeland Ecology Environmental Sciences Pre-Vet Program (non-degree) Biotechnology Sustainable Foods

Lawrence, Rick L.

156

Bases for extrapolating materials durability in fuel storage pools  

SciTech Connect

A major body of evidence indicates that zirconium alloys have the most consistent and reliable durability in wet storage, justifying projections of safe wet storage greater than 50 y. Aluminum alloys have the widest range of durabilities in wet storage; systematic control and monitoring of water chemistry have resulted in low corrosion rates for more than two decades on some fuels and components. However, cladding failures have occurred in a few months when important parameters were not controlled. Stainless steel is extremely durable when stress, metallurgical and water chemistry factors are controlled. LWR SS cladding has survived for 25 y in wet storage. However, sensitized, stressed SS fuels and components have seriously degraded in fuel storage pools (FSPs) at {approximately} 30 C. Satisfactory durability of fuel assembly and FSP component materials in extended wet storage requires investments in water quality management and surveillance, including chemical and biological factors. The key aspect of the study is to provide storage facility operators and other decision makers a basis to judge the durability of a given fuel type in wet storage as a prelude to basing other fuel management plans (e.g. dry storage) if wet storage will not be satisfactory through the expected period of interim storage.

Johnson, A.B. Jr.

1994-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

Fast test for the durability of PEM fuel cell catalysts  

SciTech Connect

ETek Pt/C catalyst was used as standard materials to develop a new test protocol for fast screening durable catalyst for PEM fuel cells. Potential step (Pstep) method with the upper potential of 1.4V and the potential-static (Pstat) holding at 1.4 V or 1.2V are used to degrade the catalyst. The degradation in the electrochemical surface area (ESA) for Pt/C under Pstep conditions is greatly accelerated as compared with other conditions. The durability of Pt/Vulcan and Pt/CNT were studied using the new protocol with the electrochemical stressing of Pstep(1.4V/0.6V), which provided the same results as those tested using conventional protocols: Pt/CNT is more durable than Pt/Vulcan. This confirms that the new protocol works well in screening catalyst in terms of durability. The new protocol can differentiate the durability of electrocatalysts by shortening the test time to several hours. It is reliable and time-efficient.

Shao, Yuyan; Kou, Rong; Wang, Jun; Kwak, Ja Hun; Viswanathan, Vilayanur V.; Wang, Yong; Liu, Jun; Lin, Yuehe

2008-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

158

Fuels from sugar crops. Second quarterly report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Substantial progress was made on both the agricultural and the processing aspects of the fuels from biomass research program. Despite droughts and hurricanes, yields on narrow row spacings show substantial gains over conventional spacings at all locations for both sugarcane and sweet sorghum. The biomass gains are most pronounced (40% to 100% increase) for Louisiana sugarcane and for sweet sorghum in Louisiana and Texas (50 to 100% gains). Although biomass increases are smaller in Florida, early ripening and possible soil conservation effects cause interest in close spacing in Florida to be maintained. The concept of integrating sweet sorghum production with sugarcane production could expand the area available for extensive sugar crop production by a factor of 10 or more. Sugar beets and sweet sorghum mesh together well from an agronomic viewpoint and the introduction of the Canadian Separator Equipment Process may make feasible integration of the processing of these crops. Evaluation of U.S. and Brazilian ethanol technology indicates that ethanol can be made quite economically in locations with long sugarcane processing seasons (e.g., Hawaii and Puerto Rico). The Melle Process practiced in Brazil appears to make possible extremely short fermentation times (10 to 16 hours, compared with 24 to 30 hours for U.S. practices). The primary key to reducing processing costs lies in increasing the concentration of ethanol in the fermented mash, not reduction in fermentation time. Suggestions for appropriate improvements have been made and the Reports of Invention filed with DOE's patent office. Five appendices are included.

Lipinsky, E.S.; Kresovich, S.; McClure, T.A.; Helper, E.W.; Lawhon, W.T.

1977-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

159

HORTICULTURAL & FOREST CROPS 2012 Floral Crops: Insects 5-19  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. In order to use a pesticide safely and effectively, the product label should be read thoroughly each time. Effective application of pesticides depends on: proper timing, favorable treatment conditions of temperature;HORTICULTURAL & FOREST CROPS 2012 5-20 Floral Crops: Insects · Apply pesticides when foliage is dry

Liskiewicz, Maciej

160

DOE Durability Working Group May 2012 Meeting Agenda  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

DOE Durability Working Group (DWG) Monday, May 14, 2012, 8:00-10:00 am Gateway Salon I, Crystal Gateway Marriott Crystal City, VA Meeting Agenda 8:00 am Welcome and introductory comments Debbie Myers (Argonne) and Rod Borup (Los Alamos) - co-chairs 8:05 am New Durability Test protocols proposed by FCCJ Atsushi OHMA, Manager, Advanced Materials Laboratory, Nissan Research Center, Nissan Motor Company, Ltd. 8:40 am Metal Bipolar Plate Degradation Mechanisms and AST Development Rod Borup, Rangachary Mukundan, LANL 9:00 am DWG Durability Protocols - results and finalizing Debbie Myers - contributions from others 9:20 am Report on progress on action items from Fall, 2011 DWG meeting Rod Borup and Debbie Myers 9:40 am Wrap-up, discussion of "output" from DWG, discussion of result and model

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "durables agricultural crop" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Durable Catalysts for Fuel Cell Protection during Transient Conditions  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Durable Catalysts for Fuel Cell Protection Durable Catalysts for Fuel Cell Protection during Transient Conditions (Topic 1c) Radoslav Atanasoski DOE/3M Award DE-EE0000456 Kickoff meeting for new DOE Fuel Cell projects from solicitation DE-PS36-08GO98009 and lab call DE-PS36-08GO98010 Washington DC, Sept. 30, 2009 2 Timeline * Project start date: August 1, 2009 * Project end date: July 31, 2013 * Percent complete: ~ 5% Collaborations * Dalhousie University (subcontractor) - Dr. David Stevens; High-throughput catalyst synthesis and basic characterization * Oak Ridge National Lab (subcontractor) - Dr. Karren More; TEM Characterization * 3M Team: George Vernstrom Greg Haugen Mark Debe Radoslav Atanasoski Project Overwiew Durable Catalysts for Transient Conditions- July 01, 2009  Barriers C. Electrode Performance

162

Enhanced durability and reactivity for zinc ferrite desulfurization sorbent  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

AMAX Research Development Center (AMAX R D) has been investigating methods for enhancing the reactivity and durability of the zinc ferrite desulfurization sorbent. Zinc ferrite sorbents are intended for use in desulfurization of hot coal gas in integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) or molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) applications. For the present program, the reactivity of the sorbent may be defined as its sulfur sorption capacity at the breakthrough point and at saturation in a bench-scale, fixed-bed reactor. Durability may be defined as the ability of the sorbent to maintain important physical characteristics such As size, strength, and specific surface area during 10 cycles of sulfidation and oxidation.

Jha, M.C.; Berggren, M.H.

1989-05-02T23:59:59.000Z

163

Global crop yield losses from recent warming  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Global yields of the world-s six most widely grown crops--wheat, rice, maize, soybeans, barley, sorghum--have increased since 1961. Year-to-year variations in growing season minimum temperature, maximum temperature, and precipitation explain 30% or more of the variations in yield. Since 1991, climate trends have significantly decreased yield trends in all crops but rice, leading to foregone production since 1981 of about 12 million tons per year of wheat or maize, representing an annual economic loss of $1.2 to $1.7 billion. At the global scale, negative impacts of climate trends on crop yields are already apparent. Annual global temperatures have increased by {approx}0.4 C since 1980, with even larger changes observed in several regions (1). While many studies have considered the impacts of future climate changes on food production (2-5), the effects of these past changes on agriculture remain unclear. It is likely that warming has improved yields in some areas, reduced them in others, and had negligible impacts in still others; the relative balance of these effects at the global scale is unknown. An understanding of this balance would help to anticipate impacts of future climate changes, as well as to more accurately assess recent (and thereby project future) technologically driven yield progress. Separating the contribution of climate from concurrent changes in other factors--such as crop cultivars, management practices, soil quality, and atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) levels--requires models that describe the response of yields to climate. Studies of future global impacts of climate change have typically relied on a bottom-up approach, whereby field scale, process-based models are applied to hundreds of representative sites and then averaged (e.g., ref 2). Such approaches require input data on soil and management conditions, which are often difficult to obtain. Limitations on data quality or quantity can thus limit the utility of this approach, especially at the local scale (6-8). At the global scale, however, many of the processes and impacts captured by field scale models will tend to cancel out, and therefore simpler empirical/statistical models with fewer input requirements may be as accurate (8, 9). Empirical/statistical models also allow the effects of poorly modeled processes (e.g., pest dynamics) to be captured and uncertainties to be readily quantified (10). Here we develop new, empirical/statistical models of global yield responses to climate using datasets on broad-scale yields, crop locations, and climate variability. We focus on global average yields for the six most widely grown crops in the world: wheat, rice, maize, soybeans, barley, and sorghum. Production of these crops accounts for over 40% of global cropland area (11). 55% of non-meat calories, and over 70% of animal feed (12).

Lobell, D; Field, C

2006-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

164

IVIP --- A Scientific Workflow System to Support Experts in Spatial Planning of Crop Production  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Decision making for crop production planning is essentially driven by location-based or more precisely by space-oriented information. Therefore, farmers and regional experts in the field mostly rely on new spatial-data-oriented decision making tools. ... Keywords: Agriculture, Forecast, GIS, Kepler, Scientific data integration, Scientific workflow models, Spatial Decision Support System (SDSS), WSDL, Web Service, Workflow Management System (WMS)

Christopher J. Tuot; Michael Sintek; Andreas R. Dengel

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

Overshooting of agricultural prices  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Rotenberg, Julio J. , "Sticky Prices in the United States,"Monetary Policy on United States Agriculture. A Fix-Price,Flex-Price Approach," Unpublished Ph.D. Disser- tation,

Stamoulis, Kostas G.; Rausser, Gordon C.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

166

Agricultural Meteorology in China  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

During nearly five weeks in China (May–June 1981), the author visited scientific institutions and experiment stations engaged in agricultural meterology and climatology research and teaching. The facilities, studies, and research programs at each ...

Norman J. Rosenberg

1982-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

Crop residues as feedstock for renewable fuels  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Nutrient removal and net costs weigh on decisions to use crop residues as biofuel feedstocks. Crop residues as feedstock for renewable fuels Inform Magazine Biofuels and Bioproducts and Biodiesel Inform Archives Crop residues as feedstock for rene

168

Cassava, a potential biofuel crop in China  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

breeding program for cassava. Crop Sci 1998; 38: 325-332. [opportunities for an ancient crop. seventh regional cassavaCassava, a potential biofuel crop in China Christer Jansson

Jansson, C.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

169

Environmental enchancement using short-rotation tree crops: research results and directions  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Short-rotation woody crops (SRWC) and perennial grasses used as biomass feedstocks for energy and fiber can provide multiple economic and environmental benefits. Site-specific environmental studies are providing information needed to help evaluate the economic and environmental impacts of biomass production at both local and regional scales. Erosion and chemical movement from an annual row crop, switchgrass, and tree crop with and without a groundcover are being compared in the Southeast. Studies of SRWC productivity on the South Carolina coastal plain are comparing surface and subsurface movement of chemicals applied under different fertilization and irrigation regimes, and addressing use of mill and agricultural residues to enhance crop production. Results are helping to assess the effects of biomass crops produced on different principal soil types and to match tree species with appropriate sites to maximize productivity and minimize environmental impacts. Studies are comparing wildlife use of biomass crops to row crops, grasslands, and natural forests. Results to date show that SRWCs support greater bird diversity than row crops, but less than natural forests; switchgrass plantings extend habitat for grasslands birds. Collaboration with an industrial partner on diverse SRWC plantings in the Southeast is addressing the relationship between plantings of different acreage, age, tree species, and landscape context and breeding bird use. Information from wildlife diversity, water, and soil quality studies can be used by the Biofuels Feedstock Development Program (BFDP), researchers, producers, and industry to identify management strategies to maintain productivity While enhancing the environment.

Tolbert, V.R.; Schiller, A.

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

Durability-based design criteria for an automotive structural composite  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Before composite structures can be widely used in automotive applications, their long-term durability must be assured. The Durability of Lightweight Composite Structures Project at Oak Ridge National Laboratory was established by the US Department of Energy to help provide that assurance. The project is closely coordinated with the Automotive Composites Consortium. The experimentally-based, durability-driven design criteria described in this paper are the result of the initial project thrust. The criteria address a single reference composite, which is an SRIM (Structural Reaction Injection Molded) polyurethane, reinforced with continuous strand, swirl-mat E-glass fibers. The durability issues addressed include the effects of cyclic and sustained loadings, temperature, automotive fluid environments, and low-energy impacts (e.g., tool drops and roadway kickups) on strength, stiffness, and deformation. The criteria provide design analysis guidance, a multiaxial strength criterion, time-independent and time-dependent allowable stresses, rules for cyclic loading, and damage tolerance design guidance. Environmental degradation factors and the degrading effects of prior loadings are included. Efforts are currently underway to validate the criteria by application to a second random-glass-fiber composite. Carbon-fiber composites are also being addressed.

Corum, J.M.; Battiste, R.L.; Brinkman, C.R.; Ren, W.; Ruggles, M.B.; Yahr, G.T.

1998-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

Agricultural and Resource Economics Update  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

to allocate crops for biofuels rather than for food. Whencountries in the form of biofuels policies, which tend to

Carter, Colin A.; Novan, Kevin; Rausser, Gordon; Iho, Antti; Parker, Doug; Zilberman, David

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

172

Crop production without fossil fuel.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??With diminishing fossil fuel reserves and concerns about global warming, the agricultural sector needs to reduce its use of fossil fuels. The objective of this… (more)

Ahlgren, Serina

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

173

Monitoring the Durability Performance of Concrete in Nuclear Waste Containment. Second technical progress report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

OAK-B135 Monitoring the Durability Performance of Concrete in Nuclear Waste Containment. Second technical progress report

Ulm, Franz-Josef

1999-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

174

Durability Evaluation of Urea SCR Catalysts for Heavy Duty Diesel Engines  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Assess the potential long-term durability of various SCR catalyst formulations for mobile heavy duty diesel application.

Koshkarian, Kent

2000-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

175

DURABILITY TESTING OF FLUIDIZED BED STEAM REFORMER (FBSR) WASTE FORMS  

SciTech Connect

Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) is being considered as a potential technology for the immobilization of a wide variety of high sodium aqueous radioactive wastes. The addition of clay and a catalyst as co-reactants converts high sodium aqueous low activity wastes (LAW) such as those existing at the Hanford and Idaho DOE sites to a granular ''mineralized'' waste form that may be made into a monolith form if necessary. Simulant Hanford and Idaho high sodium wastes were processed in a pilot scale FBSR at Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) Science and Technology Applications Research (STAR) facility in Idaho Falls, ID. Granular mineral waste forms were made from (1) a basic Hanford Envelope A low-activity waste (LAW) simulant and (2) an acidic INL simulant commonly referred to as sodium-bearing waste (SBW). The FBSR waste forms were characterized and the durability tested via ASTM C1285 (Product Consistency Test), the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Toxic Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP), and the Single Pass Flow Through (SPFT) test. The durability of the FBSR waste form products was tested in order to compare the measured durability to previous FBSR waste form testing on Hanford Envelope C waste forms that were made by THOR Treatment Technologies (TTT) and to compare the FBSR durability to vitreous LAW waste forms, specifically the Hanford low activity waste (LAW) glass known as the Low-activity Reference Material (LRM). The durability of the FBSR waste form is comparable to that of the LRM glass for the test responses studied.

Jantzen, C

2006-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

176

Enhanced durability and reactivity for zinc ferrite desulfurization sorbent  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

AMAX Research Development Center (AMAX R D) investigated methods for enhancing the reactivity and durability of zinc ferrite desulfurization sorbents. Zinc ferrite sorbents are intended for use in desulfurization of hot coal gas in integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) or molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) applications. For this program, the reactivity of the sorbent may be defined as its sulfur sorption capacity at the breakthrough point and at saturation in a bench-scale, fixed-bed reactor. Durability may be defined as the ability of the sorbent to maintain important physical characteristics such as size, strength, and specific surface area during 10 cycles of sulfidation and oxidation. Two base case sorbents, a spherical pellet and a cylindrical extrude used in related METC-sponsored projects, were used to provide a basis for the aimed enhancement in durability and reactivity. Sorbent performance was judged on the basis of physical properties, single particle kinetic studies based on thermogravimetric (TGA) techniques, and multicycle bench-scale testing of sorbents. A sorbent grading system was utilized to quantify the characteristics of the new sorbents prepared during the program. Significant enhancements in both reactivity and durability were achieved for the spherical pellet shape over the base case formulation. Overall improvements to reactivity and durability were also made to the cylindrical extrude shape. The primary variables which were investigated during the program included iron oxide type, zinc oxide:iron oxide ratio, inorganic binder concentration, organic binder concentration, and induration conditions. The effects of some variables were small or inconclusive. Based on TGA studies and bench-scale tests, induration conditions were found to be very significant.

Berggren, M.H.; Jha, M.C.

1989-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

177

Research to develop improved production methods for woody and herbaceous biomass crops  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

DOE`s Biofuels Feedstock Development Program (BFDP) has led the nation in developing short-rotation woody crops (SRWC) and herbaceous energy crops (HEC) as feedstocks for renewable energy. Over the past 15 years, the BFDP has examined the performance of 154 woody species and 35 herbaceous species in field trials across the US. One result of this effort to date has been the prescription of silvicultural systems for hybrid poplars and hybrid willows and agricultural systems for switchgrass. Selected clones of woody species are producing dry weight yields in research plots on agricultural land that are 3 to 7 times greater than those obtained from mixed species stands on forest land, and at least 2 times the yields of southern plantation pines. Selected switchgrass varieties are producing dry weight yields 2 to 7 times greater than average forage grass yields on similar sites. Crop development research is continuing efforts to translate this potential, in a sustainable manner, to larger, more geographically diverse acreage. Research on environmental aspects of biomass crop production are aimed at developing sustainable systems that will contribute to the biodiversity of agricultural landscapes. Systems integration aims to understand all factors affecting bringing the crop to market. Factors affecting price and potential supplies of biomass crops are being evaluated at regional and national scales. Scale-up studies, feasibility analysis and demonstrations are establishing actual costs and facilitating the commercialization of integrated biomass systems. Information management and dissemination activities are facilitating the communication of results among a community of researchers, policymakers, and potential users and producers of energy crops.

Ferrell, J.E. [Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States). Biofuels Systems Div.; Wright, L.L.; Tuskan, G.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Environmental Sciences Div.

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

Agriculture Residues Recycling  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract: Saudi Arabia, as well as other countries in the Near East region, is characterized by erratic weather conditions, limited area of fertile arable lands, and with acute water shortage. Although agricultural residues (AGR) production in the region is huge (more than 440 million tons), most of these residues are either burned in the field or utilized in an inefficient way. Utilization of AGR as compost may contribute to expansion of arable lands through its use for reclamation of soil and reduce irrigation requirements. This study was conducted at Al Khalidiah farm, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia to assess compost production at large commercial scale using several types of agricultural and animal by-products with addition of a BZT®Compost Activator (based mainly on microorganism, enzymes and yeast). In this study, two types of compost piles were made at the farm. The first pile of compost was made of different agriculture residues, namely: animal wastes (quail, goat and sheep manure), brownian agricultural wastes (windbreaks residues, date trees, citrus and olive trees pruning) and green landscape grasses (50%, 25 % and 25%, respectively) and was treated with a tested compost activator. The same agriculture residues combination was also made for the second pile as traditional compost

M. W. Sadik; H. M. El Shaer; H. M. Yakot

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

Agriculture | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Agriculture Agriculture Dataset Summary Description The Energy Statistics Database contains comprehensive energy statistics on the production, trade, conversion and final consumption of primary and secondary; conventional and non-conventional; and new and renewable sources of energy. The Energy Statistics dataset, covering the period from 1990 on, is available at UNdata. This dataset relates to the consumption of alcohol by the transportation industry. Source United Nations (UN) Date Released December 09th, 2009 (5 years ago) Date Updated Unknown Keywords Agriculture Alcohol consumption transportation industry UN Data application/xml icon UN Data: consumption by transportation industry XML (xml, 95 KiB) text/csv icon UN Data: consumption by transportation industry XLS (csv, 21.6 KiB)

180

Pioneering energy crops in the Midwest, project update: Chariton Valley  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Biomass is a proven option for electricity generation. A diverse range of biopower producers includes electric utilities, independent power producers, and the pulp and paper industry. To help expand opportunities for biomass power production, the U.S. Department of Energy established the Biopower Program and is sponsoring efforts to increase the productivity of dedicated energy crops. The Program aims to double biomass conversion efficiencies, thus reducing biomass power generation costs. These efforts will promote industrial and agricultural growth, improve the environment, create jobs, increase U.S. energy security, and provide new export markets.

Shepherd, P.

2000-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "durables agricultural crop" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Pioneering energy crops in the Northeast, project update: Salix Consortium  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Biomass is a proven option for electricity generation. A diverse range of biopower producers includes electric utilities, independent power producers, and the pulp and paper industry. To help expand opportunities for biomass power production, the U.S. Department of Energy established the Biopower Program and is sponsoring efforts to increase the productivity of dedicated energy crops. The Program aims to double biomass conversion efficiencies, thus reducing biomass power generation costs. These efforts will promote industrial and agricultural growth, improve the environment, create jobs, increase U.S. energy security, and provide new export markets.

Shepherd, P.

2000-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

182

Miscanthus: A Review of European Experience with a Novel Energy Crop  

SciTech Connect

Miscanthus is a tall perennial grass which has been evaluated in Europe over the past 5-10 years as a new bioenergy crop. The sustained European interest in miscanthus suggests that this novel energy crop deserves serious investigation as a possible candidate biofuel crop for the US alongside switchgrass. To date, no agronomic trials or trial results for miscanthus are known from the conterminous US, so its performance under US conditions is virtually unknown. Speculating from European data, under typical agricultural practices over large areas, an average of about 8t/ha (3t/acre dry weight) may be expected at harvest time. As with most of the new bioenergy crops, there seems to be a steep ''learning curve.'' Establishment costs appear to be fairly high at present (a wide range is reported from different European countries), although these may be expected to fall as improved management techniques are developed.

Scurlock, J.M.O.

1999-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

183

USDA and DOE Fund 10 Research Projects to Accelerate Bioenergy Crop  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

USDA and DOE Fund 10 Research Projects to Accelerate Bioenergy Crop USDA and DOE Fund 10 Research Projects to Accelerate Bioenergy Crop Production and Spur Economic Impact USDA and DOE Fund 10 Research Projects to Accelerate Bioenergy Crop Production and Spur Economic Impact August 11, 2011 - 3:55pm Addthis WASHINGTON, DC -- The U.S. Departments of Energy and Agriculture have awarded 10 grants totaling $12.2 million to spur research into improving the efficiency and cost-effectiveness of growing biofuel and bioenergy crops. The investments are part of a broader effort by the Obama administration to develop domestic renewable energy and advanced biofuels, providing a more secure future for America's energy needs and creating new opportunities for the American farming industry. "Biofuels, along with other advanced vehicle technologies, hold the

184

Miscanthus: A Review of European Experience with a Novel Energy Crop  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Miscanthus is a tall perennial grass which has been evaluated in Europe over the past 5-10 years as a new bioenergy crop. The sustained European interest in miscanthus suggests that this novel energy crop deserves serious investigation as a possible candidate biofuel crop for the US alongside switchgrass. To date, no agronomic trials or trial results for miscanthus are known from the conterminous US, so its performance under US conditions is virtually unknown. Speculating from European data, under typical agricultural practices over large areas, an average of about 8t/ha (3t/acre dry weight) may be expected at harvest time. As with most of the new bioenergy crops, there seems to be a steep ''learning curve.'' Establishment costs appear to be fairly high at present (a wide range is reported from different European countries), although these may be expected to fall as improved management techniques are developed.

Scurlock, J.M.O.

1999-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

185

USDA and DOE Fund 10 Research Projects to Accelerate Bioenergy Crop  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

USDA and DOE Fund 10 Research Projects to Accelerate Bioenergy Crop USDA and DOE Fund 10 Research Projects to Accelerate Bioenergy Crop Production and Spur Economic Impact USDA and DOE Fund 10 Research Projects to Accelerate Bioenergy Crop Production and Spur Economic Impact August 11, 2011 - 3:55pm Addthis WASHINGTON, DC -- The U.S. Departments of Energy and Agriculture have awarded 10 grants totaling $12.2 million to spur research into improving the efficiency and cost-effectiveness of growing biofuel and bioenergy crops. The investments are part of a broader effort by the Obama administration to develop domestic renewable energy and advanced biofuels, providing a more secure future for America's energy needs and creating new opportunities for the American farming industry. "Biofuels, along with other advanced vehicle technologies, hold the

186

Cover Crops for the Garden  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

matter for your soil or compost pile. Organic matter is thatin the spring or made into compost, cover crops will act asgathered up and added to your compost pile. The first method

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

Predicting Agricultural Management Influence on Long-Term Soil Organic Carbon Dynamics: Implications for Biofuel Production  

SciTech Connect

Long-term field experiments (LTE) are ideal for predicting the influence of agricultural management on soil organic carbon (SOC) dynamics and examining biofuel crop residue removal policy questions. Our objectives were (i) to simulate SOC dynamics in LTE soils under various climates, crop rotations, fertilizer or organic amendments, and crop residue managements using the CQESTR model and (ii) to predict the potential of no-tillage (NT) management to maintain SOC stocks while removing crop residue. Classical LTEs at Champaign, IL (1876), Columbia, MO (1888), Lethbridge, AB (1911), Breton, AB (1930), and Pendleton, OR (1931) were selected for their documented history of management practice and periodic soil organic matter (SOM) measurements. Management practices ranged from monoculture to 2- or 3-yr crop rotations, manure, no fertilizer or fertilizer additions, and crop residue returned, burned, or harvested. Measured and CQESTR predicted SOC stocks under diverse agronomic practices, mean annual temperature (2.1 19 C), precipitation (402 973 mm), and SOC (5.89 33.58 g SOC kg 1) at the LTE sites were significantly related (r 2 = 0.94, n = 186, P < 0.0001) with a slope not significantly different than 1. The simulation results indicated that the quantities of crop residue that can be sustainably harvested without jeopardizing SOC stocks were influenced by initial SOC stocks, crop rotation intensity, tillage practices, crop yield, and climate. Manure or a cover crop/intensified crop rotation under NT are options to mitigate loss of crop residue C, as using fertilizer alone is insufficient to overcome residue removal impact on SOC stocks

Gollany, H. T. [USDA ARS; Rickman, R. W. [USDA ARS; Albrecht, S. L. [USDA ARS; Liang, Y. [University of Arkansas; Kang, Shujiang [ORNL; Machado, S. [Oregon State University, Corvallis

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

Action Plan Agricultural Sciences  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

lines, and becoming an international benchmark in some of them. Incentives will be given to those (elimination of wastes genera- ted by society, decontamination of soils, clean agriculture, etc change, energy or water). Institutes and Centres that comprise the Area The Area comprises a total of 17

Fitze, Patrick

189

The durability of stabilized flue gas desulfurization sludge  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The effects of freeze-thaw cycling on the strength and durability of samples of compacted, stabilized, wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) by-products are reported. The results of laboratory tests show a clear relationship between higher water contents and increasing vulnerability to freeze-thaw effects. In the samples tested, water contents at or above 40% were characteristic of all the freeze-thaw specimens exhibiting low strengths. Lime content and curing time were also shown to have a marked influence on the durability of the FGD material. It was shown that samples can maintain good strength under freeze-thaw conditions provided 5% lime was added before compaction and the time from compaction to first freeze was at least 60 days.

Chen, X.; Wolfe, W.E.; Hargraves, M.D.

