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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dual evaporator cycle" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

Dual manifold heat pipe evaporator  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An improved evaporator section for a dual manifold heat pipe. Both the upper and lower manifolds can have surfaces exposed to the heat source which evaporate the working fluid. The tubes in the tube bank between the manifolds have openings in their lower extensions into the lower manifold to provide for the transport of evaporated working fluid from the lower manifold into the tubes and from there on into the upper manifold and on to the condenser portion of the heat pipe. A wick structure lining the inner walls of the evaporator tubes extends into both the upper and lower manifolds. At least some of the tubes also have overflow tubes contained within them to carry condensed working fluid from the upper manifold to pass to the lower without spilling down the inside walls of the tubes.

Adkins, Douglas R. (Albuquerque, NM); Rawlinson, K. Scott (Albuquerque, NM)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

2

Dual manifold heat pipe evaporator  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An improved evaporator section is described for a dual manifold heat pipe. Both the upper and lower manifolds can have surfaces exposed to the heat source which evaporate the working fluid. The tubes in the tube bank between the manifolds have openings in their lower extensions into the lower manifold to provide for the transport of evaporated working fluid from the lower manifold into the tubes and from there on into the upper manifold and on to the condenser portion of the heat pipe. A wick structure lining the inner walls of the evaporator tubes extends into both the upper and lower manifolds. At least some of the tubes also have overflow tubes contained within them to carry condensed working fluid from the upper manifold to pass to the lower without spilling down the inside walls of the tubes. 1 figure.

Adkins, D.R.; Rawlinson, K.S.

1994-01-04T23:59:59.000Z

3

Development of a Direct Evaporator for the Organic Rankine Cycle  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper describes research and development currently underway to place the evaporator of an Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) system directly in the path of a hot exhaust stream produced by a gas turbine engine. The main goal of this research effort is to improve cycle efficiency and cost by eliminating the usual secondary heat transfer loop. The projectís technical objective is to eliminate the pumps, heat exchangers and all other added cost and complexity of the secondary loop by developing an evaporator that resides in the waste heat stream, yet virtually eliminates the risk of a working fluid leakage into the gaseous exhaust stream. The research team comprised of Idaho National Laboratory and General Electric Company engineers leverages previous research in advanced ORC technology to develop a new direct evaporator design that will reduce the ORC system cost by up to 15%, enabling the rapid adoption of ORCs for waste heat recovery.

Donna Post Guillen; Helge Klockow; Matthew Lehar; Sebastian Freund; Jennifer Jackson

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

4

The Explorationon the Energy Saving Potential of an Innovative Dual-temperature Air Conditioner and the Mechanism of the Theoretical Mixed Refrigeration Cycl  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Exploration on the Energy Saving Potential of an Innovative Dual-temperature Air Conditioner and the Mechanism of the Theoretical Mixed Refrigeration Cycle Zhao Lei, Zhao Xijin, Hu Andu Professor, graduate student, graduate student...-temperature air conditioning system and its corresponding theoretical mixed refrigeration cycle are proposed. This consists of a separate air handling unit and a metal radiation panel as the dual-temperature evaporators, a compressor, a condenser, two thermal...

Zhao,L.; Zhao,X.; Hu,A.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

5

Procedure for Applying an Open-Cycle Heat Pump to An Existing Evaporator  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

An open-cycle heat pump, or mechanical vapor compression (MVC) system, is often an attractive technique for increasing the energy efficiency of an evaporator. With proper design, an MVC system is capable of dramatic cost savings when retrofitted...

Wagner, J. R.; Brush, F. C.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

6

Economic and Technical Tradeoffs Between Open and Closed Cycle Vapor Compression Evaporators  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

compressor. The blowers and centrifugal compressors used for steam recompression are limited to compression ratios of around 2:1 in a single stage. This compression ratio is perfectly adequate for many applications. But if a larger driving force with a... higher compression ratio is desired. two or more compression stages must be used resulting in sig nificantly increased compressor costs. Closed Cycle Vapor Compression A schematic of a closed cycle vapor compression evaporator is shown in Figure 3...

Timm, M. L.

7

Indirect-fired gas turbine dual fuel cell power cycle  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A fuel cell and gas turbine combined cycle system which includes dual fuel cell cycles combined with a gas turbine cycle wherein a solid oxide fuel cell cycle operated at a pressure of between 6 to 15 atms tops the turbine cycle and is used to produce CO.sub.2 for a molten carbonate fuel cell cycle which bottoms the turbine and is operated at essentially atmospheric pressure. A high pressure combustor is used to combust the excess fuel from the topping fuel cell cycle to further heat the pressurized gas driving the turbine. A low pressure combustor is used to combust the excess fuel from the bottoming fuel cell to reheat the gas stream passing out of the turbine which is used to preheat the pressurized air stream entering the topping fuel cell before passing into the bottoming fuel cell cathode. The CO.sub.2 generated in the solid oxide fuel cell cycle cascades through the system to the molten carbonate fuel cell cycle cathode.

Micheli, Paul L. (Sacramento, CA); Williams, Mark C. (Morgantown, WV); Sudhoff, Frederick A. (Morgantown, WV)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

8

A Novel Absorption Cycle for Combined Water Heating, Dehumidification, and Evaporative Cooling  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this study, development of a novel system for combined water heating, dehumidification, and space evaporative cooling is discussed. Ambient water vapor is used as a working fluid in an open system. First, water vapor is absorbed from an air stream into an absorbent solution. The latent heat of absorption is transferred into the process water that cools the absorber. The solution is then regenerated in the desorber, where it is heated by a heating fluid. The water vapor generated in the desorber is condensed and its heat of phase change is transferred to the process water in the condenser. The condensed water can then be used in an evaporative cooling process to cool the dehumidified air exiting the absorber, or it can be drained if primarily dehumidification is desired. Essentially, this open absorption cycle collects space heat and transfers it to process water. This technology is enabled by a membrane-based absorption/desorption process in which the absorbent is constrained by hydrophobic vapor-permeable membranes. Constraining the absorbent film has enabled fabrication of the absorber and desorber in a plate-and-frame configuration. An air stream can flow against the membrane at high speed without entraining the absorbent, which is a challenge in conventional dehumidifiers. Furthermore, the absorption and desorption rates of an absorbent constrained by a membrane are greatly enhanced. Isfahani and Moghaddam (Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 2013) demonstrated absorption rates of up to 0.008 kg/m2s in a membrane-based absorber and Isfahani et al. (Int. J. Multiphase Flow, 2013) have reported a desorption rate of 0.01 kg/m2s in a membrane-based desorber. The membrane-based architecture also enables economical small-scale systems, novel cycle configurations, and high efficiencies. The absorber, solution heat exchanger, and desorber are fabricated on a single metal sheet. In addition to the open arrangement and membrane-based architecture, another novel feature of the cycle is recovery of the solution heat energy exiting the desorber by process water (a process-solution heat exchanger ) rather than the absorber exiting solution (the conventional solution heat exchanger ). This approach has enabled heating the process water from an inlet temperature of 15 C to 57 C (conforming to the DOE water heater test standard) and interfacing the process water with absorbent on the opposite side of a single metal sheet encompassing the absorber, process-solution heat exchanger, and desorber. The system under development has a 3.2 kW water heating capacity and a target thermal coefficient of performance (COP) of 1.6.

CHUGH, Devesh [University of Florida, Gainesville; Gluesenkamp, Kyle R [ORNL; Abdelaziz, Omar [ORNL; Moghaddam, Saeed [University of Florida, Gainesville

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

9

Effects of system cycling, evaporator airflow, and condenser coil fouling on the performance of residential split-system air conditioners  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

EFFECTS OF SYSTEM CYCLING, EVAPORATOR AIRFLOW, AND CONDENSER COIL FOULING ON THE PERFORMANCE OF RESIDENTIAL SPLIT-SYSTEM AIR CONDITIONERS A Thesis by JEFFREY BRANDON DOOLEY Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies... COIL FOULING ON THE PERFORMANCE OF RESIDENTIAL SPLIT-SYSTEM AIR CONDITIONERS A Thesis by JEFFREY BRANDON DOOLEY Submitted to Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER...

Dooley, Jeffrey Brandon

2005-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

10

Nitrogen sources and cycling in the San Francisco Bay Estuary: A nitrate dual isotopic composition approach  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

as 25.0%) at the Sacramento≠San Joaquin River delta region give rise to a wide range of d18ONO3 valuesNitrogen sources and cycling in the San Francisco Bay Estuary: A nitrate dual isotopic composition18O) within the estuarine system of San Francisco (SF) Bay, California, to explore the utility

Paytan, Adina

11

Field Test of Combined Desiccant-Evaporator Cycle Providing Lower Dew Points and Enhanced Dehumidification  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1939 2262 2585 2908 3231 AmbientF AmbientRH Return F Return RH Figure 11. One Month MODEL C Operational Data. Set Points Are 76 F and 45 % RH. Each Data Point Represents A 15 Minute Average. The Fan Is Set on ďAutoĒ, That Is, It Cycles On and Off... with the better humidistat. The MODEL C unit provided excellent humidity control at the 45% RH set point, with occasional overcooling at night of several degrees (when the building is unoccupied). No reheat was used. For control, the unit was cycled...

Cromer, C. J.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

Milestone Report #2: Direct Evaporator Leak and Flammability Analysis Modifications and Optimization of the Organic Rankine Cycle to Improve the Recovery of Waste Heat  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The direct evaporator is a simplified heat exchange system for an Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) that generates electricity from a gas turbine exhaust stream. Typically, the heat of the exhaust stream is transferred indirectly to the ORC by means of an intermediate thermal oil loop. In this project, the goal is to design a direct evaporator where the working fluid is evaporated in the exhaust gas heat exchanger. By eliminating one of the heat exchangers and the intermediate oil loop, the overall ORC system cost can be reduced by approximately 15%. However, placing a heat exchanger operating with a flammable hydrocarbon working fluid directly in the hot exhaust gas stream presents potential safety risks. The purpose of the analyses presented in this report is to assess the flammability of the selected working fluid in the hot exhaust gas stream stemming from a potential leak in the evaporator. Ignition delay time for cyclopentane at temperatures and pressure corresponding to direct evaporator operation was obtained for several equivalence ratios. Results of a computational fluid dynamic analysis of a pinhole leak scenario are given.

Donna Post Guillen

2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

13

Dual-temperature Kalina cycle for geothermal-solar hybrid power systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This thesis analyzes the thermodynamics of a power system coupling two renewable heat sources: low-temperature geothermal and a high-temperature solar. The process, referred to as a dual-temperature geothermal-solar Kalina ...

Boghossian, John G

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

14

Alternative refrigerants and refrigeration cycles for domestic refrigerators  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project initially focused on using nonazeotropic refrigerant mixtures (NARMs) in a two-evaporator refrigerator-freezer design using two stages of liquid refrigerant subcooling. This concept was proposed and tested in 1975. The work suggested that the concept was 20% more efficient than the conventional one-evaporator refrigerator-freezer (RF) design. After considerable planning and system modeling based on using a NARM in a Lorenz-Meutzner (L-M) RF, the program scope was broadened to include investigation of a ``dual-loop`` concept where energy savings result from exploiting the less stringent operating conditions needed to satisfy cooling, of the fresh food section. A steady-state computer model (CYCLE-Z) capable of simulating conventional, dual loop, and L-M refrigeration cycles was developed. This model was used to rank the performance of 20 ozone-safe NARMs in the L-M refrigeration cycle while key system parameters were systematically varied. The results indicated that the steady-state efficiency of the L-M design was up to 25% greater than that of a conventional cycle. This model was also used to calculate the performance of other pure refrigerants relative to that of dichlorodifluoromethane, R-12, in conventional and dual-loop RF designs. Projected efficiency gains for these cycles were more modest, ranging from 0 to 10%. Individual compressor calorimeter tests of nine combinations of evaporator and condenser temperatures usually used to map RF compressor performance were carried out with R-12 and two candidate L-M NARMs in several compressors. Several models of a commercially produced two-evaporator RF were obtained as test units. Two dual-loop RF designs were built and tested as part of this project.

Sand, J.R.; Rice, C.L.; Vineyard, E.A.

1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

15

Apparatus and method for evaporator defrosting  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An apparatus and method for warm-liquid defrosting of the evaporator of a refrigeration system. The apparatus includes a first refrigerant expansion device that selectively expands refrigerant for cooling the evaporator, a second refrigerant expansion device that selectively expands the refrigerant after the refrigerant has passed through the evaporator, and a defrosting control for the first refrigerant expansion device and second refrigerant expansion device to selectively defrost the evaporator by causing warm refrigerant to flow through the evaporator. The apparatus is alternately embodied with a first refrigerant bypass and/or a second refrigerant bypass for selectively directing refrigerant to respectively bypass the first refrigerant expansion device and the second refrigerant expansion device, and with the defrosting control connected to the first refrigerant bypass and/or the second refrigerant bypass to selectively activate and deactivate the bypasses depending upon the current cycle of the refrigeration system. The apparatus alternately includes an accumulator for accumulating liquid and/or gaseous refrigerant that is then pumped either to a refrigerant receiver or the first refrigerant expansion device for enhanced evaporator defrosting capability. The inventive method of defrosting an evaporator in a refrigeration system includes the steps of compressing refrigerant in a compressor and cooling the refrigerant in the condenser such that the refrigerant is substantially in liquid form, passing the refrigerant substantially in liquid form through the evaporator, and expanding the refrigerant with a refrigerant expansion device after the refrigerant substantially passes through the evaporator.

Mei, Viung C. (Oak Ridge, TN); Chen, Fang C. (Knoxville, TN); Domitrovic, Ronald E. (Knoxville, TN)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

16

Low chemical concentrating steam generating cycle  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A steam cycle for a nuclear power plant having two optional modes of operation. A once-through mode of operation uses direct feed of coolant water to an evaporator avoiding excessive chemical concentration buildup. A recirculation mode of operation uses a recirculation loop to direct a portion of flow from the evaporator back through the evaporator to effectively increase evaporator flow.

Mangus, James D. (Greensburg, PA)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

Annual Simulation Results for an Air-Cooled Binary Power Cycle Employing Flash Cooling Enhancement  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Objective is to perform detailed simulation of air cooled cycle with flash supplied cooling water using two types of evaporative enhancement, spray nozzels and evaporative media.

Buys, A.; Gladden, C.; Kutscher, C.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

Measure Guideline: Evaporative Condensers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this measure guideline on evaporative condensers is to provide information on a cost-effective solution for energy and demand savings in homes with cooling loads. This is a prescriptive approach that outlines selection criteria, design and installation procedures, and operation and maintenance best practices. This document has been prepared to provide a process for properly designing, installing, and maintaining evaporative condenser systems as well as understanding the benefits, costs, and tradeoffs.

German, A.; Dakin, B.; Hoeschele, M.

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

19

Evaporation of extrasolar planets  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This article presents a review on the observations and theoretical modeling of the evaporation of extrasolar planets. The observations and the resulting constraints on the upper atmosphere (thermosphere and exosphere) of the "hot-Jupiters". are described. The early observations of the first discovered transiting extrasolar planet, HD209458b, allowed the discovery that this planet has an extended atmosphere of escaping hydrogen. Subsequent observations showed the presence of oxygen and carbon at very high altitude. These observations give unique constraints on the escape rate and mechanism in the atmosphere of hot-Jupiters. The most recent Lyman-alpha HST observations of HD189733b and MgII observations of Wasp-12b allow for the first time comparison of the evaporation from different planets in different environments. Models to quantify the escape rate from the measured occultation depths, and an energy diagram to describe the evaporation state of hot-Jupiters are presented. Using this diagram, it is shown that...

Etangs, A Lecavelier des

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

Hot air drum evaporator  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An evaporation system for aqueous radioactive waste uses standard 30 and 55 gallon drums. Waste solutions form cascading water sprays as they pass over a number of trays arranged in a vertical stack within a drum. Hot dry air is circulated radially of the drum through the water sprays thereby removing water vapor. The system is encased in concrete to prevent exposure to radioactivity. The use of standard 30 and 55 gallon drums permits an inexpensive compact modular design that is readily disposable, thus eliminating maintenance and radiation build-up problems encountered with conventional evaporation systems.

Black, Roger L. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dual evaporator cycle" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

On Reducing Evaporator Superheat Nonlinearity with Control Architecture  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, and refrigeration VCC vapor compression cycle TEV thermostatic expansion valve EEV electronic expansion valve HEV hybrid expansion valve PID proportional-integral-derivative P, Pevap evaporator pressure Q(s) transfer function from PSET to evaporator superheat (inner... by a number of different valve types, which vary in expense and design KFM product of KF times KM(v) KU gain from HEV position to mechanical pressure setpoint U HEV position MEMS micro-electrical-mechanical systemsregulating device also known...

Elliot, M.S.; Rasmussen, B.P.

22

EVAPORATIVE COOLING - CONCEPTUAL DESIGN FOR ATLAS SCT  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The conceptual design of an evaporative two-phase flow cooling system for the ATLAS SCT detector is described, using perfluorinated propane (C3F8) as a coolant. Comparison with perfluorinated butane (C4F10) is made, although the detailed design is presented only for C3F8. The two-phase pressure drop and heat transfer coefficient are calculated in order to determine the dimensions of the cooling pipes and module contacts for the Barrel SCT. The region in which the flow is homogeneous is determined. The cooling cycle, pipework, compressor, heat exchangers and other main elements of the system are calculated in order to be able to discuss the system control, safety and reliability. Evaporative cooling appears to be substantially better than the binary ice system from the point of view of safety, reliability, detector thickness, heat transfer coefficient, cost and simplicity.

Niinikoski, T O

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

Coupled dual loop absorption heat pump  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A coupled dual loop absorption system which utilizes two separate complete loops. Each individual loop operates at three temperatures and two pressures. This low temperature loop absorber and condenser are thermally coupled to the high temperature loop evaporator, and the high temperature loop condenser and absorber are thermally coupled to the low temperature generator.

Sarkisian, Paul H. (Watertown, MA); Reimann, Robert C. (Lafayette, NY); Biermann, Wendell J. (Fayetteville, NY)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

24

Optimization of Air Conditioning Cycling  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

on a 3-ton residential air conditioner are then presented to intuitively understand the effect of expansion valve and evaporator fan cycling in a real system. A real time optimization method is explored and the feasibility, recommendations for a...

Seshadri, Swarooph

2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

25

Solar Roof Cooling by Evaporation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

SOLAR ROOF COOLING BY EVAPORATION Fanjet Evaporative Roof Cooling Windsor Lake Landing #1 Windsor Point Road Columbia, S.C. 29206 G. V. Patterson National Sales Manager Evaporation is nature's way of cooling. By the The American Society... penetration through will include current engineering techniques, sys out the course of the day. tem designs and documented cases of 20% to 30% reduction in air-conditioning run time. Dr. John Yellott of the Yellott Solar Energy Labo ratories in Phoenix...

Patterson, G. V.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

Vacuum flash evaporated polymer composites  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for fabrication of polymer composite layers in a vacuum is disclosed. More specifically, the method of dissolving salts in a monomer solution, vacuum flash evaporating the solution, condensing the flash evaporated solution as a liquid film, and forming the condensed liquid film into a polymer composite layer on a substrate is disclosed.

Affinito, J.D.; Gross, M.E.

1997-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

27

Evaporative Cooling for Energy Conservation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The evaporative cooling principle applies to all equipment that exchanges sensible heat for latent heat. Equipment of this type falls into two general categories: (1) equipment for heat rejection, such as cooling towers and (2) equipment for air...

Meyer, J. R.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

DWPF Recycle Evaporator Simulant Tests  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Testing was performed to determine the feasibility and processing characteristics of an evaporation process to reduce the volume of the recycle stream from the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). The concentrated recycle would be returned to DWPF while the overhead condensate would be transferred to the Effluent Treatment Plant. Various blends of evaporator feed were tested using simulants developed from characterization of actual recycle streams from DWPF and input from DWPF-Engineering. The simulated feed was evaporated in laboratory scale apparatus to target a 30X volume reduction. Condensate and concentrate samples from each run were analyzed and the process characteristics (foaming, scaling, etc) were visually monitored during each run. The following conclusions were made from the testing: Concentration of the ''typical'' recycle stream in DWPF by 30X was feasible. The addition of DWTT recycle streams to the typical recycle stream raises the solids content of the evaporator feed considerably and lowers the amount of concentration that can be achieved. Foaming was noted during all evaporation tests and must be addressed prior to operation of the full-scale evaporator. Tests were conducted that identified Dow Corning 2210 as an antifoam candidate that warrants further evaluation. The condensate has the potential to exceed the ETP WAC for mercury, silicon, and TOC. Controlling the amount of equipment decontamination recycle in the evaporator blend would help meet the TOC limits. The evaporator condensate will be saturated with mercury and elemental mercury will collect in the evaporator condensate collection vessel. No scaling on heating surfaces was noted during the tests, but splatter onto the walls of the evaporation vessels led to a buildup of solids. These solids were difficult to remove with 2M nitric acid. Precipitation of solids was not noted during the testing. Some of the aluminum present in the recycle streams was converted from gibbsite to aluminum oxide during the evaporation process. The following recommendations were made: Recycle from the DWTT should be metered in slowly to the ''typical'' recycle streams to avoid spikes in solids content to allow consistent processing and avoid process upsets. Additional studies should be conducted to determine acceptable volume ratios for the HEME dissolution and decontamination solutions in the evaporator feed. Dow Corning 2210 antifoam should be evaluated for use to control foaming. Additional tests are required to determine the concentration of antifoam required to prevent foaming during startup, the frequency of antifoam additions required to control foaming during steady state processing, and the ability of the antifoam to control foam over a range of potential feed compositions. This evaluation should also include evaluation of the degradation of the antifoam and impact on the silicon and TOC content of the condensate. The caustic HEME dissolution recycle stream should be neutralized to at least pH of 7 prior to blending with the acidic recycle streams. Dow Corning 2210 should be used during the evaporation testing using the radioactive recycle samples received from DWPF. Evaluation of additional antifoam candidates should be conducted as a backup for Dow Corning 2210. A camera and/or foam detection instrument should be included in the evaporator design to allow monitoring of the foaming behavior during operation. The potential for foam formation and high solids content should be considered during the design of the evaporator vessel.

Stone, M

2005-04-05T23:59:59.000Z

29

Solar Roof Cooling by Evaporation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

It is generally recognized that as much as 60% of the air conditioning load in a building is generated by solar heat from the roof. This paper on SOLAR ROOF COOLING BY EVAPORATION is presented in slide form, tracing the history of 'nature's way...

Patterson, G. V.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

Conductive Thermal Interaction in Evaporative Cooling Process  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

be considered. Usually the dry-bulb depression performed by an evaporative cooler depends solely on the ambient wet-bulb temperature. The cool underground water in an evaporative cooler can cause not only adiabatic evaporation but also sensible heat transfer...

Kim, B. S.; Degelman, L. O.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

Advanced regenerative absorption refrigeration cycles  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Multi-effect regenerative absorption cycles which provide a high coefficient of performance (COP) at relatively high input temperatures. An absorber-coupled double-effect regenerative cycle (ADR cycle) (10) is provided having a single-effect absorption cycle (SEA cycle) (11) as a topping subcycle and a single-effect regenerative absorption cycle (1R cycle) (12) as a bottoming subcycle. The SEA cycle (11) includes a boiler (13), a condenser (21), an expansion device (28), an evaporator (31), and an absorber (40), all operatively connected together. The 1R cycle (12) includes a multistage boiler (48), a multi-stage resorber (51), a multisection regenerator (49) and also uses the condenser (21), expansion device (28) and evaporator (31) of the SEA topping subcycle (11), all operatively connected together. External heat is applied to the SEA boiler (13) for operation up to about 500 degrees F., with most of the high pressure vapor going to the condenser (21) and evaporator (31) being generated by the regenerator (49). The substantially adiabatic and isothermal functioning of the SER subcycle (12) provides a high COP. For higher input temperatures of up to 700 degrees F., another SEA cycle (111) is used as a topping subcycle, with the absorber (140) of the topping subcycle being heat coupled to the boiler (13) of an ADR cycle (10). The 1R cycle (12) itself is an improvement in that all resorber stages (50b-f) have a portion of their output pumped to boiling conduits (71a-f) through the regenerator (49), which conduits are connected to and at the same pressure as the highest pressure stage (48a) of the 1R multistage boiler (48).

Dao, Kim (14 Nace Ave., Piedmont, CA 94611)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

32

Dynamics of evaporative colloidal patterning  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Drying suspensions often leave behind complex patterns of particulates, as might be seen in the coffee stains on a table. Here we consider the dynamics of periodic band or uniform solid film formation on a vertical plate suspended partially in a drying colloidal solution. Direct observations allow us to visualize the dynamics of the band and film deposition, and the transition in between when the colloidal concentration is varied. A minimal theory of the liquid meniscus motion along the plate reveals the dynamics of the banding and its transition to the filming as a function of the ratio of deposition and evaporation rates. We also provide a complementary multiphase model of colloids dissolved in the liquid, which couples the inhomogeneous evaporation at the evolving meniscus to the fluid and particulate flows and the transition from a dilute suspension to a porous plug. This allows us to determine the concentration dependence of the bandwidth and the deposition rate. Together, our findings allow for the control of drying-induced patterning as a function of the colloidal concentration and evaporation rate.

C. Nadir Kaplan; Ning Wu; Shreyas Mandre; Joanna Aizenberg; L. Mahadevan

2014-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

33

Evaporative oxidation treatability test report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In 1992, Congress passed the Federal Facilities Compliance Act that requires the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to treat and dispose of its mixed waste in accordance with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) land disposal restrictions (LDRs). In response to the need for mixed-waste treatment capacity where available off-site commercial treatment facilities do not exist or cannot be used, the DOE Albuquerque Operations Office (DOE-AL) organized a Treatment Selection Team to match mixed wastes with treatment options and develop a strategy for treatment of its mixed wastes. DOE-AL manages operations at nine sites with mixed-waste inventories. The Treatment Selection Team determined a need to develop mobile treatment capacity to treat wastes at the sites where the wastes are generated. Treatment processes used for mixed waste not only must address the hazardous component (i.e., meet LDRs) but also must contain the radioactive component in a form that allows final disposal while protecting workers, the public, and the environment. On the basis of recommendations of the Treatment Selection Team, DOE-AL assigned projects to the sites to bring mixed-waste treatment capacity on-line. The three technologies assigned to the DOE Grand Junction Projects Office (GJPO) are evaporative oxidation, thermal desorption, and treated wastewater evaporation. Rust Geotech, the DOE-GJPO prime contractor, was assigned to design and fabricate mobile treatment units (MTUs) for these three technologies and to deliver the MTUs to selected DOE-AL sites. To conduct treatability tests at the GJPO, Rust leased a pilot-scale evaporative oxidation unit from the Clemson Technical Center (CTC), Anderson, South Carolina. The purpose of this report is to document the findings and results of tests performed using this equipment.

NONE

1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

34

An experimental study on new egg-crate type evaporators in domestic refrigerators and freezers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper presents experimental results of the heat transfer performance of new egg-crate type evaporators that are becoming popular in vapor compression cycle-based modern refrigerators and freezers. These forced flow, multiple finned evaporators are preferred in the local industry over the older roll-bonded designs due to efficiency and cost considerations. Extensive testing was done, and experimental data were gathered on evaporators of three different sizes at three airflow rates using a closed-loop test rig built for the purpose. This has led to the development of a novel approach of measuring low air velocities as encountered in domestic refrigerators. A correlation has been developed for the heat transfer performance of these evaporators following the j-Colburn factor analysis. The correlation relates the j-Colburn factor, a nondimensional heat transfer grouping of the Nusselt number, Reynolds number, and Prandtl number to the Reynolds number and finning factor.

Bansal, P.K. [Univ. of Auckland (New Zealand). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Neuren, O.S. van [OPUS International Consultants, Ltd., Auckland (New Zealand)

1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

35

Dew-Point Evaporative Comfort Cooling (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Presentation on innovative indirect evaporative cooling technology developed by Coolerado Corporation given at the Rocky Mountain Chapter ASHRAE conference in April 2012.

Dean, J.

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

36

Portable brine evaporator unit, process, and system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention discloses a comprehensive, efficient, and cost effective portable evaporator unit, method, and system for the treatment of brine. The evaporator unit, method, and system require a pretreatment process that removes heavy metals, crude oil, and other contaminates in preparation for the evaporator unit. The pretreatment and the evaporator unit, method, and system process metals and brine at the site where they are generated (the well site). Thus, saving significant money to producers who can avoid present and future increases in transportation costs.

Hart, Paul John (Indiana, PA); Miller, Bruce G. (State College, PA); Wincek, Ronald T. (State College, PA); Decker, Glenn E. (Bellefonte, PA); Johnson, David K. (Port Matilda, PA)

2009-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

37

Advanced thermochemical hydrogen cycles  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The overall objective of this program is to contribute to the development of practical thermochemical cycles for the production of hydrogen from water. Specific goals are: investigate and evaluate the technical and economic viability of thermochemical cycles as an advanced technology for producing hydrogen from water; investigate and evaluate the engineering principles involved in interfacing individual thermochemical cycles with the different thermal energy sources (high temperature fission, solar, and fusion); and conduct a continuing research and development effort to evaluate the use of solid sulfates, oxides and other compounds as potentially advanced cycles and as alternates to H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ based cycles. Basic thermochemistry studies have been completed for two different steps in the decomposition of bismuth sulfate. Two different bismuth sulfate cycles have been defined for different sulfuric acid strengths. The eventual best cycle will depend on energy required to form sulfuric acid at different concentrations. A solids decomposition facility has been constructed and practical studies of solid decompositions are being conducted. The facility includes a rotary kiln system and a dual-particle fluidized bed system. Evaluation of different types of cycles for coupling with different heat sources is continuing.

Hollabaugh, C.M.; Bowman, M.G.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

Gas exchange in terrestrial environments comes at the cost of evaporative water loss from respiratory surfaces.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

3477 Gas exchange in terrestrial environments comes at the cost of evaporative water loss from of gas exchange, both within and among species (Lighton, 1998; Shelton and Appel, 2001; Chown, 2002). The classical pattern is that of discontinuous gas exchange, or discontinuous gas-exchange cycles (DGC; Lighton

Franz, Nico M.

39

Advanced evaporator technology progress report FY 1992  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report summarizes the work that was completed in FY 1992 on the program {open_quotes}Technology Development for Concentrating Process Streams.{close_quotes} The purpose of this program is to evaluate and develop evaporator technology for concentrating radioactive waste and product streams such as those generated by the TRUEX process. Concentrating these streams and minimizing the volume of waste generated can significantly reduce disposal costs; however, equipment to concentrate the streams and recycle the decontaminated condensates must be installed. LICON, Inc., is developing an evaporator that shows a great deal of potential for this application. In this report, concepts that need to be incorporated into the design of an evaporator operated in a radioactive environment are discussed. These concepts include criticality safety, remote operation and maintenance, and materials of construction. Both solubility and vapor-liquid equilibrium data are needed to design an effective process for concentrating process streams. Therefore, literature surveys were completed and are summarized in this report. A model that is being developed to predict vapor phase compositions is described. A laboratory-scale evaporator was purchased and installed to study the evaporation process and to collect additional data. This unit is described in detail. Two new LICON evaporators are being designed for installation at Argonne-East in FY 1993 to process low-level radioactive waste generated throughout the laboratory. They will also provide operating data from a full-sized evaporator processing radioactive solutions. Details on these evaporators are included in this report.

Chamberlain, D.; Hutter, J.C.; Leonard, R.A. [and others

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

40

Water Evaporation: A Transition Path Sampling Study  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We use transition path sampling to study evaporation in the SPC/E model of liquid water. Based on thousands of evaporation trajectories, we characterize the members of the transition state ensemble (TSE), which exhibit a liquid-vapor interface with predominantly negative mean curvature at the site of evaporation. We also find that after evaporation is complete, the distributions of translational and angular momenta of the evaporated water are Maxwellian with a temperature equal to that of the liquid. To characterize the evaporation trajectories in their entirety, we find that it suffices to project them onto just two coordinates: the distance of the evaporating molecule to the instantaneous liquid-vapor interface, and the velocity of the water along the average interface normal. In this projected space, we find that the TSE is well-captured by a simple model of ballistic escape from a deep potential well, with no additional barrier to evaporation beyond the cohesive strength of the liquid. Equivalently, they are consistent with a near-unity probability for a water molecule impinging upon a liquid droplet to condense. These results agree with previous simulations and with some, but not all, recent experiments.

Patrick Varilly; David Chandler

2012-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dual evaporator cycle" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

CONDENSATION AND EVAPORATION FOR THERMALLY UNEQUILIBRATED PHASES  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

CONDENSATION AND EVAPORATION FOR THERMALLY UNEQUILIBRATED PHASES R. A. Marcus1 , A. V. Fedkin2-K) equation for the rate of condensation of a gas or evaporation of a solid or liquid is used for systems, Tg, differs from that of the condensed phase, Ts . Here, we modify the H-K equation for this case

Grossman, Lawrence

42

Cycle Analysis on Ocean Geothermal Power Generation using Multi-staged Turbine  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Cycle Analysis on Ocean Geothermal Power Generation using Multi-staged Turbine 2013. 09. 11 Korea ORC #12;Cycle simulation Solver : HYSYS Basic simulation design T-S diagram Pump Turbine Evaporator & turbine : iso-entropic process Pump Turbine Evaporator Condenser 4 1 2 3 Geothermal water Deep seawater

43

Fundamental study of evaporation model in micron pore  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of evaporation has not been established. The purpose of this study is to establish a method to apply the evaporation model based on the statistical rate theory for engineering application including vapor-liquid-structure intermolecular effect. The evaporation...

Oinuma, Ryoji

2004-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

44

Water Evaporation Studies in Texas.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

69 59 3,893 Records JUL 8.83 8.33 9.64 10.99 1.65 .94 73 73 4,679 3,068 9.76 8.97 11.54 1.32 96 71 2,559 9.78 2.08 1.86 97 71 54 4,262 7.19 2.54 2.77 96 72 78 2,402 9.93 2.54 91 62 51 3,618 7.89 2.17 95 72....15 1.10 55 31 71 4,403 2.31 3.82 3.68 63 43 85 3,374 .45 48 19 3,948 1.92 2.34 58 35 75 4,870 1.64 1.54 1.73 58 33 67 3,138 Table 1 . Mean Monthly and Annual Meteorological Data for Stations from which Evaporation Records...

Patterson, R. E. (Raleigh Elwood); Bloodgood, Dean W.; Smith, R. L.

1954-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

Catastrophic Evaporation of Rocky Planets  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Short-period exoplanets can have dayside surface temperatures surpassing 2000 K, hot enough to vaporize rock and drive a thermal wind. Small enough planets evaporate completely. We construct a radiative-hydrodynamic model of atmospheric escape from strongly irradiated, low-mass rocky planets, accounting for dust-gas energy exchange in the wind. Rocky planets with masses 2000 K are found to disintegrate entirely in 0.1 M_Earth/Gyr --- our model yields a present-day planet mass of < 0.02 M_Earth or less than about twice the mass of the Moon. Mass loss rates depend so strongly on planet mass that bodies can reside on close-in orbits for Gyrs with initial masses comparable to or less than that of Mercury, before entering a final short-lived phase of catastrophic mass loss (which KIC 12557548b has entered). Because this catastrophic stage lasts only up to a few percent of the planet's life, we estimate that for every object like KIC 12557548b, there should be 10--100 close-in quiescent progenitors with sub-da...

Perez-Becker, Daniel

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

242-A evaporator safety analysis report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report provides a revised safety analysis for the upgraded 242-A Evaporator (the Evaporator). This safety analysis report (SAR) supports the operation of the Evaporator following life extension upgrades and other facility and operations upgrades (e.g., Project B-534) that were undertaken to enhance the capabilities of the Evaporator. The Evaporator has been classified as a moderate-hazard facility (Johnson 1990). The information contained in this SAR is based on information provided by 242-A Evaporator Operations, Westinghouse Hanford Company, site maintenance and operations contractor from June 1987 to October 1996, and the existing operating contractor, Waste Management Hanford (WMH) policies. Where appropriate, a discussion address the US Department of Energy (DOE) Orders applicable to a topic is provided. Operation of the facility will be compared to the operating contractor procedures using appropriate audits and appraisals. The following subsections provide introductory and background information, including a general description of the Evaporator facility and process, a description of the scope of this SAR revision,a nd a description of the basic changes made to the original SAR.

CAMPBELL, T.A.

1999-05-17T23:59:59.000Z

47

Black Hole Evaporation as a Nonequilibrium Process  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

When a black hole evaporates, there arises a net energy flow from the black hole into its outside environment due to the Hawking radiation and the energy accretion onto black hole. Exactly speaking, due to the net energy flow, the black hole evaporation is a nonequilibrium process. To study details of evaporation process, nonequilibrium effects of the net energy flow should be taken into account. In this article we simplify the situation so that the Hawking radiation consists of non-self-interacting massless matter fields and also the energy accretion onto the black hole consists of the same fields. Then we find that the nonequilibrium nature of black hole evaporation is described by a nonequilibrium state of that field, and we formulate nonequilibrium thermodynamics of non-self-interacting massless fields. By applying it to black hole evaporation, followings are shown: (1) Nonequilibrium effects of the energy flow tends to accelerate the black hole evaporation, and, consequently, a specific nonequilibrium phenomenon of semi-classical black hole evaporation is suggested. Furthermore a suggestion about the end state of quantum size black hole evaporation is proposed in the context of information loss paradox. (2) Negative heat capacity of black hole is the physical essence of the generalized second law of black hole thermodynamics, and self-entropy production inside the matter around black hole is not necessary to ensure the generalized second law. Furthermore a lower bound for total entropy at the end of black hole evaporation is given. A relation of the lower bound with the so-called covariant entropy bound conjecture is interesting but left as an open issue.

Hiromi Saida

2008-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

48

Vapor canister heater for evaporative emissions systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Automotive evaporative emissions systems use a charcoal canister to store evaporative hydrocarobn emissions. These stored vapors are later purged and burned during engine operation. Under certain conditions the engine cannot completely purge the canister of the stored fuel vapors, which results in a decreased vapor storage capacity in the canister. A self-regulating PTC (Positive Temperature Coefficient) heater has been developed to warm the purge air as it enters the canister, in order to provide thermal energy for increased release of the vapors from charcoal sites. This paper describes the construction and operation of the vapor canister heater as it relates to improved evaporative emission system performance.

Bishop, R.P.; Berg, P.G.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

241-A evaporator flowsheet users manual  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This supporting document presents a description of the 242-A Evaporator flowsheet. Material balances are calculated for feed, slurry, and effluent streams based on input data for the feed stream.

Larrick, A.P.

1994-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

50

Ball feeder for replenishing evaporator feed  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Vapor source material such as uranium, which is to be dropped into a melt in an evaporator, is made into many balls of identical diameters and placed inside a container. An elongated sloping pipe is connected to the container and leads to the evaporator such that these balls can travel sequentially therealong by gravity. A metering valve in this pipe for passing these balls one at a time is opened in response to a signal when it is ascertained by a detector that there is a ball ready to be passed. A gate in the pipe near the evaporator momentarily stops the motion of the traveling ball and is then opened to allow the ball drop into the melt at a reduced speed.

Felde, David K. (Oak Ridge, TN); McKoon, Robert H. (San Ramon, CA)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

Ball feeder for replenishing evaporator feed  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Vapor source material such as uranium, which is to be dropped into a melt in an evaporator, is made into many balls of identical diameters and placed inside a container. An elongated sloping pipe is connected to the container and leads to the evaporator such that these balls can travel sequentially therealong by gravity. A metering valve in this pipe for passing these balls one at a time is opened in response to a signal when it is ascertained by a detector that there is a ball ready to be passed. A gate in the pipe near the evaporator momentarily stops the motion of the traveling ball and is then opened to allow the ball drop into the melt at a reduced speed.

Felde, D.K.; McKoon, R.H.

1993-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

52

DWPF RECYCLE EVAPORATOR FLOWSHEET EVALUATION (U)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) converts the high level waste slurries stored at the Savannah River Site into borosilicate glass for long-term storage. The vitrification process results in the generation of approximately five gallons of dilute recycle streams for each gallon of waste slurry vitrified. This dilute recycle stream is currently transferred to the H-area Tank Farm and amounts to approximately 1,400,000 gallons of effluent per year. Process changes to incorporate salt waste could increase the amount of effluent to approximately 2,900,000 gallons per year. The recycle consists of two major streams and four smaller streams. The first major recycle stream is condensate from the Chemical Process Cell (CPC), and is collected in the Slurry Mix Evaporator Condensate Tank (SMECT). The second major recycle stream is the melter offgas which is collected in the Off Gas Condensate Tank (OGCT). The four smaller streams are the sample flushes, sump flushes, decon solution, and High Efficiency Mist Eliminator (HEME) dissolution solution. These streams are collected in the Decontamination Waste Treatment Tank (DWTT) or the Recycle Collection Tank (RCT). All recycle streams are currently combined in the RCT and treated with sodium nitrite and sodium hydroxide prior to transfer to the tank farm. Tank Farm space limitations and previous outages in the 2H Evaporator system due to deposition of sodium alumino-silicates have led to evaluation of alternative methods of dealing with the DWPF recycle. One option identified for processing the recycle was a dedicated evaporator to concentrate the recycle stream to allow the solids to be recycled to the DWPF Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) and the condensate from this evaporation process to be sent and treated in the Effluent Treatment Plant (ETP). In order to meet process objectives, the recycle stream must be concentrated to 1/30th of the feed volume during the evaporation process. The concentrated stream must be pumpable to the DWPF SRAT vessel and should not precipitate solids to avoid fouling the evaporator vessel and heat transfer coils. The evaporation process must not generate excessive foam and must have a high Decontamination Factor (DF) for many species in the evaporator feed to allow the condensate to be transferred to the ETP. An initial scoping study was completed in 2001 to evaluate the feasibility of the evaporator which concluded that the concentration objectives could be met. This initial study was based on initial estimates of recycle concentration and was based solely on OLI modeling of the evaporation process. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has completed additional studies using simulated recycle streams and OLI{reg_sign} simulations. Based on this work, the proposed flowsheet for the recycle evaporator was evaluated for feasibility, evaporator design considerations, and impact on the DWPF process. This work was in accordance with guidance from DWPF-E and was performed in accordance with the Technical Task and Quality Assurance Plan.

Stone, M

2005-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

53

Evaporative cooling enhanced cold storage system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The invention provides an evaporatively enhanced cold storage system wherein a warm air stream is cooled and the cooled air stream is thereafter passed into contact with a cold storage unit. Moisture is added to the cooled air stream prior to or during contact of the cooled air stream with the cold storage unit to effect enhanced cooling of the cold storage unit due to evaporation of all or a portion of the added moisture. Preferably at least a portion of the added moisture comprises water condensed during the cooling of the warm air stream.

Carr, Peter (Cary, NC)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

Direct Evaporative Precooling Model and Analysis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Evaporative condenser pre-cooling expands the availability of energy saving, cost-effective technology options (market engagement) and serves to expedite the range of options in upcoming codes and equipment standards (impacting regulation). Commercially available evaporative pre-coolers provide a low cost retrofit for existing packaged rooftop units, commercial unitary split systems, and air cooled chillers. We map the impact of energy savings and peak energy reduction in the 3 building types (medium office, secondary school, and supermarket) in 16 locations for three building types with four pad effectivenesses and show the effect for HVAC systems using either refrigerants R22 or R410A

Shen, Bo [ORNL; Ally, Moonis Raza [ORNL; Rice, C Keith [ORNL; Craddick, William G [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

Evaporative cooling enhanced cold storage system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The invention provides an evaporatively enhanced cold storage system wherein a warm air stream is cooled and the cooled air stream is thereafter passed into contact with a cold storage unit. Moisture is added to the cooled air stream prior to or during contact of the cooled air stream with the cold storage unit to effect enhanced cooling of the cold storage unit due to evaporation of all or a portion of the added moisture. Preferably at least a portion of the added moisture comprises water condensed during the cooling of the warm air stream. 3 figures.

Carr, P.

1991-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

56

Hot air drum evaporator. [Patent application  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An evaporation system for aqueous radioactive waste uses standard 30 and 55 gallon drums. Waste solutions form cascading water sprays as they pass over a number of trays arranged in a vertical stack within a drum. Hot dry air is circulated radially of the drum through the water sprays thereby removing water vapor. The system is encased in concrete to prevent exposure to radioactivity. The use of standard 30 and 55 gallon drums permits an inexpensive compact modular design that is readily disposable, thus eliminating maintenance and radiation build-up problems encountered with conventional evaporation systems.

Black, R.L.

1980-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

57

Development of Dual-Electrode Amperometric Detectors for Liquid Chromatography and Capillary Electrophoresis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

be operated in either a redox cycling mode or dualĖpotential mode, where either chemical reversibility or voltammetry could be used as a means to confirm migration based peak identification, respectively. The same design was then applied for a dual Au/Hg...

