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Sample records for duct high velocity

  1. Duct spinning mode's particle velocity imaging with in-duct circular microphone array

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, Xun

    Duct spinning mode's particle velocity imaging with in-duct circular microphone array Qingkai Wei's Republic of China Nowadays, the measurements within a duct have to be conducted using in-duct microphone. In this work, an imaging method of acoustic spinning modes propagating within a circular duct simply

  2. Viscous Flow in Ducts We want to study the viscous flow in ducts with various velocities, fluids and duct shapes. The basic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bahrami, Majid

    Viscous Flow in Ducts We want to study the viscous flow in ducts with various velocities, fluids and duct shapes. The basic problem is this: Given the pipe geometry and its added components (e Fluid Mechanics (S 09) Viscous Flow in Ducts 2 103

  3. PIV velocity measurements in the wake of an obstruction simulating a Taylor bubble in a duct

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vassallo, P.; Kumar, R.

    1997-06-01

    Mean velocity measurements in the wake of an obstruction simulating a Taylor bubble (or slug) have been obtained using Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) in a duct. Two flow rates were established: one represented the flow behind a large gas slug rising in quiescent fluid and the other represented an idealized slug rising with a higher relative velocity, as typically found in higher void fraction churn-turbulent flow. The results indicate that, in a reference frame fixed to the slug, the flow around the sides of the slug behaves like wall bounded jets which eventually merge downstream of the slug. The ratio of wake volume to slug volume is nearly the same for both Reynolds numbers tested (i.e., 3.0 at Re = 3,628 and 2.9 at Re = 7.257) although the measurements suggest that the wake size decreases somewhat as the Reynolds number is increased.

  4. An Experimental Method for Determining the Time Constants of Capacitive Thin-Film Polymer Humidity sensors at Various Duct Air Velocities 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dooley, B.; O'Neal, D.

    2008-01-01

    of capacitive thin-jļlm polymer humidity sensors to step changes in humidity and temperature as a function of air velocity was investigated. Two duct-mounted humidity sensors (designated Candidate X and Candidate Y) from two manufacturers, each with thin... changes in RH and temperature over a range of air velocities. Duct air velocities ofO (stili air). 200. 500. 800, and UOOft/min (0. 1.0, 2.5. 4.1, and 5.6 m/s) were considered along with .step changes in RH of 20%-40% and step changes in air temperature...

  5. Modeling particle loss in ventilation ducts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sippola, M R; Nazaroff, William W

    2003-01-01

    m) (c) 85% ASHRAE filters at air intake high-loss ducts low-loss ducts fractional fate (-) exhausted indoors indoorssurface deposition supply & return duct deposition filtered

  6. Design and Evaluation of a High Temperature Burner Duct Recuperator System 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Parks, W. P.; DeBellis, C. L.; Kneidel, K.

    1988-01-01

    "The Babcock & Wilcox Company (B&W) has completed a program to design, construct, install, and field test a ceramic-based high-temperature burner-duct-recuperator (HTBDR) in an industrial setting. The unit was capable of operating in corrosive, high...

  7. Technology Solutions Case Study: High-Performance Ducts in Hot-Dry Climates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M. Hoeschele, A. German, E. Weitzel, R. Chitwood

    2015-08-01

    Ducts in conditioned space (DCS) represent a high priority measure for moving the next generation of new homes to the Zero Net Energy performance level. Various strategies exist for incorporating ducts within the conditioned thermal envelope. To support this activity, in 2013 the Pacific Gas & Electric Company initiated a project with Davis Energy Group (lead for the Building America team, Alliance for Residential Building Innovation) to solicit builder involvement in California to participate in field demonstrations of various DCS strategies. Builders were given incentives and design support in exchange for providing site access for construction observation, diagnostic testing, and builder survey feedback. Information from the project was designed to feed into California's 2016 Title 24 process, but also to serve as an initial mechanism to engage builders in more high performance construction strategies. This Building America project complemented information collected in the California project with BEopt simulations of DCS performance in hot/dry climate regions.

  8. High-Performance Ducts in Hot-Dry Climates

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would likeUniverse (JournalvivoHigh energy neutron ComputedHigh-Performance Computing for

  9. Particle deposition in ventilation ducts: Connectors, bends anddeveloping flow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sippola, Mark R.; Nazaroff, William W.

    2004-03-01

    In ventilation duct flow the turbulent flow profile is commonly disturbed or not fully developed and these conditions are likely to influence particle deposition to duct surfaces. Particle deposition rates at eight S-connectors, in two 90{sup o} duct bends and in two ducts where the turbulent flow profile was not fully developed were measured in a laboratory duct system with both galvanized steel and internally insulated ducts with hydraulic diameters of 15.2 cm. In the steel duct system, experiments with nominal particle diameters of 1, 3, 5, 9 and 16 {micro}m were conducted at each of three nominal air speeds: 2.2, 5.3 and 9.0 m/s. In the insulated duct system, deposition of particles with nominal diameters of 1, 3, 5, 8 and 13 {micro}m was measured at nominal air speeds of 2.2, 5.3 and 8.8 m/s. Fluorescent techniques were used to directly measure the deposition velocities of monodisperse fluorescent particles to duct surfaces. Deposition at S-connectors, in bends and in straight ducts with developing turbulence was often greater than deposition in straight ducts with fully developed turbulence for equal particle sizes, air speeds and duct surface orientations. Deposition rates at all locations were found to increase with an increase in particle size or air speed. High deposition rates at S-connectors resulted from impaction and these rates were nearly independent of the orientation of the S-connector. Deposition rates in the two 90{sup o} bends differed by more than an order of magnitude in some cases, probably because of the difference in turbulence conditions at the bend inlets. In straight steel ducts where the turbulent flow profile was developing, the deposition enhancement relative to fully developed turbulence generally increased with air speed and decreased with downstream distance from the duct inlet. This enhancement was greater at the duct ceiling and wall than at the duct floor. In insulated ducts, deposition enhancement was less pronounced overall than in steel ducts. Trends that were observed in steel ducts were present, but weaker, in insulated ducts.

  10. Quench propagation velocity for highly stabilized conductors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mints, R.G. |; Ogitsu, T. |; Devred, A.

    1995-05-01

    Quench propagation velocity in conductors having a large amount of stabilizer outside the multifilamentary area is considered. It is shown that the current redistribution process between the multifilamentary area and the stabilizer can strongly effect the quench propagation. A criterion is derived determining the conditions under which the current redistribution process becomes significant, and a model of effective stabilizer area is suggested to describe its influence on the quench propagation velocity. As an illustration, the model is applied to calculate the adiabatic quench propagation velocity for a conductor geometry with a multifilamentary area embedded inside the stabilizer.

  11. High-Performance Ducts in Hot-Dry Climates Hoeschele, Marc [National

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Performance Ducts in Hot-Dry Climates Hoeschele, Marc National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Chitwood, Rick National Renewable Energy...

  12. Building America Case Study: High Performance Ducts in Hot-Dry...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Ducts in Hot-Dry Climates; Technology Solutions for New and Existing Homes, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE) Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Building...

  13. Cryogenic Testing of High-Velocity Spoke Cavities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hopper, Christopher S.; Delayen, Jean R.; Park, HyeKyoung

    2014-12-01

    Spoke-loaded cavities are being investigated for the high-velocity regime. The relative compactness at low-frequency makes them attractive for applications requiring, or benefiting from, 4 K operation. Additionally, the large velocity acceptance makes them good candidates for the acceleration of high-velocity protons and ions. Here we present the results of cryogenic testing of a 325 MHz, ?0= 0.82 single-spoke cavity and a 500 MHz, ?0 = 1 double-spoke cavity.

  14. Experimental High Velocity Acid Jetting in Limestone Carbonates 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Holland, Christopher

    2014-04-30

    Acid jetting is a well stimulation technique that is used in carbonate reservoirs. It typically involves injecting acid down hole at high flow rates through small orifices which cause high velocities of acid to strike the borehole wall...

  15. Superconducting spoke cavities for high-velocity applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hopper, Christopher S. [Old Dominion U.; Delayen, Jean R. [Old Dominion U., JLAB

    2013-10-01

    To date, superconducting spoke cavities have been designed, developed, and tested for particle velocities up to {beta}{sub 0}~0.6, but there is a growing interest in possible applications of multispoke cavities for high-velocity applications. We have explored the design parameter space for low-frequency, high-velocity, double-spoke superconducting cavities in order to determine how each design parameter affects the electromagnetic properties, in particular the surface electromagnetic fields and the shunt impedance. We present detailed design for cavities operating at 325 and 352 MHz and optimized for {beta}{sub 0}~=0.82 and 1.

  16. Mixing between high velocity clouds and the galactic halo

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gritton, Jeffrey A.; Shelton, Robin L.; Kwak, Kyujin E-mail: rls@physast.uga.edu

    2014-11-01

    In the Galactic halo, metal-bearing Galactic halo material mixes into high velocity clouds (HVCs) as they hydrodynamically interact. This interaction begins long before the clouds completely dissipate and long before they slow to the velocity of the Galactic material. In order to make quantitative estimates of the mixing efficiency and resulting metal enrichment of HVCs, we made detailed two- and three-dimensional simulations of cloud-interstellar medium interactions. Our simulations track the hydrodynamics and time-dependent ionization levels. They assume that the cloud originally has a warm temperature and extremely low metallicity while the surrounding medium has a high temperature, low density, and substantial metallicity, but our simulations can be generalized to other choices of initial metallicities. In our simulations, mixing between cloud and halo gas noticeably raises the metallicity of the high velocity material. We present plots of the mixing efficiency and metal enrichment as a function of time.

  17. Modeling and Control of High-Velocity Oxygen-Fuel (HVOF) Thermal Spray: A Tutorial Review

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Mingheng; Christofides, Panagiotis D.

    2009-01-01

    Fluid Dynamics Analysis of a Wire- Feed, High-Velocity Oxygen Fuel (Fluid Dynamic Modeling of Gas Flow Charac- teristics in a High-Velocity Oxy-Fuel

  18. Particle deposition from turbulent flow: Review of published research and its applicability to ventilation ducts in commercial buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sippola, Mark R.; Nazaroff, William W.

    2002-01-01

    a 90° bend in a 15-cm square duct at a velocity of 5 m/s.M. and Wang, D. (1999) Duct systems in large commercialin ventilation air supply ducts. Proceedings of Indoor Air ‘

  19. Infected thyroglossal duct cyst.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deaver, MJ; Silman, EF; Lotfipour, S

    2009-01-01

    Som P. CT of Thyroglossal Duct Cysts. Radiology. 1985; 157:edicine Infected Thyroglossal Duct Cyst Mark J. Deaver, MD,of infected thyroglossal duct cyst was made. The patient was

  20. Resonant Orbits and the High Velocity Peaks Towards the Bulge

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Molloy, Matthew; Evans, N Wyn; Shen, Juntai

    2015-01-01

    We extract the resonant orbits from an N-body bar that is a good representation of the Milky Way, using the method recently introduced by Molloy et al. (2015). By decomposing the bar into its constituent orbit families, we show that they are intimately connected to the boxy-peanut shape of the density. We highlight the imprint due solely to resonant orbits on the kinematic landscape towards the Galactic centre. The resonant orbits are shown to have distinct kinematic features and may be used to explain the cold velocity peak seen in the APOGEE commissioning data (Nidever et al. 2012). We show that high velocity peaks are a natural consequence of the motions of stars in the 2:1 orbit family. The locations of the peaks vary with bar angle and, with the tacit assumption that the observed peaks are due to the 2:1 family, we find that the locations of the high velocity peaks correspond to bar angles in the range 10 < theta_bar < 25 (deg). However, some important questions about the nature of the peaks remain...

  1. High velocity compact clouds in the sagittarius C region

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tanaka, Kunihiko; Oka, Tomoharu; Matsumura, Shinji [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Keio University, 3-14-1 Hiyoshi, Yokohama, Kanagawa 223-8522 (Japan); Nagai, Makoto [Division of Physics, Faculty of Pure and Applied Sciences, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Ten-noudai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8571 (Japan); Kamegai, Kazuhisa, E-mail: ktanaka@phys.keio.ac.jp [Department of Industrial Administration, Faculty of Science and Technology, Tokyo University of Science, 2641 Yamazaki, Noda, Chiba 278-8510 (Japan)

    2014-03-01

    We report the detection of extremely broad emission toward two molecular clumps in the Galactic central molecular zone. We have mapped the Sagittarius C complex (–0.°61 < l < –0.°27, –0.°29 < b < 0.°04) in the HCN J = 4-3, {sup 13}CO J = 3-2, and H{sup 13}CN J = 1-0 lines with the ASTE 10 m and NRO 45 m telescopes, detecting bright emission with 80-120 km s{sup –1} velocity width (in full-width at zero intensity) toward CO–0.30–0.07 and CO–0.40–0.22, which are high velocity compact clouds (HVCCs) identified with our previous CO J = 3-2 survey. Our data reveal an interesting internal structure of CO–0.30–0.07 comprising a pair of high velocity lobes. The spatial-velocity structure of CO–0.40–0.22 can be also understood as a multiple velocity component, or a velocity gradient across the cloud. They are both located on the rims of two molecular shells of about 10 pc in radius. Kinetic energies of CO–0.30–0.07 and CO–0.40–0.22 are (0.8-2) × 10{sup 49} erg and (1-4) × 10{sup 49} erg, respectively. We propose several interpretations of their broad emission: collision between clouds associated with the shells, bipolar outflow, expansion driven by supernovae (SNe), and rotation around a dark massive object. These scenarios cannot be discriminated because of the insufficient angular resolution of our data, though the absence of a visible energy source associated with the HVCCs seems to favor the cloud-cloud collision scenario. Kinetic energies of the two molecular shells are 1 × 10{sup 51} erg and 0.7 × 10{sup 51} erg, which can be furnished by multiple SN or hypernova explosions in 2 × 10{sup 5} yr. These shells are candidates of molecular superbubbles created after past active star formation.

  2. Velocity distribution of high-energy particles and the solar neutrino problem

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jian-Miin Liu

    2001-08-18

    High energy infers high velocity and high velocity is a concept of special relativity. The Maxwellian velocity distribution is corrected to be consistent with special relativity. The corrected distribution reduces to the Maxwellian distribution for small velocities, contains a relatively depleted high-energy tail and vanishes at the velocity of light. This corrected distribution will lower solar neutrino fluxes and change solar neutrino energy spectra but keep solar sound speeds.

  3. An Accurate Distance to High-Velocity Cloud Complex C

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. Thom; J. E. G. Peek; M. E. Putman; Carl Heiles; K. M. G. Peek; R. Wilhelm

    2008-04-23

    We report an accurate distance of d = 10+/-2.5kpc to the high-velocity cloud Complex C. Using high signal-to-noise Keck/HIRES spectra of two horizontal-branch stars, we have detected CaII K absorption lines from the cloud. Significant non-detections toward a further 3 stars yield robust lower distance limits. The resulting HI mass of Complex C is 4.9^{+2.8}_{-2.2} x 10^6 Msun; a total mass of 8.2^{+4.6}_{-2.6} x 10^6 Msun is implied, after corrections for helium and ionization. At 10kpc, Complex C has physical dimensions 3x15 kpc, and if it is as thick as it is wide, then the average density is log ~ -2.5. We estimate the contribution of Complex C to the mass influx may be as high as ~0.14 Msun/yr.

  4. Irradiation dose and temperature dependence of fracture toughness in high dose HT9 steel from the fuel duct of FFTF

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Byun, Thak Sang; Toloczko, Mychailo B.; Saleh, Tarik A.; Maloy, Stuart A.

    2013-01-14

    To expand the knowledge base for fast reactor core materials, fracture toughness has been evaluated for high dose HT9 steel using miniature disk compact tension (DCT) specimens. The HT9 steel DCT specimens were machined from the ACO-3 fuel duct of the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF), which achieved high doses in the range of 3–148 dpa at 378–504 C. The static fracture resistance (J-R) tests have been performed in a servohydraulic testing machine in vacuum at selected temperatures including room temperature, 200 C, and each irradiation temperature. Brittle fracture with a low toughness less than 50 MPa pm occurred in room temperature tests when irradiation temperature was below 400 C, while ductile fracture with stable crack growth was observed when irradiation temperature was higher. No fracture toughness less than 100 MPa pm was measured when the irradiation temperature was above 430 C. It was shown that the influence of irradiation temperature was dominant in fracture toughness while the irradiation dose has only limited influence over the wide dose range 3–148 dpa. A slow decrease of fracture toughness with test temperature above room temperature was observed for the nonirradiated and high temperature (>430 *C) irradiation cases, which indicates that the ductile–brittle transition temperatures (DBTTs) in those conditions are lower than room temperature. A comparison with the collection of existing data confirmed the dominance of irradiation temperature in the fracture toughness of HT9 steels.

  5. Case History Imaging permafrost velocity structure using high resolution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ramachandran, Kumar

    horizontal and vertical checkerboard tests confirm the robustness of the velocity model in detailing small the permafrost velocity structure in lateral and vertical directions. It is inferred from the velocity model reflection data. More specifically, geothermal heterogeneities within the permafrost are associated

  6. Particle deposition in ventilation ducts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sippola, Mark R.

    2002-01-01

    M. and Wang, D. (1999) Duct systems in large commercialin ventilation air supply ducts. Proceedings of Indoor Air ‘filtration efficiency of in-duct ventilation air cleaners.

  7. Duct joining system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Proctor, John P. (44 Glen Dr., Fairfax, CA 94930); deKieffer, Robert C. (Boulder, CO)

    2001-01-01

    A duct joining system for providing an air-tight seal and mechanical connection for ducts and fittings is disclosed. The duct joining system includes a flexible gasket affixed to a male end of a duct or fitting. The flexible gasket is affixed at an angle relative to normal of the male end of the duct. The female end of the other duct includes a raised bead in which the flexible gasket is seated when the ducts are properly joined. The angled flexible gasket seated in the raised bead forms an air-tight seal as well as fastens or locks the male end to the female end. Alternatively, when a flexible duct is used, a band clamp with a raised bead is clamped over the female end of the flexible duct and over the male end of a fitting to provide an air tight seal and fastened connection.

  8. Duct Joining System

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Proctor, John P. (Fairfax, CA)

    2001-02-27

    A duct joining system for providing an air-tight seal and mechanical connection for ducts and fittings is disclosed. The duct joining system includes a flexible gasket affixed to a male end of a duct or fitting. The flexible gasket is affixed at an angle relative to normal of the male end of the duct. The female end of the other duct includes a raised bead in which the flexible gasket is seated when the ducts are properly joined. The angled flexible gasket seated in the raised bead forms an air-tight seal as well as fastens or locks the male end to the female end. Alternatively, when a flexible duct is used, a band clamp with a raised bead is clamped over the female end of the flexible duct and over the male end of a fitting to provide an air tight seal and fastened connection.

  9. High-Performance Ducts in Hot-Dry Climates (Technical Report) | SciTech

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would likeUniverse (JournalvivoHigh energy neutron ComputedHigh-Performance Computing

  10. Distances to Galactic high-velocity clouds. Complex C

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. P. Wakker; D. G. York; J. C. Howk; J. C. Barentine; R. Wilhelm; R. F. Peletier; H. van Woerden; T. C. Beers; Z. Ivezic; P. Richter; U. J. Schwarz

    2007-10-17

    We report the first determination of a distance bracket for the high-velocity cloud (HVC) complex C. Combined with previous measurements showing that this cloud has a metallicity of 0.15 times solar, these results provide ample evidence that complex C traces the continuing accretion of intergalactic gas falling onto the Milky Way. Accounting for both neutral and ionized hydrogen as well as He, the distance bracket implies a mass of 3-14x10^6 M_sun, and the complex represents a mass inflow of 0.1-0.25 M_sun/yr. We base our distance bracket on the detection of CaII absorption in the spectrum of the blue horizontal branch star SDSS J120404.78+623345.6, in combination with a significant non-detection toward the BHB star BS 16034-0114. These results set a strong distance bracket of 3.7-11.2 kpc on the distance to complex C. A more weakly supported lower limit of 6.7 kpc may be derived from the spectrum of the BHB star BS 16079-0017.

  11. The Galactic Nature of High Velocity Cloud Complex WB

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. Thom; M. E. Putman; B. K. Gibson; N. Christlieb; C. Flynn; T. C. Beers; R. Wilhelm; Y. S. Lee

    2006-01-06

    We have detected absorption lines from the High Velocity Cloud Complex WB in the spectrum of the star HE1048+0231. This detection sets an upper distance limit to the cloud of 8.8^{+2.3}_{-1.3} kpc. Non-detection (at >4 sigma confidence) in the star HE1138-1303 at 7.7 +/- 0.2 kpc sets a probable lower limit. The equivalent width of the CaII K line due to the HVC (114.6 +/- 4.4 mA) corresponds to a column density of 1.32 +/- 0.05 x 10^12 cm^-2. Using an HI spectrum from the Leiden/Argentine/Bonn survey, we calculated N(CaII)/N(HI) = 81 +/- 16 x 10^-9. These distance limits imply an HI mass limit of 3.8 x 10^5 Msun < M_HI < 4.9 x 10^5 Msun. The upper distance limit imposed by these observations shows that this HVC complex has a probable Galactic or circum-Galactic origin. Future metallicity measurements will be able to confirm or refute this interpretation.

  12. Microsoft Word - VitPlantInstallsCrucialDuct_20110209.doc

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Treatment Plant, also known as the "Vit Plant," set a giant heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) duct in the High-Level Waste Facility. The nuclear-quality duct is...

  13. Duct and Blower Section 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Unknown

    2011-08-17

    The deflection of a spiral duct depends on its flat span, gauge, pressure, and reinforcement. Furthermore, the duct weight determines the cost of installation, not only in material costs but also labor, which is bid by the duct weight. The current...

  14. High Velocity Rain: The Terminal Velocity of Model of Galactic Infall

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robert A. Benjamin; Laura Danly

    1996-12-18

    A model is proposed for determining the distances to falling interstellar clouds in the galactic halo by measuring the cloud velocity and column density and assuming a model for the vertical density distribution of the Galactic interstellar medium. It is shown that falling clouds with $N(H I) \\sim 0.4 kpc$ one or more of the following occurs: (1) the neutral fraction of the cloud decreases to $\\sim 31 \\pm 14%$, (2) the density drops off faster than characterized by Reynolds, or (3) there is a systematic decrease in drag coefficient with increasing z.

  15. High- and low-temperature-stable thermite composition for producing high-pressure, high-velocity gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Halcomb, Danny L. (Camden, OH); Mohler, Jonathan H. (Spring Valley, OH)

    1990-10-16

    A high- and low-temperature-stable thermite composition for producing high-pressure and high-velocity gases comprises an oxidizable metal, an oxidizing reagent, and a high-temperature-stable gas-producing additive selected from the group consisting of metal carbides and metal nitrides.

  16. High velocity clumps and cluster of galaxies evolution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Del Popolo; M. Gambera

    2002-08-19

    We study the effect of the interaction between small scale clumps having velocities larger than the average escape velocity v_{\\rm esc} and bound clumps (having v

  17. Low inlet gas velocity high throughput biomass gasifier

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feldmann, Herman F.; Paisley, Mark A.

    1989-01-01

    The present invention discloses a novel method of operating a gasifier for production of fuel gas from carbonaceous fuels. The process disclosed enables operating in an entrained mode using inlet gas velocities of less than 7 feet per second, feedstock throughputs exceeding 4000 lbs/ft.sup.2 -hr, and pressures below 100 psia.

  18. ORIGINAL ARTICLE A Mathematical Model of the Pancreatic Duct Cell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ermentrout, G. Bard

    ORIGINAL ARTICLE A Mathematical Model of the Pancreatic Duct Cell Generating High Bicarbonate a simple, physiologically based mathemati- cal model of pancreatic duct cell secretion using experimentally CFTR activation. Methods: A new mathematical model was developed simulating a duct cell within

  19. A CLASSIFICATION OF DUCT MODES BASED ON SURFACE WAVES Sjoerd W. Rienstra

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eindhoven, Technische Universiteit

    A CLASSIFICATION OF DUCT MODES BASED ON SURFACE WAVES Sjoerd W. Rienstra Department of Mathematics For the relatively high frequencies relevant in a turbofan engine duct the modes of a lined sec- tion may be classified in two categories: genuine acoustic 3D duct modes resulting from the finiteness of the duct

  20. A CLASSIFICATION OF DUCT MODES BASED ON SURFACE WAVES Sjoerd W. Rienstra

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eindhoven, Technische Universiteit

    A CLASSIFICATION OF DUCT MODES BASED ON SURFACE WAVES Sjoerd W. Rienstra Department of Mathematics For the relatively high frequencies relevant in a turbofan engine duct the modes of a lined sec­ tion may be classified in two categories: genuine acoustic 3D duct modes resulting from the finiteness of the duct

  1. Low inlet gas velocity high throughput biomass gasifier

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feldmann, H.F.; Paisley, M.A.

    1989-05-09

    A method is described for operating a gasifier which comprises: introducing inlet gas at a velocity of about 0.5 to 7 ft/sec to fluidize a bed in a gasifier vessel; forming the bed into a fluidized bed in a first space region by means of the inlet gas, the fluidized bed containing a circulating hot relatively fine and inert solid bed particle component; inputting and throughputting carbonaceous material into and through the first space region with fluidized bed at a rate from 500-4400 lbs/ft/sup 2/-hr; endothermally pyrolyzing the carbonaceous material by means of the circulating hot inert particle component so as to form a product gas; forming contiguous to and above the fluidized bed a lower average density entrained space region containing an entrained mixture of inert solid particles, char, and carbonaceous material and the product gas; gradually and continuously removing the entrained mixture and the product gas from the lower average density entrained space region of the gasifier to a separator, residence time of the carbonaceous material in the gasifier not exceeding 3 minutes on average; separating the entrained mixture from the product gas; passing the entrained mixture containing inert solid particles, char, and carbonaceous material through an exothermic reaction zone to add heat; and returning at least the inert solid particles to the first space region.

  2. Variables Affecting Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics Simulation of High-Velocity Flyer Plate Impact Experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Somasundaram, Deepak S [UNLV; Trabia, Mohamed [UNLV; O'Toole, Brendan [UNLV; Hixson, Robert S [NSTec

    2014-01-23

    This paper describes our work to characterize the variables affecting the smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) method in the LS-DYNA package for simulating high-velocity flyer plate impact experiments. LS-DYNA simulations are compared with one-dimensional experimental data of an oxygen-free high-conductivity (OFHC) copper flyer plate impacting another plate of the same material. The comparison is made by measuring the velocity of a point on the back surface of the impact plate using the velocity interferometer system for any reflector (VISAR) technique.

  3. Corrosion inhibitor selection for arctic and subsea high-velocity flowlines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dougherty, J.A.

    2000-03-01

    Qualifying corrosion inhibitors for use in high-velocity multiphase flowlines in arctic or subsea environments is discussed. The criteria include high-velocity flow loop corrosion tests, pumpability through 0.125-in. (0.318-cm) capillary at low temperatures, compatibility with nylon 11, emulsion tendency testing, and partitioning characteristics. Laboratory and field data show the importance of using these criteria for inhibitor selection.

  4. Criteria for the selection of corrosion inhibitors for Arctic and subsea high velocity flowlines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dougherty, J.A.; Ahn, Y.S.

    1999-11-01

    Qualifying corrosion inhibitors for use in high velocity multiphase flowlines in arctic or subsea environments is discussed. The tests include high velocity flow loop corrosion tests, pumpability through 0.125 (0.318 cm) inch capillary at low temperatures, compatibility with Nylon 11, emulsion tendency testing, and partitioning characteristics. Laboratory and field data show the importance for using the above criteria for inhibitor selection.

  5. The Duct Tape of Computer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sherwood, Tim

    AWK: The Duct Tape of Computer Science Research Tim Sherwood UC Santa Barbara #12;AWK - Sherwood 2 Duct Tape Systems Research Environment Ā· Lots of simulators, data, and analysis tools Ā· Since it is research, nothing works together Unix pipes are the ducts Awk is the duct tape Ā· It's not the "best" way

  6. Experiments measuring particle deposition from fully developed turbulent flow in ventilation ducts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sippola, Mark R.; Nazaroff, William W.

    2003-08-01

    Particle deposition in ventilation ducts influences particle exposures of building occupants and may lead to a variety of indoor air quality concerns. Experiments have been performed in a laboratory to study the effects of particle size and air speed on deposition rates of particles from turbulent air flows in galvanized steel and internally insulated ducts with hydraulic diameters of 15.2 cm. The duct systems were constructed of materials typically found in commercial heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) systems. In the steel duct system, experiments with nominal particle sizes of 1, 3, 5, 9 and 16 {micro}m were conducted at each of three nominal air speeds: 2.2, 5.3 and 9.0 m/s. In the insulated duct system, deposition rates of particles with nominal sizes of 1, 3, 5, 8 and 13 {micro}m were measured at nominal air speeds of 2.2, 5.3 and 8.8 m/s. Fluorescent techniques were used to directly measure the deposition velocities of monodisperse fluorescent particles to duct surfaces (floor, wall and ceiling) at two straight duct sections where the turbulent flow profile was fully developed. In steel ducts, deposition rates were higher to the duct floor than to the wall, which were, in turn, greater than to the ceiling. In insulated ducts, deposition was nearly the same to the duct floor, wall and ceiling for a given particle size and air speed. Deposition to duct walls and ceilings was greatly enhanced in insulated ducts compared to steel ducts. Deposition velocities to each of the three duct surface orientations in both systems were found to increase with increasing particle size or air velocity over the ranges studied. Deposition rates measured in the current experiments were in general agreement with the limited observations of similar systems by previous researchers.

  7. Modeling particle loss in ventilation ducts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sippola, Mark R.; Nazaroff, William W.

    2003-01-01

    particles in turbulent duct flows. Chemical EngineeringDeposition in Ventilation Ducts. Ph.D. Dissertation,Deposition in Ventilating Duct Systems. Ph.D. Dissertation,

  8. Atypical presentation of an omphalomesenteric duct cyst

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ballester, Irene; Betlloch, Isabel; Pérez-Crespo, Marķa; Toledo, Fernando; Cuesta, Laura

    2009-01-01

    KW, Grosfeld JL. Vitelline duct anomalies. Experience withof the omphalomesenteric duct. Childhood differentialof an omphalomesenteric duct cyst Irene Ballester MD, Isabel

  9. HIGH-RESOLUTION OBSERVATIONS AND THE PHYSICS OF HIGH-VELOCITY CLOUD A0

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Verschuur, Gerrit L.

    2013-04-01

    The neutral hydrogen structure of high-velocity cloud A0 (at about -180 km s{sup -1}) has been mapped with a 9.'1 resolution. Gaussian decomposition of the profiles is used to separately map families of components defined by similarities in center velocities and line widths. About 70% of the H I gas is in the form of a narrow, twisted filament whose typical line widths are of the order of 24 km s{sup -1}. Many bright features with narrow line widths of the order of 6 km s{sup -1}, clouds, are located in and near the filament. A third category with properties between those of the filament and clouds appears in the data. The clouds are not always co-located with the broader line width filament emission as seen projected on the sky. Under the assumption that magnetic fields underlie the presence of the filament, a theorem is developed for its stability in terms of a toroidal magnetic field generated by the flow of gas along field lines. It is suggested that the axial magnetic field strength may be derived from the excess line width of the H I emission over and above that due to kinetic temperature by invoking the role of Alfven waves that create what is in essence a form of magnetic turbulence. At a distance of 200 pc the axial and the derived toroidal magnetic field strengths in the filament are then about 6 {mu}G while for the clouds they are about 4 {mu}G. The dependence of the derived field strength on distance is discussed.

  10. Particle deposition in ventilation ducts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sippola, Mark R.

    2002-09-01

    Exposure to airborne particles is detrimental to human health and indoor exposures dominate total exposures for most people. The accidental or intentional release of aerosolized chemical and biological agents within or near a building can lead to exposures of building occupants to hazardous agents and costly building remediation. Particle deposition in heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems may significantly influence exposures to particles indoors, diminish HVAC performance and lead to secondary pollutant release within buildings. This dissertation advances the understanding of particle behavior in HVAC systems and the fates of indoor particles by means of experiments and modeling. Laboratory experiments were conducted to quantify particle deposition rates in horizontal ventilation ducts using real HVAC materials. Particle deposition experiments were conducted in steel and internally insulated ducts at air speeds typically found in ventilation ducts, 2-9 m/s. Behaviors of monodisperse particles with diameters in the size range 1-16 {micro}m were investigated. Deposition rates were measured in straight ducts with a fully developed turbulent flow profile, straight ducts with a developing turbulent flow profile, in duct bends and at S-connector pieces located at duct junctions. In straight ducts with fully developed turbulence, experiments showed deposition rates to be highest at duct floors, intermediate at duct walls, and lowest at duct ceilings. Deposition rates to a given surface increased with an increase in particle size or air speed. Deposition was much higher in internally insulated ducts than in uninsulated steel ducts. In most cases, deposition in straight ducts with developing turbulence, in duct bends and at S-connectors at duct junctions was higher than in straight ducts with fully developed turbulence. Measured deposition rates were generally higher than predicted by published models. A model incorporating empirical equations based on the experimental measurements was applied to evaluate particle losses in supply and return duct runs. Model results suggest that duct losses are negligible for particle sizes less than 1 {micro}m and complete for particle sizes greater than 50 {micro}m. Deposition to insulated ducts, horizontal duct floors and bends are predicted to control losses in duct systems. When combined with models for HVAC filtration and deposition to indoor surfaces to predict the ultimate fates of particles within buildings, these results suggest that ventilation ducts play only a small role in determining indoor particle concentrations, especially when HVAC filtration is present. However, the measured and modeled particle deposition rates are expected to be important for ventilation system contamination.

  11. HIGH-VELOCITY CLOUDS IN THE GALACTIC ALL SKY SURVEY. I. CATALOG

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moss, V. A.; Kummerfeld, J. K.; McClure-Griffiths, N. M.; Murphy, T.; Pisano, D. J.; Curran, J. R.

    2013-11-01

    We present a catalog of high-velocity clouds (HVCs) from the Galactic All Sky Survey (GASS) of southern sky neutral hydrogen, which has 57 mK sensitivity and 1 km s{sup –1} velocity resolution and was obtained with the Parkes Telescope. Our catalog has been derived from the stray-radiation-corrected second release of GASS. We describe the data and our method of identifying HVCs and analyze the overall properties of the GASS population. We catalog a total of 1693 HVCs at declinations <0°, including 1111 positive velocity HVCs and 582 negative velocity HVCs. Our catalog also includes 295 anomalous velocity clouds (AVCs). The cloud line-widths of our HVC population have a median FWHM of ?19 km s{sup –1}, which is lower than that found in previous surveys. The completeness of our catalog is above 95% based on comparison with the HIPASS catalog of HVCs upon which we improve by an order of magnitude in spectral resolution. We find 758 new HVCs and AVCs with no HIPASS counterpart. The GASS catalog will shed unprecedented light on the distribution and kinematic structure of southern sky HVCs, as well as delve further into the cloud populations that make up the anomalous velocity gas of the Milky Way.

  12. Duct Leakage Repeatability Testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walker, Iain; Sherman, Max

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of this report is to evaluate the repeatability of the three most significant measurement techniques for duct leakage using data from the literature and recently obtained field data. We will also briefly discuss the first two factors. The main question to be answered by this study is to determine if differences in the repeatability of these tests methods is sufficient to indicate that any of these methods is so poor that it should be excluded from consideration as an allowed procedure in codes and standards. The three duct leak measurement methods assessed in this report are the two duct pressurization methods that are commonly used by many practitioners and the DeltaQ technique. These are methods B, C and A, respectively of the ASTM E1554 standard. Although it would be useful to evaluate other duct leak test methods, this study focused on those test methods that are commonly used and are required in various test standards, such as BPI (2010), RESNET (2014), ASHRAE 62.2 (2013), California Title 24 (CEC 2012), DOE Weatherization and many other energy efficiency programs.

  13. High Velocity Penetration/Perforation Using Coupled Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics-Finite Element Method

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Swaddiwudhipong, S; Liu, Z S

    2012-01-01

    Finite element method (FEM) suffers from a serious mesh distortion problem when used for high velocity impact analyses. The smooth particle hydrodynamics (SPH) method is appropriate for this class of problems involving severe damages but at considerable computational cost. It is beneficial if the latter is adopted only in severely distorted regions and FEM further away. The coupled smooth particle hydrodynamics - finite element method (SFM) has been adopted in a commercial hydrocode LS-DYNA to study the perforation of Weldox 460E steel and AA5083-H116 aluminum plates with varying thicknesses and various projectile nose geometries including blunt, conical and ogival noses. Effects of the SPH domain size and particle density are studied considering the friction effect between the projectile and the target materials. The simulated residual velocities and the ballistic limit velocities from the SFM agree well with the published experimental data. The study shows that SFM is able to emulate the same failure mechan...

  14. Method and apparatus for optical Doppler tomographic imaging of fluid flow velocity in highly scattering media

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nelson, John Stuart (Laguna Niguel, CA); Milner, Thomas Edward (Irvine, CA); Chen, Zhongping (Irvine, CA)

    1999-01-01

    Optical Doppler tomography permits imaging of fluid flow velocity in highly scattering media. The tomography system combines Doppler velocimetry with high spatial resolution of partially coherent optical interferometry to measure fluid flow velocity at discrete spatial locations. Noninvasive in vivo imaging of blood flow dynamics and tissue structures with high spatial resolutions of the order of 2 to 10 microns is achieved in biological systems. The backscattered interference signals derived from the interferometer may be analyzed either through power spectrum determination to obtain the position and velocity of each particle in the fluid flow sample at each pixel, or the interference spectral density may be analyzed at each frequency in the spectrum to obtain the positions and velocities of the particles in a cross-section to which the interference spectral density corresponds. The realized resolutions of optical Doppler tomography allows noninvasive in vivo imaging of both blood microcirculation and tissue structure surrounding the vessel which has significance for biomedical research and clinical applications.

  15. Laser Doppler field sensor for high resolution flow velocity imaging without camera

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Voigt, Andreas; Bayer, Christian; Shirai, Katsuaki; Buettner, Lars; Czarske, Juergen

    2008-09-20

    In this paper we present a laser sensor for highly spatially resolved flow imaging without using a camera. The sensor is an extension of the principle of laser Doppler anemometry (LDA). Instead of a parallel fringe system, diverging and converging fringes are employed. This method facilitates the determination of the tracer particle position within the measurement volume and leads to an increased spatial and velocity resolution compared to conventional LDA. Using a total number of four fringe systems the flow is resolved in two spatial dimensions and the orthogonal velocity component. Since no camera is used, the resolution of the sensor is not influenced by pixel size effects. A spatial resolution of 4 {mu}m in the x direction and 16 {mu}m in the y direction and a relative velocity resolution of 1x10{sup -3} have been demonstrated up to now. As a first application we present the velocity measurement of an injection nozzle flow. The sensor is also highly suitable for applications in nano- and microfluidics, e.g., for the measurement of flow rates.

  16. High-velocity gas towards the LMC resides in the Milky Way halo

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richter, P; Werner, K; Rauch, T

    2015-01-01

    To explore the origin of high-velocity gas in the direction of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) we analyze absorption lines in the ultraviolet spectrum of a Galactic halo star that is located in front of the LMC at d=9.2 kpc distance. We study the velocity-component structure of low and intermediate metal ions in the spectrum of RXJ0439.8-6809, as obtained with the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS) onboard HST, and measure equivalent widths and column densities for these ions. We supplement our COS data with a Far-Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer spectrum of the nearby LMC star Sk-69 59 and with HI 21cm data from the Leiden-Argentina-Bonn (LAB) survey. Metal absorption towards RXJ0439.8-6809 is unambiguously detected in three different velocity components near v_LSR=0,+60, and +150 km/s. The presence of absorption proves that all three gas components are situated in front of the star, thus being located in the disk and inner halo of the Milky Way. For the high-velocity cloud (HVC) at v_LSR=+150 km/s we deri...

  17. Characterization of the Conus bullatus genome and its venom-duct transcriptome

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yandell, Mark

    Characterization of the Conus bullatus genome and its venom-duct transcriptome Hu et al. Hu et al ARTICLE Open Access Characterization of the Conus bullatus genome and its venom-duct transcriptome Hao Hu1 bullatus genome and venom-duct transcriptome. We find that conopeptides are highly expressed within

  18. Electrical method and apparatus for impelling the extruded ejection of high-velocity material jets

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weingart, Richard C. (Livermore, CA)

    1989-01-01

    A method and apparatus (10, 40) for producing high-velocity material jets provided. An electric current pulse generator (14, 42) is attached to an end of a coaxial two-conductor transmission line (16, 44) having an outer cylindrical conductor (18), an inner cylindrical conductor (20), and a solid plastic or ceramic insulator (21) therebetween. A coxial, thin-walled metal structure (22, 30) is conductively joined to the two conductors (18, 20) of the transmission line (16, 44). An electrical current pulse applies magnetic pressure to and possibly explosively vaporizes metal structure (22), thereby collapsing it and impelling the extruded ejection of a high-velocity material jet therefrom. The jet is comprised of the metal of the structure (22), together with the material that comprises any covering layers (32, 34) disposed on the structure. An electric current pulse generator of the explosively driven magnetic flux compression type or variety (42) may be advantageously used in the practice of this invention.

  19. Higher velocity, high-foot implosions on the National Ignition Facility laser

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Callahan, D. A.; Hurricane, O. A.; Hinkel, D. E.; Döppner, T.; Ma, T.; Park, H. -S.; Barrios Garcia, M. A.; Berzak Hopkins, L. F.; Casey, D. T.; Cerjan, C. J.; et al

    2015-05-15

    By increasing the velocity in “high foot” implosions [Dittrich et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 055002 (2014); Park et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 055001 (2014); Hurricane et al., Nature 506, 343 (2014); Hurricane et al., Phys. Plasmas 21, 056314 (2014)] on the National Ignition Facility laser, we have nearly doubled the neutron yield and the hotspot pressure as compared to the implosions reported upon last year. The implosion velocity has been increased using a combination of the laser (higher power and energy), the hohlraum (depleted uranium wall material with higher opacity and lower specific heat than gold hohlraums), andmore »the capsule (thinner capsules with less mass). We find that the neutron yield from these experiments scales systematically with a velocity-like parameter of the square root of the laser energy divided by the ablator mass. By connecting this parameter with the inferred implosion velocity (v), we find that for shots with primary yield >1e15 neutrons, the total yield ~ v???. This increase is considerably faster than the expected dependence for implosions without alpha heating ( ~v???) and is additional evidence that these experiments have significant alpha heating.« less

  20. Higher velocity, high-foot implosions on the National Ignition Facility laser

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Callahan, D. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)] (ORCID:0000000315498916); Hurricane, O. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Hinkel, D. E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Döppner, T. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Ma, T. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Park, H. -S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Barrios Garcia, M. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Berzak Hopkins, L. F. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)] (ORCID:0000000291875667); Casey, D. T. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Cerjan, C. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)] (ORCID:0000000251686845); Dewald, E. L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Dittrich, T. R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Edwards, M. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Haan, S. W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)] (ORCID:0000000184045131); Hamza, A. V. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Kline, J. L. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Knauer, J. P. [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States); Kritcher, A. L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Landen, O. L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); LePape, S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); MacPhee, A. G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)] (ORCID:0000000341604479); Milovich, J. L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Nikroo, A. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States)] (ORCID:0000000288550378); Pak, A. E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Patel, P. K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Rygg, J. R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Ralph, J. E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Salmonson, J. D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Spears, B. K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Springer, P. T. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Tommasini, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Benedetti, L. R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Bionta, R. M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Bond, E. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Bradley, D. K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Caggiano, J. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Field, J. E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Fittinghoff, D. N. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Frenje, J. [MIT (Massachusetts Inst. of Technology), Cambridge, MA (United States)] (ORCID:0000000168460378); Gatu Johnson, M. [MIT (Massachusetts Inst. of Technology), Cambridge, MA (United States); Grim, G. P. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Hatarik, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Merrill, F. E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Nagel, S. R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)] (ORCID:0000000277686819); Izumi, N. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Khan, S. F. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-05-01

    By increasing the velocity in “high foot” implosions [Dittrich et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 055002 (2014); Park et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 055001 (2014); Hurricane et al., Nature 506, 343 (2014); Hurricane et al., Phys. Plasmas 21, 056314 (2014)] on the National Ignition Facility laser, we have nearly doubled the neutron yield and the hotspot pressure as compared to the implosions reported upon last year. The implosion velocity has been increased using a combination of the laser (higher power and energy), the hohlraum (depleted uranium wall material with higher opacity and lower specific heat than gold hohlraums), and the capsule (thinner capsules with less mass). We find that the neutron yield from these experiments scales systematically with a velocity-like parameter of the square root of the laser energy divided by the ablator mass. By connecting this parameter with the inferred implosion velocity (v), we find that for shots with primary yield >1e15 neutrons, the total yield ~ v???. This increase is considerably faster than the expected dependence for implosions without alpha heating ( ~v???) and is additional evidence that these experiments have significant alpha heating.

