National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for dry-type transformers effects

  1. Effects of phase transformation on the microstructures and magnetostriction

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    of Fe-Ga and Fe-Ga-Zn ferromagnetic shape memory alloys (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Effects of phase transformation on the microstructures and magnetostriction of Fe-Ga and Fe-Ga-Zn ferromagnetic shape memory alloys Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Effects of phase transformation on the microstructures and magnetostriction of Fe-Ga and Fe-Ga-Zn ferromagnetic shape memory alloys The phase transformation and magnetostriction of bulk Fe{sub 73}Ga{sub 27} and Fe{sub 73}Ga{sub

  2. Generalized Bogoliubov transformation for confined fields: Applications for the Casimir effect

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Silva, J.C. da; Khanna, F.C.; Matos Neto, A.; Santana, A.E.

    2002-11-01

    The Bogoliubov transformation in thermofield dynamics, an operator formalism for the finite-temperature quantum field theory, is generalized to describe a field in arbitrary confined regions of space and time. Starting with the scalar field, the approach is extended to the electromagnetic field and the energy-momentum tensor is written via the Bogoliubov transformation. In this context, the Casimir effect is calculated for zero and nonzero temperature, and therefore it can be considered as a vacuum condensation effect of the electromagnetic field. This aspect opens an interesting perspective for using this procedure as an effective scheme for calculations in the studies of confined fields, including interacting fields.

  3. Effects of finite sampling and additive noise on image reconstruction from Radon transform

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tsujimoto, E.M. (California Univ., Davis, CA (USA))

    1988-12-01

    The Radon transform arises naturally in the problem of reconstructing an image or cross section from line integral measurements through a specified object. Each line integral or ray is a sample of the Radon transform of the object and the set of all samples at a particular angle is called a projection or view. Consequently, the set of all possible samples at all possible projections in a particular plane constitutes the two-dimensional Radon transform. Of course, it is impossible to acquire an infinite number of data points for the purpose of image reconstruction. However, with a sufficient set of Radon transform samples, an images can be determined through various Radon transform inversion techniques. From this statement, however, arises the question of just what constitutes a sufficient set of Radon transform samples. Acquiring an insufficient number of samples results in various artifacts in the reconstructed image. On the other hand, taking too many samples utilizes the data inefficiently. Thus, the problem of interest is to determine the optimum number of projections and the optimum number of samples per projection required to adequately represent the Radon transform such that the image can be accurately reconstructed. The problem of image reconstruction is further complicated if noise is introduced in the projection domain. Noise may be caused by round-off error in the sampled projection data or by various other factors inherent in data acquisition processes. However, several filtering techniques can be implemented to suppress the effects of noise. Therefore, a second problem of interest is to study the effectiveness of different filtering techniques in noise suppression.

  4. Effect of time and temperature on transformation-toughened zirconias. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schioler, L.J.

    1987-06-01

    The effects of exposure to elevated temperatures (900 to 1300 C) for times ranging from 50 to 500 hours on toughened oxide ceramics intended for use in heat engines were examined. The materials were magnesia-stabilized transformation-toughened zirconia, yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystal, and zirconia-toughened alumina, as well as untoughened zirconias for comparison. The materials were heat treated, and physical and mechanical properties were then measured at room temperature. High-temperature mechanical tests performed were stress rupture and stepped temperature stress rupture. The results of the tests indicate that the mechanical properties of magnesia-stabilized transformation-toughened zirconia degrade substantially after relatively short times at the moderate temperatures expected in low-heat-rejection diesel engines. The yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystal and the untoughened partially stabilized zirconia materials appear to be more stable against the effects of time and temperature.

  5. Effect of niobium addition on the martensitic transformation and magnetocaloric effect in low hysteresis NiCoMnSn magnetic shape memory alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Emre, Baris; Bruno, Nickolaus M.; Yuce Emre, Suheyla; Karaman, Ibrahim

    2014-12-08

    The effect of Nb substitution for Ni in Ni{sub 45}Co{sub 5}Mn{sub 40}Sn{sub 10} magnetic shape memory alloys on their magnetic properties, martensitic transformation characteristics, transformation hysteresis, and magnetocaloric properties was studied using wavelength-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, and the temperature and field dependence of the magnetization. Ni{sub 45}Co{sub 5}Mn{sub 40}Sn{sub 10} alloy has a very low transformation hysteresis; however, the martensitic transformation temperatures are notably above room temperature, which is not desirable for magnetic refrigeration applications. In this study, small quantities of Nb substitution were shown to drastically shift the transformation temperatures to lower temperatures, at a rate of 68 K/at. % Nb, which is needed for household refrigeration. The austenite Curie temperature also decreased with increasing Nb content. However, a decrease in the latent heat of the martensitic transition was observed, which negatively affects the magnetic field-induced adiabatic temperature change capability. Still, the relatively large transformation entropy and the low transformation hysteresis make the Nb-doped Ni{sub 45}Co{sub 5}Mn{sub 40}Sn{sub 10} alloys potential candidates for solid state refrigeration near room temperature.

