National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for dual mass flux

  1. A dual mass flux framework for boundary layer convection

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A dual mass flux framework for boundary layer convection Neggers, Roel European Centre for Medium-range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) Category: Modeling A new convective boundary layer...

  2. Dual neutron flux/temperature measurement sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mihalczo, John T.; Simpson, Marc L.; McElhaney, Stephanie A.

    1994-01-01

    Simultaneous measurement of neutron flux and temperature is provided by a single sensor which includes a phosphor mixture having two principal constituents. The first constituent is a neutron sensitive 6LiF and the second is a rare-earth activated Y203 thermophosphor. The mixture is coated on the end of a fiber optic, while the opposite end of the fiber optic is coupled to a light detector. The detected light scintillations are quantified for neutron flux determination, and the decay is measured for temperature determination.

  3. Dual neutron flux/temperature measurement sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mihalczo, J.T.; Simpson, M.L.; McElhaney, S.A.

    1994-10-04

    Simultaneous measurement of neutron flux and temperature is provided by a single sensor which includes a phosphor mixture having two principal constituents. The first constituent is a neutron sensitive 6LiF and the second is a rare-earth activated Y203 thermophosphor. The mixture is coated on the end of a fiber optic, while the opposite end of the fiber optic is coupled to a light detector. The detected light scintillations are quantified for neutron flux determination, and the decay is measured for temperature determination. 3 figs.

  4. Microelectromechanical dual-mass resonator structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dyck, Christopher W.; Allen, James J.; Huber, Robert J.

    2002-01-01

    A dual-mass microelectromechanical (MEM) resonator structure is disclosed in which a first mass is suspended above a substrate and driven to move along a linear or curved path by a parallel-plate electrostatic actuator. A second mass, which is also suspended and coupled to the first mass by a plurality of springs is driven by motion of the first mass. Various modes of operation of the MEM structure are possible, including resonant and antiresonant modes, and a contacting mode. In each mode of operation, the motion induced in the second mass can be in the range of several microns up to more than 50 .mu.m while the first mass has a much smaller displacement on the order of one micron or less. The MEM structure has applications for forming microsensors that detect strain, acceleration, rotation or movement.

  5. Traveling-wave device with mass flux suppression (Patent) | DOEPatents

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Traveling-wave device with mass flux suppression Title: Traveling-wave device with mass flux suppression A traveling-wave device is provided with the conventional moving pistons ...

  6. Differentially pumped dual linear quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Owen, Benjamin C.; Kenttamaa, Hilkka I.

    2015-10-20

    The present disclosure provides a new tandem mass spectrometer and methods of using the same for analyzing charged particles. The differentially pumped dual linear quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer of the present disclose includes a combination of two linear quadrupole (LQIT) mass spectrometers with differentially pumped vacuum chambers.

  7. Dual-rotor, radial-flux, toroidally-wound, permanent-magnet machine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Qu, Ronghai; Lipo, Thomas A.

    2005-08-02

    The present invention provides a novel dual-rotor, radial-flux, toroidally-wound, permanent-magnet machine. The present invention improves electrical machine torque density and efficiency. At least one concentric surface-mounted permanent magnet dual-rotor is located inside and outside of a torus-shaped stator with back-to-back windings, respectively. The machine substantially improves machine efficiency by reducing the end windings and boosts the torque density by at least doubling the air gap and optimizing the machine aspect ratio.

  8. Traveling-wave device with mass flux suppression

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Swift, Gregory W.; Backhaus, Scott N.; Gardner, David L.

    2000-01-01

    A traveling-wave device is provided with the conventional moving pistons eliminated. Acoustic energy circulates in a direction through a fluid within a torus. A side branch may be connected to the torus for transferring acoustic energy into or out of the torus. A regenerator is located in the torus with a first heat exchanger located on a first side of the regenerator downstream of the regenerator relative to the direction of the circulating acoustic energy; and a second heat exchanger located on an upstream side of the regenerator. The improvement is a mass flux suppressor located in the torus to minimize time-averaged mass flux of the fluid. In one embodiment, the device further includes a thermal buffer column in the torus to thermally isolate the heat exchanger that is at the operating temperature of the device.

  9. FLUX ROPE FORMATION PRECEDING CORONAL MASS EJECTION ONSET

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Green, L. M.; Kliem, B. E-mail: bhk@mssl.ucl.ac.uk

    2009-08-01

    We analyze the evolution of a sigmoidal (S-shaped) active region toward eruption, which includes a coronal mass ejection (CME) but leaves part of the filament in place. The X-ray sigmoid is found to trace out three different magnetic topologies in succession: a highly sheared arcade of coronal loops in its long-lived phase, a bald-patch separatrix surface (BPSS) in the hours before the CME, and the first flare loops in its major transient intensity enhancement. The coronal evolution is driven by photospheric changes which involve the convergence and cancellation of flux elements under the sigmoid and filament. The data yield unambiguous evidence for the existence of a BPSS, and hence a flux rope, in the corona prior to the onset of the CME.

  10. Critical Heat Flux Phenomena at HighPressure & Low Mass Fluxes: NEUP Final Report Part I: Experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Corradini, Michael; Wu, Qiao

    2015-04-30

    This report is a preliminary document presenting an overview of the Critical Heat Flux (CHF) phenomenon, the High Pressure Critical Heat Flux facility (HPCHF), preliminary CHF data acquired, and the future direction of the research. The HPCHF facility has been designed and built to study CHF at high pressure and low mass flux ranges in a rod bundle prototypical of conceptual Small Modular Reactor (SMR) designs. The rod bundle is comprised of four electrically heated rods in a 2x2 square rod bundle with a prototypic chopped-cosine axial power profile and equipped with thermocouples at various axial and circumferential positions embedded in each rod for CHF detection. Experimental test parameters for CHF detection range from pressures of ~80 – 160 bar, mass fluxes of ~400 – 1500 kg/m2s, and inlet water subcooling from ~30 – 70°C. The preliminary data base established will be further extended in the future along with comparisons to existing CHF correlations, models, etc. whose application ranges may be applicable to the conditions of SMRs.

  11. Note: A novel dual-channel time-of-flight mass spectrometer for photoelectron imaging spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qin Zhengbo; Wu Xia; Tang Zichao [State Key Laboratory of Molecular Reaction Dynamics, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Dalian 116023 (China)

    2013-06-15

    A novel dual-channel time-of-flight mass spectrometer (D-TOFMS) has been designed to select anions in the photoelectron imaging measurements. In this instrument, the radiation laser can be triggered precisely to overlap with the selected ion cloud at the first-order space focusing plane. Compared with that of the conventional single channel TOFMS, the in situ mass selection performance of D-TOFMS is significantly improved. Preliminary experiment results are presented for the mass-selected photodetachment spectrum of F{sup -} to demonstrate the capability of the instrument.

  12. Dual-spacecraft reconstruction of a three-dimensional magnetic flux rope at the Earth's magnetopause

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Hasegawa, H.; Sonnerup, B. U. Ö.; Eriksson, S.; Nakamura, T. K. M.; Kawano, H.

    2015-02-03

    We present the first results of a data analysis method, developed by Sonnerup and Hasegawa (2011), for reconstructing three-dimensional (3-D), magnetohydrostatic structures from data taken as two closely spaced satellites traverse the structures. The method is applied to a magnetic flux transfer event (FTE), which was encountered on 27 June 2007 by at least three (TH-C, TH-D, and TH-E) of the five THEMIS probes near the subsolar magnetopause. The FTE was sandwiched between two oppositely directed reconnection jets under a southward interplanetary magnetic field condition, consistent with its generation by multiple X-line reconnection. The recovered 3-D field indicates that amore » magnetic flux rope with a diameter of ~ 3000 km was embedded in the magnetopause. The FTE flux rope had a significant 3-D structure, because the 3-D field reconstructed from the data from TH-C and TH-D (separated by ~ 390 km) better predicts magnetic field variations actually measured along the TH-E path than does the 2-D Grad–Shafranov reconstruction using the data from TH-C (which was closer to TH-E than TH-D and was at ~ 1250 km from TH-E). Such a 3-D nature suggests that the field lines reconnected at the two X-lines on both sides of the flux rope are entangled in a complicated way through their interaction with each other. The generation process of the observed 3-D flux rope is discussed on the basis of the reconstruction results and the pitch-angle distribution of electrons observed in and around the FTE.« less

  13. INNER HELIOSPHERIC FLUX ROPE EVOLUTION VIA IMAGING OF CORONAL MASS EJECTIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Howard, T. A.; DeForest, C. E.

    2012-02-10

    Understanding the evolution of flux ropes in coronal mass ejections (CMEs) is of importance both to the scientific and technological communities. Scientifically their presence is critical to models describing CME launch and they likely play a role in CME evolution. Technologically they are the major contributor to severe geomagnetic storms. Using a new processing technique on the STEREO/SECCHI heliospheric imaging data, we have tracked a magnetic flux rope observed by the Wind spacecraft in December 2008 to its origins observed by coronagraphs. We thereby establish that the cavity in the classic three-part coronagraph CME is the feature that becomes the magnetic cloud. This implies that the bright material ahead of the cavity is piled-up coronal or solar wind material. We track the evolution of the cavity en-route and find that its structure transforms from concave inward (curving away from the Sun) to concave outward (toward the Sun) around 0.065 AU from the Sun. The pileup was tracked and its leading edge remained concave inward throughout its journey. Two other CMEs in January 2009 are also inspected and a similar cavity is observed in each, suggesting that they too each contained a flux rope. The results presented here are the first direct observation, through continuous tracking, associating a particular flux rope observed in situ with the same flux rope before ejection from the corona. We speculate that detailed heliospheric imagery of CMEs may lead to a means by which flux ropes can be identified remotely in the heliosphere.

  14. Generalized chloride mass balance: Forward and inverse solutions for one-dimensional tracer convection under transient flux

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ginn, T.R.; Murphy, E.M.

    1996-12-01

    Forward and inverse solutions are provided for analysis of inert tracer profiles resulting from one-dimensional convective transport under fluxes which vary with time and space separately. The developments are displayed as an extension of conventional chloride mass balance (CMB) techniques to account for transient as well as space-dependent water fluxes. The conventional chloride mass balance has been used over two decades to estimate recharge over large time scales in arid environments. In this mass balance approach, the chloride concentration in the pore water, originating from atmospheric fallout, is inversely proportional to the flux of water through the sediments. The CMB method is especially applicable to arid and semi-arid regions where evapotranspirative enrichment of the pore water produces a distinct chloride profile in the unsaturated zone. The solutions presented allow incorporation of transient fluxes and boundary conditions in CMB analysis, and allow analysis of tracer profile data which is not constant with depth below extraction zone in terms of a rational water transport model. A closed-form inverse solution is derived which shows uniqueness of model parameter and boundary condition (including paleoprecipitation) estimation, for the specified flow model. Recent expressions of the conventional chloride mass balance technique are derived from the general model presented here; the conventional CMB is shown to be fully compatible with this transient flow model and it requires the steady-state assumption on chloride mass deposition only (and not on water fluxes or boundary conditions). The solutions and results are demonstrated on chloride profile data from west central New Mexico.

  15. Multi-matrix, dual polarity, tandem mass spectrometry imaging strategy applied to a germinated maize seed: toward mass spectrometry imaging of an untargeted metabolome

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feenstra, Adam D.; Hansen, Rebecca L.; Lee, Young Jin

    2015-08-27

    Mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) provides high spatial resolution information that is unprecedented in traditional metabolomics analyses; however, the molecular coverage is often limited to a handful of compounds and is insufficient to understand overall metabolomic changes of a biological system. Here, we propose an MSI methodology to increase the diversity of chemical compounds that can be imaged and identified, in order to eventually perform untargeted metabolomic analysis using MSI. We use the desorption/ionization bias of various matrixes for different metabolite classes along with dual polarities and a tandem MSI strategy. The use of multiple matrixes and dual polarities allows us to visualize various classes of compounds, while data-dependent MS/MS spectra acquired in the same MSI scans allow us to identify the compounds directly on the tissue. In a proof of concept application to a germinated corn seed, a total of 166 unique ions were determined to have high-quality MS/MS spectra, without counting structural isomers, of which 52 were identified as unique compounds. According to an estimation based on precursor MSI datasets, we expect over five hundred metabolites could be potentially identified and visualized once all experimental conditions are optimized and an MS/MS library is available. Finally, metabolites involved in the glycolysis pathway and tricarboxylic acid cycle were imaged to demonstrate the potential of this technology to better understand metabolic biology.

  16. Multi-matrix, dual polarity, tandem mass spectrometry imaging strategy applied to a germinated maize seed: toward mass spectrometry imaging of an untargeted metabolome

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Feenstra, Adam D.; Hansen, Rebecca L.; Lee, Young Jin

    2015-08-27

    Mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) provides high spatial resolution information that is unprecedented in traditional metabolomics analyses; however, the molecular coverage is often limited to a handful of compounds and is insufficient to understand overall metabolomic changes of a biological system. Here, we propose an MSI methodology to increase the diversity of chemical compounds that can be imaged and identified, in order to eventually perform untargeted metabolomic analysis using MSI. We use the desorption/ionization bias of various matrixes for different metabolite classes along with dual polarities and a tandem MSI strategy. The use of multiple matrixes and dual polarities allows usmore » to visualize various classes of compounds, while data-dependent MS/MS spectra acquired in the same MSI scans allow us to identify the compounds directly on the tissue. In a proof of concept application to a germinated corn seed, a total of 166 unique ions were determined to have high-quality MS/MS spectra, without counting structural isomers, of which 52 were identified as unique compounds. According to an estimation based on precursor MSI datasets, we expect over five hundred metabolites could be potentially identified and visualized once all experimental conditions are optimized and an MS/MS library is available. Finally, metabolites involved in the glycolysis pathway and tricarboxylic acid cycle were imaged to demonstrate the potential of this technology to better understand metabolic biology.« less

  17. Influence of heat and mass flux conditions in hydromagnetic flow of Jeffrey nanofluid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abbasi, F. M.; Shehzad, S. A.; Hayat, T.; Alsaedi, A.; Obid, Mustafa A.

    2015-03-15

    This article explores the hydromagnetic steady flow of Jeffrey fluid in the presence of thermal radiation. The chosen nanofluid model takes into account the Brownian motion and thermophoresis effects. Flow and heat transfer characteristics are determined by a stretching surface with flux conditions. The nonlinear boundary layer flow through partial differential systems is converted into the ordinary differential systems. The resulting reduced systems are computed for the convergent solutions of velocity, temperature and nanoparticle concentration. Graphs of dimensionless temperature and nanoparticle concentration profiles are presented for different values of emerging parameters. Skin-friction coefficient are computed and analyzed in both hydrodynamic and hydromagnetic flow situations.

  18. Direct evidence of an eruptive, filament-hosting magnetic flux rope leading to a fast solar coronal mass ejection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Bin; Gary, D. E.; Bastian, T. S.

    2014-10-20

    Magnetic flux ropes (MFRs) are believed to be at the heart of solar coronal mass ejections (CMEs). A well-known example is the prominence cavity in the low corona that sometimes makes up a three-part white-light (WL) CME upon its eruption. Such a system, which is usually observed in quiet-Sun regions, has long been suggested to be the manifestation of an MFR with relatively cool filament material collecting near its bottom. However, observational evidence of eruptive, filament-hosting MFR systems has been elusive for those originating in active regions. By utilizing multi-passband extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) observations from Solar Dynamics Observatory/Atmospheric Imaging Assembly, we present direct evidence of an eruptive MFR in the low corona that exhibits a hot envelope and a cooler core; the latter is likely the upper part of a filament that undergoes a partial eruption, which is later observed in the upper corona as the coiled kernel of a fast, WL CME. This MFR-like structure exists more than 1 hr prior to its eruption, and displays successive stages of dynamical evolution, in which both ideal and non-ideal physical processes may be involved. The timing of the MFR kinematics is found to be well correlated with the energy release of the associated long-duration C1.9 flare. We suggest that the long-duration flare is the result of prolonged energy release associated with the vertical current sheet induced by the erupting MFR.

  19. Modification of vortex dynamics and transport properties of transitional axisymmetric jets using zero-net-mass-flux actuation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    nder, Asim; Meyers, Johan

    2014-07-15

    We study the near field of a zero-net-mass-flux (ZNMF) actuated round jet using direct numerical simulations. The Reynolds number of the jet Re{sub D} = 2000 and three ZNMF actuators are used, evenly distributed over a circle, and directed towards the main jet. The actuators are triggered in phase, and have a relatively low momentum coefficient of C{sub ?} = 0.0049 each. We study four different control frequencies with Strouhal numbers ranging from St{sub D} = 0.165 to St{sub D} = 1.32; next to that, also two uncontrolled baseline cases are included in the study. We find that this type of ZNMF actuation leads to strong deformations of the near-field jet region that are very similar to those observed for non-circular jets. At the end of the jet's potential core (x/D = 5), the jet-column cross section is deformed into a hexagram-like geometry that results from strong modifications of the vortex structures. Two mechanisms lead to these modifications, i.e., (i) self-deformation of the jet's primary vortex rings started by distortions in their azimuthal curvature by the actuation, and (ii) production of side jets by the development and subsequent detachment of secondary streamwise vortex pairs. Further downstream (x/D = 10), the jet transforms into a triangular pattern, as the sharp corner regions of the hexagram entrain fluid and spread. We further investigate the global characteristics of the actuated jets. In particular when using the jet preferred frequency, i.e., St{sub D} = 0.33, parameters such as entrainment, centerline decay rate, and mean turbulent kinetic energy are significantly increased. Furthermore, high frequency actuation, i.e., St{sub D} = 1.32, is found to suppress the mechanisms leading to large scale structure growth and turbulent kinetic energy production. The simulations further include a passive scalar equation, and passive scalar mixing is also quantified and visualized.

  20. Assessment of advanced coal-gasification processes. [AVCO high throughput gasification in process; Bell High Mass Flux process; CS-R process; and Exxon Gasification process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCarthy, J.; Ferrall, J.; Charng, T.; Houseman, J.

    1981-06-01

    This report represents a technical assessment of the following advanced coal gasification processes: AVCO High Throughput Gasification (HTG) Process, Bell Single - Stage High Mass Flux (HMF) Process, Cities Service/Rockwell (CS/R) Hydrogasification Process, and the Exxon Catalytic Coal Gasification (CCG) Process. Each process is evaluated for its potential to produce SNG from a bituminous coal. In addition to identifying the new technology these processes represent, key similarities/differences, strengths/weaknesses, and potential improvements to each process are identified. The AVCO HTG and the Bell HMF gasifiers share similarities with respect to: short residence time (SRT), high throughput rate, slagging and syngas as the initial raw product gas. The CS/R Hydrogasifier is also SRT but is non-slagging and produces a raw gas high in methane content. The Exxon CCG gasifier is a long residence time, catalytic fluidbed reactor producing all of the raw product methane in the gasifier.

  1. MULTI-POINT SHOCK AND FLUX ROPE ANALYSIS OF MULTIPLE INTERPLANETARY CORONAL MASS EJECTIONS AROUND 2010 AUGUST 1 IN THE INNER HELIOSPHERE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moestl, C.; Liu, Y.; Luhmann, J. G.; Farrugia, C. J.; Kilpua, E. K. J.; Jian, L. K.; Eastwood, J. P.; Forsyth, R.; Harrison, R. A.; Davies, J. A.; Webb, D. F.; Temmer, M.; Rollett, T.; Veronig, A. M.; Odstrcil, D.; Nitta, N.; Mulligan, T.; Jensen, E. A.; Lavraud, B.; De Koning, C. A. [NOAA and others

    2012-10-10

    We present multi-point in situ observations of a complex sequence of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) which may serve as a benchmark event for numerical and empirical space weather prediction models. On 2010 August 1, instruments on various space missions, Solar Dynamics Observatory/Solar and Heliospheric Observatory/Solar-TErrestrial-RElations-Observatory (SDO/SOHO/STEREO), monitored several CMEs originating within tens of degrees from the solar disk center. We compare their imprints on four widely separated locations, spanning 120 Degree-Sign in heliospheric longitude, with radial distances from the Sun ranging from MESSENGER (0.38 AU) to Venus Express (VEX, at 0.72 AU) to Wind, ACE, and ARTEMIS near Earth and STEREO-B close to 1 AU. Calculating shock and flux rope parameters at each location points to a non-spherical shape of the shock, and shows the global configuration of the interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs), which have interacted, but do not seem to have merged. VEX and STEREO-B observed similar magnetic flux ropes (MFRs), in contrast to structures at Wind. The geomagnetic storm was intense, reaching two minima in the Dst index ( Almost-Equal-To - 100 nT), and was caused by the sheath region behind the shock and one of two observed MFRs. MESSENGER received a glancing blow of the ICMEs, and the events missed STEREO-A entirely. The observations demonstrate how sympathetic solar eruptions may immerse at least 1/3 of the heliosphere in the ecliptic with their distinct plasma and magnetic field signatures. We also emphasize the difficulties in linking the local views derived from single-spacecraft observations to a consistent global picture, pointing to possible alterations from the classical picture of ICMEs.

  2. Dual Career Services

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Options Dual Career Services Dual Career Services Los Alamos Lab recruits the best minds on the planet and offers job search information and assistance to our dual career...

  3. THE 2011 FEBRUARY 15 X2 FLARE, RIBBONS, CORONAL FRONT, AND MASS EJECTION: INTERPRETING THE THREE-DIMENSIONAL VIEWS FROM THE SOLAR DYNAMICS OBSERVATORY AND STEREO GUIDED BY MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC FLUX-ROPE MODELING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schrijver, Carolus J.; Title, Alan M.; Aulanier, Guillaume; Pariat, Etienne; Delannee, Cecile E-mail: title@lmsal.com E-mail: etienne.pariat@obspm.fr

    2011-09-10

    The 2011 February 15 X2.2 flare and associated Earth-directed halo coronal mass ejection were observed in unprecedented detail with high resolution in spatial, temporal, and thermal dimensions by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) on the Solar Dynamics Observatory, as well as by instruments on the two STEREO spacecraft, then at near-quadrature relative to the Sun-Earth line. These observations enable us to see expanding loops from a flux-rope-like structure over the shearing polarity-inversion line between the central {delta}-spot groups of AR 11158, developing a propagating coronal front ('EIT wave'), and eventually forming the coronal mass ejection moving into the inner heliosphere. The observations support the interpretation that all of these features, including the 'EIT wave', are signatures of an expanding volume traced by loops (much larger than the flux rope only), surrounded by a moving front rather than predominantly wave-like perturbations; this interpretation is supported by previously published MHD models for active-region and global scales. The lateral expansion of the eruption is limited to the local helmet-streamer structure and halts at the edges of a large-scale domain of connectivity (in the process exciting loop oscillations at the edge of the southern polar coronal hole). The AIA observations reveal that plasma warming occurs within the expansion front as it propagates over quiet Sun areas. This warming causes dimming in the 171 A (Fe IX and Fe X) channel and brightening in the 193 and 211 A (Fe XII-XIV) channels along the entire front, while there is weak 131 A (Fe VIII and Fe XXI) emission in some directions. An analysis of the AIA response functions shows that sections of the front running over the quiet Sun are consistent with adiabatic warming; other sections may require additional heating which MHD modeling suggests could be caused by Joule dissipation. Although for the events studied here the effects of volumetric expansion are much

  4. Fast flux locked loop

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ganther, Jr., Kenneth R.; Snapp, Lowell D.

    2002-09-10

    A flux locked loop for providing an electrical feedback signal, the flux locked loop employing radio-frequency components and technology to extend the flux modulation frequency and tracking loop bandwidth. The flux locked loop of the present invention has particularly useful application in read-out electronics for DC SQUID magnetic measurement systems, in which case the electrical signal output by the flux locked loop represents an unknown magnetic flux applied to the DC SQUID.

  5. Dual-keel electrodynamic maglev system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    He, J.L.; Wang, Z.; Rote, D.M.; Coffey, H.T.; Hull, J.R.; Mulcahy, T.M.; Cal, Y.

    1996-12-24

    A propulsion and stabilization system is disclosed with a plurality of superconducting magnetic devices affixed to the dual-keels of a vehicle, where the superconducting magnetic devices produce a magnetic field when energized. The system also includes a plurality of figure-eight shaped null-flux coils affixed to opposing vertical sides of slots in a guideway. The figure-eight shaped null-flux coils are vertically oriented, laterally cross-connected in parallel, longitudinally connected in series, and continue the length of the vertical slots providing levitation and guidance force. An external power source energizes the figure-eight shaped null-flux coils to create a magnetic traveling wave that interacts with the magnetic field produced by the superconducting magnets to impart motion to the vehicle. 6 figs.

  6. Dual-keel electrodynamic maglev system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    He, Jianliang; Wang, Zian; Rote, Donald M.; Coffey, Howard T.; Hull, John R.; Mulcahy, Thomas M.; Cal, Yigang

    1996-01-01

    A propulsion and stabilization system with a plurality of superconducting magnetic devices affixed to the dual-keels of a vehicle, where the superconducting magnetic devices produce a magnetic field when energized. The system also includes a plurality of figure-eight shaped null-flux coils affixed to opposing vertical sides of slots in a guideway. The figure-eight shaped null-flux coils are vertically oriented, laterally cross-connected in parallel, longitudinally connected in series, and continue the length of the vertical slots providing levitation and guidance force. An external power source energizes the figure-eight shaped null-flux coils to create a magnetic traveling wave that interacts with the magnetic field produced by the superconducting magnets to impart motion to the vehicle.

  7. Pulse flux measuring device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Riggan, William C.

    1985-01-01

    A device for measuring particle flux comprises first and second photodiode detectors for receiving flux from a source and first and second outputs for producing first and second signals representing the flux incident to the detectors. The device is capable of reducing the first output signal by a portion of the second output signal, thereby enhancing the accuracy of the device. Devices in accordance with the invention may measure distinct components of flux from a single source or fluxes from several sources.

  8. Dual control active superconductive devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Martens, Jon S.; Beyer, James B.; Nordman, James E.; Hohenwarter, Gert K. G.

    1993-07-20

    A superconducting active device has dual control inputs and is constructed such that the output of the device is effectively a linear mix of the two input signals. The device is formed of a film of superconducting material on a substrate and has two main conduction channels, each of which includes a weak link region. A first control line extends adjacent to the weak link region in the first channel and a second control line extends adjacent to the weak link region in the second channel. The current flowing from the first channel flows through an internal control line which is also adjacent to the weak link region of the second channel. The weak link regions comprise small links of superconductor, separated by voids, through which the current flows in each channel. Current passed through the control lines causes magnetic flux vortices which propagate across the weak link regions and control the resistance of these regions. The output of the device taken across the input to the main channels and the output of the second main channel and the internal control line will constitute essentially a linear mix of the two input signals imposed on the two control lines. The device is especially suited to microwave applications since it has very low input capacitance, and is well suited to being formed of high temperature superconducting materials since all of the structures may be formed coplanar with one another on a substrate.

  9. Ultra High Mass Range Mass Spectrometer System

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reilly, Peter T. A. [Knoxville, TN

    2005-12-06

    Applicant's present invention comprises mass spectrometer systems that operate in a mass range from 1 to 10.sup.16 DA. The mass spectrometer system comprising an inlet system comprising an aerodynamic lens system, a reverse jet being a gas flux generated in an annulus moving in a reverse direction and a multipole ion guide; a digital ion trap; and a thermal vaporization/ionization detector system. Applicant's present invention further comprises a quadrupole mass spectrometer system comprising an inlet system having a quadrupole mass filter and a thermal vaporization/ionization detector system. Applicant's present invention further comprises an inlet system for use with a mass spectrometer system, a method for slowing energetic particles using an inlet system. Applicant's present invention also comprises a detector device and a method for detecting high mass charged particles.

  10. ARM - Measurement - Methane flux

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    flux ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Methane flux Vertical flux of methane near the surface due to turbulent transport. Categories Surface Properties, Atmospheric Carbon Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including

  11. LCLS Spectral Flux Viewer

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2005-10-25

    This application (FluxViewer) is a tool for displaying spectral flux data for the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS). This tool allows the user to view sliced spatial and energy distributions of the photons selected for specific energies and positions transverse to the beam axis.

  12. HIGS Flux Performance Projection

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    HIGS flux performance table for high-flux, quasi-CW operation, DFELL/TUNL, Nov. 9, 2010 (Version 2.3). HIGS Flux Performance Projection (2010 - 2011) Total Flux [g/s] CW Operation Two-Bunch (*) Collimated Flux (∆E γ /E γ = 5% FWHM) (#), (@) FEL λ [nm] Comment No-loss Mode : < 20 MeV Linear Pol. with OK-4 Circular Pol with OK-5 E γ = 1 - 2 MeV (E e = 237 - 336 MeV) 1 x 10 8 - 4 x 10 8 6 x 10 6 - 2.4 x 10 7 1064 Linear and Circular (a), (b) E γ = 2 - 2.9 MeV (E e = 336 - 405 MeV) 4 x 10

  13. ARM - Measurement - Actinic flux

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    would love to hear from you Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Actinic flux The quantity of light in the atmosphere available to molecules at a...

  14. Quantum flux parametron

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hioe, W. ); Goto, E. )

    1991-01-01

    The quantum flux parametron (QFP) is an offspring of the parametron, an early flux-based logic device, and the Josephson junction. It is a single flux quantum device that works completely in the superconductive mode. While it has the speed of other Josephson devices that work on switching between the voltage and superconductive modes, its power is about one thousand times less. Hence, it promises to be an attractive alternative to both transistors and other Josephson devices. This book reports the latest research results on QFP applications as a logic device. In particular, a number of auxiliary circuits and a new logic gate are proposed for improving the device margin. Samples of these circuits and logic gate have been fabricated.

  15. Dual Tank Fuel System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wagner, Richard William; Burkhard, James Frank; Dauer, Kenneth John

    1999-11-16

    A dual tank fuel system has primary and secondary fuel tanks, with the primary tank including a filler pipe to receive fuel and a discharge line to deliver fuel to an engine, and with a balance pipe interconnecting the primary tank and the secondary tank. The balance pipe opens close to the bottom of each tank to direct fuel from the primary tank to the secondary tank as the primary tank is filled, and to direct fuel from the secondary tank to the primary tank as fuel is discharged from the primary tank through the discharge line. A vent line has branches connected to each tank to direct fuel vapor from the tanks as the tanks are filled, and to admit air to the tanks as fuel is delivered to the engine.

  16. Dual surface interferometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pardue, Robert M.; Williams, Richard R.

    1982-01-01

    A double-pass interferometer is provided which allows direct measurement of relative displacement between opposed surfaces. A conventional plane mirror interferometer may be modified by replacing the beam-measuring path cube-corner reflector with an additional quarter-wave plate. The beam path is altered to extend to an opposed plane mirrored surface and the reflected beam is placed in interference with a retained reference beam split from dual-beam source and retroreflected by a reference cube-corner reflector mounted stationary with the interferometer housing. This permits direct measurement of opposed mirror surfaces by laser interferometry while doubling the resolution as with a conventional double-pass plane mirror laser interferometer system.

  17. Dual surface interferometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pardue, R.M.; Williams, R.R.

    1980-09-12

    A double-pass interferometer is provided which allows direct measurement of relative displacement between opposed surfaces. A conventional plane mirror interferometer may be modified by replacing the beam-measuring path cube-corner reflector with an additional quarterwave plate. The beam path is altered to extend to an opposed plane mirrored surface and the reflected beam is placed in interference with a retained reference beam split from dual-beam source and retroreflected by a reference cube-corner reflector mounted stationary with the interferometer housing. This permits direct measurement of opposed mirror surfaces by laser interferometry while doubling the resolution as with a conventional double-pass plane mirror laser interferometer system.

  18. Radiative Flux Analysis

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Long, Chuck [NOAA

    2008-05-14

    The Radiative Flux Analysis is a technique for using surface broadband radiation measurements for detecting periods of clear (i.e. cloudless) skies, and using the detected clear-sky data to fit functions which are then used to produce continuous clear-sky estimates. The clear-sky estimates and measurements are then used in various ways to infer cloud macrophysical properties.

  19. Dual flapper valve assembly

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clary, S.R.; Giusti, F. Jr.; Sproul, R.M.

    1989-07-11

    This patent describes a dual flapper valve assembly for limiting the loss of completion fluid in connection with a well service operation. The valve assembly consists of: tubular support means defining a flow passage; a first flapper valve assembly connected in series flow relation with the support means, the first flapper valve assembly having a valve closure member movable between first and second positions for closing and opening the flow passage; a second flapper valve assembly connected in series flow relation in the support means, the second flapper valve assembly having a valve closure member movable between open and closed passage positions for closing and opening the flow passage; a prop sleeve mounted within the support means, the prop sleeve being movable from an extended position in which it props the closure member of one flapper valve in the open passage position to a retracted position in which the closure member is disengaged and released for movement to the closed passage position, the valve closure member of one of the flapper valve assemblies being engageable by a wash pipe extending through the flow passage to prop the valve closure member in the open passage position, and being movable to the closed passage position upon retraction of the wash pipe out of the flow passage.

  20. Optical heat flux gauge

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Noel, B.W.; Borella, H.M.; Cates, M.R.; Turley, W.D.; MacArthur, C.D.; Cala, G.C.

    1991-04-09

    A heat flux gauge is disclosed comprising first and second thermographic phosphor layers separated by a layer of a thermal insulator, wherein each thermographic layer comprises a plurality of respective thermographic sensors in a juxtaposed relationship with respect to each other. The gauge may be mounted on a surface with the first thermographic phosphor in contact with the surface. A light source is directed at the gauge, causing the phosphors to luminesce. The luminescence produced by the phosphors is collected and its spectra analyzed in order to determine the heat flux on the surface. First and second phosphor layers must be different materials to assure that the spectral lines collected will be distinguishable. 9 figures.

  1. NEUTRON FLUX INTENSITY DETECTION

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Russell, J.T.

    1964-04-21

    A method of measuring the instantaneous intensity of neutron flux in the core of a nuclear reactor is described. A target gas capable of being transmuted by neutron bombardment to a product having a resonance absorption line nt a particular microwave frequency is passed through the core of the reactor. Frequency-modulated microwave energy is passed through the target gas and the attenuation of the energy due to the formation of the transmuted product is measured. (AEC)

  2. ARM - Measurement - Sensible heat flux

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    heat flux ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Sensible heat flux The time ...

  3. ARM - Measurement - Latent heat flux

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    heat flux ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Latent heat flux The time ...

  4. High flux reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lake, James A.; Heath, Russell L.; Liebenthal, John L.; DeBoisblanc, Deslonde R.; Leyse, Carl F.; Parsons, Kent; Ryskamp, John M.; Wadkins, Robert P.; Harker, Yale D.; Fillmore, Gary N.; Oh, Chang H.

    1988-01-01

    A high flux reactor is comprised of a core which is divided into two symetric segments housed in a pressure vessel. The core segments include at least one radial fuel plate. The spacing between the plates functions as a coolant flow channel. The core segments are spaced axially apart such that a coolant mixing plenum is formed between them. A channel is provided such that a portion of the coolant bypasses the first core section and goes directly into the mixing plenum. The outlet coolant from the first core segment is mixed with the bypass coolant resulting in a lower inlet temperature to the lower core segment.

  5. Dual porosity gas evolving electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Townsend, C.W.

    1994-11-15

    A dual porosity electrode is described for use in thermoelectrochemical systems where simultaneous transport of gas and liquid into and/or out of the electrode is required. The electrode includes catalytic electrode particles having diameters ranging from about 25 to 100 angstroms. The catalytic electrode particles are anchored to a support network in clusters which have internal pores ranging in size from 25 to 100 angstroms. The pores between the clusters range in size from between about 1 to 20 microns. A method for making the dual porosity electrodes is also disclosed.

  6. Dual porosity gas evolving electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Townsend, Carl W.

    1994-01-01

    A dual porosity electrode for use in thermoelectrochemical systems where simultaneous transport of gas and liquid into and/or out of the electrode is required. The electrode includes catalytic electrode particles having diameters ranging from about 25 to 100 angstroms. The catalytic electrode particles are anchored to a support network in clusters which have internal pores ranging in size from 25 to 100 angstroms. The pores between the clusters range in size from between about 1 to 20 microns. A method for making the dual porosity electrodes is also disclosed.

  7. UWB dual burst transmit driver

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dallum, Gregory E.; Pratt, Garth C.; Haugen, Peter C.; Zumstein, James M.; Vigars, Mark L.; Romero, Carlos E.

    2012-04-17

    A dual burst transmitter for ultra-wideband (UWB) communication systems generates a pair of precisely spaced RF bursts from a single trigger event. An input trigger pulse produces two oscillator trigger pulses, an initial pulse and a delayed pulse, in a dual trigger generator. The two oscillator trigger pulses drive a gated RF burst (power output) oscillator. A bias driver circuit gates the RF output oscillator on and off and sets the RF burst packet width. The bias driver also level shifts the drive signal to the level that is required for the RF output device.

  8. Dual shell pressure balanced vessel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fassbender, Alexander G.

    1992-01-01

    A dual-wall pressure balanced vessel for processing high viscosity slurries at high temperatures and pressures having an outer pressure vessel and an inner vessel with an annular space between the vessels pressurized at a pressure slightly less than or equivalent to the pressure within the inner vessel.

  9. Dual function conducting polymer diodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Heeger, Alan J.; Yu, Gang

    1996-01-01

    Dual function diodes based on conjugated organic polymer active layers are disclosed. When positively biased the diodes function as light emitters. When negatively biased they are highly efficient photodiodes. Methods of preparation and use of these diodes in displays and input/output devices are also disclosed.

  10. Effect of rolling motion on critical heat flux for subcooled flow boiling in vertical tube

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hwang, J. S.; Park, I. U.; Park, M. Y.; Park, G. C.

    2012-07-01

    This paper presents defining characteristics of the critical heat flux (CHF) for the boiling of R-134a in vertical tube operation under rolling motion in marine reactor. It is important to predict CHF of marine reactor having the rolling motion in order to increase the safety of the reactor. Marine Reactor Moving Simulator (MARMS) tests are conducted to measure the critical heat flux using R-134a flowing upward in a uniformly heated vertical tube under rolling motion. MARMS was rotated by motor and mechanical power transmission gear. The CHF tests were performed in a 9.5 mm I.D. test section with heated length of 1 m. Mass fluxes range from 285 to 1300 kg m{sup -2}s{sup -1}, inlet subcooling from 3 to 38 deg. C and outlet pressures from 13 to 24 bar. Amplitudes of rolling range from 15 to 40 degrees and periods from 6 to 12 sec. To convert the test conditions of CHF test using R-134a in water, Katto's fluid-to-fluid modeling was used in present investigation. A CHF correlation is presented which accounts for the effects of pressure, mass flux, inlet subcooling and rolling angle over all conditions tested. Unlike existing transient CHF experiments, CHF ratio of certain mass flux and pressure are different in rolling motion. For the mass fluxes below 500 kg m{sup -2}s{sup -1} at 13, 16 (region of relative low mass flux), CHF ratio was decreased but was increased above that mass flux (region of relative high mass flux). Moreover, CHF tend to enhance in entire mass flux at 24 bar. (authors)

  11. Making Sense of Convective Updrafts: Mass Flux and Microphysics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    model simulations contain a variety of complex dynamical structures that often do not map directly to the structural elements of convective parameterization. An example is...

  12. PHLUX: Photographic Flux Tools for Solar Glare and Flux

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2010-12-02

    A web-based tool to a) analytically and empirically quantify glare from reflected light and determine the potential impact (e.g., temporary flash blindness, retinal burn), and b) produce flux maps for central receivers. The tool accepts RAW digital photographs of the glare source (for hazard assessment) or the receiver (for flux mapping), as well as a photograph of the sun for intensity and size scaling. For glare hazard assessment, the tool determines the retinal irradiance (W/cm2)more » and subtended source angle for an observer and plots the glare source on a hazard spectrum (i.e., low-potential for flash blindness impact, potential for flash blindness impact, retinal burn). For flux mapping, the tool provides a colored map of the receiver scaled by incident solar flux (W/m2) and unwraps the physical dimensions of the receiver while accounting for the perspective of the photographer (e.g., for a flux map of a cylindrical receiver, the horizontal axis denotes receiver angle in degrees and the vertical axis denotes vertical position in meters; for a flat panel receiver, the horizontal axis denotes horizontal position in meters and the vertical axis denotes vertical position in meters). The flux mapping capability also allows the user to specify transects along which the program plots incident solar flux on the receiver.« less

  13. Flux growth utilizing the reaction between flux and crucible

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Yan, J. -Q.

    2015-01-22

    Flux growth involves dissolving the components of the target compound in an appropriate flux at high temperatures and then crystallizing under supersaturation controlled by cooling or evaporating the flux. A refractory crucible is generally used to contain the high temperature melt. Moreover, the reaction between the melt and crucible materials can modify the composition of the melt, which typically results in growth failure, or contaminates the crystals. Thus one principle in designing a flux growth is to select suitable flux and crucible materials thus to avoid any reaction between them. In this paper, we review two cases of flux growthmore » in which the reaction between flux and Al2O3 crucible tunes the oxygen content in the melt and helps the crystallization of desired compositions. For the case of La5Pb3O, the Al2O3 crucible oxidizes La to form a passivating La2O3 layer which not only prevents further oxidization of La in the melt but also provides [O] to the melt. Finally, in the case of La0.4Na0.6Fe2As2, it is believed that the Al2O3 crucible reacts with NaAsO2 and the reaction consumes oxygen in the melt thus maintaining an oxygen-free environment.« less

  14. Dual arm master controller concept

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuban, D.P.; Perkins, G.S.

    1984-01-01

    The Advanced Servomanipulator (ASM) slave was designed with an anthropomorphic stance, gear/torque tube power drives, and modular construction. These features resulted in increased inertia, friction, and backlash relative to tape-driven manipulators. Studies were performed which addressed the human factors design and performance trade-offs associated with the corresponding master controller best suited for the ASM. The results of these studies, as well as the conceptual design of the dual arm master controller, are presented. 6 references, 3 figures.

  15. A FLUX ROPE ERUPTION TRIGGERED BY JETS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guo Juan; Zhang Hongqi; Deng Yuanyong; Lin Jiaben; Su Jiangtao; Liu Yu

    2010-03-10

    We present an observation of a filament eruption caused by recurrent chromospheric plasma injections (surges/jets) on 2006 July 6. The filament eruption was associated with an M2.5 two-ribbon flare and a coronal mass ejection (CME). There was a light bridge in the umbra of the main sunspot of NOAA 10898; one end of the filament was terminated at the region close to the light bridge, and recurrent surges were observed to be ejected from the light bridge. The surges occurred intermittently for about 8 hr before the filament eruption, and finally a clear jet was found at the light bridge to trigger the filament eruption. We analyzed the evolutions of the relative darkness of the filament and the loaded mass by the continuous surges quantitatively. It was found that as the occurrence of the surges, the relative darkness of the filament body continued growing for about 3-4 hr, reached its maximum, and kept stable for more than 2 hr until it erupted. If suppose 50% of the ejected mass by the surges could be trapped by the filament channel, then the total loaded mass into the filament channelwill be about 0.57x10{sup 16} g with a momentum of 0.57x10{sup 22} g cm s{sup -1} by 08:08 UT, which is a non-negligible effect on the stability of the filament. Based on the observations, we present a model showing the important role that recurrent chromospheric mass injection play in the evolution and eruption of a flux rope. Our study confirms that the surge activities can efficiently supply the necessary material for some filament formation. Furthermore, our study indicates that the continuous mass with momentum loaded by the surge activities to the filament channel could make the filament unstable and cause it to erupt.

  16. ARM - Measurement - Soil moisture flux

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    moisture flux ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Soil moisture flux A quantity measured according to the formula B = {lambda}(dq/dz), where {lambda} is the conductivity of the soil that the moisture is moving through. Categories Surface Properties Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file

  17. Design of a Modular E-Core Flux Concentrating Axial Flux Machine...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Design of a Modular E-Core Flux Concentrating Axial Flux Machine Preprint Tausif Husain, 1 ... Design of a Modular E-Core Flux Concentrating Axial Flux Machine Tausif Husain (1) Yilmaz ...

  18. Confinement of quarks in dual superconductor models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ripka, Georges

    2005-06-14

    We review some aspects and problems of quark confinement models which are based on a dual super-conductor description of the QCD vacuum.

  19. Dual Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test Facility | National...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Dual Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test Facility An integral part of the national ... radiographic images of the imploding test object, in which materials are moving at ...

  20. Dual Functional Cathode Additives for Battery Technologies -...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Return to Search Dual Functional Cathode Additives for Battery Technologies Brookhaven ... activation of the cell of a lithium battery having a primary metal sulfide additive ...

  1. The Aerodynamic, Dual- Wavelength Optical Spectrometer

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Aerodynamic, Dual- Wavelength Optical Spectrometer James C. Wilson Mechanical and ... 467. * Aerodynamic Particle Sizing - Wilson J.C., Liu B.Y.H., "Aerodynamic Particle ...

  2. Dual-circuit, multiple-effect refrigeration system and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    DeVault, Robert C.

    1995-01-01

    A dual circuit absorption refrigeration system comprising a high temperature single-effect refrigeration loop and a lower temperature double-effect refrigeration loop separate from one another and provided with a double-condenser coupling therebetween. The high temperature condenser of the single-effect refrigeration loop is double coupled to both of the generators in the double-effect refrigeration loop to improve internal heat recovery and a heat and mass transfer additive such as 2-ethyl-1-hexanol is used in the lower temperature double-effect refrigeration loop to improve the performance of the absorber in the double-effect refrigeration loop.