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

190

Method for improving the durability of ion insertion materials  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention provides a method of protecting an ion insertion material from the degradative effects of a liquid or gel-type electrolyte material by disposing a protective, solid ion conducting, electrically insulating, layer between the ion insertion layer and the liquid or gel-type electrolyte material. The invention further provides liquid or gel-type electrochemical cells having improved durability having a pair of electrodes, a pair of ion insertion layers sandwiched between the pair of electrodes, a pair of solid ion conducting layers sandwiched between the ion insertion layers, and a liquid or gel-type electrolyte material disposed between the solid ion conducting layers, where the solid ion conducting layer minimizes or prevents degradation of the faces of the ion insertion materials facing the liquid or gel-type electrolyte material. Electrochemical cells of this invention having increased durability include secondary lithium batteries and electrochromic devices.

Lee, Se-Hee (Lakewood, CO); Tracy, C. Edwin (Golden, CO); Cheong, Hyeonsik M. (Seoul, KR)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

WIND TURBINE BLADE DESIGN BASED ON DURABILITY AND DAMAGE TOLERANCE  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of the program was to demonstrate and verify Certification-by-Analysis (CBA) capability for wind turbine blades made from advanced lightweight composite materials. The approach integrated durability and damage tolerance analysis with robust design and virtual testing capabilities to deliver superior, durable, low weight, low cost, long life, and reliable wind blade design. The GENOA durability and life prediction software suite was be used as the primary simulation tool. First, a micromechanics-based computational approach was used to assess the durability of composite laminates with ply drop features commonly used in wind turbine applications. Ply drops occur in composite joints and closures of wind turbine blades to reduce skin thicknesses along the blade span. They increase localized stress concentration, which may cause premature delamination failure in composite and reduced fatigue service life. Durability and damage tolerance (D&DT) were evaluated utilizing a multi-scale micro-macro progressive failure analysis (PFA) technique. PFA is finite element based and is capable of detecting all stages of material damage including initiation and propagation of delamination. It assesses multiple failure criteria and includes the effects of manufacturing anomalies (i.e., void, fiber waviness). Two different approaches have been used within PFA. The first approach is Virtual Crack Closure Technique (VCCT) PFA while the second one is strength-based. Constituent stiffness and strength properties for glass and carbon based material systems were reverse engineered for use in D&DT evaluation of coupons with ply drops under static loading. Lamina and laminate properties calculated using manufacturing and composite architecture details matched closely published test data. Similarly, resin properties were determined for fatigue life calculation. The simulation not only reproduced static strength and fatigue life as observed in the test, it also showed composite damage and fracture modes that resemble those reported in the tests. The results show that computational simulation can be relied on to enhance the design of tapered composite structures such as the ones used in turbine wind blades. A computational simulation for durability, damage tolerance (D&DT) and reliability of composite wind turbine blade structures in presence of uncertainties in material properties was performed. A composite turbine blade was first assessed with finite element based multi-scale progressive failure analysis to determine failure modes and locations as well as the fracture load. D&DT analyses were then validated with static test performed at Sandia National Laboratories. The work was followed by detailed weight analysis to identify contribution of various materials to the overall weight of the blade. The methodology ensured that certain types of failure modes, such as delamination progression, are contained to reduce risk to the structure. Probabilistic analysis indicated that composite shear strength has a great influence on the blade ultimate load under static loading. Weight was reduced by 12% with robust design without loss in reliability or D&DT. Structural benefits obtained with the use of enhanced matrix properties through nanoparticles infusion were also assessed. Thin unidirectional fiberglass layers enriched with silica nanoparticles were applied to the outer surfaces of a wind blade to improve its overall structural performance and durability. The wind blade was a 9-meter prototype structure manufactured and tested subject to three saddle static loading at Sandia National Laboratory (SNL). The blade manufacturing did not include the use of any nano-material. With silica nanoparticles in glass composite applied to the exterior surfaces of the blade, the durability and damage tolerance (D&DT) results from multi-scale PFA showed an increase in ultimate load of the blade by 9.2% as compared to baseline structural performance (without nano). The use of nanoparticles lead to a delay in the onset of delamination. Load-displacement relati

Galib Abumeri; Frank Abdi (PhD)

2012-02-16T23:59:59.000Z

192

Effect of continuous cropping on changes in crop productivity nutrient budgets and soil properties with and without FYM under pearl millet - mustard – cowpea cropping sequence  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

KKM. In: Soil fertility and crop production under long-termfertilization for sustaining crop productivity at Punjabimportant factors that limit crop yield. Addition of organic

PATEL, KISHORBHAI PARSOTTAM; Swarnkar, Puspkant K; Singh, Mahavir

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

Hardwood energy crops and wildlife diversity: Investigating potential benefits for breeding birds and small mammals  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Hardwood energy crops have the potential to provide a profit to growers as well as environmental benefits (for water quality, soil stabilization, chemical runoff, and wildlife habitat). Environmental considerations are important for both sustainable development of bioenergy technologies on agricultural lands, and for public support. The Environmental Task of the US DOE`s Biofuels feedstock Development Program (BFDP) is working with industry, universities and others to determine how to plant, manage and harvest these crops to maximize environmental advantages and minimize impacts while economically meeting production needs. One research objective is to define and improve wildlife habitat value of these energy crops by exploring how breeding birds and small mammals use them. The authors have found increased diversity of birds in tree plantings compared to row crops. However, fewer bird and small mammal species use the tree plantings than use natural forest. Bird species composition on hardwood crops studied to date is a mixture of openland and forest bird species. Restricted research site availability to date has limited research to small acreage sites of several years of age, or to a few larger acreage but young (1--2 year) plantings. Through industry collaboration, research began this season on bird use of diverse hardwood plantings (different ages, acreages, tree species) in the southeast. Together with results of previous studies, this research will help define practical energy crop guidelines to integrate native wildlife benefits with productive energy crops.

Schiller, A. [Oak Ridge Associated Universities, TN (United States); Tolbert, V.R. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Biofuels Feedstock Development Program

1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

194

Physical Landscape Correlates of the Expansion of Mechanized Agriculture in Mato Grosso, Brazil  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Mechanized agriculture is rapidly expanding in the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil. In the past five years, land area planted with soybeans, the state’s principal crop, has increased at an average rate of 19.4% yr?1. Drivers of this large-scale land-...

Ellen Jasinski; Douglas Morton; Ruth DeFries; Yosio Shimabukuro; Liana Anderson; Matthew Hansen

2005-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

Review: Development of soft computing and applications in agricultural and biological engineering  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Soft computing is a set of ''inexact'' computing techniques, which are able to model and analyze very complex problems. For these complex problems, more conventional methods have not been able to produce cost-effective, analytical, or complete solutions. ... Keywords: Artificial neural networks, Crop management, Fuzzy logic, Genetic algorithms, Precision agriculture, Soft computing

Yanbo Huang; Yubin Lan; Steven J. Thomson; Alex Fang; Wesley C. Hoffmann; Ronald E. Lacey

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

196

I V E R SI T Cooperative Extension Service College of Agriculture and Home Economics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

that should be considered in an IPM strategy. Crop selection or ro- tation is effective against pests Safe and effective use of pesticides requires knowledge of chemical behavior and interaction of Agriculture and Home Economics on the World Wide Web at www.cahe.nmsu.edu Extension Pesticide Applicator

Castillo, Steven P.

197

Agricultural Microscopy Division Newsletter September 2013  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Read the latest news from the Agricultural Microscopy division. Agricultural Microscopy Division Newsletter September 2013 Agricultural Microscopy Division Newsletter September 2013 ...

198

Agricultural Microscopy Newsletter March 11  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

AOCS Agricultural Microscopy Division Newsletter March 2011 Greetings from the Chairperson The Agricultural Microscopy Division would like to take this opportunity to express our sincere sympathy to the family and friends of George Liepa who rece

199

Wind energy applications in agriculture  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Separate abstract are included for each of the papers presented concerning the use of wind turbines in agriculture.

Kluter, H.H.; Soderholm, L.H. (eds.)

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

Examining the Interaction of Growing Crops with Local Climate Using a Coupled Crop–Climate Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper examines to what extent crops and their environment should be viewed as a coupled system. Crop impact assessments currently use climate model output offline to drive process-based crop models. However, in regions where local climate is ...

Tom Osborne; Julia Slingo; David Lawrence; Tim Wheeler

2009-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "durables agricultural crop" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Economic and environmental impacts of the corn grain ethanol industry on the United States agricultural sector  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study evaluated the impacts of increased ethanol production from corn starch on agricultural land use and the environment in the United States. The Policy Analysis System simulation model was used to simulate alternative ethanol production scenarios for 2007 through 2016. Results indicate that increased corn ethanol production had a positive effect on net farm income and economic wellbeing of the US agricultural sector. In addition, government payments to farmers were reduced because of higher commodity prices and enhanced net farm income. Results also indicate that if Conservation Reserve Program land was converted to crop production in response to higher demand for ethanol in the simulation, individual farmers planted more land in crops, including corn. With a larger total US land area in crops due to individual farmer cropping choices, total US crop output rose, which decreased crop prices and aggregate net farm income relative to the scenario where increased ethanol production happened without Conservation Reserve Program land. Substantial shifts in land use occurred with corn area expanding throughout the United States, especially in the traditional corn-growing area of the midcontinent region.

Larson, J.A.; English, B.C.; De La Torre Ugarte, D. G.; Menard, R.J.; Hellwinckel, C.M.; West, Tristram O.

2010-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

202

Radiological considerations of phosphogypsum utilization in agriculture  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The radiological concerns associated with phosphogypsum utilization in agriculture have been placed in perspective by considering the consequences of a hypothetical case involving heavy long term applications of phosphogypsum. In California, such a schedule might consist of an initial gypsum application of 10 tons/acre followed by alternate year applications of 5 tons/acre. If the radium content of the gypsum were 15 pCi/g and the till depth 6 inches, this schedule could be maintained for more than 100 years before the radium buildup in the soil would reach a proposed federal concentration limit of 5 pCi/g. An agricultural worker spending 40 h a week in a field containing 5 pCi/g of radium would be exposed to terrestrial radiation of about 7 ..mu..R/h above background. This exposure would result in an annual radiation dose of about 15 mrem, which is 3% of the recommended limit for an individual working in an uncontrolled area. Five pCi/g of radium in the soil could generate airborne radon daughter concentrations exceeding the concentration limit proposed for residential exposure. However, as residential exposure limits are predicated on 75% of continuous occupancy, these limits should not be applied to agricultural workers because of the seasonal nature of their work. Radium uptake by food crops grown in the hypothetical soil would result in a 50 year integrated dose to the bone surface of 1.4 rem. This dose is conservatively based on the assumption that an adult's total vegetable diet comes from this source and that consumption was continuous during the 50 year period.

Lindeken, C.L.

1980-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

203

Barron Electric Cooperative - Commercial, Industrial, and Agricultural...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Industrial, and Agricultural Energy Efficiency Rebate Program Barron Electric Cooperative - Commercial, Industrial, and Agricultural Energy Efficiency Rebate Program...

204

Despite benefits, commercialization of transgenic horticultural crops lags  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

L. Gianessi is Director, Crop Protection Research Institute,differ- ent folks in tree crops: What works and what doesBiotechnology of floriculture crops — scientific questions

Clark, David; Klee, Harry; Dandekar, Abhaya

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

Survey of glucosinolate variation in leaves of Brassica rapa crops  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1), representing most major crops of B. rapa, were sampledgsl-containing vegetable crops included in human diet. A fewbeen surveyed in several crops such as broccoli, broccoli

Yang, Bo; Quiros, Carlos F.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

Biological and cultural controls . . . Nonpesticide alternatives can suppress crop pests  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

alternatives can suppress crop pests Nicholas J. Mills Kentsuppression of major arthropod crop pests in California. Wevines, and ?eld and row crops. For example, a historic suc-

Mills, Nicholas J.; Daane, Kent M.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

Blueberry research launches exciting new California specialty crop  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

2. Estimated highbush blueberry crop, 2004 State Growers whoin spearhead- ing specialty crops research and efforts tonew California specialty crop Manuel Jimenez Francis

Jimenez, Manuel; Carpenter, Francis; Molinar, Richard H.; Wright, Kathryn; Day, Kevin R.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

Microbial Diversity-Based Novel Crop Protection Products  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ial divers ity- based new crop protection products andicultural production of major crop plan ts and industrialand insect pests major crop plants. If the of cell- free

Yalpani, Ronald Flannagan, Rafael Herrmann, James Presnail, Tamas Torok, and Nasser

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

209

A Statistical Profile of Horticultural Crop Farm Industries in California  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Profile of Horticultural Crop Farm Industries in Californiaproject funded by the Federal Crop Insurance Corporation,Williams. “Model- ing Farm-Level Crop Insurance Demand with

Lee, Hyunok; Blank, Steven C.

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

210

Durability of Polymeric Encapsulation Materials for Concentrating Photovoltaic Systems (Presentation)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Presented at the 7th International Conference on Concentrating Photovoltaic Systems (CPV-7), 4-6 April 2011, Las Vegas, Nevada. Many concentrating photovoltaic (CPV) systems use a polymeric encapsulant to couple an optical component and/or coverglass to the cell. In that location, the encapsulation improves the transmission of concentrated optical flux through interfaces(s) while protecting the cell from the environment. The durability of encapsulation materials, however, is not well established relative to the desired service life of 30 years. Therefore, we have initiated a screen test to identify the field-induced failure modes for a variety of popular PV encapsulation materials.

Miller, D. C.; Muller, M.; Kempe, M. D.; Araki, K.; Kennedy, C. E.; Kurtz, S. R.

2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

Durable zinc oxide-containing sorbents for coal gas desulfurization  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Durable zinc-oxide containing sorbent pellets for removing hydrogen sulfide from a gas stream at an elevated temperature are made up to contain titania as a diluent, high-surface-area silica gel as a matrix material, and a binder. These materials are mixed, moistened, and formed into pellets, which are then dried and calcined. The resulting pellets undergo repeated cycles of sulfidation and regeneration without loss of reactivity and without mechanical degradation. Regeneration of the pellets is carried out by contacting the bed with an oxidizing gas mixture.

Siriwardane, R.V.

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

212

Durable, Low-cost, Improved Fuel Cell Membranes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The development of low cost, durable membranes and membranes electrode assemblies (MEAs) that operate under reduced relative humidity (RH) conditions remain a critical challenge for the successful introduction of fuel cells into mass markets. It was the goal of the team lead by Arkema, Inc. to address these shortages. Thus, this project addresses the following technical barriers from the fuel cells section of the Hydrogen Fuel Cells and Infrastructure Technologies Program Multi-Year Research, Development and Demonstration Plan: (A) Durability (B) Cost Arkema’s approach consisted of using blends of polyvinylidenefluoride (PVDF) and proprietary sulfonated polyelectrolytes. In the traditional approach to polyelectrolytes for proton exchange membranes (PEM), all the required properties are “packaged” in one macromolecule. The properties of interest include proton conductivity, mechanical properties, durability, and water/gas transport. This is the case, for example, for perfluorosulfonic acid-containing (PFSA) membranes. However, the cost of these materials is high, largely due to the complexity and the number of steps involved in their synthesis. In addition, they suffer other shortcomings such as mediocre mechanical properties and insufficient durability for some applications. The strength and originality of Arkema’s approach lies in the decoupling of ion conductivity from the other requirements. Kynar® PVDF provides an exceptional combination of properties that make it ideally suited for a membrane matrix (Kynar® is a registered trademark of Arkema Inc.). It exhibits outstanding chemical resistance in highly oxidative and acidic environments. In work with a prior grant, a membrane known as M41 was developed by Arkema. M41 had many of the properties needed for a high performance PEM, but had a significant deficiency in conductivity at low RH. In the first phase of this work, the processing parameters of M41 were explored as a means to increase its proton conductivity. Optimizing the processing of M41 was found to increase its proton conductivity by almost an order of magnitude at 50% RH. Characterization of the membrane morphology with Karren More at Oak Ridge National Laboratory showed that the membrane morphology was complex. This technology platform was dubbed M43 and was used as a baseline in the majority of the work on the project. Although its performance was superior to M41, M43 still showed proton conductivity an order of magnitude lower than that of a PFSA membrane at 50% RH. The MEA performance of M43 could be increased by reducing the thickness from 1 to 0.6 mils. However, the performance of the thinner M43 still did not match that of a PFSA membrane.

Chris Roger; David Mountz; Wensheng He; Tao Zhang

2011-03-17T23:59:59.000Z

213

Durability of Polymeric Encapsulation Materials for Concentrating Photovoltaic Systems (Poster)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Polymeric encapsulation materials are typically used in concentrating photovoltaic (CPV) modules to protect the cell from the field environment. Because it is physically located adjacent to the cell, the encapsulation is exposed to a high optical flux, often including light in the ultraviolet (UV) and infrared (IR) wavelengths. The durability of encapsulants used in CPV modules is critical to the technology, but is presently not well understood. This work seeks to identify the appropriate material types, field-induced failure mechanisms, and factors of influence (if possible) of polymeric encapsulation. These results will ultimately be weighed against those of future qualification and accelerated life test procedures.

Miller, D. C.; Kempe, M. D.; Araki, K.; Kennedy, C. E.; Kurtz, S. R.

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

214

Flexible, durable proton energy degraders for the GE PETtrace  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In order to limit the formation of radioisotopic impurities during proton bombardments of solid targets, two methods of introducing degrader foils into the beam upstream of the target were tested. The first design uses a 445 {mu}m thick fixed degrader machined from a single piece of aluminum. The second design permits introduction of foils made of any material and was tested with foils as thick as 635 {mu}m (also aluminium). In both cases, the foils are cooled with by water flowing through an annular channel outside the radius of the beam. Both designs proved durable and tolerated proton beam currents in excess of 80 {mu}A.

Engle, J. W.; Gagnon, K.; Severin, G. W.; Valdovinos, H. F.; Nickles, R. J.; Barnhart, T. E. [Chemistry Division - Isotopes, Inorganics and Actinides, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Hevesy Laboratory, Danish Technical University, Risoe (Denmark); Department of Medical Physics, University of Wisconsin, WI, Madison (United States)

2012-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

215

Durable innovative solar optical materials: the international challenge  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A variety of optical coatings are discussed in the context of solar energy utilization. Well known coatings such as heat mirrors, selective absorbers, and reflective films are covered briefly. Emphasis is placed on the materials limitations and design choices for various lesser known optical coatings and materials. Physical and optical properties are detailed for protective antireflection films, fluorescent concentrator materials, holographic films, cold mirrors, radiative cooling surfaces, and optical switching films including electrochromic, thermochromic, photochromic, and liquid crystal types. For many of these materials research is only now being considered, and various design and durability issues must be addressed.

Lampert, C.M.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

216

Extension Service Agricultural Experiment Station  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Ketchum. #12;OSU canola study informs policy makers amid debate among seed growers ODA asks OSU to see if canola can grow in Willamette Valley without pollinating other crops Adispute is brewing in the Willamette Valley. Grass-seed farm ers want to grow canola, a rotation crop that can be turned into food

Tullos, Desiree

217

Durability of Poly (Methyl Methacrylate) Lenses Used in Concentrating Photovoltaics (Presentation)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This presentation reports the findings of NREL's screen test to characterize the durability of poly (methyl methacrylate) lenses used in concentrated photovoltaics.

Miller, D.; Gedvilas, L.; To, B.; Kennedy, C.; Kurtz, S.

2010-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

218

Aligned TiO2 Nanotubes as Long Durability Anodes for Lithium-Ion ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Aligned TiO2 Nanotubes as Long Durability Anodes for Lithium-Ion Batteries · Aniline Coated Carbon Cryogel with Improved Cyclic Stability for Supercapacitor  ...

219

Development of vibration loading profiles for accelerated durability tests of ground vehicles.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The accelerated durability test is an important part for design and manufacturing ground vehicles. It consists of test designed to quantify the life characteristics of… (more)

Xu, Ke

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

Durable silver mirror with ultra-violet thru far infra-red reflection  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A durable highly reflective silver mirror characterized by high reflectance in a broad spectral range of about 300 nm in the UV to the far infrared (.about.10000 nm), as well as exceptional environmental durability. A high absorptivity metal underlayer is used which prevents the formation of a galvanic cell with a silver layer while increasing the reflectance of the silver layer. Environmentally durable overcoat layers are provided to enhance mechanical and chemical durability and protect the silver layer from corrosion and tarnishing, for use in a wide variety of surroundings or climates, including harsh or extreme environments.

Wolfe, Jesse D. (Discovery Bay, CA)

2010-11-23T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "durables agricultural crop" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Logging and Agricultural Residue Supply Curves for the Pacific Northwest  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report quantified the volume of logging residues at the county level for current timber harvests. The cost of recovering logging residues was determined for skidding, yearding, loading, chipping and transporting the residues. Supply curves were developed for ten candidate conversion sites in the Pacific Northwest Region. Agricultural field residues were also quantified at the county level using five-year average crop yields. Agronomic constraints were applied to arrive at the volumes available for energy use. Collection costs and transportation costs were determined and supply curves generated for thirteen candidate conversion sites.

Kerstetter, James D.; Lyons, John Kim

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

Remote Sensing and Geospatial Technological Applications for Site-specific Management of Fruit and Nut Crops: A Review  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract: Site-specific crop management (SSCM) is one facet of precision agriculture which is helping increase production with minimal input. It has enhanced the cost-benefit scenario in crop production. Even though the SSCM is very widely used in row crop agriculture like corn, wheat, rice, soybean, etc. it has very little application in cash crops like fruit and nut. The main goal of this review paper was to conduct a comprehensive review of advanced technologies, including geospatial technologies, used in site-specific management of fruit and nut crops. The review explores various remote sensing data from different platforms like satellite, LIDAR, aerial, and field imaging. The study analyzes the use of satellite sensors, such as Quickbird, Landsat, SPOT, and IRS imagery as well as hyperspectral narrow-band remote sensing data in study of fruit and nut crops in blueberry, citrus, peach, apple, etc. The study also explores other geospatial technologies such as GPS, GIS spatial modeling, advanced image processing techniques, and information technology for suitability study, orchard delineation, and classification accuracy assessment. The study also provides an example of a geospatial model developed in ArcGIS ModelBuilder to automate the blueberry production suitability analysis. The GIS

Sudhanshu Sekhar P; Gerrit Hoogenboom; Joel O. Paz

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

Energy analysis of selected crops in Thailand  

SciTech Connect

Energy analyses were made for the production of rice, corn and sugarcane crops in Thailand. All on-farm production activities from land preparation to harvesting were included. Energy inputs and yields for all crops were low. The energy returns for all three crops vary from 8 to 9 kilocalories for every kilocalorie put in.

Singh, G.; de Los Reyes, A.A.

1983-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

224

Greenhouse gas budgets of crop production current  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Greenhouse gas budgets of crop production ­ current and likely future trends Helen C. Flynn and Pete Smith #12;Greenhouse gas budgets of crop production ­ current and likely future trends Helen C or boundaries. #12;3Greenhouse gas budgets of crop production ­ current and likely future trends About

Levi, Ran

225

NETL: Gasification - Long-Term Refractory Durability Tests  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

System - Gasifier Optimization and Plant Supporting Systems System - Gasifier Optimization and Plant Supporting Systems Long-Term Refractory Durability Tests National Carbon Capture Center at the Power Systems Development Facility Southern Company Services, Inc. Project Number: NT0000749 Project Description The National Carbon Capture Center Transport Gasifier consists of an assembly of refractory-lined pipe that includes a mixing zone, a riser, a solids separation and collection unit, and a solids recycle section. By combining the use of strategically placed, precision instrumentation and monitoring controlled solids inventory and solids circulation with the ability to operate across a wide range of flow rates and adjustable process conditions, the facility is monitoring and measuring slag/refractory interactions and testing various materials for durability. New materials research and development results, provided to manufacturers, aims to improve gasifier availability and reduce costs associated with plant shut-downs for repairs. In the most severe slagging gasifiers, refractories can require replacement every three months, where the gasifier system is shut down for one to two weeks, costing millions of dollars.

226

Climate policy implications for agricultural water demand  

SciTech Connect

Energy, water and land are scarce resources, critical to humans. Developments in each affect the availability and cost of the others, and consequently human prosperity. Measures to limit greenhouse gas concentrations will inevitably exact dramatic changes on energy and land systems and in turn alter the character, magnitude and geographic distribution of human claims on water resources. We employ the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM), an integrated assessment model to explore the interactions of energy, land and water systems in the context of alternative policies to limit climate change to three alternative levels: 2.5 Wm-2 (445 ppm CO2-e), 3.5 Wm-2 (535 ppm CO2-e) and 4.5 Wm-2 (645 ppm CO2-e). We explore the effects of two alternative land-use emissions mitigation policy options—one which taxes terrestrial carbon emissions equally with fossil fuel and industrial emissions, and an alternative which only taxes fossil fuel and industrial emissions but places no penalty on land-use change emissions. We find that increasing populations and economic growth could be anticipated to almost triple demand for water for agricultural systems across the century even in the absence of climate policy. In general policies to mitigate climate change increase agricultural demands for water still further, though the largest changes occur in the second half of the century, under both policy regimes. The two policies examined profoundly affected both the sources and magnitudes of the increase in irrigation water demands. The largest increases in agricultural irrigation water demand occurred in scenarios where only fossil fuel emissions were priced (but not land-use change emission) and were primarily driven by rapid expansion in bioenergy production. In these scenarios water demands were large relative to present-day total available water, calling into question whether it would be physically possible to produce the associated biomass energy. We explored the potential of improved water delivery and irrigation system efficiencies. These could potentially reduce demands substantially. However, overall demands remained high under our fossil-fuel-only tax policy. In contrast, when all carbon was priced, increases in agricultural water demands were smaller than under the fossil-fuel-only policy and were driven primarily by increased demands for water by non-biomass crops such as rice. Finally we estimate the geospatial pattern of water demands and find that regions such as China, India and other countries in south and east Asia might be expected to experience greatest increases in water demands.?

Chaturvedi, Vaibhav; Hejazi, Mohamad I.; Edmonds, James A.; Clarke, Leon E.; Kyle, G. Page; Davies, Evan; Wise, Marshall A.; Calvin, Katherine V.

2013-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

227

Final Report - MEA and Stack Durability for PEM Fuel Cells  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Proton exchange membrane fuel cells are expected to change the landscape of power generation over the next ten years. For this to be realized one of the most significant challenges to be met for stationary systems is lifetime, where 40,000 hours of operation with less than 10% decay is desired. This project conducted fundamental studies on the durability of membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs) and fuel cell stack systems with the expectation that knowledge gained from this project will be applied toward the design and manufacture of MEAs and stack systems to meet DOE’s 2010 stationary fuel cell stack systems targets. The focus of this project was PEM fuel cell durability – understanding the issues that limit MEA and fuel cell system lifetime, developing mitigation strategies to address the lifetime issues and demonstration of the effectiveness of the mitigation strategies by system testing. To that end, several discoveries were made that contributed to the fundamental understanding of MEA degradation mechanisms. (1) The classically held belief that membrane degradation is solely due to end-group “unzipping” is incorrect; there are other functional groups present in the ionomer that are susceptible to chemical attack. (2) The rate of membrane degradation can be greatly slowed or possibly eliminated through the use of additives that scavenge peroxide or peroxyl radicals. (3) Characterization of GDL using dry gases is incorrect due to the fact that fuel cells operate utilizing humidified gases. The proper characterization method involves using wet gas streams and measuring capillary pressure as demonstrated in this project. (4) Not all Platinum on carbon catalysts are created equally – the major factor impacting catalyst durability is the type of carbon used as the support. (5) System operating conditions have a significant impact of lifetime – the lifetime was increased by an order of magnitude by changing the load profile while all other variables remain the same. (6) Through the use of statistical lifetime analysis methods, it is possible to develop new MEAs with predicted durability approaching the DOE 2010 targets. (7) A segmented cell was developed that extend the resolution from ~ 40 to 121 segments for a 50cm2 active area single cell which allowed for more precise investigation of the local phenomena in a operating fuel cell. (8) The single cell concept was extended to a fuel size stack to allow the first of its kind monitoring and mapping of an operational fuel cell stack. An internal check used during this project involved evaluating the manufacturability of any new MEA component. If a more durable MEA component was developed in the lab, but could not be scaled-up to ‘high speed, high volume manufacturing’, then that component was not selected for the final MEA-fuel cell system demonstration. It is the intent of the team to commercialize new products developed under this project, but commercialization can not occur if the manufacture of said new components is difficult or if the price is significantly greater than existing products as to make the new components not cost competitive. Thus, the end result of this project is the creation of MEA and fuel cell system technology that is capable of meeting the DOEs 2010 target of 40,000 hours for stationary fuel cell systems (although this lifetime has not been demonstrated in laboratory or field testing yet) at a cost that is economically viable for the developing fuel cell industry. We have demonstrated over 2,000 hours of run time for the MEA and system developed under this project.