  1. Generation of pseudo-high-order group velocity locked vector solitons in fiber lasers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jin, Xinxin; Li, Lei; Ge, Yanqi; Luo, Jiaolin; Zhang, Qian; Tang, Dingyuan; Shen, Deyuan; Fu, Songnian; Liu, Deming; Zhao, Luming

    2015-01-01

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate the generation of pseudo-high-order group velocity locked vector solitons (GVLVS) in a fiber laser using a SESAM as the mode locker. With the help of an external all-fiber polarization resolved system, a GVLVS with a two-humped pulse along one polarization while a single-humped pulse along the orthogonal polarization could be obtained. The phase difference between the two humps is 180 degree.

  2. Effects of light illumination on electron velocity of AlGaN/GaN heterostructures under high electric field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guo, Lei; Yang, Xuelin Cheng, Jianpeng; Sang, Ling; Xu, Fujun; Tang, Ning; Feng, Zhihong; Lv, Yuanjie; Wang, Xinqiang; Shen, B.; Ge, Weikun

    2014-12-15

    We have investigated the variation of electron velocity in AlGaN/GaN heterostructures depending on illuminating light intensity and wavelength. It is shown that the electron velocity at high electric field increases under above-band light illumination. This electron velocity enhancement is found to be related to the photo-generated cold holes which interact with hot electrons and thus accelerate the energy relaxation at high electric field. The results suggest an alternative way to improve the electron energy relaxation rate and hence the electron velocity in GaN based heterostructures.

  3. LBNL -45423 Stopping Duct Quacks: Longevity of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    LBNL - 45423 Stopping Duct Quacks: Longevity of Residential Duct Sealants Max H. Sherman, Iain S Duct leakage has been identified as a major source of energy loss in residential buildings. Most duct leakage occurs at the connections to registers, plenums or branches in the duct system. At each

  4. PTF 12gzk—A rapidly declining, high-velocity type Ic radio supernova

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Horesh, Assaf; Kulkarni, Shrinivas R.; Corsi, Alessandra; Frail, Dale A.; Cenko, S. Bradley; Ben-Ami, Sagi; Gal-Yam, Avishay; Yaron, Ofer; Arcavi, Iair; Ofek, Eran O.; Kasliwal, Mansi M.

    2013-11-20

    Only a few cases of Type Ic supernovae (SNe) with high-velocity ejecta (?0.2 c) have been discovered and studied. Here, we present our analysis of radio and X-ray observations of the Type Ic SN PTF 12gzk. The radio emission declined less than 10 days after explosion, suggesting SN ejecta expanding at high velocity (?0.3 c). The radio data also indicate that the density of the circumstellar material (CSM) around the supernova is lower by a factor of ?10 than the CSM around normal Type Ic SNe. PTF 12gzk may therefore be an intermediate event between a 'normal' SN Ic and a gamma-ray-burst-SN-like event. Our observations of this rapidly declining radio SN at a distance of 58 Mpc demonstrates the potential to detect many additional radio SNe, given the new capabilities of the Very Large Array (improved sensitivity and dynamic scheduling), which are currently missed, leading to a biased view of radio SNe Ic. Early optical discovery followed by rapid radio observations would provide a full description of the ejecta velocity distribution and CSM densities around stripped massive star explosions as well as strong clues about the nature of their progenitor stars.

  5. Duct thermal performance models for large commercial buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wray, Craig P.

    2003-10-01

    Despite the potential for significant energy savings by reducing duct leakage or other thermal losses from duct systems in large commercial buildings, California Title 24 has no provisions to credit energy-efficient duct systems in these buildings. A substantial reason is the lack of readily available simulation tools to demonstrate the energy-saving benefits associated with efficient duct systems in large commercial buildings. The overall goal of the Efficient Distribution Systems (EDS) project within the PIER High Performance Commercial Building Systems Program is to bridge the gaps in current duct thermal performance modeling capabilities, and to expand our understanding of duct thermal performance in California large commercial buildings. As steps toward this goal, our strategy in the EDS project involves two parts: (1) developing a whole-building energy simulation approach for analyzing duct thermal performance in large commercial buildings, and (2) using the tool to identify the energy impacts of duct leakage in California large commercial buildings, in support of future recommendations to address duct performance in the Title 24 Energy Efficiency Standards for Nonresidential Buildings. The specific technical objectives for the EDS project were to: (1) Identify a near-term whole-building energy simulation approach that can be used in the impacts analysis task of this project (see Objective 3), with little or no modification. A secondary objective is to recommend how to proceed with long-term development of an improved compliance tool for Title 24 that addresses duct thermal performance. (2) Develop an Alternative Calculation Method (ACM) change proposal to include a new metric for thermal distribution system efficiency in the reporting requirements for the 2005 Title 24 Standards. The metric will facilitate future comparisons of different system types using a common ''yardstick''. (3) Using the selected near-term simulation approach, assess the impacts of duct system improvements in California large commercial buildings, over a range of building vintages and climates. This assessment will provide a solid foundation for future efforts that address the energy efficiency of large commercial duct systems in Title 24. This report describes our work to address Objective 1, which includes a review of past modeling efforts related to duct thermal performance, and recommends near- and long-term modeling approaches for analyzing duct thermal performance in large commercial buildings.

  6. Simulations of Detonation Wave Propagation in Rectangular Ducts Using a Three-Dimensional WENO Scheme

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dou, Hua-Shu; Khoo, Boo Cheong; Qiu, Jianxian

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports high resolution simulations using a fifth-order weighted essentially non-oscillatory (WENO) scheme with a third order TVD Runge-Kutta time stepping method to examine the features of detonation front and physics in square ducts. The simulations suggest that two and three-dimensional detonation wave front formations are greatly enhanced by the presence of transverse waves. The motion of transverse waves generates triple points (zones of high pressure and large velocity coupled together), which cause the detonation front to become locally overdriven and thus form "hot spots". The transversal motion of these hot spots maintains the detonation to continuously occur along the whole front in two and three-dimensions. The present simulations indicate that the influence of the transverse waves on detonation is more profound in three dimensions and the pattern of quasi-steady detonation fronts also depends on the duct size. For a narrow duct (4LX4L where L is the half reaction length), the detonation...

  7. MHD duct flows under hydrodynamic “slip” condition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smolentsev, S.

    2009-01-01

    two-dimensional turbulence in MHD duct ?ows, CTR, Stanfordow in rectangular ducts. J. Fluid Mech. 21, 577–590 (1965)C L E S. Smolentsev MHD duct ?ows under hydrodynamic “slip”

  8. Powerful High Velocity-Dispersion Molecular Hydrogen Associated with an Intergalactic Shock Wave in Stephan's Quintet

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. N. Appleton; K. C. Xu; W. Reach; M. A. Dopita; Y. Gao; N. Lu; C. C. Popescu; J. W. Sulentic; R. J. Tuffs; M. S. Yun

    2006-02-25

    We present the discovery of strong mid-infrared emission lines of molecular hydrogen of apparently high velocity dispersion (~870 km/s) originating from a group-wide shock wave in Stephan's Quintet. These Spitzer Space Telescope observations reveal emission lines of molecular hydrogen and little else. this is the first time an almost pure H_2 line spectrum has been seen in an extragalactic object. Along with the absence of PAH features and very low excitation ionized gas tracers, the spectra resemble shocked gas seen in Galactic supernova remnants, but on a vast scale. The molecular emission extends over 24 kpc along the X-ray emitting shock-front, but has ten times the surface luminosity as the soft X-rays, and about one-third the surface luminosity of the IR continuum. We suggest that the powerful H_2 emission is generated by the shock wave caused when a high-velocity intruder galaxy collides with filaments of gas in the galaxy group. Our observations suggest a close connection between galaxy-scale shock-waves and strong broad H_2 emission lines, like those seen in the spectra of Ultraluminous Infrared Galaxies where high-speed collisions between galaxy disks are common.

  9. Seismic Technology Adapted to Analyzing and Developing Geothermal Systems Below Surface-Exposed High-Velocity Rocks

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Improved seismic imaging of geology across high-velocity Earth surfaces will allow more rigorous evaluation of geothermal prospects beneath volcanic outcrops. Seismic-based quantification of fracture orientation and intensity will result in optimal positioning of geothermal wells.

  10. HIGH-VELOCITY LINE FORMING REGIONS IN THE TYPE Ia SUPERNOVA 2009ig

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marion, G. H.; Foley, Ryan J.; Challis, Peter; Kirshner, Robert P. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Vinko, Jozsef; Wheeler, J. Craig; Silverman, Jeffrey M. [University of Texas at Austin, 1 University Station C1400, Austin, TX 78712-0259 (United States); Hsiao, Eric Y. [Carnegie Observatories, Las Campanas Observatory, Colina El Pino, Casilla 601 (Chile); Brown, Peter J. [George P. and Cynthia Woods Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics and Astronomy, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A and M University, 4242 AMU, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Filippenko, Alexei V. [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411 (United States); Garnavich, Peter [Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, 225 Nieuwland Science Hall, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Landsman, Wayne B. [Adnet Systems, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Parrent, Jerod T. [Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network, Goleta, CA 93117 (United States); Pritchard, Tyler A.; Roming, Peter W. A. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Penn State University, 525 Davey Lab, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Wang, Xiaofeng, E-mail: gmarion@cfa.harvard.edu [Physics Department and Tsinghua Center for Astrophysics (THCA), Tsinghua University, Beijing 1,00084 (China)

    2013-11-01

    We report measurements and analysis of high-velocity (HVF) (>20,000 km s{sup –1}) and photospheric absorption features in a series of spectra of the Type Ia supernova (SN) 2009ig obtained between –14 days and +13 days with respect to the time of maximum B-band luminosity (B-max). We identify lines of Si II, Si III, S II, Ca II, and Fe II that produce both HVF and photospheric-velocity (PVF) absorption features. SN 2009ig is unusual for the large number of lines with detectable HVF in the spectra, but the light-curve parameters correspond to a slightly overluminous but unexceptional SN Ia (M{sub B} = –19.46 mag and ?m{sub 15}(B) = 0.90 mag). Similarly, the Si II ?6355 velocity at the time of B-max is greater than 'normal' for an SN Ia, but it is not extreme (v{sub Si} = 13,400 km s{sup –1}). The –14 days and –13 days spectra clearly resolve HVF from Si II ?6355 as separate absorptions from a detached line forming region. At these very early phases, detached HVF are prevalent in all lines. From –12 days to –6 days, HVF and PVF are detected simultaneously, and the two line forming regions maintain a constant separation of about 8000 km s{sup –1}. After –6 days all absorption features are PVF. The observations of SN 2009ig provide a complete picture of the transition from HVF to PVF. Most SNe Ia show evidence for HVF from multiple lines in spectra obtained before –10 days, and we compare the spectra of SN 2009ig to observations of other SNe. We show that each of the unusual line profiles for Si II ?6355 found in early-time spectra of SNe Ia correlate to a specific phase in a common development sequence from HVF to PVF.

  11. A DETAILED KINEMATIC MAP OF CASSIOPEIA A'S OPTICAL MAIN SHELL AND OUTER HIGH-VELOCITY EJECTA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Milisavljevic, Dan [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA, 02138 (United States); Fesen, Robert A., E-mail: dmilisav@cfa.harvard.edu [6127 Wilder Lab, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH 03755 (United States)

    2013-08-01

    We present three-dimensional (3D) kinematic reconstructions of optically emitting material in the young Galactic supernova remnant Cassiopeia A (Cas A). These Doppler maps have the highest spectral and spatial resolutions of any previous survey of Cas A and represent the most complete catalog of its optically emitting material to date. We confirm that the bulk of Cas A's optically bright ejecta populate a torus-like geometry tilted approximately 30 Degree-Sign with respect to the plane of the sky with a -4000 to +6000 km s{sup -1} radial velocity asymmetry. Near-tangent viewing angle effects and an inhomogeneous surrounding circumstellar material/interstellar medium environment suggest that this geometry and velocity asymmetry may not be faithfully representative of the remnant's true 3D structure or the kinematic properties of the original explosion. The majority of the optical ejecta are arranged in several well-defined and nearly circular ring-like structures with diameters between approximately 30'' (0.5 pc) and 2' (2 pc). These ejecta rings appear to be a common phenomenon of young core-collapse remnants and may be associated with post-explosion input of energy from plumes of radioactive {sup 56}Ni-rich ejecta that rise, expand, and compress non-radioactive material. Our optical survey encompasses Cas A's faint outlying ejecta knots and exceptionally high-velocity NE and SW streams of S-rich debris often referred to as ''jets''. These outer knots, which exhibit a chemical make-up suggestive of an origin deep within the progenitor star, appear to be arranged in opposing and wide-angle outflows with opening half-angles of Almost-Equal-To 40 Degree-Sign.

  12. A new velocity map for Byrd Glacier, East Antarctica, derived from high-resolution satellite imagery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stearns, Leigh; Hamilton, Gordon

    2005-06-01

    New ice-velocity measurements are obtained for the main trunk of Byrd Glacier, East Antarctica, using recently acquired Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) imagery. The velocities are derived from the application...

  13. A unique gun application for both high velocity and low velocity projectiles in a standard 155mm long tom gun

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garcia, J.R.

    1990-01-01

    The Terminal Ballistics Facility at Sandia National Laboratores in Albuquerque, New Mexico has developed an inexpensive and reliable capability for environmental testing of nuclear and kinetic energy weapon systems using the standard military 155 mm long tom gun. An unusual priming technique and charge configuration developed by Sandia National laboratories provides repeatable results such that payloads may be launched outside of the normal operating regime (both high and low) for the 155 mm gun. A 15 pound payload was reliably launched at 1000 fps with a breech pressure of 3000 psi. Another 20 pound payload was reliably launched to 5000 fps with a breech pressure of 50000 psi. A detailed description of charge configuration and test results is presented. 21 figs., 4 tabs.

  14. Laminar burning velocities at high pressure for primary reference fuels and gasoline: Experimental and numerical investigation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jerzembeck, S.; Peters, N. [RWTH, Aachen (Germany); Pepiot-Desjardins, P.; Pitsch, H. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Stanford University, CA (United States)

    2009-02-15

    Spherical flames of n-heptane, iso-octane, PRF 87 and gasoline/air mixtures are experimentally investigated to determine laminar burning velocities and Markstein lengths under engine-relevant conditions by using the constant volume bomb method. Data are obtained for an initial temperature of 373 K, equivalence ratios varying from {phi}=0.7 to {phi}=1.2, and initial pressures from 10 to 25 bar. To track the flame front in the vessel a dark field He-Ne laser Schlieren measurement technique and digital image processing were used. The propagating speed with respect to the burned gases and the stretch rate are determined from the rate of change of the flame radius. The laminar burning velocities are obtained through a linear extrapolation to zero stretch. The experimentally determined Markstein numbers are compared to theoretical predictions. A reduced chemical kinetic mechanism for n-heptane and iso-octane was derived from the Lawrence Livermore comprehensive mechanisms. This mechanism was validated for ignition delay times and flame propagation at low and high pressures. In summary an overall good agreement with the various experimental data sets used in the validation was obtained. (author)

  15. High-velocity clouds as dark matter in the Local Group

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Lopez-Corredoira; J. E. Beckman; E. Casuso

    1999-09-23

    The High-Velocity Clouds (HVCs) observed in the Galactic neighbourhood, have been proposed to be remnants of the formation of the galaxies in the Local Group, having distances, and thus masses, predominantly of dark matter, considerably larger than hitherto hypothesized. This hypothesis is plausibly supported by observational evidence that their kinematical centre is the Local Group barycentre. Evolutionary models to account for the evolution of the light elements in the Galaxy demand infall of metal poor gas to the plane, which could well be supplied by these HVCs. Modelling the time dependence of this infall, taking into account that an accreting galaxy shows an increasing cross-section to the infalling clouds, and produces increasing mean infall velocities, we deduce that the HVCs must currently represent at least around one half of the total mass of the Local Group, given that the accretion rate, as inferred from chemical evolution, has not decreased significantly during the disc lifetime. This fraction is consistent with dynamical estimates of the relative masses of the Local Group as a whole and its constituent galaxies. The HVCs may thus form a significant constituent of baryonic, and of non-baryonic, dark matter.

  16. Articulated transition duct in turbomachine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Flanagan, James Scott; McMahan, Kevin Weston; LeBegue, Jeffrey Scott; Pentecost, Ronnie Ray

    2014-04-29

    Turbine systems are provided. A turbine system includes a transition duct comprising an inlet, an outlet, and a duct passage extending between the inlet and the outlet and defining a longitudinal axis, a radial axis, and a tangential axis. The outlet of the transition duct is offset from the inlet along the longitudinal axis and the tangential axis. The duct passage includes an upstream portion and a downstream portion. The upstream portion extends from the inlet between an inlet end and an aft end. The downstream portion extends from the outlet between an outlet end and a head end. The turbine system further includes a joint coupling the aft end of the upstream portion and the head end of the downstream portion together. The joint is configured to allow movement of the upstream portion and the downstream portion relative to each other about or along at least one axis.

  17. Flow duct for nuclear reactors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Straalsund, Jerry L. (Richland, WA)

    1978-01-01

    Improved liquid sodium flow ducts for nuclear reactors are described wherein the improvement comprises varying the wall thickness of each of the walls of a polygonal tubular duct structure so that each of the walls is of reduced cross-section along the longitudinal center line and of a greater cross-section along wall junctions with the other walls to form the polygonal tubular configuration.

  18. Linear and non-linear forced response of a conical, ducted, laminar premixed flame

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karimi, Nader; Brear, Michael J.; Jin, Seong-Ho; Monty, Jason P. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Melbourne, Parkville, 3010 Vic. (Australia)

    2009-11-15

    This paper presents an experimental study on the dynamics of a ducted, conical, laminar premixed flame subjected to acoustic excitation of varying amplitudes. The flame transfer function is measured over a range of forcing frequencies and equivalence ratios. In keeping with previous works, the measured flame transfer function is in good agreement with that predicted by linear kinematic theory at low amplitudes of acoustic velocity excitation. However, a systematic departure from linear behaviour is observed as the amplitude of the velocity forcing upstream of the flame increases. This non-linearity is mostly in the phase of the transfer function and manifests itself as a roughly constant phase at high forcing amplitude. Nonetheless, as predicted by non-linear kinematic arguments, the response always remains close to linear at low forcing frequencies, regardless of the forcing amplitude. The origin of this phase behaviour is then sought through optical data post-processing. (author)

  19. Compression effects on pressure loss in flexible HVAC ducts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abushakra, Bass; Walker, Iain S.; Sherman, Max H.

    2002-01-01

    Flow Resistance of HVAC Air Ducts and Fittings. American= pitch of the flexible duct (longitudinal distance between49700. ACCA. 1995. Residential Duct Systems. Manual D. Air

  20. Integrating ducts into the conditioned space: Successes and challenges

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Siegel, Jeffrey; Walker, Iain

    2004-01-01

    Improvements from Duct Retrofits on Six Electrically-Heatedal. (2001) Development of a New Duct Leakage Test: Delta Q.Field investigation of duct system performance in California

  1. Buried and Encapsulated Ducts - Building America Top Innovation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Buried and Encapsulated Ducts - Building America Top Innovation Buried and Encapsulated Ducts - Building America Top Innovation photo of worker blowing insulation on ducts in an...

  2. Sealing Ducts in Large Commercial Buildings with Aerosolized Sealant Particles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2001-01-01

    Building Cavities Used As Ducts: Air Leakage Characteristicspan” technique to prioritize duct sealing efforts: a studyField investigation of duct system performance in California

  3. The structural and mechanical properties of a Cu??Zr??(at. %) alloy processed by High-Velocity-Injection (HVI) 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hays, Charles C.

    1986-01-01

    THE STRUCTURAL AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF A Cu6OZr4D(at. X) ALLOY PROCESSED BY HIGH-VELOCITY- INJECTION (HVI) A Thesis by CHARLES C. HAYS Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas AIIM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1986 Major Subject: Physics THE STRUCTURAL AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF A CuBOZr4O(at. %) ALLOY PROCESSED BY HIGH-VELOCITY- INJECTION (HVI ) A Thesis by CHARLES C. HAYS Approved as to style and content by: D. G...

  4. Calculation and measurement of a neutral air flow velocity impacting a high voltage capacitor with asymmetrical electrodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malķk, M., E-mail: michal.malik@tul.cz; Primas, J.; Kopeckż, V.; Svoboda, M. [Faculty of Mechatronics, Informatics and Interdisciplinary Studies, Technical University of Liberec, Liberec, 461 17 (Czech Republic)] [Faculty of Mechatronics, Informatics and Interdisciplinary Studies, Technical University of Liberec, Liberec, 461 17 (Czech Republic)

    2014-01-15

    This paper deals with the effects surrounding phenomenon of a mechanical force generated on a high voltage asymmetrical capacitor (the so called Biefeld-Brown effect). A method to measure this force is described and a formula to calculate its value is also given. Based on this the authors derive a formula characterising the neutral air flow velocity impacting an asymmetrical capacitor connected to high voltage. This air flow under normal circumstances lessens the generated force. In the following part this velocity is measured using Particle Image Velocimetry measuring technique and the results of the theoretically calculated velocity and the experimentally measured value are compared. The authors found a good agreement between the results of both approaches.

  5. The bubbly-slug transition in a high velocity two phase flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Griffith, P.

    1964-01-01

    A possible mechanism for the transition between bubbly and slug flow is proposed and tested in a simulated slug flow system. No sudden collapse of slug flow with increasing velocity is found and it is concluded that: a. ...

  6. Evaporation Duct Estimation from Clutter Using Meteorological Statistics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gerstoft, Peter

    Evaporation Duct Estimation from Clutter Using Meteorological Statistics Caglar Yardim*, Peter under duct- ing conditions. Electromagnetic ducts result in non-standard electromagnetic prop- agation addresses how to incorporate meteo- rological statistics into evaporative duct estimation within a Bayesian

  7. Tracking Atmospheric Ducts Using Radar Clutter: I. Evaporation Duct Tracking Using Kalman Filters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gerstoft, Peter

    Tracking Atmospheric Ducts Using Radar Clutter: I. Evaporation Duct Tracking Using Kalman Filters 92093­0238, USA Introduction This paper addresses the problem of tracking evaporation ducts in marine-standard electromagnetic propagation due to formation of lower atmospheric sea ducts is a common occurrence in maritime

  8. Tracking Atmospheric Ducts Using Radar Clutter: II. Surface-based Duct Tracking Using Multiple Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gerstoft, Peter

    Tracking Atmospheric Ducts Using Radar Clutter: II. Surface-based Duct Tracking Using Multiple variability in tracking surface-based ducts in marine and coastal environments. The method tracks of the problem and evaporation duct tracking has been introduced in [1]. In previous studies, atmospheric

  9. Double Ducted Fan (DDF) as a Novel Ducted Fan Inlet Lip Separation Control Device

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Camci, Cengiz

    Double Ducted Fan (DDF) as a Novel Ducted Fan Inlet Lip Separation Control Device Ali Akturk computational study of a novel ducted fan inlet flow conditioning concept that will significantly improve the performance and controllability of VTOL UAVs and many other ducted fan based systems. The new concept

  10. Distances to Galactic high-velocity clouds. I. Cohen Stream, complex GCP, cloud g1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. P. Wakker; D. G. York; R. Wilhelm; J. C. Barentine; P. Richter; T. C. Beers; Z. Ivezic; J. C. Howk

    2007-09-12

    The high- and intermediate-velocity interstellar clouds (HVCs/IVCs) are tracers of energetic processes in and around the Milky Way. Clouds with near-solar metallicity about one kpc above the disk trace the circulation of material between disk and halo (the Galactic Fountain). The Magellanic Stream consists of gas tidally extracted from the SMC, tracing the dark matter potential of the Milky Way. Several other HVCs have low-metallicity and appear to trace the continuing accretion of infalling intergalactic gas. These assertions are supported by the metallicities (0.1 to 1 solar) measured for about ten clouds in the past decade. Direct measurements of distances to HVCs have remained elusive, however. In this paper we present four new distance brackets, using VLT observations of interstellar \\CaII H and K absorption toward distant Galactic halo stars. We derive distance brackets of 5.0 to 11.7 kpc for the Cohen Stream (likely to be an infalling low-metallicity cloud), 9.8 to 15.1 kpc for complex GCP (also known as the Smith Cloud or HVC40-15+100 and with still unknown origin), 1.0 to 2.7 kpc for an IVC that appears associated with the return flow of the Fountain in the Perseus Arm, and 1.8 to 3.8 kpc for cloud g1, which appears to be in the outflow phase of the Fountain. Our measurements further demonstrate that the Milky Way is accreting substantial amounts of gaseous material, which influences the Galaxy's current and future dynamical and chemical evolution.

  11. Measurements of Smoke Characteristics in HVAC Ducts 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wolin, Steven D; Ryder, Noah L; Leprince, Frederic; Milke, James; Mowrer, Frederick; Torero, Jose L

    2001-01-01

    The characteristics of smoke traveling in an HVAC duct have been observed along with the response of selected duct smoke detectors. The simulated HVAC system consists of a 9 m long duct, 0.45 m in diameter. An exhaust fan is placed at one end...

  12. H2O Maser Observations of Candidate Post-AGB Stars and Discovery of Three High-velocity Water Sources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deacon, R M; Green, A J; Sevenster, M N; 10.1086/511383

    2009-01-01

    We present the results of 22 GHz H_2O maser observations of a sample of 85 post-Asymptotic Giant Branch (post-AGB) candidate stars, selected on the basis of their OH 1612 MHz maser and far-infrared properties. All sources were observed with the Tidbinbilla 70-m radio telescope and 21 detections were made. 86 GHz SiO Mopra observations of a subset of the sample are also presented. Of the 21 H_2O detections, 15 are from sources that are likely to be massive AGB stars and most of these show typical, regular H_2O maser profiles. In contrast, nearly all the detections of more evolved stars exhibited high-velocity H_2O maser emission. Of the five sources seen, v223 (W43A, IRAS 18450-0148) is a well known `water-fountain' source which belongs to a small group of post-AGB stars with highly collimated, high-velocity H_2O maser emission. A second source in our sample, v270 (IRAS 18596+0315), is also known to have high-velocity emission. We report the discovery of similar emission from a further three sources, d46 (IRAS...

  13. Stochastic simulation for the propagation of high-frequency acoustic waves through a random velocity field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, B.; Darmon, M.; Leymarie, N.; Chatillon, S.; Potel, C.

    2012-05-17

    In-service inspection of Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactors (SFR) requires the development of non-destructive techniques adapted to the harsh environment conditions and the examination complexity. From past experiences, ultrasonic techniques are considered as suitable candidates. The ultrasonic telemetry is a technique used to constantly insure the safe functioning of reactor inner components by determining their exact position: it consists in measuring the time of flight of the ultrasonic response obtained after propagation of a pulse emitted by a transducer and its interaction with the targets. While in-service the sodium flow creates turbulences that lead to temperature inhomogeneities, which translates into ultrasonic velocity inhomogeneities. These velocity variations could directly impact the accuracy of the target locating by introducing time of flight variations. A stochastic simulation model has been developed to calculate the propagation of ultrasonic waves in such an inhomogeneous medium. Using this approach, the travel time is randomly generated by a stochastic process whose inputs are the statistical moments of travel times known analytically. The stochastic model predicts beam deviations due to velocity inhomogeneities, which are similar to those provided by a determinist method, such as the ray method.

  14. 44 Market St - Refurbishment of a Dual Duct Building 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bannister, P.; Foo, G.

    2013-01-01

    44 Market St is a high profile, A-grade, 27-storey, 28,000m2 office building constructed in the 1970s. In common with many other buildings of its era, it was equipped with a dual duct air-conditioning system, and its highest NABERS Rating at full...

  15. Modeling particle loss in ventilation ducts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sippola, Mark R.; Nazaroff, William W.

    2003-04-01

    Empirical equations were developed and applied to predict losses of 0.01-100 {micro}m airborne particles making a single pass through 120 different ventilation duct runs typical of those found in mid-sized office buildings. For all duct runs, losses were negligible for submicron particles and nearly complete for particles larger than 50 {micro}m. The 50th percentile cut-point diameters were 15 {micro}m in supply runs and 25 {micro}m in return runs. Losses in supply duct runs were higher than in return duct runs, mostly because internal insulation was present in portions of supply duct runs, but absent from return duct runs. Single-pass equations for particle loss in duct runs were combined with models for predicting ventilation system filtration efficiency and particle deposition to indoor surfaces to evaluate the fates of particles of indoor and outdoor origin in an archetypal mechanically ventilated building. Results suggest that duct losses are a minor influence for determining indoor concentrations for most particle sizes. Losses in ducts were of a comparable magnitude to indoor surface losses for most particle sizes. For outdoor air drawn into an unfiltered ventilation system, most particles smaller than 1 {micro}m are exhausted from the building. Large particles deposit within the building, mostly in supply ducts or on indoor surfaces. When filters are present, most particles are either filtered or exhausted. The fates of particles generated indoors follow similar trends as outdoor particles drawn into the building.

  16. Building America Webinar: High Performance Space Conditioning...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Compact Buried Ducts Building America Webinar: High Performance Space Conditioning Systems, Part II - Compact Buried Ducts Dave Mallay, Partnership for Home Innovation (PHI),...

  17. Building America Webinar: High Performance Space Conditioning...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    II - Design Options for Locating Ducts within Conditioned Space Building America Webinar: High Performance Space Conditioning Systems, Part II - Design Options for Locating Ducts...

  18. Large and small-scale structure of the Intermediate and High Velocity Clouds towards the LMC and SMC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smoker, J V; Keenan, F P

    2015-01-01

    We employ CaII K and NaI D interstellar absorption-line spectroscopy of early-type stars in the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds to investigate the large- and small-scale structure in foreground Intermediate and High Velocity Clouds (I/HVCs). These data include FLAMES-GIRAFFE CaII K observations of 403 stars in four open clusters, plus FEROS or UVES spectra of 156 stars in the LMC and SMC. The FLAMES observations are amongst the most extensive probes to date of CaII structures on 20 arcsec scales From the FLAMES data within a 0.5 degree field-of-view, the CaII K equivalent width in the I/HVC components towards three clusters varies by factors of >10. There are no detections of molecular gas in absorption at intermediate or high velocities, although molecular absorption is present at LMC and Galactic velocities towards some sightlines. The sightlines show variations in EW exceeding a factor 7 in CH+ towards NGC 1761 over scales of less than 10 arcminutes. The FEROS/UVES data show CaII K I/HVC absorption in $\\...

  19. A Detailed Kinematic Map of Cassiopeia A's Optical Main Shell and Outer High-Velocity Ejecta

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Milisavljevic, Dan

    2013-01-01

    We present three-dimensional kinematic reconstructions of optically emitting material in the young Galactic supernova remnant Cassiopeia A (Cas A). These Doppler maps have the highest spectral and spatial resolutions of any previous survey of Cas A and represent the most complete catalog of its optically emitting material to date. We confirm that the bulk of Cas A's optically bright ejecta populate a torus-like geometry tilted approximately 30 degrees with respect to the plane of the sky with a -4000 to +6000 km/s radial velocity asymmetry. Near-tangent viewing angle effects and an inhomogeneous surrounding CSM/ISM environment suggest that this geometry and velocity asymmetry may not be faithfully representative of the remnant's true 3D structure or the kinematic properties of the original explosion. The majority of the optical ejecta are arranged in several well-defined and nearly circular ring-like structures with diameters between approximately 30 arcsec (0.5 pc) and 2 arcmin (2 pc). These ejecta rings app...

  20. HST/COS OBSERVATIONS OF GALACTIC HIGH-VELOCITY CLOUDS: FOUR ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS SIGHT LINES THROUGH COMPLEX C

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shull, J. Michael; Stevans, Matthew; Danforth, Charles; Penton, Steven V. [CASA, Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences, University of Colorado, 389-UCB, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Lockman, Felix J. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Green Bank, WV 29444 (United States); Arav, Nahum, E-mail: michael.shull@colorado.edu, E-mail: matthew.stevans@colorado.edu, E-mail: charles.danforth@colorado.edu, E-mail: steven.penton@colorado.edu, E-mail: jlockman@nrao.edu, E-mail: arav@vt.edu [Department of Physics, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States)

    2011-10-01

    We report ultraviolet spectra of Galactic high-velocity clouds (HVCs) in Complex C, taken by the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS) on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), together with new 21 cm spectra from the Green Bank Telescope. The wide spectral coverage and higher signal-to-noise ratio, compared to previous HST spectra, provide better velocity definition of the HVC absorption, additional ionization species (including high ions), and improved abundances in this halo gas. Complex C has a metallicity of 10%-30% solar and a wide range of ions, suggesting dynamical and thermal interactions with hot gas in the Galactic halo. Spectra in the COS medium-resolution G130M (1133-1468 A) and G160M (1383-1796 A) gratings detect ultraviolet absorption lines from eight elements in low-ionization states (O I, N I, C II, S II, Si II, Al II, Fe II, P II) and three elements in intermediate- and high-ionization states (Si III, Si IV, C IV, N V). Our four active galactic nucleus sight lines toward Mrk 817, Mrk 290, Mrk 876, and PG 1259+593 have high-velocity H I and O VI column densities, log N{sub Hi}= 19.39-20.05 and log N{sub Ovi}= 13.58-14.10, with substantial amounts of kinematically associated photoionized gas. The high-ion abundance ratios are consistent with cooling interfaces between photoionized and collisionally ionized gas: N(C IV)/N(O VI) {approx} 0.3-0.5, N(Si IV)/N(O VI) {approx} 0.05-0.11, N(N V)/N(O VI) {approx} 0.07-0.13, and N(Si IV)/N(Si III) {approx}0.2.

  1. Acoustic Modes in a Ducted Shear Flow Gregory Vilenski

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eindhoven, Technische Universiteit

    Acoustic Modes in a Ducted Shear Flow Gregory Vilenski Sjoerd W. Rienstra Eindhoven University but sheared mean flow inside a duct is considered. For isentropic flow in a circular duct with zero swirl = dimensional inner duct radius d = dimensional outer duct radius = dimensional frequency m = circumferential

  2. Generator stator core vent duct spacer posts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Griffith, John Wesley (Schenectady, NY); Tong, Wei (Clifton Park, NY)

    2003-06-24

    Generator stator cores are constructed by stacking many layers of magnetic laminations. Ventilation ducts may be inserted between these layers by inserting spacers into the core stack. The ventilation ducts allow for the passage of cooling gas through the core during operation. The spacers or spacer posts are positioned between groups of the magnetic laminations to define the ventilation ducts. The spacer posts are secured with longitudinal axes thereof substantially parallel to the core axis. With this structure, core tightness can be assured while maximizing ventilation duct cross section for gas flow and minimizing magnetic loss in the spacers.

  3. Seismic Technology Adapted to Analyzing and Developing Geothermal Systems Below Surface-Exposed High-Velocity Rocks Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hardage, Bob A; DeAngelo, Michael V; Ermolaeva, Elena; Hardage, Bob A; Remington, Randy; Sava, Diana; Wagner, Donald; Wei, Shuijion

    2013-02-28

    The objective of our research was to develop and demonstrate seismic data-acquisition and data-processing technologies that allow geothermal prospects below high-velocity rock outcrops to be evaluated. To do this, we acquired a 3-component seismic test line across an area of exposed high-velocity rocks in Brewster County, Texas, where there is high heat flow and surface conditions mimic those found at numerous geothermal prospects. Seismic contractors have not succeeded in creating good-quality seismic data in this area for companies who have acquired data for oil and gas exploitation purposes. Our test profile traversed an area where high-velocity rocks and low-velocity sediment were exposed on the surface in alternating patterns that repeated along the test line. We verified that these surface conditions cause non-ending reverberations of Love waves, Rayleigh waves, and shallow critical refractions to travel across the earth surface between the boundaries of the fast-velocity and slow-velocity material exposed on the surface. These reverberating surface waves form the high level of noise in this area that does not allow reflections from deep interfaces to be seen and utilized. Our data-acquisition method of deploying a box array of closely spaced geophones allowed us to recognize and evaluate these surface-wave noise modes regardless of the azimuth direction to the surface anomaly that backscattered the waves and caused them to return to the test-line profile. With this knowledge of the surface-wave noise, we were able to process these test-line data to create P-P and SH-SH images that were superior to those produced by a skilled seismic data-processing contractor. Compared to the P-P data acquired along the test line, the SH-SH data provided a better detection of faults and could be used to trace these faults upward to the boundaries of exposed surface rocks. We expanded our comparison of the relative value of S-wave and P-wave seismic data for geothermal applications by inserting into this report a small part of the interpretation we have done with 3C3D data across Wister geothermal field in the Imperial Valley of California. This interpretation shows that P-SV data reveal faults (and by inference, also fractures) that cannot be easily, or confidently, seen with P-P data, and that the combination of P-P and P-SV data allows VP/VS velocity ratios to be estimated across a targeted reservoir interval to show where an interval has more sandstone (the preferred reservoir facies). The conclusion reached from this investigation is that S-wave seismic technology can be invaluable to geothermal operators. Thus we developed a strong interest in understanding the direct-S modes produced by vertical-force sources, particularly vertical vibrators, because if it can be demonstrated that direct-S modes produced by vertical-force sources can be used as effectively as the direct-S modes produced by horizontal-force sources, geothermal operators can acquire direct-S data across many more prospect areas than can be done with horizontal-force sources, which presently are limited to horizontal vibrators. We include some of our preliminary work in evaluating direct-S modes produced by vertical-force sources.

  4. Computational fluid dynamics analysis of a wire-feed, high-velocity oxygen-fuel (HVOF) thermal spray torch

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lopez, A.R.; Hassan, B.; Oberkampf, W.L.; Neiser, R.A.; Roemer, T.J.

    1996-09-01

    The fluid and particle dynamics of a High-Velocity Oxygen-Fuel Thermal Spray torch are analyzed using computational and experimental techniques. Three-dimensional Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) results are presented for a curved aircap used for coating interior surfaces such as engine cylinder bores. The device analyzed is similar to the Metco Diamond Jet Rotating Wire (DJRW) torch. The feed gases are injected through an axisymmetric nozzle into the curved aircap. Premixed propylene and oxygen are introduced from an annulus in the nozzle, while cooling air is injected between the nozzle and the interior wall of the aircap. The combustion process is modeled using a single-step finite-rate chemistry model with a total of 9 gas species which includes dissociation of combustion products. A continually-fed steel wire passes through the center of the nozzle and melting occurs at a conical tip near the exit of the aircap. Wire melting is simulated computationally by injecting liquid steel particles into the flow field near the tip of the wire. Experimental particle velocity measurements during wire feed were also taken using a Laser Two-Focus (L2F) velocimeter system. Flow fields inside and outside the aircap are presented and particle velocity predictions are compared with experimental measurements outside of the aircap.

  5. The Silicon and Calcium High-Velocity Features in Type Ia Supernovae from Early to Maximum Phases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhao, Xulin; Maeda, Keiichi; Sai, Hanna; Zhang, Tianmeng; Zhang, Jujia; Huang, Fang; Rui, Liming; Zhou, Qi; Mo, Jun

    2015-01-01

    The high-velocity features (HVFs) in optical spectra of type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) are examined with a large sample including very early-time spectra (e.g., t < -7 days). Multiple Gaussian fits are applied to examine the HVFs and their evolutions, using constraints on expansion velocities for the same species (i.e., SiII 5972 and SiII 6355). We find that strong HVFs tend to appear in SNe Ia with smaller decline rates (e.g., dm15(B)<1.4 mag), clarifying that the finding by Childress et al. (2014) for the Ca-HVFs in near-maximum-light spectra applies both to the Si-HVFs and Ca-HVFs in the earlier phase. The Si-HVFs seem to be more common in fast-expanding SNe Ia, which is different from the earlier result that the Ca-HVFs are associated with SNe Ia having slower SiII 6355 velocities at maximum light (i.e., Vsi). This difference can be due to that the HVFs in fast-expanding SNe Ia usually disappear more rapidly and are easily blended with the photospheric components when approaching the maximum light. Mor...

  6. OPTIMUM DUCT DESIGN FOR VARIABLE AIR VOLUME SYSTEMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    OPTIMUM DUCT DESIGN FOR VARIABLE AIR VOLUME SYSTEMS By TAECHEOL KIM Master of Science Oklahoma May, 2001 #12;ii OPTIMUM DUCT DESIGN FOR VARIABLE AIR VOLUME SYSTEMS Thesis Approved Volume Systems ............................................. 5 1.2.2. Duct Design Methods

  7. Experimental evaluation of gas filled plenum (GFP) insulation for ducts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walker, Iain S.; Guillot, Cyril

    2003-01-01

    It is possible that the short duct runs and multiple joints,to greater mixing in actual duct installations in houses,Tout, c/l (°F) Tin, 25mm from duct wall (°C) One heater Tin,

  8. PKA Mediates Constitutive Activation of CFTR in Human Sweat Duct

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reddy, M. M.; Quinton, P. M.

    2009-01-01

    al. 1992), not only in sweat ducts but also in M. M. Reddy,Basal CFTR Activity in Sweat Duct Fig. 6 Effect of cytosolicBasal CFTR Activity in Sweat Duct Fig. 9 Effect of cytosolic

  9. Images in Emergency Medicine: Infected Thyroglossal Duct Cyst

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deaver, Mark J; Silman, Eric F.; Lotfipour, Shahram

    2009-01-01

    Som P. CT of Thyroglossal Duct Cysts. Radiology. 1985; 157:edicine Infected Thyroglossal Duct Cyst Mark J. Deaver, MD,of infected thyroglossal duct cyst was made. The patient was

  10. Feasibility and preliminary design study for a high velocity, low density wind tunnel utilizing the thermal creep effect 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stephen, Alton Lee

    1968-01-01

    FE7 SE'BID 1'"Y AND PB I '&NAEY DLS1GN STUDY POR A H. GH V' LOCITY, 10iif DFN ITY BIND UNNEL UT1LI71NG THE THEP". AL CREEP EFFECT A Thesis Alton Lee Steghens, Jr. Submitted to the Graduate College of the Texas AKN University in partial fulf... illment o- the regui ements for the degree NASTEP. 0 SCIENCE Aug st 1968 Yajor Subject: A rospa. e Engineering FEASIBILITY AND PRELIMINARY DESIGN STUDY FOR A HIGH VELOCITY, LOW DENSITY HIND TUNNEL UTILIZING THE THERiMAL CREEP EFFECT A Thesis Alton...

  11. On the Fundamental Unsteady Fluid Dynamics of Shock-Induced Flows through Ducts 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mendoza, Nicole Renee

    2013-04-29

    Unsteady shock wave propagation through ducts has many applications, ranging from blast wave shelter design to advanced high-speed propulsion systems. The research objective of this study was improved fundamental understanding of the transient flow...

  12. Double-duct liquid metal magnetohydrodynamic engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Haaland, Carsten M. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1995-01-01

    An internal combustion, liquid metal (LM) magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) engine and an alternating current (AC) magnetohydrodynamic generator, are used in combination to provide useful AC electric energy output. The engine design has-four pistons and a double duct configuration, with each duct containing sodium potassium liquid metal confined between free pistons located at either end of the duct. The liquid metal is forced to flow back and forth in the duct by the movement of the pistons, which are alternatively driven by an internal combustion process. In the MHD generator, the two LM-MHD ducts pass in close proximity through a Hartmann duct with output transformer. AC power is produced by operating the engine with the liquid metal in the two generator ducts always flowing in counter directions. The amount of liquid metal maintained in the ducts may be varied. This provides a variable stroke length for the pistons. The engine/generator provides variable AC power at variable frequencies that correspond to the power demands of the vehicular propulsion. Also the engine should maintain nearly constant efficiency throughout the range of power usage. Automobiles and trucks could be powered by the invention, with no transmission or power converter devices being required.

  13. Double-duct liquid metal magnetohydrodynamic engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Haaland, Carsten M. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1997-01-01

    An internal combustion, liquid metal (LM) magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) engine and an alternating current (AC) magnetohydrodynamic generator, are used in combination to provide useful AC electric energy output. The engine design has four pistons and a double duct configuration, with each duct containing sodium potassium liquid metal confined between free pistons located at either end of the duct. The liquid metal is forced to flow back and forth in the duct by the movement of the pistons, which are alternatively driven by an internal combustion process. In the MHD generator, the two LM-MHD ducts pass in close proximity through a Hartmann duct with output transformer. AC power is produced by operating the engine with the liquid metal in the two generator ducts always flowing in counter directions. The amount of liquid metal maintained in the ducts may be varied. This provides a variable stroke length for the pistons. The engine/generator provides variable AC power at variable frequencies that correspond to the power demands of the vehicular propulsion. Also the engine should maintain nearly constant efficiency throughout the range of power usage. Automobiles and trucks could be powered by the invention, with no transmission or power converter devices being required.