  3. Flux growth utilizing the reaction between flux and crucible

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yan, J. -Q.

    2015-01-22

    Flux growth involves dissolving the components of the target compound in an appropriate flux at high temperatures and then crystallizing under supersaturation controlled by cooling or evaporating the flux. A refractory crucible is generally used to contain the high temperature melt. Moreover, the reaction between the melt and crucible materials can modify the composition of the melt, which typically results in growth failure, or contaminates the crystals. Thus one principle in designing a flux growth is to select suitable flux and crucible materials thus to avoid any reaction between them. In this paper, we review two cases of flux growth in which the reaction between flux and Al2O3 crucible tunes the oxygen content in the melt and helps the crystallization of desired compositions. For the case of La5Pb3O, the Al2O3 crucible oxidizes La to form a passivating La2O3 layer which not only prevents further oxidization of La in the melt but also provides [O] to the melt. Finally, in the case of La0.4Na0.6Fe2As2, it is believed that the Al2O3 crucible reacts with NaAsO2 and the reaction consumes oxygen in the melt thus maintaining an oxygen-free environment.

  4. Diagnostic quality of mammograms obtained with a new low-radiation-dose dual-screen and dual-emulsion film combination

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wojtasek, D.A.; Teixidor, H.S.; Govoni, A.F.; Gareen, I.F. )

    1990-02-01

    We evaluated the image quality of mammograms made by using a new dual-screen, dual-emulsion film combination (Kodak Min-R Fast screen, T-Mat Mll film) that permits reduction of radiation exposure by approximately 50% when compared with a standard single-screen, single-emulsion film system (Kodak Min-R screen, OM-1 film). This new film has been improved when compared with earlier T-Mat M film, including the introduction of an inert dye to reduce light crossover to essentially 0%. Mammogram pairs made with the dual-emulsion film combination and the standard single-emulsion film combination were obtained in 50 patients otherwise undergoing routine mammography. The image pairs were randomized and evaluated by three radiologists who used a three-point scale (better, same, or worse). Each pair was evaluated with regard to parenchymal contrast, sharpness, and latitude, as well as the number and sharpness of calcifications (n = 19) and sharpness of masses (n = 12) when present. All three observers found the dual-emulsion film combination to be better than or the same as the standard with regard to parenchymal sharpness (94-100%), the number and sharpness of calcifications (98-100%), and sharpness of masses (100%). Two observers found the dual-emulsion film combination to be significantly worse (p less than .05) than the standard with respect to parenchymal contrast (72%, 86%), and all three observers rated it significantly worse for film latitude (14 to 42%). Our results suggest that this new dual-emulsion film combination that allows mammography to be performed with less radiation exposure can be used without loss of image quality.

  5. AmeriFlux US-Sta Saratoga

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Ewers, Brent [University of Wyoming; Pendall, Elise [University of Wyoming

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-Sta Saratoga. Site Description - Sagebrush steppe ecosystem

  6. AmeriFlux US-Wdn Walden

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Ewers, Brent [University of Wyoming; Pendall, Elise [University of Wyoming

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-Wdn Walden. Site Description - Sagebrush steppe ecosystem

  7. MASS SPECTROMETER

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    White, F.A.

    1960-08-23

    A mass spectrometer is designed with a first adjustable magnetic field for resolving an ion beam into beams of selected masses, a second adjustable magnetic field for further resolving the ion beam from the first field into beams of selected masses, a thin foil disposed in the path of the beam between the first and second magnets to dissociate molecular ions incident thereon, an electrostatic field for further resolving the ion beam from the second field into beams of selected masses, and a detector disposed adjacent to the electrostatic field to receive the ion beam.

  8. HOMOLOGOUS FLUX ROPES OBSERVED BY THE SOLAR DYNAMICS OBSERVATORY ATMOSPHERIC IMAGING ASSEMBLY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Ting; Zhang, Jun E-mail: zjun@nao.cas.cn

    2013-12-01

    We present the first Solar Dynamics Observatory observations of four homologous flux ropes in the active region (AR) 11745 on 2013 May 20-22. The four flux ropes are all above the neutral line of the AR, with endpoints anchoring at the same region, and have a generally similar morphology. The first three flux ropes rose with a velocity of less than 30km s{sup 1} after their appearance, and subsequently their intensities at 131 decreased and the flux ropes became obscure. The fourth flux rope erupted last, with a speed of about 130km s{sup 1} and formed a coronal mass ejection (CME). The associated filament showed an obvious anti-clockwise twist motion at the initial stage, and the twist was estimated at 4?. This indicates that kink instability possibly triggers the early rise of the fourth flux rope. The activated filament material was spatially within the flux rope and showed consistent evolution in the early stages. Our findings provide new clues for understanding the characteristics of flux ropes. Firstly, multiple flux ropes are successively formed at the same location during an AR evolution process. Secondly, a slow-rise flux rope does not necessarily result in a CME, and a fast-eruption flux rope does result in a CME.

  9. Method and system for dual resolution translation stage (Patent...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The dual resolution stage also includes an adjustable pivot block mechanically coupled to the stage assembly. The adjustable pivot block includes a pivot shaft. The dual resolution ...

  10. Development of Dual-Gated Bilayer Graphene Device Structures...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Development of Dual-Gated Bilayer Graphene Device Structures. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Development of Dual-Gated Bilayer Graphene Device Structures. Abstract not ...

  11. Project Profile: Sensible Heat, Direct, Dual-Media Thermal Energy...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Sensible Heat, Direct, Dual-Media Thermal Energy Storage Module Project Profile: Sensible Heat, Direct, Dual-Media Thermal Energy Storage Module Acciona logo Acciona Solar, under ...

  12. DARHT: Dual-Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test Facility

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    DARHT: Dual-Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test Facility DARHT: Dual-Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test Facility DARHT, supports a critical component of LANL's primary mission: to...

  13. POLICY GUIDANCE MEMORANDUM #11A Approval Process for Dual Compensation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    POLICY GUIDANCE MEMORANDUM 11A Approval Process for Dual Compensation Waivers for Reemployed Annuitants Process to grant dual compensation (salary-offset) waivers to reemployed ...

  14. Project Profile: Indirect, Dual-Media, Phase Changing Material...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Indirect, Dual-Media, Phase Changing Material Modular Thermal Energy Storage System Project Profile: Indirect, Dual-Media, Phase Changing Material Modular Thermal Energy Storage ...

  15. Low and high Temperature Dual Thermoelectric Generation Waste...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and high Temperature Dual Thermoelectric Generation Waste Heat Recovery System for Light-Duty Vehicles Low and high Temperature Dual Thermoelectric Generation Waste Heat Recovery System ...

  16. High flux solar energy transformation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Winston, R.; Gleckman, P.L.; O'Gallagher, J.J.

    1991-04-09

    Disclosed are multi-stage systems for high flux transformation of solar energy allowing for uniform solar intensification by a factor of 60,000 suns or more. Preferred systems employ a focusing mirror as a primary concentrative device and a non-imaging concentrator as a secondary concentrative device with concentrative capacities of primary and secondary stages selected to provide for net solar flux intensification of greater than 2000 over 95 percent of the concentration area. Systems of the invention are readily applied as energy sources for laser pumping and in other photothermal energy utilization processes. 7 figures.

  17. ARM - Measurement - Soil heat flux

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    heat flux ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Soil heat flux A quantity measured according to the formula B = {lambda}(dT/dz), where {lambda} is the conductivity of the soil that the heat is moving through. Categories Surface Properties Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each

  18. Beta ray flux measuring device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Impink, Jr., Albert J.; Goldstein, Norman P.

    1990-01-01

    A beta ray flux measuring device in an activated member in-core instrumentation system for pressurized water reactors. The device includes collector rings positioned about an axis in the reactor's pressure boundary. Activated members such as hydroballs are positioned within respective ones of the collector rings. A response characteristic such as the current from or charge on a collector ring indicates the beta ray flux from the corresponding hydroball and is therefore a measure of the relative nuclear power level in the region of the reactor core corresponding to the specific exposed hydroball within the collector ring.

  19. High flux solar energy transformation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Winston, Roland; Gleckman, Philip L.; O'Gallagher, Joseph J.

    1991-04-09

    Disclosed are multi-stage systems for high flux transformation of solar energy allowing for uniform solar intensification by a factor of 60,000 suns or more. Preferred systems employ a focusing mirror as a primary concentrative device and a non-imaging concentrator as a secondary concentrative device with concentrative capacities of primary and secondary stages selected to provide for net solar flux intensification of greater than 2000 over 95 percent of the concentration area. Systems of the invention are readily applied as energy sources for laser pumping and in other photothermal energy utilization processes.

  20. Dual manifold heat pipe evaporator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Adkins, D.R.; Rawlinson, K.S.

    1994-01-04

    An improved evaporator section is described for a dual manifold heat pipe. Both the upper and lower manifolds can have surfaces exposed to the heat source which evaporate the working fluid. The tubes in the tube bank between the manifolds have openings in their lower extensions into the lower manifold to provide for the transport of evaporated working fluid from the lower manifold into the tubes and from there on into the upper manifold and on to the condenser portion of the heat pipe. A wick structure lining the inner walls of the evaporator tubes extends into both the upper and lower manifolds. At least some of the tubes also have overflow tubes contained within them to carry condensed working fluid from the upper manifold to pass to the lower without spilling down the inside walls of the tubes. 1 figure.

  1. Dual manifold heat pipe evaporator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Adkins, Douglas R. (Albuquerque, NM); Rawlinson, K. Scott (Albuquerque, NM)

    1994-01-01

    An improved evaporator section for a dual manifold heat pipe. Both the upper and lower manifolds can have surfaces exposed to the heat source which evaporate the working fluid. The tubes in the tube bank between the manifolds have openings in their lower extensions into the lower manifold to provide for the transport of evaporated working fluid from the lower manifold into the tubes and from there on into the upper manifold and on to the condenser portion of the heat pipe. A wick structure lining the inner walls of the evaporator tubes extends into both the upper and lower manifolds. At least some of the tubes also have overflow tubes contained within them to carry condensed working fluid from the upper manifold to pass to the lower without spilling down the inside walls of the tubes.

  2. Dual variational principles for nonlinear traveling waves in multifluid plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Webb, G. M.; McKenzie, J. F.; Mace, R. L.; Ko, C. M.; Zank, G. P.

    2007-08-15

    A Hamiltonian description of nonlinear, obliquely propagating traveling waves in a charge neutral, electron-proton, multifluid plasma is developed. The governing equations are written as a dual spatial Hamiltonian system. In the first formulation, the Hamiltonian is identified with the longitudinal, x-momentum flux integral P{sub x}=const, in which the energy integral {epsilon}={epsilon}{sub 0} acts as a constraint, and the Hamiltonian evolution operator is d/dx, where x is the position coordinate in the wave frame. In the second Hamiltonian formulation, the Hamiltonian is proportional to the conserved energy integral {epsilon}, in which the momentum integral P{sub x}=const acts as a constraint, and the Hamiltonian evolution operator d/d{tau}=u{sub x}d/dx is the Lagrangian time derivative where u{sub x} is the x component of the electron and proton fluids. The analysis is facilitated by using the de Hoffman-Teller frame of magnetohydrodynamic shock theory to simplify the transverse electron and proton momentum equations. The system is exactly integrable in cases in which the total transverse momentum fluxes of the system are zero in the de Hoffman-Teller frame. The implications of this constraint for the Alfven Mach number of the traveling wave are discussed. The physical conditions for the formation of whistler oscillitons based on the whistler dispersion equation are discussed.

  3. Superconducting flux flow digital circuits

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hietala, Vincent M.; Martens, Jon S.; Zipperian, Thomas E.

    1995-01-01

    A NOR/inverter logic gate circuit and a flip flop circuit implemented with superconducting flux flow transistors (SFFTs). Both circuits comprise two SFFTs with feedback lines. They have extremely low power dissipation, very high switching speeds, and the ability to interface between Josephson junction superconductor circuits and conventional microelectronics.

  4. Superconducting flux flow digital circuits

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hietala, V.M.; Martens, J.S.; Zipperian, T.E.

    1995-02-14

    A NOR/inverter logic gate circuit and a flip flop circuit implemented with superconducting flux flow transistors (SFFTs) are disclosed. Both circuits comprise two SFFTs with feedback lines. They have extremely low power dissipation, very high switching speeds, and the ability to interface between Josephson junction superconductor circuits and conventional microelectronics. 8 figs.

  5. Inspection report: the Department of Energy's export licensing process for dual-use and munitions commodities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Friedman, Gregory H.

    1999-05-01

    Export of commodities, encouraged by both the private sector and the Federal Government, helps to improve our position in the global economy and is in the national interest of the US. However, exports of commodities or technologies, without regard to whether they may significantly contribute to the military potential of individual countries or combination of countries or enhance the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction, may adversely affect the national security of the US. The Federal Government, therefore, implements several laws, Executive Orders, and regulations to control the export of certain commodities and technologies. These commodities and technologies require a license for export. Some of the controlled items are designated as ''dual-use,'' that is, commodities and technologies that have both civilian and military application. Some dual-use commodities are designated as ''nuclear dual-use''--items controlled for nuclear nonproliferation purposes. Another group of controlled commodities is designated as munitions, which are goods and technologies that have solely military uses. The Department of Energy (Energy) conducts reviews of export license applications for nuclear dual-use items and certain munitions. On August 26, 1998, the Chairman of the Senate Committee on Governmental Affairs requested that the Inspectors General from the Departments of Commerce, Defense, Energy, State, and Treasury, and the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), update and expand on a 1993 interagency review conducted by the Inspectors General of the Departments of Commerce, Defense, Energy, and State of the export licensing processes for dual-use and munitions commodities.

  6. Pre-Combustion Carbon Dioxide Capture by a New Dual Phase Ceramic-Carbonate Membrane Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, Jerry

    2014-09-30

    This report documents synthesis, characterization and carbon dioxide permeation and separation properties of a new group of ceramic-carbonate dual-phase membranes and results of a laboratory study on their application for water gas shift reaction with carbon dioxide separation. A series of ceramic-carbonate dual phase membranes with various oxygen ionic or mixed ionic and electronic conducting metal oxide materials in disk, tube, symmetric, and asymmetric geometric configurations was developed. These membranes, with the thickness of 10 μm to 1.5 mm, show CO2 permeance in the range of 0.5-5×10-7 mol·m-2·s-1·Pa-1 in 500-900oC and measured CO2/N2 selectivity of up to 3000. CO2 permeation mechanism and factors that affect CO2 permeation through the dual-phase membranes have been identified. A reliable CO2 permeation model was developed. A robust method was established for the optimization of the microstructures of ceramic-carbonate membranes. The ceramic-carbonate membranes exhibit high stability for high temperature CO2 separations and water gas shift reaction. Water gas shift reaction in the dual-phase membrane reactors was studied by both modeling and experiments. It is found that high temperature syngas water gas shift reaction in tubular ceramic-carbonate dual phase membrane reactor is feasible even without catalyst. The membrane reactor exhibits good CO2 permeation flux, high thermal and chemical stability and high thermal shock resistance. Reaction and separation conditions in the membrane reactor to produce hydrogen of 93% purity and CO2 stream of >95% purity, with 90% CO2 capture have been identified. Integration of the ceramic-carbonate dual-phase membrane reactor with IGCC process for carbon dioxide capture was analyzed. A methodology was developed to identify optimum operation conditions for a membrane tube of given dimensions that would treat coal syngas with targeted performance. The calculation results show that the dual-phase membrane reactor could

  7. MASS SPECTROMETRY

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nier, A.O.C.

    1959-08-25

    A voltage switching apparatus is described for use with a mass spectrometer in the concentratron analysis of several components of a gas mixture. The system automatically varies the voltage on the accelerating electrode of the mass spectrometer through a program of voltages which corresponds to the particular gas components under analysis. Automatic operation may be discontinued at any time to permit the operator to manually select any desired predetermined accelerating voltage. Further, the system may be manually adjusted to vary the accelerating voltage over a wide range.

  8. Vertical transport and sources in flux models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Canavan, G.H.

    1997-01-01

    Vertical transport in flux models in examined and shown to reproduce expected limits for densities and fluxes. Disparities with catalog distributions are derived and inverted to find the sources required to rectify them.

  9. Quark Masses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gasser, Juerg

    2005-10-26

    In my talk, I reviewed some basic aspects of quark masses: what do they mean, how can they be determined, what is our present knowledge on them. The talk was addressed to non specialists in the field, and so is this write up.

  10. High-flux solar photon processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lorents, D C; Narang, S; Huestis, D C; Mooney, J L; Mill, T; Song, H K; Ventura, S

    1992-06-01

    This study was commissioned by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) for the purpose of identifying high-flux photoprocesses that would lead to beneficial national and commercial applications. The specific focus on high-flux photoprocesses is based on the recent development by NREL of solar concentrator technology capable of delivering record flux levels. We examined photolytic and photocatalytic chemical processes as well as photothermal processes in the search for processes where concentrated solar flux would offer a unique advantage. 37 refs.

  11. Apparatus for measuring a flux of neutrons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stringer, James L.

    1977-01-01

    A flux of neutrons is measured by disposing a detector in the flux and applying electronic correlation techniques to discriminate between the electrical signals generated by the neutron detector and the unwanted interfering electrical signals generated by the incidence of a neutron flux upon the cables connecting the detector to the electronic measuring equipment at a remote location.

  12. SNS Sample Activation Calculator Flux Recommendations and Validation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McClanahan, Tucker C.; Gallmeier, Franz X.; Iverson, Erik B.; Lu, Wei

    2015-02-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) uses the Sample Activation Calculator (SAC) to calculate the activation of a sample after the sample has been exposed to the neutron beam in one of the SNS beamlines. The SAC webpage takes user inputs (choice of beamline, the mass, composition and area of the sample, irradiation time, decay time, etc.) and calculates the activation for the sample. In recent years, the SAC has been incorporated into the user proposal and sample handling process, and instrument teams and users have noticed discrepancies in the predicted activation of their samples. The Neutronics Analysis Team validated SAC by performing measurements on select beamlines and confirmed the discrepancies seen by the instrument teams and users. The conclusions were that the discrepancies were a result of a combination of faulty neutron flux spectra for the instruments, improper inputs supplied by SAC (1.12), and a mishandling of cross section data in the Sample Activation Program for Easy Use (SAPEU) (1.1.2). This report focuses on the conclusion that the SAPEU (1.1.2) beamline neutron flux spectra have errors and are a significant contributor to the activation discrepancies. The results of the analysis of the SAPEU (1.1.2) flux spectra for all beamlines will be discussed in detail. The recommendations for the implementation of improved neutron flux spectra in SAPEU (1.1.3) are also discussed.

  13. Neutrino Fluxes from NUHM LSP Annihilations in the Sun

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olive, Keith

    2011-08-12

    We extend our previous studies of the neutrino fluxes expected from neutralino LSP annihilations inside the Sun to include variants of the minimal supersymmetric extension of the Standard Model (MSSM) with squark, slepton and gaugino masses constrained to be universal at the GUT scale, but allowing one or two non-universal supersymmetry-breaking parameters contributing to the Higgs masses (NUHM1,2). As in the constrained MSSM (CMSSM) with universal Higgs masses, there are large regions of the NUHM parameter space where the LSP density inside the Sun is not in equilibrium, so that the annihilation rate may be far below the capture rate, and there are also large regions where the capture rate is not dominated by spin-dependent LSP-proton scattering. The spectra possible in the NUHM are qualitatively similar to those in the CMSSM. We calculate neutrino-induced muon fluxes above a threshold energy of 10 GeV, appropriate for the IceCube/DeepCore detector, for points where the NUHM yields the correct cosmological relic density for representative choices of the NUHM parameters. We find that the IceCube/DeepCore detector can probe regions of the NUHM parameter space in addition to analogues of the focus-point strip and the tip of the coannihilation strip familiar from the CMSSM. These include regions with enhanced Higgsino-gaugino mixing in the LSP composition, that occurs where neutralino mass eigenstates cross over. On the other hand, rapid-annihilation funnel regions in general yield neutrino fluxes that are unobservably small.

  14. Category:Gas Flux Sampling | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Gas Flux Sampling Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Geothermalpower.jpg Looking for the Gas Flux Sampling page? For detailed information on Gas Flux...

  15. Dual-domain point diffraction interferometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Naulleau, Patrick P.; Goldberg, Kenneth Alan

    2000-01-01

    A hybrid spatial/temporal-domain point diffraction interferometer (referred to as the dual-domain PS/PDI) that is capable of suppressing the scattered-reference-light noise that hinders the conventional PS/PDI is provided. The dual-domain PS/PDI combines the separate noise-suppression capabilities of the widely-used phase-shifting and Fourier-transform fringe pattern analysis methods. The dual-domain PS/PDI relies on both a more restrictive implementation of the image plane PS/PDI mask and a new analysis method to be applied to the interferograms generated and recorded by the modified PS/PDI. The more restrictive PS/PDI mask guarantees the elimination of spatial-frequency crosstalk between the signal and the scattered-light noise arising from scattered-reference-light interfering with the test beam. The new dual-domain analysis method is then used to eliminate scattered-light noise arising from both the scattered-reference-light interfering with the test beam and the scattered-reference-light interfering with the "true" pinhole-diffracted reference light. The dual-domain analysis method has also been demonstrated to provide performance enhancement when using the non-optimized standard PS/PDI design. The dual-domain PS/PDI is essentially a three-tiered filtering system composed of lowpass spatial-filtering the test-beam electric field using the more restrictive PS/PDI mask, bandpass spatial-filtering the individual interferogram irradiance frames making up the phase-shifting series, and bandpass temporal-filtering the phase-shifting series as a whole.

  16. MASS SPECTROMETRY

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Friedman, L.

    1962-01-01

    method is described for operating a mass spectrometer to improve its resolution qualities and to extend its period of use substantially between cleanings. In this method, a small amount of a beta emitting gas such as hydrogen titride or carbon-14 methane is added to the sample being supplied to the spectrometer for investigation. The additive establishes leakage paths on the surface of the non-conducting film accumulating within the vacuum chamber of the spectrometer, thereby reducing the effect of an accumulated static charge on the electrostatic and magnetic fields established within the instrument. (AEC)

  17. Dual waveband compact catadioptric imaging spectrometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chrisp, Michael P.

    2012-12-25

    A catadioptric dual waveband imaging spectrometer that covers the visible through short-wave infrared, and the midwave infrared spectral regions, dispersing the visible through shortwave infrared with a zinc selenide grating and midwave infrared with a sapphire prism. The grating and prism are at the cold stop position, enabling the pupil to be split between them. The spectra for both wavebands are focused onto the relevant sections of a single dual waveband detector. Spatial keystone distortion is controlled to less than one tenth of a pixel over the full wavelength range, facilitating the matching of the spectra in the midwave infrared with the shorter wavelength region.

  18. FINE-SCALE STRUCTURES OF FLUX ROPES TRACKED BY ERUPTING MATERIAL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li Ting; Zhang Jun E-mail: zjun@nao.cas.cn

    2013-06-20

    We present Solar Dynamics Observatory observations of two flux ropes tracked out by material from a surge and a failed filament eruption on 2012 July 29 and August 4, respectively. For the first event, the interaction between the erupting surge and a loop-shaped filament in the east seems to 'peel off' the filament and add bright mass into the flux rope body. The second event is associated with a C-class flare that occurs several minutes before the filament activation. The two flux ropes are, respectively, composed of 85 {+-} 12 and 102 {+-} 15 fine-scale structures, with an average width of about 1.''6. Our observations show that two extreme ends of the flux rope are rooted in opposite polarity fields and each end is composed of multiple footpoints (FPs) of fine-scale structures. The FPs of the fine-scale structures are located at network magnetic fields, with magnetic fluxes from 5.6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 18} Mx to 8.6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 19} Mx. Moreover, almost half of the FPs show converging motion of smaller magnetic structures over 10 hr before the appearance of the flux rope. By calculating the magnetic fields of the FPs, we deduce that the two flux ropes occupy at least 4.3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 20} Mx and 7.6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 20} Mx magnetic fluxes, respectively.

  19. Combustion and Emissions Performance of Dual-Fuel Gasoline and...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Combustion and Emissions Performance of Dual-Fuel Gasoline and Diesel HECC on a Multi-Cylinder Light Duty Diesel Engine Combustion and Emissions Performance of Dual-Fuel Gasoline ...

  20. A Universal Dual-Fuel Controller for OEM/Aftermarket Diesel Engineswith Comprehensive Fuel & Emission Control

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presents a universal dual fuel ratio controller designed to control the fueling and emissions of dual fuel systems

  1. Coupled dual loop absorption heat pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sarkisian, Paul H.; Reimann, Robert C.; Biermann, Wendell J.

    1985-01-01

    A coupled dual loop absorption system which utilizes two separate complete loops. Each individual loop operates at three temperatures and two pressures. This low temperature loop absorber and condenser are thermally coupled to the high temperature loop evaporator, and the high temperature loop condenser and absorber are thermally coupled to the low temperature generator.

  2. Fluxing agent for metal cast joining

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gunkel, Ronald W.; Podey, Larry L.; Meyer, Thomas N.

    2002-11-05

    A method of joining an aluminum cast member to an aluminum component. The method includes the steps of coating a surface of an aluminum component with flux comprising cesium fluoride, placing the flux coated component in a mold, filling the mold with molten aluminum alloy, and allowing the molten aluminum alloy to solidify thereby joining a cast member to the aluminum component. The flux preferably includes aluminum fluoride and alumina. A particularly preferred flux includes about 60 wt. % CsF, about 30 wt. % AlF.sub.3, and about 10 wt. % Al.sub.2 O.sub.3.

  3. Modular synthesis of a dual metal-dual semiconductor nano-heterostructure

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Amirav, Lilac; Oba, Fadekemi; Aloni, Shaul; Alivisatos, A. Paul

    2015-04-29

    Reported is the design and modular synthesis of a dual metal-dual semiconductor heterostructure with control over the dimensions and placement of its individual components. Analogous to molecular synthesis, colloidal synthesis is now evolving into a series of sequential synthetic procedures with separately optimized steps. Here we detail the challenges and parameters that must be considered when assembling such a multicomponent nanoparticle, and their solutions.

  4. Portable gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Andresen, Brian D.; Eckels, Joel D.; Kimmons, James F.; Myers, David W.

    1996-01-01

    A gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) for use as a field portable organic chemical analysis instrument. The GC-MS is designed to be contained in a standard size suitcase, weighs less than 70 pounds, and requires less than 600 watts of electrical power at peak power (all systems on). The GC-MS includes: a conduction heated, forced air cooled small bore capillary gas chromatograph, a small injector assembly, a self-contained ion/sorption pump vacuum system, a hydrogen supply, a dual computer system used to control the hardware and acquire spectrum data, and operational software used to control the pumping system and the gas chromatograph. This instrument incorporates a modified commercial quadrupole mass spectrometer to achieve the instrument sensitivity and mass resolution characteristic of laboratory bench top units.

  5. Portable gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Andresen, B.D.; Eckels, J.D.; Kimmons, J.F.; Myers, D.W.

    1996-06-11

    A gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) is described for use as a field portable organic chemical analysis instrument. The GC-MS is designed to be contained in a standard size suitcase, weighs less than 70 pounds, and requires less than 600 watts of electrical power at peak power (all systems on). The GC-MS includes: a conduction heated, forced air cooled small bore capillary gas chromatograph, a small injector assembly, a self-contained ion/sorption pump vacuum system, a hydrogen supply, a dual computer system used to control the hardware and acquire spectrum data, and operational software used to control the pumping system and the gas chromatograph. This instrument incorporates a modified commercial quadrupole mass spectrometer to achieve the instrument sensitivity and mass resolution characteristic of laboratory bench top units. 4 figs.

  6. Comparison of the high temperature heat flux sensor to traditional heat flux gages under high heat flux conditions.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blanchat, Thomas K.; Hanks, Charles R.

    2013-04-01

    Four types of heat flux gages (Gardon, Schmidt-Boelter, Directional Flame Temperature, and High Temperature Heat Flux Sensor) were assessed and compared under flux conditions ranging between 100-1000 kW/m2, such as those seen in hydrocarbon fire or propellant fire conditions. Short duration step and pulse boundary conditions were imposed using a six-panel cylindrical array of high-temperature tungsten lamps. Overall, agreement between all gages was acceptable for the pulse tests and also for the step tests. However, repeated tests with the HTHFS with relatively long durations at temperatures approaching 1000%C2%B0C showed a substantial decrease (10-25%) in heat flux subsequent to the initial test, likely due to the mounting technique. New HTHFS gages have been ordered to allow additional tests to determine the cause of the flux reduction.

  7. PHELIX for flux compression studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turchi, Peter J; Rousculp, Christopher L; Reinovsky, Robert E; Reass, William A; Griego, Jeffrey R; Oro, David M; Merrill, Frank E

    2010-06-28

    PHELIX (Precision High Energy-density Liner Implosion eXperiment) is a concept for studying electromagnetic implosions using proton radiography. This approach requires a portable pulsed power and liner implosion apparatus that can be operated in conjunction with an 800 MeV proton beam at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center. The high resolution (< 100 micron) provided by proton radiography combined with similar precision of liner implosions driven electromagnetically can permit close comparisons of multi-frame experimental data and numerical simulations within a single dynamic event. To achieve a portable implosion system for use at high energy-density in a proton laboratory area requires sub-megajoule energies applied to implosions only a few cms in radial and axial dimension. The associated inductance changes are therefore relatively modest, so a current step-up transformer arrangement is employed to avoid excessive loss to parasitic inductances that are relatively large for low-energy banks comprising only several capacitors and switches. We describe the design, construction and operation of the PHELIX system and discuss application to liner-driven, magnetic flux compression experiments. For the latter, the ability of strong magnetic fields to deflect the proton beam may offer a novel technique for measurement of field distributions near perturbed surfaces.

  8. Heat flux viscosity in collisional magnetized plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, C.; Fox, W.; Bhattacharjee, A.

    2015-05-15

    Momentum transport in collisional magnetized plasmas due to gradients in the heat flux, a “heat flux viscosity,” is demonstrated. Even though no net particle flux is associated with a heat flux, in a plasma there can still be momentum transport owing to the velocity dependence of the Coulomb collision frequency, analogous to the thermal force. This heat-flux viscosity may play an important role in numerous plasma environments, in particular, in strongly driven high-energy-density plasma, where strong heat flux can dominate over ordinary plasma flows. The heat flux viscosity can influence the dynamics of the magnetic field in plasmas through the generalized Ohm's law and may therefore play an important role as a dissipation mechanism allowing magnetic field line reconnection. The heat flux viscosity is calculated directly using the finite-difference method of Epperlein and Haines [Phys. Fluids 29, 1029 (1986)], which is shown to be more accurate than Braginskii's method [S. I. Braginskii, Rev. Plasma Phys. 1, 205 (1965)], and confirmed with one-dimensional collisional particle-in-cell simulations. The resulting transport coefficients are tabulated for ease of application.

  9. AmeriFlux US-Ivo Ivotuk

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oechel, Walter; Zona, Donatella

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-Ivo Ivotuk. Site Description - This site is 300 km south of Barrow and is located at the foothill of the Brooks Range and is classified as tussock sedge, dwarf-shrub, moss tundra.

  10. AmeriFlux US-Atq Atqasuk

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Oechel, Walt [San Diego State University; Zona, Donatella [San Diego State University

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-Atq Atqasuk. Site Description - This site is 100 km south of Barrow, Alaska, Variety of moist-wet coastal sedge tundra, and moist-tussock tundra surfaces in the more well-drained upland.

  11. AmeriFlux US-Brw Barrow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oechel, Walt; Zona, Donatella

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-Brw Barrow. Site Description - The local landscape surrounding the Barrow site has a history absent of any disturbances. The terrain was not heavily glaciated during the last period of glaciation. The vegetation is mature in an unmanaged and undisturbed Arctic tundra.

  12. AmeriFlux US-Dia Diablo

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Wharton, Sonia [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-Dia Diablo. Site Description - The site is on land owned by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (Site 300) and has no grazing or management history since the 1950's except for summer-time burning of selected acres for fire management (not included in the tower footprint).

  13. Intensity of Upward Muon Flux Due to Cosmic-Ray Neutrinos Produced in the Atmosphere

    DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

    Lee, T. D.; Robinson, H.; Schwartz, M.; Cool, R.

    1963-06-01

    Calculations were performed to determine the upward going muon flux leaving the earth's surface after production by cosmic-ray neutrinos in the crust. Only neutrinos produced in the earth's atmosphere are considered. Rates of the order of one per 100 sq m/day might be expected if an intermediate boson exists and has a mass less than 2 Bev. (auth)

  14. Fast flux test facility radioisotope production and medical applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schenter, R.E.; Smith, S.G.; Tenforde, T.S.

    1997-12-01

    The Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) is a 400-MW, sodium-cooled reactor that operated successfully from 1982 to 1992, conducting work in support of the liquid-metal reactor industry by developing and testing fuel assemblies, control rods, and other core reactor components. Upon termination of this program, the primary mission of FFTF ended, and it was placed in a standby mode in 1993. However, in January 1997 the U.S. Secretary of Energy requested that FFTF be evaluated for a future mission that would consist of a primary goal of producing tritium for nuclear defense applications and a secondary goal of supplying medical isotopes for research and clinical applications. Production by FFTF of tritium for U.S. nuclear weapons would augment the dual-track strategy now under consideration for providing a long-term tritium supply in the United States (consisting of a light water reactor option and an accelerator option). A decision by the Secretary of Energy on proceeding with steps leading toward the possible reactivation of FFTF will be made before the end of 1998.

  15. A multiscale two-point flux-approximation method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Myner, Olav Lie, Knut-Andreas

    2014-10-15

    A large number of multiscale finite-volume methods have been developed over the past decade to compute conservative approximations to multiphase flow problems in heterogeneous porous media. In particular, several iterative and algebraic multiscale frameworks that seek to reduce the fine-scale residual towards machine precision have been presented. Common for all such methods is that they rely on a compatible primaldual coarse partition, which makes it challenging to extend them to stratigraphic and unstructured grids. Herein, we propose a general idea for how one can formulate multiscale finite-volume methods using only a primal coarse partition. To this end, we use two key ingredients that are computed numerically: (i) elementary functions that correspond to flow solutions used in transmissibility upscaling, and (ii) partition-of-unity functions used to combine elementary functions into basis functions. We exemplify the idea by deriving a multiscale two-point flux-approximation (MsTPFA) method, which is robust with regards to strong heterogeneities in the permeability field and can easily handle general grids with unstructured fine- and coarse-scale connections. The method can easily be adapted to arbitrary levels of coarsening, and can be used both as a standalone solver and as a preconditioner. Several numerical experiments are presented to demonstrate that the MsTPFA method can be used to solve elliptic pressure problems on a wide variety of geological models in a robust and efficient manner.

  16. Long-term elemental dry deposition fluxes measured around Lake Michigan with an automated dry deposition sampler

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shahin, U. Yi, S.M.; Paode, R.D.; Holsen, T.M.

    2000-05-15

    Long-term measurements of mass and elemental dry deposition (MG, Al, V, Cr, Mn, Ni, Co, Cu, Zn, As, Sr, Mo, Cd, Sb, Ba, and Pb) were made with an automated dry deposition sampler (Eagle II) containing knife-edge surrogate surfaces during the Lake Michigan Mass Balance/Mass Budget Study. Measurements were made over a roughly 700-day period in Chicago, IL; in South Haven and Sleeping Bear Dunes, MI; and over Lake Michigan on the 68th Street drinking water intake cribs from December 1993 to October 1995. Average mass fluxes in Chicago, South Haven, Sleeping Bear Dunes, and the 68th Street crib were 65, 10, 3.6, and 12 mg m{sup {minus}2} day{sup {minus}1}, respectively. Primarily crustal elemental fluxes were significantly smaller than the mass fluxes but higher than primarily anthropogenic elemental fluxes. For example, the average elemental flux of Al in Chicago, South Haven, Sleeping Bear Dunes, and the 68th Street crib were 1.0, 0.34, 0.074, and 0.34 mg m{sup {minus}2}day{sup {minus}1}, respectively. The average Pb fluxes in Chicago, South Haven, Sleeping Bear Dunes, and the 68th Street crib were 0.038, 0.023, 0.035, and 0.032 mg m{sup {minus}2}day{sup {minus}1}, respectively. The measured fluxes at the various sites were used to calculate the dry deposition loadings to the lake. These estimated fluxes were highest for Mg and lowest for Cd.

  17. Adaptive upscaling with the dual mesh method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guerillot, D.; Verdiere, S.

    1997-08-01

    The objective of this paper is to demonstrate that upscaling should be calculated during the flow simulation instead of trying to enhance the a priori upscaling methods. Hence, counter-examples are given to motivate our approach, the so-called Dual Mesh Method. The main steps of this numerical algorithm are recalled. Applications illustrate the necessity to consider different average relative permeability values depending on the direction in space. Moreover, these values could be different for the same average saturation. This proves that an a priori upscaling cannot be the answer even in homogeneous cases because of the {open_quotes}dynamical heterogeneity{close_quotes} created by the saturation profile. Other examples show the efficiency of the Dual Mesh Method applied to heterogeneous medium and to an actual field case in South America.

  18. Design and Performance of a High-Flux Electrospray Ionization Source for Ion Soft-Landing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gunaratne, Kalupathirannehelage Don D.; Prabhakaran, Venkateshkumar; Ibrahim, Yehia M.; Norheim, Randolph V.; Johnson, Grant E.; Laskin, Julia

    2015-01-01

    We report the design and evaluation of a new high-intensity electrospray ionization source for ion soft-landing experiments. The source incorporates a dual ion funnel, which enables operation with a higher gas load through an expanded heated inlet into the additional first region of differential pumping. This capability allowed us to examine the effect of the inner diameter (ID) of the heated stainless steel inlet on the total ion current transmitted through the dual funnel interface and, more importantly, the mass-selected ion current delivered to the deposition target. The ion transmission of the dual funnel is similar to the transmission of the single funnel used in our previous soft landing studies. However, substantially higher ion currents were obtained using larger ID heated inlets and an orthogonal inlet geometry, in which the heated inlet is positioned perpendicular to the direction of ion propagation through the instrument. The highest ion currents were obtained using the orthogonal geometry and a 1.4 mm ID heated inlet. The corresponding stable deposition rate of ~1 μg of mass-selected ions per day will facilitate future studies focused on the controlled deposition of biological molecules on substrates and preparation of materials for studies in catalysis, energy storage, and self-assembly

  19. Fabrication of dual porosity electrode structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, James L.; Kucera, Eugenia H.

    1991-01-01

    A substantially entirely fibrous ceramic which may have dual porosity of both micro and macro pores. Total porosity may be 60-75% by volume. A method of spraying a slurry perpendicularly to an ambient stream of air is disclosed along with a method of removing binders without altering the fiber morphology. Adding fine ceramic particulates to the green ceramic fibers enhances the sintering characteristics of the fibers.

  20. dual-function | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Novel Dual Functional Membrane for Controlling Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Fossil Fueled Power Plants Project No.: FG26-04NT42120 Microstructure of the composite membrane Overview of the microstructure of the composite membrane comprising of: (1) a commericially available tubular or hollow fiber ceramic support; (2) a mesoporous surfactant-templated silica sub-layer with pore size 15-50 Å; and (3) a Microporous aminosilicate gas separation membrane layer with pore size 4-10 Å. This completed

  1. Dual Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test Facility

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    DARHT DARHT Facility: A critical component of stockpile stewardship A new research frontier awaits! Our door is open and we thrive on mutually beneficial partnerships, collaborations that drive innovations and new technologies. April 12, 2012 Dominic Tafoya and Dave Honaberger prepare a refurbished DARHT (Dual Axis Radiographic Hydrotest Facility) 2nd axis accelerator cell for magnetic axis alignment measurements. Contact Group Leader Terry Priestley (505) 665-1330 Email Deputy Group Leader Tim

  2. Fabrication of dual porosity electrode structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, J.L.; Kucera, E.H.

    1991-02-12

    A substantially entirely fibrous ceramic is described which may have dual porosity of both micro and macro pores. Total porosity may be 60-75% by volume. A method of spraying a slurry perpendicularly to an ambient stream of air is disclosed along with a method of removing binders without altering the fiber morphology. Adding fine ceramic particulates to the green ceramic fibers enhances the sintering characteristics of the fibers. 3 figures.

  3. Merger-driven fueling of active galactic nuclei: Six dual and of AGNs discovered with Chandra and Hubble Space Telescope observations

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Comerford, Julia M.; Pooley, David; Barrows, R. Scott; Greene, Jenny E.; Zakamska, Nadia L.; Madejski, Greg M.; Cooper, Michael C.

    2015-06-19

    Dual active galactic nuclei (AGNs) and offset AGNs are kpc-scale separation supermassive black holes pairs created during galaxy mergers, where both or one of the black holes are AGNs, respectively. These dual and offset AGNs are valuable probes of the link between mergers and AGNs but are challenging to identify. Here we present Chandra/ACIS observations of 12 optically selected dual AGN candidates atmore » $$z\\lt 0.34$$, where we use the X-rays to identify AGNs. We also present Hubble Space Telescope/Wide Field Camera 3 observations of 10 of these candidates, which reveal any stellar bulges accompanying the AGNs. We discover a dual AGN system with separation $${\\rm \\Delta }x=2.2$$ kpc, where the two stellar bulges have coincident [O iii] λ5007 and X-ray sources. This system is an extremely minor merger (460:1) that may include a dwarf galaxy hosting an intermediate mass black hole. We also find six single AGNs, and five systems that are either dual or offset AGNs with separations $${\\rm \\Delta }x\\lt 10$$ kpc. Four of the six dual AGNs and dual/offset AGNs are in ongoing major mergers, and these AGNs are 10 times more luminous, on average, than the single AGNs in our sample. This hints that major mergers may preferentially trigger higher luminosity AGNs. Further, we find that confirmed dual AGNs have hard X-ray luminosities that are half of those of single AGNs at fixed [O III] λ5007 luminosity, on average. Lastly, this could be explained by high densities of gas funneled to galaxy centers during mergers, and emphasizes the need for deeper X-ray observations of dual AGN candidates.« less

  4. Novel Sensor for the In Situ Measurement of Uranium Fluxes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hatfield, Kirk

    2015-02-10

    The goal of this project was to develop a sensor that incorporates the field-tested concepts of the passive flux meter to provide direct in situ measures of flux for uranium and groundwater in porous media. Measurable contaminant fluxes [J] are essentially the product of concentration [C] and groundwater flux or specific discharge [q ]. The sensor measures [J] and [q] by changes in contaminant and tracer amounts respectively on a sorbent. By using measurement rather than inference from static parameters, the sensor can directly advance conceptual and computational models for field scale simulations. The sensor was deployed in conjunction with DOE in obtaining field-scale quantification of subsurface processes affecting uranium transport (e.g., advection) and transformation (e.g., uranium attenuation) at the Rifle IFRC Site in Rifle, Colorado. Project results have expanded our current understanding of how field-scale spatial variations in fluxes of uranium, groundwater and salient electron donor/acceptors are coupled to spatial variations in measured microbial biomass/community composition, effective field-scale uranium mass balances, attenuation, and stability. The coupling between uranium, various nutrients and micro flora can be used to estimate field-scale rates of uranium attenuation and field-scale transitions in microbial communities. This research focuses on uranium (VI), but the sensor principles and design are applicable to field-scale fate and transport of other radionuclides. Laboratory studies focused on sorbent selection and calibration, along with sensor development and validation under controlled conditions. Field studies were conducted at the Rifle IFRC Site in Rifle, Colorado. These studies were closely coordinated with existing SBR (formerly ERSP) projects to complement data collection. Small field tests were conducted during the first two years that focused on evaluating field-scale deployment procedures and validating sensor performance under

  5. Inorganic dual-layer microporous supported membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brinker, C. Jeffrey; Tsai, Chung-Yi; Lu, Yungfeng

    2003-03-25

    The present invention provides for a dual-layer inorganic microporous membrane capable of molecular sieving, and methods for production of the membranes. The inorganic microporous supported membrane includes a porous substrate which supports a first inorganic porous membrane having an average pore size of less than about 25 .ANG. and a second inorganic porous membrane coating the first inorganic membrane having an average pore size of less than about 6 .ANG.. The dual-layered membrane is produced by contacting the porous substrate with a surfactant-template polymeric sol, resulting in a surfactant sol coated membrane support. The surfactant sol coated membrane support is dried, producing a surfactant-templated polymer-coated substrate which is calcined to produce an intermediate layer surfactant-templated membrane. The intermediate layer surfactant-templated membrane is then contacted with a second polymeric sol producing a polymeric sol coated substrate which is dried producing an inorganic polymeric coated substrate. The inorganic polymeric coated substrate is then calcined producing an inorganic dual-layered microporous supported membrane in accordance with the present invention.

  6. PHOTOSPHERIC FLUX CANCELLATION AND THE BUILD-UP OF SIGMOIDAL FLUX ROPES ON THE SUN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Savcheva, A. S.; Van Ballegooijen, A. A.; DeLuca, E. E.; Green, L. M.