  6. Development of Toroidal Core Transformers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leon, Francisco

    2014-05-31

    The original objective of this project was to design, build and test a few prototypes of singlephase dry-type distribution transformers of 25 kVA, 2.4 kV primary to 120 V transformers using cores made of a continuous steel strip shaped like a doughnut (toroid). At different points during the development of the project, the scope was enhanced to include the more practical case of a 25 kVA transformer for a 13.8 kV primary system voltage. Later, the scope was further expanded to design and build a 50 kVA unit to transformer voltage from 7.62 kV to 2x120 V. This is a common transformer used by Con Edison of New York and they are willing to test it in the field. The project officially started in September 2009 and ended in May 2014. The progress was reported periodically to DOE in eighteen quarterly reports. A Continuation Application was submitted to DOE in June 2010. In May 2011 we have requested a non-cost extension of the project. In December 2011, the Statement of Project Objectives (SOPO) was updated to reflect the real conditions and situation of the project as of 2011. A second Continuation Application was made and funding was approved in 2013 by DOE and the end date was extended to May 2014.The technical challenges that were overcome in this project include: the development of the technology to pass the impulse tests, derive a model for the thermal performance, produce a sound mechanical design, and estimate the inrush current. However, the greatest challenge that we faced during the development of the project was the complications of procuring the necessary parts and materials to build the transformers. The actual manufacturing process is relatively fast, but getting all parts together is a very lengthy process. The main products of this project are two prototypes of toroidal distribution transformers of 7.62 kV (to be used in a 13.8 kV system) to 2x120 V secondary (standard utilization voltage); one is rated at 25 kVA and the other at 50 kVA. The 25 kVA transformer passed the impulse test in KEMA high-voltage laboratories. Additional products include: nine papers published in the IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, one patent has been filed, three PhD students were supported from beginning to graduation, five postdoctoral fellows, and three MSc students were partially supported. The electrical characteristics of our dry-type toroidal transformers are similar to those of the oil-immersed pole mounted transformers currently in use by many utilities, but toroids have higher efficiency. The no-load losses of the 50 kVA prototype are only 45 W. A standard transformer has no-load losses between 90 and 240 W. Thus, even the finest transformer built today with standard technology has double the amount of no-load losses than the prototype toroidal transformer. When the manufacturing process is prepared for mass production, the cost of a dry-type toroidal transformer would be similar to the price of an oil-filed standard design. However, because of the greatly reduced losses, the total ownership cost of a toroidal transformer could be about half of a traditional design. We got a grant from Power Bridge NY in the amount of $149,985 from June 2014 to May 2015 to continue developing the transformer with commercialization objectives. We are considering the possibility to incorporate a company to manufacture the transformers and have contacted investors. The current status of the real life testing is as follows: after several months of silence, Con Edison has re-started conversations and has shown willingness to test the transformer. Other companies, PSE&G and National Grid have recently also shown interest and we will present our product to them soon.

  7. Pressure and Temperature effects on the High Pressure Phase Transformation in Zirconium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Escobedo-Diaz, Juan P.; Cerreta, Ellen K.; Brown, Donald W.; Trujillo, Carl P.; Rigg, Paulo A.; Bronkhorst, Curt A.; Addessio, Francis L.; Lookman, Turab

    2012-06-20

    At high pressure zirconium is known to undergo a phase transformation from the hexagonal close packed (HCP) alpha phase ({alpha}) to the simple hexagonal omega phase ({omega}). Under conditions of shock loading, the high-pressure omega phase is retained upon release. However, the hysteresis in this transformation is not well represented by equilibrium phase diagrams. For this reason, the influence of peak shock pressure and temperature on the retention of omega phase in Zr is explored in this study. In situ VISAR measurements along with post-mortem metallographic and neutron diffraction characterization of soft recovered specimens have been utilized to quantify the volume fraction of retained omega phase, morphology of the shocked alpha and omega phases, and qualitatively understand the kinetics of this transformation. This understanding of the role of peak shock stress will be utilized to address physics to be encoded in our present macro-scale models.