Dorris, Megan

2013-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

58

Water Management for Evaporatively Cooled Condensers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Water Management for Evaporatively Cooled Condensers Theresa Pistochini May 23rd, 2012 ResearchAirCapacity,tons Gallons of Water Continuous Test - Outdoor Air 110-115 Deg F Cyclic Test - Outdoor Air 110-115 Deg F #12 AverageWaterHardness(ppm) Cooling Degree Days (60¬įF Reference) 20% Population 70% Population 10

California at Davis, University of

59

Tank 26F-2F Evaporator Study  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Tank 26F supernate sample was sent by Savannah River Remediation to Savannah River National Laboratory for evaporation test to help understand the underlying cause of the recent gravity drain line (GDL) pluggage during operation of the 2F Evaporator system. The supernate sample was characterized prior to the evaporation test. The evaporation test involved boiling the supernate in an open beaker until the density of the concentrate (evaporation product) was between 1.4 to 1.5 g/mL. It was followed by filtering and washing of the precipitated solids with deionized water. The concentrate supernate (or concentrate filtrate), the damp unwashed precipitated solids, and the wash filtrates were characterized. All the precipitated solids dissolved during water washing. A semi-quantitative X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis on the unwashed precipitated solids revealed their composition. All the compounds with the exception of silica (silicon oxide) are known to be readily soluble in water. Hence, their dissolution during water washing is not unexpected. Even though silica is a sparingly water-soluble compound, its dissolution is also not surprising. This stems from its small fraction in the solids as a whole and also its relative freshness. Assuming similar supernate characteristics, flushing the GDL with water (preferably warm) should facilitate dissolution and removal of future pluggage events as long as build up/aging of the sparingly soluble constituent (silica) is limited. On the other hand, since the amount of silica formed is relatively small, it is quite possible dissolution of the more soluble larger fraction will cause disintegration or fragmentation of the sparingly soluble smaller fraction (that may be embedded in the larger soluble solid mass) and allow its removal via suspension in the flushing water.

Adu-Wusu, K.

2012-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

60

Rain on the Roof-Evaporative Spray Roof Cooling  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This paper describes evaporative spray roof cooling systems, their components, performance and applications in various climates and building types. The evolution of this indirect evaporative cooling technique is discussed. Psychrometric and sol...

Bachman, L. R.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dual evaporator cycle" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Chemical Potential Jump during Evaporation of a Quantum Bose Gas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The dependence of the chemical potential jump coefficient on the evaporation coefficient is analyzed for the case in which the evaporating component is a Bose gas. The concentration of the evaporating component is assumed to be much lower than the concentration of the carrier gas. The expression for the chemical potential jump is derived from the analytic solution of the problem for the case in which the collision frequency of molecules of the evaporating component is constant.

E. A. Bedrikova; A. V. Latyshev

2013-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

62

Evaporative Cooling Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy Savers [EERE]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankCombustion |Energy UsageAUDITVehiclesTanklessDOJExamination Laboratory -Evaporative Cooling Basics

63

Heat Pump Cycle with Solution Circuit and Internal Heat Exchange  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-stage cycle, the heat transfer area required on the refrigerant side will increase by 10~ compared to the ammonia cycl e. CONCLUSIONS The hea t p1llllp cycl e employ ing one sol ut ion circuit and absorber/de sorber heat exchange has a more sophisticated... when a two-stage version fed into the same compressor. While ammonia of this cycl e is used. In this paper. another evaporate s out of an ammonia-water sol ution on C version of such cycles will be discussed which the composition. X. of this solution...

Radermacher, R.

64

Nuclear evaporation process with simultaneous multiparticle emission  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The nuclear evaporation process is reformulated by taking into account simultaneous multiparticle emission from a hot compound nucleus appearing as an intermediate state in many nuclear reaction mechanisms. The simultaneous emission of many particles is particularly relevant for high excitation energy of the compound nucleus.These channels are effectively open in competition with the single particle emissions and fission in this energy regime. Indeed, the inclusion of these channels along the decay evaporating chain shows that the yield of charged particles and occurrence of fission are affected by these multiparticle emission processes of the compounded nucleus, when compared to the single sequential emission results. The effect also shows a qualitative change in the neutron multiplicity of different heavy compound nucleus considered. This should be an important aspect for the study of spallation reaction in Acceleration Driven System (ADS) reactors. The majority of neutrons generated in these reactions come from the evaporation stage of the reaction, the source of neutron for the system. A Monte Carlo simulation is employed to determine the effect of these channels on the particle yield and fission process. The relevance of the simultaneous particle emission with the increasing of excitation energy of the compound nucleus is explicitly shown.

Leonardo P. G. De Assis; Sergio B. Duarte; Bianca M. Santos

2012-08-07T23:59:59.000Z

65

Evaporated Lithium Surface Coatings in NSTX  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Two lithium evaporators were used to evaporate more than 100 g of lithium on to the NSTX lower divertor region. Prior to each discharge, the evaporators were withdrawn behind shutters, where they also remained during the subsequent HeGDC applied for periods up to 9.5 min. After the HeGDC, the shutters were opened and the LITERs were reinserted to deposit lithium on the lower divertor target for 10 min, at rates of 10-70 mg/min, prior to the next discharge. The major improvements in plasma performance from these lithium depositions include: 1) plasma density reduction as a result of lithium deposition; 2) suppression of ELMs; 3) improvement of energy confinement in a low-triangularity shape; 4) improvement in plasma performance for standard, high-triangularity discharges; 5) reduction of the required HeGDC time between discharges; 6) increased pedestal electron and ion temperature; 7) reduced SOL plasma density; and 8) reduced edge neutral density.

Kugel, H. W.; Mansfield, D.; Maingi, R.; Bel, M. G.; Bell, R. E.; Allain, J. P.; Gates, D.; Gerhardt, S.; Kaita, R.; Kallman, J.; Kaye, S.; LeBlanc, B.; Majeski, R.; Menard, J.; Mueller, D.; Ono, M.

2009-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

66

Dual stage active magnetic regenerator and method  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A dual stage active magnetic regenerator refrigerator as well as method using the Joule-Brayton thermodynamic cycle includes a high temperature stage refrigerant comprising DyAl{sub 2} or (Dy{sub 1{minus}x}Er{sub x})Al{sub 2} where x is selected to be greater than 0 and less than about 0.3 in combination with a low temperature stage comprising (Dy{sub 1{minus}x}Er{sub x})Al{sub 2} where x is selected to be greater than about 0.5 and less than 1 to provide significantly improved refrigeration efficiency in the liquefaction of gaseous hydrogen. 17 figs.

Pecharsky, V.K.; Gschneidner, K.A. Jr.

1999-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

67

E-Print Network 3.0 - arc evaporated tia1n Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Collection: Mathematics 11 Prediction of sessile drop evaporation considering surface wettability Hyunsoo Song a Summary: Prediction of sessile drop evaporation...

68

Simulation results of single refrigerants for use in a dual-circuit refrigerator/freezer  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Dual-circuit RFs have been shown to have a theoretical advantage over single-evaporator RFs if the compressor efficiencies of the separate loops are equivalent to the compressor efficiency of the combined system. Single refrigerants were analyzed to determine the optimum pure refrigerant in each of the two separate freezer and fresh food loops. R-152a and R-142b were determined to be the optimum single refrigerants in the dual-circuit system. With the assumptions made, theoretical energy savings of up to 23% of compressor power are possible.

Bare, J.C. (Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States))

1992-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

Treatment of evaporator condensates by pervaporation  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A pervaporation process for separating organic contaminants from evaporator condensate streams is disclosed. The process employs a permselective membrane that is selectively permeable to an organic component of the condensate. The process involves contacting the feed side of the membrane with a liquid condensate stream, and withdrawing from the permeate side a vapor enriched in the organic component. The driving force for the process is the in vapor pressure across the membrane. This difference may be provided for instance by maintaining a vacuum on the permeate side, or by condensing the permeate. The process offers a simple, economic alternative to other separation techniques.

Blume, Ingo (Hengelq, NL); Baker, Richard W. (Palo Alto, CA)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

Dual Plane Imaging  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We outline a technique called Dual Plane Imaging which should significantly improve images which would otherwise be blurred due to atmospheric turbulence. The technique involves capturing all the spatial, directional and temporal information about the arriving photons and processing the data afterwards to produce the sharpened images. The technique has particular relevance for imaging at around 400-1000nm on extremely large telescopes (ELTs).

Parry, Ian

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

Combined rankine and vapor compression cycles  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An organic rankine cycle system is combined with a vapor compression cycle system with the turbine generator of the organic rankine cycle generating the power necessary to operate the motor of the refrigerant compressor. The vapor compression cycle is applied with its evaporator cooling the inlet air into a gas turbine, and the organic rankine cycle is applied to receive heat from a gas turbine exhaust to heat its boiler within one embodiment, a common condenser is used for the organic rankine cycle and the vapor compression cycle, with a common refrigerant, R-245a being circulated within both systems. In another embodiment, the turbine driven generator has a common shaft connected to the compressor to thereby eliminate the need for a separate motor to drive the compressor. In another embodiment, an organic rankine cycle system is applied to an internal combustion engine to cool the fluids thereof, and the turbo charged air is cooled first by the organic rankine cycle system and then by an air conditioner prior to passing into the intake of the engine.

Radcliff, Thomas D.; Biederman, Bruce P.; Brasz, Joost J.

2005-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

72

Cascaded organic rankine cycles for waste heat utilization  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A pair of organic Rankine cycle systems (20, 25) are combined and their respective organic working fluids are chosen such that the organic working fluid of the first organic Rankine cycle is condensed at a condensation temperature that is well above the boiling point of the organic working fluid of the second organic Rankine style system, and a single common heat exchanger (23) is used for both the condenser of the first organic Rankine cycle system and the evaporator of the second organic Rankine cycle system. A preferred organic working fluid of the first system is toluene and that of the second organic working fluid is R245fa.

Radcliff, Thomas D. (Vernon, CT); Biederman, Bruce P. (West Hartford, CT); Brasz, Joost J. (Fayetteville, NY)

2011-05-17T23:59:59.000Z

73

Evaporation of Water from Particles in the Aerodynamic Lens Inlet...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

of Water from Particles in the Aerodynamic Lens Inlet: An Experimental Study. Evaporation of Water from Particles in the Aerodynamic Lens Inlet: An Experimental Study. Abstract:...

74

Studies on the Ecological Impact of Evaporation Retardation Monolayers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

TR-6 1966 Studies on the Ecological Impact of Evaporation Retardation Monolayers B.G. Wixson Texas Water Resources Institute Texas A&M University ...

Wixson, B.G.

75

Cycle cover with short cycles Nicole Immorlica  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Introduction Given a graph and a subset of marked elements (nodes, edges, or some combination thereof), a cycleCycle cover with short cycles Nicole Immorlica£ Mohammad Mahdian£ Vahab S. Mirrokni£ Abstract Cycle for variants of cycle covering problems which bound the size and/or length of the covering cycles

Immorlica, Nicole

76

FULL FUEL CYCLE ASSESSMENT WELL TO TANK ENERGY INPUTS,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

FULL FUEL CYCLE ASSESSMENT WELL TO TANK ENERGY INPUTS, EMISSIONS, AND WATER IMPACTS Prepared For be divided into two parts: · Well-to-Tank (WTT) Feedstock extraction, transport, storage, processing, distribution, transport, and storage · Tank-to-Wheels (TTW) Refueling, consumption and evaporation The full

77

Project X with Rapid Cycling and Dual Storage Superconducting Synchrotrons  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Investigation of neutrino oscillations and rare meson decays are main physics goals of Project X. The successful physics outcome relies on the feasibility of high-intensity neutrino and meson (K+ and \\mu) beams. In order to meet this goal we propose accelerator system dominated by the synchrotrons (Option A) as a technologically easier and significantly more cost-effective alternative to the accelerator system dominated by the linear accelerators (Option B). The synchrotron-based accelerator system and its main components are outlined and the expected proton beam power for the neutrino and meson beams production is presented and discussed.

Piekarz, Henryk

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

Project X with Rapid Cycling and Dual Storage Superconducting  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Investigation of neutrino oscillations and rare meson decays are the main physics goals of Project X. The successful physics outcome relies on the feasibility of high-intensity neutrino and meson (K{sup +} and {mu}) beams. In order to meet this goal we propose a synchrotron-based accelerator system (Option A) as technologically easier and cost-effective alternative to the accelerator system dominated by the linear accelerators (Option B). The synchrotron-based accelerator system is outlined and the expected proton beam power for the neutrino and meson beams production is presented and discussed. Further conceptual and technical details of the synchrotron-based accelerator system for Project X are outlined.

Piekarz, H.; /Fermilab

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

Maintenance Guide for Greenhouse Ventilation, Evaporative Cooling Heating Systems1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

when the need is discovered, but a good preventive maintenance program will reduce the number. This fact sheet will emphasize corrective and preventive maintenance procedures for ventilation, evaporativeAE26 Maintenance Guide for Greenhouse Ventilation, Evaporative Cooling Heating Systems1 D. E

Watson, Craig A.

80

Evaporative Hydrochloric Acid Recovery: Something Old, Something New...  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. If zinc is present from the pickling of galvanizing racks or stripping of parts, the zinc concentration will range from as low as zinc chloride solution remains. In the evaporative process of the Hydrochloric Acid Recovery System, the waste acid is pumped through a pre-filter into the evaporator section oftI1e recovery system. This solution is heated by means...

Cullivan, B.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dual evaporator cycle" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Forward-backward emission of target evaporated evaporated fragments at high energy nucleus-nucleus collisions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The multiplicity distribution, multiplicity moment, scaled variance, entropy and reduced entropy of target evaporated fragment emitted in forward and backward hemispheres in 12 A GeV $^{4}$He, 3.7 A GeV $^{16}$O, 60 A GeV $^{16}$O, 1.7 A GeV $^{84}$Kr and 10.7 A GeV $^{197}$Au induced emulsion heavy targets (AgBr) interactions are investigated. It is found that the multiplicity distribution of target evaporated fragments emitted in forward and backward hemispheres can be fitted by a Gaussian distribution. The multiplicity moments of target evaporated particles emitted in forward and backward hemispheres increase with the order of the moment {\\em q}, and second-order multiplicity moment is energy independent over the entire energy for all the interactions in the forward and backward hemisphere respectively. The scaled variance, a direct measure of multiplicity fluctuations, is close to one for all the interactions which may be said that there is a feeble correlation among the produced particles. The entropy of...

Zhang, Zhi; Zhang, Dong-Hai

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

Dual surface interferometer  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A double-pass interferometer is provided which allows direct measurement of relative displacement between opposed surfaces. A conventional plane mirror interferometer may be modified by replacing the beam-measuring path cube-corner reflector with an additional quarterwave plate. The beam path is altered to extend to an opposed plane mirrored surface and the reflected beam is placed in interference with a retained reference beam split from dual-beam source and retroreflected by a reference cube-corner reflector mounted stationary with the interferometer housing. This permits direct measurement of opposed mirror surfaces by laser interferometry while doubling the resolution as with a conventional double-pass plane mirror laser interferometer system.

Pardue, R.M.; Williams, R.R.

1980-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

83

Dual Tank Fuel System  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A dual tank fuel system has primary and secondary fuel tanks, with the primary tank including a filler pipe to receive fuel and a discharge line to deliver fuel to an engine, and with a balance pipe interconnecting the primary tank and the secondary tank. The balance pipe opens close to the bottom of each tank to direct fuel from the primary tank to the secondary tank as the primary tank is filled, and to direct fuel from the secondary tank to the primary tank as fuel is discharged from the primary tank through the discharge line. A vent line has branches connected to each tank to direct fuel vapor from the tanks as the tanks are filled, and to admit air to the tanks as fuel is delivered to the engine.

Wagner, Richard William (Albion, NY); Burkhard, James Frank (Churchville, NY); Dauer, Kenneth John (Avon, NY)

1999-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

84

The Organic Rankine Cycle System, Its Application to Extract Energy From Low Temperature Waste Heat  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in a Rankine Cycle to extract The theoretical Rankine Cycle efficiency (~R) is energy from low temperature waste heat. By 1968, a defined as: 3.8 megawatt unit using R-11 refrigerant was placed in commercial operation in Japan (2) and currently ?ZR.... Figure 2 compares the theo The basic Organic Rankine Cycle may be described retical Rankine efficiency for several hydrocarbons, using the Pressure-Enthalpy Diagram of a typical fluorocarbons and water within the evaporating working fluid (R-11). (See...

Sawyer, R. H.; Ichikawa, S.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

Self-excited hydrothermal waves in evaporating sessile drops†  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Pattern formation driven by the spontaneous evaporation of sessile drops of methanol, ethanol, and FC-72 using infrared thermography is observed and, in certain cases, interpreted in terms of hydrothermal waves. Both methanol and ethanol drops...

Sefiane K.; Moffat J.R.; Matar O.K.; Craster R.V.

2008-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

Evaporative Roof Cooling- A Simple Solution to Cut Cooling Costs  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Since the ďEnergy CrisisĒ Evaporative Roof Cooling Systems have gained increased acceptance as a cost effective method to reduce the high cost of air conditioning. Documented case histories in retro-fit installations show direct energy savings...

Abernethy, D.

87

Potential of Evaporative Cooling Systems for Buildings in India  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Evaporative cooling potential for building in various climatic zones in India is investigated. Maintainable indoor conditions are obtained from the load - capacity analysis for the prevailing ambient conditions. For the assumed activity level...

Maiya, M. P.; Vijay, S.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

88

Evaporative Roof Cooling - A Simple Solution to Cut Cooling Costs  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Since the "Energy Crisis" Evaporative Roof Cooling Systems have gained increased acceptance as a cost effective method to reduce the high cost of air conditioning. Documented case histories in retrofit installations show direct energy savings...

Abernethy, D.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

Dual Rater Competency Assessment FAQ  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The purpose of the dual rater competency assessment is to provide a clearer picture of the individualís developmental needs by combining self-assessment and supervisory input. Together, these two...

90

Evaporation of Enriched Uranium Solutions Containing Organophosphates  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Savannah River Site has enriched uranium (EU) solution which has been stored for almost 10 years since being purified in the second uranium cycle of the H area solvent extraction process. The preliminary SRTC data, in conjunction with information in the literature, is promising. However, very few experiments have been run, and none of the results have been confirmed with repeat tests. As a result, it is believed that insufficient data exists at this time to warrant Separations making any process or program changes based on the information contained in this report. When this data is confirmed in future testing, recommendations will be presented.

Pierce, R.A.

1999-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

91

An evaluation of atmospheric evaporation for treating wood preserving wastes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

i. hat a constant rate of total organi carbon and chemical oxygen demand removal occurred as the wastewai. r was evaporated. A procedure for designing atmospheric evaporation ponds was developed and applied to a hypothetical wood preserving plant.... From this example design estimates of equivalent hydrocarbon concentrations in the air downwind of the pond are made. Various other design con- siderations such as the input data, modifications to the design pro- cedure, solids accumulation...

Shack, Pete A

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

Thermodynamics and evaporation of the noncommutative black hole  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We investigate the thermodynamics of the noncommutative black hole whose static picture is similar to that of the nonsingular black hole known as the de Sitter-Schwarzschild black hole. It turns out that the final remnant of extremal black hole is a thermodynamically stable object. We describe the evaporation process of this black hole by using the noncommutativity-corrected Vaidya metric. It is found that there exists a close relationship between thermodynamic approach and evaporation process.

Yun Soo Myung; Yong-Wan Kim; Young-Jai Park

2007-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

93

Superhydrophobic coated apparatus for liquid purification by evaporative condensation  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Disclosed are examples of apparatuses for evaporative purification of a contaminated liquid. In each example, there is a first vessel for storing the contaminated fluid. The first vessel includes a surface coated with a layer of superhydrophobic material and the surface is at least partially in contact with the contaminated liquid. The contaminants do not adhere to the surface as the purified liquid evaporates, thus simplifying maintenance of the apparatus.

Simpson, John T; McNeany, Steve R; Dinsmore, Thomas V; Hunter, Scott R; Ivanov, Ilia N

2014-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

94

Evaporation of alpha particles from $^31$P nucleus  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The energy spectra of alpha particles have been measured in coincidence with the evaporation residues for the decay of the compound nucleus $^31$P produced in the reaction $^19$F (96 MeV) + $^12$C. The data have been compared with the predictions of the statistical model code CASCADE. It has been observed that significant deformation effect in the compound nucleus need to be considered in order to explain the shape of the evaporated alpha particle energy spectra.

D. Bandyopadhyay; S. K. Basu; C. Bhattacharya; S. Bhattacharya; K. Krishan; A. Chatterjee; S. Kailas; A. Navin; A. Srivastava

1998-07-24T23:59:59.000Z

95

BSW process of the slowly evaporating charged black hole  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this paper, we study the BSW process of the slowly evaporating charged black hole. It can be found that the BSW process will also arise near black hole horizon when the evaporation of charged black hole is very slow. But now the background black hole does not have to be an extremal black hole, and it will be approximately an extremal black hole unless it is nearly a huge stationary black hole.

Liancheng Wang; Feng He; Xiangyun Fu

2015-02-09T23:59:59.000Z

96

Method and apparatus for flash evaporation of liquids  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A vertical tube flash evaporator for introducing a superheated liquid into a flash evaporation chamber includes a vertical inlet tube with a flared diffuser portion at its upper outlet end. A plurality of annular screens are positioned in axially spaced-apart relation to each other around the periphery of the vertical tube and below the diffuser portion thereof. The screens are preferably curved upward in a cup-shaped configuration. These flash evaporators are shown in an ocean thermal energy conversion unit designed for generating electric power from differential temperature gradients in ocean water. The method of use of the flash evaporators of this invention includes flowing liquid upwardly through the vertical tube into the diffuser where initial expansion and boiling occurs quite violently and explosively. Unvaporized liquid sheets and drops collide with each other to enhance surface renewal and evaporation properties, and liquid flowing over the outlet end of the diffuser falls onto the curved screens for further surface renewal and evaporation.

Bharathan, Desikan (Lakewood, CO)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

Method and apparatus for flash evaporation of liquids  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A vertical tube flash evaporator for introducing a super-heated liquid into a flash evaporation chamber includes a vertical inlet tube with a flared diffuser portion at its upper outlet end. A plurality of annular screens are positioned in axially spaced-apart relation to each other around the periphery of the vertical tube and below the diffuser portion thereof. The screens are preferably curved upward in a cup-shaped configuration. These flash evaporators are shown in an ocean thermal energy conversion unit designed for generating electric power from differential temperature gradients in ocean water. The method of use of the flash evaporators of this invention includes flowing liquid upwardly through the vertical tube into the diffuser where initial expansion and boiling occurs quite violently and explosively. Unvaporized liquid sheets and drops collide with each other to enhance surface renewal and evaporation properties, and liquid flowing over the outlet end of the diffuser falls onto the curved screens for further surface renewal and evaporation.

Bharathan, D.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

Development of fluorocarbon evaporative cooling recirculators and controls for the ATLAS pixel and semiconductor tracking detectors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Development of fluorocarbon evaporative cooling recirculators and controls for the ATLAS pixel and semiconductor tracking detectors

Bayer, C; Bonneau, P; Bosteels, Michel; Burckhart, H J; Cragg, D; English, R; Hallewell, G D; Hallgren, BjŲrn I; Kersten, S; Kind, P; Langedrag, K; Lindsay, S; Merkel, M; Stapnes, Steinar; Thadome, J; Vacek, V

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

Upward-facing Lithium Flash Evaporator for NSTX-U  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

NSTX plasma performance has been significantly enhanced by lithium conditioning [1]. To date, the lower divertor and passive plates have been conditioned by downward facing lithium evaporators (LITER) as appropriate for lower null plasmas. The higher power operation expected from NSTX-U requires double null plasma operation in order to distribute the heat flux between the upper and lower divertors making it desirable to coat the upper divertor region with Li as well. An upward aiming LITER (U-LITER) is presently under development and will be inserted into NSTX-U using a horizontal probe drive located in a 6" upper midplane port. In the retracted position the evaporator will be loaded with up to 300 mg of Li granules utilizing one of the calibrated NSTX Li powder droppers[2]. The evaporator will then be inserted into the vessel in a location within the shadow of the RF limiters and will remain in the vessel during the discharge. About 10 seconds before a discharge, it will be rapidly heated and the lithium completely evaporated onto the upper divertor, thus avoiding the complication of a shutter that prevents evaporation during the shot when the diagnostic shutters are open. The minimal time interval between the evaporation and the start of the discharge will avoid the passivation of the lithium by residual gases and enable the study of the conditioning effects of un-passivated Li surfaces [3]. Two methods are being investigated to accomplish the rapid (few second) heating of the lithium. A resistive method relies on passing a large current through a Li filled crucible. A second method requires using a 3 kW e-beam gun to heat the Li. In this paper the evaporator systems will be described and the pros and cons of each heating method will be discussed.

Roquemore, A. L.

2013-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

100

Energy balance properties of steels subjected to high cycle A. Chrysochoos1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

associated with the fatigue of a dual-phase steel often used in mechanical industries. This paper is composedEnergy balance properties of steels subjected to high cycle fatigue A. Chrysochoos1 , A. Blanche1 estimate the different terms of the energy balance associated with the high cycle fatigue (HCF) of steels

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dual evaporator cycle" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Cycle Track Lessons Learned  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Cycle Track Lessons Learned #12;Presentation Overview · Bicycling trends · Cycle track lessons learned · What is a "Cycle track"? · Essential design elements of cycle tracks Separation Width Crossing driveways & low-volume streets Signalized intersections #12;Trend in kilometers cycled per year

Bertini, Robert L.

102

Open cycle ocean thermal energy conversion system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An improved open cycle ocean thermal energy conversion system including a flash evaporator for vaporizing relatively warm ocean surface water and an axial flow, elastic fluid turbine having a vertical shaft and axis of rotation. The warm ocean water is transmitted to the evaporator through a first prestressed concrete skirt-conduit structure circumferentially situated about the axis of rotation. The unflashed warm ocean water exits the evaporator through a second prestressed concrete skirt-conduit structure located circumferentially about and radially within the first skirt-conduit structure. The radially inner surface of the second skirt conduit structure constitutes a cylinder which functions as the turbine's outer casing and obviates the need for a conventional outer housing. The turbine includes a radially enlarged disc element attached to the shaft for supporting at least one axial row of radially directed blades through which the steam is expanded. A prestressed concrete inner casing structure of the turbine has upstream and downstream portions respectively situated upstream and downstream from the disc element. The radially outer surfaces of the inner casing portions and radially outer periphery of the axially interposed disc cooperatively form a downwardly radially inwardly tapered surface. An annular steam flowpath of increasing flow area in the downward axial direction is radially bounded by the inner and outer prestressed concrete casing structures. The inner casing portions each include a transversely situated prestressed concrete circular wall for rotatably supporting the turbine shaft and associated structure. The turbine blades are substantially radially coextensive with the steam flowpath and receive steam from the evaporator through an annular array of prestressed concrete stationary vanes which extend between the inner and outer casings to provide structural support therefor and impart a desired flow direction to the steam.

Wittig, J. Michael (West Goshen, PA)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

103

Evaporation rate of hot Jupiters and formation of Chthonian planets  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Among the hundred of known extrasolar planets, about 15% are closer than 0.1 AU from their parent stars. But there are extremely few detections of planets orbiting in less than 3 days. At this limit the planet HD209458b has been found to have an extended upper atmosphere of escaping hydrogen. This suggests that the so-called hot Jupiters which are close to their parent stars could evaporate. Here we estimate the evaporation rate of hydrogen from extrasolar planets in the star vicinity. With high exospheric temperatures, and owing to the tidal forces, planets evaporate through a geometrical blow-off. This may explain the absence of Jupiter mass planets below a critical distance from the stars. Below this critical distance, we infer the existence of a new class of planets made of the residual central core of former hot Jupiters, which we propose to call the ``Chthonian'' planets.

G. Hťbrard; A. Lecavelier des …tangs; A. Vidal-Madjar; J. -M. Dťsert; R. Ferlet

2003-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

104

Simulation of multicomponent evaporation in electron beam melting and refining  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Experimental results and a mathematical model are presented to describe differential evaporation rates in electron beam melting of titanium alloys containing aluminum and vanadium. Experiments characterized the evaporation rate of commercially pure titanium, and vapor composition over titanium with up to 6% Al and 4.5% V content as a function of beam power, scan frequency and background pressure. The model is made up of a steady-state heat and mass transport model of a melting hearth and a model of transient thermal and flow behavior near the surface. Activity coefficients for aluminum and vanadium in titanium are roughly estimated by fitting model parameters to experimental results. Based on the ability to vary evaporation rate by 10-15% using scan frequency alone, we discuss the possibility of on-line composition control by means of intelligent manipulation of the electron beam.

Powell, A.; Szekely, J. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States); Van Den Avyle, J.; Damkroger, B. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1996-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

Dual gravity and E11  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We consider the equation of motion in the gravity sector that arises from the non-linear realisation of the semi-direct product of E11 and its first fundamental representation, denoted by l1, in four dimensions. This equation is first order in derivatives and at low levels relates the usual field of gravity to a dual gravity field. When the generalised space-time is restricted to be the usual four dimensional space-time we show that this equation does correctly describe Einstein's theory at the linearised level. We also comment on previous discussions of dual gravity.

Peter West

2014-11-04T23:59:59.000Z

106

Dual porosity gas evolving electrode  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A dual porosity electrode is described for use in thermoelectrochemical systems where simultaneous transport of gas and liquid into and/or out of the electrode is required. The electrode includes catalytic electrode particles having diameters ranging from about 25 to 100 angstroms. The catalytic electrode particles are anchored to a support network in clusters which have internal pores ranging in size from 25 to 100 angstroms. The pores between the clusters range in size from between about 1 to 20 microns. A method for making the dual porosity electrodes is also disclosed.

Townsend, C.W.

1994-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

107

Electron beam evaporation for titanium metal matrix composites  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

3M, in partnership with ARPA, is developing electron beam evaporation as a method for producing titanium metal matrix composites (TMC`s). This paper discusses some of the opportunities presented by these strong and lightweight structural materials but also points out the many challenges which must be met. The excellent mechanical properties of titanium matrix composites have been recognized for quite some time; however use of these materials has been limited by the lack of a commercially viable process to produce them. 3M is removing this logjam in processing technology by using high rate electron beam evaporation technology to manufacture these materials on a significantly large scale.

Storer, J. [3M, Mendota Heights, MN (United States)

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

108

Simulation of Diffusive Lithium Evaporation Onto the NSTX Vessel Walls  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A model for simulating the diffusive evaporation of lithium into a helium filled NSTX vacuum vessel is described and validated against an initial set of deposition experiments. The DEGAS 2 based model consists of a three-dimensional representation of the vacuum vessel, the elastic scattering process, and a kinetic description of the evaporated atoms. Additional assumptions are required to account for deuterium out-gassing during the validation experiments. The model agrees with the data over a range of pressures to within the estimated uncertainties. Suggestions are made for more discriminating experiments that will lead to an improved model.

Stotler, D. P.; Skinner, C. H.; Blanchard, W. R.; Krstic, P. S.; Kugel, H. W.; Schneider, H.; Zakharov, L. E.

2010-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

109

DUAL-OUTPUT HOLA FIRMWARE AND TESTS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

another channel (thus, "dual-output" HOLA) ∑ Another LDC+ROMB block was added to receive data from side S32PCI64 "SOLAR" mezzanine card: Provides access to S-LINK via PCI bus The first prototype of dual-outputDUAL-OUTPUT HOLA FIRMWARE AND TESTS Anton Kapliy Mel Shochet Fukun Tang Daping Weng #12;Summary

110

Organic rankine cycle system for use with a reciprocating engine  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

In a waste heat recovery system wherein an organic rankine cycle system uses waste heat from the fluids of a reciprocating engine, provision is made to continue operation of the engine even during periods when the organic rankine cycle system is inoperative, by providing an auxiliary pump and a bypass for the refrigerant flow around the turbine. Provision is also made to divert the engine exhaust gases from the evaporator during such periods of operation. In one embodiment, the auxiliary pump is made to operate simultaneously with the primary pump during normal operations, thereby allowing the primary pump to operate at lower speeds with less likelihood of cavitation.

Radcliff, Thomas D.; McCormick, Duane; Brasz, Joost J.

2006-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

111

242-A Evaporator Waste Analysis Plan. Revision 5  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This Waste Analysis Plan (WAP) provides the plan for obtaining information needed for proper waste handling and processing in the 242-A Evaporator (Evaporator) located on the Hanford Site. In particular it addresses analysis necessary to manage the waste according to Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 173-303 and Parts 264 and 265 of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR). Regulatory and safety issues are addressed by establishing boundary conditions for waste received and treated at the 242-A Evaporator. The boundary conditions are set by establishing limits for items such as potential exothermic reactions, waste compatibility, and control of vessel vent organic emissions. Boundary conditions are also set for operational considerations and to ensure waste acceptance at receiving facilities. The issues that are addressed in this plan include prevention of exotherms in the waste, waste compatibility, and vessel vent emissions. Samples from the other streams associated with the Evaporator are taken as required by Process Control Plans but are excluded from this plan because either the streams do not contain dangerous waste or the analyses are not required by WAC 173-303-300.

Basra, T.S.

1995-04-13T23:59:59.000Z

112

Nanotube Boiler 1 Abstract--Controlled copper evaporation at attogram  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Nanotube Boiler 1 Abstract-- Controlled copper evaporation at attogram level from individual carbon nanotube (CNT) vessels, which we call nanotube boilers, is investigated experimentally, and ionization in these CNT boilers, which can serve as sources for mass transport and deposition in nanofluidic

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

113

11Chandra 'Sees' a Distant Planet Evaporating NASA's Chandra Observatory  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

energy. A simple model of this planet's interior suggests that its atmosphere might account for as much11Chandra 'Sees' a Distant Planet Evaporating NASA's Chandra Observatory has discovered that the star CoRot-2a is a powerful X-ray source. This is unfortunate because it is also known that a planet

114

Hanford high-level waste evaporator/crystallizer corrosion evaluation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The US Department of Energy, Hanford Site nuclear reservation, located in Southeastern Washington State, is currently home to 61 Mgal of radioactive waste stored in 177 large underground storage tanks. As an intermediate waste volume reduction, the 242-A Evaporator/Crystallizer processes waste solutions from most of the operating laboratories and plants on the Hanford Site. The waste solutions are concentrated in the Evaporator/Crystallizer to a slurry of liquid and crystallized salts. This concentrated slurry is returned to Hanford Site waste tanks at a significantly reduced volume. The Washington State Department of Ecology Dangerous Waste Regulations, WAC 173-393 require that a tank system integrity assessment be completed and maintained on file at the facility for all dangerous waste tank systems. This corrosion evaluation was performed in support of the 242-A Evaporator/Crystallizer Tank System Integrity Assessment Report. This corrosion evaluation provided a comprehensive compatibility study of the component materials and corrosive environments. Materials used for the Evaporator components and piping include austenitic stainless steels (SS) (primarily ASTM A240, Type 304L) and low alloy carbon steels (CS) (primarily ASTM A53 and A106) with polymeric or asbestos gaskets at flanged connections. Building structure and secondary containment is made from ACI 301-72 Structural Concrete for Buildings and coated with a chemically resistant acrylic coating system.

Ohl, P.C.; Carlos, W.C.

1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

Calculation of Reactive-evaporation Rates of Chromia  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A methodology is developed to calculate Cr-evaporation rates from Cr2O3 with a flat planar geometry. Variables include temperature, total pressure, gas velocity, and gas composition. The methodology was applied to solid-oxide, fuel cell conditions for metallic interconnects and to advanced-steam turbines conditions. The high velocities and pressures of the advanced steam turbine led to evaporation predictions as high as 5.18 9 10-8 kg/m2/s of CrO2(OH)2(g) at 760 įC and 34.5 MPa. This is equivalent to 0.080 mm per year of solid Cr loss. Chromium evaporation is expected to be an important oxidation mechanism with the types of nickel-base alloys proposed for use above 650 įC in advanced-steam boilers and turbines. It is shown that laboratory experiments, with much lower steam velocities and usually much lower total pressure than found in advanced steam turbines, would best reproduce chromium-evaporation behavior with atmospheres that approach either O2 + H2O or air + H2O with 57% H2O.

Holcomb, G.R.

2008-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

Calculation notes that support accident scenario and consequence of the evaporator dump  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this calculation note is to provide the basis for evaporator dump consequence for the Tank Farm Safety Analysis Report (FSAR). Evaporator Dump scenario is developed and details and description of the analysis methods are provided.

Crowe, R.D., Westinghouse Hanford

1996-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

117

Calculation notes that support accident scenario and consequence of the evaporator dump  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this calculation note is to provide the basis for evaporator dump consequence for the Tank Farm Safety Analysis Report (FSAR). Evaporator Dump scenario is developed and details and description of the analysis methods are provided.

Crowe, R.D.

1996-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

118

The Savannah River Site Replacement High Level Radioactive Waste Evaporator Project  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Replacement High Level Waste Evaporator Project was conceived in 1985 to reduce the volume of the high level radioactive waste Process of the high level waste has been accomplished up to this time using Bent Tube type evaporators and therefore, that type evaporator was selected for this project. The Title I Design of the project was 70% completed in late 1990. The Department of Energy at that time hired an independent consulting firm to perform a complete review of the project. The DOE placed a STOP ORDER on purchasing the evaporator in January 1991. Essentially, no construction was to be done on this project until all findings and concerns dealing with the type and design of the evaporator are resolved. This report addresses two aspects of the DOE design review; (1) Comparing the Bent Tube Evaporator with the Forced Circulation Evaporator, (2) The design portion of the DOE Project Review - concentrated on the mechanical design properties of the evaporator. 1 ref.

Presgrove, S.B. (Bechtel Savannah River, Inc., North Augusta, SC (United States))

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

The Savannah River Site Replacement High Level Radioactive Waste Evaporator Project  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Replacement High Level Waste Evaporator Project was conceived in 1985 to reduce the volume of the high level radioactive waste Process of the high level waste has been accomplished up to this time using Bent Tube type evaporators and therefore, that type evaporator was selected for this project. The Title I Design of the project was 70% completed in late 1990. The Department of Energy at that time hired an independent consulting firm to perform a complete review of the project. The DOE placed a STOP ORDER on purchasing the evaporator in January 1991. Essentially, no construction was to be done on this project until all findings and concerns dealing with the type and design of the evaporator are resolved. This report addresses two aspects of the DOE design review; (1) Comparing the Bent Tube Evaporator with the Forced Circulation Evaporator, (2) The design portion of the DOE Project Review - concentrated on the mechanical design properties of the evaporator. 1 ref.

Presgrove, S.B. [Bechtel Savannah River, Inc., North Augusta, SC (United States)

1992-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

Experimental Simulation of Evaporation-Driven Silica Sinter Formation and Microbial Silicification in Hot Spring Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in geothermal waters after they have reached the surface. Water evaporation is, along with cooling, one Evaporation of silica-rich geothermal waters is one of the main abiotic drivers of the formation of silica

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dual evaporator cycle" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Detailed modeling of the evaporation and thermal decomposition of urea-water-solution in SCR systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

on the UWS evaporation is taken into account using a NRTL activity model. The thermal decomposition model

Boyer, Edmond

122

Inkjet fabrication of polymer microarrays and grids-solving the evaporation problem†  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

allowing the rapid generation of a broad range of co-polymers, while solving the problem of selective monomer evaporation....

Bradley M.; Zhang R.; Liberski A.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

Converting Simulated Sodium-bearing Waste into a Single Solid Waste Form by Evaporation: Laboratory- and Pilot-Scale Test Results on Recycling Evaporator Overheads  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Conversion of Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory radioactive sodium-bearing waste into a single solid waste form by evaporation was demonstrated in both flask-scale and pilot-scale agitated thin film evaporator tests. A sodium-bearing waste simulant was adjusted to represent an evaporator feed in which the acid from the distillate is concentrated, neutralized, and recycled back through the evaporator. The advantage to this flowsheet is that a single remote-handled transuranic waste form is produced in the evaporator bottoms without the generation of any low-level mixed secondary waste. However, use of a recycle flowsheet in sodium-bearing waste evaporation results in a 50% increase in remote-handled transuranic volume in comparison to a non-recycle flowsheet.

Griffith, D.; D. L. Griffith; R. J. Kirkham; L. G. Olson; S. J. Losinski

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

124

Energy conservation in black-liquor evaporator of pulp and paper industry  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper is an attempt on energy conservation in a quintuple effect evaporator used to concentrate dilute black liquor solution by raising their steam economy through the changes in the operating variables. It also describes the steam economy of the evaporator for the various feed arrangements so as to determine the ranges of the variables for which evaporation occurs profitable.

Agarwal, V.K.; Gupta, S.C. [Univ. of Roorkee (India). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

125

Evaporation and Condensation of Large Droplets in the Presence of Inert Admixtures Containing Soluble Gas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the mutual influence of heat and mass transfer during gas absorption and evaporation or condensation transfer during gas absorption by liquid droplets and during droplets evaporation and va- por condensationEvaporation and Condensation of Large Droplets in the Presence of Inert Admixtures Containing

Elperin, Tov

126

Axially Tapered And Bilayer Microchannels For Evaporative Cooling Devices  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The invention consists of an evaporative cooling device comprising one or more microchannels whose cross section is axially reduced to control the maximum capillary pressure differential between liquid and vapor phases. In one embodiment, the evaporation channels have a rectangular cross section that is reduced in width along a flow path. In another embodiment, channels of fixed width are patterned with an array of microfabricated post-like features such that the feature size and spacing are gradually reduced along the flow path. Other embodiments incorporate bilayer channels consisting of an upper cover plate having a pattern of slots or holes of axially decreasing size and a lower fluid flow layer having channel widths substantially greater than the characteristic microscale dimensions of the patterned cover plate. The small dimensions of the cover plate holes afford large capillary pressure differentials while the larger dimensions of the lower region reduce viscous flow resistance.

Nilson, Robert (Cardiff, CA); Griffiths, Stewart (Livermore, CA)

2005-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

127

Evaporation-based Ge/.sup.68 Ga Separation  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Micro concentrations of .sup.68 Ga in secular equilibrium with .sup.68 Ge in strong aqueous HCl solution may readily be separated in ionic form from the .sup.68 Ge for biomedical use by evaporating the solution to dryness and then leaching the .sup.68 Ga from the container walls with dilute aqueous solutions of HCl or NaCl. The chloro-germanide produced during the evaporation may be quantitatively recovered to be used again as a source of .sup.68 Ga. If the solution is distilled to remove any oxidizing agents which may be present as impurities, the separation factor may easily exceed 10.sup.5. The separation is easily completed and the .sup.68 Ga made available in ionic form in 30 minutes or less.

Mirzadeh, Saed (Albuquerque, NM); Whipple, Richard E. (Los Alamos, NM); Grant, Patrick M. (Los Alamos, NM); O'Brien, Jr., Harold A. (Los Alamos, NM)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

Techniques for evaluation of e-beam evaporative processes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Efforts to evaluate and characterize electron beam evaporative processes at LLNL have produced a number of techniques and capabilities which have proven useful in advancing the process understanding. One of these diagnostic tools, high dynamic range video imaging of the molten pool surface, has provided insight regarding process responses at the melt pool liquid-vapor interface. A water cooled video camera provides continuous high resolution imaging of the pool surface from a low angle position within 20 cm of the liquid-vapor interface. From this vantage point, the e-beam footprint is clearly defined and melt pool free surface shape can be observed. Effects of changes in e-beam footprint, power distribution and sweep frequency on pool surface shape and stability of vaporization are immediately shown. Other electron beam melting and vaporization events have been observed and recorded. These include: formation of the pool and dissipation of {open_quotes}rafts{close_quotes} on the pool surface during startup, behavior of feed material as it enters the pool, effects of feed configuration changes on the mixing of feed entering the pool volume and behaviors of co-evaporated materials of different vapor pressures at the feed/pool boundary. When used in conjunction with laser vapor monitoring capabilities (presented at the 1994 Electron Beam Melting and Refining Conference, Reno, NV), correlation between pool surface phenomena and vaporizer performance has been identified. This video capability was used in verifying the titanium evaporation model results presented at this conference by confirming the calculated melt pool surface deformations caused by vapor pressure of the departing evaporant at the liquid-vapor interface.

Meier, T.C.; Nelson, C.M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

129

The lifetime problem of evaporating black holes: mutiny or resignation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

It is logically possible that regularly evaporating black holes exist in nature. In fact, the prevalent theoretical view is that these are indeed the real objects behind the curtain in astrophysical scenarios. There are several proposals for regularizing the classical singularity of black holes so that their formation and evaporation do not lead to information-loss problems. One characteristic is shared by most of these proposals: these regularly evaporating black holes present long-lived trapping horizons, with absolutely enormous evaporation lifetimes in whatever measure. Guided by the discomfort with these enormous and thus inaccessible lifetimes, we elaborate here on an alternative regularization of the classical singularity, previously proposed by the authors in an emergent gravity framework, which leads to a completely different scenario. In our scheme the collapse of a stellar object would result in a genuine time-symmetric bounce, which in geometrical terms amounts to the connection of a black-hole geometry with a white-hole geometry in a regular manner. The two most differential characteristics of this proposal are: i) the complete bouncing geometry is a solution of standard classical general relativity everywhere except in a transient region that necessarily extends beyond the gravitational radius associated with the total mass of the collapsing object; and ii) the duration of the bounce as seen by external observers is very brief (fractions of milliseconds for neutron-star-like collapses). This scenario motivates the search for new forms of stellar equilibrium different from black holes. In a brief epilogue we compare our proposal with a similar geometrical setting recently proposed by Haggard and Rovelli.

Carlos Barcelů; Raķl Carballo-Rubio; Luis J. Garay; Gil Jannes

2015-02-09T23:59:59.000Z

130

Development and Analysis of Desiccant Enhanced Evaporative Air Conditioner Prototype  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report documents the design of a desiccant enhanced evaporative air conditioner (DEVAP AC) prototype and the testing to prove its performance. Previous numerical modeling and building energy simulations indicate a DEVAP AC can save significant energy compared to a conventional vapor compression AC (Kozubal et al. 2011). The purposes of this research were to build DEVAP prototypes, test them to validate the numerical model, and identify potential commercialization barriers.

