National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for dryers smudge pots

  1. Ultrasonic Clothes Dryer

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Ultrasonic Clothes Dryer 2016 Building Technologies Office PI: Ayyoub M. Momen, momena@ornl.gov Oak Ridge National Laboratory Peer Review Industrial Partner General Electric Subcontractor University of Florida *Source: SEDI, 2012 Cold mist Piezoelectric oscillator 2 Project Summary Timeline: Start date: Sept 1, 2014 (FY 2015) Planned end date: March 31, 2017 Key Milestones 1. Develop and test a small-scale demo proof of the concept prototype and further validate the model -GO/NO GO(9/30/2015) 2.

  2. Clothes Dryer Automatic Termination Sensor Evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    TeGrotenhuis, Ward E.

    2014-10-01

    Volume 1: Characterization of Energy Use in Residential Clothes Dryers. The efficacy and energy efficiency of clothes dryers are studied in this evaluation.

  3. Clothes Dryer Automatic Termination Evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    TeGrotenhuis, Ward E.

    2014-10-01

    Volume 2: Improved Sensor and Control Designs Many residential clothes dryers on the market today provide automatic cycles that are intended to stop when the clothes are dry, as determined by the final remaining moisture content (RMC). However, testing of automatic termination cycles has shown that many dryers are susceptible to over-drying of loads, leading to excess energy consumption. In particular, tests performed using the DOE Test Procedure in Appendix D2 of 10 CFR 430 subpart B have shown that as much as 62% of the energy used in a cycle may be from over-drying. Volume 1 of this report shows an average of 20% excess energy from over-drying when running automatic cycles with various load compositions and dryer settings. Consequently, improving automatic termination sensors and algorithms has the potential for substantial energy savings in the U.S.

  4. Aq Dryers Agricultural Drying Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Aq Dryers Agricultural Drying Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Aq Dryers Agricultural Drying Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Aq...

  5. Centrifugal dryers keep pace with the market

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fiscor, S.

    2008-03-15

    New plant design and upgrades create a shift in dewatering strategies. The article describes recent developments. Three major manufacturers supply centrifugal dryers - TEMA, Centrifugal & Mechanical Industries (CMI) and Ludowici. CMI introduced a line of vertical centrifugal dryers. TEMA improved the techniques by developing a horizontal vibratory centrifuge (HVC) which simplified maintenance. 3 figs., 1 photo.

  6. Spray dryer capacity stretched 50%

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paraskevas, J.

    1983-01-01

    This article describes plant equipment modifications which has resulted in a 50% increase in spray drying capacity. The installation of a new atomizer and screening system in NL Chemicals' Newberry Springs plant which produces natural clays for use as rheological additives in industrial coatings, cosmetics and other products, resulted in a 50% increase in spray drying capacity. Energy consumption per pound of product was reduced by 7%, and product quality improved. This was achieved in less than three months at an investment of less than 10% of what an additional spray dryer would have cost.

  7. BTO Partners Develop Novel, Energy-efficient Thermoelectric Clothes Dryer

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Prototype | Department of Energy Partners Develop Novel, Energy-efficient Thermoelectric Clothes Dryer Prototype BTO Partners Develop Novel, Energy-efficient Thermoelectric Clothes Dryer Prototype April 18, 2016 - 1:29pm Addthis A new thermoelectric clothes dryer being developed by Oak Ridge National Lab and Sheetak, Inc. could yield a 38% reduction in energy use compared to current dryers, which could save 356 TBtu of energy per year. A new thermoelectric clothes dryer being developed by

  8. Novel Energy-Efficient Thermoelectric Clothes Dryer | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy-Efficient Thermoelectric Clothes Dryer Novel Energy-Efficient Thermoelectric Clothes Dryer A new thermoelectric clothes dryer being developed by Oak Ridge National Lab and Sheetak, Inc. could yield a 38% reduction in energy use compared to current dryers, which could save 356 TBtu of energy per year. Credit: Oak Ridge National Laboratory. A new thermoelectric clothes dryer being developed by Oak Ridge National Lab and Sheetak, Inc. could yield a 38% reduction in energy use compared to

  9. Novel Ultra-Low-Energy Consumption Ultrasonic Clothes Dryer ...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Novel Ultra-Low-Energy Consumption Ultrasonic Clothes Dryer Novel Ultra-Low-Energy Consumption Ultrasonic Clothes Dryer Watch the ultrasonic technology dry a piece of fabric in 14 ...

  10. BTO Partners are Revolutionizing Refrigerators and Clothes Dryers |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Partners are Revolutionizing Refrigerators and Clothes Dryers BTO Partners are Revolutionizing Refrigerators and Clothes Dryers April 14, 2015 - 3:18pm Addthis Oak Ridge National Lab’s Ayyoub Momen demonstrates ultrasonic clothes dryer technology for David Danielson, Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Oak Ridge National Lab's Ayyoub Momen demonstrates ultrasonic clothes dryer technology for David Danielson, Assistant Secretary for

  11. Energy Efficient Clothes Dryer with IR Heating and Electrostatic

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Precipitator | Department of Energy Efficient Clothes Dryer with IR Heating and Electrostatic Precipitator Energy Efficient Clothes Dryer with IR Heating and Electrostatic Precipitator This project seeks to demonstrate a ventless residential dryer with an energy factor greater than 4.04.<br /> Photo credit: GE Global Research This project seeks to demonstrate a ventless residential dryer with an energy factor greater than 4.04. Photo credit: GE Global Research Project team members left

  12. Energy Efficient Clothes Dryer with IR Heating and Electrostatic...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    ... Research Related Publications PDF icon 2016 BTO Peer Review Presentation-Energy-Efficient Clothes Dryer with IR Heating and Electrostatic Precipitator More Documents & ...

  13. Steam generator with integral downdraft dryer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hochmuth, F.W.

    1992-02-01

    On June 30, 1989, a financial assistance award was granted by the United State Department of Energy, the purpose of which was to study and evaluate the technical aspect, the economic viability, and commercial possibilities of a new furnace design for burning high moisture cellulose type fuels. The new design is an invention by F.W. Hochmuth, P.Eng. and has received United States Patents Nos. 4,480, 557 and 4,502,397. It was conceived as a method to improve the general operation and efficiency of waste wood burning boilers, to avoid the use of stabilizing fuels such as oil or gas, and to reduce objectionable stack emissions. A further objective was to obtain such benefits at relatively low cost by integrating all new material requirements within the furnace itself thereby avoiding the need for costly external equipment. The proposed integral down-draft dryer avoids the use of external dryer systems that are very expensive, have high power consumption, and require a large amount of maintenance. This document provides the details of this invention.

  14. Ultrasonic Clothes Dryer--No Heat Needed | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Ultrasonic Clothes Dryer--No Heat Needed Ultrasonic Clothes Dryer--No Heat Needed Addthis Description Below is the text version for Good Vibrations: No Heat Needed for Ultrasonic Dryers. Text Version The video opens with a shot of a research laboratory, with scientists talking and working in front of a row of electronics. Ayyoub Momen-Oak Ridge Staff Scientist This is going to be a game-changing technology. Viral Patel-Post Doctoral Research Associate Just the name sounds amazing: ultrasonic

  15. Good Vibrations: No Heat Needed for Ultrasonic Dryers | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Vibrations: No Heat Needed for Ultrasonic Dryers Good Vibrations: No Heat Needed for Ultrasonic Dryers May 10, 2016 - 3:30pm Addthis With support from the Energy Department's Building Technologies Office, Oak Ridge National Laboratory and GE Appliances are changing the way Americans do laundry with their ultrasonic drying technology that uses vibrations, not heat, to dry fabric. What does this project do? With support from the Energy Department's Building Technologies Office, Oak

  16. Hot Pot Detail - Evidence of Quaternary Faulting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lane, Michael

    2013-06-27

    Compilation of published data, field observations and photo interpretation relevant to Quaternary faulting at Hot Pot.

  17. Hot Pot Detail - Evidence of Quaternary Faulting

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Lane, Michael

    Compilation of published data, field observations and photo interpretation relevant to Quaternary faulting at Hot Pot.

  18. Management of Spent Dessicant from Vapour Recovery Dryers

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Management of Spent Desiccant from Vapour Recovery Dryers Armando Antoniazzi Tritium Focus Group Meeting April 2014 www.kinectrics.com http://blog.kinectrics.com Life Cycle Management Solutions for the Electricity Industry *Request information from members of the tritium handling community *Specifically, practices associated with handling and disposal of tritiated molecular sieves *Use of molecular sieves to trap tritiated water is a familiar technology in the tritium handling community

  19. Sorbent utilization studies using a mini-pilot spray dryer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keener, T.C.; Khang, S.J.; Yang, Q. )

    1992-07-01

    The objectives of project 1.5 were to design, construct and evaluate (by means of parametric testing) a mini-pilot spray dryer facility. To date, the mini-pilot facility has been designed and is currently 100% constructed. The unit was evaluated based on such parameters as air flow rate, uniformity, residence time, Ca(OH)[sub 2] Slurry concentration the nozzle can handle, heater's heating capacity and the baseline SO[sub 2] removal efficiency. The mini-pilot facility will allow research in all aspects of spray drying fluid gas desulfurization. The unit was designed for a nominal gas flow rate of 100 scfm (3 n[sup 3]/min) and will be able be used with either nozzle spray or rotary atomization. In addition, a theoretical modeling of spray drying has been completed. Results of the simulation indicate that counter-current (referring to air flow) spray pattern will benefit in overall SO[sub 2] removal with respect to co-current spray pattern. This result needs to be further tested in the pilot scale spray dryer. Baseline testing has indicated that the mini-pilot plant provides data which is comparable to that from the large scale spray dryer facility at the Electric Power Research Institute's High Sulfur Test Facility. The results of these baseline tests have shown that SO[sub 2] removal efficiency increases with a decrease in the approach to saturation temperature, or an increase in lime stoichiometric ratio (at a constant approach to saturation temperature).

  20. Improving Dryer and Press Efficiencies Through Combustion of Hydrocarbon Emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sujit Banerjee

    2005-10-31

    Emission control devices on dryers and presses have been legislated into the industry, and are now an integral part of the drying system. These devices consume large quantities of natural gas and electricity and down-sizing or eliminating them will provide major energy savings. The principal strategy taken here focuses on developing process changes that should minimize (and in some cases eliminate) the need for controls. A second approach is to develop lower-cost control options. It has been shown in laboratory and full-scale work that Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAPs) emerge mainly at the end of the press cycle for particleboard, and, by extension, to other prod-ucts. Hence, only the air associated with this point of the cycle need be captured and treated. A model for estimating terpene emissions in the various zones of veneer dryers has been developed. This should allow the emissions to be concentrated in some zones and minimized in others, so that some of the air could be directly released without controls. Low-cost catalysts have been developed for controlling HAPs from dryers and presses. Catalysts conventionally used for regenerative catalytic oxidizers can be used at much lower temperatures for treating press emissions. Fluidized wood ash is an especially inexpensive mate-rial for efficiently reducing formaldehyde in dryer emissions. A heat transfer model for estimating pinene emissions from hot-pressing strand for the manufacture of flakeboard has been constructed from first principles and validated. The model shows that most of the emissions originate from the 1-mm layer of wood adjoining the platen surface. Hence, a simple control option is to surface a softwood mat with a layer of hardwood prior to pressing. Fines release a disproportionate large quantity of HAPs, and it has been shown both theo-retically and in full-scale work that particles smaller than 400 ???µm are principally responsible. Georgia-Pacific is considering green-screening their furnish at several of their mills in order to remove these particles and reduce their treatment costs.

  1. Steam generator with integral downdraft dryer. Final project report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hochmuth, F.W.

    1992-02-01

    On June 30, 1989, a financial assistance award was granted by the United State Department of Energy, the purpose of which was to study and evaluate the technical aspect, the economic viability, and commercial possibilities of a new furnace design for burning high moisture cellulose type fuels. The new design is an invention by F.W. Hochmuth, P.Eng. and has received United States Patents Nos. 4,480, 557 and 4,502,397. It was conceived as a method to improve the general operation and efficiency of waste wood burning boilers, to avoid the use of stabilizing fuels such as oil or gas, and to reduce objectionable stack emissions. A further objective was to obtain such benefits at relatively low cost by integrating all new material requirements within the furnace itself thereby avoiding the need for costly external equipment. The proposed integral down-draft dryer avoids the use of external dryer systems that are very expensive, have high power consumption, and require a large amount of maintenance. This document provides the details of this invention.

  2. Steam atmosphere dryer project: System development and field test. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1999-02-01

    The objective of this project was to develop and demonstrate the use of a superheated steam atmosphere dryer as a highly improved alternative to conventional hot air-drying systems, the present industrial standard method for drying various wet feedstocks. The development program plan consisted of three major activities. The first was engineering analysis and testing of a small-scale laboratory superheated steam dryer. This dryer provided the basic engineering heat transfer data necessary to design a large-scale system. The second major activity consisted of the design, fabrication, and laboratory checkout testing of the field-site prototype superheated steam dryer system. The third major activity consisted of the installation and testing of the complete 250-lb/hr evaporation rate dryer and a 30-kW cogeneration system in conjunction with an anaerobic digester facility at the Village of Bergen, NY. Feedstock for the digester facility at the Village of Bergen, NY. Feedstock for the digester was waste residue from a nearby commercial food processing plant. The superheated steam dryer system was placed into operation in August 1996 and operated successfully through March 1997. During this period, the dryer processed all the material from the digester to a powdered consistency usable as a high-nitrogen-based fertilizer.

  3. Pollution control by spray dryer and electron beam treatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bush, J.R.

    1983-02-08

    A combination spray drying and electron beam treatment for effluent gases provides air pollution control for even high sulfur coals. Liquid and a reagent are injected into the effluent gas in the spray dryer, thereby cleansing the effluent gas, decreasing its temperature, and increasing its moisture content. The spray drying decreases the temperature at least to below 100/sup 0/ C and, most preferably, to between 60 and 70/sup 0/ C. The decreased temperature, increased moisture content effluent gas including both reacted compounds and unreacted reagent is conveyed into an irradiation chamber, whereat radiation causes the gaseous sulfur oxides and/or nitrogen oxides to convert into mist and/or solid particles. The unreacted reagent may then react with the acid mist. The effluent gases are then subjected to dry particular collection.

  4. Observations of flow patterns in a spray dryer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Southwell, D.B.; Langrish, T.A.G.

    2000-03-01

    Experiments have been performed on a pilot scale, cylinder-on-cone spray dryer fitted with a vaned-wheel atomizer to observe air flow patterns, with and without water spray. A combination of tufts, smoke streams and a laser light sheet, was used to provide information about regions of recirculation, flow stability, spray trajectories and wall deposition. While atomizer-induced swirl dominated the flow patterns under typical operating conditions, some instability was observed, although different in type, for situations with and without atomizer rotation. Clockwise eddies were observed to form and collapse between the wall and the strongly anti-clockwise swirling core created by anti-clockwise atomizer rotation. Without swirl, large portions of the recirculation zones at the walls were observed to have a weak tendency to change randomly between clockwise, anti-clockwise and chaotic behavior.

  5. A novel radio frequency assisted heat pump dryer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marshall, M.G.; Metaxas, A.C.

    1999-09-01

    This paper compares an experimental heat pump batch dryer with the implementation of volumetric Radio Frequency (RF) heating, in the combination drying of crushed brick particulate. Results are presented showing overall improvements in drying. A simplified mathematical drying model including the RF energy source has been developed using mass and energy conservation, confirming the experimental results. Drying is a widespread, energy intensive industrial unit operation. The economics of a drying process operation largely depend upon the dryers performance and ultimately the cost of energy consumption. To enhance the performance of a drying system, the damp air stream that exits the drying chamber can be recycled to reclaim the enthalpy of evaporation that it carries, by using a heat pump (Hodgett, 1976). However, because the medium that dries is still warm air, this system also suffers from heat transfer limitations, particularly towards the falling drying rate period. Such limitations in drying performance can be overcome with the use of Radio Frequency (RF) energy which generates heat volumetrically within the wet material by the combined mechanisms of dipole rotation and conduction effects which speeds up the drying process (Metaxas et al, 1983). Despite the clear advantages that heat pumps and high frequency heating offer for drying, the combination of these two techniques until recently has not been studied (Kolly et al, 1990; Marshall et al, 1995).A series of experiments carried out comprising a motor driven heat pump which was retro-fitted with the ability of imparting RF energy into a material at various stages of the drying cycle are described and compared with a mathematical model.

  6. Press and Dryer Roll Surgaces and Web Transfer Systems for Ultra High Paper Maching Speeds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    T. F. Patterson

    2004-03-15

    The objective of the project was to provide fundamental knowledge and diagnostic tools needed to design new technologies that will allow ultra high speed web transfer from press rolls and dryer cylinders.

  7. GE Partners with Lab on Ultrasonic Clothes Dryer | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    GE Partners with Lab on Ultrasonic Clothes Dryer GE Partners with Lab on Ultrasonic Clothes Dryer Addthis Description This video tells how a partnership between Oak Ridge National Laboratory and GE Appliances--with support from the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy's (EERE's) Building Technologies Office-is changing the way Americans do laundry with their ultrasonic drying technology that uses vibrations, not heat, to dry fabric. Text Version This is going to be a game-changing

  8. Proof of concept and performance optimization of high gravity batch-type centrifugal dryer for dewatering fine coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, L.B.; Durney, T.

    1991-01-01

    The primary objective of the project was to assemble, analyze and make use of those data that could help to clearly identify, optimize and confirm the technical and economic advantages that the new high gravity centrifugal dryer technology can provide to the coal industry and to end users. Other objectives were: to confirm the feasibility of the dryer for drying coals from a number of different seams; to use the data base for optimizing the dryer's systems, and: to produce projected technical and economic comparisons with thermal dryers as applied to an existing coal processing plant flow sheet. (JL)

  9. Distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in lime spray dryer ash

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ping Sun; Panuwat Taerakul; Linda K. Weavers; Harold W. Walker

    2005-10-01

    Four lime spray dryer (LSD) ash samples were collected from a spreader stoker boiler and measured for their concentrations of 16 U.S. EPA specified polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Results showed that the total measured PAH concentration correlated with the organic carbon content of the LSD ash. Each LSD ash sample was then separated using a 140 mesh sieve into two fractions: a carbon-enriched fraction ({gt}140 mesh) and a lime-enriched fraction ({lt}140 mesh). Unburned carbon was further separated from the carbon-enriched fraction with a lithiumheteropolytungstate (LST) solution. PAH measurements on these different fractions showed that unburned carbon had the highest PAH concentrations followed by the carbon-enriched fraction, indicating that PAHs were primarily associated with the carbonaceous material in LSD ash. However, detectable levels of PAHs were also found in the lime-enriched fraction, suggesting that the fine spray of slaked lime may sorb PAH compounds from the flue gas in the LSD process. 37 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  10. Do Heat Pump Clothes Dryers Make Sense for the U.S. Market

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meyers, Steve; Franco, Victor; Lekov, Alex; Thompson, Lisa; Sturges, Andy

    2010-05-14

    Heat pump clothes dryers (HPCDs) can be as much as 50percent more energy-efficient than conventional electric resistance clothes dryers, and therefore have the potential to save substantial amounts of electricity. While not currently available in the U.S., there are manufacturers in Europe and Japan that produce units for those markets. Drawing on analysis conducted for the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) current rulemaking on amended standards for clothes dryers, this paper evaluates the cost-effectiveness of HPCDs in American homes, as well as the national impact analysis for different market share scenarios. In order to get an accurate measurement of real energy savings potential, the paper offers a new energy use calculation methodology that takes into account the most current data on clothes washer cycles, clothes dryer usage frequency, remaining moisture content, and load weight per cycle, which is very different from current test procedure values. Using the above methodology along with product cost estimates developed by DOE, the paper presents the results of a life-cycle cost analysis of the adoption of HPCDs in a representative sample of American homes. The results show that HPCDs have positive economic benefits only for households with high clothes dryer usage or for households with high electricity prices and moderately high utilization.

  11. Sorbent utilization studies using a mini-pilot spray dryer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keener, T.C.; Khang, S.J.; Wang, J. )

    1992-10-01

    This report stems from a program supported by the Ohio Coal Development Office, that is part of a multi-task, multi-university effort concerned with developing and enhancing the efficiency of dry'' high-sulfur flue gas scrubbing processes using calcium based sorbents. The application of spray-drying flue gas desulfurization (FGD) to sources burning Ohio coal will depend on many factors, two of which are process simplicity and flexibility, and overall cost. The ability of the system to be able to handle variations in volumetric flow SO[sub 2] concentration, and even perhaps, new regulatory requirements imposed in the future are very important In addition, the amount and characteristics of the waste produced will be a major component in the operating costs of these systems. Spray-drying FGD has been shown to have a capital, cost advantage over conventional wet scrubbing, and the method has been proven to be comparatively simple and flexible. The major disadvantage is the inability of these systems to obtain high (> 90%) S0[sub 2] removal efficiencies on flue gas from high sulfur coal sources. This is the result of chemical mass transfer and thermal limitations imposed on these systems using calcium hydroxide in a slurry as the scrubbing agent. The project 1.5 has investigated a number of novel methods to improve the performance of these systems in a mini-pilot plant spray dryer facility. The objectives of project 1.5 were the following: Perform baseline parametric testing, study the effect of additives on reactivity, and perform sorbent recycle tests.

  12. Distribution of arsenic and mercury in lime spray dryer ash

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Panuwat Taerakul; Ping Sun; Danold W. Golightly; Harold W. Walker; Linda K. Weavers

    2006-08-15

    The partitioning of As and Hg in various components of lime spray dryer (LSD) ash samples from a coal-fired boiler was characterized to better understand the form and fate of these elements in flue gas desulfurization byproducts. LSD ash samples, collected from the McCracken Power Plant on the Ohio State University campus, were separated by a 140-mesh (106 {mu}m) sieve into two fractions: a fly-ash-/unburned-carbon-enriched fraction (> 106 {mu}m) and a calcium-enriched fraction (< 106 {mu}m). Unburned carbon and fly ash in the material > 106 {mu}m were subsequently separated by density using a lithium heteropolytungstate solution. The concentrations of As and Hg were significant in all fractions. The level of As was consistently greater in the calcium-enriched fraction, while Hg was evenly distributed in all components of LSD ash. Specific surface area was an important factor controlling the distribution of Hg in the different components of LSD ash, but not for As. Comparing the LSD ash data to samples collected from the economizer suggests that As was effectively captured by fly ash at 600{sup o}C, while Hg was not. Leaching tests demonstrated that As and Hg were more stable in the calcium-enriched fraction than in the fly-ash- or carbon-enriched fractions, potentially because of the greater pH of the leachate and subsequently greater stability of small amounts of calcium solids containing trace elements in these fractions. 37 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Improved valve and dash-pot assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chang, S.C.

    1985-04-23

    A dash-pot valve comprises a cylinder submerged in the fluid of a housing and have a piston attached to a plunger projecting into the path of closing movement of a pivotal valve member. A vortex chamber in said cylinder is provided with targentially directed inlets to generate vortex flow upon retraction of said plunger and effect increasing resistance against said piston to progressively retard the closing rate of said valve member toward its seat.

  14. Valve and dash-pot assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chang, Shih-Chih

    1986-01-01

    A dash-pot valve comprising a cylinder submerged in the fluid of a housing and having a piston attached to a plunger projecting into the path of closing movement of a pivotal valve member. A vortex chamber in said cylinder is provided with tangentially directed inlets to generate vortex flow upon retraction of said plunger and effect increasing resistance against said piston to progressively retard the closing rate of said valve member toward its seat.

  15. Sandia Energy - One-Pot-to-Prep Biomass for Biofuels

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    One-Pot-to-Prep Biomass for Biofuels Home Renewable Energy Energy Transportation Energy Biofuels Facilities Partnership JBEI News News & Events Research & Capabilities Biomass...

  16. Proof of concept and performance optimization of high gravity batch-type centrifugal dryer for dewatering fine coal. Final report, September 20, 1989--September 21, 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, L.B.; Durney, T.

    1991-12-31

    The primary objective of the project was to assemble, analyze and make use of those data that could help to clearly identify, optimize and confirm the technical and economic advantages that the new high gravity centrifugal dryer technology can provide to the coal industry and to end users. Other objectives were: to confirm the feasibility of the dryer for drying coals from a number of different seams; to use the data base for optimizing the dryer`s systems, and: to produce projected technical and economic comparisons with thermal dryers as applied to an existing coal processing plant flow sheet. (JL)

  17. Steam Dryer Segmentation and Packaging at Grand Gulf Nuclear Station - 13577

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kreitman, Paul J.; Sirianni, Steve R.; Pillard, Mark M.

    2013-07-01

    Entergy recently performed an Extended Power Up-rate (EPU) on their Grand Gulf Nuclear Station, near Port Gibson, Mississippi. To support the EPU, a new Steam Dryer Assembly was installed during the last refueling outage. Due to limited access into the containment, the large Replacement Steam Dryer (RSD) had to be brought into the containment in pieces and then final assembly was completed on the refueling floor before installation into the reactor. Likewise, the highly contaminated Original Steam Dryer (OSD) had to be segmented into manageable sections, loaded into specially designed shielded containers, and rigged out of containment where they will be safely stored until final disposal is accomplished at an acceptable waste repository. Westinghouse Nuclear Services was contracted by Entergy to segment, package and remove the OSD from containment. This work was performed on critical path during the most recent refueling outage. The segmentation was performed underwater to minimize radiation exposure to the workers. Special hydraulic saws were developed for the cutting operations based on Westinghouse designs previously used in Sweden to segment ABB Reactor Internals. The mechanical cutting method was selected because of its proven reliability and the minimal cutting debris that is generated by the process. Maintaining stability of the large OSD sections during cutting was accomplished using a custom built support stand that was installed into the Moisture Separator Pool after the Moisture Separator was installed back in the reactor vessel. The OSD was then moved from the Steam Dryer Pool to the Moisture Separator Pool for segmentation. This scenario resolved the logistical challenge of having two steam dryers and a moisture separator in containment simultaneously. A water filtration/vacuum unit was supplied to maintain water clarity during the cutting and handling operations and to collect the cutting chips. (authors)

  18. Brewing Jet Fuel in a One-Pot Recipe

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Brewing Jet Fuel in a One-Pot Recipe Lab scientists have engineered a strain of bacteria that enables a "one-pot" method for producing advanced biofuels from a slurry of pre-treated plant material. The achievement is a critical step in making biofuels a viable competitor to fossil fuels.

  19. Ground Gravity Survey At Hot Pot Area (DOE GTP) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Ground Gravity Survey At Hot Pot Area (DOE GTP) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Ground Gravity Survey At Hot Pot Area (DOE GTP)...

  20. Thermal Gradient Holes At Hot Pot Area (DOE GTP) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Pot Area (DOE GTP) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Thermal Gradient Holes At Hot Pot Area (DOE GTP) Exploration Activity Details...

  1. Reflection Survey At Hot Pot Area (DOE GTP) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Hot Pot Area (DOE GTP) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Reflection Survey At Hot Pot Area (DOE GTP) Exploration Activity Details...

  2. Slim Holes At Hot Pot Area (DOE GTP) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Hot Pot Area (DOE GTP) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Slim Holes At Hot Pot Area (DOE GTP) Exploration Activity Details Location...

  3. Static Temperature Survey At Hot Pot Area (DOE GTP) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Hot Pot Area (DOE GTP) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Static Temperature Survey At Hot Pot Area (DOE GTP) Exploration Activity...

  4. Flow Test At Hot Pot Area (DOE GTP) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Flow Test At Hot Pot Area (DOE GTP) Exploration Activity Details Location Hot Pot Area...

  5. Optimal operation of a concurrent-flow corn dryer with a drying heat pump using superheated steam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moraitis, C.S. [Systelligence Consultants and Research Associates, Volos (Greece); Akritidis, C.B. [Dept. of Hydraulics and Agricultural Engineering, Thessaloniki (Greece)

    1998-07-01

    A numerical model of a concurrent-flow dryer of corn using superheated steam as drying medium is solved applying a shooting technique, so as to satisfy boundary conditions imposed by the optimal design of a drying heat pump. The drying heat pump is based on the theory of minimum energy cycles. The solution of the model proves the applicability of the heat pump to a concurrent-flow dryer, achieving a Specific Energy Consumption as low as 1080 kJ/kg.

  6. Slurry atomizer for a coal-feeder and dryer used to provide coal at gasifier pressure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Loth, John L.; Smith, William C.; Friggens, Gary R.

    1982-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a coal-water slurry atomizer for use a high-pressure dryer employed in a pumping system utilized to feed coal into a pressurized coal gasifier. The slurry atomizer is provided with a venturi, constant area slurry injection conduit, and a plurality of tangentially disposed steam injection ports. Superheated steam is injected into the atomizer through these ports to provide a vortical flow of the steam, which, in turn, shears slurry emerging from the slurry injection conduit. The droplets of slurry are rapidly dispersed in the dryer through the venturi where the water is vaporized from the slurry by the steam prior to deleterious heating of the coal.

  7. Spray-dryer spent-sorbent hazardous-waste fixating and cementitious properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schultz, T.D.; Berger, R.L.; Fishbein, K.

    1989-03-01

    The primary purpose of the project was to develop a use for the spent sorbent from a spray dryer flue gas desulfurization system. In addition to spent sorbent, fly ash was included in the utilization schemes because it is a byproduct of coal combustion and because it is a pozzolan. It would be helpful to find uses for these two substances and thus decrease the amount of land needed for their disposal and help offset the costs of flue gas desulfurization.

  8. Life Improvement of Pot Hardware in Continuous Hot Dipping Processes |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Life Improvement of Pot Hardware in Continuous Hot Dipping Processes Life Improvement of Pot Hardware in Continuous Hot Dipping Processes Improved Galvanizing Bath Hardware and Materials Result in Energy and Cost Savings Flat-rolled surface-coated steel, including galvanized and aluminized sheet, is one of the fastest growing, most profitable sectors of the U.S. steel industry. Coating steel sheets by continuous hot dipping in a molten metal bath of zinc and aluminum is

  9. An experimental study of flue gas desulfurization in a pilot spray dryer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ollero, P.; Salvador, L.; Canadas, L.

    1997-12-31

    More than 45 experimental tests have been conducted on a 10,000 Nm{sup 3}/h spray-drying desulfurization pilot plant. The effects of SO{sub 2} and fly ash concentration, Ca/S ratio, approach to saturation temperature, unit load changes, and the utilization of seawater as make-up water on both spray dryer behavior and treated flue gas properties were analyzed. This experimental study allows us to reach some conclusions about how to achieve optimum operating conditions and to assess the impact of spray drying on a downstream ESP. 5 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Performance analysis of solar-assisted chemical heat-pump dryer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fadhel, M.I.; Sopian, K.; Daud, W.R.W.

    2010-11-15

    A solar-assisted chemical heat-pump dryer has been designed, fabricated and tested. The performance of the system has been studied under the meteorological conditions of Malaysia. The system consists of four main components: solar collector (evacuated tubes type), storage tank, solid-gas chemical heat pump unit and dryer chamber. A solid-gas chemical heat pump unit consists of reactor, condenser and evaporator. The reaction used in this study (CaCl2-NH{sub 3}). A simulation has been developed, and the predicted results are compared with those obtained from experiments. The maximum efficiency for evacuated tubes solar collector of 80% has been predicted against the maximum experiment of 74%. The maximum values of solar fraction from the simulation and experiment are 0.795 and 0.713, respectively, whereas the coefficient of performance of chemical heat pump (COP{sup h}) maximum values 2.2 and 2 are obtained from simulation and experiments, respectively. The results show that any reduction of energy at condenser as a result of the decrease in solar radiation will decrease the coefficient of performance of chemical heat pump as well as decrease the efficiency of drying. (author)

  11. Facile one-pot synthesis of porphyrin based porous polymer networks...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Facile one-pot synthesis of porphyrin based porous polymer networks (PPNs) as biomimetic catalysts Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Facile one-pot synthesis of porphyrin ...

  12. Seismic Line Location Map Hot Pot Project, Humboldt County, Nevada 2010

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Lane, Michael

    Location of seismic lines carried out under DOE funded project Advanced Seismic Data Analysis Program (The Hot Pot Project).

  13. Seismic Line Location Map Hot Pot Project, Humboldt County, Nevada 2010

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Lane, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Location of seismic lines carried out under DOE funded project Advanced Seismic Data Analysis Program (The Hot Pot Project).

  14. Seismic Line Location Map Hot Pot Project, Humboldt County, Nevada 2010

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Dataset) | Data Explorer Seismic Line Location Map Hot Pot Project, Humboldt County, Nevada 2010 Title: Seismic Line Location Map Hot Pot Project, Humboldt County, Nevada 2010 Seismic Line Location Map Hot Pot Project, Humboldt County, Nevada 2010. ArcGIS map package containing topographic base map, Township and Range layer, Oski BLM and private leases at time of survey, and locations, with selected shot points, of the five seismic lines. Authors: Michael Lane Publication Date: 2010-01-01

  15. Status of spray-dryer flue-gas desulfurization. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ireland, P.A.

    1982-01-01

    Utility interest and commitment to spray drying for SO/sub 2/ and particulate control has increased dramatically in response to vendor claims (lower costs, dry wastes, lower energy requirements, and simplicity) and newly promulgated federal emission regulations that allow lower SO/sub 2/ removal requirements (70%) for low-sulfur coals. Unfortunately, limited data are available from which to evaluate vendor claims prior to commercial commitment or to improve the cost and reliability of this potentially important flue gas desulfurization (FGD) option. Accordingly, EPRI is conducting a pilot-scale project (RP1870) to provide a systematic evaluation of the technology unconstrained by specific vendor designs, operating philosophy, or commercial limitation. It will result in guidelines for system design and optimization in order to ensure reliable utility operation at minimum cost. This final report (TPS 80-741) contains a review of the design practices for the full-scale systems ordered and a discussion of the important spray-drying FGD process variables. Other EPRI work in this area includes a cost study with the Tennessee Valley Authority (RP1180-7) and a spray-dryer waste solids characterization (RP1870-2). The EPA has published a similar status document, which, in addition to spray drying, also covers dry injection and burning coal-alkali mixtures. However, the EPA document is not as detailed on either the design of full-scale systems or the technical issues.

  16. Method for Evaluating Energy Use of Dishwashers, Clothes Washers, and Clothes Dryers: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eastment, M.; Hendron, R.

    2006-08-01

    Building America teams are researching opportunities to improve energy efficiency for some of the more challenging end-uses, such as lighting (both fixed and occupant-provided), appliances (clothes washer, dishwasher, clothes dryer, refrigerator, and range), and miscellaneous electric loads, which are all heavily dependent on occupant behavior and product choices. These end-uses have grown to be a much more significant fraction of total household energy use (as much as 50% for very efficient homes) as energy efficient homes have become more commonplace through programs such as ENERGY STAR and Building America. As modern appliances become more sophisticated the residential energy analyst is faced with a daunting task in trying to calculate the energy savings of high efficiency appliances. Unfortunately, most whole-building simulation tools do not allow the input of detailed appliance specifications. Using DOE test procedures the method outlined in this paper presents a reasonable way to generate inputs for whole-building energy-simulation tools. The information necessary to generate these inputs is available on Energy-Guide labels, the ENERGY-STAR website, California Energy Commission's Appliance website and manufacturer's literature. Building America has developed a standard method for analyzing the effect of high efficiency appliances on whole-building energy consumption when compared to the Building America's Research Benchmark building.

  17. One-pot refolding of core histones from bacterial inclusion bodies...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    SciTech Connect Search Results Journal Article: One-pot refolding of core histones from bacterial inclusion bodies allows rapid reconstitution of histone octamer Citation Details ...

  18. "One Pot" Recipe for Biofuels | U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC...

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    "One pot" catalyst converts up to 20% of dry biomass to a critical chemical used in ... Energy & Fuels. 2012 26: 1298-1304. 2012 American Chemical Society. Schematic: ...

  19. Sorbent utilization studies using a mini-pilot spray dryer. Final report, June 1, 1990--June 30, 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keener, T.C.; Khang, S.J.; Yang, Q.

    1992-07-01

    The objectives of project 1.5 were to design, construct and evaluate (by means of parametric testing) a mini-pilot spray dryer facility. To date, the mini-pilot facility has been designed and is currently 100% constructed. The unit was evaluated based on such parameters as air flow rate, uniformity, residence time, Ca(OH){sub 2} Slurry concentration the nozzle can handle, heater`s heating capacity and the baseline SO{sub 2} removal efficiency. The mini-pilot facility will allow research in all aspects of spray drying fluid gas desulfurization. The unit was designed for a nominal gas flow rate of 100 scfm (3 n{sup 3}/min) and will be able be used with either nozzle spray or rotary atomization. In addition, a theoretical modeling of spray drying has been completed. Results of the simulation indicate that counter-current (referring to air flow) spray pattern will benefit in overall SO{sub 2} removal with respect to co-current spray pattern. This result needs to be further tested in the pilot scale spray dryer. Baseline testing has indicated that the mini-pilot plant provides data which is comparable to that from the large scale spray dryer facility at the Electric Power Research Institute`s High Sulfur Test Facility. The results of these baseline tests have shown that SO{sub 2} removal efficiency increases with a decrease in the approach to saturation temperature, or an increase in lime stoichiometric ratio (at a constant approach to saturation temperature).

  20. Chlorine enhancement of SO{sub 2} removal efficiency in a spray dryer absorber/fabric filter pilot plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jefcoat, I.A.; Stewart, C.L.; Pearson, T.E.

    1995-12-31

    The presence of chloride ions in a flue gas has been shown to increase the removal efficiency of SO{sub 2} in a spray dryer absorber/fabric filter (SDA/FF). The quantification of this effect has not been reported previously. A 90 cfm gas-fired pilot plant was used at the University to simulate burning coals containing various weight percent chloride. Results from the study were in agreement with those found in the literature. A predictive model was developed for the incremental removal efficiency, which was found to be dependent on the time to SO{sub 2} ratio and weight percent chloride in the coal.

  1. Wetting and free surface flow modeling for potting and encapsulation.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brooks, Carlton, F.; Brooks, Michael J.; Graham, Alan Lyman; Noble, David F. ); Notz, Patrick K.; Hopkins, Matthew Morgan; Castaneda, Jaime N.; Mahoney, Leo James; Baer, Thomas A.; Berchtold, Kathryn; Adolf, Douglas Brian; Wilkes, Edward Dean; Rao, Rekha Ranjana; Givler, Richard C.; Sun, Amy Cha-Tien; Cote, Raymond O.; Mondy, Lisa Ann; Grillet, Anne Mary; Kraynik, Andrew Michael

    2007-06-01

    As part of an effort to reduce costs and improve quality control in encapsulation and potting processes the Technology Initiative Project ''Defect Free Manufacturing and Assembly'' has completed a computational modeling study of flows representative of those seen in these processes. Flow solutions are obtained using a coupled, finite-element-based, numerical method based on the GOMA/ARIA suite of Sandia flow solvers. The evolution of the free surface is solved with an advanced level set algorithm. This approach incorporates novel methods for representing surface tension and wetting forces that affect the evolution of the free surface. In addition, two commercially available codes, ProCAST and MOLDFLOW, are also used on geometries representing encapsulation processes at the Kansas City Plant. Visual observations of the flow in several geometries are recorded in the laboratory and compared to the models. Wetting properties for the materials in these experiments are measured using a unique flowthrough goniometer.

  2. Commercial Demonstration of the Manufactured Aggregate Processing Technology Utilizing Spray Dryer Ash

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Milton Wu; Paul Yuran

    2006-12-31

    Universal Aggregates LLC (UA) was awarded a cost sharing Co-operative Agreement from the Department of Energy (DOE) through the Power Plant Improvement Initiative Program (PPII) to design, construct and operate a lightweight aggregate manufacturing plant at the Birchwood Power Facility in King George, Virginia in October 2001. The Agreement was signed in November 2002. The installation and start-up expenses for the Birchwood Aggregate Facility are $19.5 million. The DOE share is $7.2 million (37%) and the UA share is $12.3 million (63%). The original project team consists of UA, SynAggs, LLC, CONSOL Energy Inc. and P. J. Dick, Inc. Using 115,000 ton per year of spray dryer ash (SDA), a dry FGD by-product from the power station, UA will produce 167,000 tons of manufactured lightweight aggregate for use in production of concrete masonry units (CMU). Manufacturing aggregate from FGD by-products can provide an economical high-volume use and substantially expand market for FGD by-products. Most of the FGD by-products are currently disposed of in landfills. Construction of the Birchwood Aggregate Facility was completed in March 2004. Operation startup was begun in April 2004. Plant Integration was initiated in December 2004. Integration includes mixing, extrusion, curing, crushing and screening. Lightweight aggregates with proper size gradation and bulk density were produced from the manufacturing aggregate plant and loaded on a stockpile for shipment. The shipped aggregates were used in a commercial block plant for CMU production. However, most of the production was made at low capacity factors and for a relatively short time in 2005. Several areas were identified as important factors to improve plant capacity and availability. Equipment and process control modifications and curing vessel clean up were made to improve plant operation in the first half of 2006. About 3,000 tons of crushed aggregate was produced in August 2006. UA is continuing to work to improve plant availability and throughput capacity and to produce quality lightweight aggregate for use in commercial applications.

  3. Facile One-Pot Synthesis of Porphyrin Based Porous Polymer Networks...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Facile One-Pot Synthesis of Porphyrin Based Porous Polymer Networks (PPNs) as Biomimetic Catalysts Previous Next List Lanfang Zou, Dawei Feng, Tian-Fu Liu, Ying-Pin Chen, Stephen...

  4. One-pot synthesis of highly mesoporous antimony-doped tin oxide from

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    interpenetrating inorganic/organic networks One-pot synthesis of highly mesoporous antimony-doped tin oxide from interpenetrating inorganic/organic networks Authors: Volosin, A.M., Sharma, S., Traverse, C., Newman, N., and Seo, D-K. Title: One-pot synthesis of highly mesoporous antimony-doped tin oxide from interpenetrating inorganic/organic networks Source: Journal of Materials Chemistry Year: 2011 Volume: 21 Pages: 13232-13240 ABSTRACT: Highly mesoporous antimony-doped tin oxide (ATO)

  5. One-pot refolding of core histones from bacterial inclusion bodies allows

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    rapid reconstitution of histone octamer (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect SciTech Connect Search Results Journal Article: One-pot refolding of core histones from bacterial inclusion bodies allows rapid reconstitution of histone octamer Citation Details In-Document Search Title: One-pot refolding of core histones from bacterial inclusion bodies allows rapid reconstitution of histone octamer Authors: Lee, Young-Tae ; Gibbons, Garrett ; Lee, Shirley Y. ; Nikolovska-Coleska, Zaneta ; Dou, Yali

  6. Failure of zinc-plated self-tapping screws and Belleville washers used to install spoiler bars in cast iron dryers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bruscato, R.M.; Herro, H.M.

    1999-07-01

    During a routine internal inspection of 39 dryers containing spoiler bars, hundreds of broken self-tapping screws used to install those bars were found. Many other screws, as well as many Belleville washers, which spring load the bar assembly against the shell, were found to be severely cracked. The spoiler bar system had been in service for 27 months. Fortunately, none of the bars had broken loose inside the dryers. Failures were the result of hydrogen embrittlement which produced the cracking. Hydrogen was produced by a galvanic corrosion cell established between the zinc plating and the hardened washers and hardened self-tapping screws. Minor chemical/pH upset conditions typical in paper mill steam systems may have accelerated the activity of the galvanic cell. This, in turn, enhanced the evolution of hydrogen. Once the zinc was consumed, hydrogen evolution ceased, and the driving force for cracking was eliminated.

  7. RESULTS OF THE 2H EVAPORATOR ACID CLEANING AND IN-POT NEUTRALIZATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilmarth, B; Phillip Norris, P; Terry Allen, T

    2007-05-29

    The estimated 200 gallons of sodium aluminosilicate scale (NAS) present in the 242-16H Evaporator pot prior to chemical cleaning was subjected to four batches of 1.5 M (9 wt%) nitric acid. Each batch was neutralized with 19 M (50 wt %) sodium hydroxide (caustic) before transfer to Tank 38. The chemical cleaning process began on November 20, 2006, and was terminated on December 10, 2006. An inspection of the pot's interior was performed and based on data gathered during that inspection; the current volume of scale in the pot is conservatively estimated to be 36.3 gallons, which is well below the 200 gallon limit specified in the Technical Safety Requirements. In addition, the performance during all aspects of cleaning agreed well with the flowsheet developed at the bench and pilot scale. There were some lessons learned during the cleaning outage and are detailed in appendices of this report.

  8. Seismic Line Location Map Hot Pot Project, Humboldt County, Nevada 2010

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Michael Lane

    Seismic Line Location Map Hot Pot Project, Humboldt County, Nevada 2010. ArcGIS map package containing topographic base map, Township and Range layer, Oski BLM and private leases at time of survey, and locations, with selected shot points, of the five seismic lines.

  9. Seismic Line Location Map Hot Pot Project, Humboldt County, Nevada 2010

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Michael Lane

    2010-01-01

    Seismic Line Location Map Hot Pot Project, Humboldt County, Nevada 2010. ArcGIS map package containing topographic base map, Township and Range layer, Oski BLM and private leases at time of survey, and locations, with selected shot points, of the five seismic lines.

  10. Sorbent utilization studies using a mini-pilot spray dryer. Final report, August 1, 1991--August 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keener, T.C.; Khang, S.J.; Wang, J.

    1992-10-01

    This report stems from a program supported by the Ohio Coal Development Office, that is part of a multi-task, multi-university effort concerned with developing and enhancing the efficiency of ``dry`` high-sulfur flue gas scrubbing processes using calcium based sorbents. The application of spray-drying flue gas desulfurization (FGD) to sources burning Ohio coal will depend on many factors, two of which are process simplicity and flexibility, and overall cost. The ability of the system to be able to handle variations in volumetric flow SO{sub 2} concentration, and even perhaps, new regulatory requirements imposed in the future are very important In addition, the amount and characteristics of the waste produced will be a major component in the operating costs of these systems. Spray-drying FGD has been shown to have a capital, cost advantage over conventional wet scrubbing, and the method has been proven to be comparatively simple and flexible. The major disadvantage is the inability of these systems to obtain high (> 90%) S0{sub 2} removal efficiencies on flue gas from high sulfur coal sources. This is the result of chemical mass transfer and thermal limitations imposed on these systems using calcium hydroxide in a slurry as the scrubbing agent. The project 1.5 has investigated a number of novel methods to improve the performance of these systems in a mini-pilot plant spray dryer facility. The objectives of project 1.5 were the following: Perform baseline parametric testing, study the effect of additives on reactivity, and perform sorbent recycle tests.

  11. K Basins floor sludge retrieval system knockout pot basket fuel burn accident

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    HUNT, J.W.

    1998-11-11

    The K Basins Sludge Retrieval System Preliminary Hazard Analysis Report (HNF-2676) identified and categorized a series of potential accidents associated with K Basins Sludge Retrieval System design and operation. The fuel burn accident was of concern with respect to the potential release of contamination resulting from a runaway chemical reaction of the uranium fuel in a knockout pot basket suspended in the air. The unmitigated radiological dose to an offsite receptor from this fuel burn accident is calculated to be much less than the offsite risk evaluation guidelines for anticipated events. However, because of potential radiation exposure to the facility worker, this accident is precluded with a safety significant lifting device that will prevent the monorail hoist from lifting the knockout pot basket out of the K Basin water pool.

  12. Facile one-pot synthesis of porphyrin based porous polymer networks (PPNs) as biomimetic catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zou, LF; Feng, DW; Liu, TF; Chen, YP; Fordham, S; Yuan, S; Tian, J; Zhou, HC

    2015-01-01

    Stable porphyrin based porous polymer networks, PPN-23 and PPN-24, have been synthesized through a facile one-pot approach by the aromatic substitution reactions of pyrrole and aldehydes. PPN-24(Fe) shows high catalytic efficiency as a biomimetic catalyst in the oxidation reaction of 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) in the presence of H2O2.

  13. Simplified one-pot synthesis of [.sup.18F]SFB for radiolabeling

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Olma, Sebastian; Shen, Clifton Kwang-Fu

    2013-07-16

    A non-aqueous single pot synthesis of [.sup.18F]SFB is set forth. The [.sup.18F]SFB produced with this method is then used, for example, to label a peptide or an engineered antibody fragment (diabody) targeting human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) as representative examples of labeled compounds for use as an injectable composition to locate abnormal tissue, specifically tumors within an animal or human using a PET scan.

  14. Simplified one-pot synthesis of [.sup.18F]SFB for radiolabeling

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Olma, Sebastian; Shen, Clifton Kwang-Fu

    2015-08-04

    A non-aqueous single pot synthesis of [.sup.18F]SFB is set forth. The [.sup.18F]SFB produced with this method is then used, for example, to label a peptide or an engineered antibody fragment (diabody) targeting human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) as representative examples of labeled compounds for use as an injectable composition to locate abnormal tissue, specifically tumors within an animal or human using a PET scan.

  15. Heat Pump Clothes Dryer

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Lead Performer: Oak Ridge National Laboratory - Oak Ridge, TN Partner: GE Appliances - Louisville, KY

  16. Hanfords Supplemental Treatment Project: Full-Scale Integrated Testing of In-Container-Vitrification and a 10,000-Liter Dryer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Witwer, Keith S.; Dysland, Eric J.; Garfield, J. S.; Beck, T. H.; Matyas, Josef; Bagaasen, Larry M.; Cooley, Scott K.; Pierce, Eric M.; Kim, Dong-Sang; Schweiger, Michael J.

    2008-02-22

    The GeoMelt In-Container Vitrification (ICV) process was selected by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) in 2004 for further evaluation as the supplemental treatment technology for Hanfords low-activity waste (LAW). Also referred to as bulk vitrification, this process combines glass forming minerals, LAW, and chemical amendments; dries the mixture; and then vitrifies the material in a refractory-lined steel container. AMEC Nuclear Ltd. (AMEC) is adapting its GeoMelt ICV technology for this application with technical and analytical support from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). The DVBS project is funded by the DOE Office of River Protection and administered by CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc. The Demonstration Bulk Vitrification Project (DBVS) was initiated to engineer, construct, and operate a full-scale bulk vitrification pilot-plant to treat up to 750,000 liters of LAW from Waste Tank 241-S-109 at the DOE Hanford Site. Since the beginning of the DBVS project in 2004, testing has used laboratory, crucible-scale, and engineering-scale equipment to help establish process limitations of selected glass formulations and identify operational issues. Full-scale testing has provided critical design verification of the ICV process before operating the Hanford pilot-plant. In 2007, the projects fifth full-scale test, called FS-38D, (also known as the Integrated Dryer Melter Test, or IDMT,) was performed. This test had three primary objectives: 1) Demonstrate the simultaneous and integrated operation of the ICV melter with a 10,000-liter dryer, 2) Demonstrate the effectiveness of a new feed reformulation and change in process methodology towards reducing the production and migration of molten ionic salts (MIS), and, 3) Demonstrate that an acceptable glass product is produced under these conditions. Testing was performed from August 8 to 17, 2007. Process and analytical results demonstrated that the primary test objectives, along with a dozen supporting objectives, were successfully met. Glass performance exceeded all disposal performance criteria. A previous issue with MIS containment was successfully resolved in FS-38D, and the ICV melter was integrated with a full-scale, 10,000-liter dryer. This paper describes the rationale for performing the test, the purpose and outcome of scale-up tests preceding it, and the performance and outcome of FS-38D.

  17. Hanford's Supplemental Treatment Project: Full-Scale Integrated Testing of In-Container-Vitrification and a 10,000-Liter Dryer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Witwer, K.S.; Dysland, E.J.; Garfield, J.S.; Beck, T.H.; Matyas, J.; Bagaasen, L.M.; Cooley, S.K.; Pierce, E.; Kim, D.S.; Schweiger, M.J.

    2008-07-01

    The GeoMelt{sup R} In-Container Vitrification{sup TM} (ICV{sup TM}) process was selected by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) in 2004 for further evaluation as the supplemental treatment technology for Hanford's low-activity waste (LAW). Also referred to as 'bulk vitrification', this process combines glass forming minerals, LAW, and chemical amendments; dries the mixture; and then vitrifies the material in a refractory-lined steel container. AMEC Nuclear Ltd. (AMEC) is adapting its GeoMelt ICV{sup TM} technology for this application with technical and analytical support from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). The DVBS project is funded by the DOE Office of River Protection and administered by CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc. The Demonstration Bulk Vitrification Project (DBVS) was initiated to engineer, construct, and operate a full-scale bulk vitrification pilot-plant to treat up to 750,000 liters of LAW from Waste Tank 241-S-109 at the DOE Hanford Site. Since the beginning of the DBVS project in 2004, testing has used laboratory, crucible-scale, and engineering-scale equipment to help establish process limitations of selected glass formulations and identify operational issues. Full-scale testing has provided critical design verification of the ICV{sup TM} process before operating the Hanford pilot-plant. In 2007, the project's fifth full-scale test, called FS-38D, (also known as the Integrated Dryer Melter Test, or IDMT,) was performed. This test had three primary objectives: 1) Demonstrate the simultaneous and integrated operation of the ICV{sup TM} melter with a 10,000- liter dryer, 2) Demonstrate the effectiveness of a new feed reformulation and change in process methodology towards reducing the production and migration of molten ionic salts (MIS), and, 3) Demonstrate that an acceptable glass product is produced under these conditions. Testing was performed from August 8 to 17, 2007. Process and analytical results demonstrated that the primary test objectives, along with a dozen supporting objectives, were successfully met. Glass performance exceeded all disposal performance criteria. A previous issue with MIS containment was successfully resolved in FS-38D, and the ICV{sup TM} melter was integrated with a full-scale, 10,000-liter dryer. This paper describes the rationale for performing the test, the purpose and outcome of scale-up tests preceding it, and the performance and outcome of FS-38D. (authors)

  18. Analysis Of 2H-Evaporator Scale Pot Bottom Sample [HTF-13-11-28H

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oji, L. N.