  8. Effect of Cu addition on the martensitic transformation of powder metallurgy processed TiNi alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Yeon-wook; Choi, Eunsoo

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: M{sub s} of Ti{sub 50}Ni{sub 50} powders is 22 C, while M{sub s} of SPS-sintered porous bulk increases up to 50 C. M{sub s} of Ti{sub 50}Ni{sub 40}Cu{sub 20} porous bulk is only 2 C higher than that of the powders. Recovered stain of porous TiNi and TiNiCu alloy is more than 1.5%. - Abstract: Ti{sub 50}Ni{sub 50} and Ti{sub 50}Ni{sub 30}Cu{sub 20} powders were prepared by gas atomization and their transformation behaviors were examined by means of differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction. One-step B2B19 transformation occurred in Ti{sub 50}Ni{sub 50} powders, while Ti{sub 50}Ni{sub 30}Cu{sub 20} powders showed B2B19 transformation behavior. Porous bulks with 24% porosity were fabricated by spark plasma sintering. The martensitic transformation start temperature (50 C) of Ti{sub 50}Ni{sub 50} porous bulk is much higher than that (22 C) of the as-solidified powders. However, the martensitic transformation start temperature (35 C) of Ti{sub 50}Ni{sub 30}Cu{sub 20} porous bulk is almost the same as that (33 C) of the powders. When the specimens were compressed to the strain of 8% and then unloaded, the residual strains of Ti{sub 50}Ni{sub 50} and Ti{sub 50}Ni{sub 30}Cu{sub 20} alloy bulks were 3.95 and 3.7%, respectively. However, these residual strains were recovered up to 1.7% after heating by the shape memory phenomenon.

  9. Market Transformation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2008-09-01

    Summarizes the goals and activities of the DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program efforts within its market transformation subprogram.

  10. Market Transformation

    Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

    This Fuel Cell Technologies Program fact sheet outlines current status and challenges in the market transformation of hydrogen and fuel cell technologies.

  11. Market Transformation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2011-02-15

    This Fuel Cell Technologies Program fact sheet outlines current status and challenges in the market transformation of hydrogen and fuel cell technologies.

  12. Annealing effect on the magnetic induced austenite transformation in polycrystalline freestanding Ni-Co-Mn-In films produced by co-sputtering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crouïgneau, G.; Porcar, L.; Pairis, S.; Mossang, E.; Eyraud, E.; Bourgault, D.; Courtois, P.

    2015-01-21

    Ni-Co-Mn-In freestanding films, with a magneto-structural transformation at room temperature were successfully produced by co-sputtering and post-annealing methods leading to film composition mastering. For a post-annealing temperature of 700 °C, the phase transformation occurs slightly above room temperature, with a twisted martensitic microstructure phase observed at 300 K by Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy. Magnetization measurements on a polycrystalline film showed a phase transformation from a weakly magnetic martensite to a magnetic austenite phase. Moreover, an inverse magnetocaloric effect with an entropy variation of 4 J/kg K under 5 T was also measured. A simple magneto-actuation experiment based on the magnetic induced austenite transformation was also successfully completed. The possibility to insert such films in microsystems is clearly demonstrated in this work.

  13. The effect of annealing on the transformation and the microstructure of Mn{sub 1?x}Cr{sub x}CoGe alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Torrens-Serra, J., E-mail: j.torrens@uib.es [Departament de Fsica, Universitat de les Illes Balears, Cra. Valldemossa km 7.5, E-07122 Palma de Mallorca (Spain); Biffi, C.A. [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche CNRIENI, C.so P.Sposi 29, 23900 Lecco (Italy); Santamarta, R. [Departament de Fsica, Universitat de les Illes Balears, Cra. Valldemossa km 7.5, E-07122 Palma de Mallorca (Spain); Recarte, V.; Prez-Landazbal, J.I. [Departamento de Fsica, Universidad Pblica de Navarra, Campus de Arrosada, E-31006 Pamplona (Spain); Tuissi, A. [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche CNRIENI, C.so P.Sposi 29, 23900 Lecco (Italy); Cesari, E. [Departament de Fsica, Universitat de les Illes Balears, Cra. Valldemossa km 7.5, E-07122 Palma de Mallorca (Spain)

    2014-07-01

    In this work the effect of different thermal treatments on the transformation behavior of Mn{sub 1?x}Cr{sub x}CoGe alloys, with x = 0.15 and 0.20 has been analyzed. The changes in the transformation temperatures have been studied by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The results show that the structural transition temperature depends on the previous annealing. However, under the same heat treatment no significant change is observed on the transformation temperatures when replacing Mn by Cr. The microstructural evolution has been monitored using in-situ X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. The effect of an applied magnetic field on the transformation has been explored by SQUID magnetometry. Two different magnetic transitions are found: a first order paramagnetic (PM) to ferromagnetic (FM) corresponding to the transformation observed by calorimetry and a re-entrant spin glass to ferromagnetic transition. - Highlights: The annealing conditions determine the magnetostructural transition. A laminar microstructure along preferential planes observed by TEM A RSG to ferromagnetic transition at low temperatures is detected.

  14. Numerical study of the effect of normalised window size, sampling frequency, and noise level on short time Fourier transform analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ota, T. A.