    2012-11-10

    In this study we explore the scenario of photospheric flux cancellation being the primary formation mechanism of sigmoidal flux ropes in decaying active regions. We analyze magnetogram and X-ray observations together with data-driven non-linear force-free field (NLFFF) models of observed sigmoidal regions to test this idea. We measure the total and canceled fluxes in the regions from MDI magnetograms, as well as the axial and poloidal flux content of the modeled NLFFF flux ropes for three sigmoids-2007 February, 2007 December, and 2010 February. We infer that the sum of the poloidal and axial flux in the flux ropes for most models amounts to about 60%-70% of the canceled flux and 30%-50% of the total flux in the regions. The flux measurements and the analysis of the magnetic field structure show that the sigmoids first develop a strong axial field manifested as a sheared arcade and then, as flux cancellation proceeds, form long S-shaped field lines that contribute to the poloidal flux. In addition, the dips in the S-shaped field lines are located at the sites of flux cancellation that have been identified from the MDI magnetograms. We find that the line-of-sight-integrated free energy is also concentrated at these locations for all three regions, which can be liberated in the process of eruption. Flare-associated brightenings and flare loops coincide with the location of the X-line topology that develops at the site of most vigorous flux cancellation.

  7. ARM - PI Product - Radiative Flux Analysis

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ProductsRadiative Flux Analysis ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send PI Product : Radiative Flux Analysis The Radiative Flux Analysis is a technique for using surface broadband radiation measurements for detecting periods of clear (i.e. cloudless) skies, and using the detected clear-sky data to fit functions which are then used to produce continuous clear-sky estimates. The clear-sky estimates and

  8. High-Flux Microchannel Solar Receiver

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This fact sheet describes a high-flux, microchannel solar receiver project awarded under the DOE's 2012 SunShot Concentrating Solar Power R&D award program. The team, led by Oregon State University, is working to demonstrate a microchannel-based solar receiver capable of absorbing high solar flux, while using a variety of liquid and gaseous working fluids. High-flux microchannel receivers have the potential to dramatically reduce the size and cost of a solar receiver by minimizing re-radiation and convective losses.

  9. MiniBooNE Flux Data Release

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The Neutrino Flux Prediction at MiniBooNE", arXiv:0806.1449 [hep-ex], Phys. Rev. D. 79, 072002 (2009) The following MiniBooNE information from the large flux paper in 2009 is made available to the public: Text files containing flux information for each neutrino species Positive horn polarity (neutrino-enhanced mode) Negative horn polarity (anti neutrino-enhanced mode) Contact Information For clarifications on how to use MiniBooNE public data or for enquiries about additional data not linked

  10. Eddy Correlation Flux Measurement System (ECOR) Handbook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cook, DR

    2011-01-31

    The eddy correlation (ECOR) flux measurement system provides in situ, half-hour measurements of the surface turbulent fluxes of momentum, sensible heat, latent heat, and carbon dioxide (CO2) (and methane at one Southern Great Plains extended facility (SGP EF) and the North Slope of Alaska Central Facility (NSA CF). The fluxes are obtained with the eddy covariance technique, which involves correlation of the vertical wind component with the horizontal wind component, the air temperature, the water vapor density, and the CO2 concentration.

  11. Solids mass flow indication with radiation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Macko, Joseph E.; Estriplet, Isnard

    1985-06-04

    Method and apparatus for indicating mass flow of a solid particulate material through a rotary feeder. A radiation source and detector are positioned in a manner whereby radiation flux is directed through, and attenuated by, particulate material contained in rotating pockets. A Cesium-137 gamma source can be mounted within the shaft of the feeder, and one or more detectors can be mounted outside of the feeder housing. The detected signal is indicative of the mass of particulate material contained within a given pocket rotating within the feeder.

  12. Tetrakis-amido high flux membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McCray, S.B.

    1989-10-24

    Composite RO membranes of a microporous polymeric support and a polyamide reaction product of a tetrakis-aminomethyl compound and a polyacylhalide are disclosed, said membranes exhibiting high flux and good chlorine resistance.

  13. Tetrakis-amido high flux membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McCray, Scott B. (Bend, OR)

    1989-01-01

    Composite RO membranes of a microporous polymeric support and a polyamide reaction product of a tetrakis-aminomethyl compound and a polyacylhalide are disclosed, said membranes exhibiting high flux and good chlorine resistance.

  14. Gas Flux Sampling | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    the true flux of hydrothermal gases may affect the results of geochemical modeling of gas dispersion in the near-surface environment.3 References 1.0 1.1 Measuring...

  15. ARM - VAP Product - lblch2flux

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send VAP Output : LBLCH2FLUX AERI, line by line...

  16. Dual fueling of a Caterpillar 3406 diesel engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bell, S.R.; Midkiff, K.C.; Doughty, G.; Brett, C.E.

    1996-05-01

    A Caterpillar 3406 turbocharged diesel engine was converted to operate in a dual-fuel mode and was evaluated for performance and emission characteristics for both diesel and natural gas operation. Full load power was achieved with dual fueling without knock. Similar fuel efficiencies were obtained with dual fueling a high loads, but efficiencies were lower for low loads. Bosch smoke numbers were reduced by over 50% with dual fueling for all cases investigated. NO{sub x} emissions were found to be lower at low loads and at high speeds under high load. CO emissions were significantly increased for dual fueling while CO{sub 2} concentrations in the exhaust were reduced for dual fueling.

  17. AmeriFlux US-Bkg Brookings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meyers, Tilden

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-Bkg Brookings. Site Description - The Brookings site is located in a private pasture, consisting of a mixture of C3 and C4 species actively used for grazing. Belonging to the Northern Great Plains Rangelands, the grassland is representative of many in the north central United States, with seasonal winter conditions and a wet growing season.

  18. DARHT: Dual-Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test Facility

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    DARHT: Dual-Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test Facility DARHT: Dual-Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test Facility DARHT, supports a critical component of LANL's primary mission: to ensure the safety, security, and effectiveness of nuclear weapons in our nation's stockpile. Los Alamos scientists built DARHT, the world's most powerful x-ray machine, to analyze mockups of nuclear weapons. At the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), the Dual-Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test Facility, or DARHT,

  19. Method and system for dual resolution translation stage

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Halpin, John Michael

    2014-04-22

    A dual resolution translation stage includes a stage assembly operable to receive an optical element and a low resolution adjustment device mechanically coupled to the stage assembly. The dual resolution stage also includes an adjustable pivot block mechanically coupled to the stage assembly. The adjustable pivot block includes a pivot shaft. The dual resolution stage further includes a lever arm mechanically coupled to the adjustable pivot block. The lever arm is operable to pivot about the pivot shaft. The dual resolution stage additionally includes a high resolution adjustment device mechanically coupled to the lever arm and the stage assembly.

  20. ARM: AOS: Dual Column Cloud Condensation Nuclei Counter (Dataset...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AOS: Dual Column Cloud Condensation Nuclei Counter Authors: Derek Hageman ; Bill Behrens ; Scott Smith ; Janek Uin ; Janek Uin ; Cynthia Salwen ; Cynthia Salwen ; Annette Koontz ; ...

  1. Characterization of Dual-Fuel Reactivity Controlled Compression...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    (RCCI) Using Hydrated Ethanol and Diesel Fuel Characterization of Dual-Fuel Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) Using Hydrated Ethanol and Diesel Fuel This study ...

  2. Dual initiation strip charge apparatus and methods for making...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    A Dual Initiation Strip Charge (DISC) apparatus is initiated by a single initiation source and detonates a strip of explosive charge at two separate contacts. The reflection of ...

  3. Gravity Duals of Lifshitz-Like Fixed Points (Journal Article...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    This work can be considered a small step towards making useful dual descriptions of such critical points. Authors: Kachru, Shamit ; Stanford U., Phys. Dept. SLAC ; Liu, Xiao ; ...

  4. Heat flux expressions that satisfy the conservation laws in atomistic system involving multibody potentials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fu, Yao Song, Jeong-Hoon

    2015-08-01

    Heat flux expressions are derived for multibody potential systems by extending the original Hardy's methodology and modifying Admal & Tadmor's formulas. The continuum thermomechanical quantities obtained from these two approaches are easy to compute from molecular dynamics (MD) results, and have been tested for a constant heat flux model in two distinctive systems: crystalline iron and polyethylene (PE) polymer. The convergence criteria and affecting parameters, i.e. spatial and temporal window size, and specific forms of localization function are found to be different between the two systems. The conservation of mass, momentum, and energy are discussed and validated within this atomistic–continuum bridging.

  5. Integration of Novel Flux Coupling Motor and Current Source Inverter...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Integration of Novel Flux Coupling Motor and Current Source Inverter Novel Flux Coupling Machine without Permanent Magnets John Hsu, Oak Ridge ...

  6. Gas Flux Sampling At Long Valley Caldera Geothermal Area (Lewicki...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    between chamber CO2 fluxes and the atmospheric parameters over a comparable time period. Energy balance closure was assessed by statistical regression of EC energy fluxes...

  7. Dual stage active magnetic regenerator and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pecharsky, V.K.; Gschneidner, K.A. Jr.

    1999-03-30

    A dual stage active magnetic regenerator refrigerator as well as method using the Joule-Brayton thermodynamic cycle includes a high temperature stage refrigerant comprising DyAl{sub 2} or (Dy{sub 1{minus}x}Er{sub x})Al{sub 2} where x is selected to be greater than 0 and less than about 0.3 in combination with a low temperature stage comprising (Dy{sub 1{minus}x}Er{sub x})Al{sub 2} where x is selected to be greater than about 0.5 and less than 1 to provide significantly improved refrigeration efficiency in the liquefaction of gaseous hydrogen. 17 figs.

  8. Dual stage active magnetic regenerator and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pecharsky, Vitalij K.; Gschneidner, Jr., Karl A.

    1999-03-30

    A dual stage active magnetic regenerator refrigerator as well as method using the Joule-Brayton thermodynamic cycle includes a high temperature stage refrigerant comprising DyAl.sub.2 or (Dy.sub.1-x Er.sub.x)Al.sub.2 where x is selected to be greater than 0 and less than about 0.3 in combination with a low temperature stage comprising (Dy.sub.1-x Er.sub.x)Al.sub.2 where x is selected to be greater than about 0.5 and less than 1 to provide significantly improved refrigeration efficiency in the liquefaction of gaseous hydrogen.

  9. Apparatus and method for hydrogen and oxygen mass spectrometry of the terrestrial magnetosphere

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Funsten, Herbert O.; Dors, Eric E.; Harper, Ronnie W.; Reisenfeld, Daniel B.

    2007-05-15

    A detector element for mass spectrometry of a flux of heavy and light ions, that includes: a first detector to detect light ions that transit through a foil operatively placed in front of the first detector, and a second detector that detects the flux of heavy and light ions.

  10. Measurement of emission fluxes from Technical Area 54, Area G and L. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eklund, B.

    1995-03-15

    The emission flux (mass/time-area) of tritiated water from TA-54 was measured to support the characterization of radioactive air emissions from waste sites for the Radioactive Air Emissions Management (RAEM) program and for the Area G Performance Assessment. Measurements were made at over 180 locations during the summers of 1993 and 1994, including randomly selected locations across Area G, three suspected areas of contamination at Area G, and the property surrounding TA-54. The emission fluxes of radon were measured at six locations and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) at 30 locations. Monitoring was performed at each location over a several-hour period using the U.S. EPA flux chamber approach. Separate samples for tritiated water, radon, and VOCs were collected and analyzed in off-site laboratories. The measured tritiated water emission fluxes varied over several orders of magnitude, from background levels of about 3 pCi/m{sup 2}-min to 9.69 x 10{sup 6} pCi/m{sup 2}-min near a disposal shaft. Low levels of tritiated water were found to have migrated into Pajarito Canyon, directly south of Area G. The tritium flux data were used to generate an estimated annual emission rate of 14 Curies/yr for all of Area G, with the majority of this activity being emitted from relatively small areas adjacent to several disposal shafts. The estimated total annual release is less than 1% of the total tritium release from all LANL in 1992 and results in a negligible off-site dose. Based on the limited data available, the average emission flux of radon from Area G is estimated to be 8.1 pCi/m{sup 2}-min. The measured emission fluxes of VOCs were < 100 {mu}g/m{sup 2}-min, which is small compared with fluxes typically measured at hazardous waste landfills. The air quality impacts of these releases were evaluated in a separate report.

  11. On two-parameter models of photon cross sections: Application to dual-energy CT imaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williamson, Jeffrey F.; Li Sicong; Devic, Slobodan; Whiting, Bruce R.; Lerma, Fritz A.

    2006-11-15

    The goal of this study is to evaluate the theoretically achievable accuracy in estimating photon cross sections at low energies (20-1000 keV) from idealized dual-energy x-ray computed tomography (CT) images. Cross-section estimation from dual-energy measurements requires a model that can accurately represent photon cross sections of any biological material as a function of energy by specifying only two characteristic parameters of the underlying material, e.g., effective atomic number and density. This paper evaluates the accuracy of two commonly used two-parameter cross-section models for postprocessing idealized measurements derived from dual-energy CT images. The parametric fit model (PFM) accounts for electron-binding effects and photoelectric absorption by power functions in atomic number and energy and scattering by the Klein-Nishina cross section. The basis-vector model (BVM) assumes that attenuation coefficients of any biological substance can be approximated by a linear combination of mass attenuation coefficients of two dissimilar basis substances. Both PFM and BVM were fit to a modern cross-section library for a range of elements and mixtures representative of naturally occurring biological materials (Z=2-20). The PFM model, in conjunction with the effective atomic number approximation, yields estimated the total linear cross-section estimates with mean absolute and maximum error ranges of 0.6%-2.2% and 1%-6%, respectively. The corresponding error ranges for BVM estimates were 0.02%-0.15% and 0.1%-0.5%. However, for photoelectric absorption frequency, the PFM absolute mean and maximum errors were 10.8%-22.4% and 29%-50%, compared with corresponding BVM errors of 0.4%-11.3% and 0.5%-17.0%, respectively. Both models were found to exhibit similar sensitivities to image-intensity measurement uncertainties. Of the two models, BVM is the most promising approach for realizing dual-energy CT cross-section measurement.

  12. PRECISE BLACK HOLE MASSES FROM MEGAMASER DISKS: BLACK HOLE-BULGE RELATIONS AT LOW MASS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greene, Jenny E.; Peng, Chien Y.; Kim, Minjin; Kuo, Cheng-Yu; Braatz, James A.; Impellizzeri, C. M. Violette; Condon, James J.; Lo, K. Y.; Henkel, Christian; Reid, Mark J.

    2010-09-20

    The black hole (BH)-bulge correlations have greatly influenced the last decade of efforts to understand galaxy evolution. Current knowledge of these correlations is limited predominantly to high BH masses (M{sub BH{approx}}>10{sup 8} M{sub sun}) that can be measured using direct stellar, gas, and maser kinematics. These objects, however, do not represent the demographics of more typical L < L* galaxies. This study transcends prior limitations to probe BHs that are an order of magnitude lower in mass, using BH mass measurements derived from the dynamics of H{sub 2}O megamasers in circumnuclear disks. The masers trace the Keplerian rotation of circumnuclear molecular disks starting at radii of a few tenths of a pc from the central BH. Modeling of the rotation curves, presented by Kuo et al., yields BH masses with exquisite precision. We present stellar velocity dispersion measurements for a sample of nine megamaser disk galaxies based on long-slit observations using the B and C spectrograph on the Dupont telescope and the Dual Imaging Spectrograph on the 3.5 m telescope at Apache Point. We also perform bulge-to-disk decomposition of a subset of five of these galaxies with Sloan Digital Sky Survey imaging. The maser galaxies as a group fall below the M{sub BH}-{sigma}{sub *} relation defined by elliptical galaxies. We show, now with very precise BH mass measurements, that the low-scatter power-law relation between M{sub BH} and {sigma}{sub *} seen in elliptical galaxies is not universal. The elliptical galaxy M{sub BH}-{sigma}{sub *} relation cannot be used to derive the BH mass function at low mass or the zero point for active BH masses. The processes (perhaps BH self-regulation or minor merging) that operate at higher mass have not effectively established an M{sub BH}-{sigma}{sub *} relation in this low-mass regime.

  13. Dual fuel control of a high speed turbocharged diesel engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Few, P.C.; Sardari, P.

    1987-01-01

    The modification of a Ford 7600 turbocharged diesel engine to a dual fuel engine using methane as the supplementary fuel has been carried out. The paper describes the preliminary work of dual fuel control. Two systems are examined and their behaviour is presented.

  14. Real Time Flux Control in PM Motors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Otaduy, P.J.

    2005-09-27

    Significant research at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Power Electronics and Electric Machinery Research Center (PEEMRC) is being conducted to develop ways to increase (1) torque, (2) speed range, and (3) efficiency of traction electric motors for hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) within existing current and voltage bounds. Current is limited by the inverter semiconductor devices' capability and voltage is limited by the stator wire insulation's ability to withstand the maximum back-electromotive force (emf), which occurs at the upper end of the speed range. One research track has been to explore ways to control the path and magnitude of magnetic flux while the motor is operating. The phrase, real time flux control (RTFC), refers to this mode of operation in which system parameters are changed while the motor is operating to improve its performance and speed range. RTFC has potential to meet an increased torque demand by introducing additional flux through the main air gap from an external source. It can augment the speed range by diverting flux away from the main air gap to reduce back-emf at high speeds. Conventional RTFC technology is known as vector control [1]. Vector control decomposes the stator current into two components; one that produces torque and a second that opposes (weakens) the magnetic field generated by the rotor, thereby requiring more overall stator current and reducing the efficiency. Efficiency can be improved by selecting a RTFC method that reduces the back-emf without increasing the average current. This favors methods that use pulse currents or very low currents to achieve field weakening. Foremost in ORNL's effort to develop flux control is the work of J. S. Hsu. Early research [2,3] introduced direct control of air-gap flux in permanent magnet (PM) machines and demonstrated it with a flux-controlled generator. The configuration eliminates the problem of demagnetization because it diverts all the flux from the magnets instead of

  15. Mass and momentum balance in the Brush Creek drainage flow determined from single-profile data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dobosy, R.J.; Rao, K.S.; Przybylowicz, J.W.; Eckman, R.M. )

    1989-06-01

    Fluxes and flux-divergences of mass and momentum in Brush Creek Valley, computed from measurements taken by Tethersondes and Doppler sodars in the 1984 ASCOT experiment, are presented. Estimates of mass influx from open sidewalls in Brush Creek, derived from concurrent tower measurements, are also given. Mass and momentum fluxes calculated from single-profile data were within a factor of 1.5 of those obtained by integrating Doppler lidar data. Flux-divergences for budget calculations should be derived from a Doppler lidar or equivalent remote sensor data, because single-profile measurements were found to have sampling errors which are too large for reliable flux divergence estimates. The mass influx from the sidewalls was insufficient to account for the mass flux-divergence in the main valley. This imbalance in the drainage flow mass budget is speculated to be due to the inflow from the small box-canyon tributaries, rather than from subisdence of air above the main valley. {copyright}1989 American Meteorological Society

  16. CURRENT BUILDUP IN EMERGING SERPENTINE FLUX TUBES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pariat, E.; Masson, S.; Aulanier, G.

    2009-08-20

    The increase of magnetic flux in the solar atmosphere during active-region formation involves the transport of the magnetic field from the solar convection zone through the lowest layers of the solar atmosphere, through which the plasma {beta} changes from >1 to <1 with altitude. The crossing of this magnetic transition zone requires the magnetic field to adopt a serpentine shape also known as the sea-serpent topology. In the frame of the resistive flux-emergence model, the rising of the magnetic flux is believed to be dynamically driven by a succession of magnetic reconnections which are commonly observed in emerging flux regions as Ellerman bombs. Using a data-driven, three-dimensional (3D) magnetohydrodynamic numerical simulation of flux emergence occurring in active region 10191 on 2002 November 16-17, we study the development of 3D electric current sheets. We show that these currents buildup along the 3D serpentine magnetic-field structure as a result of photospheric diverging horizontal line-tied motions that emulate the observed photospheric evolution. We observe that reconnection can not only develop following a pinching evolution of the serpentine field line, as usually assumed in two-dimensional geometry, but can also result from 3D shearing deformation of the magnetic structure. In addition, we report for the first time on the observation in the UV domain with the Transition Region and Coronal Explorer (TRACE) of extremely transient loop-like features, appearing within the emerging flux domain, which link several Ellermam bombs with one another. We argue that these loop transients can be explained as a consequence of the currents that build up along the serpentine magnetic field.

  17. Eddy Correlation Flux Measurement System Handbook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cook, D. R.

    2016-01-01

    The eddy correlation (ECOR) flux measurement system provides in situ, half-hour measurements of the surface turbulent fluxes of momentum, sensible heat, latent heat, and carbon dioxide (CO2) (and methane at one Southern Great Plains extended facility (SGP EF) and the North Slope of Alaska Central Facility (NSA CF). The fluxes are obtained with the eddy covariance technique, which involves correlation of the vertical wind component with the horizontal wind component, the air temperature, the water vapor density, and the CO2 concentration. The instruments used are: • a fast-response, three-dimensional (3D) wind sensor (sonic anemometer) to obtain the orthogonal wind components and the speed of sound (SOS) (used to derive the air temperature) • an open-path infrared gas analyzer (IRGA) to obtain the water vapor density and the CO2 concentration, and • an open-path infrared gas analyzer (IRGA) to obtain methane density and methane flux at one SGP EF and at the NSA CF. The ECOR systems are deployed at the locations where other methods for surface flux measurements (e.g., energy balance Bowen ratio [EBBR] systems) are difficult to employ, primarily at the north edge of a field of crops. A Surface Energy Balance System (SEBS) has been installed collocated with each deployed ECOR system in SGP, NSA, Tropical Western Pacific (TWP), ARM Mobile Facility 1 (AMF1), and ARM Mobile Facility 2 (AMF2). The surface energy balance system consists of upwelling and downwelling solar and infrared radiometers within one net radiometer, a wetness sensor, and soil measurements. The SEBS measurements allow the comparison of ECOR sensible and latent heat fluxes with the energy balance determined from the SEBS and provide information on wetting of the sensors for data quality purposes. The SEBS at one SGP and one NSA site also support upwelling and downwelling PAR measurements to qualify those two locations as Ameriflux sites.

  18. Tubular ceramic-carbonate dual-phase membranes and methods of manufacture thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lin, Jerry Y. S.; Ortiz-Landeros, Jose; Dong, Xue-Liang

    2016-05-03

    Embodiments for a tubular ceramic-carbonate dual-phase membrane and methods for manufacturing the tubular ceramic-carbonate dual-phase membrane are disclosed.

  19. ARM - Field Campaign - ISDAC - Hemispheric Flux Spectroradiometer

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    - Hemispheric Flux Spectroradiometer ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Related Campaigns Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign (ISDAC) 2008.04.01, Ghan, AAF Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign : ISDAC - Hemispheric Flux Spectroradiometer 2008.03.31 - 2008.05.31 Lead Scientist : Dan Lubin For data sets, see below. Abstract In connection with ISDAC, this campaign further investigated the role of aerosol physics and chemistry

  20. Plasma momentum meter for momentum flux measurements

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zonca, Fulvio; Cohen, Samuel A.; Bennett, Timothy; Timberlake, John R.

    1993-01-01

    Invention comprises an instrument in which momentum flux onto a biasable target plate is transferred via a suspended quartz tube onto a sensitive force transducer--a capacitance-type pressure gauge. The transducer is protected from thermal damage, arcing and sputtering, and materials used in the target and pendulum are electrically insulating, rigid even at elevated temperatures, and have low thermal conductivity. The instrument enables measurement of small forces (10.sup.-5 to 10.sup.3 N) accompanied by high heat fluxes which are transmitted by energetic particles with 10's of eV of kinetic energy in a intense magnetic field and pulsed plasma environment.

  1. AmeriFlux US-Akn Aiken

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leclerc, Monique

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-Akn Aiken. Site Description - The Aiken site is located within the Atlantic Coastal Plain Providence on a U.S. Department of Energy reservation (806 sq km) at Savannah River National Laboratory. Areas of the site not used for industrial purposes were planted with forests starting in the early 1950s, including the site of the Aiken tower. The site measurements are representative of the southeastern US within a mixed agricultural, residential, and industrial zone.

  2. AmeriFlux US-Los Lost Creek

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Desai, Ankur [University of Wisconsin

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-Los Lost Creek. Site Description - Shrub wetland site, chosen to be representative of the wetlands within the WLEF tall tower flux footprint. This is a deciduous shrub wetland. Coniferous and grassy stands also exist within the WLEF flux footprint. Solar power. The site has excellent micrometeorological characteristics.

  3. Roel Neggers European Centre for Medium-range Weather Forecasts

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    transition from shallow to deep convection using a dual mass flux boundary layer scheme Roel Neggers European Centre for Medium-range Weather Forecasts Introduction " " % % &...

  4. Mass spectrometric immunoassay

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nelson, Randall W.; Williams, Peter; Krone, Jennifer Reeve

    2005-12-13

    Rapid mass spectrometric immunoassay methods for detecting and/or quantifying antibody and antigen analytes utilizing affinity capture to isolate the analytes and internal reference species (for quantification) followed by mass spectrometric analysis of the isolated analyte/internal reference species. Quantification is obtained by normalizing and calibrating obtained mass spectrum against the mass spectrum obtained for an antibody/antigen of known concentration.

  5. Mass spectrometric immunoassay

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nelson, Randall W; Williams, Peter; Krone, Jennifer Reeve

    2013-07-16

    Rapid mass spectrometric immunoassay methods for detecting and/or quantifying antibody and antigen analytes utilizing affinity capture to isolate the analytes and internal reference species (for quantification) followed by mass spectrometric analysis of the isolated analyte/internal reference species. Quantification is obtained by normalizing and calibrating obtained mass spectrum against the mass spectrum obtained for an antibody/antigen of known concentration.

  6. Mass spectrometric immunoassay

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nelson, Randall W; Williams, Peter; Krone, Jennifer Reeve

    2007-12-04

    Rapid mass spectrometric immunoassay methods for detecting and/or quantifying antibody and antigen analytes utilizing affinity capture to isolate the analytes and internal reference species (for quantification) followed by mass spectrometric analysis of the isolated analyte/internal reference species. Quantification is obtained by normalizing and calibrating obtained mass spectrum against the mass spectrum obtained for an antibody/antigen of known concentration.

  7. Effects of Increased Upward Flux of Saline Water Caused by CO2 Storage or Other Factors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murdoch, Lawrence; Xie, Shuang; Falta, Ronald W.; Yonkofski, Catherine MR

    2015-08-01

    Injection of CO2 in deep saline aquifers is being considered to reduce greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, and this process is expected to increase the pressure in these deep aquifers. One potential consequence of pressurization is an increase in the upward flux of saline water. Saline groundwater occurs naturally at shallow depths in many sedimentary basins, so an upward flux of solutes could degrade the quality of freshwater aquifers and threaten aquatic ecosystems. One problem could occur where saline water flowed upward along preferential paths, like faults or improperly abandoned wells. Diffuse upward flow through the natural stratigraphy could also occur in response to basin pressurization. This process would be slower, but diffuse upward flow could affect larger areas than flow through preferential paths, and this motivated us to evaluate this process. We analyzed idealized 2D and 3D geometries representing the essential details of a shallow, freshwater aquifer underlain by saline ground water in a sedimentary basin. The analysis was conducted in two stages, one that simulated the development of a freshwater aquifer by flushing out saline water, and another that simulated the effect of a pulse-like increase in the upward flux from the basin. The results showed that increasing the upward flux from a basin increased the salt concentration and mass loading of salt to streams, and decrease the depth to the fresh/salt transition. The magnitude of these effects varied widely, however, from a small, slow process that would be challenging to detect, to a large, rapid response that could be an environmental catastrophe. The magnitude of the increased flux, and the initial depth to the fresh/salt transition in groundwater controlled the severity of the response. We identified risk categories for salt concentration, mass loading, and freshwater aquifer thickness, and we used these categories to characterize the severity of the response. This showed that risks would

  8. Mass flows in a prominence spine as observed in EUV

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kucera, T. A.; Gilbert, H. R.

    2014-07-20

    We analyze a quiescent prominence observed by the Solar Dynamics Observatory's Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) with a focus on mass and energy flux in the spine, measured using Lyman continuum absorption. This is the first time this type of analysis has been applied with an emphasis on individual features and fluxes in a quiescent prominence. The prominence, observed on 2010 September 28, is detectable in most AIA wavebands in absorption and/or emission. Flows along the spine exhibit horizontal bands 5''-10'' wide and kinetic energy fluxes on the order of a few times 10{sup 5} erg s{sup 1}cm{sup 2}, consistent with quiet sun coronal heating estimates. For a discrete moving feature we estimate a mass of a few times 10{sup 11} g. We discuss the implications of our derived properties for a model of prominence dynamics, the thermal non-equilibrium model.

  9. Reflection mass spectrometry technique for monitoring and controlling composition during molecular beam epitaxy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brennan, T.M.; Hammons, B.E.; Tsao, J.Y.

    1992-12-15

    A method for on-line accurate monitoring and precise control of molecular beam epitaxial growth of Groups III-III-V or Groups III-V-V layers in an advanced semiconductor device incorporates reflection mass spectrometry. The reflection mass spectrometry is responsive to intentional perturbations in molecular fluxes incident on a substrate by accurately measuring the molecular fluxes reflected from the substrate. The reflected flux is extremely sensitive to the state of the growing surface and the measurements obtained enable control of newly forming surfaces that are dynamically changing as a result of growth. 3 figs.

  10. Reflection mass spectrometry technique for monitoring and controlling composition during molecular beam epitaxy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brennan, Thomas M.; Hammons, B. Eugene; Tsao, Jeffrey Y.

    1992-01-01

    A method for on-line accurate monitoring and precise control of molecular beam epitaxial growth of Groups III-III-V or Groups III-V-V layers in an advanced semiconductor device incorporates reflection mass spectrometry. The reflection mass spectrometry is responsive to intentional perturbations in molecular fluxes incident on a substrate by accurately measuring the molecular fluxes reflected from the substrate. The reflected flux is extremely sensitive to the state of the growing surface and the measurements obtained enable control of newly forming surfaces that are dynamically changing as a result of growth.

  11. Dual power, constant speed electric motor system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kirschbaum, H.S.

    1984-07-31

    A dual capacity permanent split capacitor electric motor system is provided with a stator having main and auxiliary windings. The main stator winding includes two winding sections which are connected in parallel with each other and across a pair of line terminals while the auxiliary winding is connected in series with a capacitor to form a circuit branch which is connected between the line terminals for operation at a first output power level. Switching means are provided to reconnect the main stator winding sections in series with each other and in series with a second capacitor to form a circuit branch which is connected between the line terminals while the stator auxiliary winding is connected directly between the line terminals for operation at a second output power level. Automatic rotation reversal occurs when the motor switches from the first to the second output power level. 6 figs.

  12. Dual power, constant speed electric motor system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kirschbaum, Herbert S.

    1984-01-01

    A dual capacity permanent split capacitor electric motor system is provided with a stator having main and auxiliary windings. The main stator winding includes two winding sections which are connected in parallel with each other and across a pair of line terminals while the auxiliary winding is connected in series with a capacitor to form a circuit branch which is connected between the line terminals for operation at a first output power level. Switching means are provided to reconnect the main stator winding sections in series with each other and in series with a second capacitor to form a circuit branch which is connected between the line terminals while the stator auxiliary winding is connected directly between the line terminals for operation at a second output power level. Automatic rotation reversal occurs when the motor switches from the first to the second output power level.

  13. Dual-fueling turbocharged diesels with ethanol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cruz, J.M.; Rotz, C.A.; Watson, D.H.

    1982-09-01

    Spray addition and carburetion methods were tested for dual-fueling a turbocharged, 65 kW diesel tractor. Approximately 30 percent of the fuel energy for the tractor was supplied by spraying ethanol into the intake air and about 46 percent by carburetion with little affect on the engine thermal efficiency. Further substitution of diesel fuel with ethanol was limited by knock. As the amount of ethanol fed into the engine was increased, ignition apparently changed from the steady burning process which normally occurs in a diesel engine to a rapid explosion which caused knock. The best fuel for the spray approach was a 50 percent ethanol/water solution and with the carburetor it was an 80 percent ethanol/water solution.

  14. Dual-fueling turbocharged diesels with ethanol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cruz, J.M.; Rotz, C.A.; Watson, D.H.

    1982-09-01

    Spray addition and carburetion methods were tested for dual-fueling a turbocharged, 65 kW diesel tractor. Approximately 30 percent of the fuel energy for the tractor was supplied by spraying ethanol into the intake air and about 46 percent by carburetion with little affect on the engine thermal efficiency. Further substitution of diesel fuel with ethanol was limited by knock. As the amount of ethanol fed into the engine was increased, ignition apparently changed from the steady burning process which normally occurs in a diesel engine to a rapid explosion which caused knock. The best fuel for the spray approach was a 50 percent ethanol/water solution and with the carburetor it was an 80 percent ethanol/water solution. (Refs. 6).

  15. Dual LED/incandescent security fixture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gauna, Kevin Wayne

    2005-06-21

    A dual LED and incandescent security lighting system uses a hybrid approach to LED illumination. It combines an ambient LED illuminator with a standard incandescent lamp on a motion control sensor. The LED illuminator will activate with the onset of darkness (daylight control) and typically remain on during the course of the night ("always on"). The LED illumination, typically amber, is sufficient to provide low to moderate level lighting coverage to the wall and ground area adjacent to and under the fixture. The incandescent lamp is integrated with a motion control circuit and sensor. When movement in the field of view is detected (after darkness), the incandescent lamp is switched on, providing an increased level of illumination to the area. Instead of an "always on" LED illuminator, the LEDs may also be switched off when the incandescent lamp is switched on.

  16. Dual liquid and gas chromatograph system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gay, D.D.

    A chromatographic system is described that utilizes one detection system for gas chromatographic and micro-liquid chromatographic determinations. The detection system is a direct-current, atmospheric-pressure, helium plasma emission spectrometer. The detector utilizes a nontransparent plasma source unit which contains the plasma region and two side-arms which receive effluents from the micro-liquid chromatograph and the gas chromatograph. The dual nature of this chromatographic system offers: (1) extreme flexibility in the samples to be examined; (2) extreme low sensitivity; (3) element selectivity; (4) long-term stability; (5) direct correlation of data from the liquid and gas samples; (6) simpler operation than with individual liquid and gas chromatographs, each with different detection systems; and (7) cheaper than a commercial liquid chromatograph and a gas chromatograph.

  17. Dual liquid and gas chromatograph system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gay, Don D.

    1985-01-01

    A chromatographic system that utilizes one detection system for gas chromatographic and micro-liquid chromatographic determinations. The detection system is a direct-current, atmospheric-pressure, helium plasma emission spectrometer. The detector utilizes a non-transparent plasma source unit which contains the plasma region and two side-arms which receive effluents from the micro-liquid chromatograph and the gas chromatograph. The dual nature of this chromatographic system offers: (1) extreme flexibility in the samples to be examined; (2) extremely low sensitivity; (3) element selectivity; (4) long-term stability; (5) direct correlation of data from the liquid and gas samples; (6) simpler operation than with individual liquid and gas chromatographs, each with different detection systems; and (7) cheaper than a commercial liquid chromatograph and a gas chromatograph.

  18. Imaging mass spectrometer with mass tags

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Felton, James S.; Wu, Kuang Jen; Knize, Mark G.; Kulp, Kristen S.; Gray, Joe W.

    2010-06-01

    A method of analyzing biological material by exposing the biological material to a recognition element, that is coupled to a mass tag element, directing an ion beam of a mass spectrometer to the biological material, interrogating at least one region of interest area from the biological material and producing data, and distributing the data in plots.

  19. Imaging mass spectrometer with mass tags

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Felton, James S.; Wu, Kuang Jen J.; Knize, Mark G.; Kulp, Kristen S.; Gray, Joe W.

    2013-01-29

    A method of analyzing biological material by exposing the biological material to a recognition element, that is coupled to a mass tag element, directing an ion beam of a mass spectrometer to the biological material, interrogating at least one region of interest area from the biological material and producing data, and distributing the data in plots.

  20. EUV mirror based absolute incident flux detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berger, Kurt W.

    2004-03-23

    A device for the in-situ monitoring of EUV radiation flux includes an integrated reflective multilayer stack. This device operates on the principle that a finite amount of in-band EUV radiation is transmitted through the entire multilayer stack. This device offers improvements over existing vacuum photo-detector devices since its calibration does not change with surface contamination.

  1. Defect-free ultrahigh flux asymmetric membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pinnau, Ingo; Koros, William J.

    1990-01-01

    Defect-free, ultrahigh flux integrally-skinned asymmetric membranes having extremely thin surface layers (<0.2 .mu.m) comprised of glassy polymers are disclosed. The membranes are formed by casting an appropriate drope followed by forced convective evaporation of solvent to obtain a dry phase separated asymmetrical structure. The structure is then washed in a precipitation liquid and dried.

  2. SYNOPTIC MAPPING OF CHROMOSPHERIC MAGNETIC FLUX

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jin, C. L.; Harvey, J. W.; Pietarila, A. E-mail: jharvey@nso.edu

    2013-03-10

    We used daily full-disk Ca II 854.2 nm magnetograms from the Synoptic Optical Long Term Investigations of the Sun (SOLIS) facility to study the chromospheric magnetic field from 2006 April through 2009 November. We determined and corrected previously unidentified zero offsets in the SOLIS magnetograms. By tracking the disk passages of stable unipolar regions, the measured net flux densities were found to systematically decrease from the disk center to the limb by a factor of about two. This decrease was modeled using a thin flux tube model with a difference in signal formation height between the center and limb sides. Comparison of photospheric and chromospheric observations shows that their differences are largely due to horizontal spreading of magnetic flux with increasing height. The north polar magnetic field decreased nearly linearly with time during our study period while the south polar field was nearly constant. We used the annual change in the viewing angle of the polar regions to estimate the radial and meridional components of the polar fields and found that the south polar fields were tilted away from the pole. Synoptic maps of the chromospheric radial flux density distribution were used as boundary conditions for extrapolation of the field from the chromosphere into the corona. A comparison of modeled and observed coronal hole boundaries and coronal streamer positions showed better agreement when using the chromospheric rather than the photospheric synoptic maps.

  3. Comments on shielding for dual energy accelerators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rossi, M. C.; Lincoln, H. M.; Quarin, D. J.; Zwicker, R. D.

    2008-06-15

    Determination of shielding requirements for medical linear accelerators has been greatly facilitated by the publication of the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) latest guidelines on this subject in NCRP Report No. 151. In the present report the authors review their own recent experience with patient treatments on conventional dual energy linear accelerators to examine the various input parameters needed to follow the NCRP guidelines. Some discussion is included of workloads, occupancy, use factors, and field size, with the effects of intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) treatments included. Studies of collimator settings showed average values of 13.1x16.2 cm{sup 2} for 6 MV and 14.1x16.8 cm{sup 2} for 18 MV conventional ports, and corresponding average unblocked areas of 228 and 254 cm{sup 2}, respectively. With an average of 77% of the field area unblocked, this gives a mean irradiated area of 196 cm{sup 2} for the 18 MV beam, which dominates shielding considerations for most dual energy machines. Assuming conservatively small room dimensions, a gantry bin angle of 18 deg. was found to represent a reasonable unit for tabulation of use factors. For conventional 18 MV treatments it was found that the usual treatment angles of 0, 90, 180, and 270 deg. were still favored, and use factors of 0.25 represent reasonable estimates for these beams. As expected, the IMRT fields (all at 6 MV) showed a high degree of gantry angle randomization, with no bin having a use factor in excess of 0.10. It is concluded that unless a significant number of patients are treated with high energy IMRT, the traditional use factors of 0.25 are appropriate for the dominant high energy beam.

  4. Influence of wind speed averaging on estimates of dimethylsulfide emission fluxes

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Chapman, E. G.; Shaw, W. J.; Easter, R. C.; Bian, X.; Ghan, S. J.

    2002-12-03

    The effect of various wind-speed-averaging periods on calculated DMS emission fluxes is quantitatively assessed. Here, a global climate model and an emission flux module were run in stand-alone mode for a full year. Twenty-minute instantaneous surface wind speeds and related variables generated by the climate model were archived, and corresponding 1-hour-, 6-hour-, daily-, and monthly-averaged quantities calculated. These various time-averaged, model-derived quantities were used as inputs in the emission flux module, and DMS emissions were calculated using two expressions for the mass transfer velocity commonly used in atmospheric models. Results indicate that the time period selected for averaging wind speedsmore » can affect the magnitude of calculated DMS emission fluxes. A number of individual marine cells within the global grid show DMS emissions fluxes that are 10-60% higher when emissions are calculated using 20-minute instantaneous model time step winds rather than monthly-averaged wind speeds, and at some locations the differences exceed 200%. Many of these cells are located in the southern hemisphere where anthropogenic sulfur emissions are low and changes in oceanic DMS emissions may significantly affect calculated aerosol concentrations and aerosol radiative forcing.« less

  5. Comparison of 10. 7 CM radio flux with SME solar Lyman alpha flux

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barth, C.A.; Tobiska, W.K.; Rottman, G.J. ); White, O.R.

    1990-04-01

    Measurements of the solar Lyman alpha flux that were made over a seven-and-one-half-year period between October 11, 1981 and April 13, 1989 have been compared with ground-based measurements of the solar 10.7 cm radio flux made over the same time period. There is a long-term correlation between these two measures of solar flux during the declining part of the solar cycle. During the solar minimum period, there is only a poor correlation between the two solar fluxes because the 10.7 cm radio flux reaches a minimum of 65 {times} 10{sup {minus}22} W m{sup {minus}2} Hz{sup {minus}1} and does not vary below this value while the Lyman alpha flux continues to decline and show long-term and short-term variations. During the early ascending phase of the new solar cycle, there is again a correlation between the two fluxes, although the constant of proportionality between the two is different from the constant during the declining phase of the previous solar cycle. Somewhat later, during the period November 25, 1988-April 13, 1989 a medium-term correlation exists and the proportionality of the two indices is once again similar to what it was during the declining phase of the previous solar cycle. A study of the correlation of the 10.7 cm flux with the Lyman alpha for a 999-day period during the declining phase showed that for the short-term (27-day) variation there is a correlation between the two fluxes but the proportionality between them varies from one solar rotation to the next.

  6. Fuel reactivity effects on the efficiency and operational window of dual-fuel compression ignition engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Splitter, Derek A; Reitz, Rolf

    2014-01-01

    Fuel reactivity effects on the efficiency and operational window of dual-fuel compression ignition engines

  7. Elbow mass flow meter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McFarland, Andrew R.; Rodgers, John C.; Ortiz, Carlos A.; Nelson, David C.

    1994-01-01

    Elbow mass flow meter. The present invention includes a combination of an elbow pressure drop generator and a shunt-type mass flow sensor for providing an output which gives the mass flow rate of a gas that is nearly independent of the density of the gas. For air, the output is also approximately independent of humidity.

  8. Atmospheric State, Cloud Microphysics and Radiative Flux

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Mace, Gerald

    2008-01-15

    Atmospheric thermodynamics, cloud properties, radiative fluxes and radiative heating rates for the ARM Southern Great Plains (SGP) site. The data represent a characterization of the physical state of the atmospheric column compiled on a five-minute temporal and 90m vertical grid. Sources for this information include raw measurements, cloud property and radiative retrievals, retrievals and derived variables from other third-party sources, and radiative calculations using the derived quantities.

  9. Atmospheric State, Cloud Microphysics and Radiative Flux

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Mace, Gerald

    Atmospheric thermodynamics, cloud properties, radiative fluxes and radiative heating rates for the ARM Southern Great Plains (SGP) site. The data represent a characterization of the physical state of the atmospheric column compiled on a five-minute temporal and 90m vertical grid. Sources for this information include raw measurements, cloud property and radiative retrievals, retrievals and derived variables from other third-party sources, and radiative calculations using the derived quantities.

  10. Energy flux density in a thermoacoustic couple

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cao, N.; Chen, S. |; Olson, R.; Swift, G.W.

    1996-06-01

    The hydro- and thermodynamical processes near and within a thermoacoustic couple are simulated and analyzed by numerical solution of the compressible Navier-Stokes, continuity, and energy equations for an ideal gas, concentrating on the time-averaged energy flux density in the gas. The numerical results show details of the heat sink at one end of the plates in the thermoacoustic couple. 15 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Slant-hole collimator, dual mode sterotactic localization method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weisenberger, Andrew G.

    2002-01-01

    The use of a slant-hole collimator in the gamma camera of dual mode stereotactic localization apparatus allows the acquisition of a stereo pair of scintimammographic images without repositioning of the gamma camera between image acquisitions.

  12. NREL: Measurements and Characterization - Dual-Beam Sample Preparation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The FIB is equipped with a gas injection system (GIS) platinum metal deposition capability ... dual beam FIB showing nano deposition with GIS of Pt contacts to a single GaN nanowire. ...

  13. EIS-0228: Dual Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test (DARHT) Facility

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EIS evaluates the potential environmental impact of a proposal to construct and operate the Dual Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test (DARHT) facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL)...

  14. York Electric Cooperative- Dual Fuel Heat Pump Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    York Electric Cooperative, Inc. (YEC) offers a $200 rebate to members who install a dual fuel heat pump in homes or businesses. The rebates are for primary residences, commercial, and industrial...

  15. Parameterized reduced-order models using hyper-dual numbers....

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    This report presents a methodology for developing parameterized ROMs, which is based on Craig-Bampton component mode synthesis and the use of hyper-dual numbers to calculate the ...

