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Sample records for dryer ash king

  1. Distribution of arsenic and mercury in lime spray dryer ash

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Panuwat Taerakul; Ping Sun; Danold W. Golightly; Harold W. Walker; Linda K. Weavers

    2006-08-15

    The partitioning of As and Hg in various components of lime spray dryer (LSD) ash samples from a coal-fired boiler was characterized to better understand the form and fate of these elements in flue gas desulfurization byproducts. LSD ash samples, collected from the McCracken Power Plant on the Ohio State University campus, were separated by a 140-mesh (106 {mu}m) sieve into two fractions: a fly-ash-/unburned-carbon-enriched fraction (> 106 {mu}m) and a calcium-enriched fraction (< 106 {mu}m). Unburned carbon and fly ash in the material > 106 {mu}m were subsequently separated by density using a lithium heteropolytungstate solution. The concentrations of As and Hg were significant in all fractions. The level of As was consistently greater in the calcium-enriched fraction, while Hg was evenly distributed in all components of LSD ash. Specific surface area was an important factor controlling the distribution of Hg in the different components of LSD ash, but not for As. Comparing the LSD ash data to samples collected from the economizer suggests that As was effectively captured by fly ash at 600{sup o}C, while Hg was not. Leaching tests demonstrated that As and Hg were more stable in the calcium-enriched fraction than in the fly-ash- or carbon-enriched fractions, potentially because of the greater pH of the leachate and subsequently greater stability of small amounts of calcium solids containing trace elements in these fractions. 37 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in lime spray dryer ash

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ping Sun; Panuwat Taerakul; Linda K. Weavers; Harold W. Walker

    2005-10-01

    Four lime spray dryer (LSD) ash samples were collected from a spreader stoker boiler and measured for their concentrations of 16 U.S. EPA specified polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Results showed that the total measured PAH concentration correlated with the organic carbon content of the LSD ash. Each LSD ash sample was then separated using a 140 mesh sieve into two fractions: a carbon-enriched fraction ({gt}140 mesh) and a lime-enriched fraction ({lt}140 mesh). Unburned carbon was further separated from the carbon-enriched fraction with a lithiumheteropolytungstate (LST) solution. PAH measurements on these different fractions showed that unburned carbon had the highest PAH concentrations followed by the carbon-enriched fraction, indicating that PAHs were primarily associated with the carbonaceous material in LSD ash. However, detectable levels of PAHs were also found in the lime-enriched fraction, suggesting that the fine spray of slaked lime may sorb PAH compounds from the flue gas in the LSD process. 37 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  3. Commercial Demonstration of the Manufactured Aggregate Processing Technology Utilizing Spray Dryer Ash

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Milton Wu; Paul Yuran

    2006-12-31

    Universal Aggregates LLC (UA) was awarded a cost sharing Co-operative Agreement from the Department of Energy (DOE) through the Power Plant Improvement Initiative Program (PPII) to design, construct and operate a lightweight aggregate manufacturing plant at the Birchwood Power Facility in King George, Virginia in October 2001. The Agreement was signed in November 2002. The installation and start-up expenses for the Birchwood Aggregate Facility are $19.5 million. The DOE share is $7.2 million (37%) and the UA share is $12.3 million (63%). The original project team consists of UA, SynAggs, LLC, CONSOL Energy Inc. and P. J. Dick, Inc. Using 115,000 ton per year of spray dryer ash (SDA), a dry FGD by-product from the power station, UA will produce 167,000 tons of manufactured lightweight aggregate for use in production of concrete masonry units (CMU). Manufacturing aggregate from FGD by-products can provide an economical high-volume use and substantially expand market for FGD by-products. Most of the FGD by-products are currently disposed of in landfills. Construction of the Birchwood Aggregate Facility was completed in March 2004. Operation startup was begun in April 2004. Plant Integration was initiated in December 2004. Integration includes mixing, extrusion, curing, crushing and screening. Lightweight aggregates with proper size gradation and bulk density were produced from the manufacturing aggregate plant and loaded on a stockpile for shipment. The shipped aggregates were used in a commercial block plant for CMU production. However, most of the production was made at low capacity factors and for a relatively short time in 2005. Several areas were identified as important factors to improve plant capacity and availability. Equipment and process control modifications and curing vessel clean up were made to improve plant operation in the first half of 2006. About 3,000 tons of crushed aggregate was produced in August 2006. UA is continuing to work to improve plant availability and throughput capacity and to produce quality lightweight aggregate for use in commercial applications.

  4. Jamie King

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Jamie King Keeping an Eye on Laser Safety Jamie King Jamie King When opportunity knocks, ... at what he considers the "center of the (laser) universe": serving as laser safety ...

  5. EA-1449: Final Environmental Assessment

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Commercial Demonstration of the Manufactured Aggregate Processing Technology Utilizing Spray Dryer Ash, King George County, Virginia

  6. EA-1449: Finding of No Significant Impact

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Commercial Demonstration of the Manufactured Aggregate Processing Technology Utilizing Spray Dryer Ash, King George County, Virgina

  7. Ultrasonic Clothes Dryer

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Ultrasonic Clothes Dryer 2016 Building Technologies Office PI: Ayyoub M. Momen, momena@ornl.gov Oak Ridge National Laboratory Peer Review Industrial Partner General Electric Subcontractor University of Florida *Source: SEDI, 2012 Cold mist Piezoelectric oscillator 2 Project Summary Timeline: Start date: Sept 1, 2014 (FY 2015) Planned end date: March 31, 2017 Key Milestones 1. Develop and test a small-scale demo proof of the concept prototype and further validate the model -GO/NO GO(9/30/2015) 2.

  8. Clothes Dryer Automatic Termination Sensor Evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    TeGrotenhuis, Ward E.

    2014-10-01

    Volume 1: Characterization of Energy Use in Residential Clothes Dryers. The efficacy and energy efficiency of clothes dryers are studied in this evaluation.

  9. Evaluation of Ohio fly ash/hydrated lime slurries and Type 1 cement sorbent slurries in the U.C. Pilot spray dryer facility. Final report, September 1, 1993--August 31, 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keener, T.C.; Khang, S.J.; Meyers, G.R.

    1995-02-01

    The objectives of this year`s work included an evaluation of the performance of fly ash/hydrated lime as well as hydrated cement sorbents for spray drying adsorption (SDA) of SO{sub 2} from a simulated high-sulfur flue gas. These sorbents were evaluated for several different hydration methods, and under different SDA operating conditions. In addition, the physical properties of surface area and porosity of the sorbents was determined. The most reactive fly ash/hydrated lime sorbent studied was prepared at room temperature with milled fly ash. Milling fly ash prior to hydration with lime did have a beneficial effect on calcium utilization. No benefit in utilization was experienced either by hydrating the slurries at a temperature of 90{degrees}C as compared to hydration at room temperature, or by increasing hydration time. While the surface areas varied greatly from sorbent to sorbent, the pore size distributions indicated ``ink bottle`` pores with surface porosity on the order of 0.5 microns. No correlation could be drawn between the surface area of the sorbents and calcium utilization. These results suggest that the composition of the resulting sorbent might be more important than its surface area. The most effective sorbent studied this year was produced by hydrating cement for 3 days at room temperature. This sorbent provided a removal efficiency and a calcium utilization over 25 percent higher than baseline results at an approach to saturation temperature of 30{degrees}F and a stoichiometric ratio of 0.9. A maximum SO{sub 2} removal efficiency of about 90 percent was experienced with this sorbent at an approach to saturation temperature of 20{degrees}F.

  10. Jeremy King | Photosynthetic Antenna Research Center

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Jeremy King Jeremy King Jeremy King Graduate Student E-mail: jdking@wustl.edu Website: Washington University Graduate

  11. Treatment of fly ash for use in concrete

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boxley, Chett

    2012-05-15

    A process for treating fly ash to render it highly usable as a concrete additive. A quantity of fly ash is obtained that contains carbon and which is considered unusable fly ash for concrete based upon foam index testing. The fly ash is mixed with a quantity of spray dryer ash (SDA) and water to initiate a geopolymerization reaction and form a geopolymerized fly ash. The geopolymerized fly ash is granulated. The geopolymerized fly ash is considered usable fly ash for concrete according to foam index testing. The geopolymerized fly ash may have a foam index less than 40%, and in some cases less than 20%, of the foam index of the untreated fly ash. An optional alkaline activator may be mixed with the fly ash and SDA to facilitate the geopolymerization reaction. The alkaline activator may contain an alkali metal hydroxide, carbonate, silicate, aluminate, or mixtures thereof.

  12. Clothes Dryer Automatic Termination Evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    TeGrotenhuis, Ward E.

    2014-10-01

    Volume 2: Improved Sensor and Control Designs Many residential clothes dryers on the market today provide automatic cycles that are intended to stop when the clothes are dry, as determined by the final remaining moisture content (RMC). However, testing of automatic termination cycles has shown that many dryers are susceptible to over-drying of loads, leading to excess energy consumption. In particular, tests performed using the DOE Test Procedure in Appendix D2 of 10 CFR 430 subpart B have shown that as much as 62% of the energy used in a cycle may be from over-drying. Volume 1 of this report shows an average of 20% excess energy from over-drying when running automatic cycles with various load compositions and dryer settings. Consequently, improving automatic termination sensors and algorithms has the potential for substantial energy savings in the U.S.

  13. King Mountain | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Mountain Jump to: navigation, search Name King Mountain Facility King Mountain Sector Wind energy Facility Type Commercial Scale Wind Facility Status In Service Owner NextEra...

  14. King_1983.pdf

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    King County Metro Transit Hybrid Articulated Buses: Interim Evaluation Results K. Chandler Battelle K. Walkowicz National Renewable Energy Laboratory Technical Report NREL/TP-540-39742 April 2006 King County Metro Transit Hybrid Articulated Buses: Interim Evaluation Results K. Chandler Battelle K. Walkowicz National Renewable Energy Laboratory Prepared under Task No. FC06.3000 Technical Report NREL/TP-540-39742 April 2006 National Renewable Energy Laboratory 1617 Cole Boulevard, Golden, Colorado

  15. Aq Dryers Agricultural Drying Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Aq Dryers Agricultural Drying Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Aq Dryers Agricultural Drying Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Aq...

  16. Spray-dryer spent-sorbent hazardous-waste fixating and cementitious properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schultz, T.D.; Berger, R.L.; Fishbein, K.

    1989-03-01

    The primary purpose of the project was to develop a use for the spent sorbent from a spray dryer flue gas desulfurization system. In addition to spent sorbent, fly ash was included in the utilization schemes because it is a byproduct of coal combustion and because it is a pozzolan. It would be helpful to find uses for these two substances and thus decrease the amount of land needed for their disposal and help offset the costs of flue gas desulfurization.

  17. Centrifugal dryers keep pace with the market

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fiscor, S.

    2008-03-15

    New plant design and upgrades create a shift in dewatering strategies. The article describes recent developments. Three major manufacturers supply centrifugal dryers - TEMA, Centrifugal & Mechanical Industries (CMI) and Ludowici. CMI introduced a line of vertical centrifugal dryers. TEMA improved the techniques by developing a horizontal vibratory centrifuge (HVC) which simplified maintenance. 3 figs., 1 photo.

  18. Spray dryer capacity stretched 50%

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paraskevas, J.

    1983-01-01

    This article describes plant equipment modifications which has resulted in a 50% increase in spray drying capacity. The installation of a new atomizer and screening system in NL Chemicals' Newberry Springs plant which produces natural clays for use as rheological additives in industrial coatings, cosmetics and other products, resulted in a 50% increase in spray drying capacity. Energy consumption per pound of product was reduced by 7%, and product quality improved. This was achieved in less than three months at an investment of less than 10% of what an additional spray dryer would have cost.

  19. Christopher King | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Christopher King About Us Christopher King - Principal Deputy Assistant Secretary Christopher King Christopher King is the Principal Deputy Assistant Secretary for the Office of Congressional and Intergovernmental Affairs at the U.S. Department of Energy. Here he provides strategic advice to the Secretary and Departmental leadership on engagement with the U.S. Congress, state, tribal, city and county governments, other Federal agencies, and key external stakeholders, enhancing the Department's

  20. bib-aggregate | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Utilizing Spray Dryer Ash - Project Brief PDF-72KB Universal Aggregates, LLC, King George County, VA PROJECT FACT SHEET Commercial Demonstration of the Manufactured...

  1. BTO Partners Develop Novel, Energy-efficient Thermoelectric Clothes Dryer

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Prototype | Department of Energy Partners Develop Novel, Energy-efficient Thermoelectric Clothes Dryer Prototype BTO Partners Develop Novel, Energy-efficient Thermoelectric Clothes Dryer Prototype April 18, 2016 - 1:29pm Addthis A new thermoelectric clothes dryer being developed by Oak Ridge National Lab and Sheetak, Inc. could yield a 38% reduction in energy use compared to current dryers, which could save 356 TBtu of energy per year. A new thermoelectric clothes dryer being developed by

  2. Novel Energy-Efficient Thermoelectric Clothes Dryer | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy-Efficient Thermoelectric Clothes Dryer Novel Energy-Efficient Thermoelectric Clothes Dryer A new thermoelectric clothes dryer being developed by Oak Ridge National Lab and Sheetak, Inc. could yield a 38% reduction in energy use compared to current dryers, which could save 356 TBtu of energy per year. Credit: Oak Ridge National Laboratory. A new thermoelectric clothes dryer being developed by Oak Ridge National Lab and Sheetak, Inc. could yield a 38% reduction in energy use compared to

  3. Improving Dryer and Press Efficiencies Through Combustion of Hydrocarbon Emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sujit Banerjee

    2005-10-31

    Emission control devices on dryers and presses have been legislated into the industry, and are now an integral part of the drying system. These devices consume large quantities of natural gas and electricity and down-sizing or eliminating them will provide major energy savings. The principal strategy taken here focuses on developing process changes that should minimize (and in some cases eliminate) the need for controls. A second approach is to develop lower-cost control options. It has been shown in laboratory and full-scale work that Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAPs) emerge mainly at the end of the press cycle for particleboard, and, by extension, to other prod-ucts. Hence, only the air associated with this point of the cycle need be captured and treated. A model for estimating terpene emissions in the various zones of veneer dryers has been developed. This should allow the emissions to be concentrated in some zones and minimized in others, so that some of the air could be directly released without controls. Low-cost catalysts have been developed for controlling HAPs from dryers and presses. Catalysts conventionally used for regenerative catalytic oxidizers can be used at much lower temperatures for treating press emissions. Fluidized wood ash is an especially inexpensive mate-rial for efficiently reducing formaldehyde in dryer emissions. A heat transfer model for estimating pinene emissions from hot-pressing strand for the manufacture of flakeboard has been constructed from first principles and validated. The model shows that most of the emissions originate from the 1-mm layer of wood adjoining the platen surface. Hence, a simple control option is to surface a softwood mat with a layer of hardwood prior to pressing. Fines release a disproportionate large quantity of HAPs, and it has been shown both theo-retically and in full-scale work that particles smaller than 400 ???µm are principally responsible. Georgia-Pacific is considering green-screening their furnish at several of their mills in order to remove these particles and reduce their treatment costs.

  4. Alexander H. King, Director

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Alexa McClanahan About Us Alexa McClanahan - Communications Support Contractor to ARPA-E ALexa McClanahan is a Communications Support Contractor to the Department's Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA-E). Most Recent Urban Electric Power Takes Energy Storage from Startup to Grid-Scale June 25 ARPA-E and the Military Team Up on New Technologies and Summit Partnerships January 31 ARPA-E's 19 New Projects Focus on Battery Management and Storage August 7

    Alexander H. King, Director 134

  5. Kings River Conservation Dist | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Kings River Conservation Dist Jump to: navigation, search Name: Kings River Conservation Dist Place: California Phone Number: 559-237-5567 Website: www.krcd.org Facebook: https:...

  6. Novel Ultra-Low-Energy Consumption Ultrasonic Clothes Dryer ...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Novel Ultra-Low-Energy Consumption Ultrasonic Clothes Dryer Novel Ultra-Low-Energy Consumption Ultrasonic Clothes Dryer Watch the ultrasonic technology dry a piece of fabric in 14 ...

  7. BTO Partners are Revolutionizing Refrigerators and Clothes Dryers |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Partners are Revolutionizing Refrigerators and Clothes Dryers BTO Partners are Revolutionizing Refrigerators and Clothes Dryers April 14, 2015 - 3:18pm Addthis Oak Ridge National Lab’s Ayyoub Momen demonstrates ultrasonic clothes dryer technology for David Danielson, Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Oak Ridge National Lab's Ayyoub Momen demonstrates ultrasonic clothes dryer technology for David Danielson, Assistant Secretary for

  8. Energy Efficient Clothes Dryer with IR Heating and Electrostatic

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Precipitator | Department of Energy Efficient Clothes Dryer with IR Heating and Electrostatic Precipitator Energy Efficient Clothes Dryer with IR Heating and Electrostatic Precipitator This project seeks to demonstrate a ventless residential dryer with an energy factor greater than 4.04.<br /> Photo credit: GE Global Research This project seeks to demonstrate a ventless residential dryer with an energy factor greater than 4.04. Photo credit: GE Global Research Project team members left

  9. DOE/EA-XXXX

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    49 ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT Commercial Demonstration of the Manufactured Aggregate Processing Technology Utilizing Spray Dryer Ash, King George County, Virginia United States Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory August 2002 Commercial Demonstration of the Manufactured Aggregate Processing Technology Utilizing Spray-dryer Ash, King George County, Virginia ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT 2 National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Compliance Cover Sheet Proposed Action: The proposed

  10. An experimental study of flue gas desulfurization in a pilot spray dryer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ollero, P.; Salvador, L.; Canadas, L.

    1997-12-31

    More than 45 experimental tests have been conducted on a 10,000 Nm{sup 3}/h spray-drying desulfurization pilot plant. The effects of SO{sub 2} and fly ash concentration, Ca/S ratio, approach to saturation temperature, unit load changes, and the utilization of seawater as make-up water on both spray dryer behavior and treated flue gas properties were analyzed. This experimental study allows us to reach some conclusions about how to achieve optimum operating conditions and to assess the impact of spray drying on a downstream ESP. 5 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Polar King: Order (2013-CE-5328)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE ordered Polar King International Inc. to pay a $8,000 civil penalty after finding Polar King had failed to certify that certain models of walk-in cooler and freezer components comply with the applicable energy conservation standards.

  12. Energy Efficient Clothes Dryer with IR Heating and Electrostatic...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    ... Research Related Publications PDF icon 2016 BTO Peer Review Presentation-Energy-Efficient Clothes Dryer with IR Heating and Electrostatic Precipitator More Documents & ...

  13. Steam generator with integral downdraft dryer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hochmuth, F.W.

    1992-02-01

    On June 30, 1989, a financial assistance award was granted by the United State Department of Energy, the purpose of which was to study and evaluate the technical aspect, the economic viability, and commercial possibilities of a new furnace design for burning high moisture cellulose type fuels. The new design is an invention by F.W. Hochmuth, P.Eng. and has received United States Patents Nos. 4,480, 557 and 4,502,397. It was conceived as a method to improve the general operation and efficiency of waste wood burning boilers, to avoid the use of stabilizing fuels such as oil or gas, and to reduce objectionable stack emissions. A further objective was to obtain such benefits at relatively low cost by integrating all new material requirements within the furnace itself thereby avoiding the need for costly external equipment. The proposed integral down-draft dryer avoids the use of external dryer systems that are very expensive, have high power consumption, and require a large amount of maintenance. This document provides the details of this invention.

  14. bib-aggregate | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Commercial Demonstration of the Manufactured Aggregate Processing Technology Utilizing Spray Dryer Ash - Project Brief [PDF-72KB] Universal Aggregates, LLC, King George County, VA PROJECT FACT SHEET Commercial Demonstration of the Manufactured Aggregate Processing Technology Utilizing Spray Dryer Ash [PDF-412KB] (Feb 2008) PROGRAM PUBLICATIONS Final Report Commercial Demonstration of the Manufactured Aggregate Processing Technology Utilizing Spray Dryer Absorber Ash [PDF-4.5MB] (Nov 2007) CCT

  15. NREL Wins Martin Luther King Award

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Wins Martin Luther King Award For more information contact: e:mail: Public Affairs Golden, Colo., January 10, 1996 -- The U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has won the Martin Luther King, Jr. Business Social Responsibility Award for its support of minority and women-owned small businesses in Colorado. The annual award recognizes businesses and individuals who best exemplify the life and spirit of Martin Luther King, Jr. and who demonstrate ongoing community

  16. Ultrasonic Clothes Dryer--No Heat Needed | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Ultrasonic Clothes Dryer--No Heat Needed Ultrasonic Clothes Dryer--No Heat Needed Addthis Description Below is the text version for Good Vibrations: No Heat Needed for Ultrasonic Dryers. Text Version The video opens with a shot of a research laboratory, with scientists talking and working in front of a row of electronics. Ayyoub Momen-Oak Ridge Staff Scientist This is going to be a game-changing technology. Viral Patel-Post Doctoral Research Associate Just the name sounds amazing: ultrasonic

  17. Rev. Martin Luther King, Jr. Commemorative Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    All employees are invited to the Department’s 2014 Commemorative Program honoring the late Rev. Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. on January 22, 2014 at 11 am.

  18. Contacts: Alex King, Director, Critical Materials Institute,...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Institute researchers named Most Influential Scientific Minds of 2014 Contacts: Alex King, Director, Critical Materials Institute, (515) 296-4505 Laura Millsaps, Public Affairs,...

  19. Meet CMI Director Alex King | Critical Materials Institute

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Director Alex King CMI Director Alex King CMI Director Alex King was born and raised in London. He attended the University of Sheffield as an undergraduate and earned his doctorate...

  20. Good Vibrations: No Heat Needed for Ultrasonic Dryers | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Vibrations: No Heat Needed for Ultrasonic Dryers Good Vibrations: No Heat Needed for Ultrasonic Dryers May 10, 2016 - 3:30pm Addthis With support from the Energy Department's Building Technologies Office, Oak Ridge National Laboratory and GE Appliances are changing the way Americans do laundry with their ultrasonic drying technology that uses vibrations, not heat, to dry fabric. What does this project do? With support from the Energy Department's Building Technologies Office, Oak

  1. Xiamien King Long United Automotive Industry Suzhou | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Xiamien King Long United Automotive Industry Suzhou Jump to: navigation, search Name: Xiamien King Long United Automotive Industry (Suzhou) Place: Suzhou, Fujian Province, China...

  2. King Mountain Wind Ranch I | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Mountain Wind Ranch I Jump to: navigation, search Name King Mountain Wind Ranch I Facility King Mountain Wind Ranch Sector Wind energy Facility Type Commercial Scale Wind Facility...

  3. City of King Cove, Alaska (Utility Company) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    King Cove, Alaska (Utility Company) Jump to: navigation, search Name: City of King Cove Place: Alaska Phone Number: (907) 497-2340 Website: www.cityofkingcove.comfinance Outage...

  4. City of Kings Mountain, North Carolina (Utility Company) | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Kings Mountain, North Carolina (Utility Company) Jump to: navigation, search Name: City of Kings Mountain Place: North Carolina Phone Number: 704.730.2125 Website:...

  5. Polar King: Proposed Penalty (2013-CE-5328)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE alleged in a Notice of Proposed Civil Penalty that Polar King International Inc. failed to certify a variety of walk-in cooler or freezer components as compliant with the applicable energy conservation standards.

  6. Charging Up in King County, Washington

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    King County, Washington is spearheading a regional effort to develop a network of electric vehicle charging stations. It is also improving its vehicle fleet and made significant improvements to a...

  7. Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. Birthday Celebration

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Today, Dr. King is memorialized on the National Mall where he once spoke, a symbol of how far our Nation has come and a testament to the quiet heroes whose names may never appear in history books,...

  8. Charging Up in King County, Washington

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Constantine, Dow; Oliver, LeAnn; Inslee, Jay; Sahandy, Sheida; Posthuma, Ron; Morrison, David;

    2013-05-29

    King County, Washington is spearheading a regional effort to develop a network of electric vehicle charging stations. It is also improving its vehicle fleet and made significant improvements to a low-income senior housing development.

  9. DR. MARTIN L. KING, JR. BIRTHDAY CELEBRATION

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The MLK Day of Service is a way to transform Rev. Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.’s life and teachings into community action that helps solve social problems. Rev. Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. was a vital figure of the modern era and a pivotal figure in the Civil Rights Movement. His lectures and dialogues stirred the concern and sparked the conscience of a generation.

  10. COMMERCIAL DEMONSTRATION OF THE MANUFACTURED AGGREGATE PROCESSING TECHNOLOGY UTILIZING SPRAY DRYER ASH

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roy Scandrol

    2003-10-01

    This quarterly report covers the period from July 1st, 2003 through September 30th, 2003. It covers; technical development, permitting status, engineering status, construction status, operations summary and marketing support activities for this period.

  11. Activation of fly ash

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Corbin, David R.; Velenyi, Louis J.; Pepera, Marc A.; Dolhyj, Serge R.

    1986-01-01

    Fly ash is activated by heating a screened magnetic fraction of the ash in a steam atmosphere and then reducing, oxidizing and again reducing the hydrothermally treated fraction. The activated fly ash can be used as a carbon monoxide disproportionating catalyst useful in the production of hydrogen and methane.

  12. Activation of fly ash

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Corbin, D.R.; Velenyi, L.J.; Pepera, M.A.; Dolhyj, S.R.

    1986-08-19

    Fly ash is activated by heating a screened magnetic fraction of the ash in a steam atmosphere and then reducing, oxidizing and again reducing the hydrothermally treated fraction. The activated fly ash can be used as a carbon monoxide disproportionating catalyst useful in the production of hydrogen and methane.

  13. CMI Webinar: Alex King and Stacy Joiner, December 2015 | Critical...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Alex King and Stacy Joiner, December 2015 The CMI webinar on December 9, 2015, featured Alex King and Stacy Joiner discussing the updates to the CMI Affiliate Membership Program...

  14. USDOE's Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. Commemorative Program

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Secretary Steven Chu; Deputy Secretary Daniel Poneman; Dot Harris; Congressman John Lewis; Clay Middleton; Neile Miller

    2013-02-14

    Video presentation of the Department of Energy?s 2013 commemorative program honoring Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.

  15. Management of Spent Dessicant from Vapour Recovery Dryers

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Management of Spent Desiccant from Vapour Recovery Dryers Armando Antoniazzi Tritium Focus Group Meeting April 2014 www.kinectrics.com http://blog.kinectrics.com Life Cycle Management Solutions for the Electricity Industry *Request information from members of the tritium handling community *Specifically, practices associated with handling and disposal of tritiated molecular sieves *Use of molecular sieves to trap tritiated water is a familiar technology in the tritium handling community

  16. Sorbent utilization studies using a mini-pilot spray dryer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keener, T.C.; Khang, S.J.; Yang, Q. )

    1992-07-01

    The objectives of project 1.5 were to design, construct and evaluate (by means of parametric testing) a mini-pilot spray dryer facility. To date, the mini-pilot facility has been designed and is currently 100% constructed. The unit was evaluated based on such parameters as air flow rate, uniformity, residence time, Ca(OH)[sub 2] Slurry concentration the nozzle can handle, heater's heating capacity and the baseline SO[sub 2] removal efficiency. The mini-pilot facility will allow research in all aspects of spray drying fluid gas desulfurization. The unit was designed for a nominal gas flow rate of 100 scfm (3 n[sup 3]/min) and will be able be used with either nozzle spray or rotary atomization. In addition, a theoretical modeling of spray drying has been completed. Results of the simulation indicate that counter-current (referring to air flow) spray pattern will benefit in overall SO[sub 2] removal with respect to co-current spray pattern. This result needs to be further tested in the pilot scale spray dryer. Baseline testing has indicated that the mini-pilot plant provides data which is comparable to that from the large scale spray dryer facility at the Electric Power Research Institute's High Sulfur Test Facility. The results of these baseline tests have shown that SO[sub 2] removal efficiency increases with a decrease in the approach to saturation temperature, or an increase in lime stoichiometric ratio (at a constant approach to saturation temperature).

  17. Fly ash carbon passivation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    La Count, Robert B; Baltrus, John P; Kern, Douglas G

    2013-05-14

    A thermal method to passivate the carbon and/or other components in fly ash significantly decreases adsorption. The passivated carbon remains in the fly ash. Heating the fly ash to about 500 and 800 degrees C. under inert gas conditions sharply decreases the amount of surfactant adsorbed by the fly ash recovered after thermal treatment despite the fact that the carbon content remains in the fly ash. Using oxygen and inert gas mixtures, the present invention shows that a thermal treatment to about 500 degrees C. also sharply decreases the surfactant adsorption of the recovered fly ash even though most of the carbon remains intact. Also, thermal treatment to about 800 degrees C. under these same oxidative conditions shows a sharp decrease in surfactant adsorption of the recovered fly ash due to the fact that the carbon has been removed. This experiment simulates the various "carbon burnout" methods and is not a claim in this method. The present invention provides a thermal method of deactivating high carbon fly ash toward adsorption of AEAs while retaining the fly ash carbon. The fly ash can be used, for example, as a partial Portland cement replacement in air-entrained concrete, in conductive and other concretes, and for other applications.

  18. King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology Jump to: navigation, search Name: King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology Place: Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Zip: 11442 Sector: Solar...

  19. Honoring the Legacy of Martin Luther King Jr.

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Employees across the Department honored Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. on Tuesday, saluting the civil rights legend during a lively ceremony at Department headquarters.

  20. Kings River Conservation District (KRCD) Solar Farm Solar Power...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    River Conservation District (KRCD) Solar Farm Solar Power Plant Jump to: navigation, search Name Kings River Conservation District (KRCD) Solar Farm Solar Power Plant Facility...

  1. Kings County, California: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Kings County, California: Energy Resources Jump to: navigation, search Equivalent URI DBpedia Coordinates 36.0988489, -119.8815203 Show Map Loading map... "minzoom":false,"map...

  2. A Shining Example of Dr. King's legacy | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    A Shining Example of Dr. King's legacy A Shining Example of Dr. King's legacy January 9, 2013 - 11:27am Addthis A Shining Example of Dr. King’s legacy Kathy Chambers Senior Science and Technical Information Specialist, OSTI Editor's Note: This blog was originally posted on OSTI's blog. As America celebrates Martin Luther King's birthday and focuses on how far this nation has come for all people, the Energy Department's .EDUconnections is pleased to honor Delaware State University (DSU). DSU

  3. Steam generator with integral downdraft dryer. Final project report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hochmuth, F.W.

    1992-02-01

    On June 30, 1989, a financial assistance award was granted by the United State Department of Energy, the purpose of which was to study and evaluate the technical aspect, the economic viability, and commercial possibilities of a new furnace design for burning high moisture cellulose type fuels. The new design is an invention by F.W. Hochmuth, P.Eng. and has received United States Patents Nos. 4,480, 557 and 4,502,397. It was conceived as a method to improve the general operation and efficiency of waste wood burning boilers, to avoid the use of stabilizing fuels such as oil or gas, and to reduce objectionable stack emissions. A further objective was to obtain such benefits at relatively low cost by integrating all new material requirements within the furnace itself thereby avoiding the need for costly external equipment. The proposed integral down-draft dryer avoids the use of external dryer systems that are very expensive, have high power consumption, and require a large amount of maintenance. This document provides the details of this invention.

  4. Comparison between MSW ash and RDF ash from incineration process

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Conference) | SciTech Connect Comparison between MSW ash and RDF ash from incineration process Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Comparison between MSW ash and RDF ash from incineration process Resource recovery plants with waste sorting process prior to incineration have not been successfully developed in many developing countries. The reuse potential of incineration ash in light of toxicity and compressive strength remains unclear due to the inhomogeneous composition and higher

  5. Steam atmosphere dryer project: System development and field test. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1999-02-01

    The objective of this project was to develop and demonstrate the use of a superheated steam atmosphere dryer as a highly improved alternative to conventional hot air-drying systems, the present industrial standard method for drying various wet feedstocks. The development program plan consisted of three major activities. The first was engineering analysis and testing of a small-scale laboratory superheated steam dryer. This dryer provided the basic engineering heat transfer data necessary to design a large-scale system. The second major activity consisted of the design, fabrication, and laboratory checkout testing of the field-site prototype superheated steam dryer system. The third major activity consisted of the installation and testing of the complete 250-lb/hr evaporation rate dryer and a 30-kW cogeneration system in conjunction with an anaerobic digester facility at the Village of Bergen, NY. Feedstock for the digester facility at the Village of Bergen, NY. Feedstock for the digester was waste residue from a nearby commercial food processing plant. The superheated steam dryer system was placed into operation in August 1996 and operated successfully through March 1997. During this period, the dryer processed all the material from the digester to a powdered consistency usable as a high-nitrogen-based fertilizer.

  6. Pollution control by spray dryer and electron beam treatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bush, J.R.

    1983-02-08

    A combination spray drying and electron beam treatment for effluent gases provides air pollution control for even high sulfur coals. Liquid and a reagent are injected into the effluent gas in the spray dryer, thereby cleansing the effluent gas, decreasing its temperature, and increasing its moisture content. The spray drying decreases the temperature at least to below 100/sup 0/ C and, most preferably, to between 60 and 70/sup 0/ C. The decreased temperature, increased moisture content effluent gas including both reacted compounds and unreacted reagent is conveyed into an irradiation chamber, whereat radiation causes the gaseous sulfur oxides and/or nitrogen oxides to convert into mist and/or solid particles. The unreacted reagent may then react with the acid mist. The effluent gases are then subjected to dry particular collection.

  7. Observations of flow patterns in a spray dryer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Southwell, D.B.; Langrish, T.A.G.

    2000-03-01

    Experiments have been performed on a pilot scale, cylinder-on-cone spray dryer fitted with a vaned-wheel atomizer to observe air flow patterns, with and without water spray. A combination of tufts, smoke streams and a laser light sheet, was used to provide information about regions of recirculation, flow stability, spray trajectories and wall deposition. While atomizer-induced swirl dominated the flow patterns under typical operating conditions, some instability was observed, although different in type, for situations with and without atomizer rotation. Clockwise eddies were observed to form and collapse between the wall and the strongly anti-clockwise swirling core created by anti-clockwise atomizer rotation. Without swirl, large portions of the recirculation zones at the walls were observed to have a weak tendency to change randomly between clockwise, anti-clockwise and chaotic behavior.

  8. A novel radio frequency assisted heat pump dryer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marshall, M.G.; Metaxas, A.C.

    1999-09-01

    This paper compares an experimental heat pump batch dryer with the implementation of volumetric Radio Frequency (RF) heating, in the combination drying of crushed brick particulate. Results are presented showing overall improvements in drying. A simplified mathematical drying model including the RF energy source has been developed using mass and energy conservation, confirming the experimental results. Drying is a widespread, energy intensive industrial unit operation. The economics of a drying process operation largely depend upon the dryers performance and ultimately the cost of energy consumption. To enhance the performance of a drying system, the damp air stream that exits the drying chamber can be recycled to reclaim the enthalpy of evaporation that it carries, by using a heat pump (Hodgett, 1976). However, because the medium that dries is still warm air, this system also suffers from heat transfer limitations, particularly towards the falling drying rate period. Such limitations in drying performance can be overcome with the use of Radio Frequency (RF) energy which generates heat volumetrically within the wet material by the combined mechanisms of dipole rotation and conduction effects which speeds up the drying process (Metaxas et al, 1983). Despite the clear advantages that heat pumps and high frequency heating offer for drying, the combination of these two techniques until recently has not been studied (Kolly et al, 1990; Marshall et al, 1995).A series of experiments carried out comprising a motor driven heat pump which was retro-fitted with the ability of imparting RF energy into a material at various stages of the drying cycle are described and compared with a mathematical model.

  9. Press and Dryer Roll Surgaces and Web Transfer Systems for Ultra High Paper Maching Speeds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    T. F. Patterson

    2004-03-15

    The objective of the project was to provide fundamental knowledge and diagnostic tools needed to design new technologies that will allow ultra high speed web transfer from press rolls and dryer cylinders.

  10. GE Partners with Lab on Ultrasonic Clothes Dryer | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    GE Partners with Lab on Ultrasonic Clothes Dryer GE Partners with Lab on Ultrasonic Clothes Dryer Addthis Description This video tells how a partnership between Oak Ridge National Laboratory and GE Appliances--with support from the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy's (EERE's) Building Technologies Office-is changing the way Americans do laundry with their ultrasonic drying technology that uses vibrations, not heat, to dry fabric. Text Version This is going to be a game-changing

  11. DOE - NNSA/NFO -- News & Views Huron King

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Huron King Photo - The 'Huron King' six seconds after test detonation. A rare type of Vertical Line of Sight (VLOS) underground test was conducted by the Defense Nuclear Agency on June 24, 1980. The "Huron King" test used a nuclear device of less than 20 kilotons. The VLOS design involved placing the nuclear device at the bottom of the shaft with a communications satellite and other experiments in an above-ground test chamber to simulate a space environment. At zero time, the radiation

  12. Engineering Model for Ash Formation

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1994-12-02

    Ash deposition is controlled by the impaction and sticking of individual ash particles to heat transfer surfaces. Prediction of deposition therefore requires that the important factors in this process be predictable from coal and operational parameters. Coal combustion, boiler heat transfer, ash formation, ash particle aerodynamic, and ash particle sticking models are all essential steps in this process. The model described herein addresses the prediction of ash particle size and composition distributions based upon combustionmore » conditions and coal parameters. Key features of the model include a mineral redistribution routine to invert CCSEM mineralogical data, and a mineral interaction routine that simulates the conversion of mineral matter into ash during coal burning and yields ash particle size and composition distributions.« less

  13. SOUTHEASTERN FEDERAL POWER ALLIANCE Martin Luther King, Jr. Federal...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Martin Luther King, Jr. Federal Building 77 Forsyth Street SW, Atlanta, GA 30303 November 6, 2014 November 5, 2014: Meet at the Glenn Hotel lobby at 6:00 p.m. to walk to...

  14. Sandia National Laboratories: Dr. King's dream continues to motivate...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    grouped together either vertically or horizontally and were velvet hangings or framed art. Most of the cities near me had a Martin Luther King Drive in the black community....

  15. King County Metro Transit Hybrid Articulated Buses: Final Evaluation Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chandler, K.; Walkowicz, K.

    2006-12-01

    Final technical report compares and evaluates new diesel and diesel hybrid-electric articulated buses operated as part of the King County Metro Transit (KC Metro) fleet in Seattle, Washington. The evaluation lasted 12 months.

  16. Beep Beep! King County, Washington Is Charging Up Savings

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    King County uses $6.1 million to make investments that dramatically reduce energy waste, improve the quality of life for the residents of an area senior housing community, and lead regional efforts to install electric vehicle charging stations.

  17. King of Prussia, Pennsylvania: Energy Resources | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Hide Map This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. King of Prussia is a census-designated place in Montgomery County, Pennsylvania.1...

  18. King and Queen County, Virginia: Energy Resources | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Hide Map This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. King and Queen County is a county in Virginia. Its FIPS County Code is 097. It is classified...

  19. King William County, Virginia: Energy Resources | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Hide Map This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. King William County is a county in Virginia. Its FIPS County Code is 101. It is classified...

  20. King City, Oregon: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Hide Map This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. King City is a city in Washington County, Oregon. It falls under Oregon's 1st congressional...

  1. King Salmon, Alaska: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Hide Map This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. King Salmon is a census-designated place in Bristol Bay Borough, Alaska. It falls under...

  2. King County, Texas: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Hide Map This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. King County is a county in Texas. Its FIPS County Code is 269. It is classified as ASHRAE...

  3. King George County, Virginia: Energy Resources | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Hide Map This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. King George County is a county in Virginia. Its FIPS County Code is 099. It is classified as...

  4. Aljazeera story on rare earths features Alex King | The Ames...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Aljazeera story on rare earths features Alex King Aljazeera America recently did a story on the demand and scarcity of rare-earth metals and spoke to Ames Laboratory scientist and...

  5. King County Metro Transit Hybrid Articulated Buses: Final Evaluation Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    King County Metro Transit Hybrid Articulated Buses: Final Evaluation Results K. Chandler Battelle K. Walkowicz National Renewable Energy Laboratory Technical Report NREL/TP-540-40585 December 2006 NREL is operated by Midwest Research Institute ● Battelle Contract No. DE-AC36-99-GO10337 King County Metro Transit Hybrid Articulated Buses: Final Evaluation Results K. Chandler Battelle K. Walkowicz National Renewable Energy Laboratory Prepared under Task No. FC07.3000 Technical Report

  6. NREL'S Morgan-Smith Honored by Martin Luther King Commission

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    NREL'S Morgan-Smith Honored by Martin Luther King Commission For more information contact: Sarah Holmes Barba, 303-275-3023 email: Sarah Barba Golden, Colo., Jan. 9, 2001 - Syl Morgan-Smith, Colorado Governmental Relations Manager with the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), will receive the Trailblazer Award from the Colorado Martin Luther King Commission. This award and seven other humanitarian awards will be presented during the Commission's Annual Martin

  7. King County Metro Transit Hybrid Articulated Buses: Interim Evaluation Results

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    King County Metro Transit Hybrid Articulated Buses: Interim Evaluation Results K. Chandler Battelle K. Walkowicz National Renewable Energy Laboratory Technical Report NREL/TP-540-39742 April 2006 King County Metro Transit Hybrid Articulated Buses: Interim Evaluation Results K. Chandler Battelle K. Walkowicz National Renewable Energy Laboratory Prepared under Task No. FC06.3000 Technical Report NREL/TP-540-39742 April 2006 National Renewable Energy Laboratory 1617 Cole Boulevard, Golden, Colorado

  8. Proof of concept and performance optimization of high gravity batch-type centrifugal dryer for dewatering fine coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, L.B.; Durney, T.

    1991-01-01

    The primary objective of the project was to assemble, analyze and make use of those data that could help to clearly identify, optimize and confirm the technical and economic advantages that the new high gravity centrifugal dryer technology can provide to the coal industry and to end users. Other objectives were: to confirm the feasibility of the dryer for drying coals from a number of different seams; to use the data base for optimizing the dryer's systems, and: to produce projected technical and economic comparisons with thermal dryers as applied to an existing coal processing plant flow sheet. (JL)

  9. Do Heat Pump Clothes Dryers Make Sense for the U.S. Market

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meyers, Steve; Franco, Victor; Lekov, Alex; Thompson, Lisa; Sturges, Andy

    2010-05-14

    Heat pump clothes dryers (HPCDs) can be as much as 50percent more energy-efficient than conventional electric resistance clothes dryers, and therefore have the potential to save substantial amounts of electricity. While not currently available in the U.S., there are manufacturers in Europe and Japan that produce units for those markets. Drawing on analysis conducted for the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) current rulemaking on amended standards for clothes dryers, this paper evaluates the cost-effectiveness of HPCDs in American homes, as well as the national impact analysis for different market share scenarios. In order to get an accurate measurement of real energy savings potential, the paper offers a new energy use calculation methodology that takes into account the most current data on clothes washer cycles, clothes dryer usage frequency, remaining moisture content, and load weight per cycle, which is very different from current test procedure values. Using the above methodology along with product cost estimates developed by DOE, the paper presents the results of a life-cycle cost analysis of the adoption of HPCDs in a representative sample of American homes. The results show that HPCDs have positive economic benefits only for households with high clothes dryer usage or for households with high electricity prices and moderately high utilization.

  10. Modeling volcanic ash dispersal

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2011-10-06

    Explosive volcanic eruptions inject into the atmosphere large amounts of volcanic material (ash, blocks and lapilli). Blocks and larger lapilli follow ballistic and non-ballistic trajectories and fall rapidly close to the volcano. In contrast, very fine ashes can remain entrapped in the atmosphere for months to years, and may affect the global climate in the case of large eruptions. Particles having sizes between these two end-members remain airborne from hours to days and can cover wide areas downwind. Such volcanic fallout entails a serious threat to aircraft safety and can create many undesirable effects to the communities located around the volcano. The assessment of volcanic fallout hazard is an important scientific, economic, and political issue, especially in densely populated areas. From a scientific point of view, considerable progress has been made during the last two decades through the use of increasingly powerful computational models and capabilities. Nowadays, models are used to quantify hazard scenarios and/or to give short-term forecasts during emergency situations. This talk will be focused on the main aspects related to modeling volcanic ash dispersal and fallout with application to the well known problem created by the Eyjafjöll volcano in Iceland. Moreover, a short description of the main volcanic monitoring techniques is presented.

  11. Sorbent utilization studies using a mini-pilot spray dryer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keener, T.C.; Khang, S.J.; Wang, J. )

    1992-10-01

    This report stems from a program supported by the Ohio Coal Development Office, that is part of a multi-task, multi-university effort concerned with developing and enhancing the efficiency of dry'' high-sulfur flue gas scrubbing processes using calcium based sorbents. The application of spray-drying flue gas desulfurization (FGD) to sources burning Ohio coal will depend on many factors, two of which are process simplicity and flexibility, and overall cost. The ability of the system to be able to handle variations in volumetric flow SO[sub 2] concentration, and even perhaps, new regulatory requirements imposed in the future are very important In addition, the amount and characteristics of the waste produced will be a major component in the operating costs of these systems. Spray-drying FGD has been shown to have a capital, cost advantage over conventional wet scrubbing, and the method has been proven to be comparatively simple and flexible. The major disadvantage is the inability of these systems to obtain high (> 90%) S0[sub 2] removal efficiencies on flue gas from high sulfur coal sources. This is the result of chemical mass transfer and thermal limitations imposed on these systems using calcium hydroxide in a slurry as the scrubbing agent. The project 1.5 has investigated a number of novel methods to improve the performance of these systems in a mini-pilot plant spray dryer facility. The objectives of project 1.5 were the following: Perform baseline parametric testing, study the effect of additives on reactivity, and perform sorbent recycle tests.

  12. Incineration and incinerator ash processing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blum, T.W.

    1991-01-01

    Parallel small-scale studies on the dissolution and anion exchange recovery of plutonium from Rocky Flats Plant incinerator ash were conducted at the Los Alamos National Laboratory and at the Rocky Flats Plant. Results from these two studies are discussed in context with incinerator design considerations that might help to mitigate ash processing related problems. 11 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  13. Proof of concept and performance optimization of high gravity batch-type centrifugal dryer for dewatering fine coal. Final report, September 20, 1989--September 21, 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, L.B.; Durney, T.

    1991-12-31

    The primary objective of the project was to assemble, analyze and make use of those data that could help to clearly identify, optimize and confirm the technical and economic advantages that the new high gravity centrifugal dryer technology can provide to the coal industry and to end users. Other objectives were: to confirm the feasibility of the dryer for drying coals from a number of different seams; to use the data base for optimizing the dryer`s systems, and: to produce projected technical and economic comparisons with thermal dryers as applied to an existing coal processing plant flow sheet. (JL)

  14. Paul W. King, Ph.D., M.S. | Bioenergy | NREL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Paul W. King Paul W. King, Ph.D., M.S. Scientist VI - Supervisor, Photobiology Group Paul.King@nrel.gov | 303-384-6277 Research Interests Paul King's research interests are broadly in the study of photobiological and artificial photosynthetic systems for converting solar energy into biofuels. Specific areas of interest include using molecular, biochemical and biophysical techniques to investigate the catalytic mechanisms and structure-function of hydrogenases; bioenergetics of hydrogen

  15. Upholding Dr. King's Dream and Inspiring the Next Generation Through STEM

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Education | Department of Energy Upholding Dr. King's Dream and Inspiring the Next Generation Through STEM Education Upholding Dr. King's Dream and Inspiring the Next Generation Through STEM Education January 27, 2015 - 12:56pm Addthis Upholding Dr. King’s Dream and Inspiring the Next Generation Through STEM Education Joshua Sneideman Joshua Sneideman Albert Einstein Distinguished Educator Fellow According to the Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., "The function of education is

  16. Steam Dryer Segmentation and Packaging at Grand Gulf Nuclear Station - 13577

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kreitman, Paul J.; Sirianni, Steve R.; Pillard, Mark M.

    2013-07-01

    Entergy recently performed an Extended Power Up-rate (EPU) on their Grand Gulf Nuclear Station, near Port Gibson, Mississippi. To support the EPU, a new Steam Dryer Assembly was installed during the last refueling outage. Due to limited access into the containment, the large Replacement Steam Dryer (RSD) had to be brought into the containment in pieces and then final assembly was completed on the refueling floor before installation into the reactor. Likewise, the highly contaminated Original Steam Dryer (OSD) had to be segmented into manageable sections, loaded into specially designed shielded containers, and rigged out of containment where they will be safely stored until final disposal is accomplished at an acceptable waste repository. Westinghouse Nuclear Services was contracted by Entergy to segment, package and remove the OSD from containment. This work was performed on critical path during the most recent refueling outage. The segmentation was performed underwater to minimize radiation exposure to the workers. Special hydraulic saws were developed for the cutting operations based on Westinghouse designs previously used in Sweden to segment ABB Reactor Internals. The mechanical cutting method was selected because of its proven reliability and the minimal cutting debris that is generated by the process. Maintaining stability of the large OSD sections during cutting was accomplished using a custom built support stand that was installed into the Moisture Separator Pool after the Moisture Separator was installed back in the reactor vessel. The OSD was then moved from the Steam Dryer Pool to the Moisture Separator Pool for segmentation. This scenario resolved the logistical challenge of having two steam dryers and a moisture separator in containment simultaneously. A water filtration/vacuum unit was supplied to maintain water clarity during the cutting and handling operations and to collect the cutting chips. (authors)

  17. Landfilling ash/sludge mixtures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benoit, J.; Eighmy, T.T.; Crannell, B.S.

    1999-10-01

    The geotechnical properties of a mixture of municipal solid waste incinerator bottom ash and municipal wastewater treatment plant sludge was investigated for a proposed ash/sludge secure landfill. The components as well as mixtures ranging from 10:1 to 5:1 (ash:sludge, by volume) were evaluated, where appropriate, for a number of geotechnical index and mechanical properties including particle size, water content, specific gravity, density-moisture relationships, shear strength, and compressibility. The results from a compactibility study and stability analysis of the proposed landfill were used to help approve a landfill codisposal concept; a full-scale facility was constructed and is currently operating successfully.

  18. Calcium spray dryer waste management: Design guidelines: Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1987-09-01

    Calcium spray drying is a commercially available and applied technology used to control SO/sub 2/ emissions. This process is rapidly gaining utility acceptance. Because physical and chemical properties of wastes generated by calcium spray drying differ from those of conventional coal combustion by-products (fly ash and scrubber sludge) typical waste management practices may need to be altered. This report presents technical guidelines for designing and operating a calcium spray drying waste management system. Waste transfer, storage, pretreatment/conditioning, transport and disposal are addressed. The report briefly describes eighteen existing or planned calcium spray drying waste management systems. Results of waste property tests conducted as part of this study, and test data from other studies are reported and compared. Conceptual designs of both new and retrofit calcium spray drying waste management systems also are presented to demonstrate the economic impact of spray drying on waste management. Parametric cost sensitivity analyses illustrate the impact of significant design parameters on waste management costs. Existing calcium spray drying waste management experiences, as well as spray drying waste property data provided the basis for guideline development. Because existing calcium spray drying facilities burn low sulfur coal, this report is considered applicable only to calcium spray drying wastes produced from low sulfur coal. At this time, calcium spray drying is not expected to be feasible for high sulfur coal applications.

  19. Optimal operation of a concurrent-flow corn dryer with a drying heat pump using superheated steam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moraitis, C.S. [Systelligence Consultants and Research Associates, Volos (Greece); Akritidis, C.B. [Dept. of Hydraulics and Agricultural Engineering, Thessaloniki (Greece)

    1998-07-01

    A numerical model of a concurrent-flow dryer of corn using superheated steam as drying medium is solved applying a shooting technique, so as to satisfy boundary conditions imposed by the optimal design of a drying heat pump. The drying heat pump is based on the theory of minimum energy cycles. The solution of the model proves the applicability of the heat pump to a concurrent-flow dryer, achieving a Specific Energy Consumption as low as 1080 kJ/kg.

  20. ITER helium ash accumulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hogan, J.T.; Hillis, D.L.; Galambos, J.; Uckan, N.A. ); Dippel, K.H.; Finken, K.H. . Inst. fuer Plasmaphysik); Hulse, R.A.; Budny, R.V. . Plasma Physics Lab.)

    1990-01-01

    Many studies have shown the importance of the ratio {upsilon}{sub He}/{upsilon}{sub E} in determining the level of He ash accumulation in future reactor systems. Results of the first tokamak He removal experiments have been analysed, and a first estimate of the ratio {upsilon}{sub He}/{upsilon}{sub E} to be expected for future reactor systems has been made. The experiments were carried out for neutral beam heated plasmas in the TEXTOR tokamak, at KFA/Julich. Helium was injected both as a short puff and continuously, and subsequently extracted with the Advanced Limiter Test-II pump limiter. The rate at which the He density decays has been determined with absolutely calibrated charge exchange spectroscopy, and compared with theoretical models, using the Multiple Impurity Species Transport (MIST) code. An analysis of energy confinement has been made with PPPL TRANSP code, to distinguish beam from thermal confinement, especially for low density cases. The ALT-II pump limiter system is found to exhaust the He with maximum exhaust efficiency (8 pumps) of {approximately}8%. We find 1<{upsilon}{sub He}/{upsilon}{sub E}<3.3 for the database of cases analysed to date. Analysis with the ITER TETRA systems code shows that these values would be adequate to achieve the required He concentration with the present ITER divertor He extraction system.

  1. Long duration ash probe

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hurley, J.P.; McCollor, D.P.; Selle, S.J.

    1994-07-26

    A long duration ash probe includes a pressure shell connected to a port in a combustor with a sample coupon mounted on a retractable carriage so as to retract the sample coupon within the pressure shell during soot blowing operation of the combustor. A valve mounted at the forward end of the pressure shell is selectively closeable to seal the sample coupon within the shell, and a heating element in the shell is operable to maintain the desired temperature of the sample coupon while retracted within the shell. The carriage is operably mounted on a pair of rails within the shell for longitudinal movement within the shell. A hollow carrier tube connects the hollow cylindrical sample coupon to the carriage, and extends through the carriage and out the rearward end thereof. Air lines are connected to the rearward end of the carrier tube and are operable to permit coolant to pass through the air lines and thence through the carrier tube to the sample coupon so as to cool the sample coupon. 8 figs.

  2. Long duration ash probe

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hurley, John P.; McCollor, Don P.; Selle, Stanley J.

    1994-01-01

    A long duration ash probe includes a pressure shell connected to a port in a combustor with a sample coupon mounted on a retractable carriage so as to retract the sample coupon within the pressure shell during sootblowing operation of the combustor. A valve mounted at the forward end of the pressure shell is selectively closeable to seal the sample coupon within the shell, and a heating element in the shell is operable to maintain the desired temperature of the sample coupon while retracted within the shell. The carriage is operably mounted on a pair of rails within the shell for longitudinal movement within the shell. A hollow carrier tube connects the hollow cylindrical sample coupon to the carriage, and extends through the carriage and out the rearward end thereof. Air lines are connected to the rearward end of the carrier tube and are operable to permit coolant to pass through the air lines and thence through the carrier tube to the sample coupon so as to cool the sample coupon.

  3. Slurry atomizer for a coal-feeder and dryer used to provide coal at gasifier pressure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Loth, John L.; Smith, William C.; Friggens, Gary R.

    1982-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a coal-water slurry atomizer for use a high-pressure dryer employed in a pumping system utilized to feed coal into a pressurized coal gasifier. The slurry atomizer is provided with a venturi, constant area slurry injection conduit, and a plurality of tangentially disposed steam injection ports. Superheated steam is injected into the atomizer through these ports to provide a vortical flow of the steam, which, in turn, shears slurry emerging from the slurry injection conduit. The droplets of slurry are rapidly dispersed in the dryer through the venturi where the water is vaporized from the slurry by the steam prior to deleterious heating of the coal.

  4. Fly ash chemical classification based on lime

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fox, J.

    2007-07-01

    Typically, total lime content (CaO) of fly ash is shown in fly ash reports, but its significance is not addressed in US specifications. For certain applications a low lime ash is preferred. When a class C fly ash must be cementitious, lime content above 20% is required. A ternary S-A-C phase diagram pilot is given showing the location of fly ash compositions by coal rank and source in North America. Fly ashes from subbituminous coal from the Powder River Basin usually contain sufficient lime to be cementitious but blending with other coals may result in calcium being present in phases other than tricalcium aluminate. 9 refs., 1 fig.

  5. Rising from the ashes: Coal ash in recycling and construction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Naquin, D.

    1998-02-01

    Beneficial Ash Management (BAM, Clearfield, Pa.) has won an environmental award for its use of ash and other waste to fight acid mine drainage. The company`s workers take various waste materials, mainly fly ash from coal-burning plants, to make a cement-like material or grouting, says Ernest Roselli, BAM president. The grouting covers the soil, which helps prevent water from contacting materials. This, in turn, helps control chemical reactions, reducing or eliminating formation of acid mine drainage. The company is restoring the 1,400-acre Bark Camp coal mine site near Penfield in Clearfield County, Pa. Under a no-cost contract with the state of Pennsylvania, BAM is using boiler slag, causticizing byproducts (lime) and nonreclaimable clarifier sludge from International Paper Co. (Erie, Pa.). The mine reclamation techniques developed and monitored at the site include using man-made wetlands to treat acid mine drainage and testing anhydrous ammonia as a similar treatment agent. BAM researches and tests fly ash mixed with lime-based activators as fill material for land reclamation, and develops and uses artificial soil material from paper mill and tannery biosolids.

  6. Gasification of high ash, high ash fusion temperature bituminous coals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, Guohai; Vimalchand, Pannalal; Peng, WanWang

    2015-11-13

    This invention relates to gasification of high ash bituminous coals that have high ash fusion temperatures. The ash content can be in 15 to 45 weight percent range and ash fusion temperatures can be in 1150.degree. C. to 1500.degree. C. range as well as in excess of 1500.degree. C. In a preferred embodiment, such coals are dealt with a two stage gasification process--a relatively low temperature primary gasification step in a circulating fluidized bed transport gasifier followed by a high temperature partial oxidation step of residual char carbon and small quantities of tar. The system to process such coals further includes an internally circulating fluidized bed to effectively cool the high temperature syngas with the aid of an inert media and without the syngas contacting the heat transfer surfaces. A cyclone downstream of the syngas cooler, operating at relatively low temperatures, effectively reduces loading to a dust filtration unit. Nearly dust- and tar-free syngas for chemicals production or power generation and with over 90%, and preferably over about 98%, overall carbon conversion can be achieved with the preferred process, apparatus and methods outlined in this invention.