    2013-10-15

    Photonic Doppler velocimetry, also known as heterodyne velocimetry, is a widely used optical technique that requires the analysis of frequency modulated signals. This paper describes an investigation into the errors of short time Fourier transform analysis. The number of variables requiring investigation was reduced by means of an equivalence principle. Error predictions, as the number of cycles, samples per cycle, noise level, and window type were varied, are presented. The results were found to be in good agreement with analytical models.

  15. The Effect of Ramp Rate on the C49 to C54 Titanium Disilicide Phase Transformation from Ti and Ti(Ta)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BAILEY, GLENN A.; HU, YAO ZHI; SMITH, PAUL M.; TAY, SING PIN

    1999-09-22

    The C49 to C54 TiSi{sub 2} transformation temperature is shown to be reduced by increasing the ramp rate during rapid thermal processing and this effect is more pronounced for thinner initial Ti and Ti(Ta) films. Experiments were performed on blanket wafers and on wafers that had patterned polycrystalline Si lines with Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} sidewall spacers. Changing the ramp rate caused no change in the transformation temperature for 60 nm blanket Ti films. For blanket Ti films of 25 or 40 nm, however, increasing the ramp rate from 7 to 180 C/s decreased the transformation temperature by 15 C. Studies of patterned lines indicate that sheet resistance of narrow lines is reduced by increased ramp rates for both Ti and Ti(Ta) films, especially as the linewidths decrease below 0.4 {micro}m. This improvement is particularly pronounced for the thinnest Ti(Ta) films, which exhibited almost no linewidth effect after being annealed with a ramp rate of 75 C/s.

  16. Market Transformation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & ... for several years to help get clean, efficient and cost effective fuel ...

  17. Transforming a Transformative School | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Transforming a Transformative School Transforming a Transformative School October 11, 2012 - 10:14am Addthis During a yearlong renovation, Harding Charter Preparatory school upgraded lighting fixtures, installed a new heating and cooling system, and replaced the entry doors. The new doors allow daylight into the school and restore the historical building envelope. | Photo courtesy of John Winkel, Energy Department. During a yearlong renovation, Harding Charter Preparatory school upgraded

  18. SEP Success Story: Transforming a Transformative School | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Transforming a Transformative School SEP Success Story: Transforming a Transformative ... Florida. | Photo by Amy Kidd SEP Success Story: Florida's SunSmart Program Helps ...

  19. Sandia Energy - Solar Market Transformation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Solar Market Transformation Home Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Photovoltaics Solar Market Transformation Solar Market TransformationTara...

  20. Efficient transformer for electromagnetic waves

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, R.B.

    A transformer structure for efficient transfer of electromagnetic energy from a transmission line to an unmatched load provides voltage multiplication and current division by a predetermined constant. Impedance levels are transformed by the square of that constant. The structure includes a wave splitter, connected to an input transmission device and to a plurality of output transmission devices. The output transmission devices are effectively connected in parallel to the input transmission device. The output transmission devices are effectively series connected to provide energy to a load. The transformer structure is particularly effective in increasing efficiency of energy transfer through an inverting convolute structure by capturing and transferring energy losses from the inverter to the load.

  1. Effects of phase transformation on the microstructures and magnetostriction of Fe-Ga and Fe-Ga-Zn ferromagnetic shape memory alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, Yin-Chih Lin, Chien-Feng

    2015-05-07

    The phase transformation and magnetostriction of bulk Fe{sub 73}Ga{sub 27} and Fe{sub 73}Ga{sub 18}Zn{sub 9} (at.?%) ferromagnetic shape memory alloys (FSMs) were investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), x-ray diffraction (XRD), and a magnetostrictive-meter setup. For the Fe{sub 73}Ga{sub 27} FSM alloy solution treated at 1100?C for 4?h and quenched in ice brine, the antiphase boundary segments of the D0{sub 3} domain were observed in the A2 (disordered) matrix, and the Fe{sub 73}Ga{sub 27} FSM alloy had an optimal magnetostriction (?{sub ?}{sup s?}=?71??10{sup ?6} and ?{sub ?}{sup s?}=??31??10{sup ?6}). In Fe{sub 73}Ga{sub 27} FSM alloy as-quenched, aged at 700?C for 24?h, and furnace cooled, D0{sub 3} nanoclusters underwent phase transformation to an intermediate tetragonal phase (i.e., L1{sub 0}-like martensite) via Bain distortion, and finally L1{sub 2} (Fe{sub 3}Ga) structures precipitated, as observed by TEM and XRD. The L1{sub 0}-like martensite and L1{sub 2} phases in the aged Fe{sub 73}Ga{sub 27} FSM alloy drastically decreased the magnetostriction from positive to negative (?{sub ?}{sup s?}=??20??10{sup ?6} and ?{sub ?}{sup s?}=??8??10{sup ?6}). However, in Fe{sub 73}Ga{sub 18}Zn{sub 9} FSM alloy as-quenched and aged, the phase transformation of D0{sub 3} to an intermediate tetragonal martensite phase and precipitation of L1{sub 2} structures were not found. The results indicate that the aged Fe{sub 73}Ga{sub 18}Zn{sub 9} FSM alloy maintained stable magnetostriction (?{sub ?}{sup s?}=?36??10{sup ?6} and ?{sub ?}{sup s?}=??31??10{sup ?6}). Adding Zn can improve the ferromagnetic shape memory effect of aged Fe{sub 73}Ga{sub 18}Zn{sub 9} alloy, which may be useful in application of the alloy in high temperature environments.