  16. dual-phase-ceramic-asu | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Pre-Combustion Carbon Dioxide Capture by a New Dual-Phase Ceramic Carbonate Membrane Reactor Project No.: DE-FE0000470 Arizona State University is developing a dual-phase, membrane-based separation device which will separate carbon dioxide (CO2) from typical water gas shift (WGS) mixture feeds and produce hydrogen, which can be introduced into the combustion turbines of integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plants. The objectives of the project are experimental studies of the synthesis

  17. Project Profile: Indirect, Dual-Media, Phase Changing Material Modular

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Thermal Energy Storage System | Department of Energy Indirect, Dual-Media, Phase Changing Material Modular Thermal Energy Storage System Project Profile: Indirect, Dual-Media, Phase Changing Material Modular Thermal Energy Storage System Acciona logo Acciona Solar, under the Thermal Storage FOA, plans to design and validate a prototype and demonstrate a full-size (800 MWth) thermal energy storage (TES) system based on phase change materials (PCMs). Approach Acciona is using a test loop to

  18. Fuel cell having dual electrode anode or cathode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Findl, Eugene

    1985-01-01

    A fuel cell that is characterized by including a dual electrode anode that is operable to simultaneously electro-oxidize a gaseous fuel and a liquid fuel. In alternative embodiments, a fuel cell having a single electrode anode is provided with a dual electrode cathode that is operable to simultaneously reduce a gaseous oxidant and a liquid oxidant to electro-oxidize a fuel supplied to the cell.

  19. Fuel cell having dual electrode anode or cathode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Findl, E.

    1984-04-10

    A fuel cell that is characterized by including a dual electrode anode that is operable to simultaneously electro-oxidize a gaseous fuel and a liquid fuel. In alternative embodiments, a fuel cell having a single electrode anode is provided with a dual electrode cathode that is operable to simultaneously reduce a gaseous oxidant and a liquid oxidant to electro-oxidize a fuel supplied to the cell.

  20. Postmortem validation of breast density using dual-energy mammography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Molloi, Sabee Ducote, Justin L.; Ding, Huanjun; Feig, Stephen A.

    2014-08-15

    Purpose: Mammographic density has been shown to be an indicator of breast cancer risk and also reduces the sensitivity of screening mammography. Currently, there is no accepted standard for measuring breast density. Dual energy mammography has been proposed as a technique for accurate measurement of breast density. The purpose of this study is to validate its accuracy in postmortem breasts and compare it with other existing techniques. Methods: Forty postmortem breasts were imaged using a dual energy mammography system. Glandular and adipose equivalent phantoms of uniform thickness were used to calibrate a dual energy basis decomposition algorithm. Dual energy decomposition was applied after scatter correction to calculate breast density. Breast density was also estimated using radiologist reader assessment, standard histogram thresholding and a fuzzy C-mean algorithm. Chemical analysis was used as the reference standard to assess the accuracy of different techniques to measure breast composition. Results: Breast density measurements using radiologist reader assessment, standard histogram thresholding, fuzzy C-mean algorithm, and dual energy were in good agreement with the measured fibroglandular volume fraction using chemical analysis. The standard error estimates using radiologist reader assessment, standard histogram thresholding, fuzzy C-mean, and dual energy were 9.9%, 8.6%, 7.2%, and 4.7%, respectively. Conclusions: The results indicate that dual energy mammography can be used to accurately measure breast density. The variability in breast density estimation using dual energy mammography was lower than reader assessment rankings, standard histogram thresholding, and fuzzy C-mean algorithm. Improved quantification of breast density is expected to further enhance its utility as a risk factor for breast cancer.

  1. Dual mode stereotactic localization method and application

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Keppel, Cynthia E.; Barbosa, Fernando Jorge; Majewski, Stanislaw

    2002-01-01

    The invention described herein combines the structural digital X-ray image provided by conventional stereotactic core biopsy instruments with the additional functional metabolic gamma imaging obtained with a dedicated compact gamma imaging mini-camera. Before the procedure, the patient is injected with an appropriate radiopharmaceutical. The radiopharmaceutical uptake distribution within the breast under compression in a conventional examination table expressed by the intensity of gamma emissions is obtained for comparison (co-registration) with the digital mammography (X-ray) image. This dual modality mode of operation greatly increases the functionality of existing stereotactic biopsy devices by yielding a much smaller number of false positives than would be produced using X-ray images alone. The ability to obtain both the X-ray mammographic image and the nuclear-based medicine gamma image using a single device is made possible largely through the use of a novel, small and movable gamma imaging camera that permits its incorporation into the same table or system as that currently utilized to obtain X-ray based mammographic images for localization of lesions.

  2. Dual excitation acoustic paramagnetic logging tool

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vail, III, William B.

    1989-01-01

    New methods and apparatus are disclosed which allow measurement of the presence of oil and water in gelogical formations using a new physical effect called the Acoustic Paramagnetic Logging Effect (APLE). The presence of petroleum in formation causes a slight increase in the earth's magnetic field in the vicinity of the reservoir. This is the phenomena of paramagnetism. Application of an acoustic source to a geological formation at the Larmor frequency of the nucleous present causes the paramagnetism of the formation to disappear. This results in a decrease in the earth's magnetic field in the vicinity of the oil bearing formation. Repetitively frequency sweeping the acoustic source through the Larmor frequency of the nucleons present (approx. 2 kHz) causes an amplitude modulation of the earth's magnetic field which is a consequence of the APLE. The amplitude modulation of the earth's magnetic field is measured with an induction coil gradiometer and provides a direct measure of the amount of oil and water in the excitation zone of the formation. The phase of the signal is used to infer the longitudinal relaxation times of the fluids present, which results in the ability in general to separate oil and water and to measure the viscosity of the oil present. Such measurements may be preformed in open boreholes and in cased well bores. The Dual Excitation Acoustic Paramagnetic Logging Tool employing two acoustic sources is also described.

  3. Dual excitation acoustic paramagnetic logging tool

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vail, W.B. III.

    1989-02-14

    New methods and apparatus are disclosed which allow measurement of the presence of oil and water in geological formations using a new physical effect called the Acoustic Paramagnetic Logging Effect (APLE). The presence of petroleum in formation causes a slight increase in the earth's magnetic field in the vicinity of the reservoir. This is the phenomena of paramagnetism. Application of an acoustic source to a geological formation at the Larmor frequency of the nucleons present causes the paramagnetism of the formation to disappear. This results in a decrease in the earth's magnetic field in the vicinity of the oil bearing formation. Repetitively frequency sweeping the acoustic source through the Larmor frequency of the nucleons present (approx. 2 kHz) causes an amplitude modulation of the earth's magnetic field which is a consequence of the APLE. The amplitude modulation of the earth's magnetic field is measured with an induction coil gradiometer and provides a direct measure of the amount of oil and water in the excitation zone of the formation. The phase of the signal is used to infer the longitudinal relaxation times of the fluids present, which results in the ability in general to separate oil and water and to measure the viscosity of the oil present. Such measurements may be performed in open boreholes and in cased well bores. The Dual Excitation Acoustic Paramagnetic Logging Tool employing two acoustic sources is also described. 6 figs.

  4. Dual-domain lateral shearing interferometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Naulleau, Patrick P.; Goldberg, Kenneth Alan

    2004-03-16

    The phase-shifting point diffraction interferometer (PS/PDI) was developed to address the problem of at-wavelength metrology of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) optical systems. Although extremely accurate, the fact that the PS/PDI is limited to use with coherent EUV sources, such as undulator radiation, is a drawback for its widespread use. An alternative to the PS/PDI, with relaxed coherence requirements, is lateral shearing interferometry (LSI). The use of a cross-grating, carrier-frequency configuration to characterize a large-field 4.times.-reduction EUV lithography optic is demonstrated. The results obtained are directly compared with PS/PDI measurements. A defocused implementation of the lateral shearing interferometer in which an image-plane filter allows both phase-shifting and Fourier wavefront recovery. The two wavefront recovery methods can be combined in a dual-domain technique providing suppression of noise added by self-interference of high-frequency components in the test-optic wavefront.

  5. Muon fluxes and showers from dark matter annihilation in the...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    We consider both the upward muon flux, when muons are created in the rock below the detector, and the contained flux when muons are created in the (ice) detector. We also calculate ...

  6. OSTIblog Articles in the High Flux Isotope Reactor Topic | OSTI...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    High Flux Isotope Reactor Topic The NXS Class of 2014 by Kathy Chambers 19 Nov, 2014 in ... National Laboratory, High Flux Isotope Reactor, National School on Neutron and X-ray ...

  7. AmeriFlux US-FR3 Freeman Ranch- Woodland

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Heilman, Jim [Texas A& M University

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-FR3 Freeman Ranch- Woodland. Site Description - Dense canopy of live oak and Ashe juniper

  8. FLUX ENHANCEMENT IN CROSSFLOW MEMBRANE FILTRATION: FOULING AND IT'S MINIMIZATION BY FLOW REVERSAL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shamsuddin Ilias

    2002-03-14

    Fouling problems are perhaps the single most important reason for relatively slow acceptance of ultrafiltration in many areas of chemical and biological processing. To overcome the losses in permeate flux associated with concentration polarization and fouling in cross flow membrane filtration, we investigated the concept of flow reversal as a method to enhance membrane flux in ultrafiltration. Conceptually, flow reversal prevents the formation of stable hydrodynamic and concentration boundary layers at or near the membrane surface. Further more, periodic reversal of the flow direction of the feed stream at the membrane surface results in prevention and mitigation of membrane fouling. Consequently, these advantages are expected to enhance membrane flux significantly. A crossflow membrane filtration unit was designed and built to test the concept of periodic flow reversal for flux enhancement. The essential elements of the system include a crossflow hollow fiber membrane module integrated with a two-way valve to direct the feed flow directions. The two-way valve is controlled by a controller-timer for periodic reversal of flow of feed stream. Another important feature of the system is that with changing feed flow direction, the permeate flow direction is also changed to maintain countercurrent feed and permeate flows for enhanced mass transfer driving force (concentration difference). Bovine serum albumin (BSA) is a well-studied model solute in membrane filtration known for its fouling and concentration polarization capabilities. Laboratory-scale tests on a hollow-fiber ultrafiltration membrane module using BSA solution as feed show that under flow reversal conditions, the permeate flux is significantly enhanced when compared with the conventional unidirectional flow. The flux enhancement is dramatic (by an order of magnitude) with increased feed concentration and operating transmembrane pressure.

  9. Flux Enhancement in Crossflow Membrane Filtration: Fouling and It's Minimization by Flow Reversal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shamsuddin Ilias

    2005-08-04

    Fouling problems are perhaps the single most important reason for relatively slow acceptance of ultrafiltration in many areas of chemical and biological processing. To overcome the losses in permeate flux associated with concentration polarization and fouling in cross flow membrane filtration, we investigated the concept of flow reversal as a method to enhance membrane flux in ultrafiltration. Conceptually, flow reversal prevents the formation of stable hydrodynamic and concentration boundary layers at or near the membrane surface. Further more, periodic reversal of the flow direction of the feed stream at the membrane surface results in prevention and mitigation of membrane fouling. Consequently, these advantages are expected to enhance membrane flux significantly. A crossflow membrane filtration unit was designed and built to test the concept of periodic flow reversal for flux enhancement. The essential elements of the system include a crossflow hollow fiber membrane module integrated with a two-way valve to direct the feed flow directions. The two-way valve is controlled by a controller-timer for periodic reversal of flow of feed stream. Another important feature of the system is that with changing feed flow direction, the permeate flow direction is also changed to maintain countercurrent feed and permeate flows for enhanced mass transfer driving force (concentration difference). Three feed solutions (Bovine serum albumin (BSA), apple juice and citrus fruit pectin) were studied in crossflow membrane filtration. These solutes are well-known in membrane filtration for their fouling and concentration polarization potentials. Laboratory-scale tests on a hollow-fiber ultrafiltration membrane module using each of the feed solutes show that under flow reversal conditions, the permeate flux is significantly enhanced when compared with the conventional unidirectional flow. The flux enhancement is dramatic (by an order of magnitude) with increased feed concentration and

  10. High heat flux engineering in solar energy applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cameron, C.P.

    1993-07-01

    Solar thermal energy systems can produce heat fluxes in excess of 10,000 kW/m{sup 2}. This paper provides an introduction to the solar concentrators that produce high heat flux, the receivers that convert the flux into usable thermal energy, and the instrumentation systems used to measure flux in the solar environment. References are incorporated to direct the reader to detailed technical information.

  11. Zero-flux planes, flux reversals and diffusion paths in ternary and quaternary diffusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dayananda, M.A.

    1986-05-23

    During isothermal multicomponent diffusion, interdiffusion fluxes of individual components can go to zero at zero-flux planes (ZFP) and exhibit flux reversals from one side to the other of such planes. Interdiffusion fluxes as well as the locations and compositions of ZFPs for components are determined directly from the concentration profiles of diffusion couples without the need for prior knowledge of interdiffusion coefficients. The development and identification of ZFPs is reviewed with the aid of single phase and two-phase diffusion couples investigated in the Cu-Ni-Zn system at 775/sup 0/C. ZFP locations in the diffusion zone nearly correspond to sections where the activity of a component is the same as its activity in either of the terminal alloys of a couple. Path slopes at ZFPs are uniquely dictated by the atomic mobility and thermodynamic data for the components. Discontinuous flux reversals for the components can also occur at interfaces in multiphase couples. Identification of ZFPs is also presented for diffusion in the Cu-Ni-Zn-Mn quaternary system. Analytical representation of diffusion paths for both ternary and quaternary diffusion couples is presented with the aid of characteristic path parameters.

  12. Design of a Modular E-Core Flux Concentrating Axial Flux Machine: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Husain, Tausif; Sozer, Yilmaz; Husain, Iqbal; Muljadi, Eduard

    2015-08-24

    In this paper a novel E-Core axial flux machine is proposed. The machine has a double-stator, single-rotor configuration with flux-concentrating ferrite magnets and pole windings across each leg of an E-Core stator. E-Core stators with the proposed flux-concentrating rotor arrangement result in better magnet utilization and higher torque density. The machine also has a modular structure facilitating simpler construction. This paper presents a single-phase and a three-phase version of the E-Core machine. Case studies for a 1.1-kW, 400-rpm machine for both the single-phase and three-phase axial flux machines are presented. The results are verified through 3D finite element analysis. facilitating simpler construction. This paper presents a single-phase and a three-phase version of the E-Core machine. Case studies for a 1.1-kW, 400-rpm machine for both the single-phase and three-phase axial flux machines are presented. The results are verified through 3D finite element analysis.

  13. Spheromak reactor with poloidal flux-amplifying transformer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Furth, Harold P.; Janos, Alan C.; Uyama, Tadao; Yamada, Masaaki

    1987-01-01

    An inductive transformer in the form of a solenoidal coils aligned along the major axis of a flux core induces poloidal flux along the flux core's axis. The current in the solenoidal coil is then reversed resulting in a poloidal flux swing and the conversion of a portion of the poloidal flux to a toroidal flux in generating a spheromak plasma wherein equilibrium approaches a force-free, minimum Taylor state during plasma formation, independent of the initial conditions or details of the formation. The spheromak plasma is sustained with the Taylor state maintained by oscillating the currents in the poloidal and toroidal field coils within the plasma-forming flux core. The poloidal flux transformer may be used either as an amplifier stage in a moving plasma reactor scenario for initial production of a spheromak plasma or as a method for sustaining a stationary plasma and further heating it. The solenoidal coil embodiment of the poloidal flux transformer can alternately be used in combination with a center conductive cylinder aligned along the length and outside of the solenoidal coil. This poloidal flux-amplifying inductive transformer approach allows for a relaxation of demanding current carrying requirements on the spheromak reactor's flux core, reduces plasma contamination arising from high voltage electrode discharge, and improves the efficiency of poloidal flux injection.

  14. Integration of Novel Flux Coupling Motor and Current Source Inverter |

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Department of Energy ape034_hsu_2011_p.pdf (317.88 KB) More Documents & Publications Integration of Novel Flux Coupling Motor and Current Source Inverter Novel Flux Coupling Machine without Permanent Magnets John Hsu, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Flux Coupling Machines and Switched Reluctance Motors to Replace Permanent Magnets in Electric Vehicles

  15. AmeriFlux Network Data from the ORNL AmeriFlux Website

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    The AmeriFlux network was established in 1996 to provide continuous observations of ecosystem level exchanges of CO2, water, energy and momentum spanning diurnal, synoptic, seasonal, and interannual time scales. It is fed by sites from North America, Central America, and South America. DOE's CDIAC stores and maintains AmeriFlux data, and this web site explains the different levels of data available there, with links to the CDIAC ftp site. A separate web-based data interface is also provided; it allows users to graph, query, and download Level 2 data for up to four sites at a time. Data may be queried by site, measurement period, or parameter. More than 550 site-years of level 2 data are available from AmeriFlux sites through the interface.

  16. Project Title: Radiochemical Analysis by High Sensitivity Dual-Optic Micro X-ray Fluorescence

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Havrilla, George J.; Gao, Ning

    2002-06-01

    A novel dual-optic micro X-ray fluorescence instrument will be developed to do radiochemical analysis of high-level radioactive wastes at DOE sites such as Savannah River Site and Hanford. This concept incorporates new X-ray optical elements such as monolithic polycapillaries and double bent crystals, which focus X-rays. The polycapillary optic can be used to focus X-rays emitted by the X-ray tube thereby increasing the X-ray flux on the sample over 1000 times. Polycapillaries will also be used to collect the X-rays from the excitation site and screen the radiation background from the radioactive species in the specimen. This dual-optic approach significantly reduces the background and increases the analyte signal thereby increasing the sensitivity of the analysis. A doubly bent crystal used as the focusing optic produces focused monochromatic X-ray excitation, which eliminates the bremsstrahlung background from the X-ray source. The coupling of the doubly bent crystal for monochromatic excitation with a polycapillary for signal collection can effectively eliminate the noise background and radiation background from the specimen. The integration of these X-ray optics increases the signal-to-noise and thereby increases the sensitivity of the analysis for low-level analytes. This work will address a key need for radiochemical analysis of high-level waste using a non-destructive, multi-element, and rapid method in a radiation environment. There is significant potential that this instrumentation could be capable of on-line analysis for process waste stream characterization at DOE sites.

  17. Investigation of ionized metal flux in enhanced high power impulse magnetron sputtering discharges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stranak, Vitezslav; Hubicka, Zdenek; Cada, Martin; Drache, Steffen; Hippler, Rainer; Tichy, Milan

    2014-04-21

    The metal ionized flux fraction and production of double charged metal ions Me{sup 2+} of different materials (Al, Cu, Fe, Ti) by High Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering (HiPIMS) operated with and without a pre-ionization assistance is compared in the paper. The Electron Cyclotron Wave Resonance (ECWR) discharge was employed as the pre-ionization agent providing a seed of charge in the idle time of HiPIMS pulses. A modified grid-free biased quartz crystal microbalance was used to estimate the metal ionized flux fraction ξ. The energy-resolved mass spectrometry served as a complementary method to distinguish particular ion contributions to the total ionized flux onto the substrate. The ratio between densities of doubly Me{sup 2+} and singly Me{sup +} charged metal ions was determined. It is shown that ECWR assistance enhances Me{sup 2+} production with respect of absorbed rf-power. The ECWR discharge also increases the metal ionized flux fraction of about 30% especially in the region of lower pressures. Further, the suppression of the gas rarefaction effect due to enhanced secondary electron emission of Me{sup 2+} was observed.

  18. Performance of a Cross-Flow Humidifier with a High Flux Water Vapor Transport Membrane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ahluwalia, R. K.; Wang, X.; Johnson, W. B.; Berg, F.; Kadylak, D.

    2015-09-30

    Water vapor transport (WVT) flux across a composite membrane that consists of a very thin perfluorosulfonic acid (PFSA) ionomer layer sandwiched between two expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) microporous layers is investigated. Static and dynamic tests are conducted to measure WVT flux for different composite structures; a transport model shows that the underlying individual resistances for water diffusion in the gas phase and microporous and ionomer layers and for interfacial kinetics of water uptake at the ionomer surface are equally important under different conditions. A finite-difference model is formulated to determine water transport in a full-scale (2-m2 active membrane area) planar cross-flow humidifier module assembled using pleats of the optimized composite membrane. In agreement with the experimental data, the modeled WVT flux in the module increases at higher inlet relative humidity (RH) of the wet stream and at lower pressures, but the mass transfer effectiveness is higher at higher pressures. The model indicates that the WVT flux is highest under conditions that maintain the wet stream at close to 100% RH while preventing the dry stream from becoming saturated. The overall water transport is determined by the gradient in RH of the wet and dry streams but is also affected by vapor diffusion in the gas layer and the microporous layer.

  19. Semiconducting glasses with flux pinning inclusions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnson, William L.; Poon, Siu-Joe; Duwez, Pol E.

    1981-01-01

    A series of amorphous superconducting glassy alloys containing 1% to 10% by volume of flux pinning crystalline inclusions have been found to have potentially useful properties as high field superconducting magnet materials. The alloys are prepared by splat cooling by the piston and anvil technique. The alloys have the composition (TM).sub.90-70 (M).sub.10-30 where TM is a transition metal selected from at least one metal of Groups IVB, VB, VIB, VIIB or VIIIB of the Periodic Table such as Nb, Mo, Ru, Zr, Ta, W or Re and M is at least one metalloid such as B, P, C, N, Si, Ge or Al.

  20. NuMI Low Energy Flux Prediction Release

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    NuMI Low Energy Flux Prediction Release Neutrino Flux Predictions for the NuMI Beam hep-ex/1607.00704 Data Ancillary data files for this result are available on arXiv at http://arxiv.org/src/1607.00704/anc.< /li> Among the available data files are: pdf file describing format of all the available files root file of all the available fluxes python code to read and process MINERvA's flux predictions Text Files of the flux, uncertainties, and covariance matrix, with units of neutrinos/m^2/POT,

  1. AmeriFlux US-WCr Willow Creek

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Desai, Ankur

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-WCr Willow Creek. Site Description - Upland decduous broadleaf forest. Mainly sugar maple, also basswood. Uniform stand atop a very modest hill. Clearcut approximately 80 years ago. Chosen to be representative of the upland deciduous broadleaf forests within the WLEF tall tower flux footprint. It appears to be more heavily forested and more productive than most of the upland deciduous broadleaf forests in the WLEF flux footprint (see publications for more details). It is also important that SE winds are screened from the flux data (see Cook et al, 2004 for details). Propane generator power.

  2. Low missing mass, single and double diffraction dissociation at the LHC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jenkovszky, L. L.; Kuprash, O. E.; Orava, R.; Salii, A.

    2014-12-15

    The cross sections for single and double diffraction dissociation at low missing masses are calculated for the LHC energies on the basis of the dual (Regge) model under the assumption of a dominant contribution of the exchange of the Pomeron Regge pole. The model reproduces the rich resonance structure in the region of low missing masses M{sub x}. Diffractively excited states lie on the nucleon trajectory M{sub x} supplemented with the isolated Roper resonance. Detailed predictions for the squared momentum transfer and missing-mass dependence of the differential and integrated single and double diffraction dissociation in the kinematical range of present and future LHC measurements are given.

  3. AmeriFlux US-GLE GLEES

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Massman, Bill [USDA Forest Service

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-GLE GLEES. Site Description - The Glacier Lakes Ecosystem Experiments Site (GLEES) site is located on land owned by the U.S. government and managed by US Forest Service as part of the Medicine Bow National Forest. Many of the trees in the immediate vicinity of the site are older than 400 years, inter-dispersed among trees much younger in age. This widespread age distribution is most likely a derivation of one of two scenarios: 1) A widespread stand replacement about 400 years ago followed by a slow replacement; 2) Intermittent random disturbances over the past 400 years (Bradford et al. 2008). A decade long spruce beetle outbreak that peaked in 2008 resulted in the mortality of 85% of the forested basal area. There are a few private land holdings in the area, with scattered uncorked mining claims. Following the establishment of the National Forest, mining was banned and grazing was closed in the early 1990's in the upper portion of the GLEES site. Recreation in the winter, when snow can remain in patches into the summer months, snow mobiling and cross country skiing are popular. During the limited summer, hiking, camping and fishing are common activities. The site is accessible by vehicle only during the summer on Forest Road FDR 317, and in the winter, the tower is only reachable via snowmobile.

  4. Self-latching eccentric cam for dual stroke compressor or pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sisk, F.J.

    1985-01-22

    For a dual capacity refrigerant compressor of the type which has an eccentric cam rotatable on a crankpin between two opposite positions which changes the total eccentricity of the crankpin and cam so as to obtain two different stroke lengths, the rotation of the cam on the crankpin being effected by a reversal of motor operation, the cam moves through an angle of about 270[degree] around the crankpin so that a centrifugal force torque tending to hold the cam in place is available at least in the reduced stroke length position of the cam, and by providing lightening cavities and eccentric weightings, the center of mass of the cam can be shifted to obtain the centrifugal torque in the proper direction at both the maximum and reduced stroke positions. 7 figs.

  5. Self-latching eccentric cam for dual stroke compressor or pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sisk, Francis J.

    1985-01-01

    For a dual capacity refrigerant compressor of the type which has an eccentric cam rotatable on a crankpin between two opposite positions which changes the total eccentricity of the crankpin and cam so as to obtain two different stroke lengths, the rotation of the cam on the crankpin being effected by a reversal of motor operation, the cam moves through an angle of about 270.degree. around the crankpin so that a centrifugal force torque tending to hold the cam in place is available at least in the reduced stroke length position of the cam, and by providing lightening cavities and eccentric weightings, the center of mass 74 of the cam can be shifted to obtain the centrifugal torque in the proper direction at both the maximum and reduced stroke positions.

  6. Transient critical heat flux and blowdown heat-transfer studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leung, J.C.

    1980-05-01

    Objective of this study is to give a best-estimate prediction of transient critical heat flux (CHF) during reactor transients and hypothetical accidents. To accomplish this task, a predictional method has been developed. Basically it involves the thermal-hydraulic calculation of the heated core with boundary conditions supplied from experimental measurements. CHF predictions were based on the instantaneous ''local-conditions'' hypothesis, and eight correlations (consisting of round-tube, rod-bundle, and transient correlations) were tested against most recent blowdown heat-transfer test data obtained in major US facilities. The prediction results are summarized in a table in which both CISE and Biasi correlations are found to be capable of predicting the early CHF of approx. 1 s. The Griffith-Zuber correlation is credited for its prediction of the delay CHF that occurs in a more tranquil state with slowly decaying mass velocity. In many instances, the early CHF can be well correlated by the x = 1.0 criterion; this is certainly indicative of an annular-flow dryout-type crisis. The delay CHF occurred at near or above 80% void fraction, and the success of the modified Zuber pool-boiling correlation suggests that this CHF is caused by flooding and pool-boiling type hydrodynamic crisis.

  7. The Origins of Mass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lincoln, Don

    2014-07-30

    The Higgs boson was discovered in July of 2012 and is generally understood to be the origin of mass. While those statements are true, they are incomplete. It turns out that the Higgs boson is responsible for only about 2% of the mass of ordinary matter. In this dramatic new video, Dr. Don Lincoln of Fermilab tells us the rest of the story.

  8. The Origins of Mass

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Lincoln, Don

    2014-08-07

    The Higgs boson was discovered in July of 2012 and is generally understood to be the origin of mass. While those statements are true, they are incomplete. It turns out that the Higgs boson is responsible for only about 2% of the mass of ordinary matter. In this dramatic new video, Dr. Don Lincoln of Fermilab tells us the rest of the story.

  9. Elbow mass flow meter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McFarland, A.R.; Rodgers, J.C.; Ortiz, C.A.; Nelson, D.C.

    1994-08-16

    The present invention includes a combination of an elbow pressure drop generator and a shunt-type mass flow sensor for providing an output which gives the mass flow rate of a gas that is nearly independent of the density of the gas. For air, the output is also approximately independent of humidity. 3 figs.

  10. Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) standby plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hulvey, R.K.

    1997-03-06

    The FFTF Standby Plan, Revision 0, provides changes to the major elements and project baselines to maintain the FFTF plant in a standby condition and to continue washing sodium from irradiated reactor fuel. The Plan is consistent with the Memorandum of Decision approved by the Secretary of Energy on January 17, 1997, which directed that FFTF be maintained in a standby condition to permit the Department to make a decision on whether the facility should play a future role in the Department of Energy`s dual track tritium production strategy. This decision would be made in parallel with the intended December 1998 decision on the selection of the primary, long- term source of tritium. This also allows the Department to review the economic and technical feasibility of using the FFTF to produce isotopes for the medical community. Formal direction has been received from DOE-RL and Fluor 2020 Daniel Hanford to implement the FFTF standby decision. The objective of the Plan is maintain the condition of the FFTF systems, equipment and personnel to preserve the option for plant restart within three and one-half years of a decision to restart, while continuing deactivation work which is consistent with the standby mode.

  11. Controlling ion fluxes during reactive sputter-deposition of SnO{sub 2}:F

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jäger, Timo Romanyuk, Yaroslav E.; Tiwari, Ayodhya N.; Anders, André

    2014-07-21

    Magnetron sputtering of fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) is a scalable deposition method for large-area transparent conducting films used in fenestration, photovoltaics, and other applications. The electrical conductivity of sputtered FTO is, however, lower than that of spray-pyrolized FTO because of the ion damage induced by high energy ions leading to a reduction of the crystal quality in sputtered FTO films. In this study, various ion species present during the reactive sputtering of a metallic tin target in a mixed Ar/O{sub 2}/CF{sub 4} atmosphere are systematically characterized by energy and mass spectrometry, and possible ways of controlling the ion fluxes are explored. Ion energy distribution functions (IEDFs) of the negative ions F{sup −} and O{sup −} exhibit large peaks at an energy corresponding to the full target voltage. Although the applied partial pressure of CF{sub 4} is about 1/30 than that of O{sub 2}, the obtained IEDFs of F{sup −} and O{sup −} have comparable peak height, which can be attributed to a higher electronegativity of F. The IEDFs of positively charged O{sup +}, O{sub 2}{sup +}, Ar{sup +}, and Sn{sup +} species have their peaks around 2–8 eV. To control ion fluxes a solenoid or permanent magnets were placed between the target and the mass spectrometer. The flux of positive ions could be varied by several orders of magnitude as a function of the applied current through the solenoid, whereas the high-energy (>100 eV) negative F{sup −} and O{sup −} ions were not notably deflected. By using permanent magnets with the B-field orthogonal to the ion trajectory, the flux of O{sup −} ions could be decreased by two orders and the exposure to the high-energy F{sup −} ions was completely suppressed.

  12. Dual-Fuel Truck Fleet: Start-Up Experience

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NREL

    1998-09-30

    Although dual-fuel engine technology has been in development and limited use for several years, it has only recently moved toward full-scale operational capability for heavy-duty truck applications. Unlike a bifuel engine, which has two separate fuel systems that are used one at a time, a dual-fuel engine uses two fuel systems simultaneously. One of California's South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) current programs is a demonstration of dual-fuel engine technology in heavy-duty trucks. These trucks are being studied as part of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) Alternative Fuel Truck Program. This report describes the start-up experience from the program.

  13. Asymptotic, multigroup flux reconstruction and consistent discontinuity factors

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Trahan, Travis J.; Larsen, Edward W.

    2015-05-12

    Recent theoretical work has led to an asymptotically derived expression for reconstructing the neutron flux from lattice functions and multigroup diffusion solutions. The leading-order asymptotic term is the standard expression for flux reconstruction, i.e., it is the product of a shape function, obtained through a lattice calculation, and the multigroup diffusion solution. The first-order asymptotic correction term is significant only where the gradient of the diffusion solution is not small. Inclusion of this first-order correction term can significantly improve the accuracy of the reconstructed flux. One may define discontinuity factors (DFs) to make certain angular moments of the reconstructed fluxmore » continuous across interfaces between assemblies in 1-D. Indeed, the standard assembly discontinuity factors make the zeroth moment (scalar flux) of the reconstructed flux continuous. The inclusion of the correction term in the flux reconstruction provides an additional degree of freedom that can be used to make two angular moments of the reconstructed flux continuous across interfaces by using current DFs in addition to flux DFs. Thus, numerical results demonstrate that using flux and current DFs together can be more accurate than using only flux DFs, and that making the second angular moment continuous can be more accurate than making the zeroth moment continuous.« less

  14. AmeriFlux Measurement Network: Science Team Research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Law, B E

    2012-12-12

    Research involves analysis and field direction of AmeriFlux operations, and the PI provides scientific leadership of the AmeriFlux network. Activities include the coordination and quality assurance of measurements across AmeriFlux network sites, synthesis of results across the network, organizing and supporting the annual Science Team Meeting, and communicating AmeriFlux results to the scientific community and other users. Objectives of measurement research include (i) coordination of flux and biometric measurement protocols (ii) timely data delivery to the Carbon Dioxide Information and Analysis Center (CDIAC); and (iii) assurance of data quality of flux and ecosystem measurements contributed by AmeriFlux sites. Objectives of integration and synthesis activities include (i) integration of site data into network-wide synthesis products; and (ii) participation in the analysis, modeling and interpretation of network data products. Communications objectives include (i) organizing an annual meeting of AmeriFlux investigators for reporting annual flux measurements and exchanging scientific information on ecosystem carbon budgets; (ii) developing focused topics for analysis and publication; and (iii) developing data reporting protocols in support of AmeriFlux network goals.

  15. The solar internetwork. I. Contribution to the network magnetic flux

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goi?, M.; Rubio, L. R. Bellot; Del Toro Iniesta, J. C.; Orozco Surez, D.; Katsukawa, Y.

    2014-12-10

    The magnetic network (NE) observed on the solar surface harbors a sizable fraction of the total quiet Sun flux. However, its origin and maintenance are not well known. Here we investigate the contribution of internetwork (IN) magnetic fields to the NE flux. IN fields permeate the interior of supergranular cells and show large emergence rates. We use long-duration sequences of magnetograms acquired by Hinode and an automatic feature tracking algorithm to follow the evolution of NE and IN flux elements. We find that 14% of the quiet Sun (QS) flux is in the form of IN fields with little temporal variations. IN elements interact with NE patches and modify the flux budget of the NE either by adding flux (through merging processes) or by removing it (through cancellation events). Mergings appear to be dominant, so the net flux contribution of the IN is positive. The observed rate of flux transfer to the NE is 1.5 10{sup 24} Mx day{sup 1} over the entire solar surface. Thus, the IN supplies as much flux as is present in the NE in only 9-13 hr. Taking into account that not all the transferred flux is incorporated into the NE, we find that the IN would be able to replace the entire NE flux in approximately 18-24 hr. This renders the IN the most important contributor to the NE, challenging the view that ephemeral regions are the main source of flux in the QS. About 40% of the total IN flux eventually ends up in the NE.

  16. FLUX ENHANCEMENT IN CROSSFLOW MEMBRANE FILTRATION: FOULING AND IT'S MINIMIZATION BY FLOW REVERSAL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shamsuddin Ilias

    2005-01-25

    Fouling problems are perhaps the single most important reason for relatively slow acceptance of ultrafiltration in many areas of chemical and biological processing. To overcome the losses in permeate flux associated with concentration polarization and fouling in cross flow membrane filtration, we investigated the concept of flow reversal as a method to enhance membrane flux in ultrafiltration. Conceptually, flow reversal prevents the formation of stable hydrodynamic and concentration boundary layers at or near the membrane surface. Further more, periodic reversal of the flow direction of the feed stream at the membrane surface results in prevention and mitigation of membrane fouling. Consequently, these advantages are expected to enhance membrane flux significantly. A crossflow membrane filtration unit was designed and built to test the concept of periodic flow reversal for flux enhancement. The essential elements of the system include a crossflow hollow fiber membrane module integrated with a two-way valve to direct the feed flow directions. The two-way valve is controlled by a controller-timer for periodic reversal of flow of feed stream. Another important feature of the system is that with changing feed flow direction, the permeate flow direction is also changed to maintain countercurrent feed and permeate flows for enhanced mass transfer driving force (concentration difference). In this report, we report our application of Flow Reversal technique in clarification of apple juice containing pectin. The presence of pectin in apple juice makes the clarification process difficult and is believed to cause membrane fouling. Of all compounds found in apple juice, pectin is most often identified as the major hindrance to filtration performance. Based on our ultrafiltration experiments with apple juice, we conclude that under flow reversal conditions, the permeate flux is significantly enhanced when compared with the conventional unidirectional flow. Thus, flow reversal

  17. FLUX ENHANCEMENT IN CROSSFLOW MEMBRANE FILTRATION: FOULING AND IT'S MINIMIZATION BY FLOW REVERSAL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shamsuddin Ilias

    2004-06-14

    Fouling problems are perhaps the single most important reason for relatively slow acceptance of ultrafiltration in many areas of chemical and biological processing. To overcome the losses in permeate flux associated with concentration polarization and fouling in cross flow membrane filtration, we investigated the concept of flow reversal as a method to enhance membrane flux in ultrafiltration. Conceptually, flow reversal prevents the formation of stable hydrodynamic and concentration boundary layers at or near the membrane surface. Further more, periodic reversal of the flow direction of the feed stream at the membrane surface results in prevention and mitigation of membrane fouling. Consequently, these advantages are expected to enhance membrane flux significantly. A crossflow membrane filtration unit was designed and built to test the concept of periodic flow reversal for flux enhancement. The essential elements of the system include a crossflow hollow fiber membrane module integrated with a two-way valve to direct the feed flow directions. The two-way valve is controlled by a controller-timer for periodic reversal of flow of feed stream. Another important feature of the system is that with changing feed flow direction, the permeate flow direction is also changed to maintain countercurrent feed and permeate flows for enhanced mass transfer driving force (concentration difference). In our previous report, we reported our work on UF of BSA. In this report, we report our continuing application of Flow Reversal technique in clarification of apple juice containing pectin. The presence of pectin in apple juice makes the clarification process difficult and is believed to cause membrane fouling. Of all compounds found in apple juice, pectin is most often identified as the major hindrance to filtration performance. Laboratory-scale tests on a hollow-fiber ultrafiltration membrane module using pectin in apple juice as feed show that under flow reversal conditions, the

  18. Permanent-magnet switched-flux machine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Trzynadlowski, Andrzej M.; Qin, Ling

    2011-06-14

    A permanent-magnet switched-flux (PMSF) device has an outer rotor mounted to a shaft about a central axis extending axially through the PMSF device. First and second pluralities of permanent-magnets (PMs) are respectively mounted in first and second circles, radially outwardly in first and second transverse planes extending from first and second sections of the central axis adjacent to an inner surface of the outer rotor. An inner stator is coupled to the shaft and has i) a stator core having a core axis co-axial with the central axis; and ii) first and second pluralities of stator poles mounted in first and second circles, radially outwardly from the stator core axis in the first and second transverse planes. The first and second pluralities of PMs each include PMs of alternating polarity.

  19. Permanent-magnet switched-flux machine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Trzynadlowski, Andrzej M.; Qin, Ling

    2010-01-12

    A permanent-magnet switched-flux (PMSF) device has a ferromagnetic outer stator mounted to a shaft about a central axis extending axially through the PMSF device. Pluralities of top and bottom stator poles are respectively mounted in first and second circles, radially outwardly in first and second transverse planes extending from first and second sections of the central axis adjacent to an inner surface of the ferromagnetic outer stator. A ferromagnetic inner rotor is coupled to the shaft and has i) a rotor core having a core axis co-axial with the central axis; and ii) first and second discs having respective outer edges with first and second pluralities of permanent magnets (PMs) mounted in first and second circles, radially outwardly from the rotor core axis in the first and second transverse planes. The first and second pluralities of PMs each include PMs of alternating polarity.

  20. Permanent-magnet switched-flux machine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Trzynadlowski, Andrzej M.; Qin, Ling

    2012-02-21

    A permanent-magnet switched-flux (PMSF) device has an outer rotor mounted to a shaft about a central axis extending axially through the PMSF device. First and second pluralities of permanent-magnets (PMs) are respectively mounted in first and second circles, radially outwardly in first and second transverse planes extending from first and second sections of the central axis adjacent to an inner surface of the outer rotor. An inner stator is coupled to the shaft and has i) a stator core having a core axis co-axial with the central axis; and ii) first and second pluralities of stator poles mounted in first and second circles, radially outwardly from the stator core axis in the first and second transverse planes. The first and second pluralities of PMs each include PMs of alternating polarity.

  1. Plasma momentum meter for momentum flux measurements

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zonca, F.; Cohen, S.A.; Bennett, T.; Timberlake, J.R.

    1993-08-24

    An apparatus is described for measuring momentum flux from an intense plasma stream, comprising: refractory target means oriented normal to the flow of said plasma stream for bombardment by said plasma stream where said bombardment by said plasma stream applies a pressure to said target means, pendulum means for communicating a translational displacement of said target to a force transducer where said translational displacement of said target is transferred to said force transducer by an elongated member coupled to said target, where said member is suspended by a pendulum configuration means and where said force transducer is responsive to said translational displacement of said member, and force transducer means for outputting a signal representing pressure data corresponding to said displacement.

  2. HFBR handbook, 1992: High flux beam reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Axe, J.D.; Greenberg, R.

    1992-10-01

    Welcome to the High Flux Beam Reactor (HFBR), one of the world premier neutron research facilities. This manual is intended primarily to acquaint outside users (and new Brookhaven staff members) with (almost) everything they need to know to work at the HFBR and to help make the stay at Brookhaven pleasant as well as profitable. Safety Training Programs to comply with US Department of Energy (DOE) mandates are in progress at BNL. There are several safety training requirements which must be met before users can obtain unescorted access to the HFBR. The Reactor Division has prepared specific safety training manuals which are to be sent to experimenters well in advance of their expected arrival at BNL to conduct experiments. Please familiarize yourself with this material and carefully pay strict attention to all the safety and security procedures that are in force at the HFBR. Not only your safety, but the continued operation of the facility, depends upon compliance.

  3. Exploring Avionics Using Dual Cool Jets | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Exploring Next Generation Avionics Using Dual Cool Jets Click to email this to a friend (Opens in new window) Share on Facebook (Opens in new window) Click to share (Opens in new window) Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window) Click to share on Tumblr (Opens in new window) Exploring Next Generation Avionics Using Dual Cool Jets Ankit Kalani 2015.08.12 Heat is a byproduct of operating electronics. If not managed properly, it can severely affect the reliability and performance of the

  4. Dual output acoustic wave sensor for molecular identification

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Frye, Gregory C.; Martin, Stephen J.

    1991-01-01

    A method of identification and quantification of absorbed chemical species by measuring changes in both the velocity and the attenuation of an acoustic wave traveling through a thin film into which the chemical species is sorbed. The dual output response provides two independent sensor responses from a single sensing device thereby providing twice as much information as a single output sensor. This dual output technique and analysis allows a single sensor to provide both the concentration and the identity of a chemical species or permits the number of sensors required for mixtures to be reduced by a factor of two.

  5. Dual fiber microprobe for mapping elemental distributions in biological cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Martin, Rodger C [Powell, TN; Martin, Madhavi Z [Powell, TN

    2007-07-31

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is applied on a microscale for in situ elemental analysis and spatial mapping in biological cells. A high power laser beam is focused onto a cell surface using a dual branching optical fiber probe for optical excitation of the cell constituents. Dual spectrometers and ICCD detectors capture the emission spectra from the excited cell(s). Repeated probing or repositioning of the laser beam with respect to the cell can provide 2-D or 3-D mapping of the cell.

  6. Dual design resistor for high voltage conditioning and transmission lines

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Siggins, Timothy Lynn; Murray, Charles W.; Walker, Richard L.

    2007-01-23

    A dual resistor for eliminating the requirement for two different value resistors. The dual resistor includes a conditioning resistor at a high resistance value and a run resistor at a low resistance value. The run resistor can travel inside the conditioning resistor. The run resistor is capable of being advanced by a drive assembly until an electrical path is completed through the run resistor thereby shorting out the conditioning resistor and allowing the lower resistance run resistor to take over as the current carrier.

  7. Correlation of critical heat flux data for uniform tubes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jafri, T.; Dougherty, T.J.; Yang, B.W.

    1995-09-01

    A data base of more than 10,000 critical heat flux (CHF) data points has been compiled and analyzed. Two regimes of CHF are observed which will be referred to as the high CHF regime and the low CHF regime. In the high CHF regime, for pressures less than 110 bar, CHF (q{sub c}) is a determined by local conditions and is adequately represented by q{sub c} = (1.2/D{sup 1/2}) exp[-{gamma}(GX{sub t}){sup 1/2}] where the parameter {gamma} is an increasing function of pressure only, X{sub t} the true mass fraction of steam, and all units are metric but the heat flux is in MWm{sup -2}. A simple kinetic model has been developed to estimate X{sub t} as a function of G, X, X{sub i}, and X{sub O}, where X{sub i} is the inlet quality and X{sub O} represents the quality at the Onset of Significant Vaporization (OSV) which is estimated from the Saha-Zuber (S-Z) correlation. The model is based on a rate equation for vaporization suggested by, and consistent with, the S-Z correlation and contains no adjustable parameters. When X{sub i}X{sub O}, X{sub t} depends on X{sub i}, a nonlocal variable, and, in this case, CHF, although determined by local conditions, obeys a nonlocal correlation. This model appears to be satisfactory for pressures less than 110 bar, where the S-Z correlation is known to be reliable. Above 110 bar the method of calculating X{sub O}, and consequently X{sub t}, appears to fail, so this approach can not be applied to high pressure CHF data. Above 35 bar, the bulk of the available data lies in the high CHF regime while, at pressures less than 35 bar, almost all of the available data lie in the low CHF regime and appear to be nonlocal.

  8. SINTERED REFRACTORY MASS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Williams, A.E.

    1955-09-01

    A method is given for joining sintered masses of refractory compounds. It consists in maintaining the masses in contact with each other by application of a moderate pressure, while they are at sintering temperature. The sintered masses are subjected to am applied pressure of about 1/2 to 1 ton per square inch of the surface in contact for about 10 minutes, and the temperature employed may be fropn about 1400 deg C to 2000 deg C. Refractory oxides to which the invention may be applied are beryllia, alumina, thoria, and magnesia.