  7. Publication sites productive uses of combustion ash

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Publication Sites Productive Uses of Combustion Ash For more information contact: e:mail: Public Affairs Golden, Colo., Jan. 23, 1997 -- A new technology brief published by the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) describes how ash use can reduce the cost of waste management and not harm the environment. Communities in the United States typically dump municipal solid waste combustion ash in landfills. The new technology brief describes recent studies where ash

  8. J. R. King, C. R. Sovinec, and V. V. Mirnov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    fluid modeling of tearing and relaxation in a plasma pinch J. R. King, C. R. Sovinec, and V. V. Mirnov Citation: Phys. Plasmas 19, 055905 (2012); doi: 10.1063/1.3695346 View online: http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.3695346 View Table of Contents: http://pop.aip.org/resource/1/PHPAEN/v19/i5 Published by the American Institute of Physics. Additional information on Phys. Plasmas Journal Homepage: http://pop.aip.org/ Journal Information: http://pop.aip.org/about/about_the_journal Top downloads:

  9. J. R. King, C. R. Sovinec, and V. V. Mirnov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    effects on magnetic tearing in pinch configurations J. R. King, C. R. Sovinec, and V. V. Mirnov Citation: Phys. Plasmas 18, 042303 (2011); doi: 10.1063/1.3571599 View online: http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.3571599 View Table of Contents: http://pop.aip.org/resource/1/PHPAEN/v18/i4 Published by the American Institute of Physics. Additional information on Phys. Plasmas Journal Homepage: http://pop.aip.org/ Journal Information: http://pop.aip.org/about/about_the_journal Top downloads:

  10. A comparison between sludge ash and fly ash on the improvement in soft soil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deng-Fong Lin; Kae-Long Lin; Huan-Lin Luo

    2007-01-15

    In this study, the strength of soft cohesive subgrade soil was improved by applying sewage sludge ash as a soil stabilizer. Test results obtained were compared with earlier tests conducted on soil samples treated with fly ash. Five different proportions of sludge ash and fly ash were mixed with soft cohesive soil, and tests such as pH value, compaction, California bearing ratio, unconfined compressive strength (UCS), and triaxial compression were performed to understand soil strength improvement because of the addition of both ashes. Results indicate that pH values increase with extending curing age for soil with sludge ash added. The UCS of sludge ash/soil were 1.4 2 times better than untreated soil. However, compressive strength of sludge ash/soil was 20 30 kPa less than fly ash/soil. The bearing capacities for both fly ash/soil and sludge ash/soil were five to six times and four times, respectively, higher than the original capacity. Moreover, the cohesive parameter of shear strength rose with increased amounts of either ash added. Friction angle, however, decreased with increased amounts of either ash. Consequently, results show that sewage sludge ash can potentially replace fly ash in the improvement of the soft cohesive soil. 9 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Petrographic characterization of economizer fly ash

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Valentim, B.; Hower, J.C.; Soares, S.; Guedes, A.; Garcia, C.; Flores, D.; Oliveira, A.

    2009-11-15

    Policies for reducing NOx emissions have led power plants to restrict O{sub 2}, resulting in high-carbon fly ash production. Therefore, some potentially useful fly ash, such as the economizer fly ash, is discarded without a thorough knowledge of its composition. In order to characterize this type of fly ash, samples were collected from the economizer Portuguese power plant burning two low-sulfur bituminous coals. Characterization was also performed on economizer fly ash subsamples after wet sieving, density and magnetic separation. Analysis included atomic absorption spectroscopy, loss-on-ignition, scanning electron microscopy/energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, optical microscopy, and micro-Raman spectroscopy.

  12. ACAA fly ash basics: quick reference card

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2006-07-01

    Fly ash is a fine powdery material created when coal is burned to generate electricity. Before escaping into the environment via the utility stacks, the ash is collected and may be stored for beneficial uses or disposed of, if necessary. The use of fly ash provides environmental benefits, such as the conservation of natural resources, the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions and eliminating the needed for ash disposal in landfills. It is also a valuable mineral resource that is used in construction and manufacturing. Fly ash is used in the production of Portland cement, concrete, mortars and stuccos, manufactured aggregates along with various agricultural applications. As mineral filler, fly ash can be used for paints, shingles, carpet backing, plastics, metal castings and other purposes. This quick reference card is intended to provide the reader basic source, identification and composition, information specifically related to fly ash.

  13. EECBG Success Story: Beep Beep! King County, Washington Is Charging Up Savings

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Residents of King County, Washington, are seeing several improvements in their community thanks to a $6.1 million Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant (EECBG). The grant has allowed King County to conduct a variety of public and commercial energy efficiency upgrades, including the installation of electric vehicle charging stations, county vehicle fleet upgrades and senior housing energy improvements. Learn more.

  14. Performance analysis of solar-assisted chemical heat-pump dryer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fadhel, M.I.; Sopian, K.; Daud, W.R.W.

    2010-11-15

    A solar-assisted chemical heat-pump dryer has been designed, fabricated and tested. The performance of the system has been studied under the meteorological conditions of Malaysia. The system consists of four main components: solar collector (evacuated tubes type), storage tank, solid-gas chemical heat pump unit and dryer chamber. A solid-gas chemical heat pump unit consists of reactor, condenser and evaporator. The reaction used in this study (CaCl2-NH{sub 3}). A simulation has been developed, and the predicted results are compared with those obtained from experiments. The maximum efficiency for evacuated tubes solar collector of 80% has been predicted against the maximum experiment of 74%. The maximum values of solar fraction from the simulation and experiment are 0.795 and 0.713, respectively, whereas the coefficient of performance of chemical heat pump (COP{sup h}) maximum values 2.2 and 2 are obtained from simulation and experiments, respectively. The results show that any reduction of energy at condenser as a result of the decrease in solar radiation will decrease the coefficient of performance of chemical heat pump as well as decrease the efficiency of drying. (author)

  15. Combustion with reduced carbon in the ash

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kobayashi, Hisashi; Bool, III, Lawrence E.

    2005-12-27

    Combustion of coal in which oxygen is injected into the coal as it emerges from burner produces ash having reduced amounts of carbon.

  16. Synchronization and an application of a novel fractional order King Cobra chaotic system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Muthukumar, P. Balasubramaniam, P.; Ratnavelu, K.

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, we design a new three dimensional King Cobra face shaped fractional order chaotic system. The multi-scale synchronization scheme of two fractional order chaotic systems is described. The necessary conditions for the multi-scale synchronization of two identical fractional order King Cobra chaotic systems are derived through feedback control. A new cryptosystem is proposed for an image encryption and decryption by using synchronized fractional order King Cobra chaotic systems with the supports of multiple cryptographic assumptions. The security of the proposed cryptosystem is analyzed by the well known algebraic attacks. Numerical simulations are given to show the effectiveness of the proposed theoretical results.

  17. Characterization of ash cenospheres in fly ash from Australian power stations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ling-ngee Ngu; Hongwei Wu; Dong-ke Zhang

    2007-12-15

    Ash cenospheres in fly ashes from five Australian power stations have been characterized. The experimental data show that ash cenosphere yield varies across the power stations. Ash partitioning occurred in the process of ash cenosphere formation during combustion. Contradictory to conclusions from the literature, iron does not seem to be essential to ash cenosphere formation in the cases examined in the present work. Further investigation was also undertaken on a series of size-fractioned ash cenosphere samples from Tarong power station. It is found that about 70 wt% of ash cenospheres in the bulk sample have sizes between 45 and 150 {mu}m. There are two different ash cenosphere structures, that is, single-ring structure and network structure. The percentage of ash cenospheres of a network structure increases with increasing ash cenosphere size. Small ash cenospheres (in the size fractions {lt}150 {mu}m) have a high SiO{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} ratio, and the majority of the ash cenospheres are spherical and of a single-ring structure. Large ash cenosphere particles (in the size fractions of 150-250 {mu}m and {gt}250 {mu}m) have a low SiO{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} ratio, and a high proportion of the ash cenospheres are nonspherical and of a network structure. A novel quantitative technique has been developed to measure the diameter and wall thickness of ash cenospheres on a particle-to-particle basis. A monolayer of size-fractioned ash cenospheres was dispersed on a pellet, which was then polished carefully before being examined using a scanning electron microscope and image analysis. The ash cenosphere wall thickness broadly increases with increasing ash cenosphere size. The ratios between wall thickness and diameter of ash cenospheres are limited between an upper bound of about 10.5% and a lower bound of about 2.5%, irrespective of the ash cenosphere size. 52 refs., 9 figs., 4 tabs.

  18. King County Metro Transit Hybrid Articulated Transit Buses: Interim Evaluation Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chandler, K.; Walkowicz, K.

    2006-04-01

    Interim technical report compares and evaluates new diesel and diesel hybrid-electric articulated buses operated as part of the King County Metro Transit (KC Metro) fleet in Seattle, Washington.

  19. Radiological Risk Assessment for King County Wastewater Treatment Division

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Strom, Daniel J.

    2005-08-05

    Staff of the King County Wastewater Treatment Division (WTD) have concern about the aftermath of a radiological dispersion event (RDE) leading to the introduction of significant quantities of radioactive material into the combined sanitary and storm sewer system in King County, Washington. Radioactive material could come from the use of a radiological dispersion device (RDD). RDDs include "dirty bombs" that are not nuclear detonations but are explosives designed to spread radioactive material (National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) 2001). Radioactive material also could come from deliberate introduction or dispersion of radioactive material into the environment, including waterways and water supply systems. This document develops plausible and/or likely scenarios, including the identification of likely radioactive materials and quantities of those radioactive materials to be involved. These include 60Co, 90Sr, 137Cs, 192Ir, 226Ra, plutonium, and 241Am. Two broad categories of scenarios are considered. The first category includes events that may be suspected from the outset, such as an explosion of a "dirty bomb" in downtown Seattle. The explosion would most likely be heard, but the type of explosion (e.g., sewer methane gas or RDD) may not be immediately known. Emergency first responders must be able to quickly detect the radioisotopes previously listed, assess the situation, and deploy a response to contain and mitigate (if possible) detrimental effects resulting from the incident. In such scenarios, advance notice of about an hour or two might be available before any contaminated wastewater reaches a treatment plant. The second category includes events that could go initially undetected by emergency personnel. Examples of such a scenario would be the inadvertent or surreptitious introduction of radioactive material into the sewer system. Intact rogue radioactive sources from industrial radiography devices, well-logging apparatus, or moisture density gages may get into wastewater and be carried to a treatment plant. Other scenarios might include a terrorist deliberately putting a dispersible radioactive material into wastewater. Alternatively, a botched terrorism preparation of an RDD may result in radioactive material entering wastewater without anyone's knowledge. Drinking water supplies may also be contaminated, with the result that some or most of the radioactivity ends up in wastewater.

  20. Hunt's Ash Springs Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Hunt's Ash Springs Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Hunt's Ash Springs Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Hunt's...

  1. Settlement of footing on compacted ash bed

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramasamy, G.; Pusadkar, S.S.

    2007-11-15

    Compacted coal ash fills exhibit capillary stress due to contact moisture and preconsolidation stress due to the compaction process. As such, the conventional methods of estimating settlement of footing on cohesionless soils based on penetration tests become inapplicable in the case of footings on coal ash fills, although coal ash is also a cohesionless material. Therefore, a method of estimating load-settlement behavior of footings resting on coal ash fills accounting for the effect of capillary and preconsolidation stresses is presented here. The proposed method has been validated by conducting plate load tests on laboratory prepared compacted ash beds and comparing the observed and predicted load-settlement behavior. Overestimation of settlement greater than 100% occurs when capillary and preconsolidation stresses are not accounted for, as is the case in conventional methods.

  2. Geotechnical characterization of some Indian fly ashes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Das, S.K.; Yudhbir

    2005-10-01

    This paper reports the findings of experimental studies with regard to some common engineering properties (e.g., grain size, specific gravity, compaction characteristics, and unconfined compression strength) of both low and high calcium fly ashes, to evaluate their suitability as embankment materials and reclamation fills. In addition, morphology, chemistry, and mineralogy of fly ashes are studied using scanning electron microscope, electron dispersive x-ray analyzer, x-ray diffractometer, and infrared absorption spectroscopy. In high calcium fly ash, mineralogical and chemical differences are observed for particles, {gt}75 {mu} m and the particles of {lt} 45 {mu} m size. The mode and duration of curing significantly affect the strength and stress-strain behavior of fly ashes. The geotechnical properties of fly ash are governed by factors like lime content (CaO), iron content (Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) and loss on ignition. The distinct difference between self-hardening and pozzolanic reactivity has been emphasized.

  3. Treatment of fly ash for use in concrete

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boxley, Chett; Akash, Akash; Zhao, Qiang

    2013-01-08

    A process for treating fly ash to render it highly usable as a concrete additive. A quantity of fly ash is obtained that contains carbon and which is considered unusable fly ash for concrete based upon foam index testing. The fly ash is mixed with an activator solution sufficient to initiate a geopolymerization reaction and for a geopolymerized fly ash. The geopolymerized fly ash is granulated. The geopolymerized fly ash is considered usable fly ash for concrete according to foam index testing. The geopolymerized fly ash may have a foam index less than 35% of the foam index of the untreated fly ash, and in some cases less than 10% of the foam index of the untreated fly ash. The activator solution may contain an alkali metal hydroxide, carbonate, silicate, aluminate, or mixtures thereof.

  4. Treatment of fly ash for use in concrete

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boxley, Chett; Akash, Akash; Zhao, Qiang

    2012-05-08

    A process for treating fly ash to render it highly usable as a concrete additive. A quantity of fly ash is obtained that contains carbon and which is considered unusable fly ash for concrete based upon foam index testing. The fly ash is mixed with an activator solution sufficient to initiate a geopolymerization reaction and for a geopolymerized fly ash. The geopolymerized fly ash is granulated. The geopolymerized fly ash is considered usable fly ash for concrete according to foam index testing. The geopolymerized fly ash may have a foam index less than 35% of the foam index of the untreated fly ash, and in some cases less than 10% of the foam index of the untreated fly ash. The activator solution may contain an alkali metal hydroxide, carbonate, silicate, aluminate, or mixtures thereof.

  5. Rocky Flats ash test procedure (sludge stabilization)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Winstead, M.L.

    1995-09-14

    Rocky Flats Ash items have been identified as the next set of materials to be stabilized. This test is being run to determine charge sizes and soak times to completely stabilize the Rocky Flats Ash items. The information gathered will be used to generate the heating rampup cycle for stabilization. This test will also gain information on the effects of the glovebox atmosphere (moisture) on the stabilized material. This document provides instructions for testing Rocky Flats Ash in the HC-21C muffle furnace process.

  6. Fluidized bed gasification ash reduction and removal process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schenone, Carl E.; Rosinski, Joseph

    1984-12-04

    In a fluidized bed gasification system an ash removal system to reduce the particulate ash to a maximum size or smaller, allow the ash to cool to a temperature lower than the gasifier and remove the ash from the gasifier system. The system consists of a crusher, a container containing level probes and a means for controlling the rotational speed of the crusher based on the level of ash within the container.

  7. Fluidized bed gasification ash reduction and removal system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schenone, Carl E.; Rosinski, Joseph

    1984-02-28

    In a fluidized bed gasification system an ash removal system to reduce the particulate ash to a maximum size or smaller, allow the ash to cool to a temperature lower than the gasifier and remove the ash from the gasifier system. The system consists of a crusher, a container containing level probes and a means for controlling the rotational speed of the crusher based on the level of ash within the container.

  8. Rocky Flats Ash test procedure (sludge stabilization)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Funston, G.A.

    1995-06-14

    Rocky Flats Ash items have been identified as the next set of materials to be stabilized. This test is being run to determine charge sizes and soak times to completely stabilize the Rocky Flats Ash items. The information gathered will be used to generate the heating rampup cycle for stabilization. The test will provide information to determine charge sizes, soak times and mesh screen sizes (if available at time of test) for stabilization of Rocky Flats Ash items to be processed in the HC-21C Muffle Furnace Process. Once the charge size and soak times have been established, a program for the temperature controller of the HC-21C Muffle Furnace process will be generated for processing Rocky Flats Ash.

  9. Ashe County- Wind Energy System Ordinance

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In 2007 Ashe County adopted a wind ordinance to regulate the use of wind-energy systems in unincorporated areas of the county and to describe the conditions by which a permit for installing such a...

  10. Fly ash system technology improves opacity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2007-06-15

    Unit 3 of the Dave Johnston Power Plant east of Glenrock, WY, USA had problems staying at or below the opacity limits set by the state. The unit makes use of a Lodge Cottrell precipitator. When the plant changed to burning Power River Basin coal, ash buildup became a significant issue as the fly ash control system was unable to properly evacuate hoppers on the unit. To overcome the problem, the PLC on the unit was replaced with a software optimization package called SmartAsh for the precipitator fly ash control system, at a cost of $500,000. After the upgrade, there have been no plugged hoppers and the opacity has been reduced from around 20% to 3-5%. 2 figs.

  11. Status of spray-dryer flue-gas desulfurization. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ireland, P.A.

    1982-01-01

    Utility interest and commitment to spray drying for SO/sub 2/ and particulate control has increased dramatically in response to vendor claims (lower costs, dry wastes, lower energy requirements, and simplicity) and newly promulgated federal emission regulations that allow lower SO/sub 2/ removal requirements (70%) for low-sulfur coals. Unfortunately, limited data are available from which to evaluate vendor claims prior to commercial commitment or to improve the cost and reliability of this potentially important flue gas desulfurization (FGD) option. Accordingly, EPRI is conducting a pilot-scale project (RP1870) to provide a systematic evaluation of the technology unconstrained by specific vendor designs, operating philosophy, or commercial limitation. It will result in guidelines for system design and optimization in order to ensure reliable utility operation at minimum cost. This final report (TPS 80-741) contains a review of the design practices for the full-scale systems ordered and a discussion of the important spray-drying FGD process variables. Other EPRI work in this area includes a cost study with the Tennessee Valley Authority (RP1180-7) and a spray-dryer waste solids characterization (RP1870-2). The EPA has published a similar status document, which, in addition to spray drying, also covers dry injection and burning coal-alkali mixtures. However, the EPA document is not as detailed on either the design of full-scale systems or the technical issues.

  12. Method for Evaluating Energy Use of Dishwashers, Clothes Washers, and Clothes Dryers: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eastment, M.; Hendron, R.

    2006-08-01

    Building America teams are researching opportunities to improve energy efficiency for some of the more challenging end-uses, such as lighting (both fixed and occupant-provided), appliances (clothes washer, dishwasher, clothes dryer, refrigerator, and range), and miscellaneous electric loads, which are all heavily dependent on occupant behavior and product choices. These end-uses have grown to be a much more significant fraction of total household energy use (as much as 50% for very efficient homes) as energy efficient homes have become more commonplace through programs such as ENERGY STAR and Building America. As modern appliances become more sophisticated the residential energy analyst is faced with a daunting task in trying to calculate the energy savings of high efficiency appliances. Unfortunately, most whole-building simulation tools do not allow the input of detailed appliance specifications. Using DOE test procedures the method outlined in this paper presents a reasonable way to generate inputs for whole-building energy-simulation tools. The information necessary to generate these inputs is available on Energy-Guide labels, the ENERGY-STAR website, California Energy Commission's Appliance website and manufacturer's literature. Building America has developed a standard method for analyzing the effect of high efficiency appliances on whole-building energy consumption when compared to the Building America's Research Benchmark building.

  13. Scale-Up and Demonstration of Fly Ash Ozonation Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rui Afonso; R. Hurt; I. Kulaots

    2006-03-01

    The disposal of fly ash from the combustion of coal has become increasingly important. When the fly ash does not meet the required specification for the product or market intended, it is necessary to beneficiate it to achieve the desired quality. This project, conducted at PPL's Montour SES, is the first near full-scale ({approx}10 ton/day), demonstration of ash ozonation technology. Bituminous and sub bituminous ashes, including two ash samples that contained activated carbon, were treated during the project. Results from the tests were very promising. The ashes were successfully treated with ozone, yielding concrete-suitable ash quality. Preliminary process cost estimates indicate that capital and operating costs to treat unburned carbon are competitive with other commercial ash beneficiation technologies at a fraction of the cost of lost sales and/or ash disposal costs. This is the final technical report under DOE Cooperative Agreement No.: DE-FC26-03NT41730.

  14. Comparative study on the characteristics of fly ash and bottom ash geopolymers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chindaprasirt, Prinya; Jaturapitakkul, Chai; Chalee, Wichian; Rattanasak, Ubolluk

    2009-02-15

    This research was conducted to compare geopolymers made from fly ash and ground bottom ash. Sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and sodium silicate (Na{sub 2}SiO{sub 3}) solutions were used as activators. A mass ratio of 1.5 Na{sub 2}SiO{sub 3}/NaOH and three concentrations of NaOH (5, 10, and 15 M) were used; the geopolymers were cured at 65 deg. C for 48 h. A Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FT-IR), differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), and scanning electron microscope (SEM) were used on the geopolymer pastes. Geopolymer mortars were also prepared in order to investigate compressive strength. The results show that both fly ash and bottom ash can be utilized as source materials for the production of geopolymers. The properties of the geopolymers are dependent on source materials and the NaOH concentration. Fly ash is more reactive and produces a higher degree of geopolymerization in comparison with bottom ash. The moderate NaOH concentration of 10 M is found to be suitable and gives fly ash and bottom ash geopolymer mortars with compressive strengths of 35 and 18 MPa.

  15. Radiological Instrumentation Assessment for King County Wastewater Treatment Division

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Strom, Daniel J.; McConn, Ronald J.; Brodzinski, Ronald L.

    2005-05-19

    The King County Wastewater Treatment Division (WTD) have concern about the aftermath of a radiological dispersion event (RDE) leading to the introduction of significant quantities of radioactive material into its combined sanitary and storm sewer system. Radioactive material could come from the use of a radiological dispersion device (RDD). RDDs include "dirty bombs" that are not nuclear detonations but are explosives designed to spread radioactive material. Radioactive material also could come from deliberate introduction or dispersion of radioactive material into the environment, including waterways and water supply systems. Volume 2 of PNNL-15163 assesses the radiological instrumentation needs for detection of radiological or nuclear terrorism, in support of decisions to treat contaminated wastewater or to bypass the West Point Treatment Plant (WPTP), and in support of radiation protection of the workforce, the public, and the infrastructure of the WPTP. Fixed radiation detection instrumentation should be deployed in a defense-in-depth system that provides 1) early warning of significant radioactive material on the way to the WPTP, including identification of the radionuclide(s) and estimates of the soluble concentrations, with a floating detector located in the wet well at the Interbay Pump Station and telemetered via the internet to all authorized locations; 2) monitoring at strategic locations within the plant, including 2a) the pipe beyond the hydraulic ram in the bar screen room; 2b) above the collection funnels in the fine grit facility; 2c) in the sampling tank in the raw sewage pump room; and 2d) downstream of the concentration facilities that produce 6% blended and concentrated biosolids. Engineering challenges exist for these applications. It is necessary to deploy both ultra-sensitive detectors to provide early warning and identification and detectors capable of functioning in high-dose rate environments that are likely under some scenarios, capable of functioning from 10 microrems per hour (background) up to 1000 rems per hour. Software supporting fixed spectroscopic detectors is needed to provide prompt, reliable, and simple interpretations of spectroscopic outputs that are of use to operators and decision-makers. Software to provide scientists and homeland security personnel with sufficient technical detail for identification, quantification, waste management decisions, and for the inevitable forensic and attribution needs must be developed. Computational modeling using MCNP software has demonstrated that useful detection capabilities can be deployed. In particular, any of the isotopes examined can be detected at levels between 0.01 and 0.1 μCi per gallon. General purpose instruments that can be used to determine the nature and extent of radioactive contamination and measure radiation levels for purposes of protecting personnel and members of the public should be available. One or more portable radioisotope identifiers (RIIDs) should be available to WTD personnel. Small, portable battery-powered personal radiation monitors should be widely available WTD personnel. The personal monitors can be used for personal and group radiation protection decisions, and to alert management to the need to get expert backup. All considerations of radiological instrumentation require considerations of training and periodic retraining of personnel, as well as periodic calibration and maintenance of instruments. Routine “innocent” alarms will occur due to medical radionuclides that are legally discharged into sanitary sewers on a daily basis.

  16. Hydrothermal reaction of fly ash. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, P.W.

    1994-12-31

    The reactions which occur when fly ash is treated under hydrothermal conditions were investigated. This was done for the following primary reasons. The first of these is to determine the nature of the phases that form to assess the stabilities of these phases in the ambient environment and, finally, to assess whether these phases are capable of sequestering hazardous species. The second reason for undertaking this study was whether, depending on the composition of the ash and the presence of selected additives, it would be possible under hydrothermal conditions to form compounds which have cementitious properties. Formation of four classes of compounds, which bracket likely fly ash compositional ranges, were selected for study. The classes are calcium silicate hydrates, calcium selenates, and calcium aluminosulfates, and silicate-based glasses. Specific compounds synthesized were determined and their stability regions assessed. As part of stability assessment, the extent to which selected hazardous species are sequestered was determined. Finally, the cementing properties of these compounds were established. The results obtained in this program have demonstrated that mild hydrothermal conditions can be employed to improve the reactivity of fly ash. Such improvements in reactivity can result in the formation of monolithic forms which may exhibit suitable mechanical properties for selected applications as building materials. If the ashes involved are considered hazardous, the mechanical properties exhibited indicated the forms could be handled in a manner which facilitates their disposal.

  17. Sorbent utilization studies using a mini-pilot spray dryer. Final report, June 1, 1990--June 30, 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keener, T.C.; Khang, S.J.; Yang, Q.

    1992-07-01

    The objectives of project 1.5 were to design, construct and evaluate (by means of parametric testing) a mini-pilot spray dryer facility. To date, the mini-pilot facility has been designed and is currently 100% constructed. The unit was evaluated based on such parameters as air flow rate, uniformity, residence time, Ca(OH){sub 2} Slurry concentration the nozzle can handle, heater`s heating capacity and the baseline SO{sub 2} removal efficiency. The mini-pilot facility will allow research in all aspects of spray drying fluid gas desulfurization. The unit was designed for a nominal gas flow rate of 100 scfm (3 n{sup 3}/min) and will be able be used with either nozzle spray or rotary atomization. In addition, a theoretical modeling of spray drying has been completed. Results of the simulation indicate that counter-current (referring to air flow) spray pattern will benefit in overall SO{sub 2} removal with respect to co-current spray pattern. This result needs to be further tested in the pilot scale spray dryer. Baseline testing has indicated that the mini-pilot plant provides data which is comparable to that from the large scale spray dryer facility at the Electric Power Research Institute`s High Sulfur Test Facility. The results of these baseline tests have shown that SO{sub 2} removal efficiency increases with a decrease in the approach to saturation temperature, or an increase in lime stoichiometric ratio (at a constant approach to saturation temperature).

  18. Correlation between the critical viscosity and ash fusion temperatures of coal gasifier ashes*

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hsieh, Peter

    2015-07-02

    Coal gasification yields synthesis gas, an important intermediate in chemical manufacturing. It is also vital to the production of liquid fuels through the Fischer-Tropsch process and electricity in Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle power generation. Minerals naturally present in coal become molten in entrained-flow slagging gasifiers. Molten coal ash slag penetrates and dissolves refractory bricks, leading to costly plant shutdowns. The extent of coal ash slag penetration and refractory brick dissolution depends on the slag viscosity, the gasification temperature, and the composition of slag and bricks. We measured the viscosity of several synthetic coal ash slags with a high-temperature rotary viscometer and their ash fusion temperatures through optical image analysis. All measurements were made in a carbon monoxide-carbon dioxide reducing atmosphere that approximates coal gasification conditions. Empirical correlation models based on ash fusion temperatures were used to calculate critical viscosity temperatures based on the coal ash compositions. These values were then compared with those obtained from thermodynamic phase-transition models. An understanding of slag viscosity as a function of ash composition is important to reducing refractory wear in slagging coal gasifiers, which would help to reduce the cost and environmental impact of coal for chemical and electricity production.

  19. Extraction of trace metals from fly ash

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blander, Milton; Wai, Chien M.; Nagy, Zoltan

    1984-01-01

    A process for recovering silver, gallium and/or other trace metals from a fine grained industrial fly ash associated with a process for producing phosphorous, the fly ash having a silicate base and containing surface deposits of the trace metals as oxides, chlorides or the like, with the process being carried out by contacting the fly ash with AlCl.sub.3 in an alkali halide melt to react the trace metals with the AlCl.sub.3 to form compositions soluble in the melt and a residue containing the silicate and aluminum oxide or other aluminum precipitate, and separating the desired trace metal or metals from the melt by electrolysis or other separation techniques.

  20. Extraction of trace metals from fly ash

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blander, M.; Wai, C.M.; Nagy, Z.

    1983-08-15

    A process is described for recovering silver, gallium and/or other trace metals from a fine grained industrial fly ash associated with a process for producing phosphorous. The fly ash has a silicate base and contains surface deposits of the trace metals as oxides, chlorides or the like. The process is carried out by contacting the fly ash with AlCl/sub 3/ in an alkali halide melt to react the trace metals with the AlCl/sub 3/ to form compositions soluble in the melt and a residue containing the silicate and aluminum oxide or other aluminum precipitate, and separating the desired trace metal or metals from the melt by electrolysis or other separation techniques.

  1. Chlorine enhancement of SO{sub 2} removal efficiency in a spray dryer absorber/fabric filter pilot plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jefcoat, I.A.; Stewart, C.L.; Pearson, T.E.

    1995-12-31

    The presence of chloride ions in a flue gas has been shown to increase the removal efficiency of SO{sub 2} in a spray dryer absorber/fabric filter (SDA/FF). The quantification of this effect has not been reported previously. A 90 cfm gas-fired pilot plant was used at the University to simulate burning coals containing various weight percent chloride. Results from the study were in agreement with those found in the literature. A predictive model was developed for the incremental removal efficiency, which was found to be dependent on the time to SO{sub 2} ratio and weight percent chloride in the coal.

  2. High carbon fly ash finds uses in highway construction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wen, H.; Patton, R.

    2008-07-01

    The beneficial use of high carbon fly ash in a highway construction project is discussed. The fly ash also had a relatively high content of mercury and some other heavy metals. 1 fig., 4 photos.

  3. Eco-friendly fly ash utilization: potential for land application

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malik, A.; Thapliyal, A.

    2009-07-01

    The increase in demand for power in domestic, agricultural, and industrial sectors has increased the pressure on coal combustion and aggravated the problem of fly ash generation/disposal. Consequently the research targeting effective utilization of fly ash has also gained momentum. Fly ash has proved to be an economical substitute for expensive adsorbents as well as a suitable raw material for brick manufacturing, zeolite synthesis, etc. Fly ash is a reservoir of essential minerals but is deficient in nitrogen and phosphorus. By amending fly ash with soil and/or various organic materials (sewage sludge, bioprocess materials) as well as microbial inoculants like mycorrhizae, enhanced plant growth can be realized. Based on the sound results of large scale studies, fly ash utilization has grown into prominent discipline supported by various internationally renowned organizations. This paper reviews attempts directed toward various utilization of fly ash, with an emphasis on land application of organic/microbial inoculants amended fly ash.

  4. Market assessment and technical feasibility study of PFBC ash use

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, V.E.; Bland, A.E.; Brown, T.H.; Georgiou, D.N.; Wheeldon, J.

    1994-10-01

    The overall objectives of this study are to determine the market potential and the technical feasibility of using PFBC ash in high volume ash use applications. The information will be of direct use to the utility industry in assessing the economics of PFBC power generation in light of ash disposal avoidance through ash marketing. In addition, the research is expected to result in the generation of generic data on the use of PFBC ash that could lead to novel processing options and procedures. The specific objectives of the proposed research and demonstration effort are: Define resent and future market potential of PFBC ash for a range of applications (Phase I); assess the technical feasibility of PFBC ash use in construction, civil engineering and agricultural applications (Phase II); and demonstrate the most promising of the market and ash use options in full-scale field demonstrations (Phase III).

  5. Utilization of blended fluidized bed combustion (FBC) ash and pulverized coal combustion (PCC) fly ash in geopolymer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chindaprasirt, Prinya; Rattanasak, Ubolluk

    2010-04-15

    In this paper, synthesis of geopolymer from fluidized bed combustion (FBC) ash and pulverized coal combustion (PCC) fly ash was studied in order to effectively utilize both ashes. FBC-fly ash and bottom ash were inter-ground to three different finenesses. The ashes were mixed with as-received PCC-fly ash in various proportions and used as source material for synthesis of geopolymer. Sodium silicate (Na{sub 2}SiO{sub 3}) and 10 M sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solutions at mass ratio of Na{sub 2}SiO{sub 3}/NaOH of 1.5 and curing temperature of 65 deg. C for 48 h were used for making geopolymer. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), degree of reaction, and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) were performed on the geopolymer pastes. Compressive strength was also tested on geopolymer mortars. The results show that high strength geopolymer mortars of 35.0-44.0 MPa can be produced using mixture of ground FBC ash and as-received PCC-fly ash. Fine FBC ash is more reactive and results in higher degree of reaction and higher strength geopolymer as compared to the use of coarser FBC ash. Grinding increases reactivity of ash by means of increasing surface area and the amount of reactive phase of the ash. In addition, the packing effect due to fine particles also contributed to increase in strength of geopolymers.

  6. Using fly ash to mitigate explosions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taulbee, D.

    2008-07-01

    In 2005 the University of Kentucky's Center for Applied Energy Research was given funding to evaluate the use of coal combustion by-products (CCBs) to reduce the explosive potential of ammonium nitrate (AN) fertilizers. Fly ash C (FAC), fly ash F (FAF) and flue gas desulfurization by-product (FGD) were evaluated. It was found that applying a CCB coating to the AN particles at concentrations of 5 wt% or greater prevented the AN explosion from propagating. The article reports on results so far and outlines further work to be done. 6 figs.

  7. Fly Ash Characteristics and Carbon Sequestration Potential

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Palumbo, Anthony V.; Amonette, James E.; Tarver, Jana R.; Fagan, Lisa A.; McNeilly, Meghan S.; Daniels, William L.

    2007-07-20

    Concerns for the effects of global warming have lead to an interest in the potential for inexpensive methods to sequester carbon dioxide (CO2). One of the proposed methods is the sequestration of carbon in soil though the growth of crops or forests.4,6 If there is an economic value placed on sequestration of carbon dioxide in soil there may be an an opportunity and funding to utilize fly ash in the reclamation of mine soils and other degraded lands. However, concerns associated with the use of fly ash must be addressed before this practice can be widely adopted. There is a vast extent of degraded lands across the world that has some degree of potential for use in carbon sequestration. Degraded lands comprise nearly 2 X 109 ha of land throughout the world.7 Although the potential is obviously smaller in the United States, there are still approximately 4 X 106 ha of degraded lands that previously resulted from mining operations14 and an additional 1.4 X 108 ha of poorly managed lands. Thus, according to Lal and others the potential is to sequester approximately 11 Pg of carbon over the next 50 years.1,10 The realization of this potential will likely be dependent on economic incentives and the use of soil amendments such as fly ash. There are many potential benefits documented for the use of fly ash as a soil amendment. For example, fly ash has been shown to increase porosity, water-holding capacity, pH, conductivity, and dissolved SO42-, CO32-, HCO3-, Cl- and basic cations, although some effects are notably decreased in high-clay soils.8,13,9 The potential is that these effects will promote increased growth of plants (either trees or grasses) and result in greater carbon accumulation in the soil than in untreated degraded soils. This paper addresses the potential for carbon sequestration in soils amended with fly ash and examines some of the issues that should be considered in planning this option. We describe retrospective studies of soil carbon accumulation on reclaimed mine lands, leaching studies of fly ash and carbon sorption studies of fly ash.

  8. Utilization of CFB fly ash for construction applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Conn, R.E.; Sellakumar, K.; Bland, A.E.

    1999-07-01

    Disposal in landfills has been the most common means of handling ash in circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boiler power plants. Recently, larger CFB boilers with generating capacities up to 300 MWe are currently being planned, resulting in increased volumes and disposal cost of ash by-product. Studies have shown that CFB ashes do not pose environmental concerns that should significantly limit their potential utilization. Many uses of CFB ash are being investigated by Foster Wheeler, which can provide more cost-effective ash management. Construction applications have been identified as one of the major uses for CFB ashes. Typically, CFB ash cannot be used as a cement replacement in concrete due to its unacceptably high sulfur content. However, CFB ashes can be used for other construction applications that require less stringent specifications including soil stabilization, road base, structural fill, and synthetic aggregate. In this study, potential construction applications were identified for fly ashes from several CFB boilers firing diverse fuels such as petroleum coke, refuse derived fuel (RDF) and coal. The compressive strength of hydrated fly ashes was measured in order to screen their potential for use in various construction applications. Based on the results of this work, the effects of both ash chemistry and carbon content on utilization potential were ascertained. Actual beneficial uses of ashes evaluated in this study are also discussed.

  9. Oil ash corrosion; A review of utility boiler experience

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul, L.D. ); Seeley, R.R. )

    1991-02-01

    In this paper a review of experience with oil ash corrosion is presented along with current design practices used to avoid excessive tube wastage. Factors influencing oil ash corrosion include fuel chemistry, boiler operation, and boiler design. These factors are interdependent and determine the corrosion behavior in utility boilers. Oil ash corrosion occurs when vanadium-containing ash deposits on boiler tube surfaces become molten. These molten ash deposits dissolve protective oxides and scales causing accelerated tube wastage. Vanadium is the major fuel constituent responsible for oil ash corrosion. Vanadium reacts with sodium, sulfur, and chlorine during combustion to produce lower melting temperature ash compositions, which accelerate tube wastage. Limiting tube metal temperatures will prevent ash deposits from becoming molten, thereby avoiding the onset of oil ash corrosion. Tube metal temperatures are limited by the use of a parallel stream flow and by limiting steam outlet temperatures. Operating a boiler with low excess air has helped avoid oil ash corrosion by altering the corrosive combustion products. Air mixing and distribution are essential to the success of this palliative action. High chromium alloys and coatings form more stable protective scaled on tubing surfaces, which result in lower oil ash corrosion rates. However, there is not material totally resistant to oil ash corrosion.

  10. Screening technology reduces ash in spiral circuits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brodzik, P.

    2007-05-15

    In 2006, the James River Coal Co. selected the Stack Sizer to remove the minus 100 mesh high ash clay fraction from the clean coal spiral product circuits at the McCoy-Elkhorn Bevins Branch prep plant and at the Blue Diamond Leatherwood prep plant in Kentucky. The Stack Sizer is a multi-deck, high-frequency vibrating screen capable of separations as fine as 75 microns when fitted with Derrick Corp.'s patented high open area urethane screen panels. Full-scale lab tests and more than 10 months of continuous production have confirmed that the Stack Sizer fitted with Derrick 100 micron urethane screen panels consistently produces a clean coal fraction that ranges from 8 to 10% ash. Currently, each five-deck Stack Sizer operating at the Bevins Branch and Leatherwood prep plants is producing approximately 33 tons per hour of clean coal containing about 9% ash. This represents a clean coal yield of about 75% and an ash reduction of about 11% from the feed slurry. 3 figs. 2 tabs.

  11. Phase relationship in coal ash corrosion products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kalmanovitch, D.

    1996-12-31

    The corrosion of heat transfer surfaces in coal-fired utility boilers is a major concern to the efficient operation of these units. Despite the importance of the corrosion there has been limited research on the relationship between the ash components on the tube surface and the interactions and reactions between the various components and the steel surface. Mechanisms such as molten phase corrosion, sulfidation, and high temperature oxidation have been identified as leading to extensive wastage oftube metal. However, while the corrosion process can be identified using techniques such as metallography and x-ray diffraction there is limited insight into the role ofthe coal mineralogy and ash deposits on the surface in the corrosion process. This paper describes research into the formation of molten or sernimolten phases within ash deposits which are associated with corrosion of superheater and reheater fireside surfaces. For example, the phases potassium pyrosulfate (K{sub 2}S{sub 2}O{sub 7}) and potassium aluminum sulfate (K{sub 2}Al{sub 2}SO{sub 7}) have been determined by x-ray diffraction to be present in deposits where fireside corrosion has occurred. However, both these phases are not directly derived from coal minerals or the common matrix observed in ash deposits. The examination of the reactions and interactions within deposits which result in the formation of these and other phases associated with corrosion will be discussed in the paper.

  12. Stabilizing soft fine-grained soils with fly ash

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edil, T.B.; Acosta, H.A.; Benson, C.H.

    2006-03-15

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of self-cementing fly ashes derived from combustion of subbituminous coal at electric power plants for stabilization of soft fine-grained soils. California bearing ratio (CBR) and resilient modulus (M{sub r}) tests were conducted on mixtures prepared with seven soft fine-grained soils (six inorganic soils and one organic soil) and four fly ashes. The soils were selected to represent a relatively broad range of plasticity, with plasticity indices ranging between 15 and 38. Two of the fly ashes are high quality Class C ashes (per ASTM C 618) that are normally used in Portland cement concrete. The other ashes are off-specification ashes, meaning they do not meet the Class C or Class F criteria in ASTM C 618. Tests were conducted on soils and soil-fly ash mixtures prepared at optimum water content (a standardized condition), 7% wet of optimum water content (representative of the typical in situ condition in Wisconsin), and 9-18% wet of optimum water content (representative of a very wet in situ condition). Addition of fly ash resulted in appreciable increases in the CBR and M{sub r} of the inorganic soils. For water contents 7% wet of optimum, CBRs of the soils alone ranged between 1 and 5. Addition of 10% fly ash resulted in CBRs ranging between 8 and 17, and 18% fly ash resulted in CBRs between 15 and 31. Similarly, M{sub r} of the soil alone ranged between 3 and 15 MPa at 7% wet of optimum, whereas addition of 10% fly ash resulted in M{sub r} between 12 and 60 MPa and 18% fly ash resulted in M{sub r} between 51 and 106 MPa. In contrast, except for one fly ash, addition of fly ash generally had little effect on CBR or M{sub r} of the organic soil.

  13. Fly ash and concrete: a study determines whether biomass, or coal co-firing fly ash, can be used in concrete

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Shuangzhen; Baxter, Larry

    2006-08-01

    Current US national standards for using fly ash in concrete (ASTM C618) state that fly ash must come from coal combustion, thus precluding biomass-coal co-firing fly ash. The co-fired ash comes from a large and increasing fraction of US power plants due to rapid increases in co-firing opportunity fuels with coal. The fly ashes include coal fly ash, wood fly ash from pure wood combustion, biomass and coal co-fired fly ash SW1 and SW2. Also wood fly ash is blended with Class C or Class F to produce Wood C and Wood E. Concrete samples were prepared with fly ash replacing cement by 25%. All fly ash mixes except wood have a lower water demand than the pure cement mix. Fly ashes, either from coal or non coal combustion, increase the required air entraining agent (AEA) to meet the design specification of the mixes. If AEA is added arbitrarily without considering the amount or existence of fly ash results could lead to air content in concrete that is either too low or too high. Biomass fly ash does not impact concrete setting behaviour disproportionately. Switch grass-coal co-fired fly ash and blended wood fly ash generally lie within the range of pure coal fly ash strength. The 56 day flexure strength of all the fly ash mixes is comparable to that of the pure cement mix. The flexure strength from the coal-biomass co-fired fly ash does not differ much from pure coal fly ash. All fly ash concrete mixes exhibit lower chloride permeability than the pure cement mixes. In conclusion biomass coal co-fired fly ash perform similarly to coal fly ash in fresh and hardened concrete. As a result, there is no reason to exclude biomass-coal co-fired fly ash in concrete.

  14. Water quality investigation of Kingston Fossil Plant dry ash stacking

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bohac, C.E.

    1990-04-01

    Changing to a dry ash disposal systems at Kingston Fossil Plant (KFP) raises several water quality issues. The first is that removing the fly ash from the ash pond could alter the characteristics of the ash pond discharge to the river. The second concerns proper disposal of the runoff and possibly leachate from the dry ash stack. The third is that dry ash stacking might change the potential for groundwater contamination at the KFP. This report addresses each of these issues. The effects on the ash pond and its discharge are described first. The report is intended to provide reference material to TVA staff in preparation of environmental review documents for new ash disposal areas at Kingston. Although the investigation was directed toward analysis of dry stacking, considerations for other disposal options are also discussed. This report was reviewed in draft form under the title Assessment of Kingston Fossil Plant Dry Ash Stacking on the Ash Pond and Groundwater Quality.'' 11 refs., 3 figs., 18 tabs.

  15. Application of solid ash based catalysts in heterogeneous catalysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shaobin Wang

    2008-10-01

    Solid wastes, fly ash, and bottom ash are generated from coal and biomass combustion. Fly ash is mainly composed of various metal oxides and possesses higher thermal stability. Utilization of fly ash for other industrial applications provides a cost-effective and environmentally friendly way of recycling this solid waste, significantly reducing its environmental effects. On the one hand, due to the higher stability of its major component, aluminosilicates, fly ash could be employed as catalyst support by impregnation of other active components for various reactions. On the other hand, other chemical compounds in fly ash such as Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} could also provide an active component making fly ash a catalyst for some reactions. In this paper, physicochemical properties of fly ash and its applications for heterogeneous catalysis as a catalyst support or catalyst in a variety of catalytic reactions were reviewed. Fly-ash-supported catalysts have shown good catalytic activities for H{sub 2} production, deSOx, deNOx, hydrocarbon oxidation, and hydrocracking, which are comparable to commercially used catalysts. As a catalyst itself, fly ash can also be effective for gas-phase oxidation of volatile organic compounds, aqueous-phase oxidation of organics, solid plastic pyrolysis, and solvent-free organic synthesis. 107 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. The leaching characteristics of selenium from coal fly ashes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, T.; Wang, J.; Burken, J.G.; Ban, H.; Ladwig, K.

    2007-11-15

    The leaching characteristics of selenium from several bituminous and subbituminous coal fly ashes under different pH conditions were investigated using batch methods. Results indicated that pH had a significant effect on selenium leaching from bituminous coal ash. The minimum selenium leaching occurred in the pH range between 3 and 4, while the maximum selenium leaching occurred at pH 12. The release of selenium from subbituminous coal ashes was very low for the entire experimental pH range, possibly due to the high content of calcium which can form hydration or precipitation products as a sink for selenium. The adsorption results for different selenium species indicated that Se(VI) was hardly adsorbable on either bituminous coal ashes or subbitumminous coal ashes at any pH. However, Se(I) was highly adsorbed by bituminous coal ashes under acidic pH conditions and was mostly removed by subbitumminous coal ashes across the entire pH range. This result suggests that the majority of selenium released from the tested fly ashes was Se(IV). A speciation-based model was developed to simulate the adsorption of Se(IV) on bituminous coal fly ash, and the pH-independent adsorption constants of HSeO{sup 3-} and SeO{sub 3}{sup 2-} were determined. The modeling approach is useful for understanding and predicting the release process of selenium from fly ash.

  17. Eirich technology for the preparation of ashes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eirich, G.

    1994-12-31

    The paper describes a mixer manufactured by Maschinenfabrik Gustav Eirich that can be used in the agglomeration of power plant ashes and residues. No matter whether the power plant burns coal, fuel oil, wood, peat, or garbage or whether the power plant plans to dispose or utilize the residue, most flowsheets will contain an agglomeration step. The paper describes some of the uses to which this mixer can be put.

  18. Helium transport and ash control studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miley, G.H.

    1992-01-01

    The Primary goal of this research is to develop a helium (ash) transport scaling law based on experimental data from devices such as TFTR and JET. To illustrate the importance of this, we have studied ash accumulation effects on ignition requirements using a O-D transport model. Ash accumulation is characterized in the model by the ratio of the helium particle confinement time to the energy confinement time t{sub {alpha}}/t{sub E}. Results show that the ignition window'' shrinks rapidly as t{sub {alpha}}/t{sub E} increases, closing for high t{sub {alpha}}/t{sub E} increases, closing for high t{sub {alpha}}/t{sub E}. A best'' value for t{sub {alpha}}/t{sub E} will ultimately be determined from our scaling law studies. A helium transport scaling law is being sought that expresses the transport coefficients (D{sub {alpha}}, V{sub {alpha}}) as a function of the local plasma parameters. This is necessary for use in transport code calculations, e.g. for BALDUR. Based on experimental data from L-mode plasma operation in TFTR, a scaling law to a power law expression has been obtained using a least-square fit method. It is found that the transport coefficients are strongly affected by the local magnetic field and safety factor q. A preliminary conclusion from this work is that active control of ash buildup must be developed. To study control, we have developed a O-D plasma model which employs a simple pole-placement control model. Some preliminary calculations with this model are presented.

  19. Manufacture of ceramic tiles from fly ash

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hnat, James G.; Mathur, Akshay; Simpson, James C.

    1999-01-01

    The present invention relates to a process for forming glass-ceramic tiles. Fly ash containing organic material, metal contaminants, and glass forming materials is oxidized under conditions effective to combust the organic material and partially oxidize the metallic contaminants and the glass forming materials. The oxidized glass forming materials are vitrified to form a glass melt. This glass melt is then formed into tiles containing metallic contaminants.

  20. Manufacture of ceramic tiles from fly ash

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hnat, J.G.; Mathur, A.; Simpson, J.C.

    1999-08-10

    The present invention relates to a process for forming glass-ceramic tiles. Fly ash containing organic material, metal contaminants, and glass forming materials is oxidized under conditions effective to combust the organic material and partially oxidize the metallic contaminants and the glass forming materials. The oxidized glass forming materials are vitrified to form a glass melt. This glass melt is then formed into tiles containing metallic contaminants. 6 figs.

  1. Phase relationships in coal ash corrosion products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kalmanovitch, D.

    1996-10-01

    The corrosion of heat transfer surfaces in coal-fired utility boilers is a major concern to the efficient operation of these units. Despite the importance of the corrosion there has been limited research on the relationship between the ash components on the tube surface and the interactions and reactions between the various components and the steel surface. Mechanisms such as molten phase corrosion, sulfidation, and high temperature oxidation have been identified as leading to extensive wastage of tube metal. This paper describes research into the formation of molten or semimolten phases within ash deposits which are associated with corrosion of superheater and reheater fireside surfaces. For example, the phases potassium pyrosulfate (K{sub 2}S{sub 2}O{sub 7}) and potassium aluminum sulfate (K{sub 2}Al{sub 2}SO{sub 7}) have been determined by x-ray diffraction to be present in deposits where fireside corrosion has occurred. However, both these phases are not directly derived from coal minerals or the common matrix observed in ash deposits. The examination of the reactions and interactions within deposits which result a the formation of these and other phases associated with corrosion will be discussed in the paper.

  2. Utilization of ash from municipal solid waste combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, C.; Hahn, J.; Magee, B.; Yuen, N.; Sandefur, K.; Tom, J.; Yap, C.

    1999-09-01

    This ash study investigated the beneficial use of municipal waste combustion combined ash from the H-POWER facility in Oahu. These uses were grouped into intermediate cover for final closure of the Waipahu landfill, daily cover at the Waimanalo Gulch Landfill, and partial replacement for aggregate in asphalt for road paving. All proposed uses examine combined fly and bottom ash from a modern waste-to-energy facility that meets requirements of the Clean Air Act Amendments for Maximum Achievable Control Technology.

  3. Recovery of aluminum and other metal values from fly ash

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McDowell, W.J.; Seeley, F.G.

    1979-11-01

    The invention relates to a method for improving the acid leachability of aluminum and other metal values found in fly ash which comprises sintering the fly ash, prior to acid leaching, with a calcium sulfate-containing composition at a temperature at which the calcium sulfate is retained in said composition during sintering and for a time sufficient to quantitatively convert the aluminum in said fly ash into an acid-leachable form.

  4. Recovery of aluminum and other metal values from fly ash

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McDowell, William J.; Seeley, Forest G.

    1981-01-01

    The invention described herein relates to a method for improving the acid leachability of aluminum and other metal values found in fly ash which comprises sintering the fly ash, prior to acid leaching, with a calcium sulfate-containing composition at a temperature at which the calcium sulfate is retained in said composition during sintering and for a time sufficient to quantitatively convert the aluminum in said fly ash into an acid-leachable form.

  5. Data Summary Report for Hanford Site Coal Ash Characterization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sulloway, H. M.

    2012-03-06

    The purpose of this report is to present data and findings from sampling and analysis of five distinct areas of coal ash within the Hanford Site River Corridor

  6. Development of an Accelerated Ash-Loading Protocol for Diesel...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Development of an Accelerated Ash-Loading Protocol for Diesel Particulate Filters Poster presentation at the 2007 Diesel Engine-Efficiency & Emissions Research Conference (DEER ...

  7. Detailed Characterization of Lubricant-Derived Ash-Related Species...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Correlations Between Metallic Lubricant Additive Species in the Ring Pack and Ash Emissions and Their Dependence on Crankcase Oil Properties Lubricant Formulation and Consumption ...

  8. Minimizing Lubricant-Ash Requirement and Impact on Emission Aftertreat...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Acidity, Oxidation and Corrosion Correlations Between Metallic Lubricant Additive Species in the Ring Pack and Ash Emissions and Their Dependence on Crankcase Oil Properties

  9. Using fly ash and natural pozzolans in long life structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramme, B.; Jacobsmeyer, J.

    2008-07-01

    The use of fly ash and natural pozzolans in various structures (roads, temples, bridges, buildings etc.) in the USA and Canada is discussed. 22 refs., 4 photos.

  10. Ashe County, North Carolina: Energy Resources | Open Energy Informatio...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Ashe County, North Carolina: Energy Resources Jump to: navigation, search Equivalent URI DBpedia Coordinates 36.4339674, -81.4718387 Show Map Loading map......

  11. Ash Fork, Arizona: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Ash Fork, Arizona: Energy Resources Jump to: navigation, search Equivalent URI DBpedia Coordinates 35.2250114, -112.4840675 Show Map Loading map... "minzoom":false,"mappingser...

  12. Retention of elemental mercury in fly ashes in different atmospheres

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M.A. Lopez-Anton; M. Diaz-Somoano; M.R. Martinez-Tarazona

    2007-01-15

    Mercury is an extremely volatile element, which is emitted from coal combustion to the environment mostly in the vapor phase. To avoid the environmental problems that the toxic species of this element may cause, control technologies for the removal of mercury are necessary. Recent research has shown that certain fly ash materials have an affinity for mercury. Moreover, it has been observed that fly ashes may catalyze the oxidation of elemental mercury and facilitate its capture. However, the exact nature of Hg-fly ash interactions is still unknown, and mercury oxidation through fly ash needs to be investigated more thoroughly. In this work, the influence of a gas atmosphere on the retention of elemental mercury on fly ashes of different characteristics was evaluated. The retention capacity was estimated comparatively in inert and two gas atmospheres containing species present in coal gasification and coal combustion. Fly ashes produced in two pulverized coal combustion (PCC) plants, produced from coals of different rank (CTA and CTSR), and a fly ash (CTP) produced in a fluidized bed combustion (FBC) plant were used as raw materials. The mercury retention capacity of these fly ashes was compared to the retention obtained in different activated carbons. Although the capture of mercury is very similar in the gasification atmosphere and N{sub 2}, it is much more efficient in a coal combustion retention, being greater in fly ashes from PCC than those from FBC plants. 22 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. Uncovering Fundamental Ash-Formation Mechanisms and Potential...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Key Parameters Affecting DPF Performance Degradation and Impact on Lifetime Fuel Economy Non-Destructive X-ray Measurement of Soot, Ash, Washcoat and Regeneration Damage for DPFs

  14. Coal Ash Corrosion Resistant Materials Testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D. K. McDonald; P. L. Daniel; D. J. DeVault

    2003-08-31

    In April 1999, three identical superheater test sections were installed into the Niles Unit No.1 for the purpose of testing and ranking the coal ash corrosion resistance of candidate superheater alloys. The Niles boiler burns high sulfur coal (3% to 3.5%) that has a reasonably high alkali content, thus the constituents necessary for coal ash corrosion are present in the ash. The test sections were controlled to operate with an average surface metal temperature from approximately 1060 F to 1210 F which was well within the temperature range over which coal ash corrosion occurs. Thus, this combination of aggressive environment and high temperature was appropriate for testing the performance of candidate corrosion-resistant tube materials. Analyses of the deposit and scale confirmed that the aggressive alkali-iron-trisulfate constituent was present at the metal surface and active in tube metal wastage. The test sections were constructed so that the response of twelve different candidate tube and/or coating materials could be studied. The plan was to remove and evaluate one of the three test sections at time intervals of 1 year, 3 years, and 5 years. This would permit an assessment of performance of the candidate materials as a function of time. This report provides the results of the evaluation of Test Section C, including the samples that remained in the Test Section for the full exposure period as well as those that were removed early. The analysis of Test Section C followed much the same protocol that was employed in the assessment of Test Section A. Again, the focus was on determining and documenting the relative corrosion rates of the candidate materials. The detailed results of the investigation are included in this report as a series of twelve appendices. Each appendix is devoted to the performance of one of the candidate alloys. The table below summarizes metal loss rate for the worst case sample of each of the candidate materials for both Test Sections A and C. The body of this report compares these for all of the samples in the test section. The 'Coal Ash Corrosion Resistant Materials Testing Program' is being conducted by The Babcock & Wilcox Company (B&W), the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO) at Reliant Energy's Niles plant in Niles, Ohio to provide full-scale, in-situ testing of recently developed boiler superheater materials. Fireside corrosion is a key issue for improving efficiency of new coal fired power plants and improving service life in existing plants. In November 1998, B&W began development of a system to permit testing of advanced tube materials at metal temperatures typical of advanced supercritical steam temperatures (1100 F and higher) in a boiler exhibiting coal ash corrosive conditions. Several materials producers including Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) contributed advanced materials to the project. In the spring of 1999 a system consisting of three identical sections, each containing multiple segments of twelve different materials, was installed. The sections are cooled by reheat steam, and are located just above the furnace entrance in Niles Unit No.1, a 110 MWe unit firing high sulfur Ohio coal. In November 2001 the first section was removed for thorough metallurgical evaluation after 29 months of operation. The second section was removed in August of 2003. Its evaluation has been completed and is the subject of this report. The final section remains in service and is expected to be removed in the spring of 2005. This paper describes the program; its importance, the design, fabrication, installation and operation of the test system, materials utilized, and experience to date. This report briefly reviews the results of the evaluation of the first section and then presents the results of the evaluation of the second section.

  15. Failure of zinc-plated self-tapping screws and Belleville washers used to install spoiler bars in cast iron dryers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bruscato, R.M.; Herro, H.M.

    1999-07-01

    During a routine internal inspection of 39 dryers containing spoiler bars, hundreds of broken self-tapping screws used to install those bars were found. Many other screws, as well as many Belleville washers, which spring load the bar assembly against the shell, were found to be severely cracked. The spoiler bar system had been in service for 27 months. Fortunately, none of the bars had broken loose inside the dryers. Failures were the result of hydrogen embrittlement which produced the cracking. Hydrogen was produced by a galvanic corrosion cell established between the zinc plating and the hardened washers and hardened self-tapping screws. Minor chemical/pH upset conditions typical in paper mill steam systems may have accelerated the activity of the galvanic cell. This, in turn, enhanced the evolution of hydrogen. Once the zinc was consumed, hydrogen evolution ceased, and the driving force for cracking was eliminated.

  16. Uncovering Fundamental Ash-Formation Mechanisms and Potential Means to Control the Impact on DPF Performance and Engine Efficiency

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Results illustrate ash particle growth and formation pathways, and influence of lubricant chemistry and exhaust conditions on fundamental ash properties

  17. Fly ash and coal mineral matter surface transformations during heating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baer, D R; Smith, R D

    1982-05-01

    A study is reported of surface segregation phenomena for fly ash and aluminosilicates representative of coal mineral matter during heating. The materials studied included a 20-..mu..m average diameter fly ash powder, a glass prepared from the fly ash, and Ca- and K-rich aluminosilicate minerals. The samples were heated both in air and under vacuum for extended periods at temperatures up to 1100/sup 0/C. XPS, Auger and SIMS methods were used to obtain relative surface elemental concentrations for major and minor components and depth profiles for some of the samples. Major differences were noted between samples heated in air (oxidizing) and those heated in vacuum (reducing) environments. For the fly ash glass heated in air Fe, Ti and Mg become enriched on the surfaces while heating in vacuum leads to Si surface segregation. Different trends upon heating were also observed for the Ca- and K-rich aluminosilicates. The results indicate two levels of surface enrichment upon the fly ash glass; a thin (< 500 A) layer and a thicker (1- to 2-..mu..m) layer most evident for heating in air where an Fe-rich layer is formed. The present results indicate that the rates of surface segregation may not be sufficiently fast on the time scale of fly ash formation to result in equilibrium surface segregation. It is concluded that condensation processes during fly ash formation probably play a major role in the observed fly ash surface enrichments.