  2. Generalized Korteweg-de Vries equation induced from position-dependent effective mass quantum models and mass-deformed soliton solution through inverse scattering transform

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ganguly, A. E-mail: aganguly@maths.iitkgp.ernet.in; Das, A.

    2014-11-15

    We consider one-dimensional stationary position-dependent effective mass quantum model and derive a generalized Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation in (1+1) dimension through Lax pair formulation, one being the effective mass Schrdinger operator and the other being the time-evolution of wave functions. We obtain an infinite number of conserved quantities for the generated nonlinear equation and explicitly show that the new generalized KdV equation is an integrable system. Inverse scattering transform method is applied to obtain general solution of the nonlinear equation, and then N-soliton solution is derived for reflectionless potentials. Finally, a special choice has been made for the variable mass function to get mass-deformed soliton solution. The influence of position and time-dependence of mass and also of the different representations of kinetic energy operator on the nature of such solitons is investigated in detail. The remarkable features of such solitons are demonstrated in several interesting figures and are contrasted with the conventional KdV-soliton associated with constant-mass quantum model.

  3. Phase Transformations in Confined Nanosystems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shield, Jeffrey E.; Belashchenko, Kirill

    2014-04-29

    This project discovered that non-equilibrium structures, including chemically ordered structures not observed in bulk systems, form in isolated nanoscale systems. Further, a generalized model was developed that effectively explained the suppression of equilibrium phase transformations. This thermodynamic model considered the free energy decrease associated with the phase transformation was less than the increase in energy associated with the formation of an interphase interface, therefore inhibiting the phase transformation. A critical diameter exists where the system transitions to bulk behavior, and a generalized equation was formulated that successfully predicted this transition in the Fe-Au system. This provided and explains a new route to novel structures not possible in bulk systems. The structural characterization was accomplished using transmission electron microscopy in collaboration with Matthew Kramer of Ames Laboratory. The PI and graduate student visited Ames Laboratory several times a year to conduct the experiments.

  4. HPC Transforms Cosmology

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Debbie Bard » HPC Transforms Cosmology HPC Transforms Cosmology December 3, 2015 by Debbie Bard (originally posted in http://www.scientificcomputing.com/blogs/2015/10/hpc-transforms-cosmology) Visualization of dark matter in the Dark Sky Simulation, the first trillion-particle simulation to be made publicly available. It spans a region nearly 40 billion light-years across, and was produced using 80 million CPU hours on the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Titan supercomputer. Courtesy of the Dark

  5. National Power Transformer Reserve

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Request for Information National Power Transformer Reserve Department of Energy Offce of Electricity Delivery and Energy ... Infrastructure, April 2015 Reference 2: United States ...

  6. Application of Distribution Transformer Thermal Life Models to...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... based on standard IEC 60076- 7:2005 "Loading guide for oil-immersed power transformers" 4. ... M. Lehtonen, H. Nordman, Effect of Harmonics on Transformers Loss of life, IEEE, ...

  7. Biochemical transformation of coals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lin, Mow S. (Rocky Point, NY); Premuzic, Eugene T. (East Moriches, NY)

    1999-03-23

    A method of biochemically transforming macromolecular compounds found in solid carbonaceous materials, such as coal is provided. The preparation of new microorganisms, metabolically weaned through challenge growth processes to biochemically transform solid carbonaceous materials at extreme temperatures, pressures, pH, salt and toxic metal concentrations is also disclosed.

  8. Biochemical transformation of coals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lin, M.S.; Premuzic, E.T.

    1999-03-23

    A method of biochemically transforming macromolecular compounds found in solid carbonaceous materials, such as coal is provided. The preparation of new microorganisms, metabolically weaned through challenge growth processes to biochemically transform solid carbonaceous materials at extreme temperatures, pressures, pH, salt and toxic metal concentrations is also disclosed. 7 figs.

  9. Deployment & Market Transformation (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2012-04-01

    NREL's deployment and market transformation (D and MT) activities encompass the laboratory's full range of technologies, which span the energy efficiency and renewable energy spectrum. NREL staff educates partners on how they can advance sustainable energy applications and also provides clients with best practices for reducing barriers to innovation and market transformation.