    2013-07-15

    Savannah River Remediation (SRR) is planning to remove a buildup of sodium aluminosilicate scale from the 2H-evaporator pot by loading and soaking the pot with heated 1.5 M nitric acid solution. Sampling and analysis of the scale material from the 2H evaporator has been performed so that the evaporator can be chemically cleaned beginning July of 2013. Historically, since the operation of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), silicon in the DWPF recycle stream combines with aluminum in the typical tank farm supernate to form sodium aluminosilicate scale mineral deposits in the 2H-evaporator pot and gravity drain line. The 2H-evaporator scale samples analyzed by Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) came from the bottom cone sections of the 2H-evaporator pot. The sample holder from the 2H-evaporator wall was virtually empty and was not included in the analysis. It is worth noting that after the delivery of these 2H-evaporator scale samples to SRNL for the analyses, the plant customer determined that the 2H evaporator could be operated for additional period prior to requiring cleaning. Therefore, there was no need for expedited sample analysis as was presented in the Technical Task Request. However, a second set of 2H evaporator scale samples were expected in May of 2013, which would need expedited sample analysis. X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) confirmed the bottom cone section sample from the 2H-evaporator pot consisted of nitrated cancrinite, (a crystalline sodium aluminosilicate solid), clarkeite and uranium oxide. There were also mercury compound XRD peaks which could not be matched and further X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis of the sample confirmed the existence of elemental mercury or mercuric oxide. On ''as received'' basis, the scale contained an average of 7.09E+00 wt % total uranium (n = 3; st.dev. = 8.31E-01 wt %) with a U-235 enrichment of 5.80E-01 % (n = 3; st.dev. = 3.96E-02 %). The measured U-238 concentration was 7.05E+00 wt % (n=3, st. dev. = 8.25E-01 wt %). Analyses results for Pu-238 and Pu-239, and Pu-241 are 7.06E-05 {+-} 7.63E-06 wt %, 9.45E-04 {+-} 3.52E-05 wt %, and <2.24E-06 wt %, respectively. These results are provided so that SRR can calculate the equivalent uranium-235 concentrations for the NCSA. Because this 2H evaporator pot bottom scale sample contained a significant amount of elemental mercury (11.7 wt % average), it is recommended that analysis for mercury be included in future Technical Task Requests on 2H evaporator sample analysis at SRNL. Results confirm that the uranium contained in the scale remains depleted with respect to natural uranium. SRNL did not calculate an equivalent U-235 enrichment, which takes into account other fissionable isotopes U-233, Pu-239 and Pu-241.

  19. Superconducting electromechanical rotating device having a liquid-cooled, potted, one layer stator winding

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dombrovski, Viatcheslav V.; Driscoll, David I.; Shovkhet, Boris A.

    2001-01-01

    A superconducting electromechanical rotating (SER) device, such as a synchronous AC motor, includes a superconducting field winding and a one-layer stator winding that may be water-cooled. The stator winding is potted to a support such as the inner radial surface of a support structure and, accordingly, lacks hangers or other mechanical fasteners that otherwise would complicate stator assembly and require the provision of an unnecessarily large gap between adjacent stator coil sections. The one-layer winding topology, resulting in the number of coils being equal to half the number of slots or other mounting locations on the support structure, allows one to minimize or eliminate the gap between the inner radial ends of adjacent straight sections of the stator coilswhile maintaining the gap between the coil knuckles equal to at least the coil width, providing sufficient room for electrical and cooling element configurations and connections. The stator winding may be potted to the support structure or other support, for example, by a one-step VPI process relying on saturation of an absorbent material to fill large gaps in the stator winding or by a two-step process in which small gaps are first filled via a VPI or similar operation and larger gaps are then filled via an operation that utilizes the stator as a portion of an on-site mold.

  20. Management Of Hanford KW Basin Knockout Pot Sludge As Spent Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Raymond, R. E. [CH2M HIll Plateau Remediation Company, Richland, WA (United States); Evans, K. M. [AREVA, Avignon (France)

    2012-10-22

    CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) and AREVA Federal Services, LLC (AFS) have been working collaboratively to develop and deploy technologies to remove, transport, and interim store remote-handled sludge from the 10S-K West Reactor Fuel Storage Basin on the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site near Richland, WA, USA. Two disposal paths exist for the different types of sludge found in the K West (KW) Basin. One path is to be managed as Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) with eventual disposal at an SNF at a yet to be licensed repository. The second path will be disposed as remote-handled transuranic (RH-TRU) waste at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in Carlsbad, NM. This paper describes the systems developed and executed by the Knockout Pot (KOP) Disposition Subproject for processing and interim storage of the sludge managed as SNF, (i.e., KOP material).

  1. Analysis Of 2H-Evaporator Scale Wall [HTF-13-82] And Pot Bottom [HTF-13-77] Samples

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oji, L. N.

    2013-09-11

    Savannah River Remediation (SRR) is planning to remove a buildup of sodium aluminosilicate scale from the 2H-evaporator pot by loading and soaking the pot with heated 1.5 M nitric acid solution. Sampling and analysis of the scale material has been performed so that uranium and plutonium isotopic analysis can be input into a Nuclear Criticality Safety Assessment (NCSA) for scale removal by chemical cleaning. Historically, since the operation of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), silicon in the DWPF recycle stream combines with aluminum in the typical tank farm supernate to form sodium aluminosilicate scale mineral deposits in the 2H-evaporator pot and gravity drain line. The 2H-evaporator scale samples analyzed by Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) came from two different locations within the evaporator pot; the bottom cone sections of the 2H-evaporator pot [Sample HTF-13-77] and the wall 2H-evaporator [sample HTF-13-82]. X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) confirmed that both the 2H-evaporator pot scale and the wall samples consist of nitrated cancrinite (a crystalline sodium aluminosilicate solid) and clarkeite (a uranium oxyhydroxide mineral). On ''as received'' basis, the bottom pot section scale sample contained an average of 2.59E+00 {+-} 1.40E-01 wt % total uranium with a U-235 enrichment of 6.12E-01 {+-} 1.48E-02 %, while the wall sample contained an average of 4.03E+00 {+-} 9.79E-01 wt % total uranium with a U-235 enrichment of 6.03E-01% {+-} 1.66E-02 wt %. The bottom pot section scale sample analyses results for Pu-238, Pu-239, and Pu-241 are 3.16E-05 {+-} 5.40E-06 wt %, 3.28E-04 {+-} 1.45E-05 wt %, and <8.80E-07 wt %, respectively. The evaporator wall scale samples analysis values for Pu-238, Pu-239, and Pu-241 averages 3.74E-05 {+-} 6.01E-06 wt %, 4.38E-04 {+-} 5.08E-05 wt %, and <1.38E-06 wt %, respectively. The Pu-241 analyses results, as presented, are upper limit values. For these two evaporator scale samples obtained at two different locations within the evaporator pot the major radioactive components (on a mass basis) in the additional radionuclide analyses were Sr-90, Cs-137 Np-237, Pu-239/240 and Th-232. Small quantities of americium and curium were detected in the blanks used for Am/Cm method for these radionuclides. These trace radionuclide amounts are assumed to come from airborne contamination in the shielded cells drying or digestion oven, which has been replaced. Therefore, the Am/Cm results, as presented, may be higher than the true Am/Cm values for these samples. These results are provided so that SRR can calculate the equivalent uranium-235 concentrations for the NCSA. Results confirm that the uranium contained in the scale remains depleted with respect to natural uranium. SRNL did not calculate an equivalent U-235 enrichment, which takes into account other fissionable isotopes U-233, Pu-239 and Pu-241. The applicable method for calculation of equivalent U-235 will be determined in the NCSA. With a few exceptions, a comparison of select radionuclides measurements from this 2013 2H evaporator scale characterization (pot bottom and wall scale samples) with those measurements for the same radionuclides in the 2010 2H evaporator scale analysis shows that the radionuclide analysis for both years are fairly comparable; the analyses results are about the same order of magnitude.

  2. Technical support document: Energy conservation standards for consumer products: Dishwashers, clothes washers, and clothes dryers including: Environmental impacts; regulatory impact analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-12-01

    The Energy Policy and Conservation Act as amended (P.L. 94-163), establishes energy conservation standards for 12 of the 13 types of consumer products specifically covered by the Act. The legislation requires the Department of Energy (DOE) to consider new or amended standards for these and other types of products at specified times. This Technical Support Document presents the methodology, data and results from the analysis of the energy and economic impacts of standards on dishwashers, clothes washers, and clothes dryers. The economic impact analysis is performed in five major areas: An Engineering Analysis, which establishes technical feasibility and product attributes including costs of design options to improve appliance efficiency. A Consumer Analysis at two levels: national aggregate impacts, and impacts on individuals. The national aggregate impacts include forecasts of appliance sales, efficiencies, energy use, and consumer expenditures. The individual impacts are analyzed by Life-Cycle Cost (LCC), Payback Periods, and Cost of Conserved Energy (CCE), which evaluate the savings in operating expenses relative to increases in purchase price; A Manufacturer Analysis, which provides an estimate of manufacturers' response to the proposed standards. Their response is quantified by changes in several measures of financial performance for a firm. An Industry Impact Analysis shows financial and competitive impacts on the appliance industry. A Utility Analysis that measures the impacts of the altered energy-consumption patterns on electric utilities. A Environmental Effects analysis, which estimates changes in emissions of carbon dioxide, sulfur oxides, and nitrogen oxides, due to reduced energy consumption in the home and at the power plant. A Regulatory Impact Analysis collects the results of all the analyses into the net benefits and costs from a national perspective. 47 figs., 171 tabs. (JF)

  3. Mathematical modelling for the drying method and smoothing drying rate using cubic spline for seaweed Kappaphycus Striatum variety Durian in a solar dryer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M Ali, M. K. E-mail: eutoco@gmail.com; Ruslan, M. H. E-mail: eutoco@gmail.com; Muthuvalu, M. S. E-mail: jumat@ums.edu.my; Wong, J. E-mail: jumat@ums.edu.my; Sulaiman, J. E-mail: hafidzruslan@eng.ukm.my; Yasir, S. Md. E-mail: hafidzruslan@eng.ukm.my

    2014-06-19

    The solar drying experiment of seaweed using Green V-Roof Hybrid Solar Drier (GVRHSD) was conducted in Semporna, Sabah under the metrological condition in Malaysia. Drying of sample seaweed in GVRHSD reduced the moisture content from about 93.4% to 8.2% in 4 days at average solar radiation of about 600W/m{sup 2} and mass flow rate about 0.5 kg/s. Generally the plots of drying rate need more smoothing compared moisture content data. Special cares is needed at low drying rates and moisture contents. It is shown the cubic spline (CS) have been found to be effective for moisture-time curves. The idea of this method consists of an approximation of data by a CS regression having first and second derivatives. The analytical differentiation of the spline regression permits the determination of instantaneous rate. The method of minimization of the functional of average risk was used successfully to solve the problem. This method permits to obtain the instantaneous rate to be obtained directly from the experimental data. The drying kinetics was fitted with six published exponential thin layer drying models. The models were fitted using the coefficient of determination (R{sup 2}), and root mean square error (RMSE). The modeling of models using raw data tested with the possible of exponential drying method. The result showed that the model from Two Term was found to be the best models describe the drying behavior. Besides that, the drying rate smoothed using CS shows to be effective method for moisture-time curves good estimators as well as for the missing moisture content data of seaweed Kappaphycus Striatum Variety Durian in Solar Dryer under the condition tested.

  4. ANALYSIS OF 2H-EVAPORATOR SCALE WALL [HTF-13-82] AND POT BOTTOM [HTF-13-77] SAMPLES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oji, L.

    2013-06-21

    Savannah River Remediation (SRR) is planning to remove a buildup of sodium aluminosilicate scale from the 2H-evaporator pot by loading and soaking the pot with heated 1.5 M nitric acid solution. Sampling and analysis of the scale material has been performed so that uranium and plutonium isotopic analysis can be input into a Nuclear Criticality Safety Assessment (NCSA) for scale removal by chemical cleaning. Historically, since the operation of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), silicon in the DWPF recycle stream combines with aluminum in the typical tank farm supernate to form sodium aluminosilicate scale mineral deposits in the 2Hevaporator pot and gravity drain line. The 2H-evaporator scale samples analyzed by Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) came from the bottom cone sections of the 2H-evaporator pot [Sample HTF-13-77] and the wall 2H-evaporator [sample HTF-13-82]. X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) confirmed that both the 2H-evaporator pot scale and the wall samples consist of nitrated cancrinite (a crystalline sodium aluminosilicate solid) and clarkeite (a uranium oxy-hydroxide mineral). On “as received” basis, the bottom pot section scale sample contained an average of 2.59E+00 ± 1.40E-01 wt % total uranium with a U-235 enrichment of 6.12E-01 ± 1.48E-02 %, while the wall sample contained an average of 4.03E+00 ± 9.79E-01 wt % total uranium with a U-235 enrichment of 6.03E-01% ± 1.66E-02 wt %. The bottom pot section scale sample analyses results for Pu-238, Pu-239, and Pu-241 are 3.16E- 05 ± 5.40E-06 wt %, 3.28E-04 ± 1.45E-05 wt %, and <8.80E-07 wt %, respectively. The evaporator wall scale samples analysis values for Pu-238, Pu-239, and Pu-241 averages 3.74E-05 ± 6.01E-06 wt %, 4.38E-04 ± 5.08E-05 wt %, and <1.38E-06 wt %, respectively. The Pu-241 analyses results, as presented, are upper limit values. These results are provided so that SRR can calculate the equivalent uranium-235 concentrations for the NCSA. Results confirm that the uranium contained in the scale remains depleted with respect to natural uranium. SRNL did not calculate an equivalent U-235 enrichment, which takes into account other fissionable isotopes U-233, Pu-239 and Pu-241. The applicable method for calculation of equivalent U-235 will be determined in the NCSA.

  5. Residential Clothes Dryers (Appendix D)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Department of Energy (DOE) develops standardized data templates for reporting the results of tests conducted in accordance with current DOE test procedures. Templates may be used by third-party laboratories under contract with DOE that conduct testing in support of ENERGY STAR® verification, DOE rulemakings, and enforcement of the federal energy conservation standards.

  6. Tetraethylene glycol promoted two-step, one-pot rapid synthesis of indole-3-[1-11C]acetic acid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Sojeong; Qu, Wenchao; Alexoff, David L.; Shea, Colleen; Kim, Dohyun; Schueller, Michael; Fowler, Joanna S.

    2014-12-12

    An operationally friendly, two-step, one-pot process has been developed for the rapid synthesis of carbon-11 labeled indole-3-acetic acid ([11]IAA or [11]auxin). By replacing an aprotic polar solvent with tetraethylene glycol, nucleophilic [11]cyanation and alkaline hydrolysis reactions were performed consecutively in a single pot without a time-consuming intermediate purification step. The entire production time for this updated procedure is 55 min, which dramatically simplifies the entire synthesis and reduces the starting radioactivity required for a whole plant imaging study.

  7. Tetraethylene glycol promoted two-step, one-pot rapid synthesis of indole-3-[1-11C]acetic acid

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Lee, Sojeong; Qu, Wenchao; Alexoff, David L.; Shea, Colleen; Kim, Dohyun; Schueller, Michael; Fowler, Joanna S.

    2014-12-12

    An operationally friendly, two-step, one-pot process has been developed for the rapid synthesis of carbon-11 labeled indole-3-acetic acid ([11]IAA or [11]auxin). By replacing an aprotic polar solvent with tetraethylene glycol, nucleophilic [11]cyanation and alkaline hydrolysis reactions were performed consecutively in a single pot without a time-consuming intermediate purification step. The entire production time for this updated procedure is 55 min, which dramatically simplifies the entire synthesis and reduces the starting radioactivity required for a whole plant imaging study.

  8. Life Improvement of Pot Hardware in Continuous Hot Dipping Processes Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xingbo Liu

    2006-01-18

    The process of continuous galvanizing of rolled sheet steel includes immersion into a bath of molten zinc/aluminum alloy. The steel strip is dipped in the molten bath through a series of driving motors and rollers which control the speed and tension of the strip, with the ability to modify both the amount of coating applied to the steel as well as the thickness and width of the sheet being galvanized. There are three rolls used to guide the steel strip through the molten metal bath. The rolls that operate in the molten Zn/Al are subject to a severely corrosive environment and require frequent changing. The performance of this equipment, the metallic hardware submerged in the molten Zn/Al bath, is the focus of this research. The primary objective of this research is to extend the performance life of the metallic hardware components of molten Zn/Al pot hardware by an order of magnitude. Typical galvanizing operations experience downtimes on the order of every two weeks to change the metallic hardware submerged in the molten metal bath. This is an expensive process for industry which takes upwards of 3 days for a complete turn around to resume normal operation. Each roll bridle consists of a sink, stabilizer, and corrector roll with accompanying bearing components. The cost of the bridle rig with all components is as much as $25,000 dollars just for materials. These inefficiencies are of concern to the steel coating companies and serve as a potential market for many materials suppliers. This research effort served as a bridge between the market potential and industry need to provide an objective analytical and mechanistic approach to the problem of wear and corrosion of molten metal bath hardware in a continuous sheet galvanizing line. The approach of the investigators was to provide a means of testing and analysis that was both expeditious and cost effective. The consortium of researchers from West Virginia University and Oak Ridge National Laboratory developed several test apparatuses that were designed to work in concert so that the process of developing and evaluating new materials and material combinations could be carried out in the most effective manner. ORNL focused on the long-term effects of static and dynamic corrosion on the hardware. Their efforts have yielded corrosion data in terms of mass loss for a large database of materials for immersion times in excess of 6000 hours. In addition, they have developed a new series of alloy, designated ORNL Alloy 4-x. Several variants of Alloy 4 were tested for corrosion and wear performance. Another effective method for protecting bearing components is through the use of weld overlays or laser cladding. ORNL worked with several project partners to develop a weld overlay process for cladding of 316L stainless steel with metallic materials that are much more corrosion and wear resistant. This method provides super-alloy performance that is more affordable. WVU was tasked to study wear of the bearing materials along with mechanisms of dross buildup on the roll surface. A small scale screening test apparatus was developed for the purpose quickly evaluating wear performance of candidate superalloys, ceramics, and coatings through the use of a ball-and-seat testing combination. This combination uses a fraction of the material used in full-scale bearing applications. With this system, WVU has been able to conduct hundreds of tests on various combinations of materials that mimic a wide variety of operating conditions for the galvanizing lines. The small scale wear tester was used to perform both direct correlation to galvanizing line conditions and to act as a screening mechanism for prototype-scale testing at WVU?s airport bearing materials testing facility. In addition, the studies on the effect of contact pressure and velocity on the bearing wear rate lead to the design and subsequent patent application for a fixed-shaft roll design that has the potential for increasing the bearing life by a factor of 2. The prototype-scale bearing test apparatus was donated by one of our project partners and was relocated to the WVU airport hanger at Morgantown Municipal Airport. This test apparatus uses full-scale sleeve and bushing dimensions and is designed to more accurately mimic the galvanizing line conditions. Through the combination of corrosion, wear, and dross buildup testing, as well as material modeling and thermodynamic analysis, the research team has been able to show that an order of magnitude improvement in material performance is a realistic goal.

  9. Long-Term Carbon Injection Field Test for 90% Mercury Removal for a PRB Unit a Spray Dryer and Fabric Filter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sjostrom, Sharon; Amrhein, Jerry

    2009-04-30

    The power industry in the U.S. is faced with meeting regulations to reduce the emissions of mercury compounds from coal-fired plants. Injecting a sorbent such as powdered activated carbon (PAC) into the flue gas represents one of the simplest and most mature approaches to controlling mercury emissions from coal-fired boilers. The purpose of this test program was to evaluate the long-term mercury removal capability, long-term mercury emissions variability, and operating and maintenance (O&M) costs associated with sorbent injection on a configuration being considered for many new plants. Testing was conducted by ADA Environmental Solutions (ADA) at Rocky Mountain Powers (RMP) Hardin Station through funding provided by DOE/NETL, RMP, and other industry partners. The Hardin Station is a new plant rated at 121 MW gross that was first brought online in April of 2006. Hardin fires a Powder River Basin (PRB) coal and is configured with selective catalytic reduction (SCR) for NOx control, a spray dryer absorber (SDA) for SO2 control, and a fabric filter (FF) for particulate control. Based upon previous testing at PRB sites with SCRs, very little additional mercury oxidation from the SCR was expected at Hardin. In addition, based upon results from DOE/NETL Phase II Round I testing at Holcomb Station and results from similarly configured sites, low native mercury removal was expected across the SDA and FF. The main goal of this project was metsorbent injection was used to economically and effectively achieve 90% mercury control as measured from the air heater (AH) outlet to the stack for a period of ten months. This goal was achieved with DARCO Hg-LH, Calgon FLUEPAC-MC PLUS and ADA Power PAC PREMIUM brominated activated carbons at nominal loadings of 1.52.5 lb/MMacf. An economic analysis determined the twenty-year levelized cost to be 0.87 mills/kW-hr, or $15,000/lb Hg removed. No detrimental effects on other equipment or plant operations were observed. The results of this project also filled a data gap for plants firing PRB coal and configured with an SCR, SDA, and FF, as many new plants are being designed today. Another goal of the project was to evaluate, on a short-term basis, the mercury removal associated with coal additives and coal blending with western bituminous coal. The additive test showed that, at this site, the coal additive known as KNX was affective at increasing mercury removal while decreasing sorbent usage. Coal blending was conducted with two different western bituminous coals, and West Elk coal increased native capture from nominally 10% to 50%. Two additional co-benefits were discovered at this site. First, it was found that native capture increased from nominally 10% at full load to 50% at low load. The effect is believed to be due to an increase in mercury oxidation across the SCR caused by a corresponding decrease in ammonia injection when the plant reduces load. Less ammonia means more active oxidation sites in the SCR for the mercury. The second co-benefit was the finding that high ammonia concentrations can have a negative impact on mercury removal by powdered activated carbon. For a period of time, the plant operated with a high excess of ammonia injection necessitated by the plugging of one-third of the SCR. Under these conditions and at high load, the mercury control system could not maintain 90% removal even at the maximum feed rate of 3.5 lb/MMacf (pounds of mercury per million actual cubic feet). The plant was able to demonstrate that mercury removal was directly related to the ammonia injection rate in a series of tests where the ammonia rate was decreased, causing a corresponding increase in mercury removal. Also, after the SCR was refurbished and ammonia injection levels returned to normal, the mercury removal performance also returned to normal. Another goal of the project was to install a commercial-grade activated carbon injection (ACI) system and integrate it with new-generation continuous emissions monitors for mercury (Hg-CEMs) to allow automatic feedback control on outlet me

  10. Advanced Seismic Data Analysis Program (The Hot Pot Project), DOE Award: DE-EE0002839, Phase 1 Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oski Energy, LLC,

    2013-03-28

    A five-line (23 mile) reflection- seismic survey was conducted at the Hot Pot geothermal prospect area in north-central Nevada under the USDOE (United States Department of Energy) Geothermal Technologies Program. The project objective was to utilize innovative seismic data processing, integrated with existing geological, geophysical and geochemical information, to identify high-potential drilling targets and to reduce drilling risk. Data acquisition and interpretation took place between October 2010 and April 2011. The first round of data processing resulted in large areas of relatively poor data, and obvious reflectors known from existing subsurface information either did not appear on the seismic profiles or appeared at the wrong depth. To resolve these issues, the velocity model was adjusted to include geologic input, and the lines were reprocessed. The resulting products were significantly improved, and additional detail was recovered within the high-velocity and in part acoustically isotropic basement. Features visible on the improved seismic images include interpreted low angle thrust faults within the Paleozoic Valmy Formation, which potentially are reactivated in the current stress field. Intermediate-depth wells are currently targeted to test these features. The seismic images also suggest the existence of Paleogene sedimentary and volcanic rocks which potentially may function as a near- surface reservoir, charged by deeper structures in Paleozoic rocks.

  11. Synthesis and Evaluation of Cu/SAPO-34 Catalysts for NH3-SCR 2: Solid-state Ion Exchange and One-pot Synthesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gao, Feng; Walter, Eric D.; Washton, Nancy M.; Szanyi, Janos; Peden, Charles HF

    2015-01-01

    Cu-SAPO-34 catalysts are synthesized using two methods: solid-state ion exchange (SSIE) and one-pot synthesis. SSIE is conducted by calcining SAPO-34/CuO mixtures at elevated temperatures. For the one-pot synthesis method, Cu-containing chemicals (CuO and CuSO4) are added during gel preparation. A high-temperature calcination step is also needed for this method. Catalysts are characterized with surface area/pore volume measurements, temperature programmed reduction (TPR), electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopies, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Catalytic properties are examined using standard ammonia selective catalytic reduction (NH3-SCR) and ammonia oxidation reactions. In Cu-SAPO-34 samples formed using SSIE, Cu presents both as isolated Cu2+ ions and unreacted CuO. The former is highly active and selective in NH3-SCR, while the latter catalyzes a side reaction; notably, the non-selective oxidation of NH3 above 350 ºC. Using the one-pot method followed by a high-temperature aging treatment, it is possible to form Cu SAPO-34 samples with predominately isolated Cu2+ ions at low Cu loadings. However at much higher Cu loadings, isolated Cu2+ ions that bind weakly with the CHA framework and CuO clusters also form. These Cu moieties are very active in catalyzing non-selective NH3 oxidation above 350 ºC. Low-temperature reaction kinetics indicate that Cu-SAPO-34 samples formed using SSIE have core-shell structures where Cu is enriched in the shell layers; while Cu is more evenly distributed within the one-pot samples. Reaction kinetics also suggest that at low temperatures, the local environment next to Cu2+ ion centers plays little role on the overall catalytic properties. The authors gratefully acknowledge the US Department of Energy (DOE), Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Vehicle Technologies Office for the support of this work. The research described in this paper was performed at the Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL), a national scientific user facility sponsored by the DOE’s Office of Biological and Environmental Research and located at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). PNNL is operated for the US DOE by Battelle under contract number DE-AC05-76RL01830. The authors also thank Shari Li (PNNL) for surface area/pore volume measurements, and Bruce W. Arey (PNNL) for SEM measurements. Discussions with Drs. A. Yezerets, K. Kamasamudram, J.H. Li, N. Currier and J.Y. Luo from Cummins, Inc. and H.Y. Chen and H. Hess from Johnson-Matthey are greatly appreciated.

  12. Hot Pot Field Observations

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Lane, Michael

    Map of field observations including depressions, springs, evidence of former springs, travertine terraces and vegetation patterns. Map also contains interpretation of possible spring alignments.

  13. Hot Pot Field Observations

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Lane, Michael

    2013-06-28

    Map of field observations including depressions, springs, evidence of former springs, travertine terraces and vegetation patterns. Map also contains interpretation of possible spring alignments.

  14. Residential Clothes Dryers (Appendix D2)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Department of Energy (DOE) develops standardized data templates for reporting the results of tests conducted in accordance with current DOE test procedures. Templates may be used by third-party laboratories under contract with DOE that conduct testing in support of ENERGY STAR® verification, DOE rulemakings, and enforcement of the federal energy conservation standards.

  15. Open-loop heat-recovery dryer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    TeGrotenhuis, Ward Evan

    2013-11-05

    A drying apparatus is disclosed that includes a drum and an open-loop airflow pathway originating at an ambient air inlet, passing through the drum, and terminating at an exhaust outlet. A passive heat exchanger is included for passively transferring heat from air flowing from the drum toward the exhaust outlet to air flowing from the ambient air inlet toward the drum. A heat pump is also included for actively transferring heat from air flowing from the passive heat exchanger toward the exhaust outlet to air flowing from the passive heat exchanger toward the drum. A heating element is also included for further heating air flowing from the heat pump toward the drum.

  16. One-pot solvothermal synthesis of a well-ordered layered sodium aluminoalcoholate complex: a useful precursor for the preparation of porous Al2O3 particles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, XS; Michaelis, VK; Ong, TC; Smith, SJ; McKay, I; Muller, P; Griffin, RG; Wang, EN

    2014-01-01

    One-pot solvothermal synthesis of a robust tetranuclear sodium hexakis(glycolato)tris(methanolato)aluminate complex Na-3[Al-4(OCH3)(3)(OCH2CH2O)(6)] via a modified yet rigorous base-catalyzed transesterification mechanism is presented here. Single crystal X-ray diffraction (SCXRD) studies indicate that this unique Al complex contains three pentacoordinate Al3+ ions, each bound to two bidentate ethylene glycolate chelators and one monodentate methanolate ligand. The remaining fourth Al3+ ion is octahedrally coordinated to one oxygen atom from each of the six surrounding glycolate chelators, effectively stitching the three pentacoordinate Al moieties together into a novel tetranuclear Al complex. This aluminate complex is periodically self-assembled into well-ordered layers normal to the [110] axis with the intra-/inter-layer bonding involving extensive ionic bonds from the three charge-counterbalancing Na+ cations rather than the more typical hydrogen bonding interactions as a result of fewer free hydroxyl groups present in its structure. It can also serve as a valuable precursor toward the facile synthesis of high-surface-area alumina powders using a very efficient rapid pyrolysis technique.

  17. Calcium spray dryer waste management: Design guidelines: Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1987-09-01

    Calcium spray drying is a commercially available and applied technology used to control SO/sub 2/ emissions. This process is rapidly gaining utility acceptance. Because physical and chemical properties of wastes generated by calcium spray drying differ from those of conventional coal combustion by-products (fly ash and scrubber sludge) typical waste management practices may need to be altered. This report presents technical guidelines for designing and operating a calcium spray drying waste management system. Waste transfer, storage, pretreatment/conditioning, transport and disposal are addressed. The report briefly describes eighteen existing or planned calcium spray drying waste management systems. Results of waste property tests conducted as part of this study, and test data from other studies are reported and compared. Conceptual designs of both new and retrofit calcium spray drying waste management systems also are presented to demonstrate the economic impact of spray drying on waste management. Parametric cost sensitivity analyses illustrate the impact of significant design parameters on waste management costs. Existing calcium spray drying waste management experiences, as well as spray drying waste property data provided the basis for guideline development. Because existing calcium spray drying facilities burn low sulfur coal, this report is considered applicable only to calcium spray drying wastes produced from low sulfur coal. At this time, calcium spray drying is not expected to be feasible for high sulfur coal applications.

  18. Novel Ultra-Low-Energy Consumption Ultrasonic Clothes Dryer

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Lead Performer: Oak Ridge National Laboratory – Oak Ridge, TNPartners: General Electric Appliances – Louisville, KY

  19. Letter report: Evaluation of dryer/calciner technologies for testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sevigny, G.

    1996-02-01

    This letter report describes some past experiences on the drying and calcination of radioactive materials or corresponding simulants; and the information needed from testing. The report also includes an assessment of informational needs including possible impacts to a full-scale plant. This includes reliability, maintenance, and overall size versus throughput. Much of the material was previously compiled and reported by Mike Elliott of PNL {open_quotes}Melter Performance Assessment{close_quotes} and Larry Eisenstatt of SEG on contract to WHC in a letter to Rod Powell. Also, an annotated bibliography was prepared by Reagan Seymour of WHC. Descriptions of the drying and calciner technologies, development status, advantages and disadvantages of using a WFE or calciner, and recommendations for future testing are discussed in this report.

  20. Consortium for Energy Efficiency (CEE) Notes_ Clothes Dryer Test Procedure

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    CEE and DOE staff discussed the importance of relying on the DOE test method as the sole metric for efficiency and energy use reporting.

  1. BTO Partners are Revolutionizing Refrigerators and Clothes Dryers...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... Environmentally friendly supermarket refrigeration technologies, such as the first hydro-fluorocarbon (HFC)-free CO2 system with 25 percent energy savings and 75 percent fewer ...

  2. Management of Spent Desiccant from Vapour Recovery Dryers | Department of

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    3 OAS-FS-14-06 February 2014 MANAGEMENT LETTER January 27, 2014 Mr. Gregory Friedman Inspector General U.S. Department of Energy 1000 Independence Avenue, S.W., Room 5D-039 Washington, DC 20585 Dear Mr. Friedman: In planning and performing our audits of the consolidated financial statements and closing package financial statements of the United States Department of Energy (the Department), as of and for the year ended September 30, 2013, in accordance with auditing standards generally accepted

  3. Large Optic Drying Station: Summary of Dryer Certification Tests

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barbee, T W; Ayers, S L; Ayers, M J

    2009-08-28

    The purpose of this document is to outline the methodology used to baseline and maintain the cleanliness status of the newly built and installed Large Optic Cleaning Station (LOCS). The station has currently been in use for eleven months; and after many cleaning studies and implementation of resulting improvements appears to be cleaning optics to a level that is acceptable for the fabrication of Nano-Laminates.

  4. Management of Spent Dessicant from Vapour Recovery Dryers

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    *Significant literature exists on the performance characteristics and on tritium "memory" effects *Focus of request is more on the disposal of spent molecular sieves Purpose...

  5. Efficient continuous dryer for flexible polyurethane foam and cleaning apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jody, B.; Daniels, E.; Libera, J.A.

    1999-03-16

    A method of cleaning polyurethane foams where the material is transported through a wash station while alternately soaking the polyurethane foam in an organic solvent and squeezing solvent from the polyurethane foam a number of times. Then the polyurethane foam is sent through a rinse or solvent transfer station for reducing the concentration of solvent in the foam. The rinsed polyurethane foam is sent to a drying station wherein the foam is repeatedly squeezed while being exposed to hot air to remove wet air from the foam. 4 figs.

  6. Efficient continuous dryer for flexible polyurethane foam and cleaning apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jody, Bassam; Daniels, Edward; Libera, Joseph A.

    1999-01-01

    A method of cleaning polyurethane foams where the material is transported through a wash station while alternately soaking the polyurethane foam in an organic solvent and squeezing solvent from the polyurethane foam a number of times. Then the polyurethane foam is sent through a rinse or solvent transfer station for reducing the concentration of solvent in the foam. The rinsed polyurethane foam is sent to a drying station wherein the foam is repeatedly squeezed while being exposed to hot air to remove wet air from the foam.

  7. Fe{sub 2.25}W{sub 0.75}O{sub 4}/reduced graphene oxide nanocomposites for novel bifunctional photocatalyst: One-pot synthesis, magnetically recyclable and enhanced photocatalytic property

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guo, Jinxue; Jiang, Bin; Zhang, Xiao Zhou, Xiaoyu; Hou, Wanguo

    2013-09-15

    Fe{sub 2.25}W{sub 0.75}O{sub 4}/reduced graphene oxide (RGO) composites were prepared for application of novel bifunctional photocatalyst via simple one-pot hydrothermal method, employing graphene oxide (GO), Na{sub 2}WO{sub 4}, FeSO{sub 4} and sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (SDBS) as the precursors. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) results indicate that the well-dispersed Fe{sub 2.25}W{sub 0.75}O{sub 4} nanoparticles were deposited on the surface of RGO sheets homogeneously. Magnetic characterization reveals that Fe{sub 2.25}W{sub 0.75}O{sub 4} and Fe{sub 2.25}W{sub 0.75}O{sub 4}/RGO show ferromagnetic behaviors. So this novel bifunctional photocatalyst could achieve magnetic separation and collection with the aid of external magnet. The composites exhibit enhanced photocatalytic performance on degradation of methyl orange (MO) compared with pure Fe{sub 2.25}W{sub 0.75}O{sub 4} under low-power ultraviolet light irradiation due to the introduction of RGO. Moreover, this hybrid catalyst possesses long-term excellent photocatalytic performance due to its good thermal stability. This bifunctional photocatalyst, which combines magnetic property and excellent photocatalytic activity, would be a perfect candidate in applications of catalytic elimination of environmental pollutants and other areas. - Graphical abstract: Magnetically recyclable Fe{sub 2.25}W{sub 0.75}O{sub 4}/reduced graphene oxide nanocomposites with enhanced photocatalytic property Display Omitted - Highlights: ?Fe{sub 2.25}W{sub 0.75}O{sub 4} growth, deposition and GO reduction occurred simultaneously. ?Composite possessed ferromagnetic and enhanced photocatalytic properties. ?Composite is utilized as a magnetically separable and high-efficient photocatalyst. ?Photocatalyst showed good photocatalytic and thermal stability during cyclic use.

  8. Hot Pot Geothermal Area | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    of Replacement Wells: Average Temperature of Geofluid: Sanyal Classification (Wellhead): Reservoir Temp (Geothermometry): Reservoir Temp (Measured): Sanyal Classification...

  9. Hot Pot Geothermal Area | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Region GEA Development Phase: Coordinates: 40.922, -117.108 Resource Estimate Mean Reservoir Temp: Estimated Reservoir Volume: Mean Capacity: USGS Mean Reservoir Temp:...

  10. Hot Pot Geothermal Project | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    EFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":,"gkml":,"fusiontables":,"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":,"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers...

  11. Hot Pot Contoured Temperature Gradient Map

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Lane, Michael

    Temperature gradient contours derived from Oski temperature gradient hole program and from earlier published information.

  12. Hot Pot Contoured Temperature Gradient Map

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Lane, Michael

    2013-06-28

    Temperature gradient contours derived from Oski temperature gradient hole program and from earlier published information.

  13. COMMERCIAL DEMONSTRATION OF THE MANUFACTURED AGGREGATE PROCESSING TECHNOLOGY UTILIZING SPRAY DRYER ASH

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roy Scandrol

    2003-10-01

    This quarterly report covers the period from July 1st, 2003 through September 30th, 2003. It covers; technical development, permitting status, engineering status, construction status, operations summary and marketing support activities for this period.

  14. Performance and economics of a spray-dryer FGD system used with high-sulfur coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Livengood, C.D.; Farber, P.S.

    1986-04-01

    Flue-gas desulfurization (FGD) systems based on spray drying to offer advantages over wet lime/limestone systems in a number of areas: low energy consumption, low capital cost, high reliability, and production of a dry waste that is easily handled and disposed of. Uncertainties regarding the performance and economics of such systems for control of high-sulfur-coal emissions have slowed adoption of the technology in the Midwest and East. This paper summarizes 4 years, operating and research experience with that system and describes the current research program, which includes an indepth characterization of an industrial scale dry scrubber with 3.5% sulfur coal.

  15. Combined NO sub x /SO sub 2 removal in spray-dryer FGD systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Livengood, C.D.

    1991-01-01

    Increased control of sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) has been the focus of air pollution and acid deposition debates for many years, and the new Clean Air Act Amendments will require controls for this pollutant at many more installations. Calls for greater control of nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) have also been heard in response to their implication in environmental damage and possible links to global climate effects. This has already led to more stringent NO{sub x} emission regulations in several countries and some parts of the United States. While a number of options are available to remove either NO{sub x} or SO{sub 2} from flue gas, integrated technologies that can simultaneously remove both species (and perhaps particulate matter (PM) as well) in a single system can offer significant advantages. The benefits of such integration generally include better system operability, higher reliability, and lower capital and operating costs. In addition, there may be advantages due to lower consumption of resources, reduced waste volumes, and beneficial synergisms between the pollutants. The construction of complete, integrated systems will be of interest for new utility plants and industrial installations, as well as existing sites that currently have minimal pollution control. However, opportunities to incorporate integrated pollution control into existing flue gas cleanup (FGC) systems will be particularly important for operators with existing SO{sub 2} scrubbing systems who are faced with the need to add additional control of NO{sub x}. This paper describes research that could lead to relatively low-cost NO{sub x} control retrofits of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems based on spray drying. 10 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. Energy Department and AHAM Partner to Streamline ENERGY STAR Testing for Washers, Dryers, Refrigerators

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Under a new policy, the Energy Department will work closely with the Association of Home Appliance Manufactures to verify the ENERGY STAR performance of products participating in AHAM’s verification program.

  17. Hair Dryer vs. Upright Vacuum: Round Two of #EnergyFaceoff Begins...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Check back in to the Energy Saver blog, Energy Saver Twitter, and Energy Saver Facebook on Wednesday to see which appliance will be victorious. Q&A Which appliance do you think is ...

  18. CEE_Notes_ClothesDryerTestProcedure_25Apr2016.pdf

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    003 Intellectual Property Provisions (CDLB-1003) Cooperative Agreement - Special Data Statute Research, Development, or Demonstration Large Businesses, State and Local Governments, and Foreign Entities 01. FAR 52.227-1 Authorization and Consent (JUL 1995)-Alternate I (APR 1984) 02. FAR 52.227-2 Notice and Assistance Regarding Patent and Copyright Infringement (AUG 1996) This clause is not applicable if the award is for less than $100,000, in aggregate. 03. 10 CFR 600.325 Rights in Data -

  19. Position and Orientation Tracking System (POTS). Innovative Technology Summary Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1999-06-01

    This document contains information on the above-mentioned technology, including description, applicability, cost, and performance data.

  20. Advanced Seismic data Analysis Program (The "Hot Pot Project...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Share 3,985,570.00 Total Project Cost 8,199,656.00 Principal Investigator(s) Shuman Moore Targets Milestones The proposed project involves the application of advanced seismic...

  1. Microsoft Word - Pot_Rad_Mat_2x4.doc

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL Pending RCT survey Awaiting survey results RCT Date CAUTION RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL Pending RCT survey Awaiting survey results RCT Date CAUTION...

  2. Seismic Line Location Map Hot Pot Project, Humboldt County, Nevada...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Research Org: DOE Geothermal Data Repository; Oski Energy, LLC Sponsoring Org: USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Geothermal Technologies Program ...

  3. Advance Seismic Data Analysis Program: (The "Hot Pot Project")

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE Geothermal Peer Review 2010 - Presentation. Project objectives: To improve geothermal well target selection and reduce drilling risk through an innovative and advanced analytical method for interpreting seismic data to locate deep geothermal structures.

  4. Method of aeration disinfecting and drying grain in bulk and pretreating seeds and a transverse blow silo grain dryer therefor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Danchenko, Vitaliy G.; Noyes, Ronald T.; Potapovych, Larysa P.

    2012-02-28

    Aeration drying and disinfecting grain crops in bulk and pretreating seeds includes passing through a bulk of grain crops and seeds disinfecting and drying agents including an ozone and air mixture and surrounding air, subdividing the disinfecting and drying agents into a plurality of streams spaced from one another in a vertical direction, and passing the streams at different heights through levels located at corresponding heights of the bulk of grain crops and seeds transversely in a substantially horizontal direction.

  5. 2015-03-23 Issuance: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Dryer StandardsRFI.pdf More Documents & Publications American Gas Association (AGA) for DOE Furnace Product Class Residential Clothes Dryers (Appendix D2) Regulatory Burden RFI

  6. No Heat Spray Drying Technology

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Project Objective Advance research from prototype dryer ... First commercial market is dry flavors designed to ... change from existing practice Requires novel dryer ...

  7. BTO Partners Develop Novel, Energy-efficient Thermoelectric Clothes...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Partners Develop Novel, Energy-efficient Thermoelectric Clothes Dryer Prototype BTO Partners Develop Novel, Energy-efficient Thermoelectric Clothes Dryer Prototype April 18, 2016 - ...

  8. Acid–base bifunctional shell cross-linked micelle nanoreactor for one-pot tandem reaction

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Lee, Li -Chen; Lu, Jie; Weck, Marcus; Jones, Christopher W.

    2015-12-29

    Shell cross-linked micelles (SCMs) containing acid sites in the shell and base sites in the core are prepared from amphiphilic poly(2-oxazoline) triblock copolymers. The materials are utilized as two-chamber nanoreactors for a prototypical acid-base bifunctional tandem deacetalization-nitroaldol reaction. Furthermore, the acid and base sites are localized in different regions of the micelle, allowing the two steps in the reaction sequence to largely proceed in separate compartments, akin to the compartmentalization that occurs in biological systems.

  9. Microsoft Word - Pot_Rad_Mat_1x2.625.doc

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL Pending RCT survey Awaiting survey results RCT Date CAUTION RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL Pending RCT survey Awaiting survey results RCT Date CAUTION...

  10. Sorbent Assisted Catalyst for the One-Pot Sequestration and Conversion...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    crude oil. However, the use of strong alkali catalysts and elimination of glycerol waste component from the lipid conversion reduces the yields obtained from the renewable stock. ...

  11. Facile One-Pot Synthesis of Porphyrin Based Porous Polymer Networks...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    by the aromatic substitution reactions of pyrrole and aldehydes. PPN-24(Fe) shows high catalytic efficiency as a biomimetic catalyst in the oxidation reaction of...

  12. Advanced Seismic Data Analysis Program- The "Hot Pot" Project | Department

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory - Oak Ridge, TN Partners: Sandia National Laboratory - Albuquerque, NM DOE Funding: $350,000 Project Term: Oct. 2013 - Sept. 2015 Project Objective This project aims at creating a synergy between BTO performers to develop high impact technology with significant potential for national energy savings. The project builds upon a recently developed technology at Sandia National Laboratory (SNL) - air bearing heat exchanger, also known as rotating heat exchangers - and

  13. EA-0386: Finding of No Significant Impact

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Technical Support Document: Energy Conservation Standards for Consumer Products: Dishwashers, Clothes Washers, and Clothes Dryers

  14. EA-0386: Final Environmental Assessment

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Energy Conservation Standards for Consumer Products: Dishwashers, Clothes Washers, and Clothes Dryers

  15. EA-1449: Final Environmental Assessment

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Commercial Demonstration of the Manufactured Aggregate Processing Technology Utilizing Spray Dryer Ash, King George County, Virginia

  16. EA-1449: Finding of No Significant Impact

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Commercial Demonstration of the Manufactured Aggregate Processing Technology Utilizing Spray Dryer Ash, King George County, Virgina

  17. Report on Biomass Drying Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Amos, W. A.

    1999-01-12

    Using dry fuel provides significant benefits to combustion boilers, mainly increased boiler efficiency, lower air emissions, and improved boiler operation. The three main choices for drying biomass are rotary dryers, flash dryers, and superheated steam dryers. Which dryer is chosen for a particular application depends very much on the material characteristics of the biomass, the opportunities for integrating the process and dryer, and the environmental controls needed or already available.

  18. 2014-10-16 Issuance: Energy Conservation Program Test Procedures for

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Residential Clothes Dryers, Notice of Public Meeting | Department of Energy 6 Issuance: Energy Conservation Program Test Procedures for Residential Clothes Dryers, Notice of Public Meeting 2014-10-16 Issuance: Energy Conservation Program Test Procedures for Residential Clothes Dryers, Notice of Public Meeting Energy Conservation Program Test Procedures for Residential Clothes Dryers, Notice of Public Meeting PDF icon clothes_dryer_nopm.pdf More Documents & Publications 2014-01-31

  19. Ind.Audit Guide June 13_b.doc

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    - CAGI (Compressed Air & Gas Institute): - ASME 14.7 psia, 60F, 0% rh (relative humidity) 14.7 psia, 68F, 36% rh Typical dryer dew points: Refrigerated Dryers +35F to...

  20. Blog | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    November 10, 2014 The hair dryer and the vacuum go head to head in EnergyFaceoff round two | Graphic courtesy of Stacy Buchanan, National Renewable Energy Lab Hair Dryer vs....

  1. CEM_Metrics_and_Technical_Note_7_14_10.pdf | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    clothes dryer
    Credit: Oak Ridge National Lab Heat Pump Clothes Dryer CEMMetricsandTechnicalNote71410.pdf Wind Vision: A New Era for Wind Power in the United States

  2. 2016 - LNG Export, Compressed Natural Gas (CNG), Re-Exports & Long Term

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Dryers; Request for Information | Department of Energy 3 Issuance: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Clothes Dryers; Request for Information 2015-03-23 Issuance: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Clothes Dryers; Request for Information This document is a pre-publication Federal Register Request for Information regarding Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Clothes Dryers, as issued by the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency on March 23, 2015.

  3. Appliance Projects | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    HVAC, Water Heating, & Appliances » Appliance Projects Appliance Projects This project seeks to demonstrate a ventless residential dryer with an energy factor greater than 4.04.<br /> Photo credit: GE Global Research Energy Efficient Clothes Dryer with IR Heating and Electrostatic Precipitator Lead Performer: GE Global Research, Niskayuna, NY Schematics of a heat pump clothes dryer<br /> Credit: Oak Ridge National Lab Heat Pump Clothes Dryer Lead Performer: Oak Ridge National

  4. 2015-03-23 Issuance: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Clothes

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Dryers; Request for Information | Department of Energy 3 Issuance: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Clothes Dryers; Request for Information 2015-03-23 Issuance: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Clothes Dryers; Request for Information This document is a pre-publication Federal Register Request for Information regarding Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Clothes Dryers, as issued by the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency on March 23, 2015.

  5. Evaluation of Ohio fly ash/hydrated lime slurries and Type 1 cement sorbent slurries in the U.C. Pilot spray dryer facility. Final report, September 1, 1993--August 31, 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keener, T.C.; Khang, S.J.; Meyers, G.R.

    1995-02-01

    The objectives of this year`s work included an evaluation of the performance of fly ash/hydrated lime as well as hydrated cement sorbents for spray drying adsorption (SDA) of SO{sub 2} from a simulated high-sulfur flue gas. These sorbents were evaluated for several different hydration methods, and under different SDA operating conditions. In addition, the physical properties of surface area and porosity of the sorbents was determined. The most reactive fly ash/hydrated lime sorbent studied was prepared at room temperature with milled fly ash. Milling fly ash prior to hydration with lime did have a beneficial effect on calcium utilization. No benefit in utilization was experienced either by hydrating the slurries at a temperature of 90{degrees}C as compared to hydration at room temperature, or by increasing hydration time. While the surface areas varied greatly from sorbent to sorbent, the pore size distributions indicated ``ink bottle`` pores with surface porosity on the order of 0.5 microns. No correlation could be drawn between the surface area of the sorbents and calcium utilization. These results suggest that the composition of the resulting sorbent might be more important than its surface area. The most effective sorbent studied this year was produced by hydrating cement for 3 days at room temperature. This sorbent provided a removal efficiency and a calcium utilization over 25 percent higher than baseline results at an approach to saturation temperature of 30{degrees}F and a stoichiometric ratio of 0.9. A maximum SO{sub 2} removal efficiency of about 90 percent was experienced with this sorbent at an approach to saturation temperature of 20{degrees}F.

  6. One-pot synthesis of SnO{sub 2}/reduced graphene oxide nanocomposite in ionic liquid-based solution and its application for lithium ion batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gu, Changdong, E-mail: cdgu@zju.edu.cn; Zhang, Heng; Wang, Xiuli; Tu, Jiangping

    2013-10-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: A facile and low-temperature method is developed for SnO{sub 2}/graphene composite. Synthesis performed in a choline chloride-based ionic liquid. The composite shows an enhanced cycling stability as anode for Li-ion batteries. 4 nm SnO{sub 2} nanoparticles mono-dispersed on the surface of reduced graphene oxide. - Abstract: A facile and low-temperature method is developed for SnO{sub 2}/graphene composite which involves an ultrasonic-assistant oxidationreduction reaction between Sn{sup 2+} and graphene oxide in a choline chlorideethylene glycol based ionic liquid under ambient conditions. The reaction solution is non-corrosive and environmental-friendly. Moreover, the proposed technique does not require complicated infrastructures and heat treatment. The SnO{sub 2}/graphene composite consists of about 4 nm sized SnO{sub 2} nanoparticles with cassiterite structure mono-dispersed on the surface of reduced graphene oxide. As anode for lithium-ion batteries, the SnO{sub 2}/graphene composite shows a satisfying cycling stability (535 mAh g{sup ?1} after 50 cycles @100 mA g{sup ?1}), which is significantly prior to the bare 4 nm sized SnO{sub 2} nanocrsytals. The graphene sheets in the hybrid nanostructure could provide a segmentation effect to alleviate the volume expansion of the SnO{sub 2} and restrain the small and active Sn-based particles aggregating into larger and inactive clusters during cycling.

  7. A one-pot synthetic approach to prepare palladium nanoparticles embedded hierarchically porous TiO{sub 2} hollow spheres for hydrogen peroxide sensing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kong Lirong; Lu Xiaofeng; Bian Xiujie; Zhang Wanjin; Wang Ce

    2010-10-15

    A simple one-step method to fabricate hierarchically porous TiO{sub 2}/Pd composite hollow spheres without any template was developed by using solvothermal treatment. Pd nanoparticles (2-5 nm) were well dispersed in the mesopores of the TiO{sub 2} hollow spheres via in-situ reduction. In our experiment, polyvinylpyrrolidone played an important role in the synthetic process as the reducing agent and the connective material between TiO{sub 2} and Pd nanoparticles. HF species generated from solvothermal reaction leaded to the formation of TiO{sub 2} hollow spheres and Ostwald ripening was another main factor that affected the size and structure of the hollow spheres. The as-prepared TiO{sub 2}/Pd composite hollow spheres exhibited high electrocatalytic activity towards the reduction of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. The sensitivity was about 226.72 {mu}A mM{sup -1} cm{sup -2} with a detection limit of 3.81 {mu}M at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3. These results made the hierarchically porous TiO{sub 2}/Pd composite a promising platform for fabricating new nonenzymic biosensors. - Graphical Abstract: A new one-step solvothermal method was developed to prepare Pd nanoparticles embedded hierarchically porous TiO{sub 2} hollow spheres. Due to its unique nanostructure, the prepared TiO{sub 2}/Pd modified GC electrode exhibit a high sensitivity (226.72 {mu}A mM{sup -1} cm{sup -2}), a relatively low reduction potential (-0.2 V), a fast response time (<3 s) and a relatively low detection limit of 3.81 {mu}M (S/N=3) towards H{sub 2}O{sub 2}.