Kozubal, E.; Woods, J.; Judkoff, R.

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

Torque on an exoplanet from an anisotropic evaporative wind  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Winds from short-period Earth and Neptune mass exoplanets, driven by high energy radiation from a young star, may evaporate a significant fraction of a planet's mass. If the momentum flux from the evaporative wind is not aligned with the planet/star axis, then it can exert a torque on the planet's orbit. Using steady-state one-dimensional evaporative wind models we estimate this torque using a lag angle that depends on the product of the speed of the planet's upper atmosphere and a flow timescale for the wind to reach its sonic radius. We also estimate the momentum flux from time-dependent one-dimensional hydrodynamical simulations. We find that only in a very narrow regime in planet radius, mass and stellar radiation flux is a wind capable of exerting a significant torque on the planet's orbit. Similar to the Yarkovsky effect, the wind causes the planet to drift outward if atmospheric circulation is prograde (super-rotating) and in the opposite direction if the circulation is retrograde. A close-in super Ear...

Teyssandier, Jean; Adams, Fred C; Quillen, Alice C

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

132

Techniques for evaluation of E-beam evaporative processes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

High dynamic range video imaging of the molten pool surface has provided insight regarding process responses at the melt pool liquid-vapor interface. A water-cooled video camera provides continuous high resolution imaging of the pool surface from a low angle position within 20 cm of the liquid-vapor interface. From the vantage point, the e-beam footprint is clearly defined and melt pool free surface shape can be observed. Effects of changes in a beam footprint, power distribution, and sweep frequency on pool surface shape and stability of vaporization are immediately shown. Other events observed and recorded include: formation of the pool and dissipation of ``rafts`` on the pool surface during startup, behavior of feed material as it enters the pool, effects of feed configuration changes on mixing of feed entering the pool volume and behaviors of co-evaporated materials of different vapor pressures at the feed/pool boundary. When used in conjunction with laser vapor monitoring, correlation between pool surface phenomena and vaporizer performance has been identified. This video capability was used in verifying the titanium evaporation model results presented at this conference by confirming the calculated melt pool surface deformations caused by vapor pressure of the departing evaporant at the liquid-vapor interface.

Meier, T.C.; Nelson, C.M.

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

Final Report: Modifications and Optimization of the Organic Rankine Cycle to Improve the Recovery of Waste Heat  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This research and development (R&D) project exemplifies a shared public private commitment to advance the development of energy efficient industrial technologies that will reduce the U.S. dependence upon foreign oil, provide energy savings and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The purpose of this project was to develop and demonstrate a Direct Evaporator for the Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) for the conversion of waste heat from gas turbine exhaust to electricity. In conventional ORCs, the heat from the exhaust stream is transferred indirectly to a hydrocarbon based working fluid by means of an intermediate thermal oil loop. The Direct Evaporator accomplishes preheating, evaporation and superheating of the working fluid by a heat exchanger placed within the exhaust gas stream. Direct Evaporation is simpler and up to 15% less expensive than conventional ORCs, since the secondary oil loop and associated equipment can be eliminated. However, in the past, Direct Evaporation has been avoided due to technical challenges imposed by decomposition and flammability of the working fluid. The purpose of this project was to retire key risks and overcome the technical barriers to implementing an ORC with Direct Evaporation. R&D was conducted through a partnership between the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and General Electric (GE) Global Research Center (GRC). The project consisted of four research tasks: (1) Detailed Design & Modeling of the ORC Direct Evaporator, (2) Design and Construction of Partial Prototype Direct Evaporator Test Facility, (3) Working Fluid Decomposition Chemical Analyses, and (4) Prototype Evaluation. Issues pertinent to the selection of an ORC working fluid, along with thermodynamic and design considerations of the direct evaporator, were identified. The FMEA (Failure modes and effects analysis) and HAZOP (Hazards and operability analysis) safety studies performed to mitigate risks are described, followed by a discussion of the flammability analysis of the direct evaporator. A testbed was constructed and the prototype demonstrated at the GE GRC Niskayuna facility.

Donna Post Guillen; Jalal Zia

2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

Power Plant Cycling Costs  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

(say, a trip) and such factors are not fully captured in this dataset. 9. Older combined cycle units were a step change in lower operating costs due to cycling...

135

Edgeworth cycles revisited  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Some gasoline markets exhibit remarkable price cycles, where price spikes are followed by a series of small price declines: a pattern consistent with a model of Edgeworth cycles described by Maskin and Tirole. We extend ...

Doyle, Joseph J.

136

Photovoltaics Life Cycle Analysis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Photovoltaics Life Cycle Analysis Vasilis Fthenakis Center of Life Cycle Analysis Earth & Environmental Engineering Department Columbia University and National Photovoltaic (PV) EHS Research Center (air, water, solid) M, Q E PV array Photovoltaic modules Balance of System (BOS) (Inverters

137

Dual Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test Facility | National...  

National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

Dual Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test Facility | National Nuclear Security Administration Facebook Twitter Youtube Flickr RSS People Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing...

138

A Rinsing Effluent Evaporator for Dismantling Operations - 13271  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Between 1958 and 1997, the UP1 plant at Marcoule - located in the south of France - reprocessed and recycled nearly 20,000 MT of used fuel from special defense applications reactors, as well as fuel from the first generation of electricity generating reactors in France (natural uranium fuel, CO{sub 2}-cooled, graphite-moderated). Decommissioning and Dismantling of the UP1 plant and its associated units started in 1998. Since 2005, the UP1 facility has been operated by AREVA as the Marcoule Management and Operation contractor for French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA). An important part of this decommissioning program deals with the vitrification facility of Marcoule. This facility includes 20 tanks devoted to interim storage of highly active solutions, prior to vitrification. In 2006, a rinsing program was defined as part of the tank cleanup strategy. The main objective of the rinsing phases was to decrease activity in order to limit the volume of 'long-life active' waste produced during the decommissioning operations, so the tanks can be dismantled without the need of remote operations. To enable this rinsing program, and anticipating large volumes of generated effluent, the construction of an evaporation unit proved to be essential. The main objective of this unit was to concentrate the effluent produced during tank rinsing operations by a factor of approximately 10, prior to it being treated by vitrification. The evaporator design phase was launched in September 2006. The main challenge for the Project team was the installation of this new unit within a nuclear facility still in operation and in existing compartments not initially designed for this purpose. Cold operating tests were completed in 2008, and in May 2009, the final connections to the process were activated to start the hot test phase. During the first hot test operations performed on the first batches of clean-up effluent, the evaporator had a major operating problem. Extremely large quantities of foam were produced, affecting the evaporator operation, and creating the risk of a reduction in its capacity and throughput performance. A task force of AREVA process, operations, and safety experts from Marcoule and the La Hague reprocessing complex was assembled. New operating parameters were defined and tested to improve the process. Since then, the evaporator has performed very satisfactorily. The foam buildup phenomenon has been brought under complete control. All the different types of effluents produced during cleanup operations have been concentrated, and the results obtained in terms of quality and throughput, have ensured a consistent supply to the vitrification unit. The evaporator was operated until the end of April 2012, and enabled the production of 500 cubic meters of very high activity effluent, concentrating the fission products rinsed from the storage tanks. The evaporator will now be deactivated and decommissioned, with the first rinsing and cleanup operations scheduled to begin in 2014. (authors)

Rives, Rachel [AREVA BE/NV, Marcoule (France)] [AREVA BE/NV, Marcoule (France); Asou-Pothet, Marielle [CEA DEN/DPAD, Marcoule (France)] [CEA DEN/DPAD, Marcoule (France); Chambon, Frederic [AREVA FEDERAL SERVICES, Columbia, MD (United States)] [AREVA FEDERAL SERVICES, Columbia, MD (United States)

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

Conjugate gradient method for dual-dual mixed formulations Gabriel N. Gatica y Norbert Heuer z  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Conjugate gradient method for dual-dual mixed formulations #3; Gabriel N. Gatica y Norbert Heuer z, the conjugate gradient method with this special inner product can be used as iterative solver. For a model-dual variational formulation, conjugate gradient method. Mathematics subject classi#12;cations (1991). 65N30, 65N22

Heuer, Norbert

140

An Innovative Strategy for Dual Inhibitor Design and Its Application in Dual Inhibition of Human Thymidylate  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

An Innovative Strategy for Dual Inhibitor Design and Its Application in Dual Inhibition of Human (SSAC), Plant Molecular Biology and Biotechnology Research Center (PMBBRC), Research Institute to other dual target drug designs. Citation: Arooj M, Sakkiah S, Cao Gp, Lee KW (2013) An Innovative

Lee, Keun Woo

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dual evaporator cycle" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

mathematics single cycle  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

47 mathematics education single cycle master's study programme #12;48 single cycle master's study program in Mathematics Education #12;49 single cycle master's study program in Mathematics Education MATHEMATICS EDUCATION The program is in tune with the principles of the Bologna Declaration. · Academic title

¬?umer, Slobodan

142

Energy recovery system using an organic rankine cycle  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A thermodynamic system for waste heat recovery, using an organic rankine cycle is provided which employs a single organic heat transferring fluid to recover heat energy from two waste heat streams having differing waste heat temperatures. Separate high and low temperature boilers provide high and low pressure vapor streams that are routed into an integrated turbine assembly having dual turbines mounted on a common shaft. Each turbine is appropriately sized for the pressure ratio of each stream.

Ernst, Timothy C

2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

143

System studies of open-cycle OTEC components  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A system model of open Rankine cycle ocean thermal energy conversion (OC-OTEC) was used to examine the effects of component performance and design on plant cost. Three components are examined in detail: an optional seawater deaeration subsystem, the flash evaporator, and a two-stage direct-contact condenser. Preliminary data quantifying noncondensable gas release in upcomers and a debubbler chamber were used to evaluate the effect of predeaeration (removing the dissolved gases in deaeration chambers before the seawater enters the heat exchangers) on system cost and performance. Little data on the interactions between geometry and performance of vertical spout flash evaporators operating under OTEC conditions are available; therefore, we performed independent parametric variations. For the direct-contact condenser previous numerical studies provide the basis for coupling geometry and performance. Results of these studies are useful in setting research priorities, in defining operating conditions for further seawater experiments, and in updating plant cost estimates.

Parsons, B.K.; Link, H.F.

1985-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

144

Cycle to Cycle Manufacturing Process Control  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Most manufacturing processes produce parts that can only be correctly measured after the process cycle has been completed. Even if in-process measurement and control is possible, it is often too expensive or complex to ...

Hardt, David E.

145

MICROSTRUCTURE AND PROPERTIES OF DUAL PHASE STEELS CONTAINING FINE PRECIPITATES  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and Properties of Dual-Phase Steels, R. A. Kot and J. W.of Niobium Microalloyed Dual- Phase Steel, MetallurgicalAND PROPERTIES OF DUAL PHASE STEELS CONTAINING FINE

Gau, J.S.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

Friction Coefficient for Quarks in Supergravity Duals  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We study quarks moving in strongly-coupled plasmas that have supergravity duals. We compute the friction coefficient of strings dual to such quarks for general static supergravity backgrounds near the horizon. Our results also show that a previous conjecture on the bound has to be modified and higher friction coefficients can be achieved.

E. Antonyan

2006-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

147

Texas Dual Language Program Cost Analysis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

.......................................................................................................... 4 Texas Dual Language Program Cost Analysis............................................................... 8 Literature Review ............................................................................................................. 8 English... inclusivity, dual language (DL) programs (sometimes referred to as two-way immersion) have seen a rapid increase in Texas and the nation, however, an extensive review of literature indicated that no national or state-wide studies have addressed the issue...

Lara-Alecio, Rafael; Galloway, Martha; Mahadevan, Lakshmi; Mason, Ben; Irby, Beverly J.; Brown, Genevieve; Gůmez, Leo

2010-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

148

Dual spatial maps of transcript and protein abundance in the...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Dual spatial maps of transcript and protein abundance in the mouse brain. Dual spatial maps of transcript and protein abundance in the mouse brain. Abstract: Integrating...

149

Low and high Temperature Dual Thermoelectric Generation Waste...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Low and high Temperature Dual Thermoelectric Generation Waste Heat Recovery System for Light-Duty Vehicles Low and high Temperature Dual Thermoelectric Generation Waste Heat...

150

Lean NOx Reduction with Dual Layer LNT/SCR Catalysts  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

PGM & minimize fuel penalty in meeting NOx emission targets (adapted from Gandhi et al., US Patent, 2007) 3 Fundamental Issues for Dual Layer LNT - SCR proximity: Dual...

151

Characterization of Dual-Fuel Reactivity Controlled Compression...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Dual-Fuel Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) Using Hydrated Ethanol and Diesel Fuel Characterization of Dual-Fuel Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI)...

152

Project Profile: Sensible Heat, Direct, Dual-Media Thermal Energy...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Sensible Heat, Direct, Dual-Media Thermal Energy Storage Module Project Profile: Sensible Heat, Direct, Dual-Media Thermal Energy Storage Module Acciona logo Acciona Solar, under...

153

Sensitive Immunosensor for Cancer Biomarker Based on Dual Signal...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Immunosensor for Cancer Biomarker Based on Dual Signal Amplification Strategy of Graphene Sheets and Multi-Enzyme Sensitive Immunosensor for Cancer Biomarker Based on Dual Signal...

154

POLICY GUIDANCE MEMORANDUM #11A Approval Process for Dual Compensation...  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

1A Approval Process for Dual Compensation Waivers for Reemployed Annuitants POLICY GUIDANCE MEMORANDUM 11A Approval Process for Dual Compensation Waivers for Reemployed Annuitants...

155

Thermodynamics of an Evaporating Schwarzschild Black Hole in Noncommutative Space  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We investigate the effects of space noncommutativity and the generalized uncertainty principle on the thermodynamics of a radiating Schwarzschild black hole. We show that evaporation process is in such a way that black hole reaches to a maximum temperature before its final stage of evolution and then cools down to a nonsingular remnant with zero temperature and entropy. We compare our results with more reliable results of string theory. This comparison Shows that GUP and space noncommutativity are similar concepts at least from view point of black hole thermodynamics.

Kourosh Nozari; Behnaz Fazlpour

2007-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

156

The development of a new evaporation formula for Texas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of Texas. From these maps an equation for evapo- ration can be extracted for any location in Texas. It was found that wind speed and relative humidity had little effect on evaporation from pans in Texas, at least when considered in terms of mean... meteorological parameters, such as temperature, wind speed, and relative humidity. These investigations have often been hampered by a lack of reliable data and non-standard instrumenta- tion. In addition, there has been a great deal of con- troversy over...

Moe, R. D

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

157

Milagro Limits and HAWC Sensitivity for the Rate-Density of Evaporating Primordial Black Holes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Primordial Black Holes (PBHs) are gravitationally collapsed objects that may have been created by density fluctuations in the early universe and could have arbitrarily small masses down to the Planck scale. Hawking showed that due to quantum effects, a black hole has a temperature inversely proportional to its mass and can emit all species of fundamental particles thermally. PBHs with initial masses of ~5.0 x 10^14 g should be expiring in the present epoch with bursts of high-energy particles, including gamma radiation in the GeV - TeV energy range, making them candidate Gamma-ray Burst (GRB) progenitors. The Milagro high energy observatory, which operated from 2000 to 2008, is sensitive to the high end of the PBH evaporation gamma-ray spectrum. Due to its large field-of-view, more than 90% duty cycle and sensitivity up to 100 TeV gamma-rays, the Milagro observatory is well suited for a direct search of PBH bursts. Based on a search on the Milagro data, we report new PBH burst rate density upper limits over a...

Abdo, A A; Alfaro, R; Allen, B T; Alvarez, C; Ńlvarez, J D; Arceo, R; Arteaga-VelŠzquez, J C; Aune, T; Solares, H A Ayala; Barber, A S; Baughman, B M; Bautista-Elivar, N; Gonzalez, J Becerra; Belmont, E; BenZvi, S Y; Berley, D; Rosales, M Bonilla; Braun, J; Caballero-Lopez, R A; Caballero-Mora, K S; CarramiŮana, A; Castillo, M; Chen, C; Christopher, G E; Cotti, U; Cotzomi, J; de la Fuente, E; De Leůn, C; DeYoung, T; Hernandez, R Diaz; Diaz-Cruz, L; DŪaz-Vťlez, J C; Dingus, B L; DuVernois, M A; Ellsworth, R W; Fiorino, D W; Fraija, N; Galindo, A; Garfias, F; GonzŠlez, M M; Goodman, J A; Grabski, V; Gussert, M; Hampel-Arias, Z; Harding, J P; Hays, E; Hoffman, C M; Hui, C M; HŁntemeyer, P; Imran, A; Iriarte, A; Karn, P; Kieda, D; Kolterman, B E; Kunde, G J; Lara, A; Lauer, R J; Lee, W H; Lennarz, D; Vargas, H Leůn; Linares, E C; Linnemann, J T; Longo, M; Luna-GarcIa, R; MacGibbon, J H; Marinelli, A; Marinelli, S S; Martinez, H; Martinez, O; MartŪnez-Castro, J; Matthews, J A J; McEnery, J; Torres, E Mendoza; Mincer, A I; Miranda-Romagnoli, P; Moreno, E; Morgan, T; MostafŠ, M; Nellen, L; Nemethy, P; Newbold, M; Noriega-Papaqui, R; Oceguera-Becerra, T; Patricelli, B; Pelayo, R; Pťrez-Pťrez, E G; Pretz, J; RiviŤre, C; Rosa-GonzŠlez, D; Ruiz-Velasco, E; Ryan, J; Salazar, H; Salesa, F; Sandoval, A; Parkinson, P M Saz; Schneider, M; Shoup, A; Silich, S; Sinnis, G; Smith, A J; Stump, D; Woodle, K Sparks; Springer, R W; Taboada, I; Toale, P A; Tollefson, K; Torres, I; Ukwatta, T N; Vasileiou, V; VillaseŮor, L; Walker, G P; Weisgarber, T; Westerhoff, S; Williams, D A; Wisher, I G; Wood, J; Yodh, G B; Younk, P W; Zaborov, D; Zepeda, A; Zhou, H

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

On the interface instability during rapid evaporation in microgravity  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The rapid evaporation of a superheated liquid (vapor explosion) under microgravity conditions is studied by direct numerical simulation. The time-dependent Navier-Stokes and energy equations coupled to the interface dynamics are solved using a two-dimensional finite-difference/front-tracking method. Large interface deformations, topology change, latent heat, surface tension and unequal material properties between the liquid and vapor phases are included in the simulations. A comparison of numerical results to the exact solution of a one-dimensional test problem shows excellent agreement. For the two-dimensional rapid evaporation problem, the vapor volume growth rate and unstable interface dynamics are studied for increasing levels of initial liquid superheat. As the superheat is increased the liquid-vapor interface experiences increasingly unstable energetic growth. These results indicate that heat transfer plays a very important role in the instability mechanism leading to vapor explosions. It is suggested that the Mullins-Sekerka instability could play a role in the instability initiation mechanism.

Juric, D. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Theoretical Div.

1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

159

Stirling-cycle refrigerator  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A Stirling-cycle refrigerator comprises a plurality of Stirling-cycle refrigerator units each having a displacer defining an expansion chamber, a piston defining a compression chamber, and a circuit including a heater and a cooler and interconnecting the expansion chamber and the compression chamber, and a heat exchanger shared by the circuits and disposed between the coolers and the heaters for effecting heat exchange between working gases in the circuits. The heat exchanger may comprise a countercurrent heat exchanger, and the Stirling-cycle refrigerator units are operated in cycles which are 180/sup 0/ out of phase with each other.

Nakamura, K.

1985-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

160

Effect of surfactant on evaporative heat transfer coefficients in vertical film forced convection  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for different concentrations of surfactant (log-log scale) (Boiling liquid flow rate of 1. 025 gpm) Evaporative coefficient as function of tempera- ture drop over the liquid film for different concentrations of surfactant (log-log scale) (Boiling liquid... flow rate of 1. 275 gpm) Evaporative coefficient as function of tempera- ture drop over the liquid film for different concentrations of surfactant (log-log scale) (Boiling liquid flow rate of 1. 55 gpm) 47 84 85 86 87 10 Evaporative...

Shah, Basit Husain

1972-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dual evaporator cycle" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Use of DOE-2 to Evaluate Evaporative Cooling in Texas Correctional Facilities  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, W.K., "Fundamental Concepts Integrating Evaporative Techniques in HVAC Systems," ASHRAE TRANSACTIONS, V. 96, Pt. 1, 1990. 3. McDonald, G.W., M.H. Turietta and R.E. Foster, "Modeling Evaporative Cooling Systems with DOE- 2. ID," ASHRAE...USE OF DOE-2 TO EVALUATE EVAPORATIVE COOLING IN TEXAS CORRECTIONAL FACILITIES Namir Saman, Ph.D., P.E. Tarek Bou-Saada Tia Heneghan Visiting Assistant Professor Research Associate Energy Manager Energy Systems Laboratory Energy Systems...

Saman, N.; Heneghan, T.; Bou-Saada, T. E.

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

162

The use of carbonation and fractional evaporative crystallization in the pretreatment of Hanford nuclear wastes.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??The purpose of this work was to explore the use of fractional evaporative crystallization as a technology that can be used to separate medium-curie wasteÖ (more)

Dumont, George Pierre, Jr.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

Dual processor vax* 11/780  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The design of a dual processor Vax 11/780 built at the Purdue University Electrical Engineering School is described. A standard single processor Vax 11/780 was converted into a dual processor system. A detailed description of hardware modifications performed and a parts list are included. The dual processor Vax is currently running a modified version of the UNIX** (fourth Berkeley distribution) operating system. Because of licensing restrictions, operating system modifications are only covered in general. Finally some performance evaluation is discussed, along with the problems encountered.

Goble, G.H.; Marsh, M.H.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

Power Plant Cycling Costs  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report provides a detailed review of the most up to date data available on power plant cycling costs. The primary objective of this report is to increase awareness of power plant cycling cost, the use of these costs in renewable integration studies and to stimulate debate between policymakers, system dispatchers, plant personnel and power utilities.

Kumar, N.; Besuner, P.; Lefton, S.; Agan, D.; Hilleman, D.

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

Life Cycle Cost Estimate  

Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

Life-cycle costs (LCCs) are all the anticipated costs associated with a project or program alternative throughout its life. This includes costs from pre-operations through operations or to the end of the alternative.This chapter discusses life cycle costs and the role they play in planning.

1997-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

166

Evaporation ó a key mechanism for the thaumasite form of sulfate attack  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Understanding the mechanisms leading to chemical attack on concrete is crucial in order to prevent damage of concrete structures. To date, most studies on sulfate attack and thaumasite formation are based on empirical approaches, as the identification of associated reaction mechanisms and paths is known to be highly complex. In this study, sulfate damaged concrete from Austrian tunnels was investigated by mineralogical, chemical and isotope methods to identify the reactions which caused intense concrete alteration. Major, minor and trace elemental contents as well as isotope ratios of local ground water (GW), drainage water (DW) and interstitial solutions (IS), extracted from damaged concrete material, were analyzed. Locally occurring GW contained 3 to 545 mg L{sup ?1} of SO{sub 4} and is thus regarded as slightly aggressive to concrete in accordance to standard specifications (e.g. DIN EN 206-1). The concrete linings and drainage systems of the studied tunnels, however, have partly suffered from intensive sulfate attack. Heavily damaged concrete consisted mainly of thaumasite, secondary calcite, gypsum, and relicts of aggregates. Surprisingly, the concentrations of dissolved ions were extremely enriched in the IS with up to 30,000 and 12,000 mg L{sup ?1} of SO{sub 4} and Cl, respectively. Analyses of aqueous ions with a highly conservative behavior, e.g. K, Rb and Li, as well as {sup 2}H/H and {sup 18}O/{sup 16}O isotope ratios of H{sub 2}O of the IS showed an intensive accumulation of ions and discrimination of the light isotopes vs. the GW. These isotope signals of the IS clearly revealed evaporation at distinct relative humidities. From ion accumulation and isotope fractionation individual total and current evaporation degrees were estimated. Our combined elemental and isotopic approach verified wettingĖdrying cycles within a highly dynamic concrete-solution-atmosphere system. Based on these boundary conditions, key factors controlling thaumasite formation are discussed regarding the development of more sulfate-resistant concrete and concrete structures.

Mittermayr, Florian, E-mail: f.mittermayr@tugraz.at [Graz University of Technology, Institute of Applied Geosciences, RechbauerstraŖe 12, 8010 GRAZ (Austria)] [Graz University of Technology, Institute of Applied Geosciences, RechbauerstraŖe 12, 8010 GRAZ (Austria); Baldermann, Andre [Graz University of Technology, Institute of Applied Geosciences, RechbauerstraŖe 12, 8010 GRAZ (Austria)] [Graz University of Technology, Institute of Applied Geosciences, RechbauerstraŖe 12, 8010 GRAZ (Austria); Kurta, Christoph [University of Graz, Institute of Chemistry ó Analytical Chemistry, Stremayrgasse 16/III, 8010 GRAZ (Austria)] [University of Graz, Institute of Chemistry ó Analytical Chemistry, Stremayrgasse 16/III, 8010 GRAZ (Austria); Rinder, Thomas [Graz University of Technology, Institute of Applied Geosciences, RechbauerstraŖe 12, 8010 GRAZ (Austria) [Graz University of Technology, Institute of Applied Geosciences, RechbauerstraŖe 12, 8010 GRAZ (Austria); Observatoire Midi-Pyrťnťes, Laboratoire Gťosciences Environnement Toulouse, 14, avenue Edouard Belin, 31400 TOULOUSE (France); Klammer, Dietmar [Graz University of Technology, Institute of Applied Geosciences, RechbauerstraŖe 12, 8010 GRAZ (Austria)] [Graz University of Technology, Institute of Applied Geosciences, RechbauerstraŖe 12, 8010 GRAZ (Austria); Leis, Albrecht [Joanneum Research, Resources ó Institute for Water, Energy and Sustainability, ElisabethstraŖe 18/2, 8010 GRAZ (Austria)] [Joanneum Research, Resources ó Institute for Water, Energy and Sustainability, ElisabethstraŖe 18/2, 8010 GRAZ (Austria); Tritthart, Josef [Graz University of Technology, Institute of Technology and Testing of Building Materials, Inffeldgasse 24, 8010 GRAZ (Austria)] [Graz University of Technology, Institute of Technology and Testing of Building Materials, Inffeldgasse 24, 8010 GRAZ (Austria); Dietzel, Martin [Graz University of Technology, Institute of Applied Geosciences, RechbauerstraŖe 12, 8010 GRAZ (Austria)] [Graz University of Technology, Institute of Applied Geosciences, RechbauerstraŖe 12, 8010 GRAZ (Austria)

2013-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

167

Melt and vapor characteristics in an electron beam evaporator  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We compare the free surface temperatures T{sub s}, calculated by two methods, in cerium or copper evaporation experiments. The first method considers properties of the melt: by an empirical law we take into account turbulent thermal convection, instabilities and craterization of the free surface. The second method considers the vapor flow expansion and connects T{sub s} to the measured terminal parallel temperature and the terminal mean parallel velocity of the vapor jet, by Direct Simulation Monte Carlo calculations including an atom-atom inelastic collision algorithm. The agreement between the two approaches is better for cerium than for copper in the high craterization case. The analysis, from the point of view of the properties of the melt, of the terminal parameters of the vapor jet for the high beam powers shows that T{sub s} and the Knudsen number at the vapor source reach a threshold when the beam power increases.

Blumenfeld, L.; Fleche, J.L.; Gonella, C. [DCC/DPE/SPEA Centre d`Etudes de Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

168

Modelling the Evaporation of Non-singular Black Holes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present a model for studying the formation and evaporation of non-singular (quantum corrected) black holes. The model is based on a generalized form of the dimensionally reduced, spherically symmetric Einstein--Hilbert action and includes a suitably generalized Polyakov action to provide a mechanism for radiation back-reaction. The equations of motion describing self-gravitating scalar field collapse are derived in local form both in null co--ordinates and in Painleve--Gullstrand (flat slice) co--ordinates. They provide the starting point for numerical studies of complete spacetimes containing dynamical horizons that bound a compact trapped region. Such spacetimes have been proposed in the past as solutions to the information loss problem because they possess neither an event horizon nor a singularity. Since the equations of motion in our model are derived from a diffeomorphism invariant action they preserve the constraint algebra and the resulting energy momentum tensor is manifestly conserved.

Tim Taves; Gabor Kunstatter

2015-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

169

Fixture for forming evaporative pattern (EPC) process patterns  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of casting metal using evaporative pattern casting process patterns in combination with a fixture for creating and maintaining a desired configuration in flexible patterns. A pattern is constructed and gently bent to the curvature of a suitable fixture. String or thin wire, which burns off during casting, is used to tie the pattern to the fixture. The fixture with pattern is dipped in a commercially available refractory wash to prevent metal adherence and sticking to the fixture. When the refractory wash is dry, the fixture and pattern are placed in a flask, and sand is added and compacted by vibration. The pattern remains in position, restrained by the fixture. Metal that is poured directly into the pattern replaces the pattern exactly but does not contact or weld to the fixture due to the protective refractory layer. When solid, the casting is easily separated from the fixture. The fixture can be cleaned for reuse in conventional casting cleaning equipment.

Turner, Paul C. (Albany, OR); Jordan, Ronald R. (Albany, OR); Hansen, Jeffrey S. (Corvallis, OR)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

A graphics processor-based intranuclear cascade and evaporation simulation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Monte Carlo simulations of the transport of protons in human tissue have been deployed on graphics processing units (GPUs) with impressive results. To provide a more complete treatment of non-elastic nuclear interactions in these simulations, we developed a fast intranuclear cascade-evaporation simulation for the GPU. This can be used to model non-elastic proton collisions on any therapeutically relevant nuclei at incident energies between 20 and 250 MeV. Predictions are in good agreement with Geant4.9.6p2. It takes approximately 2 s to calculate $1\\times 10^6$ 200 MeV proton-$^{16}$O interactions on a NVIDIA GTX680 GPU. A speed-up factor of $\\sim$20 relative to one Intel i7-3820 core processor thread was achieved.

H. Wan Chan Tseung; C. Beltran

2014-02-19T23:59:59.000Z

171

New Description of Self-Dual Metrics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We show that Pleba\\'nski's equation for self-dual metrics is equivalent to a pair of equations describing canonical transformations in 2-dimensional phase spaces. Examples of linearizations of these equations are given.

J. Tafel

2006-02-09T23:59:59.000Z

172

Gravity dual of metastable dynamical supersymmetry breaking  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Metastable, supersymmetry-breaking configurations can be created in flux geometries by placing antibranes in warped throats. Via gauge/gravity duality, such configurations should have an interpretation as supersymmetry-breaking states in the dual field theory. In this paper, we perturbatively determine the asymptotic supergravity solutions corresponding to D3-brane probes placed at the tip of the cascading warped deformed conifold geometry, which is dual to an SU(N+M)xSU(N) gauge theory. The backreaction of the antibranes has the effect of introducing imaginary anti-self-dual flux, squashing the compact part of the space and forcing the dilaton to run. Using the generalization of holographic renormalization to cascading geometries, we determine the expectation values of operators in the dual field theory in terms of the asymptotic values of the supergravity fields.

DeWolfe, Oliver [Department of Physics, 390 UCB, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309 (United States); Kachru, Shamit; Mulligan, Michael [Department of Physics and SLAC, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305/94309 (United States)

2008-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

173

Dual Lindstedt series and KAM theorem  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We prove that exists a Lindstedt series that holds when a Hamiltonian is driven by a perturbation going to infinity. This series appears to be dual to a standard Lindstedt series as it can be obtained by interchanging the role of the perturbation and the unperturbed system. The existence of this dual series implies that a dual KAM theorem holds and, when a leading order Hamiltonian exists that is non degenerate, the effect of tori reforming can be observed with a system passing from regular motion to fully developed chaos and back to regular motion with the reappearance of invariant tori. We apply these results to a perturbed harmonic oscillator proving numerically the appearance of tori reforming. Tori reforming appears as an effect limiting chaotic behavior to a finite range of parameter space of some Hamiltonian systems. Dual KAM theorem, as proved here, applies when the perturbation, combined with a kinetic term, provides again an integrable system.

Marco Frasca

2009-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

174

Dual superconducting properties of the QCD vacuum  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A consistent description of the confining QCD vacuum as a dual superconductor requires a determination of fundamental parameters such as the superconductor correlation length $\\xi$ and the field penetration depth $\\lambda$, which determine whether the superconductor is of type I or type II. We illustrate preliminary results of a lattice determination of $\\xi$ for the case of pure Yang-Mills with two colors, obtained by measuring the temporal correlator of a disorder parameter detecting dual superconductivity.

A. D'Alessandro; M. D'Elia

2005-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

175

Mathematical modeling of evaporative cooling of moisture bearing epoxy composite plates  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of Composite Materials. 2 EVAPORATIVE COOLING Evaporative cooling is deemed to be an appropriate alternative mechanism for the cooling of stealth aircraft due to its simplicity, as well as its success as a cooling mechanism in other applications... Element Assembly 34 Boundary Conditions 36 viii CHAPTER Page Convective Heat Transfer Coefficients 46 Convective Mass Transfer Coefficients 50 Material Properties 52 Time Step Approximations 54...

Payette, Gregory Steven

2006-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

176

Temperature Effect on Pump Oil and Alkanes Evaporation Nathaniel A. Waldstein and Alex A. Volinsky  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

temperatures than in the past. The greater the operating temperature the faster the lubricating oil in the hardTemperature Effect on Pump Oil and Alkanes Evaporation Nathaniel A. Waldstein and Alex A. Volinsky of several milligrams, of lubricants for proper operation. The following study investigated the evaporation

Volinsky, Alex A.

177

N-Z distributions of secondary fragments and the evaporation attractor line  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The process of light particle evaporation moves the position of an excited fragment in the chart of nuclides towards a line which will be called the evaporation attractor line. The predicted location of this line is parametrized and the conditions necessary for the secondary fragment distributions to reach this line are discussed. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}

Charity, R.J. [Department of Chemistry, Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri 63130 (United States)] [Department of Chemistry, Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri 63130 (United States)

1998-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

CORRELATING EVAPORATION HEAT TRANSFER COEFFICIENT OF REFRIGERANT R-134a IN A PLATE HEAT EXCHANGER  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 CORRELATING EVAPORATION HEAT TRANSFER COEFFICIENT OF REFRIGERANT R-134a IN A PLATE HEAT EXCHANGER for evaporation heat transfer coefficient of refrigerant R-134a flowing in a plate heat exchanger. Correlation schemes proposed by Yan and Lin (1999b) for modeling the heat transfer coefficient in both a single- phase

Kandlikar, Satish

179

Control Structure Selection for an Evaporation Process Marius S. Govatsmark a , Sigurd Skogestad a  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of controlled variables which with constant setpoints keep the process close to the economic optimum ("self1 Control Structure Selection for an Evaporation Process Marius S. Govatsmark a , Sigurd Skogestad structure selection is applied to the evaporation process of Newell and Lee (1989). First, promising sets

Skogestad, Sigurd

180

REAR-SIDE POINT-CONTACTS BY INLINE THERMAL EVAPORATION OF ALUMINUM Christoph Mader  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

REAR-SIDE POINT-CONTACTS BY INLINE THERMAL EVAPORATION OF ALUMINUM Christoph Mader 1 , Jens M√ľller of point-contacted aluminum rear-sides for silicon solar cells that are metalized by inline thermal evaporation. We deposit aluminum layers of 2 ¬Ķm thickness at dynamic deposition rates of 1.0, 2.9 and 5.0 ¬Ķm

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dual evaporator cycle" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

EVAPORATION LAW IN KINETIC GRAVITATIONAL SYSTEMS DESCRIBED BY SIMPLIFIED LANDAU MODELS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

EVAPORATION LAW IN KINETIC GRAVITATIONAL SYSTEMS DESCRIBED BY SIMPLIFIED LANDAU MODELS PIERRE to a mathematical and numerical study of a simplified kinetic model for evaporation phenomena in gravitational) is the gravitational potential and (u) is the following 3 √? 3 matrix (u)ij = |u|2ij - uiuj |u|2 , (1.2) 1 #12;2 P

Méhats, Florian

182

Kinetics for evaporative cooling of a trapped gas Kirstine BergSrensen \\Lambda  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the kinetic theory for evaporative cooling of a dilute collisional gas in a trap. The analysis in 0. J. Luiten and increase the phase¬≠space density of an atomic, bosonic gas towards a Bose¬≠Einstein condensate (BECKinetics for evaporative cooling of a trapped gas Kirstine Berg¬≠S√łrensen \\Lambda The Rowland

Berg-S√łrensen, Kirstine

183

LETTER doi:10.1038/nature11718 Evaporative cooling of the dipolar hydroxyl radical  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

direct cooling and cold-association techniques, evaporative cooling has not been achieved so far-temperature sensi- tivity of our spectroscopic thermometry technique. With evapora- tive cooling and a sufficientlyLETTER doi:10.1038/nature11718 Evaporative cooling of the dipolar hydroxyl radical Benjamin K

184

Ultracold molecules for the masses: evaporative cooling and magneto-optical trapping  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

cooling, until now none of these techniques have been applicable to molecules. In this thesis, two majorUltracold molecules for the masses: evaporative cooling and magneto-optical trapping by B. K. Stuhl for the masses: evaporative cooling and magneto-optical trapping written by B. K. Stuhl has been approved

Jin, Deborah

185

Steam oxidation and chromia evaporation in ultrasupercritical steam boilers and turbines  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The U.S. Department of Energy's goals include power generation from coal at 60% efficiency, which requires steam conditions of up to 760 {sup o}C and 340 atm, so-called ultrasupercritical conditions. Evaporation of protective chromia scales is a primary corrosion mechanism. A methodology to calculate Cr evaporation rates from chromia scales was developed and combined with Cr diffusion calculations within the alloy (with a constant flux of Cr leaving the alloy from evaporation) to predict Cr concentration profiles and to predict the time until breakaway oxidation. At the highest temperatures and pressures, the time until breakaway oxidation was quite short for the turbine blade, and of concern within the steam pipe and the higher temperature portions of the superheater tube. Alloy additions such as Ti may allow for a reduction in evaporation rate with time, mitigating the deleterious effects of chromia evaporation.

Holcomb, G.R. [US DOE, Albany, OR (United States)

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

186

Steam Oxidation and Chromia Evaporation in Ultra-Supercritical Steam Boilers and Turbines  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

U.S. Department of Energyís goals include power generation from coal at 60% efficiency, which requires steam conditions of up to 760 įC and 340 atm, so-called ultra-supercritical (USC) conditions. Evaporation of protective chromia scales is expected to be a primary corrosion mechanism. A methodology to calculate Cr evaporation rates from chromia scales was developed and combined with Cr diffusion calculations within the alloy (with a constant flux of Cr leaving the alloy from evaporation) to predict Cr concentration profiles and to predict the time until breakaway oxidation. At the highest temperatures and pressures, the time until breakaway oxidation was predicted to be quite short for the turbine blade, and of concern within the steam pipe and the higher temperature portions of the superheater tube. Alloy additions such as Ti may allow for a reduction in evaporation rate with time, mitigating the deleterious effects of chromia evaporation.

Gordon H. Holcomb

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

Cycle isolation monitoring  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

There are many factors to monitor in power plants, but one that is frequently overlooked is cycle isolation. Often this is an area where plant personnel can find 'low hanging fruit' with great return on investment, especially high energy valve leakage. This type of leakage leads to increased heat rate, potential valve damage and lost generation. The fundamental question to ask is 'What is 100 Btu/kW-hr of heat rate worth to your plant? On a 600 MW coal-fired power plant, a 1% leakage can lead to an 81 Btu/kW-hr impact on the main steam cycle and a 64 Btu/kW-hr impact on the hot reheat cycle. The article gives advice on methods to assist in detecting leaking valves and to monitor cycle isolation. A software product, TP. Plus-CIM was designed to estimate flow rates of potentially leaking valves.

Svensen, L.M. III; Zeigler, J.R.; Todd, F.D.; Alder, G.C. [Santee Copper, Moncks Corner, SC (United States)

2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

188

Cyclic Combustion Variations in Dual Fuel Partially Premixed Pilot-Ignited Natural Gas Engines  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Dual fuel pilot ignited natural gas engines are identified as an efficient and viable alternative to conventional diesel engines. This paper examines cyclic combustion fluctuations in conventional dual fuel and in dual fuel partially premixed low temperature combustion (LTC). Conventional dual fueling with 95% (energy basis) natural gas (NG) substitution reduces NOx emissions by almost 90%t relative to straight diesel operation; however, this is accompanied by 98% increase in HC emissions, 10 percentage points reduction in fuel conversion efficiency (FCE) and 12 percentage points increase in COVimep. Dual fuel LTC is achieved by injection of a small amount of diesel fuel (2-3 percent on an energy basis) to ignite a premixed natural gas√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬Ę√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?air mixture to attain very low NOx emissions (less than 0.2 g/kWh). Cyclic variations in both combustion modes were analyzed by observing the cyclic fluctuations in start of combustion (SOC), peak cylinder pressures (Pmax), combustion phasing (Ca50), and the separation between the diesel injection event and Ca50 (termed √?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬Ę√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?relative combustion phasing√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬Ę√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬Ě). For conventional dual fueling, as % NG increases, Pmax decreases, SOC and Ca50 are delayed, and cyclic variations increase. For dual fuel LTC, as diesel injection timing is advanced from 20√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬į to 60√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬įBTDC, the relative combustion phasing is identified as an important combustion parameter along with SoC, Pmax, and CaPmax. For both combustion modes, cyclic variations were characterized by alternating slow and fast burn cycles, especially at high %NG and advanced injection timings. Finally, heat release return maps were analyzed to demonstrate thermal management strategies as an effective tool to mitigate cyclic combustion variations, especially in dual fuel LTC.

Srinivasan, K. K.; Krishnan, S. R.

2012-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

189

Dual-speed wind turbine generation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Induction generator has been used since the early development of utility-scale wind turbine generation. An induction generator is the generator of choice because of its ruggedness and low cost. With an induction generator, the operating speed of the wind turbine is limited to a narrow range (almost constant speed). Dual- speed operation can be accomplished by using an induction generator with two different sets of winding configurations or by using a dual output drive train to drive two induction generators with two different rated speeds. With single-speed operation, the wind turbine operates at different power coefficients (Cp) as the wind speed varies. Operation at maximum Cp can occur only at a single wind speed. However, if the wind speed.varies across a wider range, the operating Cp will vary significantly. Dual-speed operation has the advantage of enabling the wind turbine to operate at near maximum Cp over a wider range of wind speeds. Thus, annual energy production can be increased. The dual-speed mode may generate less energy than a variable-speed mode; nevertheless, it offers an alternative which captures more energy than single-speed operation. In this paper, dual-speed operation of a wind turbine is investigated. Annual energy production is compared between single-speed and dual-speed operation. One type of control algorithm for dual-speed operation is proposed. Some results from a dynamic simulation will be presented to show how the control algorithm works as the wind turbine is exposed to varying wind speeds.

Muljadi, E.; Butterfield, C.P. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)] [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Handman, D. [Flowind Corp., San Rafael, CA (United States)] [Flowind Corp., San Rafael, CA (United States)

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

190

Malone cycle refrigerator development  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper describes the progress made in demonstrating a Malone Cycle Refrigerator/Freezer. The Malone cycle is similar to the Stirling cycle but uses a supercritical fluid in place of real gas. In the approach, solid-metal diaphragms are used to seal and sweep the working volumes against the high working fluid pressures required in Malone cycle machines. This feature eliminates the friction and leakage that accounted for nearly half the losses in the best piston-defined Malone cycle machines built to date. The authors successfully built a Malone cycle refrigerator that: (1) used CO{sub 2} as the working fluid, (2) operated at pressures up to 19.3 Mpa (2,800 psi), (3) achieved a cold end metal temperatures of {minus}29 C ({minus}20 F), and (4) produced over 400 Watts of cooling at near ambient temperatures. The critical diaphragm components operated flawlessly throughout characterization and performance testing, supporting the conclusion of high reliability based on analysis of fatigue date and actual strain measurements.

Shimko, M.A.; Crowley, C.J.

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

Mechanical properties and microstructures of dual phase steels containing silicon, aluminum and molybdenum  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

AND MICROSTRUCTURES OF DUAL PHASE STEELS CONTAINING SILICON,and Microstructures of Dual Phase Steels Containing Silicon,microstructures of selected dual-phase steels in which the

Neill, Thomas John O'

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

192

EFFECTS OF MORPHOLOGY ON THE MECHANICAL BEHAVIOR OF DUAL PHASE Fe/Si/C STEELS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and ductility in dual phase steels. However, it seems thatmechanical behavior of dual phase steels. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTSL INTRODUCTION Dual phase steels whose structures consist of

Kim, N.J.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

Soil metagenomics and carbon cycling  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Soil metagenomics and carbon cycling Soil metagenomics and carbon cycling Establishing a foundational understanding of the microbial and ecosystem factors that control carbon...