  10. Evaluate and characterize mechanisms controlling transport, fate, and effects of army smokes in the aerosol wind tunnel: Transport, transformations, fate, and terrestrial ecological effects of hexachloroethane obscurant smokes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cataldo, D.A.; Ligotke, M.W.; Bolton, H. Jr.; Fellows, R.J.; Van Voris, P.; McVeety, B.D.; Li, Shu-mei W.; McFadden, K.M.

    1989-09-01

    The terrestrial transport, chemical fate, and ecological effects of hexachloroethane (HC) smoke were evaluated under controlled wind tunnel conditions. The primary objectives of this research program are to characterize and assess the impacts of smoke and obscurants on: (1) natural vegetation characteristic of US Army training sites in the United States; (2) physical and chemical properties of soils representative of these training sites; and (3) soil microbiological and invertebrate communities. Impacts and dose/responses were evaluated based on exposure scenarios, including exposure duration, exposure rate, and sequential cumulative dosing. Key to understanding the environmental impacts of HC smoke/obscurants is establishing the importance of environmental parameters such as relative humidity and wind speed on airborne aerosol characteristics and deposition to receptor surfaces. Direct and indirect biotic effects were evaluated using five plant species and two soil types. HC aerosols were generated in a controlled atmosphere wind tunnel by combustion of hexachloroethane mixtures prepared to simulate normal pot burn rates and conditions. The aerosol was characterized and used to expose plant, soil, and other test systems. Particle sizes of airborne HC ranged from 1.3 to 2.1 {mu}m mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD), and particle size was affected by relative humidity over a range of 20% to 85%. Air concentrations employed ranged from 130 to 680 mg/m{sup 3}, depending on exposure scenario. Chlorocarbon concentrations within smokes, deposition rates for plant and soil surfaces, and persistence were determined. The fate of principal inorganic species (Zn, Al, and Cl) in a range of soils was assessed.

  11. Series Transmission Line Transformer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Buckles, Robert A.; Booth, Rex; Yen, Boris T.

    2004-06-29

    A series transmission line transformer is set forth which includes two or more of impedance matched sets of at least two transmissions lines such as shielded cables, connected in parallel at one end ans series at the other in a cascading fashion. The cables are wound about a magnetic core. The series transmission line transformer (STLT) which can provide for higher impedance ratios and bandwidths, which is scalable, and which is of simpler design and construction.

  12. Transforming Commercial Building Operations

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Transforming Commercial Building Operations Transforming Commercial Building Operations Ron Underhill Pacific Northwest National Laboratory ronald.underhill@pnnl.gov (509)375-9765 April 4, 2013 2 | Building Technologies Office eere.energy.gov * Most buildings are not commissioned (Cx) before occupancy, including HVAC and lighting systems * Buildings often are poorly operated and maintained leading to significant energy waste of 5 to 20%, even when they have building automation systems (BASs) *

  13. Sandia Energy - Past Market Transformation Activities

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Past Market Transformation Activities Home Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Photovoltaics Solar Market Transformation Past Market Transformation...

  14. THE EFFECT OF REPEATED COMPRESSIVE DYNAMIC LOADING ON THE STRESS-INDUCED MARTENSITIC TRANSFORMATION IN NiTi SHAPE MEMORY ALLOYS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D. MILLER; W. THISSELL; ET AL

    2000-08-01

    It has been shown that quasi-static, cyclic, isothermal mechanical loading influences the mechanical response of the stress-induced martensitic transformation in fully annealed NiTi Shape Memory Alloys (SMAs). As the cycle number increases, hardening of the stress-strain response during the martensitic phase transformation is seen along with a decrease in the threshold stress for initiation of stress-induced martensite. Also, the amount of plastic strain and detwinned martensitic strain decreases as the cycle number increases. However, NiTi SMAs have not been experimentally explored under high compressive strain rates. This research explores the cyclic near-adiabatic stress-induced martensitic loading using a Split Hopkinskin Pressure Bar (SHPB). The results of the dynamic loading tests are presented with emphasis on the loading rate, stress-strain response, specimen temperature and post-test microstructural evaluation. The results from the high strain rate tests show similarities with the quasi-static results in the hardening of the stress-strain response and shifting of the threshold stress for initiation of stress-induced martensite.