  8. Dewatering Treatment Scale-up Testing Results of Hanford Tank Wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tedeschi, A.R.; May, T.H.; Bryan, W.E.

    2008-07-01

    This report documents CH2M HILL Hanford Group Inc. (CH2M HILL) 2007 dryer testing results in Richland, WA at the AMEC Nuclear Ltd., GeoMelt Division (AMEC) Horn Rapids Test Site. It provides a discussion of scope and results to qualify the dryer system as a viable unit-operation in the continuing evaluation of the bulk vitrification process. A 10,000 liter (L) dryer/mixer was tested for supplemental treatment of Hanford tank low activity wastes, drying and mixing a simulated non-radioactive salt solution with glass forming minerals. Testing validated the full scale equipment for producing dried product similar to smaller scale tests, and qualified the dryer system for a subsequent integrated dryer/vitrification test using the same simulant and glass formers. The dryer system is planned for installation at the Hanford tank farms to dry/mix radioactive waste for final treatment evaluation of the supplemental bulk vitrification process. (authors)

  9. DEWATERING TREATMENT SCALE-UP TESTING RESULTS OF HANFORD TANK WASTES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    TEDESCHI AR

    2008-01-23

    This report documents CH2M HILL Hanford Group Inc. (CH2M HILL) 2007 dryer testing results in Richland, WA at the AMEC Nuclear Ltd., GeoMelt Division (AMEC) Horn Rapids Test Site. It provides a discussion of scope and results to qualify the dryer system as a viable unit-operation in the continuing evaluation of the bulk vitrification process. A 10,000 liter (L) dryer/mixer was tested for supplemental treatment of Hanford tank low-activity wastes, drying and mixing a simulated non-radioactive salt solution with glass forming minerals. Testing validated the full scale equipment for producing dried product similar to smaller scale tests, and qualified the dryer system for a subsequent integrated dryer/vitrification test using the same simulant and glass formers. The dryer system is planned for installation at the Hanford tank farms to dry/mix radioactive waste for final treatment evaluation of the supplemental bulk vitrification process.

  10. bib-aggregate | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Commercial Demonstration of the Manufactured Aggregate Processing Technology Utilizing Spray Dryer Ash - Project Brief [PDF-72KB] Universal Aggregates, LLC, King George County, VA PROJECT FACT SHEET Commercial Demonstration of the Manufactured Aggregate Processing Technology Utilizing Spray Dryer Ash [PDF-412KB] (Feb 2008) PROGRAM PUBLICATIONS Final Report Commercial Demonstration of the Manufactured Aggregate Processing Technology Utilizing Spray Dryer Absorber Ash [PDF-4.5MB] (Nov 2007) CCT

  11. Appliance Rebates: Frequently Asked Questions | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    HVAC, Water Heating, Appliances R&D » Appliance Projects Appliance Projects Energy Efficient Clothes Dryer with IR Heating and Electrostatic Precipitator Lead Performer: GE Global Research, Niskayuna, NY Schematics of a heat pump clothes dryer<br /> Credit: Oak Ridge National Lab Heat Pump Clothes Dryer Lead Performer: Oak Ridge National Laboratory - Oak Ridge, TN Partner: GE Appliances - Louisville, KY Image of the compressor rack and system diagram for the CO2 refrigeration

  12. Standards and Test Procedures | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Clothes Dryers Clothes Washers Computer and Battery Backup Systems External Power Supplies ... Conditioners Set-Top Boxes Televisions Water Heaters Commercial and Industrial Products ...

  13. 2014-10-16 Issuance: Energy Conservation Program Test Procedures...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Conservation Program Test Procedures for Residential Clothes Dryers, Notice of Public Meeting 2014-10-16 Issuance: Energy Conservation Program Test Procedures for Residential ...

  14. Effects of Feedback on Residential Electricity Consumption: A...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    none of which were elec- trically heated; each had an electric stove, dryer, dishwasher, and water heater. The researchers installed 24-h chart recorders in each residence...

  15. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    tanks for loadno-load screw and vane compressors, cycling refrigerated thermal mass dryers (up to 30... Eligibility: Commercial, Industrial, Schools, Federal Government,...

  16. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    in Nevada who purchase energy efficient natural gas tankless water heaters, clothes dryers, windows and smart low-flow showerheads. Furnaces are also available to customers...

  17. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    (10-40 HP), air receiverstanks for loadno-load compressors, cycling refrigerated dryers (up to 200 CFM capacity), no-loss... Eligibility: Commercial, Industrial, Schools,...

  18. John Cymbalsky | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Tips for Commercial Refrigerators and Freezers February 28 Energy Department and AHAM Partner to Streamline ENERGY STAR Testing for Washers, Dryers, Refrigerators September 26...

  19. Whirlpool: Proposed Penalty (2014-CE-21010)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE alleged in a Notice of Proposed Civil Penalty that Whirlpool Corporation failed to certify residential clothes dryers as compliant with the applicable energy conservation standards.

  20. Appliance Standard Program - The FY 2003 Priority -Setting Summary...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... heat pump and microwave electric dryers) ... premium. The DOE data sheet also stated that the low-power design desktop computer is ... mode and "processing plus transmission" mode. ...

  1. Students Compete to Design Energy-Efficient Appliances | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... Efficient, Hybrid AirWater Conditioning Appliance Santa Clara University: Reduction of Energy Use in Clothes Dryers Santa Clara University: Efficient Lighting System via ...

  2. bib-aggregate | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Utilizing Spray Dryer Ash - Project Brief PDF-72KB Universal Aggregates, LLC, King George County, VA PROJECT FACT SHEET Commercial Demonstration of the Manufactured...

  3. Sales Tax Holiday for Energy-Efficient Appliances | Department...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    each year for the following appliances*: Clothes washers Clothes dryers* Water heaters Trash compactors* Dishwashers Conventional ovens, ranges, and stoves* Air conditioners...

  4. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    for loadno-load compressors, cycling refrigerated dryers (up to 200 CFM capacity), no-loss... Eligibility: Commercial, Industrial, Schools, Institutional Savings Category:...

  5. Lansing Board of Water & Light - Hometown Energy Savers Residential...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Refrigerator or Freezer Recycling: 30 Electric Clothes Dryer: 25 Clothes washer: 25 Chest Freezer: 25 TV 21" - 50: 25 TV 50"+: 50 Dishwasher: 25 Multifamily Buildings:...

  6. ARM - Lesson Plans: Moving Water and Waves

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    container Water Approximately 2 kilograms of sand (optional) Electric fan or a hair dryer Stopwatch or watch with a second hand Important Points to Understand Everyday we see...

  7. North Branch Municipal Water & Light - Commercial & Industrial...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    with recycling of working unit Dishwasher: 25 - 40 Clothes Washer: 50 - 100 Clothes Dryer: 25 - 50 Replacement Motors: 15 - 2,700, varies by HP and efficiency Variable...

  8. Unitil (Electric) - Commercial and Industrial Energy Efficiency...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    rebate New Construction Air Compressors: 45-140 New Construction High Efficiency Dryer: 5-7CFM New Construction Custom: 75% of incremental cost Summary Unitil offers...

  9. Hutchinson Utilities Commission - Residential Energy Efficiency...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    200ton Mini SplitDuctless Air Source Heat Pump: 250 Clothes Washers: 50 Clothes Dryer: 80 Refrigerators: 65 Dishwashers: 20 - 50 (with recycling of older unit)...

  10. Geometry for web microwave heating or drying to a desired profile in a waveguide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Habeger, Jr., Charles C.; Patterson, Timothy F.; Ahrens, Frederick W.

    2005-11-15

    A microwave heater and/or dryer has a nonlinear or curvilinear relative slot profile geometry. In one embodiment, the microwave dryer has at least one adjustable field modifier making it possible to change the geometry of the heater or dryer when drying different webs. In another embodiment, the microwave dryer provides more uniform drying of a web when the field modifier is adjusted in response to a sensed condition of the web. Finally, a method of microwave heating and/or drying a web achieves a uniform heating and/or drying profile.

  11. ITP LEADER Case Study: Flambeau River Papers Makes a Comeback...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... Air Compressor Heat Recovery 3 Paper Machine Modifications Motive Air Dryer Accumulator Savings Densified Fuels Plant Wood Oil Evaporator Temperature Control Machine Room Pipe ...

  12. Momentum-Savings-Reports

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Residential Room Air Conditioning Residential Ceiling Fan Light Kits Electric Clothes Dryers Electric Cooktops Electric Ovens Residential Furnace Fans Microwave Ovens...

  13. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    a rebate on an eligible clothes washer, clothes dryer, refrigerator, dehumidifier, heat pump water heater, or pool pump you... Eligibility: Residential Savings Category: Clothes...

  14. Linn County Rural Electric Cooperative - Commercial Energy Efficiency...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    water heater installed, additional 25 bonus if electric dryer installed Energy Star Television: 50 Appliance Recycling: 25 - 50 Custom Measures: Varies, contact Linn County...

  15. Linn County Rural Electric Cooperative - Agricultural Energy...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    water heater installed, additional 25 bonus if electric dryer installed Energy Star Television: 50 Summary Linn County Rural Electric Cooperative Association (Linn County RECA)...

  16. Oklahoma Natural Gas - Residential Efficiency Rebates | Department...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    250 Clothes Dryer: up to 500 Summary To encourage customers to install high-efficiency natural gas equipment in homes, Oklahoma Natural Gas offers rebates to residential...

  17. San Isabel Electric Association- Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    San Isabel Electric Association (SIEA) provides incentives for its residential customers to install energy efficient equipment. Rebates are available for certain water heaters, washers, dryers,...

  18. Steam atmosphere drying exhaust steam recompression system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Becker, F.E.; Smolensky, L.A.; Doyle, E.F.; DiBella, F.A.

    1994-03-08

    This invention relates to a heated steam atmosphere drying system comprising dryer in combination with an exhaust recompression system which is extremely energy efficient and eliminates dangers known to air dryers. The system uses superheated steam as the drying medium, which recirculates through the system where its heat of evaporation and heat of compression is recovered, thereby providing a constant source of heat to the drying chamber. The dryer has inlets whereby feedstock and superheated steam are fed therein. High heat transfer and drying rates are achieved by intimate contact of the superheated steam with the particles being dried. The dryer comprises a vessel which enables the feedstock and steam to enter and recirculate together. When the feedstock becomes dry it will exit the dryer with the steam and become separated from the steam through the use of a curvilinear louver separator (CLS). The CLS enables removal of fine and ultrafine particles from the dryer. Water vapor separated from the particles in the CLS as superheated steam, may then be recovered and recirculated as steam through the use of a compressor to either directly or indirectly heat the dryer, and a heat exchanger or a heater to directly provide heat to the dryer. This system not only provides a very efficient heat transfer system but results in a minimum carry-over of ultrafine particles thereby eliminating any explosive hazard. 17 figures.

  19. Steam atmosphere drying exhaust steam recompression system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Becker, Frederick E.; Smolensky, Leo A.; Doyle, Edward F.; DiBella, Francis A.

    1994-01-01

    This invention relates to a heated steam atmosphere drying system comprising dryer in combination with an exhaust recompression system which is extremely energy efficient and eliminates dangers known to air dryers. The system uses superheated steam as the drying medium, which recirculated through the system where its heat of evaporation and heat of compression is recovered, thereby providing a constant source of heat to the drying chamber. The dryer has inlets whereby feedstock and superheated steam are fed therein. High heat transfer and drying rates are achieved by intimate contact of the superheated steam with the particles being dried The dryer comprises a vessel which enables the feedstock and steam to enter recirculate together. When the feedstock becomes dry it will exit the dryer with the steam and become separated from the steam through the use of a curvilinear louver separator (CLS). The CLS enables removal of fine and ultrafine particles from the dryer. Water vapor separated from the particles in the CLS as superheated steam, may then be recovered and recirculated as steam through the use of a compressor to either directly or indirectly heat the dryer, and a heat exchanger or a heater to directly provide heat to the dryer. This system not only provides a very efficient heat transfer system but results in a minimum carry-over of ultrafine particles thereby eliminating any explosive hazard.

  20. DOE/EA-XXXX

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    49 ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT Commercial Demonstration of the Manufactured Aggregate Processing Technology Utilizing Spray Dryer Ash, King George County, Virginia United States Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory August 2002 Commercial Demonstration of the Manufactured Aggregate Processing Technology Utilizing Spray-dryer Ash, King George County, Virginia ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT 2 National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Compliance Cover Sheet Proposed Action: The proposed

  1. 2014-10-06 DOE Certification, Compliance, and Enforcement Overview for

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Refrigerators, Refrigerator-Freezers, Freezers, Dehumidifiers, Room Air Conditioners, Clothes Washers, Clothes Dryers, and Dishwashers | Department of Energy 06 DOE Certification, Compliance, and Enforcement Overview for Refrigerators, Refrigerator-Freezers, Freezers, Dehumidifiers, Room Air Conditioners, Clothes Washers, Clothes Dryers, and Dishwashers 2014-10-06 DOE Certification, Compliance, and Enforcement Overview for Refrigerators, Refrigerator-Freezers, Freezers, Dehumidifiers, Room

  2. Woolen mill captures exhaust to cut fuel costs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1986-02-01

    To keep ahead of growing competition, a northeast woolen mill sought a method of reducing fuel costs while increasing production. A counterflow-design plate heat exchanger was employed to recirculate dryer exhaust. It has cut propane consumption from 4900 to 2400 gallons a week while design modifications have doubled dryer speed. The heat recovery system is described.

  3. Regional Geologic Map

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Lane, Michael

    Shaded relief base with Hot Pot project area, generalized geology, selected mines, and major topographic features

  4. Regional Geologic Map

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Lane, Michael

    2013-06-28

    Shaded relief base with Hot Pot project area, generalized geology, selected mines, and major topographic features

  5. Biomass drying technologies. Final report, September 1997--May 1998

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Salomaa, E.

    1998-07-01

    The report examines the technologies used for drying of biomass and the energy requirements of biomass dryers. Biomass drying processes, drying methods, and the conventional types of dryers are surveyed generally. Drying methods and dryer studies using superheated steam as the drying medium are discussed more closely, with comparison to the methods of drying using air or flue gas as the drying medium. Available types of steam dryers are described with reference to operating conditions, energy requirements, and types of biomass dried. Energy aspects are considered, as well as possibilities of steam utilization to recover the latent heat of vaporization. Thermal energy required for drying of biomass is calculated using tabulated values of steam properties. The amount of steam to provide the thermal energy needed for biomass drying, at different pressures and temperatures applicable in steam dryers, is calculated for both indirectly and directly heated steam dryers. The calculated heat requirement values of steam dryers have been compared with those reported in the literature. Further, anticipated emissions from flue gas and steam drying processes have been summarized.

  6. Ultrastable Polymolybdate-Based Metal-Organic Frameworks as Highly Active

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Ultrasonic Clothes Dryer--No Heat Needed Ultrasonic Clothes Dryer--No Heat Needed Addthis Description Below is the text version for Good Vibrations: No Heat Needed for Ultrasonic Dryers. Text Version The video opens with a shot of a research laboratory, with scientists talking and working in front of a row of electronics. Ayyoub Momen-Oak Ridge Staff Scientist This is going to be a game-changing technology. Viral Patel-Post Doctoral Research Associate Just the name sounds amazing: ultrasonic

  7. Full containment spray drying

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Masters, K.

    1999-11-01

    Aspects of safety, environmental protection, and powder quality will continue to influence advances within spray dryer design and operation, and the concept of full containment spray drying offers a means to meet future industrial requirements. Process air recycle and powder containment within the drying chamber leads to no process air discharge to atmosphere, provides a more favorable operator environment around the spray dryer installation, reduces regions within the dryer layout where potential explosive powder/air mixtures can exist, improves yields, reduces powder losses, and provides easier cleaning operations with reduced wash water requirements.

  8. University of Maryland Wins Max Tech and Beyond Competition for

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Ultra-Efficient Clothes Dryer | Department of Energy University of Maryland Wins Max Tech and Beyond Competition for Ultra-Efficient Clothes Dryer University of Maryland Wins Max Tech and Beyond Competition for Ultra-Efficient Clothes Dryer September 10, 2013 - 12:00pm Addthis The Energy Department announced today that the University of Maryland won the second annual Max Tech and Beyond design competition for ultra-low energy use appliances and equipment for the second year in a row. The

  9. Haier: Proposed Penalty (2011-CE-2104)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE alleged in a Notice of Proposed Civil Penalty that Haier America Trading LLC failed to certify various residential clothes dryers as compliant with the applicable energy conservation standards.

  10. Commercial Compressed Air Systems Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    There are incentives for variable frequency drive screw compressors (10-40 HP), air receivers/tanks for load/no-load screw and vane compressors, cycling refrigerated thermal mass dryers (up to 30...

  11. CX-012206: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Energy Systems Laboratory Process Demonstration Unit Biomass Dryer Exhaust Stack Exhaustion CX(s) Applied: B1.31 Date: 04/30/2014 Location(s): Idaho Offices(s): Nuclear Energy

  12. Tips: Laundry | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Clean the lint screen in the dryer after every load to improve air circulation and prevent fire hazards. Periodically, use the long nozzle tip on your vacuum cleaner to remove the ...

  13. Felix Storch: Proposed Penalty (2010-CE-03/04/0613)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE alleged in a Notice of Proposed Civil Penalty that Felix Storch, Inc. failed to certify a variety of residential dishwashers, clothes washers and dryers as compliant with the applicable energy conservation standards.

  14. 2011 EFRC Summit & Forum - Combustion Energy Frontier Research...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of a New Biofuel: Butanol" . Yiguang Ju, Pascal Dievart, Stephen Dooley, Sang Hee Wong, Frederick L. Dryer, Emily A. Carter, Chung K. Law, William H. Green, Ronald K. Hanson,...

  15. Florida Public Utilities (Gas)- Commercial Energy Efficiency Rebates

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Florida Public Utilities offers natural gas customers energy efficiency rebates  to save energy in facilities. Rebates are available for water hears, dryers, fryers, and cooking ranges.  All...

  16. Tips: Laundry | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    lighter-weight clothes. Don't over-dry your clothes. If your machine has a moisture sensor, use it. Clean the lint screen in the dryer after every load to improve air...

  17. Westland Sales: Proposed Penalty (2010-CE-03/0411)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    DOE alleged in a Notice of Proposed Civil Penalty that Westland Sales failed to certify several models of residential clothes washers and clothes dryers as compliant with the applicable energy conservation standards.

  18. ASKO Appliances: Order (2010-CE-04/0614)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE ordered ASKO Appliances, Inc. to pay a $5,000 civil penalty after finding ASKO had failed to certify that certain models of dishwashers and clothes dryers comply with the applicable energy conservation standards.

  19. Mackle Company: Proposed Penalty (2011-CE-2102)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE alleged in a Notice of Proposed Civil Penalty that The Mackle Company, Inc. failed to certify a variety of residential clothes dryers as compliant with the applicable energy conservation standards.

  20. DOE Tour of Zero: The Near Zero Maine II by Thomas Fullam / Near...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    energy and water use. 8 of 19 The high-efficiency clothes washer and dryer are ENERGY STAR labeled. 9 of 19 The Near Zero Maine home's ultra-efficient foundation insulation...

  1. MC Appliance: Proposed Penalty (2014-CE-20002)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE alleged in a Notice of Proposed Civil Penalty that MC Appliance Corporation failed to certify residential clothes washers and residential clothes dryers as compliant with the applicable energy conservation standards.

  2. Westland Sales: Order (2010-CE-03/0411)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE ordered Westland Sales to pay a $5,000 civil penalty after finding Westland Sales had failed to certify that certain models of residential clothes washers and clothes dryers comply with the applicable energy conservation standards.

  3. Tips: Sealing Air Leaks | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    leak out. Cover your kitchen exhaust fan to stop air leaks when not in use. Check your dryer vent to be sure it is not blocked. This will save energy and may prevent a fire....

  4. CX-012605: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Replacement Air Dryer for the HB-Line Breathing Air System CX(s) Applied: B1.3Date: 41810 Location(s): South CarolinaOffices(s): Savannah River Operations Office

  5. Avanti: Proposed Penalty (2013-CE-2105)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    DOE alleged in a Notice of Proposed Civil Penalty that Avanti Products, LLC, failed to certify a variety of residential clothes dryers as compliant with the applicable energy conservation standards.

  6. Instructions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    have a test version ready, they can bring it up for a wind test. Blast it with the hair dryer and count how many turns it makes in 30 seconds. Or, see if it can turn with enough...

  7. Summary - Demonstration Bulk Vitrification System (DBVS) for...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    should be completed and its effectiveness tested in the full demonstration. The mixer-dryer and off-gas systems need special attention in the next project phase since past work...

  8. Mackle Company: Order (2011-CE-2102)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    DOE ordered The Mackle Company, Inc., to pay a $6,000 civil penalty after finding Mackle Co. had failed to certify that basic model D110, a clothes dryer, complies with the applicable energy conservation standards.

  9. ASKO Appliances: Proposed Penalty (2010-CE-04/0614)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE alleged in a Notice of Proposed Civil Penalty that ASKO Appliances, Inc. failed to certify a variety of residential dishwashers and clothes dryers as compliant with the applicable energy conservation standards.

  10. Daewoo: Proposed Penalty (2010-CE-0410)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE alleged in a Notice of Proposed Civil Penalty that Daewoo International Inc. failed to certify a variety of residential clothes dryers as compliant with the applicable energy conservation standards.

  11. Innovative Concept Appliances: Proposed Penalty (2010-CE-03/0415)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE alleged in a Notice of Proposed Civil Penalty that Innovative Concept Appliances, LLC, failed to certify a variety of residential clothes washers and clothes dryers as compliant with the applicable energy conservation standards.

  12. Compressed Air Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    There are incentives for variable frequency drive screw compressors (10-40 HP), air receivers/tanks for load/no-load compressors, cycling refrigerated dryers (up to 200 CFM capacity), no-loss...

  13. MC Appliance: Order (2014-CE-20002)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE ordered MC Appliance Corporation to pay a $16,000 civil penalty after finding MC Appliance had failed to certify that certain models of residential clothes washers and residential clothes dryers comply with the applicable energy conservation standards.

  14. Whirlpool: Order (2014-CE-21010)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    DOE ordered Whirlpool Corporation to pay a $8,000 civil penalty after finding Whirlpool had failed to certify that certain models of residential clothes dryers comply with the applicable energy conservation standards.

  15. Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Programs

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Note: Rebate applications are currently being accepted. To qualify for a rebate on an eligible clothes washer, clothes dryer, refrigerator, dehumidifier, heat pump water heater, or pool pump you...

  16. Daewoo: Order (2010-CE-0410)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE ordered Daewoo International, Inc. to pay a $5,000 civil penalty after finding Daewoo had failed to certify that certain models of residential clothes dryers comply with the applicable energy conservation standards.

  17. Respond to the article | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    0, 2014 - 9:35am Use the form below to submit a question or comment to Paige Terlip about the article Hair Dryer vs. Upright Vacuum: Round Two of EnergyFaceoff Begins...

  18. Avanti: Order (2013-CE-2105)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE ordered Avanti Products, LLC to pay a $8,000 civil penalty after finding Avanti had failed to certify that certain models of residential clothes dryers comply with the applicable energy conservation standards.

  19. Haier: Order (2011-CE-2104)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE ordered Haier to pay an $20,000 civil penalty after finding Haier had failed to certify that Haier residential clothes dryers comply with the applicable energy conservation standard.

  20. Versonel: Proposed Penalty (2014-CE-21009)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE alleged in a Notice of Proposed Civil Penalty that Smart Surplus, Inc. d/b/a Versonel failed to certify refrigerators and residential clothes dryers as compliant with the applicable energy conservation standards.

  1. Fun With The Sun - Teacher's Activity Guide for Elementary Grades...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... A leaf moving in the wind, a pot of boiling water, and a school bus traveling to school ... A leaf moving in the wind, a pot of boiling water, and a school bus traveling to school ...

  2. DOI-BLM-NV-W010-2010-0043-CX | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    CX Jump to: navigation, search NEPA Document Collection for: DOI-BLM-NV-W010-2010-0043-CX CX at Hot Pot Geothermal Area for GeothermalExploration CX for Seismic Survey at Hot Pot...

  3. Principal Investigators - Combustion Energy Frontier Research Center

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Principal Investigators Principal Investigators Chung K. Law Chung K. Law Director, CEFRC Princeton University Emily A. Carter Emily A. Carter Co-Director, CEFRC Princeton University Jacqueline H. Chen Jacqueline H. Chen Sandia National Laboratories Frederick L. Dryer Frederick L. Dryer Princeton University Fokion N. Egolfopoulos University of Southern California William H. Green William H. Green Massachusetts Institute of Technology Nils Hansen Nils Hansen Sandia National Laboratories Ronald K.

  4. Evaluation of emission-control devices at waferboard plants. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vaught, C.C.

    1989-10-01

    The document discusses emissions from wood-chip dryers and the candidate control devices that should be considered in a best available control technology analysis. Specifically, the document characterizes wood-chip dryer effluents and presents a general description, pollutant removal efficiencies, factors affecting performance, and cost for the wet electrostatic precipitator and the electrified filter bed. The document also presents information on controlling formaldehyde emissions from the press vents.

  5. Energy-Efficient Home Appliances Can Save You Money | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Home Appliances Can Save You Money Energy-Efficient Home Appliances Can Save You Money August 15, 2013 - 9:46am Addthis Simply changing settings on your washer and dryer can save energy and money. | Photo courtesy of Bethany Sparn, NREL 25545 Simply changing settings on your washer and dryer can save energy and money. | Photo courtesy of Bethany Sparn, NREL 25545 Jason Lutterman Communications Specialist, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy How can I participate? Look for the

  6. GE Researcher Discusses Leadership | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    GE Partners with Lab on Ultrasonic Clothes Dryer GE Partners with Lab on Ultrasonic Clothes Dryer Addthis Description This video tells how a partnership between Oak Ridge National Laboratory and GE Appliances--with support from the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy's (EERE's) Building Technologies Office-is changing the way Americans do laundry with their ultrasonic drying technology that uses vibrations, not heat, to dry fabric. Text Version This is going to be a game-changing

  7. Massive Soil Cleanup Effort Concludes at Hanford - Recovery Act Funding

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Energy Maryland Heats Up Student Appliance Design Competition Maryland Heats Up Student Appliance Design Competition September 10, 2013 - 11:43am Addthis Students from the University of Maryland won the Max Tech and Beyond Design Competition for their heat pump clothes dryer prototype, which achieved a 59 percent energy savings compared to standard U.S. electric dryers. | Photo courtesy of the University of Maryland. Students from the University of Maryland won the Max Tech and Beyond Design

  8. Maryland team wins Virginia/Maryland Regional Middle School Science Bowl;

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Maryland Heats Up Student Appliance Design Competition Maryland Heats Up Student Appliance Design Competition September 10, 2013 - 11:43am Addthis Students from the University of Maryland won the Max Tech and Beyond Design Competition for their heat pump clothes dryer prototype, which achieved a 59 percent energy savings compared to standard U.S. electric dryers. | Photo courtesy of the University of Maryland. Students from the University of Maryland won the Max Tech and Beyond Design

  9. Chemistry: Mechanism and Experiment - Combustion Energy Frontier Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Center Chemistry: Mechanism and Experiment Chemistry: Mechanism and Experiment The Mechanism and Experiment DWG uses an array of advanced experimental apparatus to probe the combustion chemistry of fuels. Primary apparatus used include shock tube (Hanson/Davidson), variable-pressure turbulent flow reactor (Dryer), rapid compression machine (Sung), low-pressure burner stabilized flame coupled with synchrotron photoionization mass spectrometry (Hansen, Dryer), atmospheric-pressure burner

  10. Building Energy Optimization (BEopt) Software | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Residential Buildings » Building America » Building Energy Optimization (BEopt) Software Building Energy Optimization (BEopt) Software BEopt 2.4 Now Available! With the release of BEopt Version 2.4 Beta, users can now perform modeling analysis on multifamily buildings! Other new options for input include: heat pump clothes dryers; electric/gas clothes dryers; condensing tank water heaters; door construction and area; window areas defined by façade-specific WWRs; and 2013 ASHRAE 62.2

  11. The effect of additives on lime dissolution rates. Final report, September 1, 1993--August 31, 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keener, T.C.; Khang, S.J.; Wang, J.

    1995-02-01

    In spray dryer flue gas desulfurization, lime slurry is injected into a spray dryer where it contacts with the hot flue gas and desulfurization occurs. This process is complex owing to the heat and mass transfer which must take place. One of the most important fundamental steps in the scrubbing process is the rate at which lime dissolves from the solid particle in the slurry drop and becomes available for reaction with the absorbed sulfur dioxide. This dissolution rate to a large extent controls the degree of reactivity and is the rate controlling step for this process. However, studies on this dissolution rate have been very few and its magnitude under a variety of operating conditions is not well known. This research has as its objective, the study and understanding of the lime dissolution rate. This understanding should lead to a better method of predicting and optimizing spray dryer performance for flue gas desulfurization.

  12. Lignite Fuel Enhancement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Charles Bullinger

    2007-03-31

    This 11th quarterly Technical Progress Report for the Lignite Fuel Enhancement Project summarizes activities from January 1st through March 31st of 2007. It summarizes the completion of the Prototype testing activity and initial full-scale dryer design, Budget Period 2 activity during that time period. The Design Team completed process design and layouts of air, water, and coal systems. Heyl-Patterson completed dryer drawings and has sent RFPs to several fabricators for build and assembly. Several meetings were held with Barr engineers to finalize arrangement of the drying, air jig, and coal handling systems. Honeywell held meetings do discuss the control system logic and hardware location. By the end of March we had processed nearly 300,000 tons of lignite through the dryer. Outage preparation maintenance activities on a coal transfer hopper restricted operation of the dryer in February and March. The Outage began March 17th. We will not dry coal again until early May when the Outage on Unit No.2 completes. The Budget Period 1 (Phase 1) final report was submitted this quarter. Comments were received from NETL and are being reviewed. The Phase 2 Project Management Plan was submitted to NETL in January 2007. This deliverable also included the Financing Plan. An application for R&D 100 award was submitted in February. The project received an award from the Minnesota Professional Engineering Society's Seven Wonders of Engineering Award and Minnesota ACEC Grand Award in January. To further summarize, the focus this quarter has been on finalizing commercial design and the layout of four dryers behind each Unit. The modification to the coal handling facilities at Coal Creek and incorporation of air jigs to further beneficiate the segregated material the dryers will reject 20 to 30 % of the mercury and sulfur is segregated however this modification will recover the carbon in that stream.

  13. Buildings Energy Data Book: 2.1 Residential Sector Energy Consumption

    Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

    7 Range 10 4 48 Clothes Dryer 359 (2) 4 49 Water Heating Water Heater-Family of 4 40 64 (3) 26 294 Water Heater-Family of 2 40 32 (3) 12 140 Note(s): Source(s): 1) $1.139/therm. 2) Cycles/year. 3) Gallons/day. A.D. Little, EIA-Technology Forecast Updates - Residential and Commercial Building Technologies - Reference Case, Sept. 2, 1998, p. 30 for range and clothes dryer; LBNL, Energy Data Sourcebook for the U.S. Residential Sector, LBNL-40297, Sept. 1997, p. 62-67 for water heating; GAMA,

  14. Buildings Energy Data Book: 5.7 Appliances

    Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

    6 Other Major Appliance Efficiencies 2010 Efficiency 2005 Stock 2010 U.S. Average Best Available Residential Appliance Type Parameter (1) Efficiency New Efficiency New Efficiency Dishwashers EF 0.30 0.61 1.13 Clothes Washers (2) MEF 2.00 2.00 3.88 Clothes Dryers (electric) EF 3.01 3.10 3.16 Clothes Dryers (gas) EF 2.67 2.75 3.02 Cooktop (Gas) Cooking Efficiency 0.38 0.40 0.42 2010 1992 Efficiency Stock U.S. Average Best Available Commercial Appliance Type Parameter (1) Efficiency New Efficiency

  15. Powerful, Efficient Electric Vehicle Chargers: Low-Cost, Highly-Integrated Silicon Carbide (SiC) Multichip Power Modules (MCPMs) for Plug-In Hybrid Electric

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-09-14

    ADEPT Project: Currently, charging the battery of an electric vehicle (EV) is a time-consuming process because chargers can only draw about as much power from the grid as a hair dryer. APEI is developing an EV charger that can draw as much power as a clothes dryer, which would drastically speed up charging time. APEI's charger uses silicon carbide (SiC)-based power transistors. These transistors control the electrical energy flowing through the charger's circuits more effectively and efficiently than traditional transistors made of straight silicon. The SiC-based transistors also require less cooling, enabling APEI to create EV chargers that are 10 times smaller than existing chargers.

  16. Microsoft PowerPoint - HAB 120508 Presentation ORP 120308.ppt...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Platform ultrafilter Pretreatment Engineering Platform ultrafilter pulse pots and valves provide the ability to back pulse the ultrafilters to maintain flow Tank Farms 242-A...

  17. Liquid Argon Dielectric Strength Measurements Sarah Lockwitz

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    * Same filter pot as uB * filters ripple * isolates energy * Voltage controlled by a LabView program (monitoring voltage, and some current) * Current additionally monitored by...

  18. A versatile metal-organic framework for carbon dioxide capture...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    exhibits selective adsorption of CO2 over CH4 and excellent catalytic activity in a tandem one-pot deacetalization-Knoevenagel condensation reaction as a cooperative catalyst....

  19. uboone_flux.pdf

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    POT 6 /10 2 /50MeV/m MicroBooNE ) ( -5 10 -4 10 -3 10 -2 10 -1 10 µ µ e e

  20. Location Map

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Lane, Michael

    Map file package containing shaded relief base with Hot Pot project area, major roads, railroads, and rivers. The inset map shows regional Paleozoic structural elements.

  1. Estimating Demand Response Market Potential | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    URI: cleanenergysolutions.orgcontentestimating-demand-response-market-pot Language: English Policies: "Deployment Programs,Regulations" is not in the list of possible...

  2. Search for: All records | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... Have feedback or suggestions for a way to improve these results? One-pot refolding of core histones from bacterial inclusion bodies allows rapid reconstitution of histone octamer ...

  3. Location Map

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Lane, Michael

    2013-06-27

    Map file package containing shaded relief base with Hot Pot project area, major roads, railroads, and rivers. The inset map shows regional Paleozoic structural elements.

  4. Cooking utensil with improved heat retention

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Potter, T.F.; Benson, D.K.; Burch, S.D.

    1997-07-01

    A cooking utensil with improved heat retention includes an inner pot received within an outer pot and separated in a closely spaced-apart relationship to form a volume or chamber there between. The chamber is evacuated and sealed with foil leaves at the upper edges of the inner and outer pot. The vacuum created between the inner and outer pot, along with the minimum of thermal contact between the inner and outer pot, and the reduced radiative heat transfer due to low emissivity coatings on the inner and outer pot, provide for a highly insulated cooking utensil. Any combination of a plurality of mechanisms for selectively disabling and re-enabling the insulating properties of the pot are provided within the chamber. These mechanisms may include: a hydrogen gas producing and reabsorbing device such as a metal hydride, a plurality of metal contacts which can be adjusted to bridge the gap between the inner and outer pot, and a plurality of bimetallic switches which can selectively bridge the gap between the inner and outer pot. In addition, phase change materials with superior heat retention characteristics may be provided within the cooking utensil. Further, automatic and programmable control of the cooking utensil can be provided through a microprocessor and associated hardware for controlling the vacuum disable/enable mechanisms to automatically cook and save food. 26 figs.

  5. Cooking utensil with improved heat retention

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Potter, Thomas F.; Benson, David K.; Burch, Steven D.

    1997-01-01

    A cooking utensil with improved heat retention includes an inner pot received within an outer pot and separated in a closely spaced-apart relationship to form a volume or chamber therebetween. The chamber is evacuated and sealed with foil leaves at the upper edges of the inner and outer pot. The vacuum created between the inner and outer pot, along with the minimum of thermal contact between the inner and outer pot, and the reduced radiative heat transfer due to low emissivity coatings on the inner and outer pot, provide for a highly insulated cooking utensil. Any combination of a plurality of mechanisms for selectively disabling and re-enabling the insulating properties of the pot are provided within the chamber. These mechanisms may include: a hydrogen gas producing and reabsorbing device such as a metal hydride, a plurality of metal contacts which can be adjusted to bridge the gap between the inner and outer pot, and a plurality of bimetallic switches which can selectively bridge the gap between the inner and outer pot. In addition, phase change materials with superior heat retention characteristics may be provided within the cooking utensil. Further, automatic and programmable control of the cooking utensil can be provided through a microprocessor and associated hardware for controlling the vacuum disable/enable mechanisms to automatically cook and save food.

  6. Novel Thermophilic Cellobiohydrolase - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Higher activity, longer duration and greater tolerance to ionic liquids compared to commercially available cellulase cocktails Facilitates one pot pretreatmentsaccharification of ...

  7. Buildings Energy Data Book: 5.7 Appliances

    Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

    9 2008 Clothes Dryer Manufacturer Market Shares (Percent of Products Produced) Electric Gas Company Market Share (%) Market Share (%) Whirlpool 70% 74% Maytag (1) (1) GE 16% 10% Electrolux (Frigidaire) 8% 5% Others 6% 11% Total 100% 100% Note(s): Source(s): Total Electric Units Shipped: 5,620,000 Total Gas Units Shipped: 1,353

  8. Simulation of spray drying in superheated steam using computational fluid dynamics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frydman, A.; Vasseur, J.; Ducept, F.; Sionneau, M.; Moureh, J.

    1999-09-01

    This paper presents a numerical simulation and experimental validation of a spray dryer using superheated steam instead of air as drying medium, modeled with a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code. The model describes momentum, heat and mass transfer between two phases--a discrete phase of droplets, and a continuous gas phase--through a finite volume method. For the simulation, droplet size distribution is represented by 6 discrete classes of diameter, fitting to the experimental distribution injected from the nozzle orifice, taking into account their peculiar shrinkage during drying. This model is able to predict the most important features of the dryer: fields of gas temperature and gas velocity inside the chamber, droplets trajectories and eventual deposits on to the wall. The results of simulation are compared to a pilot scale dryer, using water. In the absence of risk of power ignition in steam, the authors have tested rather high steam inlet temperature (973K), thus obtaining a high volumic efficiency. The model is validated by comparison between experimental and predicted values of temperature inside the chamber, verifying the coupling between the 3 different types of transfer without adjustment. This type of model can be used for chamber design, or scale up. Using superheated steam instead of air in a spray dryer can allow a high volumic evaporation rate (20 k.h.m{sup 3}), high energy recovery and better environment control.

  9. Drying '86. Volume 1-2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mujumdar, A.S. )

    1986-01-01

    These proceedings contain 123 papers grouped under the headings of: Drying theory and modelling; Drying of granular materials; Spray drying; Drying of paper and wood products; Drying of foodstuff and biomaterials; Drying of agricultural products and grains; Superheated steam drying; Industrial drying systems and novel dryers; Use of solar energy in drying; Measurement and control of humidity and moisture; and Dewatering.

  10. Gas turbines and acid rain - Looking at some solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    May, W.

    1989-01-01

    This article examines the technology available for reducing the sulfur emissions of gas turbines that are implicated in the production of acid rain. The alternatives reviewed are limestone scrubbing, spray dryer absorption and limestone injection into boilers. The last process is not feasible for gas turbines and of the other two the author recommends limestone scrubbing.

  11. Versonel: Order (2014-CE-21009)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE ordered Smart Surplus, Inc. d/b/a Versonel to pay a $8,000 civil penalty after finding Versonel had failed to certify that certain models of refrigerators and residential clothes dryers comply with the applicable energy conservation standards.

  12. Apparatus and method for feeding coal into a coal gasifier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bissett, Larry A.; Friggens, Gary R.; McGee, James P.

    1979-01-01

    This invention is directed to a system for feeding coal into a gasifier operating at high pressures. A coal-water slurry is pumped to the desired pressure and then the coal is "dried" prior to feeding the coal into the gasifier by contacting the slurry with superheated steam in an entrained bed dryer for vaporizing the water in the slurry.

  13. Innovative Concept Appliances: Order (2010-CE-03/0415)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE issued an Order after entering into a Compromise Agreement with Innovative Concept Appliances, LLC. to resolve a case involving the failure to certify that a variety of residential clothes washers and clothes dryers comply with the applicable energy conservation standards.

  14. CX-100087 Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Energy Efficient Clothes Dryer with IR Heating and Electrostatic Precipitator Award Number: DE-EE0006720 CX(s) Applied: A9, B3.6 Date: 8/7/2014 Location(s): New York Office(s): Golden Field Office

  15. Appliance Standards Program - The FY 2003 Priority Setting Report...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... Heat pump dryers have come to market in Europe, but not in ... th Annual Report: A Ten Year Review 1991-2000 of the U.S. ... 20-inch Sharp 53 22 Sharp LC-20C1; www.sharp- world.com . ...

  16. Proof of concept and performance optimization of high gravity batch type centrifuge for dewatering fine coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, L.B.; Durney, T.E. Jr.

    1990-10-24

    Coal Technology Corporation (CTC) believes that the new CTC high gravity, high production, batch type centrifugal dryer technology can play a significant role in improving the product quality as well as costs of operation in coal processing plants. It is further believed that the new centrifugal dryer technology can form an important part in systems used to clean up the millions of tons of coal fines in refuse piles and ponds. Work has progressed to the point where the new centrifugal dryer technology is nearly ready for commercialization. The primary objective of this project is to prove the concept in a commercial coal processing plant environment. The proof of concept tests will include testing with a variety of coals from different regions. A further objective will be to optimize the efficiency and the cost effectiveness of the new centrifugal dryer technology. To supply some perspective on the ability of the new centrifuges to successfully dry a variety of coals from various coal fields, it was decided that coals ranging from very fine to course size consists and with both low and high inherent moistures would be tested. Coals tested include: Pittsburgh no. 8 seam (Pennsylvania), Pittsburgh no. 8 seam (West Virginia), and Blue Creek Seam (Alabama). 6 figs.

  17. Proof of concept and performance optimization of high gravity batch type centrifuge for dewatering fine coal. Quarterly technical progress report No. 3, March 20, 1990--June 20, 1990, Revision

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, L.B.; Durney, T.E. Jr.

    1990-07-24

    Coal Technology Corporation (CTC) believes that the new CTC high gravity, high production, batch type centrifugal dryer technology can play a significant role in improving the product quality as well as costs of operation in coal processing plants. It is further believed that the new centrifugal dryer technology can form an important part in systems used to clean up the millions of tons of coal fines in refuse piles and ponds. It is anticipated that the new centrifuge can become an important ancillary to the advanced deep cleaning processes for coal. Because of these convictions, CTC has been engaged in a pioneering research effort into the new art of drying fine clean coal in high gravity, high production, batch type centrifuges, since 1981. This work has progressed to the point where the new centrifugal dryer technology is nearly ready for commercialization. It promises to provide needed fine coal drying capability at somewhat lower capital costs and at substantially lower operating costs than competitive systems. It also promises to do so with no detrimental effects on either the coal quality or the evironment. The primary objective of this project is to prove the concept in a commercial coal processing plant environment. The proof of concept tests will also include testing with a variety of coals from different regions. A further objective will be to optimize the efficiency and the cost effectiveness of the new centrifugal dryer technology.

  18. Proof of concept and performance optimization of high gravity batch type centrifuge for dewatering fine coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, L.B.; Durney, T.E. Jr.

    1991-04-23

    Coal Technology Corporation (CTC) believes that the new CTC high gravity, high production, batch type centrifugal dryer technology can play a significant role in improving the product quality as well as costs of operation in coal processing plants. It is further believed that the new centrifugal dryer technology can form an important part in systems used to clean up millions of tons of coal fines in refuse piles and ponds. It is anticipated that the new centrifuge can become an important ancillary to the advanced deep cleaning processes for coal. Because of these convictions, CTC has been engaged in a pioneering research effort into the new art of drying fine clean coal in high gravity, high production, batch type of centrifuge, since 1981. This work has progressed to the point where the new centrifugal dryer technology is nearly ready for commercialization. It promises to provide needed fine coal drying capability at somewhat lower capital costs and at substantially lower operating costs than competitive systems. It also promises to do so with no detrimental effects on either the coal quality or the environment. The primary objective of this project is to prove the concept of a high gravity batch centrifuge for drying coal fines in a commercial coal processing plant environment. The proof of concept tests also include testing with a variety of coals from different regions. A further objective is to optimize the efficiency and the cost effectiveness of the new centrifugal dryer technology. 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. Proof of concept and performance optimization of high gravity batch type centrifuge for dewatering fine coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, L.B.; Durney, T.E. Jr.

    1990-07-24

    Coal Technology Corporation (CTC) believes that the new CTC high gravity, high production, batch type centrifugal dryer technology can play a significant role in improving the product quality as well as costs of operation in coal processing plants. It is further believed that the new centrifugal dryer technology can form an important part in systems used to clean up the millions of tons of coal fines in refuse piles and ponds. It is anticipated that the new centrifuge can become an important ancillary to the advanced deep cleaning processes for coal. Because of these convictions, CTC has been engaged in a pioneering research effort into the new art of drying fine clean coal in high gravity, high production, batch type centrifuges, since 1981. This work has progressed to the point where the new centrifugal dryer technology is nearly ready for commercialization. It promises to provide needed fine coal drying capability at somewhat lower capital costs and at substantially lower operating costs than competitive systems. It also promises to do so with no detrimental effects on either the coal quality or the evironment. The primary objective of this project is to prove the concept in a commercial coal processing plant environment. The proof of concept tests will also include testing with a variety of coals from different regions. A further objective will be to optimize the efficiency and the cost effectiveness of the new centrifugal dryer technology.

  20. Continuous aqueous tritium monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McManus, Gary J. (Idaho Falls, ID); Weesner, Forrest J. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1989-05-30

    An apparatus for a selective on-line determination of aqueous tritium concentration is disclosed. A moist air stream of the liquid solution being analyzed is passed through a permeation dryer where the tritium and moisture and selectively removed to a purge air stream. The purge air stream is then analyzed for tritium concentration, humidity, and temperature, which allows computation of liquid tritium concentration.

  1. Solar collection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cole, S.L.

    1984-08-01

    This report contains summaries and pictures of projects funded by the Appropriate Technology Small Grants Program which include the following solar technologies: solar dish; photovoltaics; passive solar building and solar hot water system; Trombe wall; hot air panel; hybrid solar heating system; solar grain dryer; solar greenhouse; solar hot water workshops; and solar workshops.

  2. Nutritional significance and acceptance of solar-dried foods of rural Leyte Philippines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swanson, M.A.

    1987-01-01

    Training in solar dryer construction and food preservation was provided to villagers in three barangays in rural Leyte, Philippines. A 24 hour dietary recall assessed dietary status of the women prior to the solar dried food intervention. Nutrients of greatest dietary concern were thiamine, vitamin A, riboflavin, iron and energy.

  3. /Users/jzennamo/Desktop/ObsLimit_MiniSciBooNE_SBN_numuDis.pdf

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    µ θ 2 2 sin 3 - 10 2 - 10 1 - 10 1 ] 2 [eV 2 m ∆ 1 - 10 1 10 2 10 POT) 20 10 × POT) and T600 (6.6 21 10 × MicroBooNE (1.3 POT) 20 10 × LAr1-ND (6.6 mode, CC Events ν Stat, Flux, Cross Section Uncerts. Reconstructed Energy Efficiency µ ν 80% Shape and Rate 90% CL CL σ 3 CL σ 5 MiniBooNE + SciBooNE 90% CL

  4. Buildings Energy Data Book: 5.7 Appliances

    Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

    Other Major Appliance Shipments, by Type (Including Exports) 1990 2000 2009 2009 Value of Shipments (4) Appliance Type (thousands) (thousands) (thousands) ($million) Room Air Conditioners 3,799 6,496 6,418 129 Ranges (total) 5,873 8,202 5,941 3,158 Electric Ranges 3,350 5,026 3,509 2,041 Gas Ranges 2,354 3,176 2,433 1,117 Microwave Ovens/Ranges 7,693 9,333 N.A. Clothes Washers 5,591 7,495 7,999 4,820 Clothes Dryers (total) 4,160 6,575 6,547 N.A. (5) Electric Dryers 3,190 5,095 5,261 N.A. Gas

  5. Evaluation of spray-drying methods for cellulase preservation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Himmel, M.; Oh, K.; Tucker, M.; Rivard, C.; Grohmann, K.; Scott, C.D.

    1986-01-01

    Spray drying processes are widely used for the large-scale preservation of biology goods. The application of this technology to the enhancement of the storability of cellulase and related enzymes would improve fermentation processes requiring input of specific quantities of enzyme catalyst of known activity. Very high percentages (90% of original) of filter paper and carboxymethyicellulose hydrolyzing activities can be recovered from conventional spray dryers when operated at inlet air temperatures ranging from 90 to 180 degrees. The beta-glucosidase and beta-xylosidase activity recoveries were somewhat lower and were optimal at temperatures ranging from 120 to 150 degrees. However, the individual performance of the 12 enzyme preparations examined was quite preparation specific. An ultrasonic nozzle adaptation to the Yamato dryer demonstrated the overall feasibility of high energy atomization inasmuch as the filter paper activity was retained after drying. The more labile beta-xylosidase activity was, however, entirely lost.

  6. Performance of ESPs operating downstream from spray-drying desulphurisation units

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ollero, P.; Canadas, L.; Salvador, L.

    1995-06-01

    This paper summarizes data from a Spray Dryer/ESP pilot plant located at the Los Barrios Coal Power Plant (Cadiz, Spain). A series of tests has been conducted to evaluate the performance of an existing ESP operating downstream from a spray dryer in a retrofit application. A factorial design of experiments with two SO{sub 2} levels, two flyash load levels, three Ca/S ratios and three sulfur removal efficiencies, was run during a six-month experimental programme. A global and a field-by-field analysis of the performance of the pilot ESP has shown that the desulphurisation unit enhances ESP efficiency and reduces the emission level. No evidence of electrical dust reentrainment has been found.

  7. CX-009547: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Recovery Act: Advanced Seismic Data Analysis Program ('Hot Pot Project') CX(s) Applied: A9, B3.1 Date: 11/28/2012 Location(s): CX: none Offices(s): Golden Field Office

  8. community

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    the positive response.

    As the promotion entered the final days, word spread through social media, and the pace of giving picked up even more.

    The pots and pans - over...

  9. CX-003220: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Hot Pot ProjectCX(s) Applied: A9, B3.1Date: 08/05/2010Location(s): NevadaOffice(s): Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Golden Field Office

  10. AKHthesis.pdf

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... and for continually upgrading my hardware-Mac Plus, anyone? ... Candela HV Oil PotConverter Ext Dump Relay Contacts N.O. ... For example, the Heavy Ion Beam Probe will eventually ...

  11. Synthesis of 2'-deoxy-2'-[.sup.18F]fluoro-5-methyl-1-B-D-arabinofuranosyluracil (.sup.18F-FMAU)

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Li, Zibo; Cai, Hancheng; Conti, Peter S

    2014-12-16

    The present invention relates to methods of synthesizing .sup.18F-FMAU. In particular, .sup.18F-FMAU is synthesized using one-pot reaction conditions in the presence of Friedel-Crafts catalysts. The one-pot reaction conditions are incorporated into a fully automated cGMP-compliant radiosynthesis module, which results in a reduction in synthesis time and simplifies reaction conditions. The one-pot reaction conditions are also suitable for the production of 5-substituted thymidine or cytidine analogs. The products from the one-pot reaction (e.g. the labeled thymidine or cytidine analogs) can be used as probes for imaging tumor proliferative activity. More specifically, these [.sup.18F]-labeled thymidine or cytidine analogs can be used as a PET tracer for certain medical conditions, including, but not limited to, cancer disease, autoimmunity inflammation, and bone marrow transplant.

  12. Summary - System Level Modeling and Simulation Tools for SRS

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    of pot A further need tool for Saltsto eptance. e ETR Team R 12 months): ( ssor, memory engineers and tools; (3) Deve ation of uncerta s; (4) Review cu most recent DOE ptance...

  13. BIG RU N INDIANA LAKESHORE RUN E LUMBER CIT Y WARSAW JOHNST

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... DEADMAN CORN ER S GRU GAN NEBRASKA AR TEMAS MILL R UN DRIF TING TOBY CR EEK RUNVILLE MURRYSVILLE CAT FISH R UN HECKMAN HOLLOW KART HAUS WEST FIELD POT R IDGE PARSONSVILLE RED BRUSH ...

  14. SSRL HEADLINES July 2007

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of ancient pottery. Here, Sciau holds a replica of the clay pots. Call it old-school outsourcing - more than 2,000 years ago, the Roman Empire exploited the labor of artisans in...

  15. Slide 1

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    LiBr MSH and Brnsted acid and not by LiBr. Metal salts could potentially serve as Lewis acids for "one- pot" downstream tandem reactions. Deng et al. Ind. Eng. Chem. Res....