  18. The recycling of the coal fly ash in glass production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Erol, M.M.; Kucukbayrak, S.; Ersoy-Mericboyu, A.

    2006-09-15

    The recycling of fly ash obtained from the combustion of coal in thermal power plant has been studied. Coal fly ash was vitrified by melting at 1773 K for 5 hours without any additives. The properties of glasses produced from coal fly ash were investigated by means of Differential Thermal Analysis (DTA), X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) techniques. DTA study indicated that there was only one endothermic peak at 1003 K corresponding to the glass transition temperature. XRD analysis showed the amorphous state of the glass sample produced from coal fly ash. SEM investigations revealed that the coal fly ash based glass sample had smooth surface. The mechanical, physical and chemical properties of the glass sample were also determined. Recycling of coal fly ash by using vitrification technique resulted to a glass material that had good mechanical, physical and chemical properties. Toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) results showed that the heavy metals of Pb, Cr, Zn and Mn were successfully immobilized into the glass. It can be said that glass sample obtained by the recycling of coal fly ash can be taken as a non-hazardous material. Overall, results indicated that the vitrification technique is an effective way for the stabilization and recycling of coal fly ash.

  19. Optimizing the use of fly ash in concrete

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas, M.

    2007-07-01

    The optimum amount of fly ash varies not only with the application, but also with composition and proportions of all the materials in the concrete mixture (especially the fly ash), the conditions during placing (especially temperature), construction practices (for example, finishing and curing) and the exposure conditions. This document discusses issues related to using low to very high levels of fly ash in concrete and provides guidance for the use of fly ash without compromising the construction process or the quality of the finished product. The nature of fly ashes including their physical, mineralogical and chemical properties is covered in detail, as well as fly ash variability due to coal composition and plant operating conditions. A discussion on the effects of fly ash characteristics on fresh and hardened concrete properties includes; workability, bleeding, air entrainment, setting time, heat of hydration, compressive strength development, creep, drying shrinkage, abrasion resistance, permeability, resistance to chlorides, alkali-silica reaction (ASR), sulfate resistance, carbonation, and resistance to freezing and thawing and deicer salt scaling. Case studies were selected as examples of some of the more demanding applications of fly ash concrete for ASR mitigation, chloride resistance, and green building.

  20. Process for the recovery of alumina from fly ash

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Murtha, Marlyn J.

    1983-08-09

    An improvement in the lime-sinter process for recovering alumina from pulverized coal fly ash is disclosed. The addition of from 2 to 10 weight percent carbon and sulfur to the fly ash-calcium carbonate mixture increase alumina recovery at lower sintering temperatures.

  1. Hot-Gas Filter Ash Characterization Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swanson, M.L.; Hurley, J.P.; Dockter, B.A.; O`Keefe, C.A.

    1997-07-01

    Large-scale hot-gas filter testing over the past 10 years has revealed numerous cases of cake buildup on filter elements that has been difficult, if not impossible, to remove. At times, the cake can blind or bridge between candle filters, leading to filter failure. Physical factors, including particle-size distribution, particle shape, the aerodynamics of deposition, and system temperature, contribute to the difficulty in removing the cake, but chemical factors such as surface composition and gas-solid reactions also play roles in helping to bond the ash to the filters or to itself. This project is designed to perform the research necessary to determine the fuel-, sorbent-, and operations-related conditions that lead to blinding or bridging of hot-gas particle filters. The objectives of the project are threefold: (1) Determine the mechanisms by which a difficult-to-clean ash is formed and how it bridges hot-gas filters (2) Develop a method to determine the rate of bridging based on analyses of the feed coal and sorbent, filter properties, and system operating conditions and (3) Suggest and test ways to prevent filter bridging.

  2. Richard King

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    [[{"type":"media","view_mode":"media_energy_gov_320","fid":"969521","attributes":{"alt":"RK Madrid3.jpg","class":"media-image caption","style":"width: 320px; height: 213px; float: right;","typeof":...

  3. STRATEGIES AND TECHNOLOGY FOR MANAGING HIGH-CARBON ASH

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert Hurt; Eric Suuberg; John Veranth; Xu Chen

    2002-09-10

    The overall objective of the present project is to identify and assess strategies and solutions for the management of industry problems related to carbon in ash. Specific research issues to be addressed include: (1) the effect of parent fuel selection on ash properties and adsorptivity, including a first ever examination of the air entrainment behavior of ashes from alternative (non-coal) fuels; (2) the effect of various low-NOx firing modes on ash properties and adsorptivity; and (3) the kinetics and mechanism of ash ozonation. This data will provide scientific and engineering support of the ongoing process development activities. During this fourth project period we completed the characterization of ozone-treated carbon surfaces and wrote a comprehensive report on the mechanism through which ozone suppresses the adsorption of concrete surfactants.

  4. COAL-FIRED UTILITY BOILERS: SOLVING ASH DEPOSITION PROBLEMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Christopher J. Zygarlicke; Donald P. McCollor; Steven A. Benson; Jay R. Gunderson

    2001-04-01

    The accumulation of slagging and fouling ash deposits in utility boilers has been a source of aggravation for coal-fired boiler operators for over a century. Many new developments in analytical, modeling, and combustion testing methods in the past 20 years have made it possible to identify root causes of ash deposition. A concise and comprehensive guidelines document has been assembled for solving ash deposition as related to coal-fired utility boilers. While this report accurately captures the current state of knowledge in ash deposition, note that substantial research and development is under way to more completely understand and mitigate slagging and fouling. Thus, while comprehensive, this document carries the title ''interim,'' with the idea that future work will provide additional insight. Primary target audiences include utility operators and engineers who face plant inefficiencies and significant operational and maintenance costs that are associated with ash deposition problems. Pulverized and cyclone-fired coal boilers are addressed specifically, although many of the diagnostics and solutions apply to other boiler types. Logic diagrams, ash deposit types, and boiler symptoms of ash deposition are used to aid the user in identifying an ash deposition problem, diagnosing and verifying root causes, determining remedial measures to alleviate or eliminate the problem, and then monitoring the situation to verify that the problem has been solved. In addition to a step-by-step method for identifying and remediating ash deposition problems, this guideline document (Appendix A) provides descriptions of analytical techniques for diagnostic testing and gives extensive fundamental and practical literature references and addresses of organizations that can provide help in alleviating ash deposition problems.

  5. Fluidization characteristics of power-plant fly ashes and fly ash-charcoal mixtures. [MS Thesis; 40 references

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nguyen, C.T.

    1980-03-01

    As a part of the continuing research on aluminum recovery from fly ash by HiChlor process, a plexiglass fluidization column system was constructed for measurement of fluidization parameters for power-plant fly ashes and fly ash-charcoal mixtures. Several bituminous and subbituminous coal fly ashes were tested and large differences in fluidization characteristics were observed. Fly ashes which were mechanically collected fluidized uniformly at low gas flow rates. Most fly ashes which were electrostatically precipitated exhibited channeling tendency and did not fluidize uniformly. Fluidization characteristics of electrostatically collected ashes improve when the finely divided charcoal powder is added to the mixture. The fluidization of the mixture was aided initially by a mechanical stirrer. Once the fluidization had succeeded, the beds were ready to fluidize without the assistance of a mechanical action. Smooth fluidization and large bed expansion were usually observed. The effects of charcoal size and aspect ratio on fluidization characteristics of the mixtures were also investigated. Fluidization characteristics of a fly ash-coal mixture were tested. The mixture fluidized only after being oven-dried for a few days.

  6. Toxicity mitigation and solidification of municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash using alkaline activated coal ash

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ivan Diaz-Loya, E.; Allouche, Erez N.; Eklund, Sven; Joshi, Anupam R.; Kupwade-Patil, Kunal

    2012-08-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Incinerator fly ash (IFA) is added to an alkali activated coal fly ash (CFA) matrix. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Means of stabilizing the incinerator ash for use in construction applications. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Concrete made from IFA, CFA and IFA-CFA mixes was chemically characterized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Environmentally friendly solution to IFA disposal by reducing its toxicity levels. - Abstract: Municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration is a common and effective practice to reduce the volume of solid waste in urban areas. However, the byproduct of this process is a fly ash (IFA), which contains large quantities of toxic contaminants. The purpose of this research study was to analyze the chemical, physical and mechanical behaviors resulting from the gradual introduction of IFA to an alkaline activated coal fly ash (CFA) matrix, as a mean of stabilizing the incinerator ash for use in industrial construction applications, where human exposure potential is limited. IFA and CFA were analyzed via X-ray fluorescence (XRF), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Inductive coupled plasma (ICP) to obtain a full chemical analysis of the samples, its crystallographic characteristics and a detailed count of the eight heavy metals contemplated in US Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations (40 CFR). The particle size distribution of IFA and CFA was also recorded. EPA's Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) was followed to monitor the leachability of the contaminants before and after the activation. Also images obtained via Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), before and after the activation, are presented. Concrete made from IFA, CFA and IFA-CFA mixes was subjected to a full mechanical characterization; tests include compressive strength, flexural strength, elastic modulus, Poisson's ratio and setting time. The leachable heavy metal contents (except for Se) were below the maximum allowable limits and in many cases even below the reporting limit. The leachable Chromium was reduced from 0.153 down to 0.0045 mg/L, Arsenic from 0.256 down to 0.132 mg/L, Selenium from 1.05 down to 0.29 mg/L, Silver from 0.011 down to .001 mg/L, Barium from 2.06 down to 0.314 mg/L and Mercury from 0.007 down to 0.001 mg/L. Although the leachable Cd exhibited an increase from 0.49 up to 0.805 mg/L and Pd from 0.002 up to 0.029 mg/L, these were well below the maximum limits of 1.00 and 5.00 mg/L, respectively.

  7. Effect of fuel properties on the bottom ash generation rate by a laboratory fluidized bed combustor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rozelle, P.L.; Pisupati, S.V.; Scaroni, A.W.

    2007-06-15

    The range of fuels that can be accommodated by an FBC boiler system is affected by the ability of the fuel, sorbent, and ash-handling equipment to move the required solids through the boiler. Of specific interest is the bottom ash handling equipment, which must have sufficient capacity to remove ash from the system in order to maintain a constant bed inventory level, and must have sufficient capability to cool the ash well below the bed temperature. Quantification of a fuel's bottom ash removal requirements can be useful for plant design. The effect of fuel properties on the rate of bottom ash production in a laboratory FBC test system was examined. The work used coal products ranging in ash content from 20 to 40+ wt. %. The system's classification of solids by particle size into flyash and bottom ash was characterized using a partition curve. Fuel fractions in the size range characteristic of bottom ash were further analyzed for distributions of ash content with respect to specific gravity, using float sink tests. The fuel fractions were then ashed in a fixed bed. In each case, the highest ash content fraction produced ash with the coarsest size consist (characteristic of bottom ash). The lower ash content fractions were found to produce ash in the size range characteristic of flyash, suggesting that the high ash content fractions were largely responsible for the production of bottom ash. The contributions of the specific gravity fractions to the composite ash in the fuels were quantified. The fuels were fired in the laboratory test system. Fuels with higher amounts of high specific gravity particles, in the size ranges characteristic of bottom ash, were found to produce more bottom ash, indicating the potential utility of float sink methods in the prediction of bottom ash removal requirements.

  8. Mutagenicity and genotoxicity of coal fly ash water leachate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chakraborty, R.; Mukherjee, A.

    2009-03-15

    Fly ash is a by-product of coal-fired electricity generation plants. The prevalent practice of disposal is as slurry of ash and water to storage or ash ponds located near power stations. This has lain to waste thousands of hectares of land all over the world. Since leaching is often the cause of off-site contamination and pathway of introduction into the human environment, a study on the genotoxic effects of fly ash leachate is essential. Leachate prepared from the fly ash sample was analyzed for metal content, and tested for mutagenicity and genotoxicity. Analyses of metals show predominance of the metals - sodium, silicon, potassium, calcium, magnesium, iron, manganese, zinc, and sulphate. The Ames Salmonella mutagenicity assay, a short-term bacterial reverse mutation assay, was conducted on two-tester strains of Salmonella typhimurium strains TA97a and TA102. For genotoxicity, the alkaline version of comet assay on fly ash leachate was carried in vitro on human blood cells and in vivo on Nicotiana plants. The leachate was directly mutagenic and induced significantconcentration-dependent increases in DNA damage in whole blood cells, lymphocytes, and in Nicotiana plants. The comet parameters show increases in tail DNA percentage (%), tail length (mu m), and olive tail moment (arbitrary units). Our results indicate that leachate from fly ash dumpsites has the genotoxic potential and may lead to adverse effects on vegetation and on the health of exposed human populations.

  9. Water holding capacities of fly ashes: Effect of size fractionation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sarkar, A.; Rano, R.

    2007-07-01

    Water holding capacities of fly ashes from different thermal power plants in Eastern India have been compared. Moreover, the effect of size fractionation (sieving) on the water holding capacities has also been determined. The desorption rate of water held by the fly ash fractions at ambient temperature (25-30{sup o}C) has been investigated. The effect of mixing various size fractions of fly ash in increasing the water holding capacities of fly ash has been studied. It is observed that the fly ash obtained from a thermal power plant working on stoker-fired combustor has the highest water holding capacity, followed by the one that works on pulverized fuel combustor. Fly ash collected from super thermal power plant has the least water holding capacity (40.7%). The coarser size fractions of fly ashes in general have higher water holding capacities than the finer ones. An attempt has been made to correlate the results obtained, with the potential use in agriculture.

  10. Characterization and possible uses of ashes from wastewater treatment plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Merino, Ignacio; Arevalo, Luis F. . E-mail: fromero@ehu.es

    2005-07-01

    This work, on the ashes from the wastewater treatment plant of Galindo (Vizcaya, Spain), has been outlined with the purpose of finding their physico-chemical properties and suggesting possible applications. Ashes contain important quantities of iron, calcium, silica, alumina and phosphates. X-Ray diffraction data make it possible to estimate the mineralogical compositions of the original ashes and also, after thermal treatment at 1200 and 1300 deg. C, the main reactions occurring in thermal treatment. Particle size analysis makes it possible to classify ashes as a very fine powdered material. The thermal treatment leads to a densification of the material and provokes losses of weight mainly due to the elimination of water, carbon dioxide and sulphur trioxide. Application tests show that ashes are not suitable for landfill and similar applications, because of their plastic properties. Testing for pozzolanic character, after the ashes had been heated at 1200 deg. C, did not lead to a strong material probably due to low contents in silica and alumina or to requiring a higher heating temperature. Thermal treatment leads to densification of the material with a considerable increase of compressive strength of the probes. The use of additives (clays and powdered glass) to improve ceramic properties of ashes will be the aim of a future work.

  11. Coal Ash Corrosion Resistant Materials Testing Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McDonald, D.K.

    2003-04-22

    The "Coal Ash Corrosion Resistant Materials Testing Program" is being conducted by The Babcock & Wilcox Company (B&W), the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO) at Reliant Energy’s Niles plant in Niles, Ohio to provide full-scale, in-situ testing of recently developed boiler superheater materials. Fireside corrosion is a key issue for improving efficiency of new coal fired power plants and improving service life in existing plants. In November 1998, B&W began development of a system to permit testing of advanced tube materials at metal temperatures typical of advanced supercritical steam temperatures (1100°F and higher) in a boiler exhibiting coal ash corrosive conditions. Several materials producers including Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) contributed advanced materials to the project. In the spring of 1999 a system consisting of three identical sections, each containing multiple segments of twelve different materials, was installed. The sections are cooled by reheat steam, and are located just above the furnace entrance in Niles’ Unit #1, a 110 MWe unit firing high sulfur Ohio coal. In November 2001 the first section was removed for thorough metallurgical evaluation after 33 months of operation. The second and third sections remain in service and the second is expected to be removed in the fall of 2003; the last is tentatively planned for the fall of 2004. This paper describes the program; its importance; the design, fabrication, installation and operation of the test system; materials utilized; experience to date; and results of the evaluation of the first section.

  12. Novel microorganism for selective separation of coal from pyrite and ash. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Misra, M.; Smith, R.W.

    1995-09-01

    The separation of fine coal from ash and pyrite was evaluated using a microorganism Mycobacterium phlei.

  13. Increasing Class C fly ash reduces alkali silica reactivity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hicks, J.K.

    2007-07-01

    Contrary to earlier studies, it has been found that incremental additions of Class C fly ash do reduce alkali silica reactivity (ASR), in highly reactive, high alkali concrete mixes. AST can be further reduced by substituting 5% metakaolin or silica fume for the aggregate in concrete mixes with high (more than 30%) Class C fly ash substitution. The paper reports results of studies using Class C fly ash from the Labadie Station plant in Missouri which typically has between 1.3 and 1.45% available alkalis by ASTM C311. 7 figs.

  14. Recovery of iron oxide from coal fly ash

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dobbins, Michael S.; Murtha, Marlyn J.

    1983-05-31

    A high quality iron oxide concentrate, suitable as a feed for blast and electric reduction furnaces is recovered from pulverized coal fly ash. The magnetic portion of the fly ash is separated and treated with a hot strong alkali solution which dissolves most of the silica and alumina in the fly ash, leaving a solid residue and forming a precipitate which is an acid soluble salt of aluminosilicate hydrate. The residue and precipitate are then treated with a strong mineral acid to dissolve the precipitate leaving a solid residue containing at least 90 weight percent iron oxide.

  15. Salmon Supplementation Studies in Idaho Rivers; Field Activities Conducted on Clear and Pete King Creeks, 2001 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gass, Carrie; Olson, Jim M.

    2004-11-01

    In 2001 the Idaho Fisheries Resource Office continued as a cooperator on the Salmon Supplementation Studies in Idaho Rivers (ISS) project on Pete King and Clear creeks. Data relating to supplementation treatment releases, juvenile sampling, juvenile PIT tagging, brood stock spawning and rearing, spawning ground surveys, and snorkel surveys were used to evaluate project data points and augment past data. Due to low adult spring Chinook returns to Kooskia National Fish Hatchery (KNFH) in brood year 1999 there was no smolt supplementation treatment release into Clear Creek in 2001. A 17,014 spring Chinook parr supplementation treatment (containing 1000 PIT tags) was released into Pete King Creek on July 24, 2001. On Clear Creek, there were 412 naturally produced spring Chinook parr PIT tagged and released. Using juvenile collection methods, Idaho Fisheries Resource Office staff PIT tagged and released 320 naturally produced spring Chinook pre-smolts on Clear Creek, and 16 natural pre-smolts on Pete King Creek, for minimum survival estimates to Lower Granite Dam. There were no PIT tag detections of brood year 1999 smolts from Clear or Pete King creeks. A total of 2261 adult spring Chinook were collected at KNFH. Forty-three females were used for supplementation brood stock, and 45 supplementation (ventral fin-clip), and 45 natural (unmarked) adults were released upstream of KNFH to spawn naturally. Spatial and temporal distribution of 37 adults released above the KNFH weir was determined through the use of radio telemetry. On Clear Creek, a total of 166 redds (8.2 redds/km) were observed and data was collected from 195 carcasses. Seventeen completed redds (2.1 redds/km) were found, and data was collected data from six carcasses on Pete King Creek.

  16. Coal Ash Corrosion Resistant Materials Testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D. K. McDonald; P. L. Daniel; D. J. DeVault

    2007-12-31

    In April 1999, three identical superheater test sections were installed into the Niles Unit No.1 for the purpose of testing and ranking the coal ash corrosion resistance of candidate superheater alloys. The Niles boiler burns high sulfur coal (3% to 3.5%) that has a moderate alkali content (0.2% sodium equivalents), thus the constituents necessary for coal ash corrosion are present in the ash. The test sections were controlled to operate with an average surface metal temperature from approximately 1060 F to 1210 F which was within the temperature range over which coal ash corrosion occurs. Thus, this combination of aggressive environment and high temperature was appropriate for testing the performance of candidate corrosion-resistant tube materials. Analyses of the deposit and scale confirmed that aggressive alkali sulfate constituents were present at the metal surface and active in tube metal wastage. The test sections were constructed so that the response of twelve different candidate tube and/or coating materials could be studied. The plan was to remove and evaluate one of the three test sections at time intervals of 1 year, 3 years, and 5 years. This would permit an assessment of performance of the candidate materials as a function of time. Test Section A was removed in November 2001 after about 24 months of service at the desired steam temperature set point, with about 15.5 months of exposure at full temperature. A progress report, issued in October 2002, was written to document the performance of the candidate alloys in that test section. The evaluation described the condition of each tube sample after exposure. It involved a determination of the rate of wall thickness loss for these samples. In cases where there was more than one sample of a candidate material in the test section, an assessment was made of the performance of the alloy as a function of temperature. Test Sections B and C were examined during the November 2001 outage, and it was decided that, due to excessive wastage, certain tube samples needed to be removed and replaced in order to ensure that Test Sections B and C would have a chance of remaining in the boiler for their intended exposure period. These suspect tube samples were replaced and the two remaining test sections were put back into service. The tube samples that were removed from Test Sections B and C were set aside for later analysis at the end of the planned exposure period. Test Sections B and C were again examined approximately six months later. At that time, measured wall thickness losses raised concerns about additional tube samples. These suspect samples were also removed, set aside for later analysis, and replaced. The test sections then went back into service until the end of the second exposure period, which was concluded in May 2003 when, due to evidence of excessive wastage, the valves were opened increasing cooling steam flow and thereby effectively stopping corrosion. In August 2003, Test Sections B and C were removed for closer examination. Section C had experienced about 42 months of service at the desired team temperature set point with 28.5 months at temperature at full temperature. Additional suspect samples were removed from Test Section B, then, it was re-installed into the boiler (at the location originally occupied by Section C), where it remained in service until the end of the program. Due to this removal history, the samples from Test Section B had a total service duration that varied from a minimum of 15.5 months (for samples that performed poorly) to 37 months for samples the survived for the full intended service exposure for Section B. The figure below shows a schematic of Test Section B and indicates the length of service exposure for different locations. This report provides the results of the evaluation of Test Section B, including the samples that remained in the Test Section for the full exposure period as well as those that were removed early. This report also is intended to compare and summarize the results for all three test sections. The analysis of Test Section B followed much the same protocol that was employed in the assessment of the other two test sections. The focus was on determining and documenting the relative corrosion rates of the candidate materials; however, additional investigations were undertaken to better understand the wastage mechanism, and to characterize how selected candidate materials performed either well, or poorly, in the severe coal ash corrosion environment in the convection pass of Niles Unit No.1. The detailed results of the investigation are included in this report as a series of twelve appendices. Each appendix is devoted to the performance of one of the candidate alloys. The table below summarizes metal loss rate for the worst case sample of each of the candidate materials in all three test sections. The body of this report compares these for all of the samples in the test section.

  17. The Development of a Small Engine Based Accelerated Ash Loading...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Accelerated Ash Loading Protocol Presentation given at DEER 2006, August 20-24, 2006, Detroit, Michigan. Sponsored by the U.S. DOE's EERE FreedomCar and Fuel Partnership and 21st...

  18. Compressive strength of concrete and mortar containing fly ash

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liskowitz, J.W.; Wecharatana, M.; Jaturapitakkul, C.; Cerkanowicz, A.E.

    1997-04-29

    The present invention relates to concrete, mortar and other hardenable mixtures comprising cement and fly ash for use in construction. The invention includes a method for predicting the compressive strength of such a hardenable mixture, which is very important for planning a project. The invention also relates to hardenable mixtures comprising cement and fly ash which can achieve greater compressive strength than hardenable mixtures containing only concrete over the time period relevant for construction. In a specific embodiment, a formula is provided that accurately predicts compressive strength of concrete containing fly ash out to 180 days. In other specific examples, concrete and mortar containing about 15% to 25% fly ash as a replacement for cement, which are capable of meeting design specifications required for building and highway construction, are provided. Such materials can thus significantly reduce construction costs. 33 figs.

  19. Blue Ash, Ohio: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Hide Map This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Blue Ash is a city in Hamilton County, Ohio. It falls under Ohio's 2nd congressional...

  20. Transcending Portland Cement with 100 percent fly ash concrete

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cross, D.; Akin, M.; Stephens, J.; Cuelh, E.

    2009-07-01

    The use of concrete, made with 100% fly ash and no Portland cement, in buildings at the Transportation Institute in Bozeman, MT, USA, is described. 3 refs., 7 figs.

  1. Determination of Total Solids and Ash in Algal Biomass: Laboratory...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Caution: the final ash weight must be above the minimum weight of the balance. 14.5 Sample Storage: All samples should be stored in an airtight container in a -20C freezer. 15. ...

  2. The Development of a Small Engine Based Ash Loading Protocol

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    When 5% lubrication oil is added to diesel fuel in a small engine test, ash increases linearly and at the back of a filter, the amount depending on the differences in substrate and wash-coat type.

  3. Compressive strength of concrete and mortar containing fly ash

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liskowitz, J.W.; Wecharatana, M.; Jaturapitakkul, C.; Cerkanowicz, A.E.

    1998-12-29

    The present invention relates to concrete, mortar and other hardenable mixtures comprising cement and fly ash for use in construction. The invention includes a method for predicting the compressive strength of such a hardenable mixture, which is very important for planning a project. The invention also relates to hardenable mixtures comprising cement and fly ash which can achieve greater compressive strength than hardenable mixtures containing only concrete over the time period relevant for construction. In a specific embodiment, a formula is provided that accurately predicts compressive strength of concrete containing fly ash out to 180 days. In other specific examples, concrete and mortar containing about 15% to 25% fly ash as a replacement for cement, which are capable of meeting design specification required for building and highway construction, are provided. Such materials can thus significantly reduce construction costs. 33 figs.

  4. Compressive strength of concrete and mortar containing fly ash

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liskowitz, John W.; Wecharatana, Methi; Jaturapitakkul, Chai; Cerkanowicz, deceased, Anthony E.

    1997-01-01

    The present invention relates to concrete, mortar and other hardenable mixtures comprising cement and fly ash for use in construction. The invention includes a method for predicting the compressive strength of such a hardenable mixture, which is very important for planning a project. The invention also relates to hardenable mixtures comprising cement and fly ash which can achieve greater compressive strength than hardenable mixtures containing only concrete over the time period relevant for construction. In a specific embodiment, a formula is provided that accurately predicts compressive strength of concrete containing fly ash out to 180 days. In other specific examples, concrete and mortar containing about 15% to 25% fly ash as a replacement for cement, which are capable of meeting design specifications required for building and highway construction, are provided. Such materials can thus significantly reduce construction costs.

  5. Recoverable immobilization of transuranic elements in sulfate ash

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Greenhalgh, Wilbur O.

    1985-01-01

    Disclosed is a method of reversibly immobilizing sulfate ash at least about 20% of which is sulfates of transuranic elements. The ash is mixed with a metal which can be aluminum, cerium, samarium, europium, or a mixture thereof, in amounts sufficient to form an alloy with the transuranic elements, plus an additional amount to reduce the transuranic element sulfates to elemental form. Also added to the ash is a fluxing agent in an amount sufficient to lower the percentage of the transuranic element sulfates to about 1% to about 10%. The mixture of the ash, metal, and fluxing agent is heated to a temperature sufficient to melt the fluxing agent and the metal. The mixture is then cooled and the alloy is separated from the remainder of the mixture.

  6. Compressive strength of concrete and mortar containing fly ash

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liskowitz, John W.; Wecharatana, Methi; Jaturapitakkul, Chai; Cerkanowicz, deceased, Anthony E.

    1998-01-01

    The present invention relates to concrete, mortar and other hardenable mixtures comprising cement and fly ash for use in construction. The invention includes a method for predicting the compressive strength of such a hardenable mixture, which is very important for planning a project. The invention also relates to hardenable mixtures comprising cement and fly ash which can achieve greater compressive strength than hardenable mixtures containing only concrete over the time period relevant for construction. In a specific embodiment, a formula is provided that accurately predicts compressive strength of concrete containing fly ash out to 180 days. In other specific examples, concrete and mortar containing about 15% to 25% fly ash as a replacement for cement, which are capable of meeting design specification required for building and highway construction, are provided. Such materials can thus significantly reduce construction costs.

  7. Recovery Act Workers Complete Environmental Cleanup of Coal Ash Basin

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) recently cleaned up a 17-acre basin containing coal ash residues from Cold War operations. The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act project was safely completed at a...

  8. Sorbent utilization studies using a mini-pilot spray dryer. Final report, August 1, 1991--August 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keener, T.C.; Khang, S.J.; Wang, J.

    1992-10-01

    This report stems from a program supported by the Ohio Coal Development Office, that is part of a multi-task, multi-university effort concerned with developing and enhancing the efficiency of ``dry`` high-sulfur flue gas scrubbing processes using calcium based sorbents. The application of spray-drying flue gas desulfurization (FGD) to sources burning Ohio coal will depend on many factors, two of which are process simplicity and flexibility, and overall cost. The ability of the system to be able to handle variations in volumetric flow SO{sub 2} concentration, and even perhaps, new regulatory requirements imposed in the future are very important In addition, the amount and characteristics of the waste produced will be a major component in the operating costs of these systems. Spray-drying FGD has been shown to have a capital, cost advantage over conventional wet scrubbing, and the method has been proven to be comparatively simple and flexible. The major disadvantage is the inability of these systems to obtain high (> 90%) S0{sub 2} removal efficiencies on flue gas from high sulfur coal sources. This is the result of chemical mass transfer and thermal limitations imposed on these systems using calcium hydroxide in a slurry as the scrubbing agent. The project 1.5 has investigated a number of novel methods to improve the performance of these systems in a mini-pilot plant spray dryer facility. The objectives of project 1.5 were the following: Perform baseline parametric testing, study the effect of additives on reactivity, and perform sorbent recycle tests.

  9. Ash Reduction of Corn Stover by Mild Hydrothermal Preprocessing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M. Toufiq Reza; Rachel Emerson; M. Helal Uddin; Garold Gresham; Charles J. Coronella

    2014-04-22

    Lignocellulosic biomass such as corn stover can contain high ash content, which may act as an inhibitor in downstream conversion processes. Most of the structural ash in biomass is located in the cross-linked structure of lignin, which is mildly reactive in basic solutions. Four organic acids (formic, oxalic, tartaric, and citric) were evaluated for effectiveness in ash reduction, with limited success. Because of sodium citrates chelating and basic characteristics, it is effective in ash removal. More than 75 % of structural and 85 % of whole ash was removed from the biomass by treatment with 0.1 g of sodium citrate per gram of biomass at 130 C and 2.7 bar. FTIR, fiber analysis, and chemical analyses show that cellulose and hemicellulose were unaffected by the treatment. ICPAES showed that all inorganics measured were reduced within the biomass feedstock, except sodium due to the addition of Na through the treatment. Sodium citrate addition to the preconversion process of corn stover is an effective way to reduced physiological ash content of the feedstock without negatively impacting carbohydrate and lignin content.

  10. Ash level meter for a fixed-bed coal gasifier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fasching, George E.

    1984-01-01

    An ash level meter for a fixed-bed coal gasifier is provided which utilizes the known ash level temperature profile to monitor the ash bed level. A bed stirrer which travels up and down through the extent of the bed ash level is modified by installing thermocouples to measure the bed temperature as the stirrer travels through the stirring cycle. The temperature measurement signals are transmitted to an electronic signal process system by an FM/FM telemetry system. The processing system uses the temperature signals together with an analog stirrer position signal, taken from a position transducer disposed to measure the stirrer position to compute the vertical location of the ash zone upper boundary. The circuit determines the fraction of each total stirrer cycle time the stirrer-derived bed temperature is below a selected set point, multiplies this fraction by the average stirrer signal level, multiplies this result by an appropriate constant and adds another constant such that a 1 to 5 volt signal from the processor corresponds to a 0 to 30 inch span of the ash upper boundary level. Three individual counters in the processor store clock counts that are representative of: (1) the time the stirrer temperature is below the set point (500.degree. F.), (2) the time duration of the corresponding stirrer travel cycle, and (3) the corresponding average stirrer vertical position. The inputs to all three counters are disconnected during any period that the stirrer is stopped, eliminating corruption of the measurement by stirrer stoppage.

  11. Leaching of Mixtures of Biochar and Fly Ash

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Palumbo, Anthony Vito; Porat, Iris; Phillips, Jana Randolph; Amonette, J. E.; Drake, Meghan M; Brown, Steven D; Schadt, Christopher Warren

    2009-01-01

    Increasing atmospheric levels of greenhouse gases, especially CO2, and their effects on global temperature have led to interest in the possibility of carbon storage in terrestrial environments.2, 5, 6 Both the residual char from biomass pyrolysis7-9, 12 (biochar) and fly ash from coal combustion1, 13, 14 have the potential to significantly expand terrestrial sequestration options. Both biochar and fly ash also have potentially beneficial effects on soil properties. Fly ash has been shown to increase porosity, water-holding capacity, pH, conductivity, and dissolved SO42-, CO32-, Cl- and basic cations.10, 11, 16 Adding biochar to soil generally raises pH, increases total nitrogen and total phosphorous, encourages greater root development, improves cation exchange capacity and reduces available aluminum.3, 17 Combinations of these benefits likely lead to the observed increased yields for crops including corn and sugarcane.17 with biochar addition to soil. In addition, it has been found that soils with added biochar emit lower amounts of other greenhouse gases (methane and nitrous oxide) 8, 17 than do unammended soils. Biochar and fly ash amendments may be useful in promoting terrestrial carbon sequestration on currently underutilized and degraded lands. For example, about 1% of the US surface lands consist of previously mined lands or highway rights-of-way.18 Poorly managed lands could count for another 15% of US area. Biochar and fly ash amendments could increase productivity of these lands and increase carbon storage in the soil Previous results showed minimal leaching of organic carbon and metals from a variety of fly ashes.15 Here, we are examining the properties of mixtures of biochar, fly ash, and soil and evaluating leaching of organic carbon and metals from the mixtures.

  12. ADVANCED POWER SYSTEMS ASH BEHAVIOR IN POWER SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    CHRISTOPHER J. ZYGARLICKE; DONALD P. MCCOLLOR; JOHN P. KAY; MICHAEL L. SWANSON

    1998-09-01

    The overall goal of this initiative is to develop fundamental knowledge of ash behavior in power systems for the purpose of increasing power production efficiency, reducing operation and maintenance costs, and reducing greenhouse gas emissions into the atmosphere. The specific objectives of this initiative focus primarily on ash behavior related to advanced power systems and include the following: ? Determine the current status of the fundamental ash interactions and deposition formation mechanisms as already reported through previous or ongoing projects at the EERC or in the literature. ? Determine sintering mechanisms for temperatures and particle compositions that are less well known and remain for the most part undetermined. ? Identify the relationship between the temperature of critical viscosity (Tcv ) as measured in a viscometer and the crystallization occurring in the melt. ? Perform a literature search on the use of heated-stage microscopy (HSM) for examining in situ ash-sintering phenomena and then validate the use of HSM in the determination of viscosity in spherical ash particles. ? Ascertain the formation and stability of specific mineral or amorphous phases in deposits typical of advanced power systems. ? Evaluate corrosion for alloys being used in supercritical combustion systems.

  13. Chloride chemical form in various types of fly ash

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fenfen Zhu; Masaki Takaoka; Kenji Shiota; Kazuyuki Oshita; Yoshinori Kitajima

    2008-06-01

    Chloride content is a critical problem for the reuse of fly ash as a raw material in cement, and the method used by recyclers to reduce the fly ash chloride content depends on the chemical form of the chlorides. However, limited information is available on the quantitative distribution of chlorides and the identity of some chlorides such as Friedel's salt. We examined chloride forms and percentages using X-ray absorption near edge structure and X-ray diffraction analyses, as well as corresponding washing experiments. Approximately 15% of the chlorine in raw fly ash was estimated to be in the form of NaCl, 10% in KCl, 50% in CaCl{sub 2}, and the remainder in the form of Friedel's salt. Fly ash collected in a bag filter with the injection of calcium hydroxide for acid gas removal (CaFA) contained 35% chlorine as NaCl, 11% as KCl, 37% as CaCl{sub 2}, 13% as Friedel's salt, and the remaining 4% as CaClOH. In fly ash collected in a bag filter with the injection of sodium bicarbonate for acid gas removal (NaFA), approximately 79% of chlorine was in NaCl, 12% was in KCl, and 9% was in Friedel's salt. 25 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  14. Release of Ammonium and Mercury from NOx Controlled Fly Ash

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schroeder, K.T.; Cardone, C.R.; Kim, A.G

    2007-07-01

    One of the goals of the Department of Energy is to increase the reuse of coal utilization byproducts (CUB) to 50% by 2010. This will require both developing new markets and maintaining traditional ones such as the use of fly ash in concrete. However, the addition of pollution control devices can introduce side-effects that affect the marketability of the CUB. Such can be the case when NOx control is achieved using selective catalytic or non-catalytic reduction (SCR or SNCR). Depending on site-specific details, the ammonia slip can cause elevated levels of NH3 in the fly ash. Disposal of ammoniated fly ash can present environmental concerns related to the amount of ammonia that might be released, the amount of water that might become contaminated, and the extent to which metals might be mobilized by the presence of the ammonia. Ammonia retained in fly ash appears to be present as either an ammonium salt or as a chemisorbed species. Mercury in the leachates correlated to neither the amount of leachable ammonium nor to the total amount of Hg in the ash. The strongest correlation was between the decreases in the amount of Hg leached with increased LOI.

  15. Ash bed level control system for a fixed-bed coal gasifier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fasching, George E.; Rotunda, John R.

    1984-01-01

    An ash level control system is provided which incorporates an ash level meter to automatically control the ash bed level of a coal gasifier at a selected level. The ash level signal from the ash level meter is updated during each cycle that a bed stirrer travels up and down through the extent of the ash bed level. The ash level signal is derived from temperature measurements made by thermocouples carried by the stirrer as it passes through the ash bed and into the fire zone immediately above the ash bed. The level signal is compared with selected threshold level signal to determine if the ash level is above or below the selected level once each stirrer cycle. A first counter is either incremented or decremented accordingly. The registered count of the first counter is preset in a down counter once each cycle and the preset count is counted down at a selected clock rate. A grate drive is activated to rotate a grate assembly supporting the ash bed for a period equal to the count down period to maintain the selected ash bed level. In order to avoid grate binding, the controller provides a short base operating duration time each stirrer cycle. If the ash bed level drops below a selected low level or exceeds a selected high level, means are provided to notify the operator.

  16. Cementation and solidification of Rocky Flats Plant incinerator ash

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phillips, J.A.; Semones, G.B.

    1994-04-01

    Cementation studies on various aqueous waste streams at Rocky Flats have shown this technology to be effective for immobilizing the RCRA constituents in the waste. Cementation is also being evaluated for encapsulation of incinerator ash. Experiments will initially evaluate a surrogate ash waste using a Taguchi experimental design to optimize the cement formulation and waste loading levels for this application. Variables of waste loading, fly ash additions, water/cement ratio, and cement type will be tested at three levels each during the course of this work. Tests will finally be conducted on actual waste using the optimized cement formulation developed from this testing. This progression of tests will evaluate the effectiveness of cement encapsulation for this waste stream without generating any additional wastes.

  17. Ashe County, North Carolina ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Ashe County, North Carolina ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Jump to: navigation, search County Climate Zone Place Ashe County, North Carolina ASHRAE Standard ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate...

  18. Non-Destructive X-ray Measurement of Soot, Ash, Washcoat and...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    X-ray Measurement of Soot, Ash, Washcoat and Regeneration Damage for DPFs Non-Destructive X-ray Measurement of Soot, Ash, Washcoat and Regeneration Damage for DPFs New commercially ...

  19. Geotechnical properties of fly and bottom ash mixtures for use in highway embankments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, B.; Prezzi, M.; Salgado, R.

    2005-07-01

    Class F fly ash and bottom ash are the solid residue byproducts produced by coal-burning electric utilities. They are usually disposed of together as a waste in utility disposal sites with a typical disposal rate of 80% fly ash and 20% bottom ash. Direct use of these materials in construction projects consuming large volumes of materials, such as highway embankment construction, not only provides a promising solution to the disposal problem, but also an economic alternative to the use of traditional materials. Representative samples of class F fly and bottom ash were collected from two utility power plants in Indiana and tested for their mechanical properties (compaction, permeability, strength, stiffness, and compressibility). Three mixtures of fly and bottom ash with different mixture ratios (i.e., 50, 75, and 100% fly ash content by weight) were prepared for testing. Test results indicated that ash mixtures compare favorably with conventional granular materials.

  20. Structure of the SPRY domain of human Ash2L and its interactions...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Structure of the SPRY domain of human Ash2L and its interactions with RbBP5 and DPY30 Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Structure of the SPRY domain of human Ash2L and its ...

  1. Ash reduction system using electrically heated particulate matter filter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI; Paratore, Jr., Michael J; He, Yongsheng [Sterling Heights, MI

    2011-08-16

    A control system for reducing ash comprises a temperature estimator module that estimates a temperature of an electrically heated particulate matter (PM) filter. A temperature and position estimator module estimates a position and temperature of an oxidation wave within the electrically heated PM filter. An ash reduction control module adjusts at least one of exhaust flow, fuel and oxygen levels in the electrically heated PM filter to adjust a position of the oxidation wave within the electrically heated PM filter based on the oxidation wave temperature and position.

  2. Continuous air agglomeration method for high carbon fly ash beneficiation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gray, McMahon L.; Champagne, Kenneth J.; Finseth, Dennis H.

    2000-01-01

    The carbon and mineral components of fly ash are effectively separated by a continuous air agglomeration method, resulting in a substantially carboree mineral stream and a highly concentrated carbon product. The method involves mixing the fly ash comprised of carbon and inorganic mineral matter with a liquid hydrocarbon to form a slurry, contacting the slurry with an aqueous solution, dispersing the hydrocarbon slurry into small droplets within the aqueous solution by mechanical mixing and/or aeration, concentrating the inorganic mineral matter in the aqueous solution, agglomerating the carbon and hydrocarbon in the form of droplets, collecting the droplets, separating the hydrocarbon from the concentrated carbon product, and recycling the hydrocarbon.

  3. High-performance, high-volume fly ash concrete

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2008-01-15

    This booklet offers the construction professional an in-depth description of the use of high-volume fly ash in concrete. Emphasis is placed on the need for increased utilization of coal-fired power plant byproducts in lieu of Portland cement materials to eliminate increased CO{sub 2} emissions during the production of cement. Also addressed is the dramatic increase in concrete performance with the use of 50+ percent fly ash volume. The booklet contains numerous color and black and white photos, charts of test results, mixtures and comparisons, and several HVFA case studies.

  4. Recovery Act Workers Complete Environmental Cleanup of Coal Ash Basin

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Site (SRS) recently cleaned up a 17- acre basin containing coal ash residues from Cold War operations. The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act project was safely completed at a cost of $8.9 million, $2.9 million under budget. The manmade earthen basin received ash from the former R Area Pow- erhouse operations, which ended in 1964. The first of five reactors con- structed at SRS, the R Reactor produced nuclear materials for national defense. Recovery Act funding allowed SRS to accelerate

  5. Heat Pump Clothes Dryer

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Lead Performer: Oak Ridge National Laboratory - Oak Ridge, TN Partner: GE Appliances - Louisville, KY

  6. The Sensitivity of DPF Performance to the Spatial Distribution of Ash Generated from Six Lubricant Formulations

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Discusses potential of DPF pressure drop reduction by optimizing the spatial distribution of ash inside DPF inlet channel

  7. Hanfords Supplemental Treatment Project: Full-Scale Integrated Testing of In-Container-Vitrification and a 10,000-Liter Dryer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Witwer, Keith S.; Dysland, Eric J.; Garfield, J. S.; Beck, T. H.; Matyas, Josef; Bagaasen, Larry M.; Cooley, Scott K.; Pierce, Eric M.; Kim, Dong-Sang; Schweiger, Michael J.

    2008-02-22

    The GeoMelt In-Container Vitrification (ICV) process was selected by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) in 2004 for further evaluation as the supplemental treatment technology for Hanfords low-activity waste (LAW). Also referred to as bulk vitrification, this process combines glass forming minerals, LAW, and chemical amendments; dries the mixture; and then vitrifies the material in a refractory-lined steel container. AMEC Nuclear Ltd. (AMEC) is adapting its GeoMelt ICV technology for this application with technical and analytical support from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). The DVBS project is funded by the DOE Office of River Protection and administered by CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc. The Demonstration Bulk Vitrification Project (DBVS) was initiated to engineer, construct, and operate a full-scale bulk vitrification pilot-plant to treat up to 750,000 liters of LAW from Waste Tank 241-S-109 at the DOE Hanford Site. Since the beginning of the DBVS project in 2004, testing has used laboratory, crucible-scale, and engineering-scale equipment to help establish process limitations of selected glass formulations and identify operational issues. Full-scale testing has provided critical design verification of the ICV process before operating the Hanford pilot-plant. In 2007, the projects fifth full-scale test, called FS-38D, (also known as the Integrated Dryer Melter Test, or IDMT,) was performed. This test had three primary objectives: 1) Demonstrate the simultaneous and integrated operation of the ICV melter with a 10,000-liter dryer, 2) Demonstrate the effectiveness of a new feed reformulation and change in process methodology towards reducing the production and migration of molten ionic salts (MIS), and, 3) Demonstrate that an acceptable glass product is produced under these conditions. Testing was performed from August 8 to 17, 2007. Process and analytical results demonstrated that the primary test objectives, along with a dozen supporting objectives, were successfully met. Glass performance exceeded all disposal performance criteria. A previous issue with MIS containment was successfully resolved in FS-38D, and the ICV melter was integrated with a full-scale, 10,000-liter dryer. This paper describes the rationale for performing the test, the purpose and outcome of scale-up tests preceding it, and the performance and outcome of FS-38D.

  8. Hanford's Supplemental Treatment Project: Full-Scale Integrated Testing of In-Container-Vitrification and a 10,000-Liter Dryer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Witwer, K.S.; Dysland, E.J.; Garfield, J.S.; Beck, T.H.; Matyas, J.; Bagaasen, L.M.; Cooley, S.K.; Pierce, E.; Kim, D.S.; Schweiger, M.J.

    2008-07-01

    The GeoMelt{sup R} In-Container Vitrification{sup TM} (ICV{sup TM}) process was selected by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) in 2004 for further evaluation as the supplemental treatment technology for Hanford's low-activity waste (LAW). Also referred to as 'bulk vitrification', this process combines glass forming minerals, LAW, and chemical amendments; dries the mixture; and then vitrifies the material in a refractory-lined steel container. AMEC Nuclear Ltd. (AMEC) is adapting its GeoMelt ICV{sup TM} technology for this application with technical and analytical support from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). The DVBS project is funded by the DOE Office of River Protection and administered by CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc. The Demonstration Bulk Vitrification Project (DBVS) was initiated to engineer, construct, and operate a full-scale bulk vitrification pilot-plant to treat up to 750,000 liters of LAW from Waste Tank 241-S-109 at the DOE Hanford Site. Since the beginning of the DBVS project in 2004, testing has used laboratory, crucible-scale, and engineering-scale equipment to help establish process limitations of selected glass formulations and identify operational issues. Full-scale testing has provided critical design verification of the ICV{sup TM} process before operating the Hanford pilot-plant. In 2007, the project's fifth full-scale test, called FS-38D, (also known as the Integrated Dryer Melter Test, or IDMT,) was performed. This test had three primary objectives: 1) Demonstrate the simultaneous and integrated operation of the ICV{sup TM} melter with a 10,000- liter dryer, 2) Demonstrate the effectiveness of a new feed reformulation and change in process methodology towards reducing the production and migration of molten ionic salts (MIS), and, 3) Demonstrate that an acceptable glass product is produced under these conditions. Testing was performed from August 8 to 17, 2007. Process and analytical results demonstrated that the primary test objectives, along with a dozen supporting objectives, were successfully met. Glass performance exceeded all disposal performance criteria. A previous issue with MIS containment was successfully resolved in FS-38D, and the ICV{sup TM} melter was integrated with a full-scale, 10,000-liter dryer. This paper describes the rationale for performing the test, the purpose and outcome of scale-up tests preceding it, and the performance and outcome of FS-38D. (authors)

  9. Hydration and strength development of binder based on high-calcium oil shale fly ash

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Freidin, C. [Ben-Gurion Univ. of the Negev, Sede-Boqer (Israel)] [Ben-Gurion Univ. of the Negev, Sede-Boqer (Israel)

    1998-06-01

    The properties of high-calcium oil shale fly ash and low-calcium coal fly ash, which are produced in Israeli power stations, were investigated. High-calcium oil shale fly ash was found to contain a great amount of CaO{sub free} and SO{sub 3} in the form of lime and anhydrite. Mixtures of high-calcium oil shale fly ash and low-calcium coal fly ash, termed fly ash binder, were shown to cure and have improved strength. The influence of the composition and curing conditions on the compressive strength of fly ash binders was examined. The microstructure and the composition of fly ash binder after curing and long-term exposure in moist air, water and open air conditions were studied. It was determined that ettringite is the main variable in the strength and durability of cured systems. The positive effect of calcium silicate hydrates, CSH, which are formed by interaction of high-calcium oil shale fly ash and low-calcium coal fly ash components, on the carbonation and dehydration resistance of fly ash binder in open air is pronounced. It was concluded that high-calcium oil shale fly ash with high CaO{sub free} and SO{sub 3} content can be used as a binder for building products.

  10. Comparison of leaching characteristics of heavy metals from bottom and fly ashes in Korea and Japan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shim, Young-Sook; Rhee, Seung-Whee; Lee, Woo-Keun . E-mail: woklee@kangwon.ac.kr

    2005-07-01

    The objective of this research was to compare the leaching characteristics of heavy metals such as cadmium, chromium, copper, nickel, lead, etc., in Korean and Japanese municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) ash. The rate of leaching of heavy metal was measured by KSLT and JTL-13, and the amount of heavy metals leached was compared with the metal content in each waste component. Finally, bio-availability testing was performed to assess the risks associated with heavy metals leached from bottom ash and fly ash. From the results, the value of neutralization ability in Japanese fly ash was four times higher than that in Korean fly ash. The reason was the difference in the content of Ca(OH){sub 2} in fly ash. The amount of lead leached exceeded the regulatory level in both Japanese and Korean fly ash. The rate of leaching was relatively low in ash with a pH in the range of 6-10. The bio-availability test in fly ash demonstrated that the amount of heavy metals leached was Pb > Cd > Cr, but the order was changed to Pb > Cr > Cd in the bottom ash. The leaching concentration of lead exceeded the Japanese risk level in all fly ashes from the two countries, but the leaching concentration of cadmium exceeded the regulatory level in Korean fly ash only.

  11. Soil stabilization and pavement recycling with self-cementing coal fly ash

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2008-01-15

    This manual provides design information for self-cementing coal fly ash as the sole stabilizing agent for a wide range of engineering applications. As in any process, the application of sound engineering practices, appropriate testing, and evaluation of fly ash quality and characteristics will lend themselves to successful projects using the guidelines in this manual. Topics discussed include: self-cementing coal fly ash characteristics; laboratory mix design; stabilization of clay soils; stabilisation of granular materials; construction considerations; high sulfate ash; environmental considerations for fly ash stabilization; design considerations; state specification/guidelines/standards; and a sample of a typical stabilization specification.

  12. Mechanical characterization of filler sandcretes with rice husk ash additions. Study applied to Senegal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cisse, I.K.; Laquerbe, M.

    2000-01-01

    To capitalize on the local materials of Senegal (agricultural and industrial wastes, residual fines from crushing process, sands from dunes, etc.), rise husk ash and residues of industrial and agricultural wastes have been used as additions in sandcretes. The mechanical resistance of sandcrete blocks obtained when unground ash (and notably the ground ash) is added reveals that there is an increase in performance over the classic mortar blocks. In addition, the use of unground rice husk ash enables production of a lightweight sandcrete with insulating properties, at a reduced cost. The ash pozzolanic reactivity explains the high strengths obtained.

  13. Automated system for removal and pneumatic transport of fly ash from electric precipitator hoppers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    V.K. Konovalov; O.V. Yashkin; V.V. Ermakov

    2008-03-15

    A system for removal and pneumatic transport of fly ash is examined, in which air pulses act on batches (pistons) of ash formed in a duct. Studies are made of the effect of several physical parameters on the force required to displace a piston of ash and these serve as a basis for choosing a system for removal and pneumatic transport of ash simultaneously from several hoppers of an electric precipitator. This makes it possible to separate the ash particles according to size without introducing additional components. Formulas are given for calculating the structural and dynamic parameters of this system and measurements of indirect dynamic parameters are used to calculate the input-output characteristics of the system. In order to optimize the system, configurations for summing several ducts into a single transport duct for pneumatic ash transport are proposed. Some variants of dry ash utilization and the advantages of producing of size-separated particles are considered.

  14. Regeneratively cooled coal combustor/gasifier with integral dry ash removal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beaufrere, A.H.

    1982-04-30

    A coal combustor/gasifier is disclosed which produces a low or medium combustion gas fired furnances or boilers. Two concentric shells define a combustion air flows to provide regenerative cooling of the inner shell for dry ash operation. A fuel flow and a combustion air flow having opposed swirls are mixed and burned in a mixing-combustion portion of the combustion volume and the ash laden combustion products flow with a residual swirl into an ash separation region. The ash is cooled below the fusion temperature and is moved to the wall by centrifugal force where it is entrained in the cool wall boundary layer. The boundary layer is stabilized against ash re-entrainment as it is moved to an ash removal annulus by a flow of air from the plenum through slots in the inner shell, and by suction on an ash removal skimmer slot.

  15. Method for increasing the rate of compressive strength gain in hardenable mixtures containing fly ash

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liskowitz, John W.; Wecharatana, Methi; Jaturapitakkul, Chai; Cerkanowicz, deceased, Anthony E.

    1997-01-01

    The present invention relates to concrete, mortar and other hardenable mixtures comprising cement and fly ash for use in construction. The invention provides a method for increasing the rate of strength gain of a hardenable mixture containing fly ash by exposing the fly ash to an aqueous slurry of calcium oxide (lime) prior to its incorporation into the hardenable mixture. The invention further relates to such hardenable mixtures, e.g., concrete and mortar, that contain fly ash pre-reacted with calcium oxide. In particular, the fly ash is added to a slurry of calcium oxide in water, prior to incorporating the fly ash in a hardenable mixture. The hardenable mixture may be concrete or mortar. In a specific embodiment, mortar containing fly ash treated by exposure to an aqueous lime slurry are prepared and tested for compressive strength at early time points.

  16. Method for increasing the rate of compressive strength gain in hardenable mixtures containing fly ash

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liskowitz, J.W.; Wecharatana, M.; Jaturapitakkul, C.; Cerkanowicz, A.E.

    1997-10-28

    The present invention relates to concrete, mortar and other hardenable mixtures comprising cement and fly ash for use in construction. The invention provides a method for increasing the rate of strength gain of a hardenable mixture containing fly ash by exposing the fly ash to an aqueous slurry of calcium oxide (lime) prior to its incorporation into the hardenable mixture. The invention further relates to such hardenable mixtures, e.g., concrete and mortar, that contain fly ash pre-reacted with calcium oxide. In particular, the fly ash is added to a slurry of calcium oxide in water, prior to incorporating the fly ash in a hardenable mixture. The hardenable mixture may be concrete or mortar. In a specific embodiment, mortar containing fly ash treated by exposure to an aqueous lime slurry are prepared and tested for compressive strength at early time points. 2 figs.

  17. Leaching of mixtures of biochar and fly ash

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Palumbo, Anthony V.; Porat, Iris; Phillips, Jana R.; Amonette, James E.; Drake, Meghan M.; Brown, Steven D.; Schadt, Christopher W.

    2009-06-22

    Increasing atmospheric levels of greenhouse gases, especially CO2, and their effects on global temperature have led to interest in the possibility of carbon storage in terrestrial environments. Both the residual char from biomass pyrolysis (biochar) and fly ash from coal combustion have the potential to significantly expand terrestrial sequestration options. Both biochar and fly ash also have potentially beneficial effects on soil properties. Fly ash has been shown to increase porosity, water-holding capacity, pH, conductivity, and dissolved SO42-, CO32-, Cl- and basic cations. Adding biochar to soil generally raises pH, increases total nitrogen and total phosphorous, encourages greater root development, improves cation exchange capacity and decreases available aluminum. A combination of these benefits likely is responsible for observed increases in yields for crops such as corn and sugarcane. In addition, it has been found that soils with added biochar emit lower amounts of other greenhouse gases (methane and nitrous oxide) than do unamended soils. Biochar and fly ash amendments may be useful in promoting terrestrial carbon sequestration on currently underutilized and degraded lands. For example, about 1% of the US surface lands consist of previously mined lands or highway rights-of-way. Poorly managed lands could count for another 15% of US area. Biochar and fly ash amendments could increase productivity of these lands and increase carbon storage in the soil. Previous results showed minimal leaching of organic carbon and metals from a variety of fly ashes. In the present study, we examined the properties of mixtures of biochar, fly ash, and soil and evaluated the leaching of organic carbon and metals from these mixtures. The carbon sorption experiments showed release of carbon from biochar, rather than sorption, except at the highest concentrations in the Biochar HW sample. Similar results were obtained by others for oxidative leaching of bituminous coal, in which more C was released as dissolved C than was oxidized to CO2 by the oxygen in water. We confirmed that both fly ash and two types of biochar (oak char [OKEB], and hardwood [HW] char) exhibited minimal leaching of heavy metals including Cr, Ni, Zn, Ga, and Ag, and no detectable leaching of Pb or Cd (data not shown) under the conditions tested. The Biochar HW had a slightly higher C/N ratio (334) and pH (7.7) than did the Biochar OKEB (284 and 6.5). There was no toxicity exhibited by the fly ash (not shown) or biochar leachates as measured by the Microtox assay under the conditions tested. In previous results no toxicity was reported in testing the fly ash samples except for one high-pH sample. The most notable leachate component from both types of biochar, but not the fly ash, was organic carbon with the HW biochar leaching less organic carbon than the OKEB biochar (5.71 ppm vs. 59.3 ppm). Alone (in batch sorption experiments), or in mixtures of 90% soil and 10% biochar (column studies), we noted significant loss of carbon from the biochar into soluble components. However, when we added fly ash to the column experiments (80% soil, 10% fly ash, and 10% biochar) we observed significant decreases in the amounts of C leached (20% for HW, and 47% for OKEB). The results indicate that applying a combination of fly ash and biochar may result in maximizing the amount of carbon sequestration in soil while also increasing beneficial soil properties and fertility. The lower amount of carbon leached from the HW biochar compared to the OKEB biochar is likely due to the more recalcitrant form of the carbon in the HW char, due to its preparation at a higher temperature (600 C) than the OKEB biochar (450 C). High heat treatment temperatures during biochar preparation increase both the total carbon content of the biochar and the proportion of the carbon that is present in fused aromatic rings resistant to chemical and physical degradation.