194

Simulation and study of thermal performance of liquid desiccant cooling cycle configurations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE Approved as to style and content by: $ g(Beg~ 'i:1. ;, "?i C. F. K ttleborough (Chair of Committee) W. He n t (Member), H. Juvka -Wold (Member) G. P. Peterson (Head of Department... 1. 1 are predicted for this cycle. eyP 4 I Indirect Direct, Evaponuive 4 Cooler Heat Exchallgef Exhaust t Ambient Figure 2. Direct-indirect Evaporative Cooling Cycle (reproduced from Ref. 6) Liquid desiccant systems have not been used...

Dhir, Rajesh

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

195

Heat exchanger efficiently operable alternatively as evaporator or condenser  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A heat exchanger adapted for efficient operation alternatively as evaporator or condenser and characterized by flexible outer tube having a plurality of inner conduits and check valves sealingly disposed within the outer tube and connected with respective inlet and outlet master flow conduits and configured so as to define a parallel flow path for a first fluid such as a refrigerant when flowed in one direction and to define a serpentine and series flow path for the first fluid when flowed in the opposite direction. The flexible outer tube has a heat exchange fluid, such as water, flowed therethrough by way of suitable inlet and outlet connections. The inner conduits and check valves form a package that is twistable so as to define a spiral annular flow path within the flexible outer tube for the heat exchange fluid. The inner conduits have thin walls of highly efficient heat transfer material for transferring heat between the first and second fluids. Also disclosed are specific materials and configurations.

Ecker, Amir L. (Dallas, TX)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

196

ACID EVAPORATION OF ULTIMA GOLD TM AB LIQUID SCINTILLATION COCKTAIL RESIDUE  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Prior analyses of samples from the F/H Lab solutions showed the presence of diisopropylnapthalene (DIN), a major component of Ultima Gold{trademark} AB liquid scintillation cocktail (LSC). These solutions are processed through H-Canyon Tank 10.5 and ultimately through the 17.8E evaporator. Similar solutions originated in SRNL streams sent to the same H Canyon tanks. This study examined whether the presence of these organics poses a process-significant hazard for the evaporator. Evaporation and calorimetry testing of surrogate samples containing 2000 ppm of Ultima Gold{trademark} AB LSC in 8 M nitric acid have been completed. These experiments showed that although reactions between nitric acid and the organic components do occur, they do not appear to pose a significant hazard for runaway reactions or generation of energetic compounds in canyon evaporators. The amount of off-gas generated was relatively modest and appeared to be well within the venting capacity of the H-Canyon evaporators. A significant fraction of the organic components likely survives the evaporation process primarily as non-volatile components that are not expected to represent any new process concerns during downstream operations such as neutralization. Laboratory Waste solutions containing minor amounts of DIN can be safely received, stored, transferred, and processed through the canyon waste evaporator.

Kyser, E.; Fondeur, F.; Crump, S.

2011-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

197

Simulated Waste Testing Of Glycolate Impacts On The 2H-Evaporator System  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Glycolic acid is being studied as a total or partial replacement for formic acid in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) feed preparation process. After implementation, the recycle stream from DWPF back to the high-level waste tank farm will contain soluble sodium glycolate. Most of the potential impacts of glycolate in the tank farm were addressed via a literature review, but several outstanding issues remained. This report documents the non-radioactive simulant tests impacts of glycolate on storage and evaporation of Savannah River Site high-level waste. The testing for which non-radioactive simulants could be used involved the following: the partitioning of glycolate into the evaporator condensate, the impacts of glycolate on metal solubility, and the impacts of glycolate on the formation and dissolution of sodium aluminosilicate scale within the evaporator. The following are among the conclusions from this work: Evaporator condensate did not contain appreciable amounts of glycolate anion. Of all tests, the highest glycolate concentration in the evaporator condensate was 0.38 mg/L. A significant portion of the tests had glycolate concentration in the condensate at less than the limit of quantification (0.1 mg/L). At ambient conditions, evaporator testing did not show significant effects of glycolate on the soluble components in the evaporator concentrates. Testing with sodalite solids and silicon containing solutions did not show significant effects of glycolate on sodium aluminosilicate formation or dissolution.

Martino, C. J.

2013-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

198

Analysis of the e-beam evaporation of titanium and Ti-6Al-4V  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An experimental and finite element analysis was performed for the electron-beam evaporation of Ti and Ti-6Al-4V from a bottom-feed system. The bulk evaporation rate was measured by feed consumption, and the pool elevation was held constant by adjusting the feed rate in a closed-loop control system. The instantaneous titanium and aluminum evaporation rates were determined by laser absorption in the vapor plume. Water temperature rises in cooling water circuits provided heat flows, and post-run cross sections revealed the location of the solidification zone. The MELT finite element code was applied to model the steady-state two-dimensional fluid flow and energy transport in the rod. There was good agreement between model and measured values of the heat flows and solidification boundaries for Ti. Measured bulk evaporation rates were similar for Ti and Ti-6-4 with greater variation observed for the Ti values. The model evaporation rates were higher than the measured values, but a similar linear dependence on e-beam power was observed in all cases. In a Ti-6-4 evaporation experiment with steady process conditions, laser absorption measurements showed much larger fluctuations in the evaporation rate for Al than Ti.

Westerberg, K.W.; Merier, T.C.; McClelland, M.A.; Braun, D.G.; Berzins, L.V.; Anklam, T.M.; Storer, J.

1998-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

199

Helium process cycle  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A unique process cycle and apparatus design separates the consumer (cryogenic) load return flow from most of the recycle return flow of a refrigerator and/or liquefier process cycle. The refrigerator and/or liquefier process recycle return flow is recompressed by a multi-stage compressor set and the consumer load return flow is recompressed by an independent consumer load compressor set that maintains a desirable constant suction pressure using a consumer load bypass control valve and the consumer load return pressure control valve that controls the consumer load compressor's suction pressure. The discharge pressure of this consumer load compressor is thereby allowed to float at the intermediate pressure in between the first and second stage recycle compressor sets. Utilizing the unique gas management valve regulation, the unique process cycle and apparatus design in which the consumer load return flow is separate from the recycle return flow, the pressure ratios of each recycle compressor stage and all main pressures associated with the recycle return flow are allowed to vary naturally, thus providing a naturally regulated and balanced floating pressure process cycle that maintains optimal efficiency at design and off-design process cycle capacity and conditions automatically.

Ganni, Venkatarao (Yorktown, VA)

2008-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

200

Helium process cycle  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A unique process cycle and apparatus design separates the consumer (cryogenic) load return flow from most of the recycle return flow of a refrigerator and/or liquefier process cycle. The refrigerator and/or liquefier process recycle return flow is recompressed by a multi-stage compressor set and the consumer load return flow is recompressed by an independent consumer load compressor set that maintains a desirable constant suction pressure using a consumer load bypass control valve and the consumer load return pressure control valve that controls the consumer load compressor's suction pressure. The discharge pressure of this consumer load compressor is thereby allowed to float at the intermediate pressure in between the first and second stage recycle compressor sets. Utilizing the unique gas management valve regulation, the unique process cycle and apparatus design in which the consumer load return flow is separate from the recycle return flow, the pressure ratios of each recycle compressor stage and all main pressures associated with the recycle return flow are allowed to vary naturally, thus providing a naturally regulated and balanced floating pressure process cycle that maintains optimal efficiency at design and off-design process cycle capacity and conditions automatically.

Ganni, Venkatarao (Yorktown, VA)

2007-10-09T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dual evaporator cycle" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Energy Savings in Direct Evaporative Cooling: real application in the Madrid metro and simulated application for offices in Sydney  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Water evaporates spontaneously in contact with the air, absorbing around 680 W/(kg/h of evaporated water) from the air (1,053 BTU/lb.). Direct Evaporative Cooling (DEC) exploits this simple physical phenomenon to achieve high cooling capacities...

Simonetti, R.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

HIGH-EFFICIENCY BACK-JUNCTION SILICON SOLAR CELL WITH AN IN-LINE EVAPORATED ALUMINUM FRONT GRID  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

HIGH-EFFICIENCY BACK-JUNCTION SILICON SOLAR CELL WITH AN IN-LINE EVAPORATED ALUMINUM FRONT GRID M-diffused back-junction emitter. The aluminum front side grid is evaporated in an industrial-type in-thick silicon shadow masks for the in-line evaporation of the aluminum front grid. The masks are fabricated

203

EPA's research projects relating to the dual-circuit and Lorenz refrigerator/freezers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

At a meeting in February 1989, EPA presented to several research universities, national laboratories, and refrigerator/freezer (RF) manufacturers the Agency's desire to replace CFC-12 as a refrigerant in the RF vapor compression cycle and increase RF energy efficiency. EPA recognized that, while eliminating CFCs, energy benefits could be gained by further product development (e.g., improving compressor efficiency or heat transfer surface areas). The largest cycle energy gains, however, were expected to be a result of completely different vapor compression configuration. Two new vapor compression configurations were suggested by the participants - the Lorenz design and the dual-circuit design. A decision was made to construct and test modified RFs as proof that the advanced refrigerants and cycles could achieve energy gains. An RF computer model has been updated and expanded which can model both the Lorenz and dual-circuit RF. Modified RF testing and component testing in test stands is being performed to determine the increased energy performance of these configurations.

Bare, J.C. (Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States))

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

Solar High Temperature Water-Splitting Cycle with Quantum Boost  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A sulfur family chemical cycle having ammonia as the working fluid and reagent was developed as a cost-effective and efficient hydrogen production technology based on a solar thermochemical water-splitting cycle. The sulfur ammonia (SA) cycle is a renewable and sustainable process that is unique in that it is an all-fluid cycle (i.e., with no solids handling). It uses a moderate temperature solar plant with the solar receiver operating at 800įC. All electricity needed is generated internally from recovered heat. The plant would operate continuously with low cost storage and it is a good potential solar thermochemical hydrogen production cycle for reaching the DOE cost goals. Two approaches were considered for the hydrogen production step of the SA cycle: (1) photocatalytic, and (2) electrolytic oxidation of ammonium sulfite to ammonium sulfate in aqueous solutions. Also, two sub-cycles were evaluated for the oxygen evolution side of the SA cycle: (1) zinc sulfate/zinc oxide, and (2) potassium sulfate/potassium pyrosulfate. The laboratory testing and optimization of all the process steps for each version of the SA cycle were proven in the laboratory or have been fully demonstrated by others, but further optimization is still possible and needed. The solar configuration evolved to a 50 MW(thermal) central receiver system with a North heliostat field, a cavity receiver, and NaCl molten salt storage to allow continuous operation. The H2A economic model was used to optimize and trade-off SA cycle configurations. Parametric studies of chemical plant performance have indicated process efficiencies of ~20%. Although the current process efficiency is technically acceptable, an increased efficiency is needed if the DOE cost targets are to be reached. There are two interrelated areas in which there is the potential for significant efficiency improvements: electrolysis cell voltage and excessive water vaporization. Methods to significantly reduce water evaporation are proposed for future activities. Electrolysis membranes that permit higher temperatures and lower voltages are attainable. The oxygen half cycle will need further development and improvement.

Taylor, Robin [SAIC] [SAIC; Davenport, Roger [SAIC] [SAIC; Talbot, Jan [UCSD] [UCSD; Herz, Richard [UCSD] [UCSD; Genders, David [Electrosynthesis Co.] [Electrosynthesis Co.; Symons, Peter [Electrosynthesis Co.] [Electrosynthesis Co.; Brown, Lloyd [TChemE] [TChemE

2014-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

205

Field Performance of a Slimline Turbomist Evaporator under Southeastern U. S. Climate Conditions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A recent study of evaporation technologies for treating F- and H-area groundwater contaminated with radionuclides and metals (Flach 2002) suggested that spray evaporation might be a viable alternative or supplemental technique for managing tritiated groundwater at the Mixed Waste Management Facility. The particular technology of interest in this study is the Slimline Manufacturing Ltd. Turbo-Mist Evaporator, which uses a powerful blower and high-pressure spray nozzles to propel a fine mist into the air at high air and water flowrates.

Sappington, F.C.

2003-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

206

Superfluid thermodynamic cycle refrigerator  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A cryogenic refrigerator cools a heat source by cyclically concentrating and diluting the amount of .sup.3 He in a single phase .sup.3 He-.sup.4 He solution. The .sup.3 He in superfluid .sup.4 He acts in a manner of an ideal gas in a vacuum. Thus, refrigeration is obtained using any conventional thermal cycle, but preferably a Stirling or Carnot cycle. A single phase solution of liquid .sup.3 He at an initial concentration in superfluid .sup.4 He is contained in a first variable volume connected to a second variable volume through a superleak device that enables free passage of .sup.4 He while restricting passage of .sup.3 He. The .sup.3 He is compressed (concentrated) and expanded (diluted) in a phased manner to carry out the selected thermal cycle to remove heat from the heat load for cooling below 1 K.

Swift, Gregory W. (Santa Fe, NM); Kotsubo, Vincent Y. (La Canada, CA)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

Superfluid thermodynamic cycle refrigerator  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A cryogenic refrigerator cools a heat source by cyclically concentrating and diluting the amount of [sup 3]He in a single phase [sup 3]He-[sup 4]He solution. The [sup 3]He in superfluid [sup 4]He acts in a manner of an ideal gas in a vacuum. Thus, refrigeration is obtained using any conventional thermal cycle, but preferably a Stirling or Carnot cycle. A single phase solution of liquid [sup 3]He at an initial concentration in superfluid [sup 4]He is contained in a first variable volume connected to a second variable volume through a superleak device that enables free passage of [sup 4]He while restricting passage of [sup 3]He. The [sup 3]He is compressed (concentrated) and expanded (diluted) in a phased manner to carry out the selected thermal cycle to remove heat from the heat load for cooling below 1 K. 12 figs.

Swift, G.W.; Kotsubo, V.Y.

1992-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

208

Dual waveband compact catadioptric imaging spectrometer  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A catadioptric dual waveband imaging spectrometer that covers the visible through short-wave infrared, and the midwave infrared spectral regions, dispersing the visible through shortwave infrared with a zinc selenide grating and midwave infrared with a sapphire prism. The grating and prism are at the cold stop position, enabling the pupil to be split between them. The spectra for both wavebands are focused onto the relevant sections of a single dual waveband detector. Spatial keystone distortion is controlled to less than one tenth of a pixel over the full wavelength range, facilitating the matching of the spectra in the midwave infrared with the shorter wavelength region.

Chrisp, Michael P.

2012-12-25T23:59:59.000Z

209

Dual Superconductivity in G2 group  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We investigate the dual superconductivity mechanism in the exceptional group $G_2$. This is a centerless group (no 't Hooft flux vortices are allowed) and we check for the presence of a magnetic monopole condensate in the confined phase by measuring on the lattice a disorder parameter related to the vacuum expectation value of an operator carrying magnetic charge. The behaviour of the disorder parameter is consistent with the dual superconductor picture. A first step of an analysis on the thermodynamical properties of the theory is conducted by mean of this operator.

G. Cossu; M. D'Elia; A. Di Giacomo; B. Lucini; C. Pica

2006-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

210

Understanding the petrochemical cycle  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The presentation will examine the nature of the supply, demand and profitability cycles that appear to be endemic in the petrochemical industry. The focus will be on the underlying factors that cause cyclicality. Data for ethylene and first line derivatives will be used both to provide quantitative illustrations of the magnitude of the cyclical effects and to give an improved perspective on the forces that drive cylicality. We will also examine to what extent cycle timing may be predictable, and present some scenario based projections.

Sedriks, W. [SRI Consulting, Melno Park, CA (United States)

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

M . B a h r a m i ENSC 388 Experiment 2: Vapor Compression Refrigeration Cycle ENSC 388: Engineering Thermodynamics and Heat Transfer  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Determining the coefficient of performance of a vapour compression refrigeration cycle. Apparatus Figure 1, a condenser, an evaporator and an expansion valve. The compressor unit shown in Fig. 2 comprises the liquid to vapor. The system has an expansion valve which is a float valve. Schematic of the expansion

Bahrami, Majid

212

Economics of dual purpose production alternatives in the Mexican tropics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Technological, marketing, and financial alternatives to the dual purpose production system in Central Veracruz, Mexico were analyzed to assess their economic viability. A large dual purpose production operation was characterized in a baseline...

Ochoa-Ochoa, Rene Federico

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

Aging and the vulnerability of speech to dual task demands  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Tracking a digital pursuit rotor task was used to measure dual task costs of language production by young and older adults. Tracking performance by both groups was affected by dual task demands: time on target declined and ...

Kemper, Susan; Schmalzried, RaLynn Cheri; Hoffman, Lesa; Herman, Ruth

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

214

Combustion and Emissions Performance of Dual-Fuel Gasoline and...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Combustion and Emissions Performance of Dual-Fuel Gasoline and Diesel HECC on a Multi-Cylinder Light Duty Diesel Engine Combustion and Emissions Performance of Dual-Fuel Gasoline...

215

Solar's combined-cycle system utilizes novel steam-generator concept  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As escalating fuel costs force equipment users to seek more efficient prime movers, the combined-cycle system will become increasingly attractive because it retains the advantages of simple-cycle gas turbines - low installation costs, high availability, low maintenance, and low emission levels - while adding 40% power output from the steam-based system operated on the turbine exhaust. Solar Turbines International has sought to develop an automated, remote-control combined-cycle system that can be easily retrofitted to existing simple-cycle power stations. The key component giving the system its advantages over the hazardous, complex steam-drum-type boiler systems is a once-through dual-pressure steam-generator device that eliminates the need for drums and elaborate control mechanisms. Forty identical parallel tube circuits suspended from a single frame are connected to common inlet and discharge manifolds; the individual circuits are made of dual high- and low-pressure bundles, with each bundle having economizer, vaporizer, and superheating sections. The 40 circuits comprise one complete steam-generator module core matrix. By injecting the superheated low-pressure steam into the latter stages of the steam turbine, the dual-pressure feature improves the heat recovery by more than 12% over conventional devices. The only water treatment that the corrosion-resistant tube material requires is the removal of dissolved solids.

Not Available

1980-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

216

Photoconductivity in reactively evaporated copper indium selenide thin films  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Copper indium selenide thin films of composition CuInSe{sub 2} with thickness of the order of 130 nm are deposited on glass substrate at a temperature of 423 Ī5 K and pressure of 10{sup ?5} mbar using reactive evaporation, a variant of Gunther's three temperature method with high purity Copper (99.999%), Indium (99.999%) and Selenium (99.99%) as the elemental starting materials. X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies shows that the films are polycrystalline in nature having preferred orientation of grains along the (112) plane. The structural type of the film is found to be tetragonal with particle size of the order of 32 nm. The structural parameters such as lattice constant, particle size, dislocation density, number of crystallites per unit area and strain in the film are also evaluated. The surface morphology of CuInSe{sub 2} films are studied using 2D and 3D atomic force microscopy to estimate the grain size and surface roughness respectively. Analysis of the absorption spectrum of the film recorded using UV-Vis-NIR Spectrophotometer in the wavelength range from 2500 nm to cutoff revealed that the film possess a direct allowed transition with a band gap of 1.05 eV and a high value of absorption coefficient (?) of 10{sup 6} cm{sup ?1} at 570 nm. Photoconductivity at room temperature is measured after illuminating the film with an FSH lamp (82 V, 300 W). Optical absorption studies in conjunction with the good photoconductivity of the prepared p-type CuInSe{sub 2} thin films indicate its suitability in photovoltaic applications.

Urmila, K. S., E-mail: urmilaks7@gmail.com; Asokan, T. Namitha, E-mail: urmilaks7@gmail.com; Pradeep, B., E-mail: urmilaks7@gmail.com [Solid State Physics Laboratory, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Kochi, Kerala (India); Jacob, Rajani; Philip, Rachel Reena [Thin Film Research Laboratory, Union Christian College, Aluva, Kerala (India)

2014-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

217

A Preconditioner for a Primal-Dual Newton Conjugate Gradients ...  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Dec 30, 2014 ... A Preconditioner for a Primal-Dual Newton Conjugate Gradients Method for Compressed Sensing Problems.

Kimon Fountoulakis

2014-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

218

Optimization Online - Convergence Analysis of Primal-Dual Based ...  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Sep 24, 2014 ... Convergence Analysis of Primal-Dual Based Methods for Total Variation Minimization with Finite Element Approximation.

Wenyi Tian

2014-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

219

Common Mathematical Foundations of Expected Utility and Dual ...  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

distributions, and their convex combinations correspond to lotteries. The dual utility theory uses convex combinations of comonotonic real random variables,†...

2012-11-24T23:59:59.000Z

220

GENERAL CIRCULATION Energy Cycle  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

process. PE is useful for global energy balance. Solar radiant energy does not reach the Earth equally everywhere. On average, the tropics receive and absorb far more solar energy annually than the polar regionsGENERAL CIRCULATION Contents Energy Cycle Mean Characteristics Momentum Budget Overview Energy

Grotjahn, Richard

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dual evaporator cycle" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

CLASS DESCRIPTIONS CYCLING SERIES  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

will utilize concepts from the 50-minute cycling class while going the distance to optimal health. Whether you're an avid cyclist, triathlete, or desire a longer class for a greater challenge, join us for this 75-minute AN URBANATHLETE Are you registered to compete in an adventure race like the Men's Health Urbanathlon, Warrior Dash

Pittendrigh, Barry

222

Life cycle assessment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Life-Cycle Assessment (LCA) is a technical, data-based and holistic approach to define and subsequently reduce the environmental burdens associated with a product, process, or activity by identifying and quantifying energy and material usage and waste discharges, assessing the impact of those wastes on the environment, and evaluating and implementing opportunities to effect environmental improvements. The assessment includes the entire life-cycle of the product, process or activity encompassing extraction and processing of raw materials, manufacturing, transportation and distribution, use/reuse, recycling and final disposal. LCA is a useful tool for evaluating the environmental consequences of a product, process, or activity, however, current applications of LCA have not been performed in consistent or easily understood ways. This inconsistency has caused increased criticism of LCA. The EPA recognized the need to develop an LCA framework which could be used to provide consistent use across the board. Also, additional research is needed to enhance the understanding about the steps in the performance of an LCA and its appropriate usage. This paper will present the research activities of the EPA leading toward the development of an acceptable method for conducting LCA`s. This research has resulted in the development of two guidance manuals. The first manual is intended to be a practical guide to conducting and interpreting the life-cycle inventory. A nine-step approach to performing a comprehensive inventory is presented along with the general issues to be addressed. The second manual addresses life-cycle design.

Curran, M.A. [Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

223

Combined Cycle Combustion Turbines  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Combined Cycle Combustion Turbines Steven Simmons February 27 2014 1 #12;CCCT Today's Discussion 1 Meeting Pricing of 4 advanced units using information from Gas Turbine World Other cost estimates from E E3 EIA Gas Turbine World California Energy Commission Date 2010 Oct 2012, Dec 2013 Apr 2013 2013 Apr

224

MSW/MBA DUAL DEGREE PROGRAM 2013 2014  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 MSW/MBA DUAL DEGREE PROGRAM 2013 ­ 2014 Purpose The MSW/MBA Dual Degree Program was developed of an Individualized Concentration. Course of Study In broad outline, the course of study for the MSW/MBA dual degree two days per week during the academic year). Note: It is also possible to begin the MSW Program

Huang, Jianyu

225

MSW/MBA DUAL DEGREE PROGRAM 2014 2015  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 MSW/MBA DUAL DEGREE PROGRAM 2014 ­ 2015 Purpose The MSW/MBA Dual Degree Program was developed of an Individualized Concentration. Course of Study In broad outline, the course of study for the MSW/MBA dual degree two days per week during the academic year). Note: It is also possible to begin the MSW Program

Huang, Jianyu

226

An evaporation estimation method based on the coupled 2-D turbulent heat and vapor transport equations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

equations Jozsef Szilagyi1,2 and Janos Jozsa1 Received 14 July 2008; revised 4 December 2008; accepted 7 temperature data. Citation: Szilagyi, J., and J. Jozsa (2009), An evaporation estimation method based

Szilagyi, Jozsef

227

E-Print Network 3.0 - accretion thermal evaporation Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

of air and diffusivity of water vapor, respectively. Note that Pced... . Evaporation of rainwater and depositional growth of snow (P,ed) the 0C ... Source: Zhang, Da-Lin -...

228

Experimental Study of the Circulation Air Volume of Recirculation Evaporative Cooling  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This paper introduces the technology of re-circulation evaporative cooling (REC), which uses a portion of supply air as secondary air to make cool water used to indirectly cool outside air through a heat exchanger. The circulation volume...

Xiong, J.; Liu, Z.; Wang, C.; Chen, G.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

A feasibility study of internal evaporative cooling for proton exchange membrane fuel cells  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

An investigation was conducted to determine the feasibility of using the technique of ultrasonic nebulization of water into the anode gas stream for evaporative cooling of a Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cell. The basic concept of this form...

Snyder, Loren E

2006-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

230

EVIDENCE OF EXPLOSIVE EVAPORATION IN A MICROFLARE OBSERVED BY HINODE/EIS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present a detailed study of explosive chromospheric evaporation during a microflare which occurred on 2007 December 7 as observed with the Extreme-ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer on board Hinode. We find temperature-dependent upflows for lines formed from 1.0 to 2.5 MK and downflows for lines formed from 0.05 to 0.63 MK in the impulsive phase of the flare. Both the line intensity and the nonthermal line width appear enhanced in most of the lines and are temporally correlated with the evaporation velocity. Our results are consistent with the numerical simulations of flare models, which take into account a strong nonthermal electron beam in producing the explosive chromospheric evaporation. The explosive evaporation observed in this microflare implies that the same dynamic processes may exist in events with very different magnitudes.

Chen, F.; Ding, M. D., E-mail: dmd@nju.edu.c [Department of Astronomy, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

2010-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

231

Sulfuric acid-sulfur heat storage cycle  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of storing heat is provided utilizing a chemical cycle which interconverts sulfuric acid and sulfur. The method can be used to levelize the energy obtained from intermittent heat sources, such as solar collectors. Dilute sulfuric acid is concentrated by evaporation of water, and the concentrated sulfuric acid is boiled and decomposed using intense heat from the heat source, forming sulfur dioxide and oxygen. The sulfur dioxide is reacted with water in a disproportionation reaction yielding dilute sulfuric acid, which is recycled, and elemental sulfur. The sulfur has substantial potential chemical energy and represents the storage of a significant portion of the energy obtained from the heat source. The sulfur is burned whenever required to release the stored energy. A particularly advantageous use of the heat storage method is in conjunction with a solar-powered facility which uses the Bunsen reaction in a water-splitting process. The energy storage method is used to levelize the availability of solar energy while some of the sulfur dioxide produced in the heat storage reactions is converted to sulfuric acid in the Bunsen reaction.

Norman, John H. (LaJolla, CA)

1983-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

232

LITERATURE REVIEW ON IMPACT OF GLYCOLATE ON THE 2H EVAPORATOR AND THE EFFLUENT TREATMENT FACILITY  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Glycolic acid (GA) is being studied as an alternate reductant in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) feed preparation process. It will either be a total or partial replacement for the formic acid that is currently used. A literature review has been conducted on the impact of glycolate on two post-DWPF downstream systems - the 2H Evaporator system and the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF). The DWPF recycle stream serves as a portion of the feed to the 2H Evaporator. Glycolate enters the evaporator system from the glycolate in the recycle stream. The overhead (i.e., condensed phase) from the 2H Evaporator serves as a portion of the feed to the ETF. The literature search revealed that virtually no impact is anticipated for the 2H Evaporator. Glycolate may help reduce scale formation in the evaporator due to its high complexing ability. The drawback of the solubilizing ability is the potential impact on the criticality analysis of the 2H Evaporator system. It is recommended that at least a theoretical evaluation to confirm the finding that no self-propagating violent reactions with nitrate/nitrites will occur should be performed. Similarly, identification of sources of ignition relevant to glycolate and/or update of the composite flammability analysis to reflect the effects from the glycolate additions for the 2H Evaporator system are in order. An evaluation of the 2H Evaporator criticality analysis is also needed. A determination of the amount or fraction of the glycolate in the evaporator overhead is critical to more accurately assess its impact on the ETF. Hence, use of predictive models like OLI Environmental Simulation Package Software (OLI/ESP) and/or testing are recommended for the determination of the glycolate concentration in the overhead. The impact on the ETF depends on the concentration of glycolate in the ETF feed. The impact is classified as minor for feed glycolate concentrations {le} 33 mg/L or 0.44 mM. The ETF unit operations that will have minor/major impacts are chlorination, pH adjustment, 1st mercury removal, organics removal, 2nd mercury removal, and ion exchange. For minor impacts, the general approach is to use historical process operations data/modeling software like OLI/ESP and/or monitoring/compiled process operations data to resolve any uncertainties with testing as a last resort. For major impacts (i.e., glycolate concentrations > 33 mg/L or 0.44 mM), testing is recommended. No impact is envisaged for the following ETF unit operations regardless of the glycolate concentration - filtration, reverse osmosis, ion exchange resin regeneration, and evaporation.

Adu-Wusu, K.

2012-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

233

Experimental and numerical study of e-beam evaporation of titanium  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An experimental and numerical study is performed for the electron-beam evaporation of pure titanium from a bottom fed vapor source. In the experiments, an electron beam operating in the nominal range of 30-40 [kW] was used to evaporate metal from the top of a 3 [in] diameter rod. Variations were made in the e-beam power, sweep pattern, and sweep frequency, and the total evaporation rate was measured from feed consumption and laser absorption. The solid-pool interface was obtained from metallographic cross sections of the metal rod. A two-dimensional finite element model was developed for the melt which includes the effect of fluid flow and energy transport in the pool and conduction in the solid. The deformation of the liquid-vapor and solid-liquid interfaces are tracked using a mesh which stretches along spines parallel to the axis of the rod. For the cases considered, high evaporative fluxes and vapor pressures generate significant depressions in the top surface of the pool. Predicted and measured evaporation rates are in good agreement for moderate evaporation fluxes, but discrepancies are larger for the case involving the highest flux and deepest depression.

McClelland, M.A.; Westerberg, K.W.; Meier, T.C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)] [and others

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

234

Experimental and numerical study of E-beam evaporation of titanium  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An experimental and numerical study is performed for the electron- beam evaporation of pure titanium from a bottom fed vapor source. In the experiments, an electron beam operating in the nominal range of 30-40 [kW] was used to evaporate metal from the top of a 3 inch diameter rod. Variations were made in the e-beam power, sweep pattern, and sweep frequency, and the total evaporation rate was measured from feed consumption and laser absorption. The solid-pool interface was obtained from metallographic cross sections of the metal rod. A two-dimensional finite element model was developed for the melt which includes the effect of fluid flow and energy transport in the pool and conduction in the solid. The deformation of the liquid-vapor and solid-liquid interfaces are tracked using a mesh which stretches along spines parallel to the axis of the rod. For the cases considered, high evaporative fluxes and vapor pressures generate significant depressions in the top surface of the pool. Predicted and measured evaporation rates are in good agreement for moderate evaporation fluxes, but discrepancies are larger for the case involving the highest flux and deepest depression.

McClelland, M.A.; Westerberg, K.W.; Meier, T.C.; Braun, D.G.; Berrins, L.V.; Anklam, T.M. Storer, J.

1997-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

235

Projected Benefits of New Residential Evaporative Cooling Systems: Progress Report #2  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The use of conventional evaporative cooling has rapidly declined in the United States despite the fact that it has high potential for energy savings in dry climates. Evaporative systems are very competitive in terms of first cost and provide significant reductions in operating energy use, as well as peak-load reduction benefits. Significant market barriers still remain and can be addressed through improved systems integration. This report investigates the first of these approaches, exploring innovative components. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Building America research teams are investigating the use of two promising new pieces of residential cooling equipment that employ evaporative cooling as a part of their system design. The OASys unit, which is a combination of direct and indirect evaporative cooling stages developed by Davis Energy Group (DEG) and manufactured by Speakman CRS, is used to ultimately provide outside air to the living space. The outdoor air provided is indirectly and directly evaporatively cooled in two stages to a condition that can be below the wet-bulb (wb) temperature of the outside air, thus outperforming a conventional single-stage direct evaporative cooler.

Kutscher, C.; Eastment, M.; Hancock, E.; Reeves, P.

2006-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

236

Open cycle ocean thermal energy conversion system structure  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A generally mushroom-shaped, open cycle OTEC system and distilled water producer which has a skirt-conduit structure extending from the enlarged portion of the mushroom to the ocean. The enlarged part of the mushroom houses a toroidal casing flash evaporator which produces steam which expands through a vertical rotor turbine, partially situated in the center of the blossom portion and partially situated in the mushroom's stem portion. Upon expansion through the turbine, the motive steam enters a shell and tube condenser annularly disposed about the rotor axis and axially situated beneath the turbine in the stem portion. Relatively warm ocean water is circulated up through the radially outer skirt-conduit structure entering the evaporator through a radially outer portion thereof, flashing a portion thereof into motive steam, and draining the unflashed portion from the evaporator through a radially inner skirt-conduit structure. Relatively cold cooling water enters the annular condenser through the radially inner edge and travels radially outwardly into a channel situated along the radially outer edge of the condenser. The channel is also included in the radially inner skirt-conduit structure. The cooling water is segregated from the potable, motive steam condensate which can be used for human consumption or other processes requiring high purity water. The expansion energy of the motive steam is partially converted into rotational mechanical energy of the turbine rotor when the steam is expanded through the shaft attached blades. Such mechanical energy drives a generator also included in the enlarged mushroom portion for producing electrical energy. Such power generation equipment arrangement provides a compact power system from which additional benefits may be obtained by fabricating the enclosing equipment, housings and component casings from low density materials, such as prestressed concrete, to permit those casings and housings to also function as a floating support vessel.

Wittig, J. Michael (West Goshen, PA)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

237

Stirling cycle engine  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

In a Stirling cycle engine having a plurality of working gas charges separated by pistons reciprocating in cylinders, the total gas content is minimized and the mean pressure equalization among the serial cylinders is improved by using two piston rings axially spaced at least as much as the piston stroke and by providing a duct in the cylinder wall opening in the space between the two piston rings and leading to a source of minimum or maximum working gas pressure.

Lundholm, Gunnar (Lund, SE)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

Resonant circuit which provides dual-frequency excitation for rapid cycling of an electromagnet  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Disclosed is a novel ring-magnet control circuit that permits synchrotron repetition rates much higher than the frequency of the sinusoidal guide field of the ring magnet during particle acceleration. The control circuit generates sinusoidal excitation currents of different frequencies in the half waves. During radio-frequency acceleration of the synchrotron, the control circuit operates with a lower frequency sine wave and, thereafter, the electromagnets are reset with a higher-frequency half sine wave.

Praeg, W.F.

1982-03-09T23:59:59.000Z

239

Plasma-mediated surface evaporation of an aluminium target in vacuum under UV laser irradiation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Mathematical simulation is employed to investigate the dynamics of evaporation and condensation on the surface of a metal target under the conditions of plasma production in the vaporised material exposed to the 0.248-{mu}m UV radiation of a KrF laser with the intensity G{sub 0}= 2x10{sup 8}-10{sup 9} W cm{sup -2}, and a pulse duration {tau}= 20 ns. A transient two-dimensional mathematical model is used, which includes, for the condensed medium, the heat conduction equation with the Stefan boundary condition and additional kinetic conditions at the evaporation surface and, for the vapour, the equations of radiative gas dynamics and laser radiation transfer supplemented with tabular data for the parameters of the equations of state and absorption coefficients. The target evaporation in vacuum induced by the UV radiation was found to occur during the laser pulse and is divided into two characteristic stages: initial evaporation with a sound velocity and subsonic evaporation after the plasma production. At the subsonic evaporation stage, one part of the laser radiation passes through the plasma and is absorbed by the target surface and another part is absorbed in a thin plasma layer near the surface to produce a high pressure, which significantly moderates the vapour ejection. After completion of the pulse, a part of the vaporised material is condensed on the surface, both in the evaporation region and some distance away from it due to the lateral expansion of the plasma cloud. (interaction of laser radiation with matter. laser plasma)

Mazhukin, V I; Nosov, V V [Institute of Mathematical Modelling, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

2005-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

240

HEURISTIC SEARCH FOR HAMILTON CYCLES  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

by combining it with the remaining cycles. The following is the description of the main part of the algorithmHEURISTIC SEARCH FOR HAMILTON CYCLES IN CUBIC GRAPHS Janez ALES, Bojan MOHAR and Tomaz PISANSKI. A successful heuristic algorithm for nding Hamilton cycles in cubic graphs is described. Several graphs from

Mohar, Bojan

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dual evaporator cycle" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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241

Edinburgh Research Explorer Money Cycles  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Edinburgh Research Explorer Money Cycles Citation for published version: Clausen, A & Strub, C 2014 'Money Cycles' Edinburgh School of Economics Discussion Paper Series. Link: Link to publication record date: 11. Dec. 2014 #12;Edinburgh School of Economics Discussion Paper Series Number 249 Money Cycles

Millar, Andrew J.

242

Personal, closed-cycle cooling and protective apparatus and thermal battery therefor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A closed-cycle apparatus for cooling a living body includes a heat pickup body or garment which permits evaporation of an evaporating fluid, transmission of the vapor to a condenser, and return of the condensate to the heat pickup body. A thermal battery cooling source is provided for removing heat from the condenser. The apparatus requires no external power and provides a cooling system for soldiers, race car drivers, police officers, firefighters, bomb squad technicians, and other personnel who may utilize protective clothing to work in hostile environments. An additional shield layer may simultaneously provide protection from discomfort, illness or injury due to harmful atmospheres, projectiles, edged weapons, impacts, explosions, heat, poisons, microbes, corrosive agents, or radiation, while simultaneously removing body heat from the wearer.

Klett, James W.; Klett, Lynn B.

2004-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

243

The World as a Dual Josephson Junction  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We examine some of the implications of the field-theoretical mechanism for the localization of gauge fields on hypersurfaces in higher-dimensional bulk space-time. This mechanism exploits the analogy between confinement and dual superconductivity. In the simplest case of a photon localized on a (2+1)-dimensional surface in a (3+1)-dimensional bulk, we argue that the system behaves like a dual Josephson junction. This implies that the effective gauge theory on the surface is not free, but displays weak confinement with a linear potential. We comment on the relevance of our results for the realistic case of a (3+1)-dimensional surface in a space-time with one or more extra dimensions.

N. Tetradis

2000-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

244

Adaptive upscaling with the dual mesh method  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this paper is to demonstrate that upscaling should be calculated during the flow simulation instead of trying to enhance the a priori upscaling methods. Hence, counter-examples are given to motivate our approach, the so-called Dual Mesh Method. The main steps of this numerical algorithm are recalled. Applications illustrate the necessity to consider different average relative permeability values depending on the direction in space. Moreover, these values could be different for the same average saturation. This proves that an a priori upscaling cannot be the answer even in homogeneous cases because of the {open_quotes}dynamical heterogeneity{close_quotes} created by the saturation profile. Other examples show the efficiency of the Dual Mesh Method applied to heterogeneous medium and to an actual field case in South America.

Guerillot, D.; Verdiere, S.

1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

245

Design of dual frequency interferometric SAR  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Using a spaceborne interferometric SAR, it is possible to produce a high resolution global topographic map with a height accuracy of several meters. However, frequency selection of the interferometric SAR is rather complicated due to interferometric phenomenology and atmospheric effects. In this paper, we propose a dual frequency interferometric SAR to achieve better understanding of interferometric height (especially for penetrable medium) and corresponding calibration and to remove the atmospheric effects. The selected frequencies are L- and Ku- bands. We also present a radar design and show that a light weight and efficient SAR can be designed using new technologies and dual frequency advantages even with two frequency radars in a single spacecraft. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

Kim, Y.; Edelstein, W.; Caro, E. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91109 (United States)

1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

246

Optimization of waste heat recovery boiler of a combined cycle power plant  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper describes the details of a procedure developed for optimization of a waste heat recovery boiler (WHRB) of a combined cycle power plant (CCPP) using the program for performance prediction of a typical CCPP, details of which have been presented elsewhere (Seyedan et al., 1994). In order to illustrate the procedure, the optimum design of a WHRB for a typical CCPP (employing dual-pressure bottoming cycle) built by a prominent Indian company, has been carried out. The present design of a WHRB is taken as the base design and the newer designs generated by this procedure are compared with it to assess the extent of cost reduction possible.

Seyedan, B.; Dhar, P.L.; Gaur, R.R. [Indian Inst. of Tech., New Delhi (India). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Bindra, G.S. [Bharat Heavy Electrical Ltd., New Delhi (India)

1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

247

Fabrication of dual porosity electrode structure  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A substantially entirely fibrous ceramic which may have dual porosity of both micro and macro pores. Total porosity may be 60-75% by volume. A method of spraying a slurry perpendicularly to an ambient stream of air is disclosed along with a method of removing binders without altering the fiber morphology. Adding fine ceramic particulates to the green ceramic fibers enhances the sintering characteristics of the fibers.

Smith, James L. (Lemont, IL); Kucera, Eugenia H. (Downers Grove, IL)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

248

Exact Gravity Dual of a Gapless Superconductor  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A model of an exact gravity dual of a gapless superconductor is presented in which the condensate is provided by a charged scalar field coupled to a bulk black hole of hyperbolic horizon in asymptotically AdS spacetime. Below a critical temperature, the black hole acquires its hair through a phase transition while an electromagnetic perturbation of the background Maxwell field determines the conductivity of the boundary theory.

George Koutsoumbas; Eleftherios Papantonopoulos; George Siopsis

2009-06-17T23:59:59.000Z

249

Fabrication of dual porosity electrode structure  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A substantially entirely fibrous ceramic is described which may have dual porosity of both micro and macro pores. Total porosity may be 60-75% by volume. A method of spraying a slurry perpendicularly to an ambient stream of air is disclosed along with a method of removing binders without altering the fiber morphology. Adding fine ceramic particulates to the green ceramic fibers enhances the sintering characteristics of the fibers. 3 figures.

Smith, J.L.; Kucera, E.H.

1991-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

250

Analysis Of 2H-Evaporator Scale Pot Bottom Sample [HTF-13-11-28H  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Savannah River Remediation (SRR) is planning to remove a buildup of sodium aluminosilicate scale from the 2H-evaporator pot by loading and soaking the pot with heated 1.5 M nitric acid solution. Sampling and analysis of the scale material from the 2H evaporator has been performed so that the evaporator can be chemically cleaned beginning July of 2013. Historically, since the operation of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), silicon in the DWPF recycle stream combines with aluminum in the typical tank farm supernate to form sodium aluminosilicate scale mineral deposits in the 2H-evaporator pot and gravity drain line. The 2H-evaporator scale samples analyzed by Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) came from the bottom cone sections of the 2H-evaporator pot. The sample holder from the 2H-evaporator wall was virtually empty and was not included in the analysis. It is worth noting that after the delivery of these 2H-evaporator scale samples to SRNL for the analyses, the plant customer determined that the 2H evaporator could be operated for additional period prior to requiring cleaning. Therefore, there was no need for expedited sample analysis as was presented in the Technical Task Request. However, a second set of 2H evaporator scale samples were expected in May of 2013, which would need expedited sample analysis. X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) confirmed the bottom cone section sample from the 2H-evaporator pot consisted of nitrated cancrinite, (a crystalline sodium aluminosilicate solid), clarkeite and uranium oxide. There were also mercury compound XRD peaks which could not be matched and further X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis of the sample confirmed the existence of elemental mercury or mercuric oxide. On ''as received'' basis, the scale contained an average of 7.09E+00 wt % total uranium (n = 3; st.dev. = 8.31E-01 wt %) with a U-235 enrichment of 5.80E-01 % (n = 3; st.dev. = 3.96E-02 %). The measured U-238 concentration was 7.05E+00 wt % (n=3, st. dev. = 8.25E-01 wt %). Analyses results for Pu-238 and Pu-239, and Pu-241 are 7.06E-05 {+-} 7.63E-06 wt %, 9.45E-04 {+-} 3.52E-05 wt %, and <2.24E-06 wt %, respectively. These results are provided so that SRR can calculate the equivalent uranium-235 concentrations for the NCSA. Because this 2H evaporator pot bottom scale sample contained a significant amount of elemental mercury (11.7 wt % average), it is recommended that analysis for mercury be included in future Technical Task Requests on 2H evaporator sample analysis at SRNL. Results confirm that the uranium contained in the scale remains depleted with respect to natural uranium. SRNL did not calculate an equivalent U-235 enrichment, which takes into account other fissionable isotopes U-233, Pu-239 and Pu-241.

Oji, L. N.