  9. Dual role of Fe dopants in enhancing stability and charge transfer...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Dual role of Fe dopants in enhancing stability and charge transfer in ( Li 0.8 Fe 0.2 ) ... Title: Dual role of Fe dopants in enhancing stability and charge transfer in ( Li 0.8 Fe ...

  10. Control Strategy for a Dual Loop EGR System to Meet Euro 6 and...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Control Strategy for a Dual Loop EGR System to Meet Euro 6 and Beyond Control Strategy for a Dual Loop EGR System to Meet Euro 6 and Beyond Presentation given at the 2009 DEER ...

  11. Dual-Axis Resonance Testing of Wind Turbine Blades - Energy Innovation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Return to Search Dual-Axis Resonance Testing of Wind Turbine Blades National Renewable ... of time needed to fatigue test wind turbine blades.
    Dual-axis testing can ...

  12. Toward large N thermal QCD from dual gravity: The heavy quarkonium...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Toward large N thermal QCD from dual gravity: The heavy quarkonium potential Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Toward large N thermal QCD from dual gravity: The heavy ...

  13. Development of Dual-Fuel Engine for Class 8 Applications | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Dual-Fuel Engine for Class 8 Applications Development of Dual-Fuel Engine for Class 8 Applications Highlights roadmap towards 55% brake thermal efficiency and progress to meet ...

  14. AmeriFlux US-PFa Park Falls/WLEF

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Desai, Ankur [University of Wisconsin

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-PFa Park Falls/WLEF. Site Description - The flux footprint encompasses a highly heterogeneous landscape of upland forests and wetlands (forested and nonforested). The forests are mainly deciduous but also include substantial coniferous coverage. The upland/lowland variability occurs on spatial scales of a few hundred meters. This heterogeneous landscape is further complicated by a nonuniform, small scale mosaic of thinning and clearcutting of the forest. At larger scales (1 km or greater) the forest cover mosaic is quite homogeneous for many kilometers. The site was chosen not for study of a simple stand, but for upscaling experiments. The daytime fetch of flux measurements from the 396m level is on the order of 5-10 km, yielding a flux footprint roughly 100x the area of a typical stand-level flux tower. AC power (tower is a TV transmitter).

  15. Tracking heat flux sensors for concentrating solar applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Andraka, Charles E; Diver, Jr., Richard B

    2013-06-11

    Innovative tracking heat flux sensors located at or near the solar collector's focus for centering the concentrated image on a receiver assembly. With flux sensors mounted near a receiver's aperture, the flux gradient near the focus of a dish or trough collector can be used to precisely position the focused solar flux on the receiver. The heat flux sensors comprise two closely-coupled thermocouple junctions with opposing electrical polarity that are separated by a thermal resistor. This arrangement creates an electrical signal proportional to heat flux intensity, and largely independent of temperature. The sensors are thermally grounded to allow a temperature difference to develop across the thermal resistor, and are cooled by a heat sink to maintain an acceptable operating temperature.

  16. TESTING OF THE DUAL ROTARY FILTER SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herman, D.; Fowley, M.; Stefanko, D.

    2011-08-29

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) installed and tested two hydraulically connected SpinTek rotary microfilter (RMF) units to determine the behavior of a multiple filter system. Both units were successfully controlled by a control scheme written in DELTA-V architecture by Savannah River Remediation (SRR) Process Control Engineering personnel. The control system was tuned to provide satisfactory response to changing conditions during the operation of the multi-filter system. Stability was maintained through the startup and shutdown of one of the filter units while the second was still in operation. The installation configuration originally proposed by the Small Colum Ion Exchange (SCIX) project of independent filter and motor mountings may be susceptible to vibration. Significant stiffening of the filter and motor mounts was required to minimize the vibration. Alignment of the motor to the filter was a challenge in this test configuration. The deployment configuration must be easy to manipulate and allow for fine adjustment. An analysis of the vibration signature of the test system identified critical speeds. Whether it corresponds to the resonance frequency of a rotor radial vibration mode that was excited by rotor unbalance is uncertain based upon the measurements. A relative motion series should be completed on the filter with the final shaft configuration to determine if the resonances exist in the final filter design. The instrumentation selected for deployment, including the concentrate discharge control valve and flow meters, performed well. Automation of the valve control integrated well with the control scheme and when used in concert with the other control variables, allowed automated control of the dual RMF system. The one area of concern with the instrumentation was the condition resulting when the filtrate flow meter operated with less than three gpm. This low flow was at the lower range of performance for the flow meter. This should not be

  17. Genome-Based Metabolic Mapping and 13C Flux Analysis Reveal Systematic Properties of an Oleaginous Microalga Chlorella protothecoides

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wu, Chao; Xiong, Wei; Dai, Junbiao; Wu, Qingyu

    2014-12-15

    We report that integrated and genome-based flux balance analysis, metabolomics, and 13C-label profiling of phototrophic and heterotrophic metabolism in Chlorella protothecoides, an oleaginous green alga for biofuel. The green alga Chlorella protothecoides, capable of autotrophic and heterotrophic growth with rapid lipid synthesis, is a promising candidate for biofuel production. Based on the newly available genome knowledge of the alga, we reconstructed the compartmentalized metabolic network consisting of 272 metabolic reactions, 270 enzymes, and 461 encoding genes and simulated the growth in different cultivation conditions with flux balance analysis. Phenotype-phase plane analysis shows conditions achieving theoretical maximum of the biomass andmore » corresponding fatty acid-producing rate for phototrophic cells (the ratio of photon uptake rate to CO2 uptake rate equals 8.4) and heterotrophic ones (the glucose uptake rate to O2 consumption rate reaches 2.4), respectively. Isotope-assisted liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry reveals higher metabolite concentrations in the glycolytic pathway and the tricarboxylic acid cycle in heterotrophic cells compared with autotrophic cells. We also observed enhanced levels of ATP, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (phosphate), reduced, acetyl-Coenzyme A, and malonyl-Coenzyme A in heterotrophic cells consistently, consistent with a strong activity of lipid synthesis. To profile the flux map in experimental conditions, we applied nonstationary 13C metabolic flux analysis as a complementing strategy to flux balance analysis. We found that the result reveals negligible photorespiratory fluxes and a metabolically low active tricarboxylic acid cycle in phototrophic C. protothecoides. In comparison, high throughput of amphibolic reactions and the tricarboxylic acid cycle with no glyoxylate shunt activities were measured for heterotrophic cells. Lastly, taken together, the metabolic network modeling assisted

  18. ARM - PI Product - Atmospheric State, Cloud Microphysics & Radiative Flux

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ProductsAtmospheric State, Cloud Microphysics & Radiative Flux ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send PI Product : Atmospheric State, Cloud Microphysics & Radiative Flux [ ARM Principal Investigator (PI) Data Product ] Atmospheric thermodynamics, cloud properties, radiative fluxes and radiative heating rates for the ARM Southern Great Plains (SGP) site. The data represent a characterization of the

  19. AmeriFlux US-Wkg Walnut Gulch Kendall Grasslands

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Scott, Russell [United States Department of Agriculture

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-Wkg Walnut Gulch Kendall Grasslands. Site Description - This site is located in a small, intensively-studied, experimental watershed within USDA-ARS's Walnut Gulch Experimental Watershed. Eddy covariance measurements of energy, water and CO2 fluxes began in the spring of 2004, though meteorological (including Bowen ratio) and hydrological measurements are available much further back.

  20. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idaho National Laboratory Dual-Fuel Buses

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Reduce Operating Costs and Emissions Idaho National Laboratory Dual-Fuel Buses Reduce Operating Costs and Emissions to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idaho National Laboratory Dual-Fuel Buses Reduce Operating Costs and Emissions on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idaho National Laboratory Dual-Fuel Buses Reduce Operating Costs and Emissions on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idaho National Laboratory Dual-Fuel Buses Reduce Operating

  1. Low and high Temperature Dual Thermoelectric Generation Waste Heat Recovery System for Light-Duty Vehicles

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Developing a low and high temperature dual thermoelectric generation waste heat recovery system for light-duty vehicles.

  2. Solids mass flow determination

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Macko, Joseph E.

    1981-01-01

    Method and apparatus for determining the mass flow rate of solids mixed with a transport fluid to form a flowing mixture. A temperature differential is established between the solids and fluid. The temperature of the transport fluid prior to mixing, the temperature of the solids prior to mixing, and the equilibrium temperature of the mixture are monitored and correlated in a heat balance with the heat capacities of the solids and fluid to determine the solids mass flow rate.

  3. Novel Flux Coupling Machine without Permanent Magnets - U Machine...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Magnets - U Machine Novel Flux Coupling Machine without Permanent Magnets - U Machine 2009 DOE Hydrogen Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer ...

  4. Gas Flux Sampling At Steamboat Springs Area (Lechler And Coolbaugh...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Steamboat Springs Area (Lechler And Coolbaugh, 2007) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Gas Flux Sampling At Steamboat Springs Area...

  5. Gas Flux Sampling At Desert Peak Area (Lechler And Coolbaugh...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Desert Peak Area (Lechler And Coolbaugh, 2007) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Gas Flux Sampling At Desert Peak Area (Lechler And...

  6. Posters Mean Fluxes of Visible Solar Radiation in Broken Clouds

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    7 Posters Mean Fluxes of Visible Solar Radiation in Broken Clouds V. E. Zuev, G. A. Titov, ... Introduction Generally, radiation codes for general circulation models (GCMs) include, ...

  7. Flexible flux plane simulations of parasitic absorption in nanoplasmon...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    thin-film silicon solar cells Prev Next Title: Flexible flux plane simulations of parasitic absorption in nanoplasmonic thin-film silicon solar cells Authors: Chung, H. ...

  8. Gas Flux Sampling At Lahaina-Kaanapali Area (Thomas, 1986) |...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    1986) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Gas Flux Sampling At Lahaina-Kaanapali Area (Thomas, 1986) Exploration Activity Details...

  9. Gas Flux Sampling At Lualualei Valley Area (Thomas, 1986) | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    1986) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Gas Flux Sampling At Lualualei Valley Area (Thomas, 1986) Exploration Activity Details...

  10. Gas Flux Sampling At Kilauea East Rift Geothermal Area (Thomas...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    1986) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Gas Flux Sampling At Kilauea East Rift Geothermal Area (Thomas, 1986) Exploration Activity...

  11. Gas Flux Sampling At Lightning Dock Area (Cunniff & Bowers, 2005...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    2005) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Gas Flux Sampling At Lightning Dock Area (Cunniff & Bowers, 2005) Exploration Activity...

  12. Gas Flux Sampling At Mokapu Penninsula Area (Thomas, 1986) |...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    1986) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Gas Flux Sampling At Mokapu Penninsula Area (Thomas, 1986) Exploration Activity Details...

  13. Gas Flux Sampling At Hualalai Northwest Rift Area (Thomas, 1986...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    1986) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Gas Flux Sampling At Hualalai Northwest Rift Area (Thomas, 1986) Exploration Activity...

  14. Gas Flux Sampling At Kawaihae Area (Thomas, 1986) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    1986) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Gas Flux Sampling At Kawaihae Area (Thomas, 1986) Exploration Activity Details Location...

  15. FLUX COMPOSITION AND METHOD FOR TREATING URANIUM-CONTAINING METAL

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Foote, F.

    1958-08-26

    A flux composition is preseated for use with molten uranium and uranium alloys. It consists of about 60% calcium fluoride, 30% calcium chloride and 10% uranium tetrafluoride.

  16. The Sensitivity of Radiative Fluxes to Parameterized Cloud Microphysic...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    these fields include cloud altitude, cloud amount, liquid and ice content, particle size spectra, and radiative fluxes at the surface and the TOA. Comparisons with Atmospheric...

  17. ARM - Field Campaign - Carbonyl Sulfide for Tracing Carbon Fluxes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    govCampaignsCarbonyl Sulfide for Tracing Carbon Fluxes ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign : Carbonyl Sulfide for Tracing Carbon Fluxes 2012.03.26 - 2012.06.07 Lead Scientist : Elliott Campbell For data sets, see below. Abstract Regional flux partitioning represents a critical knowledge gap due to a lack of robust methods for regional-scale flux partitioning and large uncertainties in

  18. Divertor Heat Flux Mitigation in the National Spherical Torus...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The modeling showed that the observed peak heat flux reduction and detachment are possible with high radiated power and momentum loss fractions, achievable with divertor gas ...

  19. ARM - Evaluation Product - Quality Controlled Eddy Correlation Flux

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (QCECOR) ProductsQuality Controlled Eddy Correlation Flux (QCECOR) ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Documentation Use the Data File Inventory tool to view data availability at the file level. Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Evaluation Product : Quality Controlled Eddy Correlation Flux (QCECOR) Eddy correlation flux measurement systems (ECOR) are used by ARM to provide surface turbulence flux measurements. With the help of the

  20. Role of ion flux on alignment of carbon nanofibers synthesized...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    of carbon nanofibers synthesized by DC plasma on transparent insulating substrates Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Role of ion flux on alignment of carbon nanofibers ...

  1. High Heat Flux Thermoelectric Module Using Standard Bulk Material

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presents high heat flux thermoelectric module design for cooling using a novel V-shaped shunt configuration with bulk TE elements achieving high area packing fractions

  2. Final Report - High Flux Microchannel Receiver Development with...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Awardee: Oregon State University Location: Corvallis, OR Subprogram: Concentrating Solar Power Funding Program: SunShot Concentrating Solar Power R&D Project: High Flux ...

  3. John Hsu, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Flux Coupling Machines...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    John Hsu, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Flux Coupling Machines and Switched Reluctance Motors to Replace Permanent Magnets in Electric Vehicles John Hsu, Oak Ridge National...

  4. Technical Sessions Measurements of Surface Heat Flux Over Contrasting...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    During this field study, "direct" measurements of surface heat flux were made using point ... parameter (CT2) (sodar and minisodar), and line averages of CT2 (laser anemometer). ...

  5. FLUXNET. Database of fluxes, site characteristics, and flux-community information

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olson, R. J.; Holladay, S. K.; Cook, R. B.; Falge, E.; Baldocchi, D.; Gu, L.

    2004-02-28

    FLUXNET is a “network of regional networks” created by international scientists to coordinate regional and global analysis of observations from micrometeorological tower sites. The flux tower sites use eddy covariance methods to measure the exchanges of carbon dioxide (CO2), water vapor, and energy between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere. FLUXNET’S goals are to aid in understanding the mechanisms controlling the exchanges of CO2, water vapor, and energy across a range of time (0.5 hours to annual periods) and space scales. FLUXNET provides an infrastructure for the synthesis and analysis of world-wide, long-term flux data compiled from various regional flux networks. Information compiled by the FLUXNET project is being used to validate remote sensing products associated with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Terra and Aqua satellites. FLUXNET provides access to ground information for validating estimates of net primary productivity, and energy absorption that are being generated by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensors. In addition, this information is also used to develop and validate ecosystem models.

  6. Dual Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test | National Nuclear Security

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Administration Dual Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test NNSA releases Stockpile Stewardship Program quarterly experiments summary WASHIGTON, DC. - The National Nuclear Security Administration today released its current quarterly summary of experiments conducted as part of its science-based Stockpile Stewardship Program. The experiments carried out within the program are used in combination with complex computational models

  7. Dual aperture dipole magnet with second harmonic component

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Praeg, W.F.

    1983-08-31

    An improved dual aperture dipole electromagnet includes a second-harmonic frequency magnetic guide field winding which surrounds first harmonic frequency magnetic guide field windings associated with each aperture. The second harmonic winding and the first harmonic windings cooperate to produce resultant magnetic waveforms in the apertures which have extended acceleration and shortened reset portions of electromagnet operation.

  8. Dual aperture dipole magnet with second harmonic component

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Praeg, Walter F.

    1985-01-01

    An improved dual aperture dipole electromagnet includes a second-harmonic frequency magnetic guide field winding which surrounds first harmonic frequency magnetic guide field windings associated with each aperture. The second harmonic winding and the first harmonic windings cooperate to produce resultant magnetic waveforms in the apertures which have extended acceleration and shortened reset portions of electromagnet operation.

  9. A tandem-based compact dual-energy gamma generator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Persaud, A.; Kwan, J.W.; Leitner, M.; Leung, K.N.; Ludewigt, B.; Tanaka, N.; Waldron, W.; Wilde, S.; Antolak, A.J.; Morse, D.H.; Raber, T.

    2009-11-11

    A dual-energy tandem-type gamma generator has been developed at E.O. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and Sandia National Laboratories. The tandem accelerator geometry allows higher energy nuclear reactions to be reached, thereby allowing more flexible generation of MeV-energy gammas for active interrogation applications.

  10. Wrought stainless steels -- Dual marking and corrosion evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kobrin, G.; Lilly, J.; MacDiarmid, J.; Moniz, B.

    1999-10-01

    Prior to the 1980s, the commonly used type 300 austenitic series stainless steels (SS) in the chemical process industry were available in two grades: those with regular carbon content (straight grades) and those with extra-low carbon content (L-grades). When welding the straight grades, it was possible to sensitize the base metal adjacent to the weld. The carbon combines with the chromium at the grain boundaries, leaving a zone depleted of chromium, below the minimum required for SS, adjacent to the grain boundaries. Even a relatively mild corrosive environment then is able to selectively attack this region along grain boundaries. The dual-marked grades (types 304/304L and 316/316L) appeared, with the carbon content of an L-grade and the strength of a straight grade. Initially, there was no national code acceptance for dual marked grades. Designers were obliged to use L-grade stress values. To get around this, people were known to grind off the unacceptable part of the dual marking designation and deliver whatever grade was initially specified. ASME International now has formally stated that dual-marked grades may be used at straight grade stresses for all product forms and piping to 1,000 F (540 C).

  11. PREDICTING Lyα AND Mg II FLUXES FROM K AND M DWARFS USING GALAXY EVOLUTION EXPLORER ULTRAVIOLET PHOTOMETRY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shkolnik, Evgenya L.; Rolph, Kristina A.; Peacock, Sarah; Barman, Travis S. E-mail: kristina.rolph@fandm.edu E-mail: barman@lpl.arizona.edu

    2014-11-20

    A star's ultraviolet (UV) emission can greatly affect the atmospheric chemistry and physical properties of closely orbiting planets with the potential for severe mass loss. In particular, the Lyα emission line at 1216 Å, which dominates the far-ultraviolet (FUV) spectrum, is a major source of photodissociation of important atmospheric molecules such as water and methane. The intrinsic flux of Lyα, however, cannot be directly measured due to the absorption of neutral hydrogen in the interstellar medium and contamination by geocoronal emission. To date, reconstruction of the intrinsic Lyα line based on Hubble Space Telescope spectra has been accomplished for 46 FGKM nearby stars, 28 of which have also been observed by the Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX). Our investigation provides a correlation between published intrinsic Lyα and GALEX far- and near-ultraviolet (NUV) chromospheric fluxes for K and M stars. The negative correlations between the ratio of the Lyα to the GALEX fluxes reveal how the relative strength of Lyα compared to the broadband fluxes weakens as the FUV and NUV excess flux increase. We also correlate GALEX fluxes with the strong NUV Mg II h+k spectral emission lines formed at lower chromospheric temperatures than Lyα. The reported correlations provide estimates of intrinsic Lyα and Mg II fluxes for the thousands of K and M stars in the archived GALEX all-sky surveys. These will constrain new stellar upper atmosphere models for cool stars and provide realistic inputs to models describing exoplanetary photochemistry and atmospheric evolution in the absence of UV spectroscopy.

  12. AmeriFlux Measurement Component (AMC) Handbook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reichl, K.; Biraud, S. C.

    2016-01-01

    An AMC system was installed at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility’s North Slope Alaska (NSA) Barrow site, also known as NSA C1 at the ARM Data Archive, in August 2012. A second AMC system was installed at the third ARM Mobile Facility deployment at Oliktok Point, also known as NSA M1. This in situ system consists of 12 combination soil temperature and volumetric water content (VWC) reflectometers and one set of upwelling and downwelling PAR sensors, all deployed within the fetch of the Eddy Correlation Flux Measurement System. Soil temperature and VWC sensors placed at two depths (10 and 30 cm below the vegetation layer) at six locations (or microsites) allow soil property inhomogeneity to be monitored across a landscape. The soil VWC and temperature sensors used at NSA C1 are the Campbell Scientific CS650L and the sensors at NSA M1 use the Campbell Scientific CS655. The two sensors are nearly identical in function, and vendor specifications are based on the CS650 unless otherwise stated.

  13. Estimating Liquid Fluxes in Thermally Perturbed Fractured Rock Using Measured Temperature Profiles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J.T. Birkholzer

    2005-02-14

    A new temperature-profile method was recently developed for analyzing perturbed flow conditions in superheated porous media. The method uses high-resolution temperature data to estimate the magnitude of the heat-driven liquid and gas fluxes that form as a result of boiling, condensation, and recirculation of pore water. In this paper, we evaluate the applicability of this new method to the more complex flow behavior in fractured formations with porous rock matrix. In such formations, with their intrinsic heterogeneity, the porous but low-permeable matrix provides most of the mass and heat storage capacity, and dominates conductive heat transfer, Fractures, on the other hand, offer highly effective conduits for gas and liquid flow, thereby generating significant convective heat transfer. After establishing the accuracy of the temperature-profile method for fractured porous formations, we apply the method in analyzing the perturbed flow conditions in a large-scale underground heater test conducted in unsaturated fractured porous tuff. The flux estimates for this test indicate a significant reflux of water near the heat source, on the order of a few hundred millimeter per year-much larger than the ambient percolation flux of only a few millimeter per year.

  14. Dual circuit embossed sheet heat transfer panel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morgan, G.D.

    1984-02-21

    A heat transfer panel provides redundant cooling for fusion reactors or the like environment requiring low-mass construction. Redundant cooling is provided by two independent cooling circuits, each circuit consisting of a series of channels joined to inlet and outlet headers. The panel comprises a welded joinder of two full-size and two much smaller partial-size sheets. The first full-size sheet is embossed to form first portions of channels for the first and second circuits, as well as a header for the first circuit. The second full-sized sheet is then laid over and welded to the first full-size sheet. The first and second partial-size sheets are then overlaid on separate portions of the second full-sized sheet, and are welded thereto. The first and second partial-sized sheets are embossed to form inlet and outlet headers, which communicate with channels of the second circuit through apertures formed in the second full-sized sheet. 6 figs.

  15. Dual circuit embossed sheet heat transfer panel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morgan, Grover D.

    1984-01-01

    A heat transfer panel provides redundant cooling for fusion reactors or the like environment requiring low-mass construction. Redundant cooling is provided by two independent cooling circuits, each circuit consisting of a series of channels joined to inlet and outlet headers. The panel comprises a welded joinder of two full-size and two much smaller partial-size sheets. The first full-size sheet is embossed to form first portions of channels for the first and second circuits, as well as a header for the first circuit. The second full-sized sheet is then laid over and welded to the first full-size sheet. The first and second partial-size sheets are then overlaid on separate portions of the second full-sized sheet, and are welded thereto. The first and second partial-sized sheets are embossed to form inlet and outlet headers, which communicate with channels of the second circuit through apertures formed in the second full-sized sheet.

  16. AmeriFlux US-Wjs Willard Juniper Savannah

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Litvak, Marcy [University of New Mexico

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-Wjs Willard Juniper Savannah. Site Description - The Juniper Savanna site is located in the Southwestern Tablelands in central New Mexico on a private ranch. Its vegetation is composed of Juniperus monosperma and intermittently grazed C4 perennial grasses of which the dominant species is Bouteloua gracilis.

  17. Flux-induced Isometry Gauging in Heterotic Strings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chuang, Wu-yen; Gao, Peng

    2007-01-05

    We study the effect of flux-induced isometry gauging of the scalar manifold in N = 2 heterotic string compactification with gauge fluxes. We show that a vanishing theorem by Witten provides the protection mechanism. The other ungauged isometries in hyper moduli space could also be protected, depending on the gauge bundle structure. We also discuss the related issue in IIB setting.

  18. AmeriFlux US-Me1 Metolius - Eyerly burn

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Law, Bev

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-Me1 Metolius - Eyerly burn. Site Description - An intermediate aged ponderosa pine forest that was severely burned in the 2002 Eyerly wildfire. All trees were killed (stand replacing event). Irvine et al (2007) GCB 13 (8), 1748–1760.

  19. AmeriFlux US-SRG Santa Rita Grassland

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Scott, Russell [United States Department of Agriculture

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-SRG Santa Rita Grassland. Site Description - Semidesert C4 grassland, lies in Pasture 1 on the Santa Rita Experimental Range. This is the companion site for US-SRM, but has much less mesquite encroachment.

  20. AmeriFlux US-Ro1 Rosemount- G21

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Baker, John [USDA-ARS; Griffis, Tim [University of Minnesota; Griffis, Timothy [University of Minnesota

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-Ro1 Rosemount- G21. Site Description - This tower is located in a farm field farmed in accordance with the dominant farming practice in the region: a corn/soybean rotation with chisel plow tillage in the fall following corn harvest and in the spring following soybeans.

  1. AmeriFlux US-Ro3 Rosemount- G19

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baker, John; Griffis, Tim

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-Ro3 Rosemount- G19. Site Description - This tower is located in a farm field farmed in accordance with the cominant farming practice in the region: a corn/soybean rotation with chisel plow tillage in the fall following corn harvest and in the spring following soybeans.

  2. AmeriFlux US-Wlr Walnut River Watershed (Smileyburg)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cook, David; Coulter, Richard L.

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-Wlr Walnut River Watershed (Smileyburg). Site Description - The Walnut River Watershed site rests on a C3/C4 mixed grassland, tallgrass prairie grazed by cattle. The land is owned by a local farmer and the land is leased on a year-to-year basis.

  3. Fouling of inorganic membrane and flux enhancement in membrane-coupled anaerobic bioreactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoon, S.H.; Kang, I.J.; Lee, C.H.

    1999-03-01

    The fouling mechanism of an inorganic membrane was studied during the operation of a membrane-coupled anaerobic bioreactor (MCAB) when alcohol distillery wastewater was used as a digester feed. It was observed that the fouling mechanism of an inorganic membrane was significantly different from that of conventional membrane filtration processes. The main foulant was identified to be an inorganic precipitate, struvite (MgNH{sub 4}PO{sub 4}{center_dot}6H{sub 2}O), rather than anaerobic microbial flocs. Struvite appears to be precipitated not only on the membrane surface but also inside the membrane pores. The amount of struvite generated during the bioreaction was estimated to be about 2 g/L alcohol distillery wastewater. The inorganic foulant was not easily removed by general physical cleaning such as depressurization, lumen flushing, and backflushing. Based on these findings, the membrane fouling was alleviated and thus flux was enhanced by adopting a backfeeding mode which has dual purpose of feeding and backflushing with particle-free acidic wastewater used as the feed for anaerobic digestion.

  4. Dual-spacecraft reconstruction of a three-dimensional magnetic...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The FTE flux rope had a significant 3-D structure, because the 3-D field reconstructed from the data from TH-C and TH-D (separated by 390 km) better predicts magnetic field ...

  5. An ecosystem-scale perspective of the net land methanol flux. Synthesis of micrometeorological flux measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wohlfahrt, G.; Amelynck, C.; Ammann, C.; Arneth, A.; Bamberger, I.; Goldstein, A. H.; Gu, L.; Guenther, A.; Hansel, A.; Heinesch, B.; Holst, T.; Hörtnagl, L.; Karl, T.; Laffineur, Q.; Neftel, A.; McKinney, K.; Munger, J. W.; Pallardy, S. G.; Schade, G. W.; Seco, R.; Schoon, N.

    2015-07-09

    Methanol is the second most abundant volatile organic compound in the troposphere and plays a significant role in atmospheric chemistry. While there is consensus about the dominant role of living plants as the major source and the reaction with OH as the major sink of methanol, global methanol budgets diverge considerably in terms of source/sink estimates, reflecting uncertainties in the approaches used to model and the empirical data used to separately constrain these terms. Here we compiled micrometeorological methanol flux data from eight different study sites and reviewed the corresponding literature in order to provide a first cross-site synthesis of the terrestrial ecosystem-scale methanol exchange and present an independent data-driven view of the land–atmosphere methanol exchange. Our study shows that the controls of plant growth on production, and thus the methanol emission magnitude, as well as stomatal conductance on the hourly methanol emission variability, established at the leaf level, hold across sites at the ecosystem level. Unequivocal evidence for bi-directional methanol exchange at the ecosystem scale is presented. Deposition, which at some sites even exceeds methanol emissions, represents an emerging feature of ecosystem-scale measurements and is likely related to environmental factors favouring the formation of surface wetness. Methanol may adsorb to or dissolve in this surface water and eventually be chemically or biologically removed from it. Management activities in agriculture and forestry are shown to increase local methanol emission by orders of magnitude; however, they are neglected at present in global budgets. While contemporary net land methanol budgets are overall consistent with the grand mean of the micrometeorological methanol flux measurements, we caution that the present approach of simulating methanol emission and deposition separately is prone to opposing systematic errors and does not allow for full advantage to be taken of

  6. An ecosystem-scale perspective of the net land methanol flux. Synthesis of micrometeorological flux measurements

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wohlfahrt, G.; Amelynck, C.; Ammann, C.; Arneth, A.; Bamberger, I.; Goldstein, A. H.; Gu, L.; Guenther, A.; Hansel, A.; Heinesch, B.; et al

    2015-07-09

    Methanol is the second most abundant volatile organic compound in the troposphere and plays a significant role in atmospheric chemistry. While there is consensus about the dominant role of living plants as the major source and the reaction with OH as the major sink of methanol, global methanol budgets diverge considerably in terms of source/sink estimates, reflecting uncertainties in the approaches used to model and the empirical data used to separately constrain these terms. Here we compiled micrometeorological methanol flux data from eight different study sites and reviewed the corresponding literature in order to provide a first cross-site synthesis ofmore » the terrestrial ecosystem-scale methanol exchange and present an independent data-driven view of the land–atmosphere methanol exchange. Our study shows that the controls of plant growth on production, and thus the methanol emission magnitude, as well as stomatal conductance on the hourly methanol emission variability, established at the leaf level, hold across sites at the ecosystem level. Unequivocal evidence for bi-directional methanol exchange at the ecosystem scale is presented. Deposition, which at some sites even exceeds methanol emissions, represents an emerging feature of ecosystem-scale measurements and is likely related to environmental factors favouring the formation of surface wetness. Methanol may adsorb to or dissolve in this surface water and eventually be chemically or biologically removed from it. Management activities in agriculture and forestry are shown to increase local methanol emission by orders of magnitude; however, they are neglected at present in global budgets. While contemporary net land methanol budgets are overall consistent with the grand mean of the micrometeorological methanol flux measurements, we caution that the present approach of simulating methanol emission and deposition separately is prone to opposing systematic errors and does not allow for full advantage to be

  7. THE EFFECT OF MAGNETIC FIELDS AND AMBIPOLAR DIFFUSION ON CORE MASS FUNCTIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bailey, Nicole D.; Basu, Shantanu E-mail: basu@uwo.ca

    2013-03-20

    Linear analysis of the formation of protostellar cores in planar magnetic interstellar clouds yields information about length scales involved in star formation. Combining these length scales with various distributions of other environmental variables (i.e., column density and mass-to-flux ratio) and applying Monte Carlo methods allow us to produce synthetic core mass functions (CMFs) for different environmental conditions. Our analysis shows that the shape of the CMF is directly dependent on the physical conditions of the cloud. Specifically, magnetic fields act to broaden the mass function and develop a high-mass tail while ambipolar diffusion will truncate this high-mass tail. In addition, we analyze the effect of small number statistics on the shape and high-mass slope of the synthetic CMFs. We find that observed CMFs are severely statistically limited, which has a profound effect on the derived slope for the high-mass tail.

  8. Photoionization Mass Spectroscopy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Photoionization Mass Spectroscopy - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Energy Defense Waste Management Programs

  9. Engineering rock mass classifications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bieniawski, Z.T.

    1989-01-01

    This book is a reference on rock mass classification, consolidating into one handy source information widely scattered through the literature. Includes new, unpublished material and case histories. Presents the fundamental concepts of classification schemes and critically appraises their practical application in industrial projects such as tunneling and mining.

  10. Initial measurements of BN-350 spent fuel in dry storage casks using the dual slab verification detonator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Santi, Peter Angelo; Browne, Michael C; Freeman, Corey R; Parker, Robert F; Williams, Richard B

    2010-01-01

    The Dual Slab Verification Detector (DSVD) has been developed, built, and characterized by Los Alamos National Laboratory in cooperation with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) as part of the dry storage safeguards system for the spent fuel from the BN-350 fast reactor. The detector consists of two rows of 3He tubes embedded in a slab of polyethylene which has been designed to be placed on the outer surface of the dry storage cask. By performing DSVD measurements at several different locations around the outer surface of the DUC, a signature 'fingerprint' can be established for each DUC based on the neutron flux emanating from inside the dry storage cask. The neutron fingerprint for each individual DUC will be dependent upon the spatial distribution of nuclear material within the cask, thus making it sensitive to the removal of a certain amount of material from the cask. An initial set of DSVD measurements have been performed on the first set of dry storage casks that have been loaded with canisters of spent fuel and moved onto the dry storage pad to both establish an initial fingerprint for these casks as well as to quantify systematic uncertainties associated with these measurements. The results from these measurements will be presented and compared with the expected results that were determined based on MCNPX simulations of the dry storage facility. The ability to safeguard spent nuclear fuel is strongly dependent on the technical capabilities of establishing and maintaining continuity of knowledge (COK) of the spent fuel as it is released from the reactor core and either reprocessed or packaged and stored at a storage facility. While the maintenance of COK is often done using continuous containment and surveillance (C/S) on the spent fuel, it is important that the measurement capabilities exist to re-establish the COK in the event of a significant gap in the continuous CIS by performing measurements that independently confirm the presence and content

  11. Geochemical Speciation Mass Transfer

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1985-12-01

    PHREEQC is designed to model geochemical reactions. Based on an ion association aqueous model, PHREEQC can calculate pH, redox potential, and mass transfer as a function of reaction progress. It can be used to describe geochemical processes for both far-field and near-field performance assessment and to evaluate data acquisition needs and test data. It can also calculate the composition of solutions in equilibrium with multiple phases. The data base, including elements, aqueous species, and mineralmore » phases, is independent of the program and is completely user-definable. PHREEQC requires thermodynamic data for each solid, gaseous, or dissolved chemical species being modeled. The two data bases, PREPHR and DEQPAK7, supplied with PHREEQC are for testing purposes only and should not be applied to real problems without first being carefully examined. The conceptual model embodied in PHREEQC is the ion-association model of Pearson and Noronha. In this model a set of mass action equations are established for each ion pair (and controlling solid phases when making mass transfer calculations) along with a set of mass balance equations for each element considered. These sets of equations are coupled using activity coefficient values for each aqueous species and solved using a continued fraction approach for the mass balances combined with a modified Newton-Raphson technique for all other equations. The activity coefficient expressions in PHREEQC include the extended Debye-Huckel, WATEQ Debye-Huckel, and Davies equations from the original United States Geological Survey version of the program. The auxiliary preprocessor program PHTL, which is derived from EQTL, converts EQ3/6 thermodynamic data to PHREEQC format so that the two programs can be compared. PHREEQC can be used to determine solubility limits on the radionuclides present in the waste form. These solubility constraints may be input to the WAPPA leach model.« less

  12. Analysis of Cloud-resolving Simulations of a Tropical Mesoscale Convective System Observed during TWP-ICE: Vertical Fluxes and Draft Properties in Convective and Stratiform Regions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mrowiec, Agnieszka A.; Rio, Catherine; Fridlind, Ann; Ackerman, Andrew; Del Genio, Anthony D.; Pauluis, Olivier; Varble, Adam; Fan, Jiwen

    2012-10-02

    We analyze three cloud-resolving model simulations of a strong convective event observed during the TWP-ICE campaign, differing in dynamical core, microphysical scheme or both. Based on simulated and observed radar reflectivity, simulations roughly reproduce observed convective and stratiform precipitating areas. To identify the characteristics of convective and stratiform drafts that are difficult to observe but relevant to climate model parameterization, independent vertical wind speed thresholds are calculated to capture 90% of total convective and stratiform updraft and downdraft mass fluxes. Convective updrafts are fairly consistent across simulations (likely owing to fixed large-scale forcings and surface conditions), except that hydrometeor loadings differ substantially. Convective downdraft and stratiform updraft and downdraft mass fluxes vary notably below the melting level, but share similar vertically uniform draft velocities despite differing hydrometeor loadings. All identified convective and stratiform downdrafts contain precipitation below ~10 km and nearly all updrafts are cloudy above the melting level. Cold pool properties diverge substantially in a manner that is consistent with convective downdraft mass flux differences below the melting level. Despite differences in hydrometeor loadings and cold pool properties, convective updraft and downdraft mass fluxes are linearly correlated with convective area, the ratio of ice in downdrafts to that in updrafts is ~0.5 independent of species, and the ratio of downdraft to updraft mass flux is ~0.5-0.6, which may represent a minimum evaporation efficiency under moist conditions. Hydrometeor loading in stratiform regions is found to be a fraction of hydrometeor loading in convective regions that ranges from ~10% (graupel) to ~90% (cloud ice). These findings may lead to improved convection parameterizations.

  13. Different X-ray spectral evolution for black hole X-ray binaries in dual tracks of radio-X-ray correlation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cao, Xiao-Feng; Wu, Qingwen; Dong, Ai-Jun

    2014-06-10

    Recently, an 'outlier' track of radio-X-ray correlation was found, which is much steeper than the former universal correlation, where dual tracks were speculated to be triggered by different accretion processes. In this work, we test this issue by exploring hard X-ray spectral evolution in four black-hole X-ray binaries with multiple, quasi-simultaneous radio and X-ray observations. First, we find that hard X-ray photon indices, Γ, are negatively and positively correlated with X-ray fluxes when the X-ray flux, F{sub 3-9} {sub keV}, is below and above a critical flux, F{sub X,} {sub crit}, which are consistent with predictions of the advection-dominated accretion flow and the disk-corona model, respectively. Second, and most importantly, we find that the radio-X-ray correlations are also clearly different when the X-ray fluxes are higher and lower than the critical flux as defined by X-ray spectral evolution. The data points with F{sub 3-9} {sub keV} ≳ F{sub X,} {sub crit} have a steeper radio-X-ray correlation (F{sub X}∝F{sub R}{sup b} and b ∼ 1.1-1.4), which roughly forms the ''outlier'' track. However, the data points with anti-correlation of Γ – F{sub 3-9} {sub keV} either stay in the universal track with b ∼ 0.61 or stay in the transition track (from the universal to 'outlier' tracks or vice versa). Therefore, our results support that the universal and ''outlier'' tracks of radio-X-ray correlations are regulated by radiatively inefficient and radiatively efficient accretion model, respectively.

  14. RELAP5 model of the high flux isotope reactor with low enriched fuel thermal flux profiles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Banfield, J.; Mervin, B.; Hart, S.; Ritchie, J.; Walker, S.; Ruggles, A.; Maldonado, G. I.

    2012-07-01

    The High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) currently uses highly enriched uranium (HEU) fabricated into involute-shaped fuel plates. It is desired that HFIR be able to use low enriched uranium (LEU) fuel while preserving the current performance capability for its diverse missions in material irradiation studies, isotope production, and the use of neutron beam lines for basic research. Preliminary neutronics and depletion simulations of HFIR with LEU fuel have arrived to feasible fuel loadings that maintain the neutronics performance of the reactor. This article illustrates preliminary models developed for the analysis of the thermal-hydraulic characteristics of the LEU core to ensure safe operation of the reactor. The beginning of life (BOL) LEU thermal flux profile has been modeled in RELAP5 to facilitate steady state simulation of the core cooling, and of anticipated and unanticipated transients. Steady state results are presented to validate the new thermal power profile inputs. A power ramp, slow depressurization at the outlet, and flow coast down transients are also evaluated. (authors)

  15. PROMINENCE FORMATION ASSOCIATED WITH AN EMERGING HELICAL FLUX ROPE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Okamoto, Takenori J.; Tsuneta, Saku; Katsukawa, Yukio; Suematsu, Yoshinori [National Astronomical Observatory, Mitaka, Tokyo, 181-8588 (Japan); Lites, Bruce W.; Kubo, Masahito [High Altitude Observatory, National Center for Atmospheric Research, P.O. Box 3000, Boulder, CO 80307-3000 (United States); Yokoyama, Takaaki [Department of Earth and Planetary Science, School of Science, University of Tokyo, Hongo, Bunkyo, Tokyo, 113-0033 (Japan); Berger, Thomas E.; Shine, Richard A.; Tarbell, Theodore D.; Title, Alan M. [Lockheed Martin Solar and Astrophysics Laboratory, B/252, 3251 Hanover St., Palo Alto, CA 94304 (United States); Ichimoto, Kiyoshi; Nagata, Shin'ichi; Shibata, Kazunari [Kwasan and Hida Observatories, Kyoto University, Yamashina, Kyoto, 607-8471 (Japan); Shimizu, Toshifumi [ISAS/JAXA, Sagamihara, Kanagawa, 229-8510 (Japan)], E-mail: joten.okamoto@nao.ac.jp

    2009-05-20

    The formation and evolution process and magnetic configuration of solar prominences remain unclear. In order to study the formation process of prominences, we examine continuous observations of a prominence in NOAA AR 10953 with the Solar Optical Telescope on the Hinode satellite. As reported in our previous Letter, we find a signature suggesting that a helical flux rope emerges from below the photosphere under a pre-existing prominence. Here we investigate more detailed properties and photospheric indications of the emerging helical flux rope, and discuss their relationship to the formation of the prominence. Our main conclusions are: (1) a dark region with absence of strong vertical magnetic fields broadens and then narrows in Ca II H-line filtergrams. This phenomenon is consistent with the emergence of the helical flux rope as photospheric counterparts. The size of the flux rope is roughly 30,000 km long and 10,000 km wide. The width is larger than that of the prominence. (2) No shear motion or converging flows are detected, but we find diverging flows such as mesogranules along the polarity inversion line. The presence of mesogranules may be related to the emergence of the helical flux rope. (3) The emerging helical flux rope reconnects with magnetic fields of the pre-existing prominence to stabilize the prominence for the next several days. We thus conjecture that prominence coronal magnetic fields emerge in the form of helical flux ropes that contribute to the formation and maintenance of the prominence.

  16. Development and Use of the Dual-Mode Plasma Torch

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Womack, R.; Shuey, M.

    2002-02-26

    After several years of development, a commercially available high-temperature treatment system has been developed and installed that treats heterogeneous low-level radioactive waste. High temperature plasma processing, unique torch design and operating features make it feasible to achieve a volume reduced, permanent, high integrity waste form while eliminating the personnel exposure and costs associated with conventional sorting, characterizing and handling. Plasma technology can also be used to treat previous conditioned waste packages that no longer meet the current acceptance criteria for final disposal. Plasma treatment can result, in many cases, in a substantial volume reduction, which lowers the final disposal costs. This paper covers the recently patented dual mode plasma torch design(1), the lessons learned that fostered its development and the advantages it brings to radioactive waste processing. This paper also provides current full scale Plasma Arc Centrifugal Treatment (PACT) project status and how the dual mode torch is being used in the PACT system.

  17. Materials Compatibility and Aging for Flux and Cleaner Combinations.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Archuleta, Kim; Piatt, Rochelle

    2015-01-01

    A materials study of high reliability electronics cleaning is presented here. In Phase 1, mixed type substrates underwent a condensed contaminants application to view a worst- case scenario for unremoved flux with cleaning agent residue for parts in a silicone oil filled environment. In Phase 2, fluxes applied to copper coupons and to printed wiring boards underwent gentle cleaning then accelerated aging in air at 65% humidity and 30 O C. Both sets were aged for 4 weeks. Contaminants were no-clean (ORL0), water soluble (ORH1 liquid and ORH0 paste), and rosin (RMA; ROL0) fluxes. Defluxing agents were water, solvents, and engineered aqueous defluxers. In the first phase, coupons had flux applied and heated, then were placed in vials of oil with a small amount of cleaning agent and additional coupons. In the second phase, pairs of copper coupons and PWB were hand soldered by application of each flux, using tin-lead solder in a strip across the coupon or a set of test components on the PWB. One of each pair was cleaned in each cleaning agent, the first with a typical clean, and the second with a brief clean. Ionic contamination residue was measured before accelerated aging. After aging, substrates were removed and a visual record of coupon damage made, from which a subjective rank was applied for comparison between the various flux and defluxer combinations; more corrosion equated to higher rank. The ORH1 water soluble flux resulted in the highest ranking in both phases, the RMA flux the least. For the first phase, in which flux and defluxer remained on coupons, the aqueous defluxers led to worse corrosion. The vapor phase cleaning agents resulted in the highest ranking in the second phase, in which there was no physical cleaning. Further study of cleaning and rinsing parameters will be required.

  18. Advanced regenerator testing in the Raytheon dual-use cryocoolerr

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schaefer, B. R.; Bellis, L.; Ellis, M. J.; Conrad, T. J.

    2014-01-29

    Significant progress has been made on the Raytheon low cost space cryocooler called the Dual-Use Cryocooler (DUC). Most notably, the DUC has been integrated and tested with an advanced regenerator. The advanced regenerator is a drop-in replacement for stainless steel screens and has shown significant thermodynamic performance improvements. This paper will compare the performance of two different regenerators and explain the benefits of the advanced regenerator.

