Wagner, Richard William (Albion, NY); Burkhard, James Frank (Churchville, NY); Dauer, Kenneth John (Avon, NY)
1999-11-16
A dual tank fuel system has primary and secondary fuel tanks, with the primary tank including a filler pipe to receive fuel and a discharge line to deliver fuel to an engine, and with a balance pipe interconnecting the primary tank and the secondary tank. The balance pipe opens close to the bottom of each tank to direct fuel from the primary tank to the secondary tank as the primary tank is filled, and to direct fuel from the secondary tank to the primary tank as fuel is discharged from the primary tank through the discharge line. A vent line has branches connected to each tank to direct fuel vapor from the tanks as the tanks are filled, and to admit air to the tanks as fuel is delivered to the engine.
Pose and Motion Estimation Using Dual Quaternion-Based Extended Kalman Filtering
Goddard, J.S.; Abidi, M.A.
1998-06-01
A solution to the remote three-dimensional (3-D) measurement problem is presented for a dynamic system given a sequence of two-dimensional (2-D) intensity images of a moving object. The 3-D transformation is modeled as a nonlinear stochastic system with the state estimate providing the six-degree-of-freedom motion and position values as well as structure. The stochastic model uses the iterated extended Kalman filter (IEKF) as a nonlinear estimator and a screw representation of the 3-D transformation based on dual quaternions. Dual quaternions, whose elements are dual numbers, provide a means to represent both rotation and translation in a unified notation. Linear object features, represented as dual vectors, are transformed using the dual quaternion transformation and are then projected to linear features in the image plane. The method has been implemented and tested with both simulated and actual experimental data. Simulation results are provided, along with comparisons to a point-based IEKF method using rotation and translation, to show the relative advantages of this method. Experimental results from testing using a camera mounted on the end effector of a robot arm are also given.
Dual Transform Domain Echo Canceller for Discrete Multitone Systems
Champagne, Benoît
Dual Transform Domain Echo Canceller for Discrete Multitone Systems Neda Ehtiati and Beno Email:{neda.ehtiati,benoit.champagne}@mcgill.ca Abstract--In communication systems where full
Dual liquid and gas chromatograph system
Gay, Don D. (Aiken, SC)
1985-01-01
A chromatographic system that utilizes one detection system for gas chromatographic and micro-liquid chromatographic determinations. The detection system is a direct-current, atmospheric-pressure, helium plasma emission spectrometer. The detector utilizes a non-transparent plasma source unit which contains the plasma region and two side-arms which receive effluents from the micro-liquid chromatograph and the gas chromatograph. The dual nature of this chromatographic system offers: (1) extreme flexibility in the samples to be examined; (2) extremely low sensitivity; (3) element selectivity; (4) long-term stability; (5) direct correlation of data from the liquid and gas samples; (6) simpler operation than with individual liquid and gas chromatographs, each with different detection systems; and (7) cheaper than a commercial liquid chromatograph and a gas chromatograph.
Dual-keel electrodynamic maglev system
He, Jianliang (Naperville, IL); Wang, Zian (Downers Grove, IL); Rote, Donald M. (Lagrange, IL); Coffey, Howard T. (Darien, IL); Hull, John R. (Westmont, IL); Mulcahy, Thomas M. (Western Springs, IL); Cal, Yigang (Woodridge, IL)
1996-01-01
A propulsion and stabilization system with a plurality of superconducting magnetic devices affixed to the dual-keels of a vehicle, where the superconducting magnetic devices produce a magnetic field when energized. The system also includes a plurality of figure-eight shaped null-flux coils affixed to opposing vertical sides of slots in a guideway. The figure-eight shaped null-flux coils are vertically oriented, laterally cross-connected in parallel, longitudinally connected in series, and continue the length of the vertical slots providing levitation and guidance force. An external power source energizes the figure-eight shaped null-flux coils to create a magnetic traveling wave that interacts with the magnetic field produced by the superconducting magnets to impart motion to the vehicle.
Dual-keel electrodynamic maglev system
He, J.L.; Wang, Z.; Rote, D.M.; Coffey, H.T.; Hull, J.R.; Mulcahy, T.M.; Cal, Y.
1996-12-24
A propulsion and stabilization system is disclosed with a plurality of superconducting magnetic devices affixed to the dual-keels of a vehicle, where the superconducting magnetic devices produce a magnetic field when energized. The system also includes a plurality of figure-eight shaped null-flux coils affixed to opposing vertical sides of slots in a guideway. The figure-eight shaped null-flux coils are vertically oriented, laterally cross-connected in parallel, longitudinally connected in series, and continue the length of the vertical slots providing levitation and guidance force. An external power source energizes the figure-eight shaped null-flux coils to create a magnetic traveling wave that interacts with the magnetic field produced by the superconducting magnets to impart motion to the vehicle. 6 figs.
Dual power, constant speed electric motor system
Kirschbaum, Herbert S. (Asheville, NC)
1984-01-01
A dual capacity permanent split capacitor electric motor system is provided with a stator having main and auxiliary windings. The main stator winding includes two winding sections which are connected in parallel with each other and across a pair of line terminals while the auxiliary winding is connected in series with a capacitor to form a circuit branch which is connected between the line terminals for operation at a first output power level. Switching means are provided to reconnect the main stator winding sections in series with each other and in series with a second capacitor to form a circuit branch which is connected between the line terminals while the stator auxiliary winding is connected directly between the line terminals for operation at a second output power level. Automatic rotation reversal occurs when the motor switches from the first to the second output power level.
Dual power, constant speed electric motor system
Kirschbaum, H.S.
1984-07-31
A dual capacity permanent split capacitor electric motor system is provided with a stator having main and auxiliary windings. The main stator winding includes two winding sections which are connected in parallel with each other and across a pair of line terminals while the auxiliary winding is connected in series with a capacitor to form a circuit branch which is connected between the line terminals for operation at a first output power level. Switching means are provided to reconnect the main stator winding sections in series with each other and in series with a second capacitor to form a circuit branch which is connected between the line terminals while the stator auxiliary winding is connected directly between the line terminals for operation at a second output power level. Automatic rotation reversal occurs when the motor switches from the first to the second output power level. 6 figs.
Dual Domain Echo Cancellers for Multirate Discrete Multitone Systems
Champagne, Benoît
Dual Domain Echo Cancellers for Multirate Discrete Multitone Systems Neda Ehtiati and Beno Email:{neda.ehtiati, benoit.champagne}@mcgill.ca Abstract--Digital echo cancellers are used in duplex
TESTING OF THE DUAL ROTARY FILTER SYSTEM
Herman, D.; Fowley, M.; Stefanko, D.
2011-08-29
The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) installed and tested two hydraulically connected SpinTek rotary microfilter (RMF) units to determine the behavior of a multiple filter system. Both units were successfully controlled by a control scheme written in DELTA-V architecture by Savannah River Remediation (SRR) Process Control Engineering personnel. The control system was tuned to provide satisfactory response to changing conditions during the operation of the multi-filter system. Stability was maintained through the startup and shutdown of one of the filter units while the second was still in operation. The installation configuration originally proposed by the Small Colum Ion Exchange (SCIX) project of independent filter and motor mountings may be susceptible to vibration. Significant stiffening of the filter and motor mounts was required to minimize the vibration. Alignment of the motor to the filter was a challenge in this test configuration. The deployment configuration must be easy to manipulate and allow for fine adjustment. An analysis of the vibration signature of the test system identified critical speeds. Whether it corresponds to the resonance frequency of a rotor radial vibration mode that was excited by rotor unbalance is uncertain based upon the measurements. A relative motion series should be completed on the filter with the final shaft configuration to determine if the resonances exist in the final filter design. The instrumentation selected for deployment, including the concentrate discharge control valve and flow meters, performed well. Automation of the valve control integrated well with the control scheme and when used in concert with the other control variables, allowed automated control of the dual RMF system. The one area of concern with the instrumentation was the condition resulting when the filtrate flow meter operated with less than three gpm. This low flow was at the lower range of performance for the flow meter. This should not be an issue in deployment where the desired flow rate will be within the normal operating range of the meter. Testing demonstrated that the use of a flexible line for the filtrate discharge is highly desired at the outlet of the rotary union to transition to the system piping. Isolating the vibration from the rotary union will significantly improve the lifetime of the seals. Methods to monitor and isolate individual filters should be considered during deployment. The ability to diagnose issues and isolate individual filters would allow isolation prior to failure. Thus, filters may be cleaned or repaired instead of requiring complete replacement if the condition were to continue unnoticed. Isolating the filtrate line of each filter during startup will minimize the premature buildup of solids on the filter disks. Several tests have shown that the method of filter startup can improve performance lifetime of the filters. The installation must factor in an air inlet for the draining of a filter that does not involve a reverse flow through the filter disks. The reverse flow may cause deformation of the disks or may damage other components of the filters themselves.
influences the partitioning of surface available energy into sensible and latent heat fluxes and henceA dual-pass variational data assimilation framework for estimating soil moisture profiles from AMSR, we have designed a dual-pass assimilation (DP-En4DVar) framework to optimize the model state
Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]
Developing a low and high temperature dual thermoelectric generation waste heat recovery system for light-duty vehicles.
Operator Systems: Quotients, Duals and Tensors with Applications to Connes' Embedding
Argerami, Martin
Operator Systems: Quotients, Duals and Tensors with Applications to Connes' Embedding Conjecture and Mark Tomforde Banff, Alberta February, 2012 Vern Paulsen Operator Systems: Quotients, Duals and Tensors are the completely bounded maps. Vern Paulsen Operator Systems: Quotients, Duals and Tensors with Applicat #12
Dual nozzle single pump fuel injection system
Gonzalez, C.
1992-02-25
This patent describes an improvement in a fuel injection system in a stratified charge hybrid internal combustion engine including a main combustion chamber, a precombustion chamber connected with the main chamber, fuel injectors in the main combustion chamber and precombustion chamber which open at higher and lower pressure levels respectively to sequentially inject fuel into the prechamber and the main chamber, timed spark ignition means in the prechamber for ignition of the fuel-air mixture therein, and an engine driven and timed fuel injection pump having a variable output capacity that varies with power level position, the injection pump is supplied by a low pressure charging pump. The improvement comprises: a shuttle valve including a bore therein; a shuttle spool means positioned within the bore defining a prechamber supply chamber on one side thereof and a spool activation chamber on the opposite side thereof the spool means having a first and second position; biasing means urging the spool towards it first position with the spool actuation chamber at its minimum volume; first conduit means connecting charging pressure to the prechamber supply camber in the first position oil the spool means; second conduit means connecting the injection pump to spool actuation chamber; third conduit means connecting the spool actuating chamber with the main injector; forth conduit means connecting the prechamber supply chamber with the prechamber injector; the initial charge from the injection pump actuates the spool means from its fir to its second position.
The thermodynamic dual structure of linear-dissipative driven systems
Eric Smith
2005-05-02
The spontaneous emergence of dynamical order, such as persistent currents, is sometimes argued to require principles beyond the entropy maximization of the second law of thermodynamics. I show that, for linear dissipation in the Onsager regime, current formation can be driven by exactly the Jaynesian principle of entropy maximization, suitably formulated for extended systems and nonequilibrium boundary conditions. The Legendre dual structure of equilibrium thermodynamics is also preserved, though it requires the admission of current-valued state variables, and their correct incorporation in the entropy.
Dual-circuit, multiple-effect refrigeration system and method
DeVault, Robert C. (Knoxville, TN)
1995-01-01
A dual circuit absorption refrigeration system comprising a high temperature single-effect refrigeration loop and a lower temperature double-effect refrigeration loop separate from one another and provided with a double-condenser coupling therebetween. The high temperature condenser of the single-effect refrigeration loop is double coupled to both of the generators in the double-effect refrigeration loop to improve internal heat recovery and a heat and mass transfer additive such as 2-ethyl-1-hexanol is used in the lower temperature double-effect refrigeration loop to improve the performance of the absorber in the double-effect refrigeration loop.
Dual annular rotating "windowed" nuclear reflector reactor control system
Jacox, Michael G. (Idaho Falls, ID); Drexler, Robert L. (Idaho Falls, ID); Hunt, Robert N. M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Lake, James A. (Idaho Falls, ID)
1994-01-01
A nuclear reactor control system is provided in a nuclear reactor having a core operating in the fast neutron energy spectrum where criticality control is achieved by neutron leakage. The control system includes dual annular, rotatable reflector rings. There are two reflector rings: an inner reflector ring and an outer reflector ring. The reflectors are concentrically assembled, surround the reactor core, and each reflector ring includes a plurality of openings. The openings in each ring are capable of being aligned or non-aligned with each other. Independent driving means for each of the annular reflector rings is provided so that reactor criticality can be initiated and controlled by rotation of either reflector ring such that the extent of alignment of the openings in each ring controls the reflection of neutrons from the core.
Method and system for dual resolution translation stage
Halpin, John Michael
2014-04-22
A dual resolution translation stage includes a stage assembly operable to receive an optical element and a low resolution adjustment device mechanically coupled to the stage assembly. The dual resolution stage also includes an adjustable pivot block mechanically coupled to the stage assembly. The adjustable pivot block includes a pivot shaft. The dual resolution stage further includes a lever arm mechanically coupled to the adjustable pivot block. The lever arm is operable to pivot about the pivot shaft. The dual resolution stage additionally includes a high resolution adjustment device mechanically coupled to the lever arm and the stage assembly.
Harmonizing Systems and Software Cost Estimation
Wang, Gan
2009-07-19
The objective of this paper is to examine the gaps and overlaps between software and systems engineering cost models with intent to harmonize the estimates in engineering engineering estimation. In particular, we evaluate ...
Hybrid Systems State estimation for hybrid systems: applications
Tomlin, Claire
Hybrid Systems State estimation for hybrid systems: applications to aircraft tracking I. Hwang, H of a stochastic linear hybrid system, given only the continuous system output data, is studied. Well established techniques for hybrid estimation, known as the multiple model adaptive estimation algorithm
Dual-temperature Kalina cycle for geothermal-solar hybrid power systems
Boghossian, John G
2011-01-01
This thesis analyzes the thermodynamics of a power system coupling two renewable heat sources: low-temperature geothermal and a high-temperature solar. The process, referred to as a dual-temperature geothermal-solar Kalina ...
Jacquez, Edward B [Los Alamos National Laboratory
2008-01-01
The mission of the Dual Axis Radiograph Hydrodynamic Test (DARHT) Facility is to conduct experiments on dynamic events of extremely dense materials. The PSS control system is designed specifically to prevent personnel from becoming exposed to radiation and explosive hazards during machine operations and/or the firing site operation. This paper will outline the Radiation Safety System (RSS) and the High Explosive Safety System (HESS) which are computer-controlled sets of positive interlocks, warning devices, and other exclusion mechanisms that together form the PSS.
Proprietary Security Policy Persistent Systems Wave Relay Single, Dual, and Quad Radio Board Level 1Proprietary Security Policy: Persistent Systems Wave Relay Single, Dual, and Quad Radio Board Document Version 5 Policy for the Wave Relay Single, Dual, and Quad Radio Board. #12;FIPS 1402 NonProprietary Security
Efficient Power System State Estimation
Lavaei, Javad
failure or generator outages. In the normal insecure state, a system may not be able to handle to be normal, when in reality it is not. Then the employees at the control center would not be able to act preemptively to alleviate any situations on the ground. They might find out too late, when there are already
Parameter and state estimation in nonlinear dynamical systems
Creveling, Daniel R.
2008-01-01
and J. Kurths. Nonlinear dynamical system identi?ca- tionEstimation In Nonlinear Dynamical Systems A dissertationState Estimation In Nonlinear Dynamical Systems by Daniel R.
Dual attitude and parameter estimation of passively magnetically stabilized nano satellites$
panels. By using the existing solar panels, no additional components are being added to the spacecraft, and no additional mass, volume or power budget is being used. From differential solar panel currents, an estimate of the magnetic materials using only a measurement of the solar vector. The estimation technique is applied
Dual manifold system and method for fluid transfer
Doktycz, Mitchel J. (Knoxville, TN); Bryan, William Louis (Knoxville, TN); Kress, Reid (Oak Ridge, TN)
2003-05-27
A dual-manifold assembly is provided for the rapid, parallel transfer of liquid reagents from a microtiter plate to a solid state microelectronic device having biological sensors integrated thereon. The assembly includes aspiration and dispense manifolds connected by a plurality of conduits. In operation, the aspiration manifold is actuated such that the aspiration manifold is seated onto an array of reagent-filled wells of the microtiter plate. The wells are pressurized to force reagent through conduits toward the dispense manifold. A pressure pulse provided by a standard ink-jet printhead ejects nanoliter-to-picoliter droplets of reagent through an array of printhead orifices and onto test sites on the surface of the microelectronic device.
Dual manifold system and method for fluid transfer
Doktycz, Mitchel J.; Bryan, William Louis; Kress, Reid
2003-09-30
A dual-manifold assembly is provided for the rapid, parallel transfer of liquid reagents from a microtiter plate to a solid state microelectronic device having biological sensors integrated thereon. The assembly includes aspiration and dispense manifolds connected by a plurality of conduits. In operation, the aspiration manifold is actuated such that the aspiration manifold is seated onto an array of reagent-filled wells of the microtiter plate. The wells are pressurized to force reagent through conduits toward the dispense manifold. A pressure pulse provided by a standard ink-jet printhead ejects nanoliter-to-picoliter droplets of reagent through an array of printhead orifices and onto test sites on the surface of the microelectronic device.
An Advanced Economizer Controller for Dual Duct Air Handling Systems - with a Case Application
Liu, M.; Claridge, D. E.
1996-01-01
Heating penalty is expected when economizers are applied to dual-duct air handling systems. The heating penalty can even be higher than the cooling savings when the hot air flow is higher than the cold air flow. To avoid the excessive heating...
Enhanced vibration energy harvesting using dual-mass systems Xiudong Tang, Lei Zuo n
Zuo, Lei
of Mechanical Engineering, State University of New York at Stony Brook, Stony Brook, NY 11794, USA a r t i c l e,7]. Because of its ubiquitous existence, vibration becomes a very promising alternative energy sourceEnhanced vibration energy harvesting using dual-mass systems Xiudong Tang, Lei Zuo n Department
Identification and compensation of friction for a dual stage positioning system
Thimmalapura, Satish Voddina
2005-11-01
increases the accuracy of the read/write head in hard disk drives. A scaled up version of the dual stage actuator is considered as the test bed for this thesis. Friction is present in all electromechanical systems. This thesis deals with modelling...
COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF THE DUAL TRANSFORM DOMAIN ECHO CANCELLER FOR DMT-BASED SYSTEMS
Champagne, Benoît
COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF THE DUAL TRANSFORM DOMAIN ECHO CANCELLER FOR DMT-BASED SYSTEMS Neda´eal, QC H3A 2A7, Canada e-mail: neda.ehtiati@mcgill.ca, benoit.champagne@mcgill.ca ABSTRACT In DMT
PRIMAL AND DUAL METHODS FOR UNIT COMMITMENT IN A HYDRO-THERMAL POWER SYSTEM
Römisch, Werner
PRIMAL AND DUAL METHODS FOR UNIT COMMITMENT IN A HYDRO-THERMAL POWER SYSTEM R. Gollmer1 , A. Moller comprising thermal and pumped-storage hydro units a large-scale mixed-integer optimization model is developed hydro units. The variable ut i 2 f0;1g; i = 1;:::;I;t = 1;:::;T indicates whether the thermal unit i
Dual Loop Parallel/Series Waste Heat Recovery System
Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]
This system captures all the jacket water, intercooler, and exhaust heat from the engine by utilizing a single condenser to reject leftover heat to the atmosphere.
System-Level Logistics for Dual Purpose Canister Disposal
Kalinina, Elena A.
2014-06-03
The analysis presented in this report investigated how the direct disposal of dual purpose canisters (DPCs) may be affected by the use of standard transportation aging and disposal canisters (STADs), early or late start of the repository, and the repository emplacement thermal power limits. The impacts were evaluated with regard to the availability of the DPCs for emplacement, achievable repository acceptance rates, additional storage required at an interim storage facility (ISF) and additional emplacement time compared to the corresponding repackaging scenarios, and fuel age at emplacement. The result of this analysis demonstrated that the biggest difference in the availability of UNF for emplacement between the DPC-only loading scenario and the DPCs and STADs loading scenario is for a repository start date of 2036 with a 6 kW thermal power limit. The differences are also seen in the availability of UNF for emplacement between the DPC-only loading scenario and the DPCs and STADs loading scenario for the alternative with a 6 kW thermal limit and a 2048 start date, and for the alternatives with a 10 kW thermal limit and 2036 and 2048 start dates. The alternatives with disposal of UNF in both DPCs and STADs did not require additional storage, regardless of the repository acceptance rate, as compared to the reference repackaging case. In comparison to the reference repackaging case, alternatives with the 18 kW emplacement thermal limit required little to no additional emplacement time, regardless of the repository start time, the fuel loading scenario, or the repository acceptance rate. Alternatives with the 10 kW emplacement thermal limit and the DPCs and STADs fuel loading scenario required some additional emplacement time. The most significant decrease in additional emplacement time occurred in the alternative with the 6 kW thermal limit and the 2036 repository starting date. The average fuel age at emplacement ranges from 46 to 88 years. The maximum fuel age at emplacement ranges from 81 to 146 years. The difference in the average and maximum age of fuel at emplacement between the DPC-only and the DPCs and STADs fuel loading scenarios becomes less significant as the repository thermal limit increases and as the repository start date increases. In general, the role of STADs is to store young (30 year or younger) high burnup (45 GWD/MTU or higher) fuel. Recommendations for future study include detailed evaluation of the feasible alternatives with regard to the costs and factors not considered in this analysis, such as worker dose, dose to members of the public, and economic benefits to host entities. It is also recommended to conduct an additional analysis to evaluate the assumption regarding the transportability and disposability of DPCs for the next iteration of the direct disposal of DPCs study.
Dual sensitivity mode system for monitoring processes and sensors
Wilks, Alan D. (Mount Prospect, IL); Wegerich, Stephan W. (Glendale Heights, IL); Gross, Kenneth C. (Bolingbrook, IL)
2000-01-01
A method and system for analyzing a source of data. The system and method involves initially training a system using a selected data signal, calculating at least two levels of sensitivity using a pattern recognition methodology, activating a first mode of alarm sensitivity to monitor the data source, activating a second mode of alarm sensitivity to monitor the data source and generating a first alarm signal upon the first mode of sensitivity detecting an alarm condition and a second alarm signal upon the second mode of sensitivity detecting an associated alarm condition. The first alarm condition and second alarm condition can be acted upon by an operator and/or analyzed by a specialist or computer program.
Dual mode fuel injection system and fuel injector for same
Lawrence, Keith E.; Tian, Ye
2005-09-20
A fuel injection system has the ability to produce two different spray patterns depending on the positioning of a needle control valve member. Positioning of the needle control valve member determines which of the two needle control chambers are placed in a low pressure condition. First and second needle valve members have closing hydraulic surfaces exposed to fluid pressure in the two needle control chambers. The injector preferably includes a homogenous charge nozzle outlet set and a conventional nozzle outlet set controlled respectively, by the first and second needle valve members.
Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory
A dual wavelength imaging system for plasma-surface interaction studies on the National Spherical.), quantitative analysis of emission from impurity or fuel atoms (e.g., in DIII- D10 , NSTX11 , etc.), real
Haberl, J. S.; Bou-Saada, T. E.; Saman, N. F.
2001-01-01
This report contains engineering calculations for seven (7) air-side, heating, ventilating and air conditioning systems (HVAC) systems, including: dual duct constant volume (DDCAV), dual duct variable volume (DDVAV), ...
Light-splitting photovoltaic system utilizing two dual-junction solar cells
Xiong, Kanglin; Yang, Hui; Lu, Shulong; Dong, Jianrong; Zhou, Taofei; Wang, Rongxin; Jiang, Desheng
2010-12-15
There are many difficulties limiting the further development of monolithic multi-junction solar cells, such as the growth of lattice-mismatched material and the current matching constraint. As an alternative approach, the light-splitting photovoltaic system is investigated intensively in different aspects, including the energy loss mechanism and the choice of energy bandgaps of solar cells. Based on the investigation, a two-dual junction system has been implemented employing lattice-matched GaInP/GaAs and InGaAsP/InGaAs cells grown epitaxially on GaAs and InP substrates, respectively. (author)
Dual-mode self-validating resistance/Johnson noise thermometer system
Shepard, Robert L. (Oak Ridge, TN); Blalock, Theron V. (Knoxville, TN); Roberts, Michael J. (Knoxville, TN)
1993-01-01
A dual-mode Johnson noise and DC resistance thermometer capable of use in control systems where prompt indications of temperature changes and long term accuracy are needed. A resistance-inductance-capacitance (RLC) tuned circuit produces a continuous voltage signal for Johnson noise temperature measurement. The RLC circuit provides a mean-squared noise voltage that depends only on the capacitance used and the temperature of the sensor. The sensor has four leads for simultaneous coupling to a noise signal processor and to a DC resistance signal processor.
An advanced economizer controller for dual-duct air-handling systems -- with a case application
Liu, M.; Claridge, D.E.; Park, B.Y.
1997-12-31
A heating penalty is expected when economizers are applied to dual-duct air-handling systems. The heating penalty can be even higher than the cooling savings when the hot airflow is higher than the cold airflow. To avoid the excessive heating penalty, advanced economizers are developed in this paper. The application of the advanced economizer has resulted in savings of $7,000/yr in one 95,000-ft{sup 2} (8,800-m{sup 2}) school building since 1993. The impacts of cold and hot deck settings on the energy consumption are also discussed.
Process for whole cell saccharification of lignocelluloses to sugars using a dual bioreactor system
Lu, Jue (Okemos, MI); Okeke, Benedict (Montgomery, AL)
2012-03-27
The present invention describes a process for saccharification of lignocelluloses to sugars using whole microbial cells, which are enriched from cultures inoculated with paper mill waste water, wood processing waste and soil. A three-member bacterial consortium is selected as a potent microbial inocula and immobilized on inedible plant fibers for biomass saccharification. The present invention further relates the design of a dual bioreactor system, with various biocarriers for enzyme immobilization and repeated use. Sugars are continuously removed eliminating end-product inhibition and consumption by cell.
Buksa, J.J.; Kirk, W.L.; Cappiello, M.W. (Nuclear Technology and Engineering Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87544 (US))
1991-01-05
A preliminary assessment of the technical feasibility and mass competitiveness of a dual-mode nuclear propulsion and power system based on the NERVA rocket engine has been completed. Results indicate that the coupling of the ROVER reactor to a direct Brayton power conversion system can be accomplished through a number of design features. Furthermore, based on previously published and independently calculated component masses, the dual-mode system was found to have the potential to be mass competitive with propulsion/power systems that use separate reactors. The uncertainties of reactor design modification and shielding requirements were identified as important issues requiring future investigation.
Efficacy of fixed filtration for rapid kVp-switching dual energy x-ray systems
Yao, Yuan; Wang, Adam S.; Pelc, Norbert J.; Department of Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305; Department of Electrical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305
2014-03-15
Purpose: Dose efficiency of dual kVp imaging can be improved if the two beams are filtered to remove photons in the common part of their spectra, thereby increasing spectral separation. While there are a number of advantages to rapid kVp-switching for dual energy, it may not be feasible to have two different filters for the two spectra. Therefore, the authors are interested in whether a fixed added filter can improve the dose efficiency of kVp-switching dual energy x-ray systems. Methods: The authors hypothesized that a K-edge filter would provide the energy selectivity needed to remove overlap of the spectra and hence increase the precision of material separation at constant dose. Preliminary simulations were done using calcium and water basis materials and 80 and 140 kVp x-ray spectra. Precision of the decomposition was evaluated based on the propagation of the Poisson noise through the decomposition function. Considering availability and cost, the authors chose a commercial Gd{sub 2}O{sub 2}S screen as the filter for their experimental validation. Experiments were conducted on a table-top system using a phantom with various thicknesses of acrylic and copper and 70 and 125 kVp x-ray spectra. The authors kept the phantom exposure roughly constant with and without filtration by adjusting the tube current. The filtered and unfiltered raw data of both low and high energy were decomposed into basis material and the variance of the decomposition for each thickness pair was calculated. To evaluate the filtration performance, the authors measured the ratio of material decomposition variance with and without filtration. Results: Simulation results show that the ideal filter material depends on the object composition and thickness, and ranges across the lanthanide series, with higher atomic number filters being preferred for more attenuating objects. Variance reduction increases with filter thickness, and substantial reductions (40%) can be achieved with a 2× loss in intensity. The authors’ experimental results validate the simulations, yet were overall slightly worse than expectation. For large objects, conventional (non-K-edge) beam hardening filters perform well. Conclusions: This study demonstrates the potential of fixed K-edge filtration to improve the dose efficiency and material decomposition precision for rapid kVp-switching dual energy systems.
Modeling, Estimation, and Control of Waste Heat Recovery Systems
Luong, David
2013-01-01
State Estimation for Open Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC)138optimization of an organic Rankine cycle waste heat powerand Simulation of an Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) System for
Dual annular rotating [open quotes]windowed[close quotes] nuclear reflector reactor control system
Jacox, M.G.; Drexler, R.L.; Hunt, R.N.M.; Lake, J.A.
1994-03-29
A nuclear reactor control system is provided in a nuclear reactor having a core operating in the fast neutron energy spectrum where criticality control is achieved by neutron leakage. The control system includes dual annular, rotatable reflector rings. There are two reflector rings: an inner reflector ring and an outer reflector ring. The reflectors are concentrically assembled, surround the reactor core, and each reflector ring includes a plurality of openings. The openings in each ring are capable of being aligned or non-aligned with each other. Independent driving means for each of the annular reflector rings is provided so that reactor criticality can be initiated and controlled by rotation of either reflector ring such that the extent of alignment of the openings in each ring controls the reflection of neutrons from the core. 4 figures.
Estimating the Actual Cost of Transmission System Congestion
with electric transmission. One such component is transmission system conEstimating the Actual Cost of Transmission System Congestion Thomas J. Overbye Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Urbana, IL 61801 USA overbye
Estimation of the optimal damping for mechanical vibrating systems
Truhar, Ninoslav
Estimation of the optimal damping for mechanical vibrating systems NinoslavTruhar, Zoran University of Osijek Series: Technical Reports #12;ESTIMATION OF THE OPTIMAL DAMPING FOR MECHANICAL VIBRATING in mechanical systems. Our algorithm optimize simultaneously the dampers' positions and their viscosities
Horowitz, Roberto
Track-Following Control with Active Vibration Damping of a PZT-Actuated Suspension Dual-Stage Servo system in hard disk drives. The proposed control structure includes an active vibration damping control loop and a track-following control loop. The vibration damping control loop, which runs at a faster
Horowitz, Roberto
Track-Following Control with Active Vibration Damping of a PZT-Actuated Suspension Dual-Stage Servo system in hard disk drives. The proposed control structure includes an active vibration damping control loop and a track- following control loop. The vibration damping con- trol loop, which runs at a faster
Procedure and Application for Determining the Cold Deck and Hot Deck Airflow in a Dual-Duct System
Liu, G.; Mingsheng, L.
2006-01-01
This paper introduces an innovative method to determine the cold and hot airflow through a dual-duct variable air volume (VAV) system. The actual building load can be identified based on the calculated airflow and temperature for both the cold...
Horowitz, Roberto
Design, Fabrication and Control of Micro-Actuators for Dual-Stage Servo Systems in Magnetic Disk to achieve such a storage density. A disk drive stores data as magnetic patterns, forming bits, on one of disk on an air-bearing. The VCM actuates the suspensions and sliders about a pivot in the center
Cost estimation of human systems integration
Liu, Kevin K. (Kevin Kaitan), 1986-
2010-01-01
Human Systems Integration (HSI) is the interdisciplinary technical and management processes for integrating human considerations within and across all system elements. The goal of this research is to develop a better ...
Electro-hydraulic control system for a dual-pass continuously variable transmission
Algrain, M.C.; Anderson, S.R.; Smirl, R.L.
1991-07-16
This patent describes a control system for controlling the hydraulic pressure in a dual-pass continuously variable transmission system having a plurality of drive paths from a power input to a power output, and a continuously variable component including first and second variable pulleys disposed respectively on first and second intermediate shafts, the transmission system having first and second clutches engagable to effect transition from a first drive path in which the first variable pulley is the driver pulley to a second drive path in which the second variable pulley is the driver pulley, the transmission system being releasable to effect a transition from the second drive path to the first drive path. It comprises means to provide a primary hydraulic pressure to each of the first and second variable pulleys; means for providing a secondary hydraulic pressure to each of the first and second variable pulleys; means for electrically regulating the primary and secondary pressures responsive to engine conditions; and means for directing the primary and secondary hydraulic pressures to the first and second variable pulleys in response to change of drive path.
Estimating Dual-scale Properties of Glossy Surfaces from Step-edge Lighting Chun-Po Wang
Keinan, Alon
-edge illumination from a pla- nar sample of a surface to estimate both the BRDF and the statistics of meso-scale
MMSE Noise Power and SNR Estimation for OFDM Systems
Arslan, Hüseyin
MMSE Noise Power and SNR Estimation for OFDM Systems Tevfik Y¨ucek and H¨useyin Arslan Department-- This paper proposes a minimum mean-square error (MMSE) filtering technique to estimate the noise power that takes into account the variation of the noise statistics across the orthogonal frequency division
Imaging system for cardiac planar imaging using a dedicated dual-head gamma camera
Majewski, Stanislaw (Morgantown, VA); Umeno, Marc M. (Woodinville, WA)
2011-09-13
A cardiac imaging system employing dual gamma imaging heads co-registered with one another to provide two dynamic simultaneous views of the heart sector of a patient torso. A first gamma imaging head is positioned in a first orientation with respect to the heart sector and a second gamma imaging head is positioned in a second orientation with respect to the heart sector. An adjustment arrangement is capable of adjusting the distance between the separate imaging heads and the angle between the heads. With the angle between the imaging heads set to 180 degrees and operating in a range of 140-159 keV and at a rate of up to 500kHz, the imaging heads are co-registered to produce simultaneous dynamic recording of two stereotactic views of the heart. The use of co-registered imaging heads maximizes the uniformity of detection sensitivity of blood flow in and around the heart over the whole heart volume and minimizes radiation absorption effects. A normalization/image fusion technique is implemented pixel-by-corresponding pixel to increase signal for any cardiac region viewed in two images obtained from the two opposed detector heads for the same time bin. The imaging system is capable of producing enhanced first pass studies, bloodpool studies including planar, gated and non-gated EKG studies, planar EKG perfusion studies, and planar hot spot imaging.
Estimation of system reliability using a semiparametric model
Wu, Leon
An important problem in reliability engineering is to predict the failure rate, that is, the frequency with which an engineered system or component fails. This paper presents a new method of estimating failure rate using ...
System to estimate ages and redshifts for radio galaxies
O. V. Verkhodanov; A. I. Kopylov; N. V. Verkhodanova; O. P. Zhelenkova; V. N. Chernenkov; Yu. N. Parijskij; N. S. Soboleva; A. V. Temirova
2001-12-06
The system allowing a user to operate with simulated curves of spectral energy distribution (SED) and to estimate ages and redshifts by photometric data at server {\\bf sed.sao.ru} is described.
Precipitable water structure in tropical systems as estimated from TOVS
Hatfield, Eric
1994-01-01
The spatial and temporal structures of precipitable water (pW) in tropical systems are estimated using TIROS Operational Vertical Sounder (TOVS) radiances over ten cool seasons and two entire years. Statistical regression ...