  16. Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy Video Gallery | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy Video Gallery Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy Video Gallery Ultrasonic Clothes Dryer--No Heat Needed Energy Department Launches the Energy Materials Network Energy By The Numbers: Recovery Act Energy Secretary Moniz at the 2016 Washington Auto Show SHINES SunShot Project to Improve Energy Storage David Friedman: On the Future of Transportation and the LA Auto Show Sekaric Ready to Tackle Solar Challenges

  17. WIND ENERGY | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Energy WICF Certification, Compliance and Enforcement webinar WICF Certification, Compliance and Enforcement webinar This document is the presentation used from the WICF certification, compliance and enforcement webinar. PDF icon wicf_cce_presentation.pdf More Documents & Publications 2014-10-06 DOE Certification, Compliance, and Enforcement Overview for Refrigerators, Refrigerator-Freezers, Freezers, Dehumidifiers, Room Air Conditioners, Clothes Washers, Clothes Dryers, and Dishwashers

  18. AHAM Comments_DOE Reducing Regulatory Burden July 2014_FINAL (00029367).DOC

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AHAM - CCE Overview and Update, dated 06/07/2011 AHAM - CCE Overview and Update, dated 06/07/2011 This document is U.S. Department of Energy's presentation titled "AHAM - CCE Overview and Update", dated June 7, 2011. PDF icon cce_aham_presentation.pdf More Documents & Publications 2014-10-06 DOE Certification, Compliance, and Enforcement Overview for Refrigerators, Refrigerator-Freezers, Freezers, Dehumidifiers, Room Air Conditioners, Clothes Washers, Clothes Dryers, and

  19. Process for simultaneous removal of SO.sub.2 and NO.sub.x from gas streams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rosenberg, Harvey S.

    1987-01-01

    A process for simultaneous removal of SO.sub.2 and NO.sub.x from a gas stream that includes flowing the gas stream to a spray dryer and absorbing a portion of the SO.sub.2 content of the gas stream and a portion of the NO.sub.x content of the gas stream with ZnO by contacting the gas stream with a spray of an aqueous ZnO slurry; controlling the gas outlet temperature of the spray dryer to within the range of about a 0.degree. to 125.degree. F. approach to the adiabatic saturation temperature; flowing the gas, unreacted ZnO and absorbed SO.sub.2 and NO.sub.x from the spray dryer to a fabric filter and collecting any solids therein and absorbing a portion of the SO.sub.2 remaining in the gas stream and a portion of the NO.sub.x remaining in the gas stream with ZnO; and controlling the ZnO content of the aqueous slurry so that sufficient unreacted ZnO is present in the solids collected in the fabric filter to react with SO.sub.2 and NO.sub.x as the gas passes through the fabric filter whereby the overall feed ratio of ZnO to SO.sub.2 plus NO.sub.x is about 1.0 to 4.0 moles of ZnO per of SO.sub.2 and about 0.5 to 2.0 moles of ZnO per mole of NO.sub.x. Particulates may be removed from the gas stream prior to treatment in the spray dryer. The process further allows regeneration of ZnO that has reacted to absorb SO.sub.2 and NO.sub.x from the gas stream and acid recovery.

  20. Inclined fluidized bed system for drying fine coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cha, Chang Y.; Merriam, Norman W.; Boysen, John E.

    1992-02-11

    Coal is processed in an inclined fluidized bed dryer operated in a plug-flow manner with zonal temperature and composition control, and an inert fluidizing gas, such as carbon dioxide or combustion gas. Recycled carbon dioxide, which is used for drying, pyrolysis, quenching, and cooling, is produced by partial decarboxylation of the coal. The coal is heated sufficiently to mobilize coal tar by further pyrolysis, which seals micropores upon quenching. Further cooling with carbon dioxide enhances stabilization.

  1. Drum drying of black liquor using superheated steam impinging jets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shiravi, A.H.; Mujumdar, A.S.; Kubes, G.J. [McGill Univ., Montreal, Quebec (Canada)

    1997-05-01

    A novel drum dryer for black liquor utilizing multiple impinging jets of superheated steam was designed and built to evaluate the performance characteristics and effects of various operating parameters thereon. Appropriate ranges of parameters such as steam jet temperature and velocity were examined experimentally to quantify the optimal operating conditions for the formation of black liquor film on the drum surface as well as the drying kinetics.

  2. VAC*TRAX - Thermal desorption for mixed wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McElwee, M.J.; Palmer, C.R.

    1995-12-01

    The patented VAC*TRAX process was designed in response to the need to remove organic constituents from mixed waste, waste that contains both a hazardous (RCRA or TSCA regulated) component and a radioactive component. Separation of the mixed waste into its hazardous and radioactive components allows for ultimate disposal of the material at existing, permitted facilities. The VAC*TRAX technology consists of a jacketed vacuum dryer followed by a condensing train. Solids are placed in the dryer and indirectly heated to temperatures as high as 260{degrees}C, while a strong vacuum (down to 50 mm Hg absolute pressure) is applied to the system and the dryer is purged with a nitrogen carrier gas. The organic contaminants in the solids are thermally desorbed, swept up in the carrier gas and into the condensing train where they are cooled and recovered. The dryer is fitted with a filtration system that keeps the radioactive constituents from migrating to the condensate. As such, the waste is separated into hazardous liquid and radioactive solid components, allowing for disposal of these streams at a permitted incinerator or a radioactive materials landfill, respectively. The VAC*TRAX system is designed to be highly mobile, while minimizing the operational costs with a simple, robust process. These factors allow for treatment of small waste streams at a reasonable cost. This paper describes the VAC*TRAX thermal desorption process, as well as results from the pilot testing program. Also, the design and application of the full-scale treatment system is presented. Materials tested to date include spiked soil and debris, power plant trash and sludge contaminated with solvents, PCB contaminated soil, solvent-contaminated uranium mill-tailings, and solvent and PCB-contaminated sludge and trash. Over 70 test runs have been performed using the pilot VAC*TRAX system, with more than 80% of the tests using mixed waste as the feed material.

  3. Microsoft PowerPoint - EFRC review 2010_Present

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Frederick L. Dryer Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Princeton University First Annual Conference of Combustion Energy Frontier Research Center (CEFRC) September 23-24, 2010, Princeton, New Jersey 1 Fuels Combustion Research Laboratory's contribution to CEFRC efforts Generation of motivating fundamental experimental observations that elucidate the interactions of bio-derived molecular components and structures with components found in petroleum derived fuels. Provision of

  4. Process for clean-burning fuel from low-rank coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Merriam, Norman W. (Laramie, WY); Sethi, Vijay (Laramie, WY); Brecher, Lee E. (Laramie, WY)

    1994-01-01

    A process for upgrading and stabilizing low-rank coal involving the sequential processing of the coal through three fluidized beds; first a dryer, then a pyrolyzer, and finally a cooler. The fluidizing gas for the cooler is the exit gas from the pyrolyzer with the addition of water for cooling. Overhead gas from pyrolyzing is likely burned to furnish the energy for the process. The product coal exits with a tar-like pitch sealant to enhance its safety during storage.

  5. Continuous aqueous tritium monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McManus, G.J.; Weesner, F.J.

    1987-10-19

    An apparatus for a selective on-line determination of aqueous tritium concentration is disclosed. A moist air stream of the liquid solution being analyzed is passed through a permeation dryer where the tritium and moisture are selectively removed to a purge air stream. The purge air stream is then analyzed for tritium concentration, humidity, and temperature, which allows computation of liquid tritium concentration. 2 figs.

  6. Ultrasonic Clothes Drying Technology

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Patel, Viral; Momen, Ayyoub

    2016-05-12

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory researchers Ayyoub Momen and Viral Patel demonstrate a direct contact ultrasonic clothes dryer under development by ORNL in collaboration with General Electric (GE) Appliances. This novel approach uses high-frequency mechanical vibrations instead of heat to extract moisture as cold mist, dramatically reducing drying time and energy use. Funding for this project was competitively awarded by DOE?s Building Technologies Office in 2014. For more information please contact momena@ornl.gov.

  7. Process for simultaneous removal of SO[sub 2] and NO[sub x] from gas streams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rosenberg, H.S.

    1987-02-03

    A process is described for simultaneous removal of SO[sub 2] and NO[sub x] from a gas stream that includes flowing the gas stream to a spray dryer and absorbing a portion of the SO[sub 2] content of the gas stream and a portion of the NO[sub x] content of the gas stream with ZnO by contacting the gas stream with a spray of an aqueous ZnO slurry; controlling the gas outlet temperature of the spray dryer to within the range of about a 0 to 125 F approach to the adiabatic saturation temperature; flowing the gas, unreacted ZnO and absorbed SO[sub 2] and NO[sub x] from the spray dryer to a fabric filter and collecting any solids therein and absorbing a portion of the SO[sub 2] remaining in the gas stream and a portion of the NO[sub x] remaining in the gas stream with ZnO; and controlling the ZnO content of the aqueous slurry so that sufficient unreacted ZnO is present in the solids collected in the fabric filter to react with SO[sub 2] and NO[sub x] as the gas passes through the fabric filter whereby the overall feed ratio of ZnO to SO[sub 2] plus NO[sub x] is about 1.0 to 4.0 moles of ZnO per of SO[sub 2] and about 0.5 to 2.0 moles of ZnO per mole of NO[sub x]. Particulates may be removed from the gas stream prior to treatment in the spray dryer. The process further allows regeneration of ZnO that has reacted to absorb SO[sub 2] and NO[sub x] from the gas stream and acid recovery. 4 figs.

  8. Frontiers of Combustion: From Microgravity to Microengines

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    University FLAME CHEMISTRY, DYNAMICS AND MODEL REDUCTION Sanghee Won, Wenting Sung, Michael Burke and Yiguang Ju Princeton University Collaborators: Stephen Dooley and Fredrick Dryer Xiaolong Gou, Zheng Chen Princeton University Research summary 1. Fuels * H 2 /CH 4 /CO/O 2 flame speed (25 atm) * Methyl-butanoate (extinction & transport) * t-butanol (extinction) 2. Model reduction * Dynamic multi-timescale * Multi-generation path flux analysis * Adaptive chemistry 3. Theory and modeling *

  9. Argonne National Laboratory, Stephen B. Pope of Cornell Uni-

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    J. Klippenstein of the Argonne National Laboratory, Stephen B. Pope of Cornell Uni- versity, William H. Green of MIT, Fred L. Dryer and Yiguang Ju of Princeton University, Jac- queline H. Chen, Nils Hansen and James A. Miller of the Sandia National Laboratories, Ron K. Hanson of Stanford University, Chih-Jen Sung of the University of Connecticut, Don G. Truhlar of the University of Minnesota, and Hai Wang and Fokion N. Egolfopoulos of the University of Southern California. (Continued on page 2)

  10. Gas pollution control apparatus and method and wood drying system employing same

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eatherton, J.R.

    1984-02-14

    Pollution control apparatus and method are disclosed in which hot exhaust gas containing pollutants including solid particles and hydrocarbon vapors is treated by transmitting such exhaust gas through a container containing wood members, such as wood chips, which serve as a filter media for filtering out such pollutants by causing such solids to deposit and such hydrocarbon vapors to condense upon the surface of the wood members. The contaminated wood chips are discharged from the filter and further processed into chip board or other commercial wood products thereby disposing of the pollutants. Lumber may be used as the wood members of the filter in a lumber kiln by deposition of solid particles on the rough surface of such lumber. The contaminated surfaces of the lumber are removed by a planer which produces a smooth finished lumber and contaminated wood chips that may be processed into chip board or other commercial wood products. A wood drying system employing such pollution control apparatus and method includes a hot air dryer for wood or other organic material, such as a wood chip rotary dryer or a wood veneer dryer, which produces hot exhaust gases containing pollutants including hydrocarbon vapors and solid particles. This hot exhaust air is transmitted through a lumber kiln to dry lumber thereby conserving heat energy and causing solid particle pollutants to deposit on the surface of the lumber. The kiln exhaust air containing solid and hydrocarbon vapor pollutants is then transmitted up through a filter stack of wood chips.

  11. Evaluation of Waste Heat Recovery and Utilization from Residential Appliances and Fixtures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tomlinson, John J; Christian, Jeff; Gehl, Anthony C

    2012-09-01

    Executive Summary In every home irrespective of its size, location, age, or efficiency, heat in the form of drainwater or dryer exhaust is wasted. Although from a waste stream, this energy has the potential for being captured, possibly stored, and then reused for preheating hot water or air thereby saving operating costs to the homeowner. In applications such as a shower and possibly a dryer, waste heat is produced at the same time as energy is used, so that a heat exchanger to capture the waste energy and return it to the supply is all that is needed. In other applications such as capturing the energy in drainwater from a tub, dishwasher, or washing machine, the availability of waste heat might not coincide with an immediate use for energy, and consequently a heat exchanger system with heat storage capacity (i.e. a regenerator) would be necessary. This study describes a two-house experimental evaluation of a system designed to capture waste heat from the shower, dishwasher clothes washer and dryer, and to use this waste heat to offset some of the hot water energy needs of the house. Although each house was unoccupied, they were fitted with equipment that would completely simulate the heat loads and behavior of human occupants including operating the appliances and fixtures on a demand schedule identical to Building American protocol (Hendron, 2009). The heat recovery system combined (1) a gravity-film heat exchanger (GFX) installed in a vertical section of drainline, (2) a heat exchanger for capturing dryer exhaust heat, (3) a preheat tank for storing the captured heat, and (4) a small recirculation pump and controls, so that the system could be operated anytime that waste heat from the shower, dishwasher, clothes washer and dryer, and in any combination was produced. The study found capturing energy from the dishwasher and clothes washer to be a challenge since those two appliances dump waste water over a short time interval. Controls based on the status of the dump valve on these two appliances would have eliminated uncertainty in knowing when waste water was flowing and the recovery system operated. The study also suggested that capture of dryer exhaust heat to heat incoming air to the dryer should be examined as an alternative to using drying exhaust energy for water heating. The study found that over a 6-week test period, the system in each house was able to recover on average approximately 3000 W-h of waste heat daily from these appliance and showers with slightly less on simulated weekdays and slightly more on simulated weekends which were heavy wash/dry days. Most of these energy savings were due to the shower/GFX operation, and the least savings were for the dishwasher/GFX operation. Overall, the value of the 3000 W-h of displaced energy would have been $0.27/day based on an electricity price of $.09/kWh. Although small for today s convention house, these savings are significant for a home designed to approach maximum affordable efficiency where daily operating costs for the whole house are less than a dollar per day. In 2010 the actual measured cost of energy in one of the simulated occupancy houses which waste heat recovery testing was undertaken was $0.77/day.

  12. Magnetic core mounting system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ronning, Jeffrey J. (Fishers, IN)

    2002-01-01

    A mounting apparatus for an electromagnetic device such as a transformer of inductor includes a generally planar metallic plate as a first heat sink, and a metallic mounting cup as a second heat sink. The mounting cup includes a cavity configured to receive the electromagnetic device, the cavity being defined by a base, and an axially-extending annular sidewall extending from the base to a flange portion of the mounting cup. The mounting cup includes first and second passages for allowing the leads of first and second windings of the electromagnetic device to be routed out of the cavity. The cavity is filled with a polyurethane potting resin, and the mounting cup, including the potted electromagnetic device, is mounted to the plate heat sink using fasteners. The mounting cup, which surrounds the electromagnetic device, in combination with the potting resin provides improved thermal transfer to the plate heat sink, as well as providing resistance to vibration and shocks.

  13. Method for processing aluminum spent potliner in a graphite electrode ARC furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    O'Connor, William K.; Turner, Paul C.; Addison, Gerald W.

    2002-12-24

    A method of processing spent aluminum pot liner containing carbon, cyanide compositions, fluorides and inorganic oxides. The spent aluminum pot liner is crushed iron oxide is added to form an agglomerated material. The agglomerated material is melted in an electric arc furnace having the electrodes submerged in the molten material to provide a reducing environment during the furnace operation. In the reducing environment, pot liner is oxidized while the iron oxides are reduced to produce iron and a slag substantially free of cyanide compositions and fluorides. An off-gas including carbon oxides and fluorine is treated in an air pollution control system with an afterburner and a scrubber to produce NaF, water and a gas vented to the atmosphere free of cyanide compositions, fluorine and CO.

  14. Method for processing aluminum spent potliner in a graphite electrode arc furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    O'Connor, William K.; Turner, Paul C.; Addison, G.W.

    2002-12-24

    A method of processing spent aluminum pot liner containing carbon, cyanide compositions, fluorides and inorganic oxides. The spend aluminum pot liner is crushed, iron oxide is added to form an agglomerated material. The agglomerated material is melted in an electric arc furnace having the electrodes submerged in the molten material to provide a reducing environment during the furnace operation. In the reducing environment, pot liner is oxidized while the iron oxides are reduced to produce iron and a slag substantially free of cyanide compositions and fluorides. An off-gas including carbon oxides and fluorine is treated in an air pollution control system with an afterburner and a scrubber to produce NaF, water and a gas vented to the atmosphere free of cyanide compositions, fluorine, and CO.

  15. Buildings Energy Data Book: 2.2 Residential Sector Characteristics

    Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

    7 Characteristics of a Typical Single-Family Home (1) Year Built | Building Equipment Fuel Age (5) Occupants 3 | Space Heating Natural Gas 12 Floorspace | Water Heating Natural Gas 8 Heated Floorspace (SF) 1,934 | Space Cooling 8 Cooled Floorspace (SF) 1,495 | Garage 2-Car | Stories 1 | Appliances Size Age (5) Foundation Concrete Slab | Refrigerator 19 Cubic Feet 8 Total Rooms (2) 6 | Clothes Dryer Bedrooms 3 | Clothes Washer Other Rooms 3 | Range/Oven Full Bathroom 2 | Microwave Oven Half

  16. Buildings Energy Data Book: 5.7 Appliances

    Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

    5 Major Residential and Small Commercial Appliance Lifetimes, Ages, and Replacement Picture Typical Service Average 2005 Average Lifetime Range Lifetime Stock Age Units to be Replaced Appliance Type (years) (years) (years) During 2011 (thousands) Refrigerators (1) 10 - 16 12 7.8 9,217 Freezers 8 - 16 11 11.3 2,215 Microwave Ovens 7 - 10 9 N.A. Ranges (2) Electric 12 - 19 16 N.A. 4,281 Gas 14 - 22 17 N.A. 2,854 Clothes Washers 7 - 14 11 N.A. 7,362 Clothes Dryers Electric 8 - 15 12 N.A. 5,095 Gas

  17. NREL: Energy Systems Integration - Google

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Google Illustration with the text "If any of these:" followed by images of various machines including a refrigerator, car, and washer and dryer, followed by the text "Can run on something this size: (like a cooler)" followed by an image of a cooler and the text "Then why not something this size: (like a tablet)" followed by an image of a tablet. The one-of-a-kind testing capabilities of the ESIF make it the perfect place for industry to test disruptive

  18. Electric Power Research Institute Environmental Control Technology Center Report to the Steering Committee, July 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-11-15

    Operations and maintenance continued this month at the Electric Power Research Institute's Environmental Control Technology Center. Testing for the Hazardous Air Pollutant (HAP) test block was conducted using the Carbon Injection System (the 4.0 MW Spray Dryer Absorber System and the Pulse Jet Fabric Filter). Testing also continued across the B and W/CHX Heat Exchanger project. The 1.0 MW Cold-Side Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) unit and the 4.0 MW Pilot Wet Scrubber remained idle this month in a cold-standby mode. Inspections of these idled systems were conducted this month.

  19. Synthesis of rare-earth-based oxides for the ceramic industry: From laboratory to pilot plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balachandran, U.; Dorris, S.E.; Lanagan, M.T.; Poeppel, R.B. ); Tourre, J.M.; Golowski, J.W. . Fine Inorganic Chemicals Div.)

    1991-11-01

    A wide variety of compounds, e.g., superconductors, chromites, and manganites, have been synthesized by spray drying a mixture of salts or a combination of salts and sols in a flash dryer. The process allows for good control of stoichiometry, morphology, particle size, and surface area. Appropriate particle-growth and synthesis heat treatments of these fine powders were performed. The resultant powders were evaluated for possible applications in fuel cells and superconductors. The processes have been scaled up to a capacity of {approx}40 Kg a day.

  20. Vectra GSI, Inc. low-level waste melter testing Phase 1 test report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stegen, G.E.; Wilson, C.N.

    1996-02-21

    A multiphase program was initiated in 1994 to test commercially available melter technologies for the vitrification of the low-level waste (LLW) stream from defense wastes stored in underground tanks at the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. Vectra GSI, Inc. was one of seven vendors selected for Phase 1 of the melter demonstration tests using simulated LLW that were completed during fiscal year 1995. The attached report prepared by Vectra GSI, Inc. describes results of melter testing using slurry feed and dried feeds. Results of feed drying and prereaction tests using a fluid bed calciner and rotary dryer also are described.

  1. Supercritical Water Nuclear Steam Supply System: Innovations In Materials, Neutronics & Thermal-Hydraulics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mark Anderson; M.L. Corradini; K. Sridharan; P. WIlson; D. Cho; T.K. Kim; S. Lomperski

    2004-09-02

    In the 1990's supercritical light-water reactors were considered in conceptual designs. A nuclear reactor cooled by supercritical waster would have a much higher thermal efficiency with a once-through direct power cycle, and could be based on standardized water reactor components (light water or heavy water). The theoretical efficiency could be improved by more than 33% over that of other water reactors and could be simplified with higher reliability; e.g., a boiling water reactor without steam separators or dryers.

  2. 1997 RECS data on consumer usage of appliances

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Latta, R.B.

    1998-07-01

    The 1997 Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS) conducted by the Energy Information Administration contained questions on how households use various appliances. This includes the following appliance usage (1) personnel computers, (2) cooking appliances, (3) conventional ovens, (4) microwave ovens, (5) clothes washers, and (6) clothes dryer. Many of these items were first collected in the 1997 RECS. In this paper, appliance usage by household demographic characteristics (household income, age of householder, and number of household members) are examined with an emphasis on results for data items that were first collected in the 1997 RECS.

  3. Process for clean-burning fuel from low-rank coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Merriam, N.W.; Sethi, V.; Brecher, L.E.

    1994-06-21

    A process is described for upgrading and stabilizing low-rank coal involving the sequential processing of the coal through three fluidized beds; first a dryer, then a pyrolyzer, and finally a cooler. The fluidizing gas for the cooler is the exit gas from the pyrolyzer with the addition of water for cooling. Overhead gas from pyrolyzing is likely burned to furnish the energy for the process. The product coal exits with a tar-like pitch sealant to enhance its safety during storage. 1 fig.

  4. Fine-structure characteristics in the emittance images of a strongly focusing He{sup +} beam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sasao, M.; Kobuchi, T.; Kisaki, M.; Takahashi, H.; Okamoto, A.; Kitajima, S.; Kaneko, O.; Tsumori, K.; Shinto, K.; Wada, M.

    2010-02-15

    The phase space distribution of a strongly focused He{sup +} ion beam source equipped with concave multiaperture electrodes was measured using a pepper-pot plate and a Kapton foil. The substructure of 301 merging He beamlets was clearly observed on a footprint of pepper-pot hole at the beam waist, where the beam density was 500 mA/cm{sup 2}. The position and the width of each beamlet substructure show the effect of interference of beamlets with surrounding one.

  5. COLD TRAP

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Milleron, N.

    1963-03-12

    An improved linear-flow cold trap is designed for highvacuum applications such as mitigating back migration of diffusion pump oil moiecules. A central pot of liquid nitrogen is nested within and supported by a surrounding, vertical, helical coil of metai sheet, all enveloped by a larger, upright, cylindrical, vacuum vessel. The vertical interstices between successive turns of the coil afford lineal, axial, high-vacuum passages between open mouths at top and bottom of said vessel, while the coil, being cold by virtue of thermal contact of its innermost turn with the nitrogen pot, affords expansive proximate condensation surfaces. (AEC)

  6. Fermentative alcohol production

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wilke, Charles R.; Maiorella, Brian L.; Blanch, Harvey W.; Cysewski, Gerald R.

    1982-01-01

    An improved fermentation process for producing alcohol which includes the combination of vacuum fermentation and vacuum distillation. Preferably, the vacuum distillation is carried out in two phases, one a fermentor proper operated at atmospheric pressure and a flash phase operated at reduced pressure with recycle of fermentation brew having a reduced alcohol content to the fermentor, using vapor recompression heating of the flash-pot recycle stream to heat the flash-pot or the distillation step, and using "water load balancing" (i.e., the molar ratio of water in the fermentor feed is the same as the molar ratio of water in the distillation overhead).

  7. Improved fermentative alcohol production. [Patent application

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wilke, C.R.; Maiorella, B.L.; Blanch, H.W.; Cysewski, G.R.

    1980-11-26

    An improved fermentation process is described for producing alcohol which includes the combination of vacuum fermentation and vacuum distillation. Preferably, the vacuum distillation is carried out in two phases, one a fermentor proper operated at atmospheric pressure and a flash phase operated at reduced pressure with recycle of fermentation brew having a reduced alcohol content to the fermentor, using vapor recompression heating of the flash-pot recycle stream to heat the flash-pot or the distillation step, and using water load balancing (i.e., the molar ratio of water in the fermentor feed is the same as the molar ratio of water in the distillation overhead).

  8. High volume - high value usage of Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) by-products in underground mines. Quarterly report, October 1, 1995--December 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-05-01

    The amount of dry FGD materials produced in the U.S. has not been increasing at the high rate originally anticipated. This has been due to a number of economic factors affecting the utility industry. Technologies for the disposal of large amounts of materials are not going to be implemented in the near term. In light of this development the target application for this project is being changed from highwall adit filling to the filling of auger holes to allow for highwall mining. This application focuses on using the dry FGD material to recover coal isolated by excessive augering. It produces 10 or more times the amount of coal per ton of dry FGD utilized than the originally proposed methodology. It also does not require extensive equipment development and, if applied to abandoned mine lands, may have substantially more significant environmental benefit. We also propose to use a spray dryer material for the demonstration instead of the fluidized bed material originally proposed. The spray dryer material is already slacked eliminating problems associated with heat generation at the mine site. Auger hole grouting with FGD material is also best performed by hydraulic emplacement methods.

  9. Status of dry SO/sub 2/ control systems: Fall 1983. Final report August 1983-July 1984

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Palazzolo, M.A.; Baviello, M.A.

    1984-08-01

    The report, on the status of dry SO/sub 2/ control for utility and industrial boilers in the U.S., reviews curent and recently completed research, development, and commercial activities. Dry SO/sub 2/ control systems covered include: (1) spray dryers with a fabric filter or an electrostatic precipitator (ESP), (2) dry injection of alkaline material into flue gas accompanied by collection of product solids and fly ash in a fabric filter or an ESP, and (3) electron-beam (E-beam) irradiation. Spray drying and dry injection systems generally include a fabric filter or an ESP and control SO/sub 2/ and particulate matter simultaneously; E-beam technology is designed to also control NOx. Spray drying continues to be the only technology commercially applied to utility and industrial boilers. The two new utility systems sold since the last status report (Fall 1982) bring the total utility spray drying flue gas desulfurization (FGD) capacity to about 7200 MWe. Also, 10 recently sold new industrial units bring the total of commercial industrial boiler unit sales to 21. Performance data for five utility systems and three industrial systems were recently published. Some full-scale systems that have come on-line since the last survey have experienced atomization problems and solids buildup on the dryer walls during initial operation. The first trona dry injection application has been announced for a 500 MWe unit.

  10. Coolside waste management research. Quarterly report, January 1, 1996--March 30, 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-04-01

    Activities during the quarter centered around preparations to complete the study. Geotechnical work focused on coring and other tests on the field lysimeters. Work on materials characterization focused on the characteristics of pellets made from dry FGD materials. The data obtained during this reporting period support the conjecture that detrimental swell associated with continued pellet aging upon exposure to humidified air or upon exposure to water is principally a function of calcium sulfate hydration reactions. The main difference between the earlier studied FBC pellets and the spray dryer pellets produced by CONSOL, and used in this investigation, can be summarized as follows: Spray Dryer material has minimal amounts of anhydride crystals present while anhydride is a major component in the FBC ash. The differences in mineral components which undergo hydration reactions can be attributed to more or less detrimental swell and pellet decay upon aging. Ten trips to the field site were made during the quarter for sampling purposes. Sampling was completed on March 29, 1996. The laboratory leaching study was also completed during the quarter on twenty-two columns which were set up for the study.

  11. Chemical and physical characterization of western low-rank-coal waste materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thompson, Carol May

    1981-03-01

    Evaluations of disposal requirements for solid wastes from power stations burning low-rank western coals is the primary objective of this program. Solid wastes to be characterized include: fly ashes, sludges from wet scrubbers, solids from fluidized bed combustion (FBC) processes and solids from dry scrubbing systems. Fly ashes and sludges to be studied will be obtained primarily from systems using alkaline fly ashes as significant sources of alkalinity for sulfur dioxide removal. Fluidized bed combustion wastes will include those produced by burning North Dakota lignite and Texas lignite. Dry scrubbing wastes will include those from spray drying systems and dry injection systems. Spray dryer wastes will be from a system using sodium carbonate as the scrubbing reagent. Dry injection wastes will come from systems using nahcolite and trona as sorbents. Spray dryer wastes, dry injection wastes, and FBC wastes will be supplied by the Grand Forks Energy Technology Center. Sludges and other samples will be collected at power stations using fly ash to supply alkalinity to wet scrubbers for sulfur dioxide removal. Sludges will be subjected to commercial fixation processes. Coal, fly ashes, treated and untreated sludges, scrubber liquor, FBC wastes, and dry scrubbing wastes will be subjected to a variety of chemical and physical tests. Results of these tests will be used to evaluate disposal requirements for wastes frm the systems studied.

  12. Utilization of a fuel cell power plant for the capture and conversion of gob well gas. Final report, June--December, 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Przybylic, A.R.; Haynes, C.D.; Haskew, T.A.; Boyer, C.M. II; Lasseter, E.L.

    1995-12-01

    A preliminary study has been made to determine if a 200 kW fuel cell power plant operating on variable quality coalbed methane can be placed and successfully operated at the Jim Walter Resources No. 4 mine located in Tuscaloosa County, Alabama. The purpose of the demonstration is to investigate the effects of variable quality (50 to 98% methane) gob gas on the output and efficiency of the power plant. To date, very little detail has been provided concerning the operation of fuel cells in this environment. The fuel cell power plant will be located adjacent to the No. 4 mine thermal drying facility rated at 152 M British thermal units per hour. The dryer burns fuel at a rate of 75,000 cubic feet per day of methane and 132 tons per day of powdered coal. The fuel cell power plant will provide 700,000 British thermal units per hour of waste heat that can be utilized directly in the dryer, offsetting coal utilization by approximately 0.66 tons per day and providing an avoided cost of approximately $20 per day. The 200 kilowatt electrical power output of the unit will provide a utility cost reduction of approximately $3,296 each month. The demonstration will be completely instrumented and monitored in terms of gas input and quality, electrical power output, and British thermal unit output. Additionally, real-time power pricing schedules will be applied to optimize cost savings. 28 refs., 35 figs., 13 tabs.

  13. Customizing a VOC control technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Enneking, J.C.

    1998-12-31

    An extremely important but very difficult element in applying an emission control device to an exhaust stream is to chose the proper technology. Once it has been determined that recovery, rather than destruction, is appropriate, there are still several process choices available. The type of process is generally dictated by the VOC concentration and total air flow rate. Adsorption is usually chosen for low concentrations and high flow rates while refrigeration is usually best for high concentrations and low flow rates. This paper describes six applications. Adsorption was applied to two of them and condensation to the other four. Solvent vapors from a tape coating operation are recovered in an activated carbon adsorption process and reused. VOC`s from soil vapor extraction operations are captured by activated carbon which is regenerated by a mobile unit. VOC`s displaced from filling tank cars at a refinery are condensed at low temperatures in a high pressure system which uses a pressure swing dryer to remove water. Two different processes were installed to prevent VOC emissions from pharmaceutical processing plants. They both use a thermal swing dryer to remove moisture and low temperature condensation to recover the solvent. With very high concentrations of solvent in an inert gas stream, indirect condensation is used to purify the nitrogen and recover the solvent for reuse. Process flow diagrams and operating results are presented.

  14. Silylene- and disilyleneacetylene polymers from trichloroethylene

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barton, T.J.; Ijadi-Maghsoodi, S.

    1990-07-10

    Organosilane polymers having recurring silyleneacetylene and/or disilyleneacetylene units are prepared in a one-pot synthesis from trichloroethylene. Depending on the organic substituents (R and R[prime]), these polymers have useful film-forming properties, and are converted to the ceramic, silicon carbide upon heating in very uniform high yields. They can also be pulled into fibers.

  15. Silylene- and disilyleneacetylene polymers from trichloroethylene

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barton, Thomas J.; Ijadi-Maghsoodi, Sina

    1990-07-10

    Organosilane polymers having recurring silyleneacetylene and/or disilyleneacetylene units are prepared in a one-pot synthesis from trichloroethylene. Depending on the organic substituents (R and R'), these polymers have useful film-forming properties, and are converted to the ceramic, silicon carbide upon heating in very uniform high yields. They can also be pulled into fibers.

  16. Coaxial short pulsed laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nelson, M.A.; Davies, T.J.

    1975-08-01

    This invention relates to a laser system of rugged design suitable for use in a field environment. The laser itself is of coaxial design with a solid potting material filling the space between components. A reservoir is employed to provide a gas lasing medium between an electrode pair, each of which is connected to one of the coaxial conductors. (auth)

  17. Delayed cure bismaleimide resins

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Not Available

    1982-08-12

    Prior art polybismaleimides begin to polymerize at or just above the melting point of the monomer. This patent describes new bismaleimide resins which have an increased pot life and provide longer time periods in which the monomer remains fluid. The resins can be polymerized into molded articles with a high uniformity of properties. (DLC)

  18. Lignite Fuel Enhancement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Charles Bullinger; Nenad Sarunac

    2010-03-31

    Pulverized coal power plants which fire lignites and other low-rank high-moisture coals generally operate with reduced efficiencies and increased stack emissions due to the impacts of high fuel moisture on stack heat loss and pulverizer and fan power. A process that uses plant waste heat sources to evaporate a portion of the fuel moisture from the lignite feedstock in a moving bed fluidized bed dryer (FBD) was developed in the U.S. by a team led by Great River Energy (GRE). The demonstration was conducted with Department of Energy (DOE) funding under DOE Award Number DE-FC26-04NT41763. The objectives of GRE's Lignite Fuel Enhancement project were to demonstrate reduction in lignite moisture content by using heat rejected from the power plant, apply technology at full scale at Coal Creek Station (CCS), and commercialize it. The Coal Creek Project has involved several stages, beginning with lignite drying tests in a laboratory-scale FBD at the Energy Research Center (ERC) and development of theoretical models for predicting dryer performance. Using results from these early stage research efforts, GRE built a 2 ton/hour pilot-scale dryer, and a 75 ton/hour prototype drying system at Coal Creek Station. Operated over a range of drying conditions, the results from the pilot-scale and prototype-scale dryers confirmed the performance of the basic dryer design concept and provided the knowledge base needed to scale the process up to commercial size. Phase 2 of the GRE's Lignite Fuel Enhancement project included design, construction and integration of a full-scale commercial coal drying system (four FBDs per unit) with Coal Creek Units 1 and 2 heat sources and coal handling system. Two series of controlled tests were conducted at Coal Creek Unit 1 with wet and dried lignite to determine effect of dried lignite on unit performance and emissions. Wet lignite was fired during the first, wet baseline, test series conducted in September 2009. The second test series was performed in March/April 2010 after commercial coal drying system was commissioned. Preliminary tests with dried coal were performed in March/April 2010. During the test Unit 2 was in outage and, therefore, test unit (Unit 1) was carrying entire station load and, also, supplying all auxiliary steam extractions. This resulted in higher station service, lower gross power output, and higher turbine cycle heat rate. Although, some of these effects could be corrected out, this would introduce uncertainty in calculated unit performance and effect of dried lignite on unit performance. Baseline tests with dried coal are planned for second half of 2010 when both units at Coal Creek will be in service to establish baseline performance with dried coal and determine effect of coal drying on unit performance. Application of GRE's coal drying technology will significantly enhance the value of lignite as a fuel in electrical power generation power plants. Although existing lignite power plants are designed to burn wet lignite, the reduction in moisture content will increase efficiency, reduce pollution and CO{sub 2} emissions, and improve plant economics. Furthermore, the efficiency of ultra supercritical units burning high-moisture coals will be improved significantly by using dried coal as a fuel. To date, Great River Energy has had 63 confidentiality agreements signed by vendors and suppliers of equipment and 15 utilities. GRE has had agreements signed from companies in Canada, Australia, China, India, Indonesia, and Europe.

  19. Smart Technology Brings Power to the People

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hammerstrom, Donald J.; Gephart, Julie M.

    2006-12-01

    Imagine youre at home one Saturday morning on the computer, as your son takes a shower, your daughter is watching TV, and a load of laundry is in your washer and dryer. Meanwhile, the fragrance of fresh-brewed coffee fills the house. You hear a momentary beep from the dryer that tells you that if you were to look, a high-energy price indicator would be displayed on the front panels of some of your favorite appliances. This tells you that you could save money right now by using less energy. (Youve agreed to this arrangement to help your utility avoid a substation upgrade. In return, you get a lower rate most of the time.) So you turn off some of the unneeded lights in your home and opt to wait until evening to run the dishwasher. Meanwhile, some of your largest appliances have automatically responded to this signal and have already reduced your homes energy consumption, saving you money. On January 11, 2006, demonstration projects were launched in 200 homes in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States to test and speed adoption of new smart grid technologies that can make the power grid more resilient and efficient. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, a U.S. Department of Energy national laboratory in Richland, Washington, is managing the yearlong study called the Pacific Northwest GridWise Testbed Demonstration, a project funded primarily by DOE. Through the GridWise Demonstration projects, researchers are gaining insight into energy consumers behavior while testing new technologies designed to bring the electric transmission system into the information age. Northwest utilities, appliance manufacturers and technology companies are also supporting this effort to demonstrate the devices and assess the resulting consumer response. A combination of devices, software and advanced analytical tools will give homeowners more information about their energy use and cost, and we want to know if this will modify their behavior. Approximately 100 homes on the Olympic Peninsula in Washington State receive energy price information through a broadband Internet connection and have received automated demand-response thermostats and water heaters that can adjust energy use based on price. Fifty of those homes and an additional 50 homes in Yakima, Washington, and 50 homes in Gresham, Oregon, have computer chips helping control their dryers. These chips sense when the power transmission system is under stress and automatically turn off certain functions briefly until the grid can be stabilized by power operators.

  20. Buildings Energy Data Book: 2.1 Residential Sector Energy Consumption

    Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

    6 Annual Cost Active Idle Off Active Idle Off ($) (2) Kitchen Coffee Maker 1,000 70 0 38 229 8,493 58 5.6 Dishwasher (3) 365 (4) 120 11.6 Microwave Oven 1,500 3 70 8,690 131 12.6 Toaster Oven 1,051 37 54 5.2 Refrigerator-Freezer 660 63.1 Freezer 470 45.0 Lighting 18-W Compact Fluorescent 18 1,189 20 2.1 60-W Incandescent Lamp 60 672 40 3.9 100-W Incandescent Lamp 100 672 70 6.4 Torchiere Lamp-Halogen 300 1,460 440 42.0 Bedroom and Bathroom Hair Dryer 710 50 40 3.4 Waterbed Heater 350 3,051 1,070

  1. EPRI's coal combustion product use research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ladwig, K.

    2008-07-01

    For more than 20 years, EPRI's Coal Combustion Product Use Program has been a leader in providing research to demonstrate the value of using coal combustion products (CCPs) in construction and manufacturing. Work is concentrated on large-volume uses, increasing use in traditional applications, uses in light of changes in CCP quality resulting form increased and new air emissions controls for nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides and mercury. Currently, EPRI is investigating opportunities for using higher volumes of Class C ash in concrete; approaches for ensuring that mercury controls do not adversely affect the use of CCPs; agricultural uses for products from flue gas desulfurization; possible markets for spray dryer absorber byproducts; and issues involved with the presence of ammonia in ash. Some recent results and future work is described in this article. 4 photos.

  2. Dry scrubbing oxides and particulate contaminants from hot gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Quee, J. A.; Haak, M. P.

    1985-03-12

    Sulfur dioxides are dry scrubbed from a flue gas by introducing minute droplets containing a liquid, such as water, and an alkali or alkaline reactant, such as lime, into the spray zone in the primary spray drying chamber of a spray dryer and concurrently contacting these droplets with the hot flue gas. The droplets are partially dried to a tacky condition before reaching a foraminous collecting member extending through the primary spray drying chamber and collect on the collecting member as a moist, porous mat. As the flue gas continues to flow through the mat, the mat serves as a filter for removing fly ash and other particulate matter and remaining sulfur oxides react with unreacted particles of the reactant and reactive ingredients of the fly ash particles in the mat.

  3. Fluidized bed selective pyrolysis of coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shang, J.Y.; Cha, C.Y.; Merriam, N.W.

    1992-12-15

    The present invention discloses a process for the pyrolysis of coal which comprises the effective utilization of two zonal inclined fluidized beds, where said zones can be selectively controlled as to temperature and heating rate. The first zonal inclined fluidized bed serves as a dryer for crushed coal and additionally is controlled to selectively pyrolyze said coal producing substantially carbon dioxide for recycle use. The second zonal inclined fluidized bed further pyrolyses the coal to gaseous, liquid and char products under controlled temperature and heating rate zones designed to economically integrate the product mix. The gas and liquid products are recovered from the gaseous effluent stream while the char which remains can be further treated or utilized in a subsequent process step. 9 figs.

  4. Reducing VOC Press Emission from OSB Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Gary D. McGinnis; Laura S. WIlliams; Amy E. Monte; Jagdish Rughani: Brett A. Niemi; Thomas M. Flicker

    2001-12-31

    Current regulations require industry to meet air emission standards with regard to particulates, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) and other gases. One of many industries that will be affected by the new regulations is the wood composites industry. This industry generates VOCs, HAPs, and particulates mainly during the drying and pressing of wood. Current air treatment technologies for the industry are expensive to install and operate. As regulations become more stringent, treatment technologies will need to become more efficient and cost effective. The overall objective of this study is to evaluate the use of process conditions and chemical additives to reduce VOC/HAPs in air emitted from presses and dryers during the production of oriented strand board.

  5. Follow that mercury!

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Linero, A.A.

    2008-07-01

    The article discusses one technology option for avoiding release of mercury captured by power plant pollution control equipment in order to render it usable in concrete. This is the use of selective catalytic reduction for NOx control and lime spray dryer absorbers (SDA) for SO{sub 2} control prior to particulate collection by fabric filters. In this scenario all mercury removed is trapped in the fabric filter baghouse. The US EPA did not establish mercury emission limits for existing cement plants in the latest regulation 40 CFR 63, Subpart LLL (December 2006) and was sued by the Portland Cement Association because of the Hg limits established for new kilns and by several states and environmental groups for the lack of limits on existing ones. A full version of this article is available on www.acaa-usa.org/AshatWork.htm. 2 figs.

  6. Electric Power Research Institute: Environmental Control Technology Center: Report to the Steering Committee, March 1996. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-03-01

    Operations and maintenance continued this month at the Electric Power Research Institute`s Environmental Control Technology Center. Testing on the 4.0 MW Pilot Wet FGD unit continued this month with the Carbon Injection System for the Hazardous Air Pollutant (HAP) test block. With this testing, the mercury measurement (Method 29) studies also continued with various impinger capture solutions. Also, the installation of the B&W/CHX Heat Exchanger unit was completed in March. The 4.0 MW Spray Dryer Absorber System (Carbon Injection System) and the 4.0 MW Pilot Wet FGD Unit and were utilized in the HAP test configuration this month. The 1.0 MW Cold-Side Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) unit remained idle this month in a cold- standby mode. Monthly inspections were conducted for all equipment in cold-standby, as well as for the fire safety systems, and will continue to be conducted by the ECTC Operations and Maintenance staff.

  7. Electric Power Research Institute: Environmental Control Technology Center. Report to the Steering Committee, February 1996. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-02-01

    Operations and maintenance continued this month at the Electric Power Research Institute`s Environmental Control Technology Center. Testing on the 4.0 MW Pilot Wet FGD unit continued this month with the Carbon Injection System and the Trace Element Removal test blocks. With this testing, the mercury measurement (Method 29) studies also continued with impinger capture solutions. The 4.0 MW Spray Dryer Absorber System (Carbon Injection System) was utilized in the TER test configuration this month. The B&W/CHX Heat Exchanger unit is being installed utilizing the Mini Pilot Flue Gas System. The 1.0 MW Cold- Side Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) unit remained idle this month in a cold-standby mode. Monthly inspections were conducted for all equipment in cold-standby, as well as for the fire safety systems, and will continue to be conducted by the ECTC Operations and Maintenance staff.

  8. Freeze drying method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coppa, Nicholas V.; Stewart, Paul; Renzi, Ernesto

    1999-01-01

    The present invention provides methods and apparatus for freeze drying in which a solution, which can be a radioactive salt dissolved within an acid, is frozen into a solid on vertical plates provided within a freeze drying chamber. The solid is sublimated into vapor and condensed in a cold condenser positioned above the freeze drying chamber and connected thereto by a conduit. The vertical positioning of the cold condenser relative to the freeze dryer helps to help prevent substances such as radioactive materials separated from the solution from contaminating the cold condenser. Additionally, the system can be charged with an inert gas to produce a down rush of gas into the freeze drying chamber to also help prevent such substances from contaminating the cold condenser.

  9. Freeze drying apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coppa, Nicholas V.; Stewart, Paul; Renzi, Ernesto

    2001-01-01

    The present invention provides methods and apparatus for freeze drying in which a solution, which can be a radioactive salt dissolved within an acid, is frozen into a solid on vertical plates provided within a freeze drying chamber. The solid is sublimated into vapor and condensed in a cold condenser positioned above the freeze drying chamber and connected thereto by a conduit. The vertical positioning of the cold condenser relative to the freeze dryer helps to help prevent substances such as radioactive materials separated from the solution from contaminating the cold condenser. Additionally, the system can be charged with an inert gas to produce a down rush of gas into the freeze drying chamber to also help prevent such substances from contaminating the cold condenser.

  10. Issues in federal preemption of state appliance energy efficiency regulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fang, J.M.; Balistocky, S.; Schaefler, A.M.

    1982-12-01

    The findings and conclusions of the analysis of the various issues involved in the federal preemption of state regulations for the DOE no standard rule on covered appliances are summarized. The covered products are: refrigerators, refrigerator-freezers, freezers, clothes dryers, kitchen ranges and ovens, water heaters (excluding heat pump water heaters), room air conditioners, central air conditioners (excluding heat pumps), and furnaces. A detailed discussion of the rationale for the positions of groups offering comment for the record is presneted. The pertinent categories of state and local regulations and programs are explained, then detailed analysis is conducted on the covered products and regulations. Issues relating to the timing of preemption of state regulations are discussed, as well as issues relating to burden of proof, contents of petitions for exemptions from preemption, criteria for evaluating petitions, and procedural and other issues. (LEW)

  11. Fluidized bed selective pyrolysis of coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shang, Jer Y.; Cha, Chang Y.; Merriam, Norman W.

    1992-01-01

    The present invention discloses a process for the pyrolysis of coal which comprises the effective utilization of two zonal inclined fluidized beds, where said zones can be selectively controlled as to temperature and heating rate. The first zonal inclined fluidized bed serves as a dryer for crushed coal and additionally is controlled to selectively pyrolyze said coal producing substantially carbon dioxide for recycle use. The second zonal inclined fluidized bed further pyrolyzes the coal to gaseous, liquid and char products under controlled temperature and heating rate zones designed to economically integrate the product mix. The gas and liquid products are recovered from the gaseous effluent stream while the char which remains can be further treated or utilized in a subsequent process step.

  12. VAC*TRAX vacuum thermal desorption

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1994-09-01

    Pilot VAC*TRAX treatability tests were conducted on RCRA, TSCA, and RCRA/radioactive mixed wastes, to determine the efficiency in remediating organics` contaminated solids. The process volatilizes organic compounds by indirectly heating the feed material in a vacuum batch dryer and condensing the organics separately from the remaining solids. Contaminants included tetrachloroethene, bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate, pentachlorophenol, and PCBs. Treatment specifications were met: a tetrachloroethene removal >99.99% and PCB removal from a starting level of 990 ppM to a final level of <1 ppM. One test run was spiked with MoO{sub 3}, as a uranium simulant; the Mo remained in the treated solids, not transferring to the condensate. In the mixed waste tests, uranium present in a feed soil remained in the soil. Economic viability was demonstrated by achieving excellent treatment on a routine basis with both 4 and 6 hour heating cycles.

  13. Pacific Northwest GridWise™ Testbed Demonstration Projects; Part II. Grid Friendly™ Appliance Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hammerstrom, Donald J.; Brous, Jerry; Chassin, David P.; Horst, Gale R.; Kajfasz, Robert; Michie, Preston; Oliver, Terry V.; Carlon, Teresa A.; Eustis, Conrad; Jarvegren, Olof M.; Marek, W.; Munson, Ryan L.; Pratt, Robert G.

    2007-10-01

    Fifty residential electric water heaters and 150 new residential clothes dryers were modified to respond to signals received from underfrequency, load-shedding appliance controllers. Each controller monitored the power-grid voltage signal and requested that electrical load be shed by its appliance whenever electric power-grid frequency fell below 59.95 Hz. The controllers and their appliances were installed and monitored for more than a year at residential sites at three locations in Washington and Oregon. The controllers and their appliances responded reliably to each shallow underfrequency event—an average of one event per day—and shed their loads for the durations of these events. Appliance owners reported that the appliance responses were unnoticed and caused little or no inconvenience for the homes’ occupants.

  14. National incinerator testing and evaluation program: The environmental characterization of refuse-derived fuel (RDF) Combustion Technology, Mid-Connecticut Facility, Hartford, Connecticut. Final report, June 1987-March 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Finklestein, A.; Klicius, R.D.

    1994-12-01

    The report gives results of an environmental characterization of refuse-derived (RDF) semi-suspension burning technology at a facility in Hartford, Connecticut, that represents state-of-the-art technology, including a spray dryer/fabric filter flue-gas cleaning (FGC) system for each unit. Results were obtained for a variety of steam production rates, combustion conditions, flue gas temperatures, and acid gas removal efficiencies. All incoming wastes and residue streams were weighed, sampled, and analyzed. Key combustor and FGC system operating variables were monitored on a real time basis. A wide range of analyses for acid gases, trace organics, and heavy metals was carried out on gas emissions and all ash residue discharges.

  15. LPG marketers thank the rain gods for hefty crop-drying market in '89

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-04-01

    One of the pleasant bits of news that sprouted in many places across the country last fall concerned the increased LP-gas gallonage for crop drying. It is difficult to predict the farmers or dryers' consumption of propane in any given season. The demand for this fuel in drying operations is determined almost entirely by weather conditions, and since climate remains a perennial question mark, no one knows until the season is well under way how much moisture content the plants will exhibit. In another area, predictions can be complicated by the variations of individual farm practices as well as the evolving technology of drying equipment, including burners. This article, reports on the crop drying market as seen by various LP-gas dealers and others outside the industry.

  16. Freeze drying method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coppa, N.V.; Stewart, P.; Renzi, E.

    1999-12-07

    The present invention provides methods and apparatus for freeze drying in which a solution, which can be a radioactive salt dissolved within an acid, is frozen into a solid on vertical plates provided within a freeze drying chamber. The solid is sublimated into vapor and condensed in a cold condenser positioned above the freeze drying chamber and connected thereto by a conduit. The vertical positioning of the cold condenser relative to the freeze dryer helps to help prevent substances such as radioactive materials separated from the solution from contaminating the cold condenser. Additionally, the system can be charged with an inert gas to produce a down rush of gas into the freeze drying chamber to also help prevent such substances from contaminating the cold condenser.

  17. DOE Zero Energy Ready Home Case Study, Weiss Building & Development, LLC., System Home, River Forest, Illinois

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2013-09-01

    The Passive House Challenge Home located in River Forest, Illinois, is a 5-bedroom, 4.5-bath, 3,600 ft2 two-story home (plus basement) that costs about $237 less per month to operate than a similar sized home built to the 2009 IECC. For a home with no solar photovoltaic panels installed, it scored an amazingly low 27 on the Home Energy Rating System (HERS) score.An ENERGY STAR-rated dishwasher, clothes washer, and refrigerator; an induction cooktop, condensing clothes dryer, and LED lighting are among the energy-saving devices inside the home. All plumbing fixtures comply with EPA WaterSense criteria. The home was awarded a 2013 Housing Innovation Award in the "systems builder" category.

  18. Feasibility Study of Supercritical Light Water Cooled Reactors for Electric Power Production, Progress Report for Work Through September 2003, 2nd Annual/8th Quarterly Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Philip E. MacDonald

    2003-09-01

    The supercritical water-cooled reactor (SCWR) is one of the six reactor technologies selected for research and development under the Generation-IV program. SCWRs are promising advanced nuclear systems because of their high thermal efficiency (i.e., about 45% vs. about 33% efficiency for current Light Water Reactors, LWRs) and considerable plant simplification. SCWRs are basically LWRs operating at higher pressure and temperatures with a direct once-through cycle. Operation above the critical pressure eliminates coolant boiling, so the coolant remains single-phase throughout the system. Thus the need for recirculation and jet pumps, a pressurizer, steam generators, steam separators and dryers is eliminated. The main mission of the SCWR is generation of low-cost electricity. It is built upon two proven technologies, LWRs, which are the most commonly deployed power generating reactors in the world, and supercritical fossil-fired boilers, a large number of which is also in use around the world.