  19. Dual-phase Cr-Ta alloys for structural applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, Chain T.; Brady, Michael P.; Zhu, Jiahong; Tortorelli, Peter F.

    2001-01-01

    Dual phase alloys of chromium containing 2 to 11 atomic percent tantalum with minor amounts of Mo, Cr, Ti, Y, La, Cr, Si and Ge are disclosed. These alloys contain two phases including Laves phase and Cr-rich solid solution in either eutectic structures or dispersed Laves phase particles in the Cr-rich solid solution matrix. The alloys have superior mechanical properties at high temperature and good oxidation resistance when heated to above 1000.degree. C. in air.

  20. Retractable pin dual in-line package test clip

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bandzuch, Gregory S.; Kosslow, William J.

    1996-01-01

    This invention is a Dual In-Line Package (DIP) test clip for use when troubleshooting circuits containing DIP integrated circuits. This test clip is a significant improvement over existing DIP test clips in that it has retractable pins which will permit troubleshooting without risk of accidentally shorting adjacent pins together when moving probes to different pins on energized circuits or when the probe is accidentally bumped while taking measurements.

  1. Dual fuel combustion in a turbocharged diesel engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Few, P.C.; Newlyn, H.A.

    1987-01-01

    The modification of a turbocharged diesel engine to a dual-fuel engine using methane as the supplementary fuel has been carried out. The effect of the gaseous fuel in a turbo-charged diesel engine has been investigated by means of a heat release study and a computer program already developed at Leicester Polytechnic. It is used in order to examine the rate of heat released under any operational condition.

  2. Development of a high-output dual-fuel engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Danyluk, P.R. . Fairbanks Morse Engineering Division)

    1993-10-01

    This paper presents the results of a new dual-fuel engine development program. The engine is the largest commercially available in terms of power output (650 hp/cyl) and features very low emissions (1 g/hp-hr NO[sub x]) and excellent fuel consumption (43 percent thermal efficiency). A two-cylinder turbocharged prototype was designed and built for the initial development. Results from testing on 18-cylinder production versions are also reported.

  3. Dual ion beam assisted deposition of biaxially textured template layers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Groves, James R.; Arendt, Paul N.; Hammond, Robert H.

    2005-05-31

    The present invention is directed towards a process and apparatus for epitaxial deposition of a material, e.g., a layer of MgO, onto a substrate such as a flexible metal substrate, using dual ion beams for the ion beam assisted deposition whereby thick layers can be deposited without degradation of the desired properties by the material. The ability to deposit thicker layers without loss of properties provides a significantly broader deposition window for the process.

  4. Method for calibrating mass spectrometers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, Gordon A [Benton City, WA; Brands, Michael D [Richland, WA; Bruce, James E [Schwenksville, PA; Pasa-Tolic, Ljiljana [Richland, WA; Smith, Richard D [Richland, WA

    2002-12-24

    A method whereby a mass spectra generated by a mass spectrometer is calibrated by shifting the parameters used by the spectrometer to assign masses to the spectra in a manner which reconciles the signal of ions within the spectra having equal mass but differing charge states, or by reconciling ions having known differences in mass to relative values consistent with those known differences. In this manner, the mass spectrometer is calibrated without the need for standards while allowing the generation of a highly accurate mass spectra by the instrument.

  5. Direct control of air gap flux in permanent magnet machines

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hsu, John S.

    2000-01-01

    A method and apparatus for field weakening in PM machines uses field weakening coils (35, 44, 45, 71, 72) to produce flux in one or more stators (34, 49, 63, 64), including a flux which counters flux normally produced in air gaps between the stator(s) (34, 49, 63, 64) and the rotor (20, 21, 41, 61) which carries the PM poles. Several modes of operation are introduced depending on the magnitude and polarity of current in the field weakening coils (35, 44, 45, 71, 72). The invention is particularly useful for, but not limited to, the electric vehicle drives and PM generators.

  6. AmeriFlux US-Tw2 Twitchell Corn

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baldocchi, Dennis

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-Tw2 Twitchell Corn. Site Description - The Twitchell Corn site is a corn field on peat soil. The tower was installed on May 17, 2012 and was equipped to analyze energy, H2O and CO2 fluxes. The field was planted in early May 2012 and harvested in early November 2012. The field was fallow during the non-growing season. The variety of corn used was ES-7477 hybrid corn commercialized by Eureka seeds. The site is near US-Tw1, US-Tw3 and US-Twt sites.

  7. Integrated process and dual-function catalyst for olefin epoxidation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zhou, Bing (Cranbury, NJ); Rueter, Michael (Plymouth Meeting, PA)

    2003-01-01

    The invention discloses a dual-functional catalyst composition and an integrated process for production of olefin epoxides including propylene oxide by catalytic reaction of hydrogen peroxide from hydrogen and oxygen with olefin feeds such as propylene. The epoxides and hydrogen peroxide are preferably produced simultaneously in situ. The dual-functional catalyst comprises noble metal crystallites with dimensions on the nanometer scale (on the order of <1 nm to 10 nm), specially dispersed on titanium silicalite substrate particles. The dual functional catalyst catalyzes both the direct reaction of hydrogen and oxygen to generate hydrogen peroxide intermediate on the noble metal catalyst surface and the reaction of the hydrogen peroxide intermediate with the propylene feed to generate propylene oxide product. Combining both these functions in a single catalyst provides a very efficient integrated process operable below the flammability limits of hydrogen and highly selective for the production of hydrogen peroxide to produce olefin oxides such as propylene oxide without formation of undesired co-products.

  8. Integration of a constraint-based metabolic model of Brassica napus developing seeds with 13C-metabolic flux analysis

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Hay, Jordan O.; Shi, Hai; Heinzel, Nicolas; Hebbelmann, Inga; Rolletschek, Hardy; Schwender, Jorg

    2014-12-19

    The use of large-scale or genome-scale metabolic reconstructions for modeling and simulation of plant metabolism and integration of those models with large-scale omics and experimental flux data is becoming increasingly important in plant metabolic research. Here we report an updated version of bna572, a bottom-up reconstruction of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.; Brassicaceae) developing seeds with emphasis on representation of biomass-component biosynthesis. New features include additional seed-relevant pathways for isoprenoid, sterol, phenylpropanoid, flavonoid, and choline biosynthesis. Being now based on standardized data formats and procedures for model reconstruction, bna572+ is available as a COBRA-compliant Systems Biology Markup Language (SBML) modelmore » and conforms to the Minimum Information Requested in the Annotation of Biochemical Models (MIRIAM) standards for annotation of external data resources. Bna572+ contains 966 genes, 671 reactions, and 666 metabolites distributed among 11 subcellular compartments. It is referenced to the Arabidopsis thaliana genome, with gene-protein-reaction (GPR) associations resolving subcellular localization. Detailed mass and charge balancing and confidence scoring were applied to all reactions. Using B. napus seed specific transcriptome data, expression was verified for 78% of bna572+ genes and 97% of reactions. Alongside bna572+ we also present a revised carbon centric model for 13C-Metabolic Flux Analysis (13C-MFA) with all its reactions being referenced to bna572+ based on linear projections. By integration of flux ratio constraints obtained from 13C-MFA and by elimination of infinite flux bounds around thermodynamically infeasible loops based on COBRA loopless methods, we demonstrate improvements in predictive power of Flux Variability Analysis (FVA). In conclusion, using this combined approach we characterize the difference in metabolic flux of developing seeds of two B. napus genotypes contrasting in starch

  9. Twisted mass finite volume effects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Colangelo, Gilberto; Wenger, Urs; Wu, Jackson M. S.

    2010-08-01

    We calculate finite-volume effects on the pion masses and decay constant in twisted mass lattice QCD at finite lattice spacing. We show that the lighter neutral pion in twisted mass lattice QCD gives rise to finite-volume effects that are exponentially enhanced when compared to those arising from the heavier charged pions. We demonstrate that the recent two flavor twisted mass lattice data can be better fitted when twisted mass effects in finite-volume corrections are taken into account.

  10. Clock asynchrony and mass variation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gruber, R.P.; Brahm, D.E.

    1993-04-01

    Many theories have been proposed in which particle masses vary with time. In a world with varying particle masses, clocks become asynchronous and metersticks inconsistent. By combining two or more clocks with different known dependences on mass, one can construct a nearly invariant clock, and measure the rate of mass variation. If the proton and electron masses vary differently, then certain equations must be applied to predict a clock's dependence on each. 8 refs.

  11. Nanoscale mass conveyors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Regan, Brian C.; Aloni, Shaul; Zettl, Alexander K.

    2008-03-11

    A mass transport method and device for individually delivering chargeable atoms or molecules from source particles is disclosed. It comprises a channel; at least one source particle of chargeable material fixed to the surface of the channel at a position along its length; a means of heating the channel; and a means for applying an controllable electric field along the channel, whereby the device transports the atoms or molecules along the channel in response to applied electric field. In a preferred embodiment, the mass transport device will comprise a multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWNT), although other one dimensional structures may also be used. The MWNT or other structure acts as a channel for individual or small collections of atoms due to the atomic smoothness of the material. Also preferred is a source particle of a metal such as indium. The particles move by dissociation into small units, in some cases, individual atoms. The particles are preferably less than 100 nm in size.

  12. Single event mass spectrometry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Conzemius, Robert J.

    1990-01-16

    A means and method for single event time of flight mass spectrometry for analysis of specimen materials. The method of the invention includes pulsing an ion source imposing at least one pulsed ion onto the specimen to produce a corresponding emission of at least one electrically charged particle. The emitted particle is then dissociated into a charged ion component and an uncharged neutral component. The ion and neutral components are then detected. The time of flight of the components are recorded and can be used to analyze the predecessor of the components, and therefore the specimen material. When more than one ion particle is emitted from the specimen per single ion impact, the single event time of flight mass spectrometer described here furnis This invention was made with Government support under Contract No. W-7405-ENG82 awarded by the Department of Energy. The Government has certain rights in the invention.

  13. Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kelly, Ryan T.; Marginean, Ioan; Tang, Keqi

    2014-06-13

    Electrospray Ionization (ESI) is a process whereby gas phase ions are created from molecules in solution. As a solution exits a narrow tube in the presence of a strong electric field, an aerosol of charged droplets are is formed that produces gas phase ions as they it desolvates. ESI-MS comprises the creation of ions by ESI and the determination of their mass to charge ratio (m/z) by MS.

  14. Solution mass measurement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ford, W.; Marshall, R.S.; Osborn, L.C.; Picard, R.; Thomas, C.C. Jr.

    1982-07-01

    This report describes the efforts to develop and demonstrate a solution mass measurement system for use at the Los Alamos Plutonium Facility. Because of inaccuracy of load cell measurements, our major effort was directed towards the pneumatic bubbler tube. The differential pressure between the air inlet to the bubbler tube and the glovebox interior is measured and is proportional to the solution mass in the tank. An inexpensive, reliable pressure transducer system for measuring solution mass in vertical, cylindrical tanks was developed, tested, and evaluated in a laboratory test bed. The system can withstand the over- and underpressures resulting from solution transfer operations and can prevent solution backup into the measurement pressure transducer during transfers. Drifts, noise, quantization error, and other effects limit the accuracy to 30 g. A transportable calibration system using a precision machined tank, pneumatic bubbler tubes, and a Ruska DDR 6000 electromanometer was designed, fabricated, tested, and evaluated. Resolution of the system is +-3.5 g out of 50 kg. The calibration error is 5 g, using room-temperature water as the calibrating fluid. Future efforts will be directed towards in-plant test and evaluation of the tank measurement systems. 16 figures, 3 tables.

  15. 400 Area/Fast Flux Test Facility - Hanford Site

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    325 Building 400 AreaFast Flux Test Facility 618-10 ... Test Facility D and DR Reactors Effluent Treatment ... (thermal) liquid-metal (sodium)-cooled nuclear research ...

  16. ARM - Evaluation Product - AmeriFlux and Methane VAP

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    IL 60439 Resource(s) Data Directory, ReadMe Data Format netcdf, csv Data Usage These files contain ecosystem fluxes of water, energy, CO2, and CH4 that have been fully corrected. ...

  17. Divertor Heat Flux Mitigation in the National Spherical Torus...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    for both ITER and spherical torus-based devices with compact high power density divertors. ... Fusion 40, 557 2000 using high magnetic flux expansion at the divertor strike point and ...

  18. AmeriFlux US-KUT KUOM Turfgrass Field

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    McFadden, Joe [University of California, Santa Barbara

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-KUT KUOM Turfgrass Field. Site Description - The site was a low-maintenace lawn consisting of cool-season turfgrasses, typical of residential lawns or urban parks in the study area. It was mowed to a height of 70 mm approximately once per week with clippings left to decompose on the surface, was not irrigated, and received one application of inorganic N fertilizer per year. The surrounding suburban residential neighborhood experienced rapid residential development in the 1950s; prior to that time, farms and nurseries were the predominant land-use types. Note that the land management of the field site changed (removal of the turfgrass lawn and planting of trees) AFTER the flux study was completed--this means that imagery after 2009 does not show the land conditions during the flux study.

  19. Fast Flux Test Facility project plan. Revision 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hulvey, R.K.

    1995-11-01

    The Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) Transition Project Plan, Revision 2, provides changes to the major elements and project baseline for the deactivation activities necessary to transition the FFTF to a radiologically and industrially safe shutdown condition.

  20. OBSERVATION OF FLUX-TUBE CROSSINGS IN THE SOLAR WIND

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arnold, L.; Li, G.; Li, X.; Yan, Y.

    2013-03-20

    Current sheets are ubiquitous in the solar wind. They are a major source of the solar wind MHD turbulence intermittency. They may result from nonlinear interactions of the solar wind MHD turbulence or are the boundaries of flux tubes that originate from the solar surface. Some current sheets appear in pairs and are the boundaries of transient structures such as magnetic holes and reconnection exhausts or the edges of pulsed Alfven waves. For an individual current sheet, discerning whether it is a flux-tube boundary or due to nonlinear interactions or the boundary of a transient structure is difficult. In this work, using data from the Wind spacecraft, we identify two three-current-sheet events. Detailed examination of these two events suggests that they are best explained by the flux-tube-crossing scenario. Our study provides convincing evidence supporting the scenario that the solar wind consists of flux tubes where distinct plasmas reside.

  1. AmeriFlux US-Syv Sylvania Wilderness Area

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Desai, Ankur

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-Syv Sylvania Wilderness Area. Site Description - Old growth forest consisting primarily of sugar maple and eastern hemlock. Note that a small lake to the north and data analyses suggest that wind direction screening is appropriate (see Desai, A.R., Bolstad, P.V., Cook, B.D., Davis, K.J., and Carey, E.V., 2005. Comparing net ecosystem exchange of carbon dioxide between an old-growth and mature forest in the upper midwest, USA. Ag. For. Met. 128(1-2): 33-55 (doi: 10.1016/j.agrformet.2004). Site was chosen to represent an end member representative of the upland forests in the WLEF tall tower flux footprint. (Note, however, that old growth forests are not found within the WLEF tall tower flux footprint.)

  2. Muon fluxes from dark matter annihilation (Journal Article) ...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    We calculate the muon flux from annihilation of the dark matter in the core of the Sun, in the ... We illustrate how muon energy distribution from dark matter annihilation ...

  3. Analysis of Metabolic Pathways and Fluxes in a Newly Discovered...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    a maximum ethanol yield of 0.38+-0.07 mol mol-1 more glucose. In silico flux balance modeling demonstrates that lactate and acetate production from G. thermoglucosidasius...

  4. High Heat Flux Thermoelectric Module Using Standard Bulk Material...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Presents high heat flux thermoelectric module design for cooling using a novel V-shaped shunt configuration with bulk TE elements achieving high area packing fractions crane.pdf ...

  5. Elevated carbon dioxide flux at the Dixie Valley geothermal field...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    site near the Stillwater Fault to 0.1 t dayy1 from a 0.01-km2 location of steaming ground on the valley floor. Anomalous CO2 flux is positively correlated with shallow...

  6. Novel Transverse Flux Machine for Vehicle Traction Applications: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wan, Z.; Ahmed, A.; Husain, I.; Muljadi, E.

    2015-04-02

    A novel transverse flux machine topology for electric vehicle traction applications using ferrite magnets is presented in this paper. The proposed transverse flux topology utilizes novel magnet arrangements in the rotor that are similar to the Halbach array to boost flux linkage; on the stator side, cores are alternately arranged around a pair of ring windings in each phase to make use of the entire rotor flux that eliminates end windings. Analytical design considerations and finite-element methods are used for an optimized design of a scooter in-wheel motor. Simulation results from finite element analysis (FEA) show that the motor achieved comparable torque density to conventional rare-earth permanent magnet (PM) machines. This machine is a viable candidate for direct-drive applications with low cost and high torque density.

  7. Black Branes in Flux Compactifications (Journal Article) | SciTech...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Black Branes in Flux Compactifications Citation Details ... Report Number(s): SLAC-PUB-15462 arXiv:1306.3982 DOE Contract Number: AC02-76SF00515 Resource Type: Journal Article ...

  8. Probing the Dark Matter mass and nature with neutrinos

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blennow, Mattias; Carrigan, Marcus; Martinez, Enrique Fernandez E-mail: carri@kth.se

    2013-06-01

    We study the possible indirect neutrino signal from dark matter annihilations inside the Sun's core for relatively light dark matter masses in the O(10) GeV range. Due to their excellent energy reconstruction capabilities, we focus on the detection of this flux in liquid argon or magnetized iron calorimeter detectors, proposed for the next generation of far detectors of neutrino oscillation experiments and neutrino telescopes. The aim of the study is to probe the ability of these detectors to determine fundamental properties of the dark matter nature such as its mass or its relative annihilation branching fractions to different channels. We find that these detectors will be able to accurately measure the dark matter mass as long as the dark matter annihilations have a significant branching into the neutrino or at least the τ channel. We have also discovered degeneracies between different dark matter masses and annihilation channels, where a hard τ channel spectrum for a lower dark matter mass may mimic that of a softer quark channel spectrum for a larger dark matter mass. Finally, we discuss the sensitivity of the detectors to the different branching ratios and find that it is between one and two orders of magnitude better than the current bounds from those coming from analysis of Super-Kamiokande data.

  9. Updated flux information for neutron scattering and irradiation facilities at the BNL High Flux Beam Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holden, N.E.; Hu, J.P.; Reciniello, R.N.; Sengupta, S.; Greenwood, L.R.; Farrell, K.

    1997-08-01

    The HFBR is a heavy water, D{sub 2}O, cooled and moderated reactor with twenty-eight fuel elements containing a maximum of 9.8 kilograms of {sup 235}U. While most reactors attempt to minimize the escape of neutrons from the core, the HFBR`s D{sub 2}O design allows the thermal neutron flux to peak in the reflector region and maximizes the number of thermal neutrons available to nine horizontal external beams, H-1 to H-9, used for neutron scattering and capture reactions, supporting physics, chemistry and biology experiments. All horizontal beam tubes were built tangential to the direction of the emerging neutrons, except for the H-2 beam tube, which looks directly at the core and has been used for neutron cross section measurements utilizing fast neutrons and for the TRISTAN fission product studies. In recent years, there have been some beam modifications and new instrumentation introduced at the HFBR. A high resolution neutron powder diffractometer instrument is now operating with a resolution of 5 {times} 10{sup {minus}4} at horizontal beam line H-1. To study scattering from liquid surfaces, a neutron reflection spectrometer was introduced on the CNF beam line at H-9. In the past year, a fourth beam line has been added to the CNF line at H-9. The existing beam plug at the H-6 beam line has recently been removed and a new plug, which will feature super mirrored surfaces, is now being installed. Last year, the vertical beam thimble, V-13, a fixed port filled with thirty year old samples used for HFBR material surveillance studies was replaced by a new thimble and charging station at the core edge creating an irradiation facility to substitute for the original V-13. A neutron dosimetry program has begun to measure and calculate the energy dependent neutron and gamma ray flux densities and/or dose rates at horizontal beam lines and vertical irradiation thimbles.

  10. Natural convection burnout heat flux limit for control rods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Britt, T.E.

    1986-04-14

    Technical Standard 105-3.05, Safety Circuits, does not require the Septifoil Supply Header Pressure Very Low safety circuit for current charges. This document develops a new requirement for this circuit based on the burnout heat flux of a control rod under natural convective cooling. Specifically, the Septifoil Supply Header Pressure Very Low safety circuit will be required whenever the calculated control rod operating heat flux exceeds 155,000 pcu/ft{sup 2}-hr.

  11. Longwave scattering effects on fluxes in broken cloud fields

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Takara, E.E.; Ellingson, R.G.

    1996-04-01

    The optical properties of clouds in the radiative energy balance are important. Most works on the effects of scattering have been in the shortwave; but longwave effects can be significant. In this work, the fluxes above and below a single cloud layer are presented, along with the errors in assuming flat black plate clouds or black clouds. The predicted fluxes are the averaged results of analysis of several fields with the same cloud amount.

  12. AmeriFlux US-Shd Shidler- Oklahoma

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Verma, Shashi [University of Nebraska - Lincoln

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-Shd Shidler- Oklahoma. Site Description - Native tall grass prairie. A prairie management prescribed burn was conducted in the spring of 1997, but not in 1996. The site was not grazed from early August 1996-September 1997. almost all plants are warm season C4 species, grasslands, temperate continental climate

  13. AmeriFlux US-SuW Maui Sugarcane Windy

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Anderson, Ray [USDA-Agricultural Research Service, United States Salinity Laboratory, Contaminant Fate and Transport Unit; Wang, Dong [USDA - Agricultural Research Service, San Joaquin Valley Agricultural Sciences Center, Water Management Research Unit

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-SuW Maui Sugarcane Windy. Site Description - Continuous, irrigated, sugarcane cultivation for >100 years. Practice is to grow plant sugarcane for 2 years, drydown, burn leaves, harvest cane, and then till and replant very shortly after harvest. Site differs from Sugarcane Lee/Sheltered and Sugarcane Middle in soil type and site meteorology.

  14. AmeriFlux US-SuM Maui Sugarcane Middle

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Anderson, Ray [USDA-Agricultural Research Service, United States Salinity Laboratory, Contaminant Fate and Transport Unit; Wang, Dong [USDA - Agricultural Research Service, San Joaquin Valley Agricultural Sciences Center, Water Management Research Unit

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-SuM Maui Sugarcane Middle. Site Description - Continuous, irrigated, sugarcane cultivation for >100 years. Practice is to grow plant sugarcane for 2 years, drydown, burn leaves, harvest cane, and then till and replant very shortly after harvest. Site differs from Sugarcane Windy and Sugarcane Lee/sheltered in soil and meteorology.

  15. AmeriFlux MX-Lpa La Paz

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Oechel, Walter [San Diego State University

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site MX-Lpa La Paz. Site Description - As evident by some very large Cardon (5-7 meters), according to Coyle and Roberts, 1975, extent vegetation has likely been around at least 200 years. Until about 15 years ago from 1996, site was used for livestock production and selective firewood extraction. However, when I look over the fence where there has been livestock activity, not much difference

  16. AmeriFlux CR-Lse La Selva

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Loescher, Hank

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site CR-Lse La Selva. Site Description - Site was occupied by Native Americans since 3000 B.P. practicing shifting cultivation. Some selective cutting along rivers (heart of palm). Charcoal dating indicate fires 2400 B.P. and 1100 B.P. Some clearing for pasture/cocoa production, second growth, humid tropical rain forest. Site resides on land presently owned by the Organization for Tropical Studies.

  17. Project Profile: High-Flux Microchannel Solar Receiver | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Flux Microchannel Solar Receiver Project Profile: High-Flux Microchannel Solar Receiver Oregon logo -- This project is inactive -- Oregon State University and its partners, under the 2012 SunShot Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) R&D funding opportunity announcement (FOA), are working to develop an advanced heat exchanger for use in CSP receivers. The heat exchanger has the potential to significantly increase heat transfer and reduce the size of the receiver. Approach Illustration

  18. High Flux Microchannel Solar Receiver Development with Adaptive Flow

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Control | Department of Energy Flux Microchannel Solar Receiver Development with Adaptive Flow Control High Flux Microchannel Solar Receiver Development with Adaptive Flow Control This presentation was delivered at the SunShot Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) Program Review 2013, held April 23-25, 2013 near Phoenix, Arizona. csp_review_meeting_042313_drost.pdf (1.81 MB) More Documents & Publications Microchannel Receiver Development - FY12 Q4 Microchannel Receiver Development - FY13 Q2

  19. Neutron flux profile monitor for use in a fission reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kopp, Manfred K.; Valentine, Kenneth H.

    1983-01-01

    A neutron flux monitor is provided which consists of a plurality of fission counters arranged as spaced-apart point detectors along a delay line. As a fission event occurs in any one of the counters, two delayed current pulses are generated at the output of the delay line. The time separation of the pulses identifies the counter in which the particular fission event occured. Neutron flux profiles of reactor cores can be more accurately measured as a result.

  20. Design of a differential radiometer for atmospheric radiative flux measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LaDelfe, P.C.; Weber, P.G.; Rodriguez, C.W.

    1994-11-01

    The Hemispherical Optimized NEt Radiometer (HONER) is an instrument under development at the Los Alamos National Laboratory for deployment on an unmanned aerospace vehicle as part of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurements (ARM/UAV) program. HONER is a differential radiometer which will measure the difference between the total upwelling and downwelling fluxes and is intended to provide a means of measuring the atmospheric radiative flux divergence. Unlike existing instruments which measure the upwelling and downwelling fluxes separately, HONER will achieve an optical difference by chopping the two fluxes alternately onto a common pyroelectric detector. HONER will provide data resolved into two spectral bands; one covering the solar dominated region from less than 0.4 micrometer to approximately 4.5 micrometers and the other covering the region from approximately 4.5 micrometers to greater than 50 micrometers, dominated by thermal radiation. The means of separating the spectral regions guarantees seamless summation to calculate the total flux. The fields-of-view are near-hemispherical, upward and downward. The instrument can be converted, in flight, from the differential mode to absolute mode, measuring the upwelling and downwelling fluxes separately and simultaneously. The instrument also features continuous calibration from on-board sources. We will describe the design and operation of the sensor head and the on-board reference sources as well as the means of deployment.

  1. Characterization of local heat fluxes around ICRF antennas on JET

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Campergue, A.-L.; Jacquet, P.; Monakhov, I.; Arnoux, G.; Brix, M.; Sirinelli, A.; Milanesio, D.; Colas, L.; Collaboration: JET-EFDA Contributors

    2014-02-12

    When using Ion Cyclotron Range of Frequency (ICRF) heating, enhanced power deposition on Plasma-Facing Components (PFCs) close to the antennas can occur. Experiments have recently been carried out on JET with the new ITER-Like-Wall (ILW) to characterize the heat fluxes on the protection of the JET ICRF antennas, using Infra-Red (IR) thermography measurement. The measured heat flux patterns along the poloidal limiters surrounding powered antennas were compared to predictions from a simple RF sheath rectification model. The RF electric field, parallel to the static magnetic field in front of the antenna, was evaluated using the TOPICA code, integrating a 3D flattened model of the JET A2 antennas. The poloidal density variation in front of the limiters was obtained from the mapping of the Li-beam or edge reflectometry measurements using the flux surface geometry provided by EFIT equilibrium reconstruction. In many cases, this simple model can well explain the position of the maximum heat flux on the different protection limiters and the heat-flux magnitude, confirming that the parallel RF electric field and the electron plasma density in front of the antenna are the main driving parameters for ICRF-induced local heat fluxes.

  2. Simulation of atmospheric temperature effects on cosmic ray muon flux

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tognini, Stefano Castro; Gomes, Ricardo Avelino

    2015-05-15

    The collision between a cosmic ray and an atmosphere nucleus produces a set of secondary particles, which will decay or interact with other atmosphere elements. This set of events produced a primary particle is known as an extensive air shower (EAS) and is composed by a muonic, a hadronic and an electromagnetic component. The muonic flux, produced mainly by pions and kaons decays, has a dependency with the atmosphere’s effective temperature: an increase in the effective temperature results in a lower density profile, which decreases the probability of pions and kaons to interact with the atmosphere and, consequently, resulting in a major number of meson decays. Such correlation between the muon flux and the atmosphere’s effective temperature was measured by a set of experiments, such as AMANDA, Borexino, MACRO and MINOS. This phenomena can be investigated by simulating the final muon flux produced by two different parameterizations of the isothermal atmospheric model in CORSIKA, where each parameterization is described by a depth function which can be related to the muon flux in the same way that the muon flux is related to the temperature. This research checks the agreement among different high energy hadronic interactions models and the physical expected behavior of the atmosphere temperature effect by analyzing a set of variables, such as the height of the primary interaction and the difference in the muon flux.

  3. AmeriFlux US-ARc ARM Southern Great Plains control site- Lamont...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ARc ARM Southern Great Plains control site- Lamont Title: AmeriFlux US-ARc ARM Southern Great Plains control site- Lamont This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for ...

  4. AmeriFlux US-Wi4 Mature red pine (MRP) (Dataset) | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Wi4 Mature red pine (MRP) Citation Details In-Document Search Title: AmeriFlux US-Wi4 Mature red pine (MRP) This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site ...

  5. High active nitrogen flux growth of GaN by plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McSkimming, Brian M. Speck, James S.; Chaix, Catherine

    2015-09-15

    In the present study, the authors report on a modified Riber radio frequency (RF) nitrogen plasma source that provides active nitrogen fluxes more than 30 times higher than those commonly used for plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy (PAMBE) growth of gallium nitride (GaN) and thus a significantly higher growth rate than has been previously reported. GaN films were grown using N{sub 2} gas flow rates between 5 and 25 sccm while varying the plasma source's RF forward power from 200 to 600 W. The highest growth rate, and therefore the highest active nitrogen flux, achieved was ∼7.6 μm/h. For optimized growth conditions, the surfaces displayed a clear step-terrace structure with an average RMS roughness (3 × 3 μm) on the order of 1 nm. Secondary ion mass spectroscopy impurity analysis demonstrates oxygen and hydrogen incorporation of 1 × 10{sup 16} and ∼5 × 10{sup 17}, respectively. In addition, the authors have achieved PAMBE growth of GaN at a substrate temperature more than 150 °C greater than our standard Ga rich GaN growth regime and ∼100 °C greater than any previously reported PAMBE growth of GaN. This growth temperature corresponds to GaN decomposition in vacuum of more than 20 nm/min; a regime previously unattainable with conventional nitrogen plasma sources. Arrhenius analysis of the decomposition rate shows that samples with a flux ratio below stoichiometry have an activation energy greater than decomposition of GaN in vacuum while samples grown at or above stoichiometry have decreased activation energy. The activation energy of decomposition for GaN in vacuum was previously determined to be ∼3.1 eV. For a Ga/N flux ratio of ∼1.5, this activation energy was found to be ∼2.8 eV, while for a Ga/N flux ratio of ∼0.5, it was found to be ∼7.9 eV.

  6. Dual Integrated Appliances as an Energy and Safety Solution for Low Income

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Weatherization Webinar | Department of Energy Dual Integrated Appliances as an Energy and Safety Solution for Low Income Weatherization Webinar Dual Integrated Appliances as an Energy and Safety Solution for Low Income Weatherization Webinar Slides from the Building America webinar presented by the NorthernSTAR team. webinar_northernstar_dual_appliances_20111019.pdf (9.61 MB) More Documents & Publications Building America Expert Meeting: Recommendations for Applying Water Heaters in

  7. Heat and mass exchanger

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lowenstein, Andrew; Sibilia, Marc J.; Miller, Jeffrey A.; Tonon, Thomas

    2007-09-18

    A mass and heat exchanger includes at least one first substrate with a surface for supporting a continuous flow of a liquid thereon that either absorbs, desorbs, evaporates or condenses one or more gaseous species from or to a surrounding gas; and at least one second substrate operatively associated with the first substrate. The second substrate includes a surface for supporting the continuous flow of the liquid thereon and is adapted to carry a heat exchange fluid therethrough, wherein heat transfer occurs between the liquid and the heat exchange fluid.

  8. Heat and mass exchanger

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lowenstein, Andrew; Sibilia, Marc J.; Miller, Jeffrey A.; Tonon, Thomas

    2011-06-28

    A mass and heat exchanger includes at least one first substrate with a surface for supporting a continuous flow of a liquid thereon that either absorbs, desorbs, evaporates or condenses one or more gaseous species from or to a surrounding gas; and at least one second substrate operatively associated with the first substrate. The second substrate includes a surface for supporting the continuous flow of the liquid thereon and is adapted to carry a heat exchange fluid therethrough, wherein heat transfer occurs between the liquid and the heat exchange fluid.

  9. A Carbon Flux Super Site. New Insights and InnovativeAtmosphere...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    A Carbon Flux Super Site. New Insights and Innovative Atmosphere-Terrestrial Carbon Exchange Measurements and Modeling Citation Details In-Document Search Title: A Carbon Flux ...

  10. An ecosystem-scale perspective of the net land methanol flux...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    An ecosystem-scale perspective of the net land methanol flux: synthesis of micrometeorological flux measurements Citation Details In-Document Search Title: An ecosystem-scale ...

  11. The Power of Integrators, Financiers, and Insurers to Reduce Proliferation Risks: Nuclear Dual-Use Goods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weise, Rachel A.; Hund, Gretchen

    2015-05-01

    Globalization of manufacturing supply chains has changed the nature of nuclear proliferation. Before 1991, nonproliferation efforts focused almost exclusively on limiting the spread of materials and equipment specifically designed for nuclear use -- reactors, centrifuges, and fissile material. Dual-use items, those items with both nuclear and non-nuclear applications, were not closely scrutinized or controlled. However, in 1991 the international community discovered that Iraq had developed a fairly sophisticated nuclear weapons program by importing dual-use items; this discovery spurred the international community to increase controls on dual-use technologies. Despite these international efforts, dual-use items are still a challenge for those seeking to limit proliferation.

  12. Dual Exchange in PCN-333: A Facile Strategy to Chemically Robust...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Dual Exchange in PCN-333: A Facile Strategy to Chemically Robust Mesoporous Chromium Metal-Organic Framework with Functional Groups Previous Next List Park, Jihye; Feng, Dawei; ...

  13. NREL and CSEM Jointly Set New Efficiency Record with Dual-Junction...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    NREL and CSEM Jointly Set New Efficiency Record with Dual-Junction Solar Cell January 5, 2016 Scientists at the Energy Department's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and...

  14. POLICY GUIDANCE MEMORANDUM #11A Approval Process for Dual Compensation Waivers for Reemployed Annuitants

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Process to  grant dual compensation (salary-offset) waivers to reemployed annuitants who work on a limited basis without reduction to their retirement annuity.

  15. NREL and CSEM Jointly Set New Efficiency Record with Dual-Junction...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    NREL and CSEM Jointly Set New Efficiency Record with Dual-Junction Solar Cell January 5, 2016 Scientists at the Energy Department's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and ...

  16. A two-fold reduction in measurement time for neutron assay: Initial tests of a prototype dual-gated shift register

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stewart, J.E.; Bourret, S.C.; Krick, M.S.; Hansen, W.J.; Harker, W.C.

    1996-09-01

    Neutron coincidence counting (NCC) is used routinely around the world for nondestructive mass assay of uranium and plutonium in many forms, including waste. Compared with other methods, NCC is generally the most flexible, economic, and rapid. Many applications of NCC would benefit from a reduction in counting time required for a fixed random error. We have developed and tested the first prototype of a dual- gated, shift-register-based electronics unit that offers the potential of decreased measurement time for all passive and active NCC applications.

  17. Analytical solution for two-phase flow in a wellbore using the drift-flux model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pan, L.; Webb, S.W.; Oldenburg, C.M.

    2011-11-01

    This paper presents analytical solutions for steady-state, compressible two-phase flow through a wellbore under isothermal conditions using the drift flux conceptual model. Although only applicable to highly idealized systems, the analytical solutions are useful for verifying numerical simulation capabilities that can handle much more complicated systems, and can be used in their own right for gaining insight about two-phase flow processes in wells. The analytical solutions are obtained by solving the mixture momentum equation of steady-state, two-phase flow with an assumption that the two phases are immiscible. These analytical solutions describe the steady-state behavior of two-phase flow in the wellbore, including profiles of phase saturation, phase velocities, and pressure gradients, as affected by the total mass flow rate, phase mass fraction, and drift velocity (i.e., the slip between two phases). Close matching between the analytical solutions and numerical solutions for a hypothetical CO{sub 2} leakage problem as well as to field data from a CO{sub 2} production well indicates that the analytical solution is capable of capturing the major features of steady-state two-phase flow through an open wellbore, and that the related assumptions and simplifications are justified for many actual systems. In addition, we demonstrate the utility of the analytical solution to evaluate how the bottomhole pressure in a well in which CO{sub 2} is leaking upward responds to the mass flow rate of CO{sub 2}-water mixture.

  18. Compact steady-state and high-flux Falcon ion source for tests of plasma-facing materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Girka, O.; Bizyukov, I.; Sereda, K.; Bizyukov, A.; Gutkin, M.; Sleptsov, V.

    2012-08-15

    This paper describes the design and operation of the Falcon ion source. It is based on conventional design of anode layer thrusters. This ion source is a versatile, compact, affordable, and highly functional in the research field of the fusion materials. The reversed magnetic field configuration of the source allows precise focusing of the ion beam into small spot of Almost-Equal-To 3 mm and also provides the limited capabilities for impurity mass-separation. As the result, the source generates steady-state ion beam, which irradiates surface with high heat (0.3 - 21 MW m{sup -2}) and particle fluxes (4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 21}- 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 23} m{sup -2}s{sup -1}), which approaches the upper limit for the flux range expected in ITER.

  19. RECURRENT EXPLOSIVE ERUPTIONS AND THE ''SIGMOID-TO-ARCADE'' TRANSFORMATION IN THE SUN DRIVEN BY DYNAMICAL MAGNETIC FLUX EMERGENCE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Archontis, V.; Hood, A. W.; Tsinganos, K.

    2014-05-10

    We report on three-dimensional MHD simulations of recurrent mini coronal mass ejection (CME)-like eruptions in a small active region (AR), which is formed by the dynamical emergence of a twisted (not kink unstable) flux tube from the solar interior. The eruptions develop as a result of the repeated formation and expulsion of new flux ropes due to continuous emergence and reconnection of sheared field lines along the polarity inversion line of the AR. The acceleration of the eruptions is triggered by tether-cutting reconnection at the current sheet underneath the erupting field. We find that each explosive eruption is followed by reformation of a sigmoidal structure and a subsequent ''sigmoid-to-flare arcade'' transformation in the AR. These results might have implications for recurrent CMEs and eruptive sigmoids/flares observations and theoretical studies.

  20. Energy Grasses for the Masses

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Breakout Session 1-D: The Pitch Energy Grasses for the Masses Jason Force, Chief Executive Officer, Iron Goat Technology, Inc.

  1. Dual Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test Facility | National Nuclear

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Security Administration | (NNSA) Dual Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test Facility An integral part of the national hydrotest program, the DARHT is the world's most powerful x-ray machine. DARHT consists of two electron accelerators oriented at right angles to one another. Each accelerator creates a powerful electron beam that is focused onto a metal target which converts the kinetic energy of the electron beam into high energy x or gamma-rays. The x-ray dose from one DARHT accelerator is

  2. Dual-wavelength InP quantum dot lasers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shutts, S.; Smowton, P. M.; Krysa, A. B.

    2014-06-16

    We have demonstrated a two-section dual-wavelength diode laser incorporating distributed Bragg reflectors, with a peak-wavelength separation of 62.5?nm at 300?K. Each lasing wavelength has a different temperature dependence, providing a difference-tuning of 0.11?nm/K. We discuss the mechanisms governing the light output of the two competing modes and explain how the short wavelength can be relatively insensitive to output changes at the longer wavelength. Starting from an initial condition when the output at both wavelengths are equal, a 500% increase in the long wavelength output causes the short wavelength output to fall by only 6%.

  3. Dual-frequency glow discharges in atmospheric helium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Xiaojiang; Guo, Ying; Dai, Lu; Zhang, Jing; Shi, J. J.

    2015-10-15

    In this paper, the dual-frequency (DF) glow discharges in atmospheric helium were experimented by electrical and optical measurements in terms of current voltage characteristics and optical emission intensity. It is shown that the waveforms of applied voltages or discharge currents are the results of low frequency (LF) waveforms added to high frequency (HF) waveforms. The HF mainly influences discharge currents, and the LF mainly influences applied voltages. The gas temperatures of DF discharges are mainly affected by HF power rather than LF power.

  4. Exclusive J/{psi} electroproduction in a dual model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fiore, R.; Jenkovszky, L. L.; Magas, V. K.; Melis, S.; Prokudin, A.

    2009-12-01

    Exclusive J/{psi} electroproduction is studied in the framework of the analytic S-matrix theory. The differential and integrated elastic cross sections are calculated using the modified dual amplitude with Mandelstam analyticity model. The model is applied to the description of the available experimental data and proves to be valid in a wide region of the kinematical variables s, t, and Q{sup 2}. Our amplitude can be used also as a universal background parametrization for the extraction of tiny resonance signals.

  5. Gauge theories on hyperbolic spaces and dual wormhole instabilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buchel, Alex

    2004-09-15

    We study supergravity duals of strongly coupled four-dimensional gauge theories formulated on compact quotients of hyperbolic spaces. The resulting background geometries are represented by Euclidean wormholes, which complicate establishing the precise gauge theory/string theory correspondence dictionary. These backgrounds suffer from the nonperturbative instabilities arising from the D3D3-bar pair-production in the background four-form potential. We discuss conditions for suppressing this Schwingerlike instability. We find that Euclidean wormholes arising in this construction develop a naked singularity before they can be stabilized.

  6. The double well mass filter

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Gueroult, Renaud; Rax, Jean -Marcel; Fisch, Nathaniel J.

    2014-02-03

    Various mass filter concepts based on rotating plasmas have been suggested with the specific purpose of nuclear waste remediation. We report on a new rotating mass filter combining radial separation with axial extraction. Lastly, the radial separation of the masses is the result of a “double-well” in effective radial potential in rotating plasma with a sheared rotation profile.

  7. Linear electric field mass spectrometry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McComas, D.J.; Nordholt, J.E.

    1992-12-01

    A mass spectrometer and methods for mass spectrometry are described. The apparatus is compact and of low weight and has a low power requirement, making it suitable for use on a space satellite and as a portable detector for the presence of substances. High mass resolution measurements are made by timing ions moving through a gridless cylindrically symmetric linear electric field. 8 figs.

  8. Linear electric field mass spectrometry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McComas, David J.; Nordholt, Jane E.

    1992-01-01

    A mass spectrometer and methods for mass spectrometry. The apparatus is compact and of low weight and has a low power requirement, making it suitable for use on a space satellite and as a portable detector for the presence of substances. High mass resolution measurements are made by timing ions moving through a gridless cylindrically symmetric linear electric field.

  9. Dual mechanical behaviour of hydrogen in stressed silicon nitride thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Volpi, F. Braccini, M.; Pasturel, A.; Devos, A.; Raymond, G.; Morin, P.

    2014-07-28

    In the present article, we report a study on the mechanical behaviour displayed by hydrogen atoms and pores in silicon nitride (SiN) films. A simple three-phase model is proposed to relate the physical properties (stiffness, film stress, mass density, etc.) of hydrogenated nanoporous SiN thin films to the volume fractions of hydrogen and pores. This model is then applied to experimental data extracted from films deposited by plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition, where hydrogen content, stress, and mass densities range widely from 11% to 30%, ?2.8 to 1.5?GPa, and 2.0 to 2.8?g/cm{sup 3}, respectively. Starting from the conventional plotting of film's Young's modulus against film porosity, we first propose to correct the conventional calculation of porosity volume fraction with the hydrogen content, thus taking into account both hydrogen mass and concentration. The weight of this hydrogen-correction is found to evolve linearly with hydrogen concentration in tensile films (in accordance with a simple mass correction of the film density calculation), but a clear discontinuity is observed toward compressive stresses. Then, the effective volume occupied by hydrogen atoms is calculated taking account of the bond type (N-H or Si-H bonds), thus allowing a precise extraction of the hydrogen volume fraction. These calculations applied to tensile films show that both volume fractions of hydrogen and porosity are similar in magnitude and randomly distributed against Young's modulus. However, the expected linear dependence of the Young's modulus is clearly observed when both volume fractions are added. Finally, we show that the stiffer behaviour of compressive films cannot be only explained on the basis of this (hydrogen?+?porosity) volume fraction. Indeed this stiffness difference relies on a dual mechanical behaviour displayed by hydrogen atoms against the film stress state: while they participate to the stiffness in compressive films, hydrogen atoms mainly behave like

  10. Mass Transport within Soils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McKone, Thomas E.

    2009-03-01

    Contaminants in soil can impact human health and the environment through a complex web of interactions. Soils exist where the atmosphere, hydrosphere, geosphere, and biosphere converge. Soil is the thin outer zone of the earth's crust that supports rooted plants and is the product of climate and living organisms acting on rock. A true soil is a mixture of air, water, mineral, and organic components. The relative proportions of these components determine the value of the soil for agricultural and for other human uses. These proportions also determine, to a large extent, how a substance added to soil is transported and/or transformed within the soil (Spositio, 2004). In mass-balance models, soil compartments play a major role, functioning both as reservoirs and as the principal media for transport among air, vegetation, surface water, deeper soil, and ground water (Mackay, 2001). Quantifying the mass transport of chemicals within soil and between soil and atmosphere is important for understanding the role soil plays in controlling fate, transport, and exposure to multimedia pollutants. Soils are characteristically heterogeneous. A trench dug into soil typically reveals several horizontal layers having different colors and textures. As illustrated in Figure 1, these multiple layers are often divided into three major horizons: (1) the A horizon, which encompasses the root zone and contains a high concentration of organic matter; (2) the B horizon, which is unsaturated, lies below the roots of most plants, and contains a much lower organic carbon content; and (3) the C horizon, which is the unsaturated zone of weathered parent rock consisting of bedrock, alluvial material, glacial material, and/or soil of an earlier geological period. Below these three horizons lies the saturated zone - a zone that encompasses the area below ground surface in which all interconnected openings within the geologic media are completely filled with water. Similarly to the unsaturated zone

  11. AmeriFlux US-Blo Blodgett Forest

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Goldstein, Allen [University of California, Berkeley

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-Blo Blodgett Forest. Site Description - The flux tower site at Blodgett Forest is on a 1200 ha parcel of land owned by Sierra Pacific Industries in the Sierra Nevada range near Georgetown, California. The field site was established in May 1997 with continuous operation since May 1999. The site is situated in a ponderosa pine plantation, mixed-evergreen coniferous forest, located adjacent to Blodgett Forest Research Station. The Mediterranean-type climate of California is characterized by a protracted summer drought, with precipitation occurring mainly from October through May. The infrastructure for the ecosystem scale flux measurements includes a walkup measurement tower, two temperature controlled instrument buildings, and an electrical generation system powered by a diesel generator. Typical wind patterns at the site include upslope flow during the day (from the west) and downslope flow at night (from the east). The plantation is relatively flat, and contains a homogenous mixture of evenly aged ponderosa pine with other trees and shrubs scattered throughout the ecosystem making up less than 30% of the biomass. The daytime fetch for the tower measurements extends approximately 200 m to the southwest of the tower (this region contributes ~90% of the daytime flux), thus remote sensing images to be used for modeling should probably be centered approximately 100 m from the tower at an angle of 225 deg.