  14. A CATALOG OF ULTRA-COMPACT HIGH VELOCITY CLOUDS FROM THE ALFALFA SURVEY: LOCAL GROUP GALAXY CANDIDATES?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adams, Elizabeth A. K.; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Haynes, Martha P., E-mail: betsey@astro.cornell.edu, E-mail: riccardo@astro.cornell.edu, E-mail: haynes@astro.cornell.edu [Center for Radiophysics and Space Research, Space Sciences Building, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States)

    2013-05-01

    We present a catalog of 59 ultra-compact high velocity clouds (UCHVCs) extracted from the 40% complete ALFALFA HI-line survey. The ALFALFA UCHVCs have median flux densities of 1.34 Jy km s{sup -1}, median angular diameters of 10', and median velocity widths of 23 km s{sup -1}. We show that the full UCHVC population cannot easily be associated with known populations of high velocity clouds. Of the 59 clouds presented here, only 11 are also present in the compact cloud catalog extracted from the commensal GALFA-HI survey, demonstrating the utility of this separate dataset and analysis. Based on their sky distribution and observed properties, we infer that the ALFALFA UCHVCs are consistent with the hypothesis that they may be very low mass galaxies within the Local Volume. In that case, most of their baryons would be in the form of gas, and because of their low stellar content, they remain unidentified by extant optical surveys. At distances of {approx}1 Mpc, the UCHVCs have neutral hydrogen (H I) masses of {approx}10{sup 5}-10{sup 6} M{sub Sun }, H I diameters of {approx}2-3 kpc, and indicative dynamical masses within the H I extent of {approx}10{sup 7}-10{sup 8} M{sub Sun }, similar to the Local Group ultra-faint dwarf Leo T. The recent ALFALFA discovery of the star-forming, metal-poor, low mass galaxy Leo P demonstrates that this hypothesis is true in at least one case. In the case of the individual UCHVCs presented here, confirmation of their extragalactic nature will require further work, such as the identification of an optical counterpart to constrain their distance.

  15. Evaluation of a New Ramping Technique for Duct Leakage Testing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 LBNL-61743 Evaluation of a New Ramping Technique for Duct Leakage Testing Iain S. Walker ramping Technique for Duct Leakage Testing Table of contents Introduction

  16. Integration of HVAC System Design with Simplified Duct Distribution...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Integration of HVAC System Design with Simplified Duct Distribution - Building America Top Innovation Integration of HVAC System Design with Simplified Duct Distribution - Building...

  17. HIGH VELOCITY PRECESSING JETS FROM THE WATER FOUNTAIN IRAS 18286-0959 REVEALED BY VERY LONG BASELINE ARRAY OBSERVATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yung, Bosco H. K.; Nakashima, Jun-ichi; Kwok, Sun [Department of Physics, University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Rd., Hong Kong (Hong Kong); Imai, Hiroshi [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima 890-0065 (Japan); Deguchi, Shuji [Nobeyama Radio Observatory, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Minamimaki, Minamisaku, Nagano 384-1305 (Japan); Diamond, Philip J. [Jodrell Bank Centre for Astrophysics, Alan Turing Building, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom)

    2011-11-10

    We report the results of multi-epoch Very Long Baseline Array observations of the 22.2 GHz H{sub 2}O maser emission associated with the 'water fountain' IRAS 18286-0959. We suggest that this object is the second example of a highly collimated bipolar precessing outflow traced by H{sub 2}O maser emission, the other is W 43A. The detected H{sub 2}O emission peaks are distributed over a velocity range from -50 km s{sup -1} to 150 km s{sup -1}. The spatial distribution of over 70% of the identified maser features is found to be highly collimated along a spiral jet (jet 1) extended southeast to northwest; the remaining features appear to trace another spiral jet (jet 2) with a different orientation. The two jets form a 'double-helix' pattern which lies across {approx}200 mas. The maser distribution is reasonably fit by a model consisting of two bipolar precessing jets. The three-dimensional velocities of jet 1 and jet 2 are derived to be 138 km s{sup -1} and 99 km s{sup -1}, respectively. The precession period of jet 1 is about 56 years. For jet 2, three possible models are tested and they give different values for the kinematic parameters. We propose that the appearance of two jets is the result of a single driving source with significant proper motion.

  18. A COMPUTATIONAL AND EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF A DUCTED FAN USED IN VTOL UAV SYSTEMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Camci, Cengiz

    diameter ducted fan. They have concentrated on the performance of ducted fan VTOL vehicles in crosswind

  19. High-resolution velocity measurements on fully identified light nuclides produced in 56Fe + hydrogen and 56Fe + titanium systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. Napolitani; K. -H. Schmidt; A. S. Botvina; F. Rejmund; L. Tassan-Got; C. Villagrasa

    2004-12-02

    New experimental results on the kinematics and the residue production are obtained for the interactions of 56Fe projectiles with protons and (nat)Ti target nuclei, respectively, at theincident energy of 1 A GeV. The titanium-induced reaction serves as a reference case for multifragmentation. Already in the proton-induced reaction, the characteristics of the isotopic cross sections and the shapes of the velocity spectra of light residues indicate that high thermal energy is deposited in the system during the collision. In the 56Fe+p system the high excitation seems to favour the onset of fast break-up decays dominated by very asymmetric partitions of the disassembling system. This configuration leads to the simultaneous formation of one or more light fragments together with one heavy residue.

  20. Discovery of star formation in the extreme outer galaxy possibly induced by a high-velocity cloud impact

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Izumi, Natsuko; Kobayashi, Naoto; Hamano, Satoshi; Yasui, Chikako; Tokunaga, Alan T.; Saito, Masao

    2014-11-01

    We report the discovery of star formation activity in perhaps the most distant molecular cloud in the extreme outer galaxy. We performed deep near-infrared imaging with the Subaru 8.2 m telescope, and found two young embedded clusters at two CO peaks of 'Digel Cloud 1' at the kinematic distance of D = 16 kpc (Galactocentric radius R {sub G} = 22 kpc). We identified 18 and 45 cluster members in the two peaks, and the estimated stellar densities are ?5 and ?3 pc{sup –2}, respectively. The observed K-band luminosity function suggests that the age of the clusters is less than 1 Myr and also that the distance to the clusters is consistent with the kinematic distance. On the sky, Cloud 1 is located very close to the H I peak of high-velocity cloud Complex H, and there are some H I intermediate velocity structures between the Complex H and the Galactic disk, which could indicate an interaction between them. We suggest the possibility that Complex H impacting on the Galactic disk has triggered star formation in Cloud 1 as well as the formation of the Cloud 1 molecular cloud.

  1. HIGH-VELOCITY H I IS NOT ASSOCIATED WITH THE TeV SUPERNOVA REMNANT W51C

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tian, W. W. [National Astronomical Observatories, CAS, Beijing 100012 (China); Leahy, D. A., E-mail: tww@bao.ac.cn [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta T2N 1N4 (Canada)

    2013-05-20

    The recently detected TeV {gamma}-ray source HESS J1923+141 coincides with supernova remnant (SNR) W51C and the star-forming region W51B of the W51 complex. We construct H I absorption spectra of SNR W51C, H II regions G49.2-0.35 and G49.1-0.38 in W51B, and a nearby compact extragalactic source. Our study detects high-velocity (HV) H I clouds (above 83 km s{sup -1}) that coincide with W51B, but finds that the clouds are behind W51B. Both W51C and G49.2-0.35 have similar highest velocity absorption features at {approx}70 km s{sup -1}. The H II region G49.1-0.38 is behind the SNR because its H I absorption spectrum has a feature at 83 km s{sup -1}. These new results argue against previous claims that the SNR has shocked the HV H I clouds. Therefore, the TeV emission from the complex should not be associated with the HV H I clouds. W51C has a distance of about 4.3 kpc, smaller than the tangent point distance of 5.5 kpc in that direction, but still in the Sagittarius spiral arm.

  2. Particle deposition in ventilation ducts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sippola, Mark R.

    2002-01-01

    were observed to lead to resuspension of particles in thethe nozzles may lead to resuspension of deposited particles.resuspension, the decreased response to turbulent velocity fluctuations of the very large particles should lead

  3. POSTER: Duct tracking in 3D medical data Martin Petrcek

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pelikan, Josef

    POSTER: Duct tracking in 3D medical data Martin PetrĆ­cek Faculty of Mathematics and Physics Charles 2, 180 81 Praha 8 - Liben Czech Republic martin.horak@volny.cz ABSTRACT Implementing duct tracking interaction when selecting duct branches of interest or correcting possible mistakes in duct path segmentation

  4. Numerical Study of Acoustic Modes in Ducted Shear Flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rienstra, Sjoerd W.

    Numerical Study of Acoustic Modes in Ducted Shear Flow Gregory G. Vilenski & Sjoerd W. Rienstra mean flow inside a duct is studied numerically. For isentropic flow in a circular duct with zero swirl 26, 2007 #12;1 Introduction Normal mode analysis of small-amplitude disturbances in an annular duct

  5. EVIDENCE FOR HIGHLY RELATIVISTIC VELOCITIES IN THE KILOPARSEC-SCALE JET OF THE QUASAR 3C 345

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roberts, David H.; Wardle, John F. C.

    2012-11-10

    In this paper we use radio polarimetric observations of the jet of the nearby bright quasar 3C 345 to estimate the fluid velocity on kiloparsec scales. The jet is highly polarized, and surprisingly, the electric vector position angles in the jet are 'twisted' with respect to the jet axis. Simple models of magnetized jets are investigated in order to study various possible origins of the electric vector distribution. In a cylindrically symmetric transparent jet a helical magnetic field will appear either transverse or longitudinal due to partial cancellations of Stokes parameters between the front and back of the jet. Synchrotron opacity can break the symmetry, but it leads to fractional polarization less than that observed and to strong frequency dependence that is not seen. Modeling shows that differential Doppler boosting in a diverging jet can break the symmetry, allowing a helical magnetic field to produce a twisted electric vector pattern. Constraints on the jet inclination, magnetic field properties, intrinsic opening angle, and fluid velocities are obtained and show that highly relativistic speeds ({beta} {approx}> 0.95) are required. This is consistent with the observed jet opening angle, with the absence of a counter-jet, with the polarization of the knots at the end of the jet, and with some inverse-Compton models for the X-ray emission from the 3C 345 jet. This model can also apply on parsec scales and may help explain those sources where the electric vector position angles in the jet are neither parallel nor transverse to the jet axis.

  6. The RINGS Survey: High-Resolution H-alpha Velocity Fields of Nearby Spiral Galaxies with the SALT Fabry-Perot

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mitchell, Carl J; Williams, T B; Spekkens, Kristine; Lee-Waddell, K; de Naray, Rachel Kuzio

    2015-01-01

    We have obtained high-spatial-resolution spectrophotometric data on several nearby spiral galaxies with the Southern African Large Telescope (SALT) Fabry-P\\'erot interferometer on the Robert Stobie Spectrograph (RSS) as a part of the RSS Imaging spectroscopy Nearby Galaxy Survey (RINGS). We have successfully reduced two tracks of Fabry-P\\'erot data for the galaxy NGC 2280 to produce a velocity field of the H-alpha line of excited hydrogen. We have modeled these data with the DiskFit modeling software and found these models to be in excellent agreement both with previous measurements in the literature and with our lower-resolution HI velocity field of the same galaxy. Despite this good agreement, small regions exist where the difference between the H-alpha and HI velocities is larger than would be expected from typical dispersions. We investigate these regions of high velocity difference and offer possible explanations for their existence.

  7. Mode propagation and attenuation in lined ducts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    BI, Wenping

    2014-01-01

    Optimal impedance for each mode is an important concept in an infinitely long duct lined with uniform absorption material. However it is not valid for finite length linings. This is because that the modes in lined ducts are not power-orthogonal; the total sound power is not equal to the sum of the sound power of each mode; cross-power terms may play important roles. In this paper, we study sound propagation and attenuation in an infinite rigid duct lined with a finite length of lining impedance. The lining impedance may be axial segments and circumferentially non-uniform. We propose two new physical quantities Kp and S to describe the self-overlap of the left eigenfunction and right eigenfunction of one mode and the normalized overlap between modes, respectively. The two new physical quantities describe totally the mode behaviors in lined ducts.

  8. Achieving Airtight Ducts in Manufactured Housing 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McIlvaine, J.; Beal, D.; Moyer, N.; Chasar, D.; Chandra, S.

    2004-01-01

    This Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) study, conducted under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy's Building America Industrialized Housing Partnership (BAIHP), compares mastic sealed duct systems to tape ...

  9. Tips: Air Ducts | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    tubes in the walls, floors, and ceilings; it carries the air from your home's furnace and central air conditioner to each room. Ducts are made of sheet metal, fiberglass, or other...

  10. Acoustic imaging of a duct spinning mode by the use of an in-duct circular microphone array

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, Xun

    Acoustic imaging of a duct spinning mode by the use of an in-duct circular microphone array Qingkai 2013) An imaging method of acoustic spinning modes propagating within a circular duct simply in a theoretical way and is demonstrated by a numerical simulation case. Nowadays, the measurements within a duct

  11. A Comparison of Simulation Capabilities for Ducts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, William A.; Smith, Matt K.; Gu, Lixing; New, Joshua Ryan

    2014-11-01

    Typically, the cheapest way to install a central air conditioning system in residential buildings is to place the ductwork in the attic. Energy losses due to duct-attic interactions can be great, but current whole-house models are unable to capture the dynamic multi-mode physics of the interactions. The building industry is notoriously fragmented and unable to devote adequate research resources to solve this problem. Builders are going to continue to put ducts in the attic because floor space is too expensive to closet them within living space, and there are both construction and aesthetic issues with other approaches such as dropped ceilings. Thus, there is a substantial need to publicly document duct losses and the cost of energy used by ducts in attics so that practitioners, builders, homeowners and state and federal code officials can make informed decisions leading to changes in new construction and additional retrofit actions. Thus, the goal of this study is to conduct a comparison of AtticSim and EnergyPlus simulation algorithms to identify specific features for potential inclusion in EnergyPlus that would allow higher-fidelity modeling of HVAC operation and duct transport of conditioned air. It is anticipated that the resulting analysis from these simulation tools will inform energy decisions relating to the role of ducts in future building energy codes and standards.

  12. High velocity impact fracture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Teng, Xiaoqing

    2005-01-01

    An in-depth understanding of dynamic ductile fracture is one of the most important steps to improve the survivability of critical structures such as the lost Twin Towers. In the present thesis, the macroscopic fracture ...

  13. A compact single-camera system for high-speed, simultaneous 3-D velocity and temperature measurements.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Louise; Sick, Volker; Frank, Jonathan H.

    2013-09-01

    The University of Michigan and Sandia National Laboratories collaborated on the initial development of a compact single-camera approach for simultaneously measuring 3-D gasphase velocity and temperature fields at high frame rates. A compact diagnostic tool is desired to enable investigations of flows with limited optical access, such as near-wall flows in an internal combustion engine. These in-cylinder flows play a crucial role in improving engine performance. Thermographic phosphors were proposed as flow and temperature tracers to extend the capabilities of a novel, compact 3D velocimetry diagnostic to include high-speed thermometry. Ratiometric measurements were performed using two spectral bands of laser-induced phosphorescence emission from BaMg2Al10O17:Eu (BAM) phosphors in a heated air flow to determine the optimal optical configuration for accurate temperature measurements. The originally planned multi-year research project ended prematurely after the first year due to the Sandia-sponsored student leaving the research group at the University of Michigan.

  14. In-situ, high-frequency P-Wave velocity measurements within 1 m of the Earth’s surface

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baker, Gregory S.; Steeples, Don W.; Schmeissner, Chris M.

    1999-03-01

    Seismic P-wave velocities in near?surface materials can be much slower than the speed of sound waves in air (normally 335 m/s or 1100 ft/s). Difficulties often arise when measuring these low?velocity P-waves because of interference by the air wave...

  15. Duct injection technology prototype development: Nozzle development Subtask 4. 1, Atomizer specifications for duct injection technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-02-01

    Babcock Wilcox has conducted a program to identify atomizers appropriate for successful in-duct injection of humidification water and lime slurries. The purpose of this program was to identify and quantify atomizer spray and performance criteria that affect the operations and reliability of the in-duct SO{sub 2} removal process, and compare commercially available atomizers to these criteria.

  16. Pancreatic duct replication is increased with obesity and type 2 diabetes in humans

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Butler, A. E.; Galasso, R.; Matveyenko, A.; Rizza, R. A.; Dry, S.; Butler, P. C.

    2010-01-01

    1556-8 ARTICLE Pancreatic duct replication is increased withwe noted increased exocrine duct replication. This is aafter immunostaining for the duct cell marker cytokeratin

  17. Statistical maritime radar duct estimation using hybrid genetic algorithm-Markov chain Monte Carlo method

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yardim, Caglar; Gerstoft, Peter; Hodgkiss, William S.

    2007-01-01

    Estimating evaporation duct heights from radar sea echo,”Estimation of surface-based duct parameters from surfaceapplication of an evaporation duct model,” Radio Science,

  18. Experiments measuring particle deposition from fully developed turbulent flow in ventilation ducts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sippola, Mark R.; Nazaroff, William W.

    2003-01-01

    of Particles in Vertical Ducts with Smooth and RoughDeposition in Ventilation Ducts, Ph. D. Dissertation,Applicability to Ventilation Ducts in Commercial Buildings,

  19. An Extreme High-Velocity Bipolar Outflow in the Pre-Planetary Nebula IRAS 08005-2356

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sahai, R

    2015-01-01

    We report interferometric mapping of the bipolar pre-planetary nebula IRAS 08005-2356 with an angular-resolution of ~1"-5", using the Submillimeter Array (SMA), in the 12CO J=2-1, 3-2, 13CO J=2-1 and SiO J=5-4 (v=0) lines. Single-dish observations, using the SMT 10-m, were made in these lines as well as in the CO J=4-3 and SiO J-6-5 (v=0) lines. The lines profiles are very broad, showing the presence of a massive (>0.1 Msun), extreme high-velocity outflow (V~200 km/s) directed along the nebular symmetry axis derived from the HST imaging of this object. The outflow's scalar momentum far exceeds that available from radiation pressure of the central post-AGB star, and it may be launched from an accretion disk around a main-sequence companion. We provide indirect evidence for such a disk from its previously published, broad H-alpha emission profile, which we propose results from Ly-beta emission generated in the disk followed by Raman-scattering in the innermost regions of a fast, neutral wind.

  20. Computational analysis of a three-dimensional High-Velocity Oxygen-Fuel (HVOF) Thermal Spray torch

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hassan, B.; Lopez, A.R.; Oberkampf, W.L.

    1995-07-01

    An analysis of a High-Velocity Oxygen-Fuel Thermal Spray torch is presented using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Three-dimensional CFD results are presented for a curved aircap used for coating interior surfaces such as engine cylinder bores. The device analyzed is similar to the Metco Diamond Jet Rotating Wire torch, but wire feed is not simulated. To the authors` knowledge, these are the first published 3-D results of a thermal spray device. The feed gases are injected through an axisymmetric nozzle into the curved aircap. Argon is injected through the center of the nozzle. Pre-mixed propylene and oxygen are introduced from an annulus in the nozzle, while cooling air is injected between the nozzle and the interior wall of the aircap. The combustion process is modeled assuming instantaneous chemistry. A standard, two-equation, K-{var_epsilon} turbulence model is employed for the turbulent flow field. An implicit, iterative, finite volume numerical technique is used to solve the coupled conservation of mass, momentum, and energy equations for the gas in a sequential manner. Flow fields inside and outside the aircap are presented and discussed.

  1. Fundamental investigation of duct/ESP phenomena

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, C.A. (Radian Corp., Austin, TX (United States)); Durham, M.D. (ADA Technologies, Inc., Englewood, CO (United States)); Sowa, W.A. (California Univ., Irvine, CA (United States). Combustion Lab.); Himes, R.M. (Fossil Energy Research Corp., Laguna Hills, CA (United States)); Mahaffey, W.A. (CHAM of North America, Inc., Huntsville, AL (United States))

    1991-10-21

    Radian Corporation was contracted to investigate duct injection and ESP phenomena in a 1.7 MW pilot plant constructed for this test program. This study was an attempt to resolve problems found in previous studies and answer remaining questions for the technology using an approach which concentrates on the fundamental mechanisms of the process. The goal of the study was to obtain a better understanding of the basic physical and chemical phenomena that control: (1) the desulfurization of flue gas by calcium-based reagent, and (2) the coupling of an existing ESP particulate collection device to the duct injection process. Process economics are being studied by others. (VC)

  2. High-pressure sound velocities and elasticity of aluminous MgSiO3 perovskite to 45 GPa: Implications for lateral heterogeneity in Earth's

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jackson, Jennifer M.

    High-pressure sound velocities and elasticity of aluminous MgSiO3 perovskite to 45 GPa magnesium silicate perovskite, arguably the most abundant phase in Earth, have been performed to 45 GPa media. The experiments were performed on a polycrystalline sample of aluminous MgSiO3 perovskite

  3. Measurement of flowfield in a simulated solid-propellant ducted rocket combustor using laser Doppler velocimetry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hsieh, W.H.; Yang, V.; Chuang, C.L.; Yang, A.S.; Cherng, D.L.

    1989-01-01

    A two-component LDV system was used to obtain detailed flow velocity and turbulence measurements in order to study the flow characteristics in a simulated solid-propellant ducted rocket combustor. The vortical structures near the dome region, the size of the recirculation zone, and the location of the reattachment point are all shown to be strongly affected by the jet momentum of both ram air and fuel streams. It is found that the turbulence intensity is anisotropic throughout the front portion of the simulated conbustor, and that the measured Reynolds stress conmponent distribution is well correlated with the local mean velocity vector distribution. 25 refs.

  4. Duct Leakage Impacts on VAV System Performance in California Large

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    LBNL-53605 Duct Leakage Impacts on VAV System Performance in California Large Commercial Buildings and for implementing the duct models in a form that could readily be used in this project; and Brian Smith (LBNL

  5. Building America Top Innovations 2013 Profile – Buried and Encapsulated Ducts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2013-09-01

    In this innovation profile, CARB research shows HVAC ducts that are encapsulated in closed-cell spray foam and buried in blown insulation in a vented attic meet the code requirements for ducts in conditioned space.

  6. Minimizing Energy Losses in Ducts | Department of Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    is critical. In recent years, energy-saving designs have sought to include ducts and heating systems in the conditioned space. Many existing duct systems lose a lot of energy...

  7. Potential Flow Calculations of Axisymmetric Ducted Wind Turbines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Widnall, Sheila

    2009-09-02

    An incompressible potential-flow vortex method has been constructed to analyze the flow field of a ducted

  8. 236tI1 1 NS II"HrNS (ON IND)t Si ,Y \\S.V(O \\1INS. \\ l. I,\\-\\17, NO. 2. M AR(H/APRI L1981 A New Current-Voltage Relation for Duct Precipitators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cooperman, Gene

    Current-Voltage Relation for Duct Precipitators Valid for Low and High Current Densities GENE COOPERMAN Abstract-A closed-form analytic current-voltage formula for duct electrostatic precipitators is presented

  9. A ``NEW'' APPROACH TO ACTIVE NOISE CONTROL IN DUCTS 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    A ``NEW'' APPROACH TO ACTIVE NOISE CONTROL IN DUCTS 1 Prashant Mehta 2 , Yuan Zheng 3 , Yossi Chait consider the fixed­filter design ap­ proach for active noise control (ANC) in ducts. Based on a large body.e., a duct equipped with both feedforward and feedback sensors and a control speaker. Our design of a linear

  10. LBNL-41434. CAN DUCT-TAPE TAKE THE HEAT?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    LBNL-41434. 1 CAN DUCT-TAPE TAKE THE HEAT? Max Sherman Iain Walker Energy Performance of Buildings Group Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory University of California Duct leakage has been identified as a major source of energy loss in residential buildings. Most duct leakage occurs at the connections

  11. Clutter-Based Evaporation Duct Estimation Performance Using Meteorological Statistics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gerstoft, Peter

    Clutter-Based Evaporation Duct Estimation Performance Using Meteorological Statistics Caglar Yardim in different regions of the world with varying duct strengths and statistics. The performance of evaporation duct estimation is investigated in littoral zones such as the North Sea, Wallops Island, Coast

  12. Cuton, cutoff transition of sound in slowly varying flow ducts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eindhoven, Technische Universiteit

    Cut­on, cut­off transition of sound in slowly varying flow ducts Sjoerd W. Rienstra 19­walled duct with irrotational isentropic mean flow is studied. The usual turning point behaviour was found. 1 Introduction The exact multiple scale solution for sound propagation in a slowly varying lined flow duct

  13. DOUBLE DUCTED FAN (DDF) Cengiz Camci and Ali Akturk

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Camci, Cengiz

    DOUBLE DUCTED FAN (DDF) By Cengiz Camci and Ali Akturk A technology description document a novel ducted fan inlet flow conditioning concept that will significantly improve the performance" and many other ducted fan based systems. The new concept that will significantly reduce the inlet lip

  14. Longevity of Duct Tape in Residential Air Distribution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    LBNL 51099 Longevity of Duct Tape in Residential Air Distribution Systems: 1-D, 2-D, and 3-D Joints involved the aging of common "core-to-collar joints" of flexible duct to sheet metal collars, and sheet consisted of baking duct tape specimens in a constant 212°F (100°C) oven following the UL 181B

  15. SOUND PROPAGATION IN SLOWLY VARYING LINED FLOW DUCTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eindhoven, Technische Universiteit

    SOUND PROPAGATION IN SLOWLY VARYING LINED FLOW DUCTS OF ARBITRARY CROSS SECTION S.W. Rienstra.w.rienstra@tue.nl November 20, 2002 Abstract Sound transmission through ducts of constant cross section with a uniform expansion, where the modes are eigenfunctions of the corresponding Laplace eigenvalue problem along a duct

  16. Improved Wireless Performance from Mode Scattering in Ventilation Ducts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stancil, Daniel D.

    Improved Wireless Performance from Mode Scattering in Ventilation Ducts Benjamin E. Henty, PA 15230. henty@eirp.org and stancil@cmu.edu Abstract Ventilation ducts are a convenient undesirable in a ven- tilation duct setting. With this in mind we investigate the mode scattering effects

  17. Nucleonic analysis of the ETF neutral-beam-injector-duct and vacuum-pumping-duct shields

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Urban, W.T.; Seed, T.J.; Dudziak, D.J.

    1981-05-01

    A nucleonic analysis of the Engineering Test Facility neutral-beam-injector-duct and vacuum-pumping-duct shields has been made using a hybrid Monte Carlo/discrete-ordinates method. This method used Monte Carlo to determine internal and external boundary surface sources for subsequent discrete-ordinates calculations of the neutron and gamma-ray transport through the shields. Confidence was provided in both the hybrid method and the results obtained through a comparison with three-dimensional Monte Carlo results. Also determined in the analysis were the energy and angular distributions of neutrons and gamma rays entering the neutral-beam-injector duct from the toroidal plasma chamber, as well as exiting the duct into the neutral-beam-injector chamber. In addition, the energy and angular distributions of neutrons entering the vacuum-pumping chamber were determined.

  18. LBNL -53547 Advanced Duct Sealant Testing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Office of Building Technology, State and Community Programs: Philip Spartz PIER Program Area: Buildings End Use Energy Efficiency PIER Program Area Lead: Nancy contributes to the Buildings End-Use Energy Efficiency program. 4 #12;Executive Summary Duct leakage has been

  19. Comparative Testing of the Combined Radiant Barrier and Duct Models in the ESL's Code-Compliant Simulation Model 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, S.; Haberl, J. S.

    2007-07-10

    model and the EnergyGauge program by the Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC). Sensitivity analyses were performed by varying duct insulation level, supply duct area, return duct area, supply duct leakage, return duct leakage, and ceiling insulation levels...

  20. MATTER MIXING IN ASPHERICAL CORE-COLLAPSE SUPERNOVAE: A SEARCH FOR POSSIBLE CONDITIONS FOR CONVEYING {sup 56}Ni INTO HIGH VELOCITY REGIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ono, Masaomi; Nagataki, Shigehiro; Ito, Hirotaka; Lee, Shiu-Hang; Mao, Jirong; Tolstov, Alexey [Astrophysical Big Bang Laboratory, RIKEN, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Hashimoto, Masa-aki, E-mail: masaomi.ono@riken.jp [Department of Physics, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 812-8581 (Japan)

    2013-08-20

    We perform two-dimensional axisymmetric hydrodynamic simulations of matter mixing in aspherical core-collapse supernova explosions of a 16.3 M{sub Sun} star with a compact hydrogen envelope. Observations of SN 1987A have provided evidence that {sup 56}Ni synthesized by explosive nucleosynthesis is mixed into fast moving matter ({approx}>3500 km s{sup -1}) in the exploding star. In order to clarify the key conditions for reproducing such high velocity of {sup 56}Ni, we revisit matter mixing in aspherical core-collapse supernova explosions. Explosions are initiated artificially by injecting thermal and kinetic energies around the interface between the iron core and the silicon-rich layer. Perturbations of 5% or 30% amplitude in the radial velocities are introduced at several points in time. We find that no high velocity {sup 56}Ni can be obtained if we consider bipolar explosions with perturbations (5% amplitude) of pre-supernova origins. If large perturbations (30% amplitude) are introduced or exist due to some unknown mechanism in a later phase just before the shock wave reaches the hydrogen envelope, {sup 56}Ni with a velocity of 3000 km s{sup -1} can be obtained. Aspherical explosions that are asymmetric across the equatorial plane with clumpy structures in the initial shock waves are investigated. We find that the clump sizes affect the penetration of {sup 56}Ni. Finally, we report that an aspherical explosion model that is asymmetric across the equatorial plane with multiple perturbations of pre-supernova origins can cause the penetration of {sup 56}Ni clumps into fast moving matter of 3000 km s{sup -1}. We show that both aspherical explosions with clumpy structures and perturbations of pre-supernova origins may be necessary to reproduce the observed high velocity of {sup 56}Ni. To confirm this, more robust three-dimensional simulations are required.

  1. Phase Stability of an HT-9 Duct Irradiated in FFTF

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O. Anderoglu; J. Van den Bosch; B. H. Sencer; E. Stergar; D. Bhattacharya; P. Dickerson; M. Hartl; S.A. Maloy; P. Hosemann

    2012-11-01

    A fuel test assembly known as ACO-3 duct made out of a fully tempered ferritic/martensitic steel (HT-9) was previously irradiated in the Fast Flux Test Reactor Facility (FFTF) up to 155 dpa at a temperature range of 380-504°C. The microstructures of the samples from 5 different zones along the face of the duct were analyzed using a combination of TEM based techniques, SANS and APT. A high density of Cr rich a' precipitates together with moderate density G-phase precipitates with an average sizes of 5 and 11 nm respectively were found at 20 dpa, 380°C zone. It was found that the precipitations of the second phases are more sensitive to temperature then the dose. In general, the density of both precipitates decreases with increasing irradiation temperature. No significant change is observed in average size of a' while the average size of G-phase precipitates increases up to 27 nm at 440°C. Voids are seen at 100 (410°C) and 155 (440°C) dpa zones but none was detected at 96 dpa (466°C) zone. In contrast to what is reported in the literature, no laves or Chi phases were found in any of the zones.

  2. Reflection and Ducting of Gravity Waves Inside the Sun

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    MacGregor, K B

    2011-01-01

    Internal gravity waves excited by overshoot at the bottom of the convection zone can be influenced by rotation and by the strong toroidal magnetic field that is likely to be present in the solar tachocline. Using a simple Cartesian model, we show how waves with a vertical component of propagation can be reflected when traveling through a layer containing a horizontal magnetic field with a strength that varies with depth. This interaction can prevent a portion of the downward-traveling wave energy flux from reaching the deep solar interior. If a highly reflecting magnetized layer is located some distance below the convection zone base, a duct or wave guide can be set up, wherein vertical propagation is restricted by successive reflections at the upper and lower boundaries. The presence of both upward- and downward-traveling disturbances inside the duct leads to the existence of a set of horizontally propagating modes that have significantly enhanced amplitudes. We point out that the helical structure of these ...

  3. Development of a High Resolution X-Ray Imaging Crystal Spectrometer for Measurement of Ion-Temperature and Rotation-Velocity Profiles in Fusion Energy Research Plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hill, K W; Broennimann, Ch; Eikenberry, E F; Ince-Cushman, A; Lee, S G; Rice, J E; Scott, S

    2008-01-29

    A new imaging high resolution x-ray crystal spectrometer (XCS) has been developed to measure continuous profiles of ion temperature and rotation velocity in fusion plasmas. Following proof-of-principle tests on the Alcator C-Mod tokamak and the NSTX spherical tokamak, and successful testing of a new silicon, pixilated detector with 1 MHz count rate capability per pixel, an imaging XCS is being designed to measure full profiles of Ti and v? on C-Mod. The imaging XCS design has also been adopted for ITER. Ion-temperature uncertainty and minimum measurable rotation velocity are calculated for the C-Mod spectrometer. The affects of x-ray and uclear-radiation background on the measurement uncertainties are calculated to predict performance on ITER.

  4. Development of a High Resolution X-Ray Imaging Crystal Spectrometer for Measurement of Ion-Temperature and Rotation-Velocity Profiles in Fusion Energy Research Plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hill, K W; Broennimann, Ch; Eikenberry, E F; Ince-Cushman, A; Lee, S G; Rice, J E; Scott, S

    2008-02-27

    A new imaging high resolution x-ray crystal spectrometer (XCS) has been developed to measure continuous profiles of ion temperature and rotation velocity in fusion plasmas. Following proof-of-principle tests on the Alcator C-Mod tokamak and the NSTX spherical tokamak, and successful testing of a new silicon, pixilated detector with 1MHz count rate capability per pixel, an imaging XCS is being designed to measure full profiles of Ti and v? on C-Mod. The imaging XCS design has also been adopted for ITER. Ion-temperature uncertainty and minimum measurable rotation velocity are calculated for the C-Mod spectrometer. The affects of x-ray and nuclear-radiation background on the measurement uncertainties are calculated to predict performance on ITER.

  5. DOE Challenge Home Technical Training - Ducts in Conditioned...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    of the U.S. Department of Energy Challenge Home program: Design Options for Locating Ducts within Conditioned Space. challengehometechnicaltraining.pdf More Documents &...

  6. Leaf seal for transition duct in turbine system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Flanagan, James Scott; LeBegue, Jeffrey Scott; McMahan, Kevin Weston; Dillard, Daniel Jackson; Pentecost, Ronnie Ray

    2013-06-11

    A turbine system is disclosed. In one embodiment, the turbine system includes a transition duct. The transition duct includes an inlet, an outlet, and a passage extending between the inlet and the outlet and defining a longitudinal axis, a radial axis, and a tangential axis. The outlet of the transition duct is offset from the inlet along the longitudinal axis and the tangential axis. The transition duct further includes an interface member for interfacing with a turbine section. The turbine system further includes a leaf seal contacting the interface member to provide a seal between the interface member and the turbine section.

  7. Buried and Encapsulated Ducts, Jacksonville, Florida (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2013-11-01

    Ductwork installed in unconditioned attics can significantly increase the overall heating and cooling costs of residential buildings. In fact, estimated duct thermal losses for single-family residential buildings with ductwork installed in unconditioned attics range from 10% to 45%. In a study of three single-story houses in Florida, the Building America research team Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) investigated the strategy of using buried and/or encapsulated ducts (BED) to reduce duct thermal losses in existing homes. The BED strategy consists of burying ducts in loose-fill insulation and/or encapsulating them in closed cell polyurethane spray foam (ccSPF) insulation. There are three possible combinations of BED strategies: (1) buried ducts; (2) encapsulated ducts (with ccSPF); and (3) buried and encapsulated ducts. The best solution for each situation depends on the climate, age of the house, and the configuration of the HVAC system and attic. For new construction projects, the team recommends that ducts be both encapsulated and buried as the minimal planning and costs required for this will yield optimal energy savings. The encapsulated/buried duct strategy, which utilizes ccSPF to address condensation concerns, is an approach that was developed specifically for humid climates.

  8. Flexible metallic seal for transition duct in turbine system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Flanagan, James Scott; LeBegue, Jeffrey Scott; McMahan, Kevin Weston; Dillard, Daniel Jackson; Pentecost, Ronnie Ray

    2014-04-22

    A turbine system is disclosed. In one embodiment, the turbine system includes a transition duct. The transition duct includes an inlet, an outlet, and a passage extending between the inlet and the outlet and defining a longitudinal axis, a radial axis, and a tangential axis. The outlet of the transition duct is offset from the inlet along the longitudinal axis and the tangential axis. The transition duct further includes an interface member for interfacing with a turbine section. The turbine system further includes a flexible metallic seal contacting the interface member to provide a seal between the interface member and the turbine section.

  9. Evaluation of friction loss in flexible and galvanized duct 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zimmermann, Carlos Michael Alberto

    1985-01-01

    runs and in 90 degree elbows at various center line radii to diameter ratios (r/d). Three, 3. 658 meter (m) (12 ft) sections of straight, flexible 152 millimeter (mm) (6 in) and 203 sss (8 in) duct and three, 3. 048 m (10 ft) sections of straight... mean data and that ail three factors (duct size, duct type and air flow volume) contribute to this difference. Three sections of each type (flexible and galvanized) and size (152 and 203 sws) duct were tested in 90 degree elbows at five different r/d...

  10. Improving Building Envelope and Duct Airtightness of US Dwellings...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conference: Improving Building Envelope and Duct Airtightness of US Dwellings - the Current State of Energy Retrofits Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Improving Building...

  11. Duct injection technology prototype development: Evaluation of engineering data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-07-01

    The objective of the Duct Injection Technology Prototype Development Project is to develop a sound design basis for applying duct injection technology as a post-combustion SO{sub 2}emissions control method to existing coal-fired power plants. The necessary engineering design and scale-up criteria will be developed for the commercialization of duct injection technology for the control of SO{sub 2} emissions from coal-fired boilers in the utility industry. The primary focus of the analyses summarized in this Topical Report is the review of the known technical and economic information associated with duct injection technology. (VC)

  12. Tips: Air Ducts | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:Financing ToolInternational Affairs,Department of EnergyPROGRAM TheMetalThomasPhaseofAir Ducts

  13. Extracting kinetic freeze-out temperature and radial flow velocity from transverse momentum spectra in high energy collisions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wei, Hua-Rong; Lacey, Roy A

    2015-01-01

    Experimental results of the transverse momentum spectra of final-state light flavour particles produced in gold-gold (Au-Au), copper-copper (Cu-Cu), lead-lead (Pb-Pb), proton-lead (p-Pb), and proton-proton (p-p) collisions at various energies, measured by the PHENIX, STAR, ALICE, and CMS Collaborations, are described by the Tsallis-standard (Tsallis form of Fermi-Dirac or Bose-Einstein) distribution, Tsallis distribution, and two- or three-component standard distribution, in the framework of a multisource thermal model. The effective temperatures and real temperatures (kinetic freeze-out temperatures) of interacting system at the stage of kinetic freeze-out, and the radial flow velocities of final-state particles are successively extracted from the transverse momentum spectra by the three distributions which can be in fact regarded as three types of "thermometers" and "speedometers". The dependences of effective temperatures on particle mass and centrality, and the dependences of kinetic freeze-out temperatur...

  14. Numerically-based ducted propeller design using vortex lattice lifting line theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stubblefield, John M

    2008-01-01

    This thesis used vortex lattice lifting line theory to model an axisymmetrical-ducted propeller with no gap between the duct and the propeller. The theory required to model the duct and its interaction with the propeller ...

  15. DEVELOPING FLOW AND HEAT TRANSFER IN STRONGLY CURVED DUCTS OF RECTANGULAR CROSS-SECTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yee, G.

    2010-01-01

    123. HUMPHREY, J.A.C. , "Flow in Ducts with Curvature andViscous Flow in Curved Ducts of Rectangular Cross-Sections,"Laminar Flow in a Square Duct of Strong Curvature,1I J.

  16. Contributions to the theory of soundpropagation in ducts with bulk-reacting lining

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rienstra, Sjoerd W.

    Contributions to the theory of soundpropagation in ducts with bulk-reacting lining S.W. Rienstra interfaceduct/liner modalamplitudeductfield outer radius duct with liner modalamplitudelinerfield wavenumber duct radial wavenumber liner axial wavenumber smallparameter ratioradialpressuregradientsat

  17. The Delta Q method of testing the air leakage of ducts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walker, I.S.; Dickerhoff, D.J.; Sherman, M.H.

    2002-01-01

    2001. Development of a new duct leakage test: DeltaQ. L B Nin the DeltaQ test for Duct Leakage. Brookhaven Nationalof the DeltaQ test for Duct Leakage. Proc. A C E E E 2002

  18. Duct Systems in large commercial buildings: Physical characterization, air leakage, and heat conduction gains

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fisk, W.J.

    2011-01-01

    LBNL-42339 Duct Systems in Large Commercial Buildings:and conduction heat gains of duct systems. Different methodscompared. ELAs-of supply ducts ranged from 0.4 to 2.0 cm 2

  19. Effects of Duct Improvement and ENERGYSTAR Equipment on Comfort and Energy Efficiency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    LBNL 43723 Effects of Duct Improvement and ENERGYSTAR Equipment on Comfort and Energy Efficiency I................................................................................................................................................ 5 DUCT LEAKAGE AND ENERGYSTAR EQUIPMENT EFFECTS ON COMFORT .................................... 5).......................................................................................................9 Duct leakage by pressurization

  20. Design and development of plugged lactiferous duct treatment technology for nursing women

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mellor, Xochitl L

    2015-01-01

    Plugged lactiferous ducts are a common problem that many nursing women encounter. This occurs when the tissue around a milk duct has become inflamed, thus preventing milk from passing through the duct. Women treat and ...

  1. The structural design of air and gas ducts for power stations and industrial boiler applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schneider, R.L.

    1996-10-01

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss the new American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) book entitled, The Structural Design of Air and Gas Ducts for Power Stations and Industrial Boiler Applications. This 312 page book was published by the ASCE in August of 1995. This ASCE publication was created to assist structural engineers in performing the structural analysis and design of air and flue-gas ducts. The structural behavior of steel ductwork can be difficult to understand for structural engineers inexperienced in ductwork analysis and design. Because of this needed expertise, the ASCE committee that created this document highly recommends that the structural analysis and design of ducts be performed by qualified structural engineers, not be technicians, designers or drafters. There is a history within the power industry of failures and major degradation of flue-gas ductwork. There are many reasons for these failures or degradation, but in many cases, the problems may have been voided by a better initial design. This book attempts to help the structural engineer with this task. This book is not intended to be used to size or configure ductwork for flow and pressure drop considerations. But it does recommend that the ductwork system arrangement consider the structural supports and the structural behavior of the duct system.

  2. Slow sound in lined flow ducts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Auregan, Yves

    2015-01-01

    We consider the acoustic propagation in lined flow duct with a purely reactive impedance at the wall. This reacting liner has the capability to reduce the speed of sound, and thus to enhance the interaction between the acoustic propagation and the low Mach number flow ($M\\simeq0.3$). At the lower frequencies, there are typically 4 acoustic or hydrodynamic propagating modes, with 3 of them propagating in the direction of the flow. Above a critical frequency, there are only 2 propagating modes that all propagate in the direction of the flow. From the exact 2D formulation an approximate 1D model is developed to study the scattering of acoustic waves in a straight duct with varying wall impedance. This simple system, with a uniform flow and with a non-uniform liner impedance at the wall, permits to study the scattering between regions with different waves characteristics. Several situations are characterized to show the importance of negative energy waves, strong interactions between acoustic and hydrodynamic mod...

  3. Economizer Applications in Dual-Duct Air-Handling Units 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joo, I.; Liu, M.

    2002-01-01

    for dual-fan, dual-duct air-handling units. The economizer has significant heating energy penalties for single-fan, dual-duct air-handling units. The penalties are higher than the cooling energy savings when the cold airflow is less than the hot airflow...

  4. Duct injection technology prototype development: Nozzle development Subtask 4.1, Atomizer specifications for duct injection technology. Topical report 8

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-02-01

    Babcock & Wilcox has conducted a program to identify atomizers appropriate for successful in-duct injection of humidification water and lime slurries. The purpose of this program was to identify and quantify atomizer spray and performance criteria that affect the operations and reliability of the in-duct SO{sub 2} removal process, and compare commercially available atomizers to these criteria.