  18. Fly Ash and Mercury Oxidation/Chlorination Reactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sukh Sidhu; Patanjali Varanasi

    2008-12-31

    Mercury is a known pollutant that has detrimental effect on human health and environment. The anthropogenic emissions of mercury account for 10 to 30% of worldwide mercury emissions. There is a need to control/reduce anthropogenic mercury emissions. Many mercury control technologies are available but their effectiveness is dependent on the chemical form of mercury, because different chemical forms of mercury have different physical and chemical properties. Mercury leaves the boiler in its elemental form but goes through various transformations in the post-combustion zone. There is a need to understand how fly ash and flue gas composition affect speciation, partitioning, and reactions of mercury under the full range of post-combustion zone conditions. This knowledge can then be used to predict the chemical transformation of mercury (elemental, oxidized or particulate) in the post combustion zone and thus help with the control of mercury emissions from coal-burning power plants. To accomplish this goal present study was conducted using five coal fly ashes. These ashes were characterized and their catalytic activity was compared under selected reaction conditions in a fixed bed reactor. Based on the results from these fly ash experiments, three key components (carbon, iron oxide and calcium oxide) were chosen. These three components were then used to prepare model fly ashes. Silica/alumina was used as a base for these model fly ashes. One, two or three component model fly ashes were then prepared to investigate mercury transformation reactions. The third set of experiments was performed with CuO and CuCl2 catalysts to further understand the mercury oxidation process. Based on the results of these three studies the key components were predicted for different fly ash compositions under variety of flue gas conditions. A fixed bed reactor system was used to conduct this study. In all the experiments, the inlet concentration of Hg0(g) was maintained at 35 {micro}g/m3 using a diffusion tube as the source of Hg0(g). All experiments were conducted using 4% O2 in nitrogen mix as a reaction gas, and other reactants (HCl, H2O and SO2, NO2, Br2) were added as required. The fixed bed reactor was operated over a temperature range of 200 to 400 C. In each experiment, the reactor effluent was analyzed using the modified Ontario-Hydro method. After each experiment, fly ash particles were also analyzed for mercury. The results show that the ability of fly ash to adsorb and/or oxidize mercury is primarily dependent on its carbon, iron and calcium content. There can be either one or more than one key component at a particular temperature and flue gas condition. Surface area played a secondary role in effecting the mercury transformations when compared to the concentration of the key component in the fly ash. Amount of carbon and surface area played a key important role in the adsorption of mercury. Increased concentration of gases in the flue gas other than oxygen and nitrogen caused decreased the amount of mercury adsorbed on carbon surface. Mercury adsorption by iron oxide primarily depended on the crystalline structure of iron oxide. {alpha}-Iron oxide had no effect on mercury adsorption or oxidation under most of the flue gas conditions, but ?-iron oxide adsorbed mercury under most of the flue gas conditions. Bromine is a very good oxidizing agent for mercury. But in the presence of calcium oxide containing fly ashes, all the oxidized mercury would be reduced to elemental form. Among the catalysts, it was observed that presence of free lattice chlorine in the catalyst was very important for the oxidation of mercury. But instead of using the catalyst alone, using it along with carbon may better serve the purpose by providing the adsorption surface for mercury and also some extra surface area for the reaction to occur (especially for fly ashes with low surface area).

  19. Ash reduction in clean coal spiral product circuits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brodzik, P.

    2007-04-15

    The article describes the Derrick Corporation's Stack Sizer{trademark} technology for high capacity fine wet cleaning with long-lasting high open-area urethane screen panels. After field trials, a Stack Sizer fitted with a 100-micron urethane panel is currently processing approximately 40 stph of clean coal spiral product having about 20% ash at McCoy-Elkhorn's Bevin Branch coal preparation plant in Kentucky, USA. Product yield is about 32.5 short tons per hour with 10% ash. The material is then fed to screen bowl centrifuges for further processing. At Blue Diamond Coal's Leatherwood preparation plant similar Stacker Sizers are achieving the same results. 2 figs., 3 tabs., 2 photo.

  20. Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) (formerly ICPP) ash reutilization study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Langenwalter, T.; Pettet, M.; Ochoa, R.; Jensen, S.

    1998-05-01

    Since 1984, the coal-fired plant at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC, formerly Idaho Chemical Processing Plant) has been generating fly ash at a rate of approximately 1,000 tons per year. This ash is hydrated and placed in an ash bury pit near the coal-fired plant. The existing ash bury pit will be full in less than 1 year at its present rate of use. A conceptual design to build a new ash bury pit was completed, and the new pit is estimated to cost $1.7 million. This report evaluates ash reutilization alternatives that propose to eliminate this waste stream and save the $1.7 million required to build a new pit. The alternatives include using ash for landfill day cover, concrete admixture, flowable fill, soil stabilization, waste remediation, and carbon recovery technology. Both physical and chemical testing, under the guidance of the American Society for Testing and Materials, have been performed on ash from the existing pit and from different steps within the facility`s processes. The test results have been evaluated, compared to commercial ash, and are discussed as they relate to reutilization alternatives. This study recommends that the ash be used in flowable fill concrete for Deactivation and Demolition work at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory.

  1. Effects of pulverized coal fly-ash addition as a wet-end filler in papermaking

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sinha, A.S.K.

    2008-09-15

    This experimental study is based on the innovative idea of using pulverized coal fly ash as a wet-end filler in papermaking. This is the first evaluation of the possible use of fly ash in the paper industry. Coal-based thermal power plants throughout the world are generating fly ash as a solid waste product. The constituents of fly ash can be used effectively in papermaking. Fly ash has a wide variation in particle size, which ranges from a few micrometers to one hundred micrometers. Fly ash acts as an inert material in acidic, neutral, and alkaline papermaking processes. Its physical properties such as bulk density (800-980 kg/m{sup 3}), porosity (45%-57%), and surface area (0.138-2.3076 m{sup 2}/g) make it suitable for use as a paper filler. Fly ash obtained from thermal power plants using pulverized coal was fractionated by a vibratory-sieve stack. The fine fraction with a particle size below 38 micrometers was used to study its effect on the important mechanical-strength and optical properties of paper. The effects of fly-ash addition on these properties were compared with those of kaolin clay. Paper opacity was found to be much higher with fly ash as a filler, whereas brightness decreased as the filler percentage increased Mechanical strength properties of the paper samples with fly ash as filler were superior to those with kaolin clay.

  2. Construction of an embankment with a fly and bottom ash mixture: field performance study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoon, S.; Balunaini, U.; Yildirim, I.Z.; Prezzi, M.; Siddiki, N.Z.

    2009-06-15

    Fly ash and bottom ash are coal combustion by-products (CCBPs) that are generated in large quantities throughout the world. It is often economical to dispose ash as mixtures rather than separately; that notwithstanding, only a few studies have been performed to investigate the behavior of fly and bottom ash mixtures, particularly those with high contents of fly ash. Also, there is very limited data available in the literature on the field performance of structures constructed using ash mixtures. This paper describes the construction and the instrumentation of a demonstration embankment built with an ash mixture (60:40 by weight of fly ash:bottom ash) on State Road 641, Terre Haute, Ind. Monitoring of the demonstration embankment was conducted for a period of 1 year from the start of construction of the embankment. The settlement of the embankment stabilized approximately 5 months after the end of its construction. According to horizontal inclinometer readings, the differential settlement at the top of the embankment is about 5 mm. Results from field quality control tests performed during construction of the demonstration embankment and monitoring data from vertical and horizontal inclinometers and settlement plates indicate that the ash mixture investigated can be considered an acceptable embankment construction material.

  3. Differences in gasification behaviors and related properties between entrained gasifier fly ash and coal char

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jing Gu; Shiyong Wu; Youqing Wu; Ye Li; Jinsheng Gao

    2008-11-15

    In the study, two fly ash samples from Texaco gasifiers were compared to coal char and the physical and chemical properties and reactivity of samples were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), SEM-energy-dispersive spectrometry (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), N{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} adsorption method, and isothermal thermogravimetric analysis. The main results were obtained. The carbon content of gasified fly ashes exhibited 31-37%, which was less than the carbon content of 58-59% in the feed coal. The fly ashes exhibited higher Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area, richer meso- and micropores, more disordered carbon crystalline structure, and better CO{sub 2} gasification reactivity than coal char. Ashes in fly ashes occurred to agglomerate into larger spherical grains, while those in coal char do not agglomerate. The minerals in fly ashes, especial alkali and alkaline-earth metals, had a catalytic effect on gasification reactivity of fly ash carbon. In the low-temperature range, the gasification process of fly ashes is mainly in chemical control, while in the high-temperature range, it is mainly in gas diffusion control, which was similar to coal char. In addition, the carbon in fly ashes was partially gasified and activated by water vapor and exhibited higher BET surface area and better gasification activity. Consequently, the fact that these carbons in fly ashes from entrained flow gasifiers are reclaimed and reused will be considered to be feasible. 15 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs.

  4. Leaching characteristics of arsenic and selenium from coal fly ash: role of calcium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tian Wang; Jianmin Wang; Yulin Tang; Honglan Shi; Ken Ladwig

    2009-05-15

    Understanding the leaching behavior of arsenic (As) and selenium (Se) in coal fly ash is important in evaluating the potential environmental impact of coal fly ash. Batch experiments were employed to systematically investigate the leaching behavior of As and Se in two major types of coal fly ashes, bituminous coal ash and sub-bituminous coal ash, and to determine the underlying processes that control As and Se leaching. The effects of pH, solid/liquid (S/L) ratio, calcium addition, and leaching time on the release of As and Se were studied. Overall, bituminous coal ash leached significantly more As and Se than sub-bituminous coal ash, and Se was more readily leachable, in both absolute concentration and relative fraction, than As for both types of fly ashes. Adsorption/desorption played a major role on As and Se leaching from bituminous coal ashes. However, calcium precipitation played the most important role in reducing As and Se leaching from sub-bituminous coal ashes in the entire experimental pH range. The leaching of As and Se from bituminous coal ashes generally increased with increases in the S/L ratio and leaching time. However, for sub-bituminous coal ashes, the leaching of As was not detected under most experimental conditions, while the leaching of Se increased with increases in the S/L ratio and leaching time. As{sup V} and Se{sup IV} were found to be the major species in all ash leachates in this study. 46 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Lubricant Formulation and Consumption Effects on Diesel Exhaust Ash

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Emissions: | Department of Energy 5 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentations and Posters PDF icon 2005_deer_plumley.pdf More Documents & Publications Detailed Characterization of Lubricant-Derived Ash-Related Species in Diesel Exhaust and Aftertreatment Systems Unraveling DPF Degradation using Chemical Tracers and Opportunities for Extending Filter Life Key Parameters Affecting DPF Performance Degradation and Impact on Lifetime Fuel Economy

  6. Development of Artificial Ash Accelerated Accumulation Test | Department of

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Energy Poster presented at the 16th Directions in Engine-Efficiency and Emissions Research (DEER) Conference in Detroit, MI, September 27-30, 2010. PDF icon p-04_fujii.pdf More Documents & Publications Impact of Honeycomb Ceramics Geometrical Cell Design on Urea SCR System Controlled Experiments on the Effects of Lubricant/Additive (Low-Ash, Ashless) Characteristics on DPF Degradation Characteristics and Effects of Lubricant Additive Chemistry and Exhaust Conditions on Diesel Particulate

  7. Effects of Sediment Containing Coal Ash from the Kingston Ash Release on Embryo-Larval Development in the Fathead Minnow, Pimephales promelas (Rafinesque, 1820)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greeley Jr, Mark Stephen; Elmore, Logan R; McCracken, Kitty; Sherrard, Rick

    2014-01-01

    The largest environmental release of coal ash in U.S. history occurred in December 2008 with the failure of a retention structure at the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) Kingston Fossil Plant in East Tennessee. A byproduct of coal-burning power plants, coal ash is enriched in metals and metalloids such as selenium and arsenic with known toxicity to fish including embryonic and larval stages. The effects of contact exposure to sediments containing up to 78 % coal ash from the Kingston spill on the early development of fish embryos and larvae were examined in 7-day laboratory tests with the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas). No significant effects were observed on hatching success, incidences of gross developmental abnormalities, or embryo-larval survival. Results suggest that direct exposures to sediment containing residual coal ash from the Kingston ash release may not present significant risks to fish eggs and larvae in waterways affected by the spill.

  8. Oil shale ash-layer thickness and char combustion kinetics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aldis, D.F.; Singleton, M.F.; Watkins, B.E.; Thorsness, C.B.; Cena, R.J.

    1992-04-15

    A Hot-Recycled-Solids (HRS) oil shale retort is being studied at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. In the HRS process, raw shale is heated by mixing it with burnt retorted shale. Retorted shale is oil shale which has been heated in an oxygen deficient atmosphere to pyrolyze organic carbon, as kerogen into oil, gas, and a nonvolatile carbon rich residue, char. In the HRS retort process, the char in the spent shale is subsequently exposed to an oxygen environment. Some of the char, starting on the outer surface of the shale particle, is burned, liberating heat. In the HRS retort, the endothermic pyrolysis step is supported by heat from the exothermic char combustion step. The rate of char combustion is controlled by three resistances; the resistance of oxygen mass transfer through the gas film surrounding the solid particle, resistance to mass transfer through a ash layer which forms on the outside of the solid particles as the char is oxidized and the resistance due to the intrinsic chemical reaction rate of char and oxygen. In order to estimate the rate of combustion of the char in a typical oil shale particle, each of these resistances must be accurately estimated. We begin by modeling the influence of ash layer thickness on the over all combustion rate of oil shale char. We then present our experimental measurements of the ash layer thickness of oil shale which has been processed in the HRS retort.

  9. Relationship between textural properties, fly ash carbons, and Hg capture in fly ashes derived from the combustion of anthracitic pulverized feed blends

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Isabel Surez-Ruiz; Jose B. Parra

    2007-08-15

    In this work, the textural properties of a series of whole anthracitic-derived fly ashes sampled in eight hoppers from the electrostatic precipitators and their sized fractions (from {gt}150 to {lt}25 {mu}m) are investigated. Data from N{sub 2} adsorption isotherms at 77 K, helium density, and mercury porosimetry have contributed to establish a relationship between the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface areas, VTOT, porosity, carbon content (the type of fly ash carbons), and Hg retention in these fly ashes. The unburned carbons in these ashes are macroporous materials, and they are different from the carbons in fly ashes from classes C and F (the latter derived from the combustion of bituminous coals) and show different textural properties. These ashes represent the end member of the fly ash classes C and F with respect to certain textural properties. Although the BET surface area and VTOT values for the studied samples are the lowest reported, they increase with the increase in carbon content, anisotropic carbon content, and particle size of the ashes. Thus, a positive relationship between all these parameters and Hg capture by the coarser ash fractions was found. The finest fraction of carbons ({lt}25 {mu}m) represented an exception. Although it makes a significant contribution to the total carbon of the whole fly ashes and shows relatively higher surface areas and VTOT values, its Hg concentration was found to be the lowest. This suggests that the type of unburned carbons in the finest fraction and/or other adsorption mechanisms may play a role in Hg concentration. Because the textural properties of anisotropic carbons depend on their subtype and on their origin, the need for its differentiation has been evidenced. 54 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. Comparative performance of geopolymers made with metakaolin and fly ash after exposure to elevated temperatures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kong, Daniel L.Y.; Sanjayan, Jay G. Sagoe-Crentsil, Kwesi

    2007-12-15

    This paper presents the results of a study on the effect of elevated temperatures on geopolymers manufactured using metakaolin and fly ash of various mixture proportions. Both types of geopolymers (metakaolin and fly ash) were synthesized with sodium silicate and potassium hydroxide solutions. The strength of the fly ash-based geopolymer increased after exposure to elevated temperatures (800 deg. C). However, the strength of the corresponding metakaolin-based geopolymer decreased after similar exposure. Both types of geopolymers were subjected to thermogravimetric, scanning electron microscopy and mercury intrusion porosimetry tests. The paper concludes that the fly ash-based geopolymers have large numbers of small pores which facilitate the escape of moisture when heated, thus causing minimal damage to the geopolymer matrix. On the other hand, metakaolin geopolymers do not possess such pore distribution structures. The strength increase in fly ash geopolymers is also partly attributed to the sintering reactions of un-reacted fly ash particles.

  11. Ash reduction strategies in corn stover facilitated by anatomical and size fractionation

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Lacey, Jeffrey A.; Emerson, Rachel M.; Thompson, David N.; Westover, Tyler L.

    2016-04-22

    There is growing interest internationally to produce fuels from renewable biomass resources. Inorganic components of biomass feedstocks, referred to collectively as ash, damage equipment and decrease yields in thermal conversion processes, and decrease feedstock value for biochemical conversion processes. Decreasing the ash content of feedstocks improves conversion efficiency and lowers process costs. Because physiological ash is unevenly distributed in the plant, mechanical processes can be used to separate fractions of the plant based on ash content. This study focuses on the ash separation that can be achieved by separating corn stover by particle size and anatomical fraction. Baled corn stovermore » was hand-separated into anatomical fractions, ground to <19.1 mm, and size separated using six sieves ranging from 9.5 to 0.150 mm. Size fractions were analyzed for total ash content and ash composition. Particle size distributions observed for the anatomical fractions varied considerably. Cob particles were primarily 2.0 mm or greater, while most of the sheath and husk particles were 2.0 mm and smaller. Particles of leaves greater than 0.6 mm contained the greatest amount of total ash, ranging from approximately 8 to 13% dry weight of the total original material, while the fractions with particles smaller than 0.6 mm contained less than 2% of the total ash of the original material. As a result, based on the overall ash content and the elemental ash, specific anatomical and size fractions can be separated to optimize the feedstocks being delivered to biofuels conversion processes and minimize the need for more expensive ash reduction treatments.« less

  12. 2.8-Ma Ash-Flow Caldera At Chegem River In The Northern Caucasus...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    .8-Ma Ash-Flow Caldera At Chegem River In The Northern Caucasus Mountains (Russia), Contemporaneous Granites, And Associated Ore Deposits Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI...

  13. Experimental and numerical analysis of metal leaching from fly ash-amended highway bases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cetin, Bora; Aydilek, Ahmet H.; Li, Lin

    2012-05-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This study is the evaluation of leaching potential of fly ash-lime mixed soils. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This objective is met with experimental and numerical analysis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Zn leaching decreases with increase in fly ash content while Ba, B, Cu increases. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Decrease in lime content promoted leaching of Ba, B and Cu while Zn increases. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Numerical analysis predicted lower field metal concentrations. - Abstract: A study was conducted to evaluate the leaching potential of unpaved road materials (URM) mixed with lime activated high carbon fly ashes and to evaluate groundwater impacts of barium, boron, copper, and zinc leaching. This objective was met by a combination of batch water leach tests, column leach tests, and computer modeling. The laboratory tests were conducted on soil alone, fly ash alone, and URM-fly ash-lime kiln dust mixtures. The results indicated that an increase in fly ash and lime content has significant effects on leaching behavior of heavy metals from URM-fly ash mixture. An increase in fly ash content and a decrease in lime content promoted leaching of Ba, B and Cu whereas Zn leaching was primarily affected by the fly ash content. Numerically predicted field metal concentrations were significantly lower than the peak metal concentrations obtained in laboratory column leach tests, and field concentrations decreased with time and distance due to dispersion in soil vadose zone.

  14. Recovery Act Workers Accomplish Cleanup of Second Cold War Coal Ash Basin

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    American Recovery and Reinvestment Act workers recently cleaned up a second basin containing coal ash residues from Cold War operations at the Savannah River Site (SRS).

  15. Speciation of Selenium, Arsenic, and Zinc in Class C Fly Ash

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luo, Yun; Giammar, Daniel E.; Huhmann, Brittany L.; Catalano, Jeffrey G.

    2011-11-17

    A major environmental concern associated with coal fly ash is the mobilization of trace elements that may contaminate water. To better evaluate proper use of fly ash, determine appropriate disposal methods, and monitor postdisposal conditions, it is important to understand the speciation of trace elements in fly ash and their possible environmental impact. The speciation of selenium, arsenic, and zinc was determined in five representative Class C fly ash samples from combustion of sub-bituminous Powder River Basin coal using synchrotron-based X-ray absorption spectroscopy to provide an improved understanding of the mechanisms of trace element association with the fly ash. Selenium in all fly ash samples occurs predominantly as Se(IV), with the exception of one sample, in which there was a minor amount of Se(0). Se(0) is likely associated with the high content of unburned coal in the sample. Arsenic exists in the fly ash as a single phase most consistent with calcium pyroarsenate. In contrast, zinc occurs as two distinct species in the silicate glass matrix of the fly ash. This work demonstrates that residual carbon in fly ash may reduce potential Se mobility in the environment by retaining it as less soluble elemental Se instead of Se(IV). Further, this work suggests that As and Zn in Class C fly ash will display substantially different release and mobilization behaviors in aquatic environments. While As release will primarily depend upon the dissolution and hydrolysis of calcium pyroarsenate, Zn release will be controlled by the dissolution of alkaline aluminosilicate glass in the ash.

  16. Growth and elemental accumulation by canola on soil amended with coal fly ash

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yunusa, I.A.M.; Manoharan, V.; DeSilva, D.L.; Eamus, D.; Murray, B.R.; Nissanka, S.P.

    2008-05-15

    To explore the agronomic potential of an Australian coal fly ash, we conducted two glasshouse experiments in which we measured chlorophyll fluorescence, CO{sub 2} assimilation (A), transpiration, stomatal conductance, biomass accumulation, seed yield, and elemental uptake for canola (Brassica napus) grown on soil amended with an alkaline fly ash. In Experiment 1, application of up to 25 Mg/ha of fly ash increased A and plant weight early in the season before flowering and seed yield by up to 21%. However, at larger rates of ash application A, plant growth, chlorophyll concentration, and yield were all reduced. Increases in early vigor and seed yield were associated with enhanced uptake of phosphorus (P) by the plants treated with fly ash. Fly ash application did not influence accumulation of B, Cu, Mo, or Zn in the stems at any stage of plant growth or in the seed at harvest, except Mo concentration, which was elevated in the seed. Accumulation of these elements was mostly in the leaves, where concentrations of Cu and Mo increased with any amount of ash applied while that of B occurred only with ash applied at 625 Mg/ha. In Experiment 2, fly ash applied at 500 Mg/ha and mixed into the whole 30 cm soil core was detrimental to growth and yield of canola, compared with restricting mixing to 5 or 15 cm depth. In contrast, application of ash at 250 Mg/ha with increasing depth of mixing increased A and seed yield. We concluded that fly ash applied at not more than 25 Mg/ha and mixed into the top 10 to 15 cm of soil is sufficient to obtain yield benefits.

  17. Influence of combustion conditions and coal properties on physical properties of fly ash generated from pulverized coal combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hiromi Shirai; Hirofumi Tsuji; Michitaka Ikeda; Toshinobu Kotsuji

    2009-07-15

    To develop combustion technology for upgrading the quality of fly ash, the influences of the coal properties, such as the size of pulverized coal particles and the two-stage combustion ratio during the combustion, on the fly ash properties were investigated using our test furnace. The particle size, density, specific surface area (obtained by the Blaine method), and shape of fly ash particles of seven types of coal were measured. It was confirmed that the size of pulverized coal particles affects the size of the ash particles. Regarding the coal properties, the fuel ratio affected the ash particle size distribution. The density and shape of the ash particles strongly depended on their ash size. Our results indicated that the shape of the ash particles and the concentration of unburned carbon affected the specific surface area. The influence of the two-stage combustion ratio was limited. 8 refs., 13 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. Power-plant fly-ash utilization: a chemical processing perspective

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burnet, G.; Murtha, M.J.

    1981-01-01

    The 1976 Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) deals with the management of solid and hazardous wastes, and encourages energy and resource recovery. Recent research has indicated that solid wastes from coal combustion, including fly ash, could be classified as hazardous under present EPA definitions. The seriousness of this possibility has been recognized and new rules for coal ash waste disposal are being considered. Ames Laboratory research on fly ash utilization as an alternative to disposal includes extraction of metals from the ash and discovery of uses for the process residues. Recovery of alumina and iron oxides by physical and chemical processing would permit large scale utilization of fly ash and help reduce dependency on imports. One of the processes investigated uses a lime-soda sinter method to form soluble aluminate compounds from mixtures of fly ash, limestone, and soda ash. The aluminates are extracted, treated to remove silicates, and precipitated: the precipitate is calcined to metallurgical grade alumina. The extract residue shows promise as a raw material for the production of Portland cement. Process economics are presented, and the effects of alumina and silica contents of the fly ash, sintering temperatures and time, and sales credits for by-products are discussed.

  19. Determination of Total Solids and Ash in Algal Biomass: Laboratory Analytical Procedure (LAP)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Van Wychen, S.; Laurens, L. M. L.

    2013-12-01

    This procedure describes the methods used to determine the amount of moisture or total solids present in a freeze-dried algal biomass sample, as well as the ash content. A traditional convection oven drying procedure is covered for total solids content, and a dry oxidation method at 575?C is covered for ash content.

  20. California bearing ratio behavior of soil-stabilized class F fly ash systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leelavathamma, B.; Mini, K.M.; Pandian, N.S.

    2005-11-01

    Fly ash is a finely divided mineral residue resulting from the combustion of coal in power plants that occupies large extents of land and also causes environmental problems. Hence, concerted attempts are being made to effectively use fly ash in an environmentally friendly way instead of dumping. Several studies have been carried out for its bulk utilization, such as its addition to improve the California bearing ratio (CBR) of soil in roads and embankments. But a thorough mixing of fly ash with soil may not be possible in the field. Hence a study has been carried out on the CBR behavior of black cotton soil and Raichur fly ash (which is class F) in layers and compared with the same in mixes. The results show that the CBR values of soil-fly ash mixes are better than layers, as expected. To improve the strength of layers, cement is used as an additive to fly ash. The results show that black cotton soil can be improved with stabilized fly ash, solving its strength problem as well as the disposal problem of fly ash.

  1. Stabilization of Oklahoma expensive soils using lime and class C fly ash

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buhler, R.L.; Cerato, A.B.

    2007-01-15

    This study uses lime and class C fly ash, an industrial byproduct of electric power production produced from burning lignite and subbituminous coal, to study the plasticity reduction in highly expensive natural clays from Idabel, Oklahoma. This study is important, especially in Oklahoma, because most of the native soils are expansive and cause seasonal damage to roadways and structures. The addition of lime or fly ash helps to arrest the shrinkage and swelling behavior of soil. Four soil samples with the same AASHTO classification were used in this study to show shrinkage variability within a soil group with the addition of lime and class C fly ash. The plasticity reduction in this study was quantified using the linear shrinkage test. It was found that soils classified within the same AASHTO group had varying shrinkage characteristics. It was also found that both lime and fly ash reduced the lienar shrinkage, however, the addition of lime reduced the linear shrinkage to a greater degree than the same percentage of class C fly ash. Even though it takes much less lime than fly ash to reduce the plasticity of a highly expansive soil, it may be less expensive to utilize fly ash, which is a waste product of electric power production. Lime also has a lower unit weight than fly ash so weight percentage results may be misleading.

  2. INVESTIGATION OF FLY ASH AND ACTIVATED CARBON OBTAINED FROM PULVERIZED COAL BOILERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edward K. Levy; Christopher Kiely

    2004-11-01

    One of the techniques for Hg capture in coal-fired boilers involves injection of activated carbon (AC) into the boiler downstream of the air preheater. Hg is adsorbed onto the AC particles and fly ash, which are then both removed in an electrostatic precipitator or baghouse. This project addresses the issues of Hg on activated carbon and on fly ash from a materials re-use point of view. It also addresses the possible connection between SCR reactors, fly ash properties and Hg capture. The project is determining the feasibility of separating AC from fly ash in a fluidized bed and of regenerating the separated AC by heating the AC to elevated temperatures in a fluidized bed. The temperatures needed to drive off the Hg from the ash in a fluidized bed are also being determined. Finally, samples of fly ash from power plants with SCR reactors for NO{sub x} control, are being analyzed to determine the effect of SCR on the ash. These analyses will also determine the properties of ash which are important for Hg capture.

  3. Site-specific study on stabilization of acid-generating mine tailings using coal fly ash

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shang, J.Q.; Wang, H.L.; Kovac, V.; Fyfe, J.

    2006-03-15

    A site-specific study on stabilizing acid-generating mine tailings from Sudbury Mine using a coal fly ash from Nanticoke Generating Station is presented in this paper. The objective of the study is to evaluate the feasibility of codisposal of the fly ash and mine tailings to reduce environmental impacts of Sudbury tailings disposal sites. The study includes three phases, i.e., characterization of the mine tailings, and coal fly ash, oxidation tests on the mine tailings and kinetic column permeation tests. The results of the experiments indicate that when permeated with acid mine drainage, the hydraulic conductivity of Nanticoke coal fly ash decreased more than three orders of magnitude (from 1 x 10{sup -6} to 1 x 10{sup -9} cm/s), mainly due to chemical reactions between the ash solids and acid mine drainage. Furthermore, the hydraulic gradient required for acid mine drainage to break through the coal fly ash is increased up to ten times (from 17 to 150) as compared with that for water. The results also show that the leachate from coal fly ash neutralizes the acidic pore fluid of mine tailings. The concentrations of trace elements in effluents from all kinetic column permeation tests indicated that coplacement of coal fly ash with mine tailings has the benefit of immobilizing trace elements, especially heavy metals. All regulated element concentrations from effluent during testing are well below the leachate quality criteria set by the local regulatory authority.

  4. Evaluation of rice husk ash as filler in tread compounds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fernandes, M. R. S.; Furtado, C. R. G. E-mail: ana.furtado.sousa@gmail.com; Sousa, A. M. F. de E-mail: ana.furtado.sousa@gmail.com

    2014-05-15

    Rice which is one of the largest agriculture crops produces around 22% of rice rusk during its milling process. This material is mainly used as fuel for energy generation, which results in an ash, which disposal represents an environmental issue. The rice husk ash (RHA) contains over than 70% of silica in an amorphous form and a lot of applications is being developed for it all over the world. The use of silica as a filler in the tire industry is growing since it contributes significantly to the reduction of fuel consumption of the automobiles, allowing at the same time better traction (safety). This paper presents an evaluation of the use of RHA as filler in rubber tread compounds prepared in lab scale and compares its performance with compounds prepared with commercial silica and carbon black, the fillers normally used in tire industry. Mechanical and rheological properties are evaluated, with emphasis for tan delta as an indicator of tread performance related with rolling resistance (fuel consumption) and wet grip/traction (safety)

  5. Quantification of the degree of reaction of fly ash

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ben Haha, M.; De Weerdt, K.; Lothenbach, B.

    2010-11-15

    The quantification of the fly ash (FA) in FA blended cements is an important parameter to understand the effect of the fly ash on the hydration of OPC and on the microstructural development. The FA reaction in two different blended OPC-FA systems was studied using a selective dissolution technique based on EDTA/NaOH, diluted NaOH solution, the portlandite content and by backscattered electron image analysis. The amount of FA determined by selective dissolution using EDTA/NaOH is found to be associated with a significant possible error as different assumptions lead to large differences in the estimate of FA reacted. In addition, at longer hydration times, the reaction of the FA is underestimated by this method due to the presence of non-dissolved hydrates and MgO rich particles. The dissolution of FA in diluted NaOH solution agreed during the first days well with the dissolution as observed by image analysis. At 28 days and longer, the formation of hydrates in the diluted solutions leads to an underestimation. Image analysis appears to give consistent results and to be most reliable technique studied.

  6. Mercury retention by fly ashes from coal combustion: Influence of the unburned carbon content

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lopez-Anton, M.A.; Diaz-Somoano, M.; Martinez-Tarazona, M.R.

    2007-01-31

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of unburned carbon particles present in fly ashes produced by coal combustion on mercury retention. To achieve this objective, the work was divided into two parts. The aim of the first part of the study was to estimate the amount of mercury captured by the fly ashes during combustion in power stations and the relationship of this retention to the unburned carbon content. The second part was a laboratory-scale study aimed at evaluating the retention of mercury concentrations greater than those produced in power stations by fly ashes of different characteristics and by unburned carbon particles. From the results obtained it can be inferred that the unburned carbon content is not the only variable that controls mercury capture in fly ashes. The textural characteristics of these unburned particles and of other components of fly ashes also influence retention.

  7. pH-dependent leaching of dump coal ash - retrospective environmental analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Popovic, A.; Djordjevic, D. [University of Belgrade, Belgrade (Serbia). Dept. of Chemistry

    2009-07-01

    Trace and major elements in coal ash particles from dump of 'Nikola Tesla A' power plant in Obrenovac near Belgrade (Serbia) can cause pollution, due to leaching by atmospheric and surface waters. In order to assess this leaching potential, dump ash samples were subjected to extraction with solutions of decreasing pH values (8.50, 7.00, 5.50, and 4.00), imitating the reactions of the alkaline ash particles with the possible alkaline, neutral, and acidic (e.g., acid rain) waters. The most recently deposited ash represents the greatest environmental threat, while 'aged' ash, because of permanent leaching on the dump, was shown to have already lost this pollution potential. On the basis of the determined leachability, it was possible to perform an estimation of the acidity of the regional rainfalls in the last decades.

  8. Simulation of Coal Ash Particle Deposition Experiments (Copyright 2011, American Chemical Society)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ai, Weiguo; Kuhlman, John M

    2011-01-20

    Existing experimental ash particle deposition measurements from the literature have been simulated using the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) discrete phase model (DPM) Lagrangian particle tracking method and an existing ash particle deposition model based on the Johnson−Kendall−Roberts (JKR) theory, in the Fluent commercial CFD code. The experimental heating tube was developed to simulate ash temperature histories in a gasifier; ash-heating temperatures ranged from 1873 to 1573 K, spanning the ash-melting temperature. The present simulations used the realizable k−ε turbulence model to compute the gas flow field and the heat transfer to a cooled steel particle impact probe and DPM particle tracking for the particle trajectories and temperatures. A user-defined function (UDF) was developed to describe particle sticking/rebounding and particle detachment on the impinged wall surface. Expressions for the ash particle Young’s modulus in the model, E, versus the particle temperature and diameter were developed by fitting to the E values that were required to match the experimental ash sticking efficiencies from several particle size cuts and ash-heating temperatures for a Japanese bituminous coal. A UDF that implemented the developed stiffness parameter equations was then used to predict the particle sticking efficiency, impact efficiency, and capture efficiency for the entire ash-heating temperature range. Frequency histogram comparisons of adhesion and rebound behavior by particle size between model and experiments showed good agreement for each of the four ash-heating temperatures. However, to apply the present particle deposition model to other coals, a similar validation process would be necessary to develop the effective Young’s modulus versus the particle diameter and temperature correlation for each new coal.

  9. Gypsum treated fly ash as a liner for waste disposal facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sivapullaiah, Puvvadi V.; Baig, M. Arif Ali

    2011-02-15

    Fly ash has potential application in the construction of base liners for waste containment facilities. While most of the fly ashes improve in the strength with curing, the ranges of permeabilities they attain may often not meet the basic requirement of a liner material. An attempt has been made in the present context to reduce the hydraulic conductivity by adding lime content up to 10% to two selected samples of class F fly ashes. The use of gypsum, which is known to accelerate the unconfined compressive strength by increasing the lime reactivity, has been investigated in further improving the hydraulic conductivity. Hydraulic conductivities of the compacted specimens have been determined in the laboratory using the falling head method. It has been observed that the addition of gypsum reduces the hydraulic conductivity of the lime treated fly ashes. The reduction in the hydraulic conductivity of the samples containing gypsum is significantly more for samples with high amounts of lime contents (as high as 1000 times) than those fly ashes with lower amounts of lime. However there is a relatively more increase in the strengths of the samples with the inclusion of gypsum to the fly ashes at lower lime contents. This is due to the fact that excess lime added to fly ash is not effectively converted into pozzolanic compounds. Even the presence of gypsum is observed not to activate these reactions with excess lime. On the other hand the higher amount of lime in the presence of sulphate is observed to produce more cementitious compounds which block the pores in the fly ash. The consequent reduction in the hydraulic conductivity of fly ash would be beneficial in reducing the leachability of trace elements present in the fly ash when used as a base liner.

  10. Evaluation of the effects of coal fly ash amendments on the toxicity of a contaminated marine sediment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burgess, R.M.; Perron, M.M.; Friedman, C.L.; Suuberg, E.M.; Pennell, K.G.; Cantwell, M.G.; Pelletier, M.C.; Ho, K.T.; Serbst, J.R.; Ryba, S.A.

    2009-01-15

    Approaches for cleaning up contaminated sediments range from dredging to in situ treatment. In this study, we discuss the effects of amending reference and contaminated sediments with coal fly ash to reduce the bioavailability and toxicity of a field sediment contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Six fly ashes and a coconut charcoal were evaluated in 7-d whole sediment toxicity tests with a marine amphipod (Ampelisca abdita) and mysid (Americamysis bahia). Fly ashes with high carbon content and the coconut charcoal showed proficiency at reducing toxicity. Some of the fly ashes demonstrated toxicity in the reference treatments. It is suspected that some of this toxicity is related to the presence of ammonia associated with fly ashes as a result of postoxidation treatment to reduce nitrous oxide emissions. Relatively simple methods exist to remove ammonia from fly ash before use, and fly ashes with low ammonia content are available. Fly ashes were also shown to effectively reduce overlying water concentrations of several PAHs. No evidence was seen of the release of the metals cadmium, copper, nickel, or lead from the fly ashes. A preliminary 28-d polychaete bioaccumulation study with one of the high-carbon fly ashes and a reference sediment was also performed. Although preliminary, no evidence was seen of adverse effects to worm growth or lipid content or of accumulation of PAHs or mercury from exposure to the fly ash. These data show fly ashes with high carbon content could represent viable remedial materials for reducing the bioavailability of organic contaminants in sediments.

  11. Technical support document: Energy conservation standards for consumer products: Dishwashers, clothes washers, and clothes dryers including: Environmental impacts; regulatory impact analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-12-01

    The Energy Policy and Conservation Act as amended (P.L. 94-163), establishes energy conservation standards for 12 of the 13 types of consumer products specifically covered by the Act. The legislation requires the Department of Energy (DOE) to consider new or amended standards for these and other types of products at specified times. This Technical Support Document presents the methodology, data and results from the analysis of the energy and economic impacts of standards on dishwashers, clothes washers, and clothes dryers. The economic impact analysis is performed in five major areas: An Engineering Analysis, which establishes technical feasibility and product attributes including costs of design options to improve appliance efficiency. A Consumer Analysis at two levels: national aggregate impacts, and impacts on individuals. The national aggregate impacts include forecasts of appliance sales, efficiencies, energy use, and consumer expenditures. The individual impacts are analyzed by Life-Cycle Cost (LCC), Payback Periods, and Cost of Conserved Energy (CCE), which evaluate the savings in operating expenses relative to increases in purchase price; A Manufacturer Analysis, which provides an estimate of manufacturers' response to the proposed standards. Their response is quantified by changes in several measures of financial performance for a firm. An Industry Impact Analysis shows financial and competitive impacts on the appliance industry. A Utility Analysis that measures the impacts of the altered energy-consumption patterns on electric utilities. A Environmental Effects analysis, which estimates changes in emissions of carbon dioxide, sulfur oxides, and nitrogen oxides, due to reduced energy consumption in the home and at the power plant. A Regulatory Impact Analysis collects the results of all the analyses into the net benefits and costs from a national perspective. 47 figs., 171 tabs. (JF)

  12. Mathematical modelling for the drying method and smoothing drying rate using cubic spline for seaweed Kappaphycus Striatum variety Durian in a solar dryer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M Ali, M. K. E-mail: eutoco@gmail.com; Ruslan, M. H. E-mail: eutoco@gmail.com; Muthuvalu, M. S. E-mail: jumat@ums.edu.my; Wong, J. E-mail: jumat@ums.edu.my; Sulaiman, J. E-mail: hafidzruslan@eng.ukm.my; Yasir, S. Md. E-mail: hafidzruslan@eng.ukm.my

    2014-06-19

    The solar drying experiment of seaweed using Green V-Roof Hybrid Solar Drier (GVRHSD) was conducted in Semporna, Sabah under the metrological condition in Malaysia. Drying of sample seaweed in GVRHSD reduced the moisture content from about 93.4% to 8.2% in 4 days at average solar radiation of about 600W/m{sup 2} and mass flow rate about 0.5 kg/s. Generally the plots of drying rate need more smoothing compared moisture content data. Special cares is needed at low drying rates and moisture contents. It is shown the cubic spline (CS) have been found to be effective for moisture-time curves. The idea of this method consists of an approximation of data by a CS regression having first and second derivatives. The analytical differentiation of the spline regression permits the determination of instantaneous rate. The method of minimization of the functional of average risk was used successfully to solve the problem. This method permits to obtain the instantaneous rate to be obtained directly from the experimental data. The drying kinetics was fitted with six published exponential thin layer drying models. The models were fitted using the coefficient of determination (R{sup 2}), and root mean square error (RMSE). The modeling of models using raw data tested with the possible of exponential drying method. The result showed that the model from Two Term was found to be the best models describe the drying behavior. Besides that, the drying rate smoothed using CS shows to be effective method for moisture-time curves good estimators as well as for the missing moisture content data of seaweed Kappaphycus Striatum Variety Durian in Solar Dryer under the condition tested.

  13. Evaluating the Effects of the Kingston Fly Ash Release on Fish Reproduction: Spring 2009 - 2010 Studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greeley Jr, Mark Stephen; Adams, Marshall; McCracken, Kitty

    2012-05-01

    On December 22, 2008, a dike containing fly ash and bottom ash at the Tennessee Valley Authority's (TVA) Kingston Fossil Plant in East Tennessee failed and released a large quantity of ash into the adjacent Emory River. Ash deposits from the spill extended 4 miles upstream of the facility to Emory River mile 6 and downstream to Tennessee River mile 564 ({approx}8.5 miles downstream of the confluence of the Emory River with the Clinch River, and {approx}4 miles downstream of the confluence of the Clinch River with the Tennessee River). A byproduct of coal combustion, fly ash contains a variety of metals and other elements which, at sufficient concentrations and in specific forms, can be harmful to biological systems. The ecological effects of fly ash contamination on exposed fish populations depend on the magnitude and duration of exposure, with the most significant risk considered to come from elevated levels of certain metals in the ash, particularly selenium, on fish reproduction and fish early life stages (Lemly 1993; Besser and others 1996). The ovaries of adult female fish in a lake contaminated by coal ash were reported to have an increased frequency of atretic oocytes (dead or damaged immature eggs) and reductions in the overall numbers of developing oocytes (Sorensen 1988) associated with elevated body burdens of selenium. Larval fish exposed to selenium through maternal transfer of contaminants to developing eggs in either contaminated bodies of water (Lemly 1999) or in experimental laboratory exposures (Woock and others 1987, Jezierska and others 2009) have significantly increased incidences of developmental abnormalities. Contact of fertilized eggs and developing embryos to ash in water and sediments may also pose an additional risk to the early life stages of exposed fish populations through direct uptake of metals and other ash constituents (Jezierska and others 2009). The establishment and maintenance of fish populations is intimately associated with the ability of individuals within a population to reproduce. Reproduction is thus generally considered to be the most critical life function affected by environmental contamination. From a regulatory perspective, the issue of potential contaminant-related effects on fish reproduction from the Kingston fly ash spill has particular significance because the growth and propagation of fish and other aquatic life is a specific classified use of the affected river systems. To address the potential effects of fly ash from the Kingston spill on the reproductive health of exposed fish populations, ORNL has undertaken a series of studies in collaboration with TVA that include: (1) a combined field study of metal bioaccumulation in ovaries and other fish tissues (Adams and others 2012) and the reproductive condition of sentinel fish species in reaches of the Emory and Clinch Rivers affected by the fly ash spill (the current report); (2) laboratory tests of the potential toxicity of fly ash from the spill area on fish embryonic and larval development (Greeley and others 2012); (3) additional laboratory experimentation focused on the potential effects of long-term exposures to fly ash on fish survival and reproductive competence (unpublished); and (4) a combined field and laboratory study examining the in vitro developmental success of embryos and larvae obtained from fish exposed in vivo for over two years to fly ash in the Emory and Clinch Rivers (unpublished). The current report focuses on the reproductive condition of adult female fish in reaches of the Emory and Clinch Rivers influenced by the fly ash spill at the beginning of the spring 2009 breeding season - the first breeding season immediately following the fly ash release - and during the subsequent spring 2010 breeding season. Data generated from this and related reproductive/early life stage studies provide direct input to ecological risk assessment efforts and complement and support other phases of the overall biomonitoring program associated with the fly ash spill.

  14. JV Task 120 - Coal Ash Resources Research Consortium Research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Debra Pflughoeft-Hassett; Loreal Heebink; David Hassett; Bruce Dockter; Kurt Eylands; Tera Buckley; Erick Zacher

    2009-03-28

    The Coal Ash Resources Research Consortium{reg_sign} (CARRC{reg_sign}, pronounced 'cars') is the core coal combustion product (CCP) research group at the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC). CARRC focuses on performing fundamental and applied scientific and engineering research emphasizing the environmentally safe, economical use of CCPs. CARRC member organizations, which include utilities and marketers, are key to developing industry-driven research in the area of CCP utilization and ensuring its successful application. The U.S. Department of Energy is a partner in CARRC through the EERC Jointly Sponsored Research Program, which provides matching funds for industrial member contributions and facilitates an increased level of effort in CARRC. CARRC tasks were designed to provide information on CCP performance, including environmental performance, engineering performance, favorable economics, and improved life cycle of products and projects. CARRC technical research tasks are developed based on member input and prioritization. CARRC special projects are developed with members and nonmembers to provide similar information and to support activities, including the assembly and interpretation of data, support for standards development and technology transfer, and facilitating product development and testing. CARRC activities from 2007 to 2009 included a range of research tasks, with primary work performed in laboratory tasks developed to answer specific questions or evaluate important fundamental properties of CCPs. The tasks were included in four categories: (1) Environmental Evaluations of CCPs; (2) Evaluation of Impacts on CCPs from Emission Controls; (3) Construction and Product-Related Activities; and (4) Technology Transfer and Maintenance Tasks. All tasks are designed to work toward achieving the CARRC overall goal and supporting objectives. The various tasks are coordinated in order to provide broad and useful technical data for CARRC members. Special projects provide an opportunity for non-CARRC members to sponsor specific research or technology transfer consistent with CARRC goals. This report covers CARRC activities from January 2007 through March 2009. These activities have been reported in CARRC Annual Reports and in member meetings over the past 2 years. CARRC continues to work with industry and various government agencies with its research, development, demonstration, and promotional activities nearing completion at the time of submission of this report. CARRC expects to continue its service to the coal ash industry in 2009 and beyond to work toward the common goal of advancing coal ash utilization by solving CCP-related technical issues and promoting the environmentally safe, technically sound, and economically viable management of these complex and changing materials.

  15. Apparatus and method for direct measurement of coal ash sintering and fusion properties at elevated temperatures and pressures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Khan, M. Rashid

    1990-01-01

    A high-pressure microdilatometer is provided for measuring the sintering and fusion properties of various coal ashes under the influence of elevated pressures and temperatures in various atmospheres. Electrical resistivity measurements across a sample of coal ash provide a measurement of the onset of the sintering and fusion of the ash particulates while the contraction of the sample during sintering is measured with a linear variable displacement transducer for detecting the initiation of sintering. These measurements of sintering in coal ash at different pressures provide a mechanism by which deleterious problems due to the sintering and fusion of ash in various combustion systems can be minimized or obviated.

  16. Management of sewage sludge and ash containing radioactive materials.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bachmaier, J. T.; Aiello, K.; Bastian, R. K.; Cheng, J.-J.; Chiu, W. A.; Goodman, J.; Hogan, R.; Jones, A. R.; Kamboj, S.; Lenhart, T.; Ott, W. R.; Rubin, A. B.; Salomon, S. N.; Schmidt, D. W.; Setlow, L. W.; Yu, C.; Wolbarst, A. B.; Environmental Science Division; Middlesex County Utilities Authority; U.S. EPA; N.J. Dept of Environmental Protection; NRC

    2007-01-01

    Approximately 50% of the seven to eight million metric tonnes of municipal sewage sludge produced annually in the US is reused. Beneficial uses of sewage sludge include agricultural land application, land reclamation, forestry, and various commercial applications. Excessive levels of contaminants, however, can limit the potential usefulness of land-applied sewage sludge. A recently completed study by a federal inter-agency committee has identified radioactive contaminants that could interfere with the safe reuse of sewage sludge. The study found that typical levels of radioactive materials in most municipal sewage sludge and incinerator ash do not present a health hazard to sewage treatment plant workers or to the general public. The inter-agency committee has developed recommendations for operators of sewage treatment plants for evaluating measured or estimated levels of radioactive material in sewage sludge and for determining whether actions to reduce potential exposures are appropriate.

  17. Geopolymer concretes: a green construction technology rising from the ash

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allouche, E.

    2009-07-01

    Researchers at Louisiana Tech University have embarked on a multi-year research initiative to develop applications for inorganic polymer concrete, or geopolymer concrete, in the area of civil construction, and to bring solve of these applications to market. One objective was to produce a spray-on coating for use in the harsh environment of wastewater conveyance and treatment facilities. Another project is to establish relationships between fly ash composition and particle size distribution and the mechanical attributes and workability of the resulting geopolymer concrete. A third project is to develop a 'smart' geopolymer concrete whose response to a given electric current can be correlated to the stress level to which the structure is subjected. 1 fig., 6 photos.

  18. Ca(OH)[sub 2]/fly ash sorbents for SO[sub 2] removal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ho, C.S.; Shih, S.M. )

    1992-04-01

    In this paper, the reactivity of Ca(OH)[sub 2]/fly ash sorbent with SO[sub 2] is studied by using a fixed-bed differential reactor under the conditions simulating the bag filters of the spray-drying flue gas desulfurization. The source of fly ash and the sorbent preparation conditions affect the reactivity of the sorbent. The reactivity of the sorbent was found to be closely related to the content of the calcium silicate hydrate formed in the sorbent preparation. The sorbent has a much higher utilization of Ca(OH)[sub 2] than that of pure Ca(OH)[sub 2] sorbent, and in some range of Ca(OH)[sub 2] content the sorbent also has a higher SO[sub 2] capture capacity per unit weight of sorbent than that of pure lime. The fly ash from the Shin-Da plant of the Taiwan Power Company produced the best sorbent of all fly ashes in this study. The higher ratio of fly ash/Ca(OH)[sub 2], the higher slurrying temperature, the longer slurrying time, and the smaller particles of fly ash enhance the utilization of Ca(OH)[sub 2], but the water/solid ratio has an optimal value. The relative humidity in the reactor has a significant effect on the reactivity of Ca(PH)[sub 2]/fly ash sorbents, but the effect of the sulfation temperature is subtle.

  19. Suppression of phosphate liberation from eutrophic lake sediment by using fly ash and ordinary Portland cement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heng-Peng Ye; Fan-Zhong Chen; Yan-Qing Sheng; Guo-Ying Sheng; Jia-Mo Fu

    2006-08-15

    In this study, the effect of suppression on phosphate liberation from eutrophic lake sediment by using fly ash and ordinary Portland cement (OPC) was investigated by small scale experiment. A system including sediment, lake water, and several kinds of capping materials was designed to clarify the suppression of phosphate liberation from sediment under the anaerobic condition. The suppression efficiencies of fly ash, OPC and glass bead used as control material were also determined, and these effects were discussed. The suppression efficiency of glass bead was 44.4%, and those of fly ash and OPC were 84.4%, 94.9%, respectively. The suppression by fly ash and OPC was mainly carried out by the adsorption effect, in addition to the covering effect. The suppression efficiency depended on the amounts of the material used, and about 90% of liberated phosphate was suppressed by fly ash of 10.0 Kg m{sup -2}, and OPC of 6.0 Kg m{sup -2}. The concentrations of heavy metals, such as mercury, cadmium, lead, copper, zinc, chromium, silver, arsenic and nickel, in fly ash and OPC were lower than those in the environmental materials. And it was considered that the concentrations of heavy metals in fly ash and OPC were too low to influence the ecosystem in natural water region.

  20. Reduction of carbon content in waste-tire combustion ashes by bio-thermal treatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, C.C.; Lee, W.J.; Shih, S.I.; Mou, J.L.

    2009-07-01

    Application of bio-catalyst (NOE-7F) in thermal treatment can adequately dispose dark-black fly ashes from co-combustion of both waste tires and coal. After thermal treatment of fly ashes by adding 10% NOE-7F, the carbon contents reduced by 37.6% and the weight losses increased by 405%, compared with the fly ashes without mixing with NOE-7F. The combustion behaviors of wasted tires combustion fly ashes with NOE-7F were also investigated by both thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential thermal analysis (DTA). The results verify that NOE-7F has positive effects on the combustion of residual carbon and toxic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) enhance the energy release and reduce the toxicity during the process of thermal treatment. Furthermore, using NOE-7F to dispose high-carbon content fly ashes did improve the compressive strength of fly ashes and concrete mixtures. Therefore, NOE-7F is a promising additive which could decrease treatment cost of high-carbon content fly ashes and reduce the amount of survival toxic PAHs.

  1. Investigation of Fly Ash and Activated Carbon Obtained from Pulverized Coal Boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edward K. Levy; Christopher Kiely; Zheng Yao

    2006-08-31

    One of the techniques for Hg capture in coal-fired boilers involves injection of activated carbon (AC) into the boiler downstream of the air preheater. Hg is adsorbed onto the AC particles and fly ash, which are then both removed in an electrostatic precipitator or baghouse. This project addressed the issues of Hg on activated carbon and on fly ash from a materials re-use point of view. It also addressed the possible connection between SCR reactors, fly ash properties and Hg capture. The project has determined the feasibility of separating AC from fly ash in a fluidized bed and of regenerating the separated AC by heating the AC to elevated temperatures in a fluidized bed. The temperatures needed to drive off the Hg from the ash in a fluidized bed have also been determined. Finally, samples of fly ash from power plants with SCR reactors for NO{sub x} control have been analyzed in an effort to determine the effects of SCR on the ash.

  2. Increase of available phosphorus by fly-ash application in paddy soils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, C.H.; Lee, H.; Lee, Y.B.; Chang, H.H.; Ali, M.A.; Min, W.; Kim, S.; Kim, P.J.

    2007-07-01

    Fly ash from the coal- burning industry may be a potential inorganic soil amendment to increase rice productivity and to restore the soil nutrient balance in paddy soil. In this study, fly ash was applied at rates of 0, 40, 80, and 120 Mg ha{sup -1} in two paddy soils (silt loam in Yehari and loamy sand in Daegok). During rice cultivation, available phosphorus (P) increased significantly with fly ash application, as there was high content of P (786 mg kg{sup -1}) in the applied fly ash. In addition, high content of silicon (Si) and high pH of fly ash contributed to increased available-P content by ion competition between phosphate and silicate and by neutralization of soil acidity, respectively. With fly-ash application, water-soluble P (W-P) content increased significantly together with increasing aluminum- bound P (Al- P) and calcium- bound P (Ca- P) fractions. By contrast, iron- bound P (Fe- P) decreased significantly because of reduction of iron under the flooded paddy soil during rice cultivation. The present experiment indicated that addition of fly ash had a positive benefit on increasing the P availability.

  3. INVESTIGATION OF FLY ASH AND ACTIVATED CARBON OBTAINED FROM PULVERIZED COAL BOILERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edward K. Levy; Christopher Kiely

    2005-11-01

    One of the techniques for Hg capture in coal-fired boilers involves injection of activated carbon (AC) into the boiler downstream of the air preheater. Hg is adsorbed onto the AC particles and fly ash, which are then both removed in an electrostatic precipitator or baghouse. This project addresses the issues of Hg on activated carbon and on fly ash from a materials re-use point of view. It also addresses the possible connection between SCR reactors, fly ash properties and Hg capture. The project is determining the feasibility of separating AC from fly ash in a fluidized bed and of regenerating the separated AC by heating the AC to elevated temperatures in a fluidized bed. The temperatures needed to drive off the Hg from the ash in a fluidized bed are also being determined. Finally, samples of fly ash from power plants with SCR reactors for NO{sub x} control, are being analyzed to determine the effect of SCR on the ash.

  4. In-place stabilization of pond ash deposits by hydrated lime columns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chand, S.K.; Subbarao, C.

    2007-12-15

    Abandoned coal ash ponds cover up vast stretches of precious land and cause environmental problems. Application of suitable in situ stabilization methods may bring about improvement in the geotechnical properties of the ash deposit as a whole, converting it to a usable site. In this study, a technique of in-place stabilization by hydrated lime columns was applied to large-scale laboratory models of ash ponds. Samples collected from different radial distances and different depths of the ash deposit were tested to study the improvements in the water content, dry density, particle size distribution, unconfined compressive strength, pH, hydraulic conductivity, and leachate characteristics over a period of one year. The in-place stabilization by lime column technique has been found effective in increasing the unconfined compressive strength and reducing hydraulic conductivity of pond ash deposits in addition to modifying other geotechnical parameters. The method has also proved to be useful in reducing the contamination potential of the ash leachates, thus mitigating the adverse environmental effects of ash deposits.

  5. Regeneratively cooled coal combustor/gasifier with integral dry ash removal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beaufrere, Albert H.

    1983-10-04

    A coal combustor/gasifier is disclosed which produces a low or medium combustion gas for further combustion in modified oil or gas fired furnaces or boilers. Two concentric shells define a combustion volume within the inner shell and a plenum between them through which combustion air flows to provide regenerative cooling of the inner shell for dry ash operation. A fuel flow and a combustion air flow having opposed swirls are mixed and burned in a mixing-combustion portion of the combustion volume and the ash laden combustion products flow with a residual swirl into an ash separation region. The ash is cooled below the fusion temperature and is moved to the wall by centrifugal force where it is entrained in the cool wall boundary layer. The boundary layer is stabilized against ash re-entrainment as it is moved to an ash removal annulus by a flow of air from the plenum through slots in the inner shell, and by suction on an ash removal skimmer slot.

  6. Leachate concentrations from water leach and column leach tests on fly ash-stabilized soils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bin-Shafique, S.; Benson, C.H.; Edil, T.B.; Hwang, K.

    2006-01-15

    Batch water leaching tests (WLTs) and column leaching tests (CLTs) were conducted on coal-combustion fly ashes, soil, and soil-fly ash mixtures to characterize leaching of Cd, Cr, Se, and Ag. The concentrations of these metals were also measured in the field at two sites where soft fine-grained soils were mechanically stabilized with fly ash. Concentrations in leachate from the WLTs on soil-fly ash mixtures are different from those on fly ash alone and cannot be accurately estimated based on linear dilution calculations using concentrations from WLTs on fly ash alone. The concentration varies nonlinearly with fly ash content due to the variation in pH with fly ash content. Leachate concentrations are low when the pH of the leachate or the cation exchange capacity (CEC) of the soil is high. Initial concentrations from CLTs are higher than concentrations from WLTs due to differences in solid-liquid ratio, pH, and solid-liquid contact. However, both exhibit similar trends with fly ash content, leachate pH, and soil properties. Scaling factors can be applied to WLT concentrations (50 for Ag and Cd, 10 for Cr and Se) to estimate initial concentrations for CLTs. Concentrations in leachate collected from the field sites were generally similar or slightly lower than concentrations measured in CLTs on the same materials. Thus, CLTs appear to provide a good indication of conditions that occur in the field provided that the test conditions mimic the field conditions. In addition, initial concentrations in the field can be conservatively estimated from WLT concentrations using the aforementioned scaling factors provided that the pH of the infiltrating water is near neutral.