2013-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

251

Laboratory studies of 2H evaporator scale dissolution in dilute nitric acid  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The rate of 2H evaporator scale solids dissolution in dilute nitric acid has been experimentally evaluated under laboratory conditions in the SRNL shielded cells. The 2H scale sample used for the dissolution study came from the bottom of the evaporator cone section and the wall section of the evaporator cone. The accumulation rate of aluminum and silicon, assumed to be the two principal elemental constituents of the 2H evaporator scale aluminosilicate mineral, were monitored in solution. Aluminum and silicon concentration changes, with heating time at a constant oven temperature of 90 deg C, were used to ascertain the extent of dissolution of the 2H evaporator scale mineral. The 2H evaporator scale solids, assumed to be composed of mostly aluminosilicate mineral, readily dissolves in 1.5 and 1.25 M dilute nitric acid solutions yielding principal elemental components of aluminum and silicon in solution. The 2H scale dissolution rate constant, based on aluminum accumulation in 1.5 and 1.25 M dilute nitric acid solution are, respectively, 9.21E-04 Ī 6.39E-04 min{sup -1} and 1.07E-03 Ī 7.51E-05 min{sup -1}. Silicon accumulation rate in solution does track the aluminum accumulation profile during the first few minutes of scale dissolution. It however diverges towards the end of the scale dissolution. This divergence therefore means the aluminum-to-silicon ratio in the first phase of the scale dissolution (non-steady state conditions) is different from the ratio towards the end of the scale dissolution. Possible causes of this change in silicon accumulation in solution as the scale dissolution progresses may include silicon precipitation from solution or the 2H evaporator scale is a heterogeneous mixture of aluminosilicate minerals with several impurities. The average half-life for the decomposition of the 2H evaporator scale mineral in 1.5 M nitric acid is 12.5 hours, while the half-life for the decomposition of the 2H evaporator scale in 1.25 M nitric acid is 10.8 hours. Based on averaging the two half-lives from the 2H scale acid dissolution in 1.25 and 1.5 M nitric acid solutions, a reasonable half-live for the dissolution of 2H scales in dilute nitric acid is 11.7 Ī 1.3 hours. The plant operational time for chemically cleaning (soaking) the 2H evaporator with dilute nitric acid is 32 hours. It therefore may require about 3 half-lives or less to completely dissolve most of the scales in the Evaporator pot which come into contact with the dilute nitric acid solution. On a mass basis, the Al-to-Si ratio for the scale dissolution in 1.5 M nitric acid averaged 1.30 Ī 0.20 and averaged 1.18 Ī 0.10 for the 2H scale dissolution in 1.25 M nitric acid. These aluminum-to-silicon ratios are in fairly good agreement with ratios from previous studies. Therefore, there is still more aluminum in the 2H evaporator scales than silicon which implies that there are no significant changes in scale properties which will exclude nitric acid as a viable protic solvent for aluminosilicate scale buildup dissolution from the 2H evaporator. Overall, the monitoring of the scale decomposition reaction in 1.25 and 1.5 M nitric acid may be better ascertained through the determination of aluminum concentration in solution than monitoring silicon in solution. Silicon solution chemistry may lead to partial precipitating of silicon with time as the scale and acid solution is heated.

Oji, L.

2014-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

252

MULTIPARAMETER OPTIMIZATION STUDIES ON GEOTHERMAL ENERGY CYCLES  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of Practical Cycles for Geothermal Power Plants." GeneralDesign and Optimize Geothermal Power Cycles." Presented atof Practical Cycles for Geothermal Power Plants." General

Pope, W.L.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

THE TRANSPOSED CRITICAL TEMPERATURE RANKINE THERMODYNAMIC CYCLE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Process Program for Geothermal Power Plant Cycles,'*for a Rankine Cycle Geothermal Power Plant," Proceedings,Design and Optimize Geothermal Power Cycles," presented at

Pope, William L.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

254

Life-cycle Assessment of Semiconductors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

life-cycle energy requirements (e total ) and global warmingtotal life-cycle global warming impacts. Chapter 3 Life-cycle Energy and Global

Boyd, Sarah B.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

255

Quantum thermodynamic cooling cycle  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The quantum-mechanical and thermodynamic properties of a 3-level molecular cooling cycle are derived. An inadequacy of earlier models is rectified in accounting for the spontaneous emission and absorption associated with the coupling to the coherent driving field via an environmental reservoir. This additional coupling need not be dissipative, and can provide a thermal driving force - the quantum analog of classical absorption chillers. The dependence of the maximum attainable cooling rate on temperature, at ultra-low temperatures, is determined and shown to respect the recently-established fundamental bound based on the second and third laws of thermodynamics.

Palao, J P; Gordon, J M; Palao, Jose P.; Kosloff, Ronnie; Gordon, Jeffrey M.

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

256

Geothermal Life Cycle Calculator  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This calculator is a handy tool for interested parties to estimate two key life cycle metrics, fossil energy consumption (Etot) and greenhouse gas emission (ghgtot) ratios, for geothermal electric power production. It is based solely on data developed by Argonne National Laboratory for DOEís Geothermal Technologies office. The calculator permits the user to explore the impact of a range of key geothermal power production parameters, including plant capacity, lifetime, capacity factor, geothermal technology, well numbers and depths, field exploration, and others on the two metrics just mentioned. Estimates of variations in the results are also available to the user.

Sullivan, John

2014-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

257

Geothermal Life Cycle Calculator  

DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

This calculator is a handy tool for interested parties to estimate two key life cycle metrics, fossil energy consumption (Etot) and greenhouse gas emission (ghgtot) ratios, for geothermal electric power production. It is based solely on data developed by Argonne National Laboratory for DOEís Geothermal Technologies office. The calculator permits the user to explore the impact of a range of key geothermal power production parameters, including plant capacity, lifetime, capacity factor, geothermal technology, well numbers and depths, field exploration, and others on the two metrics just mentioned. Estimates of variations in the results are also available to the user.

Sullivan, John

258

Quantum thermodynamic cooling cycle  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The quantum-mechanical and thermodynamic properties of a 3-level molecular cooling cycle are derived. An inadequacy of earlier models is rectified in accounting for the spontaneous emission and absorption associated with the coupling to the coherent driving field via an environmental reservoir. This additional coupling need not be dissipative, and can provide a thermal driving force - the quantum analog of classical absorption chillers. The dependence of the maximum attainable cooling rate on temperature, at ultra-low temperatures, is determined and shown to respect the recently-established fundamental bound based on the second and third laws of thermodynamics.

Jose P. Palao; Ronnie Kosloff; Jeffrey M. Gordon

2001-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

259

Beowawe Binary Bottoming Cycle  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-Up fromDepartmentTie Ltd: ScopeDepartment ofEnergyBeowawe Binary Bottoming Cycle

260

Analytical services: 222-S characterization of 242-A Evaporator Slurry, Campaign 94-1. Addendum 1A  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

During the 242-A Evaporator`s 94-1 campaign, five process samples were collected from the slurry stream for waste characterization. The five samples were collected over a 36 day time span, respectively on May 4, May 9, May 16, May 23, and June 9, 1994. Sample collections were performed per the protocol described in 242-A Evaporator Waste Analysis Plan, WHC-SD-WM-EV-060, Rev. 3 and in 242-A Evaporator Quality Assurance Project Plan, WHC-SD-WM-QAPP-009, Rev. 0. Slurry waste was characterized chemically and radiochemically by the Westinghouse Hanford Company, 222-S Laboratory as directed.

Not Available

1994-09-13T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dual evaporator cycle" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Laboratory Evaporation Testing Of Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Low Activity Waste Off-Gas Condensate Simulant  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facility will generate an aqueous condensate recycle stream, LAW Off-Gas Condensate, from the off-gas system. The baseline plan for disposition of this stream is to send it to the WTP Pretreatment Facility, where it will be blended with LAW, concentrated by evaporation and recycled to the LAW vitrification facility again. Alternate disposition of this stream would eliminate recycling of problematic components, and would enable de-coupled operation of the LAW melter and the Pretreatment Facilities. Eliminating this stream from recycling within WTP would also decrease the LAW vitrification mission duration and quantity of canistered glass waste forms. This LAW Off-Gas Condensate stream contains components that are volatile at melter temperatures and are problematic for the glass waste form. Because this stream recycles within WTP, these components accumulate in the Condensate stream, exacerbating their impact on the number of LAW glass containers that must be produced. Approximately 32% of the sodium in Supplemental LAW comes from glass formers used to make the extra glass to dilute the halides to be within acceptable concentration ranges in the LAW glass. Diverting the stream reduces the halides in the recycled Condensate and is a key outcome of this work. Additionally, under possible scenarios where the LAW vitrification facility commences operation prior to the WTP Pretreatment facility, identifying a disposition path becomes vitally important. This task examines the impact of potential future disposition of this stream in the Hanford tank farms, and investigates auxiliary evaporation to enable another disposition path. Unless an auxiliary evaporator is used, returning the stream to the tank farms would require evaporation in the 242-A evaporator. This stream is expected to be unusual because it will be very high in corrosive species that are volatile in the melter (chloride, fluoride, sulfur), will have high ammonia, and will contain carryover particulates of glass-former chemicals. These species have potential to cause corrosion of tanks and equipment, precipitation of solids, release of ammonia gas vapors, and scale in the tank farm evaporator. Routing this stream to the tank farms does not permanently divert it from recycling into the WTP, only temporarily stores it prior to reprocessing. Testing is normally performed to demonstrate acceptable conditions and limits for these compounds in wastes sent to the tank farms. The primary parameter of this phase of the test program was measuring the formation of solids during evaporation in order to assess the compatibility of the stream with the evaporator and transfer and storage equipment. The origin of this LAW Off-Gas Condensate stream will be the liquids from the Submerged Bed Scrubber (SBS) and the Wet Electrostatic Precipitator (WESP) from the LAW facility melter offgas system. The stream is expected to be a dilute salt solution with near neutral pH, and will likely contain some insoluble solids from melter carryover. The soluble components are expected to be mostly sodium and ammonium salts of nitrate, chloride, and fluoride. This stream has not been generated yet, and, thus, the composition will not be available until the WTP begins operation, but a simulant has been produced based on models, calculations, and comparison with pilot-scale tests. This report discusses results of evaporation testing of the simulant. Two conditions were tested, one with the simulant at near neutral pH, and a second at alkaline pH. The neutral pH test is comparable to the conditions in the Hanford Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) evaporator, although that evaporator operates at near atmospheric pressure and tests were done under vacuum. For the alkaline test, the target pH was based on the tank farm corrosion control program requirements, and the test protocol and equipment was comparable to that used for routine evaluation of feed compatibility studies for the 242-A evaporator. One of the

Adamson, Duane J.; Nash, Charles A.; McCabe, Daniel J.; Crawford, Charles L.; Wilmarth, William R.

2014-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

262

Dual fueling of a Caterpillar 3406 diesel engine  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A Caterpillar 3406 turbocharged diesel engine was converted to operate in a dual-fuel mode and was evaluated for performance and emission characteristics for both diesel and natural gas operation. Full load power was achieved with dual fueling without knock. Similar fuel efficiencies were obtained with dual fueling a high loads, but efficiencies were lower for low loads. Bosch smoke numbers were reduced by over 50% with dual fueling for all cases investigated. NO{sub x} emissions were found to be lower at low loads and at high speeds under high load. CO emissions were significantly increased for dual fueling while CO{sub 2} concentrations in the exhaust were reduced for dual fueling.

Bell, S.R.; Midkiff, K.C.; Doughty, G.; Brett, C.E. [Univ. of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL (United States)

1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

263

The Kalina cycle and similar cycles for geothermal power production  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report contains a brief discussion of the mechanics of the Kalina cycle and ideas to extend the concept to other somewhat different cycles. A modified cycle which has a potential heat rejection advantage but little or no performance improvement is discussed. Then, the results of the application of the Kalina cycle and the modified cycle to a geothermal application (360/degree/F resource) are discussed. The results are compared with published results for the Kalina cycle with high temperature sources and estimates about performance at the geothermal temperatures. Finally, the conclusions of this scoping work are given along with recommendations of the direction of future work in this area. 11 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

Bliem, C.J.

1988-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

Kouchoul cycle implication in the Tailer engine cycle  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The author presents here the study of the Tailer engine modified cycle using the concept of load transfer for the Kouchoul cycle. Theoretical equations and numerical simulation of the Tailer engine modified cycle implicating the Kouchoul cycle are developed. The Tailer engine modified cycle can be improved by approaching cycles of spark plug engines by the addition of a phase of cooling of gases to the bottom dead center (bdc). This is possible only by putting a reservoir of cooled gas in communication with the cylinder to the bottom dead center. So as not to complicate the kinematic of the engine, the communication between cylinder and cooled reservoir is executed by some holes of 1 mm distributed on the whole periphery of the cylinder at the bdc.

Arques, P.

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

265

Dual Superconductor Mechanism of Confinement on the Lattice  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We investigate the dual superconductor mechanism of confinement for pure SU(2) lattice gauge theory in the maximally abelian gauge. We focus on the the dual Meissner effect. We find that the transverse distribution of the longitudinal chromoelectric field due to a static quark-antiquark pair satisfies the dual London equation. Moreover we show that the size of the flux tube scales according to asymptotic freedom.

P. Cea; L. Cosmai

1992-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

266

Spectral Lags of Gamma-Ray Bursts from Primordial Black Hole (PBH) Evaporations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Primordial Black Holes (PBHs), which may have been created in the early Universe, are predicted to be detectable by their Hawking radiation. PBHs with an initial mass of 5.0 * 10^14 g should be expiring today with a burst of high energy particles. Evaporating PBHs in the solar neighborhood are candidate Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs) progenitors. We propose spectral lag, which is the temporal delay between the high energy photon pulse and the low energy photon pulse, as a possible method to detect PBH evaporation events with the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope Observatory.

T. N. Ukwatta; J. H. MacGibbon; W. C. Parke; K. S. Dhuga; A. Eskandarian; N. Gehrels; L. Maximon; D. C. Morris

2009-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

267

Life Cycle Inventory of a CMOS Chip  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

are shown. Keywords- Life Cycle Assessment (LCA); Life Cycleindustry, and Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is emerging as a

Boyd, Sarah; Dornfeld, David; Krishnan, Nikhil

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

268

An EP theorem for dual linear complementarity problem  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Mar 2, 2007 ... An EP theorem for dual linear complementarity problem. Illťs Tibor (illes ***at*** math.elte.hu) Marianna Nagy (nmariann ***at*** cs.elte.hu)

Illťs Tibor

2007-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

269

An EP theorem for dual linear complementarity problems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

present an existentially polytime (EP) theorem for the dual LCP with arbitrary ... goals are discussed in Section 2, along with the LCP duality theorem and an EP.

2008-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

270

Protection of Li Anodes Using Dual Phase Electrolytes  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

cells with high energy anode and dual-phase electrolyte systems Partners BASF SE, Germany * Development of Li-S battery materials 3 Relevance. Project Objectives. * Develop a...

271

Geothermal: Sponsored by OSTI -- Final Report: Geothermal Dual...  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

Final Report: Geothermal Dual Acoustic Tool for Measurement of Rock Stress Geothermal Technologies Legacy Collection HelpFAQ | Site Map | Contact Us HomeBasic Search About...

272

DARHT: Dual-Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test Facility  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

built DARHT, the world's most powerful x-ray machine, to analyze mockups of nuclear weapons. At the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), the Dual-Axis Radiographic...

273

On parallelizing dual decomposition in stochastic integer programming  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Oct 9, 2012 ... Abstract: For stochastic mixed-integer programs, we revisit the dual decomposition algorithm of Car\\o{}e and Schultz from a computational†...

Miles Lubin

2012-10-09T23:59:59.000Z

274

Improving the Performance of Stochastic Dual Dynamic Programming  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Jul 13, 2012 ... 3 describes the three different tree-traversal strategies we shall test and ...... ria for stochastic dual dynamic programming: a case study in†...

2012-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

275

Open cycle thermoacoustics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A new type of thermodynamic device combining a thermodynamic cycle with the externally applied steady flow of an open thermodynamic process is discussed and experimentally demonstrated. The gas flowing through this device can be heated or cooled in a series of semi-open cyclic steps. The combination of open and cyclic flows makes possible the elimination of some or all of the heat exchangers (with their associated irreversibility). Heat is directly exchanged with the process fluid as it flows through the device when operating as a refrigerator, producing a staging effect that tends to increase First Law thermodynamic efficiency. An open-flow thermoacoustic refrigerator was built to demonstrate this concept. Several approaches are presented that describe the physical characteristics of this device. Tests have been conducted on this refrigerator with good agreement with a proposed theory.

Reid, Robert Stowers

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

Stirling cycle rotary engine  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A Stirling cycle rotary engine for producing mechanical energy from heat generated by a heat source external to the engine, the engine including: an engine housing having an interior toroidal cavity with a central housing axis for receiving a working gas, the engine housing further having a cool as inlet port, a compressed gas outlet port, a heated compressed gas inlet port, and a hot exhaust gas outlet port at least three rotors each fixedly mounted to a respective rotor shaft and independently rotatable within the toroidal cavity about the central axis; each of the rotors including a pair of rotor blocks spaced radially on diametrically opposing sides of the respective rotor shaft, each rotor block having a radially fixed curva-linear outer surface for sealed rotational engagement with the engine housing.

Chandler, J.A.

1988-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

277

Dual Meissner effect and non-Abelian dual superconductivity in SU(3) Yang-Mills theory  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The dual Meissner effect is the promising mechanism for quark confinement. We have proposed a new formulation of SU(N) Yang-Mills (YM) theory on a lattice, which can extract the dominant mode for quark confinement in the gauge independent manner. In the last lattice conference, we have demonstrated by measuring the string tension from the Wilson loop average in the SU(3) YM theory that the restricted non-Abelian variable and the extracted non-Abelian magnetic monopoles play the dominant role in confinement of fundamental quarks (dominance in the string tension), in marked contrast to the Abelian projection. In this talk, we focus on the dual Meissner effect in SU(3) YM theory, which is examined by measuring the distribution of chromo-electric field strength created by a static quark-antiquark pair. We apply the new lattice formulation, and examine whether or not the non-Abelian dual superconductivity claimed by us is indeed a mechanism of quark confinement. We present a preliminary result of the direct evidence for the non-abelian dual Meissner effect, that is to say, restricted U(2)-field part of the flux tube plays the dominant role in the quark-antiquark potential.

Akihiro Shibata; Kei-Ichi Kondo; Toru Shinohara

2012-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

278

Gravity dual of spatially modulated phase  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We show that the five-dimensional Maxwell theory with the Chern-Simons term is tachyonic in the presence of a constant electric field. When coupled to gravity, a sufficiently large Chern-Simons coupling causes instability of the Reissner-Nordstroem black holes in anti-de Sitter space. The instability happens only at nonvanishing momenta, suggesting a spatially modulated phase in the holographically dual quantum field theory in (3+1) dimensions, with spontaneous current generation in a helical configuration. The three-charge extremal black hole in the type IIB superstring theory on AdS{sub 5}xS{sup 5} barely satisfies the stability condition.

Nakamura, Shin [Department of Physics, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Ooguri, Hirosi [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States); IPMU, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa 277-8586 (Japan); Park, Chang-Soon [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States)

2010-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

279

dual-function | netl.doe.gov  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear SecurityTensile Strain Switched5 Industrial Carbon Capture and Storageconvert 2 3 DEPARTMENT OFDryNovel Dual

280

Virtuous Cycle Cycles of activity and software projects  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Inspection #12;Programming Cycle - single bug Selected Bug Shared Code Fix Bug Continuous Integration ~8 cycle cvscheck compilation style checking testing javadocs documentation jumble quality of unit testing #12;NetValue Development cvscheck - Source Code Control and Build Shared Centralized Automatic

Pfahringer, Bernhard

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dual evaporator cycle" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

DESIGN OF DUAL PHASE Fe/Mn/C STEEL FOR LOW TEMPERATURE APPLICATION  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and Properties of Dual- Phase Steels, R. A. Kot and J. \\4.and Properties of Dual Phase Steels, R. A. Kot and J. W. ~Formable HSLA and Dual- Phase Steels, A. T. Davenport, ed. ,

Kim, Nack-Joon

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

282

CARBON ATOM DISTRIBUTION IN A DUAL PHASE STEEL: AN ATOM PROBE STUDY  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ATOM DISTRIBUTION IN A DUAL PHASE STEEL: AN ATOM PROBE STUDY~4720 1 U.S.A. IntroductioE. Dual Phase steels are currentlymartensite-austenite dual phase steel, although the results

Barnard, S.J.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

Author's personal copy Mixed crystalline films of co-evaporated hydrogen-and  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Author's personal copy Mixed crystalline films of co-evaporated hydrogen- and fluorine-terminated phthalocyanines and their application in photovoltaic devices Andreas Opitz a,*, Bernhard Ecker a , Julia Wagner Photovoltaic cells a b s t r a c t Blends of organic electron and hole conductive materials are widely used

Schreiber, Frank

284

Charge-pumping in a synthetic leaf for harvesting energy from evaporation-driven flows  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Charge-pumping in a synthetic leaf for harvesting energy from evaporation-driven flows Ruba T storage capacitor by 2­5 V. We provide estimates of power density, energy density, and scavenging. When the gas phase around the plant is at a lower water potential than the saturated soil, water

Maharbiz, Michel

285

O of water vapour, evapotranspiration and the sites of leaf water evaporation in a soybean canopy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, leaving surface water pools more enriched in the heavy isotopo- logues (H2 18 O). The enrichment is linkedd18 O of water vapour, evapotranspiration and the sites of leaf water evaporation in a soybean Department of Soil, Water, and Climate, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN 55108, USA and 3 Agricultural

Lee, Xuhui

286

Upscaling of soil hydraulic properties for steady state evaporation and infiltration  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Upscaling of soil hydraulic properties for steady state evaporation and infiltration Jianting Zhu September 2002. [1] Estimation of effective/average soil hydraulic properties for large land areas and guidelines for upscaling soil hydraulic properties in an areally heterogeneous field. In this study, we

Mohanty, Binayak P.

287

The evaporation rate, free energy, and entropy of amorphous water Robin J. Speedy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The evaporation rate, free energy, and entropy of amorphous water at 150 K Robin J. Speedy can be interpreted as giving a measure of their free energy difference, i a G 150 K 1100 100 J of amorphous water (a) and ice (i) near 150 K and suppose that their ratio gives a measure of their free energy

288

Optimal design of a micro-orifice for constant evaporator superheat in a small cooler  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of the orifice, the aspect ratio between length and diameter, the entrance angle to the orifice, and the surface through the condenser (B) with a heat pipe. Then, the orifice (C) changes the liquid to two-phase vapor device is required for the isenthalpic process between the condenser and the evaporator. The expansion

Kim, Jongwon

289

Complementary relationship of evaporation and the mean annual water-energy balance  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Complementary relationship of evaporation and the mean annual water-energy balance Jozsef Szilagyi1 and the mean annual water-energy balance, Water Resour. Res., 45, W09201, doi:10.1029/2009WR008129. [2] Gerrits balance necessarily operates at the catchment scale, plus E0 depends predominantly on the available energy

Szilagyi, Jozsef

290

The Effect of Reduced Evaporator Air Flow on the Performance of a Residential Central Air Conditioner  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This paper discusses the measured degradation in performance of a residential air conditioning system operating under reduced evaporator air flow. Experiments were conducted using a R-22 three-ton split-type cooling system with a short-tube orifice...

Palani, M.; O'Neal, D.; Haberl, J.

291

Optical Properties and Radiation-Enhanced Evaporation of Nanofluid Fuels Containing Carbon-Based Nanostructures  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and thermal systems as an advanced heat-transfer fluid, e.g., advanced cooling of electronics systemsOptical Properties and Radiation-Enhanced Evaporation of Nanofluid Fuels Containing Carbon characteristics of nanofluid fuels with stable suspension of carbon-based nanostructures under radiation

Qiao, Li

292

On the inherent asymmetric nature of the complementary relationship of evaporation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

), thus it took some time before his idea was put into practice by Brutsaert and Stricker [1979 be considered as the apparent potential evaporation. [4] In Brutsaert and Stricker's [1979] Advection is the Priestley-Taylor parameter. Employing the so-defined terms of (1), Brutsaert and Stricker [1979] assumed

Szilagyi, Jozsef

293

Results from evaporation tests to support the MWTF heat removal system design  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An experimental tests program was conducted to measure the evaporative heat removal from the surface of a tank of simulated waste. The results contained in this report constitute definition design data for the latest heat removal function of the MWTF primary ventilation system.

Crea, B.A.

1994-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

294

Optimal design of a micro evaporator with lateral gaps Taijong Sung a  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

transfer coefficient (HTC) and it forms the starting point in developing miniaturized vapor­outlet condi- tions of the evaporator have a standard design of expansion valve and compressor and so the heat and Lee [7] studied the correlation in order to represent the heat transfer coefficients of the boiling

Kim, Jongwon

295

Atmospheric Environment 42 (2008) 30763086 Scavenging of soluble gases by evaporating and growing cloud  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and condensation of a cloud droplet in the presence of soluble gases. It is assumed that gas absorption we performed numerical analysis of simultaneous heat and mass transfer during evaporation into account thermal effect of gas absorption. It was shown that nonlinear behavior of different parameters

Elperin, Tov

296

Under consideration for publication in J. Fluid Mech. 1 Evaporation and combustion  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Under consideration for publication in J. Fluid Mech. 1 Evaporation and combustion of thin films the tendency to destabilize the planar interface, combustion acts to reduce this effect. In particular, when the heat release by combustion is substantial, all disturbances are obliterated, the film remains nearly

297

Improving Ice Cover and Evaporation Estimates Primary Investigator: Thomas E. Croley (Emeritus), Raymond Assel (Emeritus) -NOAA  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Improving Ice Cover and Evaporation Estimates Primary Investigator: Thomas E. Croley (Emeritus. For example, ice cover is projected to be significantly less under global warming, air temperature higher, and precipitation greater (Lofgren, et al, in press). Improved long-range ice forecasts would be of interest

298

The energy saving potential of precooling incoming outdoor air by indirect evaporative cooling  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper investigates the energy saving potentials of using indirect evaporative coolers to precool incoming outdoor air as the first stage of a standard cooling system. For dry and moderately humid locations, either exhaust room air or outdoor air can be used as the secondary air to the indirect evaporative precooler with similar energy savings. Under these conditions, the use of outdoor air is recommended due to the simplicity in installing the duct system. For humid locations, the use of exhaust room air is recommended because the precooling capacity and energy savings will be greatly increased. For locations with short cooling seasons, the use of indirect evaporative coolers for precooling may not be worthwhile. The paper also gives some simplified indices for easily predicting the precooling capacity, energy savings and water consumption of an indirect evaporative precooler. These indices can be used for cooling systems with continuous operation, but further work is needed to determine whether the same indices are also suitable for cooling systems with intermittent operations.

Chen, P.; Qin, H.; Huang, Y.J.; Wu, H.; Blumstein, C.

1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

299

Managing steam and concentration disturbances in multi-effect evaporators via  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Managing steam and concentration disturbances in multi-effect evaporators via nonlinear modelling performance due to steam and concentration disturbances. An alternative architecture is then proposed which mill, the volatile component is water, with the remainder being sugar. Steam is used as a heating

Gravdahl, Jan Tommy

300

Microscopic simulations of molecular cluster decay: Does the carrier gas affect evaporation?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the sys- tems in question. An example of a practical problem is the behavior of steam in turbines, whereMicroscopic simulations of molecular cluster decay: Does the carrier gas affect evaporation? Hoi Yu water droplets produced through condensation in the transition from dry to wet steam can lead

Ford, Ian

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dual evaporator cycle" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Estimating the Evaporative Cooling Bias of an Airborne Reverse Flow Thermometer YONGGANG WANG AND BART GEERTS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Estimating the Evaporative Cooling Bias of an Airborne Reverse Flow Thermometer YONGGANG WANG form 24 June 2008) ABSTRACT Airborne reverse flow immersion thermometers were designed to prevent in cloud is surmised because air decelerates into the thermometer housing, and thus is heated and becomes

Geerts, Bart

302

Three-wire magnetic trap for direct forced evaporative cooling Shengwang Du1,* and Eun Oh2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Three-wire magnetic trap for direct forced evaporative cooling Shengwang Du1,* and Eun Oh2 1 Kong, China 2 U.S. Naval Research Laboratory, Remote Sensing Division, Washington, D.C. 20375, USA potential for direct forced evaporative cooling of neutral atoms without using induced spin

Du, Shengwang

303

Lab-on-a-Chip Sensor with Evaporated Bismuth Film Electrode for Anodic Stripping Voltammetry of Zinc  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Lab-on-a-Chip Sensor with Evaporated Bismuth Film Electrode for Anodic Stripping Voltammetry voltammetry, Zinc, Lab-on-a-chip sensor, Dopamine, Evaporated Bi film electrode DOI: 10.1002/elan.201300349 1 negative potential window. Most importantly, it is much less toxic than mercury and is environmentally

Papautsky, Ian

304

Pulsed laser evaporation of boron/carbon pellets: Infrared spectra and quantum chemical structures and frequencies for BCp  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Pulsed laser evaporation of boron/carbon pellets: Infrared spectra and quantum chemical structures March 1993) Pulsed laser evaporation of pellets pressed from boron and graphite powder gave a new 1 decreased with increasing B/C ratio in the pellet and with increasing laser power. Augmented coupled cluster

Martin, Jan M.L.

305

The contribution of evapotranspiration and evaporation to the water budget of a treatment wetland in Phoenix, AZ, USA  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The contribution of evapotranspiration and evaporation to the water budget of a treatment wetland evapotranspiration and evaporation rates in a constructed treatment wetland in Phoenix during the summer, when both budget for the Tres Rios treatment wetland, and will improve our general knowledge of wetland water

Hall, Sharon J.

306

Development of a Water Based, Critical Flow, Non-Vapor Compression cooling Cycle  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Expansion of a high-pressure liquid refrigerant through the use of a thermostatic expansion valve or other device is commonplace in vapor-compression cycles to regulate the quality and flow rate of the refrigerant entering the evaporator. In vapor-compression systems, as the condensed refrigerant undergoes this expansion, its pressure and temperature drop, and part of the liquid evaporates. We (researchers at Kansas State University) are developing a cooling cycle that instead pumps a high-pressure refrigerant through a supersonic converging-diverging nozzle. As the liquid refrigerant passes through the nozzle, its velocity reaches supersonic (or critical-flow) conditions, substantially decreasing the refrigerantís pressure. This sharp pressure change vaporizes some of the refrigerant and absorbs heat from the surrounding conditions during this phase change. Due to the design of the nozzle, a shockwave trips the supersonic two-phase refrigerant back to the starting conditions, condensing the remaining vapor. The critical-flow refrigeration cycle would provide space cooling, similar to a chiller, by running a secondary fluid such as water or glycol over one or more nozzles. Rather than utilizing a compressor to raise the pressure of the refrigerant, as in a vapor-cycle system, the critical-flow cycle utilizes a high-pressure pump to drive refrigerant liquid through the cooling cycle. Additionally, the design of the nozzle can be tailored for a given refrigerant, such that environmentally benign substances can act as the working fluid. This refrigeration cycle is still in early-stage development with prototype development several years away. The complex multi-phase flow at supersonic conditions presents numerous challenges to fully understanding and modeling the cycle. With the support of DOE and venture-capital investors, initial research was conducted at PAX Streamline, and later, at Caitin. We (researchers at Kansas State University) have continued development of the cycle and have gained an in-depth understanding of the governing fundamental knowledge, based on the laws of physics and thermodynamics and verified with our testing results. Through this research, we are identifying optimal working fluid and operating conditions to eventually demonstrate the core technology for space cooling or other applications.

Hosni, Mohammad H.

2014-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

307

MSW/JD DUAL DEGREE PROGRAM 2014 -2015  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 MSW/JD DUAL DEGREE PROGRAM 2014 - 2015 Purpose The MSW/JD Dual degree Program is designed or constituencies. Students admitted to the program may expect to receive both the Master of Social Work (MSW in Appendix 1. 6. The integrity of both the MSW and the JD degrees is maintained in the following manner: a

Huang, Jianyu

308

MSW/JD DUAL DEGREE PROGRAM 2013 -2014  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 MSW/JD DUAL DEGREE PROGRAM 2013 - 2014 Purpose The MSW/JD Dual degree Program is designed or constituencies. Students admitted to the program may expect to receive both the Master of Social Work (MSW BCGSSW intervention method is described in Appendix 1. 6. The integrity of both the MSW and the JD

Huang, Jianyu

309

SINGLE AND DUAL LAYER THIN FILM BULGE TESTING  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

film windows that are used in Next Generation Lithography masks and certain MEMS devices. The bulge testing method measures the mechanical properties of a thin film by isolating it in a thin film window of the system. Figure 6 Dual Layer Thin Film Membrane Window For a dual layer membrane the effective total

Huston, Dryver R.

310

Evaluation of liquid lift approach to dual gradient  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the mudline to the rig floor so as to maintain the bottom hole pressure. Several methods have been developed to achieve the dual gradient drilling principle. For this research project, we paid more attention to the liquid lift, dual gradient drilling (riser...

Okafor, Ugochukwu Nnamdi

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

311

Evaluation of liquid lift approach to dual gradient drilling  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the mudline to the rig floor so as to maintain the bottom hole pressure. Several methods have been developed to achieve the dual gradient drilling principle. For this research project, we paid more attention to the liquid lift, dual gradient drilling (riser...

Okafor, Ugochukwu Nnamdi

2008-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

312

The SU(2) Confining Vacuum as a Dual Superconductor  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We investigate the dual superconductivity hypothesis in pure SU(2) lattice gauge theory. We find evidence of the dual Meissner effect both in the maximally Abelian gauge and without gauge fixing. We also obtain a rather good extimation of the string tension using the value of the London penetration length.

Paolo Cea; Leonardo Cosmai

1995-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

313

ON ALTERNATE DUAL FRAMES JIMMY DILLIES AND JULIEN GIOL  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ON ALTERNATE DUAL FRAMES JIMMY DILLIES AND JULIEN GIOL Abstract. The set of alternate duals convenient to introduce the projection pX : l2 (J) - Im X l2 (J) 1 #12;2 JIMMY DILLIES AND JULIEN GIOL onto

Dillies, Jimmy

314

Dual port temperature sensor tag for passive UHF RFID systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Dual port temperature sensor tag for passive UHF RFID systems J. Virtanen Rauma Research Unit and to simplify the measurement procedure. Design/methodology/approach ­ The sensor tag is based on a dual port sensing concept in which two ports are used to obtain sensor readings. By utilizing two ports instead

Elsherbeni, Atef Z.

315

Dual-Phase Hot-Press Forming Alloy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of the fully martensitic alloys; In terms of uniform elongation, the dual­phase steel significantly outperformsDual-Phase Hot-Press Forming Alloy Hongliang Yi and H. K. D. H. Bhadeshia 23 April, 2010Non-propagating cracks in ferrite 840 oC 880 oC #12;Conclusion 6 · Conventional HPF steels: fully martensitic · Novel

Cambridge, University of

316

Biomass Gasification Combined Cycle  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Gasification combined cycle continues to represent an important defining technology area for the forest products industry. The ''Forest Products Gasification Initiative'', organized under the Industry's Agenda 2020 technology vision and supported by the DOE ''Industries of the Future'' program, is well positioned to guide these technologies to commercial success within a five-to ten-year timeframe given supportive federal budgets and public policy. Commercial success will result in significant environmental and renewable energy goals that are shared by the Industry and the Nation. The Battelle/FERCO LIVG technology, which is the technology of choice for the application reported here, remains of high interest due to characteristics that make it well suited for integration with the infrastructure of a pulp production facility. The capital cost, operating economics and long-term demonstration of this technology area key input to future economically sustainable projects and must be verified by the 200 BDT/day demonstration facility currently operating in Burlington, Vermont. The New Bern application that was the initial objective of this project is not currently economically viable and will not be implemented at this time due to several changes at and around the mill which have occurred since the inception of the project in 1995. The analysis shows that for this technology, and likely other gasification technologies as well, the first few installations will require unique circumstances, or supportive public policies, or both to attract host sites and investors.

Judith A. Kieffer

2000-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

Life Cycle Asset Management  

Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

(The following directives are deleted or consolidated into this Order and shall be phased out as noted in Paragraph 2: DOE 1332.1A; DOE 4010.1A; DOE 4300.1C; DOE 4320.1B; DOE 4320.2A; DOE 4330.4B; DOE 4330.5; DOE 4540.1C; DOE 4700.1). This Order supersedes specific project management provisions within DOE O 430.1A, LIFE CYCLE ASSET MANAGEMENT. The specific paragraphs canceled by this Order are 6e(7); 7a(3); 7b(11) and (14); 7c(4),(6),(7),(11), and (16); 7d(4) and (8); 7e(3),(10), and (17); Attachment 1, Definitions (item 30 - Line Item Project, item 42 - Project, item 48 - Strategic System); and Attachment 2, Contractor Requirements Document (paragraph 1d regarding a project management system). The remainder of DOE O 430.1A remains in effect. Cancels DOE O 430.1. Canceled by DOE O 413.3.

1998-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

318

A Simple Analytical Model of Evaporation in the Presence of Roots  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Root systems can influence the dynamics of evapotranspiration of water out of a porous medium. The coupling of evapotranspiration remains a key aspect affecting overall root behavior. Predicting the evapotranspiration curve in the presence of roots helps keep track of the amount of water that remains in the porous medium. Using a controlled visual set-up of a 2D model soil system consisting of monodisperse glass beads, we first perform experiments on actual roots grown in partially saturated systems under different relative humidity conditions. We record parameters such as the total mass loss in the medium and the resulting position of the receding fronts and use these experimental results to develop a simple analytical model that predicts the position of the evaporating front as a function of time as well as the total amount of water that is lost from the medium due to the combined effects of evaporation and transpiration. The model is based on fundamental principles of evaporation flux and includes empirical assumptions on the quantity of stoma in the leaves and the transition time between regime 1 and regime 2. The model also underscores the importance of a much prolonged root life as long as the root is exposed to a partially saturated zone composed of a mixture of air and water. Comparison between the model and experimental results shows good prediction of the position of the evaporating front as well as the total mass loss from evapotranspiration in the presence of real root systems. These results provide additional understanding of both complex evaporation phenomenon and its influence on root mechanisms.

Cesare M. Cejas; Larry Hough; Jean-Christophe Castaing; Christian Fretigny; Remi Dreyfus

2014-06-17T23:59:59.000Z

319

VELOCITY CHARACTERISTICS OF EVAPORATED PLASMA USING HINODE/EUV IMAGING SPECTROMETER  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper presents a detailed study of chromospheric evaporation using the EUV Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) onboard Hinode in conjunction with hard X-ray (HXR) observations from Reuven Ramaty High-Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI). The advanced capabilities of EIS were used to measure Doppler shifts in 15 emission lines covering the temperature range T = 0.05-16 MK during the impulsive phase of a C-class flare on 2007 December 14. Blueshifts indicative of the evaporated material were observed in six emission lines from Fe XIV-XXIV (2-16 MK). Upflow velocity (v{sub up}) was found to scale with temperature as v{sub up} (km s{sup -1}) {approx} 8-18T(MK). Although the hottest emission lines, Fe XXIII and Fe XXIV, exhibited upflows of >200 km s{sup -1}, their line profiles were found to be dominated by a stationary component in contrast to the predictions of the standard flare model. Emission from O VI-Fe XIII lines (0.5-1.5 MK) was found to be redshifted by v{sub down} (km s{sup -1}) {approx} 60-17T (MK) and was interpreted as the downward-moving 'plug' characteristic of explosive evaporation. These downflows occur at temperatures significantly higher than previously expected. Both upflows and downflows were spatially and temporally correlated with HXR emission observed by RHESSI that provided the properties of the electron beam deemed to be the driver of the evaporation. The energy flux of the electron beam was found to be {approx}>5 x 10{sup 10} erg cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}, consistent with the value required to drive explosive chromospheric evaporation from hydrodynamic simulations.

Milligan, Ryan O.; Dennis, Brian R. [Solar Physics Laboratory (Code 671), Heliophysics Science Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

2009-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

320

Orbital Resonance and Solar Cycles  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present an analysis of planetary moves, encoded in DE406 ephemerides. We show resonance cycles between most planets in Solar System, of differing quality. The most precise resonance - between Earth and Venus, which not only stabilizes orbits of both planets, locks planet Venus rotation in tidal locking, but also affects the Sun: This resonance group (E+V) also influences Sunspot cycles - the position of syzygy between Earth and Venus, when the barycenter of the resonance group most closely approaches the Sun and stops for some time, relative to Jupiter planet, well matches the Sunspot cycle of 11 years, not only for the last 400 years of measured Sunspot cycles, but also in 1000 years of historical record of "severe winters". We show, how cycles in angular momentum of Earth and Venus planets match with the Sunspot cycle and how the main cycle in angular momentum of the whole Solar system (854-year cycle of Jupiter/Saturn) matches with climatologic data, assumed to show connection with Solar output power and insolation. We show the possible connections between E+V events and Solar global p-Mode frequency changes. We futher show angular momentum tables and charts for individual planets, as encoded in DE405 and DE406 ephemerides. We show, that inner planets orbit on heliocentric trajectories whereas outer planets orbit on barycentric trajectories.

P. A. Semi

2009-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dual evaporator cycle" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
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321

Extreme Financial cycles$ B. Candelonb,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Extreme Financial cycles$ B. Candelonb, , G. Gauliera , C. Hurlinb aUniversity Maastricht proposes a new approach to date extreme financial cycles. Elabo- rating on recent methods in extreme value theory, it elaborates an extension of the famous calculus rule to detect extreme peaks and troughs

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

322

RHEOLOGICAL AND ELEMENTAL ANALYSES OF SIMULANT SB5 SLURRY MIX EVAPORATOR-MELTER FEED TANK SLURRIES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) will complete Sludge Batch 5 (SB5) processing in fiscal year 2010. DWPF has experienced multiple feed stoppages for the SB5 Melter Feed Tank (MFT) due to clogs. Melter throughput is decreased not only due to the feed stoppage, but also because dilution of the feed by addition of prime water (about 60 gallons), which is required to restart the MFT pump. SB5 conditions are different from previous batches in one respect: pH of the Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) product (9 for SB5 vs. 7 for SB4). Since a higher pH could cause gel formation, due in part to greater leaching from the glass frit into the supernate, SRNL studies were undertaken to check this hypothesis. The clogging issue is addressed by this simulant work, requested via a technical task request from DWPF. The experiments were conducted at Aiken County Technology Laboratory (ACTL) wherein a non-radioactive simulant consisting of SB5 Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) product simulant and frit was subjected to a 30 hour SME cycle at two different pH levels, 7.5 and 10; the boiling was completed over a period of six days. Rheology and supernate elemental composition measurements were conducted. The caustic run exhibited foaming once, after 30 minutes of boiling. It was expected that caustic boiling would exhibit a greater leaching rate, which could cause formation of sodium aluminosilicate and would allow gel formation to increase the thickness of the simulant. Xray Diffraction (XRD) measurements of the simulant did not detect crystalline sodium aluminosilicate, a possible gel formation species. Instead, it was observed that caustic conditions, but not necessarily boiling time, induced greater thickness, but lowered the leach rate. Leaching consists of the formation of metal hydroxides from the oxides, formation of boric acid from the boron oxide, and dissolution of SiO{sub 2}, the major frit component. It is likely that the observed precipitation of Mg(OH){sub 2} and Mn(OH){sub 2} caused the increase in yield stress. The low pH run exhibited as much as an order of magnitude greater B and Li (frit components) leachate concentrations in the supernate. At high pH a decrease of B leaching was found and this was attributed to adsorption onto Mg(OH){sub 2}. A second leaching experiment was performed without any sludge to deconvolute the leach rate behavior of Frit 418 from those of the SB5 sludge-Frit 418 system. At high pH, the sludgeless system demonstrated very fast leaching of all the frit components, primarily due to fast dissolution of the main component, silica, by hydroxide anion; various semiconductor studies have established this reactivity. Overall, the frit-water system exhibited greater leaching from a factor two to almost three orders of magnitude (varying by conditions and species). The slower leaching of the sludge system is possibly due to a greater ionic strength or smaller driving force. Another possible reason is a physical effect, coating of the frit particles with sludge; this would increase the mass transfer resistance to leaching. Based on this study, the cause of clogs in the melter feed loop is still unknown. A possible explanation is that the SME product, like the simulant, is too thin and could contribute to a loss of two-phase flow which could cause plugging of a restricted and poorly mixed zone like the melter feed loop. This is feasible since a previous study of a slurry showed an increase in resistance to flow at lower flow rates. Testing with a radioactive SME sample is underway and should help understand this potential mechanism.

Fernandez, A.

2010-02-08T23:59:59.000Z

323

Metabolic complementarity and genomics of the dual bacterial symbiosis of sharpshooters  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Metabolic Complementarity and Genomics of the Dual BacterialMetabolic complementarity and genomics of the dual bacterialthe other. ) Comparative genomics. The predicted proteomes

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

324

Extended performance of alcohol fumigation in diesel engines through different multipoint alcohol injection timing cycles  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper reports on the results of using multipoint port injection alcohol fumigation of a four-cycle turbocharged diesel engine in which the fumigation injection cycle was varied. The three cycles, dual with one-half of the alcohol injection on each engine revolution, single with all of the alcohol injection during the open intake valve revolution, and single with all of the alcohol injected during the closed intake valve revolution, lead to significant differences in the engines pressure-volume history and alcohol energy replacement tolerance. The engine was fumigated with both industrial grade ethanol and methanol and complete performance and emissions data (excluding aldehydes) were measured at low, medium, and high values of BMEP and rpm.

Savage, L.D.; White, R.A.; Cole, S.; Pritchett, G.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

325

A&S/Business Dual Major 1 of 10 June 30, 2008 A&S/Business Dual Major  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A&S/Business Dual Major 1 of 10 June 30, 2008 A&S/Business Dual Major Business Programs degree options for programs in business: · Students enrolled in the College of Business Administration (CBA) earn a Bachelor of Science in Business Administration (BSBA) degree and major in Accounting

Jiang, Huiqiang

326

Dual LED/incandescent security fixture  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A dual LED and incandescent security lighting system uses a hybrid approach to LED illumination. It combines an ambient LED illuminator with a standard incandescent lamp on a motion control sensor. The LED illuminator will activate with the onset of darkness (daylight control) and typically remain on during the course of the night ("always on"). The LED illumination, typically amber, is sufficient to provide low to moderate level lighting coverage to the wall and ground area adjacent to and under the fixture. The incandescent lamp is integrated with a motion control circuit and sensor. When movement in the field of view is detected (after darkness), the incandescent lamp is switched on, providing an increased level of illumination to the area. Instead of an "always on" LED illuminator, the LEDs may also be switched off when the incandescent lamp is switched on.