  5. 'Modal-noise' in single-mode fibers: A cautionary note for high precision radial velocity instruments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Halverson, Samuel; Mahadevan, Suvrath; Schwab, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Exploring the use of single-mode fibers (SMFs) in high precision Doppler spectrometers has become increasingly attractive since the advent of diffraction-limited adaptive optics systems on large-aperture telescopes. Spectrometers fed with these fibers can be made significantly smaller than typical 'seeing-limited' instruments, greatly reducing cost and overall complexity. Importantly, classical mode interference and speckle issues associated with multi-mode fibers, also known as 'modal noise', are mitigated when using SMFs, which also provide perfect radial and azimuthal image scrambling. However, these fibers do support multiple polarization modes, an issue that is generally ignored for larger-core fibers given the large number of propagation modes. Since diffraction gratings used in most high resolution astronomical instruments have dispersive properties that are sensitive to incident polarization changes, any birefringence variations in the fiber can cause variations in the efficiency profile, degrading il...

  6. Imaging Permafrost Velocity Structure Using High Resolution 3D Seismic Tomography K.Ramachandran, The University of Tulsa, Tom Brent, Gilles Bellefleur and Scott Dallimore, Geological Survey of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ramachandran, Kumar

    the permafrost velocity structure in lateral and vertical directions, indicating strong near surface velocity geothermal gradient) until the temperature again reaches 0C, at the base of the permafrost. A talik, as shown

  7. NEW GUN CAPABILITY WITH INTERCHANGABLE BARRELS TO INVESTIGATE LOW VELOCITY IMPACT REGIMES AT THE LAWRENCE LIVERMORE NATIONAL LABORATORY HIGH EXPLOSIVES APPLICATIONS FACILITY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vandersall, K S; Behn, A; Gresshoff, M; Jr., L F; Chiao, P I

    2009-09-16

    A new gas gun capability is being activated at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories located in the High Explosives Applications Facility (HEAF). The single stage light gas (dry air, nitrogen, or helium) gun has interchangeable barrels ranging from 25.4 mm to 76.2 mm in diameter with 1.8 meters in length and is being fabricated by Physics Applications, Inc. Because it is being used for safety studies involving explosives, the gun is planned for operation inside a large enclosed firing tank, with typical velocities planned in the range of 10-300 m/s. Three applications planned for this gun include: low velocity impact of detonator or detonator/booster assemblies with various projectile shapes, the Steven Impact test that involves impact initiation of a cased explosive target, and the Taylor impact test using a cylindrical explosive sample impacted onto a rigid anvil for fracture studies of energetic materials. A highlight of the gun features, outline on work in progress for implementing this capability, and discussion of the planned areas of research will be included.

  8. Transition to turbulence in duct flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Biau, Damien; Bottaro, Alessandro; 10.1017/S0022112007009536

    2010-01-01

    The transition of the flow in a duct of square cross-section is studied. Like in the similar case of the pipe flow, the motion is linearly stable for all Reynolds numbers; this flow is thus a good candidate to investigate the 'bypass' path to turbulence. Initially the so-called 'linear optimal perturbation problem' is formulated and solved, yielding optimal disturbances in the form of longitudinal vortices. Such optimals, however, fail to elicit a significant response from the system in the nonlinear regime. Thus, streamwise-inhomogeneous, sub-optimal disturbances are focussed upon; nonlinear quadratic interactions are immediately evoked by such initial perturbations and an unstable streamwise-homogeneous large amplitude mode rapidly emerges. The subsequent evolution of the flow, at a value of the Reynolds number at the edge between fully developed turbulence and relaminarization, shows the alternance of patterns with two pairs of large scale vortices near opposing parallel walls. Such edge states bear a rese...

  9. Study of Chelyabinsk LL5 meteorite fragment with a light lithology and its fusion crust using Mössbauer spectroscopy with a high velocity resolution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maksimova, Alevtina A.; Petrova, Evgeniya V.; Grokhovsky, Victor I.; Oshtrakh, Michael I. Semionkin, Vladimir A.

    2014-10-27

    Study of Chelyabinsk LL5 ordinary chondrite fragment with a light lithology and its fusion crust, fallen on February 15, 2013, in Russian Federation, was carried out using Mössbauer spectroscopy with a high velocity resolution. The Mössbauer spectra of the internal matter and fusion crust were fitted and all components were related to iron-bearing phases such as olivine, pyroxene, troilite, Fe-Ni-Co alloy, and chromite in the internal matter and olivine, pyroxene, troilite, Fe-Ni-Co alloy, and magnesioferrite in the fusion crust. A comparison of the content of different phases in the internal matter and in the fusion crust of this fragment showed that ferric compounds resulted from olivine, pyroxene, and troilite combustion in the atmosphere.

  10. A hybrid finite-difference/boundary element procedure for the simulation of turbulent MHD duct flow at finite magnetic Reynolds numbers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bandaru, Vinodh; Krasnov, Dmitry; Schumacher, Jörg

    2015-01-01

    A conservative coupled finite difference-boundary element computational procedure for the simulation of turbulent magnetohydrodynamic flow in a straight rectangular duct at finite magnetic Reynolds number is presented. The flow is assumed to be periodic in the streamwise direction and is driven by a mean pressure gradient. The duct walls are considered to be electrically insulating. The co-evolution of the velocity and magnetic fields as described respectively by the Navier-Stokes and the magnetic induction equations, together with the coupling of the magnetic field between the conducting domain and the non-conducting exterior is solved using the magnetic field formulation. The aim is to simulate localized magnetic fields interacting with turbulent duct flow. Detailed verification of the implementation of the numerical scheme is conducted in the limiting case of low magnetic Reynolds number by comparing with the results obtained using a quasistatic approach that has no coupling with the exterior. The rigorous...

  11. Efficient Computation of Spinning Modal Radiation Through an Engine Bypass Duct

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, Xun

    Efficient Computation of Spinning Modal Radiation Through an Engine Bypass Duct Xun Huang, Xiaoxian out of a duct with flow. The sound propagation inside a generic engine bypass duct, refractions compared on a canonical case of sound propagation out of a semi-infinite duct with flow. Good agreements

  12. STABILITY ANALYSIS FOR BUOYANCY-OPPOSED FLOWS IN POLOIDAL DUCTS OF THE DCLL BLANKET

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abdou, Mohamed

    STABILITY ANALYSIS FOR BUOYANCY-OPPOSED FLOWS IN POLOIDAL DUCTS OF THE DCLL BLANKET N. Vetcha, S, the most of heat deposition and tritium breeding occur in the poloidal ducts facing the plasma (front ducts flows in the long poloidal ducts are comparable with or can even dominate over forced flows, thus

  13. Building America Whole-House Solutions for New Homes: High-Performance...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    New Homes: High-Performance Ducts in Hot-Dry Climates Building America Whole-House Solutions for New Homes: High-Performance Ducts in Hot-Dry Climates The Alliance for Residential...

  14. Building America Whole-House Solutions for New Homes: High-Performance...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Whole-House Solutions for New Homes: High-Performance Ducts in Hot-Dry Climates Building America Whole-House Solutions for New Homes: High-Performance Ducts in Hot-Dry Climates The...

  15. Method and apparatus for duct sealing using a clog-resistant insertable injector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang, Duo (Albany, CA); Modera, Mark P. (Piedmont, CA)

    2010-12-14

    A method for forming a duct access region through one side of a previously installed air duct, wherein the air duct has an air flow with an air flow direction by inserting an aerosol injector into a previously installed air duct through the access region. The aerosol injector includes a liquid tube having a liquid tube orifice for ejecting a liquid to be atomized; and a propellant cap. The method is accomplished by aligning the aerosol injector with the direction of air flow in the duct; activating an air flow within the duct; and spraying a sealant through the aerosol injector to seal the duct in the direction of the air flow.

  16. DOE Zero Energy Ready Home Webinar: Ducts in Conditioned Space

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE Challenge Home is a blueprint for zero energy ready homes.  When we make that statement – it’s impossible to justify huge thermal losses from ducts in unconditioned spaces.  That’s why one of...

  17. The Effects of Geometry on Flexible Duct CFD Simulations 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ugursal, A.; Culp, C.

    2008-01-01

    dynamics (CFD) simulations allow variable configurations and are emerging as an alternative to laboratory measurements. Issues with the CFD simulations of flexible ducts have been modeling the complex geometry and the computational requirements to complete...

  18. Ducting arrangement for cooling a gas turbine structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, Ching-Pang; Morrison, Jay A.

    2015-07-21

    A ducting arrangement (10) for a can annular gas turbine engine, including: a duct (12, 14) disposed between a combustor (16) and a first row of turbine blades and defining a hot gas path (30) therein, the duct (12, 14) having raised geometric features (54) incorporated into an outer surface (80); and a flow sleeve (72) defining a cooling flow path (84) between an inner surface (78) of the flow sleeve (72) and the duct outer surface (80). After a cooling fluid (86) traverses a relatively upstream raised geometric feature (90), the inner surface (78) of the flow sleeve (72) is effective to direct the cooling fluid (86) toward a landing (94) separating the relatively upstream raised geometric feature (90) from a relatively downstream raised geometric feature (94).

  19. Measure Guideline: Buried and/or Encapsulated Ducts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shapiro, C.; Zoeller, W.; Mantha, P.

    2013-08-01

    Buried and/or encapsulated ducts (BEDs) are a class of advanced, energy-efficiency strategies intended to address the significant ductwork thermal losses associated with ducts installed in unconditioned attics. BEDs are ducts installed in unconditioned attics that are covered in loose-fill insulation and/or encapsulated in closed cell polyurethane spray foam insulation. This Measure Guideline covers the technical aspects of BEDs as well as the advantages, disadvantages, and risks of BEDs compared to other alternative strategies. This guideline also provides detailed guidance on installation of BEDs strategies in new and existing homes through step-by-step installation procedures. Some of the procedures presented here, however, require specialized equipment or expertise. In addition, some alterations to duct systems may require a specialized license.

  20. Flow control optimization in a jet engine serpentine inlet duct 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kumar, Abhinav

    2009-05-15

    Computational investigations were carried out on an advanced serpentine jet engine inlet duct to understand the development and propagation of secondary flow structures. Computational analysis which went in tandem with experimental investigation...

  1. BETTER DUCT SYSTEMS FOR HOME HEATING AND COOLING.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    ANDREWS,J.

    2001-01-01

    This is a series of six guides intended to provide a working knowledge of residential heating and cooling duct systems, an understanding of the major issues concerning efficiency, comfort, health, and safety, and practical tips on installation and repair of duct systems. These guides are intended for use by contractors, system designers, advanced technicians, and other HVAC professionals. The first two guides are also intended to be accessible to the general reader.

  2. Lymphoscintigraphic evaluation of the thoracic duct in the canine 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hodges, Carlos Cintron

    1990-01-01

    LYMPHOSCINTIGRAPHIC EVALUATION OF THE THORACIC DUCT IN THE CANINE A Thesis by CARLOS CINTRON HODGES Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER... OF SCIENCE December 1990 Major Subject: Veterinary Medicine and Surgery LYMPHOSCINTIGRAPHIC EVALUATION OF THE THORACIC DUCT IN THE CANINE A Thesis by CARLOS CINTRON HODGES Approved as to style and content by: H W. Boothe (Chair of Committee) D...

  3. Single channel double-duct liquid metal electrical generator using a magnetohydrodynamic device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Haaland, C.M.; Deeds, W.E.

    1999-07-13

    A single channel double-duct liquid metal electrical generator using a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) device. The single channel device provides useful output AC electric energy. The generator includes a two-cylinder linear-piston engine which drives liquid metal in a single channel looped around one side of the MHD device to form a double-duct contra-flowing liquid metal MHD generator. A flow conduit network and drive mechanism are provided for moving liquid metal with an oscillating flow through a static magnetic field to produce useful AC electric energy at practical voltages and currents. Variable stroke is obtained by controlling the quantity of liquid metal in the channel. High efficiency is obtained over a wide range of frequency and power output. 5 figs.

  4. Single channel double-duct liquid metal electrical generator using a magnetohydrodynamic device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Haaland, Carsten M. (Dadeville, AL); Deeds, W. Edward (Knoxville, TN)

    1999-01-01

    A single channel double-duct liquid metal electrical generator using a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) device. The single channel device provides useful output AC electric energy. The generator includes a two-cylinder linear-piston engine which drives liquid metal in a single channel looped around one side of the MHD device to form a double-duct contra-flowing liquid metal MHD generator. A flow conduit network and drive mechanism are provided for moving liquid metal with an oscillating flow through a static magnetic field to produce useful AC electric energy at practical voltages and currents. Variable stroke is obtained by controlling the quantity of liquid metal in the channel. High efficiency is obtained over a wide range of frequency and power output.

  5. WAVE PROPAGATION in the HOT DUCT of VHTR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richard Schultz; Jim C. P. Liou

    2013-07-01

    In VHTR, helium from the reactor vessel is conveyed to a power conversion unit through a hot duct. In a hypothesized Depressurized Conduction Cooldown event where a rupture of the hot duct occurs, pressure waves will be initiated and reverberate in the hot duct. A numerical model is developed to quantify the transients and the helium mass flux through the rupture for such events. The flow path of the helium forms a closed loop but only the hot duct is modeled in this study. The lower plum of the reactor vessel and the steam generator are treated as specified pressure and/or temperature boundary to the hot duct. The model is based on the conservation principles of mass, momentum and energy, and on the equations of state for helium. The numerical solution is based on the method of characteristics with specified time intervals with a predictor and corrector algorithm. The rupture sub-model gives reasonable results. Transients induced by ruptures with break area equaling 20%, 10%, and 5% of the duct cross-sectional area are described.

  6. Measure Guideline: Buried and/or Encapsulated Ducts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shapiro, C.; Zoeller, W.; Mantha, P.

    2013-08-01

    Buried and/or encapsulated ducts (BEDs) are a class of advanced, energy-efficiency strategies intended to address the significant ductwork thermal losses associated with ducts installed in unconditioned attics. BEDs are ducts installed in unconditioned attics that are covered in loose-fill insulation and/or encapsulated in closed cell polyurethane spray foam insulation. This Measure Guideline covers the technical aspects of BEDs as well as the advantages, disadvantages, and risks of BEDs compared to other alternative strategies. This guideline also provides detailed guidance on installation of BEDs strategies in new and existing homes through step-by-step installation procedures. This Building America Measure Guideline synthesizes previously published research on BEDs and provides practical information to builders, contractors, homeowners, policy analysts, building professions, and building scientists. Some of the procedures presented here, however, require specialized equipment or expertise. In addition, some alterations to duct systems may require a specialized license. Persons implementing duct system improvements should not go beyond their expertise or qualifications. This guideline provides valuable information for a building industry that has struggled to address ductwork thermal losses in new and existing homes. As building codes strengthen requirements for duct air sealing and insulation, flexibility is needed to address energy efficiency goals. While ductwork in conditioned spaces has been promoted as the panacea for addressing ductwork thermal losses, BEDs installations approach - and sometimes exceed - the performance of ductwork in conditioned spaces.

  7. X-ray high-resolution spectroscopy reveals feedback in a Seyfert galaxy from an ultra fast wind with complex ionization and velocity structure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Longinotti, Anna Lia; Guainazzi, Matteo; Giroletti, Marcello; Panessa, Francesca; Costantini, Elisa; Lleo, Maria Santos; Rodriguez-Pascual, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    Winds outflowing from Active Galactic Nuclei (AGNs) may carry significant amount of mass and energy out to their host galaxies. In this paper we report the detection of a sub-relativistic outflow observed in the Narrow Line Seyfert 1 Galaxy IRAS17020+4544 as a series of absorption lines corresponding to at least 5 absorption components with an unprecedented wide range of associated column densities and ionization levels and velocities in the range of 23,000-33,000 km/s, detected at X-ray high spectral resolution (E/Delta E ~1000) with the ESA's observatory XMM-Newton. The charge states of the material constituting the wind clearly indicate a range of low to moderate ionization states in the outflowing gas and column densities significantly lower than observed in highly ionized ultra fast outflows. We estimate that at least one of the outflow components may carry sufficient energy to substantially suppress star formation, and heat the gas in the host galaxy. IRAS17020+4544 provides therefore an interesting exa...

  8. Tracing the propagation of cosmic rays in the Milky Way halo with Fermi-LAT observations of high- and intermediate-velocity clouds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tibaldo, L

    2015-01-01

    Cosmic rays up to at least PeV energies are usually described in the framework of an elementary scenario that involves acceleration by objects that are located in the disk of the Milky Way, such as supernova remnants or massive star-forming regions, and then diffusive propagation throughout the Galaxy. Details of the propagation process are so far inferred mainly from the composition of cosmic rays measured near the Earth and then extrapolated to the whole Galaxy. The details of the propagation in the Galactic halo and the escape into the intergalactic medium remain uncertain. The densities of cosmic rays in specific locations can be traced via the gamma rays they produce in inelastic collisions with clouds of interstellar gas. Therefore, we analyze 73 months of Fermi-LAT data from 300 MeV to 10 GeV in the direction of several high- and intermediate-velocity clouds that are located in the halo of the Milky Way. These clouds are supposed to be free of internal sources of cosmic rays and hence any gamma-ray emi...

  9. Fiberglass Duct Cleaning Safe Work Practices Duct Cleaning -Prior to reaching a decision to clean a duct, an investigation of possible

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de Lijser, Peter

    ­ Locations should be noted prior to conducting work. Lockers, Showers, and Hand Wash Sinks ­ Should to be sure that there are no hazardous containing materials in the duct system such as Asbestos. Asbestos into particulate collection equipment. 3. All equipment located outside should be placed downwind and away from

  10. Measure Guideline: Optimizing the Configuration of Flexible Duct Junction Boxes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beach, R.; Burdick, A.

    2014-03-01

    This measure guideline offers additional recommendations to heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) system designers for optimizing flexible duct, constant-volume HVAC systems using junction boxes within Air Conditioning Contractors of America (ACCA) Manual D guidance (Rutkowski, H. Manual D -- Residential Duct Systems, 3rd edition, Version 1.00. Arlington, VA: Air Conditioning Contractors of America, 2009.). IBACOS used computational fluid dynamics software to explore and develop guidance to better control the airflow effects of factors that may impact pressure losses within junction boxes among various design configurations (Beach, R., Prahl, D., and Lange, R. CFD Analysis of Flexible Duct Junction Box Design. Golden, CO: National Renewable Energy Laboratory, submitted for publication 2013). These recommendations can help to ensure that a system aligns more closely with the design and the occupants' comfort expectations. Specifically, the recommendations described herein show how to configure a rectangular box with four outlets, a triangular box with three outlets, metal wyes with two outlets, and multiple configurations for more than four outlets. Designers of HVAC systems, contractors who are fabricating junction boxes on site, and anyone using the ACCA Manual D process for sizing duct runs will find this measure guideline invaluable for more accurately minimizing pressure losses when using junction boxes with flexible ducts.

  11. Developing a market-based utility duct sealing program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davis, B.; Baylon, D.; Houseknecht, A.

    1998-07-01

    In recent years, residential energy conservation research has focused attention on heating system distribution efficiency. Several field studies in the Pacific Northwest have found forced-air heating systems which have a majority of ducts located in unheated buffer spaces can lose as much as 30% of the equipment's heating output to duct air leakage and conduction loss. The magnitude of loss can be equivalent to the combined improvements in building shell insulation levels due to updated energy codes. Field review of forced-air heating systems often uncovers other problems with duct layout and equipment performance. Several challenges face utilities planning to undertake a large-scale duct-sealing program. Most notable of these challenges are finding suitable homes; working with field protocols which encourage consistent, successful work; and measuring the effects of the work through field quality control and impact analysis. This paper describes the response rate for duct sealing services based on one marketing approach and describes bill and field test screening criteria used to narrow the list of retrofit candidates. Results form the screening are presented, along with preliminary retrofit results and important operations and maintenance findings.

  12. Ducts in the Attic? What Were They Thinking? Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roberts, D.; Winkler, J.

    2010-08-01

    As energy-efficiency efforts focus increasingly on existing homes, we scratch our heads about construction decisions made 30, 40, 50-years ago and ask: 'What were they thinking?' A logical follow-on question is: 'What will folks think in 2050 about the homes we're building today?' This question can lead to a lively discussion, but the current practice that we find most alarming is placing ducts in the attic. In this paper, we explore through literature and analysis the impact duct location has on cooling load, peak demand, and energy cost in hot climates. For a typical new home in these climates, we estimate that locating ducts in attics rather than inside conditioned space increases the cooling load 0.5 to 1 ton, increases cooling costs 15% and increases demand by 0.75 kW. The aggregate demand to service duct loss in homes built in Houston, Las Vegas, and Phoenix during the period 2000 through 2009 is estimated to be 700 MW. We present options for building homes with ducts in conditioned space and demonstrate that these options compare favorably with other common approaches to achieving electricity peak demand and consumption savings in homes.

  13. KELT-8b: A highly inflated transiting hot Jupiter and a new technique for extracting high-precision radial velocities from noisy spectra

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fulton, Benjamin J; Gaudi, B Scott; Stassun, Keivan G; Pepper, Joshua; Beatty, Thomas G; Siverd, Robert J; Penev, Kaloyan; Howard, Andrew W; Baranec, Christoph; Corfini, Giorgio; Eastman, Jason D; Gregorio, Joao; Law, Nicholas M; Lund, Michael B; Oberst, Thomas E; Penny, Matthew T; Riddle, Reed; Rodriguez, Joseph E; Stevens, Daniel J; Zambelli, Roberto; Ziegler, Carl; Bieryla, Allyson; D`Ago, Giuseppe; DePoy, Darren L; Jensen, Eric L N; Kielkopf, John F; Latham, David W; Manner, Mark; Marshall, Jennifer; McLeod, Kim K; Reed, Phillip A

    2015-01-01

    We announce the discovery of a highly inflated transiting hot Jupiter discovered by the KELT-North survey. A global analysis including constraints from isochrones indicates that the V = 10.8 host star (HD 343246) is a mildly evolved, G dwarf with $T_{\\rm eff} = 5754_{-55}^{+54}$ K, $\\log{g} = 4.078_{-0.054}^{+0.049}$, $[Fe/H] = 0.272\\pm0.038$, an inferred mass $M_{*}=1.211_{-0.066}^{+0.078}$ M$_{\\odot}$, and radius $R_{*}=1.67_{-0.12}^{+0.14}$ R$_{\\odot}$. The planetary companion has mass $M_P = 0.867_{-0.061}^{+0.065}$ $M_{J}$, radius $R_P = 1.86_{-0.16}^{+0.18}$ $R_{J}$, surface gravity $\\log{g_{P}} = 2.793_{-0.075}^{+0.072}$, and density $\\rho_P = 0.167_{-0.038}^{+0.047}$ g cm$^{-3}$. The planet is on a roughly circular orbit with semimajor axis $a = 0.04571_{-0.00084}^{+0.00096}$ AU and eccentricity $e = 0.035_{-0.025}^{+0.050}$. The best-fit linear ephemeris is $T_0 = 2456883.4803 \\pm 0.0007$ BJD$_{\\rm TDB}$ and $P = 3.24406 \\pm 0.00016$ days. This planet is one of the most inflated of all known transiti...

  14. Application of an EASM model for turbulent convective heat transfer in ribbed duct

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saidi, A.; Sunden, B.

    1999-07-01

    A numerical investigation is performed to predict local and mean thermal-hydraulic characteristics in rib-roughened ducts. The Navier-Stokes and energy equations, and a low-Re number {kappa}-{epsilon} turbulence model are solved with two methods for determination of the Reynolds stresses, eddy viscosity model (EVM) and explicit algebraic stress model (EASM). The numerical solution procedure uses a collocated grid, and the pressure-velocity coupling is handled by the SIMPLEC algorithm. The assumption of fully developed periodic conditions is applied. The calculated mean and local heat transfer enhancement values are compared with experimental data and fairly good agreement on mean Nu numbers is achieved. The prediction capabilities of the two turbulence models (EVM and EASM) are discussed. Both models have similar ability to predict the mean Nusselt numbers but the EASM model is superior in description of the flow field structure.

  15. Porokeratotic eccrine ostial and dermal duct nevus treated with a combination erbium/CO laser: A case and brief review

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wong, Jillian W; Summers, Erika M; Taylor, Mark B; Harris, Ronald M

    2011-01-01

    of the palm — a sweat duct naevus? Br J Dermatol 1979; 101:eccrine ostial and dermal duct naevus. Br J Dermatol 1980;eccrine ostial and dermal duct nevus. Pediatric Dermatology

  16. Duct Leakage Modeling in EnergyPlus and Analysis of Energy Savings from Implementing SAV with InCITeTM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wray, Craig

    2010-01-01

    C. 2005. “Detecting Critical Supply Duct Pressure”. ASHRAEnl18/nl_18.html Wray, C.P. 2003. “Duct Thermal Performance12  Figure 10.  Duct Layout for Intervention Floor (control 

  17. Effects of a new cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator inhibitor on Cl- conductance in human sweat ducts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, X F; Reddy, M M; Quinton, Paul M

    2004-01-01

    conductance in human sweat ducts X. F. Wang 1 , M. M. Reddyand cystic ?brosis sweat ducts. P?ugers Arch 408, 505–510.secretion in the human sweat duct. Ann N Y Acad Sci 574,

  18. Unitaxial constant velocity microactuator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McIntyre, Timothy J. (Knoxville, TN)

    1994-01-01

    A uniaxial drive system or microactuator capable of operating in an ultra-high vacuum environment. The mechanism includes a flexible coupling having a bore therethrough, and two clamp/pusher assemblies mounted in axial ends of the coupling. The clamp/pusher assemblies are energized by voltage-operated piezoelectrics therewithin to operatively engage the shaft and coupling causing the shaft to move along its rotational axis through the bore. The microactuator is capable of repeatably positioning to sub-manometer accuracy while affording a scan range in excess of 5 centimeters. Moreover, the microactuator generates smooth, constant velocity motion profiles while producing a drive thrust of greater than 10 pounds. The system is remotely controlled and piezoelectrically driven, hence minimal thermal loading, vibrational excitation, or outgassing is introduced to the operating environment.

  19. Unitaxial constant velocity microactuator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McIntyre, T.J.

    1994-06-07

    A uniaxial drive system or microactuator capable of operating in an ultra-high vacuum environment is disclosed. The mechanism includes a flexible coupling having a bore therethrough, and two clamp/pusher assemblies mounted in axial ends of the coupling. The clamp/pusher assemblies are energized by voltage-operated piezoelectrics therewithin to operatively engage the shaft and coupling causing the shaft to move along its rotational axis through the bore. The microactuator is capable of repeatably positioning to sub-nanometer accuracy while affording a scan range in excess of 5 centimeters. Moreover, the microactuator generates smooth, constant velocity motion profiles while producing a drive thrust of greater than 10 pounds. The system is remotely controlled and piezoelectrically driven, hence minimal thermal loading, vibrational excitation, or outgassing is introduced to the operating environment. 10 figs.

  20. Advanced Strategy Guideline: Air Distribution Basics and Duct Design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burdick, A.

    2011-12-01

    This report discusses considerations for designing an air distribution system for an energy efficient house that requires less air volume to condition the space. Considering the HVAC system early in the design process will allow adequate space for equipment and ductwork and can result in cost savings. Principles discussed that will maximize occupant comfort include delivery of the proper amount of conditioned air for appropriate temperature mixing and uniformity without drafts, minimization of system noise, the impacts of pressure loss, efficient return air duct design, and supply air outlet placement, as well as duct layout, materials, and sizing.

  1. Fundamental investigation of duct/ESP phenomena. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, C.A. [Radian Corp., Austin, TX (United States); Durham, M.D. [ADA Technologies, Inc., Englewood, CO (United States); Sowa, W.A. [California Univ., Irvine, CA (United States). Combustion Lab.; Himes, R.M. [Fossil Energy Research Corp., Laguna Hills, CA (United States); Mahaffey, W.A. [CHAM of North America, Inc., Huntsville, AL (United States)

    1991-10-21

    Radian Corporation was contracted to investigate duct injection and ESP phenomena in a 1.7 MW pilot plant constructed for this test program. This study was an attempt to resolve problems found in previous studies and answer remaining questions for the technology using an approach which concentrates on the fundamental mechanisms of the process. The goal of the study was to obtain a better understanding of the basic physical and chemical phenomena that control: (1) the desulfurization of flue gas by calcium-based reagent, and (2) the coupling of an existing ESP particulate collection device to the duct injection process. Process economics are being studied by others. (VC)

  2. Particle Concentration Dynamics in the Ventilation Duct after an Artificial Release: for Countering Potential Bioterriorist Attack

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    You , Siming; Wan, Man Pun

    2014-01-01

    leads to In this work, the models of particle concentration dynamics in the ventilation duct following a resuspension

  3. Technology Solutions Case Study: High-Performance Ducts in Hot...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Gas & Electric Company initiated a project with Davis Energy Group (lead for the Building America team, Alliance for Residential Building Innovation) to solicit builder...

  4. Technology Solutions Case Study: High-Performance Ducts in Hot...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    the conditioned thermal envelope. To support this activity, in 2013 the Pacific Gas & Electric Company initiated a project with Davis Energy Group (lead for the Building...

  5. Statistical maritime radar duct estimation using hybrid genetic algorithmMarkov

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gerstoft, Peter

    Statistical maritime radar duct estimation using hybrid genetic algorithm­Markov chain Monte Carlo encountered in low- altitude maritime radar applications. This is done by statistically estimating the duct of unknowns. Citation: Yardim, C., P. Gerstoft, and W. S. Hodgkiss (2007), Statistical maritime radar duct

  6. Modal Scattering at an Impedance Transition in a Lined Flow Duct

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eindhoven, Technische Universiteit

    Modal Scattering at an Impedance Transition in a Lined Flow Duct Sjoerd W. Rienstra Eindhoven CB3 0WA, UK. An explicit Wiener-Hopf solution is derived to describe the scattering of duct modes at a hard-soft wall impedance transition in a circular duct with uniform mean flow. Specifically, we have

  7. Seamless Handover in Buildings Using HVAC Ducts: A New System Architecture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stancil, Daniel D.

    Seamless Handover in Buildings Using HVAC Ducts: A New System Architecture Ariton E. Xhafa, Paisarn ducts for wireless communications. The proposed solution is based on a new system architecture design of the indoor wireless networks that use the heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) ducts

  8. Modeling, Control, and Flight Testing of a Small Ducted Fan Aircraft

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Eric N.

    1 Modeling, Control, and Flight Testing of a Small Ducted Fan Aircraft Eric N. Johnson* and Michael A. Turbe Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA, 30332 Small ducted fan autonomous vehicles for the GTSpy, a small ducted fan autonomous vehicle based on the Micro Autonomous Systems' Helispy

  9. On the solution to the Riemann problem for the compressible duct ow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    On the solution to the Riemann problem for the compressible duct ow Nikolai Andrianov and Gerald Warnecke #3; March 6, 2003 Abstract The quasi-one-dimensional Euler equations in a duct of variable cross of the Euler equations in a duct of corresponding geometry and compare it with the 1D results. Then

  10. ORNL/LTR-2014/283 A Comparison of Simulation Capabilities for Ducts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Xiaorui "Ray"

    ORNL/LTR-2014/283 A Comparison of Simulation Capabilities for Ducts William A. Miller Som Shrestha and Transportation Sciences Division A Comparison of Simulation Capabilities for Ducts William A. Miller Som Shrestha...........................................................9 3 DUCTS PLACED IN UNCONDITIONED ZONES

  11. TEMPERATURE CONTROLLABILITY IN CROSS-FLOW HEAT EXCHANGERS AND LONG DUCTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sen, Mihir

    TEMPERATURE CONTROLLABILITY IN CROSS-FLOW HEAT EXCHANGERS AND LONG DUCTS A Dissertation Submitted-FLOW HEAT EXCHANGERS AND LONG DUCTS Abstract by Sorour Abdulhadi Alotaibi The performance of thermal control and long ducts, are investigated, and the following issues are addressed. (a) The first is controllability

  12. Static Pressure Losses in 6, 8, and 10-inch Non-Metallic Flexible Ducts 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weaver, K.; Culp, C.

    2006-01-01

    This study measured airflow static pressure losses through non-metallic flexible ducts in compliance with ASHRAE Standard 120-1999, Methods of Testing to Determine Flow Resistance of HVAC Air Ducts and Fittings (ASHRAE 1999). Duct sizes of 6, 8...

  13. Experimental Demonstration of 2x2 MIMO Communications in a Reverberant Ventilation Duct

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stancil, Daniel D.

    Experimental Demonstration of 2x2 MIMO Communications in a Reverberant Ventilation Duct Environment- tilation duct. We further demonstrate that MIMO coefficients applied to transmit and receive antennas can that ventilation ducts are an attractive media for distributing RF communication signals indoors (See for example

  14. Theoretical Study and Numerical Validation of Sound Radiation from Coaxial Annular Duct

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, Xun

    Theoretical Study and Numerical Validation of Sound Radiation from Coaxial Annular Duct Xin Liu-infinite annular duct. Our problem is different from previous works in that both its inner pipe and outer pipe are semi-infinite. Hence, this problem is a better representative of aircraft engine bypass duct

  15. RF propagation in an HVAC duct system: impulse response characteristics of the channel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stancil, Daniel D.

    RF propagation in an HVAC duct system: impulse response characteristics of the channel Pavel V, the heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) duct system in buildings is a complex network of hollow at RF and microwave frequencies of com- mon interest. HVAC ducts can be used as a wireless communication

  16. EXACT RIEMANN SOLUTIONS TO COMPRESSIBLE EULER EQUATIONS IN DUCTS WITH DISCONTINUOUS CROSSSECTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    EXACT RIEMANN SOLUTIONS TO COMPRESSIBLE EULER EQUATIONS IN DUCTS WITH DISCONTINUOUS CROSS solutions for the system of Euler equa- tions in a duct with discontinuous varying cross through a duct of variable cross­section with the area a(x). They are given in the perturbation form U

  17. Sealing Ducts in Large Commercial Buildings with Aerosolized Sealant M. P. Modera, O. Brzozowski**

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    LBNL-42414 1 Sealing Ducts in Large Commercial Buildings with Aerosolized Sealant Particles M. P Abstract Electricity energy savings potential by eliminating air leakage from ducts in large commercial buildings, a new technology that simultaneously seals duct leaks and measures effective leakage area

  18. Multi-carrier Signal Transmission through HVAC Ducts: Experimental Results for Channel Capacity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stancil, Daniel D.

    Multi-carrier Signal Transmission through HVAC Ducts: Experimental Results for Channel Capacity) ducts based on multi-carrier transmission technique and mea- sured channel frequency responses in the 2 through a building HVAC duct system demonstrate the ability to transmit with a spectral efficiency of 3

  19. AIAA 2008-2877 Sound Radiation from a Generic Bypass Duct with

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, Xun

    1 AIAA 2008-2877 Sound Radiation from a Generic Bypass Duct with Bifurcations Xiaoxian Chen1 , Xun, United Kingdom The influence of bifurcations in an aero-engine bypass duct on noise radiation of the simulations were compared with those of a clean duct case. A circumferential mode of m=12 with radial mode

  20. Control of Flow Separation in S-ducts via Flow Injection and Suction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Debiasi, Marco

    Control of Flow Separation in S-ducts via Flow Injection and Suction Marco Debiasi1 , Marco Robert as a mean to control the separation of flow in S-duct inlets. The overall goal is to reduce the distortion of the S-duct outlet flow and to improve its pressure recovery by using the least expenditure of energy. We

  1. Cut-on, cut-off transition of sound in slowly varying flow ducts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rienstra, Sjoerd W.

    Cut-on, cut-off transition of sound in slowly varying flow ducts Sjoerd W. Rienstra 19-walled duct with irrotational isentropic mean flow is studied. The usual turning point behaviour was found. 1 Introduction The exact multiple scale solution for sound propagation in a slowly varying lined flow duct

  2. LBNL# 40102 Field Investigation of Duct System Performance in California Light Commercial Buildings 1 of 26

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    LBNL# 40102 Field Investigation of Duct System Performance in California Light Commercial Buildings 1 of 26 Field Investigation of Duct System Performance in California Light Commercial Buildings Wm National Laboratory Berkeley, California Synopsis This paper discusses field measurements of duct system

  3. SOUND TRANSMISSION IN SLOWLY VARYING CIRCULAR AND ANNULAR LINED DUCTS WITH FLOW a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eindhoven, Technische Universiteit

    SOUND TRANSMISSION IN SLOWLY VARYING CIRCULAR AND ANNULAR LINED DUCTS WITH FLOW a S.W. Rienstra/CEAS Aeroacoustics Conference, June 2­4, 1998, Toulouse ABSTRACT Sound transmission through straight circular ducts by a modal expansion. A natural ex­ tension for ducts with axially slowly varying properties (diameter

  4. Interior Duct Wall Pressure Downstream of a Low-Speed Scott C. Morris

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alonso, Juan J.

    Interior Duct Wall Pressure Downstream of a Low-Speed Rotor Scott C. Morris , David B. Stephens The region downstream of a ducted rotor has been experimentally investigated in terms of its wake characteristics and the duct wall pressure fluctuations. The motivation for the measurements was to document

  5. Toward a Better Understanding of Ducted Rotor Antitorque and Directional Control in Forward Flight

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Toward a Better Understanding of Ducted Rotor Antitorque and Directional Control in Forward Flight of ducted rotors in low-power, near-edgewise flow conditions are not well understood. Motivated by phenomena was initiated to use CFD to improve the understanding of the dynamic relationship between ducted rotor thrust

  6. Performance Analysis of Dual-Fan, Dual-Duct Constant Volume Air-Handling Units 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joo, I. S.; Liu, M.

    2001-01-01

    Dual-fan, dual-duct air-handling units introduce outside air directly into the cooling duct and use two variable speed devices to independently maintain the static pressure of the hot and the cold air ducts. Analytical models have been developed...

  7. Duct Leakage Impacts on Airtightness, Infiltration, and Peak Electrical Demand in Florida Homes 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cummings, J. B.; Tooley, J. J.; Moyer, N.

    1990-01-01

    (ACHSO). When the duct registers were sealed, ACHSO decreased to 11.04, indicating that 12.2% of the house leaks were in the duct system. Duct leaks have a dramatic impact upon peak electrical demand. Based on theoretical analysis, a fifteen percent...

  8. Cooling air recycling for gas turbine transition duct end frame and related method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cromer, Robert Harold (Johnstown, NY); Bechtel, William Theodore (Scotia, NY); Sutcu, Maz (Niskayuna, NY)

    2002-01-01

    A method of cooling a transition duct end frame in a gas turbine includes the steps of a) directing cooling air into the end frame from a region external of the transition duct and the impingement cooling sleeve; and b) redirecting the cooling air from the end frame into the annulus between the transition duct and the impingement cooling sleeve.

  9. High resolution spectroscopy for Cepheids distance determination. V. Impact of the cross-correlation method on the p-factor and the gamma-velocities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nardetto, N; Kervella, P; Fouqué, P; Storm, J; Pietrzynski, G; Mourard, D; Queloz, D

    2009-01-01

    The cross correlation method (hereafter CC) is widely used to derive the radial velocity curve of Cepheids when the signal to noise of the spectra is low. However, if it is used with the wrong projection factor, it might introduce some biases in the Baade-Wesselink (hereafter BW) methods of determining the distance of Cepheids. In addition, it might affect the average value of the radial velocity curve (or gamma-velocity) important for Galactic structure studies. We aim to derive a period-projection factor relation (hereafter Pp) appropriate to be used together with the CC method. Moreover, we investigate whether the CC method can explain the misunderstood previous calculation of the K-term of Cepheids. We observed eight galactic Cepheids with the HARPS spectrograph. For each star, we derive an interpolated CC radial velocity curve using the HARPS pipeline. The amplitudes of these curves are used to determine the correction to be applied to the semi-theoretical projection factor derived in Nardetto et al. (20...

  10. Handover Performance of HVAC Duct Based Indoor Wireless Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stancil, Daniel D.

    in indoor wireless net- works (IWN) that use heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) ducts point to serve one floor and its staircase region achieves the best handover performance for IWN]. An alternative approach to transmitt/receive the RF signal is to use heating, ventilation, and airconditioning

  11. Experimental and numerical study of mixed convection with flow reversal in coaxial double-duct heat exchangers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mare, Thierry; Voicu, Ionut; Miriel, Jacques [Laboratoire de Genie Civil et de Genie Mecanique (LGCGM), INSA de Rennes, IUT Saint Malo, 35043 Rennes (France); Galanis, Nicolas [Faculte de genie, Universite de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, QC (Canada); Sow, Ousmane [Laboratoire d'Energie Appliquee, Ecole superieure Polytechnique, Dakar (Senegal)

    2008-04-15

    Velocity vectors in a vertical coaxial double-duct heat exchanger for parallel ascending flow of water under conditions of laminar mixed convection have been determined experimentally using the particle image velocimetry technique. The measured velocity distributions for large annular flow rates, resulting in an essentially isothermal environment for the stream in the inner tube, are in very good agreement with corresponding numerical predictions. For flow rates of the same order of magnitude in the inner tube and the annulus, and corresponding temperature differences of about 20 C, experimental observations show that flow reversal occurs simultaneously in both streams over large axial distances for both heating and cooling of the flow in the inner tube. (author)

  12. PROTOSTELLAR JETS ENCLOSED BY LOW-VELOCITY OUTFLOWS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Machida, Masahiro N.

    2014-11-20

    A protostellar jet and outflow are calculated for ?270 yr following the protostar formation using a three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamics simulation, in which both the protostar and its parent cloud are spatially resolved. A high-velocity (?100 km s{sup –1}) jet with good collimation is driven near the disk's inner edge, while a low-velocity (? 10 km s{sup –1}) outflow with a wide opening angle appears in the outer-disk region. The high-velocity jet propagates into the low-velocity outflow, forming a nested velocity structure in which a narrow high-velocity flow is enclosed by a wide low-velocity flow. The low-velocity outflow is in a nearly steady state, while the high-velocity jet appears intermittently. The time-variability of the jet is related to the episodic accretion from the disk onto the protostar, which is caused by gravitational instability and magnetic effects such as magnetic braking and magnetorotational instability. Although the high-velocity jet has a large kinetic energy, the mass and momentum of the jet are much smaller than those of the low-velocity outflow. A large fraction of the infalling gas is ejected by the low-velocity outflow. Thus, the low-velocity outflow actually has a more significant effect than the high-velocity jet in the very early phase of the star formation.

  13. A Review of Thermal Acoustical and Special Project Requirements Data in Designing a Duct System 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lebens, A. F.

    1986-01-01

    or duct wrap because of their low resistance to punctures. As we all know, it would be impossible to clean out a lined sheet metal duct or fiberglass duct. Specifications on a remodel project should include flexibility for jobsite redesign without...). Lined sheet metal (1" 2.0 pcf density) had a U of .23; wrapped sheet metal (2" .75 pcf density) at 25 percent compression had a U of .16; fiberglass duct 1" thick was .19 U-value; and insulated flexible duct 1" thick had a .18 U-value. This data...

  14. VOL. 28, NO. 8, AUGUST 1990 AIAA JOURNAL 1447 Flow Distortion in a Circular-to-Rectangular Transition Duct

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leu, Tzong-Shyng "Jeremy"

    -to-Rectangular Transition Duct J. J. Miau,* T. S. Leu,? J. H. Chou,f S. A. Lint National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan, Republic of China Experiments were made for three circular-to-rectangular transition ducts of the transition duct. The results indicate that the major driving force for flow in the duct to behave three

  15. A steady state thermal duct model derived by fin-theory approach and applied on an unglazed solar collector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stojanovic, B.; Hallberg, D.; Akander, J.