Estimating a Demand System with Nonnegativity Constraints: Mexican Meat Demand
Carlini, David
Estimating a Demand System with Nonnegativity Constraints: Mexican Meat Demand Amos Golan* Jeffrey an almost ideal demand system for five types of meat using cross-sectional data from Mexico, where most households did not buy at least one type of meat during the survey week. The system of demands is shown
Evaluation of mutual information estimators on nonlinear dynamic systems
A. Papana; D. Kugiumtzis
2008-09-12
Mutual information is a nonlinear measure used in time series analysis in order to measure the linear and non-linear correlations at any lag $\\tau$. The aim of this study is to evaluate some of the most commonly used mutual information estimators, i.e. estimators based on histograms (with fixed or adaptive bin size), $k$-nearest neighbors and kernels. We assess the accuracy of the estimators by Monte-Carlo simulations on time series from nonlinear dynamical systems of varying complexity. As the true mutual information is generally unknown, we investigate the existence and rate of consistency of the estimators (convergence to a stable value with the increase of time series length), and the degree of deviation among the estimators. The results show that the $k$-nearest neighbor estimator is the most stable and less affected by the method-specific parameter.
Mass Production Cost Estimation for Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems...
Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site
2008 Update Mass Production Cost Estimation for Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems for Automotive Applications: 2008 Update This report estimates fuel cell system cost for systems...
Mass Production Cost Estimation for Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems...
Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site
2007 Update Mass Production Cost Estimation for Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems for Automotive Applications: 2007 Update This report estimates fuel cell system cost for systems...
Ferrari-Trecate, Giancarlo
. Keywords: Large scale systems, moving horizon estimator, system partitioning, hydro power valley. 1
System and method for motor parameter estimation
Luhrs, Bin; Yan, Ting
2014-03-18
A system and method for determining unknown values of certain motor parameters includes a motor input device connectable to an electric motor having associated therewith values for known motor parameters and an unknown value of at least one motor parameter. The motor input device includes a processing unit that receives a first input from the electric motor comprising values for the known motor parameters for the electric motor and receive a second input comprising motor data on a plurality of reference motors, including values for motor parameters corresponding to the known motor parameters of the electric motor and values for motor parameters corresponding to the at least one unknown motor parameter value of the electric motor. The processor determines the unknown value of the at least one motor parameter from the first input and the second input and determines a motor management strategy for the electric motor based thereon.
Optimal PMU Placement Evaluation for Power System Dynamic State Estimation
Pollefeys, Marc
Optimal PMU Placement Evaluation for Power System Dynamic State Estimation Jinghe Zhang, Student--The synchronized phasor measurement unit (PMU), developed in the 1980s, is considered to be one of the most important devices in the future of power systems. The recent development of PMU technology provides high
Online Energy Estimation of Relational Operations in Database Systems
Tu, Yicheng
1 Online Energy Estimation of Relational Operations in Database Systems Zichen Xu # , Yi-Cheng Tu known to consume a large amount of energy. As databases are one of the major applications in a data center, building energy-aware database systems has become an active research topic recently
Estimating the Attractor Dimension of the Equatorial Weather System
Melvin Leok Boon Tiong
1995-10-25
The correlation dimension and limit capacity serve theoretically as lower and upper bounds, respectively, of the fractal dimension of attractors of dynamic systems. In this paper, we show that estimates of the correlation dimension grow rapidly with increasing noise level in the time-series, while estimates of the limit capacity remain relatively unaffected. It is therefore proposed that the limit capacity be used in studies of noisy data, despite its heavier computational requirements. An analysis of Singapore wind data with the limit capacity estimate revealed a surprisingly low dimension (~2.5). It is suggested that further studies be made with comprehensive equatorial weather data.
Cascaded systems analysis of noise reduction algorithms in dual-energy imaging
Richard, Samuel; Siewerdsen, Jeffrey H. [Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5G 2M9 (Canada); Ontario Cancer Institute, Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto, Ontario M5G 2M9 (Canada) and Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5G 2M9 (Canada)
2008-02-15
An important aspect of dual-energy (DE) x-ray image decomposition is the incorporation of noise reduction techniques to mitigate the amplification of quantum noise. This article extends cascaded systems analysis of imaging performance to DE imaging systems incorporating linear noise reduction algorithms. A general analytical formulation of linear DE decomposition is derived, with weighted log subtraction and several previously reported noise reduction algorithms emerging as special cases. The DE image noise-power spectrum (NPS) and modulation transfer function (MTF) demonstrate that noise reduction algorithms impart significant, nontrivial effects on the spatial-frequency-dependent transfer characteristics which do not cancel out of the noise-equivalent quanta (NEQ). Theoretical predictions were validated in comparison to the measured NPS and MTF. The resulting NEQ was integrated with spatial-frequency-dependent task functions to yield the detectability index, d{sup '}, for evaluation of DE imaging performance using different decomposition algorithms. For a 3 mm lung nodule detection task, the detectability index varied from d{sup '}<1 (i.e., nodule barely visible) in the absence of noise reduction to d{sup '}>2.5 (i.e., nodule clearly visible) for ''anti-correlated noise reduction'' (ACNR) or ''simple-smoothing of the high-energy image'' (SSH) algorithms applied to soft-tissue or bone-only decompositions, respectively. Optimal dose allocation (A{sup *}, the fraction of total dose delivered in the low-energy projection) was also found to depend on the choice of noise reduction technique. At fixed total dose, multi-function optimization suggested a significant increase in optimal dose allocation from A{sup *}=0.32 for conventional log subtraction to A{sup *}=0.79 for ACNR and SSH in soft-tissue and bone-only decompositions, respectively. Cascaded systems analysis extended to the general formulation of DE image decomposition provided an objective means of investigating DE imaging performance across a broad range of acquisition and decomposition algorithms in a manner that accounts for the spatial-frequency-dependent imaging task.
Improved measurement placement and topology processing in power system state estimation
Wu, Yang
2009-06-02
State estimation plays an important role in modern power system energy management systems. The network observability is a pre-requisite for the state estimation solution. Topological error in the network may cause the state estimation results...
Efficient estimation of resonant coupling between quantum systems
Markku P. V. Stenberg; Yuval R. Sanders; Frank K. Wilhelm
2014-11-04
We present an efficient method for the characterization of two coupled discrete quantum systems, one of which can be controlled and measured. For two systems with transition frequencies $\\omega_q$, $\\omega_r$, and coupling strength $g$ we show how to obtain estimates of $g$ and $\\omega_r$ whose error decreases exponentially in the number of measurement shots rather than as a power law expected in simple approaches. Our algorithm can thereby identify $g$ and $\\omega_r$ simultaneously with high precision in a few hundred measurement shots. This is achieved by adapting measurement settings upon data as it is collected. We also introduce a method to eliminate erroneous estimates with small overhead. Our algorithm is robust against the presence of relaxation and typical noise. Our results are applicable to many candidate technologies for quantum computation, in particular, for the characterization of spurious two-level systems in superconducting qubits or stripline resonators.
Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]
Presents a universal dual fuel ratio controller designed to control the fueling and emissions of dual fuel systems
Low and high Temperature Dual Thermoelectric Generation Waste...
Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site
and high Temperature Dual Thermoelectric Generation Waste Heat Recovery System for Light-Duty Vehicles Low and high Temperature Dual Thermoelectric Generation Waste Heat Recovery...
Wise, Evan Dale
2013-01-01
The Microsized Microwave Atmospheric Satellite (MicroMAS) combines two traditional control approaches: a dual spinner and a three-axis gyrostat. Unlike typical dual spinners, the purpose of MicroMAS 's 2U bus and spinner ...
Performance enhancement approaches for a dual energy x-ray
Fu, Kenneth
2010-01-01
Evans, J.P.O. , “Stereoscopic dual energy imaging for targetCrawford, C.R. , “Dual Energy Volumetric X-ray Tomographicimages in 4–10 MeV Dual- energy customs system for material
Chemical Potential in the Gravity Dual of a 2+1 Dimensional System
Nick Evans; Ed Threlfall
2009-02-16
We study probe D5 branes in D3 brane AdS_5 and AdS_5-Schwarzschild backgrounds as a prototype dual description of strongly coupled 2+1 dimensional quasi-particles. We introduce a chemical potential through the U(1)_R symmetry group, U(1) baryon number and a U(1) of isospin in the multi-flavour case. We find the appropriate D5 embeddings in each case - the embeddings do not exhibit the spontaneous symmetry breaking that would be needed for a superconductor. The isospin chemical potential does induce the condensation of charged meson states.
Optimizing symbol timing, frequency spacing, and SNR estimation for communication systems
Das, Aniruddha
QAM signals,” in Communications, Circuits and Systems, 2004.and SNR estimation for communication systems A dissertationfor digital communication systems,” Signal Processing, IEEE
Nowak, T.W.; Lange, K.J.; Grant, W.H.; Patout, T.S.
1995-12-31
This paper presents a case history involving a unique dual cement system to shut off a geopressured water channel behind casing utilizing coiled tubing. The channeling problem was identified and documented using water flow logging techniques. Logging indicated the lower gravel packed selective could produce salt water if perforated without eliminating the suspected water channel. Reserves did not warrant a major rig workover, making a non-rig workover via coiled tubing the only viable option to repair the well. A unique dual cement system tested on a hesitation squeeze schedule pumped through coiled tubing with extremely limited thickening time was necessary to repair the primary cement job.
Liu, M.; Abbas, M.; Veteto, B.; Claridge, D. E.; Bruner, H.
1998-01-01
reduced the chilled water energy consumption by 7,571 MMBtu/yr (18%) and 303 MWh/yr (18%) for the fan power. The estimated heating energy savings are 2,327 MMBtu/yr. The estimated annual cost savings are $75,040/yr. This paper presents the building and AHU...
Norm estimates of complex symmetric operators applied to quantum systems
Emil Prodan; Stephan R. Garcia; Mihai Putinar
2005-10-24
This paper communicates recent results in theory of complex symmetric operators and shows, through two non-trivial examples, their potential usefulness in the study of Schr\\"odinger operators. In particular, we propose a formula for computing the norm of a compact complex symmetric operator. This observation is applied to two concrete problems related to quantum mechanical systems. First, we give sharp estimates on the exponential decay of the resolvent and the single-particle density matrix for Schr\\"odinger operators with spectral gaps. Second, we provide new ways of evaluating the resolvent norm for Schr\\"odinger operators appearing in the complex scaling theory of resonances.
Yoshikawa, Kiyoshi; Masuda, Kai; Takamatsu, Teruhisa; Yamamoto, Yasushi; Toku, Hisayuki; Fujimoto, Takashi [Institute of Advanced Energy, Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Hotta, Eiki; Yamauchi, Kunihito [Department of Energy Sciences, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259-G3-36 Nagatsuda-cho, Midori-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa 226-8502 (Japan); Ohnishi, Masami; Osawa, Hodaka [Department of Electrical Engineering, Kansai University, 3-3-35 Yamate-cho, Suita, Osaka 564-8680 (Japan); Shiroya, Seiji; Misawa, Tsuyoshi; Takahashi, Yoshiyuki [Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University, Kumatori-cho, Sennan-gun, Osaka 590-0494 (Japan); Kubo, Yoshikazu; Doi, Toshiro [JGC Corporation, Minato-Mirai, Nishi-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa (Japan)
2009-03-10
A 5-year task is described on the research and development of the advanced humanitarian landmine detection system by using a compact discharge-type fusion neutron source called IECF (Inertial-Electrostatic Confinement Fusion) device and 3 dual sensors made of BGO and NaI(Tl). With 10{sup 7} D-D neutrons/s stably produced in steady-state mode, H-2.2 MeV, N-5.3, 10.8 MeV {gamma} rays from (n,{gamma}) reaction with hydrogen and nitrogen atoms in the explosives are measured for two kinds of explosives (TNT, RDX), under the conditions of three different buried depths, and soil moistures each. Final probabilities of detection for arid soil are found to be 100% in the present tests. The neutron backscattering method is also found to be efficient.
Measurement calibration/tuning & topology processing in power system state estimation
Zhong, Shan
2005-02-17
State estimation plays an important role in modern power systems. The errors in the telemetered measurements and the connectivity information of the network will greatly contaminate the estimated system state. This dissertation provides solutions...
Mass Production Cost Estimation for Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems...
Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]
reports on the status of mass production cost estimation for direct hydrogen PEM fuel cell systems. Mass Production Cost Estimation for Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems for...
RADIOISOTOPE-DRIVEN DUAL-MODE PROPULSION SYSTEM FOR CUBESAT-SCALE PAYLOADS TO THE OUTER PLANETS
N. D. Jerred; T. M. Howe; S. D. Howe; A. Rajguru
2014-02-01
It is apparent the cost of planetary exploration is rising as mission budgets declining. Currently small scientific beds geared to performing limited tasks are being developed and launched into low earth orbit (LEO) in the form of small-scale satellite units, i.e., CubeSats. These micro- and nano-satellites are gaining popularity among the university and science communities due to their relatively low cost and design flexibility. To date these small units have been limited to performing tasks in LEO utilizing solar-based power. If a reasonable propulsion system could be developed, these CubeSat platforms could perform exploration of various extra-terrestrial bodies within the solar system engaging a broader range of researchers. Additionally, being mindful of mass, smaller cheaper launch vehicles (approximately 1,000 kgs to LEO) can be targeted. Thus, in effect, allows for beneficial exploration to be conducted within limited budgets. Researchers at the Center for Space Nuclear Research (CSNR) are proposing a low mass, radioisotope-based, dual-mode propulsion system capable of extending the exploration realm of these CubeSats out of LEO.
Control Strategy for a Dual Loop EGR System to Meet Euro 6 and Beyond
Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]
Presentation given at the 2009 DEER Conference. This presentation focues on EGR and Boost systems for reducing the cost and lowering emissions of diesel engines.
Pedram, Massoud
Online Estimation of the Remaining Energy Capacity in Mobile Systems Considering System-Wide Power on estimating the remaining battery energy in Android OS-based mobile systems. This paper proposes to instrument for the whole system. Next, while ac- counting for the rate-capacity effect in batteries, the total power
Single Channel Estimation Algorithm for Acoustic OFDM Communication Systems
Lin, David; Barbieri, Alan; Mitra, Urbashi
2007-01-01
for Acoustic OFDM Communication Systems David Lin, Alanultrawideband communication System Hardware Hardwaremultiple-output systems underwater acoustic communication
The design of a dual-use pedal control system for use in roadable aircraft
Zelnick, Benjamin E. (Benjamin Eisenberg)
2007-01-01
The goal of this project is the design of a control system that will make operation of the vehicle intuitive and efficient in both ground and air mode. Using relevant precedents and specific functional and regulatory ...
Project Profile: Indirect, Dual-Media, Phase Changing Material Modular Thermal Energy Storage System
Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]
Acciona Solar, under the Thermal Storage FOA, plans to design and validate a prototype and demonstrate a full-size (800 MWth) thermal energy storage (TES) system based on phase change materials (PCMs).
Develop the dual fuel conversion system for high output, medium speed diesel engines. Final report
1998-07-16
The original plan for the project involved design modifications to an existing system to enhance its performance and increase the limit of power that was achieved by the original design and to apply the higher performance product to the full sized engine and test its performance. The new system would also be applied to a different engine model. The specific work would include the redesign of gas injectors, piston configurations and two types of igniters, engine instrumentation, monitoring and testing.
Cost estimating issues in the Russian integrated system planning context
Allentuck, J.
1996-03-01
An important factor in the credibility of an optimal capacity expansion plan is the accuracy of cost estimates given the uncertainty of future economic conditions. This paper examines the problems associated with estimating investment and operating costs in the Russian nuclear power context over the period 1994 to 2010.
Guaranteed state estimation by zonotopes for systems with interval uncertainties
Damm, Werner
. Stoica T. Alamo E.F. Camacho D. Dumur This talk focuses on guaranteed state estimation by zonotopes [1 example. References [1] T. Alamo, J.M. Bravo, and E.F. Camacho. Guaranteed state estimation by zonotopes. Automatica, 41:10351043, 2005. [2] V.T.H. Le, T. Alamo, E.F. Camacho, C. Stoica, and D. Dumur. A new
Liu, T.; Ding, A.; Ji, W.; Xu, X. G. [Nuclear Engineering and Engineering Physics, Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst., Troy, NY 12180 (United States); Carothers, C. D. [Dept. of Computer Science, Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst. RPI (United States); Brown, F. B. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) (United States)
2012-07-01
Monte Carlo (MC) method is able to accurately calculate eigenvalues in reactor analysis. Its lengthy computation time can be reduced by general-purpose computing on Graphics Processing Units (GPU), one of the latest parallel computing techniques under development. The method of porting a regular transport code to GPU is usually very straightforward due to the 'embarrassingly parallel' nature of MC code. However, the situation becomes different for eigenvalue calculation in that it will be performed on a generation-by-generation basis and the thread coordination should be explicitly taken care of. This paper presents our effort to develop such a GPU-based MC code in Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA) environment. The code is able to perform eigenvalue calculation under simple geometries on a multi-GPU system. The specifics of algorithm design, including thread organization and memory management were described in detail. The original CPU version of the code was tested on an Intel Xeon X5660 2.8 GHz CPU, and the adapted GPU version was tested on NVIDIA Tesla M2090 GPUs. Double-precision floating point format was used throughout the calculation. The result showed that a speedup of 7.0 and 33.3 were obtained for a bare spherical core and a binary slab system respectively. The speedup factor was further increased by a factor of {approx}2 on a dual GPU system. The upper limit of device-level parallelism was analyzed, and a possible method to enhance the thread-level parallelism was proposed. (authors)
DualTrust: A Trust Management Model for Swarm-Based Autonomic Computing Systems
Maiden, Wendy M.
2010-05-01
Trust management techniques must be adapted to the unique needs of the application architectures and problem domains to which they are applied. For autonomic computing systems that utilize mobile agents and ant colony algorithms for their sensor layer, certain characteristics of the mobile agent ant swarm -- their lightweight, ephemeral nature and indirect communication -- make this adaptation especially challenging. This thesis looks at the trust issues and opportunities in swarm-based autonomic computing systems and finds that by monitoring the trustworthiness of the autonomic managers rather than the swarming sensors, the trust management problem becomes much more scalable and still serves to protect the swarm. After analyzing the applicability of trust management research as it has been applied to architectures with similar characteristics, this thesis specifies the required characteristics for trust management mechanisms used to monitor the trustworthiness of entities in a swarm-based autonomic computing system and describes a trust model that meets these requirements.
Imaging properties of the Medipix2 system exploiting single and dual energy thresholds
Tlustos, Lukas; Campbell, Michael; Heijne, Erik H M; Kincade, Karla Lorraine; Llopart-Cudie, Xavier; Stejskal, Pavel
2006-01-01
Low noise, high resolution and high dose efficiency are the common requirements for most X-ray imaging applications. Especially in medical applications the dose efficiency is a necessity for detector systems. We present the imaging performance of the Medipix2 readout chip bump bonded to a 300 mu m thick Si detector as a function of the detection threshold, a free parameter not available in conventional integrating imaging systems. Spatial resolution has been measured using the modulation transfer function (MTF) and it varies between 8.2 Ip/mm and 11.0 Ip/mm at 70%. An associated measurement of noise power spectrum (NPS) permits us to derive the detective quantum efficiency (DQE) which can be as a high as 25.5 % for a broadband incoming spectrum. The influence of charge diffusion in the sensor together with threshold variation in the readout chip is discussed. Although the Medipix2 system is used in photon counting mode with a single threshold in energy, the system is also capable of counting within a given en...
MRC-SPECT: A Sub-500 um Resolution MR-Compatible SPECT System for Simultaneous Dual-
Arizona, University of
in strong magnetic fields (3T, 9.4T or higher). Adequate timing and DOI resolutions and count-rate Non-magnetic SPECT system chassis Patient bed 1.5 m long arm to allow a remotely mounted motor.3 cm x 4.5 cm x 2 mm Four 2048-channel readout ASICs Copper Heat sink Rapid prototyping supporting
IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON CONTROL SYSTEMS TECHNOLOGY 1 Airborne Wind Energy Based on Dual Airfoils
Wind Energy [17]. Crosswind flight extracts power from the airflow by flying an airfoil tethered ad- vantage of power generation based on crosswind flight over conventional wind turbines of the tether during crosswind flight has a significant impact on the system performance. To tackle this issue
Garg, Saurabh; David Dornfeld
2008-01-01
FOR ESTIMATING CARBON FOOTPRINT OF ACADEMIA LIBRARY SYSTEMSacross the world. A carbon footprint is a measure of thethat can calculate the carbon footprint of a library system
Non-Data Aided Symbol Timing Estimation in MIMO Systems Ketan Rajawat and Ajit K Chaturvedi
Chaturvedi, A K
ML and the Stochastic ML (SML) methods. The proposed estimators utilize information about the observation length and without compromising data rate, unlike DA estimators. These factors have contributedNon-Data Aided Symbol Timing Estimation in MIMO Systems Ketan Rajawat and Ajit K Chaturvedi
Vasquez, M. R.; Tokumura, S.; Kasuya, T.; Wada, M.
2014-02-15
Discharge characteristics in the upstream as well as in the downstream regions of a 50-eV positive ion beam were measured along the beam axis. Single- and dual-electrode configurations made of 0.1-mm diameter tungsten wires were tested. By varying the upstream discharge parameters, the shape of the sheath edge around the extractors, which can either be “planar” or “cylindrical,” can be controlled. The sheath eventually affected the simultaneous extraction of ions and neutralizing electrons. The dual-electrode configuration at the lower discharge current, revealed a homogeneous discharge downstream. At this condition, the edge of the sheath can be inferred to be “planar” which allowed the uniform extraction and propagation of low-energy ions at longer distances. The dual-electrode configuration was capable of transmitting low-energy ions up to 70 mm downstream.
Tabares Velasco, P. C.
2011-04-01
This presentation discusses estimating heat and mass transfer processes in green roof systems: current modeling capabilities and limitations. Green roofs are 'specialized roofing systems that support vegetation growth on rooftops.'
sensitivity estimate using Bayesian fusion of instrumental observations and an Earth System model, J. Geophys System model Roman Olson,1 Ryan Sriver,1 Marlos Goes,2,3 Nathan M. Urban,4,5 H. Damon Matthews,6 MuraliA climate sensitivity estimate using Bayesian fusion of instrumental observations and an Earth
Method and system to estimate variables in an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plant
Kumar, Aditya; Shi, Ruijie; Dokucu, Mustafa
2013-09-17
System and method to estimate variables in an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plant are provided. The system includes a sensor suite to measure respective plant input and output variables. An extended Kalman filter (EKF) receives sensed plant input variables and includes a dynamic model to generate a plurality of plant state estimates and a covariance matrix for the state estimates. A preemptive-constraining processor is configured to preemptively constrain the state estimates and covariance matrix to be free of constraint violations. A measurement-correction processor may be configured to correct constrained state estimates and a constrained covariance matrix based on processing of sensed plant output variables. The measurement-correction processor is coupled to update the dynamic model with corrected state estimates and a corrected covariance matrix. The updated dynamic model may be configured to estimate values for at least one plant variable not originally sensed by the sensor suite.
ULS: A Dual-Vth/High-Nano-CMOS Universal Level Shifter for System-Level Power Management
Mohanty, Saraju P.
-SoCs are typically operated from a single power-supply source which is a battery providing a constant supply voltage presents a design flow and an algorithm for optimal design of the ULS using dual- Vth high- technique operated from a single power-supply source which is a battery providing a constant supply voltage. In order
Wireless realtime motion tracking system using localised orientation estimation
Young, Alexander D.
2010-01-01
A realtime wireless motion tracking system is developed. The system is capable of tracking the orientations of multiple wireless sensors, using a semi-distributed implementation to reduce network bandwidth and latency, ...
Pumping System Measurements To Estimate Energy Savings: Why and How
Casada, D.
2007-01-01
Measuring performance parameters (flow rate, pressures, and power) for existing systems is essential to understanding how both the pump(s) and system are actually performing. Examples of reasons why actual measurements are critical and practical...
DFMA Cost Estimates of Fuel-Cell/Reformer Systems
System ·Power conditioning and electronics (for FC/Ref. Only) ·Electrical System ·Control System ·Sensors.036.81 Ø3.94 Ø11.5Ø13.5 20 52.9 19182021 7 23 15 Ø4.18 Battery System TIM Traction Elec. Motor What is not included in Project: ·Traction Inverter Module (TIM) ·Traction Electric Motor ·Peak-Power/Start-Up Battery
Modeling, Estimation, and Control of Waste Heat Recovery Systems
Luong, David
2013-01-01
141 Open ORC Systemfor Open Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC)138 Evaporatorof an Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) System for Waste Heat
Economics of dual purpose production alternatives in the Mexican tropics
Ochoa-Ochoa, Rene Federico
1997-01-01
Technological, marketing, and financial alternatives to the dual purpose production system in Central Veracruz, Mexico were analyzed to assess their economic viability. A large dual purpose production operation was ...
Load Modeling and State Estimation Methods for Power Distribution Systems: Final Report
Tom McDermott
2010-05-07
The project objective was to provide robust state estimation for distribution systems, comparable to what has been available on transmission systems for decades. This project used an algorithm called Branch Current State Estimation (BCSE), which is more effective than classical methods because it decouples the three phases of a distribution system, and uses branch current instead of node voltage as a state variable, which is a better match to current measurement.
Modeling, Estimation, and Control of Waste Heat Recovery Systems
Luong, David
2013-01-01
simulations of an open power cycle using an actual drivingthis section simulated a power cycle to recover waste heatpurpose of simulating power cycle systems. The components
Modeling, Estimation, and Control of Waste Heat Recovery Systems
Luong, David
2013-01-01
System for Waste Heat Recovery. ” Journal of Heat Transfer,Rankine cycle for waste heat recovery. ” Energy, 29:1207–Strategy of Waste Heat Recovery Organic Rankine Cycles. ”
Estimation of Photovoltaic System Reliability and Performance Metrics
Liberzon, Daniel
the high levelized cost of energy (LCOE) for PV systems. The LCOE is defined as the ratio of the present plants that begin operation in 2016 are expected to have an LCOE of 210 $/MWhr (by comparison, the LCOE, respectively). In order to obtain PV system LCOE, it is necessary to calculate, among other things, net annual
1998-02-23
This quarter has the authors starting out with the engine mapped out in its standard dual fuel configuration. This means that the engine is configured to be exactly what the have been selling in the past. They have worked to install the new style gas injectors, Hydraulic power unit, control lines, gas lines and associated hardware. This hardware has been tested and is operational. They have been able to start at installing the spark ignition system but have been held up because of other more pressing work.
Nathan Jerred; Troy Howe; Adarsh Rajguru; Dr. Steven Howe
2014-06-01
It is apparent the cost of planetary exploration is rising as mission budgets declining. Currently small scientific beds geared to performing limited tasks are being developed and launched into low earth orbit (LEO) in the form of small-scale satellite units, i.e., CubeSats. These micro- and nano-satellites are gaining popularity among the university and science communities due to their relatively low cost and design flexibility. To date these small units have been limited to performing tasks in LEO utilizing solar-based power. If a reasonable propulsion system could be developed, these CubeSat platforms could perform exploration of various extra-terrestrial bodies within the solar system engaging a broader range of researchers. Additionally, being mindful of mass, smaller cheaper launch vehicles (~1,000 kgs to LEO) can be targeted. This, in effect, allows for beneficial explora-tion to be conducted within limited budgets. Researchers at the Center for Space Nuclear Re-search (CSNR) are proposing a low mass, radioisotope-based, dual-mode propulsion system capable of extending the exploration realm of these CubeSats out of LEO. The proposed radioisotope-based system would leverage the high specific energies [J/kg] associated with radioisotope materials and enhance their inherent low specific powers [W/g]. This is accomplished by accumulating thermal energy from nuclear decay within a central core over time. This allows for significant amounts of power to be transferred to a flowing gas over short periods of time. In the proposed configuration the stored energy can be utilized in two ways: (1) with direct propellant injection to the core, the energy can be converted into thrust through the use of a converging-diverging nozzle and (2) by flowing a working fluid through the core and subsequent Brayton engine, energy within the core can be converted to electrical energy. The first scenario achieves moderate ranges of thrust, but at a higher Isp than traditional chemical-based systems. The second scenario allows for the production of electrical power, which is then available for electric-based propulsion. Additionally, once at location the production of electrical power can be dedicated to the payload’s communication system for data transfer. Ultimately, the proposed dual-mode propulsion platform capitalizes on the benefits of two types of propulsion methods – the thrust of thermal propulsion ideal for quick orbital maneuvers and the specific impulse of electric propulsion ideal for efficient inter-planetary travel. Previous versions of this RTR-based concept have been studied for various applications [NETS 1-3]. The current version of this concept is being matured through a NASA Innovative Advanced Concepts (NIAC) Phase I grant, awarded for FY 2014. In this study the RTR concept is being developed to deliver a 6U CubeSat payload to the orbit of the Saturnian moon - Enceladus. Additionally, this study will develop an entire mission architecture for Enceladus targeting a total allowable launch mass of 1,000 kg.
Parameter Estimation of Complex Systems from Sparse and Noisy Data
Chu, Yunfei
2011-02-22
tasks. The performance of model based techniques, e.g. system analysis, computer simulation, controller design, sensor development, state filtering, product monitoring, and process optimization, is highly dependent on the quality of the model used...
Mobile sensor systems for field estimation and "hot spot" identification
Kumar, Sumeet, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology
2014-01-01
Robust, low-cost mobile sensing enables effective monitoring and management of urban environment and infrastructure which contributes towards a sustainable future. While mobile sensor systems have attracted significant ...
Estimating memory locality for virtual machines on NUMA systems
Milouchev, Alexandre (Alexandre M.)
2013-01-01
The multicore revolution sparked another, similar movement towards scalable memory architectures. With most machines nowadays exhibiting non-uniform memory access (NUMA) properties, software and operating systems have seen ...
Henderson, Peter
scales of many projects today. ICL has undertaken an experiment using an alternative life cycle model-diagram waterfall life cycle model to plan and control the development of platform software and systems. Estimates the estimates. A number of alternative life cycle models and development methods, [3] and [13] are examples
Bayesian estimation of dynamic systems function expansions Georgios D. Mitsis and Saad Jbabdi
Mitsis, Georgios
coefficients utilizing least-squares estimation in connection with discrete-time Laguerre expansions [9Bayesian estimation of dynamic systems function expansions Georgios D. Mitsis and Saad Jbabdi, the rate of which is determined by the Laguerre parameter . A critical aspect of the Laguerre expansion
ESTIMATING DAMPING PARAMETERS IN MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM VIBRATION SYSTEMS BY BALANCING ENERGY0
Feeny, Brian
ESTIMATING DAMPING PARAMETERS IN MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM VIBRATION SYSTEMS BY BALANCING ENERGY0 B is outlined, involving a balance of dissipated and supplied energies over a cycle of pe- riodic vibration a damping estimation method based on the balance of energy. The idea is to compute the energy input per
Current Estimation and Remote Temperature Monitoring System for Low Power Digitally
Prodiæ, Aleksandar
1139 Current Estimation and Remote Temperature Monitoring System for Low Power Digitally Controlled-state inductor current and, at the same time, provide remote temperature monitoring of power switches in low a solution for combining a digital controller, current estimator and remote temperature monitor on a single
Estimating Well Costs for Enhanced Geothermal System Applications
K. K. Bloomfield; P. T. Laney
2005-08-01
The objective of the work reported was to investigate the costs of drilling and completing wells and to relate those costs to the economic viability of enhanced geothermal systems (EGS). This is part of a larger parametric study of major cost components in an EGS. The possibility of improving the economics of EGS can be determined by analyzing the major cost components of the system, which include well drilling and completion. Determining what costs in developing an EGS are most sensitive will determine the areas of research to reduce those costs. The results of the well cost analysis will help determine the cost of a well for EGS development.
Griffith, Daniel Todd
2005-02-17
The main objective of this work is to demonstrate some new computational methods for estimation, optimization and modeling of dynamical systems that use automatic differentiation. Particular focus will be upon dynamical ...
Mass Production Cost Estimation for Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems...
Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site
2009 Update Mass Production Cost Estimation for Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems for Automotive Application: 2009 Update This report is the third annual update of a comprehensive...
Mass Production Cost Estimation for Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems...
Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site
2010 Update Mass Production Cost Estimation for Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems for Automotive Applications: 2010 Update This report is the fourth annual update of a comprehensive...
Complete System Power Estimation: A Trickle-Down Approach Based on Performance Events
John, Lizy Kurian
knowledge, we are the first to create power models for the entire system based on processor performance of these models and existing on-chip performance event counters, it is possible to estimate system power subsystems, we identify six performance events for modeling the entire system power. The resultant models
SOLAR HEAT GAIN THROUGH FENESTRATION SYSTEMS CONTAINING SHADING: PROCEDURES FOR ESTIMATING
SOLAR HEAT GAIN THROUGH FENESTRATION SYSTEMS CONTAINING SHADING: PROCEDURES FOR ESTIMATING that with a drastic simplifying assumption these methods can be used to calculate system solar-optical properties and solar heat gain coefficients for arbitrary glazing systems, while requiring limited data about
Noise Power and SNR Estimation for OFDM Based Wireless Communication Systems
Arslan, HÃ¼seyin
Noise Power and SNR Estimation for OFDM Based Wireless Communication Systems HÂ¨useyin Arslan for measuring the quality of the channel. Then, the system parameters are changed adaptively based of information transfer can be used to maximize system resource utilization with high quality of user experience
Deshmukh, Venkatesh
Dynamical Systems Venkatesh Deshmukh Center for Nonlinear Dynamics and Control Department of Mechanical dynamic system models to be constructed from available data. The parameters to be estimated are assumed in the dynamic system models are assumed to have a known form, and the models are assumed to be parameter affine
Estimation of confidence levels for physiology variables measured by a vital signs detection system
Estimation of confidence levels for physiology variables measured by a vital signs detection system Quantifying the accuracy of physiological data measured by a Vital Signs Detection System (VSDS) plays a key,2 The Vital Signs Detection System (VSDS) tested by the U.S. Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine
Indoor Position Estimation System for Wide Area Augmented Reality Applications
Zakhor, Avideh
reality applications is to localize the user accurately so as to superimpose metadata in the user's field, scalable way; (b) construct multiple sensor e.g. WiFi and imagery signature databases for the same or carrying a mo- bile device equipped with a camera and WiFi sensor. The system consists of a man portable
Estimating Hurricane Outage and Damage Risk in Power Distribution System
Han, Seung Ryong
2009-05-15
Hurricanes have caused severe damage to the electric power system throughout the Gulf coast region of the U.S., and electric power is critical to post-hurricane disaster response as well as to long-term recovery for impacted areas. Managing...
UWB dual burst transmit driver
Dallum, Gregory E. (Livermore, CA); Pratt, Garth C. (Discovery Bay, CA); Haugen, Peter C. (Livermore, CA); Zumstein, James M. (Livermore, CA); Vigars, Mark L. (Livermore, CA); Romero, Carlos E. (Livermore, CA)
2012-04-17
A dual burst transmitter for ultra-wideband (UWB) communication systems generates a pair of precisely spaced RF bursts from a single trigger event. An input trigger pulse produces two oscillator trigger pulses, an initial pulse and a delayed pulse, in a dual trigger generator. The two oscillator trigger pulses drive a gated RF burst (power output) oscillator. A bias driver circuit gates the RF output oscillator on and off and sets the RF burst packet width. The bias driver also level shifts the drive signal to the level that is required for the RF output device.
Dual porosity gas evolving electrode
Townsend, C.W.