  7. Impact of Collection Equipment on Ash Variability of Baled Corn Stover Biomass for Bioenergy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    William Smith; Jeffery Einerson; Kevin Kenney; Ian J. Bonner

    2014-09-01

    Cost-effective conversion of agricultural residues for renewable energy hinges not only on the materials quality but also the biorefinerys ability to reliably measure quality specifications. The ash content of biomass is one such specification, influencing pretreatment and disposal costs for the conversion facility and the overall value of a delivered lot of biomass. The biomass harvest process represents a primary pathway for accumulation of soil-derived ash within baled material. In this work, the influence of five collection techniques on the total ash content and variability of ash content within baled corn stover in southwest Kansas is discussed. The equipment tested included a mower for cutting the corn stover stubble, a basket rake, wheel rake, or shred flail to gather the stover, and a mixed or uniform in-feed baler for final collection. The results showed mean ash content to range from 11.5 to 28.2 % depending on operational choice. Resulting impacts on feedstock costs for a biochemical conversion process range from $5.38 to $22.30 Mg-1 based on the loss of convertible dry matter and ash disposal costs. Collection techniques that minimized soil contact (shred flail or nonmowed stubble) were shown to prevent excessive ash contamination, whereas more aggressive techniques (mowing and use of a wheel rake) caused greater soil disturbance and entrainment within the final baled material. Material sampling and testing were shown to become more difficult as within-bale ash variability increased, creating uncertainty around feedstock quality and the associated costs of ash mitigation.

  8. Salt-soda sinter process for recovering aluminum from fly ash

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mcdowell, W.J.; Seeley, F.G.

    1981-03-03

    A method for recovering aluminum values from fly ash comprises sintering the fly ash with a mixture of NaCl and Na2CO3 to a temperature in the range 700*-900* C for a period of time sufficient to convert greater than 90% of the aluminum content of the fly ash into an acid-soluble fraction and then contacting the thus-treated fraction with an aqueous solution of nitric or sulfuric acid to effect dissolution of aluminum and other metal values in said solution.

  9. Crystal structure of the N-terminal region of human Ash2L shows a

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    winged-helix motif involved in DNA binding (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Crystal structure of the N-terminal region of human Ash2L shows a winged-helix motif involved in DNA binding Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Crystal structure of the N-terminal region of human Ash2L shows a winged-helix motif involved in DNA binding Ash2L is a core component of the MLL family histone methyltransferases and has an important role in regulating the methylation of histone H3 on lysine 4.

  10. Salt-soda sinter process for recovering aluminum from fly ash

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McDowell, W.J.; Seeley, F.G.

    A method for recovering aluminum values from fly ash comprises sintering the fly ash with a mixture of NaCl and Na/sub 2/CO/sub 3/ to a temperature in the range 700/sup 0/ to 900/sup 0/C for a period of time sufficient to convert greater than 90% of the aluminum content of the fly ash into an acidsoluble fraction and then contacting the thus-treated fraction with an aqueous solution of nitric or sulfuric acid to effect dissolution of aluminum and other metal values in said solution.

  11. Salt-soda sinter process for recovering aluminum from fly ash

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McDowell, William J.; Seeley, Forest G.

    1981-01-01

    A method for recovering aluminum values from fly ash comprises sintering the fly ash with a mixture of NaCl and Na.sub.2 CO.sub.3 to a temperature in the range 700.degree.-900.degree. C. for a period of time sufficient to convert greater than 90% of the aluminum content of the fly ash into an acid-soluble fraction and then contacting the thus-treated fraction with an aqueous solution of nitric or sulfuric acid to effect dissolution of aluminum and other metal values in said solution.

  12. Trash, ash and the phoenix : a fifth anniversary review of the Supreme Court's City of Chicago waste-to-energy combustion ash decision.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Puder, M. G.; Environmental Assessment

    1999-01-01

    In 1994, the U.S. Supreme Court held that ash generated by waste-to-energy (WTE) facilities was not exempt from Subtitle C hazardous waste management regulations under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). As a result of City of Chicago v. Environmental Defense Fund, Inc., WTE installations are required to test their combustion ash and determine whether it is hazardous. The WTE industry and the municipalities utilizing WTE technologies initially feared that if significant amounts of their ash tested hazardous, the costs and liabilities associated with RCRA Subtitle C hazardous waste management requirements would pose a serious threat to the continued viability of the WTE concept. In this article, the author presents a review of the WTE industry in the five years following the decision, and finds that the specter of the decline of WTE has not materialized.

  13. Cesium trapping characteristics on fly ash filter according to different carrier gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shin, Jin-Myeong; Park, Jang-Jin; Song, Kee-Chan

    2007-07-01

    Fly ash, which is a kind of waste from a coal fired power plant, has been used as a trapping material because it contains silica and alumina suitable for forming pollucite (CsAlSi{sub 2}O{sub 6}). Fly ash is sintered in order to fabricate it into a self-standing filter. The effect of a carrier gas on a cesium trapping quantity is investigated to analyze the cesium trapping characteristics by the fly ash filter in a lab-scale experimental apparatus. The chemical form of the cesium trapped on the filter after trapping cesium is identified to be a pollucite phase regardless of the type of carrier gas. The trapping efficiency of cesium by the fly ash filter under the air and NO{sub x}/air conditions is up to 99.0 %. However, the trapping efficiency of the cesium under the SO{sub x} condition was decreased to 80.0 %. (authors)

  14. Fan System Optimization Improves Production and Saves Energy at Ash Grove Cement Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2002-05-01

    This case study describes an optimization project implemented on a fan system at Ash Grove Cement Company, which led to annual energy and maintenance savings of $16,000 and 175,000 kilowatt-hours (kWh).

  15. Notes on the efficacy of wet versus dry screening of fly ash

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Valentim, B.; Hower, J.C.; Flores, D.; Guedes, A.

    2008-08-15

    The methodology used to obtain fly ash subsamples of different sizes is generally based on wet or dry sieving methods. However, the worth of such methods is not certain if the methodology applied is not mentioned in the analytical procedure. After performing a fly ash mechanical dry, sieving, the authors compared those results with the ones obtained by laser diffraction on the same samples and found unacceptable discrepancies. A preliminary, study of a wet sieving analysis carried out on an economizer fly ash sample showed that this method was more effective than the dry sieving. The importance of standardizing the way samples are handled, pretreated and presented to the instrument of analysis are suggested and interlaboratory reproducibility trials are needed to create a common standard methodology to obtain large amounts of fly ash size fraction subsamples.

  16. 2007 American Coal Ash Association membership directory as of June 21, 2007

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2007-07-01

    A listing of names, addresses, contact numbers and websites is given for 101 members of the American Coal Ash Association. Honorary members are also named. Included are power generation companies, combustion by-product manufacturers and university departments.

  17. Comprehensive phase characterization of crystalline and amorphous phases of a Class F fly ash

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chancey, Ryan T.; Stutzman, Paul; Juenger, Maria C.G.; Fowler, David W.

    2010-01-15

    A comprehensive approach to qualitative and quantitative characterization of crystalline and amorphous constituent phases of a largely heterogeneous Class F fly ash is presented. Traditionally, fly ash composition is expressed as bulk elemental oxide content, generally determined by X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy. However, such analysis does not discern between relatively inert crystalline phases and highly reactive amorphous phases of similar elemental composition. X-ray diffraction was used to identify the crystalline phases present in the fly ash, and the Rietveld quantitative phase analysis method was applied to determine the relative proportion of each of these phases. A synergistic method of X-ray powder diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, and multispectral image analysis was developed to identify and quantify the amorphous phases present in the fly ash.

  18. Utilizing fly ash particles to produce low-cost metal matrix composites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Withers, G.

    2008-07-01

    Metal matrix composites (MMCs) are a blend of fine ceramic particles mixed with metals such as aluminium or magnesium. Fly ash is considerably cheaper than ceramics; aluminium-fly ash composites cost less than 60% of conventional aluminium-SiC composites making them attractive to automakers striving for lower weight and cheaper materials for brake rotors or brake drums. Ultalite.com has consulted with US researchers to to find the optimum requirements of the fly ash needed to make MMCs. Particle size 20-40 microns, low calcium oxide content and spherical particles were identified. The desired particles once extracted are stirred into molten aluminum and the resulting composite is into ingots for shipment to a casting facility. Dynamometer testing has shown that aluminium-fly ash composite brake drums have better performance and wear than cast iron drums. 6 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Investigation of air-entraining admixture dosage in fly ash concrete

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ley, M.T.; Harris, N.J.; Folliard, K.J.; Hover, K.C.

    2008-09-15

    The amount of air-entraining admixture (AEA) needed to achieve a target air content in fresh concrete can vary significantly with differences in the fly ash used in the concrete. The work presented in this paper evaluates the ability to predict the AEA dosage on the basis of tests on the fly ash alone. All results were compared with the dosage of AEA required to produce an air content of 6% in fresh concrete. Fly ash was sampled from six separate sources. For four of these sources, samples were obtained both before and after the introduction of 'low-NOx burners'. Lack of definitive data about the coal itself or the specifics of the burning processes prevents the ability to draw specific conclusions about the impact of low-NOx burners on AEA demand. Nevertheless, the data suggest that modification of the burning process to meet environmental quality standards may affect the fly ash-AEA interaction.

  20. Apparatus having inductively coupled coaxial coils for measuring buildup of slay or ash in a furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mathur, Mahendra P.; Ekmann, James M.

    1989-01-01

    The buildup of slag or ash on the interior surface of a furnace wall is monitored by disposing two coils to form a transformer which is secured adjacent to the inside surface of the furnace wall. The inductive coupling between the two coils of the transformer is affected by the presence of oxides of iron in the slag or ash which is adjacent to the transformer, and the application of a voltage to one winding produces a voltage at the other winding that is related to the thickness of the slag or ash buildup on the inside surface of the furnace wall. The output of the other winding is an electrical signal which can be used to control an alarm or the like or provide an indication of the thickness of the slag or ash buildup at a remote location.

  1. Treated bottom ash medium and method of arsenic removal from drinking water

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gadgil, Ashok

    2009-06-09

    A method for low-cost arsenic removal from drinking water using chemically prepared bottom ash pre-treated with ferrous sulfate and then sodium hydroxide. Deposits on the surface of particles of bottom ash form of activated iron adsorbent with a high affinity for arsenic. In laboratory tests, a miniscule 5 grams of pre-treated bottom ash was sufficient to remove the arsenic from 2 liters of 2400 ppb (parts per billion) arsenic-laden water to a level below 50 ppb (the present United States Environmental Protection Agency limit). By increasing the amount of pre-treated bottom ash, even lower levels of post-treatment arsenic are expected. It is further expected that this invention supplies a very low-cost solution to arsenic poisoning for large population segments.

  2. Removal of radium from acidic solutions containing same by adsorption on coal fly ash

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Scheitlin, Frank M.

    1984-01-01

    The invention is a process for the removal of radium from acidic aqueous solutions. In one aspect, the invention is a process for removing radium from an inorganic-acid solution. The process comprises contacting the solution with coal fly ash to effect adsorption of the radium on the ash. The radium-containing ash then is separated from the solution. The process is simple, comparatively inexpensive, and efficient. High radium-distribution coefficients are obtained even at room temperature. Coal fly ash is an inexpensive, acid-resistant, high-surface-area material which is available in large quantities throughout the United States. The invention is applicable, for example, to the recovery of .sup.226 Ra from nitric acid solutions which have been used to leach radium from uranium-mill tailings.

  3. Controlled Experiments on the Effects of Lubricant/Additive (Low-Ash,

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Ashless) Characteristics on DPF Degradation | Department of Energy Effects of lubricant additive chemistries and exhaust conditions on ash properties affecting diesel particulate filter performance. Comparison of ash characteristics such as packing density and elemental composition in field and laboratory aged DPFs. PDF icon deer08_sappok.pdf More Documents & Publications Key Parameters Affecting DPF Performance Degradation and Impact on Lifetime Fuel Economy Characteristics and Effects

  4. Detailed Characterization of Lubricant-Derived Ash-Related Species in

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Diesel Exhaust and Aftertreatment Systems | Department of Energy Presentation given at DEER 2006, August 20-24, 2006, Detroit, Michigan. Sponsored by the U.S. DOE's EERE FreedomCar and Fuel Partnership and 21st Century Truck Programs. PDF icon 2006_deer_sappok.pdf More Documents & Publications Lubricant Formulation and Consumption Effects on Diesel Exhaust Ash Emissions: Correlations Between Metallic Lubricant Additive Species in the Ring Pack and Ash Emissions and Their Dependence on

  5. Brick manufacture with fly ash from Illinois coals. Quarterly technical report, September 1, 1994--November 30, 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hughes, R.E.; Dreher, G.; Frost, J.; Moore, D.; Rostam-Abadi, M.; Fiocchi, T.; Swartz, D.

    1995-03-01

    This investigation seeks to utilize fly ash in fired-clay products such as building and patio bricks, ceramic blocks, field and sewer tile, and flower pots. This goal is accomplished by (1) one or more plant-scale, 5000-brick tests with fly ash mixed with brick clays at the 20% or higher level; (2) a laboratory-scale study to measure the firing reactions of a range of compositions of clay and fly ash mixtures; (3) a technical and economic study to evaluate the potential environmental and economic benefits of brick manufacture with fly ash. Bricks and feed materials will be tested for compliance with market specifications and for leachability of pollutants derived from fly ash. The laboratory study will combine ISGS databases, ICCI-supported characterization methods, and published information to improve predictions of the firing characteristics of Illinois fly ash and brick clay mixtures. Because identical methods are used to test clay firing and coal ash fusion, and because melting mechanisms are the same, improved coal ash fusion predictions are an expected result of this research. If successful, this project should convert an environmental problem (fly ash) into valuable products - bricks. During this quarter, the authors set up the manufacturing run at Colonial Brick Co., provided an expanded NEPA questionnaire for DOE, made preliminary arrangements for a larger brick manufacturing run at Marseilles Brick Co., revised laboratory procedures for selective dissolution analysis, and began characterization of brick clays that could be mixed with fly ash for fired-clay products.

  6. Photosynthetic pigment concentrations, gas exchange and vegetative growth for selected monocots and dicots treated with two contrasting coal fly ashes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yunusa, I.A.M.; Burchett, M.D.; Manoharan, V.; DeSilva, D.L.; Eamus, D.; Skilbeck, C.G.

    2009-07-15

    There is uncertainty as to the rates of coal fly ash needed for optimum physiological processes and growth. In the current study we tested the hyothesis that photosynthetic pigments concentrations and CO{sub 2} assimilation (A) are more sensitive than dry weights in plants grown on media amended with coal fly ash. We applied the Terrestrial Plant Growth Test (Guideline 208) protocols of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) to monocots (barley (Hordeum vulgare) and ryegrass (Secale cereale)) and dicots (canola (Brasica napus), radish (Raphanus sativus), field peas (Pisum sativum), and lucerne (Medicago sativa)) on media amended with fly ashes derived from semi-bituminous (gray ash) or lignite (red ash) coals at rates of 0, 2.5, 5.0, 10, or 20 Mg ha(-1). The red ash had higher elemental concentrations and salinity than the gray ash. Fly ash addition had no significant effect on germination by any of the six species. At moderate rates ({<=}10 Mg ha{sup -1}) both ashes increased (P < 0.05) growth rates and concentrations of chlorophylls a and b, but reduced carotenoid concentrations. Addition of either ash increased A in radish and transpiration in barley. Growth rates and final dry weights were reduced for all of the six test species when addition rates exceeded 10 Mg ha{sup -1} for gray ash and 5 Mg ha{sup -1} for red ash. We concluded that plant dry weights, rather than pigment concentrations and/or instantaneous rates of photosynthesis, are more consistent for assessing subsequent growth in plants supplied with fly ash.

  7. Identifying fly ash at a distance from fossil fuel power stations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Flanders, P.J.

    1999-02-15

    A method has been developed to identify fly ash originating at fossil fuel power stations, even at a distance where the ash level is lower by a factor of 1000 from that close to a source. Until now such detection has been difficult and uncertain. The technique combines collection of particles, measurement of magnetization and coercive field, and microscopy. The analysis depends on the fact that ash from iron sulfide in fossil fuels is in the form of spherical magnetite. These particles have a relatively high coercive field H{sub c}, near 135 Oe, compared with airborne particulates from soil erosion which have an H{sub c} of {approximately}35 Oe. The coercive field of any sample therefore gives an indication for the percentage of fly ash relative to the total amount of magnetic material that is airborne. The concentration of ash from a large, isolated coal burning power station is found to fall off with the distance from the source, approximately as D{sup {minus}1}. As D increases there is a drop in H{sub c}, associated with the reduced amount of fly ash relative to the airborne particulates from soil erosion.

  8. Geopolymeric adsorbents from fly ash for dye removal from aqueous solution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, L.; Wang, S.B.; Zhu, Z.H.

    2006-08-01

    Adsorbents from coal fly ash treated by a solid-state fusion method using NaOH were prepared. It was found that amorphous aluminosilicate, geopolymers would be formed. These fly ash-derived inorganic polymers were assessed as potential adsorbents for removal of some basic dyes, methylene blue and crystal violet, from aqueous solution. It was found that the adsorption capacity of the synthesised adsorbents depends on the preparation conditions such as NaOH:fly-ash ratio and fusion temperature with the optimal conditions being at 1.2:1 weight ratio of Na:fly-ash at 250-350{sup o}C. The synthesised materials exhibit much higher adsorption capacity than fly ash itself and natural zeolite. The adsorption isotherm can be fitted by Langmuir and Freundlich models while the two-site Langmuir model produced the best results. It was also found that the fly ash derived geopolymeric adsorbents show higher adsorption capacity for crystal violet than methylene blue and the adsorption temperature influences the adsorption capacity. Kinetic studies show that the adsorption process follows the pseudo second-order kinetics.

  9. Effect of temperature on the hydration of Portland cement blended with siliceous fly ash

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deschner, Florian; Lothenbach, Barbara; Winnefeld, Frank; Neubauer, Jrgen

    2013-10-15

    The effect of temperature on the hydration of Portland cement pastes blended with 50 wt.% of siliceous fly ash is investigated within a temperature range of 7 to 80 C. The elevation of temperature accelerates both the hydration of OPC and fly ash. Due to the enhanced pozzolanic reaction of the fly ash, the change of the composition of the CSH and the pore solution towards lower Ca and higher Al and Si concentrations is shifted towards earlier hydration times. Above 50 C, the reaction of fly ash also contributes to the formation of siliceous hydrogarnet. At 80 C, ettringite and AFm are destabilised and the released sulphate is partially incorporated into the CSH. The observed changes of the phase assemblage in dependence of the temperature are confirmed by thermodynamic modelling. The increasingly heterogeneous microstructure at elevated temperatures shows an increased density of the CSH and a higher coarse porosity. -- Highlights: The reaction of quartz powder at 80 C strongly enhances the compressive strength. Almost no strength increase of fly ash blended OPC at 80 C was found after 2 days. Siliceous hydrogarnet is formed upon the reaction of fly ash at high temperatures. Temperature dependent change of the system was simulated by thermodynamic modelling. Destabilisation of ettringite above 50 C correlates with sulphate content of CSH.

  10. Industrial properties of lignitic and lignocellulosic fly ashes from Turkish sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Demirbas, A.; Cetin, S.

    2006-01-21

    Fly ash is an inorganic matter from combustion of the carbonaceous solid fuels. More than half the electricity in Turkey is produced from lignite-fired power plants. This energy production has resulted in the formation of more than 13 million tons of fly ash waste annually. The presence of carbon in fly ash inducing common faults include adding unwanted black color and adsorbing process or product materials such as water and chemicals. One of the reasons for not using fly ash directly is its carbon content. For some uses carbon must be lower than 3%. Fly ash has been used for partial replacement of cement, aggregate, or both for nearly 70 years, and it is still used on a very limited scale in Turkey. The heavy metal content of industrial wastewaters is an important source of environmental pollution. Each of the three major oxides (SiO{sub 2} + Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} + Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) in fly ash can be ideal as a metal adsorbent.

  11. Selenium And Arsenic Speciation in Fly Ash From Full-Scale Coal-Burning Utility Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huggins, F.E.; Senior, C.L.; Chu, P.; Ladwig, K.; Huffman, G.P.; /Kentucky U. /Reaction Engin. Int. /Elect. Power Res. Inst., Palo Alto

    2007-07-09

    X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy has been used to determine directly the oxidation states and speciation of selenium and arsenic in 10 fly ash samples collected from full-scale utility plants. Such information is needed to assess the health risk posed by these elements in fly ash and to understand their behavior during combustion and in fly ash disposal options, such as sequestration in tailings ponds. Selenium is found predominantly as Se(IV) in selenite (SeO{sub 3}{sup 2-}) species, whereas arsenic is found predominantly as As(V) in arsenate (AsO{sub 4}{sup 3-}) species. Two distinct types of selenite and arsenate spectra were observed depending upon whether the fly ash was derived from eastern U.S. bituminous (Fe-rich) coals or from western subbituminous or lignite (Ca-rich) coals. Similar spectral details were observed for both arsenic and selenium in the two different types of fly ash, suggesting that the post-combustion behavior and capture of both of these elements are likely controlled by the same dominant element or phase in each type of fly ash.

  12. Chemical leaching of coal to remove ash, alkali and vanadium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smit, F.J.; Huggins, D.K.; Berggren, M.; Anast, K.R.

    1986-04-15

    A process is described for upgrading powdered coal to improve the usefulness thereof as a fuel for internal combustion engines which consists of: (a) pressure-leaching powdered coal having a particle size ranging from about 28 mesh to about 200 mesh in an aqueous caustic solution at a temperature ranging from about 175/sup 0/C, to about 350/sup 0/C., the amount of caustic in the solution ranging from about 5% to about 30% by weight, the amount of coal being sufficient to form a slurry comprising about 10% to 30% by weight of solids, (b) hydrochloric acid leaching the caustic leached coal to dissolve acid-soluble constituents resulting from the caustic leach, (c) pressure leaching the acid-leached coal with a liquid from the group consisting of water and dilute aqueous ammonia to remove sodium and chlorine, and thereafter (d) filtering and washing the pressure leached coal, whereby the coal is characterized by up to about 0.85% by weight of ash, up to about 150 ppm of alkali metals and up to about 4 ppm vanadium.

  13. Hydration studies of calcium sulfoaluminate cements blended with fly ash

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garca-Mat, M.; De la Torre, A.G.; Len-Reina, L.; Aranda, M.A.G.; CELLS-Alba synchrotron, Carretera BP 1413, Km. 3.3, E-08290 Cerdanyola, Barcelona ; Santacruz, I.

    2013-12-15

    The main objective of this work is to study the hydration and properties of calcium sulfoaluminate cement pastes blended with fly ash (FA) and the corresponding mortars at different hydration ages. Laboratory X-ray powder diffraction, rheological studies, thermal analysis, porosimetry and compressive strength measurements were performed. The analysis of the diffraction data by Rietveld method allowed quantifying crystalline phases and overall amorphous contents. The studied parameters were: i) FA content, 0, 15 and 30 wt.%; and ii) water addition, water-to-CSA mass ratio (w/CSA = 0.50 and 0.65), and water-to-binder mass ratio (w/b = 0.50). Finally, compressive strengths after 6 months of 0 and 15 wt.% FA [w/CSA = 0.50] mortars were similar: 73 2 and 72 3 MPa, respectively. This is justified by the filler effect of the FA as no strong evidences of reactivity of FA with CSA were observed. These results support the partial substitution of CSA cements with FA with the economic and environmental benefits.

  14. 488-4D ASH LANDFILL CLOSURE CAP HELP MODELING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phifer, M.

    2014-11-17

    At the request of Area Completion Projects (ACP) in support of the 488-4D Landfill closure, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has performed Hydrologic Evaluation of Landfill Performance (HELP) modeling of the planned 488-4D Ash Landfill closure cap to ensure that the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) limit of no more than 12 inches of head on top of the barrier layer (saturated hydraulic conductivity of no more than 1.0E-05 cm/s) in association with a 25-year, 24-hour storm event is not projected to be exceeded. Based upon Weber 1998 a 25-year, 24-hour storm event at the Savannah River Site (SRS) is 6.1 inches. The results of the HELP modeling indicate that the greatest peak daily head on top of the barrier layer (i.e. geosynthetic clay liner (GCL) or high density polyethylene (HDPE) geomembrane) for any of the runs made was 0.079 inches associated with a peak daily precipitation of 6.16 inches. This is well below the SCDHEC limit of 12 inches.

  15. Residential Clothes Dryers (Appendix D)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Department of Energy (DOE) develops standardized data templates for reporting the results of tests conducted in accordance with current DOE test procedures. Templates may be used by third-party laboratories under contract with DOE that conduct testing in support of ENERGY STAR® verification, DOE rulemakings, and enforcement of the federal energy conservation standards.

  16. Effect of curing conditions on the geotechnical and geochemical properties of CFBC ashes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bland, A.E.

    1999-07-01

    Western Research Institute, in cooperation with the US Department of Energy Federal Energy Technology Center, initiated a multi-year program to examine the relationship between CFBC ash chemistry and geotechnical properties as they relate to ash disposal and utilization. Four CFBC facilities supplied ash from their units for the study representing high-sulfur (4%) and medium-sulfur (1.8%) bituminous coal. Sub-bituminous coal (0.9% sulfur) and petroleum coke (5--6% sulfur) fired ashes were also included in the study. The ashes were composed principally of large quantities of anhydrite (CaSO{sub 4}) and lime (CaO) and minor amounts of calcite (CaCO{sub 3}). The ash curing study addressed the impact of curing conditions (sealed and saturated curing and 23 C and 5 C curing temperature) on the geochemical and geotechnical properties of the ash. The strength development and expansion varied with the type and characteristics of the ashes. The expansion appeared to be inversely related to strength development. As the strength decreased under saturated curing, the expansion increased significantly. The application of 5 C saturated curing resulted in further strength loss and increased expansion. The hydration reaction products appeared to be principally the hydration of lime (CaO) to portlandite (Ca[OH]{sub 2}), the hydration of anhydrite (CaSO{sub 4}) to gypsum (CaSO{sub 4} {center{underscore}dot} 2H{sub 2}O), and the precipitation of ettringite (Ca{sub 6}Al{sub 2}[SO{sub 4}]{sub 3}[OH]{sub 12} {center{underscore}dot} 26H{sub 2}O) from the soluble calcium, sulfates and alumina. No thaumasite was noted in the specimens. The ashes appeared to follow one of several hydration reaction trends: (1) ettringite-only development, (2) ettringite and/or gypsum early followed by later gypsum formation, or (3) gypsum-only formation. Testing confirmed that the hydration reaction chemistry was related to geotechnical properties of the ashes. Strength development and expansion appeared to be related to ettringite and/or gypsum formation. The expansion increased with saturated curing and appeared to be predominantly gypsum based. A pore filling model was found to be consistent with the observed relationships between hydration phases (ettringite and gypsum) and strength development and expansion, as well as SEM observations and void reduction observations.

  17. Comparing Metal Leaching and Toxicity from High pH, Low pH, and High Ammonia Fly Ash

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Palumbo, Anthony Vito; Phillips, Jana Randolph; Fagan, Lisa Anne; Drake, Meghan M; Ruther, Rose Emily; Fisher, L. Suzanne; Amonette, J. E.

    2007-01-01

    Previous work with both class F and class C fly ash indicated minimal leaching from most fly ashes tested. However, the addition of NOx removal equipment might result in higher levels of ammonia in the fly ash. We have recently been testing fly ash with a wide range of pH (3.7-12.4) originating from systems with NOx removal equipment. Leaching experiments were done using dilute CaCl2 solutions in batch and columns and a batch nitric acid method. All methods indicated that the leaching of heavy metals was different in the highest ammonia sample tested and the high pH sample. However, toxicity testing with the Microtox system has indicated little potential toxicity in leachates except for the fly ash at the highest pH (12.4). When the leachate from the high pH fly ash was neutralized, toxicity was eliminated.

  18. Comparing metal leaching and toxicity from high pH, low pH, and high ammonia fly ash

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Palumbo, Anthony V.; Tarver, Jana R.; Fagan, Lisa A.; McNeilly, Meghan S.; Ruther, Rose; Fisher, L. S.; Amonette, James E.

    2007-07-01

    Previous work with both class F and class C fly ash indicated minimal leaching from most fly ashes tested. However, the addition of NOx removal equipment might result in higher levels of ammonia in the fly ash. We have recently been testing fly ash with a wide range of pH (3.712.4) originating from systems with NOx removal equipment. Leaching experiments were done using dilute CaCl2 solutions in batch and columns and a batch nitric acid method. All methods indicated that the leaching of heavy metals was different in the highest ammonia sample tested and the high pH sample. However, toxicity testing with the Microtox* system has indicated little potential toxicity in leachates except for the fly ash at the highest pH (12.4). When the leachate from the high pH fly ash was neutralized, toxicity was eliminated.

  19. Trophic structure and metal bioaccumulation differences in multiple fish species exposed to coal ash-associated metals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Otter, Ryan; Bailey, Frank; Fortner, Allison M; Adams, Marshall

    2012-01-01

    On December 22, 2008 a dike containing coal fly ash from the Tennessee Valley Authority Kingston Fossil Plant near Kingston Tennessee USA failed and resulted in the largest coal ash spill in U.S. history. Coal ash, the by-product of coal combustion, is known to contain multiple contaminants of concern, including arsenic and selenium. The purpose of this study was to investigate the bioaccumulation of arsenic and selenium and to identify possible differences in trophic dynamics in feral fish at various sites in the vicinity of the Kingston coal ash spill. Elevated levels of arsenic and selenium were observed in various tissues of largemouth bass, white crappie, bluegill and redear sunfish from sites associated with the Kingston coal ash spill. Highest concentrations of selenium were found in redear sunfish with liver concentrations as high as 24.83 mg/kg dry weight and ovary concentrations up to 10.40 mg/kg dry weight at coal ash-associated sites. To help explain the elevated selenium levels observed in redear sunfish, investigations into the gut pH and trophic dynamics of redear sunfish and bluegill were conducted which demonstrated a large difference in the gut physiology between these two species. Redear sunfish stomach and intestinal pH was found to be 1.1 and 0.16 pH units higher than in bluegill, respectively. In addition, fish from coal ash-associated sites showed enrichment of 15N & 13C compared to no ash sites, indicating differences in food web dynamics between sites. These results imply the incorporation of coal ash-associated compounds into local food webs and/or a shift in diet at ash sites compared to the no ash reference sites. Based on these results, further investigation into a broader food web at ash-associated sites is warranted.

  20. Thermal and hydrometallurgical recovery methods of heavy metals from municipal solid waste fly ash

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kubo?ov, L.

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: MSW fly ash was thermally and hydrometallurgically treated to remove heavy metals. More than 90% of easy volatile heavy metals (Cd and Pb) were removed thermally. More than 90% of Cd, Cr, Cu an Zn were removed by alkaline acid leaching. The best results were obtained for the solution of 3 M NaOH and 2 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}. - Abstract: Heavy metals in fly ash from municipal solid waste incinerators are present in high concentrations. Therefore fly ash must be treated as a hazardous material. On the other hand, it may be a potential source of heavy metals. Zinc, lead, cadmium, and copper can be relatively easily removed during the thermal treatment of fly ash, e.g. in the form of chlorides. In return, wet extraction methods could provide promising results for these elements including chromium and nickel. The aim of this study was to investigate and compare thermal and hydrometallurgical treatment of municipal solid waste fly ash. Thermal treatment of fly ash was performed in a rotary reactor at temperatures between 950 and 1050 C and in a muffle oven at temperatures from 500 to 1200 C. The removal more than 90% was reached by easy volatile heavy metals such as cadmium and lead and also by copper, however at higher temperature in the muffle oven. The alkaline (sodium hydroxide) and acid (sulphuric acid) leaching of the fly ash was carried out while the influence of temperature, time, concentration, and liquid/solid ratio were investigated. The combination of alkaline-acidic leaching enhanced the removal of, namely, zinc, chromium and nickel.

  1. The correlation between reactivity and ash mineralogy of coke

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kerkkonen, O.; Mattila, E.; Heiniemi, R.

    1996-12-31

    Rautaruukki is a modern integrated Finnish steel works having a production of 2.4 mil. t/year of flat products. The total fuel consumption of the two blast furnaces in 1994 was 435 kg/t HM. Coke used was 345 kg/t HM and oil injection was 90 kg/t HM. The coking plant was taken in to operation in 1987 and is the only one in Finland, which means that the coking tradition is very short. Coke production is 0.9 mil. t/year. The coking blends include 70--80% medium volatile coals having a wide range of total dilatation. From time to time disturbances in the operation of the blast furnaces have occurred in spite of the fact that the reactivity of the coke used has remained constant or even decreased. It was thought necessary to investigate the factors affecting coke reactivity, in order to better understand the results of the reactivity test. This paper deals with carbonization tests done in a 7 kg test oven using nine individual coals having volatile-matter contents of 17--36% (dry) and seven blends made from these coals. Coke reactivity with CO{sub 2} at 1100 C (CRI) and coke strength after reaction (CSR) were determined using the test developed by the Nippon Steel Corporation. The influence of coke carbon form, porosity and especially ash mineralogy on the coke reactivity were examined. The effects of some additives; petroleum coke (pet coke), the spillage material from the coke ovens and oxidized coal, on coke quality were also studied. Typical inorganic minerals found in coals were added to one of the high volatile coals, which was then coked to determine the affect of the minerals on the properties of the coke produced.

  2. Direct acid dissolution of aluminum and other metals from fly ash

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kelmers, A.D.; Egan, B.Z.; Seeley, F.G.; Campbell, G.D.

    1981-01-01

    Fly ash could provide a significant domestic source of alumina and thus supply a large part of the US needs for aluminum and possibly also several other metals. The aluminum and other metals can be solubilized from fly ash by acid dissolution methods. The aluminum may be present in any or all of three solid phases: (1) crystalline; (2) glassy amorphous; and (3) irregular, spongy amorphous. The chemistry of these phases controls the solubilization behavior. The aluminum in high-calcium western ashes is primarily found in the amorphous phases, and much of it can be solubilized by using short-time, ambient-temperature leaching. Little of the aluminum in the low-calcium eastern ashes is solubilized under ambient-temperature conditions, and only a portion can be solubilized even at reflux temperature conditions. Some of the aluminum in these eastern ashes is present as mullite, while some is found in the amorphous material. The fraction contained in mullite is relativey acid insoluble, and only partial solubilization can be achieved even under vigorous acid leach conditions.

  3. Radon exhalation rate from coal ashes and building materials in Italy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Battaglia, A.; Capra, D.; Queirazza, G.

    1992-12-31

    The Italian National Electricity Board, in cooperation with Centro Informazioni Stubi Esperienze (CISE) has a program to assess the hazards connected with using fly ash in civil applications as partial substitutes for cement and other building materials. We investigated the natural radioactivity levels of more than 200 building materials. The survey involved materials available in Italy, categorized by geographical location and type of production. We also examined approximately 100 samples of fly ash from United States and South African coal, obtained from Italian power plants. Exhalation rates from about 40 powdered materials were determined by continuously measuring radon concentration growth in closed containers. Measurements were also performed on whole bricks, slabs, and titles. Details about the high-sensitivity measuring devices are presented. The influence of fly ash on exhalation rates was investigated by accurately measuring radon emanation from slabs with various ash/cement ratios and with slabs of inert materials having various radium concentrations. We will discuss results of forecasting indoor radon concentrations under different ventilation conditions. Two identical test rooms are being built, one with conventional and one with fly-ash building materials, to compare theoretical calculations with experimental data. Specifications for instruments to control and to measure the most important parameters are also discussed.

  4. Investigation of MSWI fly ash melting characteristic by DSC-DTA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Rundong Wang, Lei; Yang, Tianhua; Raninger, Bernhard

    2007-07-01

    The melting process of MSWI (Municipal Solid Waste Incineration) fly ash has been studied by high-temperature DSC-DTA experiments. The experiments were performed at a temperature range of 20-1450 deg. C, and the considerable variables included atmosphere (O{sub 2} and N{sub 2}), heating rates (5 deg. C/min, 10 deg. C/min, 20 deg. C/min) and CaO addition. Three main transitions were observed during the melting process of fly ash: dehydration, polymorphic transition and fusion, occurring in the temperature range of 100-200 deg. C, 480-670 deg. C and 1101-1244 deg. C, respectively. The apparent heat capacity and heat requirement for melting of MSWI fly ash were obtained by DSC (Differential Scanning Calorimeter). A thermodynamic modeling to predict the heat requirements for melting process has been presented, and it agrees well with the experimental data. Finally, a zero-order kinetic model of fly ash melting transition was established. The apparent activation energy of MSWI fly ash melting transition was obtained.

  5. Fly ash properties and mercury sorbent affect mercury release from curing concrete

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Danold W. Golightly; Chin-Min Cheng; Linda K. Weavers; Harold W. Walker; William E. Wolfe

    2009-04-15

    The release of mercury from concrete containing fly ashes from various generator boilers and powdered activated carbon sorbent used to capture mercury was measured in laboratory experiments. Release of gaseous mercury from these concretes was less than 0.31% of the total quantity of mercury present. The observed gaseous emissions of mercury during the curing process demonstrated a dependency on the organic carbon content of the fly ash, with mercury release decreasing with increasing carbon content. Further, lower gaseous emissions of mercury were observed for concretes incorporating ash containing activated carbon sorbent than would be expected based on the observed association with organic carbon, suggesting that the powdered activated carbon more tightly binds the mercury as compared to unburned carbon in the ash. Following the initial 28-day curing interval, mercury release diminished with time. In separate leaching experiments, average mercury concentrations leached from fly ash concretes were less than 4.1 ng/L after 18 h and 7 days, demonstrating that less than 0.02% of the mercury was released during leaching. 25 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  6. Coal Fly Ash as a Source of Iron in Atmospheric Dust

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Haihan; Laskin, Alexander; Baltrusaitis, Jonas; Gorski, Christopher A.; Scherer, Michelle; Grassian, Vicki H.

    2012-01-18

    Anthropogenic coal fly ash aerosols may represent a significant source of bioavailable iron in the open ocean. Few measurements have been made to compare the solubility of atmospheric iron from anthropogenic aerosols and other sources. We report an investigation of the iron dissolution of three fly ash samples in acidic aqueous solutions and compare the solubilities with that of Arizona test dust, a reference material of mineral dust. The effects of pH, cloud processing, and solar irradiation on Fe solubility were explored. Similar to previously reported results on mineral dust, iron in aluminosilicate phases provide predominant dissolved iron compared with iron in oxides. Iron solubility of fly ash is higher than Arizona test dust, especially at the higher pH conditions investigated. Simulated atmospheric processing elevates iron solubility due to significant changes in the morphology aluminosilicate glass, a dominantly material in fly ash particle. Iron continuously releases into the aqueous solution as fly ash particles break up into smaller fragments. The assessment of dissolved atmospheric iron deposition fluxes, and their effect on the biogeochemistry at ocean surface should be constrained by taking into account the source, environment pH, Fe speciation, and solar radiation.

  7. Thermal behavior of spiral fin-and-tube heat exchanger having fly ash deposit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nuntaphan, Atipoang; Kiatsiriroat, Tanongkiat

    2007-08-15

    This research investigates the effect of fly-ash deposit on thermal performance of a cross-flow heat exchanger having a set of spiral finned-tubes as a heat transfer surface. A stream of warm air having high content of fly-ash is exchanging heat with a cool water stream in the tubes. In this study, the temperature of the heat exchanger surface is lower than the dew point temperature of air, thus there is condensation of moisture in the air stream on the heat exchanger surface. The affecting parameters such as the fin spacing, the air mass flow rate, the fly-ash mass flow rate and the inlet temperature of warm air are varied while the volume flow rate and the inlet temperature of the cold water stream are kept constant at 10 l/min and 5 C, respectively. From the experiment, it is found that as the testing period is shorter than 8 h the thermal resistance due to the fouling increases with time. Moreover, the deposit of fly-ash on the heat transfer surface is directly proportional to the dust-air ratio and the amount of condensate on heat exchange surface. However, the deposit of fly-ash is inversely proportional to the fin spacing. The empirical model for evaluating the thermal resistance is also developed in this work and the simulated results agree well with those of the measured data. (author)

  8. Barley seedling growth in soils amended with fly ash or agricultural lime followed by acidification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Renken, R.R.; McCallister, D.L.; Tarkalson, D.D.; Hergert, G.W.; Marx, D.B.

    2006-05-15

    Calcium-rich coal combustion fly ash can be used as an amendment to neutralize soil acidity because of its oxides and carbonate content, but its aluminum content could inhibit plant growth if soil pH values fall below optimal agronomic levels. This study measured root and shoot growth of an acid-sensitive barley (Hordeum vulgare L. 'Kearney') grown in the greenhouse on three naturally acid soils. The soils were either untreated or amended with various liming materials (dry fly ash, wet fly ash, and agricultural lime) at application rates of 0, .5, 1, and 1.5 times the recommended lime requirement, then treated with dilute acid solutions to simulate management-induced acidification. Plant growth indexes were measured at 30 days after planting. Root mass per plant and root length per plant were greater for the limed treatments than in the acidified check. Root growth in the limed treatments did not differ from root growth in the original nonacidified soils. Top mass per plant in all limed soils was either larger than or not different from that in the original nonacidified soils. Based on top mass per plant, no liming material or application rate was clearly superior. Both fly ash and agricultural lime reduced the impact of subsequent acidification on young barley plants. Detrimental effects of aluminum release on plant growth were not observed. Calcium-rich fly ash at agronomic rates is an acceptable acid-neutralizing material with no apparent negative effects.

  9. Post-treatment of fly ash by ozone in a fixed bed reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim Hougaard Pedersen; Merc Casanovas Meli; Anker Degn Jensen; Kim Dam-Johansen

    2009-01-15

    The residual carbon in fly ash produced from pulverized coal combustion can adsorb the air-entraining admixtures (AEAs) added to enhance air entrainment in concrete. This behavior of the ash can be suppressed by exposing the fly ash to oxidizing species, which oxidizes the carbon surface and thus prevents the AEA to be adsorbed. In the present work, two fly ashes have been ozonated in a fixed bed reactor and the results showed that ozonation is a potential post-treatment method that can lower the AEA requirements of a fly ash up to 6 times. The kinetics of the carbon oxidation by ozone was found to be fast. A kinetic model has been formulated, describing the passivation of carbon, and it includes the stoichiometry of the ozone consumption (0.8 mol of O{sub 3}/kg of C) and an ineffective ozone loss caused by catalytic decomposition. The simulated results correlated well with the experimental data. 28 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. Performance evaluation of highway embankment constructed using coal ash. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alleman, J.E.; Fox, P.J.; De Battista, D.J.

    1996-12-01

    The objective of this project was to assess the environmental and geotechnical performance of two highway embankments constructed using coal combustion fly ash. The environmental work focused on characterizing monitoring well water samples from the site before, during, and after construction. In addition, a number of in-situ lysimeter water samples were also tested during and after construction. In each case, water samples were evaluated in terms of their constitutive organic and metal concentrations, as well as their relative bioassay response using a MicrotoxTM protocol. The geotechnical work included monitoring of ash water content and unit weight during placement, settlement analysis and in-situ testing of the completed as fills using the Standard Penetration Test. Analysis of the groundwater and lysimeter water samples indicated that the coal ash had not adversely affected the environmental quality of the 56th Street overpass site. The embankments also performed well from a geotechnical perspective both during and after construction. The only difficulty was the measurement of coal ash water content and unit weight using the nuclear density gauge. The benefits of reusing coal combustion fly ash for highway construction are: (1) low-cost source material for INDOT, (2) reduced disposal costs for Indiana utilities, and (3) savings of Indiana landfill capacity.

  11. Role of fly ash in the removal of organic pollutants from wastewater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M. Ahmaruzzaman

    2009-03-15

    Fly ash, a relatively abundant and inexpensive material, is currently being investigated as an adsorbent for the removal of various organic pollutants from wastewater. The wastewater contains various types of phenolic compounds, such as chloro, nitro, amino, and other substituted compounds. Various types of pesticides, such as lindane, malathion, carbofuran, etc., and dyes, such as, methylene blue, crystal violet, malachite green, etc., are also present in the wastewater. These contaminants pollute the water stream. These organic pollutants, such as phenolic compounds, pesticides, and dyes, etc., can be removed very effectively using fly ash as adsorbent. This article presents a detailed review on the role of fly ash in the removal of organic pollutants from wastewater. Adsorption of various pollutants using fly ash has been reviewed. The adsorption mechanism and other influencing factors, favorable conditions, and competitive ions, etc., on the adsorption process have also been discussed in this paper. It is evident from the review that fly ash has demonstrated good removal capabilities for various organic compounds. 171 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  12. Four-year prospective study of the respiratory effects of volcanic ash from Mt. St. Helens

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buist, A.S.; Vollmer, W.M.; Johnson, L.R.; Bernstein, R.S.; McCamant, L.E.

    1986-04-01

    This report describes the 4-yr follow-up of 712 loggers exposed over an extended period to varying levels of fresh volcanic ash from the 1980 eruptions of Mt. St. Helens. Concerns related to the irritant effect the ash might have on the airways and also to its fibrogenic potential if exposures were intense and continued over many years. Our subjects were divided into 3 groups: high, low, and no exposure. Baseline testing was begun in June 1980, 1 month after the major eruption, and follow-up testing continued on an annual basis through 1984; 88% of the loggers have been tested at least 3 times. Analysis of lung function data showed that a significant, exposure-related decline in FEV1 occurred during the first year after the eruption. The decline was short-lived, however, and by 1984 the differences between exposure groups were no longer significant. Self-reported symptoms of cough, phlegm, and wheeze showed a similar pattern. No ash-related changes were seen in chest roentgenograms taken in 1980 and in 1984. Our findings are consistent with the hypothesis that the inhaled ash caused mucus hypersecretion and/or airway inflammation that reversed when the exposure levels decreased. The ash levels to which the loggers were exposed were low compared with permissible occupational levels for nuisance dusts, but generally higher than the total suspended particulate levels permissible in ambient air.

  13. Use of Brazilian sugarcane bagasse ash in concrete as sand replacement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sales, Almir; Lima, Sofia Araujo

    2010-06-15

    Sugarcane today plays a major role in the worldwide economy, and Brazil is the leading producer of sugar and alcohol, which are important international commodities. The production process generates bagasse as a waste, which is used as fuel to stoke boilers that produce steam for electricity cogeneration. The final product of this burning is residual sugarcane bagasse ash (SBA), which is normally used as fertilizer in sugarcane plantations. Ash stands out among agroindustrial wastes because it results from energy generating processes. Many types of ash do not have hydraulic or pozzolanic reactivity, but can be used in civil construction as inert materials. The present study used ash collected from four sugar mills in the region of Sao Carlos, SP, Brazil, which is one of the world's largest producers of sugarcane. The ash samples were subjected to chemical characterization, sieve analysis, determination of specific gravity, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and solubilization and leaching tests. Mortars and concretes with SBA as sand replacement were produced and tests were carried out: compressive strength, tensile strength and elastic modulus. The results indicated that the SBA samples presented physical properties similar to those of natural sand. Several heavy metals were found in the SBA samples, indicating the need to restrict its use as a fertilizer. The mortars produced with SBA in place of sand showed better mechanical results than the reference samples. SBA can be used as a partial substitute of sand in concretes made with cement slag-modified Portland cement.

  14. Hydration mechanisms of ternary Portland cements containing limestone powder and fly ash

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    De Weerdt, K.; Haha, M. Ben; Le Saout, G.; Kjellsen, K.O.; Justnes, H.; Lothenbach, B.

    2011-03-15

    The effect of minor additions of limestone powder on the properties of fly ash blended cements was investigated in this study using isothermal calorimetry, thermogravimetry (TGA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques, and pore solution analysis. The presence of limestone powder led to the formation of hemi- and monocarbonate and to a stabilisation of ettringite compared to the limestone-free cements, where a part of the ettringite converted to monosulphate. Thus, the presence of 5% of limestone led to an increase of the volume of the hydrates, as visible in the increase in chemical shrinkage, and an increase in compressive strength. This effect was amplified for the fly ash/limestone blended cements due to the additional alumina provided by the fly ash reaction.

  15. Steam plant ash disposal facility and industrial landfill at the Y-12 Plant, Anderson County, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-02-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is proposing to install a wet ash handling system to dewater bottom ash from the coal-fired steam plant at its Y-12 Plant and to construct a new landfill for disposal of industrial wastes, including the dewatered bottom ash. The DOE operates three major facilities on its Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). Operation of these facilities results in the production of a variety of nonhazardous, nonradioactive solid wastes (approximately 300 m{sup 3} per day, compacted) including sanitary wastes, common industrial wastes and construction debris. At the current rate of use, this existing landfill will be filled within approximately 18 months, and more space is urgently needed. In an effort to alleviate this problem, DOE and WMD management propose to create additional landfill facilities at a nearby site. The potential environmental impacts associated with this proposed action are the subject of this environmental assessment (EA).

  16. Process for removing sulfur from sulfur-containing gases: high calcium fly-ash

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rochelle, Gary T.; Chang, John C. S.

    1991-01-01

    The present disclosure relates to improved processes for treating hot sulfur-containing flue gas to remove sulfur therefrom. Processes in accordance with the present invention include preparing an aqueous slurry composed of a calcium alkali source and a source of reactive silica and/or alumina, heating the slurry to above-ambient temperatures for a period of time in order to facilitate the formation of sulfur-absorbing calcium silicates or aluminates, and treating the gas with the heat-treated slurry components. Examples disclosed herein demonstrate the utility of these processes in achieving improved sulfur-absorbing capabilities. Additionally, disclosure is provided which illustrates preferred configurations for employing the present processes both as a dry sorbent injection and for use in conjunction with a spray dryer and/or bagfilter. Retrofit application to existing systems is also addressed.

  17. Influences of chemical activators on incinerator bottom ash

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qiao, X.C. Cheeseman, C.R.; Poon, C.S.

    2009-02-15

    This research has applied different chemical activators to mechanically and thermally treated fine fraction (<14 mm) of incinerator bottom ash (IBA), in order to investigate the influences of chemical activators on this new pozzolanic material. IBA has been milled and thermally treated at 800 deg. C (TIBA). The TIBA produced was blended with Ca(OH){sub 2} and evaluated for setting time, reactivity and compressive strength after the addition of 0.0565 mole of Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, K{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}, K{sub 2}CO{sub 3}, NaOH, KOH and CaCl{sub 2} into 100 g of binder (TIBA+Ca(OH){sub 2}). The microstructures of activated IBA and hydrated samples have been characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and thermogravimetry (TG) analysis. Thermal treatment is found to produce gehlenite (Ca{sub 2}Al{sub 2}SiO{sub 7}), wollastonite (CaSiO{sub 3}) and mayenite (Ca{sub 12}Al{sub 14}O{sub 33}) phases. The thermally treated IBA samples are significantly more reactive than the milled IBA. The addition of Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} can increase the compressive strength and calcium hydroxide consumption at 28-day curing ages. However, the addition of Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, K{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, K{sub 2}CO{sub 3}, NaOH and KOH reduces the strength and hydration reaction. Moreover, these chemicals produce more porous samples due to increased generation of hydrogen gas. The addition of CaCl{sub 2} has a negative effect on the hydration of TIBA samples. Calcium aluminium oxide carbonate sulphide hydrate (Ca{sub 4}Al{sub 2}O{sub 6}(CO{sub 3}){sub 0.67}(SO{sub 3}){sub 0.33}(H{sub 2}O){sub 11}) is the main hydration product in the samples with activated IBA, except for the sample containing CaCl{sub 2}.

  18. Synthesis of mesoporous silica materials from municipal solid waste incinerator bottom ash

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Zhen-Shu Li, Wen-Kai; Huang, Chun-Yi

    2014-05-01

    Highlights: The optimal alkaline agent for the extraction of silica from bottom ash was Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}. The pore sizes for the mesoporous silica synthesized from bottom ash were 23.8 nm. The synthesized materials exhibited a hexagonal pore structure with a smaller order. The materials have potential for the removal of heavy metals from aqueous solutions. - Abstract: Incinerator bottom ash contains a large amount of silica and can hence be used as a silica source for the synthesis of mesoporous silica materials. In this study, the conditions for alkaline fusion to extract silica from incinerator bottom ash were investigated, and the resulting supernatant solution was used as the silica source for synthesizing mesoporous silica materials. The physical and chemical characteristics of the mesoporous silica materials were analyzed using BET, XRD, FTIR, SEM, and solid-state NMR. The results indicated that the BET surface area and pore size distribution of the synthesized silica materials were 992 m{sup 2}/g and 23.8 nm, respectively. The XRD patterns showed that the synthesized materials exhibited a hexagonal pore structure with a smaller order. The NMR spectra of the synthesized materials exhibited three peaks, corresponding to Q{sup 2} [Si(OSi){sub 2}(OH){sub 2}], Q{sup 3} [Si(OSi){sub 3}(OH)], and Q{sup 4} [Si(OSi){sub 4}]. The FTIR spectra confirmed the existence of a surface hydroxyl group and the occurrence of symmetric SiO stretching. Thus, mesoporous silica was successfully synthesized from incinerator bottom ash. Finally, the effectiveness of the synthesized silica in removing heavy metals (Pb{sup 2+}, Cu{sup 2+}, Cd{sup 2+}, and Cr{sup 2+}) from aqueous solutions was also determined. The results showed that the silica materials synthesized from incinerator bottom ash have potential for use as an adsorbent for the removal of heavy metals from aqueous solutions.

  19. Sulfur capture by oil shale ashes under atmospheric and pressurized FBC conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yrjas, K.P.; Hupa, M. [Aabo Akademi Univ., Turku (Finland). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Kuelaots, I.; Ots, A. [Tallinn Technical Univ. (Estonia). Thermal Engineering Dept.

    1995-12-31

    When oil shale contains large quantities of limestone, a significant auto-absorption of sulfur is possible under suitable conditions. The sulfur capture by oil shale ashes has been studied using a pressurized thermogravimetric apparatus. The chosen experimental conditions were typical for atmospheric and pressurized fluidized bed combustion. The Ca/S molar ratios in the two oil shales studied were 8 (Estonian) and 10 (Israeli). The samples were first burned in a gas atmosphere containing O{sub 2} and N{sub 2} (and CO{sub 2} if pressurized). After the combustion step, SO{sub 2} was added and sulfation started. The results with the oil shales were compared to those obtained with an oil shale cyclone ash from the Narva power plant in Estonia. In general, the results from the sulfur capture experiments under both atmospheric and pressurized conditions showed that the oil shale cannot only capture its own sulfur but also significant amounts of additional sulfur of another fuel if the fuels are mixed together. For example from the runs at atmospheric pressure, the conversion of CaO to CaSO{sub 4} was about 70% for Israeli oil shale and about 55% for Estonian oil shale (850 C). For the cyclone ash the corresponding conversion was about 20%. In comparison it could be mentioned that under the same conditions the conversions of natural limestones are about 30%. The reason the cyclone ash was a poor sulfur absorbent was probably due to its temperature history. In Narva the oil shale was burned at a significantly higher temperature (1,400 C) than was used in the experiments (750 C and 850 C). This caused the ash to sinter and the reactive surface area of the cyclone ash was therefore decreased.

  20. Computation of probabilistic hazard maps and source parameter estimation for volcanic ash transport and dispersion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Madankan, R.; Pouget, S.; Singla, P.; Bursik, M.; Dehn, J.; Jones, M.; Patra, A.; Pavolonis, M.; Pitman, E.B.; Singh, T.; Webley, P.

    2014-08-15

    Volcanic ash advisory centers are charged with forecasting the movement of volcanic ash plumes, for aviation, health and safety preparation. Deterministic mathematical equations model the advection and dispersion of these plumes. However initial plume conditions height, profile of particle location, volcanic vent parameters are known only approximately at best, and other features of the governing system such as the windfield are stochastic. These uncertainties make forecasting plume motion difficult. As a result of these uncertainties, ash advisories based on a deterministic approach tend to be conservative, and many times over/under estimate the extent of a plume. This paper presents an end-to-end framework for generating a probabilistic approach to ash plume forecasting. This framework uses an ensemble of solutions, guided by Conjugate Unscented Transform (CUT) method for evaluating expectation integrals. This ensemble is used to construct a polynomial chaos expansion that can be sampled cheaply, to provide a probabilistic model forecast. The CUT method is then combined with a minimum variance condition, to provide a full posterior pdf of the uncertain source parameters, based on observed satellite imagery. The April 2010 eruption of the Eyjafjallajkull volcano in Iceland is employed as a test example. The puff advection/dispersion model is used to hindcast the motion of the ash plume through time, concentrating on the period 1416 April 2010. Variability in the height and particle loading of that eruption is introduced through a volcano column model called bent. Output uncertainty due to the assumed uncertain input parameter probability distributions, and a probabilistic spatial-temporal estimate of ash presence are computed.

  1. Guidelines for control and prevention of fly ash erosion in fossil fired power plants. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Drennen, J.F.; Kratina, P.

    1994-02-01

    Boiler tube failures (BTF`s) due to fly ash erosion are one of the leading single causes of availability loss in fossil boilers. The damage, which can be very localized, has led to expensive and lengthy forced outages. As part of an overall BTF reduction program, EPRI has documented the available solutions being applied for fly ash erosion. Unfortunately, most of these are regarded as temporary fixes that do not provide long term solutions. A technique applied in Canadian and Australian utilities has provided long term solutions on the order of ten years. This technique has been demonstrated now at two US utilities under an EPRI sponsored project, (RP2711-2). The result of the project is a guideline that outlines, step-by-step, activities for stepping up and running an erosion control program at a utility boiler. The heart of the program is the cold air velocity test (CAVT), done in the convective pass at ambient conditions. With the fans running, one or more two-man teams measure gas flows entering and/or leaving pendants and banks. These data and a boiler assessment are used to identify operating conditions conducive to fly ash erosion. Flow control screens are then selected and installed to redistribute fly ash, reduce gas velocities and produce acceptable erosion rates. The result should be long term relief from boiler tube failures caused by fly ash erosion. The program cost is estimated to be $300--$400/MW depending on unit design, operating characteristics and extent of fly ash erosion.

  2. Heavy metal leaching from coal fly ash amended container substrates during Syngonium production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Q.S.; Chen, J.J.; Li, Y.C.

    2008-02-15

    Coal fly ash has been proposed to be an alternative to lime amendment and a nutrient source of container substrates for ornamental plant production. A great concern over this proposed beneficial use, however, is the potential contamination of surface and ground water by heavy metals. In this study, three fly ashes collected from Florida, Michigan, and North Carolina and a commercial dolomite were amended in a basal substrate. The formulated substrates were used to produce Syngonium podophyllum Schott 'Berry Allusion' in 15-cm diameter containers in a shaded greenhouse. Leachates from the containers were collected during the entire six months of plant production and analyzed for heavy metal concentrations. There were no detectable As, Cr, Hg, Pb, and Se in the leachates; Cd and Mo were only detected in few leachate samples. The metals constantly detected were Cu, Mn, Ni, and Zn. The total amounts of Cu, Mn, Ni, and Zn leached during the six-month production period were 95, 210, 44, and 337 {mu} g per container, indicating that such amounts in leachates may contribute little to contamination of surface and ground water. In addition, plant growth indices and fresh and dry weights of S. podophyllum 'Berry Allusion' produced from fly ash and dolomite-amended substrates were comparable except for the plants produced from the substrate amended with fly ash collected from Michigan which had reduced growth indices and fresh and dry weights. Thus, selected fly ashes can be alternatives to commercial dolomites as amendments to container substrates for ornamental plant production. The use of fly ashes as container substrate amendments should represent a new market for the beneficial use of this coal combustion byproduct.