    2010-10-15

    This paper presents the thermal modelling of an unglazed solar collector (USC) flat panel, with the aim of producing a detailed yet swift thermal steady-state model. The model is analytical, one-dimensional (1D) and derived by a fin-theory approach. It represents the thermal performance of an arbitrary duct with applied boundary conditions equal to those of a flat panel collector. The derived model is meant to be used for efficient optimisation and design of USC flat panels (or similar applications), as well as detailed thermal analysis of temperature fields and heat transfer distributions/variations at steady-state conditions; without requiring a large amount of computational power and time. Detailed surface temperatures are necessary features for durability studies of the surface coating, hence the effect of coating degradation on USC and system performance. The model accuracy and proficiency has been benchmarked against a detailed three-dimensional Finite Difference Model (3D FDM) and two simpler 1D analytical models. Results from the benchmarking test show that the fin-theory model has excellent capabilities of calculating energy performances and fluid temperature profiles, as well as detailed material temperature fields and heat transfer distributions/variations (at steady-state conditions), while still being suitable for component analysis in junction to system simulations as the model is analytical. The accuracy of the model is high in comparison to the 3D FDM (the prime benchmark), as long as the fin-theory assumption prevails (no 'or negligible' temperature gradient in the fin perpendicularly to the fin length). Comparison with the other models also shows that when the USC duct material has a high thermal conductivity, the cross-sectional material temperature adopts an isothermal state (for the assessed USC duct geometry), which makes the 1D isothermal model valid. When the USC duct material has a low thermal conductivity, the heat transfer course of events adopts a 1D heat flow that reassembles the conditions of the 1D simple model (for the assessed USC duct geometry); 1D heat flow through the top and bottom fins/sheets as the duct wall reassembles a state of adiabatic condition. (author)

  16. Ducts in Conditioned Space - Building America Top Innovation | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum Based| Department8,Department of2 FederalEnergyDucts Sealing Using

  17. Linear stability of magnetohydrodynamic flow in a square duct with thin conducting walls

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Priede, J?nis; Bühler, Leo

    2015-01-01

    This study is concerned with numerical linear stability analysis of liquid metal flow in a square duct with thin electrically conducting walls subject to a uniform transverse magnetic field. We derive an asymptotic solution for the base flow which is valid not only for high but also moderate magnetic fields. This solution shows that for low wall conductance ratios $c\\ll1,$ an extremely strong magnetic field with the Hartmann number $Ha\\sim c^{-4}$ is required to attain the asymptotic flow regime considered in the previous studies. We use a vector stream function/vorticity formulation and a Chebyshev collocation method to solve the eigenvalue problem for three-dimensional small-amplitude perturbations in ducts with realistic wall conductance ratios $c=1,0.1,0.01$ and Hartmann numbers up to $10^{4}.$ As for similar flows, instability in a sufficiently strong magnetic field is found to occur in the side-wall jets with the characteristic thickness $\\delta\\sim Ha^{-1/2}.$ This results in the critical Reynolds numb...

  18. Average Angular Velocity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    H. Essen

    2004-01-28

    This paper addresses the problem of the separation of rotational and internal motion. It introduces the concept of average angular velocity as the moment of inertia weighted average of particle angular velocities. It extends and elucidates the concept of Jellinek and Li (1989) of separation of the energy of overall rotation in an arbitrary (non-linear) $N$-particle system. It generalizes the so called Koenig's theorem on the two parts of the kinetic energy (center of mass plus internal) to three parts: center of mass, rotational, plus the remaining internal energy relative to an optimally translating and rotating frame.

  19. Velocity pump reaction turbine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    House, Palmer A. (Walnut Creek, CA)

    1984-01-01

    An expanding hydraulic/two-phase velocity pump reaction turbine including a dual concentric rotor configuration with an inter-rotor annular flow channel in which the inner rotor is mechanically driven by the outer rotor. In another embodiment, the inner rotor is immobilized and provided with gas recovery ports on its outer surface by means of which gas in solution may be recovered. This velocity pump reaction turbine configuration is capable of potential energy conversion efficiencies of up to 70%, and is particularly suited for geothermal applications.

  20. Velocity pump reaction turbine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    House, Palmer A. (Walnut Creek, CA)

    1982-01-01

    An expanding hydraulic/two-phase velocity pump reaction turbine including a dual concentric rotor configuration with an inter-rotor annular flow channel in which the inner rotor is mechanically driven by the outer rotor. In another embodiment, the inner rotor is immobilized and provided with gas recovery ports on its outer surface by means of which gas in solution may be recovered. This velocity pump reaction turbine configuration is capable of potential energy conversion efficiencies of up to 70%, and is particularly suited for geothermal applications.

  1. Report of IAU Commission 30 on Radial Velocities (2009-2012)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Torres, G; Lovis, C; Marcy, G W; Mathieu, R D; Mazeh, T; Meibom, S; Minniti, D; Moutou, C; Pepe, F; Pourbaix, D; Turon, C; Udry, S; Zwitter, T

    2011-01-01

    Brief summaries are given of the following subjects of interest to IAU Commission 30: Large-scale radial-velocity surveys; The role of radial-velocity measurements in studies of stellar angular momentum evolution and stellar age; Radial velocities in open clusters; Toward higher radial-velocity precision; High-precision radial velocities applied to studies of binary stars; Doppler boosting effect; Working groups (Stellar radial velocity bibliography; Radial velocity standards; Catalogue of orbital elements of spectroscopic binaries [SB9]).

  2. DEVELOPING FLOW AND HEAT TRANSFER IN STRONGLY CURVED DUCTS OF RECTANGULAR CROSS-SECTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yee, G.

    2010-01-01

    DEVELOpiNG FLOW AND HEAT TRANSFER IN STRONGLY CURVED DUCTS9092 Developing Flow and Heat Transfer in Strongly CurvedForced Convection Heat Transfer in Curved Rectangular

  3. Microstructure Development during High-Velocity Deformation P.J. FERREIRA, J.B. VANDER SANDE, M. AMARAL FORTES, and A. KYROLAINEN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ferreira, Paulo J.

    . AMARAL FORTES, and A. KYROLAINEN An austenitic stainless steel was deformed at high (103 s 1 ) strain the tendency for -martensite formation, and suppress the amount of -martensite. The increased presence to high strain rates due to their jump fre- quency. The suppression of -martensite can be explained

  4. Model-Based Commissioning Methodology for Simple Duct System 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Odajima, T.; Takashi, M.; Juckel-Murakami, B.

    2004-01-01

    and HEPA filter. For the system the VAV is used as constant air volume control device. Controlled room pressure generates airflow from Room B to A and B to C (i.e., pressure in Room B is (+ +), pressure in Room A is (+) and pressure in Room C... shown in Figure 7. As the room leakage is not a subject of this paper, it is not amplified. Figure 3. Air volume pattern for the positive pressure (++) room The duct leakage is calculated from AHU to diffuser (HEPA filter) as shown...

  5. Duct Remediation Program: Material characterization and removal/handling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beckman, T.d.; Davis, M.M.; Karas, T.M.

    1992-11-01

    Remediation efforts were successfully performed at Rocky Flats to locate, characterize, and remove plutonium holdup from process exhaust ducts. Non-Destructive Assay (NDA) techniques were used to determine holdup locations and quantities. Visual characterization using video probes helped determine the physical properties of the material, which were used for remediation planning. Assorted equipment types, such as vacuum systems, scoops, brushes, and a rotating removal system, were developed to remove specific material types. Personnel safety and material handling requirements were addressed throughout the project.

  6. Duct Leakage Repeatability Testing (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefield Municipal GasAdministration Medal01TechnicalScientific andScientificDOE Data ID Service DOEandDuct

  7. Duct Chase Sprinkler Replacement Project (4594), 5/31/2012

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would like submit theCovalentLaboratory |Sectorfor $1.14 Per GallonDataEnergyDuct Chase

  8. Seismic velocity estimation from time migration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cameron, Maria Kourkina

    2007-01-01

    Seismic images . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Algorithms producing the seismic velocities from thethe Dix velocities and the true seismic velocities in 2D . .

  9. Evaluation of the Repeatability of the Delta Q Duct Leakage Testing Technique Including Investigation of Robust Analysis Techniques and Estimates of Weather Induced Uncertainty

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dickerhoff, Darryl

    2008-01-01

    Deve lop m ent of a New Duct Leakage Test: Delta Q.    than a few cfm for tight duct systems as long as at leastHowever houses with leakier duct systems seem to have less

  10. Effect of Initial Disturbance on The Detonation Front Structure of a Narrow Duct

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dou, Hua-Shu

    2010-01-01

    The effect of an initial disturbance on the detonation front structure in a narrow duct is studied by three-dimensional numerical simulation. The numerical method used includes a high resolution fifth-order weighted essentially non-oscillatory scheme for spatial discretization, coupled with a third order total variation diminishing Runge-Kutta time stepping method. Two types of disturbances are used for the initial perturbation. One is a random disturbance which is imposed on the whole area of the detonation front, and the other is a symmetrical disturbance imposed within a band along the diagonal direction on the front. The results show that the two types of disturbances lead to different processes. For the random disturbance, the detonation front evolves into a stable spinning detonation. For the symmetrical diagonal disturbance, the detonation front displays a diagonal pattern at an early stage, but this pattern is unstable. It breaks down after a short while and it finally evolves into a spinning detonati...

  11. Non-Newtonian Bile Flow in Elastic Cystic Duct: One-and Three-Dimensional Modeling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Luo, Xiaoyu

    - tion) and in gallbladder pain. In this paper, we extend our previous study of the human biliary system2 Sudden expansion head-loss coefficient c4 Head-loss coefficient for a 90Ā° bend d Internal diameter of duct, mm E Young's modulus of cystic duct wall, Pa f Darcy friction factor f0 Darcy friction factor

  12. Ducted Turbine Blade Optimization Using Numerical Simulation Michael Shives and Curran Crawford

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pedersen, Tom

    Ducted Turbine Blade Optimization Using Numerical Simulation Michael Shives and Curran Crawford analysis and optimization of ducted turbines. The model is similar to standard blade element momentum. This eliminates many assumptions used in applying the typical blade element momentum (BEM) theory to a turbine

  13. Static Pressure Loss in 12”, 14”, and 16” Non-metallic Flexible Duct 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cantrill, David Lee

    2013-08-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effects of compression on pressure drops in non-metallic flexible duct. Duct sizes of 12”, 14” and 16” diameters were tested at a five different compression ratios (maximum stretch, 4%, 15%, 30% and 45...

  14. Contrasting the efficiency of radiation belt losses caused by ducted and nonducted whistlermode waves

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cummer, Steven A.

    Contrasting the efficiency of radiation belt losses caused by ducted and nonducted whistlermode, nonducted VLF waves are much less effective in driving radiation belt pitch angle scattering. Citation. Parrot, and J.J. Berthelier (2010), Contrasting the efficiency of radiation belt losses caused by ducted

  15. Physics Basis and Mechanical Design of the Actively Cooled Duct Scraper Protection for the JET Neutral Beam Enhancement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Physics Basis and Mechanical Design of the Actively Cooled Duct Scraper Protection for the JET Neutral Beam Enhancement

  16. Dark Matter Velocity Spectroscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eric G. Speckhard; Kenny C. Y. Ng; John F. Beacom; Ranjan Laha

    2015-07-31

    Dark matter decays or annihilations that produce line-like spectra may be smoking-gun signals. However, even such distinctive signatures can be mimicked by astrophysical or instrumental causes. We show that velocity spectroscopy-the measurement of energy shifts induced by relative motion of source and observer-can separate these three causes with minimal theoretical uncertainties. The principal obstacle has been energy resolution, but upcoming experiments will reach the required 0.1% level. As an example, we show that the imminent Astro-H mission can use Milky Way observations to separate possible causes of the 3.5-keV line. We discuss other applications.

  17. Design of an Overmoded-Waveguide Directional Antenna for Use in In-Building Ventilation Duct Wireless Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stancil, Daniel D.

    Design of an Overmoded-Waveguide Directional Antenna for Use in In-Building Ventilation Duct ventilation ducts. We obtain experimentally the element size and spacing of a reflector and driven element that can be used for IEEE 802.11b/g/n signals in a cylindrical duct to provide 3.1 dB of gain and a front

  18. Cut-on cut-off transition in flow ducts: comparing multiple-scales and finite-element solutions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eindhoven, Technische Universiteit

    Cut-on cut-off transition in flow ducts: comparing multiple-scales and finite-element solutions Eindhoven, The Netherlands. The phenomenon of cut-on cut-off transition of acoustic modes in ducts with mean from a numerical finite-element method. The analytical solution, derived for an arbitrary duct

  19. Numerical Analysis of Turbine Blade Cooling Ducts M.J. Noot and R.M.M. Mattheij

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eindhoven, Technische Universiteit

    Numerical Analysis of Turbine Blade Cooling Ducts M.J. Noot and R.M.M. Mattheij Eindhoven the cooling ducts with ribs, so­called turbulators. It is investigated how these ribs influence the heat the quality of these cooling ducts. 1 Introduction Gas turbines play an important role in aviation

  20. Design of efficient lens ducts Rulian Fu, Guangjun Wang, Zhaoqi Wang, Enxu Ba, Guoguang Mu, and Xin-Hua Hu

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Design of efficient lens ducts Rulian Fu, Guangjun Wang, Zhaoqi Wang, Enxu Ba, Guoguang Mu, and Xin-Hua Hu Lens ducts have the potential to couple the output from a laser diode array efficiently- tigate different design approaches of lens ducts and demonstrate the possibility to obtain an output beam

  1. Title: Overexpression of Follistatin in the Mouse Epididymis Disrupts Fluid Resorption and Sperm Transit in Testicular Excurrent Ducts.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and Sperm Transit in Testicular Excurrent Ducts. Short Title: Elevated follistatin causes epididymal ducts and initial segment of the epididymis, as indicated by accumulation of fluid and sperm stasis is essential for normal testicular excurrent duct function and that its blockade impairs fertility

  2. Wednesday, 06 October, 2010 Contrasting the efficiency of radiation belt losses caused by ducted and non-1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Otago, University of

    Wednesday, 06 October, 2010 1 Contrasting the efficiency of radiation belt losses caused by ducted and non-1 ducted whistler mode waves from ground-based transmitters2 Craig J. Rodger and Bonar R. Carson3 plasmaspheric whistler ducts which guide the waves. For non-guided cases these waves are21 said to be "nonducted

  3. 1736 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON COMMUNICATIONS, VOL. 51, NO. 10, OCTOBER 2003 Impulse Response of the HVAC Duct as a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stancil, Daniel D.

    of the HVAC Duct as a Communication Channel Pavel V. Nikitin, Member, IEEE, Daniel D. Stancil, Senior Member (HVAC) ducts in buildings behave as multimode waveguides when excited at radio frequencies and thus, can be used to distribute radio signals. The channel properties of the ducts are different from the properties

  4. Stability analysis and design of time-domain acoustic impedance boundary conditions for lined duct with mean flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, Xun

    Stability analysis and design of time-domain acoustic impedance boundary conditions for lined duct in a lined duct with uniform mean flow, which has important practical interest for noise emission by aero boundary conditions act as closed-loop feedbacks to an overall duct acoustic system. It turns out

  5. Secondary ow and forced convection heat transfer near endwall boundary layer fences in a 90 turning duct

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Camci, Cengiz

    ° turning duct Cengiz Camci *, Dean H. Rizzo Turbomachinery Heat Transfer Laboratory, Department with the secondary Æow and heat transfer aspects of endwall boundary layer fences in 90° turning ducts. Boundary coolant channel is simulated by a 90° turning duct (ReD 360,000) to study the aerothermal interaction

  6. Study of instabilities and quasi-two-dimensional turbulence in volumetrically heated magnetohydrodynamic flows in a vertical rectangular duct

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abdou, Mohamed

    magnetohydrodynamic flows in a vertical rectangular duct N. Vetcha, S. Smolentsev, M. Abdou, and R. Moreau Citation in a vertical rectangular duct N. Vetcha,1 S. Smolentsev,1,a) M. Abdou,1 and R. Moreau2 1 Mechanical 2013; published online 15 February 2013) We consider magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) rectangular duct flows

  7. 7/11/00-draft copy: do not quote 1 of 30 New Technologies for Residential HVAC Ducts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    7/11/00-draft copy: do not quote 1 of 30 New Technologies for Residential HVAC Ducts Burke Treidler, and are difficult to install in a manner which will insure no leaks. This report summarizes the potential for new technologies for ducts, duct fittings, and insulation. It begins with a review of what technology is currently

  8. Peristaltic flow of a fluid in a porous channel: A study having relevance to flow of bile within ducts in a pathological state

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maiti, S; 10.1016/j.ijengsci.2011.05.006

    2011-01-01

    The paper deals with a theoretical study of the transport of a fluid in a channel, which takes place by the phenomenon of peristalsis. A mathematical analysis of the said problem has been presented. The analysis involves the application of a suitable perturbation technique. The velocity profile and the critical pressure for the occurrence of reflux are investigated with particular emphasis by using appropriate numerical methods. The effects of various parameters, such as Reynolds number, pressure gradient, porosity parameter, Darcy number, slip parameter, amplitude ratio and wave number on velocity and critical pressure for reflux are investigated in detail. The computed results are compared with a previous analytical work and an experimental investigation reported earlier in existing scientific literatures. The results of the present study are in conformity to both of them. The study has got some relevance to the physiological flow of bile in the common bile duct in a pathological state. It reveals that in t...

  9. Duct leakage impacts on VAV system performance in California large commercial buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wray, Craig P.; Matson, Nance E.

    2003-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the variability of duct leakage impacts on air distribution system performance for typical large commercial buildings in California. Specifically, a hybrid DOE-2/TRNSYS sequential simulation approach was used to model the energy use of a low-pressure terminal-reheat variable-air-volume (VAV) HVAC system with six duct leakage configurations (tight to leaky) in nine prototypical large office buildings (representing three construction eras in three California climates where these types of buildings are common). Combined fan power for the variable-speed-controlled supply and return fans at design conditions was assumed to be 0.8 W/cfm. Based on our analyses of the 54 simulation cases, the increase in annual fan energy is estimated to be 40 to 50% for a system with a total leakage of 19% at design conditions compared to a tight system with 5% leakage. Annual cooling plant energy also increases by about 7 to 10%, but reheat energy decreases (about 3 to 10%). In combination, the increase in total annual HVAC site energy is 2 to 14%. The total HVAC site energy use includes supply and return fan electricity consumption, chiller and cooling tower electricity consumption, boiler electricity consumption, and boiler natural gas consumption. Using year 2000 average commercial sector energy prices for California ($0.0986/kWh and $7.71/Million Btu), the energy increases result in 9 to 18% ($7,400 to $9,500) increases in HVAC system annual operating costs. Normalized by duct surface area, the increases in annual operating costs are 0.14 to 0.18 $/ft{sup 2}. Using a suggested one-time duct sealing cost of $0.20 per square foot of duct surface area, these results indicate that sealing leaky ducts in VAV systems has a simple payback period of about 1.3 years. Even with total leakage rates as low as 10%, duct sealing is still cost effective. This suggests that duct sealing should be considered at least for VAV systems with 10% or more total duct leakage. The VAV system that we simulated had perfectly insulated ducts, and maintained constant static pressure in the ducts upstream of the VAV boxes and a constant supply air temperature at the airhandler. Further evaluations of duct leakage impacts should be carried out in the future after methodologies are developed to deal with duct surface heat transfer effects, to deal with airflows entering VAV boxes from ceiling return plenums (e.g., to model parallel fan-powered VAV boxes), and to deal with static pressure reset and supply air temperature reset strategies.

  10. MOA-2011-BLG-262Lb: A sub-Earth-mass moon orbiting a gas giant primary or a high velocity planetary system in the galactic Bulge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bennett, D. P. [Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, 225 Nieuwland Science Hall, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Batista, V. [Department of Astronomy, Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Bond, I. A.; Ling, C. H. [Institute of Natural and Mathematical Sciences, Massey University, Auckland 0745 (New Zealand); Bennett, C. S. [Department of Physics, Massachussets Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Suzuki, D.; Koshimoto, N. [Department of Earth and Space Science, Osaka University, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan); Beaulieu, J.-P. [UPMC-CNRS, UMR 7095, Institut d'Astrophysique de Paris, 98bis Boulevard Arago, F-75014 Paris (France); Udalski, A. [Warsaw University Observatory, Al. Ujazdowskie 4, 00-478 Warszawa (Poland); Donatowicz, J. [Technische Universität Wien, Wieder Hauptst. 8-10, A-1040 Vienna (Austria); Bozza, V. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universitą di Salerno, Via Ponte Don Melillo 132, I-84084 Fisciano (Italy); Abe, F.; Fukunaga, D.; Itow, Y.; Masuda, K.; Matsubara, Y.; Muraki, Y. [Solar-Terrestrial Environment Laboratory, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8601 (Japan); Botzler, C. S.; Freeman, M. [Department of Physics, University of Auckland, Private Bag 92-019, Auckland 1001 (New Zealand); Fukui, A., E-mail: bennett@nd.edu [Okayama Astrophysical Observatory, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Okayama 719-0232 (Japan); Collaboration: MOA Collaboration; PLANET Collaboration; ?FUN Collaboration; OGLE Collaboration; RoboNet Collaboration; and others

    2014-04-20

    We present the first microlensing candidate for a free-floating exoplanet-exomoon system, MOA-2011-BLG-262, with a primary lens mass of M {sub host} ? 4 Jupiter masses hosting a sub-Earth mass moon. The argument for an exomoon hinges on the system being relatively close to the Sun. The data constrain the product M{sub L} ?{sub rel} where M{sub L} is the lens system mass and ?{sub rel} is the lens-source relative parallax. If the lens system is nearby (large ?{sub rel}), then M{sub L} is small (a few Jupiter masses) and the companion is a sub-Earth-mass exomoon. The best-fit solution has a large lens-source relative proper motion, ?{sub rel} = 19.6 ± 1.6 mas yr{sup –1}, which would rule out a distant lens system unless the source star has an unusually high proper motion. However, data from the OGLE collaboration nearly rule out a high source proper motion, so the exoplanet+exomoon model is the favored interpretation for the best fit model. However, there is an alternate solution that has a lower proper motion and fits the data almost as well. This solution is compatible with a distant (so stellar) host. A Bayesian analysis does not favor the exoplanet+exomoon interpretation, so Occam's razor favors a lens system in the bulge with host and companion masses of M{sub host}=0.12{sub ?0.06}{sup +0.19} M{sub ?} and m{sub comp}=18{sub ?10}{sup +28} M{sub ?}, at a projected separation of a{sub ?}=0.84{sub ?0.14}{sup +0.25} AU. The existence of this degeneracy is an unlucky accident, so current microlensing experiments are in principle sensitive to exomoons. In some circumstances, it will be possible to definitively establish the mass of such lens systems through the microlensing parallax effect. Future experiments will be sensitive to less extreme exomoons.

  11. Device for temporarily closing duct-formers in well completion apparatus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zandmer, H.M.; Zandmer, S.M.

    1981-08-25

    A duct-forming device is disclosed for use in a well completion apparatus of the kind, wherein a bore hole casing is positioned in a bore hole and duct-forming devices of alkali- and acid resistant metal-such as steel-are secured at spaced levels to the casing in alignment with holes machined in the casing wall. In accordance with the invention, a closure device is arranged within the duct-forming device which permits flow of predetermined amounts of liquid, such as acid, from the interior of the casing through the duct-forming device and into the producing formation, while gradually being moved by the liquid into a position in which such fluid flow is prevented. After the fluid flow has been stopped by the closure device and when the formation pressure exceeds the pressure within the duct-forming device and the casing, fluid from the formation then forces the closure device toward and into the casing space to permit thereafter free flow of formation fluid into the duct-forming device and the casing or of pressurized treatment liquid from the casing into the formation. The inventive arrangement permits inter alia the establishment of a sufficient and substantially uniform feeding rate of treatment liquid, such as acid, from the casing into the producing formation through all the duct-formers in preparation for subsequent acidification or other treatments, such as sand fracking.

  12. HYBRID COSMOLOGICAL SIMULATIONS WITH STREAM VELOCITIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richardson, Mark L. A.; Scannapieco, Evan [School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287 (United States); Thacker, Robert J. [Department of Astronomy and Physics, Saint Mary's University, Halifax, B3H 3C3 (Canada)

    2013-07-10

    In the early universe, substantial relative ''stream'' velocities between the gas and dark matter arise due to radiation pressure and persist after recombination. To assess the impact of these velocities on high-redshift structure formation, we carry out a suite of high-resolution adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) cosmological simulations, which use smoothed particle hydrodynamic data sets as initial conditions, converted using a new tool developed for this work. These simulations resolve structures with masses as small as a few 100 M{sub Sun }, and we focus on the 10{sup 6} M{sub Sun} ''mini-halos'' in which the first stars formed. At z Almost-Equal-To 17, the presence of stream velocities has only a minor effect on the number density of halos below 10{sup 6} M{sub Sun }, but it greatly suppresses gas accretion onto all halos and the dark matter structures around them. Stream velocities lead to significantly lower halo gas fractions, especially for Almost-Equal-To 10{sup 5} M{sub Sun} objects, an effect that is likely to depend on the orientation of a halo's accretion lanes. This reduction in gas density leads to colder, more compact radial profiles, and it substantially delays the redshift of collapse of the largest halos, leading to delayed star formation and possibly delayed reionization. These many differences suggest that future simulations of early cosmological structure formation should include stream velocities to properly predict gas evolution, star formation, and the epoch of reionization.

  13. Qualification of Fan Generated Duct Rumble Noise: Part 1: Test Facility(RP 1219) 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kading, J.; Mann, A.; Pate, M.B.

    2008-01-01

    :4. The transition was enclosed in a 53” by 93” by 3’ tall box constructed from MDF and lined with 2” duct board fiber- glass. The box was designed to isolate the transition duct from break in noise from the fan room. The fiberglass insulation on the inside... (MDF) shell that was mounted on a 2x4 structure. The interior consisted of three layers. The first was fiberglass board 2’x 4’ x 2”, these boards were cut to be stacked and fill in between the MDF and the duct lining insu- lation. The second layer...

  14. Apparatus and method for laser velocity interferometry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stanton, Philip L. (Bernalillo County, NM); Sweatt, William C. (Albuquerque, NM); Crump, Jr., O. B. (Albuquerque, NM); Bonzon, Lloyd L. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1993-09-14

    An apparatus and method for laser velocity interferometry employing a fixed interferometer cavity and delay element. The invention permits rapid construction of interferometers that may be operated by those non-skilled in the art, that have high image quality with no drift or loss of contrast, and that have long-term stability even without shock isolation of the cavity.

  15. 11th AIAA/CEAS Aeroacoustics Conference, 23-25 May 2005, Monterey, CA, USA Acoustic Modes in a Ducted Shear Flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rienstra, Sjoerd W.

    in a Ducted Shear Flow Gregory Vilenski Sjoerd W. Rienstra Eindhoven University of Technology, 5600 MB inside a duct is considered. For isentropic flow in a circular duct with zero swirl and constant mean on the coordinate axes x,r and , p = density and pressure s = tip-to-hub ratio h = dimensional inner duct radius d

  16. LNRF-velocity hump-induced oscillations of a Keplerian disc orbiting near-extreme Kerr black hole: A possible explanation of high-frequency QPOs in GRS 1915+105

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Z. Stuchlik; P. Slany; G. Torok

    2007-05-23

    At least four high-frequency quasiperiodic oscillations (QPOs) at frequencies 41Hz, 67Hz, 113Hz, and 167Hz were reported in a binary system GRS 1915+105 hosting near-extreme Kerr black hole with a dimensionless spin a>0.98. We use the idea of oscillations induced by the hump of the orbital velocity profile (related to locally non-rotating frames - LNRF) in discs orbiting near-extreme Kerr black holes, which are characterized by a "humpy frequency" f_h, that could excite the radial and vertical epicyclic oscillations with frequencies f_r, f_v. Due to non-linear resonant phenomena the combinational frequencies are allowed as well. Assuming mass M=14.8M_sun and spin a=0.9998 for the GRS 1915+105 Kerr black hole, the model predicts frequencies f_h=41Hz, f_r=67Hz, (f_h+f_r)=108Hz, (f_v-f_r)=170Hz corresponding quite well to the observed ones. For black-hole parameters being in good agreement with those given observationally, the forced resonant phenomena in non-linear oscillations, excited by the "hump-induced" oscillations in a Keplerian disc, can explain high-frequency QPOs in GRS 1915+105 within the range of observational errors.

  17. Static Pressure Losses in 6 in., 8 in., and 10 in. Nonmetallic Flexible Duct (RP-1333) 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weaver, K.; Culp, C.H.

    2007-01-01

    with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission. Static Pressure Losses in Nonmetallic Flexible Duct Weaver, Kevin;Culp, Charles ASHRAE Transactions; 2007; 113, ProQuest pg. 400 Reproduced with permission...

  18. Turbulent mixing in ducts, theory and experiment application to aerosol single point sampling 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Langari, Abdolreza

    1997-01-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has announced rules for continuous emissions monitoring (CEM) of stacks and ducts in nuclear facilities. EPA has recently approved use of Alternative Reference Methodologies (ARM) for air sampling in nuclear...

  19. Particle image velocimetry in an advanced, serpentine jet engine inlet duct 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tichenor, Nathan Ryan

    2009-05-15

    The overarching objective of this research project was to gain improved basic understanding of the fluid mechanisms governing the development of secondary flow structures in complex, three-dimensional inlet ducts. To accomplish this objective...

  20. Inspection, Assessment, and Repair of Grouted Ducts in Post-tensioned Bridge 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Im, Seok Been

    2011-02-22

    Segmental post-tensioned (PT) bridges are major structures that carry significant traffic. Recent investigations of these bridges have identified voids in their ducts. and some of these exposed strands at these void locations are undergoing...

  1. An Experimental Evaluation of Duct-Mounted Relative Humidity Sensors: Part 2 – Accuracy Results 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joshi, S.N.; Pate, M.B.; Nelson, R.M; House, J.H.; Klaasen, C.J.

    2005-01-01

    Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission. An Experimental Evaluation of Duct-Mounted Relative Humidity Sensors: Part 2-Accuracy Results Joshi, Shailesh N;House, John M;Pate, Michael B...

  2. DOE Zero Energy Ready Home Ducts in Conditioned Space Webinar (Text Version)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Below is a text version of the webinar titled "Design Strategies for Ducts in Conditioned Spaces," originally presented in March 2014 and part of DOE Challenge Home's Tech Training Webinar Series....

  3. Augmentation of Power Output of Axisymmetric Ducted Wind Turbines by Porous Trailing Edge Disks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    widnall, sheila

    2014-06-30

    This paper presents analytical and experimental results that demonstrated that the power output from a ducted wind turbine can be dramatically increased by the addition of a trailing edge device such as a porous disk. In ...

  4. Observations on the Anterior Testicular Ducts in Snakes With Emphasis on Sea Snakes and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sever, David M.

    and Ultrastructure in the Yellow-Bellied Sea Snake, Pelamis platurus David M. Sever* and Layla R. Freeborn Department, Pelamis platurus, only the third such study on snakes. The anterior testicular ducts are similar in his

  5. A Computational Study of Icing Effects on the Performance of an S-Duct Inlet

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jin, Wonjin

    2009-01-01

    The performance of a diffusing S-duct inlet (M2129) is computationally studied for the effects of inlet icing. Different ice accretion shapes, predicted by numerical analysis in the literature reviewed, are simulated on the inlet lip. Two commercial...

  6. Multifractal statistics of Lagrangian velocity and acceleration in turbulence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    L. Biferale; G. Boffetta; A. Celani; B. J. Devenish; A. Lanotte; F. Toschi

    2004-03-11

    The statistical properties of velocity and acceleration fields along the trajectories of fluid particles transported by a fully developed turbulent flow are investigated by means of high resolution direct numerical simulations. We present results for Lagrangian velocity structure functions, the acceleration probability density function and the acceleration variance conditioned on the instantaneous velocity. These are compared with predictions of the multifractal formalism and its merits and limitations are discussed.

  7. Comparative Study: CFD ?P Versus Measured ?P for 30% Flexible Ducts 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ugursal, A.; Culp, C.

    2006-01-01

    VERSUS MEASURED ?P FOR 30% FLEXIBLE DUCTS Ahmet U?ursal Ph.D. Student, Department of Architecture Texas A&M University College Station, TX Charles Culp, Ph.D., P.E. Associate Professor, Department of Architecture & Associate Director, Energy... Systems Lab Texas A&M University College Station, TX ABSTRACT This study modeled air flow and pressure drops in non-metallic flexible ducts using Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) analysis. CFD simulation results showed very close comparison...

  8. An optimal path to transition in a duct

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Biau, Damien; 10.1098/rsta.2008.0191

    2010-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the transition of the laminar flow in a duct of square cross-section. Like in the similar case of the pipe flow, the motion is linearly stable for all Reynolds numbers, rendering this flow a suitable candidate for a study of the 'bypass' path to turbulence. It has already been shown \\citep{Biau_JFM_2008} that the classical linear optimal perturbation problem, yielding optimal disturbances in the form of longitudinal vortices, fails to provide an 'optimal' path to turbulence, i.e. optimal perturbations do not elicit a significant nonlinear response from the flow. Previous simulations have also indicated that a pair of travelling waves generates immediately, by nonlinear quadratic interactions, an unstable mean flow distortion, responsible for rapid breakdown. By the use of functions quantifying the sensitivity of the motion to deviations in the base flow, the 'optimal' travelling wave associated to its specific defect is found by a variational approach. This optimal solution is the...

  9. Inversion Of Travel Time For Velocity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Willis, M.E.

    1983-01-01

    Common source velocities and borehole compensated (BC) estimates have been used to obtain formation velocity estimates from full waveform acoustic

  10. Velocity Effects on the Deflection of Light by Gravitational Microlenses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    David Heyrovsky

    2004-10-07

    We study the influence of general lens and source velocities on the gravitational deflection of light by single and two-point-mass microlenses with general axis orientation. We demonstrate that in all cases the lens equation preserves its form exactly. However, its parameters -- the Einstein radius and the binary-lens separation -- are influenced by the lens velocity. In Galactic microlensing settings the velocity mainly affects the inferred separation for wide binary-star or star+planet microlenses oriented close to the line of sight. We briefly discuss the case of lenses moving with highly relativistic velocities.

  11. Pressure Losses in 12”, 15” and 16” Non-Metallic Flexible Ducts with Compression and Sag (RP-1333) 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Culp, C.H.; Cantrill, D.

    2009-01-01

    is based on findings resulting from ASHRAE Research Project RP-1333. ABSTRACT A study was conducted to measure air pressure loss in non- metallic flexible ducts and included 12” (305 mm), 14” (356 mm) and 16” (406 mm) diameter ducts on a flat surface... and also positioned over joists on 24” (610 mm) centers. For this study, flexible duct compression configurations were fully stretched and 4%, 15%, 30% and 45% compressed. Measure- ments were performed at each compression. All tests were performed...

  12. MACCS2/Deposition Velocity Workshop

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The Department of Energy’s Chief of Nuclear Safety hosted a MACCS2/Deposition Velocity Workshop on June 5-6, 2012, in Germantown, Maryland. Approximately 70 participants attended. The purpose of...

  13. Peristaltic flow of a fluid in a porous channel: A study having relevance to flow of bile within ducts in a pathological state

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S Maiti; J. C. Misra

    2011-07-28

    The paper deals with a theoretical study of the transport of a fluid in a channel, which takes place by the phenomenon of peristalsis. A mathematical analysis of the said problem has been presented. The analysis involves the application of a suitable perturbation technique. The velocity profile and the critical pressure for the occurrence of reflux are investigated with particular emphasis by using appropriate numerical methods. The effects of various parameters, such as Reynolds number, pressure gradient, porosity parameter, Darcy number, slip parameter, amplitude ratio and wave number on velocity and critical pressure for reflux are investigated in detail. The computed results are compared with a previous analytical work and an experimental investigation reported earlier in existing scientific literatures. The results of the present study are in conformity to both of them. The study has got some relevance to the physiological flow of bile in the common bile duct in a pathological state. It reveals that in the presence of gallstones, bile velocity increases as the value of the porosity parameter increases, while the critical pressure for reflux decreases as porosity increases.

  14. Active flow control in an advanced serpentine jet engine inlet duct 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kirk, Aaron Michael

    2009-05-15

    . This advantage is particularly important in unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV?s). A scaling analysis performed by engineers at Lockheed Martin showed that reducing duct length by one duct diameter can decrease the empty weight of UAV?s by 15%1. In typical... on this plumbing could be very difficult. A team of researchers at North Carolina State University designed a bleed air system that added approximately 3% to the empty weight of a scaled UAV designed by NASA and 10 Lockheed Martin17. To cool the bleed air...

  15. Electric coheating as a means to test duct efficiency: A review and analysis of the literature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andrews, J.W.

    1995-08-01

    Recent published literature on electric coheating was reviewed in order to assess its suitability for use in a method of test for the efficiency of residential duct systems. Electric coheating is the research use of electric heaters within the heated space to assess the thermal integrity of the building envelope. Information was sought in two primary areas: (1) experimental methodology and (2) accuracy of the coheating method. A variety of experimental variations was found, and the method was judged, on the basis of published data, to be capable of sufficient accuracy for use in duct testing.

  16. Scaleup tests and supporting research for the development of duct injection technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gooch, J.P.; Dismukes, E.B.; Dahlin, R.S.; Faulkner, M.G. (Southern Research Inst., Birmingham, AL (United States)); Klett, M.G.; Buchanan, T.L.; Hunt, J.E. (Gilbert/Commonwealth, Inc., Reading, PA (United States))

    1989-05-01

    Gilbert Commonwealth, Southern Research Institute and the American Electric Power Service Corporation have embarked on a program to convert DOE's Duct Injection Test Facility located at the Muskingum River Power Plant of Ohio Power Company to test alternate duct injection technologies. The technologies to be tested include slurry sorbent injection of hydrated lime using dual fluid nozzles, or a rotary atomizer and pneumatic injection of hydrated lime, with flue gas humidification before or after sorbent injection. The literature review and analysis contained in this report is a part of the preparatory effort for the test program.

  17. Velocity requirements for causality violation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Giovanni Modanese

    2015-01-18

    We re-examine the "Regge-Tolman paradox" with reference to some recent experimental results. It is straightforward to find a formula for the velocity v of the moving system required to produce causality violation. This formula typically yields a velocity very close to the speed of light (for instance, v/c > 0.97 for X-shaped microwaves), which raises some doubts about the real physical observability of the violations. We then compute the velocity requirement introducing a delay between the reception of the primary signal and the emission of the secondary. It turns out that in principle for any delay it is possible to find moving observers able to produce active causal violation. This is mathematically due to the singularity of the Lorentz transformations for beta to 1. For a realistic delay due to the propagation of a luminal precursor, we find that causality violations in the reported experiments are still more unlikely (v/c > 0.989), and even in the hypothesis that the superluminal propagation velocity goes to infinity, the velocity requirement is bounded by v/c > 0.62. We also prove that if two macroscopic bodies exchange energy and momentum through superluminal signals, then the swap of signal source and target is incompatible with the Lorentz transformations; therefore it is not possible to distinguish between source and target, even with reference to a definite reference frame.

  18. RCUT: A Non-Invasive Method for Detection, Location, and Quantification of Radiological Contaminants in Pipes and Ducts - 12514

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bratton, Wesley L.; Maresca, Joseph W. Jr.; Beck, Deborah A.

    2012-07-01

    Radiological Characterization Using Tracers (RCUT) is a minimally invasive method for detection and location of residual radiological contamination in pipes and ducts. The RCUT technology utilizes reactive gaseous tracers that dissociate when exposed to gamma and/or beta radiation emitting from a radiological contaminant in a pipe or duct. Sulfur hexafluoride (SF{sub 6}) was selected as a tracer for this radiological application, because it is a chemically inert gas that is both nonflammable, nontoxic, and breaks down when exposed to gamma radiation. Laboratory tests demonstrated that the tracer pair of SF{sub 6} and O{sub 2} formed SO{sub 2}F{sub 2} when exposed to a gamma or beta radioactive field, which indicated the presence of radiological contamination. Field application of RCUT involves first injecting the reactive tracers into the pipe to fill the pipe being inspected and allowing sufficient time for the tracer to interact with any contaminants present. This is followed by the injection of an inert gas at one end of the pipe to push the reactive tracer at a known or constant flow velocity along the pipe and then out the exit and sampling port at the end of the pipeline where its concentration is measured by a gas chromatograph. If a radiological contaminant is present in the pipe being tested, the presence of SO{sub 2}F{sub 2} will be detected. The time of arrival of the SO{sub 2}F{sub 2} can be used to locate the contaminant. If the pipe is free of radiological contamination, no SO{sub 2}F{sub 2} will be detected. RCUT and PCUT are both effective technologies that can be used to detect contamination within pipelines without the need for mechanical or human inspection. These methods can be used to detect, locate, and/or estimate the volume of a variety of radioactive materials and hazardous chemicals such as chlorinated solvents, petroleum products, and heavy metals. While further optimization is needed for RCUT, the key first step of identification of a tracer compound appropriate for the application of detecting radioactive pipeline contamination through the detection of decomposition products of SF{sub 6} has been demonstrated. Other tracer gases that will also undergo radiolysis will be considered in the future. The next step for the RCUT development process is conducting laboratory scale tests using short pipelines to define analytical requirements, establish performance boundaries, and develop strategies for lower exposure levels. Studies to identify additional analytical techniques using equipment that is more field rugged than a GC/MS would also be beneficial. (authors)

  19. Velocity fluctuations of fission fragments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Felipe J. Llanes-Estrada; Belen Martinez Carmona; Jose L. Muńoz Martinez

    2015-11-19

    We propose event by event velocity fluctuations of nuclear fission fragments as an additional interesting observable that gives access to the nuclear temperature in an independent way from spectral measurements and relates the diffusion and friction coefficients for the relative fragment coordinate in Kramer-like models (in which some aspects of fission can be understood as the diffusion of a collective variable through a potential barrier). We point out that neutron emission by the heavy fragments can be treated in effective theory if corrections to the velocity distribution are needed.

  20. Velocity fluctuations of fission fragments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Llanes-Estrada, Felipe J; Martinez, Jose L Muńoz

    2015-01-01

    We propose event by event velocity fluctuations of nuclear fission fragments as an additional interesting observable that gives access to the nuclear temperature in an independent way from spectral measurements and relates the diffusion and friction coefficients for the relative fragment coordinate in Kramer-like models (in which some aspects of fission can be understood as the diffusion of a collective variable through a potential barrier). We point out that neutron emission by the heavy fragments can be treated in effective theory if corrections to the velocity distribution are needed.

  1. Radial velocities of southern visual multiple stars

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tokovinin, Andrei; Pribulla, Theodor; Fischer, Debra E-mail: pribulla@ta3.sk

    2015-01-01

    High-resolution spectra of visual multiple stars were taken in 2008–2009 to detect or confirm spectroscopic subsystems and to determine their orbits. Radial velocities of 93 late-type stars belonging to visual multiple systems were measured by numerical cross-correlation. We provide the individual velocities, the width, and the amplitude of the Gaussians that approximate the correlations. The new information on the multiple systems resulting from these data is discussed. We discovered double-lined binaries in HD 41742B, HD 56593C, and HD 122613AB, confirmed several other known subsystems, and constrained the existence of subsystems in some visual binaries where both components turned out to have similar velocities. The orbits of double-lined subsystems with periods of 148 and 13 days are computed for HD 104471 Aa,Ab and HD 210349 Aa,Ab, respectively. We estimate individual magnitudes and masses of the components in these triple systems and update the outer orbit of HD 104471 AB.

  2. A 12-MW-scale pilot study of in-duct scrubbing (IDS) using a rotary atomizer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Samuel, E.A.; Murphy, K.R.; Demian, A.

    1989-11-01

    A low-cost, moderate-removal efficiency, flue gas desulfurization (FGD) technology was selected by the US Department of Energy for pilot demonstration in its Acid Rain Precursor Control Technology Initiative. The process, identified as In-Duct Scrubbing (IDS), applies rotary atomizer techniques developed for lime-based spray dryer FGD while utilizing existing flue gas ductwork and particulate collectors. IDS technology is anticipated to result in a dry desulfurization process with a moderate removal efficiency (50% or greater) for high-sulfur coal-fired boilers. The critical elements for successful application are: (1) adequate mixing of sorbent droplets with flue gas for efficient reaction contact, (2) sufficient residence time to produce a non-wetting product, and (3) appropriate ductwork cross-sectional area to prevent deposition of wet reaction products before particle drying is comple. The ductwork in many older plants, previously modified to meet 1970 Clean Air Act requirements for particulate control, usually meet these criteria. A 12 MW-scale IDS pilot plant was constructed at the Muskingum River Plant of the American Electric Power System. The pilot plant, which operates from a slipstrem attached to the air-preheater outlet duct from the Unit 5 boiler at the Muskingum River Plant (which burns about 4% sulfur coal), is equipped with three atomizer stations to test the IDS concept in vertical and horizontal configurations. In addition, the pilot plant is equipped to test the effect of injecting IDS off- product upstream of the atomizer, on SO{sub 2}and NO{sub x} removals.