Gauna, Kevin Wayne

2005-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

327

Dual liquid and gas chromatograph system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A chromatographic system that utilizes one detection system for gas chromatographic and micro-liquid chromatographic determinations. The detection system is a direct-current, atmospheric-pressure, helium plasma emission spectrometer. The detector utilizes a non-transparent plasma source unit which contains the plasma region and two side-arms which receive effluents from the micro-liquid chromatograph and the gas chromatograph. The dual nature of this chromatographic system offers: (1) extreme flexibility in the samples to be examined; (2) extremely low sensitivity; (3) element selectivity; (4) long-term stability; (5) direct correlation of data from the liquid and gas samples; (6) simpler operation than with individual liquid and gas chromatographs, each with different detection systems; and (7) cheaper than a commercial liquid chromatograph and a gas chromatograph.

Gay, Don D. (Aiken, SC)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

328

Dual-fueling turbocharged diesels with ethanol  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Spray addition and carburetion methods were tested for dual-fueling a turbocharged, 65 kW diesel tractor. Approximately 30 percent of the fuel energy for the tractor was supplied by spraying ethanol into the intake air and about 46 percent by carburetion with little affect on the engine thermal efficiency. Further substitution of diesel fuel with ethanol was limited by knock. As the amount of ethanol fed into the engine was increased, ignition apparently changed from the steady burning process which normally occurs in a diesel engine to a rapid explosion which caused knock. The best fuel for the spray approach was a 50 percent ethanol/water solution and with the carburetor it was an 80 percent ethanol/water solution. (Refs. 6).

Cruz, J.M.; Rotz, C.A.; Watson, D.H.

1982-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

329

Dual-fueling turbocharged diesels with ethanol  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Spray addition and carburetion methods were tested for dual-fueling a turbocharged, 65 kW diesel tractor. Approximately 30 percent of the fuel energy for the tractor was supplied by spraying ethanol into the intake air and about 46 percent by carburetion with little affect on the engine thermal efficiency. Further substitution of diesel fuel with ethanol was limited by knock. As the amount of ethanol fed into the engine was increased, ignition apparently changed from the steady burning process which normally occurs in a diesel engine to a rapid explosion which caused knock. The best fuel for the spray approach was a 50 percent ethanol/water solution and with the carburetor it was an 80 percent ethanol/water solution.

Cruz, J.M.; Rotz, C.A.; Watson, D.H.

1982-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

330

Dual-keel electrodynamic maglev system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A propulsion and stabilization system is disclosed with a plurality of superconducting magnetic devices affixed to the dual-keels of a vehicle, where the superconducting magnetic devices produce a magnetic field when energized. The system also includes a plurality of figure-eight shaped null-flux coils affixed to opposing vertical sides of slots in a guideway. The figure-eight shaped null-flux coils are vertically oriented, laterally cross-connected in parallel, longitudinally connected in series, and continue the length of the vertical slots providing levitation and guidance force. An external power source energizes the figure-eight shaped null-flux coils to create a magnetic traveling wave that interacts with the magnetic field produced by the superconducting magnets to impart motion to the vehicle. 6 figs.

He, J.L.; Wang, Z.; Rote, D.M.; Coffey, H.T.; Hull, J.R.; Mulcahy, T.M.; Cal, Y.

1996-12-24T23:59:59.000Z

331

Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. (2006), 132, pp. 865883 doi: 10.1256/qj.04.187 Observations of the depth of ice particle evaporation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

) suggested that evaporative cooling from falling ice particles can have a more significant dynamical impact of ice particle evaporation beneath frontal cloud to improve NWP modelling By RICHARD M. FORBES1 21 November 2005) SUMMARY The evaporation (sublimation) of ice particles beneath frontal ice cloud

Reading, University of

332

Impact of Geoengineering Schemes on the Global Hydrological Cycle  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The rapidly rising CO{sub 2} level in the atmosphere has led to proposals of climate stabilization via 'Geoengineering' schemes that would mitigate climate change by intentionally reducing the solar radiation incident on earth's surface. In this paper, we address the impact of these climate stabilization schemes on the global hydrological cycle, using equilibrium simulations from an atmospheric general circulation model coupled to a slab ocean model. We show that insolation reductions sufficient to offset global-scale temperature increases lead to a decrease in the intensity of the global hydrologic cycle. This occurs because solar forcing is more effective in driving changes in global mean evaporation than is CO{sub 2} forcing of a similar magnitude. In the model used here, the hydrologic sensitivity, defined as the percentage change in global mean precipitation per degree warming, is 2.4% for solar forcing, but only 1.5% for CO{sub 2} forcing. Although other models and the climate system itself may differ quantitatively from this result, the conclusion can be understood based on simple considerations of the surface energy budget and thus is likely to be robust. Compared to changing temperature by altering greenhouse gas concentrations, changing temperature by varying insolation results in larger changes in net radiative fluxes at the surface; these are compensated by larger changes in latent and sensible heat fluxes. Hence the hydrological cycle is more sensitive to temperature adjustment via changes in insolation than changes in greenhouse gases. This implies that an alteration in solar forcing might offset temperature changes or hydrological changes from greenhouse warming, but could not cancel both at once.

Bala, G; Duffy, P; Taylor, K

2007-12-07T23:59:59.000Z

333

American business cycles and innovation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Economists have long studied innovation and its effects on business cycles. Economist Joseph Alois Schumpeter (1883-1950) was the first economist to thoroughly discuss these ideas in his Theorie der wirtschaftlichen Entwicklung, published in 1911...

Hood, Michael

2013-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

334

Dual Phase Li4 Ti5O12ĖTiO2 Nanowire Arrays As Integrated Anodes For High-rate Lithium-ion Batteries  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Lithium titanate (Li4Ti5O12) is well known as a zero strain material inherently, which provides excellent long cycle stability as a negative electrode for lithium ion batteries. However, the low specific capacity (175 mA h g?1) limits it to power batteries although the low electrical conductivity is another intrinsic issue need to be solved. In this work, we developed a facile hydrothermal and ion-exchange route to synthesize the self-supported dual-phase Li4Ti5O12ĖTiO2 nanowire arrays to further improve its capacity as well as rate capability. The ratio of Li4Ti5O12 to TiO2 in the dual phase Li4Ti5O12ĖTiO2 nanowire is around 2:1. The introduction of TiO2 into Li4Ti5O12 increases the specific capacity. More importantly, by interface design, it creates a dual-phase nanostructure with high grain boundary density that facilitates both electron and Li ion transport. Compared with phase-pure nanowire Li4Ti5O12 and TiO2 nanaowire arrays, the dual-phase nanowire electrode yielded superior rate capability (135.5 at 5 C, 129.4 at 10 C, 120.2 at 20 C and 115.5 mA h g?1 at 30 C). In-situ transmission electron microscope clearly shows the near zero deformation of the dual phase structure, which explains its excellent cycle stability.

Liao, Jin; Chabot, Victor; Gu, Meng; Wang, Chong M.; Xiao, Xingcheng; Chen, Zhongwei

2014-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

335

Life Cycle Inventory of a CMOS Chip  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Reichl, H. ďLife cycle inventory analysis and identificationAllen, D.T. ; ďLife cycle inventory development for waferLife Cycle Inventory of a CMOS Chip Sarah Boyd and David

Boyd, Sarah; Dornfeld, David; Krishnan, Nikhil

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

336

Life-cycle Assessment of Semiconductors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

yield. A hybrid life cycle assessment (LCA) model is used;more accurate life-cycle assessment (LCA) of electronicthe purposes of life-cycle assessment (LCA). While it may be

Boyd, Sarah B.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

337

Temperature and humidity control during cooling and dehumidifying by compressor and evaporator fan speed variation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The accurate control of temperature and relative humidity during cooling and dehumidifying air-conditioning processes may be achieved by compressor and evaporator fan speed variation. Proportional-integral-differential (PID) control methods are shown to be suitable for attaining compressor and evaporator fan speeds such that the sensible and latent components of the refrigeration system capacity equal the sensible and latent components of the system load. The feasibility of the control method has been verified experimentally. A numerical model of an environmental control system, including refrigeration, space, and PID control subsystems, has been developed. The model is suitable for determining system response to variations of PID coefficient values and to variations of system loads.

Krakow, K.I.; Lin, S.; Zeng, Z.S. [Concordia Univ., Montreal, Quebec (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

338

Control of pyrophoricity in deposits produced by electron beam evaporation of uranium  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A description is given of an apparatus for reducing the pyrophoricity of deposits of a material evaporated within a chamber comprising: a sealed chamber defined by an enclosure; means for providing within said chamber an atmosphere of generally non-reactive nature; a reservoir of a material to ve evaporated; means for directing a vapor of said material from said reservoir into said chamber; at least one surface within said chamber in the path of the directed vapor and on which at least portions of the vaporized material deposits; means for cooling said enclosure to a temperature at which said vapor deposits at a relatively low pyrophoric density; and means for maintaining a temperature for said collection surfaces higher than the enclosure temperature to promote deposition of said material at a relatively higher density.

Clifford, J.

1980-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

339

Analysis of multicomponent evaporation in electron beam melting and refining of titanium alloys  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Experimental evidence and a mathematical model are presented to evaluate the effect of beam-scan frequency on composition change in electron-beam melting of titanium alloys. Experiments characterized the evaporation rate of commercially pure (CP) titanium and vapor composition over titanium alloy with up to 6 wt pct aluminum and 4.5 wt pct vanadium, as a function of beam power, scan frequency, and background pressure. These data and thermal mapping of the hearth melt surface are used to estimate activity coefficients of aluminum and vanadium in the hearth. The model describes transient heat transfer in the surface of the melt and provides a means of estimating enhancement of pure titanium evaporation and change in final aluminum composition due to local heating at moderate beam-scan frequencies.

Powell, A.; Szekely, J.; Pal, U. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; Avyle, J. van den; Damkroger, B. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Materials Processing Dept.

1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

340

Co-Evaporated Cu2ZnSnSe4 Films and Devices  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The use of vacuum co-evaporation to produce Cu2ZnSnSe4 photovoltaic devices with 9.15% total-area efficiency is described. These new results suggest that the early success of the atmospheric techniques for kesterite photovoltaics may be related to the ease with which one can control film composition and volatile phases, rather than a fundamental benefit of atmospheric conditions for film properties. The co-evaporation growth recipe is documented, as is the motivation for various features of the recipe. Characteristics of the resulting kesterite films and devices are shown in scanning electron micrographs, including photoluminescence, current-voltage, and quantum efficiency. Current-voltage curves demonstrate low series resistance without the light-dark cross-over seen in many devices in the literature. Band gap indicated by quantum efficiency and photoluminescence is roughly consistent with that expected from first principles calculation.

Repins, I.; Beall, C.; Vora, N.; DeHart, C.; Kuciauskas, D.; Dippo, P.; To, B.; Mann, J.; Hsu, W. C.; Goodrich, A.; Noufi, R.

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dual evaporator cycle" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Comparisons of Statistical Multifragmentation and Evaporation Models for Heavy Ion Collisions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The results from ten statistical multifragmentation models have been compared with each other using selected experimental observables. Even though details in any single observable may differ, the general trends among models are similar. Thus these models and similar ones are very good in providing important physics insights especially for general properties of the primary fragments and the multifragmentation process. Mean values and ratios of observables are also less sensitive to individual differences in the models. In addition to multifragmentation models, we have compared results from five commonly used evaporation codes. The fluctuations in isotope yield ratios are found to be a good indicator to evaluate the sequential decay implementation in the code. The systems and the observables studied here can be used as benchmarks for the development of statistical multifragmentation models and evaporation codes.

Tsang, M B; Charity, R; Durand, D; Friedman, W A; Gulminelli, F; LefŤvre, A; Raduta, A H; Raduta, A R; Souza, S; Trautmann, W; Wada, R; Raduta, Ad.R.; Raduta, Al. H.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

342

Evaporation behavior of Hastelloy-X alloys in simulated very high temperature reactor environments  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A sequential analysis was made on the material degradations during exposure of nickel-base corrosionresistant austenitic alloys to simulated very high temperature reactor environments. The materials tested were two modified versions of Hastelloy-X in terms of both increased manganese content for improved compatibility and decreased manganese content for possible adverse effects. Quantitative analysis of the specimens after exposure for 1000 h at several temperature steps from 850 to 1050/sup 0/C have revealed the temperature-dependent aspects of the processes including the depletion of chromium and manganese due to oxidation, evaporation, and carbon transfer into and/or from the materials. The material with enriched manganese, developed and specified as Hastelloy-XR, showed enhanced resistance to loss of chromium in terms of both oxidation and evaporation.

Shindo, M.; Kondo, T.

1984-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

343

Enhanced Fusion-Evaporation Cross Sections in Neutron-Rich $^{132}$Sn on $^{64}$Ni  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Evaporation residue cross sections have been measured with neutron-rich radioactive $^{132}$Sn beams on $^{64}$Ni in the vicinity of the Coulomb barrier. The average beam intensity was $2\\times 10^{4}$ particles per second and the smallest cross section measured was less than 5 mb. Large subbarrier fusion enhancement was observed. Coupled-channels calculations taking into account inelastic excitation and neutron transfer underpredict the measured cross sections below the barrier.

J. F. Liang; D. Shapira; C. J. Gross; J. R. Beene; J. D. Bierman; A. Galindo-Uribarri; J. Gomez del Campo; P. A. Hausladen; Y. Larochelle; W. Loveland; P. E. Mueller; D. Peterson; D. C. Radford; D. W. Stracener; R. L. Varner

2003-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

344

Characterization Results For The 2013 HTF 3H Evaporator Overhead Samples  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report tabulates the radiochemical analysis of the 3H evaporator overhead sample for {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr, and {sup 129}I to meet the requirements in the Effluent Treatment Project (ETP) Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) (rev. 6). This report identifies the sample receipt date, preparation method, and analysis performed in the accumulation of the listed values. All data was found to be within the ETP WAC (rev. 6) specification for the Waste Water Collection Tanks (WWCT).

Washington, A. L. II

2013-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

345

Heat transfer through horizontal films of liquids evaporating under high vacuum  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

generally have been accomplished by the use of vacuum systems' However, in the past the systems were rarely operated under 100 mm of mercury pressure. Some evaporation processes were operated under this limit but the majority of the vacuum operations... plate fractionater described by Cronan (7) operates at a pressure of 1 mm of mercury. The need of processing industries to go to higher vacuum systems has caused a reappraisal of engineering data in this field. Very little data have been published...

Stiles, Graham Bill

1961-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

346

Fluorocarbon evaporative cooling developments for the ATLAS pixel and semiconductor tracking detectors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Heat transfer coefficients 2-5.103 Wm-2K-1 have been measured in a 3.6 mm I.D. heated tube dissipating 100 Watts - close to the full equivalent power (~110 W) of a barrel SCT detector "stave" - over a range of power dissipations and mass flows in the above fluids. Aspects of full-scale evaporative cooling circulator design for the ATLAS experiment are discussed, together with plans for future development.

Anderssen, E; Berry, S; Bonneau, P; Bosteels, Michel; Bouvier, P; Cragg, D; English, R; Godlewski, J; Gůrski, B; Grohmann, S; Hallewell, G D; Hayler, T; Ilie, S; Jones, T; Kadlec, J; Lindsay, S; Miller, W; Niinikoski, T O; Olcese, M; Olszowska, J; Payne, B; Pilling, A; Perrin, E; Sandaker, H; Seytre, J F; Thadome, J; Vacek, V

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

347

Construction of a Penrose Diagram for a Spatially Coherent Evaporating Black Hole  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A Penrose diagram is constructed for an example black hole that evaporates at a steady rate as measured by a distant observer, until the mass vanishes, yielding a final state Minkowski space-time. Coordinate dependencies of significant features, such as the horizon and coordinate anomalies, are clearly demonstrated on the diagram. The large-scale causal structure of the space-time is briefly discussed.

Beth A. Brown; James Lindesay

2007-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

348

Investigation of an electron beam evaporative source: Part 1, Theory; Part 2, Measurements  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A theory for evaluating the performance parameters of linear electron beam evaporative source is presented. The electron beam is considered to be generated from a linear gun and its trajectory is curved by a uniform magnetic field onto a target. A model has been developed to estimate the trajectory of the electron beam. The performance of the electron gun is characterized by two coefficients: {alpha}, the divergence effect of the beam as it enters into the electric field free space region, and {Beta}, the space charge parameter, which is proportional to the magnitude of the current density of the beam. These two parameters determine the location (angular position) of the beam waist and the current density at the target. In addition, neutralization of the electron space charge by vapor ions generated near the target is considered. A discussion is also given of the shape of the depression in the surface of the molten metal, which is due to the pressure on the surface associated with the momentum recoil from the evaporative vapor flux. By relating the characteristic depth and width of the depression to magnitude and the shape of the pressure profile, useful analytical and numerical results are presented for a given pressure profile. The implication of the results for the design of electron beam evaporative sources are also discussed. Measurements are discussed a the end of the paper. 11 refs., 15 figs.

Sze, J.S.; Self, S.A. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (USA))

1989-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

349

Application of the TXM system to EB evaporation of alloys -- an update  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

High Rate E.B. evaporation of alloys with volatile components demands a sophisticated process control to obtain the required layer composition as well as the required deposition rate. In recent years, the analysis of X-radiation emitted from the melting bath of an electron beam facility has been successfully investigated in relation with real time determination of bath composition. X-ray analytical on-line measurements during E.B. evaporation of alloys show that the bath composition is indicative of material feed and layer composition. By the X-ray analytical monitoring of the bath composition the layer composition as well as the deposition rate can be controlled. The TXM-System offers a way to put this approach into effect for high power industrial applications. High analysing accuracies can be achieved. In addition the integration of the TXM-System into the E.B. evaporation as well as E.B. melting technology of a producer permits him to understand better the interaction between process parameters and alloy composition.

Schiller, N. [Fraunhofer Institute Electron Beam and Plasma Technology, Dresden (Germany)

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

350

Thermal properties of light nuclei from $^{12}$C+$^{12}$C fusion-evaporation reactions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The $^{12}$C+$^{12}$C reaction at 95 MeV has been studied through the complete charge identification of its products by means of the GARFIELD+RCo experimental set-up at INFN Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro (LNL). In this paper, the first of a series of two, a comparison to a dedicated Hauser-Feshbach calculation allows to select a set of dissipative events which corresponds, to a large extent, to the statistical evaporation of highly excited $^{24}$Mg. Information on the isotopic distribution of the evaporation residues in coincidence with their complete evaporation chain is also extracted. The set of data puts strong constraints on the behaviour of the level density of light nuclei above the threshold for particle emission. In particular, a fast increase of the level density parameter with excitation energy is supported by the data. Residual deviations from a statistical behaviour are seen in two specific channels, and tentatively associated with a contamination from direct reactions and/or $\\alpha$-clustering effects. These channels are studied in further details in the second paper of the series.

L Morelli; G Baiocco; M D'Agostino; F Gulminelli; M Bruno; U Abbondanno; S Appannababu; S Barlini; M Bini; G Casini; M Cinausero; M Degerlier; D Fabris; N Gelli; F Gramegna; V L Kravchuk; T Marchi; G Pasquali; S Piantelli; S Valdrť; Ad R Raduta

2014-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

351

DIFFERENT PATTERNS OF CHROMOSPHERIC EVAPORATION IN A FLARING REGION OBSERVED WITH HINODE/EIS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We investigate the chromospheric evaporation in the flare of 2007 January 16 using line profiles observed by the Exterme-UV Imaging Spectrometer on board Hinode. Three points at flare ribbons of different magnetic polarities are analyzed in detail. We find that the three points show different patterns of upflows and downflows in the impulsive phase of the flare. The spectral lines at the first point are mostly blueshifted, with the hotter lines showing a dominant blueshifted component over the stationary one. At the second point, however, only weak upflows are detected; instead, notable downflows appear at high temperatures (up to 2.5-5.0 MK). The third point is similar to the second one only in that it shows evidence of multi-component downflows. While the evaporated plasma falling back down as warm rain is a possible cause of the redshifts at the second and third points, the different patterns of chromospheric evaporation at the three points imply the existence of different heating mechanisms in the flaring active region.

Li, Y.; Ding, M. D., E-mail: dmd@nju.edu.cn [Department of Astronomy, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

352

Potential use of hollow spheres in dual gradient drilling  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The increasing number of significant deepwater discoveries has pushed the operator and service oil companies to focus their efforts on developing new technologies to drill in deeper water. Dual gradient drilling (DGD) will allow reaching deeper...

Vera Vera, Liliana

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

353

Optimization of a dual acting, magnetically driven, linear actuator  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this study the geometry of a dual acting, magnetically driven, linear motion actuator will be optimized. This will be accomplished by modeling the system through a set of differential equations to be solved in Matlab. An ANSYS finite element...

Willerton, Justin Ryan

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

354

York Electric Cooperative- Dual Fuel Heat Pump Rebate Program  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

York Electric Cooperative, Inc. (YEC) offers a $400 rebate to members who install a dual fuel heat pump in homes or businesses. The rebates are for primary residence and/or commercial and...

355

antigens confer dual: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

to the variation of the process (temperature of austeno-ferritic heat. The dual-phase is a steel composed of ferrite and martensite phases. Each phase can be considered...

356

Ring Involutions and Self-Dual Codes Jay A. Wood  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Ring Involutions and Self-Dual Codes Jay A. Wood Department of Mathematics Western Michigan University jay.wood@wmich.edu AMS meeting, Lexington, Kentucky March 27, 2010 #12;Acknowledgments Much

Wood, Jay

357

Stabilizing the dual inverted pendulum : a practical approach  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A dual inverted pendulum system, consisting of two individual pendulums of different lengths on a single cart, was fully designed and implemented as a demonstration of classical control theory. This document contains an ...

Barton, Taylor Wallis

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

358

Dual Superconductivity and Chiral Symmetry in Full QCD  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A disorder parameter detecting dual superconductivity of the vacuum is measured across the chiral phase transition in full QCD with two flavours of dynamical staggered fermions. The observed behaviour is similar to the quenched case.

J. M. Carmona; M. D'Elia; L. Del Debbio; A. Di Giacomo; B. Lucini; G. Paffuti

2001-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

359

EIS-0228: Dual Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test (DARHT) Facility  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This EIS evaluates the potential environmental impact of a proposal to construct and operate the†Dual Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test (DARHT) facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL)...

360

A Gravity Dual of Metastable Dynamical Supersymmetry Breaking  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Metastable, supersymmetry-breaking configurations can be created in flux geometries by placing antibranes in warped throats. Via gauge/gravity duality, such configurations should have an interpretation as supersymmetry-breaking states in the dual field theory. In this paper, we perturbatively determine the asymptotic supergravity solutions corresponding to D3-brane probes placed at the tip of the cascading warped deformed conifold geometry, which is dual to an SU(N+M) x SU(N) gauge theory. The backreaction of the antibranes has the effect of introducing imaginary anti-self-dual flux, squashing the compact part of the space and forcing the dilaton to run. Using the generalization of holographic renormalization to cascading geometries, we determine the expectation values of operators in the dual field theory in terms of the asymptotic values of the supergravity fields.

DeWolfe, Oliver; /Colorado U.; Kachru, Shamit; Mulligan, Michael; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SLAC

2008-02-04T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dual evaporator cycle" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Recovery of primal solution in dual subgradient schemes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this thesis, we study primal solutions for general optimization problems. In particular, we employ the subgradient method to solve the Lagrangian dual of a convex constrained problem, and use a primal-averaging scheme ...

Ma, Jing, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

362

Dual Models of Permutation Problems Barbara M. Smith  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Dual Models of Permutation Problems Barbara M. Smith School of Computing & Mathematics University of Huddersfield Huddersfield HD1 3DH, U.K. b.m.smith@hud.ac.uk Abstract. A constraint satisfaction problem

Smith, Barbara M.

363

CONVERGENCE RATE ANALYSIS OF PRIMAL-DUAL SPLITTING ...  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Abstract. Primal-dual splitting schemes are a class of powerful algorithms ... this paper, we are mainly concerned with the line of work that began in [38, 14, 23].

2014-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

364

Multiplexing video streams using dual-frame video coding  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

novel idea for multiplexing video streams was to combine theLTR frames in dual-frame video coding with EqualSlope. T.Luthra, ďOverview of the H.264/AVC video coding standard,Ē

Tiwari, M; Groves, T; Cosman, P C

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

365

apparent dual function: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Summary: Up till now primal-dual IPMs all use the Newton direction as the search ... in terms of the kernel function and its first and second derivative. .... outer iteration by...

366

The design and evaluation of a water delivery system for evaporative cooling of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

An investigation was performed to demonstrate system design for the delivery of water required for evaporative cooling of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). The water delivery system uses spray nozzles capable of injecting water directly...

Al-Asad, Dawood Khaled Abdullah

2009-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

367

The Philosophy and Feasibility of Dual Readout Calorimetry  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

I will discuss the general physical ideas behind dual-readout calorimetry, their implementation in DREAM (Dual REAdout Module) with exact separation of scintillation and Cerenkov light, implementation with mixed light in DREAM fibers, anticipated implementation in PbWO4 crystals with applications to the 4th Concept detector and to CMS, use in high energy gamma-ray and cosmic ray astrophysics with Cerenkov and N2 fluorescent light, and implementation in the 4th Concept detector for muon identification.

Hauptman, John [Physics, Iowa State University, Ames IA 50011 (United States)

2006-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

368

Fuel cell having dual electrode anode or cathode  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A fuel cell that is characterized by including a dual electrode anode that is operable to simultaneously electro-oxidize a gaseous fuel and a liquid fuel. In alternative embodiments, a fuel cell having a single electrode anode is provided with a dual electrode cathode that is operable to simultaneously reduce a gaseous oxidant and a liquid oxidant to electro-oxidize a fuel supplied to the cell.

Findl, E.

1984-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

369

The holographic dual of an EPR pair has a wormhole  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We construct the holographic dual of two colored quasiparticles in maximally supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory entangled in a color singlet EPR pair. In the holographic dual the entanglement is encoded in a geometry of a non-traversable wormhole on the worldsheet of the flux tube connecting the pair. This gives a simple example supporting the recent claim by Maldacena and Susskind that EPR pairs and non-traversable wormholes are equivalent descriptions of the same physics.

Jensen, Kristan

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

370

Fuel cell having dual electrode anode or cathode  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A fuel cell that is characterized by including a dual electrode anode that is operable to simultaneously electro-oxidize a gaseous fuel and a liquid fuel. In alternative embodiments, a fuel cell having a single electrode anode is provided with a dual electrode cathode that is operable to simultaneously reduce a gaseous oxidant and a liquid oxidant to electro-oxidize a fuel supplied to the cell.

Findl, Eugene (Coram, NY)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

Project C-018H, 242-A Evaporator/PUREX Plant Process Condensate Treatment Facility, functional design criteria. Revision 3  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document provides the Functional Design Criteria (FDC) for Project C-018H, the 242-A Evaporator and Plutonium-Uranium Extraction (PUREX) Plant Condensate Treatment Facility (Also referred to as the 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility [ETF]). The project will provide the facilities to treat and dispose of the 242-A Evaporator process condensate (PC), the Plutonium-Uranium Extraction (PUREX) Plant process condensate (PDD), and the PUREX Plant ammonia scrubber distillate (ASD).

Sullivan, N.

1995-05-02T23:59:59.000Z

372

Dual Origin of Pairing in Nuclei  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

An essentially "complete" description of the low-energy nuclear structure of the superfluid nucleus $^{120}$Sn and of its odd-$A$ neighbors is provided by the observations carried out with the help of Coulomb excitation and of one-- and of two-- particle transfer reactions, specific probes of vibrations, quasiparticle and pairing degrees of freedom respectively, and of their mutual couplings. These experimental findings are used to stringently test the predictions of a similarly "complete" description of $^{119,120,121}$Sn carried out in terms of elementary modes of excitation which, through their interweaving, melt together into effective fields, each displaying properties reflecting that of all others, there individuality resulting from the actual relative importance of each one. Its implementation is done by solving the Nambu-Gor'kov equations including, for the first time, all medium polarization effects resulting from the interweaving of quasiparticles, spin and surface vibrations, taking into account, within the framework of nuclear field theory (NFT), the variety of processes leading to self-energy, vertex and Pauli principle corrections, and to the induced pairing interaction. Theory provides an overall quantitative account of the experimental findings. From these results one can, not only obtain strong circumstantial evidence for the inevitability for the dual origin of pairing in nuclei but also, extract information which can be used at profit to quantitatively disentangle the contributions to pairing correlations in general and to the pairing gap in particular, arising from the bare and from the induced pairing interactions.

A. Idini; G. Potel; F. Barranco; E. Vigezzi; R. A. Broglia

2014-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

373

Dual excitation acoustic paramagnetic logging tool  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

New methods and apparatus are disclosed which allow measurement of the presence of oil and water in geological formations using a new physical effect called the Acoustic Paramagnetic Logging Effect (APLE). The presence of petroleum in formation causes a slight increase in the earth's magnetic field in the vicinity of the reservoir. This is the phenomena of paramagnetism. Application of an acoustic source to a geological formation at the Larmor frequency of the nucleons present causes the paramagnetism of the formation to disappear. This results in a decrease in the earth's magnetic field in the vicinity of the oil bearing formation. Repetitively frequency sweeping the acoustic source through the Larmor frequency of the nucleons present (approx. 2 kHz) causes an amplitude modulation of the earth's magnetic field which is a consequence of the APLE. The amplitude modulation of the earth's magnetic field is measured with an induction coil gradiometer and provides a direct measure of the amount of oil and water in the excitation zone of the formation. The phase of the signal is used to infer the longitudinal relaxation times of the fluids present, which results in the ability in general to separate oil and water and to measure the viscosity of the oil present. Such measurements may be performed in open boreholes and in cased well bores. The Dual Excitation Acoustic Paramagnetic Logging Tool employing two acoustic sources is also described. 6 figs.

Vail, W.B. III.

1989-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

374

Dual mode stereotactic localization method and application  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The invention described herein combines the structural digital X-ray image provided by conventional stereotactic core biopsy instruments with the additional functional metabolic gamma imaging obtained with a dedicated compact gamma imaging mini-camera. Before the procedure, the patient is injected with an appropriate radiopharmaceutical. The radiopharmaceutical uptake distribution within the breast under compression in a conventional examination table expressed by the intensity of gamma emissions is obtained for comparison (co-registration) with the digital mammography (X-ray) image. This dual modality mode of operation greatly increases the functionality of existing stereotactic biopsy devices by yielding a much smaller number of false positives than would be produced using X-ray images alone. The ability to obtain both the X-ray mammographic image and the nuclear-based medicine gamma image using a single device is made possible largely through the use of a novel, small and movable gamma imaging camera that permits its incorporation into the same table or system as that currently utilized to obtain X-ray based mammographic images for localization of lesions.

Keppel, Cynthia E. (Norfolk, VA); Barbosa, Fernando Jorge (Newport News, VA); Majewski, Stanislaw (Grafton, VA)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

375

APPLICATION OF A THIN FILM EVAPORATOR SYSTEM FOR MANAGEMENT OF LIQUID HIGH-LEVEL WASTES AT HANFORD  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A modular, transportable evaporator system, using thin film evaporative technology, is planned for deployment at the Hanford radioactive waste storage tank complex. This technology, herein referred to as a wiped film evaporator (WFE), will be located at grade level above an underground storage tank to receive pumped liquids, concentrate the liquid stream from 1.1 specific gravity to approximately 1.4 and then return the concentrated solution back into the tank. Water is removed by evaporation at an internal heated drum surface exposed to high vacuum. The condensed water stream will be shipped to the site effluent treatment facility for final disposal. This operation provides significant risk mitigation to failure of the aging 242-A Evaporator facility; the only operating evaporative system at Hanford maximizing waste storage. This technology is being implemented through a development and deployment project by the tank farm operating contractor, Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS), for the Office of River Protection/Department of Energy (ORP/DOE), through Columbia Energy & Environmental Services, Inc. (Columbia Energy). The project will finalize technology maturity and install a system at one of the double-shell tank farms. This paper discusses results of pre-project pilot-scale testing by Columbia Energy and ongoing technology maturation development scope through fiscal year 2012, including planned additional pilot-scale and full-scale simulant testing and operation with actual radioactive tank waste.

TEDESCHI AR; WILSON RA

2010-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

376

The behavioral manipulation hypothesis Life cycle of  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 The behavioral manipulation hypothesis · No one knows how the parasite causes these Life cycle eat mostly hares · Linked cycles? Predator-Prey Cycles? · Think and then discuss: · Under the hypothesis that predators cause this cycle, what would you expect for the following when hare populations

Mitchell, Randall J.

377

Life-cycle Assessment of Semiconductors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Environmental Impacts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Abatement Environmental impactLife-cycle Environmental Impacts . . . . . . . LCA of

Boyd, Sarah B.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

378

Simple ocean carbon cycle models  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Simple ocean carbon cycle models can be used to calculate the rate at which the oceans are likely to absorb CO{sub 2} from the atmosphere. For problems involving steady-state ocean circulation, well calibrated ocean models produce results that are very similar to results obtained using general circulation models. Hence, simple ocean carbon cycle models may be appropriate for use in studies in which the time or expense of running large scale general circulation models would be prohibitive. Simple ocean models have the advantage of being based on a small number of explicit assumptions. The simplicity of these ocean models facilitates the understanding of model results.

Caldeira, K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Hoffert, M.I. [New York Univ., NY (United States). Dept. of Earth System Sciences; Siegenthaler, U. [Bern Univ. (Switzerland). Inst. fuer Physik

1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

379

Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycle Options  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A systematic evaluation has been conducted of the potential for advanced nuclear fuel cycle strategies and options to address the issues ascribed to the use of nuclear power. Issues included nuclear waste management, proliferation risk, safety, security, economics and affordability, and sustainability. The two basic strategies, once-through and recycle, and the range of possibilities within each strategy, are considered for all aspects of the fuel cycle including options for nuclear material irradiation, separations if needed, and disposal. Options range from incremental changes to todayís implementation to revolutionary concepts that would require the development of advanced nuclear technologies.

Roald Wigeland; Temitope Taiwo; Michael Todosow; William Halsey; Jess Gehin

2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

380

Combined cycle power plant of SVZ Schwarze Pumpe GmbH operating experience gained with low calorific value fuel resulting from gasification processes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Supported by experience gained over many years, Schwarze Pumpe GmbH (SVZ), the secondary raw material recycling centre, operates autothermal compression-type gasification plants with oxygen according to the fixed-bed and the entrained flow process, in which apart from lignite as the fuel to be gasified, residues containing C/H of varying consistency are gasified in an environmentally friendly manner. The purified gas acquired after scrubbing, partial conversion and desulfurization is mainly used as a synthesis gas for methanol synthesis and thus provided with a material use. For covering auxiliary requirements in electrical and process power, a combined-cycle power plant is operated, the main fuel of which is a low calorific value dual-process gas, primarily consisting of purified and purge gas. The volumes of purified and purge gases available to the combined-cycle power plant from the SVZ process equipment and their grades cannot be influenced by the combined-cycle power plant. It is shown that from a targeted modification of the dual-process gas temperature the Wobbe Index of dual-process gases with considerably varying parameters (calorific value, density) can be brought into the range required for running the gas turbine. Furthermore what is also shown is the operating strategy and control concept by which the combined-cycle power plant can maintain the pressure in the SVZ purified gas system and thus ultimately the gasification reactor operating pressure.

Kotschenreuther, H.; Hauptmann, W.

1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dual evaporator cycle" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Chemical treatment of simulated solution of evaporator concentrate for immobilization in bitumen  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Radioactive liquid and solid wastes are generated from different sections of reactor and radiochemical laboratories associated with nuclear power plants. Liquid radioactive wastes originate from the boric acid control system for safe operation of nuclear power reactors. Studies on the preparation of leach-resistant insoluble boron compound from simulated solution of evaporator concentrate are reported in this work. The insoluble compound CaB{sub 6}O{sub 10}{center_dot}4H{sub 2}O has been prepared from simulated solution of evaporator concentrate by chemical treatment with calcium chloride solution. Other insoluble compounds CaB{sub 2}O{sub 4}{center_dot}6H{sub 2}O/Ca{sub 3}B{sub 4}O{sub 9}{center_dot}9H{sub 2}O/Ca[B(OH){sub 4}]{sub 2}{center_dot}2H{sub 2}O and NaCaB{sub 5}O{sub 6}{center_dot}8H{sub 2}O/NaCaB{sub 5}O{sub 6}{center_dot}5H{sub 2}O/Ca{sub 2}B{sub 6}O{sub 11}{center_dot}13H{sub 2}O have been prepared from simulated solution of evaporator concentrate with calcium hydroxide under controlled conditions of temperature and time. Identification and characterization of these compounds have been done by X-ray diffraction, optical microscopy and differential thermal and thermogravimetric analysis. For low-level radioactive waste treatment, immobilization of insoluble borate compounds in bitumen will produce leach-resistant suitable waste product for safe disposal.

Awwal, M.A.; Guzella, M.F.R.; Silva, T.V. [National Nuclear Energy Commission, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais (Brazil). Nuclear Technology Development Centre] [National Nuclear Energy Commission, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais (Brazil). Nuclear Technology Development Centre

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

382

Capacity fade of Sony 18650 cells cycled at elevated temperatures Part I. Cycling performance  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Capacity fade of Sony 18650 cells cycled at elevated temperatures Part I. Cycling performance P of Sony 18650 Li-ion cells increases with increase in temperature. After 800 cycles, the cells cycled the capacity fade of commercial Li-ion cells cycled at high temperatures. We choose Sony 18650 cells with Li

Popov, Branko N.

383

Seminar 14 - Desiccant Enhanced Air Conditioning: Desiccant Enhanced Evaporative Air Conditioning (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This presentation explains how liquid desiccant based coupled with an indirect evaporative cooler can efficiently produce cool, dry air, and how a liquid desiccant membrane air conditioner can efficiently provide cooling and dehumidification without the carryover problems of previous generations of liquid desiccant systems. It provides an overview to a liquid desiccant DX air conditioner that can efficiently provide cooling and dehumidification to high latent loads without the need for reheat, explains how liquid desiccant cooling and dehumidification systems can outperform vapor compression based air conditioning systems in hot and humid climates, explains how liquid desiccant cooling and dehumidification systems work, and describes a refrigerant free liquid desiccant based cooling system.

Kozubal, E.

2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

Non Evaporable Getter (NEG) Pumps: a Route to UHV-XHV  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Non Evaporable Getter (NEG) technology has been developed in the 1970's and since then adopted by industry, R and D labs, research centres and in large physics projects like accelerators, synchrotrons and fusion reactors. NEG pumps are very compact and vibration-free devices able to deliver very high pumping with minimal power requirement and electromagnetic interference. In the present paper, main features and performances of getter pumps are reviewed and discussed with a special focus to photocathode gun application, where UHV or XHV conditions are mandatory to ensure adequate gun life. NEG coating and future challenges for NEG technology are also discussed.

Manini, Paolo [SAES Getters SpA, Viale Italia 77, 20010 Lainate (Italy)

2009-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

385

A simple, time-dependent formula for estimating evaporation rates in Texas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

- dependent one is supuorted by careful consideration of the well-known evaporation formula offered by H. L. Penman 1n 1948. An examinati on of the bas1c assumptions of his phys1cally correct equat1on, espec1ally of those relevant to the energy env1ronment... 0. 9069 0. 8969 0. 9000 0. 9290 0. 9072 0. 8536 0. 9045 0. 8417 0. 9040 0. 9027 0. 8725 0. 8922 0. 9155 0. 8828 0. 9110 0. 8361 104. 7 75. 6 100. 9 78. 6 99. 3 106. 8 120. 2 94. 8 95. 7 97. 4 87. 0 90. 0 130. 8 97. 8 58...

Trenchard, Michael Howard

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

Tank 30 and 37 Supernatant Sample Cross-Check and Evaporator Feed Qualification Analysis-2012  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report summarizes the analytical data reported by the F/H and Savannah River National Laboratories for the 2012 cross-check analysis for high level waste supernatant liquid samples from SRS Tanks 30 and 37. The intent of this Tank 30 and 37 sample analyses was to perform cross-checks against routine F/H Laboratory analyses (corrosion and evaporator feed qualification programs) using samples collected at the same time from both tanks as well as split samples from the tanks.

Oji, L. N.

2013-03-07T23:59:59.000Z

387

A new limit on the rate-density of evaporating black holes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Data taken with the CYGNUS detector between 1989 and 1993 have been used to search for 1 second bursts of ultra-high energy (UHE) gamma rays from any point in the northern sky. There is no evidence for such bursts. Therefore the theory-dependent upper limit on the rate-density of evaporating black holes is 6.1 [times] 10[sup 5]pc[sup [minus]3]yr[sup [minus]1] at the 99% C.L.. After renormalizing previous direct searches to the same theory, this limit is the most restrictive by more than 2 orders of magnitude.

Not Available

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

388

A new limit on the rate-density of evaporating black holes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Data taken with the CYGNUS detector between 1989 and 1993 have been used to search for 1 second bursts of ultra-high energy (UHE) gamma rays from any point in the northern sky. There is no evidence for such bursts. Therefore the theory-dependent upper limit on the rate-density of evaporating black holes is 6.1 {times} 10{sup 5}pc{sup {minus}3}yr{sup {minus}1} at the 99% C.L.. After renormalizing previous direct searches to the same theory, this limit is the most restrictive by more than 2 orders of magnitude.

The CYGNUS Collaboration

1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

389

Imaging the condensation and evaporation of molecularly thin ethanol films with surface forces apparatus  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A new method for imaging condensation and evaporation of molecularly thin ethanol films is reported. It is found that the first adsorbed layer of ethanol film on mica surface behaves as solid like structure that cannot flow freely. With the increase of exposure time, more ethanol molecules condense over the mica surface in the saturated ethanol vapor condition. The first layer of adsorbed ethanol film is about 3.8†Ň thick measured from the surface forces apparatus, which is believed to be the average diameter of ethanol molecules while they are confined in between two atomically smooth mica surfaces.

Zhao, Gutian; Tan, Qiyan; Xiang, Li; Zhang, Di; Ni, Zhonghua, E-mail: nzh2003@seu.edu.cn, E-mail: yunfeichen@seu.edu.cn; Yi, Hong; Chen, Yunfei, E-mail: nzh2003@seu.edu.cn, E-mail: yunfeichen@seu.edu.cn [Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Design and Manufacture of Micro-Nano Biomedical Instruments, School of Mechanical Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 211189 (China)] [Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Design and Manufacture of Micro-Nano Biomedical Instruments, School of Mechanical Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 211189 (China)

2014-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

390

A study of heat pump fin staged evaporators under frosting conditions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the performance of fin-and-tube outdoor coils as well as the whole heat pump system. The objective of the experimental part of this study was to investigate the effects of the staging fin on the frost/defrost performance of heat pump outdoor coils under different... and additional energy is used to melt the frost off the evaporator, the defrosting process increases energy consumption and reduces the seasonal efficiency of the heat pump. Frost formation and the subsequent defrost process continues to be a source...

Yang, Jianxin

2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

391

Two-phase, two-component Stirling engine with controlled evaporation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In a Stirling-like engine, the specific power can be greatly increased by the use of a two-component, two-phase working fluid. Theory and experiments have indicated that a two- to threefold increase is easily attainable. This report shows that by controlling the rate at which the liquid is evaporated into the expansion cylinder, still larger increases may be achieved under quite reasonable operating conditions. Successful application of this principle would make it practicable to operate engines with moderate hot-end temperatures and perhaps even with the very low temperatures available from simple nontracking solar collectors.

West, C.D.

1982-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

392

Sensitivity of the FERMI Detectors to Gamma-Ray Bursts from Evaporating Primordial Black Holes (PBHs)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Primordial Black Holes (PBHs), which may have been created in the early Universe, are predicted to be detectable by their Hawking radiation. The Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope observatory offers increased sensitivity to the gamma-ray bursts produced by PBHs with an initial mass of $\\sim 5\\times 10^{14}$ g expiring today. PBHs are candidate progenitors of unidentified Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs) that lack X-ray afterglow. We propose spectral lag, which is the temporal delay between the high and low energy pulses, as an efficient method to identify PBH evaporation events with the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT).

T. N. Ukwatta; Jane H. MacGibbon; W. C. Parke; K. S. Dhuga; S. Rhodes; A. Eskandarian; N. Gehrels; L. Maximon; D. C. Morris

2010-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

393

Single-cycle nonlinear optics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

g l e - C y c l e Nonlinear Optics E. G o u l i e l m a k iSingle-Cycle Nonlinear Optics E. Goulielmakis *, M.D-85748 Garching. Center for X-Ray Optics, Lawrence Berkeley

Goulielmakis, E.; Max-Planck-Institut fur Quantenoptik

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

394

Modeling the Nuclear Fuel Cycle  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A review of existing nuclear fuel cycle systems analysis codes was performed to determine if any existing codes meet technical and functional requirements defined for a U.S. national program supporting the global and domestic assessment, development and deployment of nuclear energy systems. The program would be implemented using an interconnected architecture of different codes ranging from the fuel cycle analysis code, which is the subject of the review, to fundamental physical and mechanistic codes. Four main functions are defined for the code: (1) the ability to characterize and deploy individual fuel cycle facilities and reactors in a simulation, while discretely tracking material movements, (2) the capability to perform an uncertainty analysis for each element of the fuel cycle and an aggregate uncertainty analysis, (3) the inclusion of an optimization engine able to optimize simultaneously across multiple objective functions, and (4) open and accessible code software and documentation to aid in collaboration between multiple entities and facilitate software updates. Existing codes, categorized as annualized or discrete fuel tracking codes, were assessed according to the four functions and associated requirements. These codes were developed by various government, education and industrial entities to fulfill particular needs. In some cases, decisions were made during code development to limit the level of detail included in a code to ease its use or to focus on certain aspects of a fuel cycle to address specific questions. The review revealed that while no two of the codes are identical, they all perform many of the same basic functions. No code was able to perform defined function 2 or several requirements of functions 1 and 3. Based on this review, it was concluded that the functions and requirements will be met only with development of a new code, referred to as GENIUS.