Yandrasits, Michael A.

2008-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

228

Soil Organic Carbon Sequestration by Tillage and Crop Rotation: A Global  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Tillage and Crop Rotation Tillage and Crop Rotation Soil Organic Carbon Sequestration by Tillage and Crop Rotation: A Global Data Analysis DOI: 10.3334/CDIAC/tcm.002 PDF file Full text Soil Science Society of America Journal 66:1930-1946 (2002) CSITE image Tristram O. West and Wilfred M. Post DOE Center for Carbon Sequestration in Terrestrial Ecosystems (CSiTE) Environmental Sciences Division Oak Ridge National Laboratory P.O. Box 2008 Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6290 U.S.A. Sponsor: U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Science, Biological and Environmental Research Program Abstract Global map Changes in agricultural management can potentially increase the accumulation rate of soil organic carbon (SOC), thereby sequestering CO2 from the atmosphere. This study was conducted to quantify potential soil

229

California Agriculture: Dimensions and Issues  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Agriculture 1959. California, Vol. 1, Part 48. ----------.of Population, California, Vol. 1, Part 6. ----------. 1990Vol. 12, No. 67, 1888. California Committee to Survey the

Siebert,, Jerome Editor

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

230

Development of sweet sorghum as an energy crop. Volume III. Integration concepts  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

For the past 3 years, Battelle's Columbus Division and several co-investigators have conducted interregional investigations related to biomass and sugar production for conversion to alcohol and other fuels. These investigations have emphasized primarily the production of sweet sorghum and sugarcane due to their ability to produce high biomass and readily fermentable sugars' yields which allow a highly favorable energy balance when converted to ethanol. The primary goal of the 1979 research program was to determine the agronomic and economic feasibility of developing sweet sorghum, sweet sorghum hybrids, and sugarcane as energy-producing crops in selected geographic regions of the United States. The objectives of the research include the following: (1) to conduct a prefeasibility analysis of the potential for integrating sugarcane and sugar beet production/processing with sweet sorghum; and (2) to formulate an analytical approach to estimate the economic impact of growing sweet sorghum as an energy crop upon the US agricultural system. This volume is comprised of two separate investigations pertaining to potential integration of sweet sorghum into US agriculture. The first investigation entitled, Economic Potential for Integrating Alcohol Fuels Production from Sweet Sorghum with Other Carbohydrate Crops conducted independently, looks at integration of sweet sorghum from a microeconomic viewpoint, i.e., what would be the effects of combining sweet sorghum with other sugar crops to produce alcohol in terms of plant investment and operating costs.

Scantland, D.A.; Riddle, W.E.; McClure, T.A.; Woodford, P.G.; Honton, E.J.; Lipinsky, E.S.

1980-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

231

Projecting net incomes for Texas crop producers: an application of probabilistic forecasting  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Agricultural policy changes directly affect the economic viability of Texas crop producers because government payments make up a significant portion of their net farm income (NFI). NFI projections benefit producers, agribusinesses and policy makers, but an economic model making these projections for Texas did not previously exist. The objective of this study was to develop a model to project annual NFI for producers of major crops in Texas. The Texas crop model was developed to achieve this objective, estimating state prices, yields and production costs as a function of their national counterparts. Five hundred iterations of national price and yield projections from the Food and Agricultural Policy Research Institute (FAPRI), along with FAPRI�s average production cost projections, were used as input to the Texas crop model. The stochastic FAPRI Baseline and residuals for Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) equations relating Texas variables to national variables were used to incorporate the risk left unexplained by OLS equations between Texas and U.S. variables. Deterministic and probabilistic NFI projections for Texas crops were compared under the January 2005 and January 2006 FAPRI Baseline projections. With production costs increasing considerably and prices rising moderately in the January 2006 Baseline, deterministic projections of 2006-2014 Texas NFI decreased by an average of 26 percent for corn, 3 percent for cotton, 15 percent for peanuts, and 12 percent for rice, and were negative for sorghum and wheat. Probability distributions of projected NFI fell for all program crops, especially sorghum and wheat. Higher hay price projections caused deterministic projections of NFI for hay to rise roughly 13 percent, and increased the probability distributions of projected hay NFI. Deterministic and probabilistic projections of total NFI decreased for each year, especially for 2006-2008 when fuel price projections were the highest. The Texas crop model can be used to simulate NFI for Texas crop producers under alternative FAPRI baselines. The model shows the impact of baseline changes on probability distributions of NFI for each crop and for Texas as a whole. It can also be useful as a policy analysis tool to compare impacts of alternative farm and macroeconomic policies on NFI.

Eggerman, Christopher Ryan

2006-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

Mr. Hayrullo Esonov Agricultural Economist  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Humphrey year, he plans to work in the areas of crop growing, fruit and vegetable processing, storage and professional skills in the areas of renewable sources of energy, new carbon markets, environmental policies

Hammock, Bruce D.

233

Apparatus and method for laser deposition of durable coatings  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Disclosed are method and apparatus for depositing durable coatings onto the surface of a substrate without heating the entire substrate to high temperatures by using lasers to heat the substrate and dissociate a deposition gas. The apparatus comprises a deposition chamber for enclosing the substrate upon which a coating is to be deposited, gas delivery means for directing a flow of deposition gas on the substrate, a first laser for heating the substrate, and a second laser for irradiating the deposition gas to dissociate the gas. The method includes placing a substrate within a vacuum deposition chamber and directing a flow of deposition gas on the substrate. Then the substrate is heated with a first laser while the deposition gas is irradiated with a second laser to dissociate the deposition gas.

Veligdan, J.T.; Vanier, P.; Barletta, R.E.

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

234

DOE-EERE Durability Working Group Meeting, October 10, 2010  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

DOE-EERE Durability Working Group Meeting October 10, 2010 Agenda 6 pm Welcome and introductory comments Debbie Myers (Argonne) and Rod Borup (Los Alamos) - co-chairs 6:15 pm Overview of electrocatalyst and support degradation mechanisms Sarah Ball, Johnson Matthey Fuel Cells 6:45 pm Discussion/presentations by project PIs/representatives (5-10 minutes each) * Overview of electrocatalyst and support degradation aspects of projects * Protocols/testing procedures/diagnostics used to resolve the electrocatalyst and support degradation mechanisms * Ballard, Nuvera, LANL-Borup, Argonne, DuPont, UTC Power, LANL-Mukund, NREL, HNEI, 3M 8:15 pm Discussion on relevance and impact of degradation studies of each stack component Led by Rod Borup Discussion on standardized generic start-up and shut-down protocols

235

DOE Durability Working Group May 2011 Meeting Agenda  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

DOE Durability Working Group Wednesday, May 11, 2011, 7:00-10:00 pm Marriott Crystal Gateway "Salon V" (Ballroom Level) Meeting Agenda 7:00 pm Welcome and introductory comments Debbie Myers (Argonne) and Rod Borup (Los Alamos) - co-chairs 7:10 pm Compilation of decay mechanisms, impact, evidence, and diagnostic procedures Proposed by: Adam Weber (LBNL), Mike Perry (UTRC) Assigned to: Debbie Myers, Rod Borup, Rangachary Mukundan (LANL) 7:30 pm PEFC start-up protocol Assigned to: Greg James (Ballard) - lead, Rod Borup (LANL), Mike Perry (UTRC) 7:50 pm Accelerated stress test for non-carbon supports (e.g., metal oxides) Proposed by: Shyam Kocha (NREL), Assigned to: Shyam Kocha (NREL) - lead Mahlon Wilson and Eric Brosha (LANL) 8:10 pm Discussion of electrochemical equivalent of accelerated stress test for MEAs

236

Crop residues as a fuel for power generation  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Crop residues could serve as an alternative energy source for producing electric power and heat in agricultural regions of the United States. Nearly 2 quads of residues are estimated to be available as a sustainable annual yield. These can substitute for up to one quad of conventional fuels used to generate electricity and up to an additional quad of petroleum and natural gas currently used for producing heat. The most promising routes to residue conversion appear to be regional generators sized in the megawatt range, and the mixing of residues with coal for burning in coal power plants. Costing farmers from $0.70 to $1.25 per million Btu, to harvest and prepare for use as a fuel, residues can be a competitive renewable energy supply.

Bhagat, N.; Davitian, H.; Pouder, R.

1979-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

237

Biofuel Crop Growth in Hawaii  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Hawaii has had a renewable portfolio standard (RPS) law since 2001 that was recently updated. The aim is to generate 40% of the state's electricity from renewable sources by 2030.  This project was originally conceived to gain information on the possible profitable production of oilseed in Hawaii for use as a renewable biofuel. The project involved research teams from Hawaii Agriculture Research Center (HARC), the University of Hawaii -Manoa (UHM), and University ...

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

Perennial grasses for energy and conservation: Evaluating some ecological agricultural, and economic issues  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Perennial prairie grasses offer many advantages to the developing biofuels industry. High yielding varieties of native prairie grasses such as switchgrass, which combine lower levels of nutrient demand, diverse geographical growing range, high net energy yields and high soil and water conservation potential indicate that these grasses could and should supplement annual row crops such as corn in developing alternative fuels markets. Favorable net energy returns, increased soil erosion prevention, and a geographically diverse land base that can incorporate energy grasses into conventional farm practices will provide direct benefits to local and regional farm economies and lead to accelerated commercialization of conversion technologies. Displacement of row crops with perennial grasses will have major agricultural, economic, sociologic and cross-market implications. Thus, perennial grass production for biofuels offers significant economic advantages to a national energy strategy which considers both agricultural and environmental issues.

Downing, M.; Walsh, M.; McLaughlin, S.

1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

Three ACE awards for California Agriculture  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Editor Janet White accepted the awards during the 2012 ACEa noxious weed. Three ACE awards for California AgricultureAgriculture team has won three awards from the Association

Editors, by

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

Press Conference Call Tomorrow: Agriculture Secretary Vilsack...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Press Conference Call Tomorrow: Agriculture Secretary Vilsack and Energy Secretary Chu to Discuss Efforts to Reduce U.S. Oil Dependence Press Conference Call Tomorrow: Agriculture...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "durables agricultural crop" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Sustainable Agriculture Network | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

"Sustainable Agriculture Network" Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleSustainableAgricultureNetwork&oldid312235" Categories: Clean Energy Organizations...

242

Energy Secretary Chu, Agriculture Secretary Vilsack Announce...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Chu, Agriculture Secretary Vilsack Announce 6.3 million for Biofuels Research Energy Secretary Chu, Agriculture Secretary Vilsack Announce 6.3 million for Biofuels Research July...

243

Renewable Agricultural Energy | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Login | Sign Up Search Page Edit with form History Facebook icon Twitter icon Renewable Agricultural Energy Jump to: navigation, search Name Renewable Agricultural Energy...

244

Microbial Diversity-Based Novel Crop Protection Products  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Extremophilic microorganisms are adapted to survive in ecological niches with high temperatures, extremes of pH, high salt concentrations, high pressure, radiation, etc. Extremophiles produce unique biocatalysts and natural products that function under extreme conditions comparab le to those prevailing in various industrial processes. Therefore, there is burgeoning interest in bioprospecting for extremophiles with potential immediate use in agriculture, the food, chemical, and pharm aceutical industries, and environmental biotechnology. Over the years, several thousand extremophilic bacteria, archaea, and filamentous fungi were collected at extreme environmental sites in the USA, the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone surrounding the faeild nuclear power plant in Ukraine, in and around Lake Baikal in Siberia, and at geothermal sites on the Kamchatka peninsula in Russia. These organisms were cultured under proprietary conditions, and the cell- free supernatants were screened for biological activities against plant pathogenic fungi and major crop damaging insects. Promising peptide lead molecules were isolated, characterized, and sequenced. Relatively high hit rates characterized the tested fermentation broths. Of the 26,000 samples screened, over thousand contained biological activity of interest. A fair number of microorganisms expressed broad- spectrum antifungal or insecticidal activity. Two- dozen broadly antifungal peptides (AFPs) are alr eady patent protected, and many more tens are under further investigation. Tapping the gene pool of extremophilic microorganisms to provide novel ways of crop protection proved a successful strategy.

Pioneer Hi-Bred International Inc.; DuPont Experimental Station; Yalpani, Ronald Flannagan, Rafael Herrmann, James Presnail, Tamas Torok, and Nasser; Herrmann, Rafael; Presnail, James; Torok, Tamas; Yalpani, Nasser

2007-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

245

Cassava, a potential biofuel crop in China  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

18-673389 Keywords: cassava; bioethanol; biofuel; metabolicRecently, cassava-derived bioethanol production has beenbenefits compared to other bioethanol- producing crops in

Jansson, C.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

246

Cassava, a potential biofuel crop in China  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Cassava, a potential biofuel crop in China Christer Janssoncassava; bioethanol; biofuel; metabolic engineering; Chinathe potentials of cassava in the biofuel sector and point to

Jansson, C.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

247

CropEnergies | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

search Name CropEnergies Place Mannheim, Saxony-Anhalt, Germany Zip 68165 Sector Biofuels Product A German biofuels company focused on bioethanol production for use as...

248

Seasonality and Its Effects on Crop Markets  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Understanding crop seasonality can improve a producer's marketing skills and options. The causes of seasonality and its effects on price changes are discussed.

Tierney Jr., William I.; Waller, Mark L.; Amosson, Stephen H.

1999-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

249

Short rotation Wood Crops Program  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report synthesizes the technical progress of research projects in the Short Rotation Woody Crops Program for the year ending September 30, 1989. The primary goal of this research program, sponsored by the US Department of Energy's Biofuels and Municipal Waste Technology Division, is the development of a viable technology for producing renewable feedstocks for conversion to biofuels. One of the more significant accomplishments was the documentation that short-rotation woody crops total delivered costs could be $40/Mg or less under optimistic but attainable conditions. By taking advantage of federal subsidies such as those offered under the Conservation Reserve Program, wood energy feedstock costs could be lower. Genetic improvement studies are broadening species performance within geographic regions and under less-than-optimum site conditions. Advances in physiological research are identifying key characteristics of species productivity and response to nutrient applications. Recent developments utilizing biotechnology have achieved success in cell and tissue culture, somaclonal variation, and gene-insertion studies. Productivity gains have been realized with advanced cultural studies of spacing, coppice, and mixed-species trials. 8 figs., 20 tabs.

Wright, L.L.; Ehrenshaft, A.R.

1990-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

250

A Review of Agricultural and Other Land Application Uses of Flue Gas Desulfurization Products  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The production of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) products, especially FGD gypsum, is expected to increase substantially over the next ten to twenty years in response to clean air initiatives. There are a large number of agricultural and other land application uses of FGD products that have received previous research and development attention, but only in specific locations of the United States and under limited conditions of crops, climate and soil types. This report discusses current and potential futur...

2006-03-13T23:59:59.000Z

251

New MEA Materials for Improved DMFC Performance, Durability and Cost  

SciTech Connect

Abstract Project Title: New MEA Materials for Improved DMFC Performance, Durability and Cost The University of North Florida (UNF)--with project partners the University of Florida, Northeastern University, and Johnson Matthey--has recently completed the Department of Energy (DOE) project entitled “New MEA Materials for Improved DMFC Performance, Durability and Cost”. The primary objective of the project was to advance portable fuel cell MEA technology towards the commercial targets as laid out in the DOE R&D roadmap by developing a passive water recovery MEA (membrane electrode assembly). Developers at the University of North Florida identified water management components as an insurmountable barrier to achieving the required system size and weight necessary to achieve the energy density requirements of small portable power applications. UNF developed an innovative “passive water recovery” MEA for direct methanol fuel cells (DMFC) which provides a path to system simplification and optimization. The passive water recovery MEA incorporates a hydrophobic, porous, barrier layer within the cathode electrode, so that capillary pressure forces the water produced at the cathode through holes in the membrane and back to the anode. By directly transferring the water from the cathode to the anode, the balance of plant is very much simplified and the need for heavy, bulky water recovery components is eliminated. At the heart of the passive water recovery MEA is the UNF DM-1 membrane that utilizes a hydrocarbon structure to optimize performance in a DMFC system. The membrane has inherent performance advantages, such as a low methanol crossover (high overall efficiency), while maintaining a high proton conductivity (good electrochemical efficiency) when compared to perfluorinated sulfonic acid membranes such as Nafion. Critically, the membrane provides an extremely low electro-osmotic drag coefficient of approximately one water molecule per proton (versus the 2-3 for Nafion) that minimizes flooding issues at the cathode, which often fatally limit open cathode MEA performance. During this successfully completed DOE program the project team met all of the project goals. The team built and tested over 1,500 MEAs with a wide range of different manufacturing chemistries and process conditions. This project demonstrated that the UNF MEA design could be fabricated with a high degree of reproducibility and repeatability. Some specific achievements include: • Durability - The UNF MEA has demonstrated over 11,000 hours continuous operation in a short stack configuration. The root cause of an off-state degradation issue was successfully mitigated by modifying the manufacturing process by changing the wetting agents used in the catalyst printing. The stability of the anode electrode was increased by replacing the anode electrodes with a stabilized PtRu/C catalyst. The overall degradation rate was significantly reduced through optimization of the MEA operating conditions. • Performance - The project team optimized the performance of the critical MEA sub-components. By increasing the membrane thickness, the methanol crossover was reduced, thereby increasing the fuel utilization efficiency without sacrificing any electrochemical performance. The reduction in methanol crossover increased the fuel utilization efficiency from 78% to over 90%. The liquid barrier layer was optimized to provide improved reproducibility, thereby improving stack voltage uniformity and reliability. Additionally the barrier layer water permeability was lowered without sacrificing any power density, thereby enabling increased operating temperature. Improvements in the cathode catalyst selection and coating provided an additional 10% to 20% improvement in the MEA performance at the target operating range. • Cost - Commercially scalable processes were developed for all of the critical MEA components which led to improved yields and lower overall manufacturing costs. Furthermore, significant steps have been made in improving the process control, which increases MEA

Fletcher, James H. [University of North Florida; Campbell, Joseph L. [University of North Florida; Cox, Philip [University of North Florida; Harrington, William J. [University of North Florida

2013-09-16T23:59:59.000Z

252

New MEA Materials for Improved DMFC Performance, Durability and Cost  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Abstract Project Title: New MEA Materials for Improved DMFC Performance, Durability and Cost The University of North Florida (UNF)--with project partners the University of Florida, Northeastern University, and Johnson Matthey--has recently completed the Department of Energy (DOE) project entitled “New MEA Materials for Improved DMFC Performance, Durability and Cost”. The primary objective of the project was to advance portable fuel cell MEA technology towards the commercial targets as laid out in the DOE R&D roadmap by developing a passive water recovery MEA (membrane electrode assembly). Developers at the University of North Florida identified water management components as an insurmountable barrier to achieving the required system size and weight necessary to achieve the energy density requirements of small portable power applications. UNF developed an innovative “passive water recovery” MEA for direct methanol fuel cells (DMFC) which provides a path to system simplification and optimization. The passive water recovery MEA incorporates a hydrophobic, porous, barrier layer within the cathode electrode, so that capillary pressure forces the water produced at the cathode through holes in the membrane and back to the anode. By directly transferring the water from the cathode to the anode, the balance of plant is very much simplified and the need for heavy, bulky water recovery components is eliminated. At the heart of the passive water recovery MEA is the UNF DM-1 membrane that utilizes a hydrocarbon structure to optimize performance in a DMFC system. The membrane has inherent performance advantages, such as a low methanol crossover (high overall efficiency), while maintaining a high proton conductivity (good electrochemical efficiency) when compared to perfluorinated sulfonic acid membranes such as Nafion. Critically, the membrane provides an extremely low electro-osmotic drag coefficient of approximately one water molecule per proton (versus the 2-3 for Nafion) that minimizes flooding issues at the cathode, which often fatally limit open cathode MEA performance. During this successfully completed DOE program the project team met all of the project goals. The team built and tested over 1,500 MEAs with a wide range of different manufacturing chemistries and process conditions. This project demonstrated that the UNF MEA design could be fabricated with a high degree of reproducibility and repeatability. Some specific achievements include: • Durability - The UNF MEA has demonstrated over 11,000 hours continuous operation in a short stack configuration. The root cause of an off-state degradation issue was successfully mitigated by modifying the manufacturing process by changing the wetting agents used in the catalyst printing. The stability of the anode electrode was increased by replacing the anode electrodes with a stabilized PtRu/C catalyst. The overall degradation rate was significantly reduced through optimization of the MEA operating conditions. • Performance - The project team optimized the performance of the critical MEA sub-components. By increasing the membrane thickness, the methanol crossover was reduced, thereby increasing the fuel utilization efficiency without sacrificing any electrochemical performance. The reduction in methanol crossover increased the fuel utilization efficiency from 78% to over 90%. The liquid barrier layer was optimized to provide improved reproducibility, thereby improving stack voltage uniformity and reliability. Additionally the barrier layer water permeability was lowered without sacrificing any power density, thereby enabling increased operating temperature. Improvements in the cathode catalyst selection and coating provided an additional 10% to 20% improvement in the MEA performance at the target operating range. • Cost - Commercially scalable processes were developed for all of the critical MEA components which led to improved yields and lower overall manufacturing costs. Furthermore, significant steps have been made in improving the process control, which increases MEA

Fletcher, James H. [University of North Florida; Campbell, Joseph L. [University of North Florida; Cox, Philip [University of North Florida; Harrington, William J. [University of North Florida

2013-09-16T23:59:59.000Z

253

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Clean Agriculture USA  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Clean Agriculture USA Clean Agriculture USA to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Clean Agriculture USA on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Clean Agriculture USA on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Clean Agriculture USA on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Clean Agriculture USA on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Clean Agriculture USA on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Clean Agriculture USA on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Clean Agriculture USA Clean Agriculture USA is a voluntary program that promotes the reduction of diesel exhaust emissions from agricultural equipment and vehicles by encouraging proper operations and maintenance by farmers, ranchers, and

254

Wind Powering America: Agricultural Podcasts  

Wind Powering America (EERE)

agricultural/podcasts.asp A series of agricultural/podcasts.asp A series of radio interviews on wind energy aimed at a rural stakeholder audience produced by Wind Powering America and the National Association of Farm Broadcasters. en-us julie.jones@nrel.gov (Julie Jones) http://www.windpoweringamerica.gov/images/wpa_logo_sm.jpg Wind Powering America: Agricultural Podcasts http://www.windpoweringamerica.gov/agricultural/podcasts.asp Wind Energy Forum Enhances Positives of Wind Production http://www.windpoweringamerica.gov/filter_detail.asp?itemid=4043 http://www.windpoweringamerica.gov/filter_detail.asp?itemid=4043 Thu, 14 Nov 2013 00:00:00 MST Rural Communities Benefit from Wind Energy's Continued Success http://www.windpoweringamerica.gov/filter_detail.asp?itemid=4021 http://www.windpoweringamerica.gov/filter_detail.asp?itemid=4021 Tue, 29

255

Agricultural Carbon Mitigation in Europe  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Agricultural Carbon Mitigation in Europe Agricultural Carbon Mitigation in Europe Agricultural Carbon Mitigation in Europe Smith P, Powlson DS, Smith JU, Falloon P, and Coleman K. 2000. Meeting Europe's climate change commitments: Quantitative estimates of the potential for carbon mitigation by agriculture. Global Climate Change 6:525-539. Abstract Under the Kyoto Protocol, the European Union is committed to a reduction in CO2 emissions to 92% of baseline (1990) levels during the first commitment period (2008-2012). The Kyoto Protocol allows carbon emissions to be offset by demonstrable removal of carbon from the atmosphere. Thus, land-use / land-management change and forestry activities that are shown to reduce atmospheric CO2 levels can be included in the Kyoto targets. These activities include afforestation, reforestation and deforestation (article

256

Multiplex detection of agricultural pathogens  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Described are kits and methods useful for detection of agricultural pathogens in a sample. Genomic sequence information from agricultural pathogens was analyzed to identify signature sequences, e.g., polynucleotide sequences useful for confirming the presence or absence of a pathogen in a sample. Primer and probe sets were designed and optimized for use in a PCR based, multiplexed Luminex assay and/or an array assay to successfully identify the presence or absence of pathogens in a sample.

Siezak, Thomas R.; Gardner, Shea; Torres, Clinton; Vitalis, Elizabeth; Lenhoff, Raymond J.

2013-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

257

Multiplex detection of agricultural pathogens  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Described are kits and methods useful for detection of seven agricultural pathogens (BPSV; BHV; BVD; FMDV; BTV; SVD; and VESV) in a sample. Genomic sequence information from 7 agricultural pathogens was analyzed to identify signature sequences, e.g., polynucleotide sequences useful for confirming the presence or absence of a pathogen in a sample. Primer and probe sets were designed and optimized for use in a PCR based, multiplexed Luminex assay to successfully identify the presence or absence of pathogens in a sample.

McBride, Mary Teresa (Brentwood, CA); Slezak, Thomas Richard (Livermore, CA); Messenger, Sharon Lee (Kensington, CA)

2010-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

258

Weekly Weather and Crop Bulletin | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Weekly Weather and Crop Bulletin Weekly Weather and Crop Bulletin Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary Name: Weekly Weather and Crop Bulletin Agency/Company /Organization: United States Department of Agriculture, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Sector: Land Focus Area: Agriculture Topics: GHG inventory, Resource assessment Resource Type: Maps Website: usda.mannlib.cornell.edu/MannUsda/viewDocumentInfo.do?documentID=1393 UN Region: Central Asia, Eastern Asia, South-Eastern Asia, "Pacific" is not in the list of possible values (Eastern Africa, Middle Africa, Northern Africa, Southern Africa, Western Africa, Caribbean, Central America, South America, Northern America, Central Asia, Eastern Asia, Southern Asia, South-Eastern Asia, Western Asia, Eastern Europe, Northern Europe, Southern Europe, Western Europe, Australia and New Zealand, Melanesia, Micronesia, Polynesia, Latin America and the Caribbean) for this property., "Latin America and Caribbean" is not in the list of possible values (Eastern Africa, Middle Africa, Northern Africa, Southern Africa, Western Africa, Caribbean, Central America, South America, Northern America, Central Asia, Eastern Asia, Southern Asia, South-Eastern Asia, Western Asia, Eastern Europe, Northern Europe, Southern Europe, Western Europe, Australia and New Zealand, Melanesia, Micronesia, Polynesia, Latin America and the Caribbean) for this property., "Western Asia & North Africa" is not in the list of possible values (Eastern Africa, Middle Africa, Northern Africa, Southern Africa, Western Africa, Caribbean, Central America, South America, Northern America, Central Asia, Eastern Asia, Southern Asia, South-Eastern Asia, Western Asia, Eastern Europe, Northern Europe, Southern Europe, Western Europe, Australia and New Zealand, Melanesia, Micronesia, Polynesia, Latin America and the Caribbean) for this property., Northern America, "South Asia" is not in the list of possible values (Eastern Africa, Middle Africa, Northern Africa, Southern Africa, Western Africa, Caribbean, Central America, South America, Northern America, Central Asia, Eastern Asia, Southern Asia, South-Eastern Asia, Western Asia, Eastern Europe, Northern Europe, Southern Europe, Western Europe, Australia and New Zealand, Melanesia, Micronesia, Polynesia, Latin America and the Caribbean) for this property., "Sub-Saharan Africa" is not in the list of possible values (Eastern Africa, Middle Africa, Northern Africa, Southern Africa, Western Africa, Caribbean, Central America, South America, Northern America, Central Asia, Eastern Asia, Southern Asia, South-Eastern Asia, Western Asia, Eastern Europe, Northern Europe, Southern Europe, Western Europe, Australia and New Zealand, Melanesia, Micronesia, Polynesia, Latin America and the Caribbean) for this property., "Western & Eastern Europe" is not in the list of possible values (Eastern Africa, Middle Africa, Northern Africa, Southern Africa, Western Africa, Caribbean, Central America, South America, Northern America, Central Asia, Eastern Asia, Southern Asia, South-Eastern Asia, Western Asia, Eastern Europe, Northern Europe, Southern Europe, Western Europe, Australia and New Zealand, Melanesia, Micronesia, Polynesia, Latin America and the Caribbean) for this property.