  3. 16th AIAA/CEAS Aeroacoustics Conference, 7-9 June 2010, Stockholm, Sweden Sound Radiation from a Lined Exhaust Duct

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rienstra, Sjoerd W.

    a Lined Exhaust Duct with Lined Afterbody Ahmet Demir Department of Mathematics, Gebze Institute of Technology Aft fan noise radiating from a lined bypass exhaust duct with lined afterbody is modelled in a way AFT fan noise radiating from the bypass exhaust duct is usually attenuated by acoustic lining along

  4. 12th AIAA/CEAS Aeroacoustics Conference, 8-10 May 2006, Cambridge, MA, USA Sound Radiation from an Annular Duct with Jet Flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eindhoven, Technische Universiteit

    an Annular Duct with Jet Flow and a Lined Centerbody A. Demir Eindhoven University of Technology, 5600 MB, The Netherlands. Analytical solutions for the problem of radiation of sound from a duct with flow have been shown of problem parameters and their combinations. I. Introduction THE problem of radiation of sound from a duct

  5. Formation and spread of callus tissue and tangential rows of resin ducts in Larix decidua and Picea abies following rockfall impacts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Butler, David R. - Department of Geography, Texas State University

    Formation and spread of callus tissue and tangential rows of resin ducts in Larix decidua and Picea After mechanical wounding, callus tissue and tangential rows of traumatic resin ducts (TRDs) are formed extension, traumatic resin ducts. Introduction Rockfall is a common mass movement process in alpine

  6. Wireless RF Distribution in Buildings using Heating and Ventilation Ducts Christopher P. Diehl, Benjamin E. Henty, Nikhil Kanodia, and Daniel D. Stancil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stancil, Daniel D.

    Wireless RF Distribution in Buildings using Heating and Ventilation Ducts Christopher P. Diehl in buildings is proposed in which the heating and ventilation ducts are used as waveguides. Because to a lower-cost system. Initial experimental results are presented that demonstrate duct-assisted propagation

  7. The Delta Q Method of Testing the Air Leakage of Ducts Walker, I.S., Dickerhoff, D.J. and Sherman, M.H.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    LBNL-49749 The Delta Q Method of Testing the Air Leakage of Ducts Walker, I.S., Dickerhoff, D in energy efficiency calculations and for compliance testing of duct systems. The DeltaQ test combines a model of the house and duct system with the results of house pressurization tests with the air handler

  8. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ANTENNAS AND PROPAGATION, VOL. 51, NO. 5, MAY 2003 945 Propagation Model for the HVAC Duct as a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hannaford, Blake

    for the HVAC Duct as a Communication Channel Pavel V. Nikitin, Member, IEEE, Daniel D. Stancil, Senior Member (HVAC) ducts in buildings are typically hollow metal pipes which can be used as waveguides to carry such a communication system. This paper presents a propagation model for a straight HVAC duct terminated at both ends

  9. 11th AIAA/CEAS Aeroacoustics Conference, 23-25 May 2005, Monterey, CA, USA An Analytic Green's Function for a Lined Circular Duct

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rienstra, Sjoerd W.

    's Function for a Lined Circular Duct Containing Uniform Mean Flow (corr.) Sjoerd W. Rienstra Eindhoven, Southampton S017 1BJ, UK. An analytic Green's function is derived for a lined circular duct, both hollow is not considered in the present study. We show that the analytic Green's function for a lined hollow circular duct

  10. 3D NUMERICAL STUDY OF MHD FLOW IN A RECTANGULAR DUCT WITH A FLOW CHANNEL INSERT Damien Sutevski, Sergey Smolentsev, Neil Morley, Mohamed Abdou

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abdou, Mohamed

    3D NUMERICAL STUDY OF MHD FLOW IN A RECTANGULAR DUCT WITH A FLOW CHANNEL INSERT Damien Sutevski of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) flows in poloidal ducts of the Dual-Coolant Lead-Lithium (DCLL) blanket with an insulating- conducting FCI. The FCI and duct geometry match those of an experiment performed recently in Southwestern

  11. In Proc. 1996 ACEEE Summer Study, August 1996, Asilomar, CA Field Measurements of Efficiency and Duct Retrofit Effectiveness in Residential Forced air

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of Efficiency and Duct Retrofit Effectiveness in Residential Forced air Distribution Systems David A. Jump, Iain. The systems in these houses included conventional air conditioning, gas furnaces, electric furnaces and heat, duct air temperatures, ambient temperatures, surface areas of ducts, and HVAC equipment energy

  12. Comparative Analysis of CFD ?P vs. Measured ?P for Compressed Flexible Ducts 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ugursal, A.; Culp, C.H.

    2007-01-01

    with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission. Comparative Analysis of CFD [Delta]P vs. Measured [Delta]P for Compressed Flexible Ducts Ugursal, Ahmet;Culp, Charles ASHRAE Transactions; 2007; 113, ProQuest pg. 462...

  13. An Advanced Economizer Controller for Dual Duct Air Handling Systems - with a Case Application 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, M.; Claridge, D. E.

    1996-01-01

    Heating penalty is expected when economizers are applied to dual-duct air handling systems. The heating penalty can even be higher than the cooling savings when the hot air flow is higher than the cold air flow. To avoid the excessive heating...

  14. 96 ASHRAE Transactions: Research Current duct design methods for variable air volume

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -round electrical energy cost of the fan. The initial cost of the fan is not included. The calculation procedure to determine duct sizes, overall system pressure drop, and fan energy cost. However, in VAV systems for effective, energy-efficient, and comfortable heating, ventilat- ing, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems

  15. Nonlinear self-excited thermoacoustic oscillations of a ducted premixed flame: bifurcations and routes to chaos

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kashinath, Karthik; Waugh, Iain C.; Juniper, Matthew P.

    2014-11-25

    Thermoacoustic systems can oscillate self-excitedly, and often non-periodically, due to coupling between unsteady heat release and acoustic waves. We study a slot-stabilized two-dimensional premixed flame in a duct via numerical simulations of a G...

  16. 1 | Building America eere.energy.gov Evaluation of Ducted GE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 | Building America eere.energy.gov Evaluation of Ducted GE Hybrid Heat Pump Water Heater in PNNL Lab Homes Sarah Widder Building America Program Review April 24-25, 2013 #12;2 | Building America eere Technologies Program ­ DOE, Office of Electricity Project Partners #12;3 | Building America eere

  17. ASU nitrogen sweep gas in hydrogen separation membrane for production of HRSG duct burner fuel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Panuccio, Gregory J.; Raybold, Troy M.; Jamal, Agil; Drnevich, Raymond Francis

    2013-04-02

    The present invention relates to the use of low pressure N2 from an air separation unit (ASU) for use as a sweep gas in a hydrogen transport membrane (HTM) to increase syngas H2 recovery and make a near-atmospheric pressure (less than or equal to about 25 psia) fuel for supplemental firing in the heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) duct burner.

  18. Global evaluation of mass transfer effects: In-duct injection flue gas desulfurization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cole, J.A.; Newton, G.H.; Kramlich, J.C.; Payne, R.

    1990-09-30

    Sorbent injection is a low capital cost, low operating cost approach to SO{sub 2} control targeted primarily at older boilers for which conventional fuel gas desulfurization is not economically viable. Duct injection is one variation of this concept in which the sorbent, either a dry powder or a slurry, is injected into the cooler regions of the boiler, generally downstream of the air heaters. The attractiveness of duct injection is tied to the fact that it avoids much of the boiler heat transfer equipment and thus has minimal impact of boiler performance. Both capital and operating cost are low. This program has as its objectives three performance related issues to address: (1) experimentally identify limits on sorbent performance. (2) identify and test sorbent performance enhancement strategies. (3) develop a compute model of the duct injection process. Two major tasks are described: a laboratory-scale global experiment and development of process model. Both are aimed at understanding and quantifying the rate-limiting processes which control SO{sub 2} capture by lime slurry during boiler duct injection. 29 refs., 35 figs., 4 tabs.

  19. INTERNAL FORCED iquid or gas flow through pipes or ducts is commonly used in heating and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ghajar, Afshin J.

    to flow by a fan or pump through a flow section that is sufficiently long to accomplish the desired heat Transitional Flow in Tubes* An important design problem in industrial heat exchangers arises when flow inside or ducts is commonly used in heating and cooling applications. The fluid in such applications is forced

  20. Duct System Flammability and Air Sealing Fire Separation Assemblies in the International Residential Code

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rudd, A.; Prahl, D.

    2014-12-01

    IBACOS identified two barriers that limit the ability of builders to cost-effectively achieve higher energy efficiency levels in housing. These are (1) the use of duct system materials that inherently achieve airtightness and are appropriately sized for low-load houses and (2) the ability to air seal fire separation assemblies. The issues identified fall into a gray area of the codes.

  1. Duct System Flammability and Air Sealing Fire Separation Assemblies in the International Residential Code

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rudd, A.; Prahl, D.

    2014-12-01

    IBACOS identified two barriers that limit the ability of builders to cost-effectively achieve higher energy efficiency levels in housing. These are the use of duct system materials that inherently achieve airtightness and are appropriately sized for low-load houses and the ability to air seal fire separation assemblies. The issues identified fall into a gray area of the codes.

  2. Tracer Gas as a Practical Field Diagnostic Tool for Assessing Duct System Leaks 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cummings, J. B.

    1989-01-01

    diagnostic tools for detecting and locating leaks in the air distribution system. The tracer gas tests described are a good complement to these tools in the detection, location, and measurement of duct leakage. Testing for house infiltration once with the air...

  3. Low Velocity Boron Micro-Pellet Injector For Edge And Core Impurity Transport Measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 Low Velocity Boron Micro-Pellet Injector For Edge And Core Impurity Transport Measurements H. W, Baltimore, Maryland 21218 Abstract A simple Low Velocity Boron Micro-Pellet Injector has been under High velocity, pneumatic, pellet injection systems are applied routinely for injecting frozen pellets

  4. Pore fluid effects on seismic velocity in anisotropic rocks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mukerji, T.; Mavko, G. (Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Dept. of Geophysics)

    1994-02-01

    A simple new technique predicts the high- and low-frequency saturated velocities in anisotropic rocks entirely in terms of measurable dry rock properties without the need for idealized crack geometries. Measurements of dry velocity versus pressure and porosity versus pressure contain all of the necessary information for predicting the frequency-dependent effects of fluid saturation. Furthermore, these measurements automatically incorporate all pore interaction, so there is no limitation to low crack density. The velocities are found to depend on five key interrelated variables: frequency, the distribution of compliant crack-like porosity, the intrinsic or noncrack anisotropy, fluid viscosity and compressibility, and effective pressure. The sensitivity of velocities to saturation is generally greater at high frequencies than low frequencies. The magnitude of the differences from dry to saturated and from low frequency to high frequency is determined by the compliant or crack-like porosity. Predictions of saturated velocities based on dry data for sandstone and granite show that compressional velocities generally increase with saturation and with frequency. However, the degree of compressional wave anisotropy may either increase or decrease upon saturation depending on the crack distribution, the effective pressure, and the frequency at which the measurements are made. Shear-wave velocities can either increase or decrease with saturation, and the degree of anisotropy depends on the microstructure, pressure, and frequency. Consequently great care must be taken when interpreting observed velocity anisotropy for measurements at low frequencies, typical of in situ observations, will generally be different from those at high frequencies, typical of the laboratory.

  5. Properties of heterogeneous energetic materials under high strain, high strain rate deformation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cai, Jing

    2007-01-01

    17 2.3 Reaction at High Velocity Impact of PTFE-Basedprocess [60]. 2.3 Reaction at High Velocity Impact of PTFE-of reaction of energetic materials at high velocity impact,

  6. Three axis velocity probe system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fasching, George E. (Morgantown, WV); Smith, Jr., Nelson S. (Morgantown, WV); Utt, Carroll E. (Morgantown, WV)

    1992-01-01

    A three-axis velocity probe system for determining three-axis positional velocities of small particles in fluidized bed systems and similar applications. This system has a sensor head containing four closely-spaced sensing electrodes of small wires that have flat ends to establish a two axis plane, e.g. a X-Y plane. Two of the sensing electrodes are positioned along one of the axes and the other two are along the second axis. These four sensing electrodes are surrounded by a guard electrode, and the outer surface is a ground electrode and support member for the sensing head. The electrodes are excited by, for example, sinusoidal voltage having a peak-to-peak voltage of up to 500 volts at a frequency of 2 MHz. Capacitive currents flowing between the four sensing electrodes and the ground electrode are influenced by the presence and position of a particle passing the sensing head. Any changes in these currents due to the particle are amplified and synchronously detected to produce positional signal values that are converted to digital form. Using these digital forms and two values of time permit generation of values of the three components of the particle vector and thus the total velocity vector.

  7. The Systemic Velocity of Eta Carinae

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nathan Smith

    2004-06-23

    High-resolution spectra of molecular hydrogen in the Homunculus nebula allow for the first direct measurement of the systemic velocity of Eta Carinae. Near-infrared long-slit data for H2 1-0 S(1) lambda 21218 obtained with the Phoenix spectrometer on the Gemini South telescope give Vsys=-8.1pm1 km/s (heliocentric), or VLSR=-19.7pm1 km/s, from the average of the near and far sides of the Homunculus. This measurement considerably improves the precision for the value of -7pm10 km/s inferred from neighboring O-type stars in the Carina nebula. New near-infrared spectra also provide a high-resolution line profile of [Fe II] lambda 16435 emission from gas condensations known as the Weigelt objects without contamination from the central star, revealing a line shape with complex kinematic structure. Previously, uncertainty in the Weigelt knots' kinematics was dominated by the adopted systemic velocity of Eta Car.

  8. Air-Side Energy Use Calculations for Four HVAC Systems: Dual Duct Constant Volume (DDCAV), Dual Duct Variable Volume (DDVAV), Constant Volume with Reheat (CAVRH), Variable Volume with Reheat (VAVRH), Four Pipe Fan Coil Unit (FC), Four Pipe Induction Unit (FI), and Single Zone (SZ) Systems, Revised June 2002 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haberl, J. S.; Bou-Saada, T. E.; Saman, N. F.

    2001-01-01

    This report contains engineering calculations for seven (7) air-side, heating, ventilating and air conditioning systems (HVAC) systems, including: dual duct constant volume (DDCAV), dual duct variable volume (DDVAV), ...

  9. Impact of Codes on Potential PVC Duct System Solution

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This presentation was given at the Summer 2012 DOE Building America meeting on July 26, 2012, and addressed the question "Do codes and standards get in the way of high performance?"

  10. Effects of increasing tip velocity on wind turbine rotor design.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Resor, Brian Ray; Maniaci, David Charles; Berg, Jonathan Charles; Richards, Phillip William

    2014-05-01

    A reduction in cost of energy from wind is anticipated when maximum allowable tip velocity is allowed to increase. Rotor torque decreases as tip velocity increases and rotor size and power rating are held constant. Reduction in rotor torque yields a lighter weight gearbox, a decrease in the turbine cost, and an increase in the capacity for the turbine to deliver cost competitive electricity. The high speed rotor incurs costs attributable to rotor aero-acoustics and system loads. The increased loads of high speed rotors drive the sizing and cost of other components in the system. Rotor, drivetrain, and tower designs at 80 m/s maximum tip velocity and 100 m/s maximum tip velocity are created to quantify these effects. Component costs, annualized energy production, and cost of energy are computed for each design to quantify the change in overall cost of energy resulting from the increase in turbine tip velocity. High fidelity physics based models rather than cost and scaling models are used to perform the work. Results provide a quantitative assessment of anticipated costs and benefits for high speed rotors. Finally, important lessons regarding full system optimization of wind turbines are documented.

  11. Application of an ASHRAE 152-2004 Duct Model for Simulating Code-Compliant 2000/2001 IECC Residences 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haberl, J.S.; Kim, S.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the results of the application of the duct model based on ASHRAE 152-2004 - Method of Test for Determining the Design and Seasonal Efficiencies of Residential Thermal Distribution Systems (ASHRAE 2004) to the code compliant 2001...

  12. An Experimental Evaluation of Duct-Mounted Relative Humidity Sensors: Part 3 – Repeatability, Hysteresis and Linearity Results 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joshi, S.N.; Pate, M.B.; Nelson, R.M.; House, J.H.; Klaassen, C.J.

    2005-01-01

    Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission. An Experimental Evaluation of Duct-Mounted Relative Humidity Sensors: Part 3-Repeatability, Hyste... Joshi, Shailesh N;House, John M...

  13. Evaluation of mixing downstream of tees in duct systems with respect to single point representative air sampling 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Taehong

    2003-01-01

    Air duct systems in nuclear facilities must meet the requirements of ANSI N13.1-1999 and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) that the exhaust airflow be monitored with continuous sampling in case of an accidental release of airborne...

  14. Use of Statistical Approach to Design an Optimal Duct System for On-demand Industrial Exhaust Ventilation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Litomisky, A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper elaborates on how to use statistics to calculate optimal parameters (including duct diameters) of energy-efficient industrial ventilation systems. Based on the fan-law, on-demand ventilation can save up to 80% of electricity compared...

  15. Velocity condensation for magnetotactic bacteria

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rupprecht, Jean-Francois; Bocquet, Lydéric

    2015-01-01

    Magnetotactic swimmers tend to align along magnetic field lines against stochastic reorientations. We show that the swimming strategy, e.g. active Brownian motion versus run-and-tumble dynamics, strongly affects the orientation statistics. The latter can exhibit a velocity condensation whereby the alignment probability density diverges. As a consequence, we find that the swimming strategy affects the nature of the phase transition to collective motion, indicating that L\\'evy run-and-tumble walks can outperform active Brownian processes as strategies to trigger collective behavior.

  16. Newberry EGS Seismic Velocity Model

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Templeton, Dennise

    We use ambient noise correlation (ANC) to create a detailed image of the subsurface seismic velocity at the Newberry EGS site down to 5 km. We collected continuous data for the 22 stations in the Newberry network, together with 12 additional stations from the nearby CC, UO and UW networks. The data were instrument corrected, whitened and converted to single bit traces before cross correlation according to the methodology in Benson (2007). There are 231 unique paths connecting the 22 stations of the Newberry network. The additional networks extended that to 402 unique paths crossing beneath the Newberry site.

  17. Newberry EGS Seismic Velocity Model

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Templeton, Dennise

    2013-10-01

    We use ambient noise correlation (ANC) to create a detailed image of the subsurface seismic velocity at the Newberry EGS site down to 5 km. We collected continuous data for the 22 stations in the Newberry network, together with 12 additional stations from the nearby CC, UO and UW networks. The data were instrument corrected, whitened and converted to single bit traces before cross correlation according to the methodology in Benson (2007). There are 231 unique paths connecting the 22 stations of the Newberry network. The additional networks extended that to 402 unique paths crossing beneath the Newberry site.

  18. Deterministic and stochastic algorithms for resolving the flow fields in ducts and networks using energy minimization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sochi, Taha

    2014-01-01

    Several deterministic and stochastic multi-variable global optimization algorithms (Conjugate Gradient, Nelder-Mead, Quasi-Newton, and Global) are investigated in conjunction with energy minimization principle to resolve the pressure and volumetric flow rate fields in single ducts and networks of interconnected ducts. The algorithms are tested with seven types of fluid: Newtonian, power law, Bingham, Herschel-Bulkley, Ellis, Ree-Eyring and Casson. The results obtained from all those algorithms for all these types of fluid agree very well with the analytically derived solutions as obtained from the traditional methods which are based on the conservation principles and fluid constitutive relations. The results confirm and generalize the findings of our previous investigations that the energy minimization principle is at the heart of the flow dynamics systems. The investigation also enriches the methods of Computational Fluid Dynamics for solving the flow fields in tubes and networks for various types of Newtoni...

  19. Real-time imaging of density ducts between the plasmasphere and ionosphere

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Loi, Shyeh Tjing; Cairns, Iver H; Menk, Frederick W; Waters, Colin L; Erickson, Philip J; Trott, Cathryn M; Hurley-Walker, Natasha; Morgan, John; Lenc, Emil; Offringa, Andre R; Bell, Martin E; Ekers, Ronald D; Gaensler, B M; Lonsdale, Colin J; Feng, Lu; Hancock, Paul J; Kaplan, David L; Bernardi, G; Bowman, J D; Briggs, F; Cappallo, R J; Deshpande, A A; Greenhill, L J; Hazelton, B J; Johnston-Hollitt, M; McWhirter, S R; Mitchell, D A; Morales, M F; Morgan, E; Oberoi, D; Ord, S M; Prabu, T; Shankar, N Udaya; Srivani, K S; Subrahmanyan, R; Tingay, S J; Wayth, R B; Webster, R L; Williams, A; Williams, C L

    2015-01-01

    Ionization of the Earth's atmosphere by sunlight forms a complex, multi-layered plasma environment within the Earth's magnetosphere, the innermost layers being the ionosphere and plasmasphere. The plasmasphere is believed to be embedded with cylindrical density structures (ducts) aligned along the Earth's magnetic field, but direct evidence for these remains scarce. Here we report the first direct wide-angle observation of an extensive array of field-aligned ducts bridging the upper ionosphere and inner plasmasphere, using a novel ground-based imaging technique. We establish their heights and motions by feature-tracking and parallax analysis. The structures are strikingly organized, appearing as regularly-spaced, alternating tubes of overdensities and underdensities strongly aligned with the Earth's magnetic field. These findings represent the first direct visual evidence for the existence of such structures.

  20. Reducing Thermal Losses and Gains With Buried and Encapsulated Ducts in Hot-Humid Climates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shapiro, C.; Magee, A.; Zoeller, W.

    2013-02-01

    The Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) monitored three houses in Jacksonville, FL, to investigate the effectiveness of encapsulated and encapsulated/buried ducts in reducing thermal losses and gains from ductwork in unconditioned attics. Burying ductwork beneath loose-fill insulation has been identified as an effective method of reducing thermal losses and gains from ductwork in dry climates, but it is not applicable in humid climates where condensation may occur on the outside of the duct jacket. By encapsulating the ductwork in closed cell polyurethane foam (ccSPF) before burial beneath loose-fill mineral fiber insulation, the condensation potential may be reduced while increasing the R-value of the ductwork.

  1. Travelling-waves consistent with turbulence-driven secondary flow in a square duct

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Uhlmann, Markus; Pinelli, Alfredo; 10.1063/1.3466661

    2010-01-01

    We present numerically determined travelling-wave solutions for pressure-driven flow through a straight duct with a square cross-section. This family of solutions represents typical coherent structures (a staggered array of counter-rotating streamwise vortices and an associated low-speed streak) on each wall. Their streamwise average flow in the cross-sectional plane corresponds to an eight vortex pattern much alike the secondary flow found in the turbulent regime.

  2. Azimuthally Anisotropic 3D Velocity Continuation

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Burnett, William; Fomel, Sergey

    2011-01-01

    We extend time-domain velocity continuation to the zero-offset 3D azimuthally anisotropic case. Velocity continuation describes how a seismic image changes given a change in migration velocity. This description turns out to be of a wave propagation process, in which images change along a velocity axis. In the anisotropic case, the velocity model is multiparameter. Therefore, anisotropic image propagation is multidimensional. We use a three-parameter slowness model, which is related to azimuthal variations in velocity, as well as their principal directions. This information is useful for fracture and reservoir characterization from seismic data. We provide synthetic diffraction imaging examples to illustratemore »the concept and potential applications of azimuthal velocity continuation and to analyze the impulse response of the 3D velocity continuation operator.« less

  3. Pyrotechnic deflagration velocity and permeability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Begeal, D R; Stanton, P L

    1982-01-01

    Particle size, porosity, and permeability of the reactive material have long been considered to be important factors in propellant burning rates and the deflagration-to-detonation transition in explosives. It is reasonable to assume that these same parameters will also affect the deflagration velocity of pyrotechnics. This report describes an experimental program that addresses the permeability of porous solids (particulate beds), in terms of particle size and porosity, and the relationship between permeability and the behavior of pyrotechnics and explosives. The experimental techniques used to acquire permeability data and to characterize the pyrotechnic burning are discussed. Preliminary data have been obtained on the burning characteristics of titanium hydride/potassium perchlorate (THKP) and boron/calcium chromate (BCCR). With THKP, the velocity of a pressure wave (from hot product gases) in the unburned region shows unsteady behavior which is related to the initial porosity or permeability. Simultaneous measurements with pressure gauges and ion gauges reveal that the pressure wave precedes the burn front. Steady burning of BCCR was observed with pressure gauge diagnostics and with a microwave interferometry technique.

  4. Ducts Sealing Using Injected Spray Sealant, Raleigh, North Carolina (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2014-03-01

    In multifamily and attached buildings, traditional duct sealing methods are often impractical or costly and disruptive because of the difficulty in accessing leakage sites. In this project, two retrofit duct sealing techniques - manually-applied sealants and injecting a spray sealant, were implemented in several low-rise multi-unit buildings. An analysis on the cost and performance of the two methods are presented. Each method was used in twenty housing units: approximately half of each group of units are single story and the remainder two-story. Results show that duct leakage to the outside was reduced by an average of 59% through the use of manual methods, and by 90% in the units where the injected spray sealant was used. It was found that 73% of the leakage reduction in homes that were treated with injected spray sealant was attributable to the manual sealing done at boots, returns and the air handler. The cost of manually-applying sealant ranged from $275 to $511 per unit and for the injected spray sealant the cost was $700 per unit. Modeling suggests a simple payback of 2.2 years for manual sealing and 4.7 years for the injected spray sealant system. Utility bills were collected for one year before and after the retrofits. Utility bill analysis shows 14% and 16% energy savings using injected spray sealant system and hand sealing procedure respectively in heating season whereas in cooling season, energy savings using injected spray sealant system and hand sealing were both 16%.

  5. Radial Velocity Variability of Field Brown Dwarfs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Prato, L; Rice, E L; McLean, I S; Kirkpatrick, J D; Burgasser, A J; Kim, S S

    2015-01-01

    We present paper six of the NIRSPEC Brown Dwarf Spectroscopic Survey, an analysis of multi-epoch, high-resolution (R~20,000) spectra of 25 field dwarf systems (3 late-type M dwarfs, 16 L dwarfs, and 6 T dwarfs) taken with the NIRSPEC infrared spectrograph at the W. M. Keck Observatory. With a radial velocity precision of ~2 km/s, we are sensitive to brown dwarf companions in orbits with periods of a few years or less given a mass ratio of 0.5 or greater. We do not detect any spectroscopic binary brown dwarfs in the sample. Given our target properties, and the frequency and cadence of observations, we use a Monte Carlo simulation to determine the detection probability of our sample. Even with a null detection result, our 1 sigma upper limit for very low mass binary frequency is 18%. Our targets included 7 known, wide brown dwarf binary systems. No significant radial velocity variability was measured in our multi-epoch observations of these systems, even for those pairs for which our data spanned a significant ...

  6. Noise pair velocity and range echo location system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Erskine, D.J.

    1999-02-16

    An echo-location method for microwaves, sound and light capable of using incoherent and arbitrary waveforms of wide bandwidth to measure velocity and range (and target size) simultaneously to high resolution is disclosed. Two interferometers having very long and nearly equal delays are used in series with the target interposed. The delays can be longer than the target range of interest. The first interferometer imprints a partial coherence on an initially incoherent source which allows autocorrelation to be performed on the reflected signal to determine velocity. A coherent cross-correlation subsequent to the second interferometer with the source determines a velocity discriminated range. Dithering the second interferometer identifies portions of the cross-correlation belonging to a target apart from clutter moving at a different velocity. The velocity discrimination is insensitive to all slowly varying distortions in the signal path. Speckle in the image of target and antenna lobing due to parasitic reflections is minimal for an incoherent source. An arbitrary source which varies its spectrum dramatically and randomly from pulse to pulse creates a radar elusive to jamming. Monochromatic sources which jigger in frequency from pulse to pulse or combinations of monochromatic sources can simulate some benefits of incoherent broadband sources. Clutter which has a symmetrical velocity spectrum will self-cancel for short wavelengths, such as the apparent motion of ground surrounding target from a sidelooking airborne antenna. 46 figs.

  7. Noise pair velocity and range echo location system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Erskine, David J. (Oakland, CA)

    1999-01-01

    An echo-location method for microwaves, sound and light capable of using incoherent and arbitrary waveforms of wide bandwidth to measure velocity and range (and target size) simultaneously to high resolution. Two interferometers having very long and nearly equal delays are used in series with the target interposed. The delays can be longer than the target range of interest. The first interferometer imprints a partial coherence on an initially incoherent source which allows autocorrelation to be performed on the reflected signal to determine velocity. A coherent cross-correlation subsequent to the second interferometer with the source determines a velocity discriminated range. Dithering the second interferometer identifies portions of the cross-correlation belonging to a target apart from clutter moving at a different velocity. The velocity discrimination is insensitive to all slowly varying distortions in the signal path. Speckle in the image of target and antenna lobing due to parasitic reflections is minimal for an incoherent source. An arbitrary source which varies its spectrum dramatically and randomly from pulse to pulse creates a radar elusive to jamming. Monochromatic sources which jigger in frequency from pulse to pulse or combinations of monochromatic sources can simulate some benefits of incoherent broadband sources. Clutter which has a symmetrical velocity spectrum will self-cancel for short wavelengths, such as the apparent motion of ground surrounding target from a sidelooking airborne antenna.

  8. Improving Building Envelope and Duct Airtightness of US Dwellings - the

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefield MunicipalTechnical Report:Speeding accessby aLED Street LightingFrom theHighI _ _1 -Disclaimer:

  9. Improving Building Envelope and Duct Airtightness of US Dwellings - the

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefield MunicipalTechnical Report:Speeding accessby aLED Street LightingFrom theHighI _ _1 -Disclaimer:Current

  10. DEPARTMENT OF ENGINEERING SCIENCE High Pressure Laminar Burning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DEPARTMENT OF ENGINEERING SCIENCE High Pressure Laminar Burning Velocity Measurements S. P data Cellularity Real residuals Results Future plans High Pressure Laminar Burning Velocity temperature 725 K High Pressure Laminar Burning Velocity Measurements October 27, 2008 Page 3 #12;System

  11. Building America Case Study: High Performance Ducts in Hot-Dry...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    the conditioned thermal envelope. To support this activity, in 2013 the Pacific Gas & Electric Company initiated a project with Davis Energy Group (lead for the Building...

  12. Building America Case Study: High Performance Ducts in Hot-Dry Climates;

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefield Municipal GasAdministration Medal01Technical Information-- Energy, science, andTechnology

  13. Technology Solutions Case Study: High-Performance Ducts in Hot-Dry Climates

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefield Municipal GasAdministrationTechnicalTechnical InformationFrequentlyEnergy,|

  14. Building America Case Study: High Performance Ducts in Hot-Dry Climates;

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefield MunicipalTechnical Report: Achievements of structuralRussianEnergy,Energy,Energy, science,--

  15. Technology Solutions Case Study: High-Performance Ducts in Hot-Dry Climates

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effectWorking With U.S. CoalMexico IndependentMatter andPagesKeyDepartment() |

  16. High-Performance Ducts in Hot-Dry Climates (Technical Report) | SciTech

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room NewsInformation CurrentHenry Bellamy, Ph.D. Title: Professor -|HighmiddlewareConnect

  17. Thermoluminescence measurements of neutron streaming through JET Torus Hall ducts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Obryk, Barbara; Conroy, Sean; Syme, Brian D; Popovichev, Sergey; Stamatelatos, Ion E; Vasilopoulou, Theodora; Bilski, Pawe?; Contributors, JET EFDA

    2014-01-01

    Thermoluminescence detectors (TLD) were used for dose measurements at JET. Several hundreds of LiF detectors of various types, standard LiF:Mg,Ti and highly sensitive LiF:Mg,Cu,P were produced. LiF detectors consisting of natural lithium are sensitive to slow neutrons, their response to neutrons being enhanced by 6Li-enriched lithium or suppressed by using lithium consisting entirely of 7Li. Pairs of 6LiF/7LiF detectors allow distinguishing between neutron/non-neutron components of a radiation field. For detection of neutrons of higher energy, polyethylene (PE-300) moderators were used. TLDs, located in the centre of cylindrical moderators, were installed at eleven positions in the JET hall and the hall labyrinth in July 2012, and exposure took place during the last two weeks of the experimental campaign. Measurements of the gamma dose were obtained for all positions over a range of about five orders of magnitude variation. As the TLDs were also calibrated in a thermal neutron field, the neutron fluence at th...

  18. Continuous subsurface velocity measurement with coda wave interferometry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Niu, Fenglin

    . The experiment site is located 10 km west to the seismically very active Xiaojiang fault zone. An electric hammer was used as a source to generate highly repeatable seismic waves, which were recorded by 5 short is interpreted as the velocity response to the barometric pressure. A multivariate linear regression analysis

  19. Controlling Velocity In Bipedal Walking: A Dynamic Programming Approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Atkeson, Christopher G.

    velocity and swing leg angle and angular velocity) to 1 (stance leg angular velocity). RepercussionsControlling Velocity In Bipedal Walking: A Dynamic Programming Approach Thijs Mandersloot their velocity. We control velocity by using dynamic programming to design control laws for each desired velocity

  20. Energy Savings and Peak Demand Reduction of a SEER 21 Heat Pump vs. a SEER 13 Heat Pump with Attic and Indoor Duct Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cummings, J.

    2014-03-01

    This report describes results of experiments that were conducted in an unoccupied 1600 square foot house--the Manufactured Housing (MH Lab) at the Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC)--to evaluate the delivered performance as well as the relative performance of a SEER 21 variable capacity heat pump versus a SEER 13 heat pump. The performance was evaluated with two different duct systems: a standard attic duct system and an indoor duct system located in a dropped-ceiling space.

  1. Wave VelocityWave Velocity Diff t f ti l l itDifferent from particle velocity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yoo, S. J. Ben

    Wave VelocityWave Velocity v=/T =f Diff t f ti l l itDifferent from particle velocity Depends on the medium in which the wave travelsDepends on the medium in which the wave travels stringaonvelocity F v of Waves11-8. Types of Waves Transverse wave Longitudinal wave Liu UCD Phy1B 2014 37 #12;Sound Wave

  2. Cap Bubble Drift Velocity in a Confined Test Section

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xiaodong Sun; Seungjin Kim; Mamoru Ishii; Frank W. Lincoln; Stephen G. Beus

    2002-10-09

    In the two-group interfacial area transport equation, bubbles are categorized into two groups, i.e., spherical/distorted bubbles as group 1 and cap/slug/churn-turbulent bubbles as group 2. The bubble rise velocities for both groups of bubbles may be estimated by the drift flux model by applying different distribution parameters and drift velocities for both groups. However, the drift velocity for group 2 bubbles is not always applicable (when the wall effect becomes important) as in the current test loop of interest where the flow channel is confined by two parallel flat walls, with a dimension of 200-mm in width and 10-mm in gap. The previous experiments indicated that no stable slug flow existed in this test section, which was designed to permit visualization of the flow patterns and bubble characteristics without the distortion associated with curved surfaces. In fact, distorted cap bubbly and churn-turbulent flow was observed. Therefore, it is essential to developed a correlation for cap bubble drift velocity in this confined flow channel. Since the rise velocity of a cap bubble depends on its size, a high-speed movie camera is used to capture images of cap bubbles to obtain the bubble size information. Meanwhile, the rise velocity of cap and elongated bubbles (called cap bubbles hereafter) is investigated by examining the captured images frame by frame. As a result, the conventional correlation of drift velocity for slug bubbles is modified and acceptable agreements between the measurements and correlation estimation are achieved.

  3. Local Energy Velocity of Classical Fields

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    I. V. Drozdov; A. A. Stahlhofen

    2007-04-19

    It is proposed to apply a recently developed concept of local wave velocities to the dynamical field characteristics, especially for the canonical field energy density. It is shown that local energy velocities can be derived from the lagrangian directly. The local velocities of zero- and first- order for energy propagation has been obtained for special cases of scalar and vector fields. Some important special cases of these results are discussed.

  4. Building America Case Study: Raised Ceiling Interior Duct System, New Smyrna, Florida (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2014-09-01

    One of BA-PIRC's longtime Habitat for Humanity partners, S.E. Volusia CO (SEVHFH), was interested in building a home to the new Challenge Home standards. SEVHFH routinely builds ENERGY STAR V3.1 homes. The only modification to their design needed to comply with the Challenge Home criteria was the interior duct requirement. Unwilling to incur the added costs of a foam roof deck or wall heights above 8 feet to accommodate a fur-down chase SEVHFH opted to build a fur-up or raised ceiling chase.

  5. An advanced economizer controller for dual-duct air-handling systems -- with a case application

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, M.; Claridge, D.E.; Park, B.Y.

    1997-12-31

    A heating penalty is expected when economizers are applied to dual-duct air-handling systems. The heating penalty can be even higher than the cooling savings when the hot airflow is higher than the cold airflow. To avoid the excessive heating penalty, advanced economizers are developed in this paper. The application of the advanced economizer has resulted in savings of $7,000/yr in one 95,000-ft{sup 2} (8,800-m{sup 2}) school building since 1993. The impacts of cold and hot deck settings on the energy consumption are also discussed.

  6. Dynamics of NO reduction by H2 on Rh(111): Velocity and angular distributions of the N2 product

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sibener, Steven

    Dynamics of NO reduction by H2 on Rh(111): Velocity and angular distributions of the N2 product J; accepted 17 January 1996 The velocity and angular distributions of N2 produced from the reduction temperature. Both the angular and velocity distributions are well fit by bimodal forms. The high energy

  7. Reciprocally-rotating Velocity Obstacles 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Giese, Andrew W

    2014-04-18

    Modern multi-agent systems frequently use high-level planners to extract basic paths for agents, and then rely on local collision avoidance to ensure that the agents reach their destinations without colliding with one another...

  8. Particle observations in space plasma have shown that high energy particles have some degree of gyrophase organization. Namely, the velocity distributions of the particle populations in the plane perpendicular to the ambient magnetic field depend on the g

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abstract Particle observations in space plasma have shown that high energy particles have some = = ='( ) 2[1 ( )]Z Z = - + Nongyrotropic Anisotropy instability Isotropic Beam-Plasma instability Gyrotropic dispersion Anisotropic Beam-Plasma instability Plasma Parameters 1.0C0.00013vti 4.0Ab0.0058vte 1.0Ai0.0005i

  9. Whistler wave radiation from a pulsed loop antenna located in a cylindrical duct with enhanced plasma density

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kudrin, Alexander V.; Shkokova, Natalya M.; Ferencz, Orsolya E.; Zaboronkova, Tatyana M.

    2014-11-15

    Pulsed radiation from a loop antenna located in a cylindrical duct with enhanced plasma density is studied. The radiated energy and its distribution over the spatial and frequency spectra of the excited waves are derived and analyzed as functions of the antenna and duct parameters. Numerical results referring to the case where the frequency spectrum of the antenna current is concentrated in the whistler range are reported. It is shown that under ionospheric conditions, the presence of an artificial duct with enhanced density can lead to a significant increase in the energy radiated from a pulsed loop antenna compared with the case where the same source is immersed in the surrounding uniform magnetoplasma. The results obtained can be useful in planning active ionospheric experiments with pulsed electromagnetic sources operated in the presence of artificial field-aligned plasma density irregularities that are capable of guiding whistler waves.

  10. Analysis of Ultrasonic Velocities in Hydrocarbon Mixtures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of measurements on ultrasonic velocities of liquid hydrocarbons and mixtures. They found that their dataAnalysis of Ultrasonic Velocities in Hydrocarbon Mixtures James G. Berryman Lawrence Livermore on hydrocarbon mixtures was shown by Wang and Nur [JASA 89, 2725 (1991)] to agree quite well with the predictions

  11. Linear stability of magnetohydrodynamic flow in a perfectly conducting rectangular duct

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Priede, J?nis; Molokov, Sergei

    2011-01-01

    We analyse numerically the linear stability of a liquid metal flow in a rectangular duct with perfectly electrically conducting walls subject to a uniform transverse magnetic field. A vector stream function formulation is used with Chebyshev collocation method to solve the eigenvalue problem for small-amplitude perturbations. A relatively weak magnetic field is found to render the flow linearly unstable as two weak jets appear close to the centre of the duct at the Hartmann number Ha \\approx 9.6. In a sufficiently strong magnetic field, the instability following the jets becomes confined in the layers of characteristic thickness \\delta \\sim Ha^{-1/2} located at the walls parallel to the magnetic field. In this case the instability is determined by \\delta, which results in both the critical Reynolds and wavenumbers numbers scaling as \\sim \\delta^{-1}. Instability modes can have one of the four different symmetry combinations along and across the magnetic field. The most unstable is a pair of modes with an even...

  12. Laminar and transitional liquid metal duct flow near a magnetic point dipole

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tympel, Saskia; Schumacher, Jörg

    2013-01-01

    The flow transformation and the generation of vortex structures by a strong magnetic dipole field in a liquid metal duct flow is studied by means of three-dimensional direct numerical simulations. The dipole is considered as the paradigm for a magnetic obstacle which will deviate the streamlines due to Lorentz forces acting on the fluid elements. The duct is of square cross-section. The dipole is located above the top wall and is centered in spanwise direction. Our model uses the quasi-static approximation which is applicable in the limit of small magnetic Reynolds numbers. The analysis covers the stationary flow regime at small hydrodynamic Reynolds numbers $Re$ as well as the transitional time-dependent regime at higher values which may generate a turbulent flow in the wake of the magnetic obstacle. We present a systematic study of these two basic flow regimes and their dependence on $Re$ and on the Hartmann number $Ha$, a measure of the strength of the magnetic dipole field. Furthermore, three orientations...

  13. Establishment of three-dimensional cultures of human pancreatic duct epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gutierrez-Barrera, Angelica M. [Department of Gastrointestinal Medical Oncology, The University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Unit 426, 1515 Holcombe Boulevard, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Menter, David G. [Department of Thoracic Head and Neck Medical Oncology, The University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Abbruzzese, James L. [Department of Gastrointestinal Medical Oncology, The University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Unit 426, 1515 Holcombe Boulevard, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Reddy, Shrikanth A.G. [Department of Gastrointestinal Medical Oncology, The University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Unit 426, 1515 Holcombe Boulevard, Houston, TX 77030 (United States)]. E-mail: sa08366@wotan.mdacc.tmc.edu

    2007-07-06

    Three-dimensional (3D) cultures of epithelial cells offer singular advantages for studies of morphogenesis or the role of cancer genes in oncogenesis. In this study, as part of establishing a 3D culture system of pancreatic duct epithelial cells, we compared human pancreatic duct epithelial cells (HPDE-E6E7) with pancreatic cancer cell lines. Our results show, that in contrast to cancer cells, HPDE-E6E7 organized into spheroids with what appeared to be apical and basal membranes and a luminal space. Immunostaining experiments indicated that protein kinase Akt was phosphorylated (Ser473) and CTMP, a negative Akt regulator, was expressed in both HPDE-E6E7 and cancer cells. However, a nuclear pool of CTMP was detectable in HPDE-E6E7 cells that showed a dynamic concentrated expression pattern, a feature that further distinguished HPDE-E637 cells from cancer cells. Collectively, these data suggest that 3D cultures of HPDE-E6E7 cells are useful for investigating signaling and morphological abnormalities in pancreatic cancer cells.

  14. Scaleup tests and supporting research for the development of duct injection technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Felix, L.G.; Dismukes, E.B.; Gooch, J.P. (Southern Research Inst., Birmingham, AL (United States)); Klett, M.G.; Demian, A.G. (Gilbert/Commonwealth, Inc., Reading, PA (United States))

    1992-04-20

    This Topical Report No. 2 is an interim report on the Duct Injection Test Facility being operated for the Department of Energy at Beverly, Ohio. Either dry calcium hydroxide or an aqueous slurry of calcium hydroxide (prepared by slaking quicklime) is injected into a slipstream of flue gas to achieve partial removal of SO{sub 2} from a coal-burning power station. Water injected with the slurry or injected separately from the dry sorbents cools the flue gas and increases the water vapor content of the gas. The addition of water, either in the slurry or in a separate spray, makes the extent of reaction between the sorbent and the SO{sub 2} more complete; the presumption is that water is effective in the liquid state, when it is able to wet the sorbent particles physically, and not especially effective in the vapor state. An electrostatic precipitator collects the combination of suspended solids (fly ash from the boiler and sorbent from the duct injection process). All of the operations are being carried out on the scale of approximately 50,000 acfm of flue gas.

  15. Field comparison of the point velocity probe with other groundwater velocity measurement methods

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Labaky, W.; Devlin, John F.; Gillham, R. W.

    2009-03-14

    Field testing of a new tool for measuring groundwater velocities at the centimeter scale, the point velocity probe (PVP), was undertaken at Canadian Forces Base, Borden, Ontario, Canada. The measurements were performed in a sheet pile...