  3. Coal Ash Behavior in Reducing Environments (CABRE) III Year 6 - Activity

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    1.10 - Development of a National Center for Hydrogen (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect SciTech Connect Search Results Technical Report: Coal Ash Behavior in Reducing Environments (CABRE) III Year 6 - Activity 1.10 - Development of a National Center for Hydrogen Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Coal Ash Behavior in Reducing Environments (CABRE) III Year 6 - Activity 1.10 - Development of a National Center for Hydrogen The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) has been

  4. Long-Term Carbon Injection Field Test for 90% Mercury Removal for a PRB Unit a Spray Dryer and Fabric Filter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sjostrom, Sharon; Amrhein, Jerry

    2009-04-30

    The power industry in the U.S. is faced with meeting regulations to reduce the emissions of mercury compounds from coal-fired plants. Injecting a sorbent such as powdered activated carbon (PAC) into the flue gas represents one of the simplest and most mature approaches to controlling mercury emissions from coal-fired boilers. The purpose of this test program was to evaluate the long-term mercury removal capability, long-term mercury emissions variability, and operating and maintenance (O&M) costs associated with sorbent injection on a configuration being considered for many new plants. Testing was conducted by ADA Environmental Solutions (ADA) at Rocky Mountain Powers (RMP) Hardin Station through funding provided by DOE/NETL, RMP, and other industry partners. The Hardin Station is a new plant rated at 121 MW gross that was first brought online in April of 2006. Hardin fires a Powder River Basin (PRB) coal and is configured with selective catalytic reduction (SCR) for NOx control, a spray dryer absorber (SDA) for SO2 control, and a fabric filter (FF) for particulate control. Based upon previous testing at PRB sites with SCRs, very little additional mercury oxidation from the SCR was expected at Hardin. In addition, based upon results from DOE/NETL Phase II Round I testing at Holcomb Station and results from similarly configured sites, low native mercury removal was expected across the SDA and FF. The main goal of this project was metsorbent injection was used to economically and effectively achieve 90% mercury control as measured from the air heater (AH) outlet to the stack for a period of ten months. This goal was achieved with DARCO Hg-LH, Calgon FLUEPAC-MC PLUS and ADA Power PAC PREMIUM brominated activated carbons at nominal loadings of 1.52.5 lb/MMacf. An economic analysis determined the twenty-year levelized cost to be 0.87 mills/kW-hr, or $15,000/lb Hg removed. No detrimental effects on other equipment or plant operations were observed. The results of this project also filled a data gap for plants firing PRB coal and configured with an SCR, SDA, and FF, as many new plants are being designed today. Another goal of the project was to evaluate, on a short-term basis, the mercury removal associated with coal additives and coal blending with western bituminous coal. The additive test showed that, at this site, the coal additive known as KNX was affective at increasing mercury removal while decreasing sorbent usage. Coal blending was conducted with two different western bituminous coals, and West Elk coal increased native capture from nominally 10% to 50%. Two additional co-benefits were discovered at this site. First, it was found that native capture increased from nominally 10% at full load to 50% at low load. The effect is believed to be due to an increase in mercury oxidation across the SCR caused by a corresponding decrease in ammonia injection when the plant reduces load. Less ammonia means more active oxidation sites in the SCR for the mercury. The second co-benefit was the finding that high ammonia concentrations can have a negative impact on mercury removal by powdered activated carbon. For a period of time, the plant operated with a high excess of ammonia injection necessitated by the plugging of one-third of the SCR. Under these conditions and at high load, the mercury control system could not maintain 90% removal even at the maximum feed rate of 3.5 lb/MMacf (pounds of mercury per million actual cubic feet). The plant was able to demonstrate that mercury removal was directly related to the ammonia injection rate in a series of tests where the ammonia rate was decreased, causing a corresponding increase in mercury removal. Also, after the SCR was refurbished and ammonia injection levels returned to normal, the mercury removal performance also returned to normal. Another goal of the project was to install a commercial-grade activated carbon injection (ACI) system and integrate it with new-generation continuous emissions monitors for mercury (Hg-CEMs) to allow automatic feedback control on outlet me

  5. Entrained-flow dry-bottom gasification of high-ash coals in coal-water slurries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    E.G. Gorlov; V.G. Andrienko; K.B. Nefedov; S.V. Lutsenko; B.K. Nefedov

    2009-04-15

    It was shown that the effective use of dry ash removal during entrained-flow gasification of coal-water slurries consists in simplification of the ash storage system and utilization of coal ash, a decrease in the coal demand, a reduction in the atmospheric emissions of noxious substances and particulate matter, and abandonment of the discharge of water used for ash slurry. According to the results of gasification of coal-water slurries (5-10 {mu}m) in a pilot oxygen-blow unit at a carbon conversion of >91%, synthesis gas containing 28.5% CO, 32.5% H{sub 2}, 8.2% CO{sub 2}, 1.5% CH{sub 4}, the rest being nitrogen, was obtained. The fly ash in its chemical composition, particle size, and density meets the requirements of the European standard EN 450 as a cement additive for concrete manufacture.

  6. Transformations and affinities for sulfur of Chinese Shenmu coal ash in a pulverized coal-fired boiler

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheng, J.; Zhou, J.H.; Liu, J.Z.; Cao, X.Y.; Cen, K.F.

    2009-07-01

    The self-desulfurization efficiency of Shenmu coal with a high initial Ca/S molar ratio of 2.02 was measured in a 1,025 t/h pulverized coal-fired boiler. It increases from 29% to 32% when the power capacity decreases from 100% to 70%. About 60% of the mineral matter and calcium element fed into the furnace is retained in the fly ash, while less than 10% is retained in the bottom ash. About 70% of the sulfur element fed into the furnace is emitted as SO{sub 2} in the flue gas, while less than 10% is retained in the fly ash and less than 1% is retained in the bottom ash. The mineralogical compositions of feed coal, fly ash, and bottom ash were obtained by X-ray diffraction analysis. It is found that the initial amorphous phase content is 91.17% and the initial CaCO{sub 3} phase content is 2.07% in Shenmu coal. The vitreous phase and sulfation product CaSO{sub 4} contents are, respectively, 70.47% and 3.36% in the fly ash obtained at full capacity, while the retained CaCO{sub 3} and CaO contents are, respectively, 4.73% and 2.15%. However, the vitreous phase content is only 25.68% and no CaSO{sub 4} is detected in the bottom ash obtained at full capacity. When the power capacity decreases from 100% to 70%, the vitreous phase content in fly ash decreases from 70.47% to 67.41% and that in bottom ash increases from 25.68% to 28.10%.

  7. Leaching characteristics of toxic constituents from coal fly ash mixed soils under the influence of pH

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Komonweeraket, Kanokwan; Cetin, Bora; Benson, Craig H.; Aydilek, Ahmet H.; Edil, Tuncer B.

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • The impact of pH on the leaching of elements and metals from fly ash mixed soils. • Generally Ca, Cd, Mg, and Sr follows a cationic leaching pattern. • The leaching of As and Se shows an oxyanionic leaching pattern. • The leaching behavior of elements does not change based on material type. • Different fly ash types show different abilities in immobilizing trace elements. - Abstract: Leaching behaviors of Arsenic (As), Barium (Ba), Calcium (Ca), Cadmium (Cd), Magnesium (Mg), Selenium (Se), and Strontium (Sr) from soil alone, coal fly ash alone, and soil-coal fly ash mixtures, were studied at a pH range of 2–14 via pH-dependent leaching tests. Seven different types of soils and coal fly ashes were tested. Results of this study indicated that Ca, Cd, Mg, and Sr showed cationic leaching pattern while As and Se generally follows an oxyanionic leaching pattern. On the other hand, leaching of Ba presented amphoteric-like leaching pattern but less pH-dependent. In spite of different types and composition of soil and coal fly ash investigated, the study reveals the similarity in leaching behavior as a function of pH for a given element from soil, coal fly ash, and soil-coal fly ash mixtures. The similarity is most likely due to similar controlling mechanisms (e.g., solubility, sorption, and solid-solution formation) and similar controlling factors (e.g., leachate pH and redox conditions). This offers the opportunity to transfer knowledge of coal fly ash that has been extensively characterized and studied to soil stabilized with coal fly ash. It is speculated that unburned carbon in off-specification coal fly ashes may provide sorption sites for Cd resulting in a reduction in concentration of these elements in leachate from soil-coal fly ash mixture. Class C fly ash provides sufficient CaO to initiate the pozzolanic reaction yielding hydrated cement products that oxyanions, including As and Se, can be incorporated into.

  8. The Council of Industrial Boiler Owners special project on non-utility fossil fuel ash classification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Svendsen, R.L.

    1996-12-31

    Information is outlined on the Council of Industrial Boiler Owners (CIBO) special project on non-utility fossil fuel ash classification. Data are presented on; current (1996) regulatory status of fossil-fuel combustion wastes; FBC technology identified for further study; CIBO special project methods; Bevill amendment study factors; data collection; and CIBO special project status.

  9. How carbon-based sorbents will impact fly ash utilization and disposal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pflughoeft-Hassett, D.F.; Hassett, D.J.; Buckley, T.D.; Heebink, L.V.; Pavlish, J.H.

    2008-07-01

    The injection of activated carbon flue gas to control mercury emissions will result in a fly ash and activated carbon mixture. The potential impact of this on coal combustion product disposal and utilization is discussed. The full paper (and references) are available at www.acaa-usa.org. 1 tab., 2 photos.

  10. Enhancement of Ca(OH){sub 2}/fly ash sorbent for the dry-desulfurization process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mitsuo Yamamoto; Satoshi Komaki; Daichi Nakajima; Norihiko Matsushima; Dan Liu; Masateru Nishioka; Masayoshi Sadakata

    2006-10-15

    Ca(OH){sub 2}/fly ash sorbent has been studied as an effective method for SO{sub 2} removal. The effect of iron and other species for enhancing the ability of Ca(OH){sub 2}/fly ash sorbent was investigated in this study. At first, Fe(NO{sub 3}){sub 3} was added in the preparation of the sorbent, and TG analysis was carried out. The Ca utilization rate over a period of 90 min was about 10% greater than that for Ca(OH){sub 2}/fly ash sorbent. However, it was found that iron is not effective for enhancing the ability of Ca(OH){sub 2}/fly ash sorbent but that NO{sub 3}{sup -} was the most effective factor to enhance it. The mechanism of enhancing the Ca utilization rate was also investigated, and it was found that Ca(NO{sub 3})2 was produced in the sorbent and reacted with SO{sub 2}, so that the reaction Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} + SO{sub 2} {yields} CaSO{sub 4} + 2NO + O{sub 2} proceeded. 12 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. Mechanical Properties of Aluminum Matrix Composite Reinforced by Carbothermally Reduced of Fly Ash

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jamasri; Wildan, M. W.; Sulardjaka; Kusnanto

    2011-01-17

    The addition of fly ash into aluminum as reinforcement can potentially reduce the production cost and density of aluminum. However, mechanical properties of aluminum matrix composite reinforced by fly ash (MMC ALFA) have some limitations due to the characteristic of fly ash. In this study, a carbothermal reduction process of fly ash and activated carbon powder with particle size <32 {mu}m was performed prior to produce MMC ALFA.The process was carried out in a furnace at 1300 deg. C in vacuum condition under argon flow. Synthesis product was analyzed by XRD with Cu-K{sub {alpha}} radiation. From XRD analysis, it shows that the synthesis process can produce SiC powder. The synthesis product was subsequently used as reinforcement particle. Aluminum powder was mixed with 5, 10 and 15% of the synthesized powder, and then uni-axially compacted at pressure of 300 MPa. The compacted product was sintered for 2 hours in argon atmosphere at temperature variation of 550 and 600 deg. C. Flexural strength, hardness and density of MMC ALFA's product were respectively evaluated using a four point bending test method based on ASTM C1161 standard, Brinell hardness scale and Archimedes method. The result of this study shows that the increase of weight of reinforcement can significantly increase the hardness and flexural strength of MMCs. The highest hardness and flexural strength of the MMC product are 300 kg/mm{sup 2} and 107.5 MPa, respectively.

  12. Evaluation of leaching and ecotoxicological properties of sewage sludge-fly ash mixtures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    C.A. Papadimitriou; I. Haritou; P. Samaras; A.I. Zouboulis

    2008-03-15

    The objectives of this work were the evaluation of sewage sludge stabilization by mixing with fly ash, the examination of the physicochemical properties of the produced materials and their leachates and the assessment of their environmental impact by the evaluation of the ecotoxic characteristics. Different ratios of fly ash and sewage sludge (1:1, 1:2, 1:3, 1:6, and 1:9) were mixed for 48 and 72 h. After mixing, the liquid phase of the produced materials was analyzed for total coliforms and Escherichia coli, while the solid residue was dried and tested for the leaching characteristics by the application of TCLP and EN 12457-2 standard leaching methods. Furthermore, the produced leachates were analyzed for their content of specific metals, while their ecotoxicological characteristics were determined by the use of toxicity bioassays, using the marine photobacterium Vibrio fischeri and the crustacean Daphnia magna. The phytotoxicity of sewage sludge-fly ash mixtures was also determined by utilizing seeds of three higher plants (one monocotyl and two dicotyls). The mixtures exhibited low metal leaching in all cases, while the ecotoxic properties increased with the increase of fly ash/sewage sludge ratio. The phytotoxicity testing showed increased root length growth inhibition.

  13. Microwave-assisted sample preparation of coal and coal fly ash for subsequent metal determination

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Srogi, K.

    2007-01-15

    The aim of this paper is to review microwave-assisted digestion of coal and coal fly ash. A brief description of microwave heating principles is presented. Microwave-assisted digestion appears currently to be the most popular preparation technique, possibly due to the comparatively rapid sample preparation and the reduction of contamination, compared to the conventional hot-plate digestion methods.

  14. Fibrous Fillers to Manufacture Ultra-High Ash/Performance Paper

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This factsheet describes a research project whose goal is to demonstrate the economic and technological viability of fibrous filler to manufacture paper containing up to 50% ash, at equal or better quality and performance than conventional alternatives and at a lower cost.

  15. Long-term leaching test of incinerator bottom ash: Evaluation of Cu partition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, Cheng-Fang Wu, Chung-Hsin; Liu, Yen-Chiun

    2007-07-01

    Two types of leaching tests were performed on the bottom ash from municipal solid waste incinerators. A short-term batch test specified by the America Nuclear Society (ANS) and long-term column tests with acetic acid (pH 5.2) as leaching solution were used to evaluate copper leachability. The Cu leaching after the 5-d ANS test is about 1% of the original Cu content of 5300 mg/kg. Upon addition of a stabilizing agent, the Cu leaching quantity is reduced; the extent of reduction depends on the type of chemical used (phosphate, carbonate and sulfide). The 1.6% Na{sub 2}S addition showed negligible Cu leaching, and Na{sub 2}S was, therefore, used in subsequent column tests. The 30-d column test indicates a steady increase of Cu leaching amount with time and reaches about 1.5% of the original Cu content after 30 d. A 180-d column test further increased the Cu leaching to about 5.1% of the original Cu content, whereas no appreciable Cu leaching was found with the addition of 1.6% Na{sub 2}S. A sequential extraction was conducted on the raw ash, ash with the addition of Na{sub 2}S and the residue ash after 30 d of operation to characterize Cu affinity for different solid fractions. The data were used to evaluate the fate of Cu through these interactions.

  16. Fish Health Studies Associated with the Kingston Fly Ash Spill, Spring 2009 - Fall 2010

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adams, Marshall; Fortner, Allison M

    2012-05-01

    On December 22, 2008, over 4 million cubic meters of fly ash slurry was released into the Emory River when a dike surrounding a solid waste containment area at the Tennessee Valley Authority's (TVA) Kingston Fossil Plant ruptured. One component of TVA's response to the spill is a biological monitoring program to assess short- and long-term ecological responses to the ash and associated chemicals, including studies on fish health and contaminant bioaccumulation. These studies were initiated in early Spring 2009 for the purposes of: (1) documenting the levels of fly ash-associated metals in various tissues of representative sentinel fish species in the area of the fly ash spill, (2) determining if exposure to fly ash-associated metals causes short, intermediate, or long-term health effects on these sentinel fish species, (3) assessing if there are causal relationships between exposure to metals and health effects on fish, (4) evaluating, along with information from other ecological and physicochemical studies, the nature and route of contaminant transfer though food chains into higher level consumers, (5) providing important information for the Ecological Risk Assessment (ERA) for the Kingston fly ash project, and (6) serving as an important technology information transfer or model study focused on how to best evaluate the environmental effects of fly ash (and related environmental stressors), not only at the Kingston site, but also at sites on other aquatic systems where coal-fired generating stations are located. This report presents the results of the first two years of the fish health study. To date, fish health and bioaccumulation studies have been conducted from Spring 2009 though Fall 2011 and includes 6 seasonal studies: Spring 2009, Fall 2009, Spring 2010, Fall 2010, Spring 2011, and Fall 2011. Both the Spring and Fall studies have focused on 3-4 sentinel fish species that represent different feeding habits, behaviors, and home ranges. In addition to fish health and bioaccumulation, the Spring investigations also included reproductive integrity studies on the same fish used for bioaccumulation and fish health. In this report, results of the fish health studies from Spring 2009 through Fall 2010 are presented while an associated report will present the fish reproductive studies conducted during Spring 2009 and Spring 2010. A report on fish bioaccumulation was submitted to TVA in June 2011. The fish health study conducted in conjunction with the bioaccumulation and reproductive study is critical for assessing and evaluating possible causal relationships between contaminant exposure (bioaccumulation) and the response of fish to exposure as reflected by the various measurements of fish health.

  17. Vitrification of simulated radioactive Rocky Flats plutonium containing ash residue with a Stir Melter System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marra, J.C.; Kormanyos, K.R.; Overcamp, T.J.

    1996-10-01

    A demonstration trial has been completed in which a simulated Rocky Flats ash consisting of an industrial fly-ash material doped with cerium oxide was vitrified in an alloy tank Stir-Melter{trademark} System. The cerium oxide served as a substitute for plutonium oxide present in the actual Rocky Flats residue stream. The glass developed falls within the SiO{sub 2} + Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/{Sigma}Alkali/B{sub 2}O{sub 3} system. The glass batch contained approximately 40 wt% of ash, the ash was modified to contain {approximately} 5 wt% CeO{sub 2} to simulate plutonium chemistry in the glass. The ash simulant was mixed with water and fed to the Stir-Melter as a slurry with a 60 wt% water to 40 wt% solids ratio. Glass melting temperature was maintained at approximately 1,050 C during the melting trials. Melting rates as functions of impeller speed and slurry feed rate were determined. An optimal melting rate was established through a series of evolutionary variations of the control variables` settings. The optimal melting rate condition was used for a continuous six hour steady state run of the vitrification system. Glass mass flow rates of the melter were measured and correlated with the slurry feed mass flow. Melter off-gas was sampled for particulate and volatile species over a period of four hours during the steady state run. Glass composition and durability studies were run on samples collected during the steady state run.

  18. Interaction of planar and nonplanar organic contaminants with coal fly ash: Effects of polar and nonpolar solvent solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burgess, R.M.; Ryba, S.A.; Cantwell, M.G.; Gundersen, J.L.; Tien, R.; Perron, M.M.

    2006-08-15

    Coal fly ash has a very high sorption capacity for a variety of anthropogenic contaminants and has been used to cleanse wastewater of pollutants for approximately 40 years. Like other black carbons, the planar structure of the residual carbon in fly ash results in elevated affinities for planar organic contaminants, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and some polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The present study was performed to understand better the mechanisms affecting the strong interaction between planar contaminants and coal fly ash. The removal of 10 PCBs and 10 PAHs by several fly ashes and other sorbents was evaluated under different experimental conditions to highlight the intermolecular forces influencing adsorption. Varying fly ash concentration and solvent system composition indicated that dispersive interactions were most prevalent. For the PCBs, empirical results also were compared to molecular modeling estimates of the energy necessary for the PCB molecule to assume a planar conformation (PCe). The PCe levels ranged from 8 to 25 kcal/mol, depending on the degree of ortho-substituted chlorination of the PCB. A significant correlation between PCe and PCB removal from solution was observed for the fly ashes and activated carbon, whereas the nonplanar sorbent octadecyl (C{sub 18}) indicated no relationship. These findings demonstrate the strong interaction between black carbon fly ash and planar organic contaminants. Furthermore, as exemplified by the PCBs, these results show how this interaction is a function of a contaminant's ability to assume a planar conformation.

  19. Distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in fly ash during coal and residual char combustion in a pressurized fluidized bed

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hongcang Zhou; Baosheng Jin; Rui Xiao; Zhaoping Zhong; Yaji Huang

    2009-04-15

    To investigate the distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in fly ash, the combustion of coal and residual char was performed in a pressurized spouted fluidized bed. After Soxhlet extraction and Kuderna-Danish (K-D) concentration, the contents of 16 PAHs recommended by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) in coal, residual char, and fly ash were analyzed by a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with fluorescence and diode array detection. The experimental results show that the combustion efficiency is lower and the carbon content in fly ash is higher during coal pressurized combustion, compared to the residual char pressurized combustion at the pressure of 0.3 MPa. Under the same pressure, the PAH amounts in fly ash produced from residual char combustion are lower than that in fly ash produced from coal combustion. The total PAHs in fly ash produced from coal and residual char combustion are dominated by three- and four-ring PAHs. The amounts of PAHs in fly ash produced from residual char combustion increase and then decrease with the increase of pressure in a fluidized bed. 21 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  20. Gel nanostructure in alkali-activated binders based on slag and fly ash, and effects of accelerated carbonation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bernal, Susan A.; Provis, John L.; Walkley, Brant; San Nicolas, Rackel; Gehman, John D.; Brice, David G.; Kilcullen, Adam R.; Zeobond Pty Ltd, P.O. Box 23450, Docklands, Victoria 8012 ; Duxson, Peter; Deventer, Jannie S.J. van

    2013-11-15

    Binders formed through alkali-activation of slags and fly ashes, including fly ash geopolymers, provide appealing properties as binders for low-emissions concrete production. However, the changes in pH and pore solution chemistry induced during accelerated carbonation testing provide unrealistically low predictions of in-service carbonation resistance. The aluminosilicate gel remaining in an alkali-activated slag system after accelerated carbonation is highly polymerised, consistent with a decalcification mechanism, while fly ash-based binders mainly carbonate through precipitation of alkali salts (bicarbonates at elevated CO{sub 2} concentrations, or carbonates under natural exposure) from the pore solution, with little change in the binder gel identifiable by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. In activated fly ash/slag blends, two distinct gels (CASH and NASH) are formed; under accelerated carbonation, the NASH gel behaves comparably to fly ash-based systems, while the CASH gel is decalcified similarly to alkali-activated slag. This provides new scope for durability optimisation, and for developing appropriate testing methodologies. -- Highlights: C-A-S-H gel in alkali-activated slag decalcifies during accelerated carbonation. Alkali-activated fly ash gel changes much less under CO{sub 2} exposure. Blended slag-fly ash binder contains two coexisting gel types. These two gels respond differently to carbonation. Understanding of carbonation mechanisms is essential in developing test methods.

  1. Task 3.0 -- Advanced power systems: Subtask 3.18 -- Ash behavior in power systems. Semi-annual report, June 1--December 31, 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zygarlicke, C.J.; McCollor, D.P.; Folkedahl, B.C.; Swanson, M.L.; Musich, M.A.

    1998-10-01

    Advanced power systems such as integrated gasifier combined cycle systems and fluidized bed systems are at the forefront of power industry research because of the need for increased efficiency and the reduction of greenhouse gases. Ash behavior in power systems can have a significant impact on the design and performance of these systems. The Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) has developed a focused research initiative aimed at filling gaps in the understanding of fundamental mechanisms of ash behavior, which has relevance to commercial application and marketable products associated with advanced power systems. This program develops methods and means to better understand and mitigate adverse coal ash behavior in advanced power systems and can act to relieve the US reliance on diminishing recoverable oil resources and other greenhouse-producing fossil fuels. Subtask 3.18 is structured as three tasks. Task 1 pertains to summarizing the critical issues in ash behavior, especially for advanced power systems. Task 2 focuses on fundamental ash sintering and viscosity-ash composition relationships that are critical for developing a better mechanistic understanding of ash deposit formation and for predicting ash behavior. Task 3 is aimed primarily at determining the role of the ash chemistry and phase relationships for specific ash interactions in advanced power systems. The role of sulfides in the formation of ash deposits in gasification systems and the factors that influence alloy corrosion in supercritical boilers will be specifically analyzed. Task results to date are presented.

  2. Environmental and technical assessments of the potential utilization of sewage sludge ashes (SSAs) as secondary raw materials in construction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Maozhe [Universit de Lyon, INSA LYON, Laboratoire de Gnie Civil et Ingnierie Environnementale (LGCIE), Btiment Sadi Carnot, 20 avenue A. Einstein, 69621 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Blanc, Denise, E-mail: denise.blanc-biscarat@insa-lyon.fr [Universit de Lyon, INSA LYON, Laboratoire de Gnie Civil et Ingnierie Environnementale (LGCIE), Btiment Sadi Carnot, 20 avenue A. Einstein, 69621 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Gautier, Mathieu; Mehu, Jacques; Gourdon, Rmy [Universit de Lyon, INSA LYON, Laboratoire de Gnie Civil et Ingnierie Environnementale (LGCIE), Btiment Sadi Carnot, 20 avenue A. Einstein, 69621 Villeurbanne Cedex (France)

    2013-05-15

    Highlights: ? We used sewage sludge ashes in ready-mix concrete recipe. ? SSAs were used as a substitution of cement. ? Compressive strength of ready-mix concrete incorporating SSAs were similar as blank one. ? Contaminants leaching from concrete monoliths were above threshold limits. - Abstract: Ashes produced by thermal treatments of sewage sludge exhibit common properties with cement. For example, major elements present in SSA are the same of major elements of cement. Hydraulic properties of SSA are quite the same of cement ones. They may therefore be used to substitute part of cement in concrete or other cementitious materials, provided that technical prescriptions are satisfied and that environmental risks are not significantly increased. The objective of the present study was to determine the appropriate substitution ratios to satisfy both technical and environmental criteria. In a first step, the elemental composition and particle size distribution of the ashes were measured. Then the ashes were used along with Portland cement and sand at different ratios of substitution to produce mortar and concrete which were cured for up to 90 days into parallelepipedic or cylindrical monoliths. The mechanical properties of the monoliths were measured using standard procedures for flexural and compressive strengths, and compared to blanks containing no ashes. The environmental criteria were assessed using leaching tests conducted according to standard protocols both on the ashes and the monoliths, and compared to the blanks. Results showed that the characteristics of the ashes ranged between those of cement and sand because of their larger particle size and higher content in SiO{sub 2} as compared to cement. The monoliths made with the highest substitution ratios exhibited a significant decrease in flexural and compressive strengths. However, when the ashes were used in partial substitution of cement at appropriate ratios, the concrete monoliths exhibited similar compressive strengths as the blank samples. The most appropriate ratios were found to be 10% substitution of cement and 2% substitution of sand. The leaching tests conducted on the ashes in their powdery form revealed that amongst the potential contaminants analyzed only Mo and Se were leached at concentrations above the threshold limits considered. The leaching tests conducted on concrete monoliths showed however that none of the contaminants monitored, including Mo and Se, were leached above the limits. In addition, whether concrete recipe incorporated ashes or not, similar concentrations were measured for each potential contaminant in the leachates. This result indicated that mixing ash with cement and sand to produce mortar or concrete induced a stabilization of Mo and Se and thereby constituted in itself a good treatment of the ashes.

  3. EVALUATING THE EFFECTS OF FLY ASH EXPOSURE ON FISH EARLY LIFE STAGES: FATHEAD MINNOW EMBRYO-LARVAL TESTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greeley Jr, Mark Stephen; Elmore, Logan R; McCracken, Kitty

    2012-05-01

    On December 22, 2008, a dike containing fly ash and bottom ash in an 84-acre complex of the Tennessee Valley Authority's (TVA) Kingston Steam Plant in East Tennessee failed and released a large quantity of ash into the adjacent Emory River. Ash deposits extended as far as 4 miles upstream (Emory River mile 6) of the Plant, and some ash was carried as far downstream as Tennessee River mile 564 ({approx}4 miles downstream of the Tennessee River confluence with the Clinch River). A byproduct of coal burning power plants, fly ash contains a variety of metals and other elements which, at sufficient concentrations and in specific forms, can be toxic to biological systems. The effects of fly ash contamination on exposed fish populations depend on the magnitude and duration of exposure, with the most significant risk considered to be the effects of specific ash constituents, especially selenium, on fish early life stages. Uptake by adult female fish of fly ash constituents through the food chain and subsequent maternal transfer of contaminants to the developing eggs is thought to be the primary route of selenium exposure to larval fish (Woock and others 1987, Coyle and others 1993, Lemly 1999, Moscatello and others 2006), but direct contact of the fertilized eggs and developing embryos to ash constituents in river water and sediments is also a potential risk factor (Woock and others 1987, Coyle and others 1993, Jezierska and others 2009). To address the risk of fly ash from the Kingston spill to the reproductive health of downstream fish populations, ORNL has undertaken a series of studies in collaboration with TVA including: (1) a field study of the bioaccumulation of fly ash constituents in fish ovaries and the reproductive condition of sentinel fish species in reaches of the Emory and Clinch Rivers affected by the fly ash spill; (2) laboratory tests of the potential toxicity of fly ash from the spill area on fish embryonic and larval development (reported in the current technical manuscript); (3) additional laboratory experimentation focused on the potential effects of long-term exposures to fly ash on fish survival and reproductive competence; and (4) a combined field and laboratory study examining the in vitro developmental success of embryos and larvae obtained from fish exposed in vivo for over two years to fly ash in the Emory and Clinch Rivers. These fish reproduction and early life-stage studies are being conducted in conjunction with a broader biological monitoring program administered by TVA that includes a field study of the condition of larval fish in the Emory and Clinch Rivers along with assessments of water quality, sediment composition, ecotoxicological studies, terrestrial wildlife studies, and human and ecological risk assessment. Information and data generated from these studies will provide direct input into risk assessment efforts and will also complement and help support other phases of the overall biomonitoring program. Fish eggs, in general, are known to be capable of concentrating heavy metals and other environmental contaminants from water-borne exposures during embryonic development (Jezierska and others 2009), and fathead minnow embryos in particular have been shown to concentrate methylmercury (Devlin 2006) as well as other chemical toxicants. This technical report focuses on the responses of fathead minnow embryos to simple contact exposures to fly ash in laboratory toxicity tests adapted from a standard fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) 7-d embryo-larval survival and teratogenicity test (method 1001.0 in EPA 2002) with mortality, hatching success, and the incidences of developmental abnormalities as measured endpoints.

  4. Bioaccumulation Studies Associated with the Kingston Fly Ash Spill, Spring 2009 - Fall 2010

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adams, Marshall; Brandt, Craig C; Fortner, Allison M

    2012-05-01

    In December 2008, an ash dike at the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) Kingston Fossil Plant ruptured, releasing over one billion gallons of coal fly ash into the Emory and Clinch Rivers. Coal fly ash may contain several contaminants of concern, but of these selenium (Se) and arsenic (As) have been highlighted because of their toxicity and tendency to bioaccumulate in aquatic food chains. To assess the potential impact of the spilled fly ash on humans and the environment, a comprehensive biological and environmental monitoring program was established, for which resident aquatic organisms (among other sample media) are collected to determine contaminant exposure and evaluate the risk to humans and wildlife. Studies on bioaccumulation and fish health are major components of the TVA Biological Monitoring Program for the Kingston fly ash project. These studies were initiated in early Spring 2009 for the purposes of: (1) documenting the levels of fly ash-associated metals in various tissues of representative sentinel fish species in the area of the fly ash spill, (2) determining if exposure to fly ash-associated metals causes short, intermediate, or long-term health effects on these sentinel fish species, (3) assessing if there are causal relationships between exposure (to metals) and effects on fish, (4) evaluating, along with information regarding other ecological and physicochemical studies, the nature and route of contaminant transfer though food chains into higher level consumers, (5) providing important information for the Ecological Risk Assessment (ERA) for the Kingston fly ash project, and (6) serving as an important technology transfer or model study focused on how to best evaluate the environmental effects of fly ash, not only at the Kingston site, but also at sites on other aquatic systems where coal-fired generating stations are located. This report summarizes the bioaccumulation results from the first two years of study after the fly ash spill, including four seasonal collections: Spring 2009, Fall 2009, Spring 2010, and Fall 2010. Both the Spring and Fall studies have focused on 3-4 sentinel fish species that represent different feeding habits, behaviors, and home ranges. In addition to bioaccumulation studies, the Spring investigations also included evaluation of fish health and reproductive integrity on the same fish used for bioaccumulation. Two associated reports present the fish health (Adams et al 2012) and reproductive studies (Greeley et al 2012) conducted in 2009 and 2010. The fish health study conducted in conjunction with the bioaccumulation and reproductive study is critical for assessing and evaluating possible causal relationships between contaminant exposure (bioaccumulation) and the response of fish to exposure as reflected by the various measurements of fish health. This report emphasizes evaluation of arsenic and selenium bioaccumulation in fish and consists of four related studies (Sections 2-5) including, (1) bioaccumulation in liver and ovaries, (2) bioaccumulation in whole body gizzard shad (Dorosoma cepedianum), (3) bioaccumulation in muscle tissue or fillets, and (4) a reconstruction analysis which establishes the relationship between selenium in muscle tissue and that of the whole body of bluegill (Lepomis machrochirus). Metals other than arsenic and selenium are evaluated separately in Section 6. This report focuses on selenium and arsenic for the following reasons: (1) based on baseline studies conducted in early 2009 in the Emory and Clinch River, only two potentially fly-ash related metals, selenium and arsenic, appeared to be elevated above background or reference levels, (2) selenium and arsenic are two of the metals in coal ash that are known to bioaccumulate and cause toxicity in wildlife, and (3) based on bioaccumulation studies of bluegill and carp (Cyprinus carpio) in the Stilling Pond during Spring 2009, which would represent a worst case situation for metal bioaccumulation, selenium and arsenic were the only two metals consistently elevated above background levels in fish. Each of the four selenium and arsenic evaluations presented in this report include an approach section, a results section which addresses primarily spatial and temporal patterns in bioaccumulation, an interpretation and discussion section, and a synthesis section which provides the main summary points of each study. Other metals in fish from near the spill site are evaluated by comparison with reference sites and evaluation of spatial and temporal trends. Statistical approaches to data analysis will be conducted after the third year of bioaccumulation monitoring when there is a larger n size available for analysis, there has been sufficient time for food-chain driven bioaccumulation (2009 data was likely closer to pre-spill exposures), and data correction factors for selenium and mercury (because of poor analytical recoveries for some samples) have been fully codified by the study team.

  5. A Revealing Look Inside Passive and Active DPF Regeneration: In-Situ Optical Analysis of Ash Formation and Transport

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presents results from comprehensive evaluations with optically accessibleDPFs showing the processes controlling formation, transport, and interaction of the soot and ash deposits over range of DPF regeneration conditions

  6. The effect of oxygen-to-fuel stoichiometry on coal ash fine-fragmentation mode formation mechanisms.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fix, G.; Seames, W. S.; Mann, M. D.; Benson, S. A.; Miller, D. J.

    2011-04-01

    Ash particles smaller than 2.5 {micro}m in diameter generated during pulverized coal combustion are difficult to capture and may pose greater harm to the environment and human health than the discharge of larger particles. Recent research efforts on coal ash formation have revealed a middle fine-fragment mode centered around 2 {micro}m. Formation of this middle or fine-fragment mode (FFM) is less well understood compared to larger coarse and smaller ultrafine ash. This study is part of an overall effort aimed at determining the key factors that impact the formation of FFM. This work examined the effects of oxygen-to-fuel stoichiometry (OFS). Pulverized Illinois No.6 bituminous coal was combusted and the ash generated was size segregated in a Dekati low pressure inertial impactor. The mass of each fraction was measured and the ash was analyzed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray microanalysis. The FFM ash types were classified based on the SEM images to evaluate the significant fine-fragment ash formation mechanisms and determine any possible link between stoichiometry and formation mechanism. From the particle size distributions (PSDs), the coarse mode appears unaffected by the change in OFS, however, the OFS 1.05 lowered the fraction of ultrafine ash in relation to the higher OFS settings, and appears to increase the portion of the FFM. An intermediate minimum was found in the FFM at 1.3 {micro}m for the 1.20 and 1.35 OFS tests but was not observed in the 1.05 OFS. SEM analysis also suggests that OFS may contribute to changing formation mechanisms.

  7. pH Adjustment of Power Plant Cooling Water with Flue Gas/ Fly Ash - Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Innovation Portal Advanced Materials Advanced Materials Find More Like This Return to Search pH Adjustment of Power Plant Cooling Water with Flue Gas/ Fly Ash Sandia National Laboratories Contact SNL About This Technology Publications: PDF Document Publication Market Sheet (801 KB) Technology Marketing SummaryIncreased recycling of power plant cooling water calls for low-cost means of preventing the formation of calcium carbonate and silicate scale. Hardness (Ca and Mg) and silica are two of

  8. Utilization of municipal solid waste incineration fly ash for sulfoaluminate cement clinker production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu Kai; Shi Huisheng; Guo Xiaolu

    2011-09-15

    Highlights: > The replacement can be taken up to 30% of MSWI fly ash in the raw mix. > The novelty compositional parameters were defined, their optimum values were determined. > Expansive property of SAC is strongly depended on gypsum content. > Three leaching test methods are used to assess the environmental impact. - Abstract: The feasibility of partially substituting raw materials with municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) fly ash in sulfoaluminate cement (SAC) clinker production was investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), compressive strength and free expansion ratio testing. Three different leaching tests were used to assess the environmental impact of the produced material. Experimental results show that the replacement of MSWI fly ash could be taken up to 30% in the raw mixes. The good quality SAC clinkers are obtained by controlling the compositional parameters at alkalinity modulus (C{sub m}) around 1.05, alumina-sulfur ratio (P) around 2.5, alumina-silica ratio (N) around 2.0{approx}3.0 and firing the raw mixes at 1250 deg. C for 2 h. The compressive strengths of SAC are high in early age while that develop slowly in later age. Results also show that the expansive properties of SAC are strongly depended on the gypsum content. Leaching studies of toxic elements in the hydrated SAC-based system reveal that all the investigated elements are well bounded in the clinker minerals or immobilized by the hydration products. Although some limited positive results indicate that the SAC prepared from MSWI fly ash would present no immediate thread to the environment, the long-term toxicity leaching behavior needs to be further studied.

  9. Removing mercury from coal emissions: options for ash-friendly technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sager, J.

    2009-07-01

    The article gives a brief description of techniques to remove mercury emitted from coal-fired power plants and discusses environmental considerations associated with the effect of emission controls on coal fly ash. Techniques covered include use of injected mercury sorbents (activated carbon, metal oxide catalysts, MerCAP{trademark} and MercScreen{trademark}) and fuel cleaning. Technologies currently being researched are mentioned. 8 refs.

  10. Helium transport and ash control studies. Annual progress report, 1 June 1991--31 March 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miley, G.H.

    1992-06-01

    The Primary goal of this research is to develop a helium (ash) transport scaling law based on experimental data from devices such as TFTR and JET. To illustrate the importance of this, we have studied ash accumulation effects on ignition requirements using a O-D transport model. Ash accumulation is characterized in the model by the ratio of the helium particle confinement time to the energy confinement time t{sub {alpha}}/t{sub E}. Results show that the ignition ``window`` shrinks rapidly as t{sub {alpha}}/t{sub E} increases, closing for high t{sub {alpha}}/t{sub E} increases, closing for high t{sub {alpha}}/t{sub E}. A ``best`` value for t{sub {alpha}}/t{sub E} will ultimately be determined from our scaling law studies. A helium transport scaling law is being sought that expresses the transport coefficients (D{sub {alpha}}, V{sub {alpha}}) as a function of the local plasma parameters. This is necessary for use in transport code calculations, e.g. for BALDUR. Based on experimental data from L-mode plasma operation in TFTR, a scaling law to a power law expression has been obtained using a least-square fit method. It is found that the transport coefficients are strongly affected by the local magnetic field and safety factor q. A preliminary conclusion from this work is that active control of ash buildup must be developed. To study control, we have developed a O-D plasma model which employs a simple pole-placement control model. Some preliminary calculations with this model are presented.

  11. Development of an Accelerated Ash-Loading Protocol for Diesel Particulate

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Filters | Department of Energy Poster presentation at the 2007 Diesel Engine-Efficiency & Emissions Research Conference (DEER 2007). 13-16 August, 2007, Detroit, Michigan. Sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies (OFCVT). PDF icon deer07_bunting_2.pdf More Documents & Publications The Development of a Small Engine Based Ash Loading Protocol Neutron Imaging of Advanced Engine Technologies A Revealing Look Inside Passive and

  12. Liquid ash corrosion, remaining life estimation and superheater/reheater replacement strategy in coal fired boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alice, J.A.; Janiszewski, J.A.

    1985-01-01

    The liquid ash corrosion of superheater and reheater tubing in coal fired boilers is commonly accepted to be caused by the action of liquid sodium and potassium iron trisulfates Na/sub 3/Fe(SO/sub 4/) and K/sub 3/Fe(SO/sub 4/)/sub 3/. These species melt at temperatures between 1030/sup 0/F and 1160/sup 0/F (555-625/sup 0/C) depending on the relative amounts of sodium and potassium. Rapid tube wastage begins when the tube metal temperature reaches the trisulfate melting point. The key to improved availability in fossil boilers is to identify and replace, during a planned outage, tubes which are likely to fail before the next planned outage. The authors have developed a computerized method for estimating the remaining life of superheater/reheater tubes based on accelerated liquid ash corrosion. The scheme of analysis employs the following logic: (1) measurement of tube wastage from several removed samples, (2) estimation of tube metal temperature from I.D. scale thickness and thermocouple data, (3) estimation of trisulfate melting point from chemical analysis of the ash deposit and (4) using the computer model to calculate remaining life as a function of tube wastage rate metal temperature. The practical application of this strategy is presented for a coal fired boiler in the GPU system.

  13. Concordant plutonium-241-americium-241 dating of environmental samples: results from forest fire ash

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goldstein, Steven J; Oldham, Warren J; Murrell, Michael T; Katzman, Danny

    2010-12-07

    We have measured the Pu, {sup 237}Np, {sup 241}Am, and {sup 151}Sm isotopic systematics for a set of forest fire ash samples from various locations in the western U.S. including Montana, Wyoming, Idaho, and New Mexico. The goal of this study is to develop a concordant {sup 241}Pu (t{sub 1/2} = 14.4 y)-{sup 241}Am dating method for environmental collections. Environmental samples often contain mixtures of components including global fallout. There are a number of approaches for subtracting the global fallout component for such samples. One approach is to use {sup 242}/{sup 239}Pu as a normalizing isotope ratio in a three-isotope plot, where this ratio for the nonglobal fallout component can be estimated or assumed to be small. This study investigates a new, complementary method of normalization using the long-lived fission product, {sup 151}Sm (t{sub 1/2} = 90 y). We find that forest fire ash concentrates actinides and fission products with {approx}1E10 atoms {sup 239}Pu/g and {approx}1E8 atoms {sup 151}Sm/g, allowing us to measure these nuclides by mass spectrometric (MIC-TIMS) and radiometric (liquid scintillation counting) methods. The forest fire ash samples are characterized by a western U.S. regional isotopic signature representing varying mixtures of global fallout with a local component from atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Our results also show that {sup 151}Sm is well correlated with the Pu nuclides in the forest fire ash, suggesting that these nuclides have similar geochemical behavior in the environment. Results of this correlation indicate that the {sup 151}Sm/{sup 239}Pu atom ratio for global fallout is {approx}0.164, in agreement with an independent estimate of 0.165 based on {sup 137}Cs fission yields for atmospheric weapons tests at the NTS. {sup 241}Pu-{sup 241}Am dating of the non-global fallout component in the forest fire ash samples yield ages in the late 1950's-early 1960's, consistent with a peak in NTS weapons testing at that time. The age results for this component are in agreement using both {sup 242}Pu and {sup 151}Sm normalizations, although the errors for the {sup 151}Sm correction are currently larger due to the greater uncertainty of their measurements. Additional efforts to develop a concordant {sup 241}Pu-{sup 241}Am dating method for environmental collections are underway with emphasis on soil cores.

  14. Ash-Based Building Panels Production and Demonstration of Aerock Decking Building Product

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alan E. Bland; Jesse Newcomer

    2007-06-30

    Western Research Institute (WRI) of Laramie, Wyoming and AeRock, LLC of Eagar, Arizona (formerly of Bellevue, Washington) partnered, under sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory (U.S. DOE-NETL), to support the development of rapid-setting, ash-based, fiber-incorporated ''green'' building products. Green building materials are a rapidly growing trend in the building and construction industry in the US. A two phase project was implemented wherein Phase I assessed, through chemical and physical testing, ash, ash-based cement and fiber composites exhibiting superior structural performance when applied to the AeRock mixing and extrusion process and involved the conduct of pilot-scale production trials of AeRock products, and wherein Phase II involved the design, construction, and operation of a commercial-scale plant to confirm production issues and to produce panels for performance evaluations. Phase I optimized the composite ingredients including ash-based cement, Class F and Class C DFGD ash, and various fiber reinforcements. Additives, such as retardants and accelerators, were also evaluated as related to extruder performance. The optimized composite from the Phase I effort was characterized by a modulus of rupture (MOR) measured between 1,931 and 2,221 psi flexural strength, comparable to other wood and non-wood building materials. Continuous extrusion of the optimum composite in the AeRock pilot-scale facility produced an excellent product that was assembled into a demonstration for exhibit and durability purposes. Finishes, from plain to marbled, from bright reds to muted earth tones and with various textures, could easily be applied during the mixing and extrusion process. The successful pilot-scale demonstration was in turn used to design the production parameters and extruder dies for a commercial scale demonstration at Ultrapanel Pty, Ltd of Ballarat, Australia under Phase II. The initial commercial-scale production trials showed green product sagging, as a result of the die design. After the third die was acquired and fitted to the extruder, satisfactory decking and structural panels were produced. Cured decking was shipped to the US but experienced significant breakage and damage during transport. Subsequent evaluations concluded that an alternative die design was needed that would produce a more robust product resistant to damage. In summary, AeRock Decking can be a commercially-viable non-wood alternative decking product. This project has provided WRI and AeRock the knowledge and understanding to make AeRock Decking a commercial success. However, a commercial demonstration that produces quality product and the subsequent evaluation of its performance is needed before commercial acceptance of the AeRock product.

  15. Reducing volatilization of heavy metals in phosphate-pretreated municipal solid waste incineration fly ash by forming pyromorphite-like minerals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun Ying; Zheng Jianchang; Zou Luquan; Liu Qiang; Zhu Ping; Qian Guangren

    2011-02-15

    This research investigated the feasibility of reducing volatilization of heavy metals (lead, zinc and cadmium) in municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) fly ash by forming pyromorphite-like minerals via phosphate pre-treatment. To evaluate the evaporation characteristics of three heavy metals from phosphate-pretreated MSWI fly ash, volatilization tests have been performed by means of a dedicated apparatus in the 100-1000 deg. C range. The toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) test and BCR sequential extraction procedure were applied to assess phosphate stabilization process. The results showed that the volatilization behavior in phosphate-pretreated MSWI fly ash could be reduced effectively. Pyromorphite-like minerals formed in phosphate-pretreated MSWI fly ash were mainly responsible for the volatilization reduction of heavy metals in MSWI fly ash at higher temperature, due to their chemical fixation and thermal stabilization for heavy metals. The stabilization effects were encouraging for the potential reuse of MSWI fly ash.

  16. Leaching characteristics of selected South African fly ashes: Effect of pH on the release of major and trace species

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gitari, W.M.; Fatoba, O.O.; Petrik, L.F.; Vadapalli, V.R.K.

    2009-07-01

    Fly ash samples from two South African coal-fired power stations were subjected to different leaching tests under alkaline and acidic conditions in an attempt to assess the effect of pH on the leachability of species from the fly ashes and also assess the potential impact of the fly ashes disposal on groundwater and the receiving environment. To achieve this, German Standard leaching (DIN-S4) and Acid Neutralization Capacity (ANC) tests were employed. Ca, Mg, Na, K and SO{sub 4} were significantly leached into solution under the two leaching conditions with the total amounts in ANC leachates higher than that of DIN-S4. This indicates that a large fraction of the soluble salts in unweathered fly ash are easily leached. These species represents the fraction that can be flushed off initially from the surface of ash particles on contacting the ash with water. The amounts of toxic trace elements such as As, Se, Cd, Cr and Pb leached out of the fly ashes when in contact with de-mineralized water (DIN-S4 test) were low and below the Target Water Quality Range (TWQR) of South Africa. This is explained by their low concentrations in the fly ashes and their solubility dependence on the pH of the leaching solution. However the amounts of some minor elements such as B, Mn, Fe, As and Se leached out at lower pH ranging between 10 to 4 (ANC test) were slightly higher than the TWQR, an indication that the pH of the leaching solution plays a significant role on the leaching of species in fly ash. The high concentrations of the toxic elements released from the fly ashes at lower pH gives an indication that the disposal of the fly ash could have adverse effects on the receiving environment if the pH of the solution contacting the ashes is not properly monitored.

  17. Investigation of the relationship between particulate-bound mercury and properties of fly ash in a full-scale 100 MWe pulverized coal combustion boiler

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sen Li; Chin-Min Cheng; Bobby Chen; Yan Cao; Jacob Vervynckt; Amanda Adebambo; Wei-Ping Pan

    2007-12-15

    The properties of fly ash in coal-fired boilers influence the emission of mercury from power plants into the environment. In this study, seven different bituminous coals were burned in a full-scale 100 MWe pulverized coal combustion boiler and the derived fly ash samples were collected from a mechanical hopper (MH) and an electrostatic precipitator hopper (ESP). The mercury content, specific surface area (SSA), unburned carbon, and elemental composition of the fly ash samples were analyzed to evaluate the correlation between the concentration of particulate-bound mercury and the properties of coal and fly ash. For a given coal, it was found that the mercury content in the fly ash collected from the ESP was greater than in the fly ash samples collected from the MHP. This phenomenon may be due to a lower temperature of flue gas at the ESP (about 135{sup o}C) compared to the temperature at the air preheater (about 350{sup o}C). Also, a significantly lower SSA observed in MH ash might also contribute to the observation. A comparison of the fly ash samples generated from seven different coals using statistical methods indicates that the mercury adsorbed on ESP fly ashes has a highly positive correlation with the unburned carbon content, manganese content, and SSA of the fly ash. Sulfur content in coal showed a significant negative correlation with the Hg adsorption. Manganese in fly ash is believed to participate in oxidizing volatile elemental mercury (Hg{sup 0}) to ionic mercury (Hg{sup 2+}). The oxidized mercury in flue gas can form a complex with the fly ash and then get removed before the flue gas leaves the stack of the boiler.

  18. H. R. 2670: A bill to amend the Solid Waste Disposal Act to regulate ash from municipal solid waste incinerators as a hazardous waste, introduced in the US House of Representatives, One Hundred Second Congress, First Session, June 18, 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    This bill was introduced into the US House of Representatives on June 18, 1991 to amend the Solid Waste disposal Act to regulate ash from municipal solid waste incinerators as a hazardous waste. When garbage is burned, toxic materials are concentrated in the ash. If the ash is disposed of in a landfill, these toxic materials can contaminate the ground water or surface water by leaching toxic materials from the ash. In addition, disposing of contaminated ash improperly can pose a health hazard. New authority is provided for regulating incinerator ash as a hazardous waste.

  19. Use of co-combustion bottom ash to design an acoustic absorbing material for highway noise barriers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arenas, Celia; Leiva, Carlos; Vilches, Luis F.

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: The particle size of bottom ash influenced the acoustic behavior of the barrier. The best sound absorption coefficients were measured for larger particle sizes. The maximum noise absorption is displaced to lower frequencies for higher thickness. A noise barrier was designed with better properties than commercial products. Recycling products from bottom ash no present leaching and radioactivity problems. - Abstract: The present study aims to determine and evaluate the applicability of a new product consisting of coal bottom ash mixed with Portland cement in the application of highway noise barriers. In order to effectively recycle the bottom ash, the influence of the grain particle size of bottom ash, the thickness of the panel and the combination of different layers with various particle sizes have been studied, as well as some environmental properties including leachability (EN-12457-4, NEN-7345) and radioactivity tests. Based on the obtained results, the acoustic properties of the final composite material were similar or even better than those found in porous concrete used for the same application. According to this study, the material produced presented no environmental risk.

  20. Task 6.4 - the use of coal ash in ceramics. Topical report, July--December 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-03-01

    Previous empirical tests at the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) have indicated that coal combustion by-products are a viable starting material for the production of a variety of ceramic products, including brick, tile, and high-flexural-strength ceramics. The EERC has focused on high-temperature properties of coal ashes and has provided valuable insight into ash transformations, fouling, and stagging for the utility industry. It is proposed to utilize the information generated in these past projects to develop material selection criteria and product manufacturing techniques based on scientific and engineering characteristics of the ash. Commercialization of the use of coal combustion by-products in ceramics is more likely to become viable if a quality-assured product can be made, and predictive materials selection is a key component of a quality-assured product. The objective of this work was to demonstrate the development and production of a ceramic material utilizing coal ash as a key component. Chemical and high-temperature properties of ash were carefully determined with the objective of identifying criteria for materials selection and manufacturing options for ceramic production.

  1. Self-degradable Slag/Class F Fly Ash-Blend Cements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sugama, T.; Warren, J.; Butcher, T.; Lance Brothers; Bour, D.

    2011-03-01

    Self-degradable slag/Class F fly ash blend pozzolana cements were formulated, assuming that they might serve well as alternative temporary fracture sealers in Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS) wells operating at temperatures of {ge} 200 C. Two candidate formulas were screened based upon material criteria including an initial setting time {ge} 60 min at 85 C, compressive strength {ge} 2000 psi for a 200 C autoclaved specimen, and the extent of self-degradation of cement heated at {ge} 200 C for it was contacted with water. The first screened dry mix formula consisted of 76.5 wt% slag-19.0 wt% Class F fly ash-3.8 wt% sodium silicate as alkali activator, and 0.7 wt% carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) as the self-degradation promoting additive, and second formula comprised of 57.3 wt% slag, 38.2 wt% Class F fly ash, 3.8 wt% sodium silicate, and 0.7 wt% CMC. After mixing with water and autoclaving it at 200 C, the aluminum-substituted 1.1 nm tobermorite crystal phase was identified as hydrothermal reaction product responsible for the development of a compressive strength of 5983 psi. The 200 C-autoclaved cement made with the latter formula had the combined phases of tobermorite as its major reaction product and amorphous geopolymer as its minor one providing a compressive strength of 5271 psi. Sodium hydroxide derived from the hydrolysis of sodium silicate activator not only initiated the pozzolanic reaction of slag and fly ash, but also played an important role in generating in-situ exothermic heat that significantly contributed to promoting self-degradation of cementitious sealers. The source of this exothermic heat was the interactions between sodium hydroxide, and gaseous CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 3}COOH by-products generated from thermal decomposition of CMC at {ge} 200 C in an aqueous medium. Thus, the magnitude of this self-degradation depended on the exothermic temperature evolved in the sealer; a higher temperature led to a sever disintegration of sealer. The exothermic temperature was controlled by the extent of thermal decomposition of CMC, demonstrating that CMC decomposed at higher temperature emitted more gaseous reactants. Hence, such large emission enhanced the evolution of in-situ exothermic heat. In contrast, the excessive formation of geopolymer phase due to more incorporation of Class F fly ash into this cementitious system affected its ability to self-degrade, reflecting that there was no self-degradation. The geopolymer was formed by hydrothermal reactions between sodium hydroxide from sodium silicate and mullite in Class F fly ash. Thus, the major reason why geopolymer-based cementitiuos sealers did not degrade after heated sealers came in contact with water was their lack of free sodium hydroxide.

  2. Production of cements from Illinois coal ash. Final technical report, September 1, 1995--August 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wagner, J.C.; Bhatty, J.L.; Mishulovich, A.

    1997-05-01

    The objective of this program is to convert Illinois coal combustion residues, such as fly ash, bottom ash, and boiler slag, into novel cementitious materials for use in the construction industry. These residues are composed largely of SiO{sub 2}, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, MgO, and CaO, which are also the major components of cement. Since the residues are used as an integral component of the cement and not just as additives to concrete, larger amounts of the residues can be utilized. The process uses submerged combustion to melt blends of coal combustion residues with lime, clay, and/or sand. The submerged combustion melter utilizes natural gas-oxidant firing directly into a molten bath to provide efficient melting of mineral-like materials. Use of this melter for cement production has many advantages over rotary kilns including very little, if any, grinding of the feed material, very low emissions, and compact size. During the first year of the program, samples of coal combustion residues were blended and mixed, as needed; with lime, clay, and/or sand to adjust the composition. Six mixtures, three with fly ash and three with bottom ash, were melted in a laboratory-scale furnace. The resultant products were used in mortar cubes and bars which were subjected to ASTM standard tests of cementitious properties. In the hydraulic activity test, mortar cubes were found to have a strength comparable to standard mortar cements. In the compressive strength test, mortar cubes were found to have strengths that exceeded ASTM blended cement performance specifications. In the ASR expansion test, mortar bars were subjected to alkali-silica reaction-induced expansion, which is a problem for siliceous aggregate-based concretes that are exposed to moisture. The mortar bars made with the products inhibited 85 to 97% of this expansion. These results show that residue-based products have an excellent potential as ASR-preventing additions in concretes.

  3. Coal fly ash: the most powerful tool for sustainability of the concrete industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mehta, P.K.

    2008-07-01

    In the last 15 years the global cement industry has almost doubled its annual rate of direct emissions of carbon dioxide. These can be cut back by reducing global concrete consumption, reducing the volume of cement paste in mixtures and reducing the proportion of portland clinker in cement. It has recently been proved that use of high volumes of coal fly ash can produce low cost, durable, sustainable cement and concrete mixtures that would reduce the carbon footprint of both the cement and the power generation industries. 2 photos.

  4. Steam plant ash disposal facility and industrial landfill at the Y-12 Plant, Anderson County, Tennessee. Environmental Assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-02-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is proposing to install a wet ash handling system to dewater bottom ash from the coal-fired steam plant at its Y-12 Plant and to construct a new landfill for disposal of industrial wastes, including the dewatered bottom ash. The DOE operates three major facilities on its Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). Operation of these facilities results in the production of a variety of nonhazardous, nonradioactive solid wastes (approximately 300 m{sup 3} per day, compacted) including sanitary wastes, common industrial wastes and construction debris. At the current rate of use, this existing landfill will be filled within approximately 18 months, and more space is urgently needed. In an effort to alleviate this problem, DOE and WMD management propose to create additional landfill facilities at a nearby site. The potential environmental impacts associated with this proposed action are the subject of this environmental assessment (EA).