  12. QUANTIFICATION OF HEAT FLUX FROM A REACTING THERMITE SPRAY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eric Nixon; Michelle Pantoya

    2009-07-01

    Characterizing the combustion behaviors of energetic materials requires diagnostic tools that are often not readily or commercially available. For example, a jet of thermite spray provides a high temperature and pressure reaction that can also be highly corrosive and promote undesirable conditions for the survivability of any sensor. Developing a diagnostic to quantify heat flux from a thermite spray is the objective of this study. Quick response sensors such as thin film heat flux sensors can not survive the harsh conditions of the spray, but more rugged sensors lack the response time for the resolution desired. A sensor that will allow for adequate response time while surviving the entire test duration was constructed. The sensor outputs interior temperatures of the probes at known locations and utilizes an inverse heat conduction code to calculate heat flux values. The details of this device are discussed and illustrated. Temperature and heat flux measurements of various thermite spray conditions are reported. Results indicate that this newly developed energetic material heat flux sensor provides quantitative data with good repeatability.

  13. Neutrino Flux Prediction for the NuMI Beamline

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aliaga Soplin, Leonidas

    2016-01-01

    The determination of the neutrino flux in any conventional neutrino beam presents a challenge for the current and future short and long baseline neutrino experiments. The uncertainties associated with the production and attenuation of the hadrons in the beamline materials along with those associated with the beam optics have a big effect in the flux spectrum knowledge. For experiments like MINERvA, understanding the flux is crucial since it enters directly into every neutrino-nucleus cross-sections measurements. The foundation of this work is predicting the neutrino flux at MINERvA using dedicated measurements of hadron production in hadron-nucleus collisions and incorporating in-situ MINERvA data that can provide additional constraints. This work also includes the prospect for predicting the flux at other detectors like the NOvA Near detector. The procedure and conclusions of this thesis will have a big impact on future hadron production experiments and on determining the fl ux for the upcoming DUNE experiment.

  14. On the look-up tables for the critical heat flux in tubes (history and problems)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kirillov, P.L.; Smogalev, I.P.

    1995-09-01

    The complication of critical heat flux (CHF) problem for boiling in channels is caused by the large number of variable factors and the variety of two-phase flows. The existence of several hundreds of correlations for the prediction of CHF demonstrates the unsatisfactory state of this problem. The phenomenological CHF models can provide only the qualitative predictions of CHF primarily in annular-dispersed flow. The CHF look-up tables covered the results of numerous experiments received more recognition in the last 15 years. These tables are based on the statistical averaging of CHF values for each range of pressure, mass flux and quality. The CHF values for regions, where no experimental data is available, are obtained by extrapolation. The correction of these tables to account for the diameter effect is a complicated problem. There are ranges of conditions where the simple correlations cannot produce the reliable results. Therefore, diameter effect on CHF needs additional study. The modification of look-up table data for CHF in tubes to predict CHF in rod bundles must include a method which to take into account the nonuniformity of quality in a rod bundle cross section.

  15. A twisted flux tube model for solar prominences. III. Magnetic support

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ridgway, C.; Priest, E.R.; Amari, T. )

    1991-01-01

    The model for the support of a solar prominence in a twisted flux tube by Priest et al. (1989) is here extended to consider large deviations of the tube from cylindrical symmetry. The prominence is modeled as a finite current sheet with mass which is locally free from singularities in the magnetic field. Analytical solutions are found to the nonlinear force-free equations for the structure around the prominence for two functional forms of the field component parallel to the prominence axis. An associated mixed boundary-value problem is also solved in which the prominence is connected at its base to the photosphere, and the normal magnetic field components along the prominence and the photosphere are imposed. 21 refs.

  16. Does SEGUE/SDSS indicate a dual galactic halo?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schönrich, Ralph; Asplund, Martin; Casagrande, Luca

    2014-05-01

    We re-examine recent claims of observational evidence for a dual Galactic halo in SEGUE/SDSS data, and trace them back to improper error treatment and neglect of selection effects. In particular, the detection of a vertical abundance gradient in the halo can be explained as a metallicity bias in distance. A similar bias and the impact of disk contamination affect the sample of blue horizontal branch stars. These examples highlight why non-volume complete samples require forward modeling from theoretical models or extensive bias-corrections. We also show how observational uncertainties produce the specific non-Gaussianity in the observed azimuthal velocity distribution of halo stars, which can be erroneously identified as two Gaussian components. A single kinematic component yields an excellent fit to the observed data, when we model the measurement process including distance uncertainties. Furthermore, we show that sample differences in proper motion space are the direct consequence of kinematic cuts and are enhanced when distance estimates are less accurate. Thus, their presence is neither proof of a separate population nor a measure of reliability for the applied distances. We conclude that currently there is no evidence from SEGUE/SDSS that would favor a dual Galactic halo over a single halo that is full of substructure.

  17. Dual-purpose desalting, RO versus MSF an economic comparison

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brandt, D.C.; Battey, R.F.

    1983-01-01

    Capital and annual operating costs are estimated for producing water using three combinations of seawater reverse osmosis and gas turbines. The costs and operating parameters were developed for Middle East conditions assuming a Red Sea water source. The plants were designed to produce 37,850 m/sup 3//d (10 mgd) of potable water and to export 50,000 kW of power. The reverse osmosis plant utilizes energy recovery and was designed with full pretreatment for a surface water supply. Electricity is provided by either gas turbines, steam turbines, or combined cycle plants. Power and water costs developed for these systems were compared to costs for conventional, dual-purpose MSF/steam turbine plants for the same water and power production. These evaluations considered two levels of fuel costs. The results of this study show the significant effect of fuel costs on process selection and on water and power costs. Capital and operating costs were 20 to 28 percent less and 23 to 33 percent less, respectively, for the RO/gas turbine and RO/combined cycle plants as compared to conventional, dual-purpose MSF steam turbine plants. In addition to economics, the merits of the systems are discussed relative to delivery, ease and flexibility of operation, turndown capability, and so forth.

  18. Using ARM Data to Evaluate Satellite Surface Solar Flux Retrievals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hinkelman, L.M.; Stackhouse, P.W.; Young, D.F.; Long, C.N.; Rutan, D.

    2005-03-18

    The accurate, long-term radiometric data collected by Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) has become essential to the evaluation of surface radiation budget data from satellites. Since the spatial and temporal characteristics of data from these two sources are very different, the comparisons are typically made for long-term average values. While such studies provide a general indication of the quality of satellite flux products, more detailed analysis is required to understand specific retrieval algorithm weaknesses. Here we show how data from the ARM shortwave flux analysis (SFA) value added product (VAP) are being used to assess solar fluxes in the Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment (GEWEX) Surface Radiation Budget (SRB), release 2.5.

  19. Remote high-temperature insulatorless heat-flux gauge

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Noel, Bruce W. (Espanola, NM)

    1993-01-01

    A remote optical heat-flux gauge for use in extremely high temperature environments is described. This application is possible because of the use of thermographic phosphors as the sensing media, and the omission of the need for an intervening layer of insulator between phosphor layers. The gauge has no electrical leads, but is interrogated with ultraviolet or laser light. The luminescence emitted by the two phosphor layers, which is indicative of the temperature of the layers, is collected and analyzed in order to determine the heat flux incident on the surface being investigated. The two layers of thermographic phosphor must be of different materials to assure that the spectral lines collected will be distinguishable. Spatial heat-flux measurements can be made by scanning the light across the surface of the gauge.

  20. Remote high-temperature insulatorless heat-flux gauge

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Noel, B.W.

    1993-12-28

    A remote optical heat-flux gauge for use in extremely high temperature environments is described. This application is possible because of the use of thermographic phosphors as the sensing media, and the omission of the need for an intervening layer of insulator between phosphor layers. The gauge has no electrical leads, but is interrogated with ultraviolet or laser light. The luminescence emitted by the two phosphor layers, which is indicative of the temperature of the layers, is collected and analyzed in order to determine the heat flux incident on the surface being investigated. The two layers of thermographic phosphor must be of different materials to assure that the spectral lines collected will be distinguishable. Spatial heat-flux measurements can be made by scanning the light across the surface of the gauge. 3 figures.

  1. Strip casting with fluxing agent applied to casting roll

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, R.S.; O`Malley, R.J.; Sussman, R.C.

    1997-07-29

    A strip caster for producing a continuous strip includes a tundish for containing a melt, a pair of horizontally disposed water cooled casting rolls and devices for electrostatically coating the outer peripheral chill surfaces of the casting rolls with a powder flux material. The casting rolls are juxtaposed relative to one another for forming a pouting basin for receiving the melt through a teeming tube thereby establishing a meniscus between the rolls for forming the strip. The melt is protected from the outside air by a non-oxidizing gas passed through a supply line to a sealing chamber. A preferred flux is boron oxide having a melting point of about 550 C. The flux coating enhances wetting of the steel melt to the casting roll and dissolves any metal oxide formed on the roll. 3 figs.

  2. Strip casting with fluxing agent applied to casting roll

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Williams, Robert S.; O'Malley, Ronald J.; Sussman, Richard C.

    1997-01-01

    A strip caster (10) for producing a continuous strip (24) includes a tundish (12) for containing a melt (14), a pair of horizontally disposed water cooled casting rolls (22) and devices (29) for electrostatically coating the outer peripheral chill surfaces (44) of the casting rolls with a powder flux material (56). The casting rolls are juxtaposed relative to one another for forming a pouting basin (18) for receiving the melt through a teeming tube (16) thereby establishing a meniscus (20) between the rolls for forming the strip. The melt is protected from the outside air by a non-oxidizing gas passed through a supply line (28) to a sealing chamber (26). A preferred flux is boron oxide having a melting point of about 550.degree. C. The flux coating enhances wetting of the steel melt to the casting roll and dissolves any metal oxide formed on the roll.

  3. Measurement of neutrino flux from neutrino-electron elastic scattering

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Park, J.; Aliaga, L.; Altinok, O.; Bellantoni, L.; Bercellie, A.; Betancourt, M.; Bodek, A.; Bravar, A.; Budd, H.; Cai, T.; et al

    2016-06-10

    In muon-neutrino elastic scattering on electrons is an observable neutrino process whose cross section is precisely known. Consequently a measurement of this process in an accelerator-based νμ beam can improve the knowledge of the absolute neutrino flux impinging upon the detector; typically this knowledge is limited to ~10% due to uncertainties in hadron production and focusing. We also isolated a sample of 135±17 neutrino-electron elastic scattering candidates in the segmented scintillator detector of MINERvA, after subtracting backgrounds and correcting for efficiency. We show how this sample can be used to reduce the total uncertainty on the NuMI νμ flux frommore » 9% to 6%. Finally, our measurement provides a flux constraint that is useful to other experiments using the NuMI beam, and this technique is applicable to future neutrino beams operating at multi-GeV energies.« less

  4. Vaporization, dispersion, and radiant fluxes from LPG spills. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-12-01

    Both burning and non-burning spills of LPG (primarily propane) were studied. Vaporization rates for propane spills on soil, concrete, insulating concrete, asphalt, sod, wood, and polymer foams were measured. Thermal conductivity, heat transfer coefficients, and steady state vaporization rates were determined. Vapor concentrations were measured downwind of open propane pools 25, 100, 400, and 1600 ft/sup 2/ in area. A Gaussian dispersion model modified for area sources provided a good correlation of measured concentrations. Emitted and incident radiant fluxes from propane fires were measured. Simplified flame radiation models were adequate for predicting radiant fluxes; the maximum effective flux emitted at the flame surface was about 50,000 Btu/h-ft/sup 2/. A few tests in which propane was sprayed into the air showed that at moderately high spray rates all the propane flashed to vapor or atomized; no liquid collected on the ground.

  5. AmeriFlux US-Wrc Wind River Crane Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bible, Ken; Wharton, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-Wrc Wind River Crane Site. Site Description - Wind River Field Station flux tower site is located in the T.T. Munger Research Area of the Wind River Ranger District in the Gifford Pinchot National Forest. Protected since 1926, the T.T. Munger Research Natural Area (RNA) is administered by the USDA Forest Service Pacific Northwest Research Station and Gifford Pinchot National Forest. The Douglas-fir/western hemlock dominant stand is approximately 500 years old and represents end points of several ecological gradients including age, biomass, structural complexity, and density of the dominant overstory species. A complete stand replacement fire, approximately 450-500 years ago, resulted in the initial establishment. No significant disturbances have occurred since the fire aside from those confined to small groups of single trees, such as overturn from high wind activity and mechanical damage from winter precipitation.

  6. AmeriFlux US-Slt Silas Little- New Jersey

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Clark, Ken [USDA Forest Service

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-Slt Silas Little- New Jersey. Site Description - Wildfires, prescribed fires, insect defoliation events and windstorms are the common disturbances in the NJ Pinelands. The oak-dominated forest at Silas Little Experimental Forest was most recently defoliated by Gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.) in 2006 to 2008, with complete defoliation occuring in 2007. Following this multi-year defoliation event, oak mortality was significant, and resulted in the death of approximately 20 % of the overstory oaks, and a similar reduction in stand biomass. Previous disturbances have included windstorms and earlier Gypsy moth defoliation events in the 1990's. The last major wildfire to occur at and near the Experimental Forest was in 1963. Since then, a number of prescribed fires have been conducted in the vicinity of the Silas Little flux site.

  7. Data Assimilation in the ADAPT Photospheric Flux Transport Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hickmann, Kyle S.; Godinez, Humberto C.; Henney, Carl J.; Arge, C. Nick

    2015-03-17

    Global maps of the solar photospheric magnetic flux are fundamental drivers for simulations of the corona and solar wind and therefore are important predictors of geoeffective events. However, observations of the solar photosphere are only made intermittently over approximately half of the solar surface. The Air Force Data Assimilative Photospheric Flux Transport (ADAPT) model uses localized ensemble Kalman filtering techniques to adjust a set of photospheric simulations to agree with the available observations. At the same time, this information is propagated to areas of the simulation that have not been observed. ADAPT implements a local ensemble transform Kalman filter (LETKF) to accomplish data assimilation, allowing the covariance structure of the flux-transport model to influence assimilation of photosphere observations while eliminating spurious correlations between ensemble members arising from a limited ensemble size. We give a detailed account of the implementation of the LETKF into ADAPT. Advantages of the LETKF scheme over previously implemented assimilation methods are highlighted.

  8. An ecosystem-scale perspective of the net land methanol flux: synthesis of micrometeorological flux measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wohlfahrt, G.; Amelynck, C.; Ammann, Christof; Arneth, A.; Bamberger, Ines; Goldstein, Allen H.; Gu, Lianhong; Guenther, Alex B.; Hansel, A.; Heinesch, B.; Holst, Thomas; Hortnagl, Lukas; Karl, T.; Laffineur, Q.; Neftel, Albrecht; McKinney, Karena; Munger, William; Pallardy, Stephen G.; Schade, Gunner W.; Seco, Roger; Schoon, N.

    2015-07-09

    We present field observations made in June 2011 downwind of Dallas-Fort Worth, TX, and evaluate the role of stabilized Criegee radicals (sCIs) in gaseous sulfuric acid (H2SO4) production. Zero-dimensional model calculations show that sCI from BVOCs composed the majority of the sCIs. The main uncertainty associated with an evaluation of H2SO4 production from the sCI reaction channel is the lack of experimentally determined reaction rates for sCIs formed from isoprene ozonolysis with SO2. In general, the maximum of H2SO4 production from the sCI channel is found in the late afternoon as ozone increases towards the late afternoon. The sCI channel, however, contributes minor H2SO4 production compared with the conventional OH channel. Finally, The production and the loss rates of H2SO4 are compared. The application of the recommended mass accommodation coefficient causes significant overestimation of H2SO4 loss rates compared with H2SO4 production rates. On the other hand, the application of a lower experimental value for the mass accommodation coefficient provides good agreement between the loss and production rates of H2SO4. The results suggest that the recommended coefficient for the H2O surface may not be suitable for this relatively dry environment.

  9. The ArvinMeritor Dual Mode Hybrid Powertrain (DMHP): Opportunities and

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Potential for Systems Optimization | Department of Energy 2011 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation vss062_smith_2011_p.pdf (685.41 KB) More Documents & Publications Vehicle Systems Integration (VSI) Research Laboratory at ORNL The Meritor Dual Mode Hybrid Powertrain CRADA The Meritor Dual Mode Hybrid Powertrain CRADA

  10. AmeriFlux US-LPH Little Prospect Hill

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Hadley, Julian [Ecovative Design, LLC

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-LPH Little Prospect Hill. Site Description - The site was cleared for pasture, but not deeply plowed or planted, in the 18th and 19th centuries. Agriculture on the site was abandoned near the end of the 19th century. The forest within 200 to 300 m of the eddy covariance tower to the NW, W, SW, and S burned in an intense fire in 1957, which left few or no surviving trees.

  11. AmeriFlux US-Var Vaira Ranch- Ione

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Baldocchi, Dennis [University of California, Berkeley

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-Var Vaira Ranch- Ione. Site Description - Located in the lower foothills of the Sierra Nevada Mountains on privately owned land, the Vaira Ranch site is classified as a grassland dominated by C3 annual grasses. Managed by local rancher, Fran Vaira, brush has been periodically removed for cattle grazing. Species include a variety of grasses and herbs, including purple false brome, smooth cat's ear, and rose clover. Growing season is confined to the wet season only, typically from October to early May.

  12. Solar axion flux from the axion-electron coupling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Redondo, Javier

    2013-12-01

    In non-hadronic axion models, where axions couple to electrons at tree level, the solar axion flux is completely dominated by the ABC reactions (Atomic recombination and deexcitation, Bremsstrahlung and Compton). In this paper the ABC flux is computed from available libraries of monochromatic photon radiative opacities (OP, LEDCOP and OPAS) by exploiting the relations between axion and photon emission cross sections. These results turn to be ? 30% larger than previous estimates due to atomic recombination (free-bound electron transitions) and deexcitation (bound-bound), which where not previously taken into account.

  13. AmeriFlux US-Ced Cedar Bridge

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Clark, Ken [USDA Forest Service

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-Ced Cedar Bridge. Site Description - Wildfires and prescribed fires are a common occurrence in the NJ Pinelands. Prior to a 1995 nonstand replacing wildfire, the stand was last burned in the very large wildfire in 1963. Plow lines were installed for fire control in December of 2007, followed by a prescribed burns in 2008 and 2013, conducted by the New Jersey Forest Fire Service. Pine looper defoliated the stand in 1998, and Gypsy moth defoliated the understory and deciduos oaks in 2007. Pitch Pines are largely unaffected by defoliation by Gypsy moth.

  14. AmeriFlux US-Vcm Valles Caldera Mixed Conifer

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Litvak, Marcy [University of New Mexico

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-Vcm Valles Caldera Mixed Conifer. Site Description - The Valles Caldera Mixed Conifer site is located in the 1200 km2 Jemez River basin in north-central New Mexico. Common to elevations ranging from 3040 to 2740 m in the region, the mixed conifer stand, within the entirety of the tower footprint in all directions, provides an excellent setting for studying the seasonal interaction between snow and vegetation.

  15. AmeriFlux US-Vcp Valles Caldera Ponderosa Pine

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Litvak, Marcy [University of New Mexico

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-Vcp Valles Caldera Ponderosa Pine. Site Description - The Valles Caldera Ponderosa Pine site is located in the 1200km2 Jemez River basin of the Jemez Mountains in north-central New Mexico at the southern margin of the Rocky Mountain ecoregion. The Ponderosa Pine forest is the warmest and lowest (below 2700m) zone of the forests in the Valles Caldera National Preserve. Its vegetation is composed of a Ponderosa Pine (Pinus Ponderosa) overstory and a Gambel Oak (Quercus gambelii) understory.

  16. Improved approximate formulas for flux from cylindrical and rectangular sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wallace, O.J.; Bokharee, S.A.

    1993-03-01

    This report provides two new approximate formulas for the flux at detector points outside the radial and axial extensions of a homogeneous cylindrical source and improved approximate formulas for the flux at points opposite rectangular surface sources. These formulas extend the range of geometries for which analytic approximations may be used by shield design engineers to make rapid scoping studies and check more extensive calculations for reasonableness. These formulas can be used to support skeptical, independent evaluations and are also valuable teaching tools for introducing shield designers to complex shield analyses.

  17. Design and operational characteristics of a cast steel mass spectrometer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blantocas, Gene Q.; Ramos, Henry J.; Wada, Motoi

    2004-09-01

    A cast steel magnetic sector mass analyzer is developed for studies of hydrogen and helium ion beams generated by a gas discharge compact ion source. The optimum induced magnetic flux density of 3500 G made it possible to scan the whole spectrum of hydrogen and helium ion species. Analysis of beam characteristics shows that the mass spectrometer sensitivity, and resolving power are approximately inversely proportional. The resolution is enhanced at higher pressures and lower current discharges. In contrast, the instrument sensitivity increased at higher current discharges and decreased at higher pressures. Calculations of the ultimate resolving power with reference to analyzer dimensions yield a numerical value of 30. System anomaly in the form of spherical aberrations was also analyzed using the paraxial beam envelope equation. Beam divergence is most significant at high discharge conditions where angular spread reaches an upper limit of 8.6 deg.

  18. Genome-Based Metabolic Mapping and 13C Flux Analysis Reveal Systematic Properties of an Oleaginous Microalga Chlorella protothecoides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Chao; Xiong, Wei; Dai, Junbiao; Wu, Qingyu

    2014-12-15

    We report that integrated and genome-based flux balance analysis, metabolomics, and 13C-label profiling of phototrophic and heterotrophic metabolism in Chlorella protothecoides, an oleaginous green alga for biofuel. The green alga Chlorella protothecoides, capable of autotrophic and heterotrophic growth with rapid lipid synthesis, is a promising candidate for biofuel production. Based on the newly available genome knowledge of the alga, we reconstructed the compartmentalized metabolic network consisting of 272 metabolic reactions, 270 enzymes, and 461 encoding genes and simulated the growth in different cultivation conditions with flux balance analysis. Phenotype-phase plane analysis shows conditions achieving theoretical maximum of the biomass and corresponding fatty acid-producing rate for phototrophic cells (the ratio of photon uptake rate to CO2 uptake rate equals 8.4) and heterotrophic ones (the glucose uptake rate to O2 consumption rate reaches 2.4), respectively. Isotope-assisted liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry reveals higher metabolite concentrations in the glycolytic pathway and the tricarboxylic acid cycle in heterotrophic cells compared with autotrophic cells. We also observed enhanced levels of ATP, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (phosphate), reduced, acetyl-Coenzyme A, and malonyl-Coenzyme A in heterotrophic cells consistently, consistent with a strong activity of lipid synthesis. To profile the flux map in experimental conditions, we applied nonstationary 13C metabolic flux analysis as a complementing strategy to flux balance analysis. We found that the result reveals negligible photorespiratory fluxes and a metabolically low active tricarboxylic acid cycle in phototrophic C. protothecoides. In comparison, high throughput of amphibolic reactions and the tricarboxylic acid cycle with no glyoxylate shunt activities were measured for heterotrophic cells. Lastly, taken together, the

  19. Development of a multi-resource alternate energy facility (addition of dual-fuel). Final technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keel, J.S.

    1982-11-03

    This report describes the use of compressed natural gas (methane) in a dual fuel 1979 Jeep pick-up truck. Descriptions of the compressor and the dual-fuel conversion equipment are attached. (DMC)

  20. Mass Spectrometer Laboratory | Photosynthetic Antenna Research Center

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mass Spectrometer Laboratory Mass Spectrometer Laboratory A look inside the recently updated Mass Spectrometer Facility managed by Staff Scientish Hao Zhang

  1. Potential role of the Fast Flux Test Facility and the advanced test reactor in the U.S. tritium production system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dautel, W.A.

    1996-10-01

    The Deparunent of Energy is currently engaged in a dual-track strategy to develop an accelerator and a conunercial light water reactor (CLWR) as potential sources of tritium supply. New analysis of the production capabilities of the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) at the Hanford Site argues for considering its inclusion in the tritium supply,system. The use of the FFTF (alone or together with the Advanced Test Reactor [ATR] at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory) as an integral part of,a tritium production system would help (1) ensure supply by 2005, (2) provide additional time to resolve institutional and technical issues associated with the- dual-track strategy, and (3) reduce discounted total life-cycle`costs and near-tenn annual expenditures for accelerator-based systems. The FFRF would also provide a way to get an early start.on dispositioning surplus weapons-usable plutonium as well as provide a source of medical isotopes. Challenges Associated With the Dual-Track Strategy The Departinent`s purchase of either a commercial reactor or reactor irradiation services faces challenging institutional issues associated with converting civilian reactors to defense uses. In addition, while the technical capabilities of the individual components of the accelerator have been proven, the entire system needs to be demonstrated and scaled upward to ensure that the components work toge ther 1548 as a complete production system. These challenges create uncertainty over the ability of the du2a-track strategy to provide an assured tritium supply source by 2005. Because the earliest the accelerator could come on line is 2007, it would have to operate at maximum capacity for the first few years to regenerate the reserves lost through radioactive decay aftei 2005.

  2. Mini ion trap mass spectrometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dietrich, Daniel D.; Keville, Robert F.

    1995-01-01

    An ion trap which operates in the regime between research ion traps which can detect ions with a mass resolution of better than 1:10.sup.9 and commercial mass spectrometers requiring 10.sup.4 ions with resolutions of a few hundred. The power consumption is kept to a minimum by the use of permanent magnets and a novel electron gun design. By Fourier analyzing the ion cyclotron resonance signals induced in the trap electrodes, a complete mass spectra in a single combined structure can be detected. An attribute of the ion trap mass spectrometer is that overall system size is drastically reduced due to combining a unique electron source and mass analyzer/detector in a single device. This enables portable low power mass spectrometers for the detection of environmental pollutants or illicit substances, as well as sensors for on board diagnostics to monitor engine performance or for active feedback in any process involving exhausting waste products.

  3. Mini ion trap mass spectrometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dietrich, D.D.; Keville, R.F.

    1995-09-19

    An ion trap is described which operates in the regime between research ion traps which can detect ions with a mass resolution of better than 1:10{sup 9} and commercial mass spectrometers requiring 10{sup 4} ions with resolutions of a few hundred. The power consumption is kept to a minimum by the use of permanent magnets and a novel electron gun design. By Fourier analyzing the ion cyclotron resonance signals induced in the trap electrodes, a complete mass spectra in a single combined structure can be detected. An attribute of the ion trap mass spectrometer is that overall system size is drastically reduced due to combining a unique electron source and mass analyzer/detector in a single device. This enables portable low power mass spectrometers for the detection of environmental pollutants or illicit substances, as well as sensors for on board diagnostics to monitor engine performance or for active feedback in any process involving exhausting waste products. 10 figs.

  4. Magnetohydrostatic equilibrium structure and mass of filamentary isothermal cloud threaded by lateral magnetic field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tomisaka, Kohji

    2014-04-10

    Herschel observations have recently revealed that interstellar molecular clouds consist of many filaments. Polarization observations in optical and infrared wavelengths indicate that the magnetic field often runs perpendicular to the filament. In this article, we study the magnetohydrostatic configuration of isothermal gas in which the thermal pressure and the Lorentz force are balanced against the self-gravity, and the magnetic field is globally perpendicular to the axis of the filament. The model is controlled by three parameters: center-to-surface density ratio (? {sub c}/? {sub s}), plasma ? of surrounding interstellar gas (?{sub 0}), and the radius of the hypothetical parent cloud normalized by the scale-height (R{sub 0}{sup ?}), although there remains freedom in how the mass is distributed against the magnetic flux (mass loading). In the case where R{sub 0}{sup ?} is small enough, the magnetic field plays a role in confining the gas. However, the magnetic field generally has the effect of supporting the cloud. There is a maximum line-mass (mass per unit length) above which the cloud is not supported against gravity. Compared with the maximum line-mass of a nonmagnetized cloud (2c{sub s}{sup 2}/G, where c{sub s} and G represent, respectively, the isothermal sound speed and the gravitational constant), that of the magnetized filament is larger than the nonmagnetized one. The maximum line-mass is numerically obtained as ?{sub max}?0.24?{sub cl}/G{sup 1/2}+1.66c{sub s}{sup 2}/G, where ?{sub cl} represents one half of the magnetic flux threading the filament per unit length. The maximum mass of the filamentary cloud is shown to be significantly affected by the magnetic field when the magnetic flux per unit length exceeds ?{sub cl} ? 3 pc ?G (c{sub s} /190 m s{sup 1}){sup 2}.

  5. CRAD, Management- Oak Ridge National Laboratory High Flux Isotope Reactor

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A section of Appendix C to DOE G 226.1-2 "Federal Line Management Oversight of Department of Energy Nuclear Facilities." Consists of Criteria Review and Approach Documents (CRADs) used for a February 2007 assessment of the Management in preparation for restart of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory High Flux Isotope Reactor.

  6. CRAD, Training- Oak Ridge National Laboratory High Flux Isotope Reactor

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A section of Appendix C to DOE G 226.1-2 "Federal Line Management Oversight of Department of Energy Nuclear Facilities." Consists of Criteria Review and Approach Documents (CRADs) used for a February 2007 assessment of the Training Program in preparation for restart of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory High Flux Isotope Reactor.

  7. DIRECT MEASUREMENT OF HEAT FLUX FROM COOLING LAKE THERMAL IMAGERY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garrett, A; Eliel Villa-Aleman, E; Robert Kurzeja, R; Malcolm Pendergast, M; Timothy Brown, T; Saleem Salaymeh, S

    2007-12-19

    Laboratory experiments show a linear relationship between the total heat flux from a water surface to air and the standard deviation of the surface temperature field, {sigma}, derived from thermal images of the water surface over a range of heat fluxes from 400 to 1800 Wm{sup -2}. Thermal imagery and surface data were collected at two power plant cooling lakes to determine if the laboratory relationship between heat flux and {sigma} exists in large heated bodies of water. The heat fluxes computed from the cooling lake data range from 200 to 1400 Wm{sup -2}. The linear relationship between {sigma} and Q is evident in the cooling lake data, but it is necessary to apply band pass filtering to the thermal imagery to remove camera artifacts and non-convective thermal gradients. The correlation between {sigma} and Q is improved if a correction to the measured {sigma} is made that accounts for wind speed effects on the thermal convection. Based on more than a thousand cooling lake images, the correlation coefficients between {sigma} and Q ranged from about 0.8 to 0.9.

  8. Method of making superconducting cylinders for flux detectors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goodkind, J.M.; Stolfa, D.L.

    1971-07-06

    A method of making superconducting cylinders of the ''weak link'' type is provided. The method allows the weak link to be made much smaller than was heretofore possible, thereby greatly increasing sensitivity and operating temperature range when the cylinder is used in a flux detector. The resistance of the weak link is monitored continuously as metal is removed from the link by electrochemical action.

  9. Signature of the Fragmentation of a Color Flux Tube

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wong, Cheuk-Yin

    2015-10-07

    The production of quark-antiquark pairs along a color flux tube precedes the fragmentation of the tube. Because of the local conservation of momentum and charge, the production of amore » $q$-$$\\bar q$$ pair will lead to correlations of adjacently produced mesons (mostly pions). Adjacently produced pions however can be signalled by the their rapidity difference $$\\Delta y$$ falling within the window of $$|\\Delta y | < 1/(dN_\\pi/dy)$$, on account of the space-time-rapidity ordering of produced pions in a flux tube fragmentation. Therefore, the local conservation of momentum will lead to a suppression of azimuthal two-pion correlation $$dN/(d\\Delta \\phi\\, d\\Delta y)$$ on the near side at $$(\\Delta \\phi, \\Delta y) \\sim 0$$, but an enhanced azimuthal correlation on the back-to-back, away side at $$(\\Delta \\phi$$$$\\sim$$$$ \\pi,\\Delta y$$$$\\sim$$0). Similarly, in a flux tube fragmentation, the local conservation of charge will forbid the production of like charge pions within $$|\\Delta y | < 1/(dN_\\pi/dy)$$, but there is no such prohibition for $$|\\Delta y| >1/(dN_\\pi/dy)$$. These properties may be used as the signature for the fragmentation of a color flux tube.« less

  10. Revision of HFIR (High Flux Isotope Reactor) operating procedures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McGinty, D.M.

    1987-01-23

    This report documents modifications to the facility and changes in some operating procedures for the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR). The topics covered include: Reactor Operation, Reactor Start-up, Reactor Safety Systems, Reactor Control Systems, Reporting Requirements, and Administrative Procedures. (FI)

  11. Use of the fast flux test facility for tritium production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Drell, S.; Hammer, D.; Cornwall, J.M.; Dyson, F.; Garwin, R.

    1996-10-25

    This report provides the results of a JASON review of the technical feasibility of using the Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) to generate tritium needed for the enduring United States nuclear weapons stockpile.

  12. Signature of the Fragmentation of a Color Flux Tube

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wong, Cheuk-Yin

    2015-10-07

    The production of quark-antiquark pairs along a color flux tube precedes the fragmentation of the tube. Because of the local conservation of momentum and charge, the production of a $q$-$\\bar q$ pair will lead to correlations of adjacently produced mesons (mostly pions). Adjacently produced pions however can be signalled by the their rapidity difference $\\Delta y$ falling within the window of $|\\Delta y | < 1/(dN_\\pi/dy)$, on account of the space-time-rapidity ordering of produced pions in a flux tube fragmentation. Therefore, the local conservation of momentum will lead to a suppression of azimuthal two-pion correlation $dN/(d\\Delta \\phi\\, d\\Delta y)$ on the near side at $(\\Delta \\phi, \\Delta y) \\sim 0$, but an enhanced azimuthal correlation on the back-to-back, away side at $(\\Delta \\phi$$\\sim$$ \\pi,\\Delta y$$\\sim$0). Similarly, in a flux tube fragmentation, the local conservation of charge will forbid the production of like charge pions within $|\\Delta y | < 1/(dN_\\pi/dy)$, but there is no such prohibition for $|\\Delta y| >1/(dN_\\pi/dy)$. These properties may be used as the signature for the fragmentation of a color flux tube.

  13. Novel Flux Coupling Machine without Permanent Magnets | Department of

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Energy 11 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation ape005_hsu_2011_o.pdf (325.23 KB) More Documents & Publications Novel Flux Coupling Machine without Permanent Magnets A New Class of Switched Reluctance Motors without Permanent Magnets A New Class of Switched Reluctance Motors without Permanent Magnets

  14. Aspect Ratio Effects in the Driven, Flux-Core Spheromak

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hooper, E B; Romero-Talam?s, C A; LoDestro, L L; Wood, R D; McLean, H S

    2009-03-02

    Resistive magneto-hydrodynamic simulations are used to evaluate the effects of the aspect ratio, A (length to radius ratio) in a spheromak driven by coaxial helicity injection. The simulations are benchmarked against the Sustained Spheromak Physics Experiment (SSPX) [R. D. Wood, et al., Nucl. Nucl. Fusion 45, 1582 (2005)]. Amplification of the bias ('gun') poloidal flux is fit well by a linear dependence (insensitive to A) on the ratio of gun current and bias flux above a threshold dependent on A. For low flux amplifications in the simulations the n = 1 mode is coherent and the mean-field geometry looks like a tilted spheromak. Because the mode has relatively large amplitude the field lines are open everywhere, allowing helicity penetration. Strongly-driven helicity injection at A {le} 1.4 in simulations generates reconnection events which open the magnetic field lines; this state is characteristic of SSPX. Near the spheromak tilt-mode limit, A {approx} 1.67 for a cylindrical flux conserver, the tilt approaches 90{sup o}; reconnection events are not generated up to the strongest drives simulated. The time-sequence of these events suggests that they are representative of a chaotic process. Implications for spheromak experiments are discussed.

  15. Influence of Arctic cloud thermodynamic phase on surface shortwave flux

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lubin, D.; Vogelmann, A.

    2010-03-15

    As part of the Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign (ISDAC) an Analytical Spectral Devices (ASD, Inc.) spectroradiometer was deployed at the Barrow NSA site during April and May of 2008, and in April-October of 2009. This instrument recorded one-minute averages of surface downwelling spectral flux in the wavelength interval 350-2200 nm, thus sampling the two major near infrared windows (1.6 and 2.2 microns) in which the flux is influenced by cloud microphysical properties including thermodynamic phase and effective particle size. Aircraft in situ measurements of cloud properties show mostly mixed-phase clouds over Barrow during the campaign, but with wide variability in relative liquid versus ice water content. At fixed total optical depth, this variability in phase composition can yield of order 5-10 Watts per square meter in surface flux variability, with greater cloud attenuation of the surface flux usually occurring under higher ice water content. Thus our data show that changes in cloud phase properties, even within the 'mixed-phase' category, can affect the surface energy balance at the same order of magnitude as greenhouse gas increases. Analysis of this spectral radiometric data provides suggestions for testing new mixed-phase parameterizations in climate models.

  16. AmeriFlux US-Myb Mayberry Wetland

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Baldocchi, Dennis [University of California, Berkeley

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-Myb Mayberry Wetland. Site Description - The Mayberry Wetland site is a 300-acre restored wetland on Sherman Island, north of Mayberry Slough, that is on the property of Mayberry Farms and managed by the California Department of Water Resources and Ducks Unlimited. During Summer 2010, the site was restored from a pepperweed and annual grassland pasture to a wetland through a project managed by Bryan Brock (bpbrock@water.ca.gov). A flux tower equipped to analyze energy, H2O, CO2, and CH4 fluxes was installed on October 14, 2010. At the time of installation, flooding of the site had only recently begun after extensive reconstruction of the wetland bathymetry conducted during the summer. Although some small patches of tules remain within the site, the site is a patchwork of deep and shallow open water with some remaining vegetation. Currently, there is an intention to flood-to-kill the current pepperweed and upland grasses and let the wetland plants propagate naturally, so no additional plant manipulation will occur.

  17. CRAD, Maintenance- Oak Ridge National Laboratory High Flux Isotope Reactor

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A section of Appendix C to DOE G 226.1-2 "Federal Line Management Oversight of Department of Energy Nuclear Facilities." Consists of Criteria Review and Approach Documents (CRADs) used for a February 2007 assessment of the Maintenance Program in preparation for restart of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory High Flux Isotope Reactor.

  18. CRAD, Engineering- Oak Ridge National Laboratory High Flux Isotope Reactor

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A section of Appendix C to DOE G 226.1-2 "Federal Line Management Oversight of Department of Energy Nuclear Facilities." Consists of Criteria Review and Approach Documents (CRADs) used for a February 2007 assessment of the Engineering Program in preparation for restart of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory High Flux Isotope Reactor.

  19. Orbital ferromagnetism and the Chandrasekhar mass-limit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akbari-Moghanjoughi, M.

    2012-05-15

    In this paper, we use quantum magnetohydrodynamic as well as magnetohydrostatic (MHS) models for a zero-temperature Fermi-Dirac plasma to show the fundamental role of Landau orbital ferromagnetism (LOFER) on the magnetohydrostatic stability of compact stars. It is revealed that the generalized flux-conserved equation of state of form B={beta}{rho}{sup 2s/3} only with conditions 0{<=}s{<=}1 and 0{<=}{beta}<{radical}(2{pi}) can lead to a stable compact stellar configuration. The distinct critical value {beta}{sub cr}={radical}(2{pi}) is shown to affect the magnetohydrostatic stability of the LOFER (s = 1) state and the magnetic field strength limit on the compact stellar configuration. Furthermore, the value of the parameter {beta} is remarked to fundamentally alter the Chandrasekhar mass-radius relation and the known mass-limit on white dwarfs when the star is in LOFER state. Current findings can help to understand the role of flux-frozen ferromagnetism and its fundamental role on hydrostatic stability of relativistically degenerate super-dense plasmas such as white dwarfs.

  20. High Flux Metallic Membranes for Hydrogen Recovery and Membrane Reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buxbaum, Robert

    2010-06-30

    We made and tested over 250 new alloys for use as lower cost, higher flux hydrogen extraction membrane materials. Most of these were intermetallic, or contained significant intermetallic content, particularly based on B2 alloy compositions with at least one refractory component; B2 intermetallics resemble BCC alloys, in structure, but the atoms have relatively fixed positions, with one atom at the corners of the cube, the other at the centers. The target materals we were looking for would contain little or no expensive elements, no strongly toxic or radioactive elements, would have high flux to hydrogen, while being fabricable, brazable, and relatively immune to hydrogen embrittlement and corrosion in operation. The best combination of properties of the membrane materials we developed was, in my opinion, a Pd-coated membrane consisting of V -9 atomic % Pd. This material was relatively cheap, had 5 times the flux of Pd under the same pressure differential, was reasonably easy to fabricate and braze, and not bad in terms of embrittlement. Based on all these factors we project, about 1/3 the cost of Pd, on an area basis for a membrane designed to last 20 years, or 1/15 the cost on a flux basis. Alternatives to this membrane replaced significant fractions of the Pd with Ni and or Co. The cost for these membranes was lower, but so was the flux. We produced successful brazed products from the membrane materials, and made them into flat sheets. We tested, unsuccessfully, several means of fabricating thematerials into tubes, and eventually built a membrane reactor using a new, flat-plate design: a disc and doughnut arrangement, a design that seems well- suited to clean hydrogen production from coal. The membranes and reactor were tested successfully at Western Research. A larger equipment company (Chart Industries) produced similar results using a different flat-plate reactor design. Cost projections of the membrane are shown to be attractive.

  1. Dual manifold system and method for fluid transfer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Doktycz, Mitchel J.; Bryan, William Louis; Kress, Reid

    2003-05-27

    A dual-manifold assembly is provided for the rapid, parallel transfer of liquid reagents from a microtiter plate to a solid state microelectronic device having biological sensors integrated thereon. The assembly includes aspiration and dispense manifolds connected by a plurality of conduits. In operation, the aspiration manifold is actuated such that the aspiration manifold is seated onto an array of reagent-filled wells of the microtiter plate. The wells are pressurized to force reagent through conduits toward the dispense manifold. A pressure pulse provided by a standard ink-jet printhead ejects nanoliter-to-picoliter droplets of reagent through an array of printhead orifices and onto test sites on the surface of the microelectronic device.

  2. Dual manifold system and method for fluid transfer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Doktycz, Mitchel J.; Bryan, William Louis; Kress, Reid

    2003-09-30

    A dual-manifold assembly is provided for the rapid, parallel transfer of liquid reagents from a microtiter plate to a solid state microelectronic device having biological sensors integrated thereon. The assembly includes aspiration and dispense manifolds connected by a plurality of conduits. In operation, the aspiration manifold is actuated such that the aspiration manifold is seated onto an array of reagent-filled wells of the microtiter plate. The wells are pressurized to force reagent through conduits toward the dispense manifold. A pressure pulse provided by a standard ink-jet printhead ejects nanoliter-to-picoliter droplets of reagent through an array of printhead orifices and onto test sites on the surface of the microelectronic device.

  3. Investigation of plasma diagnostics using a dual frequency harmonic technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Dong-Hwan; Kim, Young-Do; Cho, Sung-Won; Kim, Yu-Sin; Chung, Chin-Wook

    2014-09-07

    Plasma diagnostic methods using harmonic currents analysis of electrostatic probes were experimentally investigated to understand the differences in their measurement of the plasma parameters. When dual frequency voltage (ω{sub 1},ω{sub 2}) was applied to a probe, various harmonic currents (ω{sub 1}, 2ω{sub 1},ω{sub 2}, 2ω{sub 2},ω{sub 2}±ω{sub 1},ω{sub 2}±2ω{sub 1}) were generated due to the non-linearity of the probe sheath. The electron temperature can be obtained from the ratio of the two harmonics of the probe currents. According to the combinations of the two harmonics, the sensitivities in the measurement of the electron temperature differed, and this results in a difference of the electron temperature. From experiments and simulation, it is shown that this difference is caused by the systematic and random noise.