  15. Reduction/Transformation Operators

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2006-09-01

    RTOp (reduction/transformation operators) is a collection of C++ software that provides the basic mechanism for implementinig vector operations in a flexible and efficient manner. This is the main interface utilized by Thyra to allow for the specification of specific vector reduction and/or transformation operations. The RTOp package contains three different types of software. (a) a small number of interoperability interfaces. (b) support software including code for the parallel SPMD mode based on only Teuchos::Comm(and notmore » MPl directly(, and (c) a library of pre-implemented RTOp subclasses for everything from simple AXPYs and norms, to more specialized vector operations. RTOp allows an algorithm developer to implement their own RTOp subclasses in a way that is independent from any specific serial, parallel, out-of-core or other type of vector implementation. RTOp is a required package by Thyra and MOOCHO. (c)« less

  16. Demonstration & Market Transformation

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Peer Review Break-Out Presentation Jim Spaeth Program Manager Demonstration & Market Transformation March 23, 2015 2 | Bioenergy Technologies Office DMT Portfolio Peer Review * Introduction of the DMT Peer Review Team * Peer Review Process - Ground rules for review process * DMT Approach to Project Management - Budget Periods * Changes Made in Response to the 2013 Peer Review - Lessons Learned / Best Practices * Portfolio Overview - FOA Status and History - Project Portfolio Changes since

  17. Substantial Transformation | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Substantial Transformation Substantial Transformation PDF icon Substantial Transformation More Documents & Publications Questions and Answers for the Smart Grid Investment Grant Program: Frequently Asked Questions Questions and Answers for the Smart Grid Investment Grant Program: Buy American Better Buildings Neighborhood Program Grant Recipient Management Handbook

  18. Transformer Recharging with Alpha Channeling in Tokamaks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    N.J. Fisch

    2009-12-21

    Transformer recharging with lower hybrid waves in tokamaks can give low average auxiliary power if the resistivity is kept high enough during the radio frequency (rf) recharging stage. At the same time, operation in the hot ion mode via alpha channeling increases the effective fusion reactivity. This paper will address the extent to which these two large cost saving steps are compatible. __________________________________________________

  19. No Effect of the Transforming Growth Factor {beta}1 Promoter Polymorphism C-509T on TGFB1 Gene Expression, Protein Secretion, or Cellular Radiosensitivity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reuther, Sebastian; Metzke, Elisabeth; Bonin, Michael; Petersen, Cordula; Dikomey, Ekkehard; Raabe, Annette

    2013-02-01

    Purpose: To study whether the promoter polymorphism (C-509T) affects transforming growth factor {beta}1 gene (TGFB1) expression, protein secretion, and/or cellular radiosensitivity for both human lymphocytes and fibroblasts. Methods and Materials: Experiments were performed with lymphocytes taken either from 124 breast cancer patients or 59 pairs of normal monozygotic twins. We used 15 normal human primary fibroblast strains as controls. The C-509T genotype was determined by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism or TaqMan single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping assay. The cellular radiosensitivity of lymphocytes was measured by G0/1 assay and that of fibroblasts by colony assay. The amount of extracellular TGFB1 protein was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and TGFB1 expression was assessed via microarray analysis or reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Results: The C-509T genotype was found not to be associated with cellular radiosensitivity, neither for lymphocytes (breast cancer patients, P=.811; healthy donors, P=.181) nor for fibroblasts (P=.589). Both TGFB1 expression and TGFB1 protein secretion showed considerable variation, which, however, did not depend on the C-509T genotype (protein secretion: P=.879; gene expression: lymphocytes, P=.134, fibroblasts, P=.605). There was also no general correlation between TGFB1 expression and cellular radiosensitivity (lymphocytes, P=.632; fibroblasts, P=.573). Conclusion: Our data indicate that any association between the SNP C-509T of TGFB1 and risk of normal tissue toxicity cannot be ascribed to a functional consequence of this SNP, either on the level of gene expression, protein secretion, or cellular radiosensitivity.

  20. Transformational Manufacturing | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Transformational Manufacturing Argonne's new Advanced Battery Materials Synthesis and Manufacturing R&D Program focuses on scalable process R&D to produce advanced battery...

  1. Transformer Efficiency Assessment - Okinawa, Japan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas L. Baldwin; Robert J. Turk; Kurt S. Myers; Jake P. Gentle; Jason W. Bush

    2012-05-01

    The US Army Engineering & Support Center, Huntsville (USAESCH), and the US Marine Corps Base (MCB), Okinawa, Japan retained Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to conduct a Transformer Efficiency Assessment of “key” transformers located at multiple military bases in Okinawa, Japan. The purpose of this assessment is to support the Marine Corps Base, Okinawa in evaluating medium voltage distribution transformers for potential efficiency upgrades. The original scope of work included the MCB providing actual transformer nameplate data, manufacturer’s factory test sheets, electrical system data (kWh), demand data (kWd), power factor data, and electricity cost data. Unfortunately, the MCB’s actual data is not available and therefore making it necessary to de-scope the original assessment. Note: Any similar nameplate data, photos of similar transformer nameplates, and basic electrical details from one-line drawings (provided by MCB) are not a replacement for actual load loss test data. It is recommended that load measurements are performed on the high and low sides of transformers to better quantify actual load losses, demand data, and power factor data. We also recommend that actual data, when available, be inserted by MCB Okinawa where assumptions have been made and then the LCC analysis updated. This report covers a generalized assessment of modern U.S. transformers in a three level efficiency category, Low-Level efficiency, Medium-Level efficiency, and High-Level efficiency.