  16. Scaleup tests and supporting research for the development of duct injection technology. Topical report No. 1, Literature review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gooch, J.P.; Dismukes, E.B.; Dahlin, R.S.; Faulkner, M.G. [Southern Research Inst., Birmingham, AL (United States); Klett, M.G.; Buchanan, T.L.; Hunt, J.E. [Gilbert/Commonwealth, Inc., Reading, PA (United States)

    1989-05-01

    Gilbert Commonwealth, Southern Research Institute and the American Electric Power Service Corporation have embarked on a program to convert DOE`s Duct Injection Test Facility located at the Muskingum River Power Plant of Ohio Power Company to test alternate duct injection technologies. The technologies to be tested include slurry sorbent injection of hydrated lime using dual fluid nozzles, or a rotary atomizer and pneumatic injection of hydrated lime, with flue gas humidification before or after sorbent injection. The literature review and analysis contained in this report is a part of the preparatory effort for the test program.

  17. Determination of plasma velocity from light fluctuations in a cutting torch

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prevosto, L.; Mancinelli, B.; Kelly, H.

    2009-09-01

    Measurements of plasma velocities in a 30 A high energy density cutting torch are reported. The velocity diagnostic is based on the analysis of the light fluctuations emitted by the arc which are assumed to propagate with the flow velocity. These light fluctuations originate from plasma temperature and plasma density fluctuations mainly due to hydrodynamic instabilities. Fast photodiodes are employed as the light sensors. The arc core velocity was obtained from spectrally filtered light fluctuations measurements using a band-pass filter to detect light emission fluctuations emitted only from the arc axis. Maximum plasma jet velocities of 5000 m s{sup -1} close to the nozzle exit and about 2000 m s{sup -1} close to the anode were found. The obtained velocity values are in good agreement with those values predicted by a numerical code for a similar torch to that employed in this work.

  18. Proceedings of the 32nd ISR(International Symposium on Robotics), 19-21 April 2001 Climbing Service Robot for Duct Inspection and Maintenance Applications in a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Sheng

    Robot for Duct Inspection and Maintenance Applications in a Nuclear Reactor B.L. Luk1 , T.S. White2 , D to perform non-destructive testing of various welds on the main reactor cooling gas ducts at Sizewell 'A of the frames, and pneumatic cylinders for compliant leg control. Vacuum grippers are used for climbing vertical

  19. Duct Leakage Modeling in EnergyPlus and Analysis of Energy Savings from Implementing SAV with InCITeTM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wray, Craig; Sherman, Max

    2010-03-01

    This project addressed two significant deficiencies in air-handling systems for large commercial building: duct leakage and duct static pressure reset. Both constitute significant energy reduction opportunities for these buildings. The overall project goal is to bridge the gaps in current duct performance modeling capabilities, and to expand our understanding of air-handling system performance in California large commercial buildings. The purpose of this project is to provide technical support for the implementation of a duct leakage modeling capability in EnergyPlus, to demonstrate the capabilities of the new model, and to carry out analyses of field measurements intended to demonstrate the energy saving potential of the SAV with InCITeTM duct static pressure reset (SPR) technology. A new duct leakage model has been successfully implemented in EnergyPlus, which will enable simulation users to assess the impacts of leakage on whole-building energy use and operation in a coupled manner. This feature also provides a foundation to support code change proposals and compliance analyses related to Title 24 where duct leakage is an issue. Our example simulations continue to show that leaky ducts substantially increase fan power: 10percent upstream and 10percent downstream leakage increases supply fan power 30percent on average compared to a tight duct system (2.5percent upstream and 2.5percent downstream leakage). Much of this increase is related to the upstream leakage rather than to the downstream leakage. This does not mean, however, that downstream leakage is unimportant. Our simulations also demonstrate that ceiling heat transfer is a significant effect that needs to be included when assessing the impacts of duct leakage in large commercial buildings. This is not particularly surprising, given that ?ceiling regain? issues have already been included in residential analyses as long as a decade ago (e.g., ASHRAE Standard 152); mainstream simulation programs that are used for large commercial building energy analyses have not had this capability until now. Our analyses of data that we collected during our 2005 tests of the SAV with InCITeTM duct static pressure reset technology show that this technology can substantially reduce fan power (in this case, by about 25 to 30percent). Tempering this assessment, however, is that cooling and heating coil loads were observed to increase or decrease significantly depending on the time window used. Their impact on cooling and heating plant power needs to be addressed in future studies; without translating the coil loads to plant equipment energy use, it is not possible to judge the net impact of this SPR technology on whole-building energy use. If all of the loads had decreased, such a step would not be as necessary.

  20. Estimating seismic velocities at ultrasonic frequencies in partially saturated rocks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mavko, G.; Nolen-Hoeksema, R. (Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Dept. of Geophysics)

    1994-02-01

    Seismic velocities in rocks at ultrasonic frequencies depend not only on the degree of saturation but also on the distribution of the fluid phase at various scales within the pore space. Two scales of saturation heterogeneity are important: (1) saturation differences between thin compliant pores and larger stiffer pores, and (2) differences between saturated patches and undersaturated patches at a scale much larger than any pore. The authors propose a formalism for predicting the range of velocities in partially saturated rocks that avoids assuming idealized pore shapes by using measured dry rock velocity versus pressure and dry rock porosity versus pressure. The pressure dependence contains all of the necessary information about the distribution of pore compliance for estimating effects of saturation at the finest scales where small amounts of fluid in the thinnest, most compliant parts of the pore space stiffen the rock in both compression and shear (increasing both P- and S-wave velocities) in approximately the same way that confining pressure stiffens the rock by closing the compliant pores. Large-scale saturation patches tend to increase only the high-frequency bulk modulus by amounts roughly proportional to the saturation. The pore-scale effects will be most important at laboratory and logging frequencies when pore-scale pore pressure gradients are unrelaxed. The patchy-saturation effects can persist even at seismic field frequencies if the patch sizes are sufficiently large and the diffusivities are sufficiently low for the larger-scale pressure gradients to be unrelaxed.

  1. Procedure and Application for Determining the Cold Deck and Hot Deck Airflow in a Dual-Duct System 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, G.; Mingsheng, L.

    2006-01-01

    This paper introduces an innovative method to determine the cold and hot airflow through a dual-duct variable air volume (VAV) system. The actual building load can be identified based on the calculated airflow and temperature for both the cold...

  2. Osmotic Stress Regulates Mineralocorticoid Receptor Expression in a Novel Aldosterone-Sensitive Cortical Collecting Duct Cell Line

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Osmotic Stress Regulates Mineralocorticoid Receptor Expression in a Novel Aldosterone 49 59 67 32; E-mail: marc.lombes@u-psud.fr Abbreviated Title: Osmotic Stress and MR Expression Precis: Osmotic Stress Regulates Mineralocorticoid Receptor Expression in Cortical Collecting Duct Cells

  3. Longevity of Duct Tape in Residential Air Distribution Systems: 1-D, 2-D, and 3-D Joints 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abushakra, B.

    2003-01-01

    . The study concluded that the duct tape performance in sealing joints depends on the joint's space dimensions; it gets worse as the number of dimensions required to describe the joint increases (1-D to 3-D). This is essentially caused by the shrinkage...

  4. FDR for non destructive evaluation: inspection of external post-tensioned ducts and measurement of water content in concrete

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    of water content in concrete F. Visco-Comandini(1) , T. Bore(2) , G. Six(1) , F. Sagnard(1) , S. Delepine water content assessment technologies [18]. Another example concerns the bridges which include "external of post tensioned ducts or to measure the water content in concrete, we propose a structural health

  5. The stellar wind velocity field of HD 77581

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Manousakis, A

    2015-01-01

    The early acceleration of stellar winds in massive stars is poorly constrained. The scattering of hard X-ray photons emitted by the pulsar in the high-mass X-ray binary Vela X-1 can be used to probe the stellar wind velocity and density profile close to the surface of its supergiant companion HD 77581. We built a high signal-to-noise and high resolution hard X-ray lightcurve of Vela X-1 measured by Swift/BAT over 300 orbital periods of the system and compared it with the predictions of a grid of hydrodynamic simulations. We obtain a very good agreement between observations and simulations for a narrow set of parameters, implying that the wind velocity close to the stellar surface is twice larger than usually assumed with the standard beta law. Locally a velocity gradient of $\\beta\\sim0.5$ is favoured. Even if still incomplete, hydrodynamic simulations are successfully reproducing several observational properties of Vela X-1.

  6. Modeling velocity dispersion In Gypsy site, Oklahoma

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alsaadan, Sami Ibrahim

    2010-01-01

    Discrepancies in interval velocities estimated from vertical well measurements made with different source central frequencies at Gypsy site could be primarily explained in terms of intrinsic attenuation. Four intervals ...

  7. Recovering Velocity Distributions via Penalized Likelihood

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    David Merritt

    1996-05-14

    Line-of-sight velocity distributions are crucial for unravelling the dynamics of hot stellar systems. We present a new formalism based on penalized likelihood for deriving such distributions from kinematical data, and evaluate the performance of two algorithms that extract N(V) from absorption-line spectra and from sets of individual velocities. Both algorithms are superior to existing ones in that the solutions are nearly unbiased even when the data are so poor that a great deal of smoothing is required. In addition, the discrete-velocity algorithm is able to remove a known distribution of measurement errors from the estimate of N(V). The formalism is used to recover the velocity distribution of stars in five fields near the center of the globular cluster Omega Centauri.

  8. Slow Sound in a duct, effective transonic flows and analogue black holes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aurégan, Yves; Michel, Florent; Pagneux, Vincent; Parentani, Renaud

    2015-01-01

    We propose a new system suitable for studying analogue gravity effects, consisting of a gas flowing in a duct with a compliant wall. Effective transonic flows are obtained from uniform, low Mach number flows through the reduction of the one-dimensional speed of sound induced by the wall compliance. We show that the modified equation for linear perturbations can be written in a Hamiltonian form. We perform a one-dimensional reduction consistent with the canonical formulation, and deduce the analogue metric along with the first dispersive term. In a weak dispersive regime, the spectrum emitted from a sonic horizon is numerically shown to be Planckian, and with a temperature fixed by the analogue surface gravity.

  9. Slow Sound in a duct, effective transonic flows and analogue black holes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yves Aurégan; Pierre Fromholz; Florent Michel; Vincent Pagneux; Renaud Parentani

    2015-03-09

    We propose a new system suitable for studying analogue gravity effects, consisting of a gas flowing in a duct with a compliant wall. Effective transonic flows are obtained from uniform, low Mach number flows through the reduction of the one-dimensional speed of sound induced by the wall compliance. We show that the modified equation for linear perturbations can be written in a Hamiltonian form. We perform a one-dimensional reduction consistent with the canonical formulation, and deduce the analogue metric along with the first dispersive term. In a weak dispersive regime, the spectrum emitted from a sonic horizon is numerically shown to be Planckian, and with a temperature fixed by the analogue surface gravity.

  10. Technology Solutions Case Study: Raised Ceiling Interior Duct System, New Smyrna, Florida

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2014-09-01

    Builder S.E. Volusia County Habitat for Humanity (SEVHFH) was interested in constructing a home to the new U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Zero Energy Ready Home standards. SEVHFH partners with DOE team Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction on Habitat for Humanity homes and routinely builds to ENERGY STAR V3.1. The only modification to the design needed to comply with the Zero Energy Ready Home criteria was the interior duct requirement. Unwilling to incur the added costs of a foam roof deck or wall heights that exceed 8 ft to accommodate a fur-down chase, SEVHFH opted to build a fur-up or raised ceiling chase. This case study describes the project.

  11. Impact of Ducting on Heat Pump Water Heater Space Conditioning Energy Use and Comfort

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Widder, Sarah H.; Petersen, Joseph M.; Parker, Graham B.; Baechler, Michael C.

    2014-07-21

    Increasing penetration of heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) in the residential sector will offer an important opportunity for energy savings, with a theoretical energy savings of up to 63% per water heater and up to 11% of residential energy use (EIA 2009). However, significant barriers must be overcome before this technology will reach widespread adoption in the Pacific Northwest region and nationwide. One significant barrier noted by the Northwest Energy Efficiency Alliance (NEEA) is the possible interaction with the homes’ space conditioning system for units installed in conditioned spaces. Such complex interactions may decrease the magnitude of whole-house savings available from HPWH installed in the conditioned space in cold climates and could lead to comfort concerns (Larson et al. 2011; Kresta 2012). Modeling studies indicate that the installation location of HPWHs can significantly impact their performance and the resultant whole-house energy savings (Larson et al. 2012; Maguire et al. 2013). However, field data are not currently available to validate these results. This field evaluation of two GE GeoSpring HPWHs in the PNNL Lab Homes is designed to measure the performance and impact on the Lab Home HVAC system of a GE GeoSpring HPWH configured with exhaust ducting compared to an unducted GeoSpring HPWH during heating and cooling season periods; and measure the performance and impact on the Lab Home HVAC system of the GeoSpring HPWH with both supply and exhaust air ducting as compared to an unducted GeoSpring HPWH during heating and cooling season periods. Important metrics evaluated in these experiments include water heater energy use, HVAC energy use, whole house energy use, interior temperatures (as a proxy for thermal comfort), and cost impacts. This technical report presents results from the PNNL Lab Homes experiment.

  12. Forging of compressor blades: Temperature and ram velocity effects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saigal, A.; Zhen, K.; Chan, T.S.

    1995-07-01

    Forging is one of the most widely used manufacturing process for making high-strength, structurally integrated, impact and creep-resistant Ti-6Al-4V compressor blades for jet engines. In addition, in modern metal forming technology, finite element analysis method and computer modeling are being extensively employed for initial evaluation and optimization of various processes, including forging. In this study, DEFORM, a rigid viscoplastic two-dimensional finite element code was used to study the effects of initial die temperature and initial ram velocity on the forging process. For a given billet, die temperature and ram velocity influence the strain rate, temperature distribution,and thus the flow stress of the material. The die temperature and the ram velocity were varied over the range 300 to 700 F and 15--25 in./sec, respectively, to estimate the maximum forging load and the total energy required to forge compressor blades. The ram velocity was assumed to vary linearly as a function of stroke. Based on the analysis,it was found the increasing the die temperature from 300 to 700 F decreases the forging loads by 19.9 percent and increases the average temperature of the workpiece by 43 F. Similarly, increasing the initial ram velocity from 15 to 25 in./sec decreases the forging loads by 25.2 percent and increases the average temperature of the workpiece by 36 F. The nodal temperature distribution is bimodal in each case. The forging energy required to forge the blades is approximately 18 kips *in./in.

  13. Extracting Fish and Water Velocity from Doppler Profiler Data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    deYoung, Brad

    Extracting Fish and Water Velocity from Doppler Profiler Data Äŗ Š 1 ø Ö Ņ ×¹ Ņ ŻÖ¹Ź Ņ 2 1 processing algo- rithms normally used to extract water velocity. We present an alternative method for velocity homogeneity precludes the extraction of fish velocities. Water velocities can sometimes still

  14. Temporal Entropy Generation in the Viscous Layers of Laterally-converging Duct Flows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Donald M. McEligot; Robert S. Brodkey; Helmut Eckelmann

    2008-12-01

    Since insight into entropy generation is a key to increasing efficiency and thereby reducing fuel consumption and/or waste and -- for wall-bounded flows -- most entropy is generated in the viscous layer, we examine the transient behavior of its dominant contributor there for a non-canonical flow. New measurements in oil flow are presented for the effects of favorable streamwise mean pressure gradients on temporal entropy generation rates and, in the process, on key Reynolds-stress-producing events such as sweep front passage and on the deceleration/outflow phase of the overall bursting process. Two extremes have been considered: (1) a high pressure gradient, nearing "laminarization," and (2), for comparison, a low pressure gradient corresponding to many earlier experiments. In both cases, the peak temporal entropy generation rate occurs shortly after passage of the ejection/sweep interface. Whether sweep and ejection rates appear to decrease or increase with the pressure gradient depends on the feature examined and the manner of sampling. When compared using wall coordinates for velocities, distances and time, the trends and magnitudes of the transient behaviors are mostly the same. The main effects of the higher pressure gradient are (1) changes in the time lag between detections -- representing modification of the shape of the sweep front and the sweep angle with the wall, (2) modification of the magnitude of an instantaneous Reynolds shear stress with wall distance and (3) enlarging the sweeps and ejections. Results new for both low and high pressure gradients are the temporal behaviors of the dominant contribution to entropy generation; it is found to be much more sensitive to distance from the wall than to streamwise pressure gradient.

  15. Velocity dependence of friction of confined polymers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    I. M. Sivebaek; V. N. Samoilov; B. N. J. Persson

    2009-11-18

    We present molecular dynamics friction calculations for confined hydrocarbon solids with molecular lengths from 20 to 1400 carbon atoms. Two cases are considered: (a) polymer sliding against a hard substrate, and (b) polymer sliding on polymer. We discuss the velocity dependence of the frictional shear stress for both cases. In our simulations, the polymer films are very thin (approx. 3 nm), and the solid walls are connected to a thermostat at a short distance from the polymer slab. Under these circumstances we find that frictional heating effects are not important, and the effective temperature in the polymer film is always close to the thermostat temperature. In the first setup (a), for hydrocarbons with molecular lengths from 60 to 1400 carbon atoms, the shear stresses are nearly independent of molecular length, but for the shortest hydrocarbon C20H42 the frictional shear stress is lower. In all cases the frictional shear stress increases monotonically with the sliding velocity. For polymer sliding on polymer [case (b)] the friction is much larger, and the velocity dependence is more complex. For hydrocarbons with molecular lengths from 60 to 140 C-atoms, the number of monolayers of lubricant increases (abruptly) with increasing sliding velocity (from 6 to 7 layers), leading to a decrease of the friction. Before and after the layering transition, the frictional shear stresses are nearly proportional to the logarithm of sliding velocity. For the longest hydrocarbon (1400 C-atoms) the friction shows no dependence on the sliding velocity, and for the shortest hydrocarbon (20 C-atoms) the frictional shear stress increases nearly linearly with the sliding velocity.

  16. Research Results from A Few Alternate Methods of Interior Duct Systems in Factory Built Housing Located In the Hot Humid Climate 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moyer, N.; Stroer, D.; Hoak, D.; McIlvaine, J.; Chandra, S.

    2008-01-01

    were 15.3% and 20.2% (5.8% improvement for duct design). The MHLab had the largest savings compared to the benchmark of 30.5% and 33.4% (4.1% improvement with interior ducts). DUCT DESIGN The Title 24 HUD Code Sec. 3280.511 Comfort cooling... 30% to 50% savings in whole- house energy use through a combination of energy efficiency and renewable energy measures. BAIHP focuses on factory builders (HUD code, Modular and Panelized), which is the housing segment not emphasized by the other...

  17. Characterization of a Dipole Flow System Using Point Velocity Probes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bowen, Ian Reed

    2010-11-23

    A direct groundwater velocity measurement tool, the Point Velocity Probe, was developed to measure velocities in the vertical and horizontal directions. The tool was designed and tested in a low-cost laboratory flow-through tank. Following testing...

  18. Relation between plasma plume density and gas flow velocity in atmospheric pressure plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yambe, Kiyoyuki; Taka, Shogo; Ogura, Kazuo [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Niigata University, Niigata 950-2181 (Japan)] [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Niigata University, Niigata 950-2181 (Japan)

    2014-04-15

    We have studied atmospheric pressure plasma generated using a quartz tube, helium gas, and copper foil electrode by applying RF high voltage. The atmospheric pressure plasma in the form of a bullet is released as a plume into the atmosphere. To study the properties of the plasma plume, the plasma plume current is estimated from the difference in currents on the circuit, and the drift velocity is measured using a photodetector. The relation of the plasma plume density n{sub plu}, which is estimated from the current and the drift velocity, and the gas flow velocity v{sub gas} is examined. It is found that the dependence of the density on the gas flow velocity has relations of n{sub plu} ? log(v{sub gas}). However, the plasma plume density in the laminar flow is higher than that in the turbulent flow. Consequently, in the laminar flow, the density increases with increasing the gas flow velocity.

  19. Centerline velocity profile for plain round exhaust hoods 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martin, Kirksey E

    1977-01-01

    ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ Dal laVal le and Hatch S 1 11verman The Probl em. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 The Research Hypothesis. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 METHODOLOGY. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I 2 DATA ANALYSIS..., System 2, . . . 52 Appendix D ? Statistical Analysis Tables . . . . , . . . , . 63 ITA ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ o o ~ ~ i ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ V ~ ~ ~ Q I ~ ~ 0 Q ~ ~ ~ 66 LIST OF FIBURES Fi gure 1 Air Flow into Simple Hood Page 2 Compound Hood 3 Duct Air Moni tor...

  20. PROTOSTELLAR JETS ENCLOSED BY LOW-VELOCITY OUTFLOWS (Journal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    PROTOSTELLAR JETS ENCLOSED BY LOW-VELOCITY OUTFLOWS Citation Details In-Document Search Title: PROTOSTELLAR JETS ENCLOSED BY LOW-VELOCITY OUTFLOWS A protostellar jet and outflow...

  1. RESEARCH ARTICLE Minimization of divergence error in volumetric velocity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marusic, Ivan

    RESEARCH ARTICLE Minimization of divergence error in volumetric velocity measurements Volumetric velocity measurements taken in incompressible fluids are typically hindered by a nonzero

  2. Sound velocity bound and neutron stars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paulo F. Bedaque; Andrew W. Steiner

    2015-01-25

    It has been conjectured that the velocity of sound in any medium is smaller than the velocity of light in vacuum divided by $\\sqrt{3}$. Simple arguments support this bound in non-relativistic and/or weakly coupled theories. The bound has been demonstrated in several classes of strongly coupled theories with gravity duals and is saturated only in conformal theories. We point out that the existence of neutron stars with masses around two solar masses combined with the knowledge of the equation of state of hadronic matter at "low" densities is in strong tension with this bound.

  3. Migration velocity analysis for TI media in the presence of quadratic lateral velocity variation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsvankin, Ilya

    of lateral heteroge- neity on image gathers obtained after prestack depth migration and found that quadratic that application of prestack depth migration (PSDM) with anisotropic MVA yields sig- nificantly improved imagesMigration velocity analysis for TI media in the presence of quadratic lateral velocity variation

  4. Augmented Geophysical Data Interpretation Through Automated Velocity Picking in Semblance Velocity Images

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Whitley, Darrell

    Augmented Geophysical Data Interpretation Through Automated Velocity Picking in Semblance Velocity on the surface. Currently, geophysicists spend hours, days or weeks in front of monitors tracing curves on images of these cor- respond to the bright spots selected by the geophysicist. Next, a combinatorial optimization

  5. Development of a Laboratory Verified Single-Duct VAV System Model with Fan Powered Terminal Units Optimized Using Computational Fluid Dynamics 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Davis, Michael A.

    2011-10-21

    Single Duct Variable Air Volume (SDVAV) systems use series and parallel Fan Powered Terminal Units to control the air flow in conditioned spaces. This research developed a laboratory verified model of SDVAV systems that ...

  6. Building America Technology Solutions for New and Existing Homes: New Insights for Improving the Designs of Flexible Duct Junction Boxes (Fact Sheet)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    IBACOS explored the relationships between pressure and physical configurations of flexible duct junction boxes by using computational fluid dynamics simulations to predict individual box parameters and total system pressure, thereby ensuring improved HVAC performance.

  7. In situ remediation of plutonium from glovebox exhaust ducts at the Department of Energy`s Rocky Flats Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dugdale, J.S.; Humiston, T.J.; Omer, G.E.

    1993-10-01

    Plutonium and other miscellaneous hold-up materials have been accumulating in the glovebox exhaust ducts at the Rocky Flats Plant over the 40 years of weapons production at the site. The Duct Remediation Project was undertaken to assess the safety impacts of this material, and to remove it from the ductwork. The project necessitated the development of specialized tools, equipment and methods to remediate the material from continuously operating ventilation systems. Special engineered access locations were also required to provide access to the ductwork, and to ensure that safety and system operability were not degraded as a result of the remediation efforts. Operations personnel underwent significant training and development, and became an important asset to the success of the project. In total, the project succeeded in removing over 40 kilograms of plutonium-bearing material from one of the major weapons production buildings at the plant.

  8. Neutron Star Population Dynamics.II: 3D Space Velocities of Young Pulsars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. M. Cordes; David F. Chernoff

    1997-07-28

    We use astrometric, distance and spindown data on pulsars to: (1) estimate three-dimensional velocity components, birth distances from the galactic plane, and ages of individual objects; (2) determine the distribution of space velocities and the scale height of pulsar progenitors; (3) test spindown laws for pulsars; (4) test for correlations between space velocities and other pulsar parameters; and (5) place empirical requirements on mechanisms than can produce high velocity neutron stars. Our approach incorporates measurement errors, uncertainties in distances, deceleration in the Galactic potential, and differential galactic rotation. We find that the scale height of the progenitors is approximately 0.13 kpc, that the 3D velocities are distributed in two components with characteristic speeds of 175(+20,-30) km/s and 700(+200,-150) km/s representing 83% and 17% of the population respectively. These results are insensitive to the explicit relation of chronological and spindown ages. We infer that the most probable chronological ages are typically smaller than conventional spindown ages by factors as large as two. We assess mechanisms for producing high-velocity neutron stars in view of the derived velocity distribution function.

  9. Water Velocity Measurements on a Vertical Barrier Screen at the Bonneville Dam Second Powerhouse

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hughes, James S.; Deng, Zhiqun; Weiland, Mark A.; Martinez, Jayson J.; Yuan, Yong

    2011-11-22

    Fish screens at hydroelectric dams help to protect rearing and migrating fish by preventing them from passing through the turbines and directing them towards the bypass channels by providing a sweeping flow parallel to the screen. However, fish screens may actually be harmful to fish if they become impinged on the surface of the screen or become disoriented due to poor flow conditions near the screen. Recent modifications to the vertical barrier screens (VBS) at the Bonneville Dam second powerhouse (B2) intended to increase the guidance of juvenile salmonids into the juvenile bypass system (JBS) have resulted in high mortality and descaling rates of hatchery subyearling Chinook salmon during the 2008 juvenile salmonid passage season. To investigate the potential cause of the high mortality and descaling rates, an in situ water velocity measurement study was conducted using acoustic Doppler velocimeters (ADV) in the gatewell slot at Units 12A and 14A of B2. From the measurements collected the average approach velocity, sweep velocity, and the root mean square (RMS) value of the velocity fluctuations were calculated. The approach velocities measured across the face of the VBS varied but were mostly less than 0.3 m/s. The sweep velocities also showed large variances across the face of the VBS with most measurements being less than 1.5 m/s. This study revealed that the approach velocities exceeded criteria recommended by NOAA Fisheries and Washington State Department of Fish and Wildlife intended to improve fish passage conditions.

  10. VELOCITY AND MAGNETIC FIELD DISTRIBUTION IN A FORMING PENUMBRA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Romano, P.; Guglielmino, S. L. [INAF-Osservatorio Astrofisico di Catania, Via S. Sofia 78, I-95125 Catania (Italy); Frasca, D.; Zuccarello, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia-Sezione Astrofisica, Universita di Catania, Via S. Sofia 78, I-95125 Catania (Italy); Ermolli, I. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma, Via Frascati 33, I-00040 Monte Porzio Catone (Italy); Tritschler, A.; Reardon, K. P., E-mail: prom@oact.inaf.it [National Solar Observatory/Sacramento Peak, P.O. Box 62, Sunspot, NM 88349-0062 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    We present results from the analysis of high-resolution spectropolarimetric and spectroscopic observations of the solar photosphere and chromosphere, obtained shortly before the formation of a penumbra in one of the leading polarity sunspots of NOAA active region 11490. The observations were performed at the Dunn Solar Telescope of the National Solar Observatory on 2012 May 28, using the Interferometric Bidimensional Spectrometer. The data set is comprised of a 1 hr time sequence of measurements in the Fe I 617.3 nm and Fe I 630.25 nm lines (full Stokes polarimetry) and in the Ca II 854.2 nm line (Stokes I only). We perform an inversion of the Fe I 630.25 nm Stokes profiles to derive magnetic field parameters and the line-of-sight (LOS) velocity at the photospheric level. We characterize chromospheric LOS velocities by the Doppler shift of the centroid of the Ca II 854.2 nm line. We find that, before the formation of the penumbra, an annular zone of 3''-5'' width is visible around the sunspot. In the photosphere, we find that this zone is characterized by an uncombed structure of the magnetic field although no visible penumbra has formed yet. We also find that the chromospheric LOS velocity field shows several elongated structures characterized by downflow and upflow motions in the inner and outer parts of the annular zone, respectively.

  11. PERFORMANCE EFFECTS OF AIR VELOCITY PROFILES IN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    PERFORMANCE EFFECTS OF AIR VELOCITY PROFILES IN A RESIDENTIAL HEAT PUMP By NATHAN ANDREW WEBER PROFILES IN A RESIDENTIAL HEAT PUMP Thesis Approved: _______________________________________ Thesis Advisor the air speed transducer mount and the Plexiglas model of the heat pump. Ipseng Iu and myself worked side

  12. Remote Duct Sealing in Residential and Commercial Buildings: Ā¨Saving Money, Saving Energy and Improving PerformanceĀˇ

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:Financing Tool FitsProject Developsfor UCNIEnvironmentalAHRIRemote Duct Sealing in Residential and

  13. Particle deposition from turbulent flow: Review of published research and its applicability to ventilation ducts in commercial buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sippola, Mark R.; Nazaroff, William W.

    2002-06-01

    This report reviews published experimental and theoretical investigations of particle deposition from turbulent flows and considers the applicability of this body of work to the specific case of particle deposition from flows in the ducts of heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) systems. Particle deposition can detrimentally affect the performance of HVAC systems and it influences the exposure of building occupants to a variety of air pollutants. The first section of this report describes the types of HVAC systems under consideration and discusses the components, materials and operating parameters commonly found in these systems. The second section reviews published experimental investigations of particle deposition rates from turbulent flows and considers the ramifications of the experimental evidence with respect to HVAC ducts. The third section considers the structure of turbulent airflows in ventilation ducts with a particular emphasis on turbulence investigations that have been used as a basis for particle deposition models. The final section reviews published literature on predicting particle deposition rates from turbulent flows.

  14. Formation mechanism of hairpin vortices in the wake of a truncated square cylinder in a duct

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dousset, Vincent

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the laminar shedding of hairpin vortices in the wake of a truncated square cylinder placed in a duct, for Reynolds numbers around the critical threshold of the onset of vortex shedding. We single out the formation mechanism of the hairpin vortices by means of a detailed analysis of the flow patterns in the steady regime. We show that unlike in previous studies of similar structures, the dynamics of the hairpin vortices is entwined with that of the counter-rotating pair of streamwise vortices, which we found to be generated in the bottom part of the near wake (these are usually referred to as base vortices). In particular, once the hairpin structure is released, the base vortices attach to it, forming its legs, so these are streamwise, and not spanwise as previously observed in unconfined wakes or behind cylinders of lower aspect ratios. We also single out a trail of Omega-shaped vortices, generated between successive hairpin vortices through a mechanism that is analogous to that active in near-...

  15. Local computation of angular velocity in rotational visual motion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grzywacz, Norberto

    Local computation of angular velocity in rotational visual motion Jose´ F. Barraza and Norberto M discrimination of angular velocity is local. Local discrimination of angular velocity requires an accurate of rotation result in a predictable systematic error when one is estimating local angular velocity. Our

  16. TYPE Ia SUPERNOVA COLORS AND EJECTA VELOCITIES: HIERARCHICAL BAYESIAN REGRESSION WITH NON-GAUSSIAN DISTRIBUTIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mandel, Kaisey S.; Kirshner, Robert P. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Foley, Ryan J., E-mail: kmandel@cfa.harvard.edu [Astronomy Department, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1002 West Green Street, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States)

    2014-12-20

    We investigate the statistical dependence of the peak intrinsic colors of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) on their expansion velocities at maximum light, measured from the Si II ?6355 spectral feature. We construct a new hierarchical Bayesian regression model, accounting for the random effects of intrinsic scatter, measurement error, and reddening by host galaxy dust, and implement a Gibbs sampler and deviance information criteria to estimate the correlation. The method is applied to the apparent colors from BVRI light curves and Si II velocity data for 79 nearby SNe Ia. The apparent color distributions of high-velocity (HV) and normal velocity (NV) supernovae exhibit significant discrepancies for B – V and B – R, but not other colors. Hence, they are likely due to intrinsic color differences originating in the B band, rather than dust reddening. The mean intrinsic B – V and B – R color differences between HV and NV groups are 0.06 ± 0.02 and 0.09 ± 0.02 mag, respectively. A linear model finds significant slopes of –0.021 ± 0.006 and –0.030 ± 0.009 mag (10{sup 3} km s{sup –1}){sup –1} for intrinsic B – V and B – R colors versus velocity, respectively. Because the ejecta velocity distribution is skewed toward high velocities, these effects imply non-Gaussian intrinsic color distributions with skewness up to +0.3. Accounting for the intrinsic-color-velocity correlation results in corrections to A{sub V} extinction estimates as large as –0.12 mag for HV SNe Ia and +0.06 mag for NV events. Velocity measurements from SN Ia spectra have the potential to diminish systematic errors from the confounding of intrinsic colors and dust reddening affecting supernova distances.

  17. Linear Regression of Eye Velocity on Eye Position and Head Velocity Suggests a Common Oculomotor Neural Integrator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tank, David

    . The linear regression method presented here is valid for both fixation and low head velocity VOR dataLinear Regression of Eye Velocity on Eye Position and Head Velocity Suggests a Common Oculomotor Aksay, David W. Tank, and H. S. Seung. Linear regression of eye velocity on eye position and head

  18. Coiled tubing velocity strings keep wells unloaded

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wesson, H.R.; Shursen, J.L.

    1989-07-01

    Liquid loading is a problem in many older and even some newer gas wells, particularly in pressure depletion type reservoirs. This liquid loading results in decreased production and may even kill the well. The use of coiled tubing as a velocity string (or siphon string) has proved to be an economically viable alternative to allow continued and thus, increased cumulative production for wells experiencing liquid loading problems. Coiled tubing run inside the existing production string reduces the flow area, whether the well is produced up the tubing or up the annulus. This reduction in flow area results in an increase in flow velocity and thus, an increase in the well's ability to unload fluids.

  19. Relativistic equilibrium velocity distribution, nuclear fusion reaction rate and the solar neutrino problem

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jian-Miin Liu

    2003-07-07

    In solar interior, it is the equilibrium velocity distribution of few high-energy protons and nuclei that participates in determining nuclear fusion reaction rates. So, it is inappropriate to use the Maxwellian velocity distribution to calculate the rates of solar nuclear fusion reactions. We have to use the relativistic equilibrium velocity distribution for the purpose. The nuclear fusion reaction rate based on the relativistic equilibrium velocity distribution has a reduction factor with respect to that based on the Maxwellian distribution. The reduction factor depends on the temperature, reduced mass and atomic numbers of the studied nuclear fusion reactions, in other words, it varies with the sort of neutrinos. Substituting the relativistic equilibrium velocity distribution for the Maxwellian distribution is not important for the calculation of solar sound speeds. The relativistic equilibrium velocity distribution, if adopted in standard solar models, will lower solar neutrino fluxes and change solar neutrino energy spectra but maintain solar sound speeds. This velocity distribution is possibly a solution to the solar neutrino problem.

  20. Velocity structure of the uppermost mantle beneath East Asia from Pn tomography and its dynamic implications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Niu, Fenglin

    regions on Earth's surface due to the collision from the India plate and the suctions induced seismicity of the area, we conducted a Pn traveltime tomography to estimate the compressive wave speed. In each region, stable blocks tend to have high Pn velocity while the boundary regions, which show a high

  1. The nuclear fusion reaction rate based on relativistic equilibrium velocity distribution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jian-Miin Liu

    2002-10-20

    The Coulomb barrier is in general much higher than thermal energy. Nuclear fusion reactions occur only among few protons and nuclei with higher relative energies than Coulomb barrier. It is the equilibrium velocity distribution of these high-energy protons and nuclei that participates in determining the rate of nuclear fusion reactions. In the circumstance it is inappropriate to use the Maxwellian velocity distribution for calculating the nuclear fusion reaction rate. We use the relativistic equilibrium velocity distribution for this purpose. The rate based on the relativistic equilibrium velocity distribution has a reduction factor with respect to that based on the Maxwellian distribution, which factor depends on the temperature, reduced mass and atomic numbers of the studied nuclear fusion reactions. This signifies much to the solar neutrino problem.

  2. Equation of State Measurements of Materials Using a Three-Stage Gun to Impact Velocities of 11km/s

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    REINHART,WILLIAM D.; CHHABILDAS,LALIT C.; CARROLL,DANIEL E.; THORNHILL,T.G.; WINFREE,N.A.

    2000-09-26

    Understanding high pressure behavior of homogeneous as well as heterogeneous materials is necessary in order to address the physical processes associated with hypervelocity impact events related to space science applications including orbital debris impact and impact lethality. At very high impact velocities, material properties will be subjugated to phase-changes, such as melting and vaporization. These phase states cannot be obtained through conventional gun technology. These processes need to be represented accurately in hydrodynamic codes to allow credible computational analysis of impact events resulting from hypervelocity impact. In this paper, techniques that are being developed and implemented to obtain the needed shock loading parameters (Hugoniot states) for material characterization studies, namely shock velocity and particle velocity, will be described at impact velocities up to 11 km/s. What is new in this report is that these techniques are being implemented for use at engagement velocities never before attained utilizing two-stage light-gas gun technology.

  3. Low velocity limits of cold atom clocks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. Muńoz; I. Lizuain; J. G. Muga

    2009-09-08

    Fundamental low-energy limits to the accuracy of quantum clock and stopwatch models in which the clock hand motion is activated by the presence of a particle in a region of space have been studied in the past, but their relevance for actual atomic clocks had not been assessed. In this work we address the effect of slow atomic quantum motion on Rabi and Ramsey resonance fringe patterns, as a perturbation of the results based on classical atomic motion. We find the dependence of the fractional error of the corresponding atomic clocks on the atomic velocity and interaction parameters.

  4. Percutaneous Transhepatic Biliary Drainage in the Management of Postsurgical Biliary Leaks in Patients with Nondilated Intrahepatic Bile Ducts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cozzi, Guido, E-mail: guido.cozzi@istitutotumori.mi.it; Severini, Aldo; Civelli, Enrico; Milella, Marco [National Cancer Institute (Istituto Nazionale Tumori), Department of Radiology, Radiologia 3 Unit (Italy); Pulvirenti, Andrea [National Cancer Institute (Istituto Nazionale Tumori), Department of Surgery, Gastrointestinal Surgery and Liver Transplantation Unit (Italy); Salvetti, Monica [National Cancer Institute (Istituto Nazionale Tumori), Department of Radiology, Radiologia 3 Unit (Italy); Romito, Raffaele [National Cancer Institute (Istituto Nazionale Tumori), Department of Surgery, Gastrointestinal Surgery and Liver Transplantation Unit (Italy); Suman, Laura; Chiaraviglio, Francesca [National Cancer Institute (Istituto Nazionale Tumori), Department of Radiology, Radiologia 3 Unit (Italy); Mazzaferro, Vincenzo [National Cancer Institute (Istituto Nazionale Tumori), Department of Surgery, Gastrointestinal Surgery and Liver Transplantation Unit (Italy)

    2006-06-15

    Purpose. To assess the feasibility of percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD) for the treatment of postsurgical biliary leaks in patients with nondilated intrahepatic bile ducts, its efficacy in restoring the integrity of bile ducts, and technical procedures to reduce morbidity. Methods. Seventeen patients out of 936 undergoing PTBD over a 20-year period had a noncholestatic liver and were retrospectively reviewed. All patients underwent surgery for cancer and suffered a postsurgical biliary leak of 345 ml/day on average; 71% were in poor condition and required permanent nutritional support. An endoscopic approach failed or was excluded due to inaccessibility of the bile ducts. Results. Established biliary leaks and site of origin were diagnosed an average of 21 days (range 1-90 days) after surgery. In all cases percutaneous access to the biliary tree was achieved. An external (preleakage) drain was applied in 7 cases, 9 patients had an external-internal fistula bridging catheter, and 1 patient had a percutaneous hepatogastrostomy. Fistulas healed in an average of 31 days (range 3-118 days ) in 15 of 17 patients (88%) following PTBD. No major complications occurred after drainage. Post-PTBD cholangitis was observed in 6 of 17 patients (35%) and was related to biliary sludge formation occurring mostly when drainage lasted >30 days and was of the external-internal type. Median patient survival was 17.7 months and in all cases the repaired biliary leaks remained healed. Conclusions. PTBD is a feasible, effective, and safe procedure for the treatment of postsurgical biliary leaks. It is therefore a reliable alternative to surgical repair, which entails longer hospitalization and higher costs.

  5. Velocity-selected molecular pulses produced by an electric guide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sommer, C.; Motsch, M.; Chervenkov, S.; Buuren, L. D. van; Zeppenfeld, M.; Pinkse, P. W. H.; Rempe, G. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Quantenoptik, Hans-Kopfermann-Str. 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany)

    2010-07-15

    Electrostatic velocity filtering is a technique for the production of continuous guided beams of slow polar molecules from a thermal gas. We extended this technique to produce pulses of slow molecules with a narrow velocity distribution around a tunable velocity. The pulses are generated by sequentially switching the voltages on adjacent segments of an electric quadrupole guide synchronously with the molecules propagating at the desired velocity. This technique is demonstrated for deuterated ammonia (ND{sub 3}), delivering pulses with a velocity in the range of 20-100 m/s and a relative velocity spread of (16{+-}2)% at full width at half maximum. At velocities around 60 m/s, the pulses contain up to 10{sup 6} molecules each. The data are well reproduced by Monte Carlo simulations, which provide useful insight into the mechanisms of velocity selection.

  6. Velocity and attenuation in partially molten rocks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mavko, G.M.

    1980-10-10

    Interpretation of seismic velocity and attenuation in partially molten rocks has been limited, with few exceptions, to models that assume the melt to be distributed either as spheres or as thin films. However, other melt phase geometries, such as interconnected tubes along grain edges, might equally well account for seismic observations if there is a much larger fraction of melt. Seismic velocity and attenuation are estimated in rocks in which the melt phase has the tube geometry, and the results are compared with results expected for the more familiar film model under similar conditions. For a given melt fraction, tubes are found to give moduli intermediate between moduli for rigid spherical inclusions and compliant films. For example, in polycrystalline olivine at 20 kbar the model predicts a decrease in V/sub s/ of 10% and a decrease in V/sub p/ of 5% at 0.05 melt fraction, without considering inelastic relaxation. Shear attenuation appears to be dominated by viscous flow of melt between the tubes and/or films. For olivine the tube model predicts the increment of relaxation due to melt, ..delta mu../..mu.., to be 0.01 at 0.05 melt fraction. Relaxation of the bulk modulus is dominated by flow between melt pockets of different shape, heat flow, and solid-melt phase change. If melt is present, considerable bulk attenuation is expected, although the relaxation may be observable only at long periods, outside the seismic body wave band.

  7. Modeling coiled tubing velocity strings for gas wells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martinez, J.; Martinez, A.

    1995-12-31

    Multiphase flowing pressure and velocity prediction models are necessary to coiled tubing velocity string design. A model used by most of the coiled tubing service companies or manufacturers is reviewed. Guidance is provided for selecting a coiled tubing of the proper size. The steps include: (1) Measured data matching; (2) Fluid property adjustment; (3) Pressure, velocity, and holdup selection; (4) Correlation choice; (5) Coiled tubing selection. A velocity range for the lift of liquid is given.

  8. Low velocity blunt impacts on composite aircraft structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Whisler, Daniel A.

    2009-01-01

    as predict the velocity and energy right before the impacthit right at failure confirms the failure energy. To be

  9. Scaleup tests and supporting research for the development of duct injection technology. Topical report No. 2, Task 3.1: Evaluation of system performance, Duct Injection Test Facility, Muskingum River Power Plant, Beverly, Ohio

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Felix, L.G.; Dismukes, E.B.; Gooch, J.P. [Southern Research Inst., Birmingham, AL (United States); Klett, M.G.; Demian, A.G. [Gilbert/Commonwealth, Inc., Reading, PA (United States)

    1992-04-20

    This Topical Report No. 2 is an interim report on the Duct Injection Test Facility being operated for the Department of Energy at Beverly, Ohio. Either dry calcium hydroxide or an aqueous slurry of calcium hydroxide (prepared by slaking quicklime) is injected into a slipstream of flue gas to achieve partial removal of SO{sub 2} from a coal-burning power station. Water injected with the slurry or injected separately from the dry sorbents cools the flue gas and increases the water vapor content of the gas. The addition of water, either in the slurry or in a separate spray, makes the extent of reaction between the sorbent and the SO{sub 2} more complete; the presumption is that water is effective in the liquid state, when it is able to wet the sorbent particles physically, and not especially effective in the vapor state. An electrostatic precipitator collects the combination of suspended solids (fly ash from the boiler and sorbent from the duct injection process). All of the operations are being carried out on the scale of approximately 50,000 acfm of flue gas.