  19. CO.sub.2 utilization in electrochemical systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boxley, Chett; Akash, Akash; Zhao, Qiang

    2013-01-22

    A process for treating fly ash to render it highly usable as a concrete additive. A quantity of fly ash is obtained that contains carbon and which is considered unusable fly ash for concrete based upon foam index testing. The fly ash is mixed with a quantity of spray dryer ash (SDA) and water to initiate a geopolymerization reaction and form a geopolymerized fly ash. The geopolymerized fly ash is granulated. The geopolymerized fly ash is considered usable fly ash for concrete according to foam index testing. The geopolymerized fly ash may have a foam index less than 40%, and in some cases less than 20%, of the foam index of the untreated fly ash. An optional alkaline activator may be mixed with the fly ash and SDA to facilitate the geopolymerization reaction. The alkaline activator may contain an alkali metal hydroxide, carbonate, silicate, aluminate, or mixtures thereof.

  20. Process for removing sulfur from sulfur-containing gases: high calcium fly-ash

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rochelle, Gary T.; Chang, John C. S.

    1991-01-01

    The present disclosure relates to improved processes for treating hot sulfur-containing flue gas to remove sulfur therefrom. Processes in accordance with the present invention include preparing an aqueous slurry composed of a calcium alkali source and a source of reactive silica and/or alumina, heating the slurry to above-ambient temperatures for a period of time in order to facilitate the formation of sulfur-absorbing calcium silicates or aluminates, and treating the gas with the heat-treated slurry components. Examples disclosed herein demonstrate the utility of these processes in achieving improved sulfur-absorbing capabilities. Additionally, disclosure is provided which illustrates preferred configurations for employing the present processes both as a dry sorbent injection and for use in conjunction with a spray dryer and/or bagfilter. Retrofit application to existing systems is also addressed.

  1. Treatment of fly ash for use in concrete

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boxley, Chett

    2012-05-15

    A process for treating fly ash to render it highly usable as a concrete additive. A quantity of fly ash is obtained that contains carbon and which is considered unusable fly ash for concrete based upon foam index testing. The fly ash is mixed with a quantity of spray dryer ash (SDA) and water to initiate a geopolymerization reaction and form a geopolymerized fly ash. The geopolymerized fly ash is granulated. The geopolymerized fly ash is considered usable fly ash for concrete according to foam index testing. The geopolymerized fly ash may have a foam index less than 40%, and in some cases less than 20%, of the foam index of the untreated fly ash. An optional alkaline activator may be mixed with the fly ash and SDA to facilitate the geopolymerization reaction. The alkaline activator may contain an alkali metal hydroxide, carbonate, silicate, aluminate, or mixtures thereof.

  2. Potlining Additives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rudolf Keller

    2004-08-10

    In this project, a concept to improve the performance of aluminum production cells by introducing potlining additives was examined and tested. Boron oxide was added to cathode blocks, and titanium was dissolved in the metal pool; this resulted in the formation of titanium diboride and caused the molten aluminum to wet the carbonaceous cathode surface. Such wetting reportedly leads to operational improvements and extended cell life. In addition, boron oxide suppresses cyanide formation. This final report presents and discusses the results of this project. Substantial economic benefits for the practical implementation of the technology are projected, especially for modern cells with graphitized blocks. For example, with an energy savings of about 5% and an increase in pot life from 1500 to 2500 days, a cost savings of $ 0.023 per pound of aluminum produced is projected for a 200 kA pot.

  3. Tubular structured hierarchical mesoporous titania material derived from natural cellulosic substances and application as photocatalyst for degradation of methylene blue

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Haiqing; Liu, Xiaoyan; Huang, Jianguo

    2011-11-15

    Graphical abstract: Bio-inspired, tubular structured hierarchical mesoporous titania material with high photocatalytic activity under UV light was fabricated employing natural cellulosic substance (cotton) as hard template and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) surfactant as soft template using a one-pot sol-gel method. Highlights: {yields} Tubular structured mesoporous titania material was fabricated by sol-gel method. {yields} The titania material faithfully recorded the hierarchical structure of the template substrate (cotton). {yields} The titania material exhibited high photocatalytic activity in decomposition of methylene blue. -- Abstract: Bio-inspired, tubular structured hierarchical mesoporous titania material was designed and fabricated employing natural cellulosic substance (cotton) as hard template and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) surfactant as soft template by one-pot sol-gel method. The tubular structured hierarchical mesoporous titania material processes large specific surface area (40.23 m{sup 2}/g) and shows high photocatalytic activity in the photodegradation of methylene blue under UV light irradiation.

  4. Central exclusive production at RHIC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adamczyk, Leszek; Guryn, W?odek; Turnau, Jacek

    2014-11-10

    The present status and future plans of the physics program of Central Exclusive Production (CEP) at RHIC are described. The measurements are based on the detection of the forward protons from the Double Pomeron Exchange (DPE) process in the Roman Pot system and of the recoil system of charged particles from the DPE process measured in the STAR experiments Time Projection Chamber (TPC). The data described here were taken using polarized proton-proton collisions at ps = 200 GeV. The preliminary spectra of two pion and four pion invariant mass reconstructed by STAR TPC in central region of pseudo-rapidity |#17;| < 1, are presented. Near future plans to take data with the current system at center-of-mass energy ps = 200 GeV and plans to upgrade the forward proton tagging sys- tem are presented. Also a possible addition of the Roman Pots to the sPHENIX detector is discussed.

  5. The UA9 experimental layout

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scandale, W.; Robert-Demolaize, G.; Arduini, G.; Assmann, R.; Bracco, C.; et al

    2011-10-13

    The UA9 experimental equipment was installed in the CERN-SPS in March '09 with the aim of investigating crystal assisted collimation in coasting mode. Its basic layout comprises silicon bent crystals acting as primary collimators mounted inside two vacuum vessels. A movable 60 cm long block of tungsten located downstream at about 90 degrees phase advance intercepts the deflected beam. Scintillators, Gas Electron Multiplier chambers and other beam loss monitors measure nuclear loss rates induced by the interaction of the beam halo in the crystal. Two Roman pots installed in the path of the deflected particles are equipped with a Medipix detector to reconstruct the transverse distribution of the impinging beam. Finally UA9 takes advantage of an LHC-collimator prototype installed close to the first Roman pot to help in setting the beam conditions and to analyze the efficiency to deflect the beam. This paper describes in details the hardware installed to study the crystal collimation during 2010.

  6. Repressor-mediated tissue-specific gene expression in plants

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Meagher, Richard B.; Balish, Rebecca S.; Tehryung, Kim; McKinney, Elizabeth C.

    2009-02-17

    Plant tissue specific gene expression by way of repressor-operator complexes, has enabled outcomes including, without limitation, male sterility and engineered plants having root-specific gene expression of relevant proteins to clean environmental pollutants from soil and water. A mercury hyperaccumulation strategy requires that mercuric ion reductase coding sequence is strongly expressed. The actin promoter vector, A2pot, engineered to contain bacterial lac operator sequences, directed strong expression in all plant vegetative organs and tissues. In contrast, the expression from the A2pot construct was restricted primarily to root tissues when a modified bacterial repressor (LacIn) was coexpressed from the light-regulated rubisco small subunit promoter in above-ground tissues. Also provided are analogous repressor operator complexes for selective expression in other plant tissues, for example, to produce male sterile plants.

  7. Thermally stable crystalline mesoporous metal oxides with substantially uniform pores

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wiesner, Ulrich; Orilall, Mahendra Christopher; Lee, Jinwoo; DiSalvo, Jr., Francis J

    2015-01-27

    Highly crystalline metal oxide-carbon composites, as precursors to thermally stable mesoporous metal oxides, are coated with a layer of amorphous carbon. Using a `one-pot` method, highly crystalline metal oxide-carbon composites are converted to thermally stable mesoporous metal oxides, having highly crystalline mesopore walls, without causing the concomitant collapse of the mesostructure. The `one-pot` method uses block copolymers with an sp or sp 2 hybridized carbon containing hydrophobic block as structure directing agents which converts to a sturdy, amorphous carbon material under appropriate heating conditions, providing an in-situ rigid support which maintains the pores of the oxides intact while crystallizing at temperatures as high as 1000 deg C. A highly crystalline metal oxide-carbon composite can be heated to produce a thermally stable mesoporous metal oxide consisting of a single polymorph.

  8. The effect of additives on lime dissolution rates. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khang, S.J.

    1996-07-31

    Based on the previous years` studies concerning the efficiency of SO{sub 2} removal by spray dryers with high sulfur coal flue gas, the work for year five included investigations of lime dissolution rates at different slaking conditions and with the effect of additives. The prominent additives that have significant effects on lime dissolution rates were tested with the mini pilot spray drying absorber to see their effects on spray drying desulfurization applications. The mechanisms of these additive effects along with the properties of hygroscopic additives have been discussed and incorporated into the spray drying desulfurization model ``SPRAYMOD-M.`` Slaking conditions are very important factors in producing high quality lime slurry in spray drying desulfurization processes. At optimal slaking conditions, the slaked lime particles are very fine (3-5{mu}m) and the slaked lime has high BET surface areas which are beneficial to the desulfurization. The slaked lime dissolution rate experiments in our study are designed to determine how much lime can dissolve in a unit time if the initial lime surface area is kept constant. The purpose of the dissolution rate study for different additives is to find those effective additives that can enhance lime dissolution rates and to investigate the mechanisms of the dissolution rate enhancement properties for these additives. The applications of these additives on spray drying desulfurization are to further verify the theory that dissolution rate is a rate limiting step in the whole spray drying desulfurization process as well as to test the feasibility of these additives on enhancing SO{sub 2} removal in spray dryers.

  9. Combined heat recovery and dry scrubbing for MWCs to meet the new EPA guidelines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Finnis, P.J.; Heap, B.M.

    1997-12-01

    Both the UK and US Municipal Waste Combuster (MWC) markets have undergone upgraded regulatory control. In the UK, the government`s Integrated Pollution Control (IPC) regime, enforced by the 1990 Environmental Protection Act (EPA) Standard IPR5/3 moved control of emissions of MWCs from local councils to the government Environmental Authority (EA). Existing MWCs had until December 1, 1996 to complete environmental upgrades. Simultaneously, the European Community (EC) was finalizing more stringent legislation to take place in the year 2001. In the US, the 1990 Clean Air Act amendments required the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to issue emission guidelines for new and existing facilities. Existing facilities are likely to have only until the end of 1999 to complete upgrades. In North America, Procedair Industries Corp had received contracts from Kvaerner EnviroPower AB, for APC systems of four new Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF) fluid bed boilers that incorporated low outlet temperature economizers as part of the original boiler equipment. The Fayetteville, North Carolina facility was designed for 200,000 tpy. What all these facilities have in common is low economizer outlet temperatures of 285{degrees}F coupled with a Total Dry Scrubbing System. MWC or RDF facilities using conventional spray dryer/fabric filter combinations have to have economizer gas outlet temperatures about 430{degrees}F to allow for evaporation of the lime slurry in the spray dryer without the likelihood of wall build up or moisture carry over. Since the Totally Dry Scrubbing System can operate with economizer gas outlet temperatures about 285{degrees}F, the added energy available for sale from adding low outlet temperature economizer heat recovery can be considerable. This paper focuses on Procedair`s new plant and retrofit experience using `Dry Venturi Reactor/Fabric Filter` combinations with the lower inlet temperature operating conditions.

  10. Power Systems Development Facility Gasification Test Campaign TC25

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Southern Company Services

    2008-12-01

    In support of technology development to utilize coal for efficient, affordable, and environmentally clean power generation, the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF), located in Wilsonville, Alabama, routinely demonstrates gasification technologies using various types of coals. The PSDF is an engineering scale demonstration of key features of advanced coal-fired power systems, including a KBR Transport Gasifier, a hot gas particulate control device, advanced syngas cleanup systems, and high-pressure solids handling systems. This report summarizes the results of TC25, the second test campaign using a high moisture lignite coal from the Red Hills mine in Mississippi as the feedstock in the modified Transport Gasifier configuration. TC25 was conducted from July 4, 2008, through August 12, 2008. During TC25, the PSDF gasification process operated for 742 hours in air-blown gasification mode. Operation with the Mississippi lignite was significantly improved in TC25 compared to the previous test (TC22) with this fuel due to the addition of a fluid bed coal dryer. The new dryer was installed to dry coals with very high moisture contents for reliable coal feeding. The TC25 test campaign demonstrated steady operation with high carbon conversion and optimized performance of the coal handling and gasifier systems. Operation during TC25 provided the opportunity for further testing of instrumentation enhancements, hot gas filter materials, and advanced syngas cleanup technologies. The PSDF site was also made available for testing of the National Energy Technology Laboratory's fuel cell module and Media Process Technology's hydrogen selective membrane with syngas from the Transport Gasifier.

  11. Quarterly technical progress report for the period ending June 30, 1984

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1984-10-01

    The Magnetohydrodynamics Program (Component Development and Integration Facility) in Butte, Montana, continued its site preparation for the TRW first-stage combustor installation. In the area of flue gas cleanup, our in-house research program is continuing its investigation into the causes of sorbent attrition in PETC's fluidized-bed copper oxide process for simultaneous SO/sub 2//NO/sub x/ removal. Interwoven with these tests is a series of spray dryer/electrostatic precipitator tests that are being conducted with the cooperation of Wheelabrator-Frye, Inc. This test series was completed this quarter, and the data show that when using a Kentucky coal, Wheelabrator-Frye's electrostatic precipitator provides excellent particulate control efficiency while using a spray dryer for sulfur dioxide removal. A unique project at Carnegie-Mellon University is looking at the concept of integrated environmental control for coal-fired power plants making use of precombustion, combustion, and postcombustion control, including systems for the simultaneous removal of more than one pollutant. The objective of this research is to develop a computer model and assessment for integrated environmental control systems that utilize conventional or advanced systems. The Liquid Phase Methanol Project Development Unit in LaPorte, Texas, was restarted after a successful shakedown run was completed. PETC has recently begun an in-house research project aimed at exploring the basic chemistry of liquefying coal in the presence of water under supercritical conditions. In the Alternative Fuels Technology Program, the Gulf Research and Development Company has completed the preliminary testing phase of its erosion test loop. Their results indicate that when pumping a coal-water slurry fuel through a flow loop, the erosion rate increases as velocity increases, suggesting a well-defined relationship between these two parameters.

  12. Auto-ignition during instationary jet evolution of dimethyl ether (DME) in a high-pressure atmosphere

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fast, G.; Kuhn, D.; Class, A.G.; Maas, U.

    2009-01-15

    The auto-ignition process during transient injection of gaseous dimethyl ether (DME) in a constant high-pressure atmosphere is studied experimentally by laser-optical methods and compared with numerical calculations. With different non-intrusive measurement techniques jet properties and auto-ignition are investigated at high temporal and spatial resolution. The open jet penetrates a constant pressure oxidative atmosphere of up to 4 MPa. During the transient evolution, the fuel jet entrains air at up to 720 K. The subsequent auto-ignition of the ignitable part of the jet occurs simultaneously over a wide spatial extension. The ignition delay times are not affected by variation of the nozzle exit velocity. Thus, the low-temperature oxidation is slow compared with the shorter time scales of mixing, so that chemical kinetics is dominating the process. The typical two-stage ignition is resolved optically with high-speed shadowgraphy at a sampling rate of 10 kHz. The 2D fields of jet velocity and transient mixture fraction are measured phase-coupled with Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) and Tracer Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF) during the time-frame of ignition. The instationary Probability Density Functions (PDF) of mixture fraction are described very well by Beta functions within the complete area of the open jet. Additional 1D flamelet simulations of the auto-ignition process are computed with a detailed reaction mechanism for DME [S. Fischer, F. Dryer, H. Curran, Int. J. Chem. Kinet. 32 (12) (2000) 713-740; H. Curran, S. Fischer, F. Dryer, Int. J. Chem. Kinet. 32 (12) (2000) 741-759]. Calculated ignition delay times are in very good agreement with the measured mean ignition delay times of 3 ms. Supplemental flamelet simulations address the influence of DME and air temperature, pressure and strain. Underneath a critical strain rate the air temperature is identified to be the most sensitive factor on ignition delay time. (author)

  13. Experience with FLS-GSA dry scrubbing technology for waste-to-energy applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olsen, P.B.; Stuard, C.; Hsu, F.E.

    1998-07-01

    The paper describes the gas suspension absorber (GSA) dry scrubbing technology developed by FLS miljo a/s, Denmark. The GSA is a new generation of semi-dry technology utilizing a circulating fast fluidized bed as absorber for acid gases (SO{sub 2}, HCI, HF) dioxins and heavy metals. The authors give a detailed description of the GSA which differs from conventional spray-dryer absorber systems in that it provides an extreme high dust concentration in the absorber. The high specific surface area of the dust combined with the quenching action of the atomized lime slurry provides excellent conditions for heat and mass transfer as well as secondary nucleation sites for the condensation/adsorption of dioxins and heavy metals. Attention is focused on the GSA as a retrofit technology for waste-to-energy plants. As retrofit the GSA is advantageous due to the compact design, small footprint and the ability to use the existing electrostatic precipitator (ESP) for particulate control. The grain loading leaving the GSA system and entering the ESP, is controlled by the efficiency of the GSA cyclone, and for this reasons the grain loading entering the ESP is less than or equal to the grain loading leaving the incinerator. The retrofit with a GSA system will furthermore reduce the actual flue gas volume to the ESP, which means an increased specific collection area. In addition the increased moisture content in the flue gas improves the collection efficiency. The authors compare this retrofit option to conventional spray-dryer absorption technology. They describe the operating experience with the GSA technology for waste-to-energy plants. Operating experience and performance test results for acid gases, dioxins and heavy metals, especially mercury, from several European waste-to-energy are reported.

  14. COMPCOAL{trademark}: A profitable process for production of a stable high-Btu fuel from Powder River Basin coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, V.E.; Merriam, N.W.

    1994-10-01

    Western Research Institute (WRI) is developing a process to produce a stable, clean-burning, premium fuel from Powder River Basin (PRB) coal and other low-rank coals. This process is designed to overcome the problems of spontaneous combustion, dust formation, and readsorption of moisture that are experienced with PRB coal and with processed PRB coal. This process, called COMPCOAL{trademark}, results in high-Btu product that is intended for burning in boilers designed for midwestern coals or for blending with other coals. In the COMPCOAL process, sized coal is dried to zero moisture content and additional oxygen is removed from the coal by partial decarboxylation as the coal is contacted by a stream of hot fluidizing gas in the dryer. The hot, dried coal particles flow into the pyrolyzer where they are contacted by a very small flow of air. The oxygen in the air reacts with active sites on the surface of the coal particles causing the temperature of the coal to be raised to about 700{degrees}F (371{degrees}C) and oxidizing the most reactive sites on the particles. This ``instant aging`` contributes to the stability of the product while only reducing the heating value of the product by about 50 Btu/lb. Less than 1 scf of air per pound of dried coal is used to avoid removing any of the condensible liquid or vapors from the coal particles. The pyrolyzed coal particles are mixed with fines from the dryer cyclone and dust filter and the resulting mixture at about 600{degrees}F (316{degrees}C) is fed into a briquettor. Briquettes are cooled to about 250{degrees}F (121{degrees}C) by contact with a mist of water in a gas-tight mixing conveyor. The cooled briquettes are transferred to a storage bin where they are accumulated for shipment.

  15. Hollow Nanocrystals and Nanoreactors - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Storage Energy Storage Advanced Materials Advanced Materials Find More Like This Return to Search Hollow Nanocrystals and Nanoreactors Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Contact LBL About This Technology Publications: PDF Document Publication 2012pub.pdf (301 KB) Technology Marketing Summary Paul Alivisatos and colleagues at Berkeley Lab have developed a new one-pot method for creating hollow nanocrystals. The geometrically novel particles can be used for highly controlled catalysis

  16. Time

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Time with respect to the BNB Trigger Time [µs] 0.9 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 Fractional Flash Count per 0.15 µs with respect to Cosmic Background Measured Cosmic Rate (Beam-Off) BNB Trigger Data (Beam-On) [4.51E18 POT]

  17. Time

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    10 15 20 Time with respect to the NuMI Trigger Time [µs] 0.9 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 Fractional Flash Count per 0.5 µs with respect to Cosmic Background Measured Cosmic Rate (Beam-Off) NuMI Trigger Data (Beam-On) [4.83E18 POT]

  18. Raw material preparation for ultra high production rate sintering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kortmann, H.A.; Ritz, V.J.; Cappel, F.; Weisel, H.; Richter, G.

    1995-12-01

    An R and D program in pot grate sintering showed, that an intensive preparation of ores, additives and coke breeze improves the sintering capacity. The tests were conducted using an ore mixture composed of typical ores imported to Europe. The highest capacities were attained up to 63.8 t/m{sup 2} {times} 24 h maximum for a sinter which well fulfills the high requirements on chemical, physical and metallurgical properties.

  19. Advanced optical measurements for characterizing photophysical properties

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    of single nanoparticles. (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Technical Report: Advanced optical measurements for characterizing photophysical properties of single nanoparticles. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Advanced optical measurements for characterizing photophysical properties of single nanoparticles. Formation of complex nanomaterials would ideally involve single-pot reaction conditions with one reactive site per nanoparticle, resulting in a high yield of incrementally

  20. Silyl- and disilanyl-1,3-butadiyne polymers from hexachloro-1,3-butadiene

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barton, Thomas J.; Ijadi-Maghsoodi, Sina

    1990-10-23

    Organosilane polymers having recurring silylene-1,3-butadiyne and/or disilylene-1,3-butadiyne units are prepared in a one-pot synthesis from hexachlorobutadiene. Depending on the organic substituents (R and R'), these polymers have useful film-forming properties, and are converted to the ceramic, silicon carbide upon heating a very uniform high char yields. They can also be pulled into fibers. The polymers are thermally crosslinked above 100.degree. C.

  1. Silyl- and disilanyl-1,3-butadiyne polymers from hexachloro-1,3-butadiene

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barton, T.J.; Ijadi-Maghsoodi, S.

    1990-10-23

    Organosilane polymers having recurring silylene-1,3-butadiyne and/or disilylene-1,3-butadiyne units are prepared in a one-pot synthesis from hexachlorobutadiene. Depending on the organic substituents (R and R[prime]), these polymers have useful film-forming properties, and are converted to the ceramic, silicon carbide upon heating a very uniform high char yields. They can also be pulled into fibers. The polymers are thermally crosslinked above 100 C.

  2. University of Delaware | CCEI News

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    News [January 2016] Wei Fan, professor of chemical engineering at the University of Massachusetts Amherst, is among scientists highlighted in the U.S. Department of Energy's online feature article titled "Driving to Great: Science and the Journey to Waste-Free Biodiesel." The article, which discusses how scientists are overcoming obstacles in order to turn fuel waste into valued chemicals, discusses Fan's discovery of a one-pot reaction that turns glycerol into large quantities of

  3. University of Delaware | Catalysis Center for Energy Innovation | Furans

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Research Thrust Sugars to Furans Converting sugars to high-value intermediates. CCEI introduced an iconic technology for the isomerization of aldoses to ketoses production via Sn-beta zeolite and other related heterogeneous and homogeneous Lewis acid catalysts in water and demonstrated that this technology is broadly applicable to the conversion of C6 and C5 sugars. Researchers discovered the first single-pot process that combines heterogeneous Lewis acidity with Bronsted acidity to carry

  4. Membranes - Phosphazene - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Membranes - Phosphazene Idaho National Laboratory Contact INL About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary INL's new phosphazene membrane technology provides a method for making polydichlorophosphazene using solid state reactants that simplifies previous processes with a "single pot" two-step process. The process eliminates use of chlorinated hydrocarbon solvents, reducing the costs of equipment and increasing economies. Polyphosphazene polymers are inorganic in nature and

  5. Solid state synthesis of poly(dichlorophosphazene)

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Allen, Christopher W.; Hneihen, Azzam S.; Peterson, Eric S.

    2001-01-01

    A method for making poly(dichlorophosphazene) using solid state reactants is disclosed and described. The present invention improves upon previous methods by removing the need for chlorinated hydrocarbon solvents, eliminating complicated equipment and simplifying the overall process by providing a "single pot" two step reaction sequence. This may be accomplished by the condensation reaction of raw materials in the melt phase of the reactants and in the absence of an environmentally damaging solvent.

  6. News Item

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Self-photosensitization of Nonphotosynthetic Bacteria for Solar-to-Chemical Production M. thermoacetica-CdS hybrids are formed by the one-pot growth and biological precipitation of CdS nanoparticles which serve as light absorbers for photosynthesis. Scientific Achievement Molecular Foundry users induced the nonphotosynthetic, CO2 reducing bacterium M. thermoacetica to precipitate cadmium sulfide nanoparticles which serve as light harvesters to enable photosynthetic production of acetic acid.

  7. SLUDGE TREATMENT PROJECT KOP CONCEPTUAL DESIGN CONTROL DECISION REPORT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    CARRO CA

    2010-03-09

    This control decision addresses the Knock-Out Pot (KOP) Disposition KOP Processing System (KPS) conceptual design. The KPS functions to (1) retrieve KOP material from canisters, (2) remove particles less than 600 {micro}m in size and low density materials from the KOP material, (3) load the KOP material into Multi-Canister Overpack (MCO) baskets, and (4) stage the MCO baskets for subsequent loading into MCOs. Hazard and accident analyses of the KPS conceptual design have been performed to incorporate safety into the design process. The hazard analysis is documented in PRC-STP-00098, Knock-Out Pot Disposition Project Conceptual Design Hazard Analysis. The accident analysis is documented in PRC-STP-CN-N-00167, Knock-Out Pot Disposition Sub-Project Canister Over Lift Accident Analysis. Based on the results of these analyses, and analyses performed in support of MCO transportation and MCO processing and storage activities at the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF) and Canister Storage Building (CSB), control decision meetings were held to determine the controls required to protect onsite and offsite receptors and facility workers. At the conceptual design stage, these controls are primarily defined by their safety functions. Safety significant structures, systems, and components (SSCs) that could provide the identified safety functions have been selected for the conceptual design. It is anticipated that some safety SSCs identified herein will be reclassified based on hazard and accident analyses performed in support of preliminary and detailed design.

  8. GAS/LIQUID MEMBRANES FOR NATURAL GAS UPGRADING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Howard S. Meyer

    2004-10-01

    Efforts this quarter have concentrated on design and planning for of a 50 MM scf/d dehydration skid testing at ChevronTexaco's Headlee Gas Plant in Odessa, TX. Potting and module materials testing concluded. Construction of the bench-scale equipment continued and a pre-engineering study on a subsea application of the technology was performed cofunded contracts with Research Partnership for Secure Energy for America and Gas Research Institute. GTI has decreased the effort under this contract pending DOE's obligation of the total contract funding.

  9. Status of the AFP project in the ATLAS experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taevsk, Marek

    2015-04-10

    Status of the AFP project in the ATLAS experiment is summarized. The AFP system is composed of a tracker to detect intact, diffractively scattered protons, and of a time-of-flight detector serving to suppress background from pile-up interactions. The whole system, located around 210?m from the main ATLAS detector, is placed in Roman Pots which move detectors from and to the incident proton beams. A typical distance of the closest approach of the tracker to these beams is 23?mm. The main physics motivation lies in measuring diffractive processes in runs with not a very high amount of pile-up.

  10. BooNE: Booster Neutrino Experiment

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Beamline Proton beam 8.89 GeV/c protons from the Fermilab Booster are incident on a beryllium target. The beam is modeled with measured mean position and angle with Gaussian smearing. MiniBooNE simulates the effects of varying the spread in the beam and different focus points of the beam. The typical proton beam contains 4 x 10¹² protons delivered in a spill approximately 1.6 µs in duration. The absolute number of protons on target (p.o.t) is measured by two toroids upstream of the target.

  11. Pantexans donate more than $6,000 of cookware to families in need |

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    National Nuclear Security Administration Pantexans donate more than $6,000 of cookware to families in need Thursday, April 3, 2014 - 10:00am Cooking dinner will be a lot easier for about 20 needy families in Amarillo thanks to the generosity of Pantexans, who used a grocery store promotion to secure more than $6,000 of cookware for a local charity. More than 70 pots and pans were donated to local charities by Pantexans Scott and Lauri Minton, who had been collecting stickers donated by their

  12. Proposal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    More MiniBooNE Antineutrino Data Taking The MiniBooNE Collaboration (Dated: February 4, 2009) 1 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY The MiniBooNE experiment at Fermilab was designed to test the LSND evidence for neutrino oscillations [1]. The updated MiniBooNE oscillation result in neutrino mode [2] with 6.5E20 protons on target (POT) shows no significant excess of events at higher energies (E ν > 475 MeV), although a sizeable excess (128.8 ± 20.4 ± 38.3 events) is observed at lower energies (E ν < 475

  13. STAR results on central exclusive production in proton-proton collisions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Przybycien, Mariusz

    2015-04-10

    We present a preliminary measurement of the Central Exclusive Production of the two oppositely charged pions produced in the process pp ? pp?{sup +} ?{sup ?}, obtained with the STAR detector at RHIC at ?(s)=200 GeV. Silicon strip detectors placed in Roman Pots were used for tagging forward protons while pion pair tracks were reconstructed in the STAR Time Projection Chamber. Predictions of models based on Regge phenomenology are compared to the spectra of the kinematical variables corrected for detector acceptance and efficiency.

  14. BooNE: Booster Neutrino Experiment

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    at work Most of the links on this page are password protected. Operational Operations Beam Line Detector Calibrations Analysis Teams Beam Dump Nue Nucleon-DarkMatter Electron-DarkMatter All Nu Run Analyses 2011- Oscillation Low E Events Alt Oscillation NuMI CCQE/NCEL pion (old) CC pi+ (old) NC/CC pi0 POT Summary Summaries Author Resources Publications Oscillation Analysis Worklist ToDo Review Analysis Beam X Factor Baseline X-Sections Final Fits Exotics Algorithms Data Quality LMC OM Fitting

  15. TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT AND DEPLOYMENT OF SYSTEMS FOR THE RETRIEVAL AND PROCESSING OF REMOTE-HANDLED SLUDGE FROM HANFORD K-WEST FUEL STORAGE BASIN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    RAYMOND RE

    2011-12-27

    In 2011, significant progress was made in developing and deploying technologies to remove, transport, and interim store remote-handled sludge from the 105-K West Fuel Storage Basin on the Hanford Site in south-central Washington State. The sludge in the 105-K West Basin is an accumulation of degraded spent nuclear fuel and other debris that collected during long-term underwater storage of the spent fuel. In 2010, an innovative, remotely operated retrieval system was used to successfully retrieve over 99.7% of the radioactive sludge from 10 submerged temporary storage containers in the K West Basin. In 2011, a full-scale prototype facility was completed for use in technology development, design qualification testing, and operator training on systems used to retrieve, transport, and store highly radioactive K Basin sludge. In this facility, three separate systems for characterizing, retrieving, pretreating, and processing remote-handled sludge were developed. Two of these systems were successfully deployed in 2011. One of these systems was used to pretreat knockout pot sludge as part of the 105-K West Basin cleanup. Knockout pot sludge contains pieces of degraded uranium fuel ranging in size from 600 {mu}m to 6350 {mu}m mixed with pieces of inert material, such as aluminum wire and graphite, in the same size range. The 2011 pretreatment campaign successfully removed most of the inert material from the sludge stream and significantly reduced the remaining volume of knockout pot product material. Removing the inert material significantly minimized the waste stream and reduced costs by reducing the number of transportation and storage containers. Removing the inert material also improved worker safety by reducing the number of remote-handled shipments. Also in 2011, technology development and final design were completed on the system to remove knockout pot material from the basin and transport the material to an onsite facility for interim storage. This system is scheduled for deployment in 2012. The prototype facility also was used to develop technology for systems to retrieve remote-handled transuranic sludge smaller than 6350 {mu}m being stored in underwater containers. After retrieving the sludge, the system will be used to load and transport the sludge for interim storage. During 2011, full-scale prototype systems were developed and tested to a Technology Readiness Level 6 as defined by U.S. Department of Energy standards. This system is scheduled for deployment in 2013. Operations also are scheduled for completion in 2014.

  16. Tank depletion flow controller

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Georgeson, Melvin A.

    1976-10-26

    A flow control system includes two bubbler tubes installed at different levels within a tank containing such as radioactive liquid. As the tank is depleted, a differential pressure transmitter monitors pressure differences imparted by the two bubbler tubes at a remote, shielded location during uniform time intervals. At the end of each uniform interval, balance pots containing a dense liquid are valved together to equalize the pressures. The resulting sawtooth-shaped signal generated by the differential pressure transmitter is compared with a second sawtooth signal representing the desired flow rate during each time interval. Variations in the two signals are employed by a control instrument to regulate flow rate.

  17. Ballistic protons in incoherent exclusive vector meson production as a measure of rare parton fluctuations at an electron-ion collider

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Lappi, T.; Venugopalan, R.; Mantysaari, H.

    2015-02-25

    We argue that the proton multiplicities measured in Roman pot detectors at an electron ion collider can be used to determine centrality classes in incoherent diffractive scattering. Incoherent diffraction probes the fluctuations in the interaction strengths of multi-parton Fock states in the nuclear wavefunctions. In particular, the saturation scale that characterizes this multi-parton dynamics is significantly larger in central events relative to minimum bias events. As an application, we examine the centrality dependence of incoherent diffractive vector meson production. We identify an observable which is simultaneously very sensitive to centrality triggered parton fluctuations and insensitive to details of the model.

  18. Combustion Safety Simplified Test Protocol Field Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brand, L; Cautley, D.; Bohac, D.; Francisco, P.; Shen, L.; Gloss, S.

    2015-11-05

    "9Combustions safety is an important step in the process of upgrading homes for energy efficiency. There are several approaches used by field practitioners, but researchers have indicated that the test procedures in use are complex to implement and provide too many false positives. Field failures often mean that the house is not upgraded until after remediation or not at all, if not include in the program. In this report the PARR and NorthernSTAR DOE Building America Teams provide a simplified test procedure that is easier to implement and should produce fewer false positives. A survey of state weatherization agencies on combustion safety issues, details of a field data collection instrumentation package, summary of data collected over seven months, data analysis and results are included. The project provides several key results. State weatherization agencies do not generally track combustion safety failures, the data from those that do suggest that there is little actual evidence that combustion safety failures due to spillage from non-dryer exhaust are common and that only a very small number of homes are subject to the failures. The project team collected field data on 11 houses in 2015. Of these homes, two houses that demonstrated prolonged and excessive spillage were also the only two with venting systems out of compliance with the National Fuel Gas Code. The remaining homes experienced spillage that only occasionally extended beyond the first minute of operation. Combustion zone depressurization, outdoor temperature, and operation of individual fans all provide statistically significant predictors of spillage.

  19. Study of in-duct spray drying using condensation aerosol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, W.J.R.; Chang, S.M.; Adikesavalu, R. )

    1992-06-01

    Sulfur removal efficiency of in-duct spray drying is limited by sorbent content and surface properties of the sorbent-water aerosol. It was the purpose of this study to improve the sulfur removal efficiency for in-duct spray drying by injecting condensation aerosol instead of conventional dispersion aerosol. The program was composed of three phases. In Phase I, a novel pulsed fluid bed feeder was developed and was used to feed hydrated lime for subsequent experiments. A small condensation aerosol generator was then built, which produces a lime-water condensation aerosol by condensing steam on lime particles. The results show that novel lime-water aerosols less than 10 microns were generated. The central task in Phase II was to simulate experimentally in-duct spray drying using condensation aerosols and compare the results with those using dispersion aerosols reported in the literature. A small entrained-flow reactor was constructed to simulate an in-duct spray dryer. The condensation aerosol was then introduced to the reactor at various approach to saturation temperature, calcium/sulfur stoichiometry and sulfur dioxide concentration for desulfurization study. The results show that we have improved the sulfur removal efficiency for in-duct spray drying to 90 percent or above. Thus we have met and exceeded the stated project goal of 70 percent sulfur removal. A comprehensive computer code was employed to calculate sulfur removal efficiency in Phase III.

  20. Second survey of dry SO/sub 2/ control systems. Final report Mar-Sep 80

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kelly, M.E.; Shareef, S.A.

    1981-02-01

    The report is an updated assessment of dry flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. Current and recently completed research, development, and commercial activities in the U.S. since October 1979, are reviewed including: (1) spray dryers with a fabric filter or an electrostatic precipitator (ESP), (2) dry injection of alkaline material into flue gas combined with particulate collection in an ESP or fabric filter, and (3) combustion of coal/alkali fuel mixtures. Spray drying remains the only commercially applied dry FGD process. Since the last survey, completed late in 1979, eight utility and two industrial spray drying systems have been sold. Nine of them use lime as the sorbent, and nine use a fabric filter for particulate collection. Removal guarantees for so/sub 2/ range from 62 to 85%, depending on coal sulfur content. Two full-scale industrial spray drying systems are currently operating. The first large utility system is scheduled for startup early in 1981. Several publicly and privately funded pilot-scale programs have been completed in the past year. EPA is currently funding three such programs (two spray drying and one dry injection), as well as development of two combustion modification processes for SO2 control (combustion of coal/limestone pellets and of a pulverized coal/alkali mixture in a low-NOx burner). The DoE and others are studying dry injection on a pilot scale.

  1. Model for flue-gas desulfurization in a circulating dry scrubber

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neathery, J.K.

    1996-01-01

    A simple model was developed to describe the absorption of SO{sub 2} in a circulating dry scrubbing (CDS) process, which is a semi dry, lime-based, flue-gas desulfurization (FGD) process that utilizes a circulating fluidized bed arrangement for contacting a sorbent with SO{sub 2}-laden flue gas under coolside conditions. The reaction chemistry is thought to be similar to that of spray-drying absorption. The liquid-phase mass-transfer coefficient was successfully modeled as a function of the sorbent particle spacing on the wetted surfaces. Gas-phase mass-transfer resistances were assumed to be insignificant. Due to the high surface area available in a CDS reactor, the evaporation rate of water from the slurry was modeled as constant-rate drying according to classic spray-dryer theory. However, the falling-rate and diffusion evaporation stages were negligible in CDS since sorbent particle bunching at the surface of the slurry is nonexistent.

  2. Mathematical models of cocurrent spray drying

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Negiz, A.; Lagergren, E.S.; Cinar, A.

    1995-10-01

    A steady state mathematical model for a cocurrent spray dryer is developed. The model includes the mass, momentum, and energy balances for a single drying droplet as well as the total energy and mass balances of the drying medium. A log normal droplet size distribution is assumed to hold at the exit of the twin-fluid atomizer located at the top of the drying chamber. The discretization of this log normal distribution with a certain number of bins yields a system of nonlinear coupled first-order differential equations as a function of the axial distance of the drying chamber. This system of equations is used to compute the axial changes in droplet diameter, density, velocity, moisture, and temperature for the droplets at each representative bin. Furthermore, the distributions of important process parameters such as droplet moisture content, diameter, density, and temperature are also obtainable along the length of the chamber. On the basis of the developed model, a constrained nonlinear optimization problem is solved, where the exit particle moisture content is minimized with respect to the process inputs subjected to a fixed mean particle diameter at the chamber exit. Response surface studies based on empirical models are also performed to illustrate the effectiveness of these techniques in achieving the optimal solution when an a priori model is not available. The structure of empirical models obtained from the model is shown to be in agreement with the structure of the empirical models obtained from the experimental studies.

  3. Demonstration of multifunctional DNBM corrosion inhibitors in protective coatings for Naval Air/Weapon Systems. Final report, September 1989-July 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bailin, L.J.

    1993-12-01

    The corrosion protective properties of multifunctional DNBM salts (quaternary ammonium dichromate, nitrate, borate, and molybdate) have been demonstrated on high-strength steel and aluminum alloys found in prototype aerospace weapon systems. The 100% DNBM mixture added to MIL-P-23377 epoxy-polyamide, minus strontium chromate inhibitor, on bare 7075-T6 aluminum alloy resisted 1000 h ASTM B-117 salt spray. However, the coatings were not resistant to hydraulic fluid immersion at the higher concentrations required for the corrosion inhibition. Microencapsulation of the reactive DNBM mixture was adopted as a means to prevent this susceptibility, as well as the destructive oxidation of the hydroxyl groups in the epoxy resin during cure. In the scale-up operation, approximately 20 gallons of DNBM weighing 64 kg (141 lb) was prepared from the four starting quarternary salts synthesized in a chemical process pilot plant. The salts were mixed by dissolving in toluene. Following removal of solvent, the resultant dark-brown liquid, approximating molasses in viscosity, was microencapsulated by the following method: The DNBM was dispersed to form an oil-in-water emulsion in an aqueous colloidal solution of low-viscosity, high-purity methyl cellulose using a Gifford-Wood homogenizer, followed by spray drying in an Anhydro spray dryer. The maximum practicable payload was 75% DNBM. After spray drying, the capsules Corrosion inhibitors, DNBM, Microencapsulation, Epoxy primers, Protective coatings.

  4. Bench-Scale Development of Fluidized-Bed Spray-Dried Sorbents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gupta, R.P.; Turk, B.S.; Gangwal, S.K.

    1996-12-31

    Successful development of regenerable mixed-metal oxide sorbents for removal of reduced sulfur species (such as H{sub 2}S and COS) from coal-derived fuel gas streams at high=temperature, high-pressure (HTHP) conditions is a key to commercialization of the integrated-gasification-combined-cycle (IGCC) power systems. Among the various available coal-to-electricity pathways, IGCC power plants have the most potential with high thermal efficiency, simple system configuration, low emissions of SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x} and other contaminants, modular design, and low capital cost. Due to these advantages, the power plants of the 21st century are projected to utilize IGCC technology worldwide. Sorbents developed for sulfur removal are primarily zinc oxide-based inorganic materials, because of their ability to reduce fuel gas sulfur level to a few parts-per-million (ppm). This project extends the prior work on the development of fluidizable zinc titanate particles using a spray-drying technique to impart high reactivity and attrition resistance. Specific objectives are to develop highly reactive and attrition-resistant zinc titanate sorbents in 40- to 150-{mu}m particle size range for transport reactor applications using semicommercial- to full commercial-scale spray dryers, to transfer sorbent production technology to private sector, and to provide technical support for Sierra Pacific`s Clean Coal Technology Demonstration plant and METC`s hot-gas desulfurization process development unit (PDU), both employing a transport reactor system.

  5. Study of in-duct spray drying using condensation aerosol. Final report, June 16, 1990--June 15, 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, W.J.R.; Chang, S.M.; Adikesavalu, R.

    1992-06-01

    Sulfur removal efficiency of in-duct spray drying is limited by sorbent content and surface properties of the sorbent-water aerosol. It was the purpose of this study to improve the sulfur removal efficiency for in-duct spray drying by injecting condensation aerosol instead of conventional dispersion aerosol. The program was composed of three phases. In Phase I, a novel pulsed fluid bed feeder was developed and was used to feed hydrated lime for subsequent experiments. A small condensation aerosol generator was then built, which produces a lime-water condensation aerosol by condensing steam on lime particles. The results show that novel lime-water aerosols less than 10 microns were generated. The central task in Phase II was to simulate experimentally in-duct spray drying using condensation aerosols and compare the results with those using dispersion aerosols reported in the literature. A small entrained-flow reactor was constructed to simulate an in-duct spray dryer. The condensation aerosol was then introduced to the reactor at various approach to saturation temperature, calcium/sulfur stoichiometry and sulfur dioxide concentration for desulfurization study. The results show that we have improved the sulfur removal efficiency for in-duct spray drying to 90 percent or above. Thus we have met and exceeded the stated project goal of 70 percent sulfur removal. A comprehensive computer code was employed to calculate sulfur removal efficiency in Phase III.

  6. Heat up and potential failure of BWR upper internals during a severe accident

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robb, Kevin R

    2015-01-01

    In boiling water reactors, the steam dome, steam separators, and dryers above the core are comprised of approximately 100 tons of stainless steel. During a severe accident in which the coolant boils away and exothermic oxidation of zirconium occurs, gases (steam and hydrogen) are superheated in the core region and pass through the upper internals. Historically, the upper internals have been modeled using severe accident codes with relatively simple approximations. The upper internals are typically modeled in MELCOR as two lumped volumes with simplified heat transfer characteristics, with no structural integrity considerations, and with limited ability to oxidize, melt, and relocate. The potential for and the subsequent impact of the upper internals to heat up, oxidize, fail, and relocate during a severe accident was investigated. A higher fidelity representation of the shroud dome, steam separators, and steam driers was developed in MELCOR v1.8.6 by extending the core region upwards. This modeling effort entailed adding 45 additional core cells and control volumes, 98 flow paths, and numerous control functions. The model accounts for the mechanical loading and structural integrity, oxidation, melting, flow area blockage, and relocation of the various components. The results indicate that the upper internals can reach high temperatures during a severe accident; they are predicted to reach a high enough temperature such that they lose their structural integrity and relocate. The additional 100 tons of stainless steel debris influences the subsequent in-vessel and ex-vessel accident progression.

  7. Building America Case Study: Combustion Safety Simplified Test Protocol, Chicago Illinois, and Minneapolis, Minnesota

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2015-12-01

    "9Combustion safety is an important step in the process of upgrading homes for energy efficiency. There are several approaches used by field practitioners, but researchers have indicated that the test procedures in use are complex to implement and provide too many false positives. Field failures often mean that the house is not upgraded until after remediation or not at all, if not include in the program. In this report the PARR and NorthernSTAR DOE Building America Teams provide a simplified test procedure that is easier to implement and should produce fewer false positives. A survey of state weatherization agencies on combustion safety issues, details of a field data collection instrumentation package, summary of data collected over seven months, data analysis and results are included. The project provides several key results. State weatherization agencies do not generally track combustion safety failures, the data from those that do suggest that there is little actual evidence that combustion safety failures due to spillage from non-dryer exhaust are common and that only a very small number of homes are subject to the failures. The project team collected field data on 11 houses in 2015. Of these homes, two houses that demonstrated prolonged and excessive spillage were also the only two with venting systems out of compliance with the National Fuel Gas Code. The remaining homes experienced spillage that only occasionally extended beyond the first minute of operation. Combustion zone depressurization, outdoor temperature, and operation of individual fans all provide statistically significant predictors of spillage.

  8. Final Scientific Report (FSR)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bill Granzin

    2010-11-29

    The Flambeau River Papers “Manufacturing Conversion for Energy Efficiency” Project has identified the following goals and objectives: 1. A low pressure accumulator tank will be installed to capture low pressure gases for reuse. The estimated cost is $2.1 million with an energy savings of $500,000 annually or enough natural gas savings to heat 590 average Wisconsin homes. 2. Replace the steam turbine and upgrade Paper Machine #3, the largest of Flambeau River Papers machines, at a cost of $6.265 million. The result will save enough natural gas to heat 141 average homes, or about $1.2-million each year. 3. Install a new cyclonic and cell fracturing technology dryer to reduce moisture in both sludge and biomass wastes. The estimated cost of this task is $1.5-million with an annual energy savings of $700,000. It will also eliminate all coal burning at Flambeau River Papers (7,200 tons of coal annually).

  9. Development of an advanced process for drying fine coal in an inclined fluidized bed

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boysen, J.E.; Kang, T.W.; Cha, C.Y.; Berggren, M.H.; Jha, M.C.; AMAX Research and Development Center, Golden, CO )

    1989-10-01

    The main objective of this research is to develop a thermal process for drying fine coal that (1) reduces explosion potential, (2) uses a fluidized bed with minimum elutriation, (3) produces a stable dry coal by preventing moisture reabsorption and autogeneous heating, (4) reduces fugitive dust emissions, and (5) is technically and economically feasible. The project scope of work requires completion of five tasks: (1) project planning, (2) characterization of the two feed coals, (3) bench-scale IFB drying studies, (4) product characterization and testing, and (5) technical and economic process evaluation. The project technical achievements are primarily related to understanding of the behavior of the two coals in the IFB reactor. Solids residence time and solids entrainment can be correlated using the Reynolds number. Gas produced from the coal during drying and the product composition can be correlated to the average dryer temperature. A dry product with minimal proximate moisture and substantially increased heating value can be produced from either of these coals under a wide variety of fluidizing gas-to-solids ratios and IFB operating temperatures. Product characterization indicates that moisture reabsorption can be significantly reduced and that fugitive dust contents can be almost completely reduced. 4 refs., 19 figs., 24 tabs.

  10. Shaft seal system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kapich, Davorin D.

    1985-01-01

    A shaft seal system is disclosed for isolating two regions of different fluid mediums through which a rotatable shaft extends. The seal system includes a seal housing through which the shaft extends and which defines an annular land and an annular labyrinth both of which face on the shaft so that each establishes a corresponding fluid sealing annulus. A collection cavity is formed in communication with the annular sealing spaces, and fluids compatible with the fluids in each of the two regions to be isolated are introduced, respectively, into the annular sealing spaces and collected in the collection cavity from which the fluid mixture is removed and passed to a separator which separates the fluids and returns them to their respective annular sealing spaces in a recycling manner. In the illustrated embodiment, the isolated fluid mediums comprise a liquid region and a gas region. Gas is removed from the gas region and passed through a purifier and a gas pump operative to introduce the purified gas through the labyrinth sealing annulus to the collection cavity. After passing to the separator, the separated gas is passed through a dryer from which the dried gas is caused to pass through the labyrinth sealing annulus into the collection cavity independently of the purified gas so as to insure isolation of the gas region in the event of sealing gas pump malfunction.

  11. Healy Clean Coal Project, Healy, Alaska final Environmental Monitoring Plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-06-14

    This Environmental Monitoring Plan (EMP) provides the mechanism to evaluate the integrated coal combustion/emission control system being demonstrated by the Healy Clean Coal Project (HCCP) as part-of the third solicitation of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (CCT-III). The EMP monitoring is intended to satisfy two objectives: (1) to develop the information base necessary for identification, assessment, and mitigation of potential environmental problems arising from replication of the technology and (2) to identify and quantify project-specific and site-specific environmental impacts predicted in the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) documents (Environmental Impact Statement and Record of Decision). The EMP contains a description of the background and history of development of the project technologies and defines the processes that will take place in the combustion and spray dryer absorber systems, including the formation of flash-calcined material (FCM) and its use in sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) removal from the flue gases. It also contains a description of the existing environmental resources of the project area. The EMP includes two types of environmental monitoring that are to be used to demonstrate the technologies of the HCCP: compliance monitoring and supplemental monitoring. Compliance monitoring activities include air emissions, wastewater effluents, and visibility. Monitoring of these resources provide the data necessary to demonstrate that the power plant can operate under the required state and federal statutes, regulations, and permit requirements.

  12. Technologies and Materials for Recovering Waste Heat in Harsh Environments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nimbalkar, Sachin U.; Thekdi, Arvind; Rogers, Benjamin M.; Kafka, Orion L.; Wenning, Thomas J.

    2014-12-15

    A large amount (7,204 TBtu/year) of energy is used for process heating by the manufacturing sector in the United States (US). This energy is in the form of fuels mostly natural gas with some coal or other fuels and steam generated using fuels such as natural gas, coal, by-product fuels, and some others. Combustion of these fuels results in the release of heat, which is used for process heating, and in the generation of combustion products that are discharged from the heating system. All major US industries use heating equipment such as furnaces, ovens, heaters, kilns, and dryers. The hot exhaust gases from this equipment, after providing the necessary process heat, are discharged into the atmosphere through stacks. This report deals with identification of industries and industrial heating processes in which the exhaust gases are at high temperature (>1200 F), contain all of the types of reactive constituents described, and can be considered as harsh or contaminated. It also identifies specific issues related to WHR for each of these processes or waste heat streams.

  13. The Role of Comprehensive Detailed Chemical Kinetic Reaction Mechanisms in Combustion Research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Westbrook, C K; Pitz, W J; Curran, H J; Mehl, M

    2008-07-16

    Recent developments by the authors in the field of comprehensive detailed chemical kinetic reaction mechanisms for hydrocarbon fuels are reviewed. Examples are given of how these mechanisms provide fundamental chemical insights into a range of combustion applications. Practical combustion consists primarily of chemical heat release from reactions between a fuel and an oxidizer, and computer simulations of practical combustion systems have become an essential tool of combustion research (Westbrook et al., 2005). At the heart of most combustion simulations, the chemical kinetic submodel frequently is the most detailed, complex and computationally costly part of a system model. Historically, the chemical submodel equations are solved using time-implicit numerical algorithms, due to the extreme stiffness of the coupled rate equations, with a computational cost that varies roughly with the cube of the number of chemical species in the model. While early mechanisms (c. 1980) for apparently simple fuels such as methane (Warnatz, 1980) or methanol (Westbrook and Dryer, 1979) included perhaps 25 species, current detailed mechanisms for much larger, more complex fuels such as hexadecane (Fournet et al., 2001; Ristori et al., 2001; Westbrook et al., 2008) or methyl ester methyl decanoate (Herbinet et al., 2008) have as many as 2000 or even 3000 species. Rapid growth in capabilities of modern computers has been an essential feature in this rapid growth in the size and complexity of chemical kinetic reaction mechanisms.

  14. Utilization of geothermal heat in tropical fruit-drying process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, B.H.; Lopez, L.P.; King, R.; Fujii, J.; Tanaka, M.