259

Durable pd-based alloy and hydrogen generation membrane thereof  

SciTech Connect

A durable Pd-based alloy is used for a H.sub.2-selective membrane in a hydrogen generator, as in the fuel processor of a fuel cell plant. The Pd-based alloy includes Cu as a binary element, and further includes "X", where "X" comprises at least one metal from group "M" that is BCC and acts to stabilize the .beta. BCC phase for stability during operating temperatures. The metal from group "M" is selected from the group consisting of Fe, Cr, Nb, Ta, V, Mo, and W, with Nb and Ta being most preferred. "X" may further comprise at least one metal from a group "N" that is non-BCC, preferably FCC, that enhances other properties of the membrane, such as ductility. The metal from group "N" is selected from the group consisting of Ag, Au, Re, Ru, Rh, Y, Ce, Ni, Ir, Pt, Co, La and In. The at. % of Pd in the binary Pd--Cu alloy ranges from about 35 at. % to about 55 at. %, and the at. % of "X" in the higher order alloy, based on said binary alloy, is in the range of about 1 at. % to about 15 at. %. The metals are selected according to a novel process.

Benn, Raymond C. (Madison, CT); Opalka, Susanne M. (Glastonbury, CT); Vanderspurt, Thomas Henry (Glastonbury, CT)

2010-02-02T23:59:59.000Z

260

Durability of double-shell tank waste grouts  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes results of studies conducted in FY89 to assess the durability of grouted DST waste. This is in support of WHC`s grout disposal program to determine the physical/chemical properties of simulated DST grouts cured for extended time periods at elevated temperatures. This report presents results of tests on simulated DST grout samples cured up to 6 months at 75 to 95 C. All the testing and characterization were done on a single formulation of DS slurry feed grout. The simulated waste was the same as in the Nov. 1988 pilot- scale test of grout processing. The dry blend (47 wt% slag, 47 wt% class F fly ash, 6 wt% type I/II portland cement) was mixed with the simulated waste at a mix ratio of 9 lb/gal. Resultant grout slurry was cast into molds and cured at 100% RH at 75, 85, and 95 C. Leach resistance and compressive strength decreased with curing times and temperatures. The samples absorbed water during curing (up to 9 wt%) as a result of osmotic pressures caused by the high salt content within the grout, and this may have caused microcracking and reduced strength. Cracking due to increased internal pressures from salt crystallization also may have occurred as the samples cooled from curing.

Lokken, R.O.; Martin, P.F.C.; Shade, J.W.

1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "durables agricultural crop" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Durability of Polymeric Encapsulation Materials for Concentrating Photovoltaic Systems (Presentation)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Many concentrating photovoltaic (CPV) systems use a polymeric encapsulant to couple and optical component and/or coverglass to the cell. In that location, the encapsulation improves the transmission of concentrated optical flux through interface(s), while protecting the cell from the environment. The durability of encapsulation materials, however, is not well established relative to the desired service life of 30 years. Therefore, we have initiated a screen test to identify the field-induced failure modes for a variety of popular PV encapsulation materials. An existing CPV module (with no PV cells present) was modified to accommodate encapsulation specimens. The module (where nominal concentration of solar flux is 500x for the domed-Fresnel design) has been mounted on a tracker in Golden, CO (elevation 1.79 km). Initial results are reported here for 18 months cumulative exposure, including the hottest and coldest months of the past year. Characteristics observed at intervals during that time include: visual appearance, direct and hemispherical transmittance, and mass. Degradation may be assessed from subsequent analysis (including yellowness index and cut-on frequency) relative to the ambient conditions present during field exposure. The fluorescence signature observed of all the silicone specimens is examined here, including possible factors of causation -- the platinum catalyst used in the addition cured materials as well as the primer used to promote adhesion to the quartz substrate and superstrate.

Miller, D. C.; Muller, M.; Kempe, M. D.; Araki, K.; Kennedy, C. E.; Kurtz, S. R.

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

Agricultural Research/October 19962 6 Agricultural Pests  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

are controlled effectively with minimal impact on people, nontarget species, and the environment. Pesticide Crop Production Recordkeeping System PPP-19 Annual Field Records PPP-20 Pesticides & Personal Safety Pesticide Programs JOE BECOVITZ Pesticide Investigator Office of the Indiana State Chemist ARLENE BLESSING

Liskiewicz, Maciej

263

The Potential Use of Summer Rainfall Enhancement in Illinois. Part I: A Field Experiment to Define Responses of Crop Yields to Increased Rainfall  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An assessment was made of factors affecting the use of cloud seeding to increase summer (June-August) rainfall for improved corn and soybean yields in Illinois. Crop yields from a five-year agricultural field experiment involving nine levels of ...

Stanley A. Changnon; Steven E. Hollinger

1993-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

Growing Energy Biomass crops as a  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

to provide our heat, electricity and liquid transport fuels. It is widely agreed that wind, wave, tidal carbon emissions set by the Kyoto Protocol are to be met. Biomass from crop plants can make an important of research activities aimed at the sustainable production of biomass from energy crops for heat and power

Rambaut, Andrew

265

Illinois biomass resources: annual crops and residues; canning and food-processing wastes. Preliminary assessment  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Illinois, a major agricultural and food-processing state, produces vast amounts of renewable plant material having potential for energy production. This biomass, in the form of annual crops, crop residues, and food-processing wastes, can be converted to alternative fuels (such as ethanol) and industrial chemicals (such as furfural, ethylene, and xylene). The present study provides a preliminary assessment of these Illinois biomass resources, including (a) an appraisal of the effects of their use on both agriculture and industry; (b) an analysis of biomass conversion systems; and (c) an environmental and economic evaluation of products that could be generated from biomass. It is estimated that, of the 39 x 10/sup 6/ tons of residues generated in 1978 in Illinois from seven main crops, about 85% was collectible. The thermal energy equivalent of this material is 658 x 10/sup 6/ Btu, or 0.66 quad. And by fermenting 10% of the corn grain grown in Illinois, some 323 million gallons of ethanol could have been produced in 1978. Another 3 million gallons of ethanol could have been produced in the same year from wastes generated by the state's food-processing establishments. Clearly, Illinois can strengthen its economy substantially by the development of industries that produce biomass-derived fuels and chemicals. In addition, a thorough evaluation should be made of the potential for using the state's less-exploitable land for the growing of additional biomass.

Antonopoulos, A A

1980-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

Development of Alternative and Durable High Performance Cathode Supports for PEM Fuel Cells  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Alternative and Durable High Alternative and Durable High Performance Cathode Supports for PEM Fuel Cells Development of Alternative and Durable High Development of Alternative and Durable High Performance Cathode Supports for PEM Fuel Cells Performance Cathode Supports for PEM Fuel Cells PNNL: Yong Wang Conrad Zhang Vilayanur Viswanath Yuehe Lin Jun Liu Project kick Project kick - - off meeting off meeting Feb 13 Feb 13 - - 14, 2007 14, 2007 Ballard Power Systems: Stephen Campbell University of Delaware: Jingguang Chen ORNL: Sheng Dai 2 Technical Issues and Objective Technical Issues and Objective Current technical issues z Carbon support „ Susceptible to oxidation under fuel cell operating conditions. „ Oxidation further catalyzed by Pt „ Corrosion leads to Pt migration and agglomeration

267

Durability of Low Pt Fuel Cells Operating at High Power Density  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

SPIRE Program Kickoff SPIRE Program Kickoff Topic 3A. Cell Degradation Studies / Degradation Studies Durability of Low Pt Fuel Cells Operating at High Power Density US DOE Fuel Cell Projects Kickoff Meeting DOE Award: DE-EE0000469 October 1 st , 2009 Program Objectives The objective of this program is to study and identify strategies to assure durability of fuel cells designed to meet DOE cost targets. Technical Barriers Barrier Approach Strategy A. Durability Reinforced, Stabilized Membrane MEA Partner Durability-Enhanced Electrodes Electrocatalyst/MEA Partner Optimized Operating Conditions Parametric model & experimental studies B. Cost Low Pt Loadings (0.2 mg/cm 2 ) Electrocatalyst/MEA Partner High Power Density (>1.0W/cm 2 ) Open Flowfield Stack Metallic Stack Architecture Incumbent Derivative

268

Monitoring the Durability Performance of Concrete in Nuclear Waste Containment. Technical Progress Report No. 3  

SciTech Connect

OAK-B135 Monitoring the Durability Performance of Concrete in Nuclear Waste Containment. Technical Progress Report No. 3(NOTE: Part II A item 1 indicates ''PAPER'', but a report is attached electronically)

Ulm, Franz-Josef

2000-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

269

State-of-the-Art Fuel Cell Voltage Durability Status: Spring 2013 Composite Data Products  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This presentation from the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory includes composite data products (CDPs) produced in 2013 for state-of-the-art fuel cell voltage durability status.

Kurtz, J.; Sprik, S.; Saur, G.; Peters, M.; Post, M.; Ainscough, C.

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

270

Hydrogen Learning Demonstration Project: Fuel Cell Efficiency and Initial Durability (Presentation)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This presentation by NREL's Keith Wipke at the 2006 Fuel Cell Seminar provides information about the Hydrogen Learning Demonstration Project, with a focus on fuel cell efficiency and durability.

Wipke, K.; Welch, C.; Thomas, H.; Sprik, S.; Gronich, S.; Garbak, J.

2006-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

271

Durable and Non-Toxic Topical Flame Retardants for Cotton and Cotton Blends.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Flame retardant chemicals were used as topical finishes on cotton and cotton blended fabric. Comparison of flame resistance and durability of non-bromine/non-antimony flame retardants were… (more)

Mathews, Marc Christopher

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

272

Short Rotation Crops in the United States  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

responders anticipated that energy will comprise 25% or less of the utilization of single-stem short-rotation woody crops between now and 2010. The only exception was a response from California where a substantial biomass energy market does currently exist. Willows (Salix species) are only being developed for energy and only in one part of the United States at present. Responses from herbaceous crop researchers suggested frustration that markets (including biomass energy markets) do not currently exist for the crop, and it was the perception of many that federal incentives will be needed to create such markets. In all crops, responses indicate that a wide variety of research and development activities are needed to enhance the yields and profitability of the crops. Ongoing research activities funded by the U.S. Department of Energy?s Bioenergy Feedstock Development Program are described in an appendix to the paper.

Wright, L.L.

1998-06-04T23:59:59.000Z

273

Program on Technology Innovation: Impact of Syngas on F-Class Turbine Component Durability  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This project simulated the potential impact of operating the most advanced F-class components with a syngas fuel mixture. The durability analysis of an F-Class 1st stage rotating gas turbine bucket, which features the most recent cooling and coating strategies used to protect the design from overheating during operation, indicated there is a potential to increase the firing temperature limits applied in these simulations, without significantly affecting the present durability limits of the 1st stage bucket.

2009-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

274

Rust disease continues to threaten California garlic crop  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

threaten California garlic crop Steven T. Koike u Richard F.severely damaged the garlic crop in Califor- nia. Thestudy, it infected allium crops such as gar- lic, onion and

Koike, Steven T.; Smith, Richard; Davis, R. Michael; Nunez, J. Joe; Voss, Ron E.

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

275

New crop coefficients developed for high-yield processing tomatoes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

after planting Fig. 2. Daily crop coefficients with daysFor all years, seasonal crop ETc ranged from 20.8 to 29.64. Relationship between average crop coefficient and canopy

Hanson, Blaine R.; May, Donald M.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

When crop transgenes wander in California, should we worry?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

modi?ed herbicide- tolerant crops. J Applied Ecol 40:2–16.No 421. Gressel J. 2005. Crop Ferality and Volunteerism.Can genetically engineered crops become weeds? Biotechnology

Ellstrand, Norman C.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

277

Weather-based yield forecasts developed for 12 California crops  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

precipitation on California crop yields. Climatic Change. InG. 1999. Understanding crop statis- tics. www.usda.gov/nass/developed for 12 California crops by David B. Lobell,

Lobell, David; Cahill, Kimberly Nicholas; Field, Christopher

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

278

Pharmaceutical crops have a mixed outlook in California  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

8:18–25. Ellstrand NC. 2006. When crop transgenes wander inM, Van Acker R. 2005. Can crop transgenes be kept on aEconomics of Pharmaceuti- cal Crops: Potential Bene?ts and

Marvier, Michelle

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

279

Buffers between grazing sheep and leafy crops augment food safety  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

sheep and the edge of a food crop was adequate to preventgrazing sheep and leafy crops augment food safety Thedomestic animals and the crop edge is adequate to minimize

Hoar, Bruce R; Atwill, Edward R; Carlton, Lesa; Celis, Jorge; Carabez, Jennifer; Nguyen, Tran

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

An Approach to Crop-Hail Insurance Rate Revision  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Hailstorms are meteorological events that have a considerably adverse impact on crop production. Variation of these events in time and space, in turn, influence crop-hail insurance rate structure. Crop-hail insurance companies normally review ...

J. C. Neill

1981-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "durables agricultural crop" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Water use of tall and dwarf crop plants  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

height in a spring wheat. Crop Science 34(No. 6); \\ i i *O F T A L L AND D W A R F CROP PLANTS By J . Giles Wainesbetween water application, crop yields, and management

Waines, J. Giles; Ehdaie, Bahman

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

282

Interdisciplinary Pest Management Potentials of Cover Cropping Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and D. R. Linden. 2004. Crop and soil productivity responseresistance in cowpea. Crop Science 40:611-618. Enache A. J.McGiffen. 2000. Cowpea cover crop mulch for weed control in

Bachie, Oli Gurmu

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

AGRICULTURAL VOL. 26 NO. 3  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. Ray Miller, MAES U.P. forest properties manager, recently added forest biomass development coordinator in Webberville. He and his team turn canola oil into biodiesel in small batches and are now testing the biofuel process canola oil into biodiesel that can be used to power farm equipment, offering farmers a cash crop

Liu, Taosheng

284

AGRICULTURAL VOL. 26 NO. 3  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in technologies to convert cellulose-based raw materials into biofuels or renewable energy standards that provide crops from the food supply to biofuel raw materials was responsi- ble for the huge increase. Or so to his myriad duties, in recognition of the growing importance of cellulose as a raw material

285

Evaluation of the Potential for Agricultural Development at the Hanford Site  

SciTech Connect

By 2050, when cleanup of the Hanford Site is expected to be completed, large worldwide demands to increase the global production of animal and fish protein, food, and fiber are anticipated, despite advancements in crop breeding, genetic engineering, and other technologies. The most likely large areas for expanded irrigation in the Pacific Northwest are the undeveloped East High areas of the Columbia Basin Project and non-restricted areas within the Hanford Site in south-central Washington State. The area known as the Hanford Site has all the components that favor successful irrigated farming. Constraints to agricultural development of the Hanford Site are political and social, not economic or technical. Obtaining adequate water rights for any irrigated development will be a major issue. Numerous anticipated future advances in irrigation and resource conservation techniques such as precision agriculture techniques, improved irrigation systems, and irrigation system controls will greatly minimize the negative environmental impacts of agricultural activities.

Evans, Robert G.; Hattendorf, Mary J.; Kincaid, Charles T.

2000-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

286

Relating United States crop land use to natural resources and climate change  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Crop production depends not only on the yield but also on the area harvested. The yield response to climate change has been widely examined, but the sensitivity of crop land use to hypothetical climate change has not been examined directly. Crop land-use regression models for estimating crop area indices (CAIs)-the percent of land used for corn, soybean, wheat, and sorghum production-are presented. Inputs to the models include available water-holding capacity of the soil, percent of land available for rain-fed agricultural production, annual precipitation, and annual temperature. The total variance of CAI explained by the models ranged from 78% from wheat to 87% for sorghum, and the root-mean-square errors ranged from 1.74% for sorghum to 4.24% for corn. The introduction of additional climatic variables to the models did not significantly improve their performance. The crop land-use models were used to predict the CAI for every crop reporting district in the United States for the current climatic condition and for possible future climate change scenarios (various combinations of temperature and precipitation changes over a range of -3{degrees} to +6{degrees}C and -20% to +20% respectively). The magnitude of climatic warming suggested by GCMs (GISS and GFDL) is from 3.5{degrees} to 5.9{degrees}C for regions of the United States. For this magnitude of warming, the model suggests corn and soybean production areas may decline while wheat and sorghum production areas may expand. If the warming is accompanied by a decrease in annual precipitation from 1% to 10%, then the areas used for corn and soybean production could decrease by as much as 20% and 40%, respectively. The area for sorghum and wheat under these conditions would increase by as much as 80% and 70%, respectively; the exact amount depending strongly on the change in precipitation. 15 refs., 6 figs.

Flores-Mendoza, F.J.; Hubbard, K.G. [Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE (United States)

1995-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

287

Nitrogen supply from fertilizer and legume cover crop in the transition to no-tillage for irrigated row crops  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

152–155 CTIC (2004) National crop residue management survey.15 labeled legume cover crop. Soil Sci Soc Am J 53:822–827fertilizer and legume cover crop in the transition to no-

Doane, Timothy A.; Horwath, William R.; Mitchell, Jeffrey P.; Jackson, Jim; Miyao, Gene; Brittan, Kent

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

288

Impacts of Global Change on Diseases of Agricultural Crops and Forest Trees  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Department of Plant Pathology, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506-5502, USA. 5 Natural Resources on Climate Change projects rising levels of greenhouse gas and global temperature. The well-known dependence on pathogens have recently been shown in literature linking pathogen abundance to atmospheric composition. Past

Garrett, Karen A.

289

Short Rotation Crops in the United States  

SciTech Connect

The report is based primarily on the results of survey questions sent to approximately 60 woody and 20 herbaceous crop researchers in the United States and on information from the U.S. Department of Energy?s Bioenergy Feedstock Development Program. Responses were received from 13 individuals involved in woody crops research or industrial commercialization (with 5 of the responses coming from industry). Responses were received from 11 individuals involved in herbaceous crop research. Opinions on market incentives, technical and non-technical barriers, and highest priority research and development areas are summarized in the text. Details on research activities of the survey responders are provided as appendices to the paper. Woody crops grown as single-stem systems (primarily Populus and Eucalyptus species) are perceived to have strong pulp fiber and oriented strand board markets, and the survey responders anticipated that energy will comprise 25% or less of the utilization of single-stem short-rotation woody crops between now and 2010. The only exception was a response from California where a substantial biomass energy market does currently exist. Willows (Salix species) are only being developed for energy and only in one part of the United States at present. Responses from herbaceous crop researchers suggested frustration that markets (including biomass energy markets) do not currently exist for the crop, and it was the perception of many that federal incentives will be needed to create such markets. In all crops, responses indicate that a wide variety of research and development activities are needed to enhance the yields and profitability of the crops. Ongoing research activities funded by the U.S. Department of Energy?s Bioenergy Feedstock Development Program are described in an appendix to the paper.

Wright, L.L.

1998-06-04T23:59:59.000Z

290

Agricultural and Biological Engineering College of Agricultural Sciences Cooperative Extension  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

that this trend will continue, especially if the prices for fossil fuels continue to increase. Other direct, and Pennsylvania Counties Cooperating Biomass Energy Dennis E. Buffington, Professor, Agricultural and Biological iomass energy is energy derived from organic matter of recent biological origin. Common forms of biomass

Lee, Dongwon

291

Bioenergy: What`s in it for the grower? The cost of producing dedicated energy crops. Comparisons with conventional crops  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Dedicated energy crops must be at least as profitable as conventional crops that could be grown on a given site before farmers will produce energy crops on that site. This report concentrates on the cost of producing dedicated energy crops and compare those costs to the profitability of conventional crops. This comparison allows one to estimate a breakeven price, that is, a price for which the profitability of dedicated energy crops is equivalent to the profitability of conventional crops. Switchgrass and hybrid poplar have been chosen as representative herbaceous and woody crop species for the estimation.

Walsh, M.

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

292

NREL Determines Better Testing Methods for Photovoltaic Module Durability (Fact Sheet), NREL Highlights, Research & Development  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

NREL discoveries will enable manufacturers to produce more robust photovoltaic modules. Over the past decade, some photovoltaic (PV) modules have experienced power losses because of the system voltage stress that modules experience in fielded arrays. This is partly because qualification tests and standards do not adequately evaluate the durability of modules that undergo the long-term effects of high voltage. Scientists at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) tried various testing methods and stress levels to demonstrate module durability to system voltage potential-induced degradation (PID) mechanisms. The results of these accelerated tests, along with outdoor testing, were used to estimate the acceleration factors needed to more accurately evaluate the durability of modules to system voltage stress. NREL was able to determine stress factors, levels, and methods for testing based on the stresses experienced by modules in the field. These results, in combination with those in the literature, suggest that constant stress with humidity and system voltage is more damaging than stress applied intermittently or with periods of recovery comprising hot and dry conditions or alternating bias in between. NREL has determined some module constructions to be extremely durable to PID. These findings will help the manufacturers of PV materials and components produce more durable products that better satisfy their customers. NREL determined that there is rapid degradation of some PV modules under system voltage stress and evaluated degradation rates in the field to develop more accurate accelerated testing methods. PV module manufacturers will be better able to choose robust materials and durable designs and guarantee sturdier, longer-lasting products. As PV modules become more durable, and thus more efficient over the long term, the risks and the cost of PV power will be reduced.

Not Available

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

293

Optimizing Crop Insurance under Climate Variability  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper studies the selection of optimal crop insurance under climate variability and fluctuating market prices. A model was designed to minimize farmers’ expected losses (including insurance costs) while using the conditional-value-at-risk ...

Juan Liu; Chunhua Men; Victor E. Cabrera; Stan Uryasev; Clyde W. Fraisse

2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

294

Cassava, a potential biofuel crop in China  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

as a biomass for biofuel production and some of its economiceconomic viability of biofuel production is the efficiencybiofuel; metabolic engineering; China Abstract Cassava is ranking as fifth among crops in global starch production.

Jansson, C.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

Biomass Energy and Agricultural Sustainability  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Biomass Energy and Agricultural Sustainability Stephen Kaffka Department of Plant Sciences University of California, Davis & California Biomass Collaborative February 2008 #12;E x p e c t e d d u r 9 ) ---------Biomass era----------- --?????????? #12;By 2025, every source of energy

California at Davis, University of

296

Conservation tillage and cover cropping influence soil properties in San Joaquin Valley cotton-tomato crop  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

2006 147 TREATMENTS CTCC: conservation tillage, covercrop CTNO: conservation tillage only STCC: standard tillage,1.24bc 1.35d * CTCC = conservation tillage, cover crop; CTNO

Veenstra, Jessica; Horwath, William; Mitchell, Jeffrey; Munk, Dan

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

297

Crop-Hail Damage in the Midwest Corn Belt  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Crop-hail damage in the ten Midwest corn belt states is examined during the period 1957–81. Estimates of crop losses due to hail are made from hail insurance data for each state and each significant crop in the region. The crop-hail losses are ...

Harry J. Hillaker Jr.; Paul J. Waite

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

298

DURABILITY EVALUATION AND PRODUCTION OF MANUFACTURED AGGREGATES FROM COAL COMBUSTION BY-PRODUCTS  

SciTech Connect

Under the cooperative agreement with DOE, the Research and Development Department of CONSOL Energy (CONSOL R&D), teamed with Universal Aggregates, LLC, to conduct a systematic study of the durability of aggregates manufactured using a variety of flue gas desulfurization (FGD), fluidized-bed combustion (FBC) and fly ash specimens with different chemical and physical properties and under different freeze/thaw, wet/dry and long-term natural weathering conditions. The objectives of the study are to establish the relationships among the durability and characteristics of FGD material, FBC ash and fly ash, and to identify the causes of durability problems, and, ultimately, to increase the utilization of FGD material, FBC ash and fly ash as a construction material. Manufactured aggregates made from FGD material, FBC ash and fly ash, and products made from those manufactured aggregates were used in the study. The project is divided into the following activities: sample collection and characterization; characterization and preparation of manufactured aggregates; determination of durability characteristics of manufactured aggregates; preparation and determination of durability characteristics of manufactured aggregate products; and data evaluation and reporting.

M. M. Wu

2005-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

299

Measurement of Exterior Foundation Insulation to Assess Durability in Energy-Saving Performance  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The foundation of a house is a sometimes ignored component of the building because of its low visibility. It is increasingly evident, however, that attention to good foundation design and construction significantly benefits the homeowner and the builder by mitigating future problems. Good foundation design and construction practice involves not only insulating to save energy but also providing effective structural design as well as moisture, termite, and radon control techniques as appropriate. Energy efficiency in housing is augmented by use of exterior slab and basement insulation, but high moisture content in the insulation material has led to concerns about its durability. The activity under this task was to extract six different exterior insulation systems that were characterized at installation and have been in the ground for 9 months to 15 years. R-value and moisture content were measured and inspections conducted for evidence of termite intrusion or deterioration. Based on the results, the durability of the various systems has been documented and assessments made of which systems appear to be best practice. Heat flux and temperature measurement data had been archived for some of the exterior insulation tests, thereby providing a unique opportunity to assess energy-saving performance and durability over the long term. The results show that the durability of foundation insulation systems depends on insulation type as well as on foundation type and local boundary conditions, the latter of which may have a marked influence on the durability of energy-saving performance.

Kehrer, Manfred [ORNL; Christian, Jeff [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

300

DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Record 5036a: Backup Reference for Fuel Cell Stack Durability  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Record Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Record Record #: 5036a Date: April 20, 2006 Title: Backup Reference - Fuel Cell Stack Durability - DOE Only Originator: Valri Lightner Approved by: Date: 2004 Cyclic Durability Status 2,800 h of cyclic durability achieved with less than 10% performance loss (at 600 mA/cm 2 ). [Medium acceleration]. 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 Current density (mA/cm2) Avg. Voltage (v) 1 Million Cycles BOL t=0 t=3000h 2005 Cyclic Durability Status 4,000 h of cyclic durability achieved with less than 10% performance loss (at 600 mA/cm 2 ). [High acceleration]. 0.000 0.100 0.200 0.300 0.400 0.500 0.600 0.700 0.800 0.900 1.000 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1100 Current density (mA/cm2) Avg. Voltage

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "durables agricultural crop" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Before the Senate Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry | Department...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry Before the Senate Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry Before the Senate Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry By: Richard Newell, Administrator...