1994-11-15
A dual porosity electrode is described for use in thermoelectrochemical systems where simultaneous transport of gas and liquid into and/or out of the electrode is required. The electrode includes catalytic electrode particles having diameters ranging from about 25 to 100 angstroms. The catalytic electrode particles are anchored to a support network in clusters which have internal pores ranging in size from 25 to 100 angstroms. The pores between the clusters range in size from between about 1 to 20 microns. A method for making the dual porosity electrodes is also disclosed.
Kulkarni, Nagraj S. (Knoxville, TN); Kasica, Richard J. (Ashburn, VA) ,
2011-03-08
A dual-chamber reactor can include a housing enclosing a volume having a divider therein, where the divider defines a first chamber and a second chamber. The divider can include a substrate holder that supports at least one substrate and exposes a first side of the substrate to the first chamber and a second side of the substrate to the second chamber. The first chamber can include an inlet for delivering at least one reagent to the first chamber for forming a film on the first side of the substrate, and the second chamber can include a removal device for removing material from the second side of the substrate.
Miller, J.D.; Conner, C.C.
1993-11-01
At the request of the US Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD), the Pacific Northwest Laboratory estimated the material, labor, and operating costs for ventilation equipment needed for compliance with HUD`s proposed revision to the ventilation standard for manufactured housing. This was intended to bound the financial impacts of the ventilation standard revision. Researchers evaluated five possible prototype ventilation systems that met the proposed ventilation requirements. Of those five, two systems were determined to be the most likely used by housing manufacturers: System 1 combines a fresh air duct with the existing central forced-air system to supply and circulate fresh air to conditioned spaces. System 2 uses a separate exhaust fan to remove air from the manufactured home. The estimated material and labor costs for these two systems range from $200 to $300 per home. Annual operating costs for the two ventilation systems were estimated for 20 US cities. The estimated operating costs for System 1 ranged from $55/year in Las Vegas, Nevada, to $83/year in Bismarck, North Dakota. Operating costs for System 2 ranged from a low of $35/year in Las Vegas to $63/year in Bismarck. Thus, HUD`s proposed increase in ventilation requirements will add less than $100/year to the energy cost of a manufactured home.
Advanced digital PWR plant protection system based on optimal estimation theory
Tylee, J.L.
1981-04-01
An advanced plant protection system for the Loss-of-Fluid Test (LOFT) reactor plant is described and evaluated. The system, based on a Kalman filter estimator, is capable of providing on-line estimates of such critical variables as fuel and cladding temperature, departure from nucleate boiling ratio, and maximum linear heat generation rate. The Kalman filter equations are presented, as is a description of the LOFT plant dynamic model inherent in the filter. Simulation results demonstrate the performance of the advanced system.
STUDY OF THE MTC ESTIMATION BY NOISE ANALYSIS IN 2-D HETEROGENEOUS SYSTEMS
Demazière, Christophe
STUDY OF THE MTC ESTIMATION BY NOISE ANALYSIS IN 2-D HETEROGENEOUS SYSTEMS C. DEMAZIÈRE, I. PÁZSIT and Pázsit, 2002a). Nevertheless, this previous study only investigated 1-D one-group homogeneous systems. We propose here to perform a substantially more advanced study of the same problem in 2-D two-group diffusion
STATE ESTIMATION OF SOFC/GT HYBRID SYSTEM USING UKF Rambabu Kandepu*, 1
Foss, Bjarne A.
STATE ESTIMATION OF SOFC/GT HYBRID SYSTEM USING UKF Rambabu Kandepu*, 1 , Biao Huang** , Bjarne.Imsland@sintef.no Abstract: A description of a Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) combined Gas Turbine (GT) hybrid system is given reliability. One of the most promising fuel cell technologies is the Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC), due to its
The ArvinMeritor Dual Mode Hybrid Powertrain (DMHP): Opportunities...
Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site
ArvinMeritor Dual Mode Hybrid Powertrain (DMHP): Opportunities and Potential for Systems Optimization 2011 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program...
A BIM-based system for demolition and renovation waste estimation and planning
Cheng, Jack C.P., E-mail: cejcheng@ust.hk [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology (Hong Kong); Ma, Lauren Y.H., E-mail: yingzi@ust.hk [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology (Hong Kong)
2013-06-15
Highlights: ? We developed a waste estimation system leveraging the BIM technology. ? The system can calculate waste disposal charging fee and pick-up truck demand. ? We presented an example scenario demonstrating this system. ? Automatic, time-saving and wide applicability are the features of the system. - Abstract: Due to the rising worldwide awareness of green environment, both government and contractors have to consider effective construction and demolition (C and D) waste management practices. The last two decades have witnessed the growing importance of demolition and renovation (D and R) works and the growing amount of D and R waste disposed to landfills every day, especially in developed cities like Hong Kong. Quantitative waste prediction is crucial for waste management. It can enable contractors to pinpoint critical waste generation processes and to plan waste control strategies. In addition, waste estimation could also facilitate some government waste management policies, such as the waste disposal charging scheme in Hong Kong. Currently, tools that can accurately and conveniently estimate the amount of waste from construction, renovation, and demolition projects are lacking. In the light of this research gap, this paper presents a building information modeling (BIM) based system that we have developed for estimation and planning of D and R waste. BIM allows multi-disciplinary information to be superimposed within one digital building model. Our system can extract material and volume information through the BIM model and integrate the information for detailed waste estimation and planning. Waste recycling and reuse are also considered in our system. Extracted material information can be provided to recyclers before demolition or renovation to make recycling stage more cooperative and more efficient. Pick-up truck requirements and waste disposal charging fee for different waste facilities will also be predicted through our system. The results could provide alerts to contractors ahead of time at project planning stage. This paper also presents an example scenario with a 47-floor residential building in Hong Kong to demonstrate our D and R waste estimation and planning system. As the BIM technology has been increasingly adopted in the architectural, engineering and construction industry and digital building information models will likely to be available for most buildings (including historical buildings) in the future, our system can be used in various demolition and renovation projects and be extended to facilitate project control.
XI. DIFFUSEGLOBAL CORRELATIONS: SEASONAL VARIATIONS Estimating the performance of a solar system
Oregon, University of
39 XI. DIFFUSEGLOBAL CORRELATIONS: SEASONAL VARIATIONS Estimating the performance of a solar system requires an accurate assessment of incident solar radiation. Ordinarily, solar radiation-9]. In the previous section we presented a one- parameter correlation study using direct and global data from our
Query Cost Estimation through Remote System Contention States Analysis over the Internet
Liu, Weiru
Query Cost Estimation through Remote System Contention States Analysis over the Internet Weiru Liu costs of possible query plans in order to select the best one with the minimum cost. In this context, the cost of a query is affected by three factors: network congestion, server contention state
seari.mit.edu 2009 Massachusetts Institute of Technology 1 Better Early Estimation of Human Systems
de Weck, Olivier L.
WWII #12;seari.mit.edu © 2009 Massachusetts Institute of Technology 4 Why Measure SE/HSI Cost? Aircraft of Technology 9 Disconnect Between SE/PM Estimate and Life Cycle Cost "Life Cycle Cost of Surface Combatants.mit.edu © 2009 Massachusetts Institute of Technology 10 Comparison of System Life Cycle Costs Surface Combatants
Towards Variation-Aware System-Level Power Estimation of DRAMs: An Empirical Approach
Delft, The Netherlands 2 Microelectronic Systems Design, TU Kaiserslautern, Germany 3 CISTER for worst-case impact of process variations and to improve their production yield, leading to unrealistic and the energy estimates (up to 28%), by using realistic current measures for a set of MediaBench applications. 1
PILOT OPTIMIZATION FOR TIME-DELAY AND CHANNEL ESTIMATION IN OFDM SYSTEMS
Swindlehurst, A. Lee
, Gonzalo Seco-Granados , A. Lee Swindlehurst Raytheon Company, Tucson, AZ 85756, USA, mdlarsen. Previous work has investigated this problem for channel estimation only, and found that equi-spaced, equi bits/s). On the other hand, WLAN systems based on the IEEE802.11x family of standards al- low
Seismic Intensity Estimation of Tall Buildings in Earthquake Early Warning System
Greer, Julia R.
prediction equation (GMPE) that predicts response spectral amplitude from knowledge of earthquake magnitudeSeismic Intensity Estimation of Tall Buildings in Earthquake Early Warning System M. H. Cheng & T. W. Graves U.S. Geological Survey, USA SUMMARY: In California, United States, an earthquake early
University of South Carolina Dual Employment Retirement Form
Almor, Amit
University of South Carolina Dual Employment Retirement Form As an external dual employment contributions will be determined based on the South Carolina Retirement Systems directives on the second page: South Carolina Retirement System (SCRS) Police Officers Retirement System (PORS) I am a member
Nexant Inc.
2006-05-01
This deliverable is the Final Report for Task 1, Cost Estimates of Small Modular Systems, as part of NREL Award ACO-5-44027, ''Equipment Design and Cost Estimation for Small Modular Biomass Systems, Synthesis Gas Cleanup and Oxygen Separation Equipment''. Subtask 1.1 looked into processes and technologies that have been commercially built at both large and small scales, with three technologies, Fluidized Catalytic Cracking (FCC) of refinery gas oil, Steam Methane Reforming (SMR) of Natural Gas, and Natural Gas Liquids (NGL) Expanders, chosen for further investigation. These technologies were chosen due to their applicability relative to other technologies being considered by NREL for future commercial applications, such as indirect gasification and fluidized bed tar cracking. Research in this subject is driven by an interest in the impact that scaling has on the cost and major process unit designs for commercial technologies. Conclusions from the evaluations performed could be applied to other technologies being considered for modular or skid-mounted applications.
Zhe An; Daniel Rey; Henry D. I. Abarbanel
2014-05-11
Utilizing the information in observations of a complex system to make accurate predictions through a quantitative model when observations are completed at time $T$, requires an accurate estimate of the full state of the model at time $T$. When the number of measurements $L$ at each observation time within the observation window is larger than a sufficient minimum value $L_s$, the impediments in the estimation procedure are removed. As the number of available observations is typically such that $L \\ll L_s$, additional information from the observations must be presented to the model. We show how, using the time delays of the measurements at each observation time, one can augment the information transferred from the data to the model, removing the impediments to accurate estimation and permitting dependable prediction. We do this in a core geophysical fluid dynamics model, the shallow water equations, at the heart of numerical weather prediction. The method is quite general, however, and can be utilized in the analysis of a broad spectrum of complex systems where measurements are sparse. When the model of the complex system has errors, the method still enables accurate estimation of the state of the model and thus evaluation of the model errors in a manner separated from uncertainties in the data assimilation procedure.
Quantitative Cyber Risk Reduction Estimation Methodology for a Small Scada Control System
Miles A. McQueen; Wayne F. Boyer; Mark A. Flynn; George A. Beitel
2006-01-01
We propose a new methodology for obtaining a quick quantitative measurement of the risk reduction achieved when a control system is modified with the intent to improve cyber security defense against external attackers. The proposed methodology employs a directed graph called a compromise graph, where the nodes represent stages of a potential attack and the edges represent the expected time-to-compromise for differing attacker skill levels. Time-to-compromise is modeled as a function of known vulnerabilities and attacker skill level. The methodology was used to calculate risk reduction estimates for a specific SCADA system and for a specific set of control system security remedial actions. Despite an 86% reduction in the total number of vulnerabilities, the estimated time-to-compromise was increased only by about 3 to 30% depending on target and attacker skill level.
Switchover software reliability estimate for Paducah Freezer/Sublimer computer systems
Flanagan, D.M.; Davis, J.N.
1993-04-01
K-25 Engineering Division purchased a series of redundant computer systems and developed software for the purpose of providing continuous process monitoring and control for the Freezer/Sublimer equipment in the gaseous diffusion process at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant. The application software is loaded on two central processing units (CPU) so that in the event of a failure of the primary unit, the processing can switch to the backup unit and continue processing without error. It is the purpose of this document to demonstrate the reliability of this system with respect to its ability to switch properly between redundant CPU. The total reliability estimation problem -- which considers the computer hardware, the operating system software, and the application software -- has been reduced to one that considers only the application software directly involved in the switchover process. Estimates are provided for software reliability and the testing coverage. Software and hardware reliability models and reliability growth models are considered in addition to Bayesian approaches.
Leskovar, Branko
2011-01-01
1975. M. W. Fitzmaurice, NASA Ground-Based and Space-Rased Laser Ranging Systems NASA Technical Paper 1149,Timing Receiver for the NASA Laser Ranging System, Part 1:
Mode Initialization for On-line Estimation of Power System Electromechanical Modes
Zhou, Ning; Trudnowski, Daniel; Pierre, John W.
2009-03-18
Measurement-based mode estimation methods are utilized to estimate electromechanical modes of a power system using phasor measurement units (PMU) data. These methods need to extract a certain amount of information before they can give useable mode estimation. Traditionally, the information is gathered solely from measurement data. Priori mode information from other resources (e.g. model eigenvalue analysis, engineering knowledge) are not fully utilized. For real time application, this means that mode estimation takes time to converge. By adding a mode regularization term in the objective function, this paper proposes a mode initialization method to include priori mode information in a regularized robust recursive least squares (R3LS) algorithm for on-line mode estimation. The proposed method is tested using a simple model, a 17 machine model and is shown to be able to shorten the convergence period of the R3LS algorithm. The proposed method is also applied on the measurement data recorded right before a major power outage in the western North American Grid on August 10th 1996 to show its potential applica-tion in detecting an approaching small signal stability problem.
Secure estimation and control for cyber-physical systems under adversarial attacks
Fawzi, Hamza; Diggavi, Suhas
2012-01-01
The vast majority of today's critical infrastructure is supported by numerous feedback control loops and an attack on these control loops can have disastrous consequences. This is a major concern since modern control systems are becoming large and decentralized and thus more vulnerable to attacks. This paper is concerned with the estimation and control of linear systems when some of the sensors or actuators are corrupted by an attacker. In the first part we look at the estimation problem where we characterize the resilience of a system to attacks and study the possibility of increasing its resilience by a change of parameters. We then propose an efficient algorithm to estimate the state despite the attacks and we characterize its performance. Our approach is inspired from the areas of error-correction over the reals and compressed sensing. In the second part we consider the problem of designing output-feedback controllers that stabilize the system despite attacks. We show that a principle of separation betwee...
Methodology for Estimating Solar Potential on Multiple Building Rooftops for Photovoltaic Systems
Kodysh, Jeffrey B [ORNL; Omitaomu, Olufemi A [ORNL; Bhaduri, Budhendra L [ORNL; Neish, Bradley S [ORNL
2013-01-01
In this paper, a methodology for estimating solar potential on multiple building rooftops is presented. The objective of this methodology is to estimate the daily or monthly solar radiation potential on individual buildings in a city/region using Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data and a geographic information system (GIS) approach. Conceptually, the methodology is based on the upward-looking hemispherical viewshed algorithm, but applied using an area-based modeling approach. The methodology considers input parameters, such as surface orientation, shadowing effect, elevation, and atmospheric conditions, that influence solar intensity on the earth s surface. The methodology has been implemented for some 212,000 buildings in Knox County, Tennessee, USA. Based on the results obtained, the methodology seems to be adequate for estimating solar radiation on multiple building rooftops. The use of LiDAR data improves the radiation potential estimates in terms of the model predictive error and the spatial pattern of the model outputs. This methodology could help cities/regions interested in sustainable projects to quickly identify buildings with higher potentials for roof-mounted photovoltaic systems.
Cost estimates for near-term depolyment of advanced traffic management systems. Final report
Stevens, S.S.; Chin, S.M.
1993-02-15
The objective of this study is to provide cost est engineering, design, installation, operation and maintenance of Advanced Traffic Management Systems (ATMS) in the largest 75 metropolitan areas in the United States. This report gives estimates for deployment costs for ATMS in the next five years, subject to the qualifications and caveats set out in following paragraphs. The report considers infrastructure components required to realize fully a functional ATMS over each of two highway networks (as discussed in the Section describing our general assumptions) under each of the four architectures identified in the MITRE Intelligent Vehicle Highway Systems (IVHS) Architecture studies. The architectures are summarized in this report in Table 2. Estimates are given for eight combinations of highway networks and architectures. We estimate that it will cost between $8.5 Billion (minimal network) and $26 Billion (augmented network) to proceed immediately with deployment of ATMS in the largest 75 metropolitan areas. Costs are given in 1992 dollars, and are not adjusted for future inflation. Our estimates are based partially on completed project costs, which have been adjusted to 1992 dollars. We assume that a particular architecture will be chosen; projected costs are broken by architecture.
Evaluation of liquid lift approach to dual gradient
Okafor, Ugochukwu Nnamdi
2009-05-15
.............................................. 5 2.3 Methods of Achieving Dual Gradient Drilling ...................... 9 2.3.1 Subsea Mudlift Drilling............................................... 10 2.3.2 Hollow Glass Spheres... ................................................... 9 2.5 Schematic diagram of a modified subsea mudlift system .......................... 11 2.6 Hollow glass-spheres dual gradient drilling system................................... 13 2.7 A typical offshore drilling rig modified...
Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)
This report estimates fuel cell system cost for systems produced in the years 2006, 2010, and 2015, and is the second annual update of a comprehensive automotive fuel cell cost analysis.
Baldick, Ross
IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER SYSTEMS, VOL. 16, NO. 2, MAY 2001 273 State Estimator Condition Number empirical results using the IEEE RTS-96 and IEEE 118 bus systems that validate the formulas. I. INTRODUCTION approximations with actual condition numbers for two IEEE test cases, using a state estimation software developed
Richardson, John G. (Idaho Falls, ID)
2009-11-17
An impedance estimation method includes measuring three or more impedances of an object having a periphery using three or more probes coupled to the periphery. The three or more impedance measurements are made at a first frequency. Three or more additional impedance measurements of the object are made using the three or more probes. The three or more additional impedance measurements are made at a second frequency different from the first frequency. An impedance of the object at a point within the periphery is estimated based on the impedance measurements and the additional impedance measurements.
Freeman, Matthew A
2006-10-30
estimation is explained for a simple serial estimator. Then the thesis shows how conventional measurements and newer, more accurate PMU measurements work within the framework of weighted least squares estimation. Next, the multi-area state estimator...
Lead Coolant Test Facility Systems Design, Thermal Hydraulic Analysis and Cost Estimate
Soli Khericha; Edwin Harvego; John Svoboda; Ryan Dalling
2012-01-01
The Idaho National Laboratory prepared a preliminary technical and functional requirements (T&FR), thermal hydraulic design and cost estimate for a lead coolant test facility. The purpose of this small scale facility is to simulate lead coolant fast reactor (LFR) coolant flow in an open lattice geometry core using seven electrical rods and liquid lead or lead-bismuth eutectic coolant. Based on review of current world lead or lead-bismuth test facilities and research needs listed in the Generation IV Roadmap, five broad areas of requirements were identified as listed: (1) Develop and Demonstrate Feasibility of Submerged Heat Exchanger; (2) Develop and Demonstrate Open-lattice Flow in Electrically Heated Core; (3) Develop and Demonstrate Chemistry Control; (4) Demonstrate Safe Operation; and (5) Provision for Future Testing. This paper discusses the preliminary design of systems, thermal hydraulic analysis, and simplified cost estimate. The facility thermal hydraulic design is based on the maximum simulated core power using seven electrical heater rods of 420 kW; average linear heat generation rate of 300 W/cm. The core inlet temperature for liquid lead or Pb/Bi eutectic is 4200 C. The design includes approximately seventy-five data measurements such as pressure, temperature, and flow rates. The preliminary estimated cost of construction of the facility is $3.7M (in 2006 $). It is also estimated that the facility will require two years to be constructed and ready for operation.
Gering, Kevin L.
2013-06-18
A system includes an electrochemical cell, monitoring hardware, and a computing system. The monitoring hardware periodically samples charge characteristics of the electrochemical cell. The computing system periodically determines cell information from the charge characteristics of the electrochemical cell. The computing system also periodically adds a first degradation characteristic from the cell information to a first sigmoid expression, periodically adds a second degradation characteristic from the cell information to a second sigmoid expression and combines the first sigmoid expression and the second sigmoid expression to develop or augment a multiple sigmoid model (MSM) of the electrochemical cell. The MSM may be used to estimate a capacity loss of the electrochemical cell at a desired point in time and analyze other characteristics of the electrochemical cell. The first and second degradation characteristics may be loss of active host sites and loss of free lithium for Li-ion cells.
Pineda Porras, Omar Andrey
2009-01-01
Over the past three decades, seismic fragility fonnulations for buried pipeline systems have been developed following two tendencies: the use of earthquake damage scenarios from several pipeline systems to create general pipeline fragility functions; and, the use of damage scenarios from one pipeline system to create specific-system fragility functions. In this paper, the advantages and disadvantages of both tendencies are analyzed and discussed; in addition, a summary of what can be considered the new challenges for developing better pipeline seismic fragility formulations is discussed. The most important conclusion of this paper states that more efforts are needed to improve the estimation of transient ground strain -the main cause of pipeline damage due to seismic wave propagation; with relevant advances in that research field, new and better fragility formulations could be developed.
Design of Dual-Output Alternators With Switched-Mode Rectification
Hassan, Gimba
The push to introduce dual-voltage (42 V/14 V) automotive electrical systems necessitates power generation solutions capable of supplying power to multiple outputs. A number of approaches for implementing dual-voltage ...
The Steam System Assessment Tool (SSAT): Estimating Steam System Energy, Cost, and Emission Savings
Wright, A.; Bealing, C.; Eastwood, A.; Tainsh, R.; Hahn, G.; Harrell, G.
2003-01-01
The U. S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Industrial Technology Program BestPractices Steam effort is developing a number of software tools to assist industrial energy users to improve the efficiency of their steam system. A major new Best...
Liu, M.; Claridge, D. E.
1998-01-01
is the air flow rate, and cfr&, is the designed air flow rate. In the base cases, the cold deck temperature is 55°F regardless of the ambient temperature. The hot deck temperature varies from 1 10°F to 75°F when the ambient temperature increases from 40...°F to 75OF. When the ambient temperature is lower than 40°F, the hot deck temperature remains at 1 10°F. Figure 5: Cold and Hot Deck Temperature Versus the Ambient Temperature for Base Case or Normal VAV System The optimal cold and hot deck...
Cost estimation of HVDC transmission system of Bangka’s NPP candidates
Liun, Edwaren Suparman
2014-09-30
Regarding nuclear power plant development in Bangka Island, it can be estimated that produced power will be oversupply for the Bangka Island and needs to transmit to Sumatra or Java Island. The distance between the regions or islands causing considerable loss of power in transmission by alternating current, and a wide range of technical and economical issues. The objective of this paper addresses to economics analysis of direct current transmission system to overcome those technical problem. Direct current transmission has a stable characteristic, so that the power delivery from Bangka to Sumatra or Java in a large scale efficiently and reliably can be done. HVDC system costs depend on the power capacity applied to the system and length of the transmission line in addition to other variables that may be different.
Fusing strategies for the dual-voltage fault
Shrivastava, Rupam, 1981-
2005-01-01
This thesis focuses on the 42V - 14V fault in a dual voltage system and discusses the possibility of effective fusing. A simple model for the system had been created from technical documentation. Based on the model and the ...
A. Ahmed Al-Rubaiee; Ahmed Jumaah
2013-05-25
In this work the estimation of the lateral distribution function in Extensive Air showers was performed by using a system for air shower simulations which is called AIRES version 2.6 for different hadronic models like (QGSJET99, SIBYLL and SIBYLL1.6). The simulation was fulfilled in the high energy range (10^15-10^19 eV) for different primary particles like (gamma, protons and iron nuclei) for vertical showers. This simulation can be used to reconstruct the type and energy of the particle that generated Extensive Air showers for charged particles that registered with different arrays.
Dual fuel control of a high speed turbocharged diesel engine
Few, P.C.; Sardari, P.
1987-01-01
The modification of a Ford 7600 turbocharged diesel engine to a dual fuel engine using methane as the supplementary fuel has been carried out. The paper describes the preliminary work of dual fuel control. Two systems are examined and their behaviour is presented.
Vision-based head pose estimation and interactivity analysis : algorithms, systems and evaluation
Murphy-Chutorian, Erik Marshall
2009-01-01
1.3 Head Pose Estimation Methods . . . . . .Chapter 1 A Survey of Head Pose Estimation in Computer 1.11.4 Head Pose Estimation Comparisons . . . . . . . . 1.4.1
System and method for motor speed estimation of an electric motor
Lu, Bin (Kenosha, WI); Yan, Ting (Brookfield, WI); Luebke, Charles John (Sussex, WI); Sharma, Santosh Kumar (Viman Nagar, IN)
2012-06-19
A system and method for a motor management system includes a computer readable storage medium and a processing unit. The processing unit configured to determine a voltage value of a voltage input to an alternating current (AC) motor, determine a frequency value of at least one of a voltage input and a current input to the AC motor, determine a load value from the AC motor, and access a set of motor nameplate data, where the set of motor nameplate data includes a rated power, a rated speed, a rated frequency, and a rated voltage of the AC motor. The processing unit is also configured to estimate a motor speed based on the voltage value, the frequency value, the load value, and the set of nameplate data and also store the motor speed on the computer readable storage medium.
Importance of exposure model in estimating impacts when a water distribution system is contaminated.
Davis, M. J.; Janke, R.; Environmental Science Division; USEPA
2008-09-01
The quantity of a contaminant ingested by individuals using tap water drawn from a water distribution system during a contamination event depends on the concentration of the contaminant in the water and the volume of water ingested. If the concentration varies with time, the actual time of exposure affects the quantity ingested. The influence of the timing of exposure and of individual variability in the volume of water ingested on estimated impacts for a contamination event has received limited attention. We examine the significance of ingestion timing and variability in the volume of water ingested by using a number of models for ingestion timing and volume. Contaminant concentrations were obtained from simulations of an actual distribution system for cases involving contaminant injections lasting from 1 to 24 h. We find that assumptions about exposure can significantly influence estimated impacts, especially when injection durations are short and impact thresholds are high. The influence of ingestion timing and volume should be considered when assessing impacts for contamination events.
Estimating Energy and Water Losses in Residential Hot WaterDistribution Systems
Lutz, James
2005-02-26
Residential single family building practice currently ignores the losses of energy and water caused by the poor design of hot water systems. These losses include; the waste of water while waiting for hot water to get to the point of use; the wasted heat as water cools down in the distribution system after a draw; and the energy needed to reheat water that was already heated once before. Average losses of water are estimated to be 6.35 gallons (24.0 L) per day. (This is water that is rundown the drain without being used while waiting for hot water.) The amount of wasted hot water has been calculated to be 10.9 gallons (41.3L) per day. (This is water that was heated, but either is not used or issued after it has cooled off.) A check on the reasonableness of this estimate is made by showing that total residential hot water use averages about 52.6 gallons (199 L) per day. This indicates about 20 percent of average daily hot water is wasted.
Hylton, T.D.
2000-09-01
The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has millions of gallons of radioactive liquid and sludge wastes stored in underground tanks at several of its sites. In order to comply with various regulations and to circumvent potential problems associated with tank integrity, these wastes must be retrieved from the tanks, transferred to treatment facilities (or other storage locations), and processed to stable waste forms. The sludge wastes will typically be mobilized by some mechanical means (e.g., mixer pump, submerged jet) and mixed with the respective supernatants to create slurries that can be transferred by pipeline to the desired destination. Depending on the DOE site, these slurries may be transferred up to six miles. Since the wastes are radioactive, it is critically important for the transfers to be made without plugging a pipeline. To reduce such a risk, the relevant properties of the slurry (e.g., density, suspended solids concentration, viscosity, and particle size distribution) should be determined to be within acceptable limits prior to transfer. These properties should also be continuously monitored and controlled within specified limits while the transfer is in progress. The baseline method for determining the transport properties of slurries involves sampling and analysis; however, this method is time-consuming, and costly, and it does not provide real-time information. In addition, personnel who collect and analyze the samples are exposed to radiation. It is also questionable as to whether a laboratory analyst can obtain representative aliquots from the sample jar for these solid-liquid mixtures. The alternative method for determining the transport properties is in-line analysis. An in-line instrument is one that is connected to the process, analyzes the slurry as it flows through or by the instrument, and provides the results within seconds. This instrument can provide immediate feedback to operators so that, when necessary, the operators can respond quickly to counteract conditions that could lead to pipeline pluggage (e.g., backflushing the pipeline with water). One of the highest priorities is to determine the concentration of suspended solids in each of the slurries. In the project described in this report, two Coriolis meters were used simultaneously to create a suspended solids monitoring system that would provide accurate results with high precision. One Coriolis meter was used to measure the density of the slurry, while the other meter was used to measure the density of the carrier fluid (i.e., after filtration to remove the solid particles). The suspended solids concentration was then calculated from the density relationships between the slurry, the carrier fluid, and the dry solid particles. The latter density was determined by laboratory analysis and was assumed to be constant throughout the periods that grab samples were collected.
ISQED 2006 Mohanty 1 DualDual--K Versus DualK Versus Dual--T TechniqueT Technique
Mohanty, Saraju P.
-Thickness i. e. Dual-K Vs Dual-T). #12;ISQED 2006 Mohanty 12 Dual-K : Low Kgate and High Kgate N+ P P N+N+ N 2006 Mohanty 5 Leakages in CMOS P-Substrate N+ N+ Source Drain Gate I1 : reverse bias pn junction (both
Coupled dual loop absorption heat pump
Sarkisian, Paul H. (Watertown, MA); Reimann, Robert C. (Lafayette, NY); Biermann, Wendell J. (Fayetteville, NY)
1985-01-01
A coupled dual loop absorption system which utilizes two separate complete loops. Each individual loop operates at three temperatures and two pressures. This low temperature loop absorber and condenser are thermally coupled to the high temperature loop evaporator, and the high temperature loop condenser and absorber are thermally coupled to the low temperature generator.
Nexant Inc.
2006-05-01
As part of Task 2, Gas Cleanup and Cost Estimates, Nexant investigated the appropriate process scheme for treatment of wood-derived syngas for use in the synthesis of liquid fuels. Two different 2,000 metric tonne per day gasification schemes, a low-pressure, indirect system using the gasifier, and a high-pressure, direct system using gasification technology were evaluated. Initial syngas conditions from each of the gasifiers was provided to the team by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Nexant was the prime contractor and principal investigator during this task; technical assistance was provided by both GTI and Emery Energy.
Effect of squeezing on parameter estimation of gravitational waves emitted by compact binary systems
Ryan Lynch; Salvatore Vitale; Lisa Barsotti; Matthew Evans; Sheila Dwyer
2014-11-06
The LIGO gravitational wave (GW) detectors will begin collecting data in 2015, with Virgo following shortly after. The use of squeezing has been proposed as a way to reduce the quantum noise without increasing the laser power, and has been successfully tested at one of the LIGO sites and at GEO in Germany. When used in Advanced LIGO without a filter cavity, the squeezer improves the performances of detectors above about 100 Hz, at the cost of a higher noise floor in the low frequency regime. Frequency-dependent squeezing, on the other hand, will lower the noise floor throughout the entire band. Squeezing technology will have a twofold impact: it will change the number of expected detections and it will impact the quality of parameter estimation for the detected signals. In this work we consider three different GW detector networks, each utilizing a different type of squeezer, all corresponding to plausible implementations. Using LALInference, a powerful Monte Carlo parameter estimation algorithm, we study how each of these networks estimates the parameters of GW signals emitted by compact binary systems, and compare the results with a baseline advanced LIGO-Virgo network. We find that, even in its simplest implementation, squeezing has a large positive impact: the sky error area of detected signals will shrink by about 30% on average, increasing the chances of finding an electromagnetic counterpart to the GW detection. Similarly, we find that the measurability of tidal deformability parameters for neutron stars in binaries increases by about 30%, which could aid in determining the equation of state of neutron stars. The degradation in the measurement of the chirp mass, as a result of the higher low-frequency noise, is shown to be negligible when compared to systematic errors.
Dyer, R.S.; Barnes, E. [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington D.C. (United States); Snipes, R.L. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, TN (United States); Guskov, V.; Makarchuk, T. [Special Mechanical Engineering Design Bureau (KBSM), St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)
2007-07-01
Russia, stores large quantities of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) from submarine and ice-breaker nuclear powered naval vessels. This high-level radioactive material presents a significant threat to the Arctic and marine environments. Much of the SNF from decommissioned Russian nuclear submarines is stored either onboard the submarines or in floating storage vessels in Northwest and Far East Russia. Some of the SNF is damaged, stored in an unstable condition, or of a type that cannot currently be reprocessed. In many cases, the existing Russian transport infrastructure and reprocessing facilities cannot meet the requirements for moving and reprocessing all of this fuel from remote locations. Additional transport and storage options are required. Some of the existing storage facilities being used in Russia do not meet health and safety and physical security requirements. The U.S. has assisted Russia in the development of a new dual-purpose metal-concrete transport and storage cask (TUK-108/1) for their military SNF and assisted them in building several new facilities for off-loading submarine SNF and storing these TUK-108/1 casks. These efforts have reduced the technical, ecological, and security challenges for removal, handling, interim storage, and shipment of this submarine fuel. Currently, Russian licensing limits the storage period of the TUK-108/1 casks to no more than two years before the fuel must be shipped for reprocessing. In order to extend this licensed storage period, a system is required to condition the casks by removing residual water and creating an inert storage environment by backfilling the internal canisters with a noble gas such as argon. The U.S. has assisted Russia in the development of a mobile cask conditioning system for the TUK-108/1 cask. This new conditioning system allows the TUK 108/1 casks to be stored for up to five years after which the license may be considered for renewal for an additional five years or the fuel will be shipped to 'Mayak' for reprocessing. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in cooperation with the U.S. DOD Office of Cooperative Threat Reduction (CTR), and the DOE's ORNL, along with the Norwegian Defense Research Establishment, worked closely with the Ministry of Defense and the Ministry of Atomic Energy of the Russian Federation (RF) to develop an improved integrated management system for interim storage of military SNF in Russia. The initial Project activities included: (1) development of a prototype dual-purpose, metal-concrete 40-ton cask for both the transport and interim storage of RF SNF, and (2) development of the first transshipment/interim storage facility for these casks in Murmansk. The U.S. has continued support to the project by assisting the RF with the development of the first mobile system that provides internal conditioning for the TUK-108/1 casks to allow them to be stored for longer than the current licensing period of two years. Development of the prototype TUK-108/1 cask was completed in December 2000 under the Arctic Military Environmental Cooperation (AMEC) Program. This was the first metal-concrete cask developed, licensed, and produced in the RF for both the transportation and storage of SNF from decommissioned submarines. These casks are currently being serially produced in NW Russia and 108 casks have been produced to date. Russia is using these casks for the transport and interim storage of military SNF from decommissioned nuclear submarines at naval installations in the Arctic and Far East in conformance with the Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (START II). The design, construction, and commissioning of the first transshipment/interim storage facility in the RF was completed and ready for full operation in September 2003. Because of the RF government reorganization and changing regulations for spent fuel storage facilities, the storage facility at Murmansk was not fully licensed for operation until December 2005. The RF has reported that the facility is now fully operational. The TUK-108/1 SNF transport and storage casks were designed
A. Frommer; K. Kahl; Th. Lippert; H. Rittich
2012-12-03
The Lanczos process constructs a sequence of orthonormal vectors v_m spanning a nested sequence of Krylov subspaces generated by a hermitian matrix A and some starting vector b. In this paper we show how to cheaply recover a secondary Lanczos process starting at an arbitrary Lanczos vector v_m. This secondary process is then used to efficiently obtain computable error estimates and error bounds for the Lanczos approximations to the action of a rational matrix function on a vector. This includes, as a special case, the Lanczos approximation to the solution of a linear system Ax = b. Our approach uses the relation between the Lanczos process and quadrature as developed by Golub and Meurant. It is different from methods known so far because of its use of the secondary Lanczos process. With our approach, it is now in particular possible to efficiently obtain {\\em upper bounds} for the error in the {\\em 2-norm}, provided a lower bound on the smallest eigenvalue of $A$ is known. This holds in particular for a large class of rational matrix functions including best rational approximations to the inverse square root and the sign function. We compare our approach to other existing error estimates and bounds known from the literature and include results of several numerical experiments.