  5. Enhancement of mercury capture by the simultaneous addition of hydrogen bromide (HBr) and fly ashes in a slipstream facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yan Cao; Quan-Hai Wang; Jun Li; Jen-Chieh Cheng; Chia-Chun Chan; Marten Cohron; Wei-Ping Pan

    2009-04-15

    Low halogen content in tested Powder River Basin (PRB) coals and low loss of ignition content (LOI) in PRB-derived fly ash were likely responsible for higher elemental mercury content (averaging about 75%) in the flue gas and also lower mercury capture efficiency by electrostatic precipitator (ESP) and wet-FGD. To develop a cost-effective approach to mercury capture in a full-scale coal-fired utility boiler burning PRB coal, experiments were conducted adding hydrogen bromide (HBr) or simultaneously adding HBr and selected fly ashes in a slipstream reactor (0.152 x 0.152 m) under real flue gas conditions. The residence time of the flue gas inside the reactor was about 1.4 s. The average temperature of the slipstream reactor was controlled at about 155{sup o}C. Tests were organized into two phases. In Phase 1, only HBr was added to the slipstream reactor, and in Phase 2, HBr and selected fly ash were added simultaneously. HBr injection was effective (>90%) for mercury oxidation at a low temperature (155{sup o}C) with an HBr addition concentration of about 4 ppm in the flue gas. Additionally, injected HBr enhanced mercury capture by PRB fly ash in the low-temperature range. The mercury capture efficiency, at testing conditions of the slipstream reactor, reached about 50% at an HBr injection concentration of 4 ppm in the flue gas. Compared to only the addition of HBr, simultaneously adding bituminous-derived fly ash in a minimum amount (30 lb/MMacf), together with HBr injection at 4 ppm, could increase mercury capture efficiency by 30%. Injection of lignite-derived fly ash at 30 lb/MMacf could achieve even higher mercury removal efficiency (an additional 35% mercury capture efficiency compared to HBR addition alone). 25 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Chemical Imaging Analysis of Environmental Particles Using the Focused Ion Beam/Scanning Electron Microscopy Technique: Microanalysis Insights into Atmospheric Chemistry of Fly Ash

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Haihan; Grassian, Vicki H.; Saraf, Laxmikant V.; Laskin, Alexander

    2013-01-21

    Airborne fly ash from coal combustion may represent a source of bioavailable iron (Fe) in the open ocean. However, few studies have been made focusing on Fe speciation and distribution in coal fly ash. In this study, chemical imaging of fly ash has been performed using a dual-beam FIB/SEM (focused ion beam/scanning electron microscope) system for a better understanding of how simulated atmospheric processing modify the morphology, chemical compositions and element distributions of individual particles. A novel approach has been applied for cross-sectioning of fly ash specimen with a FIB in order to explore element distribution within the interior of individual particles. Our results indicate that simulated atmospheric processing causes disintegration of aluminosilicate glass, a dominant material in fly ash particles. Aluminosilicate-phase Fe in the inner core of fly ash particles is more easily mobilized compared with oxide-phase Fe present as surface aggregates on fly ash spheres. Fe release behavior depends strongly on Fe speciation in aerosol particles. The approach for preparation of cross-sectioned specimen described here opens new opportunities for particle microanalysis, particular with respect to inorganic refractive materials like fly ash and mineral dust.

  7. Discussion on 'characteristics of fly ashes from full-scale coal-fired power plants and their relationship to mercury adsorption' by Lu et al.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James C. Hower; Bruno Valentim; Irena J. Kostova; Kevin R. Henke

    2008-03-15

    Mercury capture by coal-combustion fly ash is a function of the amount of Hg in the feed coal, the amount of carbon in the fly ash, the type of carbon in the fly ash (including variables introduced by the rank of the feed coal), and the flue gas temperature at the point of ash collection. In their discussion of fly ash and Hg adsorption, Lu et al. (Energy Fuels 2007, 21, 2112-2120) had some fundamental flaws in their techniques, which, in turn, impact the validity of analyzed parameters. First, they used mechanical sieving to segregate fly ash size fractions. Mechanical sieving does not produce representative size fractions, particularly for the finest sizes. If the study samples were not obtained correctly, the subsequent analyses of fly ash carbon and Hg cannot accurately represent the size fractions. In the analysis of carbon forms, it is not possible to accurately determine the forms with scanning electron microscopy. The complexity of the whole particles is overlooked when just examining the outer particle surface. Examination of elements such as Hg, present in very trace quantities in most fly ashes, requires careful attention to the analytical techniques. 36 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Structure of the SPRY domain of human Ash2L and its interactions with RbBP5

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    and DPY30 (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Structure of the SPRY domain of human Ash2L and its interactions with RbBP5 and DPY30 Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Structure of the SPRY domain of human Ash2L and its interactions with RbBP5 and DPY30 Authors: Chen, Yong ; Cao, Fang ; Wan, Bingbing ; Dou, Yali ; Lei, Ming [1] + Show Author Affiliations (Michigan-Med) Publication Date: 2013-10-07 OSTI Identifier: 1093479 Resource Type: Journal Article Resource Relation: Journal Name:

  9. Predicting and validating the tracking of a Volcanic Ash Cloud during the 2006 Eruption of Mt. Augustine Volcano

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Webley, Peter W.; Atkinson, D.; Collins, Richard L.; Dean, K.; Fochesatto, J.; Sassen, Kenneth; Cahill, Catherine F.; Prata, A.; Flynn, Connor J.; Mizutani, K.

    2008-11-01

    On 11 January 2006, Mount Augustine volcano in southern Alaska began erupting after 20-year repose. The Anchorage Forecast Office of the National Weather Service (NWS) issued an advisory on 28 January for Kodiak City. On 31 January, Alaska Airlines cancelled all flights to and from Anchorage after multiple advisories from the NWS for Anchorage and the surrounding region. The Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) had reported the onset of the continuous eruption. AVO monitors the approximately 100 active volcanoes in the Northern Pacific. Ash clouds from these volcanoes can cause serious damage to an aircraft and pose a serious threat to the local communities, and to transcontinental air traffic throughout the Arctic and sub-Arctic region. Within AVO, a dispersion model has been developed to track the dispersion of volcanic ash clouds. The model, Puff, was used operational by AVO during the Augustine eruptive period. Here, we examine the dispersion of a volcanic ash cloud from Mount Augustine across Alaska from 29 January through the 2 February 2006. We present the synoptic meteorology, the Puff predictions, and measurements from aerosol samplers, laser radar (or lidar) systems, and satellites. UAF aerosol samplers revealed the presence of volcanic aerosols at the surface at sites where Puff predicted the ash clouds movement. Remote sensing satellite data showed the development of the ash cloud in close proximity to the volcano and a sulfur-dioxide cloud further from the volcano consistent with the Puff predictions. Lidars showed the presence of volcanic aerosol with consistent characteristics aloft over Alaska and were capable of detecting the aerosol, even in the presence of scattered clouds and where the cloud is too thin/disperse to be detected by remote sensing satellite data. The lidar measurements revealed the different trajectories of ash consistent with the Puff predictions. Dispersion models provide a forecast of volcanic ash cloud movement that might be undetectable by any other means but are still a significant hazard. Validation is the key to assessing the accuracy of any future predictions. The study highlights the use of multiple and complementary observations used in detecting the trajectory ash cloud, both at the surface and aloft within the atmosphere.

  10. Ash and slag characterization. Final report for the period ending March 31, 1986

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Falcone, S K

    1986-06-01

    A procedure was developed for mine sampling and the storage of standard coals under argon. In total, 53 coals were collected and are also available to other DOE supported projects at the Center. Task 2 was the study of mineral transformation during ashing of low-rank coals. Results of this study verified the importance of organically-bound alkalies, specifically calcium and sodium, in forming low-melting temperature aluminosilicates (i.e., melilites). Task 3 highlighted the viscosity studies on the molten ash of low-rank coals. A major part of this study involved the modification of the Urbain equation so that it can be used to predict the Newtonian behavior of low-rank coal slags. In addition, the effects of iron and sodium on viscosity, hysteresis, and the nature of the non-Newtonian flow were examined. Task 4 comprised the identification of volatilized species evolved during the combustion of selected low-rank coals. In each case sodium, potassium and sulfur were found to be major components of the condensed volatiles. Verification of their volatility on an experimental basis has significance in their possible contributions to forming new solid and liquid phases at high temperatures. Finally Task 5 evaluated the use of various sessile drop techniques to determine the surface tension of low-rank coal slags. Results show that meaningful surface tension measurements can be obtained with the use of vitreous carbon as a substrate.

  11. Influence of the composition of cement kiln dust on its interaction with fly ash and slag

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chaunsali, Piyush; Peethamparan, Sulapha

    2013-12-15

    Cement kiln dust (CKD), a by-product of the cement industry, contains significant amounts of alkali, free lime, chloride and sulfate. Wide variation reported in the chemical composition of CKDs limits their potential application as a sustainable binder component in concrete. In the current study, the performance of two different CKDs as components in a novel binder is evaluated. Several binders are developed by blending CKDs with fly ash or slag. Binders with 70% CKD were prepared at a water-to-binder ratio of 0.4, and heat-cured at 75 C to accelerate the strength development. The hydration progress was monitored using X-ray diffraction, and morphological examination was performed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Ettringite and calcium aluminosilicate hydrate (C-A-S-H) were identified as the main hydration products in the hardened binder system. Strength development of CKD-based binder was found to be significantly influenced by its free lime and sulfate contents. -- Highlights: Interaction of cement kiln dust with fly ash and slag was explored. CKD with higher free lime and sulfate content increased the strength of binder. C-S-H like reaction gel with fibrillar morphology is observed in CKD-based binders.

  12. Resistance of fly ash-Portland cement blends to thermal shock

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Pyatina, Tatiana; Sugama, Toshifumi

    2015-09-11

    Thermal-shock resistance of high-content fly ash-Portland cement blends was tested in the following ways. Activated and non-activated blends with 80-90 % fly ash F (FAF) were left to set at room temperature, then hydrated for 24 hours at 85°C and 24-more hours at 300°C and tested in five thermal-shock cycles (600°C heat - 25°C water quenching). XRD, and thermal gravimetric analyses, along with calorimetric measurements and SEM-EDX tests demonstrated that the activated blends form more hydrates after 24 hours at 300°C, and achieve a higher short-term compressive strength than do non-activated ones. Sodium meta-silicate and sodaash engendered the concomitant hydrationmore » of OPC and FAF, with the formation of mixed crystalline FAF-OPC hydrates and FAF hydrates, such as garranite, analcime, and wairakite, along with the amorphous FAF hydration products. In SS-activated and non-activated blends separate OPC (tobermorite) and FAF (amorphous gel) hydrates with no mixed crystalline products formed. The compressive strength of all tested blends decreased by nearly 50% after 5 thermal-shock test cycles. These changes in the compressive strength were accompanied by a marked decrease in the intensities of XRD patterns of the crystalline hydrates after the thermalshock. As a result, there was no significant difference in the performance of the blends with different activators« less

  13. Resistance of fly ash-Portland cement blends to thermal shock

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pyatina, Tatiana; Sugama, Toshifumi

    2015-09-11

    Thermal-shock resistance of high-content fly ash-Portland cement blends was tested in the following ways. Activated and non-activated blends with 80-90 % fly ash F (FAF) were left to set at room temperature, then hydrated for 24 hours at 85°C and 24-more hours at 300°C and tested in five thermal-shock cycles (600°C heat - 25°C water quenching). XRD, and thermal gravimetric analyses, along with calorimetric measurements and SEM-EDX tests demonstrated that the activated blends form more hydrates after 24 hours at 300°C, and achieve a higher short-term compressive strength than do non-activated ones. Sodium meta-silicate and sodaash engendered the concomitant hydration of OPC and FAF, with the formation of mixed crystalline FAF-OPC hydrates and FAF hydrates, such as garranite, analcime, and wairakite, along with the amorphous FAF hydration products. In SS-activated and non-activated blends separate OPC (tobermorite) and FAF (amorphous gel) hydrates with no mixed crystalline products formed. The compressive strength of all tested blends decreased by nearly 50% after 5 thermal-shock test cycles. These changes in the compressive strength were accompanied by a marked decrease in the intensities of XRD patterns of the crystalline hydrates after the thermalshock. As a result, there was no significant difference in the performance of the blends with different activators

  14. Biosynthesis of titanium dioxide nanoparticles using a probiotic from coal fly ash effluent

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Babitha, S; Korrapati, Purna Sai

    2013-11-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: Metal resistant probiotic species was isolated from coal fly ash effluent site. Uniform sized anatase form of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles were synthesized using Propionibacterium jensenii. Diffraction patterns confirmed the anatase TiO{sub 2} NPs with average size <80 nm. TiO{sub 2} nanoparticle incorporated wound dressing exhibits better wound healing. - Abstract: The synthesis of titanium dioxide nanoparticle (TiO{sub 2} NP) has gained importance in the recent years owing to its wide range of potential biological applications. The present study demonstrates the synthesis of TiO{sub 2} NPs by a metal resistant bacterium isolated from the coal fly ash effluent. This bacterial strain was identified on the basis of morphology and 16s rDNA gene sequence [KC545833]. The physico-chemical characterization of the synthesized nanoparticles is completely elucidated by energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and transmission and scanning electron microscopy (TEM, SEM). The crystalline nature of the nanoparticles was confirmed by X-RD pattern. Further, cell viability and haemolytic assays confirmed the biocompatible and non toxic nature of the NPs. The TiO{sub 2} NPs was found to enhance the collagen stabilization and thereby enabling the preparation of collagen based biological wound dressing. The paper essentially provides scope for an easy bioprocess for the synthesis of TiO{sub 2} NPs from the metal oxide enriched effluent sample for future biological applications.

  15. A Study of the Stability and Characterization Plutonium Dioxide and Chemical Characterization [of] Rocky Flats and Los Alamos Plutonium-Containing Incinerator Ash

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ray, A.K.; Boettger, J.C.; Behrens, Robert G.

    1999-11-29

    In the presentation ''A Study of the Stability and Characterization of Plutonium Dioxide'', the authors discuss their recent work on actinide stabilities and characterization, in particular, plutonium dioxide PuO{sub 2}. Earlier studies have indicated that PuO{sub 2} has the fluorite structure of CaF{sub 2} and typical oxide semiconductor properties. However, detailed results on the bulk electronic structure of this important actinide oxide have not been available. The authors have used all-electron, full potential linear combinations Gaussian type orbitals fitting function (LCGTO-FF) method to study PuO{sub 2}. The LCGTO-FF technique characterized by its use of three independent GTO basis sets to expand the orbitals, charge density, and exchange-correlation integral kernels. Results will be presented on zero pressure using both the Hedin-Lundquist local density approximation (LDA) model or the Perdew-Wang generalized gradient approximation (GGA) model. Possibilities of different characterizations of PuO{sub 2} will be explored. The paper ''Chemical Characterization Rocky Flats and Los Alamos Plutonium-Containing Incinerator Ash'' describes the results of a comprehensive study of the chemical characteristics of virgin, calcined and fluorinated incinerator ash produced at the Rocky Flats Plant and at the Los Alamos National Laboratory prior to 1988. The Rocky Flats and Los Alamos virgin, calcined, and fluorinated ashes were also dissolved using standard nitrate dissolution chemistry. Corresponding chemical evaluations were preformed on the resultant ash heel and the results compared with those of the virgin ash. Fluorination studies using FT spectroscopy as a diagnostic tool were also performed to evaluate the chemistry of phosphorus, sulfur, carbon, and silicon containing species in the ash. The distribution of plutonium and other chemical elements with the virgin ash, ash heel, fluorinated ash, and fluorinated ash heel particulates were studied in detail using microprobe analysis. Some of the more interesting results of these investigations are presented.

  16. The effect of low-NO{sub x} combustion on residual carbon in fly ash and its adsorption capacity for air entrainment admixtures in concrete

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pedersen, K.H.; Jensen, A.D.; Dam-Johansen, K.

    2010-02-15

    Fly ash from pulverized coal combustion contains residual carbon that can adsorb the air-entraining admixtures (AEAs) added to control the air entrainment in concrete. This is a problem that has increased by the implementation of low-NO{sub x} combustion technologies. In this work, pulverized fuel has been combusted in an entrained flow reactor to test the impact of changes in operating conditions and fuel type on the AEA adsorption of ash and NO{sub x} formation. Increased oxidizing conditions, obtained by improved fuel-air mixing or higher excess air, decreased the AEA requirements of the produced ash by up to a factor of 25. This was due to a lower carbon content in the ash and a lower specific AEA adsorptivity of the carbon. The latter was suggested to be caused by changes in the adsorption properties of the unburned char and a decreased formation of soot, which was found to have a large AEA adsorption capacity based on measurements on a carbon black. The NO{sub x} formation increased by up to three times with more oxidizing conditions and thus, there was a trade-off between the AEA requirements of the ash and NO{sub x} formation. The type of fuel had high impact on the AEA adsorption behavior of the ash. Ashes produced from a Columbian and a Polish coal showed similar AEA requirements, but the specific AEA adsorptivity of the carbon in the Columbian coal ash was up to six times higher. The AEA requirements of a South African coal ash was unaffected by the applied operating conditions and showed up to 12 times higher AEA adsorption compared to the two other coal ashes. This may be caused by larger particles formed by agglomeration of the primary coal particles in the feeding phase or during the combustion process, which gave rise to increased formation of soot. (author)

  17. Viscosity Determination of Molten Ash from Low-Grade US Coals

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhu, Jingxi; Nakano, Jinichiro; Kaneko, Tetsuya Kenneth; Mu, Haoyuan; Bennett, James P.; Kwong, Kyei-Sing; Rozelle, Peter; Sridhar, Seetharaman

    2012-10-01

    In entrained slagging gasifiers, the fluidity of the molten ash is a critical factor for process control since it affects slag formation, the capture of inorganic constituents, refractory wear, and slag drainage along the gasification chamber walls. The use of western coal, or mixtures of eastern and western coals as gasifier feedstock, is likely to occur as western coals become available and technological issues that hinder their use are being resolved. In the present work, the viscosity of synthetic slags with ash chemistries simulating the western U.S. coals, was experimentally measured at a Po2 = 10- 8 atm in themore » temperature range of 1773–1573 K (1500–1300 °C) using a rotating-bob viscometer. Alumina spindles and containment crucibles of both alumina and zirconia were used. Crystallization studies of this slag using a confocal scanning laser microscope found that a (Mg,Fe)Al2O4-based spinel precipitated at temperatures below 1723 K (1450 °C), and this agreed with FactSage equilibrium phase prediction. The same spinels were observed in the post-viscometry experiment slags when ZrO2 crucibles were used and assumed to be in equilibrium with the slag at the higher temperatures. Zirconia dissolution resulted in a slight increase in the solid fraction present in slags at lower temperatures, compared to spinel fraction. Crystal precipitation changed the apparent activation energy and required a longer stabilization times for viscosity measurements. The viscosity results were used in predictive equations based on Veytsman and Einstein's models, with critical nucleation temperatures and the solid fraction calculated with FactSage. In the simulated eastern/western coal feedstock blends based on ash compositions, the fractions of the solid precipitates were also calculated using the thermodynamic program FactSage for each blend composition, and the plastic viscosity of each eastern/western coal slag blend was predicted using Veytsman's model and compared to available experimental data.« less

  18. Viscosity Determination of Molten Ash from Low-Grade US Coals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhu, Jingxi; Nakano, Jinichiro; Kaneko, Tetsuya Kenneth; Mu, Haoyuan; Bennett, James P.; Kwong, Kyei-Sing; Rozelle, Peter; Sridhar, Seetharaman

    2012-10-01

    In entrained slagging gasifiers, the fluidity of the molten ash is a critical factor for process control since it affects slag formation, the capture of inorganic constituents, refractory wear, and slag drainage along the gasification chamber walls. The use of western coal, or mixtures of eastern and western coals as gasifier feedstock, is likely to occur as western coals become available and technological issues that hinder their use are being resolved. In the present work, the viscosity of synthetic slags with ash chemistries simulating the western U.S. coals, was experimentally measured at a Po2 = 10- 8 atm in the temperature range of 1773–1573 K (1500–1300 °C) using a rotating-bob viscometer. Alumina spindles and containment crucibles of both alumina and zirconia were used. Crystallization studies of this slag using a confocal scanning laser microscope found that a (Mg,Fe)Al2O4-based spinel precipitated at temperatures below 1723 K (1450 °C), and this agreed with FactSage equilibrium phase prediction. The same spinels were observed in the post-viscometry experiment slags when ZrO2 crucibles were used and assumed to be in equilibrium with the slag at the higher temperatures. Zirconia dissolution resulted in a slight increase in the solid fraction present in slags at lower temperatures, compared to spinel fraction. Crystal precipitation changed the apparent activation energy and required a longer stabilization times for viscosity measurements. The viscosity results were used in predictive equations based on Veytsman and Einstein's models, with critical nucleation temperatures and the solid fraction calculated with FactSage. In the simulated eastern/western coal feedstock blends based on ash compositions, the fractions of the solid precipitates were also calculated using the thermodynamic program FactSage for each blend composition, and the plastic viscosity of each eastern/western coal slag blend was predicted using Veytsman's model and compared to available experimental data.

  19. King County- Green Building Initiative

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The 2013 Ordinance establishes criteria for energy use, emissions, stormwater management, and construction and demolition materials diversion. The 2010 Ordinance 16769 previously stipulated effic...

  20. Alteration of municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash focusing on the evolution of iron-rich constituents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wei Yunmei; Shimaoka, Takayuki; Saffarzadeh, Amirhomayoun; Takahashi, Fumitake

    2011-09-15

    Municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) bottom ash contains a considerable amount of Fe-rich constituents. The behaviors of these constituents, such as dissolution and precipitation, are quite important as they regulate the distribution of a series of ions between the liquid (percolated fluid) and solid (ash deposit) phases. This paper studied both fresh and weathered MSWI bottom ash from the mineralogical and geochemical viewpoint by utilizing optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDX), and powder X-ray diffraction. The analysis results revealed that for the fresh bottom ash, iron preferentially existed in the chemical forms of spinel group (mainly Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}, and a series of Al- or Ti- substituted varieties), metallic inclusions (including Fe-P, Fe-S, Fe-Cu-Pb), hematite (Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) and unburned iron pieces. In the 1-20 years weathered bottom ash collected from a landfill site, interconversions among these Fe-rich constituents were identified. Consequently, numerous secondary products were developed, including goethite ({alpha}-FeOOH), lepidocrocite ({gamma}-FeOOH), hematite, magnetite, wustite (FeO), Fe-Si-rich gel phase. Of all these transformation products, hydrous iron oxides were the most common secondary minerals. Quantitative chemical analysis of these secondary products by SEM/EDX disclosed a strong association between the newly formed hydrous iron oxides and heavy metals (e.g. Pb, Zn, Ni, and Cu). The results of this study suggest that the processes of natural weathering and secondary mineralization contribute to reduction of the potential risks of heavy metals to the surrounding environments.

  1. Coal fly ash interaction with environmental fluids: Geochemical and strontium isotope results from combined column and batch leaching experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brubaker, Tonya M.; Stewart, Brian W.; Capo, Rosemary C.; Schroeder, Karl T.; Chapman, Elizabeth C.; Spivak-Birndorf, Lev J.; Vesper, Dorothy J.; Cardone, Carol R.; Rohar, Paul C.

    2013-05-01

    The major element and Sr isotope systematics and geochemistry of coal fly ash and its interactions with environmental waters were investigated using laboratory flow-through column leaching experiments (sodium carbonate, acetic acid, nitric acid) and sequential batch leaching experiments (water, acetic acid, hydrochloric acid). Column leaching of Class F fly ash samples shows rapid release of most major elements early in the leaching procedure, suggesting an association of these elements with soluble and surface bound phases. Delayed release of certain elements (e.g., Al, Fe, Si) signals gradual dissolution of more resistant silicate or glass phases as leaching continues. Strontium isotope results from both column and batch leaching experiments show a marked increase in {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr ratio with continued leaching, yielding a total range of values from 0.7107 to 0.7138. For comparison, the isotopic composition of fluid output from a fly ash impoundment in West Virginia falls in a narrow range around 0.7124. The experimental data suggest the presence of a more resistant, highly radiogenic silicate phase that survives the combustion process and is leached after the more soluble minerals are removed. Strontium isotopic homogenization of minerals in coal does not always occur during the combustion process, despite the high temperatures encountered in the boiler. Early-released Sr tends to be isotopically uniform; thus the Sr isotopic composition of fly ash could be distinguishable from other sources and is a useful tool for quantifying the possible contribution of fly ash leaching to the total dissolved load in natural surface and ground waters.

  2. Air Quality Scoping Study for Ash Meadows National Wildlife Refuge, Nevada (EMSI April 2007)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Engelbrecht, Johann; Kavouras, Ilias; Campbell, Dave; Campbell, Scott; Kohl, Steven; Shafer, David

    2007-04-01

    The Desert Research Institute (DRI) is performing a scoping study as part of the U.S.Department of Energys Yucca Mountain Environmental Monitoring Systems Initiative (EMSI). The main objective is to obtain baseline air quality information for Yucca Mountain and an area surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Air quality and meteorological monitoring and sampling equipment housed in a mobile trailer (shelter) is collecting data at seven sites outside the NTS, including Ash Meadows National Wildlife Refuge, Sarcobatus Flat, Beatty, Rachel, Caliente, Pahranagat National Wildlife Refuge, and Crater Flat, and at four sites on the NTS. The trailer is stationed at any one site for approximately eight weeks at a time. Letter reports provide summaries of air quality and meteorological data, on completion of each sites sampling program.

  3. Chemical evolution of cementitious materials with high proportion of fly ash and slag

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kruger, A.A.; Bakharev, T.; Brough, A.R.; Kirkpatrick, R.J.; Struble, L.J.; Young, J.F.

    1995-12-01

    Cement mixtures containing high proportions of slag and fly ash were tested to assess their suitability to immobilize simulated off-gas waste solutions after vitrification of low-level radioactive tank wastes stored at Hanford. Materials were mixed with carbonated or alkaline solutions and cured initially adiabatically, then at 70{degrees}C. Chemical changes were monitored for 7 months using X-ray diffraction, selective dissolution and SEM; NMR was utilized to follow the polymerization of silicate species. The process of hydration during the first months of curing was characterized by formation of quite crystalline Al-substituted C-S-H structurally related to 1.1 nm tobermorite and traces of zeolites in some materials. A low content of calcium hydroxide was found in all materials after I month of curing. The SEM examination demonstrated rapidly decreasing porosity, making the mixtures favorable for long-term durability.

  4. Synthetic aggregate compositions derived from spent bed materials from fluidized bed combustion and fly ash

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boyle, Michael J.

    1994-01-01

    Cementitious compositions useful as lightweight aggregates are formed from a blend of spent bed material from fluidized bed combustion and fly ash. The proportions of the blend are chosen so that ensuing reactions eliminate undesirable constituents. The blend is then mixed with water and formed into a shaped article. The shaped article is preferably either a pellet or a "brick" shape that is later crushed. The shaped articles are cured at ambient temperature while saturated with water. It has been found that if used sufficiently, the resulting aggregate will exhibit minimal dimensional change over time. The aggregate can be certified by also forming standardized test shapes, e.g., cylinders while forming the shaped articles and measuring the properties of the test shapes using standardized techniques including X-ray diffraction.

  5. Sonic enhanced ash agglomeration and sulfur capture. Technical progress report: January 1993--March 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-12-31

    This 15th Quarterly Technical Progress Report presents the results of work accomplished during the period January 4, 193 through March 28, 1993 under Contract No. DE-AC21-88MC26288 entitled {open_quotes}Sonic Enhanced Ash Agglomeration and Sulfur Capture.{close_quotes} The fundamental studies conducted by West Virginia University and Pennsylvania State University are provided in subsections of this report. Shakedown testing continued through this period resulting in a series of required modifications for the coal-feed system, coal injector, installation of a water-cooling jacket at the bottom of the agglomeration chamber, and finally, the installation of an additional flow sensor and rate meter. Coal-fired bimodal tests were initiated at the end of the period. The unit was run at 2 atm pressure for 3 hours with steady-state operation for 2 hours. Then, the pressure was increased to 3 atm with steady-state operation for 2 hours.

  6. Characterization of morphology and hydration products of high-volume fly ash paste by monochromatic scanning x-ray micro-diffraction (?-SXRD)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bae, Sungchul; Meral, Cagla; Oh, Jae-eun; Moon, Juhyuk; Kunz, Martin; Monteiro, Paulo J.M.

    2014-05-01

    The present study focuses on identification and micro-structural characterization of the hydration products formed in high-volume fly ash (HVFA)/portland cement (PC) systems using monochromatic scanning x-ray micro-diffraction (?-SXRD) and SEM-EDS. Pastes with up to 80% fly ash replacement were studied. Phase maps for HVFA samples using ?-SXRD patterns prove that ?-SXRD is an effective method to identify and visualize the distribution of phases in the matrix. ?-SXRD and SEM-EDS analysis shows that the C-S-H formed in HVFA system containing 50% or more of fly ash has a similar structure as C-S-H(I) with comparatively lower Ca/Si ratio than the one produced in PC system. Moreover, coexistence of C-S-H(I) and strtlingite is observed in the system containing 80% of fly ash, confirming that the amount of alumina and silicate phases provided by the fly ash is a major factor for the formation of C-S-H(I) and strtlingite in HVFA system. - Highlights: High-volume fly ash (HVFA) paste was studied by scanning x-ray micro-diffraction. Coexistence of C-S-H(I) and strtlingite in the HVFA system is clearly shown. The distribution of minor phases in the HVFA system is shown. Differences between inner and outer products of fly ash are observed by SEM-EDS.

  7. Disposal options for burner ash from spent graphite fuel. Final study report November 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pinto, A.P.

    1994-08-01

    Three major disposal alternatives are being considered for Fort St. Vrain Reactor (FSVR) and Peach Bottom Reactor (PBR) spent fuels: direct disposal of packaged, intact spent fuel elements; (2) removal of compacts to separate fuel into high-level waste (HLW) and low-level waste (LLW); and (3) physical/chemical processing to reduce waste volumes and produce stable waste forms. For the third alternative, combustion of fuel matrix graphite and fuel particle carbon coatings is a preferred technique for head-end processing as well as for volume reduction and chemical pretreatment prior to final fixation, packaging, and disposal of radioactive residuals (fissile and fertile materials together with fission and activation products) in a final repository. This report presents the results of a scoping study of alternate means for processing and/or disposal of fissile-bearing particles and ash remaining after combustion of FSVR and PBR spent graphite fuels. Candidate spent fuel ash (SFA) waste forms in decreasing order of estimated technical feasibility include glass-ceramics (GCs), polycrystalline ceramic assemblages (PCAs), and homogeneous amorphous glass. Candidate SFA waste form production processes in increasing order of estimated effort and cost for implementation are: low-density GCs via fuel grinding and simultaneous combustion and waste form production in a slagging cyclone combustor (SCC); glass or low-density GCs via fluidized bed SFA production followed by conventional melting of SFA and frit; PCAs via fluidized bed SFA production followed by hot isostatic pressing (HIPing) of SFA/frit mixtures; and high-density GCs via fluidized bed SFA production followed by HIPing of Calcine/Frit/SFA mixtures.

  8. Novel Adsorbent-Reactants for Treatment of Ash and Scrubber Pond Effluents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bill Batchelor; Dong Suk Han; Eun Jung Kim

    2010-01-31

    The overall goal of this project was to evaluate the ability of novel adsorbent/reactants to remove specific toxic target chemicals from ash and scrubber pond effluents while producing stable residuals for ultimate disposal. The target chemicals studied were arsenic (As(III) and As(V)), mercury (Hg(II)) and selenium (Se(IV) and Se(VI)). The adsorbent/reactants that were evaluated are iron sulfide (FeS) and pyrite (FeS{sub 2}). Procedures for measuring concentrations of target compounds and characterizing the surfaces of adsorbent-reactants were developed. Effects of contact time, pH (7, 8, 9, 10) and sulfate concentration (0, 1, 10 mM) on removal of all target compounds on both adsorbent-reactants were determined. Stability tests were conducted to evaluate the extent to which target compounds were released from the adsorbent-reactants when pH changed. Surface characterization was conducted with x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) to identify reactions occurring on the surface between the target compounds and surface iron and sulfur. Results indicated that target compounds could be removed by FeS{sub 2} and FeS and that removal was affected by time, pH and surface reactions. Stability of residuals was generally good and appeared to be affected by the extent of surface reactions. Synthesized pyrite and mackinawite appear to have the required characteristics for removing the target compounds from wastewaters from ash ponds and scrubber ponds and producing stable residuals.

  9. Developing a coal quality expert: The prediction of ash deposit effects on boiler performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thornock, D.E.; Borio, R.W. ); Mehta, A.K. )

    1991-01-01

    The overall objective of the Coal Quality Expert (CQE) Clean Coal I Program is the development of a Coal Quality Expert -- a comprehensive PC based expert system for evaluating the potential for coal cleaning, blending and switching options to reduce emissions while producing the lowest cost electricity. A key part of the CQE model will be the development of a sub-model to predict the effects of ash deposition on boiler performance under various operating conditions. To facilitate sub-model development, a combination of full, pilot, and bench scale testing has been carried out on a series of coals and coal blends which were of interest to the Public Service of Oklahoma (PSO) at their Northeastern Station. A series of full-scale tests were also performed on PSO's Northeastern Unit {number sign}4 to characterize boiler performance when firing a baseline coal'' (their normal or desired fuel feed stock) and two blends comprised of the baseline coal blended with various amounts of an alternate coal. Actual furnace conditions were then closely matched during a series of tests performed in Combustion Engineering's pilot scale combustor, the Fireside Performance Test Facility (FPTF). Pilot scale testing allowed in-depth analyses of furnace deposits during and after formation under well-controlled conditions. Ash deposit properties were characterized during pilot scale furnace operation and in subsequent bench scale analyses. Determination of deposit behavior as a function of important operating parameters during the FPTF testing has permitted the prediction of expected performance for various coal/coal blends in PSO's Northeastern Units and allows a prediction of boiler performance for other units firing these fuels.

  10. Residential Clothes Dryers (Appendix D2)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Department of Energy (DOE) develops standardized data templates for reporting the results of tests conducted in accordance with current DOE test procedures. Templates may be used by third-party laboratories under contract with DOE that conduct testing in support of ENERGY STAR® verification, DOE rulemakings, and enforcement of the federal energy conservation standards.

  11. Open-loop heat-recovery dryer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    TeGrotenhuis, Ward Evan

    2013-11-05

    A drying apparatus is disclosed that includes a drum and an open-loop airflow pathway originating at an ambient air inlet, passing through the drum, and terminating at an exhaust outlet. A passive heat exchanger is included for passively transferring heat from air flowing from the drum toward the exhaust outlet to air flowing from the ambient air inlet toward the drum. A heat pump is also included for actively transferring heat from air flowing from the passive heat exchanger toward the exhaust outlet to air flowing from the passive heat exchanger toward the drum. A heating element is also included for further heating air flowing from the heat pump toward the drum.

  12. Detection of rare earth elements in Powder River Basin sub-bituminous coal ash using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tran, Phuoc

    2015-10-01

    We reported our preliminary results on the use of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy to analyze the rare earth elements contained in ash samples from Powder River Basin sub-bituminous coal (PRB-coal). We have identified many elements in the lanthanide series (cerium, europium, holmium, lanthanum, lutetium, praseodymium, promethium, samarium, terbium, ytterbium) and some elements in the actinide series (actinium, thorium, uranium, plutonium, berkelium, californium) in the ash samples. In addition, various metals were also seen to present in the ash samples

  13. Characterization of ashes from co-combustion of refuse-derived fuel with coal, wood and bark in a fluidized bed

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zevenhoven, R.; Skrifvars, B.J.; Hupa, M.

    1998-12-31

    The technical and environmental feasibility of co-combustion of a recovered fuel (RF) prepared from combustible waste fractions (separated at the source), together with coal, peat, wood or wood-waste in thermal power/electricity generation has been studied in several R and D projects within Finland. The current work focuses on eventual changes in ash characteristics during co-combustion of RF with coal, wood or bark, which could lead to bed agglomeration, slagging, fouling and even corrosion in the boiler. Ashes were produced in a 15 kW bubbling fluidized bed (BFB) combustion reactor, the fly ash captured by the cyclone was further analyzed by XRF. The sintering tendency behavior of these ashes was investigated using a test procedure developed at Aabo Akademi University. Earlier, a screening program involved ashes from RF (from a waste separation scheme in Finland) co-combustion with peat, wood and bark, in which ash pellets were thermally treated in air. This showed significant sintering below 600 C as well as above 800 C for RF/wood and RF/bark, but not for RF/peat. This seemed to correlate with alkali chloride and sulfate concentrations in the ashes. The current work addresses a Danish refuse-derived fuel (RDF), co-combusted with bark, coal, bark+coal, wood, and wood+coal (eight tests). Ash pellets were thermally treated in nitrogen in order to avoid residual carbon combustion. The results obtained show no sintering tendencies below 600 C, significant changes in sintering are seen with pellets treated at 1,000 C. Ash from 100% RDF combustion does not sinter, 25% RDF co-combustion with wood and peat, respectively, gives an insignificant effect. The most severe sintering occurs during co-combustion of RDF with bark. Furthermore, it appears that the presence of a 25% coal fraction (on energy basis) seems to have a negative effect on all fuel blends. Analysis of the sintering results versus ash chemical composition shows that, in general, an increased level of alkali chlorides and sulfates gives increased sintering. At the same time, increased amounts calcium salts in the ash appear to reduce sintering tendency. Thus, the results suggest that a calcium based sorbent for SO{sub 2} and HCl capture might reduce problems related to ash sintering. An extensive literature exists, however, that states otherwise.

  14. Market Assessment and Demonstration of Lignite FBC Ash Flowable Fill Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alan E. Bland

    2003-09-30

    Montana-Dakota Utilities (MDU) and Western Research Institute (WRI) have been developing flowable fill materials formulated using ash from the Montana-Dakota Utilities R. M. Heskett Station in Mandan, North Dakota. MDU and WRI have partnered with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the North Dakota Industrial Commission (NDIC) to further the development of these materials for lignite-fired fluidized-bed combustion (FBC) facilities. The MDU controlled density fill (CDF) appears to be a viable engineering material and environmentally safe. WRI is pursuing the commercialization of the technology under the trademark Ready-Fill{trademark}. The project objectives were to: (1) assess the market in the Bismarck-Mandan area; (2) evaluate the geotechnical properties and environmental compatibility; and (3) construct and monitor demonstrations of the various grades of flowable fill products in full-scale demonstrations. The scope of initial phase of work entailed the following: Task I--Assess Market for MDU Flowable Fill Products; Task II--Assess Geotechnical and Environmental Properties of MDU Flowable Fill Products; and Task III--Demonstrate and Monitor MDU Flowable Fill Products in Field-Scale Demonstrations. The results of these testing and demonstration activities proved the following: (1) The market assessment indicated that a market exists in the Bismarck-Mandan area for structural construction applications, such as sub-bases for residential and commercial businesses, and excavatable fill applications, such as gas line and utility trench filling. (2) The cost of the MDU flowable fill product must be lower than the current $35-$45/cubic yard price if it is to become a common construction material. Formulations using MDU ash and lower-cost sand alternatives offer that opportunity. An estimated market of 10,000 cubic yards of MDU flowable fill products could be realized if prices could be made competitive. (3) The geotechnical properties of the MDU ash-based flowable fill can be modified to meet the needs of a range of applications from structural fill applications to excavatable applications, such as utility trench fill. (4) Environmental assessments using standard testing indicate that the environmental properties of the fill materials are compatible with numerous construction applications and do not pose a threat to either adjacent groundwater or soils. (5) WRI developed an Environmental Field Simulator (EFS) method for assessing the impact of flowable fill materials on adjacent soils and found that the zone of impact is less than a couple of inches, thereby posing no threat to adjacent soils. (6) Field-scale demonstrations of the MDU flowable fill were constructed and were successful for structural, as well as excavatable applications. Monitoring has demonstrated the geotechnical performance, environmental performance, and compatibility with common embed materials with the MDU flowable fill products. Technical and economic issues were identified that may hinder the commercial acceptance of MDU flowable fill materials, including: (1) the ability to produce a consistent product; (2) the ability to provide a product year round (cold weather retards strength development); and (3) the ability to evaluate and produce commercial quantities of MDU flowable fill using inexpensive materials.

  15. Effective properties of a fly ash geopolymer: Synergistic application of X-ray synchrotron tomography, nanoindentation, and homogenization models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Das, Sumanta; Yang, Pu; Singh, Sudhanshu S.; Mertens, James C. E.; Xiao, Xianghui; Chawla, Nikhilesh; Neithalath, Narayanan

    2015-09-02

    Microstructural and micromechanical investigation of a fly ash-based geopolymer using: (i) synchrotron x-ray tomography (XRT) to determine the volume fraction and tortuosity of pores that are influential in fluid transport, (ii) mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP) to capture the volume fraction of smaller pores, (iii) scanning electron microscopy (SEM) combined with multi-label thresholding to identify and characterize the solid phases in the microstructure, and (iv) nanoindentation to determine the component phase elastic properties using statistical deconvolution, is reported in this paper. The phase volume fractions and elastic properties are used in multi-step mean field homogenization (Mori- Tanaka and double inclusion) models to determine the homogenized macroscale elastic modulus of the composite. The homogenized elastic moduli are in good agreement with the flexural elastic modulus determined on macroscale paste beams. As a result, the combined use of microstructural and micromechanical characterization tools at multiple scales provides valuable information towards the material design of fly ash geopolymers.

  16. Coal fly ash and phospho-gypsum mixture as an amendment to improve rice paddy soil fertility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Y.B.; Ha, H.S.; Lee, C.H.; Kim, P.J.

    2008-04-15

    Rice is a plant that requires high levels of silica (Si). As a silicate NOD source to rice, coal fly ash (hereafter, fly ash), which has an alkaline pH and high available silicate and boron (B) contents, was mixed with phosphor-gypsum (hereafter, gypsum, 50%, wt wt{sup -1}), a by-product from the production of phosphate fertilizer, to improve the fly ash limitation. Field experiments were carried out to evaluate the effect of the mixture on soil properties and rice (Oryza sativa) productivity in silt loam (SiL) and loamy sand (LS) soils to which 0 (FG 0), 20 (FG 20), 40 (FG 40), and 60 (FG 60) Mg ha{sup -1} were added. The mixture increased the amount of available silicate and exchangeable calcium (Ca) contents in the soils and the uptake of silicate by rice plant. The mixture did not result in accumulation of heavy metals in soil and an excessive uptake of heavy metals by the rice grain. The available boron content in soil increased with the mixture application levels up to 1.42 mg kg{sup -1} following the application of 60 Mg ha{sup -1} but did not show toxicity. The mixture increased significantly rice yield and showed the highest yields following the addition of 30-40 Mg ha{sup -1} in two soils. It is concluded that the fly ash and gypsum mixture could be a good source of inorganic soil amendments to restore the soil nutrient balance in rice paddy soil.

  17. Utilize Cementitious High Carbon Fly Ash (CHCFA) to Stabilize Cold In-Place Recycled (CIR) Asphalt Pavement as Base Coarse

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wen, Haifang; Li, Xiaojun; Edil, Tuncer; O'Donnell, Jonathan; Danda, Swapna

    2011-02-05

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance of cementitious high carbon fly ash (CHCFA) stabilized recycled asphalt pavement as a base course material in a real world setting. Three test road cells were built at MnROAD facility in Minnesota. These cells have the same asphalt surface layers, subbases, and subgrades, but three different base courses: conventional crushed aggregates, untreated recycled pavement materials (RPM), and CHCFA stabilized RPM materials. During and after the construction of the three cells, laboratory and field tests were carried out to characterize the material properties. The test results were used in the mechanistic-empirical pavement design guide (MEPDG) to predict the pavement performance. Based on the performance prediction, the life cycle analyses of cost, energy consumption, and greenhouse gasses were performed. The leaching impacts of these three types of base materials were compared. The laboratory and field tests showed that fly ash stabilized RPM had higher modulus than crushed aggregate and RPM did. Based on the MEPDG performance prediction, the service life of the Cell 79 containing fly ash stabilized RPM, is 23.5 years, which is about twice the service life (11 years) of the Cell 77 with RPM base, and about three times the service life (7.5 years) of the Cell 78 with crushed aggregate base. The life cycle analysis indicated that the usage of the fly ash stabilized RPM as the base of the flexible pavement can significantly reduce the life cycle cost, the energy consumption, the greenhouse gases emission. Concentrations of many trace elements, particularly those with relatively low water quality standards, diminish over time as water flows through the pavement profile. For many elements, concentrations below US water drinking water quality standards are attained at the bottom of the pavement profile within 2-4 pore volumes of flow.

  18. Synthesis of zeolite from Italian coal fly ash: Differences in crystallization temperature using seawater instead of distilled water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Belviso, Claudia; Cavalcante, Francesco; Fiore, Saverio

    2010-05-15

    In this study Italian coal fly ash was converted into several types of zeolite in laboratory experiments with temperatures of crystallization ranging from 35 up to 90 deg. C. Distilled and seawater were used during the hydrothermal synthesis process in separate experiments, after a pre-treatment fusion with NaOH. The results indicate that zeolites could be formed from different kind of Italian coal fly ash at low temperature of crystallization using both distilled and seawater. SEM data and the powder patterns of X-ray diffraction analysis show that faujasite, zeolite ZK-5 and sodalite were synthesized when using both distilled and seawater; zeolite A crystallized only using distilled water. In particular the experiments indicate that the synthesis of zeolite X and zeolite ZK-5 takes place at lower temperatures when using seawater (35 and 45 deg. C, respectively). The formation of sodalite is always competitive with zeolite X which shows a metastable behaviour at higher temperatures (70-90 deg. C). The chemical composition of the fly ash source could be responsible of the differences on the starting time of synthesized zeolite with distilled water, in any case our data show that the formation of specific zeolites takes place always at lower temperatures when using seawater.

  19. Soil and fertilizer amendments and edge effects on the floral succession of pulverized fuel ash

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shaw, P.

    2009-01-15

    Plots of fresh pulverized fuel ash (PFA, an industrial waste) were inoculated with soils from existing PFA sites and fertilizers in a factorial design, then left unmanaged for 12 years during which time the floral development and soil chemistry were monitored annually. For the first 3 years, the site supported a sparse mix of chenopods (including the scarce Chenopodium glaucum) and halophytes. As salinity declined, ruderals, legumes, and grasses plus the fire-site moss Funaria hygrometrica colonized, followed by Festuca arundinacea grassland (NVC community MG12) and Hippophae rhamnoides scrub. Dactylorhiza incarnata (orchidacea) appeared after 7 years, but only in plots that had received soil from existing orchid colonies. Four years later, a larger second generation of Dactylorhiza appeared, but only in the central zone of the site where vegetation was thinnest. By year 12, the site was dominated by coarse grasses and scrub, with early successional species persisting only in the sparsely vegetated center, where nitrate levels were lowest. This edge effect is interpreted as centripetal encroachment, a process of potentially wider concern for the conservation of low-fertility habitat patches. Overall, seed bank inoculation seems to have introduced few but desirable species (D. incarnata, Pyrola rotundifolia, some halophytes, and annuals), whereas initial application of organic fertilizer had long-lasting ({ge} 10 years) effects on cover and soil composition.

  20. Preparation of Cu and Fly Ash Composite by Powder Metallurgy Technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chew, P. Y.; Lim, P. S.; Ng, M. C.; Zahi, S.; You, A. H.

    2011-03-30

    Cu and Fly Ash (FA) mixtures with different weight percentages were prepared. Pellets of the mixture powder were produced with the dimension of 17.7 mm in diameter and 10-15 mm in height. These different composites were compacted at a constant pressure of 280 MPa. One of the selected weight percentages was then compacted to form into pellet and sintered at different temperatures which were at 900, 950 and 1000 deg. C respectively for 2 hours. Density of green pellet was measured before sintered in furnace. After sintering, all the pellets with different temperatures were re-weighed and sintered density were calculated. The densification of the green and sintered pellets was required to be measured as one of the parameter in selection of the best material properties. Porosity of the pellet shall not be ignored in order to analyze the close-packed particles stacking in the pellet. SEM micrograph had been captured to observe the presence of pores and agglomeration of particles in the sample produced.

  1. Leaching behaviour of bottom ash from RDF high-temperature gasification plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gori, M.; Pifferi, L.; Sirini, P.

    2011-07-15

    This study investigated the physical properties, the chemical composition and the leaching behaviour of two bottom ash (BA) samples from two different refuse derived fuel high-temperature gasification plants, as a function of particle size. The X-ray diffraction patterns showed that the materials contained large amounts of glass. This aspect was also confirmed by the results of availability and ANC leaching tests. Chemical composition indicated that Fe, Mn, Cu and Cr were the most abundant metals, with a slight enrichment in the finest fractions. Suitability of samples for inert waste landfilling and reuse was evaluated through the leaching test EN 12457-2. In one sample the concentration of all metals was below the limit set by law, while limits were exceeded for Cu, Cr and Ni in the other sample, where the finest fraction showed to give the main contribution to leaching of Cu and Ni. Preliminary results of physical and geotechnical characterisation indicated the suitability of vitrified BA for reuse in the field of civil engineering. The possible application of a size separation pre-treatment in order to improve the chemical characteristics of the materials was also discussed.

  2. ACAA pavement manual. Recommended practice: Coal fly ash in pozzolanic stabilized mixtures for flexible pavement systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this manual is to guide pavement design engineers, materials engineers, and construction managers in the design and construction of flexible pavement systems in which low- to high-strength Pozzolanic Stabilized Mixtures' ( PSMs') serve as base layers. A PSM incorporates coal fly ash in combination with activators, aggregates and water. Each of three design methods is useful for determining the thickness of a PSM base layer for a flexible pavement system: Method A - American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) flexible pavement design procedures, using structural layer coefficients; Method B - Mechanistic pavement design procedures, using resilient modulus values for the pavement layers; and Method C - A combination of Method A and Method B, using mechanistic design concepts for determining pavement layer coefficients. PSMs offer several advantages: PSMs are strong, durable mixtures using locally available materials; PSMs are economically competitive with properly engineered full-depth asphalt or crushed stone base courses; PSMs are suited to stabilizing recycled base mixtures; and PSMs are placed and compacted with conventional construction equipment. To provide the needed guidance for capturing the long-term service and cost-saving features of a PSM design, this manual details the following: a procedure for proportioning PSMs; thickness design procedures which include base layer and asphalt wearing course; and proven techniques for PSM mixing and base layer construction.

  3. THE IMPACT OF DISSOLVED SALTS ON PASTES CONTAINING FLY ASH, CEMENT AND SLAG

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harbour, J.; Edwards, T.; Williams, V.

    2009-09-21

    The degree of hydration of a mixture of cementitious materials (Class F fly ash, blast furnace slag and portland cement) in highly concentrated alkaline salt solutions is enhanced by the addition of aluminate to the salt solution. This increase in the degree of hydration, as monitored with isothermal calorimetry, leads to higher values of dynamic Young's modulus and compressive strength and lower values of total porosity. This enhancement in performance properties of these cementitious waste forms by increased hydration is beneficial to the retention of the radionuclides that are also present in the salt solution. The aluminate ions in the solution act first to retard the set time of the mix but then enhance the hydration reactions following the induction period. In fact, the aluminate ions increase the degree of hydration by {approx}35% over the degree of hydration for the same mix with a lower aluminate concentration. An increase in the blast furnace slag concentration and a decrease in the water to cementitious materials ratio produced mixes with higher values of Young's modulus and lower values of total porosity. Therefore, these operational factors can be fine tuned to enhance performance properties of cementitious waste form. Empirical models for Young modulus, heat of hydration and total porosity were developed to predict the values of these properties. These linear models used only statistically significant compositional and operational factors and provided insight into those factors that control these properties.

  4. CO.sub.2 utilization in electrochemical systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boxley, Chett; Akash, Akash; Zhao, Qiang

    2013-01-22

    A process for treating fly ash to render it highly usable as a concrete additive. A quantity of fly ash is obtained that contains carbon and which is considered unusable fly ash for concrete based upon foam index testing. The fly ash is mixed with a quantity of spray dryer ash (SDA) and water to initiate a geopolymerization reaction and form a geopolymerized fly ash. The geopolymerized fly ash is granulated. The geopolymerized fly ash is considered usable fly ash for concrete according to foam index testing. The geopolymerized fly ash may have a foam index less than 40%, and in some cases less than 20%, of the foam index of the untreated fly ash. An optional alkaline activator may be mixed with the fly ash and SDA to facilitate the geopolymerization reaction. The alkaline activator may contain an alkali metal hydroxide, carbonate, silicate, aluminate, or mixtures thereof.

  5. ADVANCED POWER SYSTEMS - ASH BEHAVIOR IN POWER SYSTEMS. INCLUDES THE SEMIANNUAL REPORT FOR THE PERIOD JANUARY 01, 1998 - JUNE 30, 1998.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-09-01

    The overall goal of this initiative is to develop fundamental knowledge of ash behavior in power systems for the purpose of increasing power production efficiency, reducing operation and maintenance costs, and reducing greenhouse gas emissions into the atmosphere. The specific objectives of this initiative focus primarily on ash behavior related to advanced power systems and include the following: Determine the current status of the fundamental ash interactions and deposition formation mechanisms as already reported through previous or ongoing projects at the EERC or in the literature; Determine sintering mechanisms for temperatures and particle compositions that are less well known and remain for the most part undetermined; Identify the relationship between the temperature of critical viscosity (T{sub cv}) as measured in a viscometer and the crystallization occurring in the melt; Perform a literature search on the use of heated-stage microscopy (HSM) for examining in situ ash-sintering phenomena and then validate the use of HSM in the determination of viscosity in spherical ash particles; Ascertain the formation and stability of specific mineral or amorphous phases in deposits typical of advanced power systems; and Evaluate corrosion for alloys being used in supercritical combustion systems.

  6. Relationship between selenium body burdens and tissue concentrations in fish exposed to coal ash at the Tennessee Valley Authority Kingston spill site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mathews, Teresa J; Fortner, Allison M; Jett, Robert T; Peterson, Mark J; Carriker, Neil; Morris, Jesse G; Gable, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    In December 2008, 4.1 million m3 of coal ash were released into the Emory and Clinch Rivers by the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) Kingston Fossil Plant. Coal ash contains several contaminants, including the bioaccumulative metalloid selenium (Se). Because Se is predominantly accumulated in aquatic organisms through dietary, rather than aqueous exposure, tissue-based toxicity thresholds for Se are currently being considered. The proposed threshold concentrations range between 4-9 g/g Se (dry wt.) in whole body fish, with a proposed fillet threshold of 11.8 g/g. In the present study we examined the spatial and temporal trends in Se bioaccumulation and examined the relationship between the Se content in fillets and in whole bodies of fish collected around the Kingston spill site to determine whether Se bioaccumulation was a significant concern at the ash spill site. While Se concentrations in fish (whole bodies and fillets) were elevated at sampling locations affected by the Kingston ash spill relative to reference locations, concentrations do not appear to be above risk thresholds and have not been increasing over the five year period since the spill. Our results are not only relevant to guiding the human health and ecological risk assessments at the Kingston ash spill site, but because of current national discussions on appropriate guidelines for Se in fish as well for the disposal of coal combustion wastes, our results are also relevant to the general understanding of Se bioaccumulation in contaminated water bodies.

  7. Pilot Demonstration of Technology for the Production of High Value Materials from the Ultra-Fine (PM2.5) Fraction of Coal Combustion Ash

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    T. L. Robl; J. G. Groppo; R. Rathbone; B. Marrs; R. Jewell

    2008-07-18

    The overall objective of this research was to determine the feasibility of recovering a very fine fraction of fly ash, that is 5 microns in diameter or less and examining the characteristics of these materials in new or at least less traditional applications. These applications included as a polymer filler or as a 'super' pozzolanic concrete additive. As part of the effort the ash from 6 power plants was investigated and characterized. This work included collection from ESP Hoppers and ponds. The ash was thoroughly characterized chemically and physically. Froth flotation was used to reduce the carbon and testing showed that flotation could effectively reduce carbon to acceptable levels (i.e. 0.5% LOI) for most of the substrates tested. in order to enable eventual use as fillers. Hydraulic classification was used in the separation of the fine ash from the coarse ash. Hydraulic classification requires the ash to be dispersed to be effective and a range of dispersants were tested for adsorption as well as sedimentation rate. A wide range of dosages were required (0.3 to 10 g/kg). In general the ponded ash required less dispersant. A model was developed for hydraulic classification. A pilot-scale hydraulic classifier was also designed and operated for the project. Product yields of up to 21% of feed solids were achieved with recoveries of <5 {micro}m particles as high as 64%. Mean particle sizes (D{sub 50}) of the ultra fine ash (UFA) products varied from 3.7 to 10 {micro}m. A patent was filed on the classifier design. A conceptual design of a Process Demonstration Unit (PDU) with a feed rate of 2 tons of raw ash feed per hour was also completed. Pozzolanic activity was determined for the UFA ashes in mortars. In general the overall strength index was excellent with values of 90% achieved in 3 days and {approx}100% in 7 days. Three types of thermoplastic polymers were evaluated with the UFA as a filler: high density polyethylene, thermoplastic elastomer and polyethylene terphthalate filled polymers were prepared and subjected to SEM analysis to verify that the UFA was well dispersed. The addition of fillers increased the modulus of the HDPE composite, but decreased both the offset yield stress and offset yield strain, showing that the fillers essentially made the composite stiffer but the transition to plastic deformation occurred earlier in filled HDPE as stress was applied. Similar results were obtained with TPE, however, the decrease in either stress or strain at offset yield were not as significant. Dynamic mechanical analyses (DMA) were also completed and showed that although there were some alterations in the properties of the HDPE and TPE, the alterations are small, and more importantly, transition temperatures are not altered. The UFA materials were also tested in expanded urethanes, were improvements were made in the composites strength and stiffness, particularly for lighter weight materials. The results of limited flammability and fire safety testing were encouraging. A flowsheet was developed to produce an Ultra-Fine Ash (UFA) product from reclaimed coal-fired utility pond ash. The flowsheet is for an entry level product development scenario and additional production can be accommodated by increasing operating hours and/or installing replicate circuits. Unit process design was based on experimental results obtained throughout the project and cost estimates were derived from single vendor quotes. The installation cost of this plant is estimated to be $2.1M.