302

Readers may make verbatim copies of this document for non-commercial purposes by any means, provided that this copyright notice appears on all such copies. Risk Sharing and Incentives with External Equity Financing and Crop Insurance  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Special Note: This paper is in the process of being revised for resubmission to the Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics and is far from complete. This version was prepared for the Applied Economics Seminar in the Department of Agricultural and Applied Economics at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. In particular, the conceptual model will change to include endogenization of crop acreage and the empirical section requires substantial updating. 1

Sangtaek Seo; Paul D. Mitchell; David J. Leatham; Copyright Sangtaek Seo; Paul D. Mitchell; Sangtaek Seo; Paul D. Mitchell; David J. Leatham

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

303

Economic Effect on Agricultural Production of Alternative Energy Input Prices: Texas High Plains  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Arab oil embargo of 1973 awakened the world to the reality of energy shortages and higher fuel prices. Agriculture in the United States is highly mechanized and thus energy intensive. This study seeks to develop an evaluative capability to readily determine the short-run effect of rising energy prices on agricultural production. The results are measured in terms of demand schedules for each input investigated, net revenue adjustments, cropping pattern shifts, and changes in agricultural output. The High Plains of Texas was selected as a study area due to the heterogeneous nature of agricultural production in the region and highly energy intensive methods of production employed. The region is associated with a diversity in crops and production practices as well as a high degree of mechanization and irrigation, which means agriculture is very dependent upon energy inputs and, in turn, is significantly affected by energy price changes. The study area was defined by the Texas Agricultural Extension subregions of High Plains II, High Plains III, and High Plains IV. The crops chosen for study were cotton, grain sorghum, wheat, corn, and soybeans. The energy and energy-related inputs under investigation were diesel, herbicide, natural gas, nitrogen fertilizer, and water. Mathematical linear programming was used as the analytical technique with parametric programming techniques incorporated into the LP model to evaluate effect of varying input price parameters over a specified range. Thus, demand schedules were estimated. The objective function was constructed using variable costs only; no fixed costs are considered. Therefore, the objective function maximizes net revenue above variable costs and thus limits the study to the short run. The data bases for the model were crop enterprise budgets developed by the Texas Agricultural Extension Service. These budgets were modified to adapt them to the study. Particularly important was the substitution of owner-operated harvesting equipment for custom-harvesting costs. This procedure made possible the delineation of fuel use by crop and production alternative which was necessary information in the accounting of costs. The completed LP model was applied to 16 alternative situations made up of various input and product price combinations which are considered as feasible in the short run future. The results reveal that diesel consumption would change very little in the short run unless commodity prices simultaneously decline below the lowest prices since 1971 or unless diesel price approaches $2.00 per gallon. Under average commodity price conditions, natural gas consumption would not decline appreciably until the price rose above $4.00 per 1000 cubic feet (mcf). Even when using the least product prices since 1971, natural gas would be consumed in substantial amounts as long as the price was below $1.28 per Mcf. The findings regarding nitrogen indicate that present nitrogen prices are within a critical range such that consumption would be immediately affected by nitrogen price increases. Water price was considered as the price a farmer can afford to pay for water above pumping and distribution costs. Application of water was defined as the price that would be paid for imported water. Under average commodity price conditions, the study results show that as water price rises from zero dollars to $22 per acre foot there would be less than a 4 percent reduction in consumption. However, as the price continues to rise, consumption would decline dramatically reaching zero at a water price of $71.75 per acre foot. This study indicates that rising input prices would cause acreage shifts from irrigated to dryland; however, with average commodity prices, these shifts do not occur until diesel reaches $2.69 per gallon, or natural gas sells for $1.92 per Mcf, or nitrogen price is $.41 per pound, or water price reaches $14.69 per acre foot. In general, the first crops that would shift out of production as energy input prices rise woul

Adams, B. M.; Lacewell, R. D.; Condra, G. D.

1976-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

304

DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Record 5036: Fuel Cell Stack Durability  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

6 Date: April 20, 2006 6 Date: April 20, 2006 Title: Fuel Cell Stack Durability Originator: Valri Lightner Approved by: JoAnn Milliken Date: May 22, 2006 Item: Over the past several years, the durability of the fuel cell stack has doubled. Supporting Information: Fuel cell and component developers, supported by the DOE program (through the FreedomCAR and Fuel Partnership, which includes DOE, USCAR, and the five major U.S. energy companies), have developed fuel cell components having improved performance and durability. These improvements have been demonstrated in fuel cell stacks built by industry having double the lifetime - from 1,000 hours to 2,000 hours over the past two years. These results have been independently verified by Ballard, a fuel cell developer/supplier

305

Advances in Understanding Durability of the Building Envelope | ornl.gov  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Advances in Understanding Durability of the Building Envelope: ORNL Advances in Understanding Durability of the Building Envelope: ORNL Research November 22, 2013 Figure 1. Installed wall site location in Syracuse, New York. Test walls were examined to determine the impact of increased airtightness, indoor moisture sources, the moisture capacity of materials in the wall cavity, the thermal resistance of continuous exterior insulation, and the amount of winter solar radiation. Photo courtesy Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Moisture, and its accompanying outriders - things like mold, corrosion, freeze damage, and decay - present powerful threats to the durability and long-term performance of a building envelope. Miscalculating the impact of environmental factors like rain, solar radiation, temperature, humidity, and indoor sources of moisture can cause significant damage to many types

306

Durability of a continuous strand mat polymeric composite for automotive structural applications  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A key unanswered question that must be addressed before polymeric composites will be widely used in automotive structural components is their durability. Major durability issues are the effects of cyclic loadings, creep, automotive environments, and low-energy impacts on dimensional stability, strength, and stiffness. The U.S. Department of Energy is sponsoring a project at Oak Ridge National Laboratory to address these issues and to develop, in cooperation with the Automotive Composites Consortium, experimentally based, durability driven, design guidelines. The initial reference material is an isocyanurate reinforced with a continuous strand, swirl glass mat. This paper describes the basic deformation and failure behavior of the reference material, and it presents test results illustrating the property degradations caused by loading, time, and environmental effects. The importance of characterizing and understanding damage and how it leads to failure is also discussed. The results presented are from the initial phases of an ongoing project. The ongoing effort and plans are briefly described.

Corum, J.M.; McCoy, H.E. Jr.; Ruggles, M.B.; Simpson, W.A. Jr.

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

307

New Accelerated Testing and Lifetime Modeling Methods Promise Faster Development of More Durable MEAs  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

For the successful commercialization of fuel cell technology, it is imperative that membrane electrode assembly (MEA) durability is understood and quantified. MEA lifetimes of 40,000 hours remain a key target for stationary power applications. Since it is impractical to wait 40,000 hours for durability results, it is critical to learn as much information as possible in as short a time period as possible to determine if an MEA sample will survive past its lifetime target. Consequently, 3M has utilized accelerated testing and statistical lifetime modeling tools to develop a methodology for evaluating MEA lifetime. Construction and implementation of a multi-cell test stand have allowed for multiple accelerated tests and stronger statistical data for learning about durability.

Pierpont, D. M.; Hicks, M. T.; Turner, P. L.; Watschke, T. M.

2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

Mixed hydrocarbon/fluoropolymer membrane/ionomer MEAs for durability studies  

SciTech Connect

The durability of polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells is a major barrier to the commercialization of these systems for stationary and transportation power applications. Commercial viability depends on improving the durability of the fuel cell components to increase the system reliability. The aim of this work is to separate ionomer degradation from membrane degradation via mixed membrane/ionomer MEA experiments. The challenges of mixed MEA fabrication due to the incompatibility of the membrane and the electrode are addressed. OCV accelerated testing experiment (AST) were performed. Development of in situ diagnostics and unique experiments to characterize the performance and properties of the ionomer in the electrode as a function of time is reported. These measurements, along with extensive ex situ and post-mortem characterization, can delineate the degradation mechanisms in order to develop more durable fuel cells and fuel cell components.

Li, Bo [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kim, Yu Seung [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mukundan, Rangachary [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Borup, Rodney L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wilson, Mahlon S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Welch, Cynthia [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Fenton, James [FLORIDA SOLAR ENERGY CENTER

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

309

Higher U.S. Crop Prices Trigger Little Area Expansion so Marginal Land for Biofuel Crops Is Limited  

SciTech Connect

By expanding energy biomass production on marginal lands that are not currently used for crops, food price increases and indirect climate change effects can be mitigated. Studies of the availability of marginal lands for dedicated bioenergy crops have focused on biophysical land traits, ignoring the human role in decisions to convert marginal land to bioenergy crops. Recent history offers insights about farmer willingness to put non-crop land into crop production. The 2006-09 leap in field crop prices and the attendant 64% gain in typical profitability led to only a 2% increase in crop planted area, mostly in the prairie states

Swinton, S.; Babcock, Bruce; James, Laura; Bandaru, Varaprasad

2011-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

310

Slide 1 of 19NCA -Agriculture with a California Focus Agriculture with a California  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Slide 1 of 19NCA - Agriculture with a California Focus Agriculture with a California Focus (NCA Draft Findings) Richard Grotjahn Professor of Climate Dynamics University of California, Davis 6 March 2013 #12;Slide 2 of 19NCA - Agriculture with a California Focus Authors of Chapter 6: Agriculture

Grotjahn, Richard

311

Research on Agricultural Information Service Platform Based on Information Technology  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

For exiting problems of information technology in agriculture, modern information technologies are used to make agricultural information service platform, which can integrate information resources, then agricultural network information service sharing ... Keywords: modern information technology, agricultural information, service platform

Zhang Yubin; Liu Zhiguo; Lin Lizhong

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

Comparative Advantage in Bangladesh Crop Production  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This study uses data from 1996/97 through 1998/99 to examine the relative efficiency of production of crops in Bangladesh and their comparative advantage in international trade as measured by net economic profitability (the profitability using economic, rather than financial costs and prices), and the domestic resource cost ratio, (the amount of value of non-tradable domestic resources used in production divided by the value of tradable products). The economic profitability analysis demonstrates that Bangladesh has a comparative advantage in domestic production of rice for import substitution. However, at the export parity price, economic profitability of rice is generally less than economic profitability of many non-rice crops, implying that Bangladesh has more profitable options other than production for rice export. Several non-cereal crops, including vegetables, potatoes and onions have financial and economic returns that are as high as or higher than those of High Yielding Variety (HYV) rice. The relatively minor role in cropping systems of these crops despite their higher returns, can largely be attributed to high price risks associated with marketing, suggesting the need for further development of agro-processing industries, rural infrastructure, and marketing networks. iii TABLE OF CONTENTS 1.

Quazi Shahabuddin; Paul Dorosh; Ashok Gulati; K. M. Rahman; M. K. Mujeri

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

The Potential for Pennsylvania Crops as Biofuels Higher energy costs over the past few years have created opportunities for the use of crops and crop residues  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Potential for Pennsylvania Crops as Biofuels Higher energy costs over the past few years have Potential for Pennsylvania Crops as Biofuels 2 Soybeans Soybean acreage is on the increase in Pennsylvania For more information about using Pennsylvania crops as biofuels, contact: GREG ROTH PROFESSOR OF AGRONOMY

Lee, Dongwon

314

Missouri Agricultural and Energy Saving Team - A Revolutionary...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Agricultural and Energy Saving Team - A Revolutionary Opportunity (MAESTRO) Missouri Agricultural and Energy Saving Team - A Revolutionary Opportunity (MAESTRO) Eligibility...

315

The Energy Crops Company | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Crops Company Crops Company Jump to: navigation, search Name The Energy Crops Company Place Cobham, United Kingdom Zip KT11 2LA Sector Biomass Product Distributor of pellets and installer of biomass heating equipment in Surrey, UK. Coordinates 41.739891°, -79.322189° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":41.739891,"lon":-79.322189,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

316

Top Crop Wind Farm | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Crop Wind Farm Crop Wind Farm Facility Top Crop Wind Farm Sector Wind energy Facility Type Commercial Scale Wind Facility Status In Service Owner Horizon-EDPR Developer Horizon-EDPR Location Grundy/Livingston/La Salle Counties IL Coordinates 41.159826°, -88.637381° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":41.159826,"lon":-88.637381,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

317

Signature Region of Interest using Auto cropping  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A new approach for signature region of interest pre-processing was presented. It used new auto cropping preparation on the basis of the image content, where the intensity value of pixel is the source of cropping. This approach provides both the possibility of improving the performance of security systems based on signature images, and also the ability to use only the region of interest of the used image to suit layout design of biometric systems. Underlying the approach is a novel segmentation method which identifies the exact region of foreground of signature for feature extraction usage. Evaluation results of this approach shows encouraging prospects by eliminating the need for false region isolating, reduces the time cost associated with signature false points detection, and addresses enhancement issues. A further contribution of this paper is an automated cropping stage in bio-secure based systems.

Al-Mahadeen, Bassam; AlTarawneh, Islam H

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

Economic and energetic evaluation of alcohol fuel production from agriculture: Yolo County, California  

SciTech Connect

This dissertation reviews the technical aspects of alcohol fuel production and consumption, examines the set of policy-related issues that affect both the private and the public sectors, and investigates the economic and energetic feasibility of small-scale on-farm production on a representative Sacramento Valley field and vegetable crop farm. Candidate feedstocks, including both starch and sugar-rich crops, are: barley, corn, fodder beet, grain sorghum, Jerusalem artichoke, sugar beet, sweet sorghum, tomatoes, and wheat. The leading fuel crops were found to be sweet sorghum, Jerusalem artichoke, corn, fodder beet, and grain sorghum in order of declining preference. With better than average crop yields and the current mix of financial incentives, the breakeven cost of alcohol fuel is $1.03 per gallon when diesel fuel and gasoline prices are $1.30 and $1.46, respectively. Without subsidy, the breakeven cost is $1.62 per gallon. An energy analysis was calculated for each of the feedstocks under consideration. With the exception of sweet sorghum, wheat, and barley, all feedstocks showed a negative net energy balance. The use of agricultural residues as a boiler fuel, however, made a significant difference in the overall energy balance. The role of government in energy policy is reviewed and typical policy instruments are discussed. Although on-farm alcohol fuel production is not currently economically competitive with gasoline and diesel fuel, technological innovation and the return of increasing petroleum prices could alter the situation.

Meo, M.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

Efficacy and Timing of Fungicides, Bactericides, and Biologicals for Decidous Tree Fruit, Nut, Strawberry, and Vine Crops  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Strawberry, and Vine Crops—2008 University of California —NUT, STRAWBERRY, AND VINE CROPS 2008 (Updated 2/19/08)crops .

Adaskaveg, Jim; Gubler, Doug; Michailides, Themis; Holtz, Brent

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

320

W.: Auto Cropping for Digital Photographs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this paper, we propose an effective approach to the nearly untouched problem, still photograph auto cropping, which is one of the important features to automatically enhance photographs. To obtain an optimal result, we first formulate auto cropping as an optimization problem by defining an energy function, which consists of three sub models: composition sub model, conservative sub model and penalty sub model. Then, particle swarm optimization (PSO) is employed to obtain the optimal solution by maximizing the objective function. Experimental results and user studies over hundreds of photographs show that the proposed approach is effective and accurate in most cases, and can be used in many practical multimedia applications. 1.

Mingju Zhang

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "durables agricultural crop" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Durability of polymer matrix composites for automotive structural applications: A state-of-the-art review  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A key unanswered question that must be addressed before polymeric composites will be widely used in automotive structural components is their known durability. Major durability issues are the effects that cyclic loadings, creep, automotive fluid environments, and low-energy impacts have on dimensional stability, strength, and stiffness throughout the required life of a composite component. This report reviews the current state of understanding in each of these areas. It also discusses the limited information that exists on one of the prime candidate materials for automotive structural applications--an isocyanurate reinforced with a continuous strand, swirl mat. Because of the key role that nondestructive evaluations must play in understanding damage development and progression, a chapter is included on ultrasonic techniques. A final chapter then gives conclusions and recommendations for research needed to resolve the various durability issues. These recommendations will help provide a sound basis for program planning for the Durability of Lightweight Composite Structures Project sponsored by the US Department of Energy in cooperation with the Automotive Composites Consortium of Chrysler, Ford, and General Motors.

Corum, J.M.; Simpson, W.A. Jr.; Sun, C.T.; Talreja, R.; Weitsman, Y.J.

1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

322

FUNDAMENTAL STUDIES OF THE DURABILITY OF MATERIALS FOR INTERCONNECTS IN SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This task involves theoretical analysis of possible alternative metallic interconnect schemes including: Ni and dispersion-strengthened Ni, low CTE alloys based on Fe-Ni (Invar), coatings to suppress evaporation, and incorporation of high conductivity paths. The most promising systems are being evaluated experimentally with regard to durability and oxide conductivity.

Hammer, J.; Laney, S.; Jackson, W.; Pettit, F.; Meier, J.; Dhanaraj, N.; Beuth, J.

2005-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

323

Method and apparatus for increasing the durability and yield of thin film photovoltaic devices  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Thin film photovoltaic cells having a pair of semiconductor layers between an opaque and a transparent electrical contact are manufactured in a method which includes the step of scanning one of the semiconductor layers to determine the location of any possible shorting defect. Upon the detection of such defect, the defect is eliminated to increase the durability and yield of the photovoltaic device.

Phillips, James E. (Newark, DE); Lasswell, Patrick G. (Newark, DE)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

324

SWAT UNGAUGED: HYDROLOGICAL BUDGET AND CROP YIELD PREDICTIONS IN THE UPPER MISSISSIPPI RIVER BASIN  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Physically based, distributed hydrologic models are increasingly used in assessments of water resources, best management practices, and climate and land use changes. Model performance evaluation in ungauged basins is an important research topic. In this study, we propose a framework for developing Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) input data, including hydrography, terrain, land use, soil, tile, weather, and management practices, for the Upper Mississippi River basin (UMRB). We also present a performance evaluation of SWAT hydrologic budget and crop yield simulations in the UMRB without calibration. The uncalibrated SWAT model ably predicts annual streamflow at 11 USGS gauges and crop yield at a four?digit hydrologic unit code (HUC) scale. For monthly streamflow simulation, the performance of SWAT is marginally poor compared with that of annual flow, which may be due to incomplete information about reservoirs and dams within the UMRB. Further validation shows that SWAT can predict base flow contribution ratio reasonably well. Compared with three calibrated SWAT models developed in previous studies of the entire UMRB, the uncalibrated SWAT model presented here can provide similar results. Overall, the SWAT model can provide satisfactory predictions on hydrologic budget and crop yield in the UMRB without calibration. The results emphasize the importance and prospects of using accurate spatial input data for the physically based SWAT model. This study also examines biofuel?biomass production by simulating all agricultural lands with switchgrass, producing satisfactory results in estimating biomass availability for biofuel production.

Srinivasan, Raghavan; Zhang, Xuesong; Arnold, J. G.

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

325

Impact of Climate Change on Irrigation Water Availability, Crop Water Requirements and Soil Salinity in the SJV, CA  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

NeSmith, 1991. Temperature and crop development, p.5–29. In:Using reference evapotranspiration and crop coefficientsto estimate crop evapotranspiration for agronomic crops,

Hopmans, Jan W; Maurer, Edwin P

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

326

Preplant 1,3-D treatments test well for perennial crop nurseries, but challenges remain  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

for 26-month June-budded crop if soil has been previouslyfruit and nut nursery crops in the United States. Outlooktest well for perennial crop nurseries, but challenges

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

327

Conventional and molecular assays aid diagnosis of crop diseases and fungicide resistance  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

orchards in California. Crop Protec Ma Z, Yoshimura MA,assays aid diagnosis of crop diseases and fungicidemonitor, diagnose and quantify crop pathogens. We have also

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

328

Integrated nutrient managment for sustainable production of sorghum-wheat crop sequeence  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Rhizosperic environment and crop productivity. A reviewpaol) is the most important crop sequence of India occupyingMore over sorghum-wheat crop sequence is an exhaustive

Bhale, Vilas Madhukar Dr.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

329

Pigeonpea genomics initiative (PGI): an international effort to improve crop productivity of pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan L.)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

effort to improve crop productivity of pigeonpea (CajanusMallikarjuna International Crops Research Institute for thean important food legume crop in the semi-arid regions of

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

330

OUTLOOK: Specialty crops and methyl bromide alternatives: Taking stock after 7 years  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

to Outlook Specialty crops and methyl bromide alternatives:Research Plant Pathologist, Crops Pathology and GeneticsS Jack Kelly Clark pecialty crop farms and nurseries in

Browne, Greg T

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

331

Weighing lysimeters aid study of water relations in tree and vine crops  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Ross D, Smith M. 1998. Crop evapotranspiration: Guidelinesfor computing crop water requirements. FAO Irrigation andJ, Trout T, et al. 2000. Crop coefficients for mature peach

Johnson, R. Scott; Williams, Larry E.; Ayars, James E.; Trout, Tom J.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

332

Effect of Organic Farming on Soil Fertility , Yield and Quality of Crops in the Tropics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

are the most essential crops in organic farming systems.Among the various vegetable crops grown in Kerala, cowpeahealth, yield, and quality of crops under organic farming.

Bhaskaran, Usha Pankajam; Krishna, Devi

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

333

Access to intellectual property is a major obstacle to developing transgenic horticultural crops  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

technologies for targeted crop applications in sub- Saharanof genetically engineered crop variet- ies — such as publictransgenic horticultural crops Gregory D. Graff Brian D.

Graff, Gregory D.; Wright, Brian D.; Bennett, Alan B.; Zilberman, David

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

334

Crop rotation and genetic resistance reduce risk of damage from Fusarium wilt in lettuce  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ReVIEW Article Crop rotation and genetic resistance reduceon lettuce, not on any other crops tested (Hubbard and Gerikapproach that includes crop rotation to reduce soil inoculum

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

Biomass crops can be used for biological disinfestation and remediation of soils and water  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

reduced feed intake. Biomass crop sustainability flexibilityEM, Davis RM. 2005. Mustard crops ineffective in soil-bornefor selective weed control. Crop Prot Ramirez-Villapudua J,

Stapleton, James J; Banuelos, Gary

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

336

Switchgrass is a promising, high-yielding crop for California biofuel  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

responses of switchgrass crops to nitrogen fertilizer haveproduction systems for biomass energy crops. Because it canas forage and as a biofuel crop, switchgrass may be well

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

337

Density derived estimates of standing crop and net primary production in the giant kelp Macrocystis pyrifera  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

estimates of standing crop and net primary production in thevariables of standing crop and net primary production (NPP)southern California. Standing crop was much more strongly

Reed, Daniel; Rassweiler, Andrew; Arkema, Katie

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

338

SOLERAS - Solar Controlled Environment Agriculture Project. Final report, Volume 1. Project summary  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A summary of the Solar Controlled Environment Agriculture Project is presented. The design of the greenhouses include transparent double pane glass roof with channels for fluid between the panes, inner pane tinted and double pane extruded acrylic aluminized mylar shade and diffuser. Solar energy technologies provide power for water desalination, for pumping irrigation water, and for cooling and heating the controlled environment space so that crops can grow in arid lands. The project is a joint effort between the United States and Saudi Arabia. (BCS)

Not Available

1985-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

339

Developing an Integrated Model Framework for the Assessment of Sustainable Agricultural Residue Removal Limits for Bioenergy Systems  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Agricultural residues have significant potential as a feedstock for bioenergy production, but removing these residues can have negative impacts on soil health. Models and datasets that can support decisions about sustainable agricultural residue removal are available; however, no tools currently exist capable of simultaneously addressing all environmental factors that can limit availability of residue. The VE-Suite model integration framework has been used to couple a set of environmental process models to support agricultural residue removal decisions. The RUSLE2, WEPS, and Soil Conditioning Index models have been integrated. A disparate set of databases providing the soils, climate, and management practice data required to run these models have also been integrated. The integrated system has been demonstrated for two example cases. First, an assessment using high spatial fidelity crop yield data has been run for a single farm. This analysis shows the significant variance in sustainably accessible residue across a single farm and crop year. A second example is an aggregate assessment of agricultural residues available in the state of Iowa. This implementation of the integrated systems model demonstrates the capability to run a vast range of scenarios required to represent a large geographic region.

David Muth, Jr.; Jared Abodeely; Richard Nelson; Douglas McCorkle; Joshua Koch; Kenneth Bryden

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

340

Estimating the Overall Impact of A Change in Agricultural Practices on Atmospheric CO2  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

the Overall Impact of A Change the Overall Impact of A Change In Agricultural Practices on Atmospheric CO 2 T.O. West (westto@ornl.gov; 865-574-7322) G. Marland (marlandgh@ornl.gov; 865-241-4850) Environmental Sciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory P.O. Box 2008 Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6335 Introduction One option for sequestering carbon in the terrestrial biosphere is to increase the carbon (C) stocks in agricultural soils. There is now an extensive literature on the amount of C that has been lost from soils as a consequence of humans disturbing natural ecosystems, and of the amount of C that might be returned to soils with improved management practices. Improvements in management practices could include efficient use of fertilizers and irrigation water, use of crop rotations, and changing from conventional tillage (CT) to conservation tillage

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "durables agricultural crop" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Optimal Operation of Large Agricultural Watersheds with Water Quality Restraints  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Improved technology is needed for use in properly managing large agricultural watersheds. Proper watershed management means selecting land uses that are appropriate for each subarea, using erosion control measures where necessary, and applying fertilizers at rates that maximize agricultural production without polluting the environment. Watershed runoff and industrial and municipal effluents pollute streams and reservoirs. Point source pollution (industries and municipalities) can be monitored. Nonpoint-source pollution (watersheds) is widely dispersed and not easily measured. Mathematical models are needed to predict nonpoint-source pollution as affected by watershed characteristics, land use, conservation practices, chemical fertilizers, and climatic variables. Routing models are needed to determine the quality of water as it flows from nonpoint sources through streams and valleys to rivers and large reservoirs. Models are also needed to determine optimal strategies for planning land use, conservation practices, and fertilizer application to maximize agricultural production subject to water quality constraints. Three of the most important agricultural pollutants are suspended sediment, phosphorus, and nitrogen. Robinson [1971] pointed out that sediment is the greatest pollutant of water in terms of volume. Sediment also transports other pollutants, like phosphorus and nitrogen. These two elements are principally involved in lake eutrophication. Frequently algae blooms develop in nutrient-laden water and cause it to have an off-taste and an unpleasant odor. The odor of decaying plants becomes offensive; fish are killed because of reduced dissolved oxygen in the water, and recreation is deterred. The objective of this research was to develop models for use in managing large agricultural watersheds to obtain maximum agricultural production and to maintain water quality standards. The models were designed to: 1. Simulate daily runoff, and sediment, phosphorus, and nitrogen yields from small watersheds (areas land owners and operators) for planning land use, fertilizer application, and conservation practices on subwatersheds. 4. Determine the optimal strategy for each subwatershed to maximize agricultural production for the entire watershed subject to water quality constraints. Generally, water-quality models are developed by adding chemical modeling components to existing runoff and sediment models because runoff and sediment provide transportation for chemicals. Several conceptual models for predicting chemical yields from small watersheds have been presented [Crawford and Donigian, 1973; Donigian and Crawford, 1976; Frere, et al., 1975; Hagin and Amberger, 1974; Kling, 1974; Johnson and Straub, 1971]. However, these models are not applicable to large watersheds because they have no routing mechanism. For this reason, runoff, sediment, and nutrient models were refined and developed here for application to large watersheds. Probably, the most widely used and accepted model for predicting runoff volume is the Soil Conservation Service (SCS) curve number system [U.S. Soil Conservation Service, 1972]. The SCS model was modified by adding a soil-moisture-index accounting procedure [Williams and Laseur, 1976]. The modified water yield model is considerably more accurate than the original SCS model. On a watershed near Riesel, Texas, the modified model explained 95% of the variation in monthly runoff as compared with 65% for the original model. The water-yield model was refined here by replacing the climatic index (lake evaporation) with daily consumptive water use for individual crops.

Williams, J. R.; Hann, R. W.

1978-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

342

Improving the Way We Harvest & Deliver Biofuels Crops | Department...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Improving the Way We Harvest & Deliver Biofuels Crops Improving the Way We Harvest & Deliver Biofuels Crops May 24, 2013 - 9:40am Addthis The self-propelled baler collects and...

343

D1 Fuel Crops Ltd | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

D1 Fuel Crops Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name D1 Fuel Crops Ltd Place London, United Kingdom Zip SE1 2RE Product London-based JV between BP and D1 oils focusing on the...

344

Contemporary and historical classification of crop types in Arizona  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This research compares three different classification algorithms for mapping crops in Pinal County, Arizona, using both present and historical image data. The study area lacked past crop maps, and farmers were dealing with the risk of evolution of resistance ...

KyleA. Hartfield, StuartE. Marsh, ChristaD. Kirk, Yves Carrière

2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

A Century of Monitoring Weather and Crops: The Weekly Weather and Crop Bulletin  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Publication of a national weekly weather summary called the Weekly Weather Chronicle began in 1872. This summary was the precursor of today's Weekly Weather and Crop Bulletin (WWCB), a publication that reports global weather and climate ...