Teixeira, André; Sandberg, Henrik; Johansson, Karl H
2010-01-01
The electrical power network is a critical infrastructure in today's society, so its safe and reliable operation is of major concern. State estimators are commonly used in power networks, for example, to detect faulty equipment and to optimally route power flows. The estimators are often located in control centers, to which large numbers of measurements are sent over unencrypted communication channels. Therefore cyber security for state estimators becomes an important issue. In this paper we analyze the cyber security of state estimators in supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) for energy management systems (EMS) operating the power network. Current EMS state estimation algorithms have bad data detection (BDD) schemes to detect outliers in the measurement data. Such schemes are based on high measurement redundancy. Although these methods may detect a set of basic cyber attacks, they may fail in the presence of an intelligent attacker. We explore the latter by considering scenarios where stealthy de...
Stabilizing the dual inverted pendulum : a practical approach
Barton, Taylor Wallis
2008-01-01
A dual inverted pendulum system, consisting of two individual pendulums of different lengths on a single cart, was fully designed and implemented as a demonstration of classical control theory. This document contains an ...
Vision-based head pose estimation and interactivity analysis : algorithms, systems and evaluation
Murphy-Chutorian, Erik Marshall
2009-01-01
estimate the low-level location and head movement of meetingup manner, following low-level facial Head Angle: Known HeadJ. Crowley, “Head pose estimation on low resolution images,”
Dual-domain point diffraction interferometer
Naulleau, Patrick P. (5239 Miles Ave., Apt. A, Oakland, CA 94618); Goldberg, Kenneth Alan (1195 Keeler Ave., Berkeley, CA 94708)
2000-01-01
A hybrid spatial/temporal-domain point diffraction interferometer (referred to as the dual-domain PS/PDI) that is capable of suppressing the scattered-reference-light noise that hinders the conventional PS/PDI is provided. The dual-domain PS/PDI combines the separate noise-suppression capabilities of the widely-used phase-shifting and Fourier-transform fringe pattern analysis methods. The dual-domain PS/PDI relies on both a more restrictive implementation of the image plane PS/PDI mask and a new analysis method to be applied to the interferograms generated and recorded by the modified PS/PDI. The more restrictive PS/PDI mask guarantees the elimination of spatial-frequency crosstalk between the signal and the scattered-light noise arising from scattered-reference-light interfering with the test beam. The new dual-domain analysis method is then used to eliminate scattered-light noise arising from both the scattered-reference-light interfering with the test beam and the scattered-reference-light interfering with the "true" pinhole-diffracted reference light. The dual-domain analysis method has also been demonstrated to provide performance enhancement when using the non-optimized standard PS/PDI design. The dual-domain PS/PDI is essentially a three-tiered filtering system composed of lowpass spatial-filtering the test-beam electric field using the more restrictive PS/PDI mask, bandpass spatial-filtering the individual interferogram irradiance frames making up the phase-shifting series, and bandpass temporal-filtering the phase-shifting series as a whole.
A Two-Stage Kalman Filter Approach for Robust and Real-Time Power System State Estimation
Zhang, Jinghe; Welch, Greg; Bishop, Gary; Huang, Zhenyu
2014-04-01
As electricity demand continues to grow and renewable energy increases its penetration in the power grid, realtime state estimation becomes essential for system monitoring and control. Recent development in phasor technology makes it possible with high-speed time-synchronized data provided by Phasor Measurement Units (PMU). In this paper we present a two-stage Kalman filter approach to estimate the static state of voltage magnitudes and phase angles, as well as the dynamic state of generator rotor angles and speeds. Kalman filters achieve optimal performance only when the system noise characteristics have known statistical properties (zero-mean, Gaussian, and spectrally white). However in practice the process and measurement noise models are usually difficult to obtain. Thus we have developed the Adaptive Kalman Filter with Inflatable Noise Variances (AKF with InNoVa), an algorithm that can efficiently identify and reduce the impact of incorrect system modeling and/or erroneous measurements. In stage one, we estimate the static state from raw PMU measurements using the AKF with InNoVa; then in stage two, the estimated static state is fed into an extended Kalman filter to estimate the dynamic state. Simulations demonstrate its robustness to sudden changes of system dynamics and erroneous measurements.
Nehorai, Arye
, Kalman filtering, phase mismatch, phasor measurement unit (PMU), state estimation, synchronization. NOMENCLATURE: PMU Phasor measurement unit. SCADA Supervisory control and data acquisition. GPS Global
Hoen, Ben
2013-01-01
of Photovoltaic Energy Systems on Residential Selling Pricesof photovoltaic (PV) energy systems on home sales prices.
Hoen, Ben
2013-01-01
National Laboratory’s Photovoltaic System Valuation Model –of the Effects of Photovoltaic Energy Systems on Residentialimpacts of photovoltaic (PV) energy systems on home sales
Joint sequence estimation and synchronization using wavelet pulses in a communication system
Wannasakwong, Marisa
1994-01-01
A new kind of baseband pulse is introduced in a receiver using nonsynchronized uniform samples. The pulse is an orthonormal wavelet generated by a discrete filter. Its performance is examined by applying a sequence estimation and synchronization...
Nonlinear Estimation for Model Based Fault Diagnosis of Nonlinear Chemical Systems
Qu, Chunyan
2011-02-22
Kalman filter (EKF), unscented Kalman filter (UKF), particle filtering (PF) and moving horizon estimation (MHE) etc. However, many issues related to the available techniques are to be solved. This dissertation discusses three important techniques...
Parameter Estimation of Systems Described by the Relation with Noisy Observations
of systems described by the equations [Bubnicki, 80a]. The problem of modeling and identification of systems
Correlative methods for dual-species quantum tests of the weak equivalence principle
Barrett, B; Chichet, L; Battelier, B; Gominet, P -A; Bertoldi, A; Bouyer, P; Landragin, A
2015-01-01
Matter-wave interferometers utilizing non-identical elements intrinsically have different sensitivities, and the analysis tools available until now are insufficient for accurately estimating the atomic phase difference under many experimental conditions. In this work, we describe and demonstrate two new methods for extracting the differential phase between dual-species atom interferometers for precise tests of the weak equivalence principle. The first method is a generalized Bayesian analysis, which uses knowledge of the system noise to estimate the differential phase based on a statistical model. The second method utilizes a mechanical accelerometer to reconstruct single-sensor interference fringes based on measurements of the vibration-induced phase. An improved ellipse-fitting algorithm is also implemented as a third method for comparison. These analysis tools are investigated using both numerical simulations and experimental data from simultaneous $^{87}$Rb and $^{39}$K interferometers, and both new techn...
Toward tsunami early warning system in Indonesia by using rapid rupture durations estimation
Madlazim [Physics Department, Faculty Mathematics and Sciences of Surabaya State University (UNESA) Jl. Ketintang, Surabaya 60231 (Indonesia)
2012-06-20
Indonesia has Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System (Ina-TEWS) since 2008. The Ina-TEWS has used automatic processing on hypocenter; Mwp, Mw (mB) and Mj. If earthquake occurred in Ocean, depth < 70 km and magnitude > 7, then Ina-TEWS announce early warning that the earthquake can generate tsunami. However, the announcement of the Ina-TEWS is still not accuracy. Purposes of this research are to estimate earthquake rupture duration of large Indonesia earthquakes that occurred in Indian Ocean, Java, Timor sea, Banda sea, Arafura sea and Pasific ocean. We analyzed at least 330 vertical seismogram recorded by IRIS-DMC network using a direct procedure for rapid assessment of earthquake tsunami potential using simple measures on P-wave vertical seismograms on the velocity records, and the likelihood that the high-frequency, apparent rupture duration, T{sub dur}. T{sub dur} can be related to the critical parameters rupture length (L), depth (z), and shear modulus ({mu}) while T{sub dur} may be related to wide (W), slip (D), z or {mu}. Our analysis shows that the rupture duration has a stronger influence to generate tsunami than Mw and depth. The rupture duration gives more information on tsunami impact, Mo/{mu}, depth and size than Mw and other currently used discriminants. We show more information which known from the rupture durations. The longer rupture duration, the shallower source of the earthquake. For rupture duration greater than 50 s, the depth less than 50 km, Mw greater than 7, the longer rupture length, because T{sub dur} is proportional L and greater Mo/{mu}. Because Mo/{mu} is proportional L. So, with rupture duration information can be known information of the four parameters. We also suggest that tsunami potential is not directly related to the faulting type of source and for events that have rupture duration greater than 50 s, the earthquakes generated tsunami. With available real-time seismogram data, rapid calculation, rupture duration discriminant can be completed within 4-5 min after an earthquake occurs and thus can aid in effective, accuracy and reliable tsunami early warning for Indonesia region.
Hoen, Ben
2013-01-01
No. DE-AC02-05CH11231. Do PV Systems Increase Residentialimpacts of photovoltaic (PV) energy systems on home salesthat existing homes with PV systems sold for a premium over
Primal-Dual Interior Point Method Applied to the Short Term Hydroelectric Scheduling Including a
Oliveira, Aurélio R. L.
Primal-Dual Interior Point Method Applied to the Short Term Hydroelectric Scheduling Including that minimizes losses in the transmission and costs in the generation of a hydroelectric power system, formulated such perturbing parameter. Keywords-- Hydroelectric power system, Network flow, Predispatch, Primal-dual interior
Optimizing symbol timing, frequency spacing, and SNR estimation for communication systems
Das, Aniruddha
in Electrical Engineering (Communication Theory and Systems)in Electrical Engineering (Communication Theory and Systems)Philosophy, Electrical Engineering (Communica- tions Theory
Hoen, Ben
2013-01-01
underlying net installation costs for PV systems between newfrom electricity cost savings after PV system installationannual electricity cost savings associated with PV they are
Not Available
1994-04-01
The purpose of this document is to present a system description and develop baseline capital and operating cost estimates for commercial facilities which produced U-Fe feedstock for AVLIS enrichment plants using the continuous fluoride reduction (CFR) process. These costs can then be used together with appropriate economic assumptions to calculate estimated unit costs to the AVLIS plant owner (or utility customer) for such conversion services. Six cases are being examined. All cases assume that the conversion services are performed by a private company at a commercial site which has an existing NRC license to possess source material and which has existing uranium processing operations. The cases differ in terms of annual production capacity and whether the new process system is installed in a new building or in an existing building on the site. The six cases are summarized here.
On Dual Configurational Forces SHAOFAN LIj
Li, Shaofan
they provide the dual energymomentum tensor. Some previously unknown and yet interesting results in elasticity the configuration force (energymomentum tensor) P and the dual configuration force (dual energymomentum tensor) L energy momentum tensor (referred to as the dual energymomentum tensor in this j Corresponding author
Johansson, Karl Henrik
Cyber Security Analysis of State Estimators in Electric Power Systems Andr´e Teixeira, Saurabh Amin, Henrik Sandberg, Karl H. Johansson, and Shankar S. Sastry Abstract-- In this paper, we analyze the cyber security of state estimators in Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems operating in power
Vanajakshi, Lelitha Devi
2005-11-01
., or from indirect methods such as loop detectors. Because of their wide spread deployment, travel time estimation from loop detector data is one of the most widely used methods. However, the major criticism about loop detector data is the high probability...
Hutchinson, Seth
Spong Coordinated Science Lab Elect. and Comp. Eng. Coordinated Science Lab University of Illinois University of Illinois University of Illinois Urbana, IL 61801 Urbana, IL 61801 Urbana, IL 61801 Abstract between the image formation process and state estimation. To this end, in this paper we present a detailed
Dual Rater Competency Assessment FAQ
Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]
The purpose of the dual rater competency assessment is to provide a clearer picture of the individual’s developmental needs by combining self-assessment and supervisory input. Together, these two...
Dutta, Parikshit
2012-10-19
Recently there has been growing interest to characterize and reduce uncertainty in stochastic dynamical systems. This drive arises out of need to manage uncertainty in complex, high dimensional physical systems. Traditional ...
Gutner, Sophie Isabelle
1996-01-01
A successful space mission depends on the reliable operation of the spacecraft's electrical power system. For payloads requiring high power levels, various designs of space nuclear power systems (SNPS) are available. Designers have conducted limited...
Efficient Bayesian estimates for discrimination among topologically different systems biology models
Hagen, David Robert
A major effort in systems biology is the development of mathematical models that describe complex biological systems at multiple scales and levels of abstraction. Determining the topology—the set of interactions—of a ...
Using graph theory to resolve state estimator issues faced by deregulated power systems
Lei, Jiansheng
2009-05-15
.....................................................................15 C. Network observability under a single measurement loss ........................16 D. Network observability under a branch outage.........................................17 E. Network observability under a contingency... challenges as follows. A. Challenge 1: Keep the state estimator running reliably even under a contingency Here the contingency refers to a disturbance such as a branch outage. A loss of measurement is also considered as a contingency in this dissertation...
Cheek, Marshall Tyler
2007-09-17
, and delay that is incurred during the queue clearance period during the initial moments of the green interval. Total delay during the red and yellow interval is computed as follows (1): qv rpt ii L tQD = (Equation 3) where Qi = Best... qv rpt ii L tQD *= (Equation 4) [ ]( ) qv pr qvprpriii L t LtttQQ ‡---= 1* (Equation 5) where Qi* = Adjusted best estimate queue length, adjusted to reflect departing vehicles at the front of the queue, ft, ti...
Maximum-likelihood carrier estimation in orthogonal frequency division multiplexing systems
Huq, Ayesha Tahmina
1998-01-01
-channels corresponding to the OFDM sub-carrier frequencies. However, OFDM systems are more sensitive to carrier frequency offset than single carrier systems are. In both single carrier and multi-carrier systems, phase rotation is a major issue that affects...
Hoen, Ben
2013-01-01
Research (GTM), "U.S. Solar Market Insight - 2011 Year inSunpower Solar Systems Are Bright Spot in Market," Ryness
Distributed Estimation Distributed Estimation
Gupta, Vijay
with a Star Topology 2 2.1 Static Sensor Fusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 2.1.1 Combining Estimators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 2.1.2 Static Sensor Fusion for Star Topology;Distributed Estimation 3 Non-Ideal Networks with Star Topology 10 3.1 Sensor Fusion in Presence of Message
costs. · HOMER https://analysis.nrel.gov/homer/ Simplifies the task of evaluating design options for off-grid and grid-connected power systems. #12;· Hybrid Power System Simulation Model http types of electrical loads, multiple wind turbines of different types, photovoltaics, multiple diesel
On estimating a dynamic function of a stochastic system with averaging
Spokoiny, Vladimir
@eng.tau.ac.il) Dept. Electrical Engineering-Systems, Tel Aviv University, 69978 Tel Aviv, Israel Vladimir Spokoiny Berlin, Germany Abstract. We consider a two-scaled di#11;usion system, when drift and di#11;usion more reasonable example is connected to asset price processes in #12;nancial markets. A weekly (or
Baldick, Ross
for operations of power systems, utilities have his- torically used mid-size computers to handle the tasks in the control center of a control area. However with advancements of small computer technologies and networking system operator" (ISO) may link several utilities, distributed computing is likely to be preferable
Comparative study of State Estimation of Fuel Cell Hybrid System Using UKF and EKF
Foss, Bjarne A.
Cell (SOFC) combined with Gas Turbine (GT) hybrid system is described and system level modeling of the most promising fuel cell technologies is the Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) due to its solid state design and internal reforming of gaseous fuels, in addition to its high efficiency. The SOFC converts the chemical
Dual-Fuel Truck Fleet: Start-Up Experience
NREL
1998-09-30
Although dual-fuel engine technology has been in development and limited use for several years, it has only recently moved toward full-scale operational capability for heavy-duty truck applications. Unlike a bifuel engine, which has two separate fuel systems that are used one at a time, a dual-fuel engine uses two fuel systems simultaneously. One of California's South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) current programs is a demonstration of dual-fuel engine technology in heavy-duty trucks. These trucks are being studied as part of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) Alternative Fuel Truck Program. This report describes the start-up experience from the program.
Extending and Characterizing Fuel Flexibility in Small-Scale Power Systems
McCoy, Christopher David
2013-01-01
Fuel Flexibility in Small Scale Power Systems – Chapter 1 – Introduction dual-Fuel Flexibility in Small Scale Power Systems – Chapter 2 – Theory Figure 56: a dual
PROOF-OF-CONCEPT OF A DUAL-FIRED (SOLAR & NATURAL GAS) GENERATOR
PROOF-OF-CONCEPT OF A DUAL-FIRED (SOLAR & NATURAL GAS) GENERATOR FOR USE IN A SPACE-COOLING SYSTEM REPORT (FAR) PROOF-OF-CONCEPT OF A DUAL-FIRED (SOLAR & NATURAL GAS) GENERATOR FOR USE IN A SPACE COOLING Investigator: Michael Garrabrant AUTHOR EISG Program Administrator Grant #: 52327A/01-06 Grant Funding: $75
Garg, Saurabh; David Dornfeld
2008-01-01
Input-Output Life Cycle Assessment (EIO-LCA) model”, http://SYSTEMS BASED ON LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT Garg S. , Dornfeld D.based on a thorough Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of all the
Estimating train passenger load from automated data systems : application to London Underground
Paul, Elizabeth Cheriyamadam
2010-01-01
The purpose of this thesis is to assess the feasibility of identifying which trains individual passengers take to get from their origin to destination while travelling in a high frequency urban rail transportation system. ...
Evaluating the Similarity Estimator Component of the TWIN Personality-based Recommender System
Rosso, Paolo
Social Media Research Group, ITT Dublin/Ireland E-mail: John.Cardiff@ittdublin.ie Paolo Rosso NLE Lab a serious challenge to the user searching for a particular piece of information. Recommender Systems have
A Comparative Evaluation of Personality Estimation Algorithms for the TWIN Recommender System
Rosso, Paolo
Media Research Group ITT Dublin, Ireland John.Cardiff@ittdublin.ie Paolo Rosso NLE Lab searching among online resources. One of the areas of application of recommender systems is the online
Peter West
2014-11-04
We consider the equation of motion in the gravity sector that arises from the non-linear realisation of the semi-direct product of E11 and its first fundamental representation, denoted by l1, in four dimensions. This equation is first order in derivatives and at low levels relates the usual field of gravity to a dual gravity field. When the generalised space-time is restricted to be the usual four dimensional space-time we show that this equation does correctly describe Einstein's theory at the linearised level. We also comment on previous discussions of dual gravity.
FIPS 1402 NonProprietary Security Policy: Persistent Systems Wave Relay Quad Radio Router and Man Wave Relay Quad Radio Router and Man Portable Unit (Generation 2, Generation 3 Single;FIPS 1402 NonProprietary Security Policy: Persistent Systems Wave Relay Quad Radio Router and Man
Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]
1997-03-28
Based on the project's scope, the purpose of the estimate, and the availability of estimating resources, the estimator can choose one or a combination of techniques when estimating an activity or project. Estimating methods, estimating indirect and direct costs, and other estimating considerations are discussed in this chapter.
Garrison, M.; Gill, S.; Sherwell, J.
1999-07-01
The CALMET/CALPUFF modeling system has been used to estimate nitrogen deposition in an area surrounding Baltimore and the northern portion of the Chesapeake Bay. Comprehensive NO{sub x} emissions inventories and meteorological data bases have been developed to conduct the modeling. A previous study reported on an evaluation of predicted non-ammonia, inorganic nitrogen wet deposition rates compared to measured rates at two NADP/NTN sites in Maryland. This paper presents the results of an expanded evaluation of the performance of the modeling system. Data collected at a total of 38 monitoring stations located in or near the Chesapeake Bay Watershed, including NADP/NTN, CASTNET, and AIRS sites, have been used to conduct evaluations of the model's ability to predict concentrations of nitric acid, particulate nitrate, and NO{sub x} in addition to wet nitrate deposition. This expanded evaluation has allowed for the testing of additional model technical options in an attempt to improve the performance when compared to measured data. Results of this evaluation are expected to allow for better estimates of the impacts of nitrogen species formed from utility and other anthropogenic sources of NO{sub x} on the environment in Maryland.
Scale-estimation of quantum coherent energy transport in multiple-minima systems
Tristan Farrow; Vlatko Vedral
2014-06-17
A generic and intuitive model for coherent energy transport in multiple minima systems coupled to a quantum mechanical bath is shown. Using a simple spin-boson system, we illustrate how a generic donor-acceptor system can be brought into resonance using a narrow band of vibrational modes, such that the transfer efficiency of an electron-hole pair (exciton) is made arbitrarily high. Coherent transport phenomena in nature are of renewed interest since the discovery that a photon captured by the light-harvesting complex (LHC) in photosynthetic organisms can be conveyed to a chemical reaction centre with near-perfect efficiency. Classical explanations of the transfer use stochastic diffusion to model the hopping motion of a photo-excited exciton. This accounts inadequately for the speed and efficiency of the energy transfer measured in a series of recent landmark experiments. Taking a quantum mechanical perspective can help capture the salient features of the efficient part of that transfer. To show the versatility of the model, we extend it to a multiple minima system comprising seven-sites, reminiscent of the widely studied Fenna-Matthews-Olson (FMO) light-harvesting complex. We show that an idealised transport model for multiple minima coupled to a narrow-band phonon can transport energy with arbitrarily high efficiency.
Del Moral , Pierre
Air traffic complexity and the interacting particle system method: An integrated approach explore the possibility of using air traffic complexity metrics to accelerate the Interacting Particle to assess the performance and impact of, e.g., possible modifications of the current air traffic management
Security Threat Analytics and Countermeasure Synthesis for Power System State Estimation
Wang, Yongge
and a set of measurements acquired through a Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) system) applications for the power grid. However, critical infrastructures relying on SCADA based measurements) are gradually being deployed, still the current grid largely relies on extensive SCADA measurements for several
Bases for solid waste volume estimates for tank waste remediation system
Reddick, G.W., Westinghouse Hanford
1996-08-01
This document presents the background and basis for the Tank Waste Remediation System forecast for solid waste submitted in June 1996. The forecast was generated for single-shell tank and double-shell tank activities including operations through retrieval and disposal of chemical tank waste.
A channel estimation algorithm for Space Time OFDM systems on the Starcore SC140 DSP
Gopalan, Preeti
2002-01-01
and is robust over many different channel profiles. The system is implemented on Starcore's SC140 fixed point DSP core. The aim of this research is to study the fixed point implementation of this algorithm on a general purpose DSP, comment on the performance...
44 Market St - Refurbishment of a Dual Duct Building
Bannister, P.; Foo, G.
2013-01-01
44 Market St is a high profile, A-grade, 27-storey, 28,000m2 office building constructed in the 1970s. In common with many other buildings of its era, it was equipped with a dual duct air-conditioning system, and its highest NABERS Rating at full...
Dual shell pressure balanced vessel
Fassbender, Alexander G. (West Richland, WA)
1992-01-01
A dual-wall pressure balanced vessel for processing high viscosity slurries at high temperatures and pressures having an outer pressure vessel and an inner vessel with an annular space between the vessels pressurized at a pressure slightly less than or equivalent to the pressure within the inner vessel.
Li, Wenhao; Lou, Chun; Sun, Yipeng; Zhou, Huaichun
2011-02-15
This paper presented an experimental investigation on the estimation of radiative properties and temperature distributions in a 670 t/h coal-fired boiler furnace by a portable imaging processing system. The portable system has been calibrated by a blackbody furnace. Flame temperatures and emissivities were measured by the portable system and equivalent blackbody temperatures were deduced. Comparing the equivalent blackbody temperatures measured by the portable system and the infrared pyrometer, the relative difference is less than 4%. The reconstructed pseudo-instantaneous 2-D temperature distributions in two cross-sections can disclose the combustion status inside the furnace. The measured radiative properties of particles in the furnace proved there is significant scattering in coal-fired boiler furnaces and it can provide useful information for the calculation of radiative heat transfer and numerical simulation of combustion in coal-fired boiler furnaces. The preliminary experimental results show this technology will be helpful for the combustion diagnosis in coal-fired boiler furnaces. (author)
Measurement enhancement for state estimation
Chen, Jian
2009-05-15
to accurately monitor the system operating state. State estimation is an essential tool in an energy management system (EMS). It is responsible for providing an accurate and correct estimate for the system operating state based on the available measurements...
Yang, Shengxiang
1348 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON SYSTEMS, MAN, AND CYBERNETICS--PART B: CYBERNETICS , VOL. 39, NO. 6 Grant 2006BAH02A09, by the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) of U.K. under of Information Science and Engineering, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110004, China (e-mail: hfwang
1997-09-23
This quarter started out with fresh ability to perform sustained engine operation on gas because of the successful operation of the gas compressor last quarter. The authors have completed baseline tests recording emissions and efficiency numbers. This gives the authors data that they have never before been able to acquire in the facility. In addition to the baseline data they have recorded data with a host of additional engine variables. These variables include the adjustments of ignition timing, air fuel ratio, air inlet temperatures and some propane seeding of the injected gas. With the background data on record they will be able to properly measure the level of positive impact that the port gas injection system provides. The remaining time in this quarter has been focused on completing the application of the port style gas injection system. The next steps in this project all pivot on the application of this port injection system. They have also progressed in the evaluation of the cylinder/engine monitoring system.
Estimated critical conditions for UF{sub 4}-oil systems in fully oil-reflected spherical geometry
Plaster, M.J.
1997-05-01
Paraffinic oil has been exposed to UF{sub 6} gas in seal exhaust pumps and cascade equipment at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant. The resulting mixture is more nuclearly reactive than mixtures of UO{sub 2}F{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O and is not bounded by the subcritical mass limits presented in several nuclear criticality safety guides. The purpose of this analysis is to determine several critical parameters; specifically, (1) k{sub {infinity}} and the critical mass for several enrichments and moderation levels and (2) the mass limits for these mixtures. The estimated critical masses for the UF{sub 4}-oil systems are smaller than for the UO{sub 2}F{sub 2}-H{sub 2}O systems. The suggested mass limits for the UF{sub 4}-oil systems are 0.240, 0.280, 0.350, 0.430, and 0.670, and 1.170 kg {sup 235}U for enrichments of 100, 50, 20, 10, 5, and 3 wt.% {sup 235}U respectively.
Comments on shielding for dual energy accelerators
Rossi, M. C.; Lincoln, H. M.; Quarin, D. J.; Zwicker, R. D.
2008-06-15
Determination of shielding requirements for medical linear accelerators has been greatly facilitated by the publication of the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) latest guidelines on this subject in NCRP Report No. 151. In the present report the authors review their own recent experience with patient treatments on conventional dual energy linear accelerators to examine the various input parameters needed to follow the NCRP guidelines. Some discussion is included of workloads, occupancy, use factors, and field size, with the effects of intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) treatments included. Studies of collimator settings showed average values of 13.1x16.2 cm{sup 2} for 6 MV and 14.1x16.8 cm{sup 2} for 18 MV conventional ports, and corresponding average unblocked areas of 228 and 254 cm{sup 2}, respectively. With an average of 77% of the field area unblocked, this gives a mean irradiated area of 196 cm{sup 2} for the 18 MV beam, which dominates shielding considerations for most dual energy machines. Assuming conservatively small room dimensions, a gantry bin angle of 18 deg. was found to represent a reasonable unit for tabulation of use factors. For conventional 18 MV treatments it was found that the usual treatment angles of 0, 90, 180, and 270 deg. were still favored, and use factors of 0.25 represent reasonable estimates for these beams. As expected, the IMRT fields (all at 6 MV) showed a high degree of gantry angle randomization, with no bin having a use factor in excess of 0.10. It is concluded that unless a significant number of patients are treated with high energy IMRT, the traditional use factors of 0.25 are appropriate for the dominant high energy beam.
Comerford, Julia M; Barrows, R Scott; Greene, Jenny E; Zakamska, Nadia L; Madejski, Greg M; Cooper, Michael C
2015-01-01
Dual active galactic nuclei (AGNs) and offset AGNs are kpc-scale separation supermassive black holes pairs created during galaxy mergers, where both or one of the black holes are AGNs, respectively. These dual and offset AGNs are valuable probes of the link between mergers and AGNs but are challenging to identify. Here we present Chandra/ACIS observations of 12 optically-selected dual AGN candidates at z dual AGN system with separation of 2.2 kpc, where the two stellar bulges have coincident [O III] and X-ray sources. This system is an extremely minor merger (460:1) that may include a dwarf galaxy hosting an intermediate mass black hole. We also find six single AGNs, and five systems that are either dual or offset AGNs with separations dual AGNs and dual/offset AGNs are in ongoing major mergers, a...
Top hole drilling with dual gradient technology to control shallow hazards
Elieff, Brandee Anastacia Marie
2006-10-30
, shallow gas and shallow water flows. These negative aspects of "Pump and Dump" are in addition to the environmental impact, high drilling fluid (mud) costs and limited mud options. Dual gradient technology offers a closed system, which improves drilling...
Yoon, Yeo Jun
2006-04-12
This thesis will investigate the impact of the use of the Phasor Measurement Units (PMU) on the state estimation problem. First, incorporation of the PMU measurements in a conventional state estimation program will be discussed. Then, the effect...
Zheng, Jun; Rao, Bhaskar D
2006-01-01
statistical estimation theory, and their applications in multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) and multicarrier (OFDM) wireless communications.
Dual arm master controller concept
Kuban, D.P.; Perkins, G.S.
1984-01-01
The Advanced Servomanipulator (ASM) slave was designed with an anthropomorphic stance, gear/torque tube power drives, and modular construction. These features resulted in increased inertia, friction, and backlash relative to tape-driven manipulators. Studies were performed which addressed the human factors design and performance trade-offs associated with the corresponding master controller best suited for the ASM. The results of these studies, as well as the conceptual design of the dual arm master controller, are presented. 6 references, 3 figures.
Cohen, N. [New York Univ. Medical Center, Tuxedo, NY (United States). Dept. of Environmental Medicine
1989-03-15
A Polonium metabolic model was derived and incorporated into a Fortran algorithm which estimates the systemic radiation dose from {sup 210}Po when applied to occupational urine bioassay data. The significance of the doses estimated are examined by defining the degree of uncertainty attached to them through comprehensive statistical testing procedures. Many parameters necessary for dosimetry calculations (such as organ partition coefficients and excretion fractions), were evaluated from metabolic studies of {sup 210}Po in non-human primates. Two tamarins and six baboons were injected intravenously with {sup 210}Po citrate. Excreta and blood samples were collected. Five of the baboons were sacrificed at times ranging from 1 day to 3 months post exposure. Complete necropsies were performed and all excreta and the majority of all skeletal and tissue samples were analyzed radiochemically for their {sup 210}Po content. The {sup 210}Po excretion rate in the baboon was more rapid than in the tamarin. The biological half-time of {sup 210}Po excretion in the baboon was approximately 15 days while in the tamarin, the {sup 210}Po excretion rate was in close agreement with the 50 day biological half-time predicted by ICRP 30. Excretion fractions of {sup 210}Po in the non-human primates were found to be markedly different from data reported elsewhere in other species, including man. A thorough review of the Po urinalysis procedure showed that significant recovery losses resulted when metabolized {sup 210}Po was deposited out of raw urine. Polonium-210 was found throughout the soft tissues of the baboon but not with the partition coefficients for liver, kidneys, and spleen that are predicted by the ICRP 30 metabolic model. A fractional distribution of 0.29 for liver, 0.07 for kidneys, and 0.006 for spleen was determined. Retention times for {sup 210}Po in tissues are described by single exponential functions with biological half-times ranging from 15 to 50 days.
Texas A&M University Central Texas Advanced Aircraft Systems
Diestel, Geoff
:30 Additional class information will be posted on Blackboard at http://online.tarleton.edu/Dual/Dual and Balance, Engine Systems, and Fuel Systems. Unit 3: Hydraulic Systems, Electrical Systems, and Pneumatic
Distribution System State Estimation
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would like submit theCovalentLaboratory |Sector Full report (1.6 mb) Appendix2863[pic] Load
Holographic dual of a time machine
Irina Arefeva; Andrey Bagrov; Petter Saterskog; Koenraad Schalm
2015-08-18
We apply the $AdS/CFT$ holography to the simplest possible eternal time machine solution in $AdS_3$ based on two conical defects moving around their center of mass along a circular orbit. Closed timelike curves in this space-time extend all the way to the boundary of $AdS_3$, violating causality of the boundary field theory. By use of the geodesic approximation we address the "grandfather paradox" in the dual $1+1$ dimensional field theory and calculate the two-point retarded Green function. It has a non-trivial analytical structure both at negative and positive times, providing us with an intuition on how an interacting quantum field could behave once causality is broken. In contrast with the previous considerations our calculations reveal the possibility of a consistent and controllable evolution of a quantum system without any need to impose additional consistency constraints.
Dual LED/incandescent security fixture
Gauna, Kevin Wayne
2005-06-21
A dual LED and incandescent security lighting system uses a hybrid approach to LED illumination. It combines an ambient LED illuminator with a standard incandescent lamp on a motion control sensor. The LED illuminator will activate with the onset of darkness (daylight control) and typically remain on during the course of the night ("always on"). The LED illumination, typically amber, is sufficient to provide low to moderate level lighting coverage to the wall and ground area adjacent to and under the fixture. The incandescent lamp is integrated with a motion control circuit and sensor. When movement in the field of view is detected (after darkness), the incandescent lamp is switched on, providing an increased level of illumination to the area. Instead of an "always on" LED illuminator, the LEDs may also be switched off when the incandescent lamp is switched on.
Sodium Titanate Anodes for Dual Intercalation Batteries
Doeff, Marca M.
2014-01-01
for Dual Intercalation Batteries Lithium supply securityinterest in sodium-ion batteries. These devices operate muchsodium-ion or lithium-ion batteries that utilize them as
Optimization Online - Robust Dual Response Optimization
Aug 8, 2015 ... Abstract: This article presents a robust optimization reformulation of the dual response problem developed in response surface methodology.
Dual Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test Facility | National...
National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)
Dual Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test Facility | National Nuclear Security Administration Facebook Twitter Youtube Flickr RSS People Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing...
DWEL: A DUAL-WAVELENGTH ECHIDNA LIDAR FOR GROUND-BASED FOREST SCANNING
is currently undergoing integration and testing for field deployment in July-August, 2012. Index Terms height, leaf area index, foliage profile, and above-ground biomass using the approach pioneered to estimate both green and woody biomass without allometric equations. II. RATIONALE FOR DUAL WAVELENGTH
Venkatasubramanian, Mani V.
. This is especially true for synchronous machines and their controls such as exciters, governors and limiters. In many, the estimation and periodic verification of the synchronous machine parameters and control parameters. Index Terms--Parameter estimation, synchronous generator model, simulation optimization method. I
Development and Use of the Dual-Mode Plasma Torch
Womack, R.; Shuey, M.
2002-02-26
After several years of development, a commercially available high-temperature treatment system has been developed and installed that treats heterogeneous low-level radioactive waste. High temperature plasma processing, unique torch design and operating features make it feasible to achieve a volume reduced, permanent, high integrity waste form while eliminating the personnel exposure and costs associated with conventional sorting, characterizing and handling. Plasma technology can also be used to treat previous conditioned waste packages that no longer meet the current acceptance criteria for final disposal. Plasma treatment can result, in many cases, in a substantial volume reduction, which lowers the final disposal costs. This paper covers the recently patented dual mode plasma torch design(1), the lessons learned that fostered its development and the advantages it brings to radioactive waste processing. This paper also provides current full scale Plasma Arc Centrifugal Treatment (PACT) project status and how the dual mode torch is being used in the PACT system.