    1982-10-01

    The power plant utilizes only the steam portion of the HGP-A well production. There are approximately 50,000 pounds per hour of 360/sup 0/F water produced (approximately 10 million Btu per hour) and the water is currently not used and is considered a waste. This tremendous resource could very well be used in applications such as food processing, food dehydration and other industrial processing that requires low-grade heat. One of the applications is examined, namely the drying of tropical fruits particularly the papaya. The papaya was chosen for the obvious reason that it is the biggest crop of all fruits produced on the Big Island. A conceptual design of a pilot plant facility capable of processing 1000 pounds of raw papaya per day is included. This facility is designed to provide a geothermally heated dryer to dehydrate papayas or other tropical fruits available on an experimental basis to obtain data such as drying time, optimum drying temperature, etc.

  15. An Experimental and Chemical Kinetics Study of the Combustion of Syngas and High Hydrogen Content Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Santoro, Robers; Dryer, Frederick; Ju, Yiguang

    2013-09-30

    An integrated and collaborative effort involving experiments and complementary chemical kinetic modeling investigated the effects of significant concentrations of water and CO2 and minor contaminant species (methane [CH4], ethane [C2H6], NOX, etc.) on the ignition and combustion of HHC fuels. The research effort specifically addressed broadening the experimental data base for ignition delay, burning rate, and oxidation kinetics at high pressures, and further refinement of chemical kinetic models so as to develop compositional specifications related to the above major and minor species. The foundation for the chemical kinetic modeling was the well validated mechanism for hydrogen and carbon monoxide developed over the last 25 years by Professor Frederick Dryer and his co-workers at Princeton University. This research furthered advance the understanding needed to develop practical guidelines for realistic composition limits and operating characteristics for HHC fuels. A suite of experiments was utilized that that involved a high-pressure laminar flow reactor, a pressure-release type high-pressure combustion chamber and a high-pressure turbulent flow reactor.

  16. Dehydration project report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-08-31

    Catalytic Industrial Group became interested in the ability to use its catalytic infrared technology for the removal of moisture in substances after having had very positive experience in removing moisture from water-based coatings which are becoming increasingly popular as industry strives to comply with clean air mandates. The first attempts were crude but showed that the moisture could be removed, and intriguing enough that they started to think about a conveying-based system that would remove moisture from products. The initial tests were designed around sawdust. The authors felt that the market in particleboard and in the MDF board by itself justified the research into this concept. The Kansas Department of Health and Environment has been kept apprised of the on-going development of the infrared drying system by Catalytic Industrial Group. There were some early delays in the delivery of equipment needed to build the prototype machine. The design changes identified during the experimental phase of the development of the infrared dryer have been resolved and a process-testing device has been developed. This technical report outlines the progress made to date.

  17. Drying of fiber webs

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Warren, D.W.

    1997-04-15

    A process and an apparatus are disclosed for high-intensity drying of fiber webs or sheets, such as newsprint, printing and writing papers, packaging paper, and paperboard or linerboard, as they are formed on a paper machine. The invention uses direct contact between the wet fiber web or sheet and various molten heat transfer fluids, such as liquefied eutectic metal alloys, to impart heat at high rates over prolonged durations, in order to achieve ambient boiling of moisture contained within the web. The molten fluid contact process causes steam vapor to emanate from the web surface, without dilution by ambient air; and it is differentiated from the evaporative drying techniques of the prior industrial art, which depend on the uses of steam-heated cylinders to supply heat to the paper web surface, and ambient air to carry away moisture, which is evaporated from the web surface. Contact between the wet fiber web and the molten fluid can be accomplished either by submersing the web within a molten bath or by coating the surface of the web with the molten media. Because of the high interfacial surface tension between the molten media and the cellulose fiber comprising the paper web, the molten media does not appreciatively stick to the paper after it is dried. Steam generated from the paper web is collected and condensed without dilution by ambient air to allow heat recovery at significantly higher temperature levels than attainable in evaporative dryers. 6 figs.

  18. Drying of fiber webs

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Warren, David W.

    1997-01-01

    A process and an apparatus for high-intensity drying of fiber webs or sheets, such as newsprint, printing and writing papers, packaging paper, and paperboard or linerboard, as they are formed on a paper machine. The invention uses direct contact between the wet fiber web or sheet and various molten heat transfer fluids, such as liquified eutectic metal alloys, to impart heat at high rates over prolonged durations, in order to achieve ambient boiling of moisture contained within the web. The molten fluid contact process causes steam vapor to emanate from the web surface, without dilution by ambient air; and it is differentiated from the evaporative drying techniques of the prior industrial art, which depend on the uses of steam-heated cylinders to supply heat to the paper web surface, and ambient air to carry away moisture, which is evaporated from the web surface. Contact between the wet fiber web and the molten fluid can be accomplished either by submersing the web within a molten bath or by coating the surface of the web with the molten media. Because of the high interfacial surface tension between the molten media and the cellulose fiber comprising the paper web, the molten media does not appreciately stick to the paper after it is dried. Steam generated from the paper web is collected and condensed without dilution by ambient air to allow heat recovery at significantly higher temperature levels than attainable in evaporative dryers.

  19. Coal Preparation Plant Simulation

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1992-02-25

    COALPREP assesses the degree of cleaning obtained with different coal feeds for a given plant configuration and mode of operation. It allows the user to simulate coal preparation plants to determine an optimum plant configuration for a given degree of cleaning. The user can compare the performance of alternative plant configurations as well as determine the impact of various modes of operation for a proposed configuration. The devices that can be modelled include froth flotationmore » devices, washers, dewatering equipment, thermal dryers, rotary breakers, roll crushers, classifiers, screens, blenders and splitters, and gravity thickeners. The user must specify the plant configuration and operating conditions and a description of the coal feed. COALPREP then determines the flowrates within the plant and a description of each flow stream (i.e. the weight distribution, percent ash, pyritic sulfur and total sulfur, moisture, BTU content, recoveries, and specific gravity of separation). COALPREP also includes a capability for calculating the cleaning cost per ton of coal.« less

  20. Incorporating Experience Curves in Appliance Standards Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garbesi, Karina; Chan, Peter; Greenblatt, Jeffery; Kantner, Colleen; Lekov, Alex; Meyers, Stephen; Rosenquist, Gregory; Buskirk, Robert Van; Yang, Hung-Chia; Desroches, Louis-Benoit

    2011-10-31

    The technical analyses in support of U.S. energy conservation standards for residential appliances and commercial equipment have typically assumed that manufacturing costs and retail prices remain constant during the projected 30-year analysis period. There is, however, considerable evidence that this assumption does not reflect real market prices. Costs and prices generally fall in relation to cumulative production, a phenomenon known as experience and modeled by a fairly robust empirical experience curve. Using price data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics, and shipment data obtained as part of the standards analysis process, we present U.S. experience curves for room air conditioners, clothes dryers, central air conditioners, furnaces, and refrigerators and freezers. These allow us to develop more representative appliance price projections than the assumption-based approach of constant prices. These experience curves were incorporated into recent energy conservation standards for these products. The impact on the national modeling can be significant, often increasing the net present value of potential standard levels in the analysis. In some cases a previously cost-negative potential standard level demonstrates a benefit when incorporating experience. These results imply that past energy conservation standards analyses may have undervalued the economic benefits of potential standard levels.

  1. Healy Clean Coal Project: Healy coal firing at TRW Cleveland Test Facility. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koyama, T.; Petrill, E.; Sheppard, D.

    1991-08-01

    A test burn of two Alaskan coals was conducted at TRW`s Cleveland test facility in support of the Healy Clean Coal Project, as part of Clean Coal Technology III Program in which a new power plant will be constructed using a TRW Coal Combustion System. This system features ash slagging technology combined with NO{sub x} and SO{sub x} control. The tests, funded by the Alaska Industrial Development and Export Authority (AIDEA) and TRW, were conducted to verify that the candidate Healy station coals could be successfully fired in the TRW coal combustor, to provide data required for scale-up to the utility project size requirements, and to produce sufficient flash-calcined material (FCM) for spray dryer tests to be conducted by Joy/NIRO. The tests demonstrated that both coals are viable candidates for the project, provided the data required for scale-up, and produced the FCM material. This report describes the modifications to the test facility which were required for the test burn, the tests run, and the results of the tests.

  2. Healy Clean Coal Project: Healy coal firing at TRW Cleveland Test Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koyama, T.; Petrill, E.; Sheppard, D.

    1991-08-01

    A test burn of two Alaskan coals was conducted at TRW's Cleveland test facility in support of the Healy Clean Coal Project, as part of Clean Coal Technology III Program in which a new power plant will be constructed using a TRW Coal Combustion System. This system features ash slagging technology combined with NO{sub x} and SO{sub x} control. The tests, funded by the Alaska Industrial Development and Export Authority (AIDEA) and TRW, were conducted to verify that the candidate Healy station coals could be successfully fired in the TRW coal combustor, to provide data required for scale-up to the utility project size requirements, and to produce sufficient flash-calcined material (FCM) for spray dryer tests to be conducted by Joy/NIRO. The tests demonstrated that both coals are viable candidates for the project, provided the data required for scale-up, and produced the FCM material. This report describes the modifications to the test facility which were required for the test burn, the tests run, and the results of the tests.

  3. Electric Power Research Institute, Environmental Control Technology Center report to the steering committee. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    Operations and maintenance continued this month at the Electric Power Research Institute`s Environmental Control Technology Center. Testing on the 4.0 MW Pilot Wet FGD unit continued with the Pilot High Velocity FGD (PHV) and the Trace Element Removal (TER) test blocks. In the High Velocity test block, SO{sub 2} removal and mist eliminator carryover rates were investigated while operating the absorber unit with various spray nozzle types and vertical mist eliminator sections. During the Trace Element Removal test block, the mercury measurements and control studies involving the EPA Method 29 continued with testing of several impinger capture solutions, and the use of activated carbon injection across the Pulse-Jet Fabric Filter (PJFF) unit. The 4.0 MW Spray Dryer Absorber System was utilized this month in the TER test configuration to inject and transfer activated carbon to the PJFF bags for downstream mercury capture. Work also began in December to prepare the 0.4 MW Mini-Pilot Absorber system for receipt of the B and W Condensing Heat Exchanger (CHX) unit to be used in the 1996 DOE/PRDA testing. The 1.0 MW Cold-Side Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) unit remained in cold-standby this month.

  4. Energy Efficiency Adult Tracking Report - Final

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gibson-Grant, Amy

    2014-09-30

    Postwave tracking study for the Energy Efficiency Adult Campaign This study serves as measure of key metrics among the campaign’s target audience, homeowners age 25+. Key measures include: Awareness of messages relating to the broad issue; Recognition of the PSAs; Relevant attitudes, including interest, ease of taking energy efficient steps, and likelihood to act; Relevant knowledge, including knowledge of light bulb alternatives and energy efficient options; and Relevant behaviors, including specific energy-saving behaviors mentioned within the PSAs. Wave 1: May 27 – June 7, 2011 Wave 2: May 29 – June 8, 2012 Wave 3: May 29 – June 19, 2014 General market sample of adults 25+ who own their homes W1 sample: n = 704; W2: n=701; W3: n=806 Online Survey Panel Methodology Study was fielded by Lightspeed Research among their survey panel. Sample is US Census representative of US homeowners by race/ethnicity, income, age, region, and family status. At least 30% of respondents were required to have not updated major appliances in their home in the past 5 years (dishwasher, stove, refrigerator, washer, or dryer).

  5. Coal Preparation Plant Simulation

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1992-02-25

    COALPREP assesses the degree of cleaning obtained with different coal feeds for a given plant configuration and mode of operation. It allows the user to simulate coal preparation plants to determine an optimum plant configuration for a given degree of cleaning. The user can compare the performance of alternative plant configurations as well as determine the impact of various modes of operation for a proposed configuration. The devices that can be modelled include froth flotationmore » devices, washers, dewatering equipment, thermal dryers, rotary breakers, roll crushers, classifiers, screens, blenders and splitters, and gravity thickeners. The user must specify the plant configuration and operating conditions and a description of the coal feed. COALPREP then determines the flowrates within the plant and a description of each flow stream (i.e. the weight distribution, percent ash, pyritic sulfur and total sulfur, moisture, BTU content, recoveries, and specific gravity of separation). COALPREP also includes a capability for calculating the cleaning cost per ton of coal. The IBM PC version contains two auxiliary programs, DATAPREP and FORLIST. DATAPREP is an interactive preprocessor for creating and editing COALPREP input data. FORLIST converts carriage-control characters in FORTRAN output data to ASCII line-feed (X''0A'') characters.« less

  6. One-step synthesis of layered yttrium hydroxides in immiscible liquidliquid systems: Intercalation of sterically-bulky hydrophobic organic anions and doping of europium ions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Watanabe, Mebae; Fujihara, Shinobu

    2014-02-15

    Inorganicorganic layered rare-earth compounds were synthesized on the basis of a biphasic liquidliquid system in one pot. Layered yttrium hydroxides (LYHs) were chosen as a host material for the intercalation of hydrophobic organic guest anions such as benzoate, sebacate, or laurate. In a typical synthesis, an organic phase dissolving carboxylic acid was placed in contact with an equal amount of an aqueous phase dissolving yttrium nitrate n-hydrate and urea. At elevated temperatures up to 80 C, urea was hydrolyzed to release hydroxyl anions which were used to form yttrium hydroxide layers. LYHs were then precipitated with the intercalation of carboxylate anions delivered from the organic phase under the distribution law. The structure and the morphology of the LYHs could be modulated by the intercalated anions. Doped with Eu{sup 3+} ions, the LYHs exhibited red photoluminescence which was enhanced by the intercalated anions due to the antenna effect. - Graphical abstract: The Eu{sup 3+}-doped layered yttrium hydroxide exhibits intense red photoluminescence after intercalation of benzoate ions. Display Omitted - Highlights: Immiscible biphasic liquid systems were introduced to synthesize layered yttrium hydroxides. The temperature of the biphasic systems does not exceed 80 C in one step of the synthesis. Hydrophobic organic anions were intercalated between the hydroxide layers in one pot. Structure and morphology of the hydroxides were modulated by changing the kind of organic anions. Eu{sup 3+}-doping led to red luminescence from the hydroxides in association with the intercalated organic anions.

  7. Reduction of FeO contents in sinter under high bed operation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fujii, K.; Hazama, K.; Hoshikuma, Y.; Tarumoto, S.; Nunomura, S.; Hirota, N.

    1996-12-31

    High-bed operation (bed height more than 700 mm) is currently being carried out at the Kure No. 1 sintering plant. Before initiating this high-bed operation, the authors conducted sinter pot tests at various bed heights to investigate the effect of bed height on sintering. The following results were obtained from these pot tests: Heightening of the sinter bed increased yield at the upper layer, but at the lower layer, the yield reached a maximum value at a certain bed height. From observation of the sinter cakes, the reduction in yield is attributed to uneven burn caused by surplus heat at the lower layers. Therefore, when high-bed operation is carried out, reduction of the burning energy (reduction of the FeO content in the sinter) is required. This high-bed operation with lower FeO content has enabled the company to reduce fuel consumption and SiO{sub 2} content, while maintaining high yield and high sinter quality.

  8. Central exclusive production at RHIC

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Adamczyk, Leszek; Guryn, Włodek; Turnau, Jacek

    2014-11-10

    The present status and future plans of the physics program of Central Exclusive Production (CEP) at RHIC are described. The measurements are based on the detection of the forward protons from the Double Pomeron Exchange (DPE) process in the Roman Pot system and of the recoil system of charged particles from the DPE process measured in the STAR experiment’s Time Projection Chamber (TPC). The data described here were taken using polarized proton-proton collisions at ps = 200 GeV. The preliminary spectra of two pion and four pion invariant mass reconstructed by STAR TPC in central region of pseudo-rapidity |#17;| Pots to the sPHENIX detector is discussed.« less

  9. Highly efficient photocatalysis of p-type Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4} under visible-light illumination

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hou, Xian; Li, Yan Yan, Jian-Jun; Wang, Cheng-Wei

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: Kesterite CZTS nanocrystal powder was synthesized by one-pot method. First successful use CZTS nanocrystal powder as photocatalyst. CZTS shows an efficient photocatalysis under visible light irradiation. CZTS photocatalyst having excellent stability. - Abstract: Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4}, as a very promising p-type semiconductor material, has been extensively used in the study of solar cells owing to its suitable band gap (1.11.5 eV), large absorption coefficient of 10{sup 4} cm{sup ?1} in the visible spectrum, good photo stability, nontoxicity and relative abundance of the component elements. In this paper, we have successfully synthesized p-type kesterite Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4} nanocrystal powder by facile one-pot method, and made our first successful attempt to use Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4} nanocrystal powder as a photocatalyst to degradation methyl orange under visible-light irradiation. The exciting results show that in the visible light region, Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4} nanocrystal powder possesses an excellent photocatalytic performance of K = 0.0317 min{sup ?1}, nearly about 6 times of well known commercial P25 titania powder performance under the same conditions, which suggests that the p-type kesterite Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4} nanocrystal would be a promising candidate of photocatalyst.

  10. JAROSLAW NOWAK

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    JAROSLAW NOWAK For the MiniBooNE Collaboration LOUISIANA STATE UNIVERSITY Sixth International Workshop on Neutrino-Nucleus Interactions in the Few-GeV Region May 18th - 22nd, 2009 Sitges, Barcelona (Spain) ) 2 (GeV 2 reconstructed Q 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 4500 5000 POT normalized MiniBooNE (stat+syst) =1.1 GeV A Rein-Sehgal, M Rein-Sehgal model of resonance excitations with M A =1.1GeV [Annals of Physics, 133, 79 (1981)] Rein-Sehgal model

  11. Phenolate constrained geometry polymerization catalyst and method for preparing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Marks, Tobin J.; Chen, You-Xian

    1999-01-01

    The subject invention involves a method of preparing and the constrained geometry catalyst thereby prepared of the general formula Ar'R4(O)Ar"R'.sub.4 M(CH.sub.2 Ph).sub.2 where Ar' is a phenyl or naphthyl group; Ar" is a cyclopentadienyl or indenyl group, R and R' are H or alkyl substituents (C.ltoreq.10) and M is Ti, Zr or Hf. The synthetic method involves a simple alkane elimination approach which permits a "one-pot" procedure. The catalyst, when combined with a cocatalyst such as Pb.sub.3 C.sup.+ B(Ar.sub.3.sup.F).sub.4 BAr.sub.3.sup.F or methyl alumoxane where Ar.sup.F is a fluoroaryl group, is an effective catalyst for the polymerization of .alpha.-olefins such as ethylene, propylene and styrene.

  12. Phenolate constrained geometry polymerization catalyst and method for preparing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Marks, T.J.; Chen, Y.X.

    1999-01-05

    The subject invention involves a method of preparing and the constrained geometry catalyst thereby prepared of the general formula Ar{prime}R4(O)Ar{double_prime}R{prime}{sub 4}M(CH{sub 2}Ph){sub 2} where Ar{prime} is a phenyl or naphthyl group; Ar{double_prime} is a cyclopentadienyl or indenyl group, R and R{prime} are H or alkyl substituents (C{<=}10) and M is Ti, Zr or Hf. The synthetic method involves a simple alkane elimination approach which permits a ``one-pot`` procedure. The catalyst, when combined with a cocatalyst such as Pb{sub 3}C{sup +}B(Ar{sub 3}{sup F}){sub 4}BAr{sub 3}{sup F} or methyl alumoxane where Ar{sup F} is a fluoroaryl group, is an effective catalyst for the polymerization of {alpha}-olefins such as ethylene, propylene and styrene. 1 fig.

  13. Electrolysis cell for reprocessing plutonium reactor fuel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, W.E.; Steindler, M.J.; Burris, L.

    1985-01-04

    An electrolytic cell for refining a mixture of metals including spent fuel containing U and Pu contaminated with other metals is claimed. The cell includes a metallic pot containing a metallic pool as one anode at a lower level, a fused salt as the electrolyte at an intermediate level and a cathode and an anode basket in spaced-apart positions in the electrolyte with the cathode and anode being retractable to positions above the electrolyte during which spent fuel may be added to the anode basket. The anode basket is extendable into the lower pool to dissolve at least some metallic contaminants; the anode basket contains the spent fuel acting as a second anode when in the electrolyte.

  14. ELECTROMAGNETIC RELEASE MECHANISM

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Michelson, C.

    1960-09-13

    An electromagnetic release mechanism is offered that may be used, for example, for supporting a safety rod for a nuclear reactor. The release mechanism is designed to have a large excess holding force and a rapid, uniform, and dependable release. The fast release is accomplished by providing the electromagnet with slotttd polts separated by an insulating potting resin, and by constructing the poles with a ferro-nickel alloy. The combination of these two features materially reduces the eddy current power density whenever the magnetic field changes during a release operation. In addition to these features, the design of the armature is such as to provide ready entrance of fluid into any void that might tend to form during release of the armature. This also improves the release time for the mechanism. The large holding force for the mechanism is accomplished by providing a small, selected, uniform air gap between the inner pole piece and the armature.

  15. Recovery and recycling of aluminum, copper, and precious metals from dismantled weapon components

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lutz, J.D.; Wheelis, W.T.; Gundiler, I.H.

    1995-02-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is tasked to support the Department of Energy in the dismantlement and disposal of SNL designed weapon components. These components are sealed in a potting compound, and contain heavy metals, explosive, radioactive, and toxic materials in discrete sub-components. SNL developed and demonstrated a process to identify and remove the hazardous sub-components utilizing real-time radiography and abrasive water-jet cutting. The remaining components were then crushed, granulated, screened, and separated into an aluminum and a precious-and-base-metals fraction using air-tables. Plastics were further cleaned for disposal as non-hazardous waste. The New Mexico Bureau of Mines & Mineral Resources assisted SNL in investigation of size-reduction and separation technologies and in the development of a conceptual design for a mechanical separation system.

  16. Recovery and recycling of aluminum, copper, and precious metals from dismantled weapon components

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gundiler, I.H.; Lutz, J.D.; Wheelis, W.T.

    1994-03-03

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is tasked to support The Department of Energy in the dismantlement and disposal of SNL designed weapon components. These components are sealed in a potting compound, and contain heavy metals, explosive, radioactive, and toxic materials. SNL developed a process to identify and remove the hazardous sub-components utilizing real-time radiography and abrasive water-jet cutting. The components were then crushed, granulated, screened, and separated into an aluminum and a precious-and-base-metals fraction using air-tables. Plastics were further cleaned for disposal as non-hazardous waste. New Mexico Bureau of Mines and Mineral Resources assisted SNL in investigation of size-reduction and separation technologies.

  17. First results on the SPS beam collimation with bent crystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scandale, W.; Robert-Demolaize, G.; Arduini, G.; Assmann, R.; Bracco, C.; Gilardoni, S.; Ippolito, V.; Laface, E.; Losito, R,; Masi, A,; Metral, E,; Previtali, V.; Redaelli, S.; Silari, M.; Tlustos, L.; Bagli, E.; Baricordi, S.; Dalpiaz, P.; Guidi, V.; Mazzolari, A.; Vincenzi, D.; Della Mea, G.; Lombardi, A.; De Salvador, D.; Vallazza, E.; Bolognini, D.; Hasan, S.; Lietti, D.; Mascagna, V.; Mattera, A.; Prest, M.; Cavoto, G.; Ludovici, L.; Mirarchi, D.; Santacesaria, R.; Valente, P.; Murtas, F.; Afonin, A.G.; Chesnokov, Yu.A.; Maisheev, V.A.; Yazynin, I.A.; Kovalenko, A.D.; Taratin, A.M.; Denisov, A.S.; Gavrikov, Yu.A.; Ivanov, Yu.M.; Lapina, L.P.; Malyarenko, L.G.; Skorobogatov, V.V.; Suvorov, V.M.; Vavilov, S.A.; Mokhov, N.; Still, D.; Markiewicz, T.; Oriunno, M.

    2010-08-23

    Experiments were performed at the CERN SPS with 120 GeV/c stored proton beams to assess the possibility of beam halo collimation assisted by bent crystals. A bent crystal was used to deflect horizontally by an angle of about 170 {micro}rad the beam halo protons in channeling states directing them into a 60 cm long tungsten absorber. The halo loss rate due to nuclear inelastic interactions of protons in the aligned crystal was up to five times smaller than for its amorphous orientation. Channeled fractions, (75 {+-} 4)% and (85 {+-} 5)% for the two tested silicon crystals, were measured by intercepting the deflected beam with another collimator located between the crystals and the absorber. The pixel detector (MEDIPIX) installed in a Roman pot inside the beam pipe was used to obtain visual images of the deflected beam.

  18. Anomalous magnetic behavior in nanocomposite materials of reduced graphene oxide-Ni/NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kollu, Pratap E-mail: anirmalagrace@vit.ac.in; Prathapani, Sateesh; Varaprasadarao, Eswara K.; Mallick, Sudhanshu; Bahadur, D. E-mail: anirmalagrace@vit.ac.in; Santosh, Chella; Grace, Andrews Nirmala E-mail: anirmalagrace@vit.ac.in

    2014-08-04

    Magnetic Reduced Graphene Oxide-Nickel/NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} (RGO-Ni/NF) nanocomposite has been synthesized by one pot solvothermal method. Respective phase formations and their purities in the composite are confirmed by High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscope and X Ray Diffraction, respectively. For the RGO-Ni/NF composite material finite-size effects lead to the anomalous magnetic behavior, which is corroborated in temperature and field dependent magnetization curves. Here, we are reporting the behavior of higher magnetization values for Zero Field Cooled condition to that of Field Cooled for the RGO-Ni/NF nanocomposite. Also, the observed negative and positive moments in Hysteresis loops at relatively smaller applied fields (100?Oe and 200?Oe) are explained on the basis of surface spin disorder.

  19. Platinum adlayered ruthenium nanoparticles, method for preparing, and uses thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tong, YuYe; Du, Bingchen

    2015-08-11

    A superior, industrially scalable one-pot ethylene glycol-based wet chemistry method to prepare platinum-adlayered ruthenium nanoparticles has been developed that offers an exquisite control of the platinum packing density of the adlayers and effectively prevents sintering of the nanoparticles during the deposition process. The wet chemistry based method for the controlled deposition of submonolayer platinum is advantageous in terms of processing and maximizing the use of platinum and can, in principle, be scaled up straightforwardly to an industrial level. The reactivity of the Pt(31)-Ru sample was about 150% higher than that of the industrial benchmark PtRu (1:1) alloy sample but with 3.5 times less platinum loading. Using the Pt(31)-Ru nanoparticles would lower the electrode material cost compared to using the industrial benchmark alloy nanoparticles for direct methanol fuel cell applications.

  20. Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Name Starting Run Starting Time Ending Run Ending Time Delivered POT [E20] (with data quality cuts applied cal_860_wcuts_tank) 1st Neutrino Mode Period Osc. Analysis 3539 02/03/2003 23:37:36 UTC 12499 10/31/2005 06:18:41 UTC 5.579 1st Neutrino Mode Period not in Osc. Analysis 12500 10/31/2005 06:19:13 UTC 12842 01/19/2006 14:56:24 UTC 0.050 1st Anti-Neutrino Mode Period 1st 0 Absorber Down 12843 01/19/2006 14:56:47 UTC 14048 06/05/2006 06:58:59 UTC 0.172 1st Anti-Neutrino Mode Period 1 Absorber

  1. Walk-through survey report: Control technology for metal reclamation industries at East Penn Manufacturing Company Inc. , Lyon Station, Pennsylvania

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hall, R.M.

    1994-08-12

    A walk through survey was conducted at the East Penn Manufacturing Company (SIC-3341), Lyon Station, Pennsylvania to identify and evaluate potentially effective controls and work practices in the lead (7439921) reclamation industry. The facility was a secondary lead smelter which operated 7 days a week, and recycled about 20,000 batteries a day, primarily automobile batteries. The company employed automation, local exhaust ventilation, partial enclosures, and enclosed ventilation systems in the reverberatory furnace operations, blast furnace operations, and casting and refinery area to reduce employee exposure to lead. The arsenic (7440382) personal exposure time weighted averages ranged from 0.10 to 1.14 microg/cubic m in the industrial battery breaking area and ranged from nondetected to 6.16 microg/cubic m in the alloying/pots area.

  2. Measurement of ion beam from laser ion source for RHIC EBIS.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kanesue,T.; Tamura, J.; Okamura, M.

    2008-06-23

    Laser ion source (LIS) is a candidate of the primary ion source for the RHIC EBIS. LIS will provide intense charge state 1+ ions to the EBIS for further ionization. We measured plasma properties of a variety of atomic species from C to Au using the second harmonics of Nd:YAG laser (532 nm wave length, up to 0.5 J/6 ns). Since properties of laser produced plasma is different from different species, laser power density for singly charged ion production should be verified experimentally for each atomic species. After plasma analysis experiments, Au ions was extracted from plasma and emittance of the ion beam was measured using a pepper pot type emittance monitor.

  3. Radiation-hard electrical coil and method for its fabrication

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grieggs, R.J.; Blake, R.D.; Gac, F.D.

    1982-06-29

    A radiation-hard insulated electrical coil and method for making the same are disclosed. In accordance with the method, a conductor, preferably copper, is wrapped with an aluminum strip and then tightly wound into a coil. The aluminum-wrapped coil is then annealed to relax the conductor in the coiled configuration. The annealed coil is then immersed in an alkaline solution to dissolve the aluminum strip, leaving the bare conductor in a coiled configuration with all of the windings closely packed yet uniformly spaced from one another. The coil is then insulated with a refractory insulating material. In the preferred embodiment, the coil is insulated by coating it with a vitreous enamel and subsequently potting the enamelled coil in a castable ceramic concrete. The resulting coil is substantially insensitive to radiation and may be operated continuously in high radiation environments for long periods of time.

  4. Sylgard Mixing Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bello, Mollie [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Welch, Cynthia F. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Goodwin, Lynne Alese [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Keller, Jennie [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-08-22

    Sylgard 184 and Sylgard 186 silicone elastomers form Dow Corning are used as potting agents across the Nuclear Weapons Complex. A standardized mixing procedure is required for filled versions of these products. The present study is a follow-up to a mixing study performed by MST-7 which established the best mixing procedure to use when adding filler to either 184 or 186 base resins. The most effective and consistent method of mixing resin and curing agent for three modified silicone elastomer recipes is outlined in this report. For each recipe, sample size, mixing type, and mixing time was varied over 10 separate runs. The results show that the THINKY Mixer gives reliable mixing over varying batch sizes and mixing times. Hand Mixing can give improved mixing, as indicated by reduced initial viscosity; however, this method is not consistent.

  5. Electrolysis cell for reprocessing plutonium reactor fuel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, William E.; Steindler, Martin J.; Burris, Leslie

    1986-01-01

    An electrolytic cell for refining a mixture of metals including spent fuel containing U and Pu contaminated with other metals, the cell including a metallic pot containing a metallic pool as one anode at a lower level, a fused salt as the electrolyte at an intermediate level and a cathode and an anode basket in spaced-apart positions in the electrolyte with the cathode and anode being retractable to positions above the electrolyte during which spent fuel may be added to the anode basket and the anode basket being extendable into the lower pool to dissolve at least some metallic contaminants, the anode basket containing the spent fuel acting as a second anode when in the electrolyte.

  6. An in-situ phosphorus source for the synthesis of Cu3P and the subsequent conversion to Cu3PS4 nanoparticle clusters

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Sheets, Erik J.; Stach, Eric A.; Yang, Wei -Chang; Balow, Robert B.; Wang, Yunjie; Walker, Bryce C.; Agrawal, Rakesh

    2015-09-20

    The search for alternative earth abundant semiconducting nanocrystals for sustainable energy applications has brought forth the need for nanoscale syntheses beyond bulk synthesis routes. Of particular interest are metal phosphides and derivative I-V-VI chalcogenides including copper phosphide (Cu3P) and copper thiophosphate (Cu3PS4). Herein, we report a one-pot, solution-based synthesis of Cu3P nanocrystals utilizing an in-situ phosphorus source: phosphorus pentasulfide (P2S5) in trioctylphosphine (TOP). By injecting this phosphorus source into a copper solution in oleylamine (OLA), uniform and size controlled Cu3P nanocrystals with a phosphorous-rich surface are synthesized. The subsequent reaction of the Cu3P nanocrystals with decomposing thiourea forms nanoscale Cu3PS4more » particles having p-type conductivity and an effective optical band gap of 2.36 eV.« less

  7. Shockwave Engine: Wave Disk Engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-01-14

    Broad Funding Opportunity Announcement Project: MSU is developing a new engine for use in hybrid automobiles that could significantly reduce fuel waste and improve engine efficiency. In a traditional internal combustion engine, air and fuel are ignited, creating high-temperature and high-pressure gases which expand rapidly. This expansion of gases forces the engine’s pistons to pump and powers the car. MSU’s engine has no pistons. It uses the combustion of air and fuel to build up pressure within the engine, generating a shockwave that blasts hot gas exhaust into the blades of the engine’s rotors causing them to turn, which generates electricity. MSU’s redesigned engine would be the size of a cooking pot and contain fewer moving parts—reducing the weight of the engine by 30%. It would also enable a vehicle that could use 60% of its fuel for propulsion.

  8. Homogeneous Hydrogenation of CO? to Methyl Formate Utilizing Switchable Ionic Liquids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yadav, Mahendra; Linehan, John C.; Karkamkar, Abhijeet J.; Van Der Eide, Edwin F.; Heldebrant, David J.

    2014-09-15

    Capture of CO? and subsequent hydrogenation allows for base/alcohol-catalyzed conversion of CO? to methylformate in one pot. The conversion of CO? proceeds via alkylcarbonates, to formate salts and then formate esters, which can be catalyzed by base and alcohol with the only byproduct being water. The system operates at mild conditions (300 psi H?, 140 C). Reactivity is strongly influenced by temperature and choice of solvent. In the presence of excess of base (DBU) formate is predominant product while in excess of methanol methyl formate is major product. 110 C yields formate salts, 140 C promotes methylformate. The authors acknowledge internal Laboratory Directed Re-search and Development (LDRD) funding from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). PNNL is operated by Battelle for the U.S. Department of Energy.

  9. Comparative analyses for selected clean coal technologies in the international marketplace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Szpunar, C.B.; Gillette, J.L.

    1990-07-01

    Clean coal technologies (CCTs) are being demonstrated in research and development programs under public and private sponsorship. Many of these technologies could be marketed internationally. To explore the scope of these international opportunities and to match particular technologies with markets appearing to have high potential, a study was undertaken that focused on seven representative countries: Italy, Japan, Morocco, Turkey, Pakistan, the Peoples' Republic of China, and Poland. The results suggest that there are international markets for CCTs and that these technologies can be cost competitive with more conventional alternatives. The identified markets include construction of new plants and refurbishment of existing ones, especially when decision makers want to decrease dependence on imported oil. This report describes potential international market niches for U.S. CCTs and discusses the status and implications of ongoing CCT demonstration activities. Twelve technologies were selected as representative of technologies under development for use in new or refurbished industrial or electric utility applications. Included are the following: Two generic precombustion technologies: two-stage froth-flotation coal beneficiation and coal-water mixtures (CWMs); Four combustion technologies: slagging combustors, integrated-gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) systems, atmospheric fluidized-bed combustors (AFBCs), and pressurized fluidized-bed combustors (PFBCs); and Six postcombustion technologies: limestone-injection multistage burner (LIMB) systems, gas-reburning sorbent-injection (GRSI) systems, dual-alkali flue-gas desulfurization (FGD), spray-dryer FGD, the NOXSO process, and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) systems. Major chapters of this report have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  10. Material and energy flows in the materials production, assembly, and end-of-life stages of the automotive lithium-ion battery life cycle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dunn, J.B.; Gaines, L.; Barnes, M.; Wang, M.; Sullivan, J.

    2012-06-21

    This document contains material and energy flows for lithium-ion batteries with an active cathode material of lithium manganese oxide (LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4}). These data are incorporated into Argonne National Laboratory's Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREET) model, replacing previous data for lithium-ion batteries that are based on a nickel/cobalt/manganese (Ni/Co/Mn) cathode chemistry. To identify and determine the mass of lithium-ion battery components, we modeled batteries with LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} as the cathode material using Argonne's Battery Performance and Cost (BatPaC) model for hybrid electric vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, and electric vehicles. As input for GREET, we developed new or updated data for the cathode material and the following materials that are included in its supply chain: soda ash, lime, petroleum-derived ethanol, lithium brine, and lithium carbonate. Also as input to GREET, we calculated new emission factors for equipment (kilns, dryers, and calciners) that were not previously included in the model and developed new material and energy flows for the battery electrolyte, binder, and binder solvent. Finally, we revised the data included in GREET for graphite (the anode active material), battery electronics, and battery assembly. For the first time, we incorporated energy and material flows for battery recycling into GREET, considering four battery recycling processes: pyrometallurgical, hydrometallurgical, intermediate physical, and direct physical. Opportunities for future research include considering alternative battery chemistries and battery packaging. As battery assembly and recycling technologies develop, staying up to date with them will be critical to understanding the energy, materials, and emissions burdens associated with batteries.

  11. Electric Power Research Institute Environmental Control Technology Center: Report to the Steering Committee, June 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-06-01

    Operations and maintenance continued this month at the Electric Power Research Institute`s (EPRI`s) Environmental Control Technology Center (ECTC). Testing for the Hazardous Air Pollutant (HAP) test block was conducted using the 4.0 MW Spray Dryer Absorber System (SDA) and Pulse Jet Fabric Filter (PJFF) - Carbon Injection System. Investigations also continued across the B&W/CHX Heat Exchanger unit, while the 1.0 MW Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) unit remained idle this month in a cold-standby mode as monthly inspections were conducted. Pilot Testing Highlights Testing efforts in June were focused on the HAP test block and the Trace Elements Removal (TER) test block. Both programs were conducted on the 4.0 MW wet FGD pilot unit and PJFF unit. The HAP test block was temporarily concluded in June to further review the test data. This program began in March as part of the DOE Advanced Power Systems Program; the mission of this program is to accelerate the commercialization of affordable, high-efficiency, low-emission, coal-fueled electric generating technologies. The 1996 HAP test block focuses on three research areas, including: Catalytic oxidation of vapor-phase elemental mercury; Enhanced particulate-phase HAPs removal by electrostatic charging of liquid droplets; and Enhanced mercury removal by addition of additives to FGD process liquor. The TER test block is part of EPRI`s overall program to develop control technology options for reduction of trace element emissions. This experimental program investigates mercury removal and mercury speciation under different operating conditions.

  12. DESIGN OF THE DEMOSNTRATION BULK VITRIFICATION SYSTEM FOR THE SUPPLEMENTAL TREATMENT OF LOW ACTIVITY TANK WASTE AT HANFORD

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    VAN BEEK JE

    2008-02-14

    In June 2004, the Demonstration Bulk Vitrification System (DBVS) was initiated with the intent to design, construct, and operate a full-scale bulk vitrification pilot-plant to treat low-activity tank waste from Hanford Tank 241-S-109. The DBVS facility uses In-Container Vitrification{trademark} (ICV{trademark}) at the core of the treatment process. The basic process steps combine liquid low-activity waste (LAW) and glassformers; dry the mixture; and then vitrify the mixture in a batch feed-while-melt process in a refractory lined steel container. Off-gases are processed through a state-of-the-art air pollution control system including sintered-metal filtration, thermal oxidation, acid gas scrubbing, and high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) and high-efficiency gas adsorber (HEGA) filtration. Testing has focused on development and validation of the waste dryer, ICV, and sintered-metal filters (SMFs) equipment, operations enhancements, and glass formulation. With a parallel testing and design process, testing has allowed improvements to the DBVS equipment configuration and operating methodology, since its original inception. Design improvements include optimization of refractory panels in the ICV, simplifying glassformer addition equipment, increasing the number of waste feed chutes to the ICV, and adding capability for remote clean-out of piping, In addition, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has provided an independent review of the entire DBVS process. While the review did not find any fatal flaws, some technical issues were identified that required a re-evaluation of the DBVS design and subsequent changes to the design. A 100 percent design package for the pilot plant will be completed and submitted to DOE for review in early 2008 that incorporates process improvements substantiated through testing and reviews. This paper provides a description of the bulk vitrification process and a discussion of major equipment design changes that have occurred based on full-scale testing over the past two years and DOE reviews.

  13. Feasibility Study of Supercritical Light Water Cooled Fast Reactors for Actinide Burning and Electric Power Production, Progress Report for Work Through September 2002, 4th Quarterly Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mac Donald, Philip Elsworth

    2002-09-01

    The use of light water at supercritical pressures as the coolant in a nuclear reactor offers the potential for considerable plant simplification and consequent capital and O&M cost reduction compared with current light water reactor (LWR) designs. Also, given the thermodynamic conditions of the coolant at the core outlet (i.e. temperature and pressure beyond the water critical point), very high thermal efficiencies of the power conversion cycle are possible (i.e. up to about 45%). Because no change of phase occurs in the core, the need for steam separators and dryers as well as for BWR-type re-circulation pumps is eliminated, which, for a given reactor power, results in a substantially shorter reactor vessel and smaller containment building than the current BWRs. Furthermore, in a direct cycle the steam generators are not needed. If no additional moderator is added to the fuel rod lattice, it is possible to attain fast neutron energy spectrum conditions in a supercritical water-cooled reactor (SCWR). This type of core can make use of either fertile or fertile-free fuel and retain a hard spectrum to effectively burn plutonium and minor actinides from LWR spent fuel while efficiently generating electricity. One can also add moderation and design a thermal spectrum SCWR. The Generation IV Roadmap effort has identified the thermal spectrum SCWR (followed by the fast spectrum SCWR) as one of the advanced concepts that should be developed for future use. Therefore, the work in this NERI project is addressing both types of SCWRs.

  14. The use of negotiated agreements to improve efficiency of end-use appliances: First results from the European experience

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bertoldi, P.; Bowie, R.; Hagen, L.

    1998-07-01

    The European Union is pursuing measures to improve end-use equipment efficiency through a variety of policy instruments, in particular for domestic appliances. One of the most effective methods to achieve market transformation is through minimum efficiency performance standards (MEPS). However, after the difficulties and controversy following the adoption of legislation for MEPS for domestic refrigerators/freezers, a new policy instrument, i.e. negotiated agreements by manufacturers, has been investigated and tested for two type of appliances: domestic washing machines and TVs and VCRs. Based on the positive experience of the above two agreements, other products (e.g. dryers, dishwasher, electric water heaters, etc.) will be the subject of future negotiated agreements. Based on the results of the two negotiated agreements, this paper describes the energy efficiency potential, the procedures, and the advantages and disadvantages of negotiated agreements compared to legislated mandatory for MEPS, as developed in the European context. The paper concludes that negotiated agreements are a viable policy option, which allow flexibility in the implementation of the efficiency targets and therefore the adoption of cost-effective solutions for manufacturers. In addition, negotiated agreements can be implemented more quickly compared to mandatory MEPS and they allow a closer monitoring of the results. The main question asked in the paper is whether the negotiated agreements can deliver the results in the long term compared to what could be achieved through legislation. The European experience indicates that this instrument can deliver the results and that it offer a number of advantages compared to MEPS.

  15. Residential applliance data, assumptions and methodology for end-use forecasting with EPRI-REEPS 2.1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hwang, R.J,; Johnson, F.X.; Brown, R.E.; Hanford, J.W.; Kommey, J.G.

    1994-05-01

    This report details the data, assumptions and methodology for end-use forecasting of appliance energy use in the US residential sector. Our analysis uses the modeling framework provided by the Appliance Model in the Residential End-Use Energy Planning System (REEPS), which was developed by the Electric Power Research Institute. In this modeling framework, appliances include essentially all residential end-uses other than space conditioning end-uses. We have defined a distinct appliance model for each end-use based on a common modeling framework provided in the REEPS software. This report details our development of the following appliance models: refrigerator, freezer, dryer, water heater, clothes washer, dishwasher, lighting, cooking and miscellaneous. Taken together, appliances account for approximately 70% of electricity consumption and 30% of natural gas consumption in the US residential sector. Appliances are thus important to those residential sector policies or programs aimed at improving the efficiency of electricity and natural gas consumption. This report is primarily methodological in nature, taking the reader through the entire process of developing the baseline for residential appliance end-uses. Analysis steps documented in this report include: gathering technology and market data for each appliance end-use and specific technologies within those end-uses, developing cost data for the various technologies, and specifying decision models to forecast future purchase decisions by households. Our implementation of the REEPS 2.1 modeling framework draws on the extensive technology, cost and market data assembled by LBL for the purpose of analyzing federal energy conservation standards. The resulting residential appliance forecasting model offers a flexible and accurate tool for analyzing the effect of policies at the national level.

  16. Characterization of Organic Coatings on Hygroscopic Salt Particles and their Atmospheric Impacts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zelenyuk, Alla; Ezell, Michael J.; Perraud, Veronique; Johnson, Stanley N.; Bruns, Emily; Yu, Yong; Imre, D.; Alexander, M. L.; Finlayson-Pitts, Barbara J.

    2010-03-30

    The photooxidation of ?-pinene in the presence of NO2, with and without added NaNO3 seed particles, has been studied in a large diameter flow tube. Particles formed by homogeneous nucleation and by condensation on the pre-existing seeds were sampled at various stages of the reaction, dried using four diffusion dryers, size selected at different mobility diameters (dm) using a differential mobility analyzer (DMA), and characterized with a single particle mass spectrometer (SPLAT II). It was found that homogeneously nucleated particles are spherical, have a density (?) of 1.25 0.02 g cm-3 ( 2 ?) and contain a significant amount of organic nitrates. The mass spectra of the low volatility products condensed on the NaNO3 seed particles were found to be virtually the same as in the case of homogeneous nucleation. The data show that the presence of even a submonolayer of organics on the NaNO3 particles causes water retention that leads to a decrease in particle density and that the amount of water retained increases with organic coating thickness. Thicker coatings appear to inhibit water evaporation from the particle seeds altogether. This suggests that in the atmosphere, where low volatility organics are plentiful, some hygroscopic salts will retain water and have different densities and refractive indices than expected in the absence of the organic coating. This water retention combined with the organic shell on the particles can potentially impact light scattering by these particles and activity as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN), as well as heterogeneous chemistry and photochemistry on the particles.

  17. Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center quarterly technical progress report for the period ending September 30, 1985

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1986-06-01

    Encouraging progress was made toward the development of acid rain control technology. PETC competitively selected and awarded contracts totaling over $8 million over the next three years to firms proposing new concepts for reducing the costs of cleaning the flue gas emissions of older, coal-burning power plants. PETC and ANL have undertaken a joint venture in dry flue-gas scrubbing that will ultimately lead to testing of a sorbent for combined SO/sub x/ and NO/sub x/ removal in Argonne's 20-megawatt spray dryer. The overall objective of a high-sulfur coal research program is to conduct a broad spectrum of coal-related research in order to increase and expand the use of coal in an environmentally acceptable manner. In the liquefaction program area, operations with Wyodak subbituminous coal are proceeding smoothly (Run 249) at the Wilsonville Process Development Unit. Understanding the processes involved in catalyst deactivation is important to the development of longer lived catalysts. In the area of process analysis, PETC has acquired a new version of ASPEN (Advanced System for Process Engineeering) software. The new version was recently installed on PETC's VAX/VMS operating system and is the most up-to-date version currently available. Work at PETC has resulted in the development and testing of a highly automated capillary tube viscometer for use with heavy coal-derived liquids. Results of PETC research in Fischer-Tropsch product characterization were also shared with the technical community. A particularly difficult analytical problem in the characterization of Fischer-Tropsch products is quantitative determination of carbon number distributions by compound class. PETC scientists developed a method that uses capillary gas chromatographic techniques to make these determinations. A paper describing the method was the lead article in the July 1985 issue of the Journal of Chromatographic Science and was featured on the cover.

  18. Material and Energy Flows in the Materials Production, Assembly, and End-of-Life Stages of the Automotive Lithium-Ion Battery Life Cycle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dunn, Jennifer B.; Gaines, Linda; Barnes, Matthew; Sullivan, John L.; Wang, Michael

    2014-01-01

    This document contains material and energy flows for lithium-ion batteries with an active cathode material of lithium manganese oxide (LiMn₂O₄). These data are incorporated into Argonne National Laboratory’s Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREET) model, replacing previous data for lithium-ion batteries that are based on a nickel/cobalt/manganese (Ni/Co/Mn) cathode chemistry. To identify and determine the mass of lithium-ion battery components, we modeled batteries with LiMn₂O₄ as the cathode material using Argonne’s Battery Performance and Cost (BatPaC) model for hybrid electric vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, and electric vehicles. As input for GREET, we developed new or updated data for the cathode material and the following materials that are included in its supply chain: soda ash, lime, petroleum-derived ethanol, lithium brine, and lithium carbonate. Also as input to GREET, we calculated new emission factors for equipment (kilns, dryers, and calciners) that were not previously included in the model and developed new material and energy flows for the battery electrolyte, binder, and binder solvent. Finally, we revised the data included in GREET for graphite (the anode active material), battery electronics, and battery assembly. For the first time, we incorporated energy and material flows for battery recycling into GREET, considering four battery recycling processes: pyrometallurgical, hydrometallurgical, intermediate physical, and direct physical. Opportunities for future research include considering alternative battery chemistries and battery packaging. As battery assembly and recycling technologies develop, staying up to date with them will be critical to understanding the energy, materials, and emissions burdens associated with batteries.

  19. A 12-MW-scale pilot study of in-duct scrubbing (IDS) using a rotary atomizer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Samuel, E.A.; Murphy, K.R.; Demian, A.

    1989-11-01

    A low-cost, moderate-removal efficiency, flue gas desulfurization (FGD) technology was selected by the US Department of Energy for pilot demonstration in its Acid Rain Precursor Control Technology Initiative. The process, identified as In-Duct Scrubbing (IDS), applies rotary atomizer techniques developed for lime-based spray dryer FGD while utilizing existing flue gas ductwork and particulate collectors. IDS technology is anticipated to result in a dry desulfurization process with a moderate removal efficiency (50% or greater) for high-sulfur coal-fired boilers. The critical elements for successful application are: (1) adequate mixing of sorbent droplets with flue gas for efficient reaction contact, (2) sufficient residence time to produce a non-wetting product, and (3) appropriate ductwork cross-sectional area to prevent deposition of wet reaction products before particle drying is comple. The ductwork in many older plants, previously modified to meet 1970 Clean Air Act requirements for particulate control, usually meet these criteria. A 12 MW-scale IDS pilot plant was constructed at the Muskingum River Plant of the American Electric Power System. The pilot plant, which operates from a slipstrem attached to the air-preheater outlet duct from the Unit 5 boiler at the Muskingum River Plant (which burns about 4% sulfur coal), is equipped with three atomizer stations to test the IDS concept in vertical and horizontal configurations. In addition, the pilot plant is equipped to test the effect of injecting IDS off- product upstream of the atomizer, on SO{sub 2}and NO{sub x} removals.

  20. Preparation of polyaniline/sodium alanate hybrid using a spray-drying process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moreira, B. R. E-mail: fabiopassador@gmail.com Passador, F. R. E-mail: fabiopassador@gmail.com Pessan, L. A. E-mail: fabiopassador@gmail.com

    2014-05-15

    Nowadays, hydrogen is highly interesting as an energy source, in particular in the automotive field. In fact, hydrogen is attractive as a fuel because it prevents air pollution and greenhouse emissions. One of the main problems with the utilization of hydrogen as a fuel is its on-board storage. The purpouse of this work was to develop a new hybrid material consisting of a polyaniline matrix with sodium alanate (NaAlH{sub 4}) using a spray-drying process. The polyaniline used for this experiment was synthesized by following a well-established method for the synthesis of the emeraldine base form of polyaniline using dodecylbenzenesulfonic acid as dopant. Micro particles of polyaniline/sodium alanate hybrids with 30 and 50 wt% of sodium alanate were prepared by using a spray-drying technique. Dilute solutions of polyaniline/sodium alanate were first prepared, 10g of the solid materials were mixed with 350 ml of toluene under stirring at room temperature for 24h and the solutions were dried using spray-dryer (Bchi, Switzerland) with 115C of an inlet temperature. The hybrids were analyzed by differential scanning calorimetry, FT-IR and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The addition of sodium alanate decreased the glass transition temperature of the hybrids when compared to neat polyaniline. FT-IR spectrum analysis was performed to identify the bonding environment of the synthesized material and was observed that simply physically mixture occurred between polyaniline and sodium alanate. The SEM images of the hybrids showed the formation of microspheres with sodium alanate dispersed in the polymer matrix.

  1. Evaluation of advanced technologies for residential appliances and residential and commercial lighting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turiel, I.; Atkinson, B.; Boghosian, S.; Chan, P.; Jennings, J.; Lutz, J.; McMahon, J.; Rosenquist, G.

    1995-01-01

    Section 127 of the Energy Policy Act requires that the Department of Energy (DOE) prepare a report to Congress on the potential for the development and commercialization of appliances that substantially exceed the present federal or state efficiency standards. Candidate high-efficiency appliances must meet several criteria including: the potential exists for substantial improvement (beyond the minimum established in law) of the appliance`s energy efficiency; electric, water, or gas utilities are prepared to support and promote the commercialization of such appliances; manufacturers are unlikely to undertake development and commercialization of such appliances on their own, or development and production would be substantially accelerated by support to manufacturers. This report describes options to improve the efficiency of residential appliances, including water heaters, clothes washers and dryers, refrigerator/freezers, dishwashers, space heating and cooling devices, as well as residential and commercial lighting products. Data from this report (particularly Appendix 1)were used to prepare the report to Congress mentioned previously. For the residential sector, national energy savings are calculated using the LBL Residential Energy Model. This model projects the number of households and appliance saturations over time. First, end-use consumption is calculated for a base case where models that only meet the standard replace existing models as these reach the end of their lifetime. Second, models with efficiencies equal to the technology under consideration replace existing models that reach the end of their lifetime. For the commercial sector, the COMMEND model was utilized to project national energy savings from new technologies. In this report, energy savings are shown for the period 1988 to 2015.