  8. The effects of the mechanicalchemical stabilization process for municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash on the chemical reactions in cement paste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Cheng-Gang; Sun, Chang-Jung; Gau, Sue-Huai; Wu, Ching-Wei; Chen, Yu-Lun

    2013-04-15

    Highlights: ? Milling extracted MSWI fly ash. ? Increasing specific surface area, destruction of the crystalline texture, and increasing the amount of amorphous materials. ? Increasing heavy metal stability. ? Inducing pozzolanic reactions and increasing the early and later strength of the cement paste. - Abstract: A water extraction process can remove the soluble salts present in municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) fly ash, which will help to increase the stability of the synthetic materials produced from the MSWI fly ash. A milling process can be used to stabilize the heavy metals found in the extracted MSWI fly ash (EA) leading to the formation of a non-hazardous material. This milled extracted MSWI fly ash (MEA) was added to an ordinary Portland cement (OPC) paste to induce pozzolanic reactions. The experimental parameters included the milling time (96 h), water to binder ratios (0.38, 0.45, and 0.55), and curing time (1, 3, 7 and 28 days). The analysis procedures included inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP/AES), BET, mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) imaging. The results of the analyses indicate that the milling process helped to stabilize the heavy metals in the MEA, with an increase in the specific surface area of about 50 times over that of OPC. The addition of the MEA to the OPC paste decreased the amount of Ca(OH){sub 2} and led to the generation of calciumsilicatehydrates (CSH) which in turned increased the amount of gel pores and middle sized pores in the cement. Furthermore, a comparison shows an increase in the early and later strength over that of OPC paste without the addition of the milled extracted ash. In other words, the milling process could stabilize the heavy metals in the MEA and had an activating effect on the MEA, allowing it to partly substitute OPC in OPC paste.

  9. Economic evaluation of losses to electric power utilities caused by ash fouling. Final technical report, November 1, 1979-April 30, 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burkhardt, F.R.; Persnger, M.M.

    1980-01-01

    Problems with convection ash fouling and wall slagging were considerable during our study. The Dakota lignites posed the greatest problems, particularly with fouling. The subbituminous coals had considerable problems, related mostly with wall slagging. The Texas lignites had few problems, and those were only associated with wall slagging. The generation losses were as follows: The Dakota lignite burning stations averaged an overall availability of 87.13%. Convection fouling outages were responsible for 57.75% of this outage time for a decrease in availability of 7.43%. Fouling was responsible for curtailment losses of 317,649 Mwh or 8.25% of the remaining available generation. Slagging was responsible for losses of 2732 megawatt hours or .07% of the remaining available generation. Total ash related losses amounted to 16.08% of the total available generation. The subbituminous burning stations averaged an overall availability of 78.36%. Total ash related losses amounted to 1.54% of the total available generation. The Texas lignite burning stations averaged an overall availability of 80.63%. No ash related outage losses occurred. Slagging curtailments accounted 0.08% of the total available generation. Costs due to ash fouling and slagging related curtailments are a tremendous sum. Seven power stations were studied for a six month period to assess costs. The total cost directly attributable to ash slagging and fouling condition was $20,638,113. Recommendations for reducing the problems involve soot blowers, control of furnace gas exit temperature, water blowers and more conservative boiler design.

  10. Experimental studies and thermodynamic modelling of volatilities of uranium, plutonium, and americium from their oxides and from their oxides interacted with ash

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krikorian, O.H.; Ebbinghaus, B.B.; Adamson, M.G.; Fontes, A.S. Jr.; Fleming, D.L.

    1993-09-15

    The purpose of this study is to identify the types and amounts of volatile gaseous species of U, Pu, and Am that are produced in the combustion chamber offgases of mixed waste oxidation processors. Primary emphasis is on the Rocky Flats Plant Fluidized Bed Incinerator. Transpiration experiments have been carried out on U{sub 3}O{sub 8}(s), U{sub 3}O{sub 8} interacted with various ash materials, PuO{sub 2}(s), PuO{sub 2} interacted with ash materials, and a 3%PuO{sub 2}/0.06%AmO{sub 2}/ash material, all in the presence of steam and oxygen, and at temperatures in the vicinity of 1,300 K. UO{sub 3}(g) and UO{sub 2}(OH){sub 2}(g) have been identified as the uranium volatile species and thermodynamic data established for them. Pu and Am are found to have very low volatilities, and carryover of Pu and Am as fine dust particulates is found to dominate over vapor transport. The authors are able to set upper limits on Pu and Am volatilities. Very little lowering of U volatility is found for U{sub 3}O{sub 8} interacted with typical ashes. However, ashes high in Na{sub 2}O (6.4 wt %) or in CaO (25 wt %) showed about an order of magnitude reduction in U volatility. Thermodynamic modeling studies were carried out that show that for aluminosilicate ash materials, it is the presence of group I and group II oxides that reduces the activity of the actinide oxides. K{sub 2}O is the most effective followed by Na{sub 2}O and CaO for common ash constituents. A more major effect in actinide activity lowering could be achieved by adding excess group I or group II oxides to exceed their interaction with the ash and lead to direct formation of alkali or alkaline earth uranates, plutonates, and americates.

  11. Influence of metal(loid) bioaccumulation and maternal transfer on embryo-larval development in fish exposed to a major coal ash spill

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Greeley, Jr., Mark Stephen; Adams, S. Marshall; Elmore, Logan R.; McCracken, Mary Kitty

    2016-01-03

    In December 2008, an earthen retaining wall at the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) Kingston Fossil Fuel Plant failed and released 4.1 million m3 of coal ash to rivers flowing into Watts Bar Reservoir in east Tennessee, United States (U.S.). As part of a comprehensive effort to evaluate the risks to aquatic resources from this spill – the largest in U.S. history – we compared bioaccumulation and maternal transfer of selenium (Se), arsenic (As), and mercury (Hg) in adult redear sunfish (Lepomis macrolophus), collected two years after the spill from both coal-ash exposed and non-exposed areas of the Emory and Clinchmore » Rivers, with the success of embryo-larval development in their offspring. Whole body and ovary concentrations of Se in female sunfish at three study sites downstream of the spill were significantly elevated (site means = 4.9–5.3 and 6.7–9.0 mg/kg d.w. whole body and ovary concentrations, respectively) compared with concentrations in fish from reference sites upstream of the spill site (2.2–3.2 mg/kg d.w. for whole bodies and 3.6–4.8 mg/kg d.w. for ovaries). However, Se concentrations in coal ash-exposed areas remain below proposed U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) criteria for the protection of aquatic life. Site-to-site variation in fish concentrations of As and Hg were not well-correlated with ash-exposure, reflecting the multiple sources of these metal(loid)s in the affected watersheds. In 7-day laboratory tests of embryos and larvae derived from in vitro crosses of eggs and sperm from these field-collected sunfish, fertilization success, hatching success, embryo-larval survival, and incidences of developmental abnormalities did not differ significantly between ash-exposed and non-exposed fish. Furthermore, these developmental endpoints were not correlated with whole body or ovary concentrations of Se, As, or Hg in the maternal fish, or with fish size, ovary weight, or gonadal-somatic indices. Furthermore, results from this and related studies associated with the Kingston coal ash spill are consistent with proposed USEPA fish-based water quality criteria for Se, and to date continue to suggest that long-term exposures to sediment containing residual ash may not present a significant chronic risk to fish populations exposed to this major coal ash release.« less

  12. Survey and conceptual flow sheets for coal conversion plant handling-preparation and ash/slag removal operations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zapp, F.C.; Thomas, O.W.; Silverman, M.D.; Dyslin, D.A.; Holmes, J.M.

    1980-03-01

    This study was undertaken at the request of the Fossil Fuel Processing Division of the Department of Energy. The report includes a compilation of conceptual flow sheets, including major equipment lists, and the results of an availability survey of potential suppliers of equipment associated with the coal and ash/slag operations that will be required by future large coal conversion plant complexes. Conversion plant flow sheet operations and related equipment requirements were based on two representative bituminous coals - Pittsburgh and Kentucky No. 9 - and on nine coal conversion processes. It appears that almost all coal handling and preparation and ash/slag removal equipment covered by this survey, with the exception of some coal comminution equipment, either is on hand or can readily be fabricated to meet coal conversion plant capacity requirements of up to 50,000 short tons per day. Equipment capable of handling even larger capacities can be developed. This approach appears to be unjustified, however, because in many cases a reasonable or optimum number of trains of equipment must be considered when designing a conversion plant complex. The actual number of trains of equipment selected will be influenced by the total requied capacity of the complex, the minimum on-line capacity that can be tolerated in case of equipment failure, reliability of specific equipment types, and the number of reactors and related feed injection stations needed for the specific conversion process.

  13. Ash Deposit Formation and Deposit Properties. A Comprehensive Summary of Research Conducted at Sandia's Combustion Research Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Larry L. Baxter

    2000-08-01

    This report summarizes experimental and theoretical work performed at Sandia's Combustion Research Facility over the past eight years on the fate of inorganic material during coal combustion. This work has been done under four broad categories: coal characterization, fly ash formation, ash deposition, and deposit property development. The objective was to provide sufficient understanding of these four areas to be able to predict coal behavior in current and advanced conversion systems. This work has led to new characterization techniques for fuels that provide, for the first time, systematic and species specific information regarding the inorganic material. The transformations of inorganic material during combustion can be described in terms of the net effects of the transformations of these individual species. Deposit formation mechanisms provide a framework for predicting deposition rates for abroad range of particle sizes. Predictions based on these rates many times are quite accurate although there are important exceptions. A rigorous framework for evaluating deposit has been established. Substantial data have been obtained with which to exercise this framework, but this portion of the work is less mature than is any other. Accurate prediction of deposit properties as functions of fuel properties, boiler design, and boiler operating conditions represents the single most critical area where additional research is needed.

  14. Environmental assessment of no remedial action at the inactive uraniferous lignite ashing sites at Belfield and Bowman, North Dakota

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-06-01

    The Belfield and Bowman sites were not included on the original congressional list of processing sites to be designated by the Secretary of Energy. Instead, the sites were nominated for designation by the Dakota Resource Council in a letter to the DOE (September 7, 1979). In a letter to the DOE (September 12, 1979), the state of North Dakota said that it did not believe the sites would qualify as processing sites under the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) because the activities at the sites involved only the ashing of uraniferous lignite coal and the ash was shipped out of state for actual processing. Nevertheless, on October 11, 1979, the state of North Dakota agreed to the designation of the sites because they met the spirit of the law (reduce public exposure to radiation resulting from past uranium operations). Therefore, these sites were designated by the Secretary of Energy for remedial action. Because of the relatively low health impacts determined for these sites, they were ranked as low priority and scheduled to be included in the final group of sites to be remediated.

  15. Effective properties of a fly ash geopolymer: Synergistic application of X-ray synchrotron tomography, nanoindentation, and homogenization models

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Das, Sumanta; Yang, Pu; Singh, Sudhanshu S.; Mertens, James C. E.; Xiao, Xianghui; Chawla, Nikhilesh; Neithalath, Narayanan

    2015-09-02

    Microstructural and micromechanical investigation of a fly ash-based geopolymer using: (i) synchrotron x-ray tomography (XRT) to determine the volume fraction and tortuosity of pores that are influential in fluid transport, (ii) mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP) to capture the volume fraction of smaller pores, (iii) scanning electron microscopy (SEM) combined with multi-label thresholding to identify and characterize the solid phases in the microstructure, and (iv) nanoindentation to determine the component phase elastic properties using statistical deconvolution, is reported in this paper. The phase volume fractions and elastic properties are used in multi-step mean field homogenization (Mori- Tanaka and double inclusion) modelsmore » to determine the homogenized macroscale elastic modulus of the composite. The homogenized elastic moduli are in good agreement with the flexural elastic modulus determined on macroscale paste beams. As a result, the combined use of microstructural and micromechanical characterization tools at multiple scales provides valuable information towards the material design of fly ash geopolymers.« less

  16. Fundamental mechanisms in flue gas conditioning. Topical report No. 2, Literature review and assembly of theories on the interactions of ash and conditioning agents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bush, P.V.; Snyder, T.R.

    1992-01-09

    The overall goal of this research project is to formulate a mathematical model of flue gas conditioning. This model will be based on an understanding of why ask properties, such as cohesivity and resistivity, are changed by conditioning. Such a model could serve as a component of the performance models of particulate control devices where flue gas conditioning is used. There are two specific objectives of this research project, which divide the planned research into two main parts. One part of the project is designed to determine how ash particles are modified by interactions with sorbent injection processes and to describe the mechanisms by which these interactions affect fine particle collection. The objective of the other part of the project is to identify the mechanisms by which conditioning agents, including chemically active compounds, modify the key properties of fine fly ash particles.

  17. EA-2011: Proposed Release of Three Parasitoids for the Biological Control of the Emerald Ash Borer (Agrilus Planipennis) in the Continental United States

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    USDA Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service issued an EA (July 2007) that analyzed the potential environmental impacts of the release of three parasitoids into the continental U.S. for the biological control of the emerald ash borer, a nonnative invasive beetle. The DOE Oak Ridge Office reviewed the EA, adopted it, and issued a FONSI for the proposed release of the same parasitoids into the environment on the Oak Ridge Reservation.

  18. Advanced research and technology, direct utilization: recovery of minerals from coal fly ash. Fossil energy program. Technical progress report, 1 October 1980-31 December 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burnet, G.; Weiss, S.J.; Murtha, M.J.

    1981-02-01

    The purpose of this research is to develop methods to process fly ash for the separation and use of an iron-rich fraction, for the recovery of metals, primarily Al and Ti, and for use of the process residues. Research during this report period of the HiChlor process for the extraction of alumina and titania by high-temperature chlorination of a fly ash-reductant mixture included investigation of the simulation of the reactions as a design tool, the assembly of a unit to measure reaction kinetic rates and particle specific surface areas and porosities, and the design of equipment to measure necessary chloride product separation data. A pretreatment chlorination reaction using CO and Cl/sub 2/ was found to be capable of removing 80% of the iron with only minimal alumina and silica reaction. Development of the lime-soda sinter process includes the collection of data on the phenomenon of auto-disintegration of lime-fly ash sinters. Results indicate that it is the presence of minor constituents having +5 pr +6 valence cations of a size that can enter the lattice of the calcium silicate which prevent sinter auto-disintegration.

  19. The evolution of strength and crystalline phases for alkali-activated ground blast furnace slag and fly ash-based geopolymers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oh, Jae Eun; Monteiro, Paulo J.M.; Jun, Ssang Sun; Choi, Sejin; Clark, Simon M.

    2010-02-15

    The increase in strength and evolution of crystalline phases in inorganic polymer cement, made by the alkali activation of slag, Class C and Class F fly ashes, was followed using compressive strength test and synchrotron X-ray diffraction. In order to increase the crystallinity of the product the reactions were carried out at 80 deg. C. We found that hydrotalcite formed in both the alkali-activated slag cements and the fly ash-based geopolymers. Hydroxycancrinite, one member of the ABC-6 family of zeolites, was found only in the fly ash geopolymers. Assuming that the predominantly amorphous geopolymer formed under ambient conditions relates to the crystalline phases found when the mixture is cured at high temperature, we propose that the structure of this zeolitic precursor formed in Na-based high alkaline environment can be regarded as a disordered form of the basic building unit of the ABC-6 group of zeolites which includes poly-types such as hydroxycancrinite, hydroxysodalite and chabazite-Na.

  20. Mineralogy of the hardpan formation processes in the interface between sulfide-rich sludge and fly ash: Applications for acid mine drainage mitigation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Perez-Lopez, R.; Nieto, J.M.; Alvarez-Valero, A.M.; De Almodovar, G.R.

    2007-11-15

    In the present study, experiments in non-saturated leaching columns were conducted to characterize the neoformed phases that precipitate at the interface between two waste residues having different chemical characteristics: an acid mine drainage producer residue (i.e., pyritic sludge) and an acidity neutralizer residue (i.e., coal combustion fly ash). A heating source was placed on top of one of the columns to accelerate oxidation and precipitation of newly formed phases, and thus, to observe longer-scale processes. When both residues are deposited together, the resulting leachates are characterized by alkaline pH, and low sulfate and metal concentrations. Two mechanisms help to improve the quality of the leachates. Over short-time scales, the leaching of pyrite at high pH (as a consequence of fly ash addition) favors the precipitation of ferrihydrite, encapsulating the pyrite grains and attenuating the oxidation process. Over longer time scales, a hardpan is promoted at the interface between both residues due to the precipitation of ferrihydrite, jarosite, and a Ca phase-gypsum or aragonite, depending on carbonate ion activity. Geochemical modeling of leachates using PHREEQC software predicted supersaturation in the observed minerals. The development of a relatively rigid crust at the interface favors the isolation of the mining waste from weathering processes, helped by the cementation of fly ash owing to aragonite precipitation, which ensures total isolation and neutralization of the mine residues.

  1. Evaluation of Invertebrate Bioaccumulation of Fly Ash Contaminants in the Emory, Clinch, and Tennessee Rivers, 2009 - 2010

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, John G

    2012-05-01

    This report provides a summary of results from studies on invertebrate bioaccumulation of potential contaminants associated with a major fly ash spill into the Emory River following the failure of a dike at the Tennessee Valley Authority's (TVA) Kingston Fossil Plant (KIF) in Kingston, Tennessee, in late December 2008. Data included in this report cover samples collected in calendar years 2009 and 2010. Samples collected from most sites in 2009 were processed by two different laboratories using different approved U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) analytical methods: ALS Laboratory Group in Ft. Collins, CO, processed sampling using EPA method 6010 (but method 6020 for uranium and SW7470 for mercury), and PACE Analytical in Minneapolis, MN, used EPA method 6020. A preliminary evaluation of results from both laboratories indicated that some differences exited in measured concentrations of several elements, either because of specific differences of the two methods or inter-laboratory differences. While concentration differences between the laboratories were noted for many elements, spatial trends depicted from the results of both methods appeared to be similar. However, because samples collected in the future will be analyzed by Method 6020, only the results from PACE were included in this report to reduce data variation potentially associated with inter-laboratory and analytical method differences.

  2. Richard King: Principal Scientist, Spectrolab, Inc. | Center...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Recent experimental results on high-efficiency solar cells with 3-, 4-, and 5- junctions will be ... vacuum level, and that some defect energy levels in chalcopyrite I-III-VI ...

  3. NREL Wins Martin Luther King Award

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Comes to Denver June 15-21 For more information contact: Kerry Masson, (303)275-4083 Golden, Colo., June 6, 1996 -- The fourth World Renewable Energy Congress, the only international conference focusing on renewable energy, energy efficiency and the environment, will be held in Denver June 15 - 21 at the Adam's Mark Hotel. More than 600 energy experts from 80 countries are expected to participate in the conference which will address global renewable energy issues such as economic development,

  4. Fossil fuel is king with energy producers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hansen, T.

    1996-11-01

    Worldwide energy consumption is expected to double today`s levels by 2020, according to the World Energy Council. As diverse energy needs develop, fossil fuels are expected to continue to be the major source for power generation throughout the world. In the United States, utility deregulation is making low-cost fuel and power plant efficiency more important than ever. Electricity generators see both natural gas and coal as the fuels that will allow them to best meet the nation`s future energy needs. Coal will see less increase in its share of electricity generation than natural gas due to the costs associated with meeting the Clean Air Act Amendments` (CAAA) requirements. According to Organizations for Economic Cooperation Development, coal in both the United States and Europe will experience a 12 percent growth by 2010. Even with this somewhat slow growth, coal will remain the nation`s number one fuel for electricity generation well into the next century.

  5. Microsoft PowerPoint - Tribal_King

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Annual Meeting - Bloomington, MN May 13-15, 2014 To provide a brief summary of how the Oneida Tribe of Indians of Wisconsin have developed their Tribal Emergency Management Plan and Identify Tribal Resources. Compared to the Menominee Nation located 30 miles to the Northwest. History Location Current Tribal Capacity Background/Influences (PL 280) Oneida Land History Factors for Success Oneida Reservation is about 65,400 acres (approximately 100 square miles) Tribe currently owns 36% of the land

  6. Time course of systemic oxidative stress and inflammatory response induced by an acute exposure to Residual Oil Fly Ash

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marchini, T.; Magnani, N.D.; Paz, M.L.; Vanasco, V.; Tasat, D.; Gonzlez Maglio, D.H.; and others

    2014-01-15

    It is suggested that systemic oxidative stress and inflammation play a central role in the onset and progression of cardiovascular diseases associated with the exposure to particulate matter (PM). The aim of this work was to evaluate the time changes of systemic markers of oxidative stress and inflammation, after an acute exposure to Residual Oil Fly Ash (ROFA). Female Swiss mice were intranasally instilled with a ROFA suspension (1.0 mg/kg body weight) or saline solution, and plasma levels of oxidative damage markers [thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARSs) and protein carbonyls], antioxidant status [reduced (GSH) and oxidized (GSSG) glutathione, ascorbic acid levels, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity], cytokines levels, and intravascular leukocyte activation were evaluated after 1, 3 or 5 h of exposure. Oxidative damage to lipids and decreased GSH/GSSG ratio were observed in ROFA-exposed mice as early as 1 h. Afterwards, increased protein oxidation, decreased ascorbic acid content and SOD activity were found in this group at 3 h. The onset of an adaptive response was observed at 5 h after the ROFA exposure, as indicated by decreased TBARS plasma content and increased SOD activity. The observed increase in oxidative damage to plasma macromolecules, together with systemic antioxidants depletion, may be a consequence of a systemic inflammatory response triggered by the ROFA exposure, since increased TNF-? and IL-6 plasma levels and polymorphonuclear leukocytes activation was found at every evaluated time point. These findings contribute to the understanding of the increase in cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, in association with environmental PM inhalation. - Highlights: An acute exposure to ROFA triggers the occurrence of systemic oxidative stress. Changes in plasmatic oxidative stress markers appear as early as 1 h after exposure. ROFA induces proinflammatory cytokines release and intravascular leukocyte activation. PMN activation is a relevant source of reactive oxygen species in this model. These findings may account for previously described cardiopulmonary alterations.

  7. Novel Ultra-Low-Energy Consumption Ultrasonic Clothes Dryer

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Lead Performer: Oak Ridge National Laboratory – Oak Ridge, TNPartners: General Electric Appliances – Louisville, KY

  8. Letter report: Evaluation of dryer/calciner technologies for testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sevigny, G.

    1996-02-01

    This letter report describes some past experiences on the drying and calcination of radioactive materials or corresponding simulants; and the information needed from testing. The report also includes an assessment of informational needs including possible impacts to a full-scale plant. This includes reliability, maintenance, and overall size versus throughput. Much of the material was previously compiled and reported by Mike Elliott of PNL {open_quotes}Melter Performance Assessment{close_quotes} and Larry Eisenstatt of SEG on contract to WHC in a letter to Rod Powell. Also, an annotated bibliography was prepared by Reagan Seymour of WHC. Descriptions of the drying and calciner technologies, development status, advantages and disadvantages of using a WFE or calciner, and recommendations for future testing are discussed in this report.

  9. Consortium for Energy Efficiency (CEE) Notes_ Clothes Dryer Test Procedure

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    CEE and DOE staff discussed the importance of relying on the DOE test method as the sole metric for efficiency and energy use reporting.

  10. BTO Partners are Revolutionizing Refrigerators and Clothes Dryers...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... Environmentally friendly supermarket refrigeration technologies, such as the first hydro-fluorocarbon (HFC)-free CO2 system with 25 percent energy savings and 75 percent fewer ...

  11. Management of Spent Desiccant from Vapour Recovery Dryers | Department of

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    3 OAS-FS-14-06 February 2014 MANAGEMENT LETTER January 27, 2014 Mr. Gregory Friedman Inspector General U.S. Department of Energy 1000 Independence Avenue, S.W., Room 5D-039 Washington, DC 20585 Dear Mr. Friedman: In planning and performing our audits of the consolidated financial statements and closing package financial statements of the United States Department of Energy (the Department), as of and for the year ended September 30, 2013, in accordance with auditing standards generally accepted

  12. Large Optic Drying Station: Summary of Dryer Certification Tests

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barbee, T W; Ayers, S L; Ayers, M J

    2009-08-28

    The purpose of this document is to outline the methodology used to baseline and maintain the cleanliness status of the newly built and installed Large Optic Cleaning Station (LOCS). The station has currently been in use for eleven months; and after many cleaning studies and implementation of resulting improvements appears to be cleaning optics to a level that is acceptable for the fabrication of Nano-Laminates.

  13. Management of Spent Dessicant from Vapour Recovery Dryers

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    *Significant literature exists on the performance characteristics and on tritium "memory" effects *Focus of request is more on the disposal of spent molecular sieves Purpose...

  14. Efficient continuous dryer for flexible polyurethane foam and cleaning apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jody, B.; Daniels, E.; Libera, J.A.

    1999-03-16

    A method of cleaning polyurethane foams where the material is transported through a wash station while alternately soaking the polyurethane foam in an organic solvent and squeezing solvent from the polyurethane foam a number of times. Then the polyurethane foam is sent through a rinse or solvent transfer station for reducing the concentration of solvent in the foam. The rinsed polyurethane foam is sent to a drying station wherein the foam is repeatedly squeezed while being exposed to hot air to remove wet air from the foam. 4 figs.

  15. Efficient continuous dryer for flexible polyurethane foam and cleaning apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jody, Bassam; Daniels, Edward; Libera, Joseph A.

    1999-01-01

    A method of cleaning polyurethane foams where the material is transported through a wash station while alternately soaking the polyurethane foam in an organic solvent and squeezing solvent from the polyurethane foam a number of times. Then the polyurethane foam is sent through a rinse or solvent transfer station for reducing the concentration of solvent in the foam. The rinsed polyurethane foam is sent to a drying station wherein the foam is repeatedly squeezed while being exposed to hot air to remove wet air from the foam.

  16. Detection of potential genetic hazards in complex environmental mixtures using plant cytogenetics and microbial mutagenesis assays. [Arsenic-contaminated groundwater and power plant fly ash extract

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Constantin, M J; Lowe, K; Rao, T K; Larimer, F W; Epler, J L

    1980-01-01

    Solid wastes have been characterized to determine their potential hazards to humans and the environment. An arsenic-contaminated ground water sample increased the frequency of histidine revertants in Salmonella typhimurium (TA-98) at 0.025 to 5.000 ..mu..l per plate with Aroclor-induced S-9 liver microsomes. When 2.5 to 75 ..mu..l of the XAD-2 concentrate (12.5-fold, v:v) were used, the mutant frequency was increased in strains TA-98, TA-100, and TA-1537; metabolic activation was not required. Only the XAD-2 concentrate was mutagenic in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae haploid strain XL-7-10B; metabolic activation was not required. The mutagenic principal, which is not known, appears to be at the limit of resolution; hence, the XAD-2 concentration is necessary to demonstrate mutagenic activity. The arsenic-contaminated ground water (0.0625 and 0.125 dilutions) and the power plant fly ash extract (undiluted) increased the frequency of bridges and fragements at anaphase in root tip cells of Hordeum. The fly ash sample was negative in the microbial assays. Results emphasize (1) the need for a battery of assays with different organisms and (2) the potential of a simple assay using plant root tip cells to detect mutagenic activity in complex environmental mixtures.

  17. Novel microorganism for selective separation of coal from ash and pyrite; First quarterly technical progress report, September 1, 1993--November 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Misra, M.; Smith, R.W.; Raichur, A.M.

    1993-12-31

    This report summarizes the progress made during the first quarter of the research project entitled ``A Novel Microorganism for Selective Separation of Coal from Ash and Pyrite,`` DOE Grant No. DE-FG22-93PC93215. The objective of this project is to study the effectiveness of a novel hydrophobic microorganism, Mycobacterium phlei (M. phlei), for the selective flocculation of coal from pyrite and ash-forming minerals. During the reporting period, three different coal samples: Illinois No. 6 coal, Kentucky No. 9 coal and Pittsburgh No. 8 coal, were collected to be used in the investigation. The microorganism, M. phlei, was obtained as freeze-dried cultures and the growth characteristics of the bacteria were studied. Scanning electron microphotographs revealed that M. phlei cells are coccal in shape and are approximately 1 {mu}m in diameter. Electrokinetic measurements showed that the Illinois No. 6 and Pittsburgh No. 8 coal samples had an isoelectric point (IEP) around pH 6 whereas M. phlei had an IEP around pH 1.5. Electrokinetic measurements of the ruptured microorganisms exhibited an increase in IEP. The increase in IEP of the ruputured cells was due to the release of fatty acids and polar groups from the cell membrane.

  18. Brominated Sorbents for Small Cold-Side ESPs, Hot-Side ESPs and Fly Ash Use in Concrete

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ronald Landreth

    2008-06-30

    This report summarizes the work conducted from September 16, 2005 through December 31, 2008 on the project entitled â??Brominated Sorbents for Small Cold-Side ESPs, Hot-Side ESPs and Fly Ash Use in Concreteâ?. The project covers testing at three host sites: Progress Energy H.F. Lee Station and the Midwest Generation Crawford and Will County Stations. At Progress Energy Lee 1, parametric tests were performed both with and without SO{sub 3} injection in order to determine the impact on the mercury sorbent performance. In addition, tests were performed on the hot-side of the air preheater, before the SO{sub 3} is injected, with H-PACâ?¢ sorbents designed for use at elevated temperatures. The BPACâ?¢ injection provided the expected mercury removal when the SO{sub 3} injection was off. A mercury removal rate due to sorbent of more than 80% was achieved at an injection rate of 8 lb/MMacf. The operation with SO{sub 3} injection greatly reduced the mercury sorbent performance. An important learning came from the injection of H-PACâ?¢ on the hot-side of the air preheater before the SO{sub 3} injection location. The H-PACâ?¢ injected in this manner appeared to be independent of the SO{sub 3} injection and provided better mercury removal than with injecting on the cold-side with SO{sub 3} injection. Consequently, one solution for plants like Lee, with SO{sub 3} injection, or plants with SO{sub 3} generated by the SCR catalyst, is to inject H-PACâ?¢ on the hot-side before the SO{sub 3} is in the flue gas. Even better performance is possible by injecting on the cold-side without the SO{sub 3}, however. During the parametric testing, it was discovered that the injection of B-PACâ?¢ (or H-PACâ?¢) was having a positive impact upon ESP performance. It was decided to perform a 3-day continuous injection run with B-PACâ?¢ in order to determine whether Lee 1 could operate without SO{sub 3} injection. If the test proved positive, the continuous injection would continue as part of the long-term test. The injection of B-PACâ?¢ did allow for the operation of Lee 1 without SO{sub 3} injection and the long-term test was conducted from March 8 through April 7, 2006. The total mercury removal for the 30-day long-term test, excluding the first day when SO{sub 3} was injected and the last day when a plain PAC was used, averaged 85%. The achievement of 85% Hg removal over the 30 days longterm test is another milestone in the history of achievement of the Albemarle Environmental f/k/a Sorbent Technologies Corporation B-PACâ?¢ sorbent. A clear indication of the impact of B-PACâ?¢ on opacity came at the end of the long-term test. It was hoped that Lee 1 could be operated for several days after the end of the long-term test. It took less than a day before the opacity began to increase. The discovery that B-PACâ?¢ can improve ESP performance while capturing a large amount of mercury is another milestone for the B-PACâ?¢ mercury sorbent. The parametric testing at the Midwest Generation Crawford Station was divided into two phases; the first using C-PACâ?¢, the concrete friendly sorbent, and the other using nonconcrete friendly materials. The first phase of the parametric tests was conducted before the long-term test. The second phase of the parametric testing was performed after the long-term test in order to avoid contaminating the fly ash containing the concrete friendly sorbents. The parametric test began with an injection rate of 1 lb/MMacf and, after a period to allow the mercury concentration to stabilize, the rate was increased to 3 lb/MMacf. The Hg removal for this test was about 60% due to sorbent and 69% total at the injection rate of 1 lb/MMacf and 80% due to sorbent and 84% total for the 3 lb/MMacf injection rate. The average total vapor phase mercury removal for the first 21 days of the long-term test was 82% at an injection rate o

  19. Remedial Investigation Report on Chestnut Ridge Operable Unit 2 (Filled Coal Ash Pond/Upper McCoy Branch) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Volume 1. Main Text

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-08-01

    This document is a report on the remedial investigation (RI) of Chestnut Ridge Operable Unit (OU) 2 at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. Chestnut Ridge OU 2 consists of Upper McCoy Branch (UMB), the Filled Coal Ash Pond (FCAP), and the area surrounding the Sluice Channel formerly associated with coal ash disposal in the FCAP. Chestnut Ridge OU 2 is located within the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Oak Ridge Reservation in Anderson County, Tennessee, approximately 24 miles west of Knoxville. The pond is an 8.5-acre area on the southern slope of Chestnut Ridge, 0.5 mile south of the main Y-12 Plant and geographically separated from the Y-12 Plant by Chestnut Ridge. The elevation of the FCAP is {approximately} 950 ft above mean sea level (msl), and it is relatively flat and largely vegetated. Two small ponds are usually present at the northeast and northwest comers of the FCAP. The Sluice Channel Area extends {approximately}1000 ft from the northern margin of the FCAP to the crest of Chestnut Ridge, which has an elevation of {approximately}1100 ft above msl. The Sluice Channel Area is largely vegetated also. McCoy Branch runs from the top of Chestnut Ridge across the FCAP into Rogers Quarry and out of the quarry where it runs a short distance into Milton Hill Lake at McCoy Embayment, termed UMB. The portion south of Rogers Quarry, within Chestnut Ridge OU 4, is termed Lower McCoy Branch. The DOE Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant disposed of coal ash from its steam plant operations as a slurry that was discharged into an ash retention impoundment; this impoundment is the FCAP. The FCAP was built in 1955 to serve as a settling basin after coal ash slurried over Chestnut Ridge from the Y-12 Plant. The FCAP was constructed by building an earthen dam across the northern tributary of McCoy Branch. The dam was designed to hold 20 years of Y-12 steam plant ash. By July 1967, ash had filled up the impoundment storage behind the dam to within 4 ft of the top.

  20. Proceedings of Office of Surface Mining Coal Combustion By-product Government/Regulatory Panel: University of Kentucky international ash utilization symposium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vories, K.C.

    2003-07-01

    Short papers are given on: the Coal Combustion Program (C2P2) (J. Glenn); regional environmental concerns with disposal of coal combustion wastes at mines (T. FitzGerald); power plant waste mine filling - an environmental perspective (L.G. Evans); utility industry perspective regarding coal combustion product management and regulation (J. Roewer); coal combustion products opportunities for beneficial use (D.C. Goss); state perspective on mine placement of coal combustion by-products (G.E. Conrad); Texas regulations provide for beneficial use of coal combustion ash (S.S. Ferguson); and the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act - a response to concerns about placement of CCBs at coal mine sites (K.C. Vories). The questions and answers are also included.

  1. Effects of coal fly-ash disposal on water quality in and around the Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore, Indiana. Water-resources investigations (final)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hardy, M.A.

    1981-04-01

    Dissolved constituents in seepage from fly-ash settling ponds bordering part of the Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore (the Lakeshore) have increased trace elements, and gross alpha and gross beta radioactivity in ground water and surface water downgradient from the settling ponds. Data suggest that concentrations of some dissolved trace elements may be greater beneath interdunal pond 2 than in the pond. The soil system downgradient from the settling ponds seems to have affected the concentrations of dissolved ions in the settling-pond seepage. Calcium concentrations were greater in ground water downgradient from the settling ponds than in the ponds. Where organic material was present downgradient from the settling ponds, concentrations of arsenic, fluoride, molybdenum, potassium, sulfate, and strontium were greater in the ground water than in the ponds. In contrast, the concentrations of cadmium, copper, nickel, aluminum, cobalt, lead, and zinc were less.

  2. Microstructural and compositional change of NaOH-activated high calcium fly ash by incorporating Na-aluminate and co-existence of geopolymeric gel and C-S-H(I)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oh, Jae Eun; Moon, Juhyuk; Oh, Sang-Gyun; Clark, Simon M.; Monteiro, Paulo J.M.

    2012-05-15

    This study explores the reaction products of alkali-activated Class C fly ash-based aluminosilicate samples by means of high-resolution synchrotron X-ray diffraction (HSXRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), and compressive strength tests to investigate how the readily available aluminum affects the reaction. Class C fly ash-based aluminosilicate raw materials were prepared by incorporating Na-aluminate into the original fly ashes, then alkali-activated by 10 M NaOH solution. Incorporating Na-aluminate reduced the compressive strength of samples, with the reduction magnitude relatively constant regardless of length of curing period. The HSXRD provides evidence of the co-existence of C-S-H with geopolymeric gels and strongly suggests that the C-S-H formed in the current system is C-S-H(I). The back-scattered electron images suggest that the C-S-H(I) phase exists as small grains in a finely intermixed form with geopolymeric gels. Despite providing extra source of aluminum, adding Na-aluminate to the mixes did not decrease the Si/Al ratio of the geopolymeric gel.

  3. Partially sulfated lime-fly ash sorbents activated by water or steam for SO{sub 2} removal at a medium temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liming Shi; Xuchang Xu

    2005-12-01

    Laboratory experiments were conducted to investigate the reactivity of partially sulfated lime-fly ash sorbents activated by water or steam for SO{sub 2} removal. Sulfation tests were performed at 550{sup o}C using a fixed bed reactor under conditions simulating economizer zone injection flue gas desulfurization. Activation experiments were conducted with water or steam using a range of temperatures between 100 and 550{sup o}C. The results showed that the reactivity of the sorbents was closely related to the content of Ca(OH){sub 2} formed in the activation process, which varied with the water or steam temperature. The sulfur dioxide capture capacity of Ca(OH){sub 2} in the sorbent is higher than that of CaO at a medium temperature. Water or steam temperatures in the range of 100-200{sup o}C are favorable to the formation of Ca(OH){sub 2} from CaO. 15 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Novel microorganism for selective separation of coal from ash and pyrite. Second quarterly technical progress report, 1 December 1993--28 February 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Misra, M.; Smith, R.W.; Raichur, A.M.

    1994-05-01

    The objective of this project is to study the effectiveness of a novel hydrophobic microorganism, Mycobacterium phlei (M. phlei), for the selective flocculation of coal from pyrite and ash forming minerals. During the reporting period, the hydrophobicity of different coal samples was studied both in the presence and absence of M. phlei cells. In the absence of M. Phlei, Illinois No. 6 and Pennsylvania No. 8 exhibited higher contact angles as compared to Kentucky No. 9 coal. All the coal samples exhibited a maximum in contact angle around pH 5--7, which roughly coincides with the iso-electric point (iep) of different coals studied in this investigation. In the presence of M. phlei, maximum contact angle shifted to lower pH range of 2--3 which coincides with the iep of the M. phlei. These measurements reinforce the notion that good flocculation of coal with M. phlei can be achieved around pH 2--3. The amount of soluble fraction released during rupturing of M. phlei cells was studied as a function of sonication time. The rupturing experiments showed that the whole cells (unruptured cells) contain nearly 40% by weight of soluble fractions. Also, during the reporting period, the fabrication of the counter-current flocculation device was completed.

  5. Advanced development of a pressurized ash agglomerating fluidized-bed coal gasification system. Quarterly progress report, April 1-June 30, 1982

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1982-10-21

    The overall objective of the Westinghouse coal gasification program is to demonstrate the viability of the Westinghouse pressurized, fluidized bed, gasification system for the production of medium-Btu fuel gas for syngas, electrical power generation, chemical feedstocks, or industrial fuels and to obtain performance and scaleup data for the process and hardware. Progress reports are presented for the following tasks: (1) operation and maintenance of the process development unit (PDU); (2) process analysis; (3) cold flow scaleup facility; (4) process and component engineering and design; and (5) laboratory support studies. Some of the highlights for this period are: TP-032-1, a single stage, oxygen-steam blown gasifier test was conducted in three operational phases from March 30, 1982 through May 2, 1982; TP-032-2 was conducted in two operational phases from May 20, 1982 through May 27, 1982; TP-032-1 and TP-032-2 successfully served as shakedown and demonstrations of the full cyclone cold wall; no visible deposits were found on the cold wall after processing highly fouling coals; samples of product gas produced during TP-032-1, were passed through four different scrubbing solutions and analyzed for 78 EPA primary organic pollutants, all of which were found to be below detection limits; TP-M004, a CO/sub 2/ tracer gas test, was initiated and completed; data analysis of test TP-M002-2 was completed and conclusions are summarized in this report; design, procurement and fabrication of the solids injection device were completed; laboratory studies involved gas-solids flow modeling and coal/ash behavior. 2 references, 11 figures, 39 tables.

  6. Comparison between MSW ash and RDF ash from incineration process...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Association, Washington, DC (United States); National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); American Society of Mechanical Engineers, Yonkers, NY (United States). ...

  7. Comparison between MSW ash and RDF ash from incineration process...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Authors: Chang, Ni-Bin ; Wang, H.P. ; Lin, K.S. 1 + Show Author Affiliations National Cheng-Kung Univ., Tainan (Taiwan, Province of China) and others Publication Date: ...

  8. Developing Engineered Fuel (Briquettes) Using Fly Ash from the Aquila Coal-Fired Power Plant in Canon City and Locally Available Biomass Waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    H. Carrasco; H. Sarper

    2006-06-30

    The objective of this research is to explore the feasibility of producing engineered fuels from a combination of renewable and non renewable energy sources. The components are flyash (containing coal fines) and locally available biomass waste. The constraints were such that no other binder additives were to be added. Listed below are the main accomplishments of the project: (1) Determination of the carbon content of the flyash sample from the Aquila plant. It was found to be around 43%. (2) Experiments were carried out using a model which simulates the press process of a wood pellet machine, i.e. a bench press machine with a close chamber, to find out the ideal ratio of wood and fly ash to be mixed to get the desired briquette. The ideal ratio was found to have 60% wood and 40% flyash. (3) The moisture content required to produce the briquettes was found to be anything below 5.8%. (4) The most suitable pressure required to extract the lignin form the wood and cause the binding of the mixture was determined to be 3000psi. At this pressure, the briquettes withstood an average of 150psi on its lateral side. (5) An energy content analysis was performed and the BTU content was determined to be approximately 8912 BTU/lb. (6) The environmental analysis was carried out and no abnormalities were noted. (7) Industrial visits were made to pellet manufacturing plants to investigate the most suitable manufacturing process for the briquettes. (8) A simulation model of extrusion process was developed to explore the possibility of using a cattle feed plant operating on extrusion process to produce briquettes. (9) Attempt to produce 2 tons of briquettes was not successful. The research team conducted a trial production run at a Feed Mill in La Junta, CO to produce two (2) tons of briquettes using the extrusion process in place. The goal was to, immediately after producing the briquettes; send them through Aquila's current system to test the ability of the briquettes to flow through the system without requiring any equipment or process changes. (10) Although the above attempt failed, the plant is still interested in producing briquettes. (11) An economic analysis of investing in a production facility manufacturing such briquettes was conducted to determine the economic viability of the project. Such a project is estimated to have an internal rate of return of 14% and net present value of about $400,000. (12) An engineering independent study class (4 students) is now working on selecting a site near the power plant and determining the layout of the future plant that will produce briquettes.

  9. Reactive oxygen species produced by NADPH oxidase and mitochondrial dysfunction in lung after an acute exposure to Residual Oil Fly Ashes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Magnani, Natalia D.; Marchini, Timoteo; Vanasco, Virginia; Tasat, Deborah R.; Alvarez, Silvia; Evelson, Pablo

    2013-07-01

    Reactive O{sub 2} species production triggered by particulate matter (PM) exposure is able to initiate oxidative damage mechanisms, which are postulated as responsible for increased morbidity along with the aggravation of respiratory diseases. The aim of this work was to quantitatively analyse the major sources of reactive O{sub 2} species involved in lung O{sub 2} metabolism after an acute exposure to Residual Oil Fly Ashes (ROFAs). Mice were intranasally instilled with a ROFA suspension (1.0 mg/kg body weight), and lung samples were analysed 1 h after instillation. Tissue O{sub 2} consumption and NADPH oxidase (Nox) activity were evaluated in tissue homogenates. Mitochondrial respiration, respiratory chain complexes activity, H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and ATP production rates, mitochondrial membrane potential and oxidative damage markers were assessed in isolated mitochondria. ROFA exposure was found to be associated with 61% increased tissue O{sub 2} consumption, a 30% increase in Nox activity, a 33% increased state 3 mitochondrial O{sub 2} consumption and a mitochondrial complex II activity increased by 25%. During mitochondrial active respiration, mitochondrial depolarization and a 53% decreased ATP production rate were observed. Neither changes in H{sub 2}O{sub 2} production rate, nor oxidative damage in isolated mitochondria were observed after the instillation. After an acute ROFA exposure, increased tissue O{sub 2} consumption may account for an augmented Nox activity, causing an increased O{sub 2}{sup ?} production. The mitochondrial function modifications found may prevent oxidative damage within the organelle. These findings provide new insights to the understanding of the mechanisms involving reactive O{sub 2} species production in the lung triggered by ROFA exposure. - Highlights: Exposure to ROFA alters the oxidative metabolism in mice lung. The augmented Nox activity contributes to the high tissue O{sub 2} consumption. Exposure to ROFA produces alterations in mitochondrial function. ??{sub m} decrease in state 3 may be responsible for the decreased ATP production. Mild uncoupling prevents mitochondrial oxidative damage.

  10. Kings Park, New York: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Park, New York: Energy Resources Jump to: navigation, search Equivalent URI DBpedia Coordinates 40.886209, -73.2573369 Show Map Loading map... "minzoom":false,"mappingservice"...

  11. Kings County, New York: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AirShares EU Carbon Allowances Fund Allco Renewable Energy Group Limited LLC AltPower Inc Alternative Fuels Vehicle Group Ambata Capital Partners American Wind Power Hydrogen LLC...

  12. Microsoft Word - Department of Energy QER Remarks Tom King FINAL...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    ... in new natural gas pipeline infrastructure. Investments like the NEEWs transmission projects that National Grid and Northeast Utilities have been working on is the perfect example. ...

  13. Microsoft Word - Chemetall Foote_Kings Mountain and Silver Peak...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... 3.2.1 Air Quality and Greenhouse Gas ......Management Agency FIRM Flood Rate Insurance Map FONSI Finding of No Significant ...

  14. King County, Washington: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Ecology Environment Inc EnerG2 Energy Priorities Frybrid General Biodiesel General Biodiesel Incorporated Go Green Save Fuel LLC Grays Harbor Ocean Energy Company GreenFoot...

  15. Upholding Dr. King's Dream and Inspiring the Next Generation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    The kids were also able to meet science, technology, engineering and math professionals who volunteered their time to engage more students in STEM fields. Director Dot Harris, who ...

  16. Critical Materials Institute An Energy Innovation Hub Alexander King, Director

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Criminal Investigator Criminal Investigator Special Agent Responsibilities The Office of Investigations conducts investigations of DOE personnel, contractors, and others receiving DOE funds concerning alleged violations of law that impact DOE programs, operations, facilities, and personnel. Examples of issues investigated by the OIG include soliciting and/or accepting a bribe, overcharging the Government on contracts and grants, providing false data and information, supplying defective or

  17. Microsoft Word - CPV10 King HCPV Characterization-final.docx

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    over the last 10 years to include the long-term analysis of small systems (1-5 kW), ... These days were then screened for system outages and DNIGNI > 0.85. The specific days ...

  18. Continuous coarse ash depressurization system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, Guohai; Peng, Wan Wang; Vimalchand, Pannalal

    2012-11-13

    A system for depressurizing and cooling a high pressure, high temperature dense phase solids stream having coarse solid particles with entrained gas therein. In one aspect, the system has an apparatus for at least partially depressurizing and cooling the high pressure, high temperature dense phase solids stream having gas entrained therein and a pressure letdown device for further depressurization and separating cooled coarse solid particles from a portion of the entrained gas, resulting in a lower temperature, lower pressure outlet of solid particles for downstream processing or discharge to a storage silo for future use and/or disposal. There are no moving parts in the flow path of the solids stream in the system.

  19. Continuous fine ash depressurization system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, Guohai; Peng, Wan Wang; Vimalchand, Pannalal

    2011-11-29

    A system for depressurizing and cooling a high pressure, high temperature fine solid particles stream having entrained gas therein. In one aspect, the system has an apparatus for cooling the high pressure, high temperature fine solid particles stream having entrained gas therein and a pressure letdown device for depressurization by separating the cooled fine solid particles from a portion of the fine solid particles stream having entrained gas therein, resulting in a lower temperature, lower pressure outlet of solid particles for disposal or handling by downstream equipment.

  20. Chemical and physical characterization of western low-rank-coal waste materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thompson, Carol May

    1981-03-01

    Evaluations of disposal requirements for solid wastes from power stations burning low-rank western coals is the primary objective of this program. Solid wastes to be characterized include: fly ashes, sludges from wet scrubbers, solids from fluidized bed combustion (FBC) processes and solids from dry scrubbing systems. Fly ashes and sludges to be studied will be obtained primarily from systems using alkaline fly ashes as significant sources of alkalinity for sulfur dioxide removal. Fluidized bed combustion wastes will include those produced by burning North Dakota lignite and Texas lignite. Dry scrubbing wastes will include those from spray drying systems and dry injection systems. Spray dryer wastes will be from a system using sodium carbonate as the scrubbing reagent. Dry injection wastes will come from systems using nahcolite and trona as sorbents. Spray dryer wastes, dry injection wastes, and FBC wastes will be supplied by the Grand Forks Energy Technology Center. Sludges and other samples will be collected at power stations using fly ash to supply alkalinity to wet scrubbers for sulfur dioxide removal. Sludges will be subjected to commercial fixation processes. Coal, fly ashes, treated and untreated sludges, scrubber liquor, FBC wastes, and dry scrubbing wastes will be subjected to a variety of chemical and physical tests. Results of these tests will be used to evaluate disposal requirements for wastes frm the systems studied.

  1. Performance and economics of a spray-dryer FGD system used with high-sulfur coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Livengood, C.D.; Farber, P.S.

    1986-04-01

    Flue-gas desulfurization (FGD) systems based on spray drying to offer advantages over wet lime/limestone systems in a number of areas: low energy consumption, low capital cost, high reliability, and production of a dry waste that is easily handled and disposed of. Uncertainties regarding the performance and economics of such systems for control of high-sulfur-coal emissions have slowed adoption of the technology in the Midwest and East. This paper summarizes 4 years, operating and research experience with that system and describes the current research program, which includes an indepth characterization of an industrial scale dry scrubber with 3.5% sulfur coal.

  2. Combined NO sub x /SO sub 2 removal in spray-dryer FGD systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Livengood, C.D.

    1991-01-01

    Increased control of sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) has been the focus of air pollution and acid deposition debates for many years, and the new Clean Air Act Amendments will require controls for this pollutant at many more installations. Calls for greater control of nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) have also been heard in response to their implication in environmental damage and possible links to global climate effects. This has already led to more stringent NO{sub x} emission regulations in several countries and some parts of the United States. While a number of options are available to remove either NO{sub x} or SO{sub 2} from flue gas, integrated technologies that can simultaneously remove both species (and perhaps particulate matter (PM) as well) in a single system can offer significant advantages. The benefits of such integration generally include better system operability, higher reliability, and lower capital and operating costs. In addition, there may be advantages due to lower consumption of resources, reduced waste volumes, and beneficial synergisms between the pollutants. The construction of complete, integrated systems will be of interest for new utility plants and industrial installations, as well as existing sites that currently have minimal pollution control. However, opportunities to incorporate integrated pollution control into existing flue gas cleanup (FGC) systems will be particularly important for operators with existing SO{sub 2} scrubbing systems who are faced with the need to add additional control of NO{sub x}. This paper describes research that could lead to relatively low-cost NO{sub x} control retrofits of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems based on spray drying. 10 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. Energy Department and AHAM Partner to Streamline ENERGY STAR Testing for Washers, Dryers, Refrigerators

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Under a new policy, the Energy Department will work closely with the Association of Home Appliance Manufactures to verify the ENERGY STAR performance of products participating in AHAM’s verification program.

  4. Hair Dryer vs. Upright Vacuum: Round Two of #EnergyFaceoff Begins...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Check back in to the Energy Saver blog, Energy Saver Twitter, and Energy Saver Facebook on Wednesday to see which appliance will be victorious. Q&A Which appliance do you think is ...

  5. CEE_Notes_ClothesDryerTestProcedure_25Apr2016.pdf

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    003 Intellectual Property Provisions (CDLB-1003) Cooperative Agreement - Special Data Statute Research, Development, or Demonstration Large Businesses, State and Local Governments, and Foreign Entities 01. FAR 52.227-1 Authorization and Consent (JUL 1995)-Alternate I (APR 1984) 02. FAR 52.227-2 Notice and Assistance Regarding Patent and Copyright Infringement (AUG 1996) This clause is not applicable if the award is for less than $100,000, in aggregate. 03. 10 CFR 600.325 Rights in Data -

  6. Categorical Exclusion 4566, Ash Removal Project

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Guidelines OAI4 - Approval oftechnical exchange arrangements OA 15 - International umbrella agreements for energy R&D Facility Operations DB 1.2 Training exercises and...

  7. Construction of Ash Pond Isolation Dike.

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

  8. Coal Ash Contaminants in Wetlands | SREL Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Information Administration (EIA) Analysis & Projections ‹ See all Coal Reports U.S. Coal Supply and Demand: 2010 Year in Review Release Date: June 1, 2011 | Next Release Date: Periodically | full report Consumption Preliminary data shows that total coal consumption rebounded in 2010, increasing by 5.1 percent from the 2009 level. Total U.S. coal consumption was 1,048.3 million short tons, an increase of 50.8 million short tons, with all coal-consuming sectors, except commercial and

  9. Method of aeration disinfecting and drying grain in bulk and pretreating seeds and a transverse blow silo grain dryer therefor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Danchenko, Vitaliy G.; Noyes, Ronald T.; Potapovych, Larysa P.

    2012-02-28

    Aeration drying and disinfecting grain crops in bulk and pretreating seeds includes passing through a bulk of grain crops and seeds disinfecting and drying agents including an ozone and air mixture and surrounding air, subdividing the disinfecting and drying agents into a plurality of streams spaced from one another in a vertical direction, and passing the streams at different heights through levels located at corresponding heights of the bulk of grain crops and seeds transversely in a substantially horizontal direction.

  10. 244E is king pin on Arizona waste-processing operation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-03-01

    A 244E 4-wheel-drive loader, assorted garbage, and a touch of sewage sludge may not sound like a state-of-the-art formula...but it is. The Pinetop-Lakeside Sanitation District has pioneered a way to turn a caldron of municipal waste products into something usable, with the help of a 244E loader equipped with a quick coupler and attachments. The district bring in about 45 cu. yd. (34.4 m[sup 3]) of household garbage daily and converts it into compost at their plant. The 244E runs the entire operation. Two truckloads of garbage a day are dumped onto a tilt floor and loaded by the 244E into a 45-ft.-long (13.7 m) rotating drum. Sewage sludge is pumped from the treatment plant into the slowly rotating drum. Seven days later, the mixture comes out as a soil compost.

  11. King County Metro Transit: Allison Hybrid Electric Transit Bus Laboratory Testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hayes, R. R.; Williams, A.; Ireland, J.; Walkowicz, K.

    2006-09-01

    Paper summarizes chassis dynamometer testing of two 60-foot articulated transit buses, one conventional and one hybrid, at NREL's ReFUEL Laboratory. It includes experimental setup, test procedures, and results from vehicle testing performed at the NREL ReFUEL laboratory.

  12. King Coal vs. Reclamation: federal regulation of mountaintop removal mining in Appalachia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davis, C.E.; Duffy, R.J.

    2009-10-15

    This research focuses on the regulatory politics of mountaintop removal mining for coal within the Appalachian states of West Virginia and Kentucky. Based on Administrative Presidency concepts suggesting that chief executives seek more control and influence over agency program decisions, this article analyzes President George W. Bush's efforts to promote the development of coal resources within these states despite statutory constraints posed by federal environmental laws. The analysis demonstrates that President Bush effectively achieved his energy production goals by combining the use of discretionary authority with staff controls, executive orders, and regulatory initiatives to lessen industry compliance costs with environmental regulatory requirements.

  13. Handheld Digital Three-Dimensional Color Imaging Camera Peter King Humanik

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    GO-102016-4854 February 2016 Handbook for Handling, Storing, and Dispensing E85 and Other Ethanol-Gasoline Blends Disclaimer This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States government. Neither the United States government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or

  14. EPRI's coal combustion product use research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ladwig, K.

    2008-07-01

    For more than 20 years, EPRI's Coal Combustion Product Use Program has been a leader in providing research to demonstrate the value of using coal combustion products (CCPs) in construction and manufacturing. Work is concentrated on large-volume uses, increasing use in traditional applications, uses in light of changes in CCP quality resulting form increased and new air emissions controls for nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides and mercury. Currently, EPRI is investigating opportunities for using higher volumes of Class C ash in concrete; approaches for ensuring that mercury controls do not adversely affect the use of CCPs; agricultural uses for products from flue gas desulfurization; possible markets for spray dryer absorber byproducts; and issues involved with the presence of ammonia in ash. Some recent results and future work is described in this article. 4 photos.

  15. Dry scrubbing oxides and particulate contaminants from hot gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Quee, J. A.; Haak, M. P.

    1985-03-12

    Sulfur dioxides are dry scrubbed from a flue gas by introducing minute droplets containing a liquid, such as water, and an alkali or alkaline reactant, such as lime, into the spray zone in the primary spray drying chamber of a spray dryer and concurrently contacting these droplets with the hot flue gas. The droplets are partially dried to a tacky condition before reaching a foraminous collecting member extending through the primary spray drying chamber and collect on the collecting member as a moist, porous mat. As the flue gas continues to flow through the mat, the mat serves as a filter for removing fly ash and other particulate matter and remaining sulfur oxides react with unreacted particles of the reactant and reactive ingredients of the fly ash particles in the mat.

  16. Material characterization of the clay bonded silicon carbide candle filters and ash formations in the W-APF system after 500 hours of hot gas filtration at AEP. Appendix to Advanced Particle Filter: Technical progress report No. 11, January--March 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alvin, M.A.

    1993-04-05

    (1) After 500 hours of operation in the pressurized fluidized-bed combustion gas environment, the fibrous outer membrane along the clay bonded silicon carbide Schumacher Dia Schumalith candles remained intact. The fibrous outer membrane did not permit penetration of fines through the filter wall. (2) An approximate 10-15% loss of material strength occurred within the intact candle clay bonded silicon carbide matrix after 500 hours of exposure to the PFBC gas environment. A relatively uniform strength change resulted within the intact candles throughout the vessel (i.e., top to bottom plenums), as well as within the various cluster ring positions (i.e., outer versus inner ring candle filters). A somewhat higher loss of material strength, i.e., 25% was detected in fractured candle segments removed from the W-APF ash hopper. (3) Sulfur which is present in the pressurized fluidized-bed combustion gas system induced phase changes along the surface of the binder which coats the silicon carbide grains in the Schumacher Dia Schumalith candle filter matrix.

  17. 2015-03-23 Issuance: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Dryer StandardsRFI.pdf More Documents & Publications American Gas Association (AGA) for DOE Furnace Product Class Residential Clothes Dryers (Appendix D2) Regulatory Burden RFI

  18. No Heat Spray Drying Technology

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Project Objective Advance research from prototype dryer ... First commercial market is dry flavors designed to ... change from existing practice Requires novel dryer ...

  19. BTO Partners Develop Novel, Energy-efficient Thermoelectric Clothes...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Partners Develop Novel, Energy-efficient Thermoelectric Clothes Dryer Prototype BTO Partners Develop Novel, Energy-efficient Thermoelectric Clothes Dryer Prototype April 18, 2016 - ...

  20. Impact of Biodiesel on Ash Emissions and Lubricant Properties...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Effects of Fuel Dilution with Biodiesel on Lubricant Acidity, Oxidation and Corrosion Development of High Performance Heavy Duty Engine Oils Performance of Biofuels and Biofuel ...