MICROSTRUCTURE AND PROPERTIES OF DUAL PHASE STEELS CONTAINING FINE PRECIPITATES
Gau, J.S.
2014-01-01
and Properties of Dual-Phase Steels, R. A. Kot and J. W.of Niobium Microalloyed Dual- Phase Steel, MetallurgicalAND PROPERTIES OF DUAL PHASE STEELS CONTAINING FINE
Stability of chromite interconnections in dual environments
Armstrong, T.R.; Stevenson, J.W.; Raney, P.; Pederson, L.R.
1994-11-01
One of the most critical technical concerns in high-temperature SOFCs is the physical, chemical, and electrical stability of the interconnect (typically a doped lanthanum chromite) in the dual (oxidizing and reducing atmosphere) SOFC environment. The reducing or fuel side may experience oxygen partial pressures (P(O{sub 2})) from 10{sup {minus}18} to 10{sup {minus}6} atmospheres, while the oxidizing side may have P(O{sub 2}) from 10{sup {minus}6} to greater than 1 atm. These conditions limit the possible candidate materials to lanthanum or yttrium chromites. In the past decade, much work has centered on development of air-sinterable chromites and understanding their physical properties; little work, however, has focused on the stability of these chromites in dual environments. Chromite powders were synthesized using the glycine-nitrate process. The powders were calcined at 1,000 C for 1 hour and then uniaxially pressed into bars (46mm x 16mm x 3mm) at 55 MPa and isostatically pressed at 138 MPa. Samples were sintered in air. The dependence of the physical properties of sintered lanthanum chromites upon ambient P(O{sub 2}) and temperature (using dilatometry, thermogravimetric analysis, and oxygen permeation measurements) were studied. La{sub 1{minus}x}A{sub x}CrO{sub 3} and Y{sub 1{minus}x}Ca{sub x}CrO{sub 3}, where A is Ca or Sr and x was varied from 0.1 to 0.4 were evaluated in this study. The P(O{sub 2}) was varied using a buffered CO{sub 2}/Ar-4%H{sub 2} gas system, enabling expansion measurements to be made over a partial pressure range from 10{sup {minus}5} to 10{sup {minus}18} atmosphere at 800, 900, and 1,000 C.
Bag model of hadrons, dual QCD thermodynamics and Quark-Gluon Plasma
H. C. Chandola; Garima Punetha; H. Dehnen
2015-05-16
Using the grand canonical ensemble formulation of a multi-particle statistical system, the thermodynamical description of the dual QCD has been presented in terms of the bag model of hadrons and analyzed for the quark-gluon plasma phase of hadronic matter. The dual QCD bag construction has been shown to lead to the radial pressure on the bag surface in terms of the vector glueball masses of the magnetically condensed QCD vacuum. Constructing the grand canonical partition function to deal with the quark-gluon plasma phase of the non-strange hadrons, the energy density and the plasma pressure have been derived and used to understand the dynamics of the associated phase transition. The critical temperature for QGP-hadron phase transition has been derived and numerically estimated by using various thermodynamic considerations. A comparison of the values of the critical temperatures for QGP-hadron phase transition with those obtained for the deconfinement-phase transition, has been shown to lead to the relaxation of the system via a mixed phase of QGP and hot hadron gas. The associated profiles of the normalized energy density and the specific heat have been shown to lead to a huge latent heat generation and indicate the onset of a first-order QGP phase transition. The squared speed of sound has been shown to act as a physical measure of large thermodynamical fluctuations near transition point where it shows a large reduction in its value as compared to the conformal limit and has intimate connection with the evolution of fire-ball and QGP in heavy-ion collision events. The possible implications of the trace anomaly and conformal measure on QGP formation have been discussed and a considerable increase in the degrees of freedom and the associated interaction effects has been indicated around the transition region and discussed for its relevance with the modern heavy-ion collision experiments.
DUAL RAMSEY THEOREM FOR TREES SLAWOMIR SOLECKI
Solecki, Slawomir
DUAL RAMSEY THEOREM FOR TREES SLAWOMIR SOLECKI Abstract. The classical Ramsey theorem was generalized in two major ways: to the dual Ramsey theorem, by Graham and Rothschild, and to Ramsey theorems Ramsey theorem for trees. Galois connections between partial orders are used in formulating this theorem
Modeling and analysis of dual hydroforming process
Jain, Nishant
2004-09-30
Effect of Strain Hardening Exponent, n................................ 69 Effect of Anisotropy, r .......................................................... 71 Effect of Friction... of Friction on Dual Hydroforming Process ..................................... 75 5-6 Effect of Different Materials on Dual Hydroforming Process................... 77 xi LIST OF TABLES TABLE Page 2-1 Material Properties for Copper...
Hamiltonian analysis of self-dual gauge gravity
Steven Kerr
2015-04-15
The Hamiltonian analysis of the self-dual gauge gravity theory is carried out. The resulting canonical structure is equivalent to that of self-dual gravity.
Project Profile: Sensible Heat, Direct, Dual-Media Thermal Energy...
Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site
Sensible Heat, Direct, Dual-Media Thermal Energy Storage Module Project Profile: Sensible Heat, Direct, Dual-Media Thermal Energy Storage Module Acciona logo Acciona Solar, under...
POLICY GUIDANCE MEMORANDUM #11A Approval Process for Dual Compensation...
Office of Environmental Management (EM)
1A Approval Process for Dual Compensation Waivers for Reemployed Annuitants POLICY GUIDANCE MEMORANDUM 11A Approval Process for Dual Compensation Waivers for Reemployed Annuitants...
DARHT: Dual-Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test Facility
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
DARHT: Dual-Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test Facility DARHT: Dual-Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test Facility DARHT, supports a critical component of LANL's primary mission: to...
Characterization of Dual-Fuel Reactivity Controlled Compression...
Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site
Dual-Fuel Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) Using Hydrated Ethanol and Diesel Fuel Characterization of Dual-Fuel Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI)...
V. Rabinovich; S. Roch
2008-02-27
The aim of this paper is to derive Agmon's type exponential estimates for solutions of elliptic systems of partial differential equations on $\\sR^n$. We show that these estimates are related with the essential spectra of a family of associated differential operators which depend on the original operator, and with exponential weights which describe the decrease of solutions at infinity. The essential spectra of the involved operators are described by means of their limit operators. The obtained results are applied to study the problem of exponential decay of eigenfunctions of matrix Schr\\"{o}dinger, Moisil-Theodorescu, and Dirac operators.
Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)
This report is the third annual update of a comprehensive automotive fuel cell cost analysis. It contains estimates for material and manufacturing cost of complete 80 kWnet direct hydrogen proton exch
Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]
DOE Geothermal Peer Review 2010 - Presentation. This objective of this project is to develop an innovative approach to estimate fracture surface area and spacing through interpretation of signals of natural chemical and isotopic tracers.
Ginting, Victor
2014-03-15
it was demonstrated that a posteriori analyses in general and in particular one that uses adjoint methods can accurately and efficiently compute numerical error estimates and sensitivity for critical Quantities of Interest (QoIs) that depend on a large number of parameters. Activities include: analysis and implementation of several time integration techniques for solving system of ODEs as typically obtained from spatial discretization of PDE systems; multirate integration methods for ordinary differential equations; formulation and analysis of an iterative multi-discretization Galerkin finite element method for multi-scale reaction-diffusion equations; investigation of an inexpensive postprocessing technique to estimate the error of finite element solution of the second-order quasi-linear elliptic problems measured in some global metrics; investigation of an application of the residual-based a posteriori error estimates to symmetric interior penalty discontinuous Galerkin method for solving a class of second order quasi-linear elliptic problems; a posteriori analysis of explicit time integrations for system of linear ordinary differential equations; derivation of accurate a posteriori goal oriented error estimates for a user-defined quantity of interest for two classes of first and second order IMEX schemes for advection-diffusion-reaction problems; Postprocessing finite element solution; and A Bayesian Framework for Uncertain Quantification of Porous Media Flows.
Dual manifold heat pipe evaporator
Adkins, Douglas R. (Albuquerque, NM); Rawlinson, K. Scott (Albuquerque, NM)
1994-01-01
An improved evaporator section for a dual manifold heat pipe. Both the upper and lower manifolds can have surfaces exposed to the heat source which evaporate the working fluid. The tubes in the tube bank between the manifolds have openings in their lower extensions into the lower manifold to provide for the transport of evaporated working fluid from the lower manifold into the tubes and from there on into the upper manifold and on to the condenser portion of the heat pipe. A wick structure lining the inner walls of the evaporator tubes extends into both the upper and lower manifolds. At least some of the tubes also have overflow tubes contained within them to carry condensed working fluid from the upper manifold to pass to the lower without spilling down the inside walls of the tubes.
Dual manifold heat pipe evaporator
Adkins, D.R.; Rawlinson, K.S.
1994-01-04
An improved evaporator section is described for a dual manifold heat pipe. Both the upper and lower manifolds can have surfaces exposed to the heat source which evaporate the working fluid. The tubes in the tube bank between the manifolds have openings in their lower extensions into the lower manifold to provide for the transport of evaporated working fluid from the lower manifold into the tubes and from there on into the upper manifold and on to the condenser portion of the heat pipe. A wick structure lining the inner walls of the evaporator tubes extends into both the upper and lower manifolds. At least some of the tubes also have overflow tubes contained within them to carry condensed working fluid from the upper manifold to pass to the lower without spilling down the inside walls of the tubes. 1 figure.
Sarkar, Sohini; Kosson, David S.; Brown, Kevin; Garrabrants, Andrew C.; Meeussen, Hans; Van der Sloot, Hans
2013-07-01
A numerical simulation framework is presented in this paper for estimating evolution of pH and release of major species from grout within high-level waste tanks after closure. This model was developed as part of the Cementitious Barriers Partnership. The reactive transport model consists of two parts - (1) transport of species, and (2) chemical reactions. The closure grout can be assumed to have varying extents of cracking and composition for performance assessment purposes. The partially or completely degraded grouted tank is idealized as a dual regime system comprising of a mobile region having solid materials with cracks and macro-pores, and an immobile/stagnant region having solid matrix with micropores. The transport profiles of the species are calculated by incorporating advection of species through the mobile region, diffusion of species through the immobile/stagnant region, and exchange of species between the mobile and immobile regions. A geochemical speciation code in conjunction with the pH dependent test data for a grout material is used to obtain a mineral set that best describes the trends in the test data of the major species. The dual regime reactive transport model predictions are compared with the release data from an up-flow column percolation test. The coupled model is then used to assess effects of crack state of the structure, rate and composition of the infiltrating water on the pH evolution at the grout-waste interface. The coupled reactive transport model developed in this work can be used as part of the performance assessment process for evaluating potential risks from leaching of a cracked tank containing elements of human health and environmental concern. (authors)
Recent Developments in Dual Lattice Algorithms
J. Wade Cherrington
2008-10-02
We review recent progress in numerical simulations with dually transformed SU(2) LGT, starting with a discussion of explicit dual amplitudes and algorithms for SU(2) pure Yang Mills in D=3 and D=4. In the D=3 case, we discuss results that validate the dual algorithm against conventional simulations. We also review how a local, exact dynamical fermion algorithm can naturally be incorporated into the dual framework. We conclude with an outlook for this technique and a look at some of the current challenges we've encountered with this method, specifically critical slowing down and the sign problem.
Texas Dual Language Program Cost Analysis
Lara-Alecio, Rafael; Galloway, Martha; Mahadevan, Lakshmi; Mason, Ben; Irby, Beverly J.; Brown, Genevieve; Gó mez, Leo
2010-09-29
stream_source_info CBAReport.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 92520 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name CBAReport.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 Texas Dual Language Program Cost..., Texas January 2005 Texas Dual Language Program Cost Analysis 2 For Inquiries Contact 979-845-2599 Texas A&M University Bilingual Education Programs To view the Texas Directory of Dual Language Programs See http...
Dual accelerating Airy-Talbot recurrence effect
Zhang, Yiqi; Beli?, Milivoj R; Liu, Xing; Zhong, Weiping; Zhang, Yanpeng; Xiao, Min
2015-01-01
We demonstrate the dual accelerating Airy-Talbot recurrence effect, i.e., the self-imaging of accelerating optical beams, by propagating a superposition of Airy beams with successively changing transverse displacements. The dual Airy-Talbot effect is a spontaneous recurring imaging of the input and of the input with alternating component signs. It results from the constructive interference of Airy wave functions, which is also responsible for other kinds of Airy beams, for example, Airy breathers. An input composed of finite-energy Airy beams also displays the dual Airy-Talbot effect, but it demands a large transverse displacement and diminishes fast along the propagation direction.
In earth system models, the partitioning of precipitation among the variations of continental water storage climate system sim- ulated by earth system models (ESMs). The continental freshwater reservoirs represent
DUAL ENROLLMENT STUDENT ELIGIBILITY FRAMEWORK, 2015-2016
Selmic, Sandra
of study in one of Tech's master's degree programs. Contacts Alicia Kimbell, Dual Enrollment Coordinator
-Based Electrochemical Estimation and Constraint Management for Pulse Operation of Lithium Ion Batteries Kandler A. Smith Technologies, Graduate Automotive Technology Education Pro- gram. This work was performed at the Pennsylvania-mail: kandlers@hotmail.com; kandler_smith@nrel.gov). C. D. Rahn and C.-Y. Wang are with the Department
Investigating Dual Language Models: A Case Study
Luevanos-Clemente, Ruby Nicole
2014-09-26
The general purpose of this research was to identify the characteristics, along with differences, of the dual language (DL) programs in elementary schools in two central schools in Texas. A secondary purpose was to analyze test scores over time...
DUAL CAREER FAMILY PETITION Harvard Medical School
Mootha, Vamsi K.
DUAL CAREER FAMILY PETITION Harvard Medical School Name: Harvard Title: Title of Proposal: Sponsor employee of the company, title/position, department or group, and job responsibilities: If employee, please
Dual superconducting properties of the QCD vacuum
A. D'Alessandro; M. D'Elia
2005-10-27
A consistent description of the confining QCD vacuum as a dual superconductor requires a determination of fundamental parameters such as the superconductor correlation length $\\xi$ and the field penetration depth $\\lambda$, which determine whether the superconductor is of type I or type II. We illustrate preliminary results of a lattice determination of $\\xi$ for the case of pure Yang-Mills with two colors, obtained by measuring the temporal correlator of a disorder parameter detecting dual superconductivity.
DKDT: A Performance Aware Dual Dielectric Assignment
Mohanty, Saraju P.
K and Dual--T ?T ? (Low K(Low Kgategate Vs High KVs High Kgategate)) N+ P P N+N+ N+ High KgateLow KgateK and Dual--T ?T ? (Low T(Low Tgategate Vs High TVs High Tgategate)) N+ P P N+N+ N+ High TgateLow Tgate CMOS P-Substrate N+ N+ Source Drain Gate I1 : reverse bias pn junction (both ON & OFF) I2
Dual mode stereotactic localization method and application
Keppel, Cynthia E. (Norfolk, VA); Barbosa, Fernando Jorge (Newport News, VA); Majewski, Stanislaw (Grafton, VA)
2002-01-01
The invention described herein combines the structural digital X-ray image provided by conventional stereotactic core biopsy instruments with the additional functional metabolic gamma imaging obtained with a dedicated compact gamma imaging mini-camera. Before the procedure, the patient is injected with an appropriate radiopharmaceutical. The radiopharmaceutical uptake distribution within the breast under compression in a conventional examination table expressed by the intensity of gamma emissions is obtained for comparison (co-registration) with the digital mammography (X-ray) image. This dual modality mode of operation greatly increases the functionality of existing stereotactic biopsy devices by yielding a much smaller number of false positives than would be produced using X-ray images alone. The ability to obtain both the X-ray mammographic image and the nuclear-based medicine gamma image using a single device is made possible largely through the use of a novel, small and movable gamma imaging camera that permits its incorporation into the same table or system as that currently utilized to obtain X-ray based mammographic images for localization of lesions.
Dual-domain lateral shearing interferometer
Naulleau, Patrick P.; Goldberg, Kenneth Alan
2004-03-16
The phase-shifting point diffraction interferometer (PS/PDI) was developed to address the problem of at-wavelength metrology of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) optical systems. Although extremely accurate, the fact that the PS/PDI is limited to use with coherent EUV sources, such as undulator radiation, is a drawback for its widespread use. An alternative to the PS/PDI, with relaxed coherence requirements, is lateral shearing interferometry (LSI). The use of a cross-grating, carrier-frequency configuration to characterize a large-field 4.times.-reduction EUV lithography optic is demonstrated. The results obtained are directly compared with PS/PDI measurements. A defocused implementation of the lateral shearing interferometer in which an image-plane filter allows both phase-shifting and Fourier wavefront recovery. The two wavefront recovery methods can be combined in a dual-domain technique providing suppression of noise added by self-interference of high-frequency components in the test-optic wavefront.
Fractal sets of dual topological quantum numbers
Wellington da Cruz
2004-06-18
The universality classes of the quantum Hall transitions are considered in terms of fractal sets of dual topological quantum numbers filling factors, labelled by a fractal or Hausdorff dimension defined into the interval $1 < h < 2$ and associated with fractal curves. We show that our approach to the fractional quantum Hall effect-FQHE is free of any empirical formula and this characteristic appears as a crucial insight for our understanding of the FQHE. According to our formulation, the FQHE gets a fractal structure from the connection between the filling factors and the Hausdoff dimension of the quantum paths of particles termed fractons which obey a fractal distribution function associated with a fractal von Neumann entropy. This way, the quantum Hall transitions satisfy some properties related to the Farey sequences of rational numbers and so our theoretical description of the FQHE establishes a connection between physics, fractal geometry and number theory. The FQHE as a convenient physical system for a possible prove of the Riemann hypothesis is suggested.
Correlative methods for dual-species quantum tests of the weak equivalence principle
B. Barrett; L. Antoni-Micollier; L. Chichet; B. Battelier; P. -A. Gominet; A. Bertoldi; P. Bouyer; A. Landragin
2015-08-11
Matter-wave interferometers utilizing different isotopes or chemical elements intrinsically have different sensitivities, and the analysis tools available until now are insufficient for accurately estimating the atomic phase difference under many experimental conditions. In this work, we describe and demonstrate two new methods for extracting the differential phase between dual-species atom interferometers for precise tests of the weak equivalence principle. The first method is a generalized Bayesian analysis, which uses knowledge of the system noise to estimate the differential phase based on a statistical model. The second method utilizes a mechanical accelerometer to reconstruct single-sensor interference fringes based on measurements of the vibration-induced phase. An improved ellipse-fitting algorithm is also implemented as a third method for comparison. These analysis tools are investigated using both numerical simulations and experimental data from simultaneous $^{87}$Rb and $^{39}$K interferometers, and both new techniques are shown to produce bias-free estimates of the differential phase. We also report observations of phase correlations between atom interferometers composed of different chemical species. This correlation enables us to reject common-mode vibration noise by a factor of 730, and to make preliminary tests of the weak equivalence principle with a sensitivity of $1.6 \\times 10^{-6}$ per measurement with an interrogation time of $T = 10$ ms. We study the level of vibration rejection by varying the temporal overlap between interferometers in a symmetric timing sequence. Finally, we discuss the limitations of the new analysis methods for future applications of differential atom interferometry.
2004-11-07
parameters only. Later inves- tigation [10, 11], however, revealed some concerns regard- ing the efficiency of the standard randomized particle fil- tering techniques in this context. It has been shown that, for a fixed computational complexity, more... of the conventional per-survivor processing (PSP) algorithm combined with the randomized particle fil- tering procedure for the channel and delay estimation. Thus, this procedure has proved more efficient, even in the situa- tion which is more favorable for EKF...
On two-parameter models of photon cross sections: Application to dual-energy CT imaging
Williamson, Jeffrey F.; Li Sicong; Devic, Slobodan; Whiting, Bruce R.; Lerma, Fritz A.
2006-11-15
The goal of this study is to evaluate the theoretically achievable accuracy in estimating photon cross sections at low energies (20-1000 keV) from idealized dual-energy x-ray computed tomography (CT) images. Cross-section estimation from dual-energy measurements requires a model that can accurately represent photon cross sections of any biological material as a function of energy by specifying only two characteristic parameters of the underlying material, e.g., effective atomic number and density. This paper evaluates the accuracy of two commonly used two-parameter cross-section models for postprocessing idealized measurements derived from dual-energy CT images. The parametric fit model (PFM) accounts for electron-binding effects and photoelectric absorption by power functions in atomic number and energy and scattering by the Klein-Nishina cross section. The basis-vector model (BVM) assumes that attenuation coefficients of any biological substance can be approximated by a linear combination of mass attenuation coefficients of two dissimilar basis substances. Both PFM and BVM were fit to a modern cross-section library for a range of elements and mixtures representative of naturally occurring biological materials (Z=2-20). The PFM model, in conjunction with the effective atomic number approximation, yields estimated the total linear cross-section estimates with mean absolute and maximum error ranges of 0.6%-2.2% and 1%-6%, respectively. The corresponding error ranges for BVM estimates were 0.02%-0.15% and 0.1%-0.5%. However, for photoelectric absorption frequency, the PFM absolute mean and maximum errors were 10.8%-22.4% and 29%-50%, compared with corresponding BVM errors of 0.4%-11.3% and 0.5%-17.0%, respectively. Both models were found to exhibit similar sensitivities to image-intensity measurement uncertainties. Of the two models, BVM is the most promising approach for realizing dual-energy CT cross-section measurement.
C.P.C. Wong; B. Merrill
2014-10-01
ITER is under construction and will begin operation in 2020. This is the first 500 MWfusion class DT device, and since it is not going to breed tritium, it will consume most of the limited supply of tritium resources in the world. Yet, in parallel, DT fusion nuclear component testing machines will be needed to provide technical data for the design of DEMO. It becomes necessary to estimate the tritium burn-up fraction and corresponding initial tritium inventory and the doubling time of these machines for the planning of future supply and utilization of tritium. With the use of a system code, tritium burn-up fraction and initial tritium inventory for steady state DT machines can be estimated. Estimated tritium burn-up fractions of FNSF-AT, CFETR-R and ARIES-AT are in the range of 1–2.8%. Corresponding total equilibrium tritium inventories of the plasma flow and tritium processing system, and with the DCLL blanket option are 7.6 kg, 6.1 kg, and 5.2 kg for ARIES-AT, CFETR-R and FNSF-AT, respectively.
Performance Analysis of Dual-Fan, Dual-Duct Constant Volume Air-Handling Units
Joo, I. S.; Liu, M.
2001-01-01
Dual-fan, dual-duct air-handling units introduce outside air directly into the cooling duct and use two variable speed devices to independently maintain the static pressure of the hot and the cold air ducts. Analytical models have been developed...
A Superdimensional Dual-covariant Field Theory
Yaroslav Derbenev
2015-08-12
An approach to a Unified Field Theory (UFT) is developed as an attempt to establish unification of the Theory of Quantum Fields (QFT) and General Theory of Relativity (GTR) on the background of a covariant differential calculus. A dual State Vector field (DSV)consisting of covariant and contravariant N-component functions of variables of a N-dimensional unified manifod (UM)is introduced to represents matter. DSV is supposed to transform in a way distinct from that of the differentials of the UM variables. Consequently, the hybrid tensors and a hybrid affine tensor (Dynamic Connection, DC) are introduced. The hybrid curvature form (HCF) is introduced as a covariant derivative of DC. A system of covariant Euler-Lagrange (EL) equations for DSV, DC, and a twin couple of the triadic hybrid tensors (Split Metric, SM)is derived. A scalar Lagrangian form is composed based on a set of principles suited for UFT, including the homogeneity in the UM space, differential irreducibility and scale invariance. The type of the manifold geometry is not specified in advance, in neither local (signature) nor regional (topology) aspects. Equations for DSV play role of the Schroedinger-Dirac equation in space of UM. By the correspondent EL equations, DC and SM are connected to DSV and become responsible for the non-linear features of the system i.e. interactions. In this paper we mark breaking of a background paradigm of the modern QFT, the superposition principle. The issue of the UM-MF dimensionality will be addressed, and relations to the principles and methodology of QFT and GTR will be discussed.
EFFECTS OF MORPHOLOGY ON THE MECHANICAL BEHAVIOR OF DUAL PHASE Fe/Si/C STEELS
Kim, N.J.
2012-01-01
and ductility in dual phase steels. However, it seems thatmechanical behavior of dual phase steels. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTSL INTRODUCTION Dual phase steels whose structures consist of
Neill, Thomas John O'
2011-01-01
AND MICROSTRUCTURES OF DUAL PHASE STEELS CONTAINING SILICON,and Microstructures of Dual Phase Steels Containing Silicon,microstructures of selected dual-phase steels in which the
Talley, Thomas James
1979-01-01
, where several of the staged fault tests were conducted, indicated that a 600:5 CT would be used in each phase and neutral of the line under test. The 60 Hz fault current availability at the test site was calculated to be approximately 2100 amps... CT secondary current Pk amps Pk 10kHz value expected 600:5 20/120 = . 1667 amps 1. 414 x . 1667a = . 235pk 0. 235 ? : 100 (40 db) = Z. 35ma Current/voltage transformer Z. 35ma ? : 10 = . 000235v 0. 235mv Thus the maximum estimated signal...
An investigation of dual-mode operation of a nuclear-thermal rocket engine
Kirk, W.L.; Hedstrom, J.C.; Moore, S.W.; McFarland, R.D.; Merrigan, M.A.; Buksa, J.J.; Cappiello, M.W.; Hanson, D.L.; Woloshun, K.A.
1991-06-01
A preliminary assessment of the technical feasibility and mass competitiveness of a dual-mode nuclear propulsion and power system based on Rover-type reactors has been completed. Earlier studies have indicated that dual-mode systems appear attractive for electrical power levels of a few kilowatts. However, at the megawatt electrical power level considered in this study, it appears that extensive modifications to the nuclear-thermal engines would be required, the feasibility of which is unclear. Mass competitiveness at high electrical power levels is also uncertain. Further study of reactor and shield design in conjuction with mission and vehicle studies is necessary in order to determine a useful dual-mode power range. 9 refs., 20 figs., 4 tabs.
Radke, Rich
A Sensor-based Dual-Arm Tele-Robotic Manipulation Platform Daniel Kruse, Richard J. Radke, and John}@rpi.edu,rjradke@ecse.rpi.edu Abstract-- This paper presents a novel telerobotic framework for human-directed dual-arm manipulation. Current telerobotic systems typically involve a single robot arm commanded by human through a joystick
Microelectromechanical Systems Opportunities
Akin, Tayfun
Microelectromechanical Systems Opportunities Defense Applications of MEMS Experiences in recent conflicts1 Microelectromechanical Systems Opportunities A Department of Defense Dual-Use Technology this need is the driving force for the development of microelec- tromechanical systems (MEMS). Using
Nexant Inc.
2006-05-01
This deliverable is for Task 9, Mixed Alcohols from Syngas: State of Technology, as part of National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Award ACO-5-44027, ''Equipment Design and Cost Estimation for Small Modular Biomass Systems, Synthesis Gas Cleanup and Oxygen Separation Equipment''. Task 9 supplements the work previously done by NREL in the mixed alcohols section of the 2003 technical report Preliminary Screening--Technical and Economic Assessment of Synthesis Gas to Fuels and Chemicals with Emphasis on the Potential for Biomass-Derived Syngas.
Wang, Wei, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology
2010-01-01
This research explores the application of archived data from Automatic Data Collection Systems (ADCS) to transportation planning with a focus on bus passenger Origin-Destination (OD) inferences at the bus-route level and ...
Dual condensates at finite isospin chemical potential
Zhang, Zhao
2015-01-01
The dual observables as order parameters for center symmetry are tested at finite isospin chemical potential $\\mu_I$ in a Polyakov-loop enhanced chiral model of QCD with physical quark masses. As a counterpart of the dressed Polyakov-loop, the first Fourier moment of pion condensate is introduced for $\\mu_I>{m_\\pi}/{2}$ under the temporal twisted boundary conditions for quarks. We demonstrate that this dual condensate exhibits the similar temperature dependence as the conventional Polyakov-loop. We confirm that its rapid increase with $T$ is driven by the evaporating of pion condensation. On the other hand, the dressed Polyakov-loop shows abnormal thermal behavior, which even decreases with $T$ at low temperatures due to the influence of pion condensate. We thus argue that in QCD the critical temperature extracting from a dual observable may have nothing to do with the quark confinement-deconfinement transition if the quark mass is very small.
Dual condensates at finite isospin chemical potential
Zhao Zhang; Qing Miao
2015-07-26
The dual observables as order parameters for center symmetry are tested at finite isospin chemical potential $\\mu_I$ in a Polyakov-loop enhanced chiral model of QCD with physical quark masses. As a counterpart of the dressed Polyakov-loop, the first Fourier moment of pion condensate is introduced for $\\mu_I>{m_\\pi}/{2}$ under the temporal twisted boundary conditions for quarks. We demonstrate that this dual condensate exhibits the similar temperature dependence as the conventional Polyakov-loop. We confirm that its rapid increase with $T$ is driven by the evaporating of pion condensation. On the other hand, the dressed Polyakov-loop shows abnormal thermal behavior, which even decreases with $T$ at low temperatures due to the influence of pion condensate. We thus argue that in QCD the critical temperature extracting from a dual observable may have nothing to do with the quark confinement-deconfinement transition if the quark mass is very small.
Dual Polynomials for Collision and Element Distinctness
Mark Bun; Justin Thaler
2015-03-25
The approximate degree of a Boolean function $f: \\{-1, 1\\}^n \\to \\{-1, 1\\}$ is the minimum degree of a real polynomial that approximates $f$ to within error $1/3$ in the $\\ell_\\infty$ norm. In an influential result, Aaronson and Shi (J. ACM 2004) proved tight $\\tilde{\\Omega}(n^{1/3})$ and $\\tilde{\\Omega}(n^{2/3})$ lower bounds on the approximate degree of the Collision and Element Distinctness functions, respectively. Their proof was non-constructive, using a sophisticated symmetrization argument and tools from approximation theory. More recently, several open problems in the study of approximate degree have been resolved via the construction of dual polynomials. These are explicit dual solutions to an appropriate linear program that captures the approximate degree of any function. We reprove Aaronson and Shi's results by constructing explicit dual polynomials for the Collision and Element Distinctness functions.
Silvano, Cristina
and SW contributions to power in a system-level design flow for control dominated embedded systems. Index in the most recent years. A power-driven methodology is mandatory during embedded systems design to meet accurate and efficient power metrics included in a hardware/software (HW/SW) codesign environment to guide
Dual Superconductivity in G2 group
G. Cossu; M. D'Elia; A. Di Giacomo; B. Lucini; C. Pica
2006-09-28
We investigate the dual superconductivity mechanism in the exceptional group $G_2$. This is a centerless group (no 't Hooft flux vortices are allowed) and we check for the presence of a magnetic monopole condensate in the confined phase by measuring on the lattice a disorder parameter related to the vacuum expectation value of an operator carrying magnetic charge. The behaviour of the disorder parameter is consistent with the dual superconductor picture. A first step of an analysis on the thermodynamical properties of the theory is conducted by mean of this operator.
Dual waveband compact catadioptric imaging spectrometer
Chrisp, Michael P.
2012-12-25
A catadioptric dual waveband imaging spectrometer that covers the visible through short-wave infrared, and the midwave infrared spectral regions, dispersing the visible through shortwave infrared with a zinc selenide grating and midwave infrared with a sapphire prism. The grating and prism are at the cold stop position, enabling the pupil to be split between them. The spectra for both wavebands are focused onto the relevant sections of a single dual waveband detector. Spatial keystone distortion is controlled to less than one tenth of a pixel over the full wavelength range, facilitating the matching of the spectra in the midwave infrared with the shorter wavelength region.
Aging and the vulnerability of speech to dual task demands
Kemper, Susan; Schmalzried, RaLynn Cheri; Hoffman, Lesa; Herman, Ruth
2010-12-01
Tracking a digital pursuit rotor task was used to measure dual task costs of language production by young and older adults. Tracking performance by both groups was affected by dual task demands: time on target declined and tracking error increased...
Combustion and Emissions Performance of Dual-Fuel Gasoline and...
Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site
Combustion and Emissions Performance of Dual-Fuel Gasoline and Diesel HECC on a Multi-Cylinder Light Duty Diesel Engine Combustion and Emissions Performance of Dual-Fuel Gasoline...
Jr. Technician T. Pennisi Technician M. Santana Technician Mechanical Systems and Operations M Coord. G. Beets4 Research Mechanic G. Crass Research Mechanic L. Hester Research Mechanic R. Jarnigan4 Research Mechanic W. Smith4 Research Mechanic Accelerator Cooling Systems K. Magda Team Leader J. Schubert
Mudd, Michelle Leigh
1998-01-01
This purpose of this study was to evaluate the prolonged effect of wearing the Oxylog System from Morgan Scientific, Inc. during a series of four manual material handling tests. The lift tests were performed by 12 males (average age of 23 years...
Lyu, Michael R.
IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON SYSTEMS, MAN, AND CYBERNETICS - PART B: CYBERNETICS, VOL. XX, NO. Y, MONTH & Engineering, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, NT, Hong Kong. E-mail: lyu@cse.cuhk.edu.hk. C.L.P. Chen is with the Department of Computer Science & Engineering, Wright State University, Dayton, OH
Attonewton force detection using microspheres in a dual-beam optical trap in high vacuum
Ranjit, Gambhir; Stutz, Jordan H; Cunningham, Mark; Geraci, Andrew A
2015-01-01
We describe the implementation of laser-cooled silica microspheres as force sensors in a dual-beam optical dipole trap in high vacuum. Using this system we have demonstrated trap lifetimes exceeding several days, attonewton force detection capability, and wide tunability in trapping and cooling parameters. Measurements have been performed with charged and neutral beads to calibrate the sensitivity of the detector. This work establishes the suitability of dual beam optical dipole traps for precision force measurement in high vacuum with long averaging times, and enables future applications including the study of gravitational inverse square law violations at short range, Casimir forces, acceleration sensing, and quantum opto-mechanics.
Attonewton force detection using microspheres in a dual-beam optical trap in high vacuum
Gambhir Ranjit; David P. Atherton; Jordan H. Stutz; Mark Cunningham; Andrew A. Geraci
2015-04-03
We describe the implementation of laser-cooled silica microspheres as force sensors in a dual-beam optical dipole trap in high vacuum. Using this system we have demonstrated trap lifetimes exceeding several days, attonewton force detection capability, and wide tunability in trapping and cooling parameters. Measurements have been performed with charged and neutral beads to calibrate the sensitivity of the detector. This work establishes the suitability of dual beam optical dipole traps for precision force measurement in high vacuum with long averaging times, and enables future applications including the study of gravitational inverse square law violations at short range, Casimir forces, acceleration sensing, and quantum opto-mechanics.
Economizer Applications in Dual-Duct Air-Handling Units
Joo, I.; Liu, M.
2002-01-01
for dual-fan, dual-duct air-handling units. The economizer has significant heating energy penalties for single-fan, dual-duct air-handling units. The penalties are higher than the cooling energy savings when the cold airflow is less than the hot airflow...