  10. Seismic Velocity Estimation from Time Migration Maria Kourkina Cameron

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cameron, Maria Kourkina

    Seismic Velocity Estimation from Time Migration by Maria Kourkina Cameron Diplom (Moscow Institute Dung-Hai Lee Spring 2007 #12;Seismic Velocity Estimation from Time Migration Copyright c 2007 by Maria Kourkina Cameron #12;Abstract Seismic Velocity Estimation from Time Migration by Maria Kourkina Cameron

  11. Impact of the dark matter velocity distribution on capture rates in the Sun

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choi, K.; Itow, Y.; Rott, C. E-mail: rott@skku.edu

    2014-05-01

    Dark matter could be captured in the Sun and self-annihilate, giving rise to an observable neutrino flux. Indirect searches for dark matter looking for this signal with neutrino telescopes have resulted in tight constraints on the interaction cross-section of dark matter with ordinary matter. We investigate how robust limits are against astro-physical uncertainties. We study the effect of the velocity distribution of dark matter in our Galaxy on capture rates in the Sun. We investigate four sources of uncertainties: orbital speed of the Sun, escape velocity of dark matter from the halo, dark matter velocity distribution functions and existence of a dark disc. We find that even extreme cases currently discussed do not decrease the sensitivity of indirect detection significantly because the capture is achieved over a broad range of the velocity distribution by integration over the velocity distribution. The effect of the uncertainty in the high-velocity tail of dark matter halo is very marginal as the capture process is rather inefficient at this region. The difference in capture rate in the Sun for various scenarios is compared to the expected change in event rates for direct detection. The possibility of co-rotating structure with the Sun can largely boost the signal and hence makes the interpretation of indirect detection conservative compared to direct detection.

  12. Observations of Velocity Conditions near a Hydroelectric Turbine Draft Tube Exit using ADCP Measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cook, Christopher B.; Richmond, Marshall C.; Serkowski, John A.

    2007-10-01

    Measurement of flow characteristics near hydraulic structures is an ongoing challenge because of the need to obtain rapid measurements of time-varying velocity over a relatively large spatial domain. This paper discusses use of an acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) to measure the rapidly diverging flow exiting from an operating hydroelectric turbine draft tube exit. The resolved three-dimensional velocity vectors show a highly complex and helical flow pattern developed near to and downstream of the exit. Velocity vectors were integrated across the exit and we computed an uneven percentage of flow (67%/33%) passing through the two draft tube barrels at a mid-range turbine discharge, consistent with physical model results. In addition to the three-dimensional velocity vectors, the individual one-dimensional velocities measured by each of the four ADCP beams can be separately used as calibration and validation datasets for numerical and physical models. This technique is demonstrated by comparing along-beam ADCP velocity measurements to data collected in a scaled physical model.

  13. Gyrokinetic simulation of momentum transport with residual stress from diamagnetic level velocity shears

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Waltz, R. E.; Staebler, G. M.; Solomon, W. M.

    2011-04-15

    Residual stress refers to the remaining toroidal angular momentum (TAM) flux (divided by major radius) when the shear in the equilibrium fluid toroidal velocity (and the velocity itself) vanishes. Previously [Waltz et al., Phys. Plasmas 14, 122507 (2007); errata 16, 079902 (2009)], we demonstrated with GYRO [Candy and Waltz, J. Comp. Phys. 186, 545 (2003)] gyrokinetic simulations that TAM pinching from (ion pressure gradient supported or diamagnetic level) equilibrium ExB velocity shear could provide some of the residual stress needed to support spontaneous toroidal rotation against normal diffusive loss. Here we show that diamagnetic level shear in the intrinsic drift wave velocities (or ''profile shear'' in the ion and electron density and temperature gradients) provides a comparable residual stress. The individual signed contributions of these small (rho-star level) ExB and profile velocity shear rates to the turbulence level and (rho-star squared) ion energy transport stabilization are additive if the rates are of the same sign. However because of the additive stabilization effect, the contributions to the small (rho-star cubed) residual stress is not always simply additive. If the rates differ in sign, the residual stress from one can buck out that from the other (and in some cases reduce the stabilization.) The residual stress from these diamagnetic velocity shear rates is quantified by the ratio of TAM flow to ion energy (power) flow (M/P) in a global GYRO core simulation of a ''null'' toroidal rotation DIII-D [Mahdavi and Luxon, Fusion Sci. Technol. 48, 2 (2005)] discharge by matching M/P profiles within experimental uncertainty. Comparison of global GYRO (ion and electron energy as well as particle) transport flow balance simulations of TAM transport flow in a high-rotation DIII-D L-mode quantifies and isolates the ExB shear and parallel velocity (Coriolis force) pinching components from the larger ''diffusive'' parallel velocity shear driven component and the much smaller profile shear residual stress component.

  14. Sensitivity studies of heat transfer: forced convection across a cylindrical pipe and duct flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ferrantelli, Andrea; Viljanen, Martti

    2013-01-01

    We consider two common heat transfer processes and perform a through sensitivity study of the variables involved. We derive and discuss analytical formulas for the heat transfer coefficient in function of film velocity, air temperature and pipe diameter. The according plots relate to a qualitative analysis of the multi-variable function $h$, according to functional optimization. For each process, we provide with graphs and tables of the parameters of interest, such as the Reynolds number. This method of study and the specific values can constitute a useful reference for didactic purposes.

  15. Building America Webinar: High Performance Space Conditioning Systems, Part II- Design Options for Locating Ducts within Conditioned Space

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This presentation was delivered at the U.S. Department of Energy Building America webinar on November 18, 2014.

  16. Laminar burning velocities and flame instabilities of butanol isomers-air mixtures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gu, Xiaolei; Huang, Zuohua; Wu, Si; Li, Qianqian [State Key Laboratory of Multiphase Flow in Power Engineering, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710049 (China)

    2010-12-15

    Laminar burning velocities and flame instabilities of the butanol-air premixed flames and its isomers are investigated using the spherically expanding flame with central ignition at initial temperature of 428 K and initial pressures of 0.10 MPa, 0.25 MPa, 0.50 MPa and 0.75 MPa. Laminar burning velocities and sensitivity factor of n-butanol-air mixtures are computed using a newly developed kinetic mechanism. Unstretched laminar burning velocity, adiabatic temperature, Lewis number, Markstein length, critical flame radius and Peclet number are obtained over a wide range of equivalence ratios. Effect of molecular structure on laminar burning velocity of the isomers of butanol is analyzed from the aspect of C-H bond dissociation energy. Study indicates that although adiabatic flame temperatures of the isomers of butanol are the same, laminar burning velocities give an obvious difference among the isomers of butanol. This indicates that molecular structure has a large influence on laminar burning velocities of the isomers of butanol. Branching (-CH3) will decrease laminar burning velocity. Hydroxyl functional group (-OH) attaching to the terminal carbon atoms gives higher laminar burning velocity compared to that attaching to the inner carbon atoms. Calculated dissociation bond energies show that terminal C-H bonds have larger bond energies than that of inner C-H bonds. n-Butanol, no branching and with hydroxyl functional group (-OH) attaching to the terminal carbon atom, gives the largest laminar burning velocity. tert-Butanol, with highly branching and hydroxyl functional group (-OH) attaching to the inner carbon atom, gives the lowest laminar burning velocity. Laminar burning velocities of iso-butanol and sec-butanol are between those of n-butanol and tert-butanol. The instant of transition to cellularity is experimentally determined for the isomers of butanol and subsequently interpreted on the basis of hydrodynamic and diffusion-thermal instabilities. Little effect on flame instability is observed for the isomers of butanol. Critical flame radii are the same for the isomers of butanol. Peclet number decreases with the increase in equivalence ratio. (author)

  17. HOW TO HEAT AND COOL A HOME WITH 400 CFM SUPPLY AIR AND KEEP THE DUCTS IN THE CONDITIONED SPACE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    ANDREWS,J.W.

    1999-05-01

    A design strategy is presented that can enable a typical new home to be heated, cooled, and ventilated with less than 400 cfm of delivered air. The strategy has three major elements. First, peak cooling loads are minimized by using good available technologies for the envelope, with emphasis on minimizing heat gains through the windows. Second, the envelope is designed to have very low natural air leakage rates, such that all the ventilation air can be drawn in at one point and passed over the cooling coil before it is mixed with the house air. This permits a significant portion of the cooling load to be met at an air flow rate of {approximately}200 cubic feet per minute (cfm) per ton, compared with the typical 400 cfm per ton in standard air-conditioning systems. Third, by reducing the amount of supply air needed to meet the envelope loads, the required size of ductwork is reduced, making it easier to locate the ducts within the conditioned space. This reduces duct loads to zero, completing the three-part energy conserving strategy.

  18. The Earth's velocity for direct detection experiments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Christopher McCabe

    2014-02-26

    The Earth's velocity relative to the Sun in galactic coordinates is required in the rate calculation for direct detection experiments. We provide a rigorous derivation of this quantity to first order in the eccentricity of the Earth's orbit. We also discuss the effect of the precession of the equinoxes, which has hitherto received little explicit discussion. Comparing with other expressions in the literature, we confirm that the expression of Lee, Lisanti and Safdi is correct, while the expression of Lewin and Smith, the de facto standard expression, contains an error. For calculations of the absolute event rate, the leading order expression is sufficient while for modulation searches, an expression with the eccentricity is required for accurate predictions of the modulation phase.

  19. Filament velocity scaling laws for warm ions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Manz, P.; Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Assoziation, Boltzmannstr. 2, 85748 Garching ; Carralero, D.; Birkenmeier, G.; Müller, H. W.; Scott, B. D.; Müller, S. H.; Fuchert, G.; Stroth, U.; Physik-Department E28, Technische Universität München, James-Franck-Str. 1, 85748 Garching

    2013-10-15

    The dynamics of filaments or blobs in the scrape-off layer of magnetic fusion devices are studied by magnitude estimates of a comprehensive drift-interchange-Alfvén fluid model. The standard blob models are reproduced in the cold ion case. Even though usually neglected, in the scrape-off layer, the ion temperature can exceed the electron temperature by an order of magnitude. The ion pressure affects the dynamics of filaments amongst others by adding up to the interchange drive and the polarisation current. It is shown how both effects modify the scaling laws for filament velocity in dependence of its size. Simplifications for experimentally relevant limit regimes are given. These are the sheath dissipation, collisional, and electromagnetic regime.

  20. Photospheric Logarithmic Velocity Spirals as MHD Wave Generation Mechanisms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mumford, S J

    2015-01-01

    High-resolution observations of the solar photosphere have identified a wide variety of spiralling motions in the plasma. These spirals vary in properties, but are observed to be abundant on the solar surface. In this work these spirals are studied for their potential as magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) wave generation mechanisms. The inter-granular lanes, where these spirals are commonly observed, are also regions where the magnetic field strength is higher than average. This combination of magnetic field and spiralling plasma is a recipe for the generation of Alfv\\'en waves and other MHD waves. This work employs numerical simulations of a self-similar magnetic flux tube embedded in a realistic, gravitationally stratified, solar atmosphere to study the effects of a single magnetic flux tube perturbed by a logarithmic velocity spiral driver. The expansion factor of the logarithmic spiral driver is varied, multiple simulations are run for a range of values of the expansion factor centred around observational data. Th...

  1. Compact Analog VLSI 2-D Velocity Sensor Rainer A. Deutschmann and Christof Koch

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deutschmann, Rainer

    ideally to mobile applications. Keywords| Motion estimation, velocity sensor, focal plane sensor, smart W per pixel even high-resolution sensors can be powered o a small battery and lend themselves.Deutschmann@wsi.tu-muenchen.de C. Koch is with the Division of Biology, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 USA

  2. Tracking deep mantle reservoirs with ultra-low velocity zones Allen K. McNamara a,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rhoads, James

    . Garnero a , Sebastian Rost b a Arizona State University, School of Earth and Space Exploration, PO Box exhibit anomalous seismic properties within a thin zone, less than tens of kilometers in thickness (ULVZs) due to their greater than 10% drop in seismic velocities. High resolution seismic array studies

  3. Noninvasive electromechanical wave imaging and conduction-relevant velocity estimation in vivo

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Konofagou, Elisa E.

    Noninvasive electromechanical wave imaging and conduction-relevant velocity estimation in vivo-correlation Displacement Electromechanical Left ventricle Myocardial Pacing a b s t r a c t Electromechanical wave imaging-type mice (n = 12) at high frame rates in order to take advantage of the transient electromechanical

  4. Author's personal copy Effects of crossflow velocity and transmembrane pressure on microfiltration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Priezjev, Nikolai V.

    Author's personal copy Effects of crossflow velocity and transmembrane pressure on microfiltration, at the same time, high rejection rate of the oil phase. The effects of transmembrane pressure and crossflow-section are investigated numerically by solving the Navier­Stokes equation. We found that in the absence of crossflow

  5. Initial Examination of Low Velocity Sphere Impact of Glass Ceramics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morrissey, Timothy G; Fox, Ethan E; Wereszczak, Andrew A; Ferber, Mattison K

    2012-06-01

    This report summarizes US Army TARDEC sponsored work at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) involving low velocity (< 30 m/s or < 65 mph) sphere impact testing of two materials from the lithium aluminosilicate family reinforced with different amounts of ceramic particulate, i.e., glass-ceramic materials, SCHOTT Resistan{trademark}-G1 and SCHOTT Resistan{trademark}-L. Both materials are provided by SCHOTT Glass (Duryea, PA). This work is a follow-up to similar sphere impact studies completed by the authors on PPG's Starphire{reg_sign} soda-lime silicate glass and SCHOTT BOROFLOAT{reg_sign} borosilicate glass. A gas gun or a sphere-drop test setup was used to produce controlled velocity delivery of silicon nitride (Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}) spheres against the glass ceramic tile targets. Minimum impact velocities to initiate fracture in the glass-ceramics were measured and interpreted in context to the kinetic energy of impact and the elastic property mismatch between sphere and target material. Quasistatic spherical indentation was also performed on both glass ceramics and their contact damage responses were compared to those of soda-lime silicate and borosilicate glasses. Lastly, variability of contact damage response was assessed by performing spherical indentation testing across the area of an entire glass ceramic tile. The primary observations from this low velocity (< 30 m/s or < 65 mph) testing were: (1) Resistan{trademark}-L glass ceramic required the highest velocity of sphere impact for damage to initiate. Starphire{reg_sign} soda-lime silicate glass was second best, then Resistan{trademark}-G1 glass ceramic, and then BOROFLOAT{reg_sign} borosilicate glass. (2) Glass-ceramic Resistan{trademark}-L also required the largest force to initiate ring crack from quasi-static indentation. That ranking was followed, in descending order, by Starphire{reg_sign} soda-lime silicate glass, Resistan{trademark}-G1 glass ceramic, and BOROFLOAT{reg_sign} borosilicate glass. (3) Spheres with a lower elastic modulus require less force to initiate fracture in Resistan{trademark}-G1 from quasi-static spherical indentation. This indicates that friction is affecting ring crack initiation in Resistan{trademark}-G1. Friction also affected ring crack initiation in Starphire{reg_sign} soda-lime silicate and BOROFLOAT{reg_sign} borosilicate glasses. Among these three materials, friction was the most pronounced (largest slope in the RCIF-elastic modulus graph) in the Starphire{reg_sign} and least pronounced in the BOROFLOAT{reg_sign}. The reason for this is not understood, but differences in deformation behavior under high contact stresses could be a cause or contributor to this. (4) The force necessary to initiate contact-induced fracture is higher under dynamic conditions than it is under quasi-static conditions in Resistan{trademark}-L and Resistan{trademark}-G1 glass ceramics. This is a trend observed too in Starphire{reg_sign} and BOROFLOAT{reg_sign}. (5) There is a subtle indication there was intra-tile differences in spherical indentation-induced ring crack initiation forces. This is not a material property nor is it exclusive to glass-ceramic Resistan{trademark}-G1 glass ceramic, rather, it is a statistical mechanical response to an accumulated history of processing and handling of that specific tile.

  6. Branching actin network remodeling governs the force-velocity relationship

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daniel B. Smith; Jian Liu

    2011-11-28

    Actin networks, acting as an engine pushing against an external load, are fundamentally important to cell motility. A measure of the effectiveness of an engine is the velocity the engine is able to produce at a given force, the force-velocity curve. One type of force-velocity curve, consisting of a concave region where velocity is insensitive to increasing force followed by a decrease in velocity, is indicative of an adaptive response. In contrast, an engine whose velocity rapidly decays as a convex curve in response to increasing force would indicate a lack of adaptive response. Even taken outside of a cellular context, branching actin networks have been observed to exhibit both concave and convex force-velocity curves. The exact mechanism that can explain both force-velocity curves is not yet known. We carried out an agent-based stochastic simulation to explore such a mechanism. Our results suggest that upon loading, branching actin networks are capable of remodeling by increasing the number filaments growing against the load. Our model provides a mechanism that can account for both convex and concave force-velocity relationships observed in branching actin networks. Finally, our model gives a potential explanation to the experimentally observed force history dependence for actin network velocity.

  7. Natural discharge after pulse and cooperative electrodes to enhance droplet velocity in digital microfluidics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Tianlan; Dong, Cheng; Gao, Jie; Jia, Yanwei; Mak, Pui-In, E-mail: pimak@umac.mo; Vai, Mang-I; Martins, Rui P. [State Key Laboratory of Analog and Mixed-Signal VLSI and FST-ECE, University of Macau, Macao (China)] [State Key Laboratory of Analog and Mixed-Signal VLSI and FST-ECE, University of Macau, Macao (China)

    2014-04-15

    Digital Microfluidics (DMF) is a promising technology for biological/chemical micro-reactions due to its distinct droplet manageability via electronic automation, but the limited velocity of droplet transportation has hindered DMF from utilization in high throughput applications. In this paper, by adaptively fitting the actuation voltages to the dynamic motions of droplet movement under real-time feedback monitoring, two control-engaged electrode-driving techniques: Natural Discharge after Pulse (NDAP) and Cooperative Electrodes (CE) are proposed. They together lead to, for the first time, enhanced droplet velocity with lower root mean square voltage value.

  8. TANGENTIAL VELOCITY OF THE DARK MATTER IN THE BULLET CLUSTER FROM PRECISE LENSED IMAGE REDSHIFTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Molnar, Sandor M. [Leung Center for Cosmology and Particle Astrophysics, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Broadhurst, Tom [Fisika Teorikoa, Zientzia eta Teknologia Fakultatea, Euskal Herriko Unibertsitatea UPV/EHU, 644 Posta Kutxatila, E-48080 Bilbao (Spain); Umetsu, Keiichi [Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, P.O. Box 23-141, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Zitrin, Adi [Universitaet Heidelberg, Zentrum fuer Astronomie, Institut fuer Theoretische Astrophysik, Philosophenweg 12, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Rephaeli, Yoel; Shimon, Meir, E-mail: sandor@phys.ntu.edu.tw [School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel)

    2013-09-01

    We show that the fast-moving component of the ''Bullet Cluster'' (1E0657-56) can induce potentially resolvable redshift differences between multiply lensed images of background galaxies. This moving cluster effect, due to the tangential peculiar velocity of the lens, can be expressed as the scalar product of the lensing deflection angle with the tangential velocity of the mass components; the effect is maximal for clusters colliding in the plane of the sky with velocities boosted by their mutual gravity. The Bullet Cluster is likely to be the best candidate for the first measurement of this effect due to the large collision velocity and because the lensing deflection and the cluster fields can be calculated in advance. We derive the deflection field using multiply lensed background galaxies detected with the Hubble Space Telescope. The velocity field is modeled using self-consistent N-body/hydrodynamical simulations constrained by the observed X-ray and gravitational lensing features of this system. We predict that the triply lensed images of systems ''G'' and ''H'' straddling the critical curve of the bullet component will show the largest frequency shifts up to {approx}0.5 km s{sup -1}. These shifts are within the range of the Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array for molecular emission, and are near the resolution limit of the new generation high-throughput optical-IR spectrographs. The detection of this effect measures the tangential motion of the subclusters directly, thereby clarifying the tension with {Lambda}CDM, which is inferred from the gas motion less directly. This method may be extended to smaller redshift differences using the Ly{alpha} forest toward QSOs lensed by more typical clusters of galaxies. More generally, the tangential component of the peculiar velocities of clusters derived by our method complements the radial component determined by the kinematic Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect, providing a full three-dimensional description of velocities.

  9. Out-of-plane ultrasonic velocity measurement

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hall, Maclin S. (Marietta, GA); Brodeur, Pierre H. (Smyrna, GA); Jackson, Theodore G. (Atlanta, GA)

    1998-01-01

    A method for improving the accuracy of measuring the velocity and time of flight of ultrasonic signals through moving web-like materials such as paper, paperboard and the like, includes a pair of ultrasonic transducers disposed on opposing sides of a moving web-like material. In order to provide acoustical coupling between the transducers and the web-like material, the transducers are disposed in fluid-filled wheels. Errors due to variances in the wheel thicknesses about their circumference which can affect time of flight measurements and ultimately the mechanical property being tested are compensated by averaging the ultrasonic signals for a predetermined number of revolutions. The invention further includes a method for compensating for errors resulting from the digitization of the ultrasonic signals. More particularly, the invention includes a method for eliminating errors known as trigger jitter inherent with digitizing oscilloscopes used to digitize the signals for manipulation by a digital computer. In particular, rather than cross-correlate ultrasonic signals taken during different sample periods as is known in the art in order to determine the time of flight of the ultrasonic signal through the moving web, a pulse echo box is provided to enable cross-correlation of predetermined transmitted ultrasonic signals with predetermined reflected ultrasonic or echo signals during the sample period. By cross-correlating ultrasonic signals in the same sample period, the error associated with trigger jitter is eliminated.

  10. Out-of-plane ultrasonic velocity measurement

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hall, M.S.; Brodeur, P.H.; Jackson, T.G.

    1998-07-14

    A method for improving the accuracy of measuring the velocity and time of flight of ultrasonic signals through moving web-like materials such as paper, paperboard and the like, includes a pair of ultrasonic transducers disposed on opposing sides of a moving web-like material. In order to provide acoustical coupling between the transducers and the web-like material, the transducers are disposed in fluid-filled wheels. Errors due to variances in the wheel thicknesses about their circumference which can affect time of flight measurements and ultimately the mechanical property being tested are compensated by averaging the ultrasonic signals for a predetermined number of revolutions. The invention further includes a method for compensating for errors resulting from the digitization of the ultrasonic signals. More particularly, the invention includes a method for eliminating errors known as trigger jitter inherent with digitizing oscilloscopes used to digitize the signals for manipulation by a digital computer. In particular, rather than cross-correlate ultrasonic signals taken during different sample periods as is known in the art in order to determine the time of flight of the ultrasonic signal through the moving web, a pulse echo box is provided to enable cross-correlation of predetermined transmitted ultrasonic signals with predetermined reflected ultrasonic or echo signals during the sample period. By cross-correlating ultrasonic signals in the same sample period, the error associated with trigger jitter is eliminated. 20 figs.

  11. XROTOR Propeller and Windmill Design/Analysis Software ---Summary XROTOR is an interactive program for the design and analysis of ducted and freetip pro

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peraire, Jaime

    points simplify the overall aero/structural design of the blade. Static aeroe­ lastic deflections canXROTOR Propeller and Windmill Design/Analysis Software --- Summary 16 May 94 XROTOR is an interactive program for the design and analysis of ducted and free­tip pro­ pellers and windmills. It employs

  12. In Proc. 1996 ACEEE Summer Study, August 1996, Asilomar, CA. Energy Effectiveness of Duct Sealing and Insulation in Two Multifamily Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Norwalk, Connecticut SYNOPSIS This paper discusses field measurements from five apartments in New York1 LBL# 38538 In Proc. 1996 ACEEE Summer Study, August 1996, Asilomar, CA. Energy Effectiveness that were monitored to determine the effect of duct retrofits on energy use. ABSTRACT Energy losses from

  13. Radial velocity measurements of the pulsating zirconium star: LS IV -14 116

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jeffery, C Simon; Neelamkodan, Naslim; Kerzendorf, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    The helium-rich hot subdwarf LS IV -14 116 shows remarkably high surface abundances of zirconium, yttrium, strontium, and germanium, indicative of strong chemical stratification in the photosphere. It also shows photometric behaviour indicative of non-radial g-mode pulsations, despite having surface properties inconsistent with any known pulsational instability zone. We have conducted a search for radial velocity variability. This has demonstrated that at least one photometric period is observable in several absorption lines as a radial velocity variation with a semi-amplitude in excess of 5 km s$^{-1}$. A correlation between line strength and pulsation amplitude provides evidence that the photosphere pulsates differentially. The ratio of light to velocity amplitude is too small to permit the largest amplitude oscillation to be radial.

  14. Two-dimensional Imaging Velocity Interferometry: Technique and Data Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Erskine, D J; Smith, R F; Bolme, C; Celliers, P; Collins, G

    2011-03-23

    We describe the data analysis procedures for an emerging interferometric technique for measuring motion across a two-dimensional image at a moment in time, i.e. a snapshot 2d-VISAR. Velocity interferometers (VISAR) measuring target motion to high precision have been an important diagnostic in shockwave physics for many years Until recently, this diagnostic has been limited to measuring motion at points or lines across a target. We introduce an emerging interferometric technique for measuring motion across a two-dimensional image, which could be called a snapshot 2d-VISAR. If a sufficiently fast movie camera technology existed, it could be placed behind a traditional VISAR optical system and record a 2d image vs time. But since that technology is not yet available, we use a CCD detector to record a single 2d image, with the pulsed nature of the illumination providing the time resolution. Consequently, since we are using pulsed illumination having a coherence length shorter than the VISAR interferometer delay ({approx}0.1 ns), we must use the white light velocimetry configuration to produce fringes with significant visibility. In this scheme, two interferometers (illuminating, detecting) having nearly identical delays are used in series, with one before the target and one after. This produces fringes with at most 50% visibility, but otherwise has the same fringe shift per target motion of a traditional VISAR. The 2d-VISAR observes a new world of information about shock behavior not readily accessible by traditional point or 1d-VISARS, simultaneously providing both a velocity map and an 'ordinary' snapshot photograph of the target. The 2d-VISAR has been used to observe nonuniformities in NIF related targets (polycrystalline diamond, Be), and in Si and Al.

  15. Velocity measurements in the near field of a diesel fuel injector by ultrafast imagery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sedarsky, David; Blaisot, Jean-Bernard; Rozé, Claude

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the velocity profile of fuel issuing from a high-pressure single-orifice diesel injector. Velocities of liquid structures were determined from time-resolved ultrafast shadow images, formed by an amplified two-pulse laser source coupled to a double-frame camera. A statistical analysis of the data over many injection events was undertaken to map velocities related to spray formation near the nozzle outlet as a function of time after start of injection. These results reveal a strong asymmetry in the liquid profile of the test injector, with distinct fast and slow regions on opposite sides of the orifice. Differences of ~100 m/s can be observed between the 'fast' and 'slow' sides of the jet, resulting in different atomization conditions across the spray. On average, droplets are dispersed at a greater distance from the nozzle on the 'fast' side of the flow, and distinct macrostructure can be observed under the asymmetric velocity conditions. The changes in structural velocity and atomization b...

  16. Tracking granules at the Sun's surface and reconstructing velocity fields. II. Error analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. Tkaczuk; M. Rieutord; N. Meunier; T. Roudier

    2007-07-13

    The determination of horizontal velocity fields at the solar surface is crucial to understanding the dynamics and magnetism of the convection zone of the sun. These measurements can be done by tracking granules. Tracking granules from ground-based observations, however, suffers from the Earth's atmospheric turbulence, which induces image distortion. The focus of this paper is to evaluate the influence of this noise on the maps of velocity fields. We use the coherent structure tracking algorithm developed recently and apply it to two independent series of images that contain the same solar signal. We first show that a k-\\omega filtering of the times series of images is highly recommended as a pre-processing to decrease the noise, while, in contrast, using destretching should be avoided. We also demonstrate that the lifetime of granules has a strong influence on the error bars of velocities and that a threshold on the lifetime should be imposed to minimize errors. Finally, although solar flow patterns are easily recognizable and image quality is very good, it turns out that a time sampling of two images every 21 s is not frequent enough, since image distortion still pollutes velocity fields at a 30% level on the 2500 km scale, i.e. the scale on which granules start to behave like passive scalars. The coherent structure tracking algorithm is a useful tool for noise control on the measurement of surface horizontal solar velocity fields when at least two independent series are available.

  17. Modified definition of group velocity and electromagnetic energy conservation equation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Changbiao Wang

    2015-05-11

    The classical definition of group velocity has two flaws: (a) the group velocity can be greater than the phase velocity and break Fermat's principle in a non-dispersive, lossless, non-conducting, anisotropic uniform medium; (b) the definition is not consistent with the principle of relativity for a plane wave in a moving isotropic uniform medium. To remove the flaws, a modified definition is proposed. A criterion is set up to identify the justification of group velocity definition. A "superluminal power flow" is constructed to show that the electromagnetic energy conservation equation cannot uniquely define the power flow if the principle of Fermat is not taken into account.

  18. Waveinduced velocities inside a model seagrass bed Mitul Luhar,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nepf, Heidi M.

    the seabed. Reduced resuspension improves water clarity, leading to greater light penetration and increased. By damping nearbed water velocities, seagrasses reduce local resuspension and promote the retention

  19. Crust and Upper Mantle P Wave Velocity Structure Beneath Valles...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Crust and Upper Mantle P Wave Velocity Structure Beneath Valles Caldera, New Mexico- Results from the Jemez Teleseismic Tomography Experiment Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI...

  20. Seismic Velocity And Attenuation Structure Of The Geysers Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Seismic Velocity And Attenuation Structure Of The Geysers Geothermal Field, California Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal Article: Seismic...

  1. Temporal Velocity Variations beneath the Coso Geothermal Field...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Temporal Velocity Variations beneath the Coso Geothermal Field Observed using Seismic Double Difference Tomography of Compressional and Shear Wave Arrival Times Jump to:...

  2. USING MICRO-SEISMICITY AND SEISMIC VELOCITIES TO MAP SUBSURFACE...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    USING MICRO-SEISMICITY AND SEISMIC VELOCITIES TO MAP SUBSURFACE GEOLOGIC AND HYDROLOGIC STRUCTURE WITHIN THE COSO GEOTHERMAL FIELD, CALIFORNIA Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI...

  3. Using Micro-Seismicity and Seismic Velocities to Map Subsurface...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Using Micro-Seismicity and Seismic Velocities to Map Subsurface Geologic and Hydrologic Structure Within the Coso Geothermal Field California Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI...

  4. MEASUREMENTS OF JET VELOCITY IN UNSTRATIFIED AND STRATIFIED FLUIDS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    in Civil Engineering Georgia Institute of Technology February 2000 #12;MEASUREMENTS OF JET VELOCITYMEASUREMENTS OF JET VELOCITY IN UNSTRATIFIED AND STRATIFIED FLUIDS A Thesis Presented

  5. The thin section rock physics: Modeling and measurement of seismic wave velocity on the slice of carbonates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wardaya, P. D. Noh, K. A. B. M. Yusoff, W. I. B. W.; Ridha, S.; Nurhandoko, B. E. B.

    2014-09-25

    This paper discusses a new approach for investigating the seismic wave velocity of rock, specifically carbonates, as affected by their pore structures. While the conventional routine of seismic velocity measurement highly depends on the extensive laboratory experiment, the proposed approach utilizes the digital rock physics view which lies on the numerical experiment. Thus, instead of using core sample, we use the thin section image of carbonate rock to measure the effective seismic wave velocity when travelling on it. In the numerical experiment, thin section images act as the medium on which wave propagation will be simulated. For the modeling, an advanced technique based on artificial neural network was employed for building the velocity and density profile, replacing image's RGB pixel value with the seismic velocity and density of each rock constituent. Then, ultrasonic wave was simulated to propagate in the thin section image by using finite difference time domain method, based on assumption of an acoustic-isotropic medium. Effective velocities were drawn from the recorded signal and being compared to the velocity modeling from Wyllie time average model and Kuster-Toksoz rock physics model. To perform the modeling, image analysis routines were undertaken for quantifying the pore aspect ratio that is assumed to represent the rocks pore structure. In addition, porosity and mineral fraction required for velocity modeling were also quantified by using integrated neural network and image analysis technique. It was found that the Kuster-Toksoz gives the closer prediction to the measured velocity as compared to the Wyllie time average model. We also conclude that Wyllie time average that does not incorporate the pore structure parameter deviates significantly for samples having more than 40% porosity. Utilizing this approach we found a good agreement between numerical experiment and theoretically derived rock physics model for estimating the effective seismic wave velocity of rock.

  6. SIMULATIONS OF EARLY BARYONIC STRUCTURE FORMATION WITH STREAM VELOCITY. II. THE GAS FRACTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Naoz, Smadar [Institute for Theory and Computation, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)] [Institute for Theory and Computation, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Yoshida, Naoki [Department of Physics, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan)] [Department of Physics, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Gnedin, Nickolay Y., E-mail: snaoz@cfa.harvard.edu [Particle Astrophysics Center, Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, IL 60510 (United States)

    2013-01-20

    Understanding the gas content of high-redshift halos is crucial for studying the formation of the first generation of galaxies and reionization. Recently, Tseliakhovich and Hirata showed that the relative 'stream' velocity between the dark matter and baryons at the time of recombination-formally a second-order effect, but an unusually large one-can influence the later structure formation history of the universe. We quantify the effect of the stream velocity on the so-called characteristic mass-the minimum mass of a dark matter halo capable of retaining most of its baryons throughout its formation epoch-using three different high-resolution sets of cosmological simulations (with separate transfer functions for baryons and dark matter) that vary in box size, particle number, and the value of the relative velocity between the dark matter and baryons. In order to understand this effect theoretically, we generalize the linear theory filtering mass to properly account for the difference between the dark matter and baryonic density fluctuation evolution induced by the stream velocity. We show that the new filtering mass provides an accurate estimate for the characteristic mass, while other theoretical ansatzes for the characteristic mass are substantially less precise.

  7. Neurocomputing 6566 (2005) 907913 Conduction velocity costs energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levy, William B.

    2005-01-01

    Neurocomputing 65­66 (2005) 907­913 Conduction velocity costs energy Thomas Sangrey, William B Levy we investigate the metabolic cost of conduction velocity. By manipulating ion channel density metabolic cost. Thus, in addition to the cost of information transmission (Neural Comput. 8(1996) 531 [9

  8. Project Report Evaluation of TDWR Range-Velocity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cho, John Y. N.

    Project Report ATC-310 Evaluation of TDWR Range-Velocity Ambiguity Mitigation Techniques J. Y. N the degree of mitigation offered by existing phase diversity methods to these problems. Using optimized-OOG·OOO2. 16. Abstract Range and velocity ambiguities pose significant data quality challenges

  9. Hydrocarbon saturation determination using acoustic velocities obtained through casing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moos, Daniel (Houston, TX)

    2010-03-09

    Compressional and shear velocities of earth formations are measured through casing. The determined compressional and shear velocities are used in a two component mixing model to provides improved quantitative values for the solid, the dry frame, and the pore compressibility. These are used in determination of hydrocarbon saturation.

  10. Universality of the de Broglie-Einstein velocity equation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yusuf Z. Umul

    2007-12-06

    The de Broglie-Einstein velocity equation is derived for a relativistic particle by using the energy and momentum relations in terms of wave and matter properties. It is shown that the velocity equation is independent from the relativistic effects and is valid also for the non-relativistic case. The results of this property is discussed.

  11. Front velocity in models with quadratic autocatalysis Vladimir K. Vanaga)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Epstein, Irving R.

    Front velocity in models with quadratic autocatalysis Vladimir K. Vanaga) and Irving R. Epstein reaction­diffusion models based on the Oregonator model of the Belousov­Zhabotinsky reaction. Each system the dependence of the front velocity on the diffusion coefficients of X and R, the interconversion rates

  12. Anomalous shear wave delays and surface wave velocities at Yellowstone Caldera, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daniel, R.G.; Boore, D.M.

    1982-04-10

    To investigate the effects of a geothermal area on the propagation of intermediate-period (1--30 s) teleseismic body waves and surface waves, a specially designed portable seismograph system was operated in Yellowstone Caldera, Wyoming. Travel time residuals, relative to a station outside the caldera, of up to 2 s for compressional phases are in agreement with short-period residuals for P phases measured by other investigators. Travel time delays for shear arrivals in the intermediate-period band range from 2 to 9 s and decrease with increasing dT/d..delta... Measured Rayleigh wave phase velocities are extremely low, ranging from 3.2 km/s at 27-s period to 2.0 km/s at 7-s period; the estimated uncertainty associated with these values is 15%. We propose a model for compressional and shear velocities and Poisson's ratio beneath the Yellowstone caldera which fits the teleseismic body and surface wave data: it consists of a highly anomalous crust with an average shear velocity of 3.0 km/s overlying an upper mantle with average velocity of 4.1 km/s. The high average value of Poisson's ratio in the crust (0.34) suggests the presence of fluids there; Poisson's ratio in the mantle between 40 and approximately 200 km is more nearly normal (0.29) than in the crust. A discrepancy between normal values of Poisson's ratio in the crust calculated from short-period data and high values calculated from teleseismic data can be resolved by postulating a viscoelastic crustal model with frequency-dependent shear velocity and attenuation.

  13. Extremal Trajectories for Bounded Velocity Mobile Robots Devin J. Balkcom and Matthew T. Mason

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Balkcom, Devin

    with velocity and angular velocity controls. The systems are differentiated only by the bounds on the con- trols, with velocity and angular velocity controls. For these sys- tems, the instantaneous rotation center. For the steered car, the bounds on velocity and angular velocity are derived from con- straints on steering angle

  14. Simultaneous temperature and velocity Lagrangian measurements in turbulent thermal convection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liot, O; Zonta, F; Chibbaro, S; Coudarchet, T; Gasteuil, Y; Pinton, J -F; Salort, J; Chillą, F

    2015-01-01

    We report joint Lagrangian velocity and temperature measurements in turbulent thermal convection. Measurements are performed using an improved version (extended autonomy) of the neutrally-buoyant instrumented particle that was used by to performed experiments in a parallelepipedic Rayleigh-Benard cell. The temperature signal is obtained from a RFtransmitter. Simultaneously, we determine particle's position and velocity with one camera, which grants access to the Lagrangian heat flux. Due to the extended autonomy of the present particle, we obtain well converged temperature and velocity statistics, as well as pseudo-eulerian maps of velocity and heat flux. Present experimental results have also been compared with the results obtained by a corresponding campaign of Direct Numerical Simulations and Lagrangian Tracking of massless tracers. The comparison between experimental and numerical results show the accuracy and reliability of our experimental measurements. Finally, the analysis of lagrangian velocity and t...

  15. Tracking moving radar targets with parallel, velocity-tuned filters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bickel, Douglas L.; Harmony, David W.; Bielek, Timothy P.; Hollowell, Jeff A.; Murray, Margaret S.; Martinez, Ana

    2013-04-30

    Radar data associated with radar illumination of a movable target is processed to monitor motion of the target. A plurality of filter operations are performed in parallel on the radar data so that each filter operation produces target image information. The filter operations are defined to have respectively corresponding velocity ranges that differ from one another. The target image information produced by one of the filter operations represents the target more accurately than the target image information produced by the remainder of the filter operations when a current velocity of the target is within the velocity range associated with the one filter operation. In response to the current velocity of the target being within the velocity range associated with the one filter operation, motion of the target is tracked based on the target image information produced by the one filter operation.

  16. No evidence for bulk velocity from type Ia supernovae

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huterer, Dragan; Schmidt, Fabian

    2015-01-01

    We revisit the effect of peculiar velocities on low-redshift type Ia supernovae. Velocities introduce an additional guaranteed source of correlations between supernova magnitudes that should be considered in all analyses of nearby supernova samples but has largely been neglected in the past. Applying a likelihood analysis to the latest compilation of nearby supernovae, we find no evidence for the presence of these correlations, although, given the significant noise, the data is also consistent with the correlations predicted for the standard LCDM model. We then consider the dipolar component of the velocity correlations - the frequently studied "bulk velocity" - and explicitly demonstrate that including the velocity correlations in the data covariance matrix is crucial for drawing correct and unambiguous conclusions about the bulk flow. In particular, current supernova data is consistent with no excess bulk flow on top of what is expected in LCDM and effectively captured by the covariance. We further clarify ...

  17. Discrimination of porosity and fluid saturation using seismic velocity analysis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berryman, James G. (Danville, CA)

    2001-01-01

    The method of the invention is employed for determining the state of saturation in a subterranean formation using only seismic velocity measurements (e.g., shear and compressional wave velocity data). Seismic velocity data collected from a region of the formation of like solid material properties can provide relatively accurate partial saturation data derived from a well-defined triangle plotted in a (.rho./.mu., .lambda./.mu.)-plane. When the seismic velocity data are collected over a large region of a formation having both like and unlike materials, the method first distinguishes the like materials by initially plotting the seismic velocity data in a (.rho./.lambda., .mu./.lambda.)-plane to determine regions of the formation having like solid material properties and porosity.

  18. An Optical Velocity for the Phoenix Dwarf Galaxy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mike Irwin; Eline Tolstoy

    2002-07-03

    We present the results of a VLT observing program carried out in service mode using FORS1 on ANTU in Long Slit mode to determine the optical velocities of nearby low surface brightness galaxies. As part of our program of service observations we obtained long-slit spectra of several members of the Phoenix dwarf galaxy from which we derive an optical helio-centric radial velocity of -13 +/- 9km/s. This agrees very well with the velocity of the most promising of the HI clouds seen around Phoenix, which has a helio-centric velocity of -23 km/s, but is significantly different to the recently published optical heliocentric velocity of Phoenix of -52 +/- 6 km/s of Gallart et al. (2001).

  19. An Experimental Evaluation of Duct-Mounted Relative Humidity Sensors: Part 1 – Test and Evaluation Procedures 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joshi, S.N.; Pate, M.B.; Nelson, R.M.; House, R.H.; Klaasen, C.J.

    2005-01-01

    In this dissertation, catalytic C-F bond activation mediated by alumenium and silylium species, improved methods for the synthesis of highly chlorinated carboranes and dodecaborates, new type of P2Si= pincer silylene Pt complexes and PBP pincer Rh...

  20. The SDSS-III APOGEE radial velocity survey of M dwarfs. I. Description of the survey and science goals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deshpande, R.; Bender, C. F.; Mahadevan, S.; Terrien, R. C.; Schneider, D. P.; Fleming, S. W.; Blake, C. H.; Carlberg, J. K.; Zasowski, G.; Hearty, F.; Crepp, J.; Rajpurohit, A. S.; Reylé, C.; Nidever, D. L.; Prieto, C. Allende; Hernįndez, J.; Bizyaev, D.; Ebelke, G.; Frinchaboy, P. M.; Ge, J.; and others

    2013-12-01

    We are carrying out a large ancillary program with the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, SDSS-III, using the fiber-fed multi-object near-infrared APOGEE spectrograph, to obtain high-resolution H-band spectra of more than 1200 M dwarfs. These observations will be used to measure spectroscopic rotational velocities, radial velocities, physical stellar parameters, and variability of the target stars. Here, we describe the target selection for this survey, as well as results from the first year of scientific observations based on spectra that will be publicly available in the SDSS-III DR10 data release. As part of this paper we present radial velocities and rotational velocities of over 200 M dwarfs, with a vsin i precision of ?2 km s{sup –1} and a measurement floor at vsin i = 4 km s{sup –1}. This survey significantly increases the number of M dwarfs studied for rotational velocities and radial velocity variability (at ?100-200 m s{sup –1}), and will inform and advance the target selection for planned radial velocity and photometric searches for low-mass exoplanets around M dwarfs, such as the Habitable Zone Planet Finder, CARMENES, and TESS. Multiple epochs of radial velocity observations enable us to identify short period binaries, and adaptive optics imaging of a subset of stars enables the detection of possible stellar companions at larger separations. The high-resolution APOGEE spectra, covering the entire H band, provide the opportunity to measure physical stellar parameters such as effective temperatures and metallicities for many of these stars. At the culmination of this survey, we will have obtained multi-epoch spectra and radial velocities for over 1400 stars spanning the spectral range M0-L0, providing the largest set of near-infrared M dwarf spectra at high resolution, and more than doubling the number of known spectroscopic vsin i values for M dwarfs. Furthermore, by modeling telluric lines to correct for small instrumental radial velocity shifts, we hope to achieve a relative velocity precision floor of 50 m s{sup –1} for bright M dwarfs. With three or more epochs, this precision is adequate to detect substellar companions, including giant planets with short orbital periods, and flag them for higher-cadence followup. We present preliminary, and promising, results of this telluric modeling technique in this paper.