Jacob J. Jacobson; Mary Lou Dunzik-Gougar; Christopher A. Juchau

2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

Dynamic simulation of dual-speed wind turbine generation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Induction generators have been used since the early development of utility-scale wind turbine generation. An induction generator is the generator of choice because of its ruggedness, and low cost. With an induction generator, the operating speed of the wind turbine is limited to a narrow range (almost constant speed). Dual- speed operation can be accomplished by using an induction generator with two different sets of winding configurations or by using two induction generators with two different rated speeds. With single- speed operation, the wind turbine operates at different power coefficients (Cp) as the wind speed varies. The operation at maximum Cp can occur only at a single wind speed. However, if the wind speed varies across a wider range, the operating Cp will vary significantly. Dual-speed operation has the advantage of enabling the wind turbine to operate at near maximum Cp over a wider range of wind-speeds. Thus, annual energy production can be increased. The dual-speed mode may generate less energy than a variable-speed mode; nevertheless, it offers an alternative to capture more energy than single-speed operation. In this paper, dual-speed operation of a wind turbine will be investigated. One type of control algorithm for dual- speed operation is proposed. Results from a dynamic simulation will be presented to show how the control algorithm works and how power, current and torque of the system vary as the wind turbine is exposed to varying wind speeds.

Muljadi, E.; Butterfield, C.P.

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

396

The Chern-Simons term in a dual Josephson junction  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A dual Josephson junction corresponding to a (2+1)-dimensional non-superconducting layer sandwiched between two (3+1)-dimensional dual superconducting regions constitutes a model of localization of a U(1) gauge field within the layer. Monopole tunneling currents flow from one dual superconducting region to another due to a phase difference between the wave functions of the monopole condensate below and above the non-superconducting layer when there is an electromagnetic field within the layer. These magnetic currents appear within the (2+1)-dimensional layer as a gas of magnetic instanton events and a weak electric charge confinement is expected to take place at very long distances within the layer. In the present work, we consider what happens when one introduces fermions in this physical scenario. Due to the dual Meissner effect featured in the dual superconducting bulk, it is argued that unconfined fermions would be localized within the (2+1)-dimensional layer, where their quantum fluctuations radiatively induce a Chern-Simons term, which is known to destroy the electric charge confinement and to promote the confinement of the magnetic instantons.

L. S. Grigorio; M. S. Guimaraes; R. Rougemont; C. Wotzasek; C. A. D. Zarro

2013-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

397

The Chern-Simons term in a dual Josephson junction  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A dual Josephson junction corresponding to a (2+1)-dimensional non-superconducting layer sandwiched between two (3+1)-dimensional dual superconducting regions constitutes a model of localization of a U(1) gauge field within the layer. Monopole tunneling currents flow from one dual superconducting region to another due to a phase difference between the wave functions of the monopole condensate below and above the non-superconducting layer. These magnetic currents appear within the (2+1)-dimensional layer as a gas of magnetic instanton events and a weak electric charge confinement is expected to take place at very long distances within the layer. In the present work, we consider what happens when one introduces fermions in this physical scenario. Due to the dual Meissner effect featured in the dual superconducting bulk, it is argued that unconfined fermions would be localized within the (2+1)-dimensional layer, where their quantum fluctuations radiatively induce a Chern-Simons term, which is known to destroy th...

Grigorio, L S; Rougemont, R; Wotzasek, C; Zarro, C A D

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

398

Prediction of future fifteen solar cycles  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In the previous study (Hiremath 2006a), the solar cycle is modeled as a forced and damped harmonic oscillator and from all the 22 cycles (1755-1996), long-term amplitudes, frequencies, phases and decay factor are obtained. Using these physical parameters of the previous 22 solar cycles and by an {\\em autoregressive model}, we predict the amplitude and period of the future fifteen solar cycles. Predicted amplitude of the present solar cycle (23) matches very well with the observations. The period of the present cycle is found to be 11.73 years. With these encouraging results, we also predict the profiles of future 15 solar cycles. Important predictions are : (i) the period and amplitude of the cycle 24 are 9.34 years and 110 ($\\pm 11$), (ii) the period and amplitude of the cycle 25 are 12.49 years and 110 ($\\pm$ 11), (iii) during the cycles 26 (2030-2042 AD), 27 (2042-2054 AD), 34 (2118-2127 AD), 37 (2152-2163 AD) and 38 (2163-2176 AD), the sun might experience a very high sunspot activity, (iv) the sun might also experience a very low (around 60) sunspot activity during cycle 31 (2089-2100 AD) and, (v) length of the solar cycles vary from 8.65 yrs for the cycle 33 to maximum of 13.07 yrs for the cycle 35.

K. M. Hiremath

2007-04-11T23:59:59.000Z

399

Multi-cycle boiling water reactor fuel cycle optimization  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this work a new computer code, BWROPT (Boiling Water Reactor Optimization), is presented. BWROPT uses the Parallel Simulated Annealing (PSA) algorithm to solve the out-of-core optimization problem coupled with an in-core optimization that determines the optimum fuel loading pattern. However it uses a Haling power profile for the depletion instead of optimizing the operating strategy. The result of this optimization is the optimum new fuel inventory and the core loading pattern for the first cycle considered in the optimization. Several changes were made to the optimization algorithm with respect to other nuclear fuel cycle optimization codes that use PSA. Instead of using constant sampling probabilities for the solution perturbation types throughout the optimization as is usually done in PSA optimizations the sampling probabilities are varied to get a better solution and/or decrease runtime. The new fuel types available for use can be sorted into an array based on any number of parameters so that each parameter can be incremented or decremented, which allows for more precise fuel type selection compared to random sampling. Also, the results are sorted by the new fuel inventory of the first cycle for ease of comparing alternative solutions. (authors)

Ottinger, K.; Maldonado, G.I. [University of Tennessee, 311 Pasqua Engineering Building, Knoxville, TN 37996-2300 (United States)

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

400

New developments in plasma-activated high-rate EB evaporation for metal strip  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The coating of metal strips by EB evaporation is well known since many years. But up to now the application on an industrial scale is very limited. One of the reasons are the costs and the progress of ECD technologies in the last ten years. But there are opportunities for the evaporation technology if layers with new properties can be produced. One way to meet this target is the application of a plasma-activated and ion-assisted process. However, the plasma density and the ion current density on the substrate must fit the high deposition rates. Many efforts in our institute are dedicated to the development of appropriate plasma sources. The systems are explained and main parameters are given. Using a plasma the layer properties can be improved remarkably. Therefore new applications come into play. First results are shown. Layers consisting of compounds will play a growing role for corrosion and abrasion protection. The technologies are explained and important film properties are presented.

Schiller, S.; Goedicke, K.; Hoetzsch, G. [Fraunhofer Institute, Dresden (Germany)

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dual evaporator cycle" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Evaporative CO$_2$ microchannel cooling for the LHCb VELO pixel upgrade  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The LHCb Vertex Detector (VELO) will be upgraded in 2018 to a lightweight pixel detector capable of 40 MHz readout and operation in very close proximity to the LHC beams. The thermal management of the system will be provided by evaporative CO$_2$ circulating in microchannels embedded within thin silicon plates. This solution has been selected due to the excellent thermal efficiency, the absence of thermal expansion mismatch with silicon ASICs and sensors, the radiation hardness of CO$_2$, and very low contribution to the material budget. Although microchannel cooling is gaining considerable attention for applications related to microelectronics, it is still a novel technology for particle physics experiments, in particular when combined with evaporative CO$_2$ cooling. The R&D effort for LHCb is focused on the design and layout of the channels together with a fluidic connector and its attachment which must withstand pressures up to 170 bar. Even distribution of the coolant is ensured by means of the use o...

de Aguiar Francisco, Oscar A; Collins, Paula; Dumps, Raphael; John, Malcolm; Mapelli, Alessandro; Romagnoli, Giulia

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

402

TANK 26F SUPERNATANT AND 2F EVAPORATOR EDUCTOR PUMP SAMPLE CHARACTERIZATION RESULTS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In an effort to understand the reasons for system plugging problems in the SRS 2F evaporator, supernatant samples were retrieved from the evaporator feed tank (Tank 26F) and solids were collected from the evaporator eductor feed pump for characterization. The variable depth supernatant samples were retrieved from Tank 26F in early December of 2010 and samples were provided to SRNL and the F/H Area laboratories for analysis. Inspection and analysis of the samples at SRNL was initiated in early March of 2011. During the interim period, samples were frequently exposed to temperatures as low as 12 C with daily temperature fluctuations as high as 10 C. The temperature at the time of sample collection from the waste tank was 51 C. Upon opening the supernatant bottles at SRNL, many brown solids were observed in both of the Tank 26F supernatant samples. In contrast, no solids were observed in the supernatant samples sent to the F/H Area laboratories, where the analysis was completed within a few days after receipt. Based on these results, it is believed that the original Tank 26F supernatant samples did not contain solids, but solids formed during the interim period while samples were stored at ambient temperature in the SRNL shielded cells without direct climate control. Many insoluble solids (>11 wt. % for one sample) were observed in the Tank 26F supernatant samples after three months of storage at SRNL which would not dissolve in the supernatant solution in two days at 51 C. Characterization of these solids along with the eductor pump solids revealed the presence of sodium oxalate and clarkeite (uranyl oxyhydroxide) as major crystalline phases. Sodium nitrate was the dominant crystalline phase present in the unwashed Eductor Pump solids. Crystalline sodium nitrate may have formed during the drying of the solids after filtration or may have been formed in the Tank 26F supernatant during storage since the solution was found to be very concentrated (9-12 M Na{sup +}). Concentrated mineral acids and elevated temperature were required to dissolve all of these solids. The refractory nature of some of the solids is consistent with the presence of metal oxides such as aluminosilicates (observed as a minor phase by XRD). Characterization of the water wash solutions and the digested solids confirmed the presence of oxalate salts in both solid samples. Sulfate enrichment was also observed in the Tank 26F solids wash solution, indicating the presence of sulfate precipitates such as burkeite. OLI modeling of the Tank 26F filtered supernatant composition revealed that sodium oxalate has a very low solubility in this solution. The model predicts that the sodium oxalate solubility in the Tank 26F supernatant is only 0.0011 M at 50 C. The results indicate that the highly concentrated nature of the evaporator feed solution and the addition of oxalate anion to the waste stream each contribute to the formation of insoluble solids in the 2F evaporator system.

King, W.; Hay, M.; Coleman, C.

2011-08-23T23:59:59.000Z

403

EFFECT OF VANADIUM ON STRUCTURE-PROPERTY RELATIONS OF DUAL PHASE Fe/Mn/Si/0.lC STEELS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Formable HSLA and Dual Phase Steels, Proceedings of AIME,and Properties of Dual Phase Steels, Proceedings of Aifv1E,in intercritically annealed dual phase steels. Many of the

Nakagawa, Alvin

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

404

Dual-Fuel Truck Fleet: Start-Up Experience  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Although dual-fuel engine technology has been in development and limited use for several years, it has only recently moved toward full-scale operational capability for heavy-duty truck applications. Unlike a bifuel engine, which has two separate fuel systems that are used one at a time, a dual-fuel engine uses two fuel systems simultaneously. One of California's South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) current programs is a demonstration of dual-fuel engine technology in heavy-duty trucks. These trucks are being studied as part of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) Alternative Fuel Truck Program. This report describes the start-up experience from the program.

NREL

1998-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

405

Dual -1 Hahn polynomials: "classical" polynomials beyond the Leonard duality  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We introduce the -1 dual Hahn polynomials through an appropriate $q \\to -1$ limit of the dual q-Hahn polynomials. These polynomials are orthogonal on a finite set of discrete points on the real axis, but in contrast to the classical orthogonal polynomials of the Askey scheme, the -1 dual Hahn polynomials do not exhibit the Leonard duality property. Instead, these polynomials satisfy a 4-th order difference eigenvalue equation and thus possess a bispectrality property. The corresponding generalized Leonard pair consists of two matrices $A,B$ each of size $N+1 \\times N+1$. In the eigenbasis where the matrix $A$ is diagonal, the matrix $B$ is 3-diagonal; but in the eigenbasis where the matrix $B$ is diagonal, the matrix $A$ is 5-diagonal.

Tsujimoto, Satoshi; Zhedanov, Alexei

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

406

Single-cycle nonlinear optics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Nonlinear optics plays a central role in the advancement of optical science and laser-based technologies. We report on the confinement of the nonlinear interaction of light with matter to a single wave cycle and demonstrate its utility for time-resolved and strong-field science. The electric field of 3.3-femtosecond, 0.72-micron laser pulses with a controlled and measured waveform ionizes atoms near the crests of the central wave cycle, with ionization being virtually switched off outside this interval. Isolated sub-100-attosecond pulses of extreme ultraviolet light (photon energy {approx} 80 electron volts), containing {approx} 0.5 nanojoule of energy, emerge from the interaction with a conversion efficiency of {approx} 10{sup -6}. These tools enable the study of the precision control of electron motion with light fields and electron-electron interactions with a resolution approaching the atomic unit of time ({approx} 24 attoseconds).

Max-Planck-Institut fur Quantenoptik; Goulielmakis, E.; Schultze, M.; Hofstetter, M.; Yakovlev, V. S.; Gagnon, J.; Uiberacker, M.; Aquila, A. L.; gullikson, E. M.; attwood, D. T.; Kienberger, R.; Krausz, F.; Kleineberg, U.

2008-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

407

Advanced Fuel Cycle Cost Basis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report, commissioned by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), provides a comprehensive set of cost data supporting a cost analysis for the relative economic comparison of options for use in the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) Program. The report describes the AFCI cost basis development process, reference information on AFCI cost modules, a procedure for estimating fuel cycle costs, economic evaluation guidelines, and a discussion on the integration of cost data into economic computer models. This report contains reference cost data for 25 cost modulesó23 fuel cycle cost modules and 2 reactor modules. The cost modules were developed in the areas of natural uranium mining and milling, conversion, enrichment, depleted uranium disposition, fuel fabrication, interim spent fuel storage, reprocessing, waste conditioning, spent nuclear fuel (SNF) packaging, long-term monitored retrievable storage, near surface disposal of low-level waste (LLW), geologic repository and other disposal concepts, and transportation processes for nuclear fuel, LLW, SNF, transuranic, and high-level waste.

D. E. Shropshire; K. A. Williams; W. B. Boore; J. D. Smith; B. W. Dixon; M. Dunzik-Gougar; R. D. Adams; D. Gombert; E. Schneider

2008-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

408

Advanced Fuel Cycle Cost Basis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report, commissioned by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), provides a comprehensive set of cost data supporting a cost analysis for the relative economic comparison of options for use in the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) Program. The report describes the AFCI cost basis development process, reference information on AFCI cost modules, a procedure for estimating fuel cycle costs, economic evaluation guidelines, and a discussion on the integration of cost data into economic computer models. This report contains reference cost data for 26 cost modulesó24 fuel cycle cost modules and 2 reactor modules. The cost modules were developed in the areas of natural uranium mining and milling, conversion, enrichment, depleted uranium disposition, fuel fabrication, interim spent fuel storage, reprocessing, waste conditioning, spent nuclear fuel (SNF) packaging, long-term monitored retrievable storage, near surface disposal of low-level waste (LLW), geologic repository and other disposal concepts, and transportation processes for nuclear fuel, LLW, SNF, and high-level waste.

D. E. Shropshire; K. A. Williams; W. B. Boore; J. D. Smith; B. W. Dixon; M. Dunzik-Gougar; R. D. Adams; D. Gombert

2007-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

Geometry of the smooth dual of GL(n).  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Let A(n) be the smooth dual of the p-adic group G=GL(n). We create on A(n) the structure of a complex algebraic variety. There is a morphism of A(n) onto the Bernstein variety Omega G which is injective on each component of A(n). The tempered dual of G is a deformation retract of A(n). The periodic cyclic homology of the Hecke algebra of G is isomorphic to the periodised de Rham cohomology supported on finitely many components of A(n).

Jacek Brodzki; Roger Plymen

410

Dual design resistor for high voltage conditioning and transmission lines  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A dual resistor for eliminating the requirement for two different value resistors. The dual resistor includes a conditioning resistor at a high resistance value and a run resistor at a low resistance value. The run resistor can travel inside the conditioning resistor. The run resistor is capable of being advanced by a drive assembly until an electrical path is completed through the run resistor thereby shorting out the conditioning resistor and allowing the lower resistance run resistor to take over as the current carrier.

Siggins, Timothy Lynn (Newport News, VA); Murray, Charles W. (Hayes, VA); Walker, Richard L. (Norfolk, VA)

2007-01-23T23:59:59.000Z

411

Salinity controls on trophic interactions among invertebrates and algae of solar evaporation ponds in the Mojave Desert and relation to shorebird foraging and selenium risk  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

AMONG INVERTEBRATES AND ALGAE OF SOLAR EVAPORATION PONDS INplanktonic invertebrates and algae present along with avianof invertebrates and algae, and avian foraging were examined

Herbst, David B

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

412

Interpretation of time-of-flight distributions for neutral particles under pulsed laser evaporation using direct Monte Carlo simulation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A theoretical study of the time-of-flight (TOF) distributions under pulsed laser evaporation in vacuum has been performed. A database of TOF distributions has been calculated by the direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method. It is shown that describing experimental TOF signals through the use of the calculated TOF database combined with a simple analysis of evaporation allows determining the irradiated surface temperature and the rate of evaporation. Analysis of experimental TOF distributions under laser ablation of niobium, copper, and graphite has been performed, with the evaluated surface temperature being well agreed with results of the thermal model calculations. General empirical dependences are proposed, which allow indentifying the regime of the laser induced thermal ablation from the TOF distributions for neutral particles without invoking the DSMC-calculated database.

Morozov, Alexey A., E-mail: morozov@itp.nsc.ru [Institute of Thermophysics SB RAS, 1 Lavrentyev Ave., 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

2013-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

413

Analysis Of 2H-Evaporator Scale Wall [HTF-13-82] And Pot Bottom [HTF-13-77] Samples  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Savannah River Remediation (SRR) is planning to remove a buildup of sodium aluminosilicate scale from the 2H-evaporator pot by loading and soaking the pot with heated 1.5 M nitric acid solution. Sampling and analysis of the scale material has been performed so that uranium and plutonium isotopic analysis can be input into a Nuclear Criticality Safety Assessment (NCSA) for scale removal by chemical cleaning. Historically, since the operation of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), silicon in the DWPF recycle stream combines with aluminum in the typical tank farm supernate to form sodium aluminosilicate scale mineral deposits in the 2H-evaporator pot and gravity drain line. The 2H-evaporator scale samples analyzed by Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) came from two different locations within the evaporator pot; the bottom cone sections of the 2H-evaporator pot [Sample HTF-13-77] and the wall 2H-evaporator [sample HTF-13-82]. X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) confirmed that both the 2H-evaporator pot scale and the wall samples consist of nitrated cancrinite (a crystalline sodium aluminosilicate solid) and clarkeite (a uranium oxyhydroxide mineral). On ''as received'' basis, the bottom pot section scale sample contained an average of 2.59E+00 {+-} 1.40E-01 wt % total uranium with a U-235 enrichment of 6.12E-01 {+-} 1.48E-02 %, while the wall sample contained an average of 4.03E+00 {+-} 9.79E-01 wt % total uranium with a U-235 enrichment of 6.03E-01% {+-} 1.66E-02 wt %. The bottom pot section scale sample analyses results for Pu-238, Pu-239, and Pu-241 are 3.16E-05 {+-} 5.40E-06 wt %, 3.28E-04 {+-} 1.45E-05 wt %, and <8.80E-07 wt %, respectively. The evaporator wall scale samples analysis values for Pu-238, Pu-239, and Pu-241 averages 3.74E-05 {+-} 6.01E-06 wt %, 4.38E-04 {+-} 5.08E-05 wt %, and <1.38E-06 wt %, respectively. The Pu-241 analyses results, as presented, are upper limit values. For these two evaporator scale samples obtained at two different locations within the evaporator pot the major radioactive components (on a mass basis) in the additional radionuclide analyses were Sr-90, Cs-137 Np-237, Pu-239/240 and Th-232. Small quantities of americium and curium were detected in the blanks used for Am/Cm method for these radionuclides. These trace radionuclide amounts are assumed to come from airborne contamination in the shielded cells drying or digestion oven, which has been replaced. Therefore, the Am/Cm results, as presented, may be higher than the true Am/Cm values for these samples. These results are provided so that SRR can calculate the equivalent uranium-235 concentrations for the NCSA. Results confirm that the uranium contained in the scale remains depleted with respect to natural uranium. SRNL did not calculate an equivalent U-235 enrichment, which takes into account other fissionable isotopes U-233, Pu-239 and Pu-241. The applicable method for calculation of equivalent U-235 will be determined in the NCSA. With a few exceptions, a comparison of select radionuclides measurements from this 2013 2H evaporator scale characterization (pot bottom and wall scale samples) with those measurements for the same radionuclides in the 2010 2H evaporator scale analysis shows that the radionuclide analysis for both years are fairly comparable; the analyses results are about the same order of magnitude.

Oji, L. N.

2013-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

414

The dark matter self-interaction and its impact on the critical mass for dark matter evaporations inside the sun  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We study the capture, annihilation and evaporation of dark matter (DM) inside the Sun. It has been shown that the DM self-interaction can increase the DM number inside the Sun. We demonstrate that this enhancement becomes more significant in the regime of small DM mass, given a fixed DM self-interaction cross section. This leads to the enhancement of neutrino flux from DM annihilation. On the other hand, for DM mass as low as as a few GeVs, not only the DM-nuclei scatterings can cause the DM evaporation, DM self-interaction also provides non-negligible contributions to this effect. Consequently, the critical mass for DM evaporation (typically 3 ~ 4 GeV without the DM self-interaction) can be slightly increased. We discuss the prospect of detecting DM self-interaction in IceCube- PINGU using the annihilation channels $\\chi\\chi\\rightarrow\

Chian-Shu Chen; Fei-Fan Lee; Guey-Lin Lin; Yen-Hsun Lin

2014-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

415

Instabilities and Anti-Evaporation of Reissner-NordstrŲm Black Holes in modified $F(R)$ gravity  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We study the instabilities and related anti-evaporation of the extremal Reissner-Nordstr\\"om (RN) black hole in $F(R)$ gravity. It is remarkable that the effective electric charge can be generated for some solutions of $F(R)$ gravity without electromagnetic field. The anti-evaporation effect occurs but it emerges only in the strong coupling limit of the effective gravitational coupling. The instabilities of RN black hole are also investigated when the electromagnetic sector is added to the action of $F(R)$ gravity. We show the anti-evaporation occurs in the Maxwell-$F(R)$ gravity with the arbitrary gravitational coupling constant although it does not occur in the Maxwell-Einstein gravity. Furthermore, general spherically-symmetric solution of $F(R)$ gravity in the Einstein frame is obtained.

Shin'ichi Nojiri; Sergei D. Odintsov

2014-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

416

Profit cycle dynamics by Kawika Pierson.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

My thesis consists of three essays investigating the existence, causes, and mitigation of profit cycles at an industry level. The first essay examines profit cycles by proposing that the industry-specific features of how ...

Pierson, Kawika (Kawika Paul)

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

417

Rethinking the light water reactor fuel cycle  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The once through nuclear fuel cycle adopted by the majority of countries with operating commercial power reactors imposes a number of concerns. The radioactive waste created in the once through nuclear fuel cycle has to ...

Shwageraus, Evgeni, 1973-

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

418

An evaluation of subsea pump technologies that can be used to achieve dual gradient drilling  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Dual Gradient Drilling is an exciting technology which promises to solve the current technical hurdles and economic risks of Deepwater Drilling. Several techniques for Dual Gradient Drilling have been proposed to the industry. One such method...

Oluwadairo, Tolulope

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

419

Variable Speed Drive (VSD) Applications in Dual-Duct Constant Volume Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Models have been developed for static pressure and potential supply fan energy savings by using variable speed drive (VSD) in dual-duct constant volume systems. Experiments have been performed using a full size dual-duct constant volume system...

Joo, I.; Liu, M.; Conger, K.; Wang, G.

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

420

Solution of symmetry equation and hierarchy of self dual Yang-Mills systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The solution of symmetry equation of Yang-Mills self dual system is found in explicit form of its raising Hamiltonian operator. Thus explicit form of equations of self dual Yang Mills hierarchy is constructed.

A. N. Leznov

2008-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dual evaporator cycle" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

DESIGN OF DUAL PHASE Fe/Mn/C STEEL FOR LOW TEMPERATURE APPLICATION  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and Properties of Dual- Phase Steels, R. A. Kot and J. \\4.Properties of Dual Phase Steels, R. A. Kot and J. W. ~lorrisand Hardenability in Steels, Symp. ASt~. ~. Garvey, Trans.

Kim, Nack-Joon

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

422

Search for relationship between duration of the extended solar cycles and amplitude of sunspot cycle  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Duration of the extended solar cycles is taken into the consideration. The beginning of cycles is counted from the moment of polarity reversal of large-scale magnetic field in high latitudes, occurring in the sunspot cycle n till the minimum of the cycle n+2. The connection between cycle duration and its amplitude is established. Duration of the "latent" period of evolution of extended cycle between reversals and a minimum of the current sunspot cycle is entered. It is shown, that the latent period of cycles evolution is connected with the next sunspot cycle amplitude and can be used for the prognosis of a level and time of a sunspot maximum. The 24-th activity cycle prognosis is done. Long-term behavior of extended cycle's lengths is considered.

A. G. Tlatov

2007-03-27T23:59:59.000Z

423

Search for relationship between duration of the extended solar cycles and amplitude of sunspot cycle  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Duration of the extended solar cycles is taken into the consideration. The beginning of cycles is counted from the moment of polarity reversal of large-scale magnetic field in high latitudes, occurring in the sunspot cycle n till the minimum of the cycle n+2. The connection between cycle duration and its amplitude is established. Duration of the "latent" period of evolution of extended cycle between reversals and a minimum of the current sunspot cycle is entered. It is shown, that the latent period of cycles evolution is connected with the next sunspot cycle amplitude and can be used for the prognosis of a level and time of a sunspot maximum. The 24-th activity cycle prognosis is done. Long-term behavior of extended cycle's lengths is considered.

Tlatov, A G

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

424

Eddy Fluxes and Sensitivity of the Water Cycle to Spatial Resolution in Idealized Regional Aquaplanet Model Simulations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A multi-scale moisture budget analysis is used to identify the mechanisms responsible for the sensitivity of the water cycle to spatial resolution using idealized regional aquaplanet simulations. In the higher resolution simulations, moisture transport by eddies fluxes dry the boundary layer enhancing evaporation and precipitation. This effect of eddies, which is underestimated by the physics parameterizations in the low-resolution simulations, is found to be responsible for the sensitivity of the water cycle both directly, and through its upscale effect, on the mean circulation. Correlations among moisture transport by eddies at adjacent ranges of scales provides the potential for reducing this sensitivity by representing the unresolved eddies by their marginally resolved counterparts.

Hagos, Samson M.; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Gustafson, William I.; Singh, Balwinder

2014-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

425

Development Plan for the Fuel Cycle Simulator  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Fuel Cycle Simulator (FCS) project was initiated late in FY-10 as the activity to develop a next generation fuel cycle dynamic analysis tool for achieving the Systems Analysis Campaign 'Grand Challenge.' This challenge, as documented in the Campaign Implementation Plan, is to: 'Develop a fuel cycle simulator as part of a suite of tools to support decision-making, communication, and education, that synthesizes and visually explains the multiple attributes of potential fuel cycles.'

Brent Dixon

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

426

TESTING OF THE DUAL ROTARY FILTER SYSTEM  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) installed and tested two hydraulically connected SpinTek rotary microfilter (RMF) units to determine the behavior of a multiple filter system. Both units were successfully controlled by a control scheme written in DELTA-V architecture by Savannah River Remediation (SRR) Process Control Engineering personnel. The control system was tuned to provide satisfactory response to changing conditions during the operation of the multi-filter system. Stability was maintained through the startup and shutdown of one of the filter units while the second was still in operation. The installation configuration originally proposed by the Small Colum Ion Exchange (SCIX) project of independent filter and motor mountings may be susceptible to vibration. Significant stiffening of the filter and motor mounts was required to minimize the vibration. Alignment of the motor to the filter was a challenge in this test configuration. The deployment configuration must be easy to manipulate and allow for fine adjustment. An analysis of the vibration signature of the test system identified critical speeds. Whether it corresponds to the resonance frequency of a rotor radial vibration mode that was excited by rotor unbalance is uncertain based upon the measurements. A relative motion series should be completed on the filter with the final shaft configuration to determine if the resonances exist in the final filter design. The instrumentation selected for deployment, including the concentrate discharge control valve and flow meters, performed well. Automation of the valve control integrated well with the control scheme and when used in concert with the other control variables, allowed automated control of the dual RMF system. The one area of concern with the instrumentation was the condition resulting when the filtrate flow meter operated with less than three gpm. This low flow was at the lower range of performance for the flow meter. This should not be an issue in deployment where the desired flow rate will be within the normal operating range of the meter. Testing demonstrated that the use of a flexible line for the filtrate discharge is highly desired at the outlet of the rotary union to transition to the system piping. Isolating the vibration from the rotary union will significantly improve the lifetime of the seals. Methods to monitor and isolate individual filters should be considered during deployment. The ability to diagnose issues and isolate individual filters would allow isolation prior to failure. Thus, filters may be cleaned or repaired instead of requiring complete replacement if the condition were to continue unnoticed. Isolating the filtrate line of each filter during startup will minimize the premature buildup of solids on the filter disks. Several tests have shown that the method of filter startup can improve performance lifetime of the filters. The installation must factor in an air inlet for the draining of a filter that does not involve a reverse flow through the filter disks. The reverse flow may cause deformation of the disks or may damage other components of the filters themselves.

Herman, D.; Fowley, M.; Stefanko, D.

2011-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

427

Efficiencies of Solar Tracker systems with static panel Single- Axis Tracking System and Dual-Axis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

solar tracking system for single axis as well as for dual axis. In a fixed form their efficiency is low

unknown authors

428

D-Cycle - 4-Differential -Stroke Cycle | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-Up fromDepartmentTieCelebratePartners with Siemens31, 2015ofVisualizationD-Cycle -

429

SPACETELESCOPESCIENCEINSTITUTE WFPC2 Cycle 14 Calibration  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

/chip combinations used for science in Cycle 14 + Close Out ~10% reserve 2 Placeholder for unexpected items. TOTALSPACETELESCOPESCIENCEINSTITUTE WFPC2 Cycle 14 Calibration Director's Review 8 August 2005 John Biretta 1 Cycle 14 WFPC2 Calibration Plan Overall Goals: · Monitor & maintain WFPC2 health & safety

Sirianni, Marco

430

How Minds Work The IDA Cognitive Cycle  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 How Minds Work The IDA Cognitive Cycle Stan Franklin Computer Science Division & Institute for Intelligent Systems The University of Memphis #12;HMW: The IDA Cognitive Cycle 2 Memory Systems #12;HMW: The IDA Cognitive Cycle 3 Global Workspace Theory I · The nervous system is a distributed parallel

Memphis, University of

431

Generating Resources Combined Cycle Combustion Turbine  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

11/17/2014 1 Generating Resources Combined Cycle Combustion Turbine Utility Scale Solar PV Steven doing recently around two key supply-side resource technologies 1. Combined Cycle Combustion Turbine #12;11/17/2014 4 Combined Cycle Combustion Turbine Background Primary Components Gas-fired combustion

432

The Path to Sustainable Nuclear Energy. Basic and Applied Research Opportunities for Advanced Fuel Cycles  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this report is to identify new basic science that will be the foundation for advances in nuclear fuel-cycle technology in the near term, and for changing the nature of fuel cycles and of the nuclear energy industry in the long term. The goals are to enhance the development of nuclear energy, to maximize energy production in nuclear reactor parks, and to minimize radioactive wastes, other environmental impacts, and proliferation risks. The limitations of the once-through fuel cycle can be overcome by adopting a closed fuel cycle, in which the irradiated fuel is reprocessed and its components are separated into streams that are recycled into a reactor or disposed of in appropriate waste forms. The recycled fuel is irradiated in a reactor, where certain constituents are partially transmuted into heavier isotopes via neutron capture or into lighter isotopes via fission. Fast reactors are required to complete the transmutation of long-lived isotopes. Closed fuel cycles are encompassed by the Department of Energy?s Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI), to which basic scientific research can contribute. Two nuclear reactor system architectures can meet the AFCI objectives: a ?single-tier? system or a ?dual-tier? system. Both begin with light water reactors and incorporate fast reactors. The ?dual-tier? systems transmute some plutonium and neptunium in light water reactors and all remaining transuranic elements (TRUs) in a closed-cycle fast reactor. Basic science initiatives are needed in two broad areas: ? Near-term impacts that can enhance the development of either ?single-tier? or ?dual-tier? AFCI systems, primarily within the next 20 years, through basic research. Examples: Dissolution of spent fuel, separations of elements for TRU recycling and transmutation Design, synthesis, and testing of inert matrix nuclear fuels and non-oxide fuels Invention and development of accurate on-line monitoring systems for chemical and nuclear species in the nuclear fuel cycle Development of advanced tools for designing reactors with reduced margins and lower costs ? Long-term nuclear reactor development requires basic science breakthroughs: Understanding of materials behavior under extreme environmental conditions Creation of new, efficient, environmentally benign chemical separations methods Modeling and simulation to improve nuclear reaction cross-section data, design new materials and separation system, and propagate uncertainties within the fuel cycle Improvement of proliferation resistance by strengthening safeguards technologies and decreasing the attractiveness of nuclear materials A series of translational tools is proposed to advance the AFCI objectives and to bring the basic science concepts and processes promptly into the technological sphere. These tools have the potential to revolutionize the approach to nuclear engineering R&D by replacing lengthy experimental campaigns with a rigorous approach based on modeling, key fundamental experiments, and advanced simulations.

Finck, P.; Edelstein, N.; Allen, T.; Burns, C.; Chadwick, M.; Corradini, M.; Dixon, D.; Goff, M.; Laidler, J.; McCarthy, K.; Moyer, B.; Nash, K.; Navrotsky, A.; Oblozinsky, P.; Pasamehmetoglu, K.; Peterson, P.; Sackett, J.; Sickafus, K. E.; Tulenko, J.; Weber, W.; Morss, L.; Henry, G.

2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

433

Evaporation-assisted high-power impulse magnetron sputtering: The deposition of tungsten oxide as a case study  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The deposition rate during the synthesis of tungsten trioxide thin films by reactive high-power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) of a tungsten target increases, above the dc threshold, as a result of the appropriate combination of the target voltage, the pulse duration, and the amount of oxygen in the reactive atmosphere. This behavior is likely to be caused by the evaporation of the low melting point tungsten trioxide layer covering the metallic target in such working conditions. The HiPIMS process is therefore assisted by thermal evaporation of the target material.

Hemberg, Axel; Dauchot, Jean-Pierre; Snyders, Rony; Konstantinidis, Stephanos [Materia Nova Research Center-Parc Initialis, 1, Avenue Copernic, B-7000 Mons, Belgium and Chimie des Interactions Plasma-Surface, CIRMAP, Universite de Mons-20, Place du Parc, B-7000 Mons (Belgium); Chimie des Interactions Plasma-Surface, CIRMAP, Universite de Mons-20, Place du Parc, B-7000 Mons (Belgium); Materia Nova Research Center-Parc Initialis, 1, Avenue Copernic, B-7000 Mons (Belgium) and Chimie des Interactions Plasma-Surface, CIRMAP, Universite de Mons-20, Place du Parc, B-7000 Mons (Belgium); Chimie des Interactions Plasma-Surface, CIRMAP, Universite de Mons-20, Place du Parc, B-7000 Mons (Belgium)

2012-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

434

Desiccant Enhanced Evaporative Air-Conditioning (DEVap): Evaluation of a New Concept in Ultra Efficient Air Conditioning  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

NREL has developed the novel concept of a desiccant enhanced evaporative air conditioner (DEVap) with the objective of combining the benefits of liquid desiccant and evaporative cooling technologies into an innovative 'cooling core.' Liquid desiccant technologies have extraordinary dehumidification potential, but require an efficient cooling sink. DEVap's thermodynamic potential overcomes many shortcomings of standard refrigeration-based direct expansion cooling. DEVap decouples cooling and dehumidification performance, which results in independent temperature and humidity control. The energy input is largely switched away from electricity to low-grade thermal energy that can be sourced from fuels such as natural gas, waste heat, solar, or biofuels.

Kozubal, E.; Woods, J.; Burch, J.; Boranian, A.; Merrigan, T.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

435

Silicon dioxide and hafnium dioxide evaporation characteristics from a high-frequency sweep e-beam system  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Reactive oxygen evaporation characteristics were determined as a function of the front-panel control parameters provided by a programmable, high-frequency sweep e-beam system. An experimental design strategy used deposition rate, beam speed, pattern, azimuthal rotation speed, and dwell time as the variables. The optimal settings for obtaining a broad thickness distribution, efficient silicon dioxide boule consumption, and minimal hafnium dioxide defect density were generated. The experimental design analysis showed the compromises involved with evaporating these oxides. {copyright} {ital 1996 Optical Society of America.}

Chow, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94551-0808 (United States); Tsujimoto, N. [MDC Vacuum Products Corporation, Hayward, California 94545 (United States)

1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

436

A Preliminary Cost Study of the Dual Mode Inverter Controller  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In 1998, the Power Electronics and Electric Machinery Research Center (PEEMRC) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) started a program to investigate alternate field weakening schemes for permanent magnet (PM) motors. The adjective ''alternate'' was used because at that time, outside research emphasis was on motors with interior-mounted PMs (IPMs). The PEEMRC emphasis was placed on motors with surface-mounted PMs (SPMs) because of the relative ease of manufacturing SPM motors compared with the IPM motors. Today the PEEMRC is continuing research on SPMs while examining the IPMs that have been developed by industry. Out of this task--the goal of which was to find ways to drive PM motors that inherently have low inductance at high speeds where their back-emf exceeds the supply voltage--ORNL developed and demonstrated the dual mode inverter control (DMIC) [1,2] method of field weakening for SPM motors. The predecessor of DMIC is conventional phase advance (CPA), which was developed by UQM Technologies, Inc. [3]. Fig. 1 shows the three sets of anti-parallel thyristors in the dashed box that comprise the DMIC. If one removes the dashed box by shorting each set of anti-parallel thyristors, the configuration becomes a conventional full bridge inverter on the left driving a three phase motor on the right. CPA may be used to drive this configuration ORNL's initial analyses of CPA and DMIC were based on driving motors with trapezoidal back-emfs [4-6], obtained using double layer lapped stator windings with one slot per pole per phase. A PM motor with a sinusoidal back-emf obtained with two poles per slot per phase has been analyzed under DMIC operation as a University of Tennessee-Knoxville (UTK) doctoral dissertation [7]. In the process of this research, ORNL has completed an analysis that explains and quantifies the role of inductance in these methods of control. The Appendix includes information on the equations for the three components of phase inductance, L{sub gap}, L{sub slot}, and L{sub endturns}. PM motors inherently have a lower inductance because of the increase in effective air gap caused by the magnet, which is in the denominator of the equation for L{sub gap}. L{sub gap} accounts for about half of the phase inductance. Because of the low inductance, there is a propensity for currents to exceed the motor's rated value. DMIC solves this problem for low-inductance PM motors and, in addition, provides a number of safety features that protect against uncontrolled generator mode operation [8,9]; however, the DMIC topology adds a pair of anti-parallel thyristors in each of the three phases, thereby introducing additional silicon costs as well as additional voltage drops during operation. It poses the tradeoff question; under what conditions can the beneficial features of DMIC offset its additional silicon cost and voltage drop losses? The purpose of this report is to address the tradeoff question. Sections of the report will: (1) review the role of self-inductance in performance and control of PM motors, (2) discuss the bounding inductances for motors with trapezoidal back-emfs under CPA control, (3) discuss the bounding inductances for trapezoidal back-emfs under DMIC, (4) discuss the bounding inductances for the PM synchronous motor (PMSM), (5) present the analysis showing how DMIC minimizes current in PMSMs, (6) present the results of a cost study conducted for two motors driven using a CPA inverter and for two motors driven using DMIC, (7) discuss estimating life cycle cost benefits, and (8) present conclusions.

McKeever, J.W.

2005-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

437

A Dual-Armed Robotic System for Intraoperative Ultrasound Guided Hepatic Ablative Therapy:A  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A Dual-Armed Robotic System for Intraoperative Ultrasound Guided Hepatic Ablative Therapy, we propose the use of a dual robotic arm system that manages both ultrasound manipulation and needle guidance. We report a prototype of the dual arm system and a comparative performance analysis between

Camesano, Terri

438

Contrast limitations of dual electrochromic systems J. Padilla *, T.F. Otero *  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Contrast limitations of dual electrochromic systems J. Padilla *, T.F. Otero * Center characterize any combination of a dual electrochromic system as a function of the redox charge of its reserved. Keywords: Conducting polymer; Electrochromism; Maximum contrast; Dual system; PEDOT; ProDOT 1

Otero, Toribio Fern√°ndez

439

An Evaluation of the Impacts of Network Bandwidth and Dual-Core Processors on  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and scaling on a large-scale dual-core system. We provide results for multiple representative DOE applicationsAn Evaluation of the Impacts of Network Bandwidth and Dual-Core Processors on Scalability Ron hardware. Single-core 2.0 GHz AMD Opteron pro- cessors were replaced with dual-core 2.4 GHz AMD Opterons

Brightwell, Ron

440

Dual formulation of the utility maximization problem : the case of nonsmooth utility  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, finitely valued on the whole real line, we study the dual formulation of the utility maximization problemDual formulation of the utility maximization problem : the case of nonsmooth utility B. Bouchard the dual formulation of the utility maximization problem in incomplete markets when the utility function

Touzi, Nizar

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dual evaporator cycle" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Indexing Moving Objects by Space Filling Curves in the Dual Space  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Bdual ­ tree: Indexing Moving Objects by Space Filling Curves in the Dual Space By Man Lung Yiu Objects by Space Filling Curves in the Dual Space Introduction Related work Problem definition: Indexing Moving Objects by Space Filling Curves in the Dual Space Introduction Related work Problem

Kaiserslautern, Universität

442

THERMAL CHARACTERISTICS OF MICROINVERTERS ON DUAL-AXIS MOHAMMAD AKRAM HOSSAIN  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

THERMAL CHARACTERISTICS OF MICROINVERTERS ON DUAL-AXIS TRACKERS by MOHAMMAD AKRAM HOSSAIN Submitted of Microinverters on Dual-axis Trackers Case Western Reserve University Case School of Graduate Studies We hereby to science and the pursuit of progress. #12;Thermal Characteristics of Microinverters on Dual-axis Trackers

Rollins, Andrew M.

443

DualPhase HotPress Forming Alloy H. K. D. H. Bhadeshia a,b  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

steels, before transfer into the forming press. Key words: Hot press­forming, dual phase steel. There are many varieties of such steels, for example those which are TRIP­assisted [1­6] or the dual­phase steels that subsequent quenching leads to a dual­phase steel. A potential advantage of this mixture of allotriomorphic

Cambridge, University of

444

REPORT ON THE ANALYSIS OF WAC SAMPLES FROM EVAPORATOR OVERHEADS FOR 2011  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report tabulates the chemical analysis of the 3H, 2H and 2F evaporator overhead samples including the inorganic, organic, and radionuclide species according the ETP WAC (rev.4). In addition, the physical properties including pH, total suspended solids, and average particle size are listed for each sample. The report identifies all sample receipt dates, preparation methods, and analyses completed to accumulate these values. All values were found to be within the ETP WAC specifications for WWCT except for the {sup 137}Cs concentration for the 2F sample which was slightly above the limit ({approx}5%). However, tank farm personnel sample each tank overhead for beta/gamma prior to transfer using a pulse height analyzer and these field readings were all well within limits. Additional actions will be taken to help understand the reason in the discrepancy of the field measurement versus laboratory analysis.

Washington, A.

2012-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

445

Indirect evaporative cooler using membrane-contained, liquid desiccant for dehumidification  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An indirect evaporative cooler for cooling inlet supply air from a first temperature to a second, lower temperature using a stream of liquid coolant and a stream of exhaust or purge air. The cooler includes a first flow channel for inlet supply air and a second flow channel adjacent the first for exhaust air. The first and second flow channels are defined in part by sheets of a membrane permeable to water vapor such that mass is transferred as a vapor through the membrane from the inlet supply air to a contained liquid desiccant for dehumidification and also to the exhaust air as heat is transferred from the inlet supply air to the liquid coolant. A separation wall divides the liquid desiccant and the coolant but allows heat to be transferred from the supply air to the coolant which releases water vapor to the counter or cross flowing exhaust air.