Thomas R. Heddinghaus; Douglas M. Le Comte

1992-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

346

Flue Gas Desulfurization Gypsum Agricultural Network  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Research on flue gas desulfurization gypsum (FGDG) has been conducted under the auspices of the Flue Gas Desulfurization Gypsum Agricultural Network program sponsored by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) in collaboration with individual utilities, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, U.S. Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service, and universities. This report describes work conducted in northwestern New Mexico in 2008–2012 as part of that effort. Two separate ...

2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

347

Pharmaceutical crops have a mixed outlook in California  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

crops have a mixed outlook in California by Michelle Marvieras environmental harm. The outlook for the production of

Marvier, Michelle

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

348

Agricultural Lighting and Equipment Rebate Program (Vermont)...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

with form History Share this page on Facebook icon Twitter icon Agricultural Lighting and Equipment Rebate Program (Vermont) This is the approved revision of this page, as...

349

Integrated Ingredients Dehydrated Agricultural Drying Low Temperature...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Login | Sign Up Search Page Edit with form History Facebook icon Twitter icon Integrated Ingredients Dehydrated Agricultural Drying Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump...

350

AGRICULTURAL REPORT SPECIAL ISSUE, JULY 2008  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. Secure America's energy future through renewable biofuels 5. Mitigate and adapt agriculture to variations will harvestprocessor will harvest and process theand process the product for wholesaleproduct for wholesale

351

Geothermal Food Processors Agricultural Drying Low Temperature...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Login | Sign Up Search Page Edit with form History Facebook icon Twitter icon Geothermal Food Processors Agricultural Drying Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to:...

352

Estimating Mitigation Potential of Agricultural Projects: an...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Tool (EX-ACT) Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Brazil-Estimating Mitigation Potential of Agricultural Projects: an Application of the...

353

Bioenergy development from agricultural waste on Northern ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Summary This project will convert agricultural waste, including food waste, rice straw, and other organic farm waste to bioethanol through bacterial ...

2011-08-02T23:59:59.000Z

354

Agricultural Improvement Loan Program (Minnesota) | Open Energy...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Loan Program Applicable Sector Agricultural Eligible Technologies Anaerobic Digestion, Biomass, Wind Active Incentive Yes Implementing Sector StateTerritory Energy Category...

355

Growth Through Agriculture (GTA) Program (Montana) | Department...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

policies and priorities, and awarding loans or grants that have a short-term or long-term ability to stimulate agriculture development and diversification in rural, urban,...

356

Microscopic Analysis of Agriculture Products, 4th EditionChapter 7 Weed Seeds of Agricultural Importance  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Microscopic Analysis of Agriculture Products, 4th Edition Chapter 7 Weed Seeds of Agricultural Importance Methods and Analyses eChapters Methods - Analyses Books Press Downloadable pdf of Chapter 7 Weed Seeds of A

357

Microscopic Analysis of Agriculture Products, 4th EditionChapter 8 Minerals of Agricultural Importance  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Microscopic Analysis of Agriculture Products, 4th Edition Chapter 8 Minerals of Agricultural Importance Methods and Analyses eChapters Methods - Analyses Books Press Downloadable pdf of Chapter 8 Minerals of Agric

358

CliCrop: a Crop Water-Stress and Irrigation Demand Model for an Integrated Global Assessment Model Approach  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper describes the use of the CliCrop model in the context of climate change general assessment

Fant, C.A.

359

List of Agricultural Equipment Incentives | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Agricultural Equipment Incentives Agricultural Equipment Incentives Jump to: navigation, search The following contains the list of 90 Agricultural Equipment Incentives. CSV (rows 1 - 90) Incentive Incentive Type Place Applicable Sector Eligible Technologies Active Agricultural Energy Efficiency Program (New York) State Rebate Program New York Agricultural Agricultural Equipment Boilers Chillers Custom/Others pending approval Dishwasher Furnaces Heat pumps Heat recovery Lighting Lighting Controls/Sensors Motor VFDs Motors Water Heaters Commercial Cooking Equipment Commercial Refrigeration Equipment Food Service Equipment Yes Agricultural Lighting and Equipment Rebate Program (Vermont) State Rebate Program Vermont Agricultural Agricultural Equipment Custom/Others pending approval Lighting

360

Carbon and Nitrogen Dynamics in Agricultural Soils  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Carbon and Nitrogen Dynamics in Agricultural Soils Model Applications at Different Scales in Time Print: SLU Service/Repro, Uppsala 2012 #12;Carbon and Nitrogen Dynamics in Agricultural Soils. Model Applications at Different Scales in Time and Space Abstract An understanding of soil organic carbon (C

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "durables agricultural crop" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Agricultural Trade Liberalization and Poverty in Brazil  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

agricultural research centers that receive principal funding from governments, private foundations, and international and regional organizations, most of which are members of the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR). FINANCIAL CONTRIBUTORS AND PARTNERS IFPRI’s research, capacity strengthening, and communications work is made possible by its financial contributors and partners. IFPRI gratefully acknowledges generous unrestricted funding from Australia,

Joachim Bento; Souza Ferreira Filho; Joaquim Bento; Souza Ferreira Filho

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

362

Effect of System and Air Contaminants on PEMFC Performance and Durability  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Dinh Dinh (PI) National Renewable Energy Laboratory October 1, 2009 Effect of System and Air Contaminants on PEMFC Performance and Durability This presentation does not contain any proprietary, confidential, or otherwise restricted information Objectives To assist the DOE Fuel Cell Technologies (FCT) Program in meeting cost, durability, and performance targets in the areas of fuel cell systems. The effort is focused on system-derived contaminants, but has a small component addressing "gaps" in the area of air contaminants. Premise System-derived contaminants can have negative effect on fuel cell performance. Current density (A/cm 2 ) 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 g ( SHE ) Average cell voltage after air oxidation exposure Average cell voltage as measured in vehicle

363

ADVANCED COMPOSITE WIND TURBINE BLADE DESIGN BASED ON DURABILITY AND DAMAGE TOLERANCE  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The objective of the program was to demonstrate and verify Certification-by-Analysis (CBA) capability for wind turbine blades made from advanced lightweight composite materials. The approach integrated durability and damage tolerance analysis with robust design and virtual testing capabilities to deliver superior, durable, low weight, low cost, long life, and reliable wind blade design. The GENOA durability and life prediction software suite was be used as the primary simulation tool. First, a micromechanics-based computational approach was used to assess the durability of composite laminates with ply drop features commonly used in wind turbine applications. Ply drops occur in composite joints and closures of wind turbine blades to reduce skin thicknesses along the blade span. They increase localized stress concentration, which may cause premature delamination failure in composite and reduced fatigue service life. Durability and damage tolerance (D&DT) were evaluated utilizing a multi-scale micro-macro progressive failure analysis (PFA) technique. PFA is finite element based and is capable of detecting all stages of material damage including initiation and propagation of delamination. It assesses multiple failure criteria and includes the effects of manufacturing anomalies (i.e., void, fiber waviness). Two different approaches have been used within PFA. The first approach is Virtual Crack Closure Technique (VCCT) PFA while the second one is strength-based. Constituent stiffness and strength properties for glass and carbon based material systems were reverse engineered for use in D&DT evaluation of coupons with ply drops under static loading. Lamina and laminate properties calculated using manufacturing and composite architecture details matched closely published test data. Similarly, resin properties were determined for fatigue life calculation. The simulation not only reproduced static strength and fatigue life as observed in the test, it also showed composite damage and fracture modes that resemble those reported in the tests. The results show that computational simulation can be relied on to enhance the design of tapered composite structures such as the ones used in turbine wind blades. A computational simulation for durability, damage tolerance (D&DT) and reliability of composite wind turbine blade structures in presence of uncertainties in material properties was performed. A composite turbine blade was first assessed with finite element based multi-scale progressive failure analysis to determine failure modes and locations as well as the fracture load. D&DT analyses were then validated with static test performed at Sandia National Laboratories. The work was followed by detailed weight analysis to identify contribution of various materials to the overall weight of the blade. The methodology ensured that certain types of failure modes, such as delamination progression, are contained to reduce risk to the structure. Probabilistic analysis indicated that composite shear strength has a great influence on the blade ultimate load under static loading. Weight was reduced by 12% with robust design without loss in reliability or D&DT. Structural benefits obtained with the use of enhanced matrix properties through nanoparticles infusion were also assessed. Thin unidirectional fiberglass layers enriched with silica nanoparticles were applied to the outer surfaces of a wind blade to improve its overall structural performance and durability. The wind blade was a 9-meter prototype structure manufactured and tested subject to three saddle static loading at Sandia National Laboratory (SNL). The blade manufacturing did not include the use of any nano-material. With silica nanoparticles in glass composite applied to the exterior surfaces of the blade, the durability and damage tolerance (D&DT) results from multi-scale PFA showed an increase in ultimate load of the blade by 9.2% as compared to baseline structural performance (without nano). The use of nanoparticles lead to a delay in the onset of delamination. Load-displacement relati

Galib Abumeri; Frank Abdi (PhD)

2012-02-16T23:59:59.000Z

364

Durable regenerable sorbent pellets for removal of hydrogen sulfide from coal gas  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Pellets for removing hydrogen sulfide from a coal gasification stream at an elevated temperature are presented in durable form, usable over repeated cycles of absorption and regeneration. The pellets include a material reactive with hydrogen sulfide, in particular zinc oxide, a binder, and an inert material, in particular calcium sulfate (Drierite), having a particle size substantially larger than other components of the pellets. A second inert material and a promoter may also be included. Preparation of the pellets may be carried out by dry, solid-state mixing of components, moistening the mixture, and agglomerating it into pellets, followed by drying and calcining. Pellet size is selected, depending on the type of reaction bed for which the pellets are intended. The use of inert material with a large particle size provides a stable pellet structure with increased porosity, enabling effective gas contact and prolonged mechanical durability.

Siriwardane, R.V.

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

365

Durable regenerable sorbent pellets for removal of hydrogen sulfide from coal gas  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Pellets for removing hydrogen sulfide from a coal gasification stream at an elevated temperature are prepared in durable form usable over repeated cycles of absorption and regeneration. The pellets include a material reactive with hydrogen sulfide, in particular zinc oxide, a binder, and an inert material, in particular calcium sulfate (drierite), having a particle size substantially larger than other components of the pellets. A second inert material and a promoter may also be included. Preparation of the pellets may be carried out by dry, solid-state mixing of components, moistening the mixture, and agglomerating it into pellets, followed by drying and calcining. Pellet size is selected, depending on the type of reaction bed for which the pellets are intended. The use of inert material with a large particle size provides a stable pellet structure with increased porosity, enabling effective gas contact and prolonged mechanical durability.

Siriwardane, Ranjani V. (Morgantown, WV)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

Durable regenerable sorbent pellets for removal of hydrogen sulfide coal gas  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Pellets for removing hydrogen sulfide from a coal gasification stream at an elevated temperature are prepared in durable form, usable over repeated cycles of absorption and regeneration. The pellets include a material reactive with hydrogen sulfide, in particular zinc oxide, a binder, and an inert material, in particular calcium sulfate (drierite), having a particle size substantially larger than other components of the pellets. A second inert material and a promoter may also be included. Preparation of the pellets may be carried out by dry, solid-state mixing of components, moistening the mixture, and agglomerating it into pellets, followed by drying and calcining. Pellet size is selected, depending on the type of reaction bed for which the pellets are intended. The use of inert material with a large particle size provides a stable pellet structure with increased porosity, enabling effective gas contact and prolonged mechanical durability.

Siriwardane, Ranjani V. (Morgantown, WV)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

367

Agricultural pathogen decontamination technology-reducing the threat of infectious agent spread.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Outbreaks of infectious agricultural diseases, whether natural occurring or introduced intentionally, could have catastrophic impacts on the U.S. economy. Examples of such agricultural pathogens include foot and mouth disease (FMD), avian influenza (AI), citrus canker, wheat and soy rust, etc. Current approaches to mitigate the spread of agricultural pathogens include quarantine, development of vaccines for animal diseases, and development of pathogen resistant crop strains in the case of plant diseases. None of these approaches is rapid, and none address the potential persistence of the pathogen in the environment, which could lead to further spread of the agent and damage after quarantine is lifted. Pathogen spread in agricultural environments commonly occurs via transfer on agricultural equipment (transportation trailers, tractors, trucks, combines, etc.), having components made from a broad range of materials (galvanized and painted steel, rubber tires, glass and Plexiglas shields, etc), and under conditions of heavy organic load (mud, soil, feces, litter, etc). A key element of stemming the spread of an outbreak is to ensure complete inactivation of the pathogens in the agricultural environment and on the equipment used in those environments. Through the combination of enhanced agricultural pathogen decontamination chemistry and a validated inactivation verification methodology, important technologies for incorporation as components of a robust response capability will be enabled. Because of the potentially devastating economic impact that could result from the spread of infectious agricultural diseases, the proposed capability components will promote critical infrastructure protection and greater border and food supply security. We investigated and developed agricultural pathogen decontamination technologies to reduce the threat of infectious-agent spread, and thus enhance agricultural biosecurity. Specifically, enhanced detergency versions of the patented Sandia decontamination chemistry were developed and tested against a few surrogate pathogens under conditions of relatively heavy organic load. Tests were conducted on surfaces commonly found in agricultural environments. Wide spectrum decontamination efficacy, low corrosivity, and biodegradability issues were addressed in developing an enhanced detergency formulation. A method for rapid assessment of loss of pathogenic activity (inactivation) was also assessed. This enhanced technology will enable rapid assessment of contamination following an intentional event, and will also be extremely useful in routine assessment of agricultural environments. The primary effort during the second year was progress towards a demonstration of both decontamination and viral inactivation technologies of Foot and Mouth virus (FMDv) using the modified SNL chemistry developed through this project. Lab studies using a surrogate virus (bovine enterovirus) were conducted using DF200, modified DF200 chemistry, and decontaminants currently recommended for use in heavily loaded organic, agricultural environments (VirkonS, 10% bleach, sodium hydroxide and citric acid). Tests using actual FMD virus will be performed at the Department of Homeland Security's Plum Island facilities in the fall of 2005. Success and the insight gained from this project will lead to enhanced response capability, which will benefit agencies such as USDA, DHS, DOD, and the agricultural industry.

Betty, Rita G.; Bieker, Jill Marie; Tucker, Mark David

2005-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

Crop Damage: The Hail Size Factor  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Between 1986 and 1992 a research project was developed and carried out on hail climatology and the economic repercussions of hail on agriculture in León (northwestern Spain). A target area with an extent of 6825 km2 was defined, within which a ...

J. L. Sánchez; R. Fraile; J. L. de la Madrid; M. T. de la Fuente; P. Rodríguez; A. Castro

1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

369

Durability and reliability of solar domestic hot water heaters: Survey results. Final report, Part 1  

SciTech Connect

An unresolved barrier for consumer acceptance of SDWH systems is the perception that they are unreliable and that their service life is significantly less than that claimed by the manufacturers/dealers. A comprehensive survey was developed to identify and define the relevant durability and reliability issues that affect the long term performance of SDWH systems. The survey was directed towards installers and service contractors with significant field experience.

Ramirez-Vargas, R.; Whitfield, K. [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States); Hicks, B.; Wood, B.D. [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States)

1998-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

370

Durability-Based Design Criteria for a Quasi-Isotropic Carbon-Fiber Automotive Composite  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report provides recommended durability-based design properties and criteria for a quasi-isotropic carbon-fiber composite for possible automotive structural applications. The composite, which was made by a rapid molding process suitable for high-volume automotive applications, consisted of continuous Thornel T300 fibers (6K tow) in a Baydur 420 IMR urethane matrix. The reinforcement was in the form of four {+-}45{sup o} stitch-bonded mats in the following layup: [0/90{sup o}/{+-}45{sup o}]{sub S}. This material is the second in a progression of three candidate thermoset composites to be characterized and modeled as part of an Oak Ridge National Laboratory project entitled Durability of Carbon-Fiber Composites. The overall goal of the project, which is sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Advanced Automotive Technologies and is closely coordinated with the industry Automotive Composites Consortium, is to develop durability-driven design data and criteria to assure the long-term integrity of carbon-fiber-based composite systems for large automotive structural components. This document is in two parts. Part I provides the design criteria, and Part 2 provides the underlying experimental data and models. The durability issues addressed include the effects on deformation, strength, and stiffness of cyclic and sustained loads, operating temperature, automotive fluid environments, and low-energy impacts (e.g., tool drops and kickups of roadway debris). Guidance is provided for design analysis, time-dependent allowable stresses, rules for cyclic loadings, and damage tolerance design guidance, including the effects of holes. Chapter 6 provides a brief summary of the design criteria.

Corum, J.M.

2002-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

371

Method and apparatus for increasing the durability and yield of thin film photovoltaic devices  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Thin film photovoltaic cells having a pair of semiconductor layers between an opaque and a transparent electrical contact are manufactured in a method which includes the step of scanning one of the semiconductor layers to determine the location of any possible shorting defect. Upon the detection of such defect, the defect is eliminated to increase the durability and yield of the photovoltaic device. 10 figs.

Phillips, J.E.; Lasswell, P.G.

1987-02-03T23:59:59.000Z

372

Durability of Poly(Methyl Methacrylate) Lenses Used in Concentrating Photovoltaic Technology (Revised) (Presentation)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Concentrating photovoltaic (CPV) technology recently gained interest based on its expected low levelized cost of electricity, high efficiency, and scalability. Many CPV systems employ Fresnel lenses composed of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) to obtain a high optical flux density on the cell. The optical and mechanical durability of these lenses, however, is not well established relative to the desired surface life of 30 years. Our research aims to quantify the expected lifetime of PMMA in key market locations (FL, AZ, and CO).

Miller, D. C.; Carloni, J. D.; Pankow, J. W.; Gjersing, E. L.; To, B.; Packard, C. E.; Kennedy, C. E.; Kurtz, S. R.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

373

Method of immobilizing weapons plutonium to provide a durable, disposable waste product  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of atomic scale fixation and immobilization of plutonium to provide a durable waste product. Plutonium is provided in the form of either PuO.sub.2 or Pu(NO.sub.3).sub.4 and is mixed with and SiO.sub.2. The resulting mixture is cold pressed and then heated under pressure to form (Zr,Pu)SiO.sub.4 as the waste product.

Ewing, Rodney C. (Albuquerque, NM); Lutze, Werner (Albuquerque, NM); Weber, William J. (Richland, WA)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

Gaze-Based Interaction for Semi-Automatic Photo Cropping  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present an interactive method for cropping photographs given minimal information about the location of important content, provided by eye tracking. Cropping is formulated in a general optimization framework that facilitates adding new composition rules, as well as adapting the system to particular applications. Our system uses fixation data to identify important content and compute the best crop for any given aspect ratio or size, enabling applications such as automatic snapshot recomposition, adaptive documents, and thumbnailing. We validate our approach with studies in which users compare our crops to ones produced by hand and by a completely automatic approach. Experiments show that viewers prefer our gaze-based crops to uncropped images and fully automatic crops. Author Keywords cropping, photography, composition, evaluation, eye tracking, visual perception

Anthony Santella; Maneesh Agrawala; Doug Decarlo; David Salesin; Michael Cohen

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

375

International Crops Research Institute for the Semi Arid Tropics | Open  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Crops Research Institute for the Semi Arid Tropics Crops Research Institute for the Semi Arid Tropics Jump to: navigation, search Name International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics Place India Sector Biofuels Product Biofuels ( Academic / Research foundation ) References International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics is a company located in India . References ↑ "International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics" Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=International_Crops_Research_Institute_for_the_Semi_Arid_Tropics&oldid=347036

376

Improving Biomass Yields: High Biomass, Low Input Dedicated Energy Crops to Enable a Full Scale Bioenergy Industry  

SciTech Connect

Broad Funding Opportunity Announcement Project: Ceres is developing bigger and better grasses for use in biofuels. The bigger the grass yield, the more biomass, and more biomass means more biofuel per acre. Using biotechnology, Ceres is developing grasses that will grow bigger with less fertilizer than current grass varieties. Hardier, higher-yielding grass also requires less land to grow and can be planted in areas where other crops can’t grow instead of in prime agricultural land. Ceres is conducting multi-year trials in Arizona, Texas, Tennessee, and Georgia which have already resulted in grass yields with as much as 50% more biomass than yields from current grass varieties.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

377

Primer on Durability of Nuclear Power Plant Reinforced Concrete Structures - A Review of Pertinent Factors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The objective of this study was to provide a primer on the environmental effects that can affect the durability of nuclear power plant concrete structures. As concrete ages, changes in its properties will occur as a result of continuing microstructural changes (i.e., slow hydration, crystallization of amorphous constituents, and reactions between cement paste and aggregates), as well as environmental influences. These changes do not have to be detrimental to the point that concrete will not be able to meet its performance requirements. Concrete, however, can suffer undesirable changes with time because of improper specifications, a violation of specifications, or adverse performance of its cement paste matrix or aggregate constituents under either physical or chemical attack. Contained in this report is a discussion on concrete durability and the relationship between durability and performance, a review of the historical perspective related to concrete and longevity, a description of the basic materials that comprise reinforced concrete, and information on the environmental factors that can affect the performance of nuclear power plant concrete structures. Commentary is provided on the importance of an aging management program.

Naus, Dan J [ORNL

2007-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

378

Volvo Penta 4.3 GL E15 Emissions and Durability Test  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A new Volvo Penta carbureted 4.3 GL engine underwent emissions and dynamometer durability testing from break-in to expected end of life using an accelerated ICOMIA marine emissions cycle and E15 fuel. Only ethanol content was controlled. All aging used splash-blended E15 fuel. Exhaust emissions, exhaust gas temperature, torque, power, barometric pressure, air temperature, and fuel flow were measured at five intervals using site-blended E15 aging fuel and certification fuel (E0). The durability test cycle showed no noticeable impact on mechanical durability or engine power. Emissions performance degraded beyond the certification limit for this engine family, mostly occurring by 28% of expected life. Such degradation is inconsistent with prior experience. Comparisons showed that E15 resulted in lower CO and HC, but increased NOX, as expected for non-feedback-controlled carbureted engines with increased oxygen in the fuel. Fuel consumption also increased with E15 compared with E0. Throughout testing, poor starting characteristics were exhibited on E15 fuel for hot re-start and cold-start. Cranking time to start and smooth idle was roughly doubled compared with typical E0 operation. The carburetor was factory-set for lean operation to ensure emissions compliance. Test protocols did not include carburetor adjustment to account for increased oxygen in the E15 fuel.

Zoubul, G.; Cahoon, M.; Kolb, R.

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

379

National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Reports Increase in Durability and Reliability for Current Generation Fuel Cell Buses (Fact Sheet)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This fact sheet describes NREL's accomplishments in evaluating the durability and reliability of fuel cell buses being demonstrated in transit service. Work was performed by the Hydrogen Technology Validation team in the Hydrogen Technologies and Systems Center.

Not Available

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

380

Review: Balancing Limiting Factors and Economic Drivers to Achieve Sustainable Midwestern US Agricultural Residue Feedstock Supplies  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Advanced biofuels will be developed using cellulosic feedstock rather than grain or oilseed crops that can also be used for food and feed. To be sustainable, these new agronomic production systems must be economically viable without degrading soil resources. This review examines six agronomic factors that collectively define many of the limits and opportunities for harvesting crop residue for biofuel feedstock. These six “limiting factors” are discussed in relationship to economic drivers associated with harvesting corn (Zea mays L.) stover as a potential cellulosic feedstock. The limiting factors include soil organic carbon, wind and water erosion, plant nutrient balance, soil water and temperature dynamics, soil compaction, and off-site environmental impacts. Initial evaluations using the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation 2.0 (RUSLE2) show that a single factor analysis based on simply meeting tolerable soil loss might indicate stover could be harvested sustainably, but the same analysis based on maintaining soil organic carbon shows the practice to be non-sustainable. Modifying agricultural management to include either annual or perennial cover crops is shown to meet both soil erosion and soil carbon requirements. The importance of achieving high yields and planning in a holistic manner at the landscape scale are also shown to be crucial for balancing limitations and drivers associated with renewable bioenergy production.

Wally W. Wilhelm; J. Richard Hess; Douglas L. Karlen; David J. Muth; Jane M. F. Johnson; John M. Baker; Hero T. Gollany; Jeff M. Novak; Diane E. Stott; Gary E. Varvel

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "durables agricultural crop" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

A national research & development strategy for biomass crop feedstocks  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Planning was initiated in 1996 with the objective of reevaluating current biomass feedstock research and development strategies to: (1) assure that by 2005, one or more commercial lignocellulosic to ethanol projects will be able to acquire a dependable supply of biomass crop feedstocks; (2) assure that recently initiated demonstrations of crops to electricity will be successful and; (3) assure that the research base needed to support future biomass industry expansion is being developed. Multiple trends and analyses indicate that biomass energy research and development strategies must take into account the fact that competition for land will define the upper limits of available biomass energy crop supplies and will largely dictate the price of those supplies. Only crop production and utilization strategies which contribute profit to the farmer or landowner and to energy producers will be used commercially for biomass energy production. Strategies for developing biomass {open_quotes}energy{close_quotes} crop supplies must take into consideration all of the methods by which biomass crops will enter biomass energy markets. The lignocellulosic materials derived from crops can be available as primary residues or crop by-products; secondary residues or processing by-products; co-products (at both the crop production and processing stages); or, as dedicated energy crops. Basic research and development (R&D) leading to yield improvement continues to be recommended as a major long-term focus for dedicated energy crops. Many additional near term topics need attention, some of which are also applicable to by-products and co-products. Switchgrass R&D should be expanded and developed with greater collaboration of USDA and state extension groups. Woody crop research should continue with significant cost-share from industries developing the crops for other commercial products. Co-product options need more investigation.

Wright, L.L.; Cushman, J.H.

1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

382

Three Essays on the Impact of Climate Change and Weather Extremes on the United States' Agriculture  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

days may be good for crops, thus helps keep farmlands inEvidence from US Crop Yields 1 Introduction . . . . . . . .Global Climate Change on Crop Production”, Climatic Change,

Le, Phu Viet

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

383

Optimal taxation with joint production of agriculture and rural amenities  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

production of agriculture and rural amenities 1 Georgesof an agricultural good and rural amenities, the ?rst-besthenceforth use the generic term rural amenities to refer to

Casamatta, Georges; Rausser, Gordon C.; Simon, Leo K.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

Identification of Low Emissions Agricultural Pathways and Priorities for  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Identification of Low Emissions Agricultural Pathways and Priorities for Identification of Low Emissions Agricultural Pathways and Priorities for Mitigation in Agricultural Landscapes using Integrated Assessment Modeling and Scenarios Jump to: navigation, search Name Identification of Low Emissions Agricultural Pathways and Priorities for Mitigation in Agricultural Landscapes using Integrated Assessment Modeling and Scenarios Agency/Company /Organization CGIAR's Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security (CCAFS), Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA), the Danish International Development Agency (DANIDA), the European Union, International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD) Partner International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA) Sector Land Focus Area Agriculture Topics Background analysis, Baseline projection, Low emission development planning, -LEDS, Pathways analysis, Policies/deployment programs

385

Modelling Agricultural Trade and Policy Impacts in Less Developed...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Modelling Agricultural Trade and Policy Impacts in Less Developed Countries Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary Name: Modelling Agricultural Trade and Policy Impacts in Less...

386

Partial Sales and Use Tax Exemption for Agricultural Solar Power...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Partial Sales and Use Tax Exemption for Agricultural Solar Power Facilities (California) Partial Sales and Use Tax Exemption for Agricultural Solar Power Facilities (California)...

387

Identification of Low Emissions Agricultural Pathways and Priorities...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Identification of Low Emissions Agricultural Pathways and Priorities for Mitigation in Agricultural Landscapes using Integrated Assessment Modeling and Scenarios Jump to:...