  2. Drying grain using crop residence as a fuel source. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hammond, C.

    1982-08-01

    An indirectly-fired biomass fueled furnace was evaluated to determine the feasibility of drying grain using crop residues as a fuel source. The furnace efficiency and total heat delivery were determined. Funds for this project were provided by the Department of Energy through an appropriate technology grant. Stalks and residue were harvested in large round bales using conventional hay-handling equipment available on most farms. Calorimeter tests were made to determine the heat content available in various residues prior to combustion in the Stormor Bio Mass Heat System. This allowed total efficiency measurements by comparing total heat available and total heat delivered to the grain dryer. For example, a bale of cotton stalks returned over 60 percent of the useable heat for an efficiency of 63.7 percent. Other residues such as corn stalks gave slightly lower efficiency but clearly showed that adequate heat could be obtained to dry grain using heated air and no petroleum fuels. The air from the furnace went through an air-to-air heat exchanger to prevent contamination of the grain from smoke and combustion by-products. Although reducing efficiency somewhat, the heat exchanger allows grain or other materials such as peanuts to be dried for human consumption. Some evidence of overheating of the firebox doors was observed which led to some warping of the doors. This warping subsequently made temperature control more difficult, since the air supply and burn rate are directly related. Air temperatures of up to 160/sup 0/F were measured. The results show that biomass combustion as a fuel source to dry grain is possible with fuel savings of about ten cents per bushel at current fuel prices. Thus, the cost of the biomass burner could be recovered in drying some 70,000 bushels of grain. 5 figures, 5 tables.

  3. Development of photocatalyst by combined nitrogen and yttrium doping

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khan, Matiullah; Cao, Wenbin

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The simulated compensated YN{sub SUB} co-doped TiO{sub 2} model can reasonably explain the experimental observations. Calculation results show that substitutional Y at Ti sites and substitutional N at O sites with an oxygen vacancy give stable configuration, reduced band gap, better visible light absorption and enhance separations of photoexcited charge carriers. The experimental observations confirmed the theoretical findings. - Highlights: (Y, N) codoped TiO{sub 2} was synthesized by mild one pot hydrothermal method. The Y doping concentration was varied from 0.01 to 1.38 at%. 0.05% (Y, N) codoped TiO{sub 2} shows enhanced visible light photocatalytic activity. Compensated and noncompensated ab-initio calculations were performed. Calculation results reasonably explained the experimental findings. - Abstract: Titanium dioxide co-doped with yttrium and nitrogen with different yttrium doping concentration has been synthesized by mild one pot hydrothermal method without any post calcination for crystallization. Irrespective of the yttrium doping concentration, all the synthesized samples were composed of pure anatase phase with good crystallinity. And the synthesized co-doped samples have spherical morphology with uniform particle size distribution. The absorption edge of the co-doped TiO{sub 2} was shifted toward visible light region depicting that the intrinsic band gap of TiO{sub 2} was affected by the co-doping. Among the different samples, the co-doped sample with 0.05% yttrium doping concentration exhibits enhanced visible light photocatalytic activity by degradation of methylene blue in aqueous solution. Compensated and non-compensated yttriumnitrogen co-doped TiO{sub 2} models were simulated using density functional theory to explain the experimental findings. The calculation results show that the compensated yttriumnitrogen co-doped TiO{sub 2} model may reasonably explain the experimental observations due to its stable configuration, narrowed band gap and enhanced separation of photoexcited carriers.

  4. Measurement of the absolute \

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aunion, Jose Luis Alcaraz; /Barcelona, IFAE

    2010-07-01

    This thesis presents the measurement of the charged current quasi-elastic (CCQE) neutrino-nucleon cross section at neutrino energies around 1 GeV. This measurement has two main physical motivations. On one hand, the neutrino-nucleon interactions at few GeV is a region where existing old data are sparse and with low statistics. The current measurement populates low energy regions with higher statistics and precision than previous experiments. On the other hand, the CCQE interaction is the most useful interaction in neutrino oscillation experiments. The CCQE channel is used to measure the initial and final neutrino fluxes in order to determine the neutrino fraction that disappeared. The neutrino oscillation experiments work at low neutrino energies, so precise measurement of CCQE interactions are essential for flux measurements. The main goal of this thesis is to measure the CCQE absolute neutrino cross section from the SciBooNE data. The SciBar Booster Neutrino Experiment (SciBooNE) is a neutrino and anti-neutrino scattering off experiment. The neutrino energy spectrum works at energies around 1 GeV. SciBooNE was running from June 8th 2007 to August 18th 2008. In that period, the experiment collected a total of 2.65 x 10{sup 20} protons on target (POT). This thesis has used full data collection in neutrino mode 0.99 x 10{sup 20} POT. A CCQE selection cut has been performed, achieving around 70% pure CCQE sample. A fit method has been exclusively developed to determine the absolute CCQE cross section, presenting results in a neutrino energy range from 0.2 to 2 GeV. The results are compatible with the NEUT predictions. The SciBooNE measurement has been compared with both Carbon (MiniBoonE) and deuterium (ANL and BNL) target experiments, showing a good agreement in both cases.

  5. Spectral Modeling of Residual Stress and Stored Elastic Strain Energy in Thermal Barrier Coatings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Donegan, Sean; Rolett, Anthony

    2013-12-31

    Solutions to the thermoelastic problem are important for characterizing the response under temperature change of refractory systems. This work extends a spectral fast Fourier transform (FFT) technique to analyze the thermoelastic behavior of thermal barrier coatings (TBCs), with the intent of probing the local origins of failure in TBCs. The thermoelastic FFT (teFFT) approach allows for the characterization of local thermal residual stress and strain fields, which constitute the origins of failure in TBC systems. A technique based on statistical extreme value theory known as peaks-over-threshold (POT) is developed to quantify the extreme values ("hot spots") of stored elastic strain energy (i.e., elastic energy density, or EED). The resolution dependence of the teFFT method is assessed through a sensitivity study of the extreme values in EED. The sensitivity study is performed both for the local (point-by-point) #12;eld distributions as well as the grain scale #12;eld distributions. A convergence behavior to a particular distribution shape is demonstrated for the local #12;elds. The grain scale fields are shown to exhibit a possible convergence to a maximum level of EED. To apply the teFFT method to TBC systems, 3D synthetic microstructures are created to approximate actual TBC microstructures. The morphology of the grains in each constituent layer as well as the texture is controlled. A variety of TBC materials, including industry standard materials and potential future materials, are analyzed using the teFFT. The resulting hot spots are quantified using the POT approach. A correlation between hot spots in EED and interface rumpling between constituent layers is demonstrated, particularly for the interface between the bond coat (BC) and the thermally grown oxide (TGO) layer.

  6. Exploratory Research - Using Volatile Organic Compounds to Separate Heterotrophic and Autotrophic Forest Soil Respiration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roberts, Scott D; Hatten, Jeffrey A

    2015-02-09

    The initial focus of this project was to develop a method to partition soil respiration into its components (autotrophic, heterotrophic etc.) using the fingerprint of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from soils. We were able to identify 63 different VOCs in our study; however, due to technical difficulties we were unable to take reliable measurements in order to test our hypotheses and develop this method. In the end, we changed the objectives of the project. Our new objectives were to characterize the effects of species and soil moisture regime on the composition of soil organic matter. We utilized the soils from the greenhouse experiment we had established for the soil VOC study and determined the lignin biomarker profiles of each of the treatments. We found that moisture had a significant effect on the carbon content of the soils with the low moisture treatments having higher carbon content than the high moisture treatments. We found that the relative yield of syringyl phenols (SP), ligin (Lig), and substituted fatty acids (SFA) were elevated in deciduous planted pots and reduced in conifer planted pots relative to plant-free treatments. Our results suggest nuttall oak preserved lignin and SFA, while loblolly pine lost lignin and SFA similarly to the plant free treatments. Since we did not find that the carbon concentrations of the soils were different between the species, nuttall oak probably replaced more native soil carbon than loblolly pine. This suggests that relative to loblolly pine, nuttall oak is a priming species. Since priming may impact soil carbon pools more than temperature or moisture, determining which species are priming species may facilitate an understanding of the interaction that land use and climate change may have on soil carbon pools.

  7. Microstructure evolution of Li uptake/removal in MoO{sub 2}@C nanoparticles with high lithium storage performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Yulong; Zhang, Hong; Ouyang, Pan; Chen, Wenhao [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Li, Zhicheng, E-mail: zhchli@mail.csu.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China)

    2014-02-01

    Highlights: The carbon-coated MoO{sub 2} (MoO{sub 2}@C) ultra fine nanoparticles are synthesized by one-pot hydrothermal method. MoO{sub 2}@C nanoparticles have high specific capacity, excellent cycling performance and rate performance. Phase transformations for lithium ion uptake/removal are examined carefully by TEM. Phase transformations are highly reversible during the redox process. - Abstract: A facile one pot strategy of a hydrothermal methodology was applied to synthesize the carbon coated MoO{sub 2} (MoO{sub 2}@C) nanostructured particles, which are composed of ultra fine nanoparticles with homogeneous carbon coating about several nanometers. As an electrode in lithium ion batteries, the MoO{sub 2}@C shows a high specific capacity and reversible capacity (730 mA h g{sup ?1} after 60 cycles). Microstructure investigations, by using a high resolution transmission electron microscopy, of the MoO{sub 2}@C based electrodes employed at various states during the first discharge/charge cycle were conducted to elucidate the lithium ion uptake/removal mechanism and cycling behavior. In the lithium uptake process, the original MoO{sub 2} phase transfers into Li{sub 0.98}MoO{sub 2} through an addition type reaction, and then nanosized metallic Mo emerges as a result of a conversion reaction. In turn, Mo could be oxidized to the intermediate Li{sub 0.98}MoO{sub 2} before converting to hyperfine MoO{sub 2} phase on upcoming lithium removal process.

  8. Key Residential Building Equipment Technologies for Control and Grid Support PART I (Residential)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Starke, Michael R; Onar, Omer C; DeVault, Robert C

    2011-09-01

    Electrical energy consumption of the residential sector is a crucial area of research that has in the past primarily focused on increasing the efficiency of household devices such as water heaters, dishwashers, air conditioners, and clothes washer and dryer units. However, the focus of this research is shifting as objectives such as developing the smart grid and ensuring that the power system remains reliable come to the fore, along with the increasing need to reduce energy use and costs. Load research has started to focus on mechanisms to support the power system through demand reduction and/or reliability services. The power system relies on matching generation and load, and day-ahead and real-time energy markets capture most of this need. However, a separate set of grid services exist to address the discrepancies in load and generation arising from contingencies and operational mismatches, and to ensure that the transmission system is available for delivery of power from generation to load. Currently, these grid services are mostly provided by generation resources. The addition of renewable resources with their inherent variability can complicate the issue of power system reliability and lead to the increased need for grid services. Using load as a resource, through demand response programs, can fill the additional need for flexible resources and even reduce costly energy peaks. Loads have been shown to have response that is equal to or better than generation in some cases. Furthermore, price-incentivized demand response programs have been shown to reduce the peak energy requirements, thereby affecting the wholesale market efficiency and overall energy prices. The residential sector is not only the largest consumer of electrical energy in the United States, but also has the highest potential to provide demand reduction and power system support, as technological advancements in load control, sensor technologies, and communication are made. The prevailing loads based on the largest electrical energy consumers in the residential sector are space heating and cooling, washer and dryer, water heating, lighting, computers and electronics, dishwasher and range, and refrigeration. As the largest loads, these loads provide the highest potential for delivering demand response and reliability services. Many residential loads have inherent flexibility that is related to the purpose of the load. Depending on the load type, electric power consumption levels can either be ramped, changed in a step-change fashion, or completely removed. Loads with only on-off capability (such as clothes washers and dryers) provide less flexibility than resources that can be ramped or step-changed. Add-on devices may be able to provide extra demand response capabilities. Still, operating residential loads effectively requires awareness of the delicate balance of occupants health and comfort and electrical energy consumption. This report is Phase I of a series of reports aimed at identifying gaps in automated home energy management systems for incorporation of building appliances, vehicles, and renewable adoption into a smart grid, specifically with the intent of examining demand response and load factor control for power system support. The objective is to capture existing gaps in load control, energy management systems, and sensor technology with consideration of PHEV and renewable technologies to establish areas of research for the Department of Energy. In this report, (1) data is collected and examined from state of the art homes to characterize the primary residential loads as well as PHEVs and photovoltaic for potential adoption into energy management control strategies; and (2) demand response rules and requirements across the various demand response programs are examined for potential participation of residential loads. This report will be followed by a Phase II report aimed at identifying the current state of technology of energy management systems, sensors, and communication technologies for demand response and load factor control applications for the residential sector. The purpose is to cover the gaps that exist in the information captured by the sensors for energy management system to be able to provide demand response and load factor control. The vision is the development of an energy management system or other controlling enterprise hardware and software that is not only able to control loads, PHEVs, and renewable generation for demand response and load factor control, but also to do so with consumer comforts in mind and in an optimal fashion.

  9. Lake Roosevelt Fisheries Evaluation Program; Limnological and Fisheries Monitoring, Annual Report 2000.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Chuck; Scofield, Ben; Pavlik, Deanne

    2003-03-01

    A slightly dryer than normal year yielded flows in Lake Roosevelt that were essentially equal to the past ten year average. Annual mean inflow and outflow were 3,160.3 m3/s and 3,063.4 m3/s respectively. Mean reservoir elevation was 387.2 m above sea level at the Grand Coulee Dam forebay. The forebay elevation was below the mean elevation for a total of 168 days. During the first half of the 2000 forebay elevation changed at a rate of 0.121 m/d and during the last half changed at a rate of 0.208 m/d. The higher rate of elevation change earlier in the year is due to the drawdown to accommodate spring runoff. Mean annual water retention time was 40 days. Annual mean total dissolved gas was 108%. Total dissolved gas was greatest at upriver locations (110% = US/Canada Border annual mean) and decreased moving toward Grand Coulee Dam (106% = Grand Coulee Dam Forebay annual mean). Total dissolved gas was greatest in May (122% reservoir wide monthly mean). Gas bubble trauma was observed in 16 fish primarily largescale suckers and was low in severity. Reservoir wide mean temperatures were greatest in August (19.5 C) and lowest in January (5.5 C). The Spokane River and Sanpoil River Arms experienced higher temperatures than the mainstem reservoir. Brief stratification was observed at the Sanpoil River shore location in July. Warm water temperatures in the Spokane Arm contributed to low dissolved oxygen concentrations in August (2.6 mg/L at 33 m). However, decomposition of summer algal biomass was likely the main cause of depressed dissolved oxygen concentrations. Otherwise, dissolved oxygen profiles were relatively uniform throughout the water column across other sampling locations. Annual mean Secchi depth throughout the reservoir was 5.7 m. Nutrient concentrations were generally low, however, annual mean total phosphorus (0.016 mg/L) was in the mesotrophic range. Annual mean total nitrogen was in the meso-oligotrophic range. Total nitrogen to total phosphorus ratios were large (31:1 annual mean) likely indicating phosphorus limitations to phytoplankton.

  10. Enhancing Carbon Reactivity in Mercury Control in Lignite-Fired Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chad Wocken; Michael Holmes; John Pavlish; Jeffrey Thompson; Katie Brandt; Brandon Pavlish; Dennis Laudal; Kevin Galbreath; Michelle Olderbak

    2008-06-30

    This project was awarded through the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory Program Solicitation DE-PS26-03NT41718-01. The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) led a consortium-based effort to resolve mercury (Hg) control issues facing the lignite industry. The EERC team-the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI); the URS Corporation; the Babcock & Wilcox Company; ADA-ES; Apogee; Basin Electric Power Cooperative; Otter Tail Power Company; Great River Energy; Texas Utilities; Montana-Dakota Utilities Co.; Minnkota Power Cooperative, Inc.; BNI Coal Ltd.; Dakota Westmoreland Corporation; the North American Coal Corporation; SaskPower; and the North Dakota Industrial Commission-demonstrated technologies that substantially enhanced the effectiveness of carbon sorbents to remove Hg from western fuel combustion gases and achieve a high level ({ge} 55% Hg removal) of cost-effective control. The results of this effort are applicable to virtually all utilities burning lignite and subbituminous coals in the United States and Canada. The enhancement processes were previously proven in pilot-scale and limited full-scale tests. Additional optimization testing continues on these enhancements. These four units included three lignite-fired units: Leland Olds Station Unit 1 (LOS1) and Stanton Station Unit 10 (SS10) near Stanton and Antelope Valley Station Unit 1 (AVS1) near Beulah and a subbituminous Powder River Basin (PRB)-fired unit: Stanton Station Unit 1 (SS1). This project was one of three conducted by the consortium under the DOE mercury program to systematically test Hg control technologies available for utilities burning lignite. The overall objective of the three projects was to field-test and verify options that may be applied cost-effectively by the lignite industry to reduce Hg emissions. The EERC, URS, and other team members tested sorbent injection technologies for plants equipped with electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and spray dryer absorbers combined with fabric filters (SDAs-FFs). The work focused on technology commercialization by involving industry and emphasizing the communication of results to vendors and utilities throughout the project.

  11. Final Report - Membranes and MEA's for Dry, Hot Operating Conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hamrock, Steven J.

    2011-06-30

    The focus of this program was to develop a new Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) which can operate under hotter, dryer conditions than the state of the art membranes today and integrate it into a Membrane Electrode Assembly (MEA). These MEA's should meet the performance and durability requirements outlined in the solicitation, operating under low humidification conditions and at temperatures ranging from -20???ºC to 120???ºC, to meet 2010 DOE technical targets for membranes. This membrane should operate under low humidification conditions and at temperatures ranging from -20???ºC to 120???ºC in order to meet DOE HFCIT 2010 commercialization targets for automotive fuel cells. Membranes developed in this program may also have improved durability and performance characteristics making them useful in stationary fuel cell applications. The new membranes, and the MEA?¢????s comprising them, should be manufacturable at high volumes and at costs which can meet industry and DOE targets. This work included: A) Studies to better understand factors controlling proton transport within the electrolyte membrane, mechanisms of polymer degradation (in situ and ex situ) and membrane durability in an MEA; B) Development of new polymers with increased proton conductivity over the range of temperatures from -20???ºC to 120???ºC and at lower levels of humidification and with improved chemical and mechanical stability; C) Development of new membrane additives for increased durability and conductivity under these dry conditions; D) Integration of these new materials into membranes and membranes into MEA?¢????s, including catalyst and gas diffusion layer selection and integration; E) Verification that these materials can be made using processes which are scalable to commercial volumes using cost effective methods; F) MEA testing in single cells using realistic automotive testing protocols. This project addresses technical barriers A (Durability) and C (Performance) from the Fuel Cells section of the 2005 Hydrogen, Fuel Cells and Infrastructure Technologies Program Multi-Year R&D Plan. In the course of this four-year program we developed a new PEM with improved proton conductivity, chemical stability and mechanical stability. We incorporated this new membrane into MEAs and evaluated performance and durability.

  12. Combined Grinding and Drying of Biomass in One Operation Phase I

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sokhansanj, S.

    2008-06-26

    First American Scientific Corporation (FASC) has developed a unique and innovative grinder/dryer called KDS Micronex. The KS (Kinetic Disintegration System) combines two operations of grinding and drying into a single operation which reduces dependence on external heat input. The machine captures the heat of comminution and combines it will centrifugal forces to expedite moisture extraction from wet biomass. Because it uses mechanical forces rather than providing direct heat to perform the drying operation, it is a simpler machine and uses less energy than conventional grinding and drying operations which occur as two separate steps. The entire compact unit can be transported on a flatbed trailer to the site where biomass is available. Hence, the KDS Micronex is a technology that enables inexpensive pretreatment of waste materials and biomass. A well prepared biomass can be used as feed, fuel or fertilizer instead of being discarded. Electricity and chemical feedstock produced from such biomass would displace the use of fossil fuels and no net greenhouse gas emissions would result from such bio-based operations. Organic fertilizers resulting from the KS Micronex grinding/drying process will be pathogen-free unlike raw animal manures. The feasibility tests on KS during Phase I showed that a prototype machine can be developed, field tested and the technology demonstrated for commercial applications. The present KDS machine can remove up to 400 kg/h of water from a wet feed material. Since biomass processors demand a finished product that is only 10% moist and most raw materials like corn stover, bagasse, layer manure, cow dung, and waste wood have moisture contents of the order of 50%, this water removal rate translates to a production rate of roughly half a ton per hour. this is too small for most processors who are unwilling to acquire multiple machines because of the added complexity to the feed and product removal systems. The economics suffer due to small production rates, because the labor costs are a much larger fraction of the production cost. The goal for further research and development work is to scale up the KDS technology incorporating findings from Phase I into a machine that has superior performance characteristics.

  13. Healy Clean Coal Project: A DOE Assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    National Energy Technology Laboratory

    2003-09-01

    The goal of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Clean Coal Technology (CCT) Program is to provide the energy marketplace with advanced, more efficient, and environmentally responsible coal utilization options by conducting demonstrations of new technologies. These demonstration projects are intended to establish the commercial feasibility of promising advanced coal technologies that have been developed to a level at which they are ready for demonstration testing under commercial conditions. This document serves as a DOE post-project assessment (PPA) of the Healy Clean Coal Project (HCCP), selected under Round III of the CCT Program, and described in a Report to Congress (U.S. Department of Energy, 1991). The desire to demonstrate an innovative power plant that integrates an advanced slagging combustor, a heat recovery system, and both high- and low-temperature emissions control processes prompted the Alaska Industrial Development and Export Authority (AIDEA) to submit a proposal for this project. In April 1991, AIDEA entered into a cooperative agreement with DOE to conduct this project. Other team members included Golden Valley Electric Association (GVEA), host and operator; Usibelli Coal Mine, Inc., coal supplier; TRW, Inc., Space & Technology Division, combustor technology provider; Stone & Webster Engineering Corp. (S&W), engineer; Babcock & Wilcox Company (which acquired the assets of Joy Environmental Technologies, Inc.), supplier of the spray dryer absorber technology; and Steigers Corporation, provider of environmental and permitting support. Foster Wheeler Energy Corporation supplied the boiler. GVEA provided oversight of the design and provided operators during demonstration testing. The project was sited adjacent to GVEA's Healy Unit No. 1 in Healy, Alaska. The objective of this CCT project was to demonstrate the ability of the TRW Clean Coal Combustion System to operate on a blend of run-of-mine (ROM) coal and waste coal, while meeting strict environmental requirements. DOE provided $117,327,000 of the total project cost of $282,300,000, or 41.6 percent. Construction for the demonstration project was started in May 1995, and completed in November 1997. Operations were initiated in January 1998, and completed in December 1999. The evaluation contained herein is based primarily on information from the AIDEA's Final Report (Alaska Industrial Development and Export Authority, 2001), as well as other references cited.

  14. Health and Safety Guide for Home Performance Contractors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stratton, Chris; Walker, Iain S.

    2012-02-15

    This report is intended to provide home performance contractor trainers with a resource to keep both their workers and home residents safe and healthy. This document is an attempt to describe what we currently believe is safe, what we believe is unsafe, and what we’re unsure about. It is intended to identify health and safety issues and provide historical context and current understanding of both risks and mitigation strategies. In addition, it provides links to more in-depth resources for each issue. When we tighten the thermal envelope of a house to improve comfort and reduce energy use, we have to be sure that we are not compromising the indoor air quality of the home. This means identifying and mitigating or eliminating pollution sources before and after you make changes to the home. These sources can include materials and finishes in the home, exhaust gasses from combustion appliances, soil gasses such as radon, and moisture from a bathroom, kitchen, or unvented clothes dryer. Our first responsibility is to do no harm — this applies both to our clients and to our employees. Currently, there are many new products that are widely used but whose health effects are not well understood. Our in ability to have perfect information means the directive to do no harm can be difficult to obey. Each home is a little bit different, and in the face of a situation you’ve never encountered, it’s important to have a solid grasp of the fundamental concepts of building science when the hard and fast rules don’t apply . The home performance industry is gaining momentum, and has the potential to expand greatly as energy costs continue to rise. It is imperative that we remain vigilant about protecting the health and safety of our workers and our customers. It only takes a few news stories about a family that got sick after their home was tightened by a home performance contractor to scare off potential customers and taint the reputation of the entire industry. Good reputations take time to build, but can be quickly damaged.

  15. Lessons Learned In Technology Development for Supplemental Treatment of Low-Activity Waste at Hanford

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biyani, R.K. [Washington State Department of Ecology, Richland, WA (United States)

    2008-07-01

    Hanford needs supplemental technology treatment of low-activity waste (LAW) in addition to the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP). The Washington State Department of Ecology requires that supplemental technology provide the same protection to human health and the environment as WTP LAW glass. In 2002, the U.S. Department of Energy (US DOE) evaluated supplemental treatment technologies for LAW treatment and looked more closely at three: bulk vitrification (BV), steam reforming, and tailored cementitious stabilization. US DOE with Ecology's support chose to design and test BV because it believed BV would offer rapid deployment, low cost, and waste stream versatility. This paper will describe the path taken in choosing and developing technologies for additional LAW treatment capacity and, more importantly, the lessons learned along the way. In conclusion: Contractors' off-the-shelf vitrification technology that worked elsewhere may not apply easily to Hanford's waste challenges. The BV development process could have been improved by first identifying and then focusing on primary areas of concern. Continuing integrated tests at the Horn Rapids facility offers a convenient option to test both the dryer and the SMF. But the plan for development of the SMF must be short term with well defined success criteria. US DOE has the responsibility to carefully evaluate each proposal and make critical decisions that will make optimum use of limited funds. The ERP provided valuable technical guidance on improving BV's design. This must be complemented by a similar study of cost effectiveness of a process. We must have a better understanding of life cycle costs before a path for supplemental treatment is chosen. US DOE has now gained five years of experience in developing BV. It is time for US DOE to make defensible economic evaluations before further funding towards developing supplemental treatment. It must reevaluate if the projected advantages of rapid deployment, low cost, and waste stream versatility are still valid. The decision-making methodology US DOE uses to approve designs as part of its Critical Decision Process appears rigorous and useful. Looking ahead, Ecology expects US DOE will use lessons learned from BV and other testing in a concerted manner as part of their decision-making process. The success of Hanford's cleanup depends on it. (authors)

  16. Supercritical Water Reactor (SCWR) - Survey of Materials Research and Development Needs to Assess Viability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Philip E. MacDonald

    2003-09-01

    Supercritical water-cooled reactors (SCWRs) are among the most promising advanced nuclear systems because of their high thermal efficiency [i.e., about 45% vs. 33% of current light water reactors (LWRs)] and considerable plant simplification. SCWRs achieve this with superior thermodynamic conditions (i.e., high operating pressure and temperature), and by reducing the containment volume and eliminating the need for recirculation and jet pumps, pressurizer, steam generators, steam separators and dryers. The reference SCWR design in the U.S. is a direct cycle, thermal spectrum, light-water-cooled and moderated reactor with an operating pressure of 25 MPa and inlet/outlet coolant temperature of 280/500 °C. The inlet flow splits, partly to a down-comer and partly to a plenum at the top of the reactor pressure vessel to flow downward through the core in special water rods to the inlet plenum. This strategy is employed to provide good moderation at the top of the core, where the coolant density is only about 15-20% that of liquid water. The SCWR uses a power conversion cycle similar to that used in supercritical fossil-fired plants: high- intermediate- and low-pressure turbines are employed with one moisture-separator re-heater and up to eight feedwater heaters. The reference power is 3575 MWt, the net electric power is 1600 MWe and the thermal efficiency is 44.8%. The fuel is low-enriched uranium oxide fuel and the plant is designed primarily for base load operation. The purpose of this report is to survey existing materials for fossil, fission and fusion applications and identify the materials research and development needed to establish the SCWR viabilitya with regard to possible materials of construction. The two most significant materials related factors in going from the current LWR designs to the SCWR are the increase in outlet coolant temperature from 300 to 500 °C and the possible compatibility issues associated with the supercritical water environment. • Reactor pressure vessel • Pumps and piping

  17. Implementing Strategies for Drying and Pressing Wood Without Emissions Controls

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sujit Banerjee; Terrance Conners

    2007-09-07

    Drying and pressing wood for the manufacture of lumber, particleboard, oriented strand board (OSB), veneer and medium density fiberboard (MDF) release volatile organic compounds (VOCs) into the atmosphere. These emissions require control equipment that are capital-intensive and consume significant quantities of natural gas and electricity. The objective of our work was to understand the mechanisms through which volatile organic compounds are generated and released and to develop simple control strategies. Of the several strategies developed, two have been implemented for OSB manufacture over the course of this study. First, it was found that increasing final wood moisture by about 2-4 percentage points reduced the dryer emissions of hazardous air pollutants by over 70%. As wood dries, the escaping water evaporatively cools the wood. This cooling tapers off wood when the wood is nearly dry and the wood temperature rises. Thermal breakdown of the wood tissue occurs and VOCs are released. Raising the final wood moisture by only a few percentage points minimizes the temperature rise and reduces emissions. Evaporative cooling also impacts has implications for VOC release from wood fines. Flaking wood for OSB manufacture inevitable generates fines. Fines dry out rapidly because of their high surface area and evaporative cooling is lost more rapidly than for flakes. As a result, fines emit a disproportionate quantity of VOCs. Fines can be reduced in two ways: through screening of the green furnish and through reducing their generation during flaking. The second approach is preferable because it also increased wood yield. A procedure to do this by matching the sharpness angle of the flaker knife to the ambient temperature was also developed. Other findings of practical interests are as follows: Dielectric heating of wood under low-headspace conditions removes terpenes and other extractives from softwood; The monoterpene content in trees depend upon temperature and seasonal effects; Method 25A emissions from lumber drying can be modeled from a knowledge of the airflow through the kiln; A heat transfer model shows that VOCs released during hot-pressing mainly originate from the surface of the board; and Boiler ash can be used to adsorb formaldehyde from air streams.

  18. Nitrogen-sensitized dual phase titanate/titania for visible-light driven phenol degradation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheng, Yu Hua; Subramaniam, Vishnu P.; Gong, Dangguo; Tang, Yuxin; Highfield, James; Pehkonen, Simo O.; Pichat, Pierre; Chen, Zhong

    2012-12-15

    A dual-phase material (DP-160) comprising hydrated titanate (H{sub 2}Ti{sub 3}O{sub 7}{center_dot}xH{sub 2}O) and anatase (TiO{sub 2}) was synthesized in a low-temperature one-pot process in the presence of triethylamine (TEA) as the N-source. The unique structure exhibits strong visible light absorption. The chromophore is linked to Ti-N bonds derived from both surface sensitization and sub-surface (bulk) doping. From transmission electron microscope (TEM) and textural studies by N{sub 2} physisorption, the composite exists as mesoporous particles with a grain size of {approx}20 nm and mean pore diameter of 3.5 nm, responsible for the high surface area ({approx}180 m{sup 2}/g). DP-160 demonstrated photocatalytic activity in the degradation of phenol under visible light ({lambda}>420 nm). The activity of the composite was further enhanced by a small addition (0.001 M) of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, which also gave rise to some visible light activity in the control samples. This effect is believed to be associated with the surface peroxo-titanate complex. GC-MS analyses showed that the intermediate products of phenol degradation induced by visible light irradiation of DP-160 did not differ from those obtained by UV (band-gap) irradiation of TiO{sub 2}. The overall performance of the composite is attributed to efficient excitation via inter-band states (due to N-doping), surface sensitization, improved adsorptive properties of aromatic compounds due to the N-carbonaceous overlayer, and the presence of heterojunctions that are known to promote directional charge transfer in other mixed-phase titanias like Degussa P25. - graphical abstract: Nitrogen-sensitized dual phase titanate/titania photocatalyst showing extended visible light absorption and efficient photocatalytic degradation of phenol. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Low temperature one-pot synthesis of visible light active dual phase photocatalyst. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The dual phase consists of nanoscale titanate and anatase titania phases. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The photocatalyst displays high activity in degrading phenol under visible light. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mechanisms for the sensitization to visible light are considered.

  19. Preparation, photoluminescent properties and luminescent dynamics of BaAlF{sub 5}:Eu{sup 2+} nanophosphors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Wei; Hua, Ruinian; Liu, Tianqing; Zhao, Jun; Na, Liyan; Chen, Baojiu

    2014-12-15

    Graphical abstract: Rice-shaped BaAlF{sub 5}:Eu{sup 2+} nanophosphors were synthesized via one-pot hydrothermal process. The as-prepared BaAlF{sub 5}:Eu{sup 2+} are composed of many particles with an average diameter of 40 nm. When excited at 260 nm, the sharp line emission located at 361 nm of Eu{sup 2+} was observed. The optimum doping concentration of Eu{sup 2+} was confirmed to be 5 mol%. The strong ultraviolet emission of Eu{sup 2+} ions in BaAlF{sub 5}:Eu{sup 2+} nanoparticles suggests that these nanoparticles may have potential applications for sensing, solid-state lasers and spectrometer calibration. - Highlights: • BaAlF{sub 5}:Eu{sup 2+} nanophosphors were synthesized via a mild hydrothermal process. • The Van and Huang models were used to research the mechanism of concentration quenching. • The optimum doping concentration of Eu2+ was confirmed to be 5 mol%. - Abstract: Eu{sup 2+}-doped BaAlF{sub 5} nanophosphors were synthesized via a facile one-pot hydrothermal method. The final products were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. XRD results showed that the prepared samples are single-phase. The FE-SEM and TEM images indicated that the prepared BaAlF{sub 5}:Eu{sup 2+} nanophosphors are composed of many rice-shaped particles with an average diameter of 40 nm. When excited at 260 nm, BaAlF{sub 5}:Eu{sup 2+} nanophosphors exhibit the sharp line emissions of Eu{sup 2+} at room temperature. The optimum doping concentration of Eu{sup 2+} was confirmed to be 5 mol%. The Van and Huang models were used to study the mechanism of concentration quenching and the electric dipole–dipole interaction between Eu{sup 2+} can be deduced to be a dominant for quenching fluorescence in BaAlF{sub 5}:Eu{sup 2+} nanophosphors. The strong ultraviolet emission of Eu{sup 2+} in BaAlF{sub 5}:Eu{sup 2+} nanophosphors suggests that these nanoparticles may have potential applications for sensing, spectrometer calibration and solid-state lasers.

  20. Measurement Uncertainty Analysis of an Accelerometer Calibration Using a POC Electromagnetic Launcher

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Timpson, Erik J.; Engel, T. G.

    2012-06-12

    A pulse forming network (PFN), helical electromagnetic launcher (HEML), command module (CM), and calibration table (CT) were built and evaluated for the combined ability to calibrate an accelerometer. The PFN has a maximum stored nergy of 19.25 kJ bank and is fired by a silicon controlled rectifier (SCR), with appropriate safety precautions. The HEML is constructed out of G-10 fiberglass reinforced epoxy and is designed to accelerate a mass of 600 grams to a velocity of 10 meters per second. The CM is microcontroller-based running Arduino Software. The CM has a keypad input and 7 segment outputs of the PFN voltage and desired charging voltage. After entering a desired PFN voltage, the CM controls the charging of the PFN. When the two voltages are equal it sends a pulse to the SCR to fire the PFN and in turn, the HEML. The HEML projectiles tip hits a target that is held by the CT. The CT consists of a table to hold the PFN and HEML, a vacuum chuck, air bearing, velocimeter and catch pot. The target is held with the vacuum chuck awaiting impact. After impact, the air bearing allows the target to fall freely so that the velocimeter can accurately read. A known acceleration is determined from the known change in velocity of the target. Thus, if an accelerometer was attached to the target, the measured value can be compared to the known value.

  1. Calibrating Accelerometers Using an Electromagnetic Launcher

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Erik Timpson

    2012-05-13

    A Pulse Forming Network (PFN), Helical Electromagnetic Launcher (HEML), Command Module (CM), and Calibration Table (CT) were built and evaluated for the combined ability to calibrate an accelerometer. The PFN has a maximum stored energy of 19.25 kJ bank and is fired by a silicon controlled rectifier (SCR), with appropriate safety precautions. The HEML is constructed out of G-10 fiberglass and is designed to accelerate 600 grams to 10 meters per second. The CM is microcontroller based running Arduino Software. The CM has a keypad input and 7 segment outputs of the bank voltage and desired voltage. After entering a desired bank voltage, the CM controls the charge of the PFN. When the two voltages are equal it allows the fire button to send a pulse to the SCR to fire the PFN and in turn, the HEML. The HEML projectile's tip hits a target that is held by the CT. The CT consists of a table to hold the PFN and HEML, a vacuum chuck, air bearing, velocity meter and catch pot. The Target is held with the vacuum chuck awaiting impact. After impact, the air bearing allows the target to fall freely for the velocity meter to get an accurate reading. A known acceleration is determined from the known change in velocity of the target. Thus, if an accelerometer was attached to the target, the measured value can be compared to the known value.

  2. Sub-10 nm Platinum Nanocrystals with Size and Shape Control: Catalytic Study for Ethylene and Pyrrole Hydrogenation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tsung, Chia-Kuang; Kuhn, John N.; Huang, Wenyu; Aliaga, Cesar; Hung, Ling-I; Somorjai, Gabor A.; Yang, Peidong

    2009-03-02

    Platinum nanocubes and nanopolyhedra with tunable size from 5 to 9 nm were synthesized by controlling the reducing rate of metal precursor ions in a one-pot polyol synthesis. A two-stage process is proposed for the simultaneous control of size and shape. In the first stage, the oxidation state of the metal ion precursors determined the nucleation rate and consequently the number of nuclei. The reaction temperature controlled the shape in the second stage by regulation of the growth kinetics. These well-defined nanocrystals were loaded into MCF-17 mesoporous silica for examination of catalytic properties. Pt loadings and dispersions of the supported catalysts were determined by elemental analysis (ICP-MS) and H2 chemisorption isotherms, respectively. Ethylene hydrogenation rates over the Pt nanocrystals were independent of both size and shape and comparable to Pt single crystals. For pyrrole hydrogenation, the nanocubes enhanced ring-opening ability and thus showed a higher selectivity to n-butylamine as compared to nanopolyhedra.

  3. Beam optics and the pp2pp experiment at RHIC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pile P. H.; Guryn, W.; Lee, J.H.; Tepikian, S.; Yip, K.

    2012-05-20

    The newly installed forward detector system at the STAR experiment at RHIC measures small angle elastic and inelastic scattering of polarized protons on polarized protons. The detector system makes use of a pair of Roman Pot (RP) detectors, instrumented with silicon detectors, and located on either side of the STAR intersection region downstream of the DX and D0 dipoles and quadrupole triplets. The parallel to point optics is designed so that scattering angles are determined from position measurements at the RP's with small error. The RP setup allows measurement of position and angle for a subset of the scattered protons. With this position/angle correlations at the RP's can be compared with optics model predictions to get a measure of the accuracy of the quadrupole triplet current settings. The current in each quadrupole in the triplets is comprised of sums and differences of up to six power supplies and an overall 1% error in the triplet field strengths results in a 4% error in four-momentum transfer squared. This technique is also useful to check the polarity of the skew elements located in each quadrupole triplet. Results of the analysis will be presented.

  4. An in-situ phosphorus source for the synthesis of Cu3P and the subsequent conversion to Cu3PS4 nanoparticle clusters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sheets, Erik J.; Stach, Eric A.; Yang, Wei -Chang; Balow, Robert B.; Wang, Yunjie; Walker, Bryce C.; Agrawal, Rakesh

    2015-09-20

    The search for alternative earth abundant semiconducting nanocrystals for sustainable energy applications has brought forth the need for nanoscale syntheses beyond bulk synthesis routes. Of particular interest are metal phosphides and derivative I-V-VI chalcogenides including copper phosphide (Cu3P) and copper thiophosphate (Cu3PS4). Herein, we report a one-pot, solution-based synthesis of Cu3P nanocrystals utilizing an in-situ phosphorus source: phosphorus pentasulfide (P2S5) in trioctylphosphine (TOP). By injecting this phosphorus source into a copper solution in oleylamine (OLA), uniform and size controlled Cu3P nanocrystals with a phosphorous-rich surface are synthesized. The subsequent reaction of the Cu3P nanocrystals with decomposing thiourea forms nanoscale Cu3PS4 particles having p-type conductivity and an effective optical band gap of 2.36 eV.

  5. Synthesis of manganese oxide supported on mesoporous titanium oxide: Influence of the block copolymer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schmit, F.; Bois, L.; Chiriac, R.; Toche, F.; Chassagneux, F.; Besson, M.; Descorme, C.; Khrouz, L.

    2015-01-15

    Manganese oxides supported on mesoporous titanium oxides were synthesized via a sol–gel route using block copolymer self-assembly. The oxides were characterized by X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy, thermal analyses, nitrogen adsorption/desorption, electron microscopy and electronic paramagnetic resonance. A mesoporous anatase containing amorphous manganese oxide particles could be obtained with a 0.2 Mn:Ti molar ratio. At higher manganese loading (0.5 Mn:Ti molar ratio), segregation of crystalline manganese oxide occurred. The influence of block copolymer and manganese salt on the oxide structure was discussed. The evolution of the textural and structural characteristics of the materials upon hydrothermal treatment was also investigated. - Graphical abstract: One-pot amorphous MnO{sub 2} supported on mesoporous anataseTiO{sub 2}. - Highlights: • Mesoporous manganese titanium oxides were synthesized using block copolymer. • Block copolymers form complexes with Mn{sup 2+} from MnCl{sub 2}. • With block copolymer, manganese oxide can be dispersed around the titania crystallites. • With Mn(acac){sub 2}, manganese is dispersed inside titania. • MnOOH crystallizes outside mesoporous titania during hydrothermal treatment.

  6. Use of extractive distillation to produce concentrated nitric acid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Campbell, P.C.; Griffin, T.P.; Irwin, C.F.

    1981-04-01

    Concentrated nitric acid (> 95 wt %) is needed for the treatment of off-gases from a fuels-reprocessing plant. The production of concentrated nitric acid by means of extractive distillation in the two-pot apparatus was studied to determine the steady-state behavior of the system. Four parameters, EDP volume (V/sub EDP/) and temperature (T/sub EDP/), acid feed rate, and solvent recycle, were independently varied. The major response factors were percent recovery (CPRR) and product purity (CCP). Stage efficiencies also provided information about the system response. Correlations developed for the response parameters are: CPRR = 0.02(V/sub EDP/ - 800 cc) + 53.5; CCP = -0.87 (T/sub EDP/ - 140/sup 0/C) + 81; eta/sub V,EDP/ = 9.1(F/sub feed/ - 11.5 cc/min) - 0.047(V/sub EDP/ - 800 cc) - 2.8(F/sub Mg(NO/sub 3/)/sub 2// - 50 cc/min) + 390; and eta/sub L,EDP/ = 1.9(T/sub EDP/ - 140/sup 0/C) + 79. A computer simulation of the process capable of predicting steady-state conditions was developed, but it requires further work.

  7. Diffractive dijet production in p̄p collisions at √s=1.96 TeV

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Aaltonen, T.; Albrow, M.; Álvarez González, B.; Amerio, S.; Amidei, D.; Anastassov, A.; Annovi, A.; Antos, J.; Apollinari, G.; Appel, J. A.; et al

    2012-08-17

    We report on a study of diffractive dijet production in p̄p collisions at s√=1.96 TeV using the CDF II detector at the Fermilab Tevatron p̄p collider. A data sample from 310 pb⁻¹ of integrated luminosity collected by triggering on a high transverse energy jet, EjetT, in coincidence with a recoil antiproton detected in a Roman pot spectrometer is used to measure the ratio of single-diffractive to inclusive-dijet event rates as a function of xp̄ of the interacting parton in the antiproton, the Bjorken-x, xp̄Bj, and a Q²≈(EjetT)² in the ranges 10⁻³p̄Bj<10⁻¹ and 10²p̄<0.09 and a four-momentum transfer squared tp̄>-4 GeV².more » The tp̄ dependence is measured as a function of Q² and xp̄Bj and compared with that of inclusive single diffraction dissociation. We find weak xp̄Bj and Q² dependencies in the ratio of single diffractive to inclusive event rates, and no significant Q² dependence in the diffractive tp̄ distributions.« less

  8. Single taphole blast furnace casthouse performance optimizing cost and availability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fowles, R.D.; Searls, J.B.; Peay, W.R.; Brenneman, R.G.

    1995-12-01

    The No. 2 blast furnace is a single taphole furnace with a convection air-cooled iron trough. The iron runner system is designed to fill four 90 ton open-top ladles per cast, which are transported by locomotive to the steel shop. The slag runner system is capable of filling three 800 ft{sup 3} slag pots per cast. The No. 2 blast furnace was blown in from mini-reline with this new casthouse configuration in early December 1991. It was operated for nearly three years until it was banked for planned stove repairs and a trough rebuild in late September 1994. During this period, the furnace produced just over 2.5 million tons of hot metal across the original trough refractory lining system, with 13 intermediate hot patch castable repairs. The entire casthouse refractory usage (main trough, runner systems, and covers) during this campaign was 1.06 pounds per net ton of hot metal. Investigation of the lining during demolition indicated that the trough lining campaign could have been extended to at least 3.0 million tons. This paper will discuss how operating practices, mechanical design, refractory design, maintenance philosophy, and attention to detail synergistically contributed to the long campaign life and low refractory consumption rate.

  9. High productivity injection practices at Rouge Steel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barker, D.H.; Hegler, G.L.; Falls, C.E.

    1995-12-01

    Rouge Steel Company, located in Dearborn, Michigan, operates two blast furnaces. The smaller of the pair, ``B`` Furnace, has a hearth diameter of 20 feet and 12 tuyeres. It has averaged 2,290 NTHM (net ton of hot metal) per day of 8.2 NTHM per 100 cubic feet of working volume. ``C`` Furnace has a hearth diameter of 29 feet and 20 tuyeres. Both of these furnaces are single tap hole furnaces. Prior to its reline in 1991, ``C`` Furnace was producing at a rate of 3,300 NTHM/day or about 6.25 NTHM/100 cfwv. In November, 1994 it averaged 5,106 NTHM/day or 9.6 NTHM/100 cfwv. This paper discusses how the current production rates were achieved. Also, the areas that needed to be addressed as production increased will be described. These areas include casthouse arrangement and workload, hot metal ladle capacity, slag pot capacity and charging capability. Coupled with the high blast temperature capability, the furnace was provided with a new natural gas injection system that injected the gas through the blowpipes and a natural gas injection system to enrich the stove gas. Following the furnace reline, natural gas has been used in three ways: tuyere level control; combination injection; and stove gas enrichment. Coke consumption rate has also decreased per NTHM.

  10. Facile synthesis and characterization of ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}/{alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} composite hollow nanospheres

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shen, Yu [Key Laboratory of Industrial Ecology and Environmental Engineering and State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemical, School of Environmental Science and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China) [Key Laboratory of Industrial Ecology and Environmental Engineering and State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemical, School of Environmental Science and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); School of Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Dalian Jiaotong University, Dalian 116028 (China); Li, Xinyong, E-mail: xyli@dlut.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Industrial Ecology and Environmental Engineering and State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemical, School of Environmental Science and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China) [Key Laboratory of Industrial Ecology and Environmental Engineering and State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemical, School of Environmental Science and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Department of Chemical Engineering, Curtin University, Perth, WA 6845 (Australia); Zhao, Qidong; Hou, Yang [Key Laboratory of Industrial Ecology and Environmental Engineering and State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemical, School of Environmental Science and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)] [Key Laboratory of Industrial Ecology and Environmental Engineering and State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemical, School of Environmental Science and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Tade, Moses [Department of Chemical Engineering, Curtin University, Perth, WA 6845 (Australia)] [Department of Chemical Engineering, Curtin University, Perth, WA 6845 (Australia); Liu, Shaomin, E-mail: Shaomin.Liu@curtin.edu.au [Department of Chemical Engineering, Curtin University, Perth, WA 6845 (Australia)] [Department of Chemical Engineering, Curtin University, Perth, WA 6845 (Australia)

    2011-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}/{alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} composite hollow nanospheres were successfully synthesized via a facile method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Detailed structural, morphology and the phase composition were studied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The incorporation of ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} and {alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} gives an appropriate band gap value to utilize solar energy. -- Abstract: ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}/{alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} composite hollow nanospheres were successfully fabricated via a facile one-pot solvothermal method, utilizing polyethylene glycol as soft template. X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy analysis revealed that the prepared nanospheres with cubic spinel and rhombohedra composite structure had a uniform diameter of about 370 nm, and the hollow structure could be further confirmed by transmission electron microscopy. Energy dispersive X-ray, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared techniques were also applied to characterize the elemental composition and chemical bonds in the hollow nanospheres. The ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}/{alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} composite hollow nanospheres show attractive light absorption property for potential applications in electronics, optics, and catalysis.

  11. Preparation, characterization and photocatalytic activity of visible-light-driven plasmonic Ag/AgBr/ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanocomposites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Xiaojuan Tang, Duanlian; Tang, Fan; Zhu, Yunyan; He, Changfa; Liu, Minghua Lin, Chunxiang; Liu, Yifan

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: A plasmonic Ag/AgBr/ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} photocatalyst has been successfully synthesized. Ag/AgBr/ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanocomposites exhibit high visible light photocatalytic activity. Ag/AgBr/ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} photocatalyst is stable and magnetically separable. - Abstract: A visible-light-driven plasmonic Ag/AgBr/ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanocomposite has been successfully synthesized via a depositionprecipitation and photoreduction through a novel one-pot process. X-ray diffraction spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and UVvis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy were employed to investigate the crystal structure, chemical composition, morphology, and optical properties of the as-prepared nanocomposites. The photocatalytic activities of the nanocomposites were evaluated by photodegradation of Rhodamine B (RhB) and phenol under visible light. The results demonstrated that the obtained Ag/AgBr/ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanocomposites exhibited higher photocatalytic activity as compared to pure ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}. In addition, the sample photoreduced for 20 min and calcined at 500 C achieved the highest photocatalytic activity. Furthermore, the Ag/AgBr/ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanocomposite has high stability under visible light irradiation and could be conveniently separated by using an external magnetic field.

  12. Thermal springs list for the United States; National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Key to Geophysical Records Documentation No. 12

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berry, G.W.; Grim, P.J.; Ikelman, J.A.

    1980-06-01

    The compilation has 1702 thermal spring locations in 23 of the 50 States, arranged alphabetically by State (Postal Service abbreviation) and degrees of latitude and longitude within the State. It shows spring name, surface temperature in degrees Fahrenheit and degrees Celsius; USGS Professional Paper 492 number, USGS Circular 790 number, NOAA number, north to south on each degree of latitude and longitude of the listed. USGS 1:250,000-scale (AMS) map; and the USGS topographic map coverage, 1:63360- or 1:62500-scale (15-minute) or 1:24000-scale (7.5-minute) quadrangle also included is an alphabetized list showing only the spring name and the State in which it is located. Unnamed springs are omitted. The list includes natural surface hydrothermal features: springs, pools, mud pots, mud volcanoes, geysers, fumaroles, and steam vents at temperature of 20{sup 0}C (68[sup 0}F) or greater. It does not include wells or mines, except at sites where they supplement or replace natural vents presently or recently active, or, in some places, where orifices are not distinguishable as natural or artificial. The listed springs are located on the USGS 1:250,000 (AMS) topographic maps. (MHR)

  13. Low-temperature geothermal assessment of the Santa Clara and Virgin River Valleys, Washington County, Utah

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Budding, K.E.; Sommer, S.N.

    1986-01-01

    Exploration techniques included the following: (1) a temperature survey of springs, (2) chemical analyses and calculated geothermometer temperatures of water samples collected from selected springs and wells, (3) chemical analyses and calculated geothermometer temperatures of spring and well water samples in the literature, (4) thermal gradients measured in accessible wells, and (5) geology. The highest water temperature recorded in the St. George basin is 42/sup 0/C at Pah Tempe Hot Springs. Additional spring temperatures higher than 20/sup 0/C are at Veyo Hot Spring, Washington hot pot, and Green Spring. The warmest well water in the study area is 40/sup 0/C in Middleton Wash. Additional warm well water (higher than 24.5/sup 0/C) is present north of St. George, north of Washington, southeast of St. George, and in Dameron Valley. The majority of the Na-K-Ca calculated reservoir temperatures range between 30/sup 0/ and 50/sup 0/C. Anomalous geothermometer temperatures were calculated for water from Pah Tempe and a number of locations in St. George and vicinity. In addition to the known thermal areas of Pah Tempe and Veyo Hot Spring, an area north of Washington and St. George is delineated in this study to have possible low-temperature geothermal potential.