Kozubal, Eric Joseph; Slayzak, Steven Joseph

2014-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

446

Evaporative CO2 cooling using microchannels etched in silicon for the future LHCb vertex detector  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The extreme radiation dose received by vertex detectors at the Large Hadron Collider dictates stringent requirements on their cooling systems. To be robust against radiation damage, sensors should be maintained below -20 degree C and at the same time, the considerable heat load generated in the readout chips and the sensors must be removed. Evaporative CO2 cooling using microchannels etched in a silicon plane in thermal contact with the readout chips is an attractive option. In this paper, we present the first results of microchannel prototypes with circulating, two-phase CO2 and compare them to simulations. We also discuss a practical design of upgraded VELO detector for the LHCb experiment employing this approach.

A. Nomerotski; J. Buytart; P. Collins; R. Dumps; E. Greening; M. John; A. Mapelli; A. Leflat; Y. Li; G. Romagnoli; B. Verlaat

2013-02-16T23:59:59.000Z

447

Preparation and characterization of indium zinc oxide thin films by electron beam evaporation technique  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this work, the preparation of In{sub 2}O{sub 3}-ZnO thin films by electron beam evaporation technique on glass substrates is reported. Optical and electrical properties of these films were investigated. The effect of dopant amount and annealing temperature on the optical and electrical properties of In{sub 2}O{sub 3}-ZnO thin films was also studied. Different amount of ZnO was used as dopant and the films were annealed at different temperature. The results showed that the most crystalline, transparent and uniform films with lowest resistivity were obtained using 25 wt% of ZnO annealed at 500 {sup o}C.

Keshavarzi, Reza [Chemistry Department, Catalysis Division, University of Isfahan, Isfahan 81746-73441 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)] [Chemistry Department, Catalysis Division, University of Isfahan, Isfahan 81746-73441 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mirkhani, Valiollah, E-mail: mirkhani@sci.ui.ac.ir [Chemistry Department, Catalysis Division, University of Isfahan, Isfahan 81746-73441 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)] [Chemistry Department, Catalysis Division, University of Isfahan, Isfahan 81746-73441 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Moghadam, Majid, E-mail: moghadamm@sci.ui.ac.ir [Chemistry Department, Catalysis Division, University of Isfahan, Isfahan 81746-73441 (Iran, Islamic Republic of) [Chemistry Department, Catalysis Division, University of Isfahan, Isfahan 81746-73441 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Nanotechnology Engineering, University of Isfahan, Isfahan 81746-73441 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Tangestaninejad, Shahram; Mohammadpoor-Baltork, Iraj [Chemistry Department, Catalysis Division, University of Isfahan, Isfahan 81746-73441 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)] [Chemistry Department, Catalysis Division, University of Isfahan, Isfahan 81746-73441 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Fallah, Hamid Reza; Dastjerdi, Mohammad Javad Vahid; Modayemzadeh, Hamed Reza [Department of Physics, University of Isfahan, Isfahan 81746-73441 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)] [Department of Physics, University of Isfahan, Isfahan 81746-73441 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2011-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

448

Light charged particle evaporation from hot ${31}^$P nucleus at E$^*$ ~ 60 MeV  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The energy spectra of evaporated light charged particles (LCP) $\\alpha$, p, d and t have been measured in $7^$Li(47 MeV) + ${24}^$Mg and ${19}^$F(96 MeV)+ ${12}^$C reactions. Both the systems populate the same compound nucleus ${31}^$F at excitation energy E$^*$ ~ 60 MeV. It has been observed that the light particle spectra obtained in Li + Mg reaction follow standard statistical model prediction, whereas a deformed configuration of the compound nucleus is needed to explain the LCP spectra for F + C reaction, which has been attributed to the effect of larger input angular momentum in the case of ${19}^$F(96 MeV)+ ${12}^$C system.

D. Bandyopadhyay; C. Bhattacharya; K. Krishan; S. Bhattacharya; S. K. Basu; A. Chatterjee; S. Kailas; A. Srivastava; K. Mahata

2002-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

449

Development of fluorocarbon evaporative cooling recirculators and controls for the ATLAS inner silicon tracker  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We report on the development of evaporative fluorocarbon cooling recirculators and their control systems for the ATLAS inner silicon tracker. We have developed a prototype circulator using a dry, hermetic compressor with C/sub 3/F/sup 8/ refrigerant, and have prototyped the remote-control analog pneumatic links for the regulation of coolant mass flows and operating temperatures that will be necessary in the magnetic field and radiation environment around ATLAS. pressure and flow measurement and control use 150+ channels of standard ATLAS LMB ("Local Monitor Board") DAQ and DACs on a multi-drop CAN network administered through a BridgeVIEW user interface. A hardwired thermal interlock system has been developed to cut power to individual silicon modules should their temperatures exceed safe values. Highly satisfactory performance of the circulator under steady state, partial-load and transient conditions was seen, with proportional fluid flow tuned to varying circuit power. Future developments, including a 6 kW...

Bayer, C; Bonneau, P; Bosteels, Michel; Burckhart, H J; Cragg, D; English, R; Hallewell, G D; Hallgren, BjŲrn I; Ilie, S; Kersten, S; Kind, P; Langedrag, K; Lindsay, S; Merkel, M; Stapnes, Steinar; Thadome, J; Vacek, V

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

450

Dual Polarized And Balanced Receivers At Millimeter And Submillimeter  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

is dedicated to my parents. #12;iv Acknowledgments First and foremost, I would like to express my heartiest, soccer, tennis, racket ball, and badminton. Finally, I thank my parents, my brother and sisters of strength and inspiration, and without whom I would have lost my way. #12;vi Dual Polarized and Balanced

Chattopadhyay, Goutam

451

Dual periodicities in the rotational modulation of Saturn narrowband emissions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Dual periodicities in the rotational modulation of Saturn narrowband emissions S.Y. Ye,1 D. A emissions is examined, restricting the spacecraft location to either the northern or the southern hemisphere of Saturn. It is found that in both hemispheres, the modulation period of 5 kHz narrowband emissions has two

Gurnett, Donald A.

452

LM13700/LM13700A Dual Operational Transconductance Amplifiers with  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

LM13700/LM13700A Dual Operational Transconductance Amplifiers with Linearizing Diodes and Buffers General Description The LM13700 series consists of two current controlled transconductance amplifiers of the amplifiers. The output buffers of the LM13700 differ from those of the LM13600 in that their input bias

Lanterman, Aaron

453

LM119/LM219/LM319 High Speed Dual Comparator  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

LM119/LM219/LM319 High Speed Dual Comparator General Description The LM119 series are precision higher gain and lower input currents than devices like the LM710. The uncommitted collector of the output stage makes the LM119 compatible with RTL, DTL and TTL as well as capable of driving lamps and relays

Lanterman, Aaron

454

Page 1 of 7 Catamount Software Architecture with Dual Core  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, Dual Core. 1.0 Background A massively parallel processor (MPP), high performance computing (HPC) system of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04- 94AL85000. synchronization on node specialization [3]. Sets of nodes in an MPP are designated to perform specific tasks, each running

Brightwell, Ron

455

Dual aperture dipole magnet with second harmonic component  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An improved dual aperture dipole electromagnet includes a second-harmonic frequency magnetic guide field winding which surrounds first harmonic frequency magnetic guide field windings associated with each aperture. The second harmonic winding and the first harmonic windings cooperate to produce resultant magnetic waveforms in the apertures which have extended acceleration and shortened reset portions of electromagnet operation.

Praeg, W.F.

1983-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

456

SMITH INVARIANTS AND DUAL GRADED GRAPHS ALEXANDER MILLER  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

SMITH INVARIANTS AND DUAL GRADED GRAPHS ALEXANDER MILLER Abstract. The aim of this paper the Smith invariants immediately, as the eigenvalues are completely understood [3, 15]. Furthermore, we. Background 1 1.1. Differential posets 1 1.2. Eigenvalues 3 1.3. Smith invariants 3 2. Conjecture for r

Weinberger, Hans

457

Petrov type I Condition and Dual Fluid Dynamics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Recently Lysov and Strominger [arXiv:1104.5502] showed that imposing Petrov type I condition on a $(p+1)$-dimensional timelike hypersurface embedded in a $(p+2)$-dimensional vacuum Einstein gravity reduces the degrees of freedom in the extrinsic curvature of the hypersurface to that of a fluid on the hypersurface, and that the leading-order Einstein constraint equations in terms of the mean curvature of the embedding give the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations of the dual fluid. In this paper we show that the non-relativistic fluid dual to vacuum Einstein gravity does not satisfy the Petrov type I condition at next order, unless additional constraint such as the irrotational condition is added. In addition, we show that this procedure can be inversed to derive the non-relativistic hydrodynamics with higher order corrections through imposing the Petrov type I condition, and that some second order transport coefficients can be extracted, but the dual "Petrov type I fluid" does not match the dual fluid constructed from the geometry of vacuum Einstein gravity in the non-relativistic limit. We discuss the procedure both on the finite cutoff surface via the non-relativistic hydrodynamic expansion and on the highly accelerated surface via the near horizon expansion.

Rong-Gen Cai; Li Li; Qing Yang; Yun-Long Zhang

2014-03-17T23:59:59.000Z

458

Dual aperture dipole magnet with second harmonic component  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An improved dual aperture dipole electromagnet includes a second-harmonic frequency magnetic guide field winding which surrounds first harmonic frequency magnetic guide field windings associated with each aperture. The second harmonic winding and the first harmonic windings cooperate to produce resultant magnetic waveforms in the apertures which have extended acceleration and shortened reset portions of electromagnet operation.

Praeg, Walter F. (Palos Park, IL)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

459

M. Bahrami ENSC 461 (S 11) Brayton Cycle 1 Open GasTurbine Cycle  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

generation. High thermal efficiencies up to 44%. Suitable for combined cycles (with steam power plantM. Bahrami ENSC 461 (S 11) Brayton Cycle 1 Open GasTurbine Cycle Fig.1: Schematic for an open gas-turbine cycle. Working Principal Fresh air enters the compressor at ambient temperature where its pressure

Bahrami, Majid

460

Combined-cycle solarised gas turbine with steam, organic and CO2 bottoming cycles  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Combined-cycle solarised gas turbine with steam, organic and CO2 bottoming cycles John Pye, Keith of the technical feasibility a solarised combined-cycle gas turbines with a dish concentrator, with several, optimised for the new SG4 collector. This study aims to determine whether a combined-cycle gas turbine (CCGT

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dual evaporator cycle" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Shaping the Globular Cluster Mass Function by Stellar-Dynamical Evaporation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We show that the globular cluster mass function (GCMF) in the Milky Way depends on cluster half-mass density (rho_h) in the sense that the turnover mass M_TO increases with rho_h while the width of the GCMF decreases. We argue that this is the expected signature of the slow erosion of a mass function that initially rose towards low masses, predominantly through cluster evaporation driven by internal two-body relaxation. We find excellent agreement between the observed GCMF -- including its dependence on internal density rho_h, central concentration c, and Galactocentric distance r_gc -- and a simple model in which the relaxation-driven mass-loss rates of clusters are approximated by -dM/dt = mu_ev ~ rho_h^{1/2}. In particular, we recover the well-known insensitivity of M_TO to r_gc. This feature does not derive from a literal ``universality'' of the GCMF turnover mass, but rather from a significant variation of M_TO with rho_h -- the expected outcome of relaxation-driven cluster disruption -- plus significant scatter in rho_h as a function of r_gc. Our conclusions are the same if the evaporation rates are assumed to depend instead on the mean volume or surface densities of clusters inside their tidal radii, as mu_ev ~ rho_t^{1/2} or mu_ev ~ Sigma_t^{3/4} -- alternative prescriptions that are physically motivated but involve cluster properties (rho_t and Sigma_t) that are not as well defined or as readily observable as rho_h. In all cases, the normalization of mu_ev required to fit the GCMF implies cluster lifetimes that are within the range of standard values (although falling towards the low end of this range). Our analysis does not depend on any assumptions or information about velocity anisotropy in the globular cluster system.

Dean E. McLaughlin; S. Michael Fall

2008-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

462

Heat capacity of quantum adsorbates: Hydrogen and helium on evaporated gold films  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The author has constructed an apparatus to make specific heat measurements of quantum gases adsorbed on metallic films at temperatures between 0.3 and 4 K. He has used this apparatus to study quench-condensed hydrogen films between 4 and 923 layers thick with J = 1 concentrations between 0.28 and 0.75 deposited on an evaporated gold surface. He has observed that the orientational ordering of the J = 1 molecules depends on the substrate temperature during deposition of the hydrogen film. He has inferred that the density of the films condensed at the lowest temperatures is 25% higher than in bulk H{sub 2} crystals and have observed that the structure of those films is affected by annealing at 3.4 K. The author has measured the J = 1 to J = 0 conversion rate to be comparable to that of the bulk for thick films; however, he found evidence that the gold surface catalyzes conversion in the first two to four layers. He has also used this apparatus to study films of {sup 4}He less than one layer thick adsorbed on an evaporated gold surface. He shows that the phase diagram of the system is similar to that for {sup 4}He/graphite although not as rich in structure, and the phase boundaries occur at different coverages and temperatures. At coverages below about half a layer and at sufficiently high temperatures, the {sup 4}He behaves like a two-dimensional noninteracting Bose gas. At lower temperatures and higher coverages, liquidlike and solidlike behavior is observed. The Appendix shows measurements of the far-infrared absorptivity of the high-{Tc} superconductor La{sub 1.87}Sr{sub 0.13}CuO{sub 4}.

Birmingham, J.T. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Physics]|[Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States). Materials Sciences Div.

1996-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

463

AC microcalorimetry of adsorbates on evaporated metal films: Orientational ordering of H sub 2 multilayers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have improved and extended a novel ac calorimetric technique for measuring the heat capacity of adsorbates on evaporated metal films. Metallic substrates are of particular interest in current studies of the thermodynamics of adsorbed molecules. The method described in the present work is only calorimetric technique which allows measurements of molecules on simple metallic surfaces. Among other improvements, we have achieved significant progress in the preparation and characterization of the evaporated metal film. We have applied this novel technique to a study of hydrogen multilayers on gold and sapphire substrates. We have shown that samples of normal-hydrogen with a nominal coverage n of approximately 25 monolayers (ML) undergo a bulk-like orientational ordering transition. The transition is suppressed as the coverage is decreased, and no sign of the transition remains above 1.6 K for n {approx} 1 ML. For n {approx lt} 8 ML, the peak in the heat capacity exhibits signs of finite-size effects. At higher coverages, finite-size effects are not observed, and the shape of the peak depends strongly on the substrate. We conclude that the peak is inhomogeneously broadened for n {approx lt} 8 ML. This work represents the first measurements of the heat capacity due to orientational ordering in adsorbed hydrogen. The results of an earlier experiment involving vibrational spectroscopy of adsorbed molecules are included in the Appendix. In this work, we have used infrared emission spectroscopy to study the spectral region in the vicinity of the C=O stretch vibration of bridge-bonded CO on Pt(111).

Phelps, R.B.

1991-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

464

AC microcalorimetry of adsorbates on evaporated metal films: Orientational ordering of H{sub 2} multilayers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have improved and extended a novel ac calorimetric technique for measuring the heat capacity of adsorbates on evaporated metal films. Metallic substrates are of particular interest in current studies of the thermodynamics of adsorbed molecules. The method described in the present work is only calorimetric technique which allows measurements of molecules on simple metallic surfaces. Among other improvements, we have achieved significant progress in the preparation and characterization of the evaporated metal film. We have applied this novel technique to a study of hydrogen multilayers on gold and sapphire substrates. We have shown that samples of normal-hydrogen with a nominal coverage n of approximately 25 monolayers (ML) undergo a bulk-like orientational ordering transition. The transition is suppressed as the coverage is decreased, and no sign of the transition remains above 1.6 K for n {approx} 1 ML. For n {approx_lt} 8 ML, the peak in the heat capacity exhibits signs of finite-size effects. At higher coverages, finite-size effects are not observed, and the shape of the peak depends strongly on the substrate. We conclude that the peak is inhomogeneously broadened for n {approx_lt} 8 ML. This work represents the first measurements of the heat capacity due to orientational ordering in adsorbed hydrogen. The results of an earlier experiment involving vibrational spectroscopy of adsorbed molecules are included in the Appendix. In this work, we have used infrared emission spectroscopy to study the spectral region in the vicinity of the C=O stretch vibration of bridge-bonded CO on Pt(111).

Phelps, R.B.

1991-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

465

Geographically Differentiated Life-cycle Impact Assessment of Human Health  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

indicators in life-cycle assessment (LCA). Human Ecologicalindicators in life-cycle assessment (LCA). Human EcologicalI explore how life-cycle assessment (LCA) results can

Humbert, Sebastien

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

466

Advanced Fuel Cycle Economic Sensitivity Analysis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A fuel cycle economic analysis was performed on four fuel cycles to provide a baseline for initial cost comparison using the Gen IV Economic Modeling Work Group G4 ECON spreadsheet model, Decision Programming Language software, the 2006 Advanced Fuel Cycle Cost Basis report, industry cost data, international papers, the nuclear power related cost study from MIT, Harvard, and the University of Chicago. The analysis developed and compared the fuel cycle cost component of the total cost of energy for a wide range of fuel cycles including: once through, thermal with fast recycle, continuous fast recycle, and thermal recycle.

David Shropshire; Kent Williams; J.D. Smith; Brent Boore

2006-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

467

Rankine cycle system and method  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A Rankine cycle waste heat recovery system uses a receiver with a maximum liquid working fluid level lower than the minimum liquid working fluid level of a sub-cooler of the waste heat recovery system. The receiver may have a position that is physically lower than the sub-cooler's position. A valve controls transfer of fluid between several of the components in the waste heat recovery system, especially from the receiver to the sub-cooler. The system may also have an associated control module.

Ernst, Timothy C.; Nelson, Christopher R.

2014-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

468

Importance of life cycle assessment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The paper presents Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) as a tool to assist the waste professional with integrated waste management. LCA can be the connection between the waste professional and designer/producer to permit the waste professional to encourage the design of products so material recovery is most efficient and markets can be better predicted. The waste professional can better monitor the involvement of the consumer in waste management by using LCA and looking upstream at how the consumer actually reacts to products and packaging. LCA can also help the waste professional better understand the waste stream.

Bridges, J.S.

1994-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

469

Dual-Energy CT Angiography in Peripheral Arterial Occlusive Disease  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We sought to study the accuracy of dual-energy computed tomographic angiography (DE-CTA) for the assessment of symptomatic peripheral arterial occlusive disease of the lower extremity by using the dual-energy bone removal technique compared with a commercially available conventional bone removal tool. Twenty patients underwent selective digital subtraction angiography and DE-CTA of the pelvis and lower extremities. CTA data were postprocessed with two different applications: conventional bone removal and dual-energy bone removal. All data were reconstructed and evaluated as 3D maximum-intensity projections. Time requirements for reconstruction were documented. Sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, and concordance of DE-CTA regarding degree of stenosis and vessel wall calcification were calculated. A total of 359 vascular segments were analyzed. Compared with digital subtraction angiography, sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy, respectively, of CTA was 97.2%, 94.1%, and 94.7% by the dual-energy bone removal technique. The conventional bone removal tool delivered a sensitivity of 77.1%, a specificity of 70.7%, and an accuracy of 72.0%. Best results for both postprocessing methods were achieved in the vascular segments of the upper leg. In severely calcified segments, sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy stayed above 90% by the dual-energy bone removal technique, whereas the conventional bone removal technique showed a substantial decrease of sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy. DE-CTA is a feasible and accurate diagnostic method in the assessment of symptomatic peripheral arterial occlusive disease. Results obtained by DE-CTA are superior to the conventional bone removal technique and less dependent on vessel wall calcifications.

Brockmann, Carolin, E-mail: carolin.brockmann@rad.ma.uni-heidelberg.de; Jochum, Susanne; Sadick, Maliha [University of Heidelberg, Department of Clinical Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Medical Faculty Mannheim (Germany); Huck, Kurt [University of Heidelberg, I. Medical Clinic, Medical Faculty Mannheim (Germany); Ziegler, Peter [University of Heidelberg, Department of Surgery, Medical Faculty Mannheim (Germany); Fink, Christian; Schoenberg, Stefan O.; Diehl, Steffen J. [University of Heidelberg, Department of Clinical Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Medical Faculty Mannheim (Germany)

2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

470

VISION: Verifiable Fuel Cycle Simulation Model  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The nuclear fuel cycle is a very complex system that includes considerable dynamic complexity as well as detail complexity. In the nuclear power realm, there are experts and considerable research and development in nuclear fuel development, separations technology, reactor physics and waste management. What is lacking is an overall understanding of the entire nuclear fuel cycle and how the deployment of new fuel cycle technologies affects the overall performance of the fuel cycle. The Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiativeís systems analysis group is developing a dynamic simulation model, VISION, to capture the relationships, timing and delays in and among the fuel cycle components to help develop an understanding of how the overall fuel cycle works and can transition as technologies are changed. This paper is an overview of the philosophy and development strategy behind VISION. The paper includes some descriptions of the model and some examples of how to use VISION.

Jacob J. Jacobson; Abdellatif M. Yacout; Gretchen E. Matthern; Steven J. Piet; David E. Shropshire

2009-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

471

MHD Integrated Topping Cycle Project  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The overall objective of the project is to design and construct prototypical hardware for an integrated MHD topping cycle, and conduct long duration proof-of-concept tests of integrated system at the US DOE Component Development and Integration Facility in Butte, Montana. The results of the long duration tests will augment the existing engineering design data base on MHD power train reliability, availability, maintainability, and performance, and will serve as a basis for scaling up the topping cycle design to the next level of development, an early commercial scale power plant retrofit. The components of the MHD power train to be designed, fabricated, and tested include: A slagging coal combustor with a rated capacity of 50 MW thermal input, capable of operation with an Eastern (Illinois {number sign}6) or Western (Montana Rosebud) coal, a segmented supersonic nozzle, a supersonic MHD channel capable of generating at least 1.5 MW of electrical power, a segmented supersonic diffuser section to interface the channel with existing facility quench and exhaust systems, a complete set of current control circuits for local diagonal current control along the channel, and a set of current consolidation circuits to interface the channel with the existing facility inverter.

Not Available

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

472

MHD Integrated Topping Cycle Project  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) Integrated Topping Cycle (ITC) Project represents the culmination of the proof-of-concept (POC) development stage in the US Department of Energy (DOE) program to advance MHD technology to early commercial development stage utility power applications. The project is a joint effort, combining the skills of three topping cycle component developers: TRW, Avco/TDS, and Westinghouse. TRW, the prime contractor and system integrator, is responsible for the 50 thermal megawatt (50 MW{sub t}) slagging coal combustion subsystem. Avco/TDS is responsible for the MHD channel subsystem (nozzle, channel, diffuser, and power conditioning circuits), and Westinghouse is responsible for the current consolidation subsystem. The ITC Project will advance the state-of-the-art in MHD power systems with the design, construction, and integrated testing of 50 MW{sub t} power train components which are prototypical of the equipment that will be used in an early commercial scale MHD utility retrofit. Long duration testing of the integrated power train at the Component Development and Integration Facility (CDIF) in Butte, Montana will be performed, so that by the early 1990's, an engineering data base on the reliability, availability, maintainability and performance of the system will be available to allow scaleup of the prototypical designs to the next development level. This Sixteenth Quarterly Technical Progress Report covers the period May 1, 1991 to July 31, 1991.

Not Available

1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

473

Technology development life cycle processes.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report and set of appendices are a collection of memoranda originally drafted in 2009 for the purpose of providing motivation and the necessary background material to support the definition and integration of engineering and management processes related to technology development. At the time there was interest and support to move from Capability Maturity Model Integration (CMMI) Level One (ad hoc processes) to Level Three. As presented herein, the material begins with a survey of open literature perspectives on technology development life cycles, including published data on %E2%80%9Cwhat went wrong.%E2%80%9D The main thrust of the material presents a rational expose%CC%81 of a structured technology development life cycle that uses the scientific method as a framework, with further rigor added from adapting relevant portions of the systems engineering process. The material concludes with a discussion on the use of multiple measures to assess technology maturity, including consideration of the viewpoint of potential users.

Beck, David Franklin

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

474

High level waste storage tank farms/242-A evaporator Standards/Requirements Identification Document (S/RID), Volume 6  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The High-Level Waste Storage Tank Farms/242-A Evaporator Standards/Requirements Identification Document (S/RID) is contained in multiple volumes. This document (Volume 6) outlines the standards and requirements for the sections on: Environmental Restoration and Waste Management, Research and Development and Experimental Activities, and Nuclear Safety.

Not Available

1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

475

Modelling of heating and evaporation of n-Heptane droplets: Towards a generic model for fuel droplet/particle conversion  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

is a part of a project that is targeted to optimize the pyrolysis process of biomass pellets for bio, study of pyrolysis of the biomass pellets and evaporation of the pyrolysis bio-oil droplets are two key of the biomass pellets in the pyrolysis reactor, for the purpose of optimiz- ing the pyrolysis process. Modelling

Yin, Chungen

476

An evaporation test based on Thermal Infra Red Remote-Sensing to select appropriate soil hydraulic properties  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

An evaporation test based on Thermal Infra Red Remote- Sensing to select appropriate soil hydraulic to estimate common soil hydraulic properties at regional scale. Since they rely on an empirical link between at large scales. Here we propose a method for selecting appropriate soil hydraulic properties based

Paris-Sud XI, Universitť de

477

Controlling the Texture and Crystallinity of Evaporated Lead Phthalocyanine Thin Films for Near-Infrared Sensitive Solar Cells  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Controlling the Texture and Crystallinity of Evaporated Lead Phthalocyanine Thin Films for Near-Infrared Sensitive Solar Cells Karolien Vasseur,, Katharina Broch,§ Alexander L. Ayzner, Barry P. Rand, David Cheyns: To achieve organic solar cells with a broadened spectral absorption, we aim to promote the growth of the near

Schreiber, Frank

478

FULL SCALE TESTING TECHNOLOGY MATURATION OF A THIN FILM EVAPORATOR FOR HIGH-LEVEL LIQUID WASTE MANAGEMENT AT HANFORD - 12125  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Simulant testing of a full-scale thin-film evaporator system was conducted in 2011 for technology development at the Hanford tank farms. Test results met objectives of water removal rate, effluent quality, and operational evaluation. Dilute tank waste simulant, representing a typical double-shell tank supernatant liquid layer, was concentrated from a 1.1 specific gravity to approximately 1.5 using a 4.6 m{sup 2} (50 ft{sup 2}) heated transfer area Rototherm{reg_sign} evaporator from Artisan Industries. The condensed evaporator vapor stream was collected and sampled validating efficient separation of the water. An overall decontamination factor of 1.2E+06 was achieved demonstrating excellent retention of key radioactive species within the concentrated liquid stream. The evaporator system was supported by a modular steam supply, chiller, and control computer systems which would be typically implemented at the tank farms. Operation of these support systems demonstrated successful integration while identifying areas for efficiency improvement. Overall testing effort increased the maturation of this technology to support final deployment design and continued project implementation.

TEDESCHI AR; CORBETT JE; WILSON RA; LARKIN J

2012-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

479

Influence of evaporative demand on aquaporin expression and root hydraulics of hybrid poplarpce_2331 1318..1331  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Influence of evaporative demand on aquaporin expression and root hydraulics of hybrid poplarpce_2331 1318..1331 ADRIANA M. ALMEIDA-RODRIGUEZ, UWE G. HACKE & JOAN LAUR Department of Renewable (Y), allowing continued gas exchange in hybrid poplar (Populus trichocarpa ¥ deltoides) saplings

Hacke, Uwe

480

Influence of contact angle on slow evaporation in 2D porous media. H.Chrabi1,2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the invasion percolation model with the computation of the diffusive transport in the gas phase. The overall, cooperative smoothing mechanisms of the interface become important and the width of the liquid gas interface fingers that form during the evaporation process increases. The mean overall drying time increases

Boyer, Edmond

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481

Dependence of recycling and edge profiles on lithium evaporation in high triangularity, high performance NSTX H-mode discharges  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Dependence of recycling and edge profiles on lithium evaporation in high triangularity, high between discharges in NSTX, partly to reduce recycling. Reduced D emissions from the lower and upper of the recycling light, improvements in global confinement16-19 , along with the appearance of ELM-free regimes20

Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory

482

High-level waste storage tank farms/242-A evaporator Standards/Requirements Identification Document (S/RID), Volume 4  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The High-Level Waste Storage Tank Farms/242-A Evaporator Standards/Requirements Identification Document (S/RID) is contained in multiple volumes. This document (Volume 4) presents the standards and requirements for the following sections: Radiation Protection and Operations.

Not Available

1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

483

PHYSICAL REVIEW A 87, 053417 (2013) Efficient direct evaporative cooling in an atom-chip magnetic trap  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

technique for achieving the low temperatures and high densities needed to produce Bose-Einstein condensates that slows down rethermalization and can reduce cooling efficiency to the point that condensation cannotPHYSICAL REVIEW A 87, 053417 (2013) Efficient direct evaporative cooling in an atom-chip magnetic

Du, Shengwang

484

High-level waste storage tank farms/242-A evaporator Standards/Requirements Identification Document (S/RID), Volume 2  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The High-Level Waste Storage Tank Farms/242-A Evaporator Standards/Requirements Document (S/RID) is contained in multiple volumes. This document (Volume 2) presents the standards and requirements for the following sections: Quality Assurance, Training and Qualification, Emergency Planning and Preparedness, and Construction.

Not Available

1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

485

Waste Heat Recovery and Recycling in Thermal Separation Processes: Distillation, Multi-Effect Evaporation (MEE) and Crystallization Processes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Evaporation and crystallization are key thermal separation processes for concentrating and purifying inorganic and organic products with energy consumption over 1,000 trillion Btu/yr. This project focused on a challenging task of recovering low-temperature latent heat that can have a paradigm shift in the way thermal process units will be designed and operated to achieve high-energy efficiency and significantly reduce the carbon footprint as well as water footprint. Moreover, this project has evaluated the technical merits of waste-heat powered thermal heat pumps for recovery of latent heat from distillation, multi-effect evaporation (MEE), and crystallization processes and recycling into the process. The Project Team has estimated the potential energy, economics and environmental benefits with the focus on reduction in CO2 emissions that can be realized by 2020, assuming successful development and commercialization of the technology being developed. Specifically, with aggressive industry-wide applications of heat recovery and recycling with absorption heat pumps, energy savings of about 26.7 trillion Btu/yr have been estimated for distillation process. The direct environmental benefits of this project are the reduced emissions of combustible products. The estimated major reduction in environmental pollutants in the distillation processes is in CO2 emission equivalent to 3.5 billion lbs/year. Energy consumption associated with water supply and treatments can vary between 1,900 kWh and 23,700 kWh per million-gallon water depending on sources of natural waters [US DOE, 2006]. Successful implementation of this technology would significantly reduce the demand for cooling-tower waters, and thereby the use and discharge of water treatment chemicals. The Project Team has also identified and characterized working fluid pairs for the moderate-temperature heat pump. For an MEE process, the two promising fluids are LiNO3+KNO3+NANO3 (53:28:19 ) and LiNO3+KNO3+NANO2(53:35:12). And for an H2O2 distillation process, the two promising fluids are Trifluoroethanol (TFE) + Triethylene Glycol Dimethyl ether (DMETEG) and Ammonia+ Water. Thermo-physical properties calculated by Aspen+ are reasonably accurate. Documentation of the installation of pilot-plants or full commercial units were not found in the literature for validating thermo-physical properties in an operating unit. Therefore, it is essential to install a pilot-scale unit to verify thermo-physical properties of working fluid pairs and validate the overall efficiency of the thermal heat pump at temperatures typical of distillation processes. For an HO2 process, the ammonia-water heat pump system is more compact and preferable than the TFE-DMETEG heat pump. The ammonia-water heat pump is therefore recommended for the H2O2 process. Based on the complex nature of the heat recovery system, we anticipated that capital costs could make investments financially unattractive where steam costs are low, especially where co-generation is involved. We believe that the enhanced heat transfer equipment has the potential to significantly improve the performance of TEE crystallizers, independent of the absorption heat-pump recovery system. Where steam costs are high, more detailed design/cost engineering will be required to verify the economic viability of the technology. Due to the long payback period estimated for the TEE open system, further studies on the TEE system are not warranted unless there are significant future improvements to heat pump technology. For the H2O2 distillation cycle heat pump waste heat recovery system, there were no significant process constraints and the estimated 5 years payback period is encouraging. We therefore recommend further developments of application of the thermal heat pump in the H2O2 distillation process with the focus on the technical and economic viability of heat exchangers equipped with the state-of-the-art enhancements. This will require additional funding for a prototype unit to validate enhanced thermal performances of heat transfer equipment, evaluat

Emmanuel A. Dada; Chandrakant B. Panchal; Luke K. Achenie; Aaron Reichl; Chris C. Thomas

2012-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

486

Answering Key Fuel Cycle Questions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) program has both ďoutcomeĒ and ďprocessĒ goals because it must address both waste already accumulating as well as completing the fuel cycle in connection with advanced nuclear power plant concepts. The outcome objectives are waste geological repository capacity and cost, energy security and sustainability, proliferation resistance, fuel cycle economics, and safety. The process objectives are readiness to proceed and adaptability and robustness in the face of uncertainties. A classic decision-making approach to such a multi-attribute problem would be to weight individual quantified criteria and calculate an overall figure of merit. This is inappropriate for several reasons. First, the goals are not independent. Second, the importance of different goals varies among stakeholders. Third, the importance of different goals is likely to vary with time, especially the ďenergy future.Ē Fourth, some key considerations are not easily or meaningfully quantifiable at present. Instead, at this point, we have developed 16 questions the AFCI program should answer and suggest an approach of determining for each whether relevant options improve meeting each of the program goals. We find that it is not always clear which option is best for a specific question and specific goal; this helps identify key issues for future work. In general, we suggest attempting to create as many win-win decisions (options that are attractive or neutral to most goals) as possible. Thus, to help clarify why the program is exploring the options it is, and to set the stage for future narrowing of options, we have developed 16 questions, as follows: ∑ What are the AFCI program goals? ∑ Which potential waste disposition approaches do we plan for? ∑ What are the major separations, transmutation, and fuel options? ∑ How do we address proliferation resistance? ∑ Which potential energy futures do we plan for? ∑ What potential external triggers do we plan for? ∑ Should we separate uranium? ∑ If we separate uranium, should we recycle it, store it or dispose of it? ∑ Is it practical to plan to fabricate and handle ďhotĒ fuel? ∑ Which transuranic elements (TRU) should be separated and transmuted? ∑ Of those TRU separated, which should be transmuted together? ∑ Should we separate and/or transmute Cs and Sr isotopes that dominate near-term repository heating? ∑ Should we separate and/or transmute very long-lived Tc and I isotopes? ∑ Which separation technology? ∑ What mix of transmutation technologies? ∑ What fuel technology best supports the above decisions?

Steven J. Piet; Brent W. Dixon; J. Stephen Herring; David E. Shropshire; Mary Lou Dunzik-Gougar

2003-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

487

Fuel Cycle System Analysis Handbook  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This Handbook aims to improve understanding and communication regarding nuclear fuel cycle options. It is intended to assist DOE, Campaign Managers, and other presenters prepare presentations and reports. When looking for information, check here. The Handbook generally includes few details of how calculations were performed, which can be found by consulting references provided to the reader. The Handbook emphasizes results in the form of graphics and diagrams, with only enough text to explain the graphic, to ensure that the messages associated with the graphic is clear, and to explain key assumptions and methods that cause the graphed results. Some of the material is new and is not found in previous reports, for example: (1) Section 3 has system-level mass flow diagrams for 0-tier (once-through), 1-tier (UOX to CR=0.50 fast reactor), and 2-tier (UOX to MOX-Pu to CR=0.50 fast reactor) scenarios - at both static and dynamic equilibrium. (2) To help inform fast reactor transuranic (TRU) conversion ratio and uranium supply behavior, section 5 provides the sustainable fast reactor growth rate as a function of TRU conversion ratio. (3) To help clarify the difference in recycling Pu, NpPu, NpPuAm, and all-TRU, section 5 provides mass fraction, gamma, and neutron emission for those four cases for MOX, heterogeneous LWR IMF (assemblies mixing IMF and UOX pins), and a CR=0.50 fast reactor. There are data for the first 10 LWR recycle passes and equilibrium. (4) Section 6 provides information on the cycle length, planned and unplanned outages, and TRU enrichment as a function of fast reactor TRU conversion ratio, as well as the dilution of TRU feedstock by uranium in making fast reactor fuel. (The recovered uranium is considered to be more pure than recovered TRU.) The latter parameter impacts the required TRU impurity limits specified by the Fuels Campaign. (5) Section 7 provides flows for an 800-tonne UOX separation plant. (6) To complement 'tornado' economic uncertainty diagrams, which show at a glance combined uncertainty information, section 9.2 has a new set of simpler graphs that show the impact on fuel cycle costs for once through, 1-tier, and 2-tier scenarios as a function of key input parameters.

Steven J. Piet; Brent W. Dixon; Dirk Gombert; Edward A. Hoffman; Gretchen E. Matthern; Kent A. Williams

2009-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

488

TBC-Domain GAPs for Rab GTPases Accelerate GTP Hydrolysis by a Dual-Finger Mechanism  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Rab GTPases regulate membrane trafficking by cycling between inactive (GDP-bound) and active (GTP-bound) conformations. The duration of the active state is limited by GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs), which accelerate the slow intrinsic rate of GTP hydrolysis. Proteins containing TBC (Tre-2, Bub2 and Cdc16) domains are broadly conserved in eukaryotic organisms and function as GAPs for Rab GTPases as well as GTPases that control cytokinesis. An exposed arginine residue is a critical determinant of GAP activity in vitro and in vivo. It has been expected that the catalytic mechanism of TBC domains would parallel that of Ras and Rho family GAPs. Here we report crystallographic, mutational and functional analyses of complexes between Rab GTPases and the TBC domain of Gyp1p. In the crystal structure of a TBC-domain-Rab-GTPase-aluminium fluoride complex, which approximates the transition-state intermediate for GTP hydrolysis, the TBC domain supplies two catalytic residues in trans, an arginine finger analogous to Ras/Rho family GAPs and a glutamine finger that substitutes for the glutamine in the DxxGQ motif of the GTPase. The glutamine from the Rab GTPase does not stabilize the transition state as expected but instead interacts with the TBC domain. Strong conservation of both catalytic fingers indicates that most TBC-domain GAPs may accelerate GTP hydrolysis by a similar dual-finger mechanism.

Pan,X.; Eathiraj, S.; Lambright, D.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

489

A Coupled Quantum Otto Cycle  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We study the 1-d isotropic Heisenberg model of two spin-1/2 systems as a quantum heat engine. The engine undergoes a four-step Otto cycle where the two adiabatic branches involve changing the external magnetic field at a fixed value of the coupling constant. We find conditions for the engine efficiency to be higher than the uncoupled model; in particular, we find an upper bound which is tighter than the Carnot bound. A new domain of parameter values is pointed out which was not feasible in the interaction-free model. Locally, each spin seems to effect the flow of heat in a direction opposite to the global temperature gradient. This seeming contradiction to the second law can be resolved in terms of local effective temperature of the spins.

George Thomas; Ramandeep S. Johal

2010-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

490

LARSON--MATH 556--CLASSROOM WORKSHEET 07 Hamilton Cycles  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Last name First name LARSON--MATH 556--CLASSROOM WORKSHEET 07 Hamilton Cycles An alternating-cycle. A cycle which includes every point of a graph G is called a Hamilton cycle of G. 1. Draw the complete graph K5. Find one Hamilton cycle in K5. 2. Does every complete graph have a Hamilton cycle? Explain. 3

Larson, Craig E.

491

Optimal operation of simple vapour compression cycles  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

is the air-conditioner (A/C). In colder regions a cycle operating in the opposite direction, the "heat pump. The coefficients of performance for a heating cycle (heat pump) and a cooling cycle (refrigerator, A/C) are defined as COPh = Qh Ws = h1 - h2 h1 - h4 and COPc = Qc Ws = h4 - h3 h1 - h4 (1.1) respectively. Heat pumps

Skogestad, Sigurd

492

M. Bahrami ENSC 461 (S 11) Refrigeration Cycle 1 Refrigeration Cycle  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of refrigerators and heat pumps is expressed in terms of coefficient of performance (COP): innet H HP innet L R W Q specified temperature levels. It sets the highest theoretical COP. The coefficient of performance for Carnot Evaporator QH Expansion valve h4 = h3 Compressor 3 2 1 4 Superheated vapor Saturated vapor Saturated liquid

Bahrami, Majid

493

Dual fuel development for an LNG marine engine  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A dual-fuel conversion for the 3406-B Caterpillar marine diesel engine has been developed. The purpose of this conversion is to use lower priced natural gas as a fuel, thus providing substantial cost savings for large fuel consumers. Details of the conversion system are given. Data is presented showing fuel consumption, conditions leading to engine knock, conditions promoting methane flame propagation, and air-fuel ratios required for efficient combustion. The system resulting from this study will use Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) to power a dual-fuel conversion of a shrimp boat's main engine and generator set. The cold temperatures of the LNG will also be used as a heat sink to refrigerate the fish-hold area of the boat.

Acker, G.H.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

494

Plane-parallel waves as duals of the flat background  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We give a classification of non-Abelian T-duals of the flat metric in D=4 dimensions with respect to the four-dimensional continuous subgroups of the Poincare group. After dualizing the flat background, we identify majority of dual models as conformal sigma models in plane-parallel wave backgrounds, most of them having torsion. We give their form in Brinkmann coordinates. We find, besides the plane-parallel waves, several diagonalizable curved metrics with nontrivial scalar curvature and torsion. Using the non-Abelian T-duality, we find general solution of the classical field equations for all the sigma models in terms of d'Alembert solutions of the wave equation.

Ladislav Hlavaty; Ivo Petr

2014-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

495

Dual superconductivity and vacuum properties in Yang--Mills theories  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We address, within the dual superconductivity model for color confinement, the question whether the Yang-Mills vacuum behaves as a superconductor of type I or type II. In order to do that we compare, for the theory with gauge group SU(2), the determination of the field penetration depth $\\lambda$ with that of the superconductor correlation length $\\xi$. The latter is obtained by measuring the temporal correlator of a disorder parameter developed by the Pisa group to detect dual superconductivity. The comparison places the vacuum close to the border between type I and type II and marginally on the type II side. We also check our results against the study of directly measurable effects such as the interaction between two parallel flux tubes, obtaining consistent indications for a weak repulsive behaviour. Future strategies to improve our investigation are discussed.

A. D'Alessandro; M. D'Elia; L. Tagliacozzo

2007-05-03T23:59:59.000Z

496

String Gas Shells, their Dual Radiation and Hedgehog Signature Control  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We search for spherically symmetric, stationary solutions with a string gas shell as a source. The requirement of a uniform newtonian potential, or constancy of the 00 component of the metric, implies the existence of a "dual" radiation, which we argue can be interpreted as representing the virtual quantum fluctuations that stabilize the shell. A string hedgehog can be introduced also into the solution. For zero or small hedgehog strength the string gas shell is of a regular nature, while the dual radiation is of a spacelike nature. For higher hedgehog strengths however the radiation "materializes" and becomes timelike while the string gas shell becomes space like. The significance of these solutions for the quantum theory is discussed.

E. I. Guendelman

2009-03-12T23:59:59.000Z

497

Development and Use of the Dual-Mode Plasma Torch  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

After several years of development, a commercially available high-temperature treatment system has been developed and installed that treats heterogeneous low-level radioactive waste. High temperature plasma processing, unique torch design and operating features make it feasible to achieve a volume reduced, permanent, high integrity waste form while eliminating the personnel exposure and costs associated with conventional sorting, characterizing and handling. Plasma technology can also be used to treat previous conditioned waste packages that no longer meet the current acceptance criteria for final disposal. Plasma treatment can result, in many cases, in a substantial volume reduction, which lowers the final disposal costs. This paper covers the recently patented dual mode plasma torch design(1), the lessons learned that fostered its development and the advantages it brings to radioactive waste processing. This paper also provides current full scale Plasma Arc Centrifugal Treatment (PACT) project status and how the dual mode torch is being used in the PACT system.

Womack, R.; Shuey, M.

2002-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

498

Variable pressure power cycle and control system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A variable pressure power cycle and control system that is adjustable to a variable heat source is disclosed. The power cycle adjusts itself to the heat source so that a minimal temperature difference is maintained between the heat source fluid and the power cycle working fluid, thereby substantially matching the thermodynamic envelope of the power cycle to the thermodynamic envelope of the heat source. Adjustments are made by sensing the inlet temperature of the heat source fluid and then setting a superheated vapor temperature and pressure to achieve a minimum temperature difference between the heat source fluid and the working fluid.

Goldsberry, Fred L. (Spring, TX)

1984-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

499

Seeing the Forest of Secular Cycles  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

imperial cycles (The Old and Middle Kingdoms of Egypt).In the case of Egypt, the mapping thatproduced separated ancient Egypt into two adjacent imperial

Sirag, Jr., David J

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

500

PCM energy storage during defective thermal cycling:.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Incomplete thermal cycling affects storage capacities of phase change materials (PCMs). Existing PCM measuring methods are presented with their drawbacks. A new device named ďtheÖ (more)

Koekenbier, S.F.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z