388

Before the Committee on Agriculture Subcommittee on General Farm...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Before the Committee on Agriculture Subcommittee on General Farm Commodities and Risk Management Before the Committee on Agriculture Subcommittee on General Farm Commodities and...

389

IDB-Climate Change Mitigation and Agriculture in Latin America...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Agriculture in Latin America and the Caribbean Jump to: navigation, search Logo: IDB-Argentina-Climate Change Mitigation and Agriculture in Latin America and the Caribbean Name...

390

Event:Second Global Conference on Agriculture, Food Security...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Conference on Agriculture, Food Security and Climate Change Jump to: navigation, search Calendar.png Second Global Conference on Agriculture, Food Security and Climate Change: on...

391

Developer Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

20 Next (20 | 50 | 100 | 250 | 500) A Conceptual Framework for Progressing Towards Sustainability in the Agriculture and Food Sector + A Synthesis of Agricultural Policies in...

392

Agricultural Progress in Cameroon, Mali and Ghana: Why it Happened...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

both domestically and internationally. Analysis of agricultural performance focused on trends in output, factor use, and productivity. Analysis of agricultural policy featured...

393

Agriculture and Energy Departments Announce New Investments to...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Agriculture and Energy Departments Announce New Investments to Drive Innovations in Biofuels and Biobased Products Agriculture and Energy Departments Announce New Investments to...

394

FAO Global Inventory of Agricultural Mitigation Projects in Developing...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

FAO Global Inventory of Agricultural Mitigation Projects in Developing Countries Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary Name: FAO Global Inventory of Agricultural Mitigation...

395

Climate-Smart Agriculture: Policies, Practices and Financing...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Smart Agriculture: Policies, Practices and Financing for Food Security, Adaptation and Mitigation Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary Name: Climate-Smart Agriculture Agency...

396

Barron Electric Cooperative - Commercial, Industrial, and Agricultural  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Barron Electric Cooperative - Commercial, Industrial, and Barron Electric Cooperative - Commercial, Industrial, and Agricultural Energy Efficiency Rebate Program Barron Electric Cooperative - Commercial, Industrial, and Agricultural Energy Efficiency Rebate Program < Back Eligibility Agricultural Commercial Industrial Savings Category Other Heating & Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Cooling Appliances & Electronics Commercial Lighting Lighting Manufacturing Maximum Rebate $10,000 per account, not to exceed 20% of cost Scroll Refrigeration Compressors: $500 Variable Speed/Frequency Drive Motor: $500 Variable Speed Compressed Air Motor: $500 Energy Audit: One in Five Years Program Info State Wisconsin Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount Energy Audit: Free General Lighting: $1 - $15/unit LED Lamps: $2/bulb

397

PROJECT SHEET SUBCOMMITTEE: Food Residues Subcommittee PROJECT TITLE: Expansion, Development and Harmonization of Crop Groups With Specified Representative Crops for Field Crop Residues Studies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

GOAL/OBJECTIVE: To further develop and implement Crop groups utilized by NAFTA and based on representative commodities to foster worldwide harmonization of Crop groups and commodity terminology which will help remove trade irritants due to differences in commodity tolerance levels or MRLs for minor and specialty crops. PROJECT DESCRIPTION/PROCEDURE The Chairperson (Hong Chen) of the International Crop Grouping Consulting Committee (ICGCC) forwards the Symposium proposal for a particular crop group to the appropriate workgroup of the ICGCC via emails and requests the workgroup members to provide input on crop information and maximum residue limit (MRL) information (includes U.S., NAFTA, Codex and EU) on the commodities. Growers and commodity experts also provide valuable input on commodities. International members provide specific information on the commodities grown in their countries and regions which provides perspectives on harmonization approaches. Based on the input, the ICGCC Chairperson will prepare commodity monographs, divide subgroups, select representative crops and draft new crop group petitions. The draft petitions will be forwarded to the workgroup for review and comments before being finalized, and the

unknown authors

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

398

Economics of biomass fuels for electricity production: a case study with crop residues  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In the United Sates and around the world, electric power plants are among the biggest sources of greenhouse gas emissions which the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change argued was the main cause of climate change and global warming. This dissertation explores the factors which may induce electricity producers to use biomass fuels for power generation and thereby mitigate the impact of greenhouse gas emissions. Analyses in this dissertation suggest that there are two important factors which will play a major role in determining the future degree of bioelectricity production: the price of coal and the future price of carbon emissions. Using The Forest and Agricultural Sector Optimization Model—Green House Gas version (FASOMGHG) in a case study examining the competitiveness of crop residues, this dissertation finds that crop residues currently cost much more than coal as an electricity generation feedstock because they have lower heat content and higher production /hauling costs. For them to become cost competitive with coal, the combined costs of production and hauling must be cut by more than half or the coal price needs to rise. In particular, for crop residues to have any role in electricity generation either the price of coal has to increase to about $43 per ton or the carbon equivalent price must rise to about $15 per ton. The simulation results also show that crop residues with higher heat content such as wheat residues will have greater opportunities in bioelectricity production than the residues with lower heat content. In addition, the analysis shows that improvements in crop yield do not have much impact on bioelectricity production. However, the energy recovery efficiency does have significant positive impact on the bioelectricity desirability but again only if the carbon equivalent price rises substantially. The analysis also shows the desirability of cofiring biomass as opposed to 100% replacement because this reduces haling costs and increases the efficiency of heat recovery. In terms of policy implications, imposing carbon emission restrictions could be an important step in inducing electric power producers to include biofuels in their fuelmix power generation portfolios and achieve significant greenhouse gas emission reductions.

Maung, Thein Aye

2008-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

399

Groundwater and Wastewater Remediation Using Agricultural Oils  

agricultural oils to stimulate endogenous microbes which accelerates the cleanup.  The oils tested include canola oil, grapeseed oil, coconut oil, corn oil, cottonseed oil, olive oil, palm oil, palm kernel oil, peanut oil, ...

400

Integrated Ingredients Dehydrated Agricultural Drying Low Temperature  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Ingredients Dehydrated Agricultural Drying Low Temperature Ingredients Dehydrated Agricultural Drying Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Integrated Ingredients Dehydrated Agricultural Drying Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Integrated Ingredients Dehydrated Sector Geothermal energy Type Agricultural Drying Location Empire, Nevada Coordinates 40.5757352°, -119.34213° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[]}

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "durables agricultural crop" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Agricultural Biomass and Landfill Diversion Incentive (Texas)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This law provides a grant of a minimum $20 per bone-dry ton of qualified agricultural biomass, forest wood waste, urban wood waste, co-firing biomass, or storm-generated biomass that is provided to...

402

A Real-Time Gridded Crop Model for Assessing Spatial Drought Stress on Crops in the Southeastern United States  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The severity of drought has many implications for society. Its impacts on rain-fed agriculture are especially direct, however. The southeastern United States, with substantial rain-fed agriculture and large variability in growing-season ...

Richard T. McNider; John R. Christy; Don Moss; Kevin Doty; Cameron Handyside; Ashutosh Limaye; Axel Garcia y Garcia; Gerrit Hoogenboom

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

403

Flue Gas Desulfurization Gypsum Agricultural Network  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Flue gas desulfurization (FGD) gypsum is a solid produced by wet FGD systems with forced air oxidation and is chemically similar to mined gypsum. These gypsums, used as beneficial agricultural amendments, were evaluated for their effects on earthworm populations and trace element concentrations in soils and earthworms at four field sites (Ohio, Indiana, Alabama, and Wisconsin). These sites are part of a network study on agricultural uses of FGD gypsum conducted at sites across the United States. ...

2012-09-19T23:59:59.000Z

404

Flue Gas Desulfurization Gypsum Agricultural Network  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Increasing volumes of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) gypsum will become available for agricultural use as more utilities install forced oxidation scrubbers and the wallboard market for the resulting gypsum becomes saturated. This interim report describes work performed in 2007 and 2008 to develop a national research network to gain data and experience to support the beneficial uses of FGD products, especially FGD gypsum, in agriculture and other land applications.

2008-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

405

Potential Agricultural Uses of Flue Gas Desulfurization Gypsum in the Northern Great Plains  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Flue gas desulfurization gypsum (FGDG) is a byproduct from the combustion of coal for electrical energy production. Currently, FGDG is being produced by 15 electrical generating stations in Alabama, Florida, Indiana, Iowa, Kentucky, Ohio, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, and Wisconsin. Much of this byproduct is used in the manufacturing of wallboard. The National Network for Use of FGDG in Agriculture was initiated to explore alternative uses of this byproduct. In the northern Great Plains (North Dakota, South Dakota, and Montana), FGDG has the potential to be used as a Ca or S fertilizer, as an acid soil ameliorant, and for reclaiming or mitigating sodium-affected soils. Greater than 1.4 million Mg of FGDG could initially be used in these states for these purposes. Flue gas desulfurization gypsum can be an agriculturally important resource for helping to increase the usefulness of problem soils and to increase crop and rangeland production. Conducting beneficial use audits would increase the public awareness of this product and help identify to coal combustion electrical generating stations the agriculturally beneficial outlets for this byproduct.

DeSutter, T.M.; Cihacek, L.J. [North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND (United States). Department of Soil Science

2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

406

Roadmap for Agriculture Biomass Feedstock Supply in the United States  

SciTech Connect

The Biomass Research and Development Technical Advisory Committee established a goal that biomass will supply 5% of the nation’s power, 20% of its transportation fuels, and 25% of its chemicals by 2030. These combined goals are approximately equivalent to 30% of the country’s current petroleum consumption. The benefits of a robust biorefinery industry supplying this amount of domestically produced power, fuels, and products are considerable, including decreased demand for imported oil, revenue to the depressed agricultural industry, and revitalized rural economies. A consistent supply of highquality, low-cost feedstock is vital to achieving this goal. This biomass roadmap defines the research and development (R&D) path to supplying the feedstock needs of the biorefinery and to achieving the important national goals set for biomass. To meet these goals, the biorefinery industry must be more sustainable than the systems it will replace. Sustainability hinges on the economic profitability of all participants, on environmental impact of every step in the process, and on social impact of the product and its production. In early 2003, a series of colloquies were held to define and prioritize the R&D needs for supplying feedstock to the biorefinery in a sustainable manner. These colloquies involved participants and stakeholders in the feedstock supply chain, including growers, transporters, equipment manufacturers, and processors as well as environmental groups and others with a vested interest in ensuring the sustainability of the biorefinery. From this series of colloquies, four high-level strategic goals were set for the feedstock area: • Biomass Availability – By 2030, 1 billion dry tons of lignocellulosic feedstock is needed annually to achieve the power, fuel, and chemical production goals set by the Biomass Research and Development Technology Advisory Production Committee • Sustainability – Production and use of the 1 billion dry tons annually must be accomplished in a sustainable manner • Feedstock Infrastructure – An integrated feedstock supply system must be developed and implemented that can serve the feedstock needs of the biorefinery at the cost, quality, and consistency of the set targets • System Profitability – Economic profitability and sustainability need to be ensured for all required participants in the feedstock supply system. For each step in the biomass supply process—production, harvesting and collection, storage, preprocessing, system integration, and transportation—this roadmap addresses the current technical situations, performance targets, technical barriers, R&D needs, and R&D priorities to overcome technical barriers and achieve performance targets. Crop residue biomass is an attractive starting feedstock, which shows the best near-term promise as a biorefinery feedstock. Because crop residue is a by-product of grain production, it is an abundant, underutilized, and low cost biomass resource. Corn stover and cereal straw are the two most abundant crop residues available in the United States. Therefore, this roadmap focuses primarily on the R&D needed for using these biomass sources as viable biorefinery feedstocks. However, achieving the goal of 1 billion dry tons of lignocellulosic feedstock will require the use of other biomass sources such as dedicated energy crops. In the long term, the R&D needs identified in this roadmap will need to accommodate these other sources of biomass as well.

J. Richard Hess; Thomas D. Foust; Reed Hoskinson; David Thompson

2003-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

407

Energy Crops Engineered for Increased Sugar Extraction through ...  

Energy Crops Engineered for Increased Sugar Extraction through Inhibition of snl6 Expression Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. Contact LBL About This ...

408

Essays on ethanol-driven corn demand and crop choice.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Two essays are focused on crop choice and the growth of corn production in the Corn Belt and surrounding areas. The first essay develops a… (more)

[No author

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

Weather-based forecasts of California crop yields  

SciTech Connect

Crop yield forecasts provide useful information to a range of users. Yields for several crops in California are currently forecast based on field surveys and farmer interviews, while for many crops official forecasts do not exist. As broad-scale crop yields are largely dependent on weather, measurements from existing meteorological stations have the potential to provide a reliable, timely, and cost-effective means to anticipate crop yields. We developed weather-based models of state-wide yields for 12 major California crops (wine grapes, lettuce, almonds, strawberries, table grapes, hay, oranges, cotton, tomatoes, walnuts, avocados, and pistachios), and tested their accuracy using cross-validation over the 1980-2003 period. Many crops were forecast with high accuracy, as judged by the percent of yield variation explained by the forecast, the number of yields with correctly predicted direction of yield change, or the number of yields with correctly predicted extreme yields. The most successfully modeled crop was almonds, with 81% of yield variance captured by the forecast. Predictions for most crops relied on weather measurements well before harvest time, allowing for lead times that were longer than existing procedures in many cases.

Lobell, D B; Cahill, K N; Field, C B

2005-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

410

Building, Testing, and Post Test Analysis of Durability Heat Pipe No.6  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Solar Thermal Program at Sandia supports work developing dish/Stirling systems to convert solar energy into electricity. Heat pipe technology is ideal for transferring the energy of concentrated sunlight from the parabolic dish concentrators to the Stirling engine heat tubes. Heat pipes can absorb the solar energy at non-uniform flux distributions and release this energy to the Stirling engine heater tubes at a very uniform flux distribution thus decoupling the design of the engine heater head from the solar absorber. The most important part of a heat pipe is the wick, which transports the sodium over the heated surface area. Bench scale heat pipes were designed and built to more economically, both in time and money, test different wicks and cleaning procedures. This report covers the building, testing, and post-test analysis of the sixth in a series of bench scale heat pipes. Durability heat pipe No.6 was built and tested to determine the effects of a high temperature bakeout, 950 C, on wick corrosion during long-term operation. Previous tests showed high levels of corrosion with low temperature bakeouts (650-700 C). Durability heat pipe No.5 had a high temperature bakeout and reflux cleaning and showed low levels of wick corrosion after long-term operation. After testing durability heat pipe No.6 for 5,003 hours at an operating temperature of 750 C, it showed low levels of wick corrosion. This test shows a high temperature bakeout alone will significantly reduce wick corrosion without the need for costly and time consuming reflux cleaning.

MOSS, TIMOTHY A.

2002-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

411

Photovoltaic module performance and durability following long-term field exposure  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Our investigations of both new and field-aged photovoltaic modules have indicated that, in general, today's commercially available modules area highly reliable product. However, by using new test procedures, subtle failure mechanisms have also been identified that must be addressed in order to achieve 30-year module lifetimes. This paper summarizes diagnostic test procedures, results, and implications of in-depth investigations of the performance and durability characteristics of commercial modules after long-term field exposure. A collaborative effort with U.S. module manufacturers aimed at achieving 30-year module lifetimes is also described.

Ellibee, D.E.; Hansen, B.R.; King, D.L.; Kratochvil, J.A.; Quintana, M.A.

1998-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

412

Electronic Durability of Flexible Transparent Films from Type-Specific Single-Wall Carbon Nanotubes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The coupling between mechanical flexibility and electronic performance is evaluated for thin films of metallic and semiconducting single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) deposited on compliant supports. Percolated networks of type-purified SWCNTs are assembled as thin conducting coatings on elastic polymer substrates, and the sheet resistance is measured as a function of compression and cyclic strain through impedance spectroscopy. The wrinkling topography, microstructure and transparency of the films are independently characterized using optical microscopy, electron microscopy, and optical absorption spectroscopy. Thin films made from metallic SWCNTs show better durability as flexible transparent conductive coatings, which we attribute to a combination of superior mechanical performance and higher interfacial conductivity.

Harris, J; Iyer, S; Bernhardt, A; Huh, JY; Hudson, S; Fagan, J; Hobbie, E.

2011-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

413

F-Class Gas Turbine Technology Summary: Design Features, Reliability Statistics, and Durability Issues  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report summarizes the design features and capabilities of current F-class gas turbine models, and includes reliability/availability statistics and a summary of durability issues. The design matrix table includes models GT24/GT26 by Alstom, 7FA/9FA and 7FB/9FB by General Electric, M501F/M701F by Mitsubishi, and W501F by Siemens, presented in a format that facilitates a comparison of their design characteristics.BackgroundGas turbine technology continues ...

2012-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

414

Electrolytic electrodes having high durability and process for the production of same  

SciTech Connect

An electrolytic electrode having high durability for use in electrolysis where the generation of oxygen occurs, and a process for the production of the electrolytic electrode are disclosed. The electrolytic electrode comprises: an electrode substrate of titanium or a titanium-based alloy; an electrode coating of a metal oxide; and an intermediate layer comprising an electrically conductive oxide of tantalum and/or niobium, provided between the electrode substrate and the electrode coating, in a thickness calculated as the metal, of 0.001 to 2 g/m/sup 2/.

Asano, H.; Nitta, H.; Shimamune, T.

1984-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

415

Durability testing of a Toyota LCS-M (lean combustion system-methanol) Carina. Technical report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report describes the exhaust emissions, fuel economy, and oil-sample analysis from a Toyota LCS-M Carina motor vehicle fueled with M100 fuel. The vehicle accumulated 6,000 miles driven over the AMA durability driving schedule in order to determine if exhaust-emissions levels increase during the first 5,000-15,000 miles of driving with a light-duty methanol-fueled vehicle. The program description, test-vehicle description, test facilities, and the test-vehicle specifications are included.

Piotrowski, G.K.

1989-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

416

Progress Toward Developing a Durable High-Temperature Solar Selective Coating (Poster)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Increasing the operating temperature of parabolic trough solar fields from 400 C to >450 C will increase their efficiency and reduce the cost of electricity. Current coatings do not have the stability and performance necessary to move to higher operating temperatures. The objective is to develop new, more efficient selective coatings with both high solar absoprtance ({alpha} > 0.96) and low thermal emittance ({var_epsilon} < 0.07) that are thermally stable above 450 C, ideally in air, with improved durability and manufacturability, and reduced cost.

Kennedy, C.; Price, H. W.

2007-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

417

Extended Durability of a Cloth-Covered Star-Edwards Caged Ball Prosthesis in Aortic Position  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Starr-Edwards caged ball valve is one of the oldest cardiac valve prosthesis and was widely used all around the world in the past decades. Despite the long-term results that have been reported there are only a few cases reported that exceed 30 years of durability. Here in, we report a 53-year-old patient with a well-functioning 35-year-old aortic Starr-Edwards caged ball prosthesis. Copyright © 2009 Yusuf Ata et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. 1.

Article Id; Yusuf Ata; Tamer Turk; Cüneyt Eris; Mihriban Yalcin; Filiz Ata

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

418

ENSO Influences on Agriculture in the Southeastern United States  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The influence of El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) on crop production in the southeastern United States was studied to identify crops that are vulnerable to ENSO-related weather variability and therefore likely to benefit from application of ...

James W. Hansen; Alan W. Hodges; James W. Jones

1998-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

419

Evaluating Precipitation Modification under Drought Conditions for Utah Agriculture  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The impacts of the 1934 and 1977 droughts in the seven Climatological regions of Utah were examined using a linear programming model that simulated crop and livestock production in Utah for 1979. Crop and range production equations wee developed ...

Gregory M. Perry; Terrence F. Glover

1986-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

420

Effect of Pretreatment on the Properties of Agricultural Waste  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Agricultural waste disposal is becoming a problem due to its increasing production and potential pollution. As a kind of biomass, agricultural waste can be used as a sustainable and renewable source of energy. Agricultural waste disposal is of great ... Keywords: agricultural waste, animal manure, acid washing, pyrolysis

Zhang Shouyu; Wang Jian; Wang Xiu-Jun; Peng Dingmao; Takayuki Takarada

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "durables agricultural crop" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Assessment of durability of carbon/epoxy composite materials after exposure to elevated temperatures and immersion in seawater for navy vessel applications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

characterization of wet layup graphite/epoxy composites usedcharacterization of wet layup carbon/epoxy used in externaland durability prediction of wet layup carbon/epoxy used in

Hong, SoonKook

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

422

Applying Innovation System Concept in Agricultural Research for  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Applying Innovation System Concept in Agricultural Research for Applying Innovation System Concept in Agricultural Research for Development: A learning module Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary Name: Applying Innovation System Concept in Agricultural Research for Development: A learning module Agency/Company /Organization: International Livestock Research Institute Sector: Land Focus Area: Agriculture Topics: Policies/deployment programs Resource Type: Training materials Website: mahider.ilri.org/bitstream/10568/167/1/Innovation_System_Agric_LM.pdf Applying Innovation System Concept in Agricultural Research for Development: A learning module Screenshot References: Applying Innovation System Concept in Agricultural Research for Development: A learning module[1] Preface "Sustained agricultural growth requires, among others, increased

423

EC-LEDS in the Agriculture Sector | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

the Agriculture Sector the Agriculture Sector Jump to: navigation, search Name EC-LEDS in the Agriculture Sector Agency/Company /Organization United States Department of Agriculture, United States Department of State Partner Ministry of Agriculture, Ministry of Environment Sector Climate, Land Focus Area Agriculture, Economic Development, Greenhouse Gas, Land Use Topics Adaptation, Implementation, Low emission development planning, -LEDS, Policies/deployment programs Program Start 2011 Program End 2013 Country Costa Rica, Kenya, Mexico, Vietnam Central America, Eastern Africa, Central America, South-Eastern Asia References Land Use Assessment Toolkit - Agriculture Resources[1] Overview Progress and Outcomes Capacity building activities include strengthening implementation of

424

IISD Climate Change and Agriculture Research | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

IISD Climate Change and Agriculture Research IISD Climate Change and Agriculture Research Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary Name: IISD Climate Change and Agriculture Research Agency/Company /Organization: International Institute for Sustainable Development (IISD) Sector: Land Focus Area: Forestry, Agriculture Topics: Policies/deployment programs Resource Type: Publications References: IISD Climate Change and Agriculture Research[1] "IISD's work related to climate change and agriculture has been supported by Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada." It include the two following publications: Expanding Agriculture's Role in a Post-2012 Regime (PDF - 712 kb) and Climate Change Mitigation through Land-Use Measures in the Agriculture and Forestry Sectors References ↑ "IISD Climate Change and Agriculture Research"

425

Short-term dynamics of soil carbon, microbial biomass, and soil enzyme activities as compared to longer-term effects of tillage in irrigated row crops  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

rates by tillage and crop rotation: a global data analysis.of tillage in irrigated row crops Daniel Geisseler & Williamthe cropping season in all crop sequences D. Geisseler (*) :

Geisseler, Daniel; Horwath, William R.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

426

California and U S AgriculturalCalifornia and U.S. Agricultural Trade Prospects with a KORUS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

California and U S AgriculturalCalifornia and U.S. Agricultural Trade Prospects with a KORUS Trade Agreement December 15, 2010 Daniel A. Sumner University of California Agricultural Issues Center d th UC D i · Korea has been a large and diversified export destination for US and California agriculture · With more

Hammock, Bruce D.

427

Microscopic Analysis of Agriculture Products, 4th EditionChapter 1 Methods of Agricultural Microscopy  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Microscopic Analysis of Agriculture Products, 4th Edition Chapter 1 Methods of Agricultural Microscopy Methods and Analyses eChapters Methods - Analyses Books 97C1C49A76ADD9BFEBDE5FF95381F911 Press Downloadable pdf...

428

Incorporation of crop phenology in Simple Biosphere Model (SiBcrop) to improve land-atmosphere carbon exchanges from croplands  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

for integrated field crop management. Cornell Universityactivity within the crop canopy. Aust. J. agric. Res. , 23,Assessing uncertainties in crop model simulations using

Lokupitiya, Erandathie

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

429

EFFICACY AND TIMING OF FUNGICIDES, BACTERICIDES, AND BIOLOGICALS for DECIDUOUS TREE FRUIT, NUT, STRAWBERRY, AND VINE CROPS 2011  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

NUT, STRAWBERRY, AND VINE CROPS ALMOND APPLE/PEAR APRICOTNut, Strawberry, and Vine Crops—2011 Table of Contents — 1Nut, Strawberry, and Vine Crops in California Single active

Adaskaveg, J E; Gubler, W D; Michailides, Themis J.; Holtz, Brent A.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

430

Integrated plant nutrient management on diversified cropping system in aqua-terrestrial ecosystem for yield potentiality, quality and rural sustainability  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Agronomic Management of Wetland Crops, published by Kalyanion these aquatic beneficial crops for obtaining higherof aquatic food and non-food crops in neglected way ( Puste,

PUSTE, ANANDAMOY DR.; DE, PRALAY ER.; MAITY, TAPAN KUMAR DR.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

431

Combined Water-Fertilizer Management to Minimize Non-Point Water Pollution While Achieving High Crop Production  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

POLLUTION WHILE ACHIEVING HIGH CROP PRODUCTION JOHN ~ETEYand broccoli relationships and crop yield and nitrogen as amust anticipate Applica- crop nutrient and must be placed in

Letey, John; Jarrell, Wesley M

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

432

The Dynamics of Irrigated Perennial Crop Production With Applications to the Murray-Darling Basin of Australia  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

severe damages to U.S. crop yields under climate change,”demand for perennial crops is identified by systematicallyspace approach to perennial crop supply analysis,” American

Franklin, Bradley

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

433

Extended Durability Testing of an External Fuel Processor for a Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC)  

SciTech Connect

Durability testing was performed on an external fuel processor (EFP) for a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) power plant. The EFP enables the SOFC to reach high system efficiency (electrical efficiency up to 60%) using pipeline natural gas and eliminates the need for large quantities of bottled gases. LG Fuel Cell Systems Inc. (formerly known as Rolls-Royce Fuel Cell Systems (US) Inc.) (LGFCS) is developing natural gas-fired SOFC power plants for stationary power applications. These power plants will greatly benefit the public by reducing the cost of electricity while reducing the amount of gaseous emissions of carbon dioxide, sulfur oxides, and nitrogen oxides compared to conventional power plants. The EFP uses pipeline natural gas and air to provide all the gas streams required by the SOFC power plant; specifically those needed for start-up, normal operation, and shutdown. It includes a natural gas desulfurizer, a synthesis-gas generator and a start-gas generator. The research in this project demonstrated that the EFP could meet its performance and durability targets. The data generated helped assess the impact of long-term operation on system performance and system hardware. The research also showed the negative impact of ambient weather (both hot and cold conditions) on system operation and performance.

Mark Perna; Anant Upadhyayula; Mark Scotto

2012-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

434

The cost of producing switchgrass as a dedicated energy crop  

SciTech Connect

Switchgrass offers many air soil, and water quality benefits as discussed in Herbaceous Energy Crops and the Potential for Soil conservation. But for large-scale biofuel production to become a reality several economic criteria must be met. This article summarizes the biological and economic potential for making switchgrass a commercial energy crop.

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

435

Biomass Crop Production: Benefits for Soil Quality and Carbon Sequestration  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Research at three locations in the southeastern US is quantifying changes in soil quality and soil carbon storage that occur during production of biomass crops compared with row crops. After three growing seasons, soil quality improved and soil carbon storage increased on plots planted to cottonwood, sycamore, sweetgum with a cover crop, switchgrass, and no-till corn. For tree crops, sequestered belowground carbon was found mainly in stumps and large roots. At the TN site, the coarse woody organic matter storage belowground was 1.3 Mg ha{sup {minus}1}yr{sup {minus}1}, of which 79% was stumps and large roots and 21% fine roots. Switchgrass at the AL site also stored considerable carbon belowground as coarse roots. Most of the carbon storage occurred mainly in the upper 30 cw although coarse roots were found to depths of greater than 60 cm. Biomass crops contributed to improvements in soil physical quality as well as increasing belowground carbon sequestration. The distribution and extent of carbon sequestration depends on the growth characteristics and age of the individual biomass crop species. Time and increasing crop maturity will determine the potential of these biomass crops to significantly contribute to the overall national goal of increasing carbon sequestration and reducing greenhouse gas emissions.