  14. Diffractive dijet production in p?p collisions at ?s=1.96 TeV

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aaltonen, T.; Albrow, M.; lvarez Gonzlez, B.; Amerio, S.; Amidei, D.; Anastassov, A.; Annovi, A.; Antos, J.; Apollinari, G.; Appel, J. A.; Arisawa, T.; Artikov, A.; Asaadi, J.; Ashmanskas, W.; Auerbach, B.; Aurisano, A.; Azfar, F.; Badgett, W.; Bae, T.; Barbaro-Galtieri, A.; Barnes, V. E.; Barnett, B. A.; Barria, P.; Bartos, P.; Bauce, M.; Bedeschi, F.; Behari, S.; Bellettini, G.; Bellinger, J.; Benjamin, D.; Beretvas, A.; Bhatti, A.; Bisello, D.; Bizjak, I.; Bland, K. R.; Blumenfeld, B.; Bocci, A.; Bodek, A.; Bortoletto, D.; Boudreau, J.; Boveia, A.; Brigliadori, L.; Bromberg, C.; Brucken, E.; Budagov, J.; Budd, H. S.; Burkett, K.; Busetto, G.; Bussey, P.; Buzatu, A.; Calamba, A.; Calancha, C.; Camarda, S.; Campanelli, M.; Campbell, M.; Canelli, F.; Carls, B.; Carlsmith, D.; Carosi, R.; Carrillo, S.; Carron, S.; Casal, B.; Casarsa, M.; Castro, A.; Catastini, P.; Cauz, D.; Cavaliere, V.; Cavalli-Sforza, M.; Cerri, A.; Cerrito, L.; Chen, Y. C.; Chertok, M.; Chiarelli, G.; Chlachidze, G.; Chlebana, F.; Cho, K.; Chokheli, D.; Chung, W. H.; Chung, Y. S.; Ciocci, M. A.; Clark, A.; Clarke, C.; Compostella, G.; Convery, M. E.; Conway, J.; Corbo, M.; Cordelli, M.; Cox, C. A.; Cox, D. J.; Crescioli, F.; Cuevas, J.; Culbertson, R.; Dagenhart, D.; dAscenzo, N.; Datta, M.; de Barbaro, P.; DellOrso, M.; Demortier, L.; Deninno, M.; Devoto, F.; dErrico, M.; Di Canto, A.; Di Ruzza, B.; Dittmann, J. R.; DOnofrio, M.; Donati, S.; Dong, P.; Dorigo, M.; Dorigo, T.; Ebina, K.; Elagin, A.; Eppig, A.; Erbacher, R.; Errede, S.; Ershaidat, N.; Eusebi, R.; Farrington, S.; Feindt, M.; Fernandez, J. P.; Field, R.; Flanagan, G.; Forrest, R.; Frank, M. J.; Franklin, M.; Freeman, J. C.; Funakoshi, Y.; Furic, I.; Gallinaro, M.; Garcia, J. E.; Garfinkel, A. F.; Garosi, P.; Gerberich, H.; Gerchtein, E.; Giagu, S.; Giakoumopoulou, V.; Giannetti, P.; Gibson, K.; Ginsburg, C. M.; Giokaris, N.; Giromini, P.; Giurgiu, G.; Glagolev, V.; Glenzinski, D.; Gold, M.; Goldin, D.; Goldschmidt, N.; Golossanov, A.; Gomez, G.; Gomez-Ceballos, G.; Goncharov, M.; Gonzlez, O.; Gorelov, I.; Goshaw, A. T.; Goulianos, K.; Grinstein, S.; Grosso-Pilcher, C.; Group, R. C.; Guimaraes da Costa, J.; Hahn, S. R.; Halkiadakis, E.; Hamaguchi, A.; Han, J. Y.; Happacher, F.; Hara, K.; Hare, D.; Hare, M.; Harr, R. F.; Hatakeyama, K.; Hays, C.; Heck, M.; Heinrich, J.; Herndon, M.; Hewamanage, S.; Hocker, A.; Hopkins, W.; Horn, D.; Hou, S.; Hughes, R. E.; Hurwitz, M.; Husemann, U.; Hussain, N.; Hussein, M.; Huston, J.; Introzzi, G.; Iori, M.; Ivanov, A.; James, E.; Jang, D.; Jayatilaka, B.; Jeon, E. J.; Jindariani, S.; Jones, M.; Joo, K. K.; Jun, S. Y.; Junk, T. R.; Kamon, T.; Karchin, P. E.; Kasmi, A.; Kato, Y.; Ketchum, W.; Keung, J.; Khotilovich, V.; Kilminster, B.; Kim, D. H.; Kim, H. S.; Kim, J. E.; Kim, M. J.; Kim, S. B.; Kim, S. H.; Kim, Y. K.; Kim, Y. J.; Kimura, N.; Kirby, M.; Klimenko, S.; Knoepfel, K.; Kondo, K.; Kong, D. J.; Konigsberg, J.; Kotwal, A. V.; Kreps, M.; Kroll, J.; Krop, D.; Kruse, M.; Krutelyov, V.; Kuhr, T.; Kurata, M.; Kwang, S.; Laasanen, A. T.; Lami, S.; Lammel, S.; Lancaster, M.; Lander, R. L.; Lannon, K.; Lath, A.; Latino, G.; LeCompte, T.; Lee, E.; Lee, H. S.; Lee, J. S.; Lee, S. W.; Leo, S.; Leone, S.; Lewis, J. D.; Limosani, A.; Lin, C.-J.; Lindgren, M.; Lipeles, E.; Lister, A.; Litvintsev, D. O.; Liu, C.; Liu, H.; Liu, Q.; Liu, T.; Lockwitz, S.; Loginov, A.; Lucchesi, D.; Lueck, J.; Lujan, P.; Lukens, P.; Lungu, G.; Lys, J.; Lysak, R.; Madrak, R.; Maeshima, K.; Maestro, P.; Malik, S.; Manca, G.; Manousakis-Katsikakis, A.; Margaroli, F.; Marino, C.; Martnez, M.; Mastrandrea, P.; Matera, K.; Mattson, M. E.; Mazzacane, A.; Mazzanti, P.; McFarland, K. S.; McIntyre, P.; McNulty, R.; Mehta, A.; Mehtala, P.; Mesropian, C.; Miao, T.; Mietlicki, D.; Mitra, A.; Miyake, H.; Moed, S.; Moggi, N.; Mondragon, M. N.; Moon, C. S.; Moore, R.; Morello, M. J.; Morlock, J.; Movilla Fernandez, P.; Mukherjee, A.; Muller, Th.; Murat, P.; Mussini, M.; Nachtman, J.; Nagai, Y.; Naganoma, J.; Nakano, I.; Napier, A.; Nett, J.; Neu, C.; Neubauer, M. S.; Nielsen, J.; Nodulman, L.; Noh, S. Y.; Norniella, O.; Oakes, L.; Oh, S. H.; Oh, Y. D.; Oksuzian, I.; Okusawa, T.; Orava, R.; Ortolan, L.; Pagan Griso, S.; Pagliarone, C.; Palencia, E.; Papadimitriou, V.; Paramonov, A. A.; Patrick, J.; Pauletta, G.; Paulini, M.; Paus, C.; Pellett, D. E.; Penzo, A.; Phillips, T. J.; Piacentino, G.; Pianori, E.; Pilot, J.; Pitts, K.; Plager, C.; Pondrom, L.; Poprocki, S.; Potamianos, K.; Prokoshin, F.; Pranko, A.; Ptohos, F.; Punzi, G.; Rahaman, A.; Ramakrishnan, V.; Ranjan, N.; Redondo, I.; Renton, P.; Rescigno, M.; Riddick, T.; Rimondi, F.; Ristori, L.; Robson, A.; Rodrigo, T.; Rodriguez, T.; Rogers, E.; Rolli, S.; Roser, R.; Ruffini, F.; Ruiz, A.; Russ, J.; Rusu, V.; Safonov, A.

    2012-08-01

    We report on a study of diffractive dijet production in p?p collisions at s?=1.96 TeV using the CDF II detector at the Fermilab Tevatron p?p collider. A data sample from 310 pb? of integrated luminosity collected by triggering on a high transverse energy jet, EjetT, in coincidence with a recoil antiproton detected in a Roman pot spectrometer is used to measure the ratio of single-diffractive to inclusive-dijet event rates as a function of xp? of the interacting parton in the antiproton, the Bjorken-x, xp?Bj, and a Q?(EjetT) in the ranges 10?p?Bj<10? and 10p?<0.09 and a four-momentum transfer squared tp?>-4 GeV. The tp? dependence is measured as a function of Q and xp?Bj and compared with that of inclusive single diffraction dissociation. We find weak xp?Bj and Q dependencies in the ratio of single diffractive to inclusive event rates, and no significant Q dependence in the diffractive tp? distributions.

  15. Diffractive W and Z Production at the Fermilab Tevatron

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aaltonen, T.; Alvarez Gonzalez, B.; Amerio, S.; Amidei, D.; Anastassov, A.; Annovi, A.; Antos, J.; Apollinari, G.; Appel, J.A.; Apresyan, A.; Arisawa, T.

    2010-07-01

    We report on a measurement of the fraction of events with a W or Z boson produced diffractively in {bar p}p collisions at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV, using data from 0.6 fb{sup -1} of integrated luminosity collected with the CDF II detector equipped with a Roman-pot spectrometer that detects the {bar p} from {bar p} + p {yields} {bar p}+[X+W/Z]. We find that (0.97 {+-} 0.11)% of Ws and (0.85 {+-} 0.22)% of Zs are produced diffractively in a region of (anti)proton fractional momentum loss {zeta} of 0.03 < {zeta} < 0.10 and 4-momentum transferred squared t of -1 < t < 0 (GeV/c){sup 2}. We also report on searches for W and Z production in double Pomeron exchange, p+{bar p} {yields} p+[X+W/z]+{bar p}, and on exclusive Z production, {bar p}p {yields} {bar p}+Z+p. No signal is seen above background for these processes, and comparisons are made with expectations.

  16. Low pressure high speed Stirling air engine. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ross, M.A.

    1980-06-16

    The purpose of this project was to design, construct and test a simple, appropriate technology low pressure, high speed, wood-fired Stirling air engine of 100 W output. The final design was a concentric piston/displacer engine of 454 in. bore and 1 in. stroke with a rhombic drive mechanism. The project engine was ultimately completed and tested, using a propane burner for all tests as a matter of convenience. The 100 W aim was exceeded, at atmospheric pressure, over a wide range of engine speed with the maximum power being 112 W at 1150 rpm. A pressure can was constructed to permit pressurization; however the grant funds were running out, and the only pressurized power test attempted was unsuccessful due to seal difficulties. This was a disappointment because numerous tests on the 4 cubic inch engine suggested power would be more than doubled with pressurization at 25 psig. A manifold was designed and constructed to permit operation of the engine over a standard No. 40 pot bellied stove. The engine was run successfully, but at reduced speed and power, over this stove. The project engine started out being rather noisy in operation, but modifications ultimately resulted in a very quiet engine. Various other difficulties and their solutions also are discussed. (LCL)

  17. The cyclotron laboratory and the RFQ accelerator in Bern

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Braccini, S.; Ereditato, A.; Kreslo, I.; Nirkko, M.; Weber, M.; Scampoli, P.; Bremen, K. von

    2013-07-18

    Two proton accelerators have been recently put in operation in Bern: an 18 MeV cyclotron and a 2 MeV RFQ linac. The commercial IBA 18/18 cyclotron, equipped with a specifically conceived 6 m long external beam line ending in a separate bunker, will provide beams for routine 18-F and other PET radioisotope production as well as for novel detector, radiation biophysics, radioprotection, radiochemistry and radiopharmacy developments. The accelerator is embedded into a complex building hosting two physics laboratories and four Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) laboratories. This project is the result of a successful collaboration between the Inselspital, the University of Bern and private investors, aiming at the constitution of a combined medical and research centre able to provide the most cutting-edge technologies in medical imaging and cancer radiation therapy. The cyclotron is complemented by the RFQ with the primary goals of elemental analysis via Particle Induced Gamma Emission (PIGE), and the detection of potentially dangerous materials with high nitrogen content using the Gamma-Resonant Nuclear Absorption (GRNA) technique. In this context, beam instrumentation devices have been developed, in particular an innovative beam profile monitor based on doped silica fibres and a setup for emittance measurements using the pepper-pot technique. On this basis, the establishment of a proton therapy centre on the campus of the Inselspital is in the phase of advanced study.

  18. α, α', α", α'"-meso-tetrahexyltetramethyl-calix[4]pyrrole: An easy-to-prepare, isomerically pure anion extractant with enhanced solubility in organic solvents

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Williams, Neil J.; Bryantsev, Vyacheslav S.; Custelcean, Radu; Seipp, Charles A.; Moyer, Bruce A.

    2016-01-29

    α, α', α", α'"-meso-Tetrahexyltetramethyl-calix[4]pyrrole is easily obtained as a single diastereomer in a one-pot reaction. It exhibits enhanced solubility in organic solvents, including aliphatic solvents, relative to its parent meso-octamethylcalix[4]pyrrole (1). Somewhat surprisingly, the tetrahexyl derivative 2 complexes with tributylmethylammonium chloride in chloroform more strongly than does 1 as shown by NMR titrations. However, 1 and 2 exhibit comparable complexation strength in extraction experiments, the difference between the NMR and extraction results being attributed to the effect of organic-phase water in the extraction systems. Mass-action analysis indicates the formation of the predominant complex TBMA+(1 or 2)Cl– in both NMR andmore » extraction systems, and equilibrium constants are reported. x-Ray crystal structures were obtained for the free ligand 2 and its complex with tetramethylammonium chloride. In addition, the free ligand crystallises in the 1,3-alt conformation with equatorial hexyl arms. In the chloride complex with 2 in its cone conformation, the hexyl arms adopt an axial orientation, enveloping the anion. DFT calculations show this binding conformation to be the most stable, mostly owing to destabilising steric interactions involving the pyrrole C–H and alkyl C–H groups positioned equatorially.« less

  19. Methanol Decomposition over Palladium Particles Supported on Silica: Role of Particle Size and Co-Feeding Carbon Dioxide on the Catalytic Properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hokenek, Selma; Kuhn, John N. (USF)

    2012-10-23

    Monodisperse palladium particles of six distinct and controlled sizes between 4-16 nm were synthesized in a one-pot polyol process by varying the molar ratios of the two palladium precursors used, which contained palladium in different oxidation states. This difference permitted size control by regulation of the nucleation rate because low oxidation state metals ions nucleate quickly relative to high oxidation state ions. After immobilization of the Pd particles on silica by mild sonication, the catalysts were characterized by X-ray absorption spectroscopy and applied toward catalytic methanol decomposition. This reaction was determined as structure sensitive with the intrinsic activity (turnover frequency) increasing with increasing particle size. Moreover, observed catalytic deactivation was linked to product (carbon monoxide) poisoning. Co-feeding carbon dioxide caused the activity and the amount of deactivation to decrease substantially. A reaction mechanism based on the formation of the {pi}-bond between carbon and oxygen as the rate-limiting step is in agreement with antipathetic structure sensitivity and product poisoning by carbon monoxide.

  20. Energy or compost from green waste? - A CO{sub 2} - Based assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kranert, Martin; Gottschall, Ralf; Bruns, Christian; Hafner, Gerold

    2010-04-15

    Green waste is increasingly extracted from the material recycling chain and, as a result of the financial subsidy arising from the German renewable energy law for the generation of energy from renewable raw materials; it is fed into the energy recovery process in biomass power stations. A reduction in climate relevant gases is also linked to the material recovery of green waste - in particular when using composts gained from the process as a new raw material in different types of potting compost and plant culture media as a replacement for peat. Unlike energy recovery, material valorisation is not currently subsidised. Through the analysis of material and energy valorisation methods for green waste, with particular emphasis on primary resource consumption and CO{sub 2}-balance, it could be determined that the use of green waste for energy generation and its recovery for material and peat replacement purposes can be considered to be on a par. Based on energy recovery or material oriented scenarios, it can be further deduced that no method on its own will achieve the desired outcome and that a combination of recycling processes is more likely to lead to a significant decrease of greenhouse gas emissions.

  1. Capture Efficiency of Cooking-Related Fine and Ultrafine Particles by Residential Exhaust Hoods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lunden, Melissa M.; Delp, William W.

    2014-06-05

    Effective exhaust hoods can mitigate the indoor air quality impacts of pollutant emissions from residential cooking. This study reports capture efficiencies (CE) measured for cooking generated particles for scripted cooking procedures in a 121-m3 chamber with kitchenette. CEs also were measured for burner produced CO2 during cooking and separately for pots and pans containing water. The study used four exhaust hoods previously tested by Delp and Singer (Environ. Sci. Technol., 2012, 46, 6167-6173). For pan-frying a hamburger over medium heat on the back burner, CEs for particles were similar to those for burner produced CO2 and mostly above 80percent. For stir-frying green beans in a wok (high heat, front burner), CEs for burner CO2 during cooking varied by hood and airflow: CEs were 34-38percent for low (51?68 L s-1) and 54?72percent for high (109?138 L s-1) settings. CEs for 0.3?2.0 ?m particles during front burner stir-frying were 3?11percent on low and 16?70percent on high settings. Results indicate that CEs measured for burner CO2 are not predictive of CEs of cooking-generated particles under all conditions, but they may be suitable to identify devices with CEs above 80percent both for burner combustion products and for cooking-related particles.

  2. Integrated thermal solar heat pump system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shaw, D.N.

    1980-04-08

    A compression module may comprise a hermetic helical screw rotary compressor having injection and ejection ports in addition to discharge and suction ports or may comprise a multiple cylinder, multiple level, reciprocating compressor. The module incorporates a subcooler coil and is connected to an outside air coil, a thermal energy storage coil, a direct solar energy supply coil, one or more inside coils for the space to be conditioned and a hot water coil through common, discharge manifold, suction manifold, liquid drain manifold and liquid feed manifold, by suitable solenoid operated control valves and check valves. The solenoid operated control valves are selectively operated in response to system operating parameters. Seal pots and positive displacement pumps may operate to force liquid refrigerant condensed at intermediate pressure to flow to the receiver which is pressurized at a pressure corresponding to the condensation temperature of the highest pressure condensing coil in the system. Alternatively, liquid refrigerant expansion may be used to reach a common receiver pressure for all condenser returns.

  3. Adhesives and method for making the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dorsey, George F.

    1991-01-01

    A thermosetting mixture for use as an adhesive, as well as other applications, that is substantially nonmutagenic. This mixture is based upon a thermosetting resin selected from polyurethane and epoxy resins, using an improved curing agent that does not contain mutagenic components. Specifically, the curing agent is a multi-mixture of substituted alkylanilines produced by an improved process. These alkylanilines are formed by condensation of at least two 2,6-dialkylanilines with a formaldehyde in an acid solution. Upon purification, at least three aromatic diamines are formed that are used for the curing agent with the polyurethane and epoxy resisn. Pot life, green strength and ultimate strength are comparable to adhesives of the prior art that contain mutagenic constituents. Although several dianilines are described, the preferred curing agents are formed using 2,6-diethylaniline (DEA) and 2,6-diisopropylaniline (DIPA), where the mole % of DEA and DIPA is 38-48 and 62-52, respectively. Curing agents within the preferred range have been designated as "Asilamine 4852" and "Asilamine 4555".

  4. Preparation of brightness stabilization agent for lignin containing pulp from biomass pyrolysis oils

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Agblevor, Foster A.; Besler-Guran, Serpil

    2001-01-01

    A process for producing a brightness stabilization mixture of water-soluble organic compounds from biomass pyrolysis oils comprising: a) size-reducing biomass material and pyrolyzing the size-reduced biomass material in a fluidized bed reactor; b) separating a char/ash component while maintaining char-pot temperatures to avoid condensation of pyrolysis vapors; c) condensing pyrolysis gases and vapors, and recovering pyrolysis oils by mixing the oils with acetone to obtain an oil-acetone mixture; d) evaporating acetone and recovering pyrolysis oils; e) extracting the pyrolysis oils with water to obtain a water extract; f) slurrying the water extract with carbon while stirring, and filtering the slurry to obtain a colorless filtrate; g) cooling the solution and stabilizing the solution against thermally-induced gelling and solidification by extraction with ethyl acetate to form an aqueous phase lower layer and an organic phase upper layer; h) discarding the upper organic layer and extracting the aqueous layer with ethyl acetate, and discarding the ethyl acetate fraction to obtain a brown-colored solution not susceptible to gelling or solidification upon heating; i) heating the solution to distill off water and other light components and concentrating a bottoms fraction comprising hydroxyacetaldehyde and other non-volatile components having high boiling points; and j) decolorizing the stabilized brown solution with activated carbon to obtain a colorless solution.

  5. Water information bulletin No. 30 geothermal investigations in Idaho

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mitchell, J.C.; Johnson, L.L.; Anderson, J.E.; Spencer, S.G.; Sullivan, J.F.

    1980-06-01

    There are 899 thermal water occurrences known in Idaho, including 258 springs and 641 wells having temperatures ranging from 20 to 93/sup 0/C. Fifty-one cities or towns in Idaho containing 30% of the state's population are within 5 km of known geothermal springs or wells. These include several of Idaho's major cities such as Lewiston, Caldwell, Nampa, Boise, Twin Falls, Pocatello, and Idaho Falls. Fourteen sites appear to have subsurface temperatures of 140/sup 0/C or higher according to the several chemical geothermometers applied to thermal water discharges. These include Weiser, Big Creek, White Licks, Vulcan, Roystone, Bonneville, Crane Creek, Cove Creek, Indian Creek, and Deer Creek hot springs, and Raft River, Preston, and Magic Reservoir areas. These sites could be industrial sites, but several are in remote areas away from major transportation and, therefore, would probably be best utilized for electrical power generation using the binary cycle or Magma Max process. Present uses range from space heating to power generation. Six areas are known where commercial greenhouse operations are conducted for growing cut and potted flowers and vegetables. Space heating is substantial in only two places (Boise and Ketchum) although numerous individuals scattered throughout the state make use of thermal water for space heating and private swimming facilities. There are 22 operating resorts using thermal water and two commercial warm-water fish-rearing operations.

  6. Brick manufacture with fly ash from Illinois coals. Quarterly technical report, September 1, 1994--November 30, 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hughes, R.E.; Dreher, G.; Frost, J.; Moore, D.; Rostam-Abadi, M.; Fiocchi, T.; Swartz, D.

    1995-03-01

    This investigation seeks to utilize fly ash in fired-clay products such as building and patio bricks, ceramic blocks, field and sewer tile, and flower pots. This goal is accomplished by (1) one or more plant-scale, 5000-brick tests with fly ash mixed with brick clays at the 20% or higher level; (2) a laboratory-scale study to measure the firing reactions of a range of compositions of clay and fly ash mixtures; (3) a technical and economic study to evaluate the potential environmental and economic benefits of brick manufacture with fly ash. Bricks and feed materials will be tested for compliance with market specifications and for leachability of pollutants derived from fly ash. The laboratory study will combine ISGS databases, ICCI-supported characterization methods, and published information to improve predictions of the firing characteristics of Illinois fly ash and brick clay mixtures. Because identical methods are used to test clay firing and coal ash fusion, and because melting mechanisms are the same, improved coal ash fusion predictions are an expected result of this research. If successful, this project should convert an environmental problem (fly ash) into valuable products - bricks. During this quarter, the authors set up the manufacturing run at Colonial Brick Co., provided an expanded NEPA questionnaire for DOE, made preliminary arrangements for a larger brick manufacturing run at Marseilles Brick Co., revised laboratory procedures for selective dissolution analysis, and began characterization of brick clays that could be mixed with fly ash for fired-clay products.

  7. Tandem catalysis by palladium nanoclusters encapsulated in metal–organic frameworks

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Li, Xinle; Guo, Zhiyong; Xiao, Chaoxian; Goh, Tian Wei; Tesfagaber, Daniel; Huang, Wenyu

    2014-08-25

    A bifunctional Zr-MOF catalyst containing palladium nanoclusters (NCs) has been developed. The formation of Pd NCs was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS). Combining the oxidation activity of Pd NCs and the acetalization activity of the Lewis acid sites in UiO-66-NH2, this catalyst (Pd@UiO-66-NH2) exhibits excellent catalytic activity and selectivity in a one-pot tandem oxidation-acetalization reaction. This catalyst shows 99.9% selectivity to benzaldehyde ethylene acetal in the tandem reaction of benzyl alcohol and ethylene glycol at 99.9% conversion of benzyl alcohol. We also examined various substituted benzyl alcohols and found that alcohols withmore » electron-donating groups showed better conversion and selectivity compared to those with electron-withdrawing groups. As a result, we further proved that there was no leaching of active catalytic species during the reaction and the catalyst can be recycled at least five times without significant deactivation.« less

  8. Mesoporous iron–manganese oxides for sulphur mustard and soman degradation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Štengl, Václav; J.E. Purkyně University in Ústí nad Labem, Faculty of Environment, 400 96 Ústí nad Labem ; Grygar, Tomáš Matys; J.E. Purkyně University in Ústí nad Labem, Faculty of Environment, 400 96 Ústí nad Labem ; Bludská, Jana; Opluštil, František; Němec, Tomáš

    2012-12-15

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ► New nanodispersive materials based on Fe and Mn oxides for degradations of warfare agents. ► The best activities for the degradation of sulphur mustard (97.9% in 64 min) and soman (97.9% in 64 min). ► One pot synthesis with friendly transformed to industrial conditions. -- Abstract: Substituted iron(III)–manganese(III, IV) oxides, ammonio-jarosite and birnessite, were prepared by a homogeneous hydrolysis of potassium permanganate and iron(III) sulphate with 2-chloroacetamide and urea, respectively. Synthesised oxides were characterised using Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) surface area and Barrett–Joiner–Halenda porosity (BJH), X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared spectroscopy (IR), Raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The oxides were taken for an experimental evaluation of their reactivity against sulphur mustard (HD) and soman (GD). When ammonio-jarosite formation is suppressed by adding urea to the reaction mixture, the reaction products are mixtures of goethite, schwertmannite and ferrihydrite, and their degradation activity against soman considerably increases. The best activities for the degradation of sulphur mustard (97.9% in 64 min) and soman (97.9% in 64 min) were observed for FeMn{sub 7}5 with 32.6 wt.% Fe (36.8 wt.% Mn) and FeMn{sub 3}7U with 60.8 wt.% Fe (10.1 wt.% Mn) samples, respectively.

  9. Synergistic enhancement of nitrogen and sulfur co-doped graphene with carbon nanospheres insertion for electrocatalytic oxygen reduction reaction

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wu, Min; Xin, Huolin L.; Wang, Jie; Wu, Zexing; Wang, Deli

    2015-03-13

    A nitrogen and sulfur co-doped graphene/carbon black (NSGCB) nanocomposite for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) was synthesized through a one-pot annealing of a precursor mixture containing graphene oxide, thiourea, and acidized carbon black (CB). The NSGCB showed excellent performance for the ORR with the onset and half-way potentials at 0.96 V and 0.81 V (vs. RHE), respectively. It is significantly improved over that of the catalysts derived from only graphene (0.90 V and 0.76 V) or carbon nanosphere (0.82 V and 0.74 V). The enhanced catalytic activity on the NSGCB electrode could be attributed to the synergistic effect of N/Smore » co-doping and the enlarged interlayer space resulted from the insertion of carbon nanosphere into the graphene sheets. The four-electron selectivity and the limiting current density of the NSGCB nanocomposite are comparable to that of the commercially Pt/C catalyst. Furthermore, the NSGCB nanocomposite was superior to Pt/C in terms of long-term durability and tolerance to methanol poisoning.« less

  10. Tandem catalysis by palladium nanoclusters encapsulated in metal–organic frameworks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Xinle; Guo, Zhiyong; Xiao, Chaoxian; Goh, Tian Wei; Tesfagaber, Daniel; Huang, Wenyu

    2014-08-25

    A bifunctional Zr-MOF catalyst containing palladium nanoclusters (NCs) has been developed. The formation of Pd NCs was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS). Combining the oxidation activity of Pd NCs and the acetalization activity of the Lewis acid sites in UiO-66-NH2, this catalyst (Pd@UiO-66-NH2) exhibits excellent catalytic activity and selectivity in a one-pot tandem oxidation-acetalization reaction. This catalyst shows 99.9% selectivity to benzaldehyde ethylene acetal in the tandem reaction of benzyl alcohol and ethylene glycol at 99.9% conversion of benzyl alcohol. We also examined various substituted benzyl alcohols and found that alcohols with electron-donating groups showed better conversion and selectivity compared to those with electron-withdrawing groups. As a result, we further proved that there was no leaching of active catalytic species during the reaction and the catalyst can be recycled at least five times without significant deactivation.

  11. Synergistic enhancement of nitrogen and sulfur co-doped graphene with carbon nanospheres insertion for electrocatalytic oxygen reduction reaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Min; Xin, Huolin L.; Wang, Jie; Wu, Zexing; Wang, Deli

    2015-03-13

    A nitrogen and sulfur co-doped graphene/carbon black (NSGCB) nanocomposite for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) was synthesized through a one-pot annealing of a precursor mixture containing graphene oxide, thiourea, and acidized carbon black (CB). The NSGCB showed excellent performance for the ORR with the onset and half-way potentials at 0.96 V and 0.81 V (vs. RHE), respectively. It is significantly improved over that of the catalysts derived from only graphene (0.90 V and 0.76 V) or carbon nanosphere (0.82 V and 0.74 V). The enhanced catalytic activity on the NSGCB electrode could be attributed to the synergistic effect of N/S co-doping and the enlarged interlayer space resulted from the insertion of carbon nanosphere into the graphene sheets. The four-electron selectivity and the limiting current density of the NSGCB nanocomposite are comparable to that of the commercially Pt/C catalyst. Furthermore, the NSGCB nanocomposite was superior to Pt/C in terms of long-term durability and tolerance to methanol poisoning.

  12. DEVELOPMENT OF ATTRITION RESISTANT IRON-BASED FISCHER-TROPSCH CATALYSTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adeyinka A. Adeyiga

    2003-12-01

    Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis to convert syngas (CO + H{sub 2}) derived from natural gas or coal to liquid fuels and wax is a well-established technology. For low H{sub 2} to CO ratio syngas produced from CO{sub 2} reforming of natural gas or from gasification of coal, the use of Fe catalysts is attractive because of their high water gas shift activity in addition to their high FT activity. Fe catalysts are also attractive due to their low cost and low methane selectivity. Because of the highly exothermic nature of the FT reaction, there has been a recent move away from fixed-bed reactors toward the development of slurry bubble column reactors (SBCRs) that employ 30 to 90 {micro}m catalyst particles suspended in a waxy liquid for efficient heat removal. However, the use of Fe FT catalysts in an SBCR has been problematic due to severe catalyst attrition resulting in fines that plug the filter employed to separate the catalyst from the waxy product. Fe catalysts can undergo attrition in SBCRs not only due to vigorous movement and collisions but also due to phase changes that occur during activation and reaction. The objectives of this research were to develop a better understanding of the parameters affecting attrition of Fe F-T catalysts suitable for use in SBCRs and to incorporate this understanding into the design of novel Fe catalysts having superior attrition resistance. The catalysts were prepared by co-precipitation, followed by binder addition and spray drying at 250 C in a 1 m diameter, 2 m tall spray dryer. The binder silica content was varied from 0 to 20 wt %. The results show that use of small amounts of precipitated SiO{sub 2} alone in spray-dried Fe catalysts can result in good attrition resistance. All catalysts investigated with SiO{sub 2} wt% {le} 12 produced fines less than 10 wt% during the jet cup attrition test, making them suitable for long-term use in a slurry bubble column reactor. Thus, concentration rather than type of SiO{sub 2} incorporated into catalyst has a more critical impact on catalyst attrition resistance of spray-dried Fe catalysts. Lower amounts of SiO{sub 2} added to a catalyst give higher particle densities and therefore higher attrition resistances. In order to produce a suitable SBCR catalyst, however, the amount of SiO{sub 2} added has to be optimized to provide adequate surface area, particle density, and attrition resistance. Two of the catalysts with precipitated and binder silica were tested in Texas A&M University's CSTR (Autoclave Engineers). Spray-dried catalysts with compositions 100 Fe/5 Cu/4.2 K/11 (P) SiO{sub 2} and 100 Fe/5 Cu/4.2 K/1.1 (B) SiO{sub 2} have excellent selectivity characteristics (low methane and high C{sub 5}{sup +} yields), but their productivity and stability (deactivation rate) need to be improved. Mechanical integrity (attrition strength) of these two catalysts was markedly dependent upon their morphological features. The attrition strength of the catalyst made out of largely spherical particles (1.1 (B) SiO{sub 2}) was considerably higher than that of the catalyst consisting of irregularly shaped particles (11 (P) SiO{sub 2}).

  13. DEVELOPMENT OF THE BULK VITRIFICATION TREATMENT PROCESS FOR THE LOW ACTIVITY FRACTION OF HANFORD SINGLE SHELL TANK WASTES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thompson, L.E.; Lowery, P.S.; Arrowsmith, H.W.; Snyder, T.; McElroy, J.L.

    2003-02-27

    AMEC Earth & Environmental, Inc. and RWE NUKEM Corporation have teamed to develop and apply a waste pre-treatment and bulk vitrification process for low activity waste (LAW) from Hanford Single Shell Tanks (SSTs). The pretreatment and bulk vitrification process utilizes technologies that have been successfully deployed to remediate both radioactive and chemically hazardous wastes at nuclear power plants, DOE sites, and commercial waste sites in the US and abroad. The process represents an integrated systems approach. The proposed AMEC/NUKEM process follow the extraction and initial segregation activities applied to the tank wastes carried out by others. The first stage of the process will utilize NUKEM's concentrate dryer (CD) system to concentrate the liquid waste stream. The concentrate will then be mixed with soil or glass formers and loaded into refractory-lined steel containers for bulk vitrification treatment using AMEC's In-Container Vitrification (ICV) process. Following the vitrification step, a lid will be placed on the container of cooled, solidified vitrified waste, and the container transported to the disposal site. The container serves as the melter vessel, the transport container and the disposal container. AMEC and NUKEM participated in the Mission Acceleration Initiative Workshop held in Richland, Washington in April 2000 [1]. An objective of the workshop was to identify selected technologies that could be combined into viable treatment options for treatment of the LAW fraction from selected Hanford waste tanks. AMEC's ICV process combined with NUKEM's CD system and other remote operating capabilities were presented as an integrated solution. The Team's proposed process received some of the highest ratings from the Workshop's review panel. The proposed approach compliments the Hanford Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) by reducing the amount of waste that the WTP would have to process. When combined with the capabilities of the WTP, the proposed approach will accelerate the tank waste remediation program plan and facilitate meeting the regulatory requirements for the remediation of the Hanford tank wastes. Consequently, the DOE Office of River Protection and CH2MHill Hanford Group identified bulk vitrification as one of the technologies to be investigated in FY03 through a demonstration program [2]. In October 2002, CH2MHill issued a request for proposal for the process development testing, engineering and data package for a non-radioactive (cold) pilot bulk vitrification process, and pre-conceptual engineering of a production bulk vitrification system. With AMEC in the lead, AMEC and NUKEM responded with a proposal. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) will support the proposed project as a key subcontractor by providing equipment, facilities, and personnel to support small-scale testing, including the testing on samples of actual tank wastes. This paper will provide an overview of the pre-treatment and bulk vitrification process, summarize the technical benefits the approach offers, and describe the demonstration program that has been developed for the project.

  14. Method to Reduce Molten Salt Penetration into Bulk Vitrification Refractory Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bagaasen, L.M.; Hrma, P.R.; Kim, D.S.; Schweiger, M.J.; Matyas, J.; Rodriguez, C.P. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA (United States); Witwer, K.S. [AMEC Nuclear Holdings Ltd., GeoMelt Division, Richland, WA (United States)

    2008-07-01

    Bulk vitrification (BV) is a process that heats a feed material consisting of glass-forming solids and dried low-activity waste (LAW) in a disposable refractory-lined metal box using electrical power supplied through carbon electrodes. The feed is heated to the point that the LAW decomposes and combines with the solids to generate a vitreous waste form. However, the castable refractory block (CRB) portion of the refractory lining has sufficient porosity to allow the low-viscosity molten ionic salt (MIS), which contains technetium (Tc) in a soluble form, to penetrate the CRB. This limits the effectiveness of the final waste form. This paper describes tests conducted to develop a method aimed at reducing the quantities of soluble Tc in the CRB. Tests showed that MIS formed in significant quantities at temperatures above 300 deg. C, remained stable until roughly 550 deg. C where it began to thermally decompose, and was completely decomposed by 800 deg. C. The estimated volume fraction of MIS in the feed was greater than 40%, and the CRB material contained 11 to 15% open porosity, a combination allowing a large quantity of MIS to migrate through the feed and penetrate the open porosity of the CRB. If the MIS is decomposed at temperatures below 300 deg. C or can be contained in the feed until it fully decomposes by 800 deg. C, MIS migration into the CRB can be avoided. Laboratory and crucible-scale experiments showed that a variety of methods, individually or in combination, can decrease MIS penetration into the CRB. Modifying the CRB to block MIS penetration was not deemed practical as a method to prevent the large quantities of MIS penetration seen in the full-scale tests, but it may be useful to reduce the impacts of lower levels of MIS penetration. Modifying the BV feed materials to better contain the MIS proved to be more successful. A series of qualitative and quantitative crucible tests were developed that allowed screening of feed modifications that might be used to reduce MIS penetration. These tests showed that increasing the specific surface area of the soil (used as the primary glass-forming solid in the baseline process) by grinding stopped MIS penetration nearly entirely for feeds that contained waste simulants with lower quantities of nitrate salts. Grinding soil significantly reduced MIS penetration in feeds with higher nitrate quantities, but it was necessary to add carbohydrates (sucrose or cellulose) to destroy a portion of the nitrate at low temperatures to reach the same low levels of MIS penetration seen for the lower nitrate feeds. Developing feeds to reduce MIS penetration in full-scale BV applications resulted in two additional refinements. Soil-grinding to the necessary levels proved to be difficult and expensive, so the fine soil was replaced with readily available fine-grained glass-forming minerals. Cellulose was shown to have less impact on dryer operation than sucrose and was chosen as the carbohydrate source to use in subsequent engineering- and full-scale tests. (authors)

  15. SCWR Once-Through Calculations for Transmutation and Cross Sections

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    ganda, francesco

    2012-07-01

    It is the purpose of this report to document the calculation of (1) the isotopic evolution and of (2) the 1-group cross sections as a function of burnup of the reference Super Critical Water Reactor (SCWR), in a format suitable for the Fuel Cycle Option Campaign Transmutation Data Library. The reference SCWR design was chosen to be that described in [McDonald, 2005]. Super Critical Water Reactors (SCWR) are intended to operate with super-critical water (i.e. H2O at a pressure above 22 MPa and a temperature above 373oC) as a cooling – and possibly also moderating – fluid. The main mission of the SCWR is to generate lower cost electricity, as compared to current standard Light Water Reactors (LWR). Because of the high operating pressure and temperature, SCWR feature a substantially higher thermal conversion efficiency than standard LWR – i.e. about 45% versus 33%, mostly due to an increase in the exit water temperature from ~300oC to ~500oC – potentially resulting in a lower cost of generated electricity. The coolant remains single phase throughout the reactor and the energy conversion system, thus eliminating the need for pressurizers, steam generators, steam separators and dryers, further potentially reducing the reactor construction capital cost. The SCWR concept presented here is based on existing LWR technology and on a large number of existing fossil-fired supercritical boilers. However, it was concluded in [McDonald, 2005], that: “Based on the results of this study, it appears that the reference SCWR design is not feasible.” This conclusion appears based on the strong sensitivity of the design to small deviations in nominal conditions leading to small effects having a potentially large impact on the peak cladding temperature of some fuel rods. “This was considered a major feasibility issue for the SCWR” [McDonald, 2005]. After a description of the reference SCWR design, the Keno V 3-D single assembly model used for this analysis, as well as the calculated results, are presented. Additionally, the follwing information, presented in the appendixes, is intended to provide enough guidance that a researcher repeating the same task in the future should be able to obtain a vector of nuclei and cross sections ready for insertion into the transmutation library without any need for further instructions: (1) Complete TRITON/KENO-V input used for the analysis; (2) Inputs and detailed description of the usage of the OPUS utility, used to postproces and to extract the nuclei concentrations for the transmutation library; (3) Inputs and detailed description of the usage of the XSECLIST utility, used to postproces and to extract the 1-group cross sections for the transmutation library; (4) Details of an ad-hoc utility program developed to sort the nuclei and cross sections for the transmutation library.

  16. Evaluation of MerCAP for Power Plant Mercury Control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carl Richardson

    2008-09-30

    This report is submitted to the U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE-NETL) as part of Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-03NT41993, 'Evaluation of EPRI's MerCAP{trademark} Technology for Power Plant Mercury Control'. This project has investigated the mercury removal performance of EPRI's Mercury Capture by Amalgamation Process (MerCAP{trademark}) technology. Test programs were conducted to evaluate gold-based MerCAP{trademark} at Great River Energy's Stanton Station Unit 10 (Site 1), which fired both North Dakota lignite (NDL) and Power River Basin (PRB) coal during the testing period, and at Georgia Power's Plant Yates Unit 1 (Site 2) [Georgia Power is a subsidiary of The Southern Company] which fires a low sulfur Eastern bituminous coal. Additional tests were carried out at Alabama Power's Plant Miller, which fires Powder River Basin Coal, to evaluate a carbon-based MerCAP{trademark} process for removing mercury from flue gas downstream of an electrostatic precipitator [Alabama Power is a subsidiary of The Southern Company]. A full-scale gold-based sorbent array was installed in the clean-air plenum of a single baghouse compartment at GRE's Stanton Station Unit 10, thereby treating 1/10th of the unit's exhaust gas flow. The substrates that were installed were electroplated gold screens oriented parallel to the flue gas flow. The sorbent array was initially installed in late August of 2004, operating continuously until its removal in July 2006, after nearly 23 months. The initial 4 months of operation were conducted while the host unit was burning North Dakota lignite (NDL). In November 2004, the host unit switched fuel to burn Powder River Basin (PRB) subbituminous coal and continued to burn the PRB fuel for the final 19 months of this program. Tests were conducted at Site 1 to evaluate the impacts of flue gas flow rate, sorbent plate spacing, sorbent pre-cleaning and regeneration, and spray dryer operation on MerCAP{trademark} performance. At Site 2, a pilot-scale array was installed in a horizontal reactor chamber designed to treat approximately 2800 acfm of flue gas obtained from downstream of the plant's flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system. The initial MerCAP{trademark} array was installed at Plant Yates in January 2004, operating continuously for several weeks before a catastrophic system failure resulting from a failed flue gas fan. A second MerCAP{trademark} array was installed in July 2006 and operated for one month before being shut down for a reasons pertaining to system performance and host site scheduling. A longer-term continuous-operation test was then conducted during the summer and fall of 2007. Tests were conducted to evaluate the impacts of flue gas flow rate, sorbent space velocity, and sorbent rinsing frequency on mercury removal performance. Detailed characterization of treated sorbent plates was carried out in an attempt to understand the nature of reactions leading to excessive corrosion of the substrate surfaces.

  17. The Potential For Energy Efficiency In The State of Iowa

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hadley, SW

    2001-12-05

    The purpose of this study was to do an initial estimate of the potential for energy savings in the state of Iowa. Several methods for determining savings were examined, including existing programs, surveys, savings calculators, and economic simulation. Each method has advantages and disadvantages, trading off between detail of information, accuracy of results, and scope. This paper concentrated on using economic simulation (the NEMS model (EIA 2000a)) to determine market potential for energy savings for the residential and commercial sectors. The results of surveys were used to calculate the economic potential for savings in the industrial sector. The NEMS model is used by the Energy Information Administration to calculate twenty-year projections of energy use for every region of the country. The results of the Annual Energy Outlook 2000 were used as the Base case (EIA 1999a). Two alternative cases were created to simulate energy savings policies. Voluntary, market-related programs were simulated by lowering the effective discount rates that end-users use when making decisions on equipment purchases. Standards programs in the residential sector were simulated by eliminating the availability of low efficiency equipment in future years. The parameters for these programs were based on the Moderate scenario from the DOE Clean Energy Futures study (Interlaboratory Working Group 2000), which assumed increased concern by society on energy efficiency but not to the point of fiscal policies such as taxes or direct subsidies. The study only considered a subset of the various programs, policies, and technologies that could reduce energy use. The major end-uses in the residential sector affected by the policies were space cooling (20% savings by 2020) and water heating (14% savings by 2020.) Figure S-1 shows the space cooling savings when voluntary programs and minimum efficiency standards were implemented. Refrigerators, freezers, and clothes dryers saw slight improvements. The study did not involve changes to the building shell (e.g., increased insulation) or residential lighting improvements. Nevertheless, the residential sector's market potential for electrical energy savings was calculated to be 5.3% of expected electrical use, representing 850 GWh by 2020. Natural gas savings could be 2.4% of expected gas use, representing 2.1 trillion Btus. Using expected prices for energy in that year, these represent savings of $47 million and $12 million per year. In the commercial sector, the study only considered voluntary market-based policies for some of the technologies. The most notable savings were in ventilation (12% savings by 2020), lighting (12% savings), refrigeration (7% savings), water heating (6% savings), and space heating (5% savings by 2020). The commercial sector's market potential for electrical energy savings based on the programs modeled was calculated to be 5.1% of its total expected electrical use, representing 605 GWh of power by 2020. Natural gas savings were 2.3 trillion Btu, 3.7% of use. Using the same prices as the residential sector (5.5{cents}/kWh and $5.74/MBtu), the savings represent $33 million and $13 million per year, respectively.

  18. ATTRITION RESISTANT IRON-BASED FISCHER-TROPSCH CATALYSTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James G. Goodwin, Jr.; James J. Spivey; K. Jothimurugesan; Santosh K. Gangwal

    1999-03-29

    The Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) reaction provides a way of converting coal-derived synthesis gas (CO+H{sub 2}) to liquid fuels. Since the reaction is highly exothermic, one of the major problems in control of the reaction is heat removal. Recent work has shown that the use of slurry bubble column reactors (SBCRs) can largely solve this problem. Iron-based (Fe) catalysts are preferred catalysts for F-T when using low CO/H2 ratio synthesis gases derived from modern coal gasifiers. This is because in addition to reasonable F-T activity, the F-T catalysts also possess high water gas shift (WGS) activity. However, a serious problem with the use of Fe catalysts in a SBCR is their tendency to undergo attrition. This can cause fouling/plugging of downstream filters and equipment, making the separation of catalyst from the oil/wax product very difficult if not impossible, and results in a steady loss of catalyst from the reactor. The objectives of this research are to develop a better understanding of the parameters affecting attrition resistance of Fe F-T catalysts suitable for use in SBCRs and to incorporate this understanding into the design of novel Fe catalysts having superior attrition resistance. Catalyst preparations will be based on the use of spray drying and will be scalable using commercially available equipment. The research will employ among other measurements, attrition testing and F-T synthesis, including long duration slurry reactor runs in order to ascertain the degree of success of the various preparations. The goal is to develop an Fe catalyst which can be used in a SBCR having only an internal filter for separation of the catalyst from the liquid product, without sacrificing F-T activity and selectivity. The effect of silica addition via coprecipitation and as a binder to a doubly promoted Fischer-Tropsch synthesis iron catalyst (100 Fe/5 Cu/4.2 K) was studied. The catalysts were prepared by coprecipitation, followed by binder addition and drying in a 1 m diameter, 2 m tall spray dryer. The binder silica content was varied from 0 to 20 wt %. A catalyst with 12 wt % binder silica was found to have the highest attrition resistance. F-T reaction studies over 100 hours in a fixed-bed reactor showed that this catalyst maintained around 95 % CO conversion with a methane selectivity of less than 7 wt % and a C5 + selectivity of greater than 73 wt %. The effect of adding precipitated silica from 0 to 20 parts by weight to this catalyst (containing 12 wt % binder silica) was also studied. Addition of precipitated silica was found to be detrimental to attrition resistance and resulted in increased methane and reduced wax formation. An HPR series of proprietary catalysts was prepared to further improve the attrition resistance. Based on the experience gained, a proprietary HPR-43 catalyst has been successfully spray dried in 500 g quantity. This catalyst showed 95 % CO conversion over 125 h and had less than 4 % methane selectivity. Its attrition resistance was one of the highest among the catalyst tested.

  19. Low-Risk and Cost-Effective Prior Savings Estimates for Large-Scale Energy Conservation Projects in Housing: Learning from the Fort Polk GHP Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shonder, John A; Hughes, Patrick; Thornton, Jeff W.

    1997-08-01

    Many opportunities exist for large-scale energy conservation projects in housing: military housing, federally-subsidized low-income housing, and planned communities (condominiums, townhomes, senior centers) to name a few. Energy savings performance contracting (ESPC) is now receiving greater attention, as a means to implement such projects. This paper proposes an improved method for prior (to construction) savings estimates for these projects. More accurate prior estimates reduce project risk, decrease financing costs, and help avoid post-construction legal disputes over performance contract baseline adjustments. The proposed approach to prior estimates is verified against data from Fort Polk, LA. In the course of evaluating the ESPC at Fort Polk, Louisiana, we have collected energy use data - both at the electrical feeder level and at the level of individual residences - which allowed us to develop calibrated engineering models which accurately predict pre-retrofit energy consumption. We believe that such calibrated models could be used to provide much more accurate estimates of energy savings in retrofit projects, particularly in cases where the energy consumption of large populations of housing can be captured on one or a few meters. The improved savings estimating approach described here is based on an engineering model calibrated to field-collected data from the pre-retrofit period. A dynamic model of pre-retrofit energy use was developed for all housing and non-housing loads on a complete electrical feeder at Fort Polk. The feeder serves 46 buildings containing a total of 200 individual apartments. Of the 46 buildings, there are three unique types, and among these types the only difference is compass orientation. The model included the heat transfer characteristics of the buildings, the pre-retrofit air source heat pump, a hot water consumption model and a profile for electrical use by lights and other appliances. Energy consumption for all 200 apartments was totaled, and by adjusting thermostat setpoints and outdoor air infiltration parameters, the models were matched to field-collected energy consumption data for the entire feeder. The energy conservation measures were then implemented in the calibrated model: the air source heat pumps were replaced by geothermal heat pumps (GHPs) with desuperheaters; hot water loads were reduced to account for the low-flow shower heads; and lighting loads were reduced to account for fixture delamping and replacement with compact fluorescent lights (CFLs). Our analysis of pre- and post-retrofit data (Shonder and Hughes, 1997) indicates that the retrofits have saved 30.3% of pre-retrofit electrical energy consumption on the feeder modeled in this paper. Using the method outlined, we have been able to predict this savings within 0.1% of its measured value, using only pre-construction energy consumption data, and data from one pilot test site. It is well-known that predictions of savings from energy conservation programs are often optimistic, especially in the case of residential retrofits. Fels and keating (1993) cite several examples of programs which achieved as little as 20% of the predicted energy savings. Factors which influence the sometimes large discrepancies between actual and predicted savings include changes in occupancy, take-back effects (in which more efficient system operation leads occupants to choose higher levels of comfort), and changes in base energy use (e.g. through purchase of additional appliances such as washing machines and clothes dryers). An even larger factor, perhaps, is the inaccuracy inherent in the engineering models (BLAST, DOE-2, etc.) commonly used to estimate building energy consumption, if these models are not first calibrated to site-monitored data. For example, prior estimates of base-wide savings from the Fort Polk ESPC were on the order of 40% of pre-retrofit electrical use; our analysis has shown the true savings for the entire project (which includes 16 separate electrical feeders) to be about 32%. It should be noted that the retrofits ca

  20. High Energy Efficiency Air Conditioning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edward McCullough; Patrick Dhooge; Jonathan Nimitz

    2003-12-31

    This project determined the performance of a new high efficiency refrigerant, Ikon B, in a residential air conditioner designed to use R-22. The refrigerant R-22, used in residential and small commercial air conditioners, is being phased out of production in developed countries beginning this year because of concerns regarding its ozone depletion potential. Although a replacement refrigerant, R-410A, is available, it operates at much higher pressure than R-22 and requires new equipment. R-22 air conditioners will continue to be in use for many years to come. Air conditioning is a large part of expensive summer peak power use in many parts of the U.S. Previous testing and computer simulations of Ikon B indicated that it would have 20 - 25% higher coefficient of performance (COP, the amount of cooling obtained per energy used) than R-22 in an air-cooled air conditioner. In this project, a typical new R-22 residential air conditioner was obtained, installed in a large environmental chamber, instrumented, and run both with its original charge of R-22 and then with Ikon B. In the environmental chamber, controlled temperature and humidity could be maintained to obtain repeatable and comparable energy use results. Tests with Ikon B included runs with and without a power controller, and an extended run for several months with subsequent analyses to check compatibility of Ikon B with the air conditioner materials and lubricant. Baseline energy use of the air conditioner with its original R-22 charge was measured at 90 deg F and 100 deg F. After changeover to Ikon B and a larger expansion orifice, energy use was measured at 90 deg F and 100 deg F. Ikon B proved to have about 19% higher COP at 90 deg F and about 26% higher COP at 100 deg F versus R-22. Ikon B had about 20% lower cooling capacity at 90 deg F and about 17% lower cooling capacity at 100 deg F versus R-22 in this system. All results over multiple runs were within 1% relative standard deviation (RSD). All of these values agree well with previous results and computer simulations of Ikon B performance versus R-22. The lower cooling capacity of Ikon B is not a concern unless a particular air conditioner is near its maximum cooling capacity in application. Typically, oversized A/C systems are installed by contractors to cover contingencies. In the extended run with Ikon B, which lasted about 4.5 months at 100 deg F ambient temperature and 68% compressor on time, the air conditioner performed well with no significant loss of energy efficiency. Post-run analysis of the refrigerant, compressor lubricant oil, compressor, compressor outlet tubing, and the filter/dryer showed minor effects but nothing that was considered significant. The project was very successful. All objectives were achieved, and the performance of Ikon B indicates that it can easily be retrofitted into R-22 air conditioners to give 15 - 20% energy savings and a 1 - 3 year payback of retrofit costs depending on location and use. Ikon B has the potential to be a successful commercial product.