Mean Flow Acoustic Correlations for Dual-Stream Asymmetric Jets
Papamoschou, Dimitri
Mean Flow Â Acoustic Correlations for Dual-Stream Asymmetric Jets Preben E. Nielsen* and Dimitri dual-stream jets for the exhaust of turbofan engines has demonstrated the potential for noise acoustic and mean-flow measurements, of several fan-flow deflector configurations in a subscale dual-stream
DOES DUAL SOURCING LOWER PROCUREMENT COSTS? Thomas P. Lyonw
Lyon, Thomas P.
DOES DUAL SOURCING LOWER PROCUREMENT COSTS?Ã Thomas P. Lyonw U.S. defense policy encourages the use of dual sourcing to reduce government procurement costs, but recent theoretical work raises doubts about procurement costs using a panel dataset of tactical missiles. I find dual sourcing is not driven by failures
Active Vibration Control Based on a 3-DOF Dual Compliant Parallel Robot Using LQR Algorithm
Li, Yangmin
Active Vibration Control Based on a 3-DOF Dual Compliant Parallel Robot Using LQR Algorithm Yuan a careful isolation of the instrument from the vibration sources by adopting active vibration isolation system to achieve a very low remaining vibration level especially for the very low frequency under 10Hz
A Dual Algorithm for the Short Term Power Production Planning with Network
data from the uruguayan system. Keywords: Short term power scheduling, hydro thermal coordination, unit), finding the power generation of the hydro plants, and solving the transmission network problem. ThoseA Dual Algorithm for the Short Term Power Production Planning with Network Constraints Alfredo
Peak Demand Reduction with Dual-Source Heat Pumps Using Municipal Water
Morehouse, J. H.; Khan, J. A.; Connor, L. N.; Pal, D.
1992-01-01
The objective of this project was to examine a dual-source (air and/or water-coupled) heat pump concept which would reduce or eliminate the need for supplemental electrical resistance heating (strip heaters). The project examined two system options...
MO. RIY. MO. : ;. ' ~ . Dual A /D Converter Reliability Prediction ATM 905
Rathbun, Julie A.
the Reliability Prediction and Failure Modes Effects & Criticality Analysis of the Bendix designed Dual A/D Converter. The analysis reflects the final flight configuration for the Array D ALSEP System. Prepared simultaneously by the counter control (Block I, digital board). When the ramp voltage equals the analog input
Production and characterization of a dual species magneto-optical trap of cesium and ytterbium
Kemp, S L; Freytag, R; Hopkins, S A; Hinds, E A; Tarbutt, M R; Cornish, S L
2015-01-01
We describe an apparatus designed to trap and cool a Yb and Cs mixture. The apparatus consists of a dual species effusive oven source, dual species Zeeman slower, magneto-optical traps in a single ultra-high vacuum science chamber, and the associated laser systems. The dual species Zeeman slower is used to load sequentially the two species into their respective traps. Its design is flexible and may be adapted for other experiments with different mixtures of atomic species. The apparatus provides excellent optical access and can apply large magnetic bias fields to the trapped atoms. The apparatus regularly produces 10${}^{8}$ Cs atoms at 13.3 $\\mu$K in an optical molasses, and 10${}^{9}$ Yb atoms cooled to 22 $\\mu$K in a narrowband magneto-optical trap.
Dual fuel Russian urban transit buses: Economical reduced emissions. Export trade information
1998-01-01
This study, conducted by Caterpillar, was funded by the US Trade and Development Agency. The scope of this project was to examine the financial and environmental aspects of introducing new alternative fuel engines to the buses of Russia`s public transportation system. The report consists of the following: (1) executive summary; (2) background/overview; (3) 3306 design, development, test; (4) electronic governed engines; (5) Moscow bus testing; (6) conclusions; (7) appendices. The appendices include: (1) Caterpillar emissions lab report; (2) dyno tests -- dual fuel data sheets; (3) 3360 horizontal engine lub tilt test; (4) 1000 hour endurance test -- engine operator sheets; (5) 1000 hour endurance test -- 250 hour check; (6) Caterpillar dual fuel electronic engines; (7) product description -- dual fuel electronic governed engines; (8) California Environmental Protection Agency -- certification of caterpillar electronic governed engines; (9) annual payback data.
Turbine airfoil with dual wall formed from inner and outer layers separated by a compliant structure
Campbell; Christian X. (Oviedo, FL), Morrison; Jay A. (Oviedo, FL)
2011-12-20
A turbine airfoil usable in a turbine engine with a cooling system and a compliant dual wall configuration configured to enable thermal expansion between inner and outer layers while eliminating stress formation is disclosed. The compliant dual wall configuration may be formed a dual wall formed from inner and outer layers separated by a compliant structure. The compliant structure may be configured such that the outer layer may thermally expand without limitation by the inner layer. The compliant structure may be formed from a plurality of pedestals positioned generally parallel with each other. The pedestals may include a first foot attached to a first end of the pedestal and extending in a first direction aligned with the outer layer, and may include a second foot attached to a second end of the pedestal and extending in a second direction aligned with the inner layer.
Improved dual flow aluminum hydrogen peroxide battery
Marsh, C.; Licht, S.L.; Matthews, D.
1993-11-30
A novel dual flow battery configuration is provided comprising an aqueous hydrogen peroxide catholyte, an aqueous anolyte, a porous solid electrocatalyst capable of reducing said hydrogen peroxide and separating said anolyte, and an aluminum anode positioned within said anolyte. Separation of catholyte and anolyte chambers prevents hydrogen peroxide poisoning of the aluminum anode.
Communication-Efficient Distributed Dual Coordinate Ascent
McAuliffe, Jon
Communication-Efficient Distributed Dual Coordinate Ascent Martin Jaggi ETH Zurich Virginia Smith Thomas Hofmann ETH Zurich Michael I. Jordan UC Berkeley Abstract Communication remains the most learning. In this pa- per, we propose a communication-efficient framework, COCOA, that uses local
Dual Baud Rate Generator Programmable Divider
Mann, Tim
to excessive loading. The output of the oscillatorlbuffer is applied to the dividers for generation, inclusive. If the divisor is even, the output will be square: otherwise the output will be high longer thanAPPENDIX B #12;#12;Dual Baud Rate Generator Programmable Divider FEATURES PIN CONFi
P. S. Howe; N. D. Lambert; P. C. West
1997-09-09
We obtain a BPS soliton of the M theory fivebrane's equations of motion representing a supersymmetric self-dual string. The resulting solution is then dimensionally reduced and used to obtain 0-brane and (p-2)-brane solitons on D-p-branes.
Bhardwaj, Shubhendu
2012-01-01
in Weather Detection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .for S-Band Weather Radar . . . . . . . . . . . . . Dual-polpatterns of polarimetric weather radars,” Journal of
DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)
Feenstra, Adam D.; Hansen, Rebecca L.; Lee, Young Jin
2015-08-27
Mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) provides high spatial resolution information that is unprecedented in traditional metabolomics analyses; however, the molecular coverage is often limited to a handful of compounds and is insufficient to understand overall metabolomic changes of a biological system. Here, we propose an MSI methodology to increase the diversity of chemical compounds that can be imaged and identified, in order to eventually perform untargeted metabolomic analysis using MSI. We use the desorption/ionization bias of various matrixes for different metabolite classes along with dual polarities and a tandem MSI strategy. The use of multiple matrixes and dual polarities allows usmore »to visualize various classes of compounds, while data-dependent MS/MS spectra acquired in the same MSI scans allow us to identify the compounds directly on the tissue. In a proof of concept application to a germinated corn seed, a total of 166 unique ions were determined to have high-quality MS/MS spectra, without counting structural isomers, of which 52 were identified as unique compounds. According to an estimation based on precursor MSI datasets, we expect over five hundred metabolites could be potentially identified and visualized once all experimental conditions are optimized and an MS/MS library is available. Finally, metabolites involved in the glycolysis pathway and tricarboxylic acid cycle were imaged to demonstrate the potential of this technology to better understand metabolic biology.« less
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would like submit the followingConcentrating Solar Deployment System (CSDS) - A New Model for
Cost Estimating, Analysis, and Standardization
Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]
1984-11-02
To establish policy and responsibilities for: (a) developing and reviewing project cost estimates; (b) preparing independent cost estimates and analysis; (c) standardizing cost estimating procedures; and (d) improving overall cost estimating and analytical techniques, cost data bases, cost and economic escalation models, and cost estimating systems. Cancels DOE O 5700.2B, dated 8-5-1983; DOE O 5700.8, dated 5-27-1981; and HQ 1130.1A, dated 12-30-1981. Canceled by DOE O 5700.2D, dated 6-12-1992
Cai, C.; Rodet, T.; Mohammad-Djafari, A.; Legoupil, S.
2013-11-15
Purpose: Dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) makes it possible to get two fractions of basis materials without segmentation. One is the soft-tissue equivalent water fraction and the other is the hard-matter equivalent bone fraction. Practical DECT measurements are usually obtained with polychromatic x-ray beams. Existing reconstruction approaches based on linear forward models without counting the beam polychromaticity fail to estimate the correct decomposition fractions and result in beam-hardening artifacts (BHA). The existing BHA correction approaches either need to refer to calibration measurements or suffer from the noise amplification caused by the negative-log preprocessing and the ill-conditioned water and bone separation problem. To overcome these problems, statistical DECT reconstruction approaches based on nonlinear forward models counting the beam polychromaticity show great potential for giving accurate fraction images.Methods: This work proposes a full-spectral Bayesian reconstruction approach which allows the reconstruction of high quality fraction images from ordinary polychromatic measurements. This approach is based on a Gaussian noise model with unknown variance assigned directly to the projections without taking negative-log. Referring to Bayesian inferences, the decomposition fractions and observation variance are estimated by using the joint maximum a posteriori (MAP) estimation method. Subject to an adaptive prior model assigned to the variance, the joint estimation problem is then simplified into a single estimation problem. It transforms the joint MAP estimation problem into a minimization problem with a nonquadratic cost function. To solve it, the use of a monotone conjugate gradient algorithm with suboptimal descent steps is proposed.Results: The performance of the proposed approach is analyzed with both simulated and experimental data. The results show that the proposed Bayesian approach is robust to noise and materials. It is also necessary to have the accurate spectrum information about the source-detector system. When dealing with experimental data, the spectrum can be predicted by a Monte Carlo simulator. For the materials between water and bone, less than 5% separation errors are observed on the estimated decomposition fractions.Conclusions: The proposed approach is a statistical reconstruction approach based on a nonlinear forward model counting the full beam polychromaticity and applied directly to the projections without taking negative-log. Compared to the approaches based on linear forward models and the BHA correction approaches, it has advantages in noise robustness and reconstruction accuracy.
Numerically optimized structures for dielectric asymmetric dual-grating laser accelerators
Aimidula, A. [Key Laboratory of Beam Technology and Materials Modification of the Ministry of Education, College of Nuclear Science and Technology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China) [Key Laboratory of Beam Technology and Materials Modification of the Ministry of Education, College of Nuclear Science and Technology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Cockcroft Institute, Daresbury Sci-Tech, Warrington WA44AD (United Kingdom); Physics Department, University of Liverpool, Liverpool (United Kingdom); Bake, M. A.; Wan, F.; Xie, B. S., E-mail: bsxie@bnu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Beam Technology and Materials Modification of the Ministry of Education, College of Nuclear Science and Technology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Welsch, C. P. [Cockcroft Institute, Daresbury Sci-Tech, Warrington WA44AD (United Kingdom) [Cockcroft Institute, Daresbury Sci-Tech, Warrington WA44AD (United Kingdom); Physics Department, University of Liverpool, Liverpool (United Kingdom); Xia, G.; Mete, O. [Cockcroft Institute, Daresbury Sci-Tech, Warrington WA44AD (United Kingdom) [Cockcroft Institute, Daresbury Sci-Tech, Warrington WA44AD (United Kingdom); School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, Manchester (United Kingdom); Uesaka, M.; Matsumura, Y. [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Management, The University of Tokyo, Tokai 319-1188 (Japan)] [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Management, The University of Tokyo, Tokai 319-1188 (Japan); Yoshida, M.; Koyama, K. [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan)] [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan)
2014-02-15
Optical scale dielectric structures are promising candidates to realize future compact, low cost particle accelerators, since they can sustain high acceleration gradients in the range of GeV/m. Here, we present numerical simulation results for a dielectric asymmetric dual-grating accelerator. It was found that the asymmetric dual-grating structures can efficiently modify the laser field to synchronize it with relativistic electrons, therefore increasing the average acceleration gradient by ?10% in comparison to symmetric structures. The optimum pillar height which was determined by simulation agrees well with that estimated analytically. The effect of the initial kinetic energy of injected electrons on the acceleration gradient is also discussed. Finally, the required laser parameters were calculated analytically and a suitable laser is proposed as energy source.
Adaptive upscaling with the dual mesh method
Guerillot, D.; Verdiere, S.
1997-08-01
The objective of this paper is to demonstrate that upscaling should be calculated during the flow simulation instead of trying to enhance the a priori upscaling methods. Hence, counter-examples are given to motivate our approach, the so-called Dual Mesh Method. The main steps of this numerical algorithm are recalled. Applications illustrate the necessity to consider different average relative permeability values depending on the direction in space. Moreover, these values could be different for the same average saturation. This proves that an a priori upscaling cannot be the answer even in homogeneous cases because of the {open_quotes}dynamical heterogeneity{close_quotes} created by the saturation profile. Other examples show the efficiency of the Dual Mesh Method applied to heterogeneous medium and to an actual field case in South America.
Theorems on twin primes-dual case
Vladimir Shevelev
2014-08-31
We prove dual theorems to theorems proved by author in \\cite {5}. Beginning with Section 10, we introduce and study so-called "twin numbers of the second kind" and a postulate for them. We give two proofs of the infinity of these numbers and a sufficient condition for truth of the postulate; also we pose several other conjectures. Finally, we consider a conception of axiom of type "AiB".
Fabrication of dual porosity electrode structure
Smith, James L. (Lemont, IL); Kucera, Eugenia H. (Downers Grove, IL)
1991-01-01
A substantially entirely fibrous ceramic which may have dual porosity of both micro and macro pores. Total porosity may be 60-75% by volume. A method of spraying a slurry perpendicularly to an ambient stream of air is disclosed along with a method of removing binders without altering the fiber morphology. Adding fine ceramic particulates to the green ceramic fibers enhances the sintering characteristics of the fibers.
Exact Gravity Dual of a Gapless Superconductor
George Koutsoumbas; Eleftherios Papantonopoulos; George Siopsis
2009-06-17
A model of an exact gravity dual of a gapless superconductor is presented in which the condensate is provided by a charged scalar field coupled to a bulk black hole of hyperbolic horizon in asymptotically AdS spacetime. Below a critical temperature, the black hole acquires its hair through a phase transition while an electromagnetic perturbation of the background Maxwell field determines the conductivity of the boundary theory.
Fabrication of dual porosity electrode structure
Smith, J.L.; Kucera, E.H.
1991-02-12
A substantially entirely fibrous ceramic is described which may have dual porosity of both micro and macro pores. Total porosity may be 60-75% by volume. A method of spraying a slurry perpendicularly to an ambient stream of air is disclosed along with a method of removing binders without altering the fiber morphology. Adding fine ceramic particulates to the green ceramic fibers enhances the sintering characteristics of the fibers. 3 figures.
Dual wavelength polarimetry for monitoring glucose in the presence of varying birefringence
Wan, Qiujie
2006-04-12
of insulin in the body, hyperglycemia occurs, an elevation of the blood glucose levels to much higher than normal. Alternatively, when blood glucose levels are below normal a condition known as hypoglycemia occurs. Without treatment, consistently low... to the motion of the cornea.27 Baba et al. 6 designed and implemented a dual orthogonal polarization detection system to compensate for motion artifact but the results showed low accuracy due to the open-loop nature of the system.28 This research describes...
Probability Grid: A Location Estimation Scheme for Wireless Sensor Networks
Stankovic, John A.
estimation, grid topology, probability. I. INTRODUCTION Recent advances in micro-electro-mechanical systems
Iterative Self-Dual Reconstruction on Radar Image Recovery
Martins, Charles; Medeiros, Fatima; Ushizima, Daniela; Bezerra, Francisco; Marques, Regis; Mascarenhas, Nelson
2010-05-21
Imaging systems as ultrasound, sonar, laser and synthetic aperture radar (SAR) are subjected to speckle noise during image acquisition. Before analyzing these images, it is often necessary to remove the speckle noise using filters. We combine properties of two mathematical morphology filters with speckle statistics to propose a signal-dependent noise filter to multiplicative noise. We describe a multiscale scheme that preserves sharp edges while it smooths homogeneous areas, by combining local statistics with two mathematical morphology filters: the alternating sequential and the self-dual reconstruction algorithms. The experimental results show that the proposed approach is less sensitive to varying window sizes when applied to simulated and real SAR images in comparison with standard filters.
Dual fueling of a Caterpillar 3406 diesel engine
Bell, S.R.; Midkiff, K.C.; Doughty, G.; Brett, C.E.
1996-05-01
A Caterpillar 3406 turbocharged diesel engine was converted to operate in a dual-fuel mode and was evaluated for performance and emission characteristics for both diesel and natural gas operation. Full load power was achieved with dual fueling without knock. Similar fuel efficiencies were obtained with dual fueling a high loads, but efficiencies were lower for low loads. Bosch smoke numbers were reduced by over 50% with dual fueling for all cases investigated. NO{sub x} emissions were found to be lower at low loads and at high speeds under high load. CO emissions were significantly increased for dual fueling while CO{sub 2} concentrations in the exhaust were reduced for dual fueling.
A Hopf Algebra Structure in Self-dual Gravity
Hugo Garcia-Compean; Laura E. Morales; Jerzy F. Plebanski
1996-01-20
The two-dimensional non-linear sigma model approach to Self-dual Yang-Mills theory and to Self-dual gravity given by Q-Han Park is an example of the deep interplay between two and four dimensional physics. In particular, Husain's two-dimensional chiral model approach to Self-dual gravity is studied. We show that the infinite hierarchy of conservation laws associated to the Husain model carries implicitly a hidden infinite Hopf algebra structure.
Generalized dual symmetry of nonabelian theories and the freezing of ?_s
C. R. Das; L. V. Laperashvili; H. B. Nielsen
2006-08-23
The quantum Yang-Mills theory, describing a system of fields with non-dual (chromo-electric g) and dual (chromo-magnetic \\tilde g) charges and revealing the generalized dual symmetry, is developed by analogy with the Zwanziger formalism in QED. The renormalization group equations (RGEs) for pure nonabelian theories are analysed for both constants, \\alpha = g^2 / 4\\pi and \\tilde\\alpha = {\\tilde g}^2 / 4\\pi. The pure SU(3) \\times \\widetilde{SU(3)} gauge theory is investigated as an example. We consider not only monopoles, but also dyons. The behaviour of the total SU(3) \\beta-function is investigated in the whole region of \\alpha \\equiv \\alpha_s: 0 \\le \\alpha freezing of \\alpha_s. The evolution of \\alpha_s^{-1}(\\mu) and the behaviour of V_{eff}(\\mu) are investigated for both, perturbative and non-perturbative regions of QCD. It was shown that the effective potential has a minimum, ensured by the dual sector of QCD. The gluon condensate F^2_0, corresponding to this minimum, is predicted: F^2_0 \\approx 0.15 GeV^4, in agreement with the well-known results.
Optimization Online - Robust nonlinear optimization via the dual
Apr 29, 2015 ... Robust nonlinear optimization via the dual. Bram L Gorissen(b.l.gorissen ***at*** tilburguniversity.edu) Dick Den Hertog(d.denhertog ***at*** ...
Thermodynamic estimation: Ionic materials
Glasser, Leslie, E-mail: l.glasser@curtin.edu.au
2013-10-15
Thermodynamics establishes equilibrium relations among thermodynamic parameters (“properties”) and delineates the effects of variation of the thermodynamic functions (typically temperature and pressure) on those parameters. However, classical thermodynamics does not provide values for the necessary thermodynamic properties, which must be established by extra-thermodynamic means such as experiment, theoretical calculation, or empirical estimation. While many values may be found in the numerous collected tables in the literature, these are necessarily incomplete because either the experimental measurements have not been made or the materials may be hypothetical. The current paper presents a number of simple and relible estimation methods for thermodynamic properties, principally for ionic materials. The results may also be used as a check for obvious errors in published values. The estimation methods described are typically based on addition of properties of individual ions, or sums of properties of neutral ion groups (such as “double” salts, in the Simple Salt Approximation), or based upon correlations such as with formula unit volumes (Volume-Based Thermodynamics). - Graphical abstract: Thermodynamic properties of ionic materials may be readily estimated by summation of the properties of individual ions, by summation of the properties of ‘double salts’, and by correlation with formula volume. Such estimates may fill gaps in the literature, and may also be used as checks of published values. This simplicity arises from exploitation of the fact that repulsive energy terms are of short range and very similar across materials, while coulombic interactions provide a very large component of the attractive energy in ionic systems. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Estimation methods for thermodynamic properties of ionic materials are introduced. • Methods are based on summation of single ions, multiple salts, and correlations. • Heat capacity, entropy, lattice energy, enthalpy, Gibbs energy values are available.
Dual-fueling diesel/NGV technology
Heenan, J.; Gettel, L
1988-01-01
The use of natural gas as a transportation fuel reduces operating costs and emissions and contributes to security of supply. Natural gas for vehicles (NGV) can be used in rail, road, marine and off-road applications as a replacement for diesel fuel either stored as liquefied natural gas (LNG) or compressed natural gas (CNG). These applications have large energy consumptions per engine which makes them attractive target markets. When NGV replaces diesel as a fuel, either engines are converted to spark ignition (Otto Cycle) or a small amount of diesel fuel is used as for pilot ignition (Dual fuel).
Dual spaces of differential Lie algebras
Kupershmidt, B.A.
1982-01-01
We present a mathematical scheme which serves as an infinite-dimensional generalization of Poisson structures on dual spaces of finite-dimensional Lie algebras, which are well known and widely used in classical mechanics. These structures have recently appeared in the theory of Lax equations, long waves in hydrodynamics, and various other physical models: compressible hydrodynamics, magnetohydrodynamics, multifluid plasmas, elasticity, superfluid /sup 4/He and /sup 3/He-A, Ginzburg-Landau theory of superconductors, and classical chromohydrodynamics (the generalization of plasma physics to Yang-Mills interactions).
Dual stage active magnetic regenerator and method
Pecharsky, V.K.; Gschneidner, K.A. Jr.
1999-03-30
A dual stage active magnetic regenerator refrigerator as well as method using the Joule-Brayton thermodynamic cycle includes a high temperature stage refrigerant comprising DyAl{sub 2} or (Dy{sub 1{minus}x}Er{sub x})Al{sub 2} where x is selected to be greater than 0 and less than about 0.3 in combination with a low temperature stage comprising (Dy{sub 1{minus}x}Er{sub x})Al{sub 2} where x is selected to be greater than about 0.5 and less than 1 to provide significantly improved refrigeration efficiency in the liquefaction of gaseous hydrogen. 17 figs.
Self-Dual Superstring in Six Dimensions
John H. Schwarz
1996-04-27
A free superstring with chiral N=2 supersymmetry in six dimensions is proposed. It couples to a two-form gauge field with a self-dual field strength. Compactification to four dimensions on a two-torus gives a strongly coupled N=4 four-dimensional gauge theory with SL(2, Z) duality and an infinite tower of dyons. Various authors have suggested that this string theory should be also the world-volume theory of M theory five-branes. Accepting this proposal, we find a puzzling factor of two in the application to black-hole entropy computations.
Shafer, John M
2012-11-05
The three major components of this research were: 1. Application of minimally invasive, cost effective hydrogeophysical techniques (surface and borehole), to generate fine scale (~1m or less) 3D estimates of subsurface heterogeneity. Heterogeneity is defined as spatial variability in hydraulic conductivity and/or hydrolithologic zones. 2. Integration of the fine scale characterization of hydrogeologic parameters with the hydrogeologic facies to upscale the finer scale assessment of heterogeneity to field scale. 3. Determination of the relationship between dual-domain parameters and practical characterization data.
Rincon-Mora, Gabriel A.
1 26.2 Single-Inductor Dual-Input Dual-Output Buck-Boost Fuel Cell-Li Ion Charging DC-DC Converter battery with its energy-dense counterpart like the fuel cell (FC) improves micro-scale integration [2]. As a result, buck or boost single-inductor, dual-input, dual-output (SIDIDO) converters enjoy
An Analytical Approach for Tail-Pipe Emissions Estimation with...
Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site
An Analytical Approach for Tail-Pipe Emissions Estimation with Coupled Engine and Aftertreatment System An Analytical Approach for Tail-Pipe Emissions Estimation with Coupled...
Speed of processing versus dual-tasking in ageing using a motor-free paradigm.
Oliphant, Kirsty
2012-06-27
Age effects on dual-task costs and speed of processing were investigated on young, middle and old participants. Dual-tasking literature debates the presence of an age-related dual task decline in older adults and we hope ...
Ghazali, Zayba
2011-06-29
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to explore age-related differences in dual-tasking. Previous studies report no age-effects in dual-tasking among healthy individuals in comparison to severe dual-tasking impairment in Alzheimer’s ...
CARBON ATOM DISTRIBUTION IN A DUAL PHASE STEEL: AN ATOM PROBE STUDY
Barnard, S.J.
2014-01-01
ATOM DISTRIBUTION IN A DUAL PHASE STEEL: AN ATOM PROBE STUDY~4720 1 U.S.A. IntroductioE. Dual Phase steels are currentlymartensite-austenite dual phase steel, although the results
DESIGN OF DUAL PHASE Fe/Mn/C STEEL FOR LOW TEMPERATURE APPLICATION
Kim, Nack-Joon
2013-01-01
and Properties of Dual- Phase Steels, R. A. Kot and J. \\4.and Properties of Dual Phase Steels, R. A. Kot and J. W. ~Formable HSLA and Dual- Phase Steels, A. T. Davenport, ed. ,
on a saturating branching process model of cascading failure and on failure data generated by the OPA simulation 2006 IEEE An estimator of propagation of cascading failure Ian Dobson, Kevin R. Wierzbicki, Benjamin A the extent to which failures propagate in cascading failures such as large blackouts. The estimator is tested
Zhao,L.; Zhao,X.; Hu,A.
2014-01-01
and Municipal Engineering Xi’an University of Architecture and Technology The Exploration on the Energy Saving Potential of an Innovative Dual- temperature Air Conditioner and the Mechanism of the Theoretical Mixed Refrigeration Cycle ESL-IC-14-09-35a... conditioner. However, energy losses caused by secondary heat transfer leave more room for the whole system performance to be improved if they can be avoided. 1 Introduction ?An innovative dual-temperature air-conditioner and the corresponding theoretical...
R. A. d'Inverno; P. Lambert; J. A. Vickers
2006-04-20
In this paper we obtain a 2+2 double null Hamiltonian description of General Relativity using only the (complex) SO(3) connection and the components of the complex densitised self-dual bivectors. We carry out the general canonical analysis of this system and obtain the first class constraint algebra entirely in terms of the self-dual variables. The first class algebra forms a Lie algebra and all the first class constraints have a simple geometrical interpretation.
Gravity Dual for Cyclic Renormalization Group Flow without Conformal Invariance
Yu Nakayama
2011-07-21
We construct a gravity dual for scale invariant but non-conformal field theories with a cyclic renormalization group flow. A slight modification of our construction gives a gravity dual of discretely scale invariant field theories. The underlying gravitational theory breaks the null energy condition.
DUAL RAMSEY THEOREM FOR TREES S_LAWOMIR SOLECKI
Solecki, Slawomir
DUAL RAMSEY THEOREM FOR TREES S_LAWOMIR SOLECKI Abstract.The classical Ramsey theorem was generalized in two major ways: to the dual Ramsey theorem, by Graham and Rothschild, and to Ramsey theorems for trees, initially by Deuber and Leeb. Bringing
A Dual Method for the Unit Commitment Problem
Römisch, Werner
A Dual Method for the Unit Commitment Problem A. Moller and W. Romisch Humboldt{Universitat Berlin on Lagrangian relaxation and uses a bundle method for solving the nonsmooth dual problem. Computational results and SUCi denote the fuel costs (as a quadratic function of pt i), the keeping hot costs, the start up costs
Parameter Estimation Through Ignorance
Hailiang Du; Leonard A. Smith
2012-06-06
Dynamical modelling lies at the heart of our understanding of physical systems. Its role in science is deeper than mere operational forecasting, in that it allows us to evaluate the adequacy of the mathematical structure of our models. Despite the importance of model parameters, there is no general method of parameter estimation outside linear systems. A new relatively simple method of parameter estimation for nonlinear systems is presented, based on variations in the accuracy of probability forecasts. It is illustrated on the Logistic Map, the Henon Map and the 12-D Lorenz96 flow, and its ability to outperform linear least squares in these systems is explored at various noise levels and sampling rates. As expected, it is more effective when the forecast error distributions are non-Gaussian. The new method selects parameter values by minimizing a proper, local skill score for continuous probability forecasts as a function of the parameter values. This new approach is easier to implement in practice than alternative nonlinear methods based on the geometry of attractors or the ability of the model to shadow the observations. New direct measures of inadequacy in the model, the "Implied Ignorance" and the information deficit are introduced.
Dual vortex theory of strongly interacting electrons: A non-Fermi...
Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)
Dual vortex theory of strongly interacting electrons: A non-Fermi liquid with a twist Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Dual vortex theory of strongly interacting...
Metabolic complementarity and genomics of the dual bacterial symbiosis of sharpshooters
2006-01-01
Metabolic Complementarity and Genomics of the Dual BacterialMetabolic complementarity and genomics of the dual bacterialthe other. ) Comparative genomics. The predicted proteomes
A Universal Dual-Fuel Controller for OEM/Aftermarket Diesel Engineswit...
Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site
Universal Dual-Fuel Controller for OEMAftermarket Diesel Engineswith Comprehensive Fuel & Emission Control A Universal Dual-Fuel Controller for OEMAftermarket Diesel Engineswith...
Dual variational principles for nonlinear traveling waves in multifluid plasmas
Webb, G. M.; McKenzie, J. F.; Mace, R. L.; Ko, C. M.; Zank, G. P.
2007-08-15
A Hamiltonian description of nonlinear, obliquely propagating traveling waves in a charge neutral, electron-proton, multifluid plasma is developed. The governing equations are written as a dual spatial Hamiltonian system. In the first formulation, the Hamiltonian is identified with the longitudinal, x-momentum flux integral P{sub x}=const, in which the energy integral {epsilon}={epsilon}{sub 0} acts as a constraint, and the Hamiltonian evolution operator is d/dx, where x is the position coordinate in the wave frame. In the second Hamiltonian formulation, the Hamiltonian is proportional to the conserved energy integral {epsilon}, in which the momentum integral P{sub x}=const acts as a constraint, and the Hamiltonian evolution operator d/d{tau}=u{sub x}d/dx is the Lagrangian time derivative where u{sub x} is the x component of the electron and proton fluids. The analysis is facilitated by using the de Hoffman-Teller frame of magnetohydrodynamic shock theory to simplify the transverse electron and proton momentum equations. The system is exactly integrable in cases in which the total transverse momentum fluxes of the system are zero in the de Hoffman-Teller frame. The implications of this constraint for the Alfven Mach number of the traveling wave are discussed. The physical conditions for the formation of whistler oscillitons based on the whistler dispersion equation are discussed.
Vogel, Richard M.
OF A DUAL QUALITY WATER AND1 WASTEWATER SYSTEM: A CASE STUDY OF GREATER BEIRUT, LEBANON2 3 Patrick A. Ray1 Greater Beirut25 2. Total unit costs to supply, reuse, and dispose of water in Greater Beirut, year 200026, disposal and reuse.39 Innovative water management strategies in general, and opportunities for water reuse
A 1 Gbps 105.4 GHz Link with a Directly Modulated Photonic Integrated Dual Laser Source
Yang, Z.; Fice, M. J.; Balakier, K.; Wonfor, A.; Renaud, C.; Carpintero, G.; Kervella, G.; van Dijk, F.; Seeds, A. J.; Penty, R. V.; White, I. H.
2014-12-16
, “Monolithic dual wavelength DFB lasers for narrow linewidth heterodyne beat-note generation”, 2011 MWP, pp. 73–76, Oct. 2011. [5] M. Fice et al, “146-GHz Millimeter-wave Radio-over-fiber Photonic Wireless Transmission System”, Optics Express, vol.20, no. 2...
Liu, Yijun
2006-01-01
electrostatic MEMS problems with thin beams and accelerated by the fast multipole method Y.J. LiuÃ Department of electrostatic fields exterior to thin-beam structures as found in some micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS that the dual BIEs are very effective in solving MEMS problems with thin beams and the fast multipole BEM
An approach to Bayesian based Effort Estimation
Bae, Doo-Hwan
project/activities and performing cost/benefits analysis Early estimate and accurate evaluation can of considering to estimate effort for software maintenance in view of system architecture Not enough to reflect as to requirement in architecture Lack of supporting to estimate effort for software maintenance in view
Zhang, M.
2013-04-01
Over-dependence on fossil fuel has spurred research on alternative energy. Inedible plant materials such as grass and corn stover represent abundant renewable natural resources that can be transformed into biofuel. Problems in enzymatic conversion of biomass to sugars include the use of incomplete synergistic enzymes, end-product inhibition, and adsorption and loss of enzymes necessitating their use in large quantities. Technova Corporation will develop a defined consortium of natural microorganisms that will efficiently break down biomass to energy-rich soluble sugars, and convert them to cleaner-burning ethanol fuel. The project will also develop a novel biocatalytic hybrid reactor system dedicated to this bioprocess, which embodies recent advances in nanotechnology. NREL will participate to develop a continuous fermentation process.
Jagannatham, Aditya K.
2007-01-01
in Electrical Engineering (Communication Theory and Systems)Degree, Electrical Engineering, (Communication Theory andin Electrical Engineering (Communication Theory and Systems)
Microelectromechanical dual-mass resonator structure
Dyck, Christopher W. (Cedar Crest, NM); Allen, James J. (Albuquerque, NM); Huber, Robert J. (Bountiful, UT)
2002-01-01
A dual-mass microelectromechanical (MEM) resonator structure is disclosed in which a first mass is suspended above a substrate and driven to move along a linear or curved path by a parallel-plate electrostatic actuator. A second mass, which is also suspended and coupled to the first mass by a plurality of springs is driven by motion of the first mass. Various modes of operation of the MEM structure are possible, including resonant and antiresonant modes, and a contacting mode. In each mode of operation, the motion induced in the second mass can be in the range of several microns up to more than 50 .mu.m while the first mass has a much smaller displacement on the order of one micron or less. The MEM structure has applications for forming microsensors that detect strain, acceleration, rotation or movement.
Dual-fueling turbocharged diesels with ethanol
Cruz, J.M.; Rotz, C.A.; Watson, D.H.
1982-09-01
Spray addition and carburetion methods were tested for dual-fueling a turbocharged, 65 kW diesel tractor. Approximately 30 percent of the fuel energy for the tractor was supplied by spraying ethanol into the intake air and about 46 percent by carburetion with little affect on the engine thermal efficiency. Further substitution of diesel fuel with ethanol was limited by knock. As the amount of ethanol fed into the engine was increased, ignition apparently changed from the steady burning process which normally occurs in a diesel engine to a rapid explosion which caused knock. The best fuel for the spray approach was a 50 percent ethanol/water solution and with the carburetor it was an 80 percent ethanol/water solution.
Dual-fueling turbocharged diesels with ethanol
Cruz, J.M.; Rotz, C.A.; Watson, D.H.