Bandaranayake, W.; Bock, B.R.; Houston, A.; Joslin, J.D.; Pettry, D.E.; Schoenholtz, S.; Thornton, F.C.; Tolbert, V.R.; Tyler, D.

1999-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

436

Surrogate Data to Estimate Crop-Hail Loss  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Crop-hail insurance loss data for 1948–94 are useful as measures of the historical variability of damaging hail in those 26 states where most crop damages occur. However, longer records are needed for various scientific and business applications, ...

David Changnon; Stanley A. Changnon

1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

437

13September 2011 Lignocellulosic Biofuels from New Bioenergy Crops  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

13September 2011 2010 Lignocellulosic Biofuels from New Bioenergy Crops Federal Initiative- tonnage bioenergy crop on a commercial scale and convert it into an advanced biofuel (gasoline) in a pilot the biofuels production goals of the United States while helping to alleviate constraints on food and feed

438

Impacts on irrigated agriculture of changes in electricity costs resulting from Western Area Power Administration`s power marketing alternatives  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Irrigation is a major factor in the growth of US agricultural productivity, especially in western states, which account for more than 85% of the nation`s irrigated acreage. In some of these states, almost all cropland is irrigated, and nearly 50% of the irrigation is done with electrically powered pumps. Therefore, even small increases in the cost of electricity could have a disproportionate impact on irrigated agriculture. This technical memorandum examines the impacts that could result from proposed changes in the power marketing programs of the Western Area Power Administration`s Salt Lake City Area Office. The changes could increase the cost of power to all Western customers, including rural municipalities and irrigation districts that rely on inexpensive federal power to pump water. The impacts are assessed by translating changes in Western`s wholesale power rate into changes in the cost of pumping water as an input for agricultural production. Farmers can adapt to higher electricity prices in many ways, such as (1) using different pumping fuels, (2) adding workers and increasing management to irrigate more efficiently, and (3) growing more drought-tolerant crops. This study projects several responses, including using less groundwater and planting fewer waterintensive crops. The study finds that when dependence on Western`s power is high, the cost of power can have a major effect on energy use, agricultural practices, and the distribution of planted acreage. The biggest percentage changes in farm income would occur (1) in Nevada and Utah (however, all projected changes are less than 2% of the baseline) and (2) under the marketing alternatives that represent the lowest capacity and energy offer considered in Western`s Electric Power Marketing Environmental Impact Statement. The aggregate impact on farm incomes and the value of total farm production would be much smaller than that suggested by the changes in water use and planted acreage.

Edwards, B.K.; Flaim, S.J.; Howitt, R.E. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Palmer, S.C. [Western Area Power Administration, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

439

Crops reap benefits of Pantex irrigation system | National Nuclear Security  

National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

Crops reap benefits of Pantex irrigation system | National Nuclear Security Crops reap benefits of Pantex irrigation system | National Nuclear Security Administration Our Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing Proliferation Powering the Nuclear Navy Emergency Response Recapitalizing Our Infrastructure Continuing Management Reform Countering Nuclear Terrorism About Us Our Programs Our History Who We Are Our Leadership Our Locations Budget Our Operations Media Room Congressional Testimony Fact Sheets Newsletters Press Releases Speeches Events Social Media Video Gallery Photo Gallery NNSA Archive Federal Employment Apply for Our Jobs Our Jobs Working at NNSA Blog The National Nuclear Security Administration Crops reap benefits of Pantex irrigation system Home > content > Crops reap benefits of Pantex irrigation system Crops reap benefits of Pantex irrigation system

440

Three Essays on U.S. Agriculture under Climate Change: Active Engagement in Mitigation and Adaptation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This dissertation investigates: (1) the implications of including high-yielding energy sorghum under the Renewable Fuels Standard (RFS2) program; (2) the effects of RFS2 with and without projected climate change scenarios on U.S. agriculture; (3) the spatial distribution of cattle breeders in Texas to quantify how climate factors influence cattle breed selection. In the RFS2 energy sorghum work, the ability of the agriculture sector to meet the fuel requirements of RFS2 is examined with and without energy sorghum being a possibility using an agricultural sector model. The results show that energy sorghum would be a valuable contributor that would be used as a feedstock producing over 13 billion gallons per year of cellulosic ethanol. Without the presence of energy sorghum it is found that switchgrass serves as the major cellulosic ethanol feedstock. Findings also indicate that the presence of high-yielding energy sorghum does relax commodity prices and export reductions except for grain sorghum as energy sorghum competes with grain sorghum production. In addition, the results show that the introduction of energy sorghum has minimal effects on GHG mitigation potential in the agricultural sector. In the RFS2 and climate change research, the analysis shows that climate change eases the burden of meeting the RFS2 mandates increasing consumer welfare while decreasing producer welfare. The results also show that climate change encourages a more diversified use of biofuel feedstocks for cellulosic ethanol production, in particular crop residues. In the cattle breed research, summer heat stress is found to be a significant factor for breed selection: positive for Bos indicus and negative for Bos taurus and composite breeds. The estimation results also indicate a price-driven trade-off between Bos taurus and Bos indicus breeds.

Zhang, Yuquan

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "durables agricultural crop" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Efficient crop type mapping based on remote sensing in the Central Valley, California  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

based approach to map crop types in the San Joaquin Valley,focus on the solutions of identifying these crop types orcategories when crop mapping is extended to a larger extent

Zhong, Liheng

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

442

Toxic hazards of the industrial atmospheric pollutant sulphur dioxide on tree crops  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

most important perennial tree crop of Kerala, which plays aeconomy, is the major tree crop in and around factories ofsulphur dioxide on tree crops such as coconut. The study

Rani, B Dr.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

443

Drought-tolerant Biofuel Crops could be a Critical Hedge for Biorefineries  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Canopy Temperature as a Crop Water-Stress Indicator. WaterM.S. , et al. , Estimating Crop Water-Deficit Using theNations (FAO), N.R.a.E. , Crop evapotrasporation - Guidlines

Morrow, III, William R.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

444

Ozone reduces crop yields and alters competition with weeds such as yellow nutsedge  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

DT (eds. ). Assessment of Crop Loss from Air Pollutants:Ambient ozone and adverse crop re- sponse: An evaluation ofthe effects of ozone on crops and trees. In: Lefohn AS (

Grantz, David A.; Shrestha, Anil

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

445

Dynamics of lettuce drop incidence and Sclerotinia minor inoculum under varied crop rotations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Koike, S. T. 1998. Effects of crop rotation and irrigationImplications for yield and crop rotation. Asp. Appl. Biol.minor Inoculum Under Varied Crop Rotations J. J. Hao and K.

Hao, J J; Subbarao, K V

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

446

The Critical Zinc Deficiency Levels in Indian Soils and Cereal Crops  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Banerjee, N.K. 1986 Field Crops Res. 13: 55-61. 9. Singh,Singh, Kuldeep 1984 Field Crops Res, 9: 143-149. 7. Singh,than any other group of crops, suffer from Zn deficiency,

Kuldeep, Singh - -

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

447

Sudex cover crops can kill and stunt subsequent tomato, ?lettuce and broccoli transplants through allelopathy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Article t Sudex cover crops can kill and stunt subsequentJ. Stapleton Grass cover crops can be harvested for biomassmay affect subsequent crops. We stud- ied the effects of

Summers, Charles G.; Mitchell, Jeffrey P.; Prather, Timothy S.; Stapleton, James J.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

448

Impact of tillage and crop rotation on aggregate-associated carbon in two oxisols  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Oades. 1980. The effect of crop rotation on aggregation in aand J.H. Long. 1990. Crop rotation and tillage effects onImpact of Tillage and Crop Rotation on Aggregate-Associated

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

449

Crop growth as influenced by Zinc and organic matter in Cadmium-rich polluted soils  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in the soil as well as the crop plants, which affect theamount of Pb, Ni and Cd in crops in sewage irrigated areastubers and lowest in cereal crops (Setia et al. 1998). A

Talatam, Satyanarayana; talatam, satyanarayana; Parida, Binaya Kumar

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

450

Enhanced durability and reactivity for zinc ferrite desulfurization sorbent. Volume 1, Bench-scale testing and analysis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

AMAX Research & Development Center (AMAX R&D) has been investigating methods for enhancing the reactivity and durability of the zinc ferrite desulfurization sorbent. Zinc ferrite sorbents are intended for use in desulfurization of hot coal gas in integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) or molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) applications. For the present program, the reactivity of the sorbent may be defined as its sulfur sorption capacity at the breakthrough point and at saturation in a bench-scale, fixed-bed reactor. Durability may be defined as the ability of the sorbent to maintain important physical characteristics such As size, strength, and specific surface area during 10 cycles of sulfidation and oxidation.

Jha, M.C.; Berggren, M.H.

1989-05-02T23:59:59.000Z

451

A REVISED METHOD FOR ESTIMATING OXIDE BASICITY PER THE SMITH SCALE WITH EXAMPLE APPLICATION TO GLASS DURABILITY  

SciTech Connect

Previous researchers have developed correlations between oxide electronegativity and oxide basicity. The present paper revises those correlations using a newer method of calculating electronegativity of the oxygen anion. Basicity is expressed using the Smith {alpha} parameter scale. A linear relation was found between the oxide electronegativity and the Smith {alpha} parameter, with an R{sup 2} of 0.92. An example application of this new correlation to the durability of high-level nuclear waste glass is demonstrated. The durability of waste glass was found to be directly proportional to the quantity and basicity of the oxides of tetrahedrally coordinated network forming ions.

REYNOLDS JG

2011-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

452

An analysis of producing ethanol and electric power from woody residues and agricultural crops in East Texas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The increasing U.S. dependence on imported oil; the contribution of fossil fuels to the greenhouse gas emissions and the climate change issue; the current level of energy prices and other environmental concerns have increased world interest in renewable energy sources. Biomass is a large, diverse, readily exploitable resource. This dissertation examines the biomass potential in Eastern Texas by examining a 44 county region. This examination considers the potential establishment of a 100-megawatt (MW) power plant and a 20 million gallon per year (MMGY) ethanol plant using lignocellulosic biomass. The biomass sources considered are switchgrass, sugarcane bagasse, and logging residues. In the case of electricity generation, co-firing scenarios are also investigated. The research analyzes the key indicators involved with economic costs and benefits, environmental and social impacts. The bioenergy production possibilities considered here were biofeedstock supported electric power and cellulosic ethanol production. The results were integrated into a comprehensive set of information that addresses the effects of biomass energy development in the region. The analysis indicates that none of the counties in East Texas have sufficient biomass to individually sustain either a 100% biomass fired power plant or the cellulosic ethanol plant. Such plants would only be feasible at the regional level. Co-firing biomass with coal, however, does provide a most attractive alternative for the study region. The results indicate further that basing the decision solely on economics of feedstock availability and costs would suggest that bioenergy, as a renewable energy, is not a viable energy alternative. Accounting for some environmental and social benefits accruing to the region from bioenergy production together with the feedstock economics, however, suggests that government subsidies, up to the amount of accruing benefits, could make the bioenergies an attractive business opportunity for local farmers and investors.

Ismayilova, Rubaba Mammad

2003-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

453

Comparing soil carbon of short rotation poplar plantations with agricultural crops and woodlots in north central United States.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) has increased dramatically since the beginning of the Industrial Revolution as a result of human activities (Keeling and others 1995, Houghton and others 2001). The primary cause of CO2 increases are worldwide fossil fuel burning, biomass burning, and cement manufacturing. These activities are, in turn, tied to the expanding world population and a rising demand for energy. If the steady increase of CO2 continues, there may be profound effects on the environment and the world economy from a "greenhouse effect" that has led to global warming of the atmosphere (Houghton and others 2001).

Coleman, Mark D.; Isebrands, J.G.; Tolsted, David N.; Tolbert, Virginia R.

2004-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

454

Developing Greenhouse Gas Emissions Offsets by Reducing Nitrous Oxide (N2O) Emissions in Agricultural Crop Production  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report covers the first two years of a three-year long project entitled "Developing Greenhouse Gas Emissions Offsets by Reducing Nitrous Oxide (N2O) Emissions." This EPRI-sponsored project is investigating an innovative approach to developing large-scale and potentially cost-effective greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions offsets that could be implemented across broad geographic areas of the U.S. and internationally. The tools and information developed in this project will broaden the GHG emissions offset ...

2008-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

455

Developing Greenhouse Gas Emissions Offsets by Reducing Nitrous Oxide (N2O) Emissions in Agricultural Crop Production  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This final project report describes a three-year long EPRI supplemental project entitled "Developing Greenhouse Gas Emissions Offsets by Reducing Nitrous Oxide (N2O) Emissions." This EPRI-sponsored project investigated an innovative approach to developing large-scale, cost-effective greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions offsets that potentially can be implemented across broad geographic areas of the United States and internationally.

2009-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

456

Agriculture, Forestry and Other Land Use Mitigation Project Database | Open  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Agriculture, Forestry and Other Land Use Mitigation Project Database Agriculture, Forestry and Other Land Use Mitigation Project Database Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Agriculture, Forestry and Other Land Use Mitigation Project Database Agency/Company /Organization: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations Sector: Land Focus Area: Forestry, Agriculture Resource Type: Dataset Website: www.fao.org/climatechange/67148/en/ RelatedTo: Mitigation of Climate Change in Agriculture (MICCA) Project Agriculture, Forestry and Other Land Use Mitigation Project Database Screenshot References: AFOLU Mitigation Database[1] Global Survey of Agricultural Mitigation Projects Paper[2] "The AFOLU MP database endeavors to gather information on all mitigation activities currently ongoing within the agricultural and forestry sectors

457

USDA Global Agricultural Information Network (GAIN) | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

USDA Global Agricultural Information Network (GAIN) USDA Global Agricultural Information Network (GAIN) Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary Name: USDA Global Agricultural Information Network (GAIN) Agency/Company /Organization: United States Department of Agriculture Sector: Land Focus Area: Agriculture Topics: Co-benefits assessment, GHG inventory, Market analysis Resource Type: Dataset Website: gain.fas.usda.gov/Pages/Default.aspx USDA Global Agricultural Information Network (GAIN) Screenshot References: GAIN[1] Overview "USDA'S Global Agriculture Information Network (GAIN) provides timely information on the agricultural economy, products and issues in foreign countries since 1995 that are likely to have an impact on United States agricultural production and trade. U.S. Foreign Service officers working at

458

Mitigation of Climate Change in Agriculture (MICCA) Project | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Climate Change in Agriculture (MICCA) Project Climate Change in Agriculture (MICCA) Project Jump to: navigation, search Name Mitigation of Climate Change in Agriculture (MICCA) Project Agency/Company /Organization Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations Sector Land Focus Area Agriculture Topics Policies/deployment programs Website http://www.fao.org/climatechan Program Start 2010 References Mitigation of Climate Change in Agriculture (MICCA) Project[1] "The main goal of this project is to support efforts to mitigate climate change through agriculture in developing countries and move towards carbon friendly agricultural practices. The aim of the project is to help realise the substantial mitigation potential of agriculture, especially that of smallholders in developing countries. If the right changes are implemented in production systems,

459

Optimal compost rates for organic crop production based on a decay series.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

?? One of the more challenging aspects of organic farming is the development of an appropriate fertility plan, which may include crop rotation, cover crops,… (more)

Endelman, Jeffrey B.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

460

Optimal Compost Rates for Organic Crop Production Based on a Decay Series.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??One of the more challenging aspects of organic farming is the development of an appropriate fertility plan, which may include crop rotation, cover crops, and/or… (more)

Endelman, Jeffrey B.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "durables agricultural crop" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Biomass crops can be used for biological disinfestation and remediation of soils and water  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

as biomass crops for biofuel production also possess prop-candidate species for biofuel production are taxonomicallyof switching from food production crops to biofuel feedstock

Stapleton, James J; Banuelos, Gary

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

462

FUEL PROCESSING FOR FUEL CELLS: EFFECTS ON CATALYST DURABILITY AND CARBON FORMATION  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

On-board production of hydrogen for fuel cells for automotive applications is a challenging developmental task. The fuel processor must show long term durability and under challenging conditions. Fuel processor catalysts in automotive fuel processors will be exposed to large thermal variations, vibrations, exposure to uncontrolled ambient conditions, and various impurities from ambient air and from fuel. For the commercialization of fuel processors, the delineation of effects on catalyst activity and durability are required. We are studying fuels and fuel constituent effects on the fuel processor system as part of the DOE Fuel Cells for Transportation program. Pure fuel components are tested to delineate the fuel component effect on the fuel processor and fuel processor catalysts. Component blends are used to simulate ''real fuels'', with various fuel mixtures being examined such as reformulated gasoline and naptha. The aliphatic, napthenic, olefin and aromatic content are simulated to represent the chemical kinetics of possible detrimental reactions, such as carbon formation, during fuel testing. Testing has examined the fuel processing performance of different fuel components to help elucidate the fuel constituent effects on fuel processing performance and upon catalyst durability. Testing has been conducted with vapor fuels, including natural gas and pure methane. The testing of pure methane and comparable testing with natural gas (97% methane) have shown some measurable differences in performance in the fuel processor. Major gasoline fuel constituents, such as aliphatic compounds, napthanes, and aromatics have been compared for their effect on the fuel processing performance. Experiments have been conducted using high-purity compounds to observe the fuel processing properties of the individual components and to document individual fuel component performance. The relative carbon formation of different fuel constituents have been measured by monitoring carbon via in situ laser optics, and by monitoring carbon buildup on the catalyst surface. The fuel processing performance of the individual components is compared with the fuel processing performance of blended fuel components and the reformulated gasoline to examine synergistic or detrimental effects the fuel components have in a real fuel blend.

R. BORUP; M. INBODY; B. MORTON; L. BROWN

2001-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

463

Views expressed are those of the author(s) and not necessarily those of the American Farmland Trust. CAE/WP 98-9Visions of Agricultural Conservation Policy Beyond 2002:  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper identifies the requirements for “smart ” conservation partnerships – alliances that are necessary and foster cost-effective, durable solutions to key problems. The basic structure and operation of partnerships are discussed, with special attention to the central role of transaction costs in forming and maintaining such alliances. The second section reviews the agricultural conservation policy setting and constructs a concept of policy beyond 2002 based on emerging trends and necessary actions to fill policy gaps. In the third section, the policy implications for building effective public-private conservation partnerships to realize that vision are drawn. A checklist of attributes for “smart ” partnerships is offered as a conclusion.

Dr. David; E. Ervin; Implications For Partnerships; Dr. David; E. Ervin

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

464

Preliminary report on the agricultural sector impacts of obtaining ethanol from grain  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report was prepared as a part of SERI task number 3321.3, Gasohol Policy Analysis. This work is supported by the Biomass Energy Systems Branch of the Office of Energy Technology, US Department of Energy. The report describes some of the preliminary results that affect such issues as the balance of payments and energy import impacts of obtaining liquid fuels from agricultural crops. This report is a precursor to a more detailed and comprehensive look at these and other issues such as food price impacts and farm income impacts that will come in Fall 1979. Policy issues related to this work concern farm income and production programs and tax and subsidy schemes for the end products.

Hertzmark, D.I.

1979-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

465

SOLERAS - Solar Controlled Environment Agriculture Project. Final report, Volume 6. Science Applications, Incorporated system analysis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report summarizes the results of the systems analysis task for the conceptual design of a commercial size, solar powered, controlled environment agriculture system. The baseline greenhouse system consists of a 5-hectare growing facility utilizing an innovative fluid roof filter concept to provide temperature and humidity control. Fresh water for the system is produced by means of a reverse osmosis desalination unit and energy is provided by means of a solar photovoltaic array in conjunction with storage batteries and a power conditioning unit. The greenhouse environment is controlled via circulation of brackish groundwater in a closed system, which permits water recovery during dehumidification as well as CO/sub 2/ enrichment for increased crop productivity.

Not Available

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

466

Agriculture and Land Use National Greenhouse Gas Inventory Software | Open  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Agriculture and Land Use National Greenhouse Gas Inventory Software Agriculture and Land Use National Greenhouse Gas Inventory Software Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Agriculture and Land Use National Greenhouse Gas Inventory Software Agency/Company /Organization: Colorado State University Partner: United States Agency for International Development, United States Forest Service, United States Environmental Protection Agency Sector: Land Focus Area: Forestry, Agriculture Topics: GHG inventory Resource Type: Software/modeling tools User Interface: Desktop Application Website: www.nrel.colostate.edu/projects/ghgtool/index.php Cost: Free Agriculture and Land Use National Greenhouse Gas Inventory Software Screenshot References: Agriculture and Land Use National Greenhouse Gas Inventory Software[1]

467

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Agriculturally-Derived Fuel Production  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Derived Derived Fuel Production Facility Loan Guarantees to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Agriculturally-Derived Fuel Production Facility Loan Guarantees on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Agriculturally-Derived Fuel Production Facility Loan Guarantees on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Agriculturally-Derived Fuel Production Facility Loan Guarantees on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Agriculturally-Derived Fuel Production Facility Loan Guarantees on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Agriculturally-Derived Fuel Production Facility Loan Guarantees on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Agriculturally-Derived Fuel Production Facility Loan Guarantees on AddThis.com...

468

Bioenergy crop models: Descriptions, data requirements and future challenges  

SciTech Connect

Field studies that address the production of lignocellulosic biomass as a source of renewable energy provide critical data for the development of bioenergy crop models. A literature survey revealed that 14 models have been used for simulating bioenergy crops including herbaceous and woody bioenergy crops, and for crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) crops. These models simulate field-scale production of biomass for switchgrass (ALMANAC, EPIC, and Agro-BGC), miscanthus (MISCANFOR, MISCANMOD, and WIMOVAC), sugarcane (APSIM, AUSCANE, and CANEGRO), and poplar and willow (SECRETS and 3PG). Two models are adaptations of dynamic global vegetation models and simulate biomass yields of miscanthus and sugarcane at regional scales (Agro-IBIS and LPJmL). Although it lacks the complexity of other bioenergy crop models, the environmental productivity index (EPI) is the only model used to estimate biomass production of CAM (Agave and Opuntia) plants. Except for the EPI model, all models include representations of leaf area dynamics, phenology, radiation interception and utilization, biomass production, and partitioning of biomass to roots and shoots. A few models simulate soil water, nutrient, and carbon cycle dynamics, making them especially useful for assessing the environmental consequences (e.g., erosion and nutrient losses) associated with the large-scale deployment of bioenergy crops. The rapid increase in use of models for energy crop simulation is encouraging; however, detailed information on the influence of climate, soils, and crop management practices on biomass production is scarce. Thus considerable work remains regarding the parameterization and validation of process-based models for bioenergy crops; generation and distribution of high-quality field data for model development and validation; and implementation of an integrated framework for efficient, high-resolution simulations of biomass production for use in planning sustainable bioenergy systems.

Nair, S. Surendran [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Kang, Shujiang [ORNL; Zhang, Xuesong [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Miguez, Fernando [Iowa State University; Izaurralde, Dr. R. Cesar [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Post, Wilfred M [ORNL; Dietze, Michael [University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign; Lynd, L. [Dartmouth College; Wullschleger, Stan D [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

469

Agriculture: Bioconversion of sugar cane molasses  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Auxein Corporation is demonstrating for commercial use an organic acid phytochelate, derived from what would otherwise be a discarded portion of sugar cane, that could increase the domestic sugar industry's profit margin from near zero to 7%. Along with helping a struggling industry, the phytochelate will bring substantial improvements to crop and tree production and greatly reduce the environmental threat posed by nitrogen-based fertilizers. Currently, the amount of fertilizer used produces harmful levels of run-off that contaminates ground water with unwanted nitrogen. By utilizing organic acid phytochelates, which assist plant growth by unlocking minerals stored in soil, fertilizer use can be dramatically reduced. This would improve crop yields, remove environmental threats to ground water, and cut fertilizer costs by as much as 50%.

Simon, P.

1999-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

470

Evaluation of the potential for agricultural development at the Hanford Site  

SciTech Connect

By 2050, when cleanup of the Hanford Site is expected to be completed, large worldwide demands to increase the global production of animalhlish protein, food, and fiber are anticipated, despite advancements in crop breeding, genetic engineering, and other technologies. World population is projected to double to more than 12 billion people, straining already stressed worldwide agricultural resources. The current world surpluses in many commodities will not last when faced with increasing population, decreasing ocean fisheries, and rapid loss of productive lands from soil salivation and erosion. The production of pharmaceuticals from bioengineered plants and animals will undoubtedly add more pressure on the already limited (and declining) arable land base. In addition there will be pressure to produce crops that can help reduce the world's dependence on petroleum and be used for chemical plant feedstock. These external, formidable pressures will necessitate increasing investments in irrigation infi-a-structures in many areas of the world to increase productivity. Intensive greenhouse culture and aqua-culture also will be greatly expanded. There will be large economic and social pressures to expand production in areas such as the Pacific Northwest. Agricultural exports will continue to be important The most likely large areas for expanded irrigation in the Pacific Northwest are the undeveloped East High areas of the Columbia Basin Project and non-restricted areas within the Hanford Site in south-central Washington State. Both of these are potentially highly productive area: for producing food and export capital. The environmental concerns will be large however, the favorable growing conditions, high-quality (low-salinity) abundant water supplies and minimal problems with salivation of soils make the Pacific Northwest a very desirable region for economically sustainable expansion from a world perspective.

RG Evans; MJ Hattendorf; CT Kincaid

2000-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

471

Evaluation of the Strategic Alliance for Agricultural  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

local entrepreneurship, agribusiness cluster formation and the development of competitive value chains Evaluation of the Strategic Alliance for Agricultural Development in Africa (SAADA program) 2006-20092 | SAADA Evaluation 2006-2009Local entrepreneurship, agribusiness cluster formation and the development of competitive value chains

Moussiliou Alidou; Marjolein Lem; Ted Schrader; Fons De Zeeuw; Moussiliou Alidou; Marjolein Lem; Ted Schrader; Fons De Zeeuw

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

472

Agricultural Waste Management System Component Design  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Management Field Handbook 10­1(210-vi-AWMFH, rev. 1, July 1996) Chapter 10 Agricultural Waste Management..............................................................................................10­67 (b) Gravity flow pipes Waste Management Field Handbook 10­2 (210-vi-AWMFH, rev. 1, July 1996) 651.1006 Utilization 10­71 (a

Mukhtar, Saqib

473

Assessment of durability performance of "Early-Opening-to-Traffic" Portland Cement Concrete pavement and patches  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This study relates the assessment of durability to ''early-opening-to-traffic'' (EOT) portland cement concrete (PCC). Several factors were identified relative to the performance of EOT PCC. Each of these factors was considered in terms of freeze-thaw, shrinkage, chemical attack, abrasion resistance, fatigue life, volumetric expansion, practicality, and concrete costs. The assessment discusses material combinations, mixture designs, and construction practices on performance. A computer program using utility decision theory was applied in evaluating the parameters. Promising combinations of the above factors were determined based on the existing knowledge of material combinations used for EOT PCC, coupled with our understanding of the potentials of high performance concrete (HPC) for this type of application.

Shrestha, Pradhumna Babu

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

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Monitoring the Durability Performance of Concrete in Nuclear Waste Containment. Technical Progress Report No. 4  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

OAK-B135 Monitoring the Durability Performance of Concrete in Nuclear Waste Containment. Technical Progress Report No. 4. The analysis of the effect of cracks on the acceleration of the calcium leaching process of cement-based materials has been pursued. During the last period (Technical Progress Report No 3), we have introduced a modeling accounting for the high diffusivity of fractures in comparison with the weak solid material diffusivity. It has been shown through dimensional and asymptotic analysis that small fractures do not significantly accelerate the material aging process. This important result for the overall structural aging kinetics of containment structure has been developed in a paper submitted to the international journal ''Transport in Porous Media''.

Ulm, Franz-Josef

2000-06-30T23:59:59.000Z