  4. Parameterized reduced-order models using hyper-dual numbers.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fike, Jeffrey A.; Brake, Matthew Robert

    2013-10-01

    The goal of most computational simulations is to accurately predict the behavior of a real, physical system. Accurate predictions often require very computationally expensive analyses and so reduced order models (ROMs) are commonly used. ROMs aim to reduce the computational cost of the simulations while still providing accurate results by including all of the salient physics of the real system in the ROM. However, real, physical systems often deviate from the idealized models used in simulations due to variations in manufacturing or other factors. One approach to this issue is to create a parameterized model in order to characterize the effect of perturbations from the nominal model on the behavior of the system. This report presents a methodology for developing parameterized ROMs, which is based on Craig-Bampton component mode synthesis and the use of hyper-dual numbers to calculate the derivatives necessary for the parameterization.

  5. Dual annular rotating "windowed" nuclear reflector reactor control system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jacox, Michael G.; Drexler, Robert L.; Hunt, Robert N. M.; Lake, James A.

    1994-01-01

    A nuclear reactor control system is provided in a nuclear reactor having a core operating in the fast neutron energy spectrum where criticality control is achieved by neutron leakage. The control system includes dual annular, rotatable reflector rings. There are two reflector rings: an inner reflector ring and an outer reflector ring. The reflectors are concentrically assembled, surround the reactor core, and each reflector ring includes a plurality of openings. The openings in each ring are capable of being aligned or non-aligned with each other. Independent driving means for each of the annular reflector rings is provided so that reactor criticality can be initiated and controlled by rotation of either reflector ring such that the extent of alignment of the openings in each ring controls the reflection of neutrons from the core.

  6. Representing ductile damage with the dual domain material point method

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Long, C. C.; Zhang, D. Z.; Bronkhorst, C. A.; Gray, III, G. T.

    2015-12-14

    In this study, we incorporate a ductile damage material model into a computational framework based on the Dual Domain Material Point (DDMP) method. As an example, simulations of a flyer plate experiment involving ductile void growth and material failure are performed. The results are compared with experiments performed on high purity tantalum. We also compare the numerical results obtained from the DDMP method with those obtained from the traditional Material Point Method (MPM). Effects of an overstress model, artificial viscosity, and physical viscosity are investigated. Our results show that a physical bulk viscosity and overstress model are important in thismore » impact and failure problem, while physical shear viscosity and artificial shock viscosity have negligible effects. A simple numerical procedure with guaranteed convergence is introduced to solve for the equilibrium plastic state from the ductile damage model.« less

  7. Representing ductile damage with the dual domain material point method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Long, C. C.; Zhang, D. Z.; Bronkhorst, C. A.; Gray, III, G. T.

    2015-12-14

    In this study, we incorporate a ductile damage material model into a computational framework based on the Dual Domain Material Point (DDMP) method. As an example, simulations of a flyer plate experiment involving ductile void growth and material failure are performed. The results are compared with experiments performed on high purity tantalum. We also compare the numerical results obtained from the DDMP method with those obtained from the traditional Material Point Method (MPM). Effects of an overstress model, artificial viscosity, and physical viscosity are investigated. Our results show that a physical bulk viscosity and overstress model are important in this impact and failure problem, while physical shear viscosity and artificial shock viscosity have negligible effects. A simple numerical procedure with guaranteed convergence is introduced to solve for the equilibrium plastic state from the ductile damage model.

  8. DARHT status and preparations for dual-axis hydrotesting (u)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bowman, David W

    2010-01-01

    The status of the DARHT facility, including a history of events that have taken place since the end of the DARHT Second Axis Refurbishment Project, is discussed. Technical and operational enhancements that have been made will be addressed, and recent technical challenges, such as the RF noise in the kicker region, are discussed. Historical data on reliability of the second axis is discussed, as well as operational changes made to enhance reliability. In addition, the path forward for integrating the second axis into overall DARHT operations in preparation for a hydrotest is addressed. Timing integration tests are accompanied by a series of tests to evaluate neutron contamination and cross-axis scatter, with attempts being made to provide adequate shielding to minimize the effects of neutrons and cross-beam scatter. The discussion includes results of the testing performed to-date, and concludes with a discussion of the path forward for dual-axis hydrotesting at DARHT.

  9. Iterative Self-Dual Reconstruction on Radar Image Recovery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martins, Charles; Medeiros, Fatima; Ushizima, Daniela; Bezerra, Francisco; Marques, Regis; Mascarenhas, Nelson

    2010-05-21

    Imaging systems as ultrasound, sonar, laser and synthetic aperture radar (SAR) are subjected to speckle noise during image acquisition. Before analyzing these images, it is often necessary to remove the speckle noise using filters. We combine properties of two mathematical morphology filters with speckle statistics to propose a signal-dependent noise filter to multiplicative noise. We describe a multiscale scheme that preserves sharp edges while it smooths homogeneous areas, by combining local statistics with two mathematical morphology filters: the alternating sequential and the self-dual reconstruction algorithms. The experimental results show that the proposed approach is less sensitive to varying window sizes when applied to simulated and real SAR images in comparison with standard filters.

  10. Slowly Varying Dilaton Cosmologies and Their Field Theory Duals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Awad, Adel; Das, Sumit R.; Ghosh, Archisman; Oh, Jae-Hyuk; Trivedi, Sandip P.; /Tata Inst. /Stanford U., ITP /SLAC

    2011-06-28

    We consider a deformation of the AdS{sub 5} x S{sup 5} solution of IIB supergravity obtained by taking the boundary value of the dilaton to be time dependent. The time dependence is taken to be slowly varying on the AdS scale thereby introducing a small parameter {epsilon}. The boundary dilaton has a profile which asymptotes to a constant in the far past and future and attains a minimum value at intermediate times. We construct the sugra solution to first non-trivial order in {epsilon}, and find that it is smooth, horizon free, and asymptotically AdS{sub 5} x S{sup 5} in the far future. When the intermediate values of the dilaton becomes small enough the curvature becomes of order the string scale and the sugra approximation breaks down. The resulting dynamics is analysed in the dual SU(N) gauge theory on S{sup 3} with a time dependent coupling constant which varies slowly. When N{epsilon} << 1, we find that a quantum adiabatic approximation is applicable, and use it to argue that at late times the geometry becomes smooth AdS{sub 5} x S{sup 5} again. When N{epsilon} >> 1, we formulate a classical adiabatic perturbation theory based on coherent states which arises in the large N limit. For large values of the tHooft coupling this reproduces the supergravity results. For small 'tHooft coupling the coherent state calculations become involved and we cannot reach a definite conclusion. We argue that the final state should have a dual description which is mostly smooth AdS5 space with the possible presence of a small black hole.

  11. The distribution of ion orbit loss fluxes of ions and energy from the plasma edge across the last closed flux surface into the scrape-off layer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stacey, Weston M.; Schumann, Matthew T.

    2015-04-15

    A more detailed calculation strategy for the evaluation of ion orbit loss of thermalized plasma ions in the edge of tokamaks is presented. In both this and previous papers, the direct loss of particles from internal flux surfaces is calculated from the conservation of canonical angular momentum, energy, and magnetic moment. The previous result that almost all of the ion energy and particle fluxes crossing the last closed flux surface are in the form of ion orbit fluxes is confirmed, and the new result that the distributions of these fluxes crossing the last closed flux surface into the scrape-off layer are very strongly peaked about the outboard midplane is demonstrated. Previous results of a preferential loss of counter current particles leading to a co-current intrinsic rotation peaking just inside of the last closed flux surface are confirmed. Various physical details are discussed.

  12. RADIOISOTOPE-DRIVEN DUAL-MODE PROPULSION SYSTEM FOR CUBESAT-SCALE PAYLOADS TO THE OUTER PLANETS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    N. D. Jerred; T. M. Howe; S. D. Howe; A. Rajguru

    2014-02-01

    It is apparent the cost of planetary exploration is rising as mission budgets declining. Currently small scientific beds geared to performing limited tasks are being developed and launched into low earth orbit (LEO) in the form of small-scale satellite units, i.e., CubeSats. These micro- and nano-satellites are gaining popularity among the university and science communities due to their relatively low cost and design flexibility. To date these small units have been limited to performing tasks in LEO utilizing solar-based power. If a reasonable propulsion system could be developed, these CubeSat platforms could perform exploration of various extra-terrestrial bodies within the solar system engaging a broader range of researchers. Additionally, being mindful of mass, smaller cheaper launch vehicles (approximately 1,000 kgs to LEO) can be targeted. Thus, in effect, allows for beneficial exploration to be conducted within limited budgets. Researchers at the Center for Space Nuclear Research (CSNR) are proposing a low mass, radioisotope-based, dual-mode propulsion system capable of extending the exploration realm of these CubeSats out of LEO.

  13. Flux enhancement of slow-moving particles by Sun or Jupiter: Can they be detected on Earth?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Patla, Bijunath R.; Nemiroff, Robert J.; Hoffmann, Dieter H. H.; Zioutas, Konstantin

    2014-01-10

    Slow-moving particles capable of interacting solely with gravity might be detected on Earth as a result of the gravitational lensing induced focusing action of the Sun. The deflection experienced by these particles is inversely proportional to the square of their velocities, and as a result their focal lengths will be shorter. We investigate the velocity dispersion of these slow-moving particles, originating from distant point-like sources, for imposing upper and lower bounds on the velocities of such particles in order for them to be focused onto Earth. Stars, distant galaxies, and cluster of galaxies, etc., may all be considered as point-like sources. We find that fluxes of such slow-moving and non-interacting particles must have speeds between ?0.01 and .14 times the speed of light, c. Particles with speeds less than ?0.01c will undergo way too much deflection to be focused, although such individual particles could be detected. At the caustics, the magnification factor could be as high as ?10{sup 6}. We impose lensing constraints on the mass of these particles in order for them to be detected with large flux enhancements that are greater than 10{sup 9} eV. An approximate mass density profile for Jupiter is used to constrain particle velocities for lensing by Jupiter. We show that Jupiter could potentially focus particles with speeds as low as ?0.001c, which the Sun cannot.

  14. Dual-axis high-data-rate atom interferometer via cold ensemble exchange

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Journal Article: Dual-axis high-data-rate atom interferometer via cold ensemble exchange Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Dual-axis high-data-rate atom interferometer via cold ensemble exchange We demonstrate a dual-axis accelerometer and gyroscope atom interferometer, which can form the building blocks of a six-axis inertial measurement unit. By recapturing the atoms after the interferometer sequence, we maintain a large atom number at high data

  15. Lean NOx Reduction with Dual Layer LNT/SCR Catalysts | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Reduction with Dual Layer LNT/SCR Catalysts Lean NOx Reduction with Dual Layer LNT/SCR Catalysts Results show that a series of dual layer catalysts with a bottom layer of LNT catalyst and a top layer of SCR catalyst can carry out coupled ammonia generation and NOx reduction, achieving high NOx conversion with minimal ammonia slip deer12_harold.pdf (5.41 MB) More Documents & Publications Development of Optimal Catalyst Designs and Operating Strategies for Lean NOx Reduction in Coupled LNT-SCR

  16. MEASURING THE ULTIMATE HALO MASS OF GALAXY CLUSTERS: REDSHIFTS AND MASS PROFILES FROM THE HECTOSPEC CLUSTER SURVEY (HeCS)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rines, Kenneth; Geller, Margaret J.; Kurtz, Michael J.; Diaferio, Antonaldo E-mail: diaferio@ph.unito.it

    2013-04-10

    The infall regions of galaxy clusters represent the largest gravitationally bound structures in a {Lambda}CDM universe. Measuring cluster mass profiles into the infall regions provides an estimate of the ultimate mass of these halos. We use the caustic technique to measure cluster mass profiles from galaxy redshifts obtained with the Hectospec Cluster Survey (HeCS), an extensive spectroscopic survey of galaxy clusters with MMT/Hectospec. We survey 58 clusters selected by X-ray flux at 0.1 < z < 0.3. The survey includes 22,680 unique MMT/Hectospec redshifts for individual galaxies; 10,145 of these galaxies are cluster members. For each cluster, we acquired high signal-to-noise spectra for {approx}200 cluster members and a comparable number of foreground/background galaxies. The cluster members trace out infall patterns around the clusters. The members define a very narrow red sequence. We demonstrate that the determination of velocity dispersion is insensitive to the inclusion of bluer members (a small fraction of the cluster population). We apply the caustic technique to define membership and estimate the mass profiles to large radii. The ultimate halo mass of clusters (the mass that remains bound in the far future of a {Lambda}CDM universe) is on average (1.99 {+-} 0.11)M{sub 200}, a new observational cosmological test in essential agreement with simulations. Summed profiles binned in M{sub 200} and in L{sub X} demonstrate that the predicted Navarro-Frenk-White form of the density profile is a remarkably good representation of the data in agreement with weak lensing results extending to large radius. The concentration of these summed profiles is also consistent with theoretical predictions.

  17. High order harmonic generation in dual gas multi-jets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tosa, Valer E-mail: calin.hojbota@itim-cj.ro; Hojbota, Calin E-mail: calin.hojbota@itim-cj.ro

    2013-11-13

    High order harmonic generation (HHG) in gas media suffers from a low conversion efficiency that has its origins in the interaction of the atom/molecule with the laser field. Phase matching is the main way to enhance the harmonic flux and several solutions have been designed to achieve it. Here we present numerical results modeling HHG in a system of multi-jets in which two gases alternate: the first gas jet (for example Ne) generates harmonics and the second one which ionizes easier, recover the phase matching condition. We obtain configurations which are experimentally feasible with respect to pressures and dimensions of the jets.

  18. AmeriFlux US-Wi1 Intermediate hardwood (IHW)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Jiquan

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-Wi1 Intermediate hardwood (IHW). Site Description - The Wisconsin Intermediate Hardwoods site is located in the Washburn Ranger District of the Chequamegon National Forest. A member of the northern coniferous-deciduous biome, surveys from the mid-19th century indicate the region consisted of a mixed stand of red, white, and jack pines. After extensive timber harvesting, wildfires, and farming activity, the region turned into a fragmented mosaic of stands of various ages and composition. The intermediate hardwoods site is one of ten sites that collectively represent the successional stages of development in the predominant stand types of a physically homogeneous landscape. In 2001, northern hardwood stands of all ages occupied 45% of the region.

  19. Method of fission heat flux determination from experimental data

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Paxton, Frank A.

    1999-01-01

    A method is provided for determining the fission heat flux of a prime specimen inserted into a specimen of a test reactor. A pair of thermocouple test specimens are positioned at the same level in the holder and a determination is made of various experimental data including the temperature of the thermocouple test specimens, the temperature of bulk water channels located in the test holder, the gamma scan count ratios for the thermocouple test specimens and the prime specimen, and the thicknesses of the outer clads, the fuel fillers, and the backclad of the thermocouple test specimen. Using this experimental data, the absolute value of the fission heat flux for the thermocouple test specimens and prime specimen can be calculated.

  20. AmeriFlux US-MRf Mary's River (Fir) site

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Law, Bev [Oregon State University

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-MRf Mary's River (Fir) site. Site Description - The Marys River Fir site is part of the "Synthesis of Remote Sensing and Field Observations to Model and Understand Disturbance and Climate Effects on the Carbon Balance of Oregon and Northern California (ORCA)". Located in the western region of Oregon the Marys River site represents the western extent of the climate gradient that spans eastward into the semi-arid basin of central Oregon. The sites that make up the eastern extent of the ORCA climate gradient is the Metolius site network (US-Me1, US-ME2, US-ME4, US-Me5) all of which are part of the TERRA PNW project at Oregon State University.

  1. Resonance at the Rabi frequency in a superconducting flux qubit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greenberg, Ya. S.; Il'ichev, E.; Oelsner, G.; Shevchenko, S. N.

    2014-10-15

    We analyze a system composed of a superconducting flux qubit coupled to a transmission-line resonator driven by two signals with frequencies close to the resonator's harmonics. The first strong signal is used for exciting the system to a high energetic state while a second weak signal is applied for probing effective eigenstates of the system. In the framework of doubly dressed states we showed the possibility of amplification and attenuation of the probe signal by direct transitions at the Rabi frequency. We present a brief review of theoretical and experimental works where a direct resonance at Rabi frequency have been investigated in superconducting flux qubits. The interaction of the qubit with photons of two harmonics has prospects to be used as a quantum amplifier (microwave laser) or an attenuator.

  2. Study of heat flux gages using sensitivity analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dowding, K.J.; Blackwell, B.F.; Cochran, R.J.

    1998-08-01

    The response and operation of a heat flux gage is studied using sensitivity analysis. Sensitivity analysis is the process by which one determines the sensitivity of a model output to changes in the model parameters. This process uses sensitivity coefficients that are defined as partial derivatives of field variables--e.g., temperature--with respect to model parameters--e.g., thermal properties and boundary conditions. Computing sensitivity coefficients, in addition to the response of a heat flux gage, aids in identifying model parameters that significantly impact the temperature response. A control volume, finite element-based code is used to implement numerical sensitivity coefficient calculations, allowing general problems to be studied. Sensitivity coefficients are discussed for the well known Gardon gage.

  3. AmeriFlux US-UMd UMBS Disturbance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Curtis, Peter; Gough, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-UMd UMBS Disturbance. Site Description - The UMBS Disturbance site is an artificial disturbance site that has recently been created as part of the Forest Accelerate Succession ExperimenT (FASET). In Spring 2008, every aspen and birch tree (>6,700, ~35% canopy LAI), the dominant early successional trees, were girdled over 39 ha of the FASET treatment plot to stimulate a disturbance that will move the forest into a later successional stage, dominated by maples, oaks, and white pine. This treatment caused aspen and birch mortality within 2 - 3 years. As a result of the changed canopy structure, there is a divergence in net ecosystem exchange between the control plot (enhanced carbon uptake) and the treatment plot (reduced carbon uptake).

  4. CO2-fluxing collapses metal mobility in magmatic vapour

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    van Hinsberg, V. J.; Berlo, K.; Migdisov, A. A.; Williams-Jones, A. E.

    2016-05-18

    Magmatic systems host many types of ore deposits, including world-class deposits of copper and gold. Magmas are commonly an important source of metals and ore-forming fluids in these systems. In many magmatic-hydrothermal systems, low-density aqueous fluids, or vapours, are significant metal carriers. Such vapours are water-dominated shallowly, but fluxing of CO2-rich vapour exsolved from deeper magma is now recognised as ubiquitous during open-system magma degassing. Furthermore, we show that such CO2-fluxing leads to a sharp drop in element solubility, up to a factor of 10,000 for Cu, and thereby provides a highly efficient, but as yet unrecognised mechanism for metalmore » deposition.« less

  5. AmeriFlux US-Wi3 Mature hardwood (MHW)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Jiquan

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-Wi3 Mature hardwood (MHW). Site Description - The Wisconsin Mature Hardwood site is located in the Washburn Ranger District of the northeastern section of Chequamegon National Forest. A member of the northern coniferous-deciduous biome, surveys from the mid-19th century indicate the region consisted of a mixed stand of red, white, and jack pines. After extensive timber harvesting, wildfires, and farming activity, the region turned into a fragmented mosaic of stands of various ages and composition. As an assemblage, the ten Wisconsin sites are indicative of the successional stages of development in the predominant stand types of a physically homogeneous landscape. The mature hardwood stand represents a typical naturally regenerated second-growth forest, free of anthropogenic disturbances for at least 70 years.

  6. Electron flux at the surface of titanium tritide films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kherani, N.P.; Shmayda, W.T. . Research Center)

    1992-03-01

    Certain metal tritides have been investigated as reliable and quasi-constant sources of electrons for a number of practical purposes with particular attention to the dependence of the electron emission rate as a function of temperature. The objective of this paper is to carry out simple calculations that illustrate the relative ranking of a numbed of binary metal tritides with respect to the maximum achievable electron flux; examine semi-empirically the energy spectrum of the electrons emanating from the surface of a titanium tritide film; and present experimental measurements of the electron emission rate from the surface of titanium tritide films. THe results suggest that beryllium tritide would yield the greatest electron emission rate of all the metal tritides; the emitted flux has a significant component of secondary electrons; and, the total electron emission rate is quite sensitive to the condition of the emitting surface.

  7. AmeriFlux US-Seg Sevilleta grassland

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Litvak, Marcy [University of New Mexico

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-Seg Sevilleta grassland. Site Description - The Sevilleta Desert Grassland site is located within the McKenzie Flats area of the Sevilleta National Wildlife Refuge (NWR), central New Mexico. Historically, this area has been used for livestock grazing; however, the McKenzie Flats have not been grazed since 1973 and the effects of this previous grazing are considered negligible for the purposes of this study. As the name suggests, McKenzie Flats is an extensive (~130 km2), nearly flat, mixed-species desert grassland bounded on the east by Los Pinos Mountains and on the west by the Rio Grande.

  8. AmeriFlux US-Ses Sevilleta shrubland

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Litvak, Marcy [University of New Mexico

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-Ses Sevilleta shrubland. Site Description - The Sevilleta Desert Shrubland site is located within the McKenzie Flats area of the Sevilleta National Wildlife Refuge (NWR), central New Mexico. Historically, this area has been used for livestock grazing; however, the McKenzie Flats have not been grazed since 1973 and the effects of this previous grazing are considered negligible for the purposes of this study. As the name suggests, McKenzie Flats is an extensive (~130 km2), nearly flat, mixed-species desert grassland bounded on the east by Los Pinos Mountains and on the west by the Rio Grande.

  9. AmeriFlux US-Twt Twitchell Island

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Baldocchi, Dennis [University of California, Berkeley

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-Twt Twitchell Island. Site Description - The Twitchell Island site is a rice paddy that is owned by the state and managed by the California Department of Water Resources. While Bare Peat field was leveled for rice planting, the tower was installed on April 3, 2009. The rice paddy was converted from corn in 2007. In Summer 2009, Bispyribac-sodium and Pendimethalin herbicides were applied to the fields prior to rice planting and flooding, then pesticide and fertilizer application took place. Each year after rice is planted in the spring by drilling, the field is flooded. Then, the field is drained in early fall, rice is harvested, and the field site is moved.

  10. AmeriFlux US-Tw3 Twitchell Alfalfa

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Baldocchi, Dennis [University of California, Berkeley

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-Tw3 Twitchell Alfalfa. Site Description - The Twitchell Alfalfa site is an alfalfa field owned by the state of California and leased to third parties for farming. The tower was installed on May 24, 2013. This site and the surrounding region are part of the San Joaquin - Sacramento River Delta drained beginning in the 1850's and subsequently used for agriculture. The field has been alfalfa for X years…., Crop rotation occurs every 5-6 years. The site is harvested by mowing and bailing several times per year. The field is fallow typically between November and February. The site is irrigated by periodically-flooded ditches surrounding the field. The site is irrigated by raising, and subsequently lowering the water table??

  11. AmeriFlux US-Snd Sherman Island

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Baldocchi, Dennis [University of California, Berkeley

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-Snd Sherman Island. Site Description - The Sherman Island site is a 38-ha peatland pasture, west of the Delta, that is owned by the state and managed by the California Department of Water Resources. The site is degraded and heavily grazed with ~100 cattle in the area that circumscribes the main field and fetch. The island has been drained and farmed since the late 1800s. The soils of the Delta overlay deep peat that was sequestered over the Holocene period as sea-level rose and flooding of archaic wetlands prevented decomposition of roots and stems. Hence, the upper 10 m of peatland has been lost to decomposition, compaction, and subsidence. Today a mineral soil overlays a peat layer, which coincides with the general depth of the water table.

  12. AmeriFlux US-MMS Morgan Monroe State Forest

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Philip, Rich; Novick, Kim

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-MMS Morgan Monroe State Forest. Site Description - Owned by the Indiana Department of Natural Resources (IDNR), the Morgan Monroe State Forest, the site's namesake, is operated thanks to the long-term agreement between Indiana University and IDNR. The first settlers cleared the surrounding ridges for farming, but were largely unsuccessful. The state of Indiana purchased the land in 1929, creating the Morgan Monroe State Forest. Many of the trees in the tower footprint are 60-80 years old, surviving selective logging that ended over the past 10 years. Today, the forest is a secondary successional broadleaf forest within the maple-beech to oak hickory transition zone of the eastern deciduous forest.

  13. Vorticity Preserving Flux Corrected Transport Scheme for the Acoustic Equations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lung, Tyler B.; Roe, Phil; Morgan, Nathaniel R.

    2012-08-15

    Long term research goals are to develop an improved cell-centered Lagrangian Hydro algorithm with the following qualities: 1. Utilizes Flux Corrected Transport (FCT) to achieve second order accuracy with multidimensional physics; 2. Does not rely on the one-dimensional Riemann problem; and 3. Implements a form of vorticity control. Short term research goals are to devise and implement a 2D vorticity preserving FCT solver for the acoustic equations on an Eulerian mesh: 1. Develop a flux limiting mechanism for systems of governing equations with symmetric wave speeds; 2. Verify the vorticity preserving properties of the scheme; and 3. Compare the performance of the scheme to traditional MUSCL-Hancock and other algorithms.

  14. IS VOYAGER 1 INSIDE AN INTERSTELLAR FLUX TRANSFER EVENT?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schwadron, N. A.; McComas, D. J.

    2013-12-01

    Plasma wave observations from Voyager 1 have recently shown large increases in plasma density, to about 0.1 cm{sup –3}, consistent with the density of the local interstellar medium. However, corresponding magnetic field observations continue to show the spiral magnetic field direction observed throughout the inner heliosheath. These apparently contradictory observations may be reconciled if Voyager 1 is inside an interstellar flux transfer event—similar to flux transfer events routinely seen at the Earth's magnetopause. If this were the case, Voyager 1 remains inside the heliopause and based on the Voyager 1 observations we can determine the polarity of the interstellar magnetic field for the first time.

  15. Appendix MASS: Performance Assessment Modeling Assumptions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Appendix MASS-2014 Performance Assessment Modeling Assumptions United States Department of Energy Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Carlsbad Field Office Carlsbad, New Mexico Compliance Recertification Application 2014 Appendix MASS Table of Contents MASS-1.0 Introduction MASS-2.0 Summary of Changes in Performance Assessment MASS-2.1 FEPs Assessment MASS-2.2 Monitoring MASS-2.3 Experimental Activities MASS-2.3.1 Steel Corrosion Investigations MASS-2.3.2 Waste Shear Strength Investigations MASS-2.3.3

  16. A field investigation of sulfate fluxes to a deciduous forest

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hicks, B.B.; Matt, D.R.; McMillen, R.T.; Womack, J.D. ); Wesely, M.L.; Hart, R.L.; Cook, D.R.; Lindberg, S.E.; de Pena, R.G.; Thomson, D.W.; and others

    1989-09-20

    An intensive investigation of particulate sulfur fluxes to a deciduous forest was conducted at Oak Ridge, Tennessee, during May 1983, as part of a multilaboratory program to study the dry deposition of airborne trace gases and aerosols to vegetated surfaces. At this time, the leaf area was approximately 50% of the maximum and was rapidly increasing. Eddy correlation methods were used to measure fluxes of submicron particulate sulfur (presumably sulfate), of submicron particles in three different size ranges, and of ozone above the forest canopy. The measured deposition velocities (v{sub d}) of particulate sulfur peaked at about 1 cm s{sup {minus}1} in daytime, but dropped to near zero at night, with a long-term average of about 0.6 cm s{sup {minus}1}. When scaled with friction velocity, these values of v{sub d} are consistent with similar measurements taken previously over different surfaces. Measurements and analyses indicate that the flux divergence of particulate sulfur should have caused an error no greater than {plus minus}0.05 cm s{sup {minus}1} in v{sub d} estimates. For very small particles (less than 0.1 {mu}m diameter), measured values of v{sub d} were similar to those for particulate sulfate, but deposition velocities for particles in the accumulation size range decreased as particle size increased, and upward components of fluxes were found in daytime convective conditions. During this study, measurements were also made of sulfur deposition to polycarbonate petrie dishes placed in the forest canopy, and to the bucket of a standard wet-dry collector in a forest clearing. These surrogate surface studies produced much smaller values of v{sub d} for sulfate than those derived from eddy correlation, when no scaling as a function of leaf area relative to ground area was applied. {copyright} American Geophysical Union 1989

  17. Measurements and model calculations of radiative fluxes for the Cabauw

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Experimental Site for Atmospheric Research, the Netherlands Measurements and model calculations of radiative fluxes for the Cabauw Experimental Site for Atmospheric Research, the Netherlands Knap, Wouter Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute KNMI Los, Alexander KNMI Boers, Reinout KNMI Category: Radiation The Cabauw Experimental Site for Atmospheric Research (CESAR), the Netherlands (52.0N, 4.9E), contains an extensive set of instruments for atmospheric research, such as radar, lidar

  18. Fast Flux Test Facility Closure Project - Project Management Plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BEACH, R.R.

    2002-09-26

    The Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) Closure Project, Project Management Plan, Revision 5, provides the scope, cost, and schedule to achieve the most cost effective and expeditious closure of the FFTF to an assumed final end-state with the reactor vessel and the containment building, below the 5504 grade level, being entombed in place. Closure will be completed by December 2009 at a cost of $547 million.

  19. Knowledge Preservation at the Fast Flux Test Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wootan, David W.; Omberg, Ronald P.; Makenas, Bruce J.; Nielsen, Deborah L.; Nelson, Joseph V.; Polzin, David L.

    2012-01-30

    The Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) is the most recent Liquid Metal Reactor (LMR) to operate in the United States, from 1982 to 1992. The technologies employed in designing and constructing this reactor, along with information obtained from tests conducted during its operation, are currently being secured and archived by the Department of Energy's Office of Nuclear Energy. This report is one in a series documenting the overall project efforts to retrieve and preserve critical information related to advanced reactors

  20. Startup Testing of the Fast Flux Test Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wootan, David W.; Butner, R. Scott; Omberg, Ronald P.; Makenas, Bruce J.; Nielsen, Deborah L.; Polzin, David L.

    2010-06-30

    This paper is one in a series documenting the current effort to retrieve, secure, and preserve critical information related to advanced reactors. . Information from this testing is being retrieved under the Fuel Cycle Research and Development (FCRD) program conducted by the Office of Nuclear Energy (NE) of the DOE. The Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) is the most recent Liquid Metal Reactor (LMR) to be designed, constructed, and operated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE).

  1. Knowledge Preservation at the Fast Flux Test Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wootan, David W.; Omberg, Ronald P.; Makenas, Bruce J.; Nielsen, Deborah L.; Nelson, Joseph V.; Polzin, David L.

    2011-11-30

    The Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) is the most recent Liquid Metal Reactor (LMR) to operate in the United States, from 1982 to 1992. The technologies employed in designing and constructing this reactor, along with information obtained from tests conducted during its operation, are currently being secured and archived by the Department of Energy's Office of Nuclear Energy. This report provides a status update documenting the overall project efforts to retrieve and preserve critical information related to advanced reactors.

  2. Nanocrystalline Separation Membrane for Improved Hydrogen Flux - Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Innovation Portal Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Advanced Materials Advanced Materials Find More Like This Return to Search Nanocrystalline Separation Membrane for Improved Hydrogen Flux New processing technique to develop ionic transport membranes with improved ionic and electronic conductivity Savannah River National Laboratory Contact SRNL About This Technology Publications: PDF Document Publication Brinkman_MRS_Spring_v2.pdf (756 KB) Dr. Kyle Brinkman Dr. Kyle Brinkman

  3. Joint Downscale Fluxes of Energy and Potential Enstrophy in Rotating

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Stratified Boussinesq Flows | Argonne Leadership Computing Facility Joint Downscale Fluxes of Energy and Potential Enstrophy in Rotating Stratified Boussinesq Flows Authors: Kurien, S., Aluie, H. We use high-resolution simulations of Boussinesq flows, forced in the large-scales, with fixed rotation and stable stratification along the vertical axis, to study the cascades of energy and potential enstrophy to small-scales in three different regimes of stratification and rotation. For strongly

  4. Sensitivity of Radiative Fluxes and Heating Rates to Cloud Microphysics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Sensitivity of Radiative Fluxes and Heating Rates to Cloud Microphysics S. F. Iacobellis and R. C. J. Somerville Scripps Institution of Oceanography University of California, San Diego La Jolla, California G. M. McFarquhar University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Urbana, Illinois D. L. Mitchell Desert Research Institute Reno, Nevada Introduction A single-column model (SCM) is used to examine the sensitivity of basic quantities such as atmospheric radiative heating rates and surface and top of

  5. Data Assimilation in the ADAPT Photospheric Flux Transport Model

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Hickmann, Kyle S.; Godinez, Humberto C.; Henney, Carl J.; Arge, C. Nick

    2015-03-17

    Global maps of the solar photospheric magnetic flux are fundamental drivers for simulations of the corona and solar wind and therefore are important predictors of geoeffective events. However, observations of the solar photosphere are only made intermittently over approximately half of the solar surface. The Air Force Data Assimilative Photospheric Flux Transport (ADAPT) model uses localized ensemble Kalman filtering techniques to adjust a set of photospheric simulations to agree with the available observations. At the same time, this information is propagated to areas of the simulation that have not been observed. ADAPT implements a local ensemble transform Kalman filter (LETKF)more » to accomplish data assimilation, allowing the covariance structure of the flux-transport model to influence assimilation of photosphere observations while eliminating spurious correlations between ensemble members arising from a limited ensemble size. We give a detailed account of the implementation of the LETKF into ADAPT. Advantages of the LETKF scheme over previously implemented assimilation methods are highlighted.« less

  6. TRANSIENT BRIGHTENINGS ASSOCIATED WITH FLUX CANCELLATION ALONG A FILAMENT CHANNEL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Y.-M.; Muglach, K. E-mail: karin.muglach@nasa.gov

    2013-02-15

    Filament channels coincide with large-scale polarity inversion lines of the photospheric magnetic field, where flux cancellation continually takes place. High-cadence Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) images recorded in He II 30.4 nm and Fe IX 17.1 nm during 2010 August 22 reveal numerous transient brightenings occurring along the edge of a filament channel within a decaying active region, where SDO line-of-sight magnetograms show strong opposite-polarity flux in close contact. The brightenings are elongated along the direction of the filament channel, with linear extents of several arcseconds, and typically last a few minutes; they sometimes have the form of multiple two-sided ejections with speeds on the order of 100 km s{sup -1}. Remarkably, some of the brightenings rapidly develop into larger scale events, forming sheetlike structures that are eventually torn apart by the diverging flows in the filament channel and ejected in opposite directions. We interpret the brightenings as resulting from reconnections among filament-channel field lines having one footpoint located in the region of canceling flux. In some cases, the flow patterns that develop in the channel may bring successive horizontal loops together and cause a cascade to larger scales.

  7. AmeriFlux US-An3 Anaktuvuk River Unburned

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Hobbie, John [Marine Biological Laboratory; Rocha, Adrian [Marine Biological Laboratory; Shaver, Gaius [Marine Biological Laboratory

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-An3 Anaktuvuk River Unburned. Site Description - The Anaktuvuk River fire on the North Slope of Alaska started on July 16, 2007 by lightning. It continued until the end of September when nearby lakes had already frozen over and burned >256,000 acres, creating a mosaic of patches that differed in burn severity. The Anaktuvuk River Severe Burn, Moderate Burn, and Unburned sites are 40 km to the west of the nearest road and were selected in late May 2008 to determine the effects of the fire on carbon, water, and energy exchanges during the growing season. Because the fire had burned through September of the previous year, initial deployment of flux towers occurred prior to any significant vegetative regrowth, and our sampling campaign captured the full growing season in 2008. The Unburned site was located in a large area of tundra that was unaffected by the fire.

  8. The F-theory geometry with most flux vacua

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Taylor, Washington; Wang, Yi -Nan

    2015-12-28

    Applying the Ashok-Denef-Douglas estimation method to elliptic Calabi-Yau fourfolds suggests that a single elliptic fourfold Mmax gives rise to O(10272,000) F-theory flux vacua, and that the sum total of the numbers of flux vacua from all other F-theory geometries is suppressed by a relative factor of O(10–3000). The fourfold Mmax arises from a generic elliptic fibration over a specific toric threefold base Bmax, and gives a geometrically non-Higgsable gauge group of E89 × F48 × (G 2 × SU(2))16, of which we expect some factors to be broken by G-flux to smaller groups. It is not possible to tune anmore » SU(5) GUT group on any further divisors in Mmax, or even an SU(2) or SU(3), so the standard model gauge group appears to arise in this context only from a broken E8 factor. Furthermore, the results of this paper can either be interpreted as providing a framework for predicting how the standard model arises most naturally in F-theory and the types of dark matter to be found in a typical F-theory compactification, or as a challenge to string theorists to explain why other choices of vacua are not exponentially unlikely compared to F-theory compactifications on Mmax.« less

  9. Negative mass solitons in gravity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cebeci, Hakan; Sarioglu, Oezguer; Tekin, Bayram

    2006-03-15

    We first reconstruct the conserved (Abbott-Deser) charges in the spin-connection formalism of gravity for asymptotically (Anti)-de Sitter spaces, and then compute the masses of the AdS soliton and the recently found Eguchi-Hanson solitons in generic odd dimensions, unlike the previous result obtained for only five dimensions. These solutions have negative masses compared to the global AdS or AdS/Z{sub p} spacetimes. As a separate note, we also compute the masses of the recent even dimensional Taub-NUT-Reissner-Nordstroem metrics.

  10. Conjugate heat and mass transfer in the lattice Boltzmann equation method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, LK; Chen, C; Mei, RW; Klausner, JF

    2014-04-22

    An interface treatment for conjugate heat and mass transfer in the lattice Boltzmann equation method is proposed based on our previously proposed second-order accurate Dirichlet and Neumann boundary schemes. The continuity of temperature (concentration) and its flux at the interface for heat (mass) transfer is intrinsically satisfied without iterative computations, and the interfacial temperature (concentration) and their fluxes are conveniently obtained from the microscopic distribution functions without finite-difference calculations. The present treatment takes into account the local geometry of the interface so that it can be directly applied to curved interface problems such as conjugate heat and mass transfer in porous media. For straight interfaces or curved interfaces with no tangential gradient, the coupling between the interfacial fluxes along the discrete lattice velocity directions is eliminated and thus the proposed interface schemes can be greatly simplified. Several numerical tests are conducted to verify the applicability and accuracy of the proposed conjugate interface treatment, including (i) steady convection-diffusion in a channel containing two different fluids, (ii) unsteady convection-diffusion in the channel, (iii) steady heat conduction inside a circular domain with two different solid materials, and (iv) unsteady mass transfer from a spherical droplet in an extensional creeping flow. The accuracy and order of convergence of the simulated interior temperature (concentration) field, the interfacial temperature (concentration), and heat (mass) flux are examined in detail and compared with those obtained from the "half-lattice division" treatment in the literature. The present analysis and numerical results show that the half-lattice division scheme is second-order accurate only when the interface is fixed at the center of the lattice links, while the present treatment preserves second-order accuracy for arbitrary link fractions. For curved

  11. Method for studying a sample of material using a heavy ion induced mass spectrometer source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fries, D.P.; Browning, J.F.

    1999-02-16

    A heavy ion generator is used with a plasma desorption mass spectrometer to provide an appropriate neutron flux in the direction of a fissionable material in order to desorb and ionize large molecules from the material for mass analysis. The heavy ion generator comprises a fissionable material having a high n,f reaction cross section. The heavy ion generator also comprises a pulsed neutron generator that is used to bombard the fissionable material with pulses of neutrons, thereby causing heavy ions to be emitted from the fissionable material. These heavy ions impinge on a material, thereby causing ions to desorb off that material. The ions desorbed off the material pass through a time-of-flight mass analyzer, wherein ions can be measured with masses greater than 25,000 amu. 3 figs.

  12. Method for studying a sample of material using a heavy ion induced mass spectrometer source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fries, David P.; Browning, James F.

    1999-01-01

    A heavy ion generator is used with a plasma desorption mass spectrometer to provide an appropriate neutron flux in the direction of a fissionable material in order to desorb and ionize large molecules from the material for mass analysis. The heavy ion generator comprises a fissionable material having a high n,f reaction cross section. The heavy ion generator also comprises a pulsed neutron generator that is used to bombard the fissionable material with pulses of neutrons, thereby causing heavy ions to be emitted from the fissionable material. These heavy ions impinge on a material, thereby causing ions to desorb off that material. The ions desorbed off the material pass through a time-of-flight mass analyzer, wherein ions can be measured with masses greater than 25,000 amu.

  13. System for studying a sample of material using a heavy ion induced mass spectrometer source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fries, D.P.; Browning, J.F.

    1998-07-21

    A heavy ion generator is used with a plasma desorption mass spectrometer to provide an appropriate neutron flux in the direction of a fissionable material in order to desorb and ionize large molecules from the material for mass analysis. The heavy ion generator comprises a fissionable material having a high (n,f) reaction cross section. The heavy ion generator also comprises a pulsed neutron generator that is used to bombard the fissionable material with pulses of neutrons, thereby causing heavy ions to be emitted from the fissionable material. These heavy ions impinge on a material, thereby causing ions to desorb off that material. The ions desorbed off the material pass through a time-of-flight mass analyzer, wherein ions can be measured with masses greater than 25,000 amu. 3 figs.

  14. System for studying a sample of material using a heavy ion induced mass spectrometer source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fries, David P.; Browning, James F.

    1998-01-01

    A heavy ion generator is used with a plasma desorption mass spectrometer to provide an appropriate neutron flux in the direction of a fissionable material in order to desorb and ionize large molecules from the material for mass analysis. The heavy ion generator comprises a fissionable material having a high n,f reaction cross section. The heavy ion generator also comprises a pulsed neutron generator that is used to bombard the fissionable material with pulses of neutrons, thereby causing heavy ions to be emitted from the fissionable material. These heavy ions impinge on a material, thereby causing ions to desorb off that material. The ions desorbed off the material pass through a time-of-flight mass analyzer, wherein ions can be measured with masses greater than 25,000 amu.

  15. Improved proton computed tomography by dual modality image reconstruction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hansen, David C. Bassler, Niels; Petersen, Jørgen Breede Baltzer; Sørensen, Thomas Sangild

    2014-03-15

    Purpose: Proton computed tomography (CT) is a promising image modality for improving the stopping power estimates and dose calculations for particle therapy. However, the finite range of about 33 cm of water of most commercial proton therapy systems limits the sites that can be scanned from a full 360° rotation. In this paper the authors propose a method to overcome the problem using a dual modality reconstruction (DMR) combining the proton data with a cone-beam x-ray prior. Methods: A Catphan 600 phantom was scanned using a cone beam x-ray CT scanner. A digital replica of the phantom was created in the Monte Carlo code Geant4 and a 360° proton CT scan was simulated, storing the entrance and exit position and momentum vector of every proton. Proton CT images were reconstructed using a varying number of angles from the scan. The proton CT images were reconstructed using a constrained nonlinear conjugate gradient algorithm, minimizing total variation and the x-ray CT prior while remaining consistent with the proton projection data. The proton histories were reconstructed along curved cubic-spline paths. Results: The spatial resolution of the cone beam CT prior was retained for the fully sampled case and the 90° interval case, with the MTF = 0.5 (modulation transfer function) ranging from 5.22 to 5.65 linepairs/cm. In the 45° interval case, the MTF = 0.5 dropped to 3.91 linepairs/cm For the fully sampled DMR, the maximal root mean square (RMS) error was 0.006 in units of relative stopping power. For the limited angle cases the maximal RMS error was 0.18, an almost five-fold improvement over the cone beam CT estimate. Conclusions: Dual modality reconstruction yields the high spatial resolution of cone beam x-ray CT while maintaining the improved stopping power estimation of proton CT. In the case of limited angles, the use of prior image proton CT greatly improves the resolution and stopping power estimate, but does not fully achieve the quality of a 360

  16. A Manufacturing Cost Analysis Relevant to Single- and Dual-Junction...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    A Manufacturing Cost Analysis Relevant to Single- and Dual-Junction Photovoltaic Cells Fabricated with III-Vs and III-Vs Grown on Silicon A Manufacturing Cost Analysis Relevant to ...

  17. A Nonproliferation Third Party for Dual-use Industries - Legal Issues for Consideration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morris, Frederic A.; Seward, Amy M.; Kurzrok, Andrew J.

    2012-10-01

    This paper discusses legal issues in connection with formation of a “third party” to facilitate information sharing and best practices by companies in nuclear-related dual-use industries.

  18. Source book for planning nuclear dual-purpose electric/distillation desalination plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reed, S.A.

    1981-02-01

    A source book on nuclear dual-purpose electric/distillation desalination plants was prepared to assist government and other planners in preparing broad evaluations of proposed applications of dual-purpose plants. The document is divided into five major sections. Section 1 presents general discussions relating to the benefits of dual-purpose plants, and spectrum for water-to-power ratios. Section 2 presents information on commercial nuclear plants manufactured by US manufacturers. Section 3 gives information on distillation desalting processes and equipment. Section 4 presents a discussion on feedwater pretreatment and scale control. Section 5 deals with methods for coupling the distillation and electrical generating plants to operate in the dual mode.

  19. Dual modulation laser line-locking technique for wavelength modulation spectroscopy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bomse, David S.; Hovde, D. Christian; Silver, Joel A.

    2002-01-01

    Disclosed are a method and apparatus for dual modulation of an optical spectroscopy laser. Demodulation is accomplished in a manner resulting in measurement of absorbance of a gas species, as well as stabilization of laser wavelength and baseline noise reduction.

  20. Toward the AdS/CFT gravity dual for high energy collisions. II...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    II. The stress tensor on the boundary Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Toward the AdSCFT gravity dual for high energy collisions. II. The stress tensor on the boundary ...