1982-09-01
Spray addition and carburetion methods were tested for dual-fueling a turbocharged, 65 kW diesel tractor. Approximately 30 percent of the fuel energy for the tractor was supplied by spraying ethanol into the intake air and about 46 percent by carburetion with little affect on the engine thermal efficiency. Further substitution of diesel fuel with ethanol was limited by knock. As the amount of ethanol fed into the engine was increased, ignition apparently changed from the steady burning process which normally occurs in a diesel engine to a rapid explosion which caused knock. The best fuel for the spray approach was a 50 percent ethanol/water solution and with the carburetor it was an 80 percent ethanol/water solution. (Refs. 6).
Gravity duals of N=(0,2) SCFTs from M5-branes
Bah, Ibrahima
2015-01-01
We describe the general BPS system that governs the gravity duals of N=(0,2) two-dimensional superconformal field theories in the low-energy limit of M5-branes on a four-manifold, M4. In order to preserve supersymmetry, we restrict to cases where the four-manifold is embedded in a Calabi-Yau fourfold that is a sum of two line bundles over M4. We further reduce the N=(0,2) system to describe the gravity duals of SCFTs with N=(0,4) and N=(2,2) supersymmetry. In the first case, the solutions fit in the larger class of AdS3xS2xCY3 solutions of M-theory dual to N=(0,4) SCFTs. In the case of the N=(2,2) theories, the near-horizon limit of M4 is necessarily a product of two constant curvature Riemann surfaces whose metrics are governed by a pair of Liouville equations.
Dual Superconductor Picture for Strongly-coupled SU(2) Yang-Mills Theory
Duoje Jia; Yi-shi Duan
2006-05-18
A new framework that fulfills the dual superconductor picture is proposed for the strongly-coupled Yang-Mills theory. This framework is based on the idea that at the classic level the strong-coupling limit of the theory vacuum behaves as a back hole with regard to colors in the sense of the effective field theory, and the theory variables undergo an ultraviolet/infrared scale separation. We show that at the quantum level the strong-coupled theory vacuum is made up of a Bose-condensed many-body system of magnetic charges. We further check this framework by reproducing the dual Abelian-Higgs model from the Yang-Mills theory and the predicting the vacuum type of the theory which is very near to the border between type-I and type-II superconductors and remarkably consistent with the recent simulations.
Synthesis of ZSM-23/ZSM-22 intergrowth zeolite with a novel dual-template strategy
Wang, Bingchun, E-mail: wangbc@dicp.ac.cn [National Laboratory for Clean Energy, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Dalian 116023 (China) [National Laboratory for Clean Energy, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Dalian 116023 (China); Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Tian, Zhijian, E-mail: tianz@dicp.ac.cn [National Laboratory for Clean Energy, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Dalian 116023 (China) [National Laboratory for Clean Energy, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Dalian 116023 (China); State Key Laboratory of Catalysis, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Dalian 116023 (China); Li, Peng; Wang, Lei; Xu, Yunpeng; Qu, Wei; Ma, Huaijun; Xu, Zhusheng [National Laboratory for Clean Energy, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Dalian 116023 (China)] [National Laboratory for Clean Energy, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Dalian 116023 (China); Lin, Liwu [State Key Laboratory of Catalysis, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Dalian 116023 (China)] [State Key Laboratory of Catalysis, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Dalian 116023 (China)
2009-12-15
ZSM-23/ZSM-22 intergrowth zeolite with fixed proportion of 60%ZSM-23/40%ZSM-22 has been synthesized with a novel dual-template strategy. The products were characterized by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. Dimethylamine and diethylamine were used together as a dual-template system. The molar ratio of diethylamine to dimethylamine, which was changed with the type of aluminum source, was the key factor for the synthesis of intergrowth zeolites. A molar ratio of diethylamine to dimethylamine of 1:24 could result in an ZSM-23/ZSM-22 intergrowth zeolite if aluminum sulfate was used as aluminum source, whereas a molar ratio of diethylamine to dimethylamine of 1:12 was required to get an ZSM-23/ZSM-22 intergrowth zeolite if sodium metaaluminate was used. Furthermore, fluoride anion could be involved in the process as a crystallization promoter.
Tracking formulas and strategies for a receiver oriented dual-axis tracking toroidal heliostat
Guo, Minghuan; Wang, Zhifeng; Liang, Wenfeng; Zhang, Xiliang; Zang, Chuncheng; Lu, Zhenwu; Wei, Xiudong
2010-06-15
A 4 m x 4 m toroidal heliostat with receiver oriented dual-axis tracking, also called spinning-elevation tracking, was developed as an auxiliary heat source for a hydrogen production system. A series of spinning-elevation tracking formulas have been derived for this heliostat. This included basic tracking formulas, a formula for the elevation angle for heliostat with a mirror-pivot offset, and a more general formula for the biased elevation angle. This paper presents the new tracking formulas in detail and analyzes the accuracy of applying a simplifying approximation. The numerical results show these receiver oriented dual-axis tracking formula approximations are accurate to within 2.5 x 10{sup -6} m in image plane. Some practical tracking strategies are discussed briefly. Solar images from the toroidal heliostat at selected times are also presented. (author)
Liu, Wen-Yao; Xu, Yong, E-mail: yongxu@dlut.edu.cn; Peng, Fei; Gong, Fa-Ping; Li, Xiao-Song; Zhu, Ai-Min [Key Laboratory of Materials Modification by Laser, Ion, and Electron Beams (Ministry of Education), School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Laboratory of Plasma Physical Chemistry, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Liu, Yong-Xin; Wang, You-Nian [Key Laboratory of Materials Modification by Laser, Ion, and Electron Beams (Ministry of Education), School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)
2014-10-15
Broadband ultraviolet absorption spectroscopy has been used to determine the CF{sub 2} radical density in dual-frequency capacitively coupled CF{sub 4}/Ar plasmas, using the CF{sub 2} A{sup ~1}B{sub 1}?X{sup ~1}A{sub 1} system of absorption spectrum. The rotational temperature of ground state CF{sub 2} and excited state CF was also estimated by using A{sup ~1}B{sub 1}?X{sup ~1}A{sub 1} system and B{sup 2}??X{sup 2}? system, respectively. The translational gas temperature was deduced from the Doppler width of the Ar{sup *}({sup 3}P{sub 2}) and Ar{sup *}({sup 3}P{sub 0}) metastable atoms absorption line by using the tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy. The rotational temperatures of the excited state CF are about 100?K higher than those of ground state CF{sub 2}, and about 200?K higher than the translational gas temperatures. The dependences of the radical CF{sub 2} density, electron density, electron temperature, rotational temperature, and gas temperature on the high frequency power and pressure have been analyzed. Furthermore, the production and loss mechanisms of CF{sub 2} radical and the gas heating mechanisms have also been discussed.
Dual energy scanning beam laminographic x-radiography
Majewski, Stanislaw (Grafton, VA); Wojcik, Randolph F. (Yorktown, VA)
1998-01-01
A multiple x-ray energy level imaging system includes a scanning x-ray beam and two detector design having a first low x-ray energy sensitive detector and a second high x-ray energy sensitive detector. The low x-ray energy detector is placed next to or in front of the high x-ray energy detector. The low energy sensitive detector has small stopping power for x-rays. The lower energy x-rays are absorbed and converted into electrical signals while the majority of the higher energy x-rays pass through undetected. The high energy sensitive detector has a large stopping power for x-rays as well as it having a filter placed between it and the object to absorb the lower energy x-rays. In a second embodiment; a single energy sensitive detector is provided which provides an output signal proportional to the amount of energy in each individual x-ray it absorbed. It can then have an electronic threshold or thresholds set to select two or more energy ranges for the images. By having multiple detectors located at different positions, a dual energy laminography system is possible.
Indirect-fired gas turbine dual fuel cell power cycle
Micheli, Paul L. (Sacramento, CA); Williams, Mark C. (Morgantown, WV); Sudhoff, Frederick A. (Morgantown, WV)
1996-01-01
A fuel cell and gas turbine combined cycle system which includes dual fuel cell cycles combined with a gas turbine cycle wherein a solid oxide fuel cell cycle operated at a pressure of between 6 to 15 atms tops the turbine cycle and is used to produce CO.sub.2 for a molten carbonate fuel cell cycle which bottoms the turbine and is operated at essentially atmospheric pressure. A high pressure combustor is used to combust the excess fuel from the topping fuel cell cycle to further heat the pressurized gas driving the turbine. A low pressure combustor is used to combust the excess fuel from the bottoming fuel cell to reheat the gas stream passing out of the turbine which is used to preheat the pressurized air stream entering the topping fuel cell before passing into the bottoming fuel cell cathode. The CO.sub.2 generated in the solid oxide fuel cell cycle cascades through the system to the molten carbonate fuel cell cycle cathode.
Dual energy scanning beam laminographic x-radiography
Majewski, S.; Wojcik, R.F.
1998-04-21
A multiple x-ray energy level imaging system includes a scanning x-ray beam and two detector design having a first low x-ray energy sensitive detector and a second high x-ray energy sensitive detector. The low x-ray energy detector is placed next to or in front of the high x-ray energy detector. The low energy sensitive detector has small stopping power for x-rays. The lower energy x-rays are absorbed and converted into electrical signals while the majority of the higher energy x-rays pass through undetected. The high energy sensitive detector has a large stopping power for x-rays as well as it having a filter placed between it and the object to absorb the lower energy x-rays. In a second embodiment; a single energy sensitive detector is provided which provides an output signal proportional to the amount of energy in each individual x-ray it absorbed. It can then have an electronic threshold or thresholds set to select two or more energy ranges for the images. By having multiple detectors located at different positions, a dual energy laminography system is possible. 6 figs.
Design of a dual species atom interferometer for space
Thilo Schuldt; Christian Schubert; Markus Krutzik; Lluis Gesa Bote; Naceur Gaaloul; Jonas Hartwig; Holger Ahlers; Waldemar Herr; Katerine Posso-Trujillo; Jan Rudolph; Stephan Seidel; Thijs Wendrich; Wolfgang Ertmer; Sven Herrmann; André Kubelka-Lange; Alexander Milke; Benny Rievers; Emanuele Rocco; Andrew Hinton; Kai Bongs; Markus Oswald; Matthias Franz; Matthias Hauth; Achim Peters; Ahmad Bawamia; Andreas Wicht; Baptiste Battelier; Andrea Bertoldi; Philippe Bouyer; Arnaud Landragin; Didier Massonnet; Thomas Lévèque; Andre Wenzlawski; Ortwin Hellmig; Patrick Windpassinger; Klaus Sengstock; Wolf von Klitzing; Chris Chaloner; David Summers; Philip Ireland; Ignacio Mateos; Carlos F. Sopuerta; Fiodor Sorrentino; Guglielmo M. Tino; Michael Williams; Christian Trenkel; Domenico Gerardi; Michael Chwalla; Johannes Burkhardt; Ulrich Johann; Astrid Heske; Eric Wille; Martin Gehler; Luigi Cacciapuoti; Norman Gürlebeck; Claus Braxmaier; Ernst Rasel
2014-12-08
Atom interferometers have a multitude of proposed applications in space including precise measurements of the Earth's gravitational field, in navigation & ranging, and in fundamental physics such as tests of the weak equivalence principle (WEP) and gravitational wave detection. While atom interferometers are realized routinely in ground-based laboratories, current efforts aim at the development of a space compatible design optimized with respect to dimensions, weight, power consumption, mechanical robustness and radiation hardness. In this paper, we present a design of a high-sensitivity differential dual species $^{85}$Rb/$^{87}$Rb atom interferometer for space, including physics package, laser system, electronics and software. The physics package comprises the atom source consisting of dispensers and a 2D magneto-optical trap (MOT), the science chamber with a 3D-MOT, a magnetic trap based on an atom chip and an optical dipole trap (ODT) used for Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) creation and interferometry, the detection unit, the vacuum system for $10^{-11}$ mbar ultra-high vacuum generation, and the high-suppression factor magnetic shielding as well as the thermal control system. The laser system is based on a hybrid approach using fiber-based telecom components and high-power laser diode technology and includes all laser sources for 2D-MOT, 3D-MOT, ODT, interferometry and detection. Manipulation and switching of the laser beams is carried out on an optical bench using Zerodur bonding technology. The instrument consists of 9 units with an overall mass of 221 kg, an average power consumption of 608 W (819 W peak), and a volume of 470 liters which would well fit on a satellite to be launched with a Soyuz rocket, as system studies have shown.
WE-E-BRE-04: Dual Focal Spot Dose Painting for Precision Preclinical Radiobiological Investigations
Stewart, J; Lindsay, P; Jaffray, D
2014-06-15
Purpose: Recent progress in small animal radiotherapy systems has provided the foundation for delivering the heterogeneous, millimeter scale dose distributions demanded by preclinical radiobiology investigations. Despite advances in preclinical dose planning, delivery of highly heterogeneous dose distributions is constrained by the fixed collimation systems and large x-ray focal spot common in small animal radiotherapy systems. This work proposes a dual focal spot dose optimization and delivery method with a large x-ray focal spot used to deliver homogeneous dose regions and a small focal spot to paint spatially heterogeneous dose regions. Methods: Two-dimensional dose kernels were measured for a 1 mm circular collimator with radiochromic film at 10 mm depth in a solid water phantom for the small and large x-ray focal spots on a recently developed small animal microirradiator. These kernels were used in an optimization framework which segmented a desired dose distribution into low- and high-spatial frequency regions for delivery by the large and small focal spot, respectively. For each region, the method determined an optimal set of stage positions and beam-on times. The method was demonstrated by optimizing a bullseye pattern consisting of 0.75 mm radius circular target and 0.5 and 1.0 mm wide rings alternating between 0 and 2 Gy. Results: Compared to a large focal spot technique, the dual focal spot technique improved the optimized dose distribution: 69.2% of the optimized dose was within 0.5 Gy of the intended dose for the large focal spot, compared to 80.6% for the dual focal spot method. The dual focal spot design required 14.0 minutes of optimization, and will require 178.3 minutes for automated delivery. Conclusion: The dual focal spot optimization and delivery framework is a novel option for delivering conformal and heterogeneous dose distributions at the preclinical level and provides a new experimental option for unique radiobiological investigations. Funding Support: this work is supported by funding the National Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada, and a Mitacs-accelerate fellowship. Conflict of Interest: Dr. Lindsay and Dr. Jaffray are listed as inventors of the small animal microirradiator described herein. This system has been licensed for commercial development.
Dual energy CT for attenuation correction with PET/CT
Xia, Ting; Alessio, Adam M.; Kinahan, Paul E.
2014-01-15
Purpose: The authors evaluate the energy dependent noise and bias properties of monoenergetic images synthesized from dual-energy CT (DECT) acquisitions. These monoenergetic images can be used to estimate attenuation coefficients at energies suitable for positron emission tomography (PET) and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging. This is becoming more relevant with the increased use of quantitative imaging by PET/CT and SPECT/CT scanners. There are, however, potential variations in the noise and bias of synthesized monoenergetic images as a function of energy. Methods: The authors used analytic approximations and simulations to estimate the noise and bias of synthesized monoenergetic images of water-filled cylinders with different shapes and the NURBS-based cardiac-torso (NCAT) phantom from 40 to 520 keV, the range of SPECT and PET energies. The dual-kVp spectra were based on the GE Lightspeed VCT scanner at 80 and 140 kVp with added filtration of 0.5 mm Cu. The authors evaluated strategies of noise suppression with sinogram smoothing and dose minimization with reduction of tube currents at the two kVp settings. The authors compared the impact of DECT-based attenuation correction with single-kVp CT-based attenuation correction on PET quantitation for the NCAT phantom for soft tissue and high-Z materials of bone and iodine contrast enhancement. Results: Both analytic calculations and simulations displayed the expected minimum noise value for a synthesized monoenergetic image at an energy between the mean energies of the two spectra. In addition the authors found that the normalized coefficient of variation in the synthesized attenuation map increased with energy but reached a plateau near 160 keV, and then remained constant with increasing energy up to 511 keV and beyond. The bias was minimal, as the linear attenuation coefficients of the synthesized monoenergetic images were within 2.4% of the known true values across the entire energy range. Compared with no sinogram smoothing, sinogram smoothing can dramatically reduce noise in the DECT-derived attenuation map. Through appropriate selection of tube currents for high and low kVp scans, DECT can deliver roughly the same amount of radiation dose as that of a single kVp CT scan, but could be used for PET attenuation correction with reduced bias in contrast agent regions by a factor of ?2.6 and slightly reduced RMSE for the total image. Conclusions: When DECT is used for attenuation correction at higher energies, there is a noise amplification that is dependent on the energy of the synthesized monoenergetic image of linear attenuation coefficients. Sinogram smoothing reduces the noise amplification in DECT-derived attenuation maps without increasing bias. With an appropriate selection of CT techniques, a DECT scan with the same radiation dose as a single CT scan can result in a PET image with improved quantitative accuracy.
An Efficient Primal-Dual Hybrid Gradient Algorithm For Total Variation Image Restoration
Soatto, Stefano
compared to unconstrained optimizations. Being quadratic, the dual energy is less nonlinear than the primal
Dual Extremum Principles in Finite Deformation Theory with Applications to Post-Buckling Analysis
Gao, David Yang
, 1976; Auchmuty, 1983). The symmetry be- tween the primal and dual energy principles is amaz- ingly
Splitter, Derek A [ORNL; Reitz, Rolf [University of Wisconsin
2014-01-01
Fuel reactivity effects on the efficiency and operational window of dual-fuel compression ignition engines
ANALYSIS OF DUAL CONSISTENCY FOR DISCONTINUOUS GALERKIN DISCRETIZATIONS OF SOURCE TERMS
Peraire, Jaime
, and diffusion of turbulent eddy viscosity, and state derivative dependent source terms appear in both the k to a dual inconsistent scheme. A straightforward procedure for correcting this dual inconsistency-dimensional test problem confirm that the dual consistent and asymp- totically dual consistent schemes achieve
An Infeasible InteriorPoint Algorithm for Solving Primal and Dual Geometric Programs \\Lambda
Ye, Yinyu
with the classical, arithmetic/geometric inequality--based dual geometric programming problem, see [20]. However
Speed estimation using single loop detector outputs
Ye, Zhirui
2009-05-15
that speed estimation is a nonlinear system under various traffic conditions. Thus, a methodology of using Unscented Kalman Filter (UKF) is first proposed for such a system. The UKF is a parametric filtering technique that is suitable for nonlinear problems...
Enhanced State Estimators Final Project Report
Enhanced State Estimators Final Project Report Power Systems Engineering Research Center A National Engineering Research Center Enhanced State Estimators Final Project Report Report Authors Jun Zhu, Ph-373-3051 Fax: 617-373-4431 Email: abur@ece.neu.edu Power Systems Engineering Research Center This is a project
Estimated Costs of Pasture and Hay Production
Duffy, Michael D.
Estimated Costs of Pasture and Hay Production This report summarizes estimated costs of improving pasture by five different systems. For each system, both the initial cost per acre and the annual maintenance cost per acre are presented. In addition, costs of establishing alfalfa or alfalfagrass hay
Estimated Costs of Pasture and Hay Production
Duffy, Michael D.
Estimated Costs of Pasture and Hay Production This report summarizes estimated costs of improving pasture by five different systems. For each system, both the initial cost per acre and the annual maintenance cost per acre are presented. In addition, costs of establishing alfalfa or alfalfa-grass hay
New Mexico's Dual Credit Program: A Joint Study of
New Mexico, University of
New Mexico's Dual Credit Program: A Joint Study of Student Outcomes and Cost EffecAveness A PresentaAon To: New Mexico LegislaAve Finance Commi Abbey, Director July 12, 2012 Rio Rancho, New Mexico Prepared By: Kevin
Assessing Dual-Task Ability: Developing a New Paradigm
Green, David
2010-07-03
Whilst there have been many attempts to design a paradigm to assess dual tasking ability throughout the lifespan, studies have failed to avoid potential pitfalls in their methodologies. By combating three main problems ...
York Electric Cooperative- Dual Fuel Heat Pump Rebate Program
Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)
York Electric Cooperative, Inc. (YEC) offers a $200 rebate to members who install a dual fuel heat pump in homes or businesses. The rebates are for primary residences, commercial, and industrial...
Lean NOx Reduction with Dual Layer LNT/SCR Catalysts
Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]
Results show that a series of dual layer catalysts with a bottom layer of LNT catalyst and a top layer of SCR catalyst can carry out coupled ammonia generation and NOx reduction, achieving high NOx conversion with minimal ammonia slip
EIS-0228: Dual Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test (DARHT) Facility
Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]
This EIS evaluates the potential environmental impact of a proposal to construct and operate the Dual Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test (DARHT) facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL)...
Primal-dual coding to probe light transport
O'Toole, Matthew
We present primal-dual coding, a photography technique that enables direct fine-grain control over which light paths contribute to a photo. We achieve this by projecting a sequence of patterns onto the scene while the ...
INCREASED STRENGTHENING OF AUSTENITIC ALLOYS THROUGH DUAL AGING
Ma, Annie
2011-01-01
d o - - -700Â°C after first aging at 745Â°C /2 hr tween) (nobJ,J". _.J__ __JI (TOTAL) AGING TIME (hr) XBL Figure 22 aALLOYS THROUGH DUAL AGING Annie Ma Inorganic Materials
, Japan A Comparison of Scale Estimation Schemes for a Quadrotor UAV based on Optical Flow and IMU of autonomous UAV flight control, cameras are ubiquitously exploited as a cheap and effective onboard sensor linear velocity in the UAV body frame from direct measurement of the instantaneous (and non
Horiuchi, Timothy K.
in the construction of micro aerial vehicles ( 15 cm) have highlighted the lack of real-time sensors for flight environments and cannot give estimates of altitude. For these reasons, real-time detection of the visual horizon may be desir- able for the stabilization of pitch and roll of micro aerial vehi- cles at medium
Real-Time Multipath Estimation for Dual Frequency GPS Ionospheric Delay Measurements
Psiaki, Mark L.
. Miceli, Mark L. Psiaki, Brady W. O'Hanlon, and Karen Q.Z. Chiang Cornell University, Ithaca, N.Y. 14853 monitoring. Mark L. Psiaki is a Professor in the Sibley School of Me- chanical and Aerospace Engineering. He attitude and orbit determination, and GNSS technology and applications. Brady W. O'Hanlon is a graduate
ICCD 2005 Mohanty 1 A Dual Dielectric Approach for
Mohanty, Saraju P.
Dual-K and Dual-T ? (Low Kgate Vs High Kgate) N+ P P N+N+ N+ High KgateLow Kgate Larger Igate , Smaller Vs High Tgate) N+ P N+ P N+N+ High TgateLow Tgate Larger Igate , Smaller delay Smaller Igate , Larger junction (both ON & OFF) I2 : subthreshold leakage (OFF ) I3 : oxide tunneling current (both ON & OFF) I4
Fuel cell having dual electrode anode or cathode
Findl, E.
1984-04-10
A fuel cell that is characterized by including a dual electrode anode that is operable to simultaneously electro-oxidize a gaseous fuel and a liquid fuel. In alternative embodiments, a fuel cell having a single electrode anode is provided with a dual electrode cathode that is operable to simultaneously reduce a gaseous oxidant and a liquid oxidant to electro-oxidize a fuel supplied to the cell.
Fuel cell having dual electrode anode or cathode
Findl, Eugene (Coram, NY)
1985-01-01
A fuel cell that is characterized by including a dual electrode anode that is operable to simultaneously electro-oxidize a gaseous fuel and a liquid fuel. In alternative embodiments, a fuel cell having a single electrode anode is provided with a dual electrode cathode that is operable to simultaneously reduce a gaseous oxidant and a liquid oxidant to electro-oxidize a fuel supplied to the cell.
DUAL HALOS AND FORMATION OF EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES
Park, Hong Soo; Lee, Myung Gyoon E-mail: mglee@astro.snu.ac.kr
2013-08-20
We present a determination of the two-dimensional shape parameters of the blue and red globular cluster systems (GCSs) in a large number of elliptical galaxies and lenticular galaxies (early-type galaxies, called ETGs). We use a homogeneous data set of the globular clusters in 23 ETGs obtained from the HST/ACS Virgo Cluster Survey. The position angles of both blue and red GCSs show a correlation with those of the stellar light distribution, showing that the major axes of the GCSs are well aligned with those of their host galaxies. However, the shapes of the red GCSs show a tight correlation with the stellar light distribution as well as with the rotation property of their host galaxies, while the shapes of the blue GCSs do much less. These provide clear geometric evidence that the origins of the blue and red globular clusters are distinct and that ETGs may have dual halos: a blue (metal-poor) halo and a red (metal-rich) halo. These two halos show significant differences in metallicity, structure, and kinematics, indicating that they are formed in two distinguishable ways. The red halos might have formed via dissipational processes with rotation, while the blue halos are through accretion.
Dual excitation acoustic paramagnetic logging tool
Vail, W.B. III.
1989-02-14
New methods and apparatus are disclosed which allow measurement of the presence of oil and water in geological formations using a new physical effect called the Acoustic Paramagnetic Logging Effect (APLE). The presence of petroleum in formation causes a slight increase in the earth's magnetic field in the vicinity of the reservoir. This is the phenomena of paramagnetism. Application of an acoustic source to a geological formation at the Larmor frequency of the nucleons present causes the paramagnetism of the formation to disappear. This results in a decrease in the earth's magnetic field in the vicinity of the oil bearing formation. Repetitively frequency sweeping the acoustic source through the Larmor frequency of the nucleons present (approx. 2 kHz) causes an amplitude modulation of the earth's magnetic field which is a consequence of the APLE. The amplitude modulation of the earth's magnetic field is measured with an induction coil gradiometer and provides a direct measure of the amount of oil and water in the excitation zone of the formation. The phase of the signal is used to infer the longitudinal relaxation times of the fluids present, which results in the ability in general to separate oil and water and to measure the viscosity of the oil present. Such measurements may be performed in open boreholes and in cased well bores. The Dual Excitation Acoustic Paramagnetic Logging Tool employing two acoustic sources is also described. 6 figs.
Dual excitation acoustic paramagnetic logging tool
Vail, III, William B. (Bothell, WA)
1989-01-01
New methods and apparatus are disclosed which allow measurement of the presence of oil and water in gelogical formations using a new physical effect called the Acoustic Paramagnetic Logging Effect (APLE). The presence of petroleum in formation causes a slight increase in the earth's magnetic field in the vicinity of the reservoir. This is the phenomena of paramagnetism. Application of an acoustic source to a geological formation at the Larmor frequency of the nucleous present causes the paramagnetism of the formation to disappear. This results in a decrease in the earth's magnetic field in the vicinity of the oil bearing formation. Repetitively frequency sweeping the acoustic source through the Larmor frequency of the nucleons present (approx. 2 kHz) causes an amplitude modulation of the earth's magnetic field which is a consequence of the APLE. The amplitude modulation of the earth's magnetic field is measured with an induction coil gradiometer and provides a direct measure of the amount of oil and water in the excitation zone of the formation. The phase of the signal is used to infer the longitudinal relaxation times of the fluids present, which results in the ability in general to separate oil and water and to measure the viscosity of the oil present. Such measurements may be preformed in open boreholes and in cased well bores. The Dual Excitation Acoustic Paramagnetic Logging Tool employing two acoustic sources is also described.
Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]
1997-03-28
This chapter focuses on the components (or elements) of the cost estimation package and their documentation.
Sotiriou, Sarah
2011-06-29
Abstract Primary objective: To explore the impact of healthy ageing on dual tasking abilities using a novel dual task paradigm and to consider any clinical implications in aiding the diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease ...
A DualDisk File System: ext4 Mihai Budiu
Budiu, Mihai
Characteristic Vocabulary ¥B©E5¡$§§£¦¥FGrt0¡j6¥£4F¡¥1§£8&WV¢ iFf$hgfUf6gi E0vgU5¡$§ )&§¡$¨§5¤&W©B! e9f$gIhi £¦¥b
Cha, K. S.; Kim, T. K.; Park, M. S.
2009-01-01
The solar fiber optic lighting system consists of the solar ray concentrating apparatus, the tracking control, lighting transmission and emission parts. This system was installed on a 20-storey apartment building in South ...
Check Estimates and Independent Costs
Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]
1997-03-28
Check estimates and independent cost estimates (ICEs) are tools that can be used to validate a cost estimate. Estimate validation entails an objective review of the estimate to ensure that estimate criteria and requirements have been met and well documented, defensible estimate has been developed. This chapter describes check estimates and their procedures and various types of independent cost estimates.
, a non-collocated power measurement can be corrected through calculation rather than a costly is a widely used tool in power system energy management systems. The essence of state esti- mation market it is increasingly important to find cost effective ways to improve system visibility and account
Dual shell pressure balanced reactor vessel. Final project report
Robertus, R.J.; Fassbender, A.G.
1994-10-01
The Department of Energy`s Office of Energy Research (OER) has previously provided support for the development of several chemical processes, including supercritical water oxidation, liquefaction, and aqueous hazardous waste destruction, where chemical and phase transformations are conducted at high pressure and temperature. These and many other commercial processes require a pressure vessel capable of operating in a corrosive environment where safety and economy are important requirements. Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) engineers have recently developed and patented (U.S. patent 5,167,930 December 1, 1992) a concept for a novel Dual Shell Pressure Balanced Vessel (DSPBV) which could solve a number of these problems. The technology could be immediately useful in continuing commercialization of an R&D 100 award-winning technology, Sludge-to-oil Reactor System (STORS), originally developed through funding by OER. Innotek Corporation is a small business that would be one logical end-user of the DSPBV reactor technology. Innotek is working with several major U.S. engineering firms to evaluate the potential of this technology in the disposal of wastes from sewage treatment plants. PNL entered into a CRADA with Innotek to build a bench-scale demonstration reactor and test the system to advance the economic feasibility of a variety of high pressure chemical processes. Hydrothermal processing of corrosive substances on a large scale can now be made significantly safer and more economical through use of the DSPBV. Hydrothermal chemical reactions such as wet-air oxidation and supercritical water oxidation occur in a highly corrosive environment inside a pressure vessel. Average corrosion rates from 23 to 80 miles per year have been reported by Rice (1994) and Latanision (1993).
Zheng, Liange
2014-01-01
Alternative Concepts for Direct Disposal of Dual-PurposeRock Repository for Direct Disposal of Dual-PurposeRock Repository for Direct Disposal of Dual-Purpose
Yang, Lei, E-mail: nanoyang@qq.com [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Hunan Province Key Laboratory for Spray Deposition Technology and Application, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Dong, Jiazhang; Jiang, Zhongcheng [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Pan, Anlian; Zhuang, Xiujuan [Key Laboratory for Micro-Nano Physics and Technology of Hunan Province, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China)
2014-06-14
We report a strategy to investigate O vacancy (V{sub O}) involved energy transfer and dual-wavelength yellow emission in coaxial nanocable. By electric field deposition and subsequent sol-gel template approach, ZnO:Tb/Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Eu coaxial nanocable arrays are synthesized. After visible light excitation, system is promoted to O vacancy charge transfer state of V{sub O}(0/+). In the following cross relaxation, energy transfer from V{sub O} to the excitation energy level of Tb{sup 3+} in ZnO:Tb core area. While in Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Eu shell area, energy transfer to the excitation energy level of Eu{sup 3+}. Subsequently, dual-wavelength emission is observed. By constructing nanocable with dual-wavelength emission, yellow luminescence is obtained. Adjust doping concentration of Eu{sup 3+} or Tb{sup 3+} in the range of 0.01–0.05, chromaticity coordinates of ZnO:Tb/Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Eu nanocable stably stays at yellow region in color space except ZnO:Tb{sub 0.01}/Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Eu{sub 0.01}. As Vo states act as media in energy transfer process in nanocablers, visible light can stimulate dual-wavelength emissions. Yellow luminescent nanocable arrays will have great applications in light-emitting diode luminescence.
Iterative image-domain decomposition for dual-energy CT
Niu, Tianye; Dong, Xue; Petrongolo, Michael; Zhu, Lei
2014-04-15
Purpose: Dual energy CT (DECT) imaging plays an important role in advanced imaging applications due to its capability of material decomposition. Direct decomposition via matrix inversion suffers from significant degradation of image signal-to-noise ratios, which reduces clinical values of DECT. Existing denoising algorithms achieve suboptimal performance since they suppress image noise either before or after the decomposition and do not fully explore the noise statistical properties of the decomposition process. In this work, the authors propose an iterative image-domain decomposition method for noise suppression in DECT, using the full variance-covariance matrix of the decomposed images. Methods: The proposed algorithm is formulated in the form of least-square estimation with smoothness regularization. Based on the design principles of a best linear unbiased estimator, the authors include the inverse of the estimated variance-covariance matrix of the decomposed images as the penalty weight in the least-square term. The regularization term enforces the image smoothness by calculating the square sum of neighboring pixel value differences. To retain the boundary sharpness of the decomposed images, the authors detect the edges in the CT images before decomposition. These edge pixels have small weights in the calculation of the regularization term. Distinct from the existing denoising algorithms applied on the images before or after decomposition, the method has an iterative process for noise suppression, with decomposition performed in each iteration. The authors implement the proposed algorithm using a standard conjugate gradient algorithm. The method performance is evaluated using an evaluation phantom (Catphan©600) and an anthropomorphic head phantom. The results are compared with those generated using direct matrix inversion with no noise suppression, a denoising method applied on the decomposed images, and an existing algorithm with similar formulation as the proposed method but with an edge-preserving regularization term. Results: On the Catphan phantom, the method maintains the same spatial resolution on the decomposed images as that of the CT images before decomposition (8 pairs/cm) while significantly reducing their noise standard deviation. Compared to that obtained by the direct matrix inversion, the noise standard deviation in the images decomposed by the proposed algorithm is reduced by over 98%. Without considering the noise correlation properties in the formulation, the denoising scheme degrades the spatial resolution to 6 pairs/cm for the same level of noise suppression. Compared to the edge-preserving algorithm, the method achieves better low-contrast detectability. A quantitative study is performed on the contrast-rod slice of Catphan phantom. The proposed method achieves lower electron density measurement error as compared to that by the direct matrix inversion, and significantly reduces the error variation by over 97%. On the head phantom, the method reduces the noise standard deviation of decomposed images by over 97% without blurring the sinus structures. Conclusions: The authors propose an iterative image-domain decomposition method for DECT. The method combines noise suppression and material decomposition into an iterative process and achieves both goals simultaneously. By exploring the full variance-covariance properties of the decomposed images and utilizing the edge predetection, the proposed algorithm shows superior performance on noise suppression with high image spatial resolution and low-contrast detectability.
Add-drop filter based on dual photonic crystal nanobeam cavities in push-pull mode
Poulton, Christopher V; Wade, Mark T; Popovic, Milos A
2015-01-01
We demonstrate an add-drop filter based on a dual photonic crystal nanobeam cavity system that emulates the operation of a traveling-wave resonator and drops light on resonance to a single output port. Realized on an advanced SOI CMOS (IBM 45nm SOI) chip without any foundry process modifications, the device shows 16dB extinction in through port and 1dB loss in drop port with a 3dB bandwidth of 64GHz. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first implementation of a four-port add-drop filter based on photonic crystal nanobeam cavities.
Dual-etalon cavity ring-down frequency-comb spectroscopy with broad band light source
Chandler, David W; Strecker, Kevin E
2014-04-01
In an embodiment, a dual-etalon cavity-ring-down frequency-comb spectrometer system is described. A broad band light source is split into two beams. One beam travels through a first etalon and a sample under test, while the other beam travels through a second etalon, and the two beams are recombined onto a single detector. If the free spectral ranges ("FSR") of the two etalons are not identical, the interference pattern at the detector will consist of a series of beat frequencies. By monitoring these beat frequencies, optical frequencies where light is absorbed may be determined.
One loop corrections to the mass of self-dual semi-local planar topological solitons
A. Alonso Izquierdo; W. Garcia Fuertes; M. de la Torre Mayado; J. Mateos Guilarte
2007-11-20
A formula is derived that allows the computation of one-loop mass shifts for self-dual semilocal topological solitons. These extended objects, which in three spatial dimensions are called semi-local strings, arise in a generalized Abelian Higgs model with a doublet of complex Higgs fields. Having a mixture of global, SU(2), and local (gauge), U(1), symmetries, this weird system may seem bizarre, but it is in fact the bosonic sector of electro-weak theory when the weak mixing angle is of 90 degrees. The procedure for computing the semi-classical mass shifts is based on canonical quantization and heat kernel/zeta function regularization methods.
Chen, Sheng
IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON SYSTEMS, MAN, AND CYBERNETICS--PART B: CYBERNETICS, VOL. 40, NO. 4, AUGUST density distribution is an important and recurrent theme in machine learning and all fields of engineering. Hong is with the School of Systems Engineering, University of Reading, Reading RG6 6AY, U.K. (e-mail: x
Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]
1997-03-28
The chapter describes the estimates required on government-managed projects for both general construction and environmental management.
State energy data report 1994: Consumption estimates
1996-10-01
This document provides annual time series estimates of State-level energy consumption by major economic sector. The estimates are developed in the State Energy Data System (SEDS), operated by EIA. SEDS provides State energy consumption estimates to members of Congress, Federal and State agencies, and the general public, and provides the historical series needed for EIA`s energy models. Division is made for each energy type and end use sector. Nuclear electric power is included.
Parallel State Estimation Assessment with Practical Data
Chen, Yousu; Jin, Shuangshuang; Rice, Mark J.; Huang, Zhenyu
2014-10-31
This paper presents a full-cycle parallel state estimation (PSE) implementation using a preconditioned conjugate gradient algorithm. The developed code is able to solve large-size power system state estimation within 5 seconds using real-world data, comparable to the Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition (SCADA) rate. This achievement allows the operators to know the system status much faster to help improve grid reliability. Case study results of the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) system with real measurements are presented. The benefits of fast state estimation are also discussed.
Nutzman, Philip; Charbonneau, David; Holman, Matthew J. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Gilliland, Ronald L.; McCullough, Peter R.; Nelan, Edmund P. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Christensen-Dalsgaard, Joergen; Kjeldsen, Hans [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Brown, Timothy M., E-mail: pnutzman@cfa.harvard.edu [Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope, Goleta, CA 93117 (United States)
2011-01-01
We present observations of three distinct transits of HD 17156b obtained with the Fine Guidance Sensors on board the Hubble Space Telescope. We analyzed both the transit photometry and previously published radial velocities to find the planet-star radius ratio R{sub p} /R{sub *} = 0.07454 {+-} 0.00035, inclination i = 86.49{sup +0.24}{sub -0.20} deg, and scaled semimajor axis a/R{sub *} = 23.19{sup +0.32}{sub -0.27}. This last value translates directly to a mean stellar density determination {rho}{sub *} = 0.522{sup +0.021}{sub -0.018} g cm{sup -3}. Analysis of asteroseismology observations by the companion paper of Gilliland et al. provides a consistent but significantly refined measurement of {rho}{sub *} = 0.5308 {+-} 0.0040. We compare stellar isochrones to this density estimate and find M{sub *} = 1.275 {+-} 0.018 M{sub sun} and a stellar age of 3.37{sup +0.20}{sub -0.47} Gyr. Using this estimate of M{sub *} and incorporating the density constraint from asteroseismology, we model both the photometry and published radial velocities to estimate the planet radius R{sub p} = 1.0870 {+-} 0.0066 R{sub J} and the stellar radius R{sub *} = 1.5007 {+-} 0.0076 R{sub sun}. The planet radius is larger than that found in previous studies and consistent with theoretical models of a solar-composition gas giant of the same mass and equilibrium temperature. For the three transits, we determine the times of mid-transit to a precision of 6.2 s, 7.6 s, and 6.9 s, and the transit times for HD 17156 do not show any significant departures from a constant period. The joint analysis of transit photometry and asteroseismology presages similar studies that will be enabled by the NASA Kepler Mission.
An ECT/ERT dual-modality sensor for oil-water two-phase flow measurement
Wang, Pitao; Wang, Huaxiang; Sun, Benyuan; Cui, Ziqiang; Huang, Wenrui
2014-04-11
This paper presents a new sensor for ECT/ERT dual-modality system which can simultaneously obtain the permittivity and conductivity of the materials in the pipeline. Quasi-static electromagnetic fields are produced by the inner electrodes array sensor of electrical capacitance tomography (ECT) system. The results of simulation show that the data of permittivity and conductivity can be simultaneously obtained from the same measurement electrode and the fusion of two kinds of data may improve the quality of the reconstructed images. For uniform oil-water mixtures, the performance of designed dual-modality sensor for measuring the various oil fractions has been tested on representative data and the results of experiments show that the designed sensor broadens the measurement range compared to single modality.
Mode Competition in Dual-Mode Quantum Dots Semiconductor Microlaser
Chusseau, Laurent; Viktorovitch, P; Letartre, Xavier
2013-01-01
This paper describes the modeling of quantum dots lasers with the aim of assessing the conditions for stable cw dual-mode operation when the mode separation lies in the THz range. Several possible models suited for InAs quantum dots in InP barriers are analytically evaluated, in particular quantum dots electrically coupled through a direct exchange of excitation by the wetting layer or quantum dots optically coupled through the homogeneous broadening of their optical gain. A stable dual-mode regime is shown possible in all cases when quantum dots are used as active layer whereas a gain medium of quantum well or bulk type inevitably leads to bistable behavior. The choice of a quantum dots gain medium perfectly matched the production of dual-mode lasers devoted to THz generation by photomixing.
Mode Competition in Dual-Mode Quantum Dots Semiconductor Microlaser
Laurent Chusseau; Fabrice Philippe; P. Viktorovitch; Xavier Letartre
2013-03-07
This paper describes the modeling of quantum dots lasers with the aim of assessing the conditions for stable cw dual-mode operation when the mode separation lies in the THz range. Several possible models suited for InAs quantum dots in InP barriers are analytically evaluated, in particular quantum dots electrically coupled through a direct exchange of excitation by the wetting layer or quantum dots optically coupled through the homogeneous broadening of their optical gain. A stable dual-mode regime is shown possible in all cases when quantum dots are used as active layer whereas a gain medium of quantum well or bulk type inevitably leads to bistable behavior. The choice of a quantum dots gain medium perfectly matched the production of dual-mode lasers devoted to THz generation by photomixing.
Dual -1 Hahn polynomials: "classical" polynomials beyond the Leonard duality
Tsujimoto, Satoshi; Zhedanov, Alexei
2011-01-01
We introduce the -1 dual Hahn polynomials through an appropriate $q \\to -1$ limit of the dual q-Hahn polynomials. These polynomials are orthogonal on a finite set of discrete points on the real axis, but in contrast to the classical orthogonal polynomials of the Askey scheme, the -1 dual Hahn polynomials do not exhibit the Leonard duality property. Instead, these polynomials satisfy a 4-th order difference eigenvalue equation and thus possess a bispectrality property. The corresponding generalized Leonard pair consists of two matrices $A,B$ each of size $N+1 \\times N+1$. In the eigenbasis where the matrix $A$ is diagonal, the matrix $B$ is 3-diagonal; but in the eigenbasis where the matrix $B$ is diagonal, the matrix $A$ is 5-diagonal.
EFFECT OF VANADIUM ON STRUCTURE-PROPERTY RELATIONS OF DUAL PHASE Fe/Mn/Si/0.lC STEELS
Nakagawa, Alvin
2014-01-01
Formable HSLA and Dual Phase Steels, Proceedings of AIME,and Properties of Dual Phase Steels, Proceedings of Aifv1E,in intercritically annealed dual phase steels. Many of the
MAP Estimation with Gaussian Mixture Markov
;§Dual energy CT example · 12 clusters. · Display 2 dimensions out of 8 · Water/iodine decomposition GMM
CLARKSON UNIVERSITY AERODYNAMIC FLOW CONTROL OF A HIGH LIFT SYSTEM
Bollt, Erik
CLARKSON UNIVERSITY AERODYNAMIC FLOW CONTROL OF A HIGH LIFT SYSTEM WITH DUAL SYNTHETIC JET ARRAYS Flow Control of a High Lift System with Dual Synthetic Jet Arrays' presented by Robert Bruce Alstrom the performance of the latest generation aircraft by reducing their fuel consumption and improving their high
Dual output acoustic wave sensor for molecular identification
Frye, Gregory C. (Cedar Crest, NM); Martin, Stephen J. (Albuquerque, NM)
1991-01-01
A method of identification and quantification of absorbed chemical species by measuring changes in both the velocity and the attenuation of an acoustic wave traveling through a thin film into which the chemical species is sorbed. The dual output response provides two independent sensor responses from a single sensing device thereby providing twice as much information as a single output sensor. This dual output technique and analysis allows a single sensor to provide both the concentration and the identity of a chemical species or permits the number of sensors required for mixtures to be reduced by a factor of two.
Dual fiber microprobe for mapping elemental distributions in biological cells
Martin, Rodger C [Powell, TN; Martin, Madhavi Z [Powell, TN
2007-07-31
Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is applied on a microscale for in situ elemental analysis and spatial mapping in biological cells. A high power laser beam is focused onto a cell surface using a dual branching optical fiber probe for optical excitation of the cell constituents. Dual spectrometers and ICCD detectors capture the emission spectra from the excited cell(s). Repeated probing or repositioning of the laser beam with respect to the cell can provide 2-D or 3-D mapping of the cell.
NISTIR 6045 Method for Estimating the Energy Efficiency Ratio of
Oak Ridge National Laboratory
NISTIR 6045 Method for Estimating the Energy Efficiency Ratio of Mixed System Air Conditioners and Technology #12;NISTIR 6045 Method for Estimating the Energy Efficiency Ratio of Mixed System Air Conditioners combination, an empirically based calculation procedure may be used for estimating a unit's Energy Efficiency
2008-01-01
diagnostic value of dual-energy CT and MRI in the detectionusing dual-source dual-energy MDCT: Results of JAFROCfor dose reduction in dual energy hepatic CT using non-
Dual energy imaging in mammography: Cross-talk study in a Si array detector
Ramello, Luciano
Dual energy imaging in mammography: Cross-talk study in a Si array detector G. Baldazzi a , D-monochromatic peaks are shown in Fig. 1. 2. Experimental setup The apparatus for dual energy mammography
Dual-arm Z-scan technique to extract dilute solute nonlinearities from solution measurements
Van Stryland, Eric
Dual-arm Z-scan technique to extract dilute solute nonlinearities from solution measurements Manuel-scans on two samples (solvent and solution). By using a dual-arm Z-scan apparatus with identical arms, fitting
Propane-Diesel Dual Fuel for CO2 and Nox Reduction | Department...
Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site
Propane-Diesel Dual Fuel for CO2 and Nox Reduction Propane-Diesel Dual Fuel for CO2 and Nox Reduction Test results show significant CO2 and NOx emission reductions, fuel economy...
Single line-of-sight dual energy backlighter for mix width experiments...
Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)
Single line-of-sight dual energy backlighter for mix width experiments Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Single line-of-sight dual energy backlighter for mix width...
Smartphone Dual Defense Protection Framework: Detecting Malicious Applications in Android Markets
Chuah, Mooi-Choo "Mooi"
Smartphone Dual Defense Protection Framework: Detecting Malicious Applications in Android Markets X dual defense protection framework that allows Official and Alternative Android Markets to detect malware applications. If suspicious network traffic is observed, the relevant Android markets
An evaluation of subsea pump technologies that can be used to achieve dual gradient drilling
Oluwadairo, Tolulope
2009-05-15
Dual Gradient Drilling is an exciting technology which promises to solve the current technical hurdles and economic risks of Deepwater Drilling. Several techniques for Dual Gradient Drilling have been proposed to the ...
Dual capacity compressor with reversible motor and controls arrangement therefor
Sisk, Francis J. (Washington Township, Fayette County, PA)
1980-12-02
A hermetic reciprocating compressor such as may be used in heat pump applications is provided for dual capacity operation by providing the crankpin of the crankshaft with an eccentric ring rotatably mounted thereon, and with the end of the connecting rod opposite the piston encompassing the outer circumference of the eccentric ring, with means limiting the rotation of the eccentric ring upon the crankpin between one end point and an opposite angularly displaced end point to provide different values of eccentricity depending upon which end point the eccentric ring is rotated to upon the crankpin, and a reversible motor in the hermetic shell of the compressor for rotating the crankshaft, the motor operating in one direction effecting the angular displacement of the eccentric ring relative to the crankpin to the one end point, and in the opposite direction effecting the angular displacement of the eccentric ring relative to the crankpin to the opposite end point, this arrangement automatically giving different stroke lengths depending upon the direction of motor rotation. The mechanical structure of the arrangement may take various forms including at least one in which any impact of reversal is reduced by utilizing lubricant passages and chambers at the interface area of the crankpin and eccentric ring to provide a dashpot effect. In the main intended application of the arrangement according to the invention, that is, in a refrigerating or air conditioning system, it is desirable to insure a delay during reversal of the direction of compressor operation. A control arrangement is provided in which the control system controls the direction of motor operation in accordance with temperature conditions, the system including control means for effecting operation in a low capacity direction or alternatively in a high capacity direction in response to one set, and another set, respectively, of temperature conditions and with timer means delaying a restart of the compressor motor for at least a predetermined time in response to a condition of the control means operative to initiate a change in the operating direction of the compressor when it restarts.
Compressing measurements in quantum dynamic parameter estimation
Magesan, Easwar
We present methods that can provide an exponential savings in the resources required to perform dynamic parameter estimation using quantum systems. The key idea is to merge classical compressive sensing techniques with ...
The Attainment of the Solution of the Dual Program in Vertices for Vectorial Linear Programs
is appropriate for a dual simplex algoritm. This approach differs essentially from those in the literature (cf
Maehara, K.; Sagara, N.
2007-01-01
of not being able to satisfy the requirements of room temperature control during the cooling period in summer, an optimal PID parameter (O-PI) is selected through simulation of its two feedback control systems with mutual influence using the models identified...
Adaptive Distributed Parameter and Input Estimation in Plasma Tokamak Heat
Boyer, Edmond
. Keywords: Thermonuclear fusion, distributed parameter systems, input state and parameter estimation, adaptive infinite-dimensional estimation, Galerkin method 1. INTRODUCTION In a controlled thermonuclear fusion reactor, the plasma thermal diffusivity and heating energy play an important role
A Model-Based Iterative Algorithm for Dual-Energy X-Ray CT Reconstruction
A Model-Based Iterative Algorithm for Dual-Energy X-Ray CT Reconstruction Ruoqiao Zhang, Jean, Senior Member, IEEE Abstract--Recent developments in dual-energy X-ray CT have shown a number of benefits the opportunity to reduce noise and artifacts in dual energy reconstructions. However, previous approaches
A simple scatter correction method for dual energy contrast-enhanced digital breast tomosynthesis
A simple scatter correction method for dual energy contrast-enhanced digital breast tomosynthesis Brook, NY USA 11794 ABSTRACT Dual-Energy Contrast Enhanced Digital Breast Tomosynthesis (DE-CE-DBT) has: digital breast tomosynthesis, scatter correction, dual energy, contrast enhanced, mammography. 1
Surface Extraction from Multi-Material Components for Metrology using Dual Energy CT
Surface Extraction from Multi-Material Components for Metrology using Dual Energy CT Christoph surface models of multi-material components using dual energy com- puted tomography (DECT exposure scans was facilitated. Index Terms--DECT image fusion, local surface extraction, Dual Energy CT
Soft Classification with Gaussian Mixture Model for Clinical Dual-Energy CT Reconstructions
1 Soft Classification with Gaussian Mixture Model for Clinical Dual-Energy CT Reconstructions, and Ken D. Sauer, Member, IEEE Abstract--We study the distribution of the clinical dual-energy CT (DECT material separation. Index Terms--Computed tomography (CT), dual energy, sta- tistical method, Gaussian
High-Performance and Low-Cost Dual-Thread VLIW Processor Using Weld
Conte, Thomas M.
High-Performance and Low-Cost Dual-Thread VLIW Processor Using Weld Architecture Paradigm Emre O-performance dual-thread VLIW processor model. The dual-thread VLIW processor model is a low-cost subset of the Weld runtime events. The general Weld architectural model is proposed as a statically scheduled, horizontal
Primal-Dual Schema for Capacitated Covering Tim Carnes and David Shmoys
Shmoys, David B.
Primal-Dual Schema for Capacitated Covering Problems Tim Carnes and David Shmoys Cornell University primal-dual schema based on the LP relaxations devised by Carr, Fleischer, Leung & Phillips primal-dual algorithms achieve the same performance guarantees as the LP-rounding algorithms of Carr et
The Dual Horospherical Radon Transform as a Limit of Spherical Radon Transforms
Pasquale, Angela
The Dual Horospherical Radon Transform as a Limit of Spherical Radon Transforms J. Hilgert, A of G. The horospherical Radon transform maps functions on X to functions on HorX by integrating over the dual horospherical Radon transform as a limit of dual spherical Radon transforms. 1. Introduction
Energy performance of a dual airflow window under different climates Jingshu Wei1
Chen, Qingyan "Yan"
-e windows was also calculated for com parison. The dual airflow window can reduce heating energy1 Energy performance of a dual airflow window under different climates Jingshu Wei1 , Jianing Zhao1. This paper reports our effort to use EnergyPlus to simulate the energy performance of a dual airflow window
An Interleaved Dual-Battery Power Supply for Battery-Operated Electronics
Pedram, Massoud
An Interleaved Dual-Battery Power Supply for Battery-Operated Electronics QingQing Wu,Wu, Qinru VoltageAnalysis of Optimal Supply Voltage Design of Interleaved DualDesign of Interleaved Dual--Battery PowerBattery Power SupplySupply ConclusionsConclusions #12;Batteries in Mobile/Portable ElectronicsBatteries
An integrated hot-rolling and microstructure model for dual-phase steels
Cambridge, University of
An integrated hot-rolling and microstructure model for dual-phase steels D. Bombaca, , M. J. Peeta as a function of the hot rolling and cooling conditions is proposed for dual phase steels. An integrated tool proposed for final phase constitution of dual-phase steel has been developed, modelling recrystallization
Dual aperture dipole magnet with second harmonic component
Praeg, W.F.
1983-08-31
An improved dual aperture dipole electromagnet includes a second-harmonic frequency magnetic guide field winding which surrounds first harmonic frequency magnetic guide field windings associated with each aperture. The second harmonic winding and the first harmonic windings cooperate to produce resultant magnetic waveforms in the apertures which have extended acceleration and shortened reset portions of electromagnet operation.
Dual aperture dipole magnet with second harmonic component
Praeg, Walter F. (Palos Park, IL)
1985-01-01
An improved dual aperture dipole electromagnet includes a second-harmonic frequency magnetic guide field winding which surrounds first harmonic frequency magnetic guide field windings associated with each aperture. The second harmonic winding and the first harmonic windings cooperate to produce resultant magnetic waveforms in the apertures which have extended acceleration and shortened reset portions of electromagnet operation.
Agreement on Dual Degree Master Program in Computer Science
Wichmann, Felix
Agreement on Dual Degree Master Program in Computer Science between KAIST Department of Computer universities. 2 Academic conditions 2.1 This agreement applies to KAIST and TUB students in the Master Program #12;1 Subject of the agreement and aims This agreement describes the adacemic and administrative
Agreement on Dual Degree Master Program in Computer
Wichmann, Felix
Agreement on Dual Degree Master Program in Computer Engineering between Politechnika Warszawska.1 Scope of agreement This agreement applies to TUB students in the Master Program in Computer Engineering Engineering and Computer Science #12;1 Subject of the agreement and aims This agreement describes the academic
Agreement on Dual Degree Master Program in Computer Science
Wichmann, Felix
1 Agreement on Dual Degree Master Program in Computer Science between Politechnika Warszawska Engineering and Computer Science #12;2 1 Subject of the agreement and aims This agreement describes the requirements of both study programs. 2 Academic conditions 2.1 Scope of agreement This agreement applies to TUB
Dual periodicities in the rotational modulation of Saturn narrowband emissions
Gurnett, Donald A.
Dual periodicities in the rotational modulation of Saturn narrowband emissions S.Y. Ye,1 D. A emissions is examined, restricting the spacecraft location to either the northern or the southern hemisphere of Saturn. It is found that in both hemispheres, the modulation period of 5 kHz narrowband emissions has two
Bimodal sensory discrimination is finer than dual single modality discrimination
Johnston, Alan
Bimodal sensory discrimination is finer than dual single modality discrimination Department of Psychology and Complex, University College London, London, U.KAlan Johnston Here we show that discriminating the first or second samples. We propose that the bimodal signal discrimination advantage arises from
Coupled Dual Interleaved Flyback Converter for High Input Voltage Application
Lehman, Brad
proposed integrated boost converters [7] that are beginning to see applications in automotive power buck-boost (Flyback) power converter [9,10] that utilizes one magnetic core to integrate two FlybackCoupled Dual Interleaved Flyback Converter for High Input Voltage Application Ting Qian, Brad
Dual Diploma Program State University of New York
Hasırcı, Vasıf
Welcome! Dual Diploma Program State University of New York New Paltz Spring 2013 #12;Contact://www.newpaltz.edu/vtour/ #12;Mailing Address: Kathleen Bauman Geher 203B Vandenberg Hall SUNY New Paltz 1 Hawk Drive New Paltz, NY 12561 #12;SUNY New Paltz #12;School of Education #12;The Atrium Student Union #12;Lenape Hall
Nursing/Wharton Coordinated Dual Degree Nursing and Healthcare Management
George, Edward I.
Adult: Theory/Clinical 1.5 cu **Nursing 270 Nursing of the Older Adult: Theory/Clinical 1.5 cu Wharton1 Nursing/Wharton Coordinated Dual Degree Nursing and Healthcare Management Sample Plan of Study 5 Years Class of 2014 and earlier Fall First Year (5 cu) Nursing 40 Principles of General
The Dual Nature of Light Wave and Particle
Cochran-Stafira, D. Liane
converted to heat 44% visible light JUST RIGHT! suitable energy for life - photosynthesis absorbed1 The Dual Nature of Light Wave and Particle Light as a particle Particles or packets of light Photon carries fixed amount of energy Determines how fast it vibrates high energy = fast low energy
Dual-Phase Hot-Press Forming Alloy
Cambridge, University of
Dual-Phase Hot-Press Forming Alloy Hongliang Yi and H. K. D. H. Bhadeshia 23 April, 2010 heat treatment: ferrite+pearlite · After heat treatment: martensite · Mechanical property: UTS ~1500 strength for anti-intrusion · Shortages: low ductility for energy absorption · Solution: keeping the high
FRESNEL-ZONE MEASUREMENT AND ANALYSIS OF A DUAL-
Collings, Iain B.
FRESNEL-ZONE MEASUREMENT AND ANALYSIS OF A DUAL- POLARIZED METEOROLOGICAL RADAR ANTENNA D.B. HaymanBi gain Horizontal and vertical polarizations #12;Range Length 4 m9 2 3 4 = D Fresnel Zone Criterion Data Corrected Fresnel Zone Data Aperture Data Far Field Data Raw Fresnel Zone Data Mask D+2 Fourier
EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS ON DUAL-UEGO ACTIVE CATALYST CONTROL
Grizzle, Jessy W.
EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS ON DUAL-UEGO ACTIVE CATALYST CONTROL Giovanni Fiengo Jessy W. Grizzle hydrocarbons. Linear exhaust gas oxygen sensors are used to measure pre- and post-catalyst air-fuel ratio- and post-catalyst air-fuel ratio measurements to compensate for the bias corrupting the pre-catalyst air-fuel
Dual-Mode Switching of Diffraction Gratings Based on Azobenzene-
Zhao, Yue
-irradiated area and can be polymerized further on flood irradiation. If the concentration of the azobenzene-polymerDual-Mode Switching of Diffraction Gratings Based on Azobenzene- Polymer-Stabilized Liquid Crystals include polymer-dispersed liquid crystals (PDLC),[3,4] cholesteric liquid crystals (CLC) with or without
Dual-depth adapted irreducible formal multizeta values Leila Schneps
Schneps, Leila
, and the relations between them. Consider the following diagram, in which the four top spaces are Hopf algebras the double shuffle Lie algebra, equipped with the standard weight grading and depth filtration; we write ds = n3dsn and denote the filtration by ds1 ds2 · · ·. The double shuffle Lie algebra is dual
Where does streamwater come from in low-relief forested watersheds? A dual-isotope approach
DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)
Klaus, J.; McDonnell, J. J.; Jackson, C. R.; Du, E.; Griffiths, N. A.
2015-01-08
The time and geographic sources of streamwater in low-relief watersheds are poorly understood. This is partly due to the difficult combination of low runoff coefficients and often damped streamwater isotopic signals precluding traditional hydrograph separation and convolution integral approaches. Here we present a dual-isotope approach involving 18O and 2H of water in a low-angle forested watershed to determine streamwater source components and then build a conceptual model of streamflow generation. We focus on three headwater lowland sub-catchments draining the Savannah River Site in South Carolina, USA. Our results for a 3-year sampling period show that the slopes of the meteoricmore »water lines/evaporation water lines (MWLs/EWLs) of the catchment water sources can be used to extract information on runoff sources in ways not considered before. Our dual-isotope approach was able to identify unique hillslope, riparian and deep groundwater, and streamflow compositions. Thus, the streams showed strong evaporative enrichment compared to the local meteoric water line (?2H = 7.15 · ?18O +9.28‰) with slopes of 2.52, 2.84, and 2.86. Based on the unique and unambiguous slopes of the EWLs of the different water cycle components and the isotopic time series of the individual components, we were able to show how the riparian zone controls baseflow in this system and how the riparian zone "resets" the stable isotope composition of the observed streams in our low-angle, forested watersheds. Although this approach is limited in terms of quantifying mixing percentages between different end-members, our dual-isotope approach enabled the extraction of hydrologically useful information in a region with little change in individual isotope time series.« less
COMPARING TWO NUMERICAL MODELS IN SIMULATING HYDRODYNAMICS AND SEDIMENT TRANSPORT AT A DUAL
US Army Corps of Engineers
The overall wave energy along this coast is mild with average breaker heights estimated to be 0.25-0.30 m with Delft University of Technology (Lesser et al. 2004) and has been applied to simulate coastal systems
Leishear, R.; Poirier, M.; Lee, S.; Fowley, M.
2012-06-26
This paper documents testing methods, statistical data analysis, and a comparison of experimental results to CFD models for blending of fluids, which were blended using a single pump designed with dual opposing nozzles in an eight foot diameter tank. Overall, this research presents new findings in the field of mixing research. Specifically, blending processes were clearly shown to have random, chaotic effects, where possible causal factors such as turbulence, pump fluctuations, and eddies required future evaluation. CFD models were shown to provide reasonable estimates for the average blending times, but large variations -- or scatter -- occurred for blending times during similar tests. Using this experimental blending time data, the chaotic nature of blending was demonstrated and the variability of blending times with respect to average blending times were shown to increase with system complexity. Prior to this research, the variation in blending times caused discrepancies between CFD models and experiments. This research addressed this discrepancy, and determined statistical correction factors that can be applied to CFD models, and thereby quantified techniques to permit the application of CFD models to complex systems, such as blending. These blending time correction factors for CFD models are comparable to safety factors used in structural design, and compensate variability that cannot be theoretically calculated. To determine these correction factors, research was performed to investigate blending, using a pump with dual opposing jets which re-circulate fluids in the tank to promote blending when fluids are added to the tank. In all, eighty-five tests were performed both in a tank without internal obstructions and a tank with vertical obstructions similar to a tube bank in a heat exchanger. These obstructions provided scale models of vertical cooling coils below the liquid surface for a full scale, liquid radioactive waste storage tank. Also, different jet diameters and different horizontal orientations of the jets were investigated with respect to blending. Two types of blending tests were performed. The first set of eighty-one tests blended small quantities of tracer fluids into solution. Data from these tests were statistically evaluated to determine blending times for the addition of tracer solution to tanks, and blending times were successfully compared to Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) models. The second set of four tests blended bulk quantities of solutions of different density and viscosity. For example, in one test a quarter tank of water was added to a three quarters of a tank of a more viscous salt solution. In this case, the blending process was noted to significantly change due to stratification of fluids, and blending times increased substantially. However, CFD models for stratification and the variability of blending times for different density fluids was not pursued, and further research is recommended in the area of blending bulk quantities of fluids. All in all, testing showed that CFD models can be effectively applied if statistically validated through experimental testing, but in the absence of experimental validation CFD model scan be extremely misleading as a basis for design and operation decisions.
Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]
1997-03-28
Specialty costs are those nonstandard, unusual costs that are not typically estimated. Costs for research and development (R&D) projects involving new technologies, costs associated with future regulations, and specialty equipment costs are examples of specialty costs. This chapter discusses those factors that are significant contributors to project specialty costs and methods of estimating costs for specialty projects.
Distributed Road Grade Estimation
Johansson, Karl Henrik
Distributed Road Grade Estimation for Heavy Duty Vehicles PER SAH LHOLM Doctoral Thesis in Automatic Control Stockholm, Sweden 2011 #12;Distributed Road Grade Estimation for Heavy Duty Vehicles PER state-of-charge control decrease the energy consumption of vehicles and increase the safety
SPACE TECHNOLOGY Actual Estimate
technology readiness of new missions, mitigate their technological risks, improve the quality of cost estimates, and thereby contribute to better overall mission cost management..." Space Technology investmentsSPACE TECHNOLOGY TECH-1 Actual Estimate Budget Authority (in $ millions) FY 2011 FY 2012 FY 2013 FY
Dual Luciferase Assay Lucho Fuentealba 2008
De Robertis, Eddy M.
-Luciferase Assay System from Promega (Cat# E1960) - Dilute the Passive Lysis Buffer (PLB) Harvesting of cells in each well (for a 12-well plate) - Rock the plate for 15 min at RT - Take the extract and place in microfuge tubes. Keep at -20°C until use - Thaw on water the Luciferase Assay Buffer II (green label
Wang, Lihong
Design and evaluation of a novel breast cancer detection system combining both thermoacoustic ,,TA thermoacoustic and photoacoustic techniques to achieve dual contrast microwave and light absorption imaging
Statistical analysis of Multi-Material Components using Dual Energy CT Christoph Heinzl, Johann plastics-metal components. The presented work makes use of dual energy CT data acquisi- tion for artefact pipeline based on the dual ex- posure technique of dual energy CT. After prefilter- ing and multi
A Preliminary Cost Study of the Dual Mode Inverter Controller
McKeever, J.W.
2005-01-28
In 1998, the Power Electronics and Electric Machinery Research Center (PEEMRC) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) started a program to investigate alternate field weakening schemes for permanent magnet (PM) motors. The adjective ''alternate'' was used because at that time, outside research emphasis was on motors with interior-mounted PMs (IPMs). The PEEMRC emphasis was placed on motors with surface-mounted PMs (SPMs) because of the relative ease of manufacturing SPM motors compared with the IPM motors. Today the PEEMRC is continuing research on SPMs while examining the IPMs that have been developed by industry. Out of this task--the goal of which was to find ways to drive PM motors that inherently have low inductance at high speeds where their back-emf exceeds the supply voltage--ORNL developed and demonstrated the dual mode inverter control (DMIC) [1,2] method of field weakening for SPM motors. The predecessor of DMIC is conventional phase advance (CPA), which was developed by UQM Technologies, Inc. [3]. Fig. 1 shows the three sets of anti-parallel thyristors in the dashed box that comprise the DMIC. If one removes the dashed box by shorting each set of anti-parallel thyristors, the configuration becomes a conventional full bridge inverter on the left driving a three phase motor on the right. CPA may be used to drive this configuration ORNL's initial analyses of CPA and DMIC were based on driving motors with trapezoidal back-emfs [4-6], obtained using double layer lapped stator windings with one slot per pole per phase. A PM motor with a sinusoidal back-emf obtained with two poles per slot per phase has been analyzed under DMIC operation as a University of Tennessee-Knoxville (UTK) doctoral dissertation [7]. In the process of this research, ORNL has completed an analysis that explains and quantifies the role of inductance in these methods of control. The Appendix includes information on the equations for the three components of phase inductance, L{sub gap}, L{sub slot}, and L{sub endturns}. PM motors inherently have a lower inductance because of the increase in effective air gap caused by the magnet, which is in the denominator of the equation for L{sub gap}. L{sub gap} accounts for about half of the phase inductance. Because of the low inductance, there is a propensity for currents to exceed the motor's rated value. DMIC solves this problem for low-inductance PM motors and, in addition, provides a number of safety features that protect against uncontrolled generator mode operation [8,9]; however, the DMIC topology adds a pair of anti-parallel thyristors in each of the three phases, thereby introducing additional silicon costs as well as additional voltage drops during operation. It poses the tradeoff question; under what conditions can the beneficial features of DMIC offset its additional silicon cost and voltage drop losses? The purpose of this report is to address the tradeoff question. Sections of the report will: (1) review the role of self-inductance in performance and control of PM motors, (2) discuss the bounding inductances for motors with trapezoidal back-emfs under CPA control, (3) discuss the bounding inductances for trapezoidal back-emfs under DMIC, (4) discuss the bounding inductances for the PM synchronous motor (PMSM), (5) present the analysis showing how DMIC minimizes current in PMSMs, (6) present the results of a cost study conducted for two motors driven using a CPA inverter and for two motors driven using DMIC, (7) discuss estimating life cycle cost benefits, and (8) present conclusions.
Gravity duals for non-relativistic CFTs
Koushik Balasubramanian; John McGreevy
2008-08-01
We attempt to generalize the AdS/CFT correspondence to non-relativistic conformal field theories which are invariant under Galilean transformations. Such systems govern ultracold atoms at unitarity, nucleon scattering in some channels, and more generally, a family of universality classes of quantum critical behavior. We construct a family of metrics which realize these symmetries as isometries. They are solutions of gravity with negative cosmological constant coupled to pressureless dust. We discuss realizations of the dust, which include a bulk superconductor. We develop the holographic dictionary and compute some two-point correlators. A strange aspect of the correspondence is that the bulk geometry has two extra noncompact dimensions.
Hardware Prototyping of Two-Way Relay Systems
Wu, Qiong
2012-10-19
- bedded controller in PXI Express systems, with a 2.3 GHz dual-core processor and dual-channel 667 MHz DDR2 memory. It also has up to 4 Gb per second bandwidth interface to the chassis kit. As shown in Fig. 6, it also equipped with several Ethernet...
Software Quality, Dependability and Safety in Embedded Systems (Invited Talk)
Koopman, Philip
over the throttle position as well as fuel and spark. There are practical scenarios in which a fully of millions of deployed vehicles. While there are dual redundant analog signals from the accel- erator pedal, they do not form a proper dual path system. While Toyota did have some coding rules, developers did
Quality Guidline for Cost Estimation Methodology for NETL Assessments...
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
and Benefits 2 Power Plant Cost Estimation Methodology Quality Guidelines for Energy System Studies April 2011 Disclaimer This report was prepared as an account of work...
Glass Property Models and Constraints for Estimating the Glass...
Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)
increases in waste loading in HLW and LAW glasses are possible over current system planning estimates. The data (although limited in some cases) were evaluated to determine a...
Estimation and Analysis of Life Cycle Costs of Baseline Enhanced...
Estimation and Analysis of Life Cycle Costs of Baseline Enhanced Geothermal Systems Geothermal Project Jump to: navigation, search Last modified on July 22, 2011. Project Title...