  2. Transformer Efficiency Assessment - Okinawa, Japan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas L. Baldwin; Robert J. Turk; Kurt S. Myers; Jake P. Gentle; Jason W. Bush

    2012-08-01

    The US Army Engineering & Support Center, Huntsville (USAESCH), and the US Marine Corps Base (MCB), Okinawa, Japan retained Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to conduct a Transformer Efficiency Assessment of “key” transformers located at multiple military bases in Okinawa, Japan. The purpose of this assessment is to support the Marine Corps Base, Okinawa in evaluating medium voltage distribution transformers for potential efficiency upgrades. The original scope of work included the MCB providing actual transformer nameplate data, manufacturer’s factory test sheets, electrical system data (kWh), demand data (kWd), power factor data, and electricity cost data. Unfortunately, the MCB’s actual data is not available and therefore making it necessary to de-scope the original assessment. Note: Any similar nameplate data, photos of similar transformer nameplates, and basic electrical details from one-line drawings (provided by MCB) are not a replacement for actual load loss test data. It is recommended that load measurements are performed on the high and low sides of transformers to better quantify actual load losses, demand data, and power factor data. We also recommend that actual data, when available, be inserted by MCB Okinawa where assumptions have been made and then the LCC analysis updated. This report covers a generalized assessment of modern U.S. transformers in a three level efficiency category, Low-Level efficiency, Medium-Level efficiency, and High-Level efficiency.

  3. Transformer Efficiency Assessment - Okinawa, Japan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas L. Baldwin; Robert J. Turk; Kurt S. Myers; Jake P. Gentle; Jason W. Bush

    2012-05-01

    The US Army Engineering & Support Center, Huntsville (USAESCH), and the US Marine Corps Base (MCB), Okinawa, Japan retained Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to conduct a Transformer Efficiency Assessment of key transformers located at multiple military bases in Okinawa, Japan. The purpose of this assessment is to support the Marine Corps Base, Okinawa in evaluating medium voltage distribution transformers for potential efficiency upgrades. The original scope of work included the MCB providing actual transformer nameplate data, manufacturers factory test sheets, electrical system data (kWh), demand data (kWd), power factor data, and electricity cost data. Unfortunately, the MCBs actual data is not available and therefore making it necessary to de-scope the original assessment. Note: Any similar nameplate data, photos of similar transformer nameplates, and basic electrical details from one-line drawings (provided by MCB) are not a replacement for actual load loss test data. It is recommended that load measurements are performed on the high and low sides of transformers to better quantify actual load losses, demand data, and power factor data. We also recommend that actual data, when available, be inserted by MCB Okinawa where assumptions have been made and then the LCC analysis updated. This report covers a generalized assessment of modern U.S. transformers in a three level efficiency category, Low-Level efficiency, Medium-Level efficiency, and High-Level efficiency.

  4. Transformation of Bacillus Subtilis with cloned thymidylate synthetases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rubin, Edward M.

    1980-01-01

    Bacillus subtilis carries two genes, thyA and thyB, each encoding different protein products, with thymidylate synthetase (TSase) activity. Either of these genes alone is sufficient for thymidine independence in B. subtilis. In addition there exist two B. subtilis temperate bacteriophages which upon infection of thymine requiring auxotrophs results in conversion of the organism to thymine independence. Chimeric plasmids selected for Thy/sup +/ transforming activity in E. coli were constructed and then used as a source of defined highly enriched DNA with which to transform competent B. subtilis. These plasmids were studied for their: (1) abiility to transform B. subtilis to thymine independence; (2) site of integration within the B. subtilis chromosome upon transformation; (3) phenotype of Thy/sup +/ plasmid generated transformants; and (4) nucleotide sequence homology among the cloned DNA fragments conferring thymine independence. Plasmids containing the two bacteriophage thy genes displayed the phenotype associated with thyA, whereas the plasmids containing the cloned B. subtilis chromosomal genes displayed the phenotype associated with thyB. Utilizing similar technology, the ability of an entirely foreign hybred bacterial plasmiid to transform B. subtilis was examined. In this case the gene from E. coli encoding thymidylate synthetase was cloned in the plasmid pBR322. The resulting chimeric plasmid was effective in transforming both E. coli and B. subtilis to thymine prototrophy. Uncloned linear E. coli chromosomal DNA was unable to transform thymine requiring strains of B. subtilis to thymine independence. Although the Thy/sup +/ transformants of E. coli contained plasmid DNA, the Thy/sup +/ transformants derived from the transformation of B. subtilis did not contain detectable extrachromosomal DNA. Instead the DNA from the chimeric plasmid was integrated into the chromosome of B. subtilis. (ERB)

  5. National Symposium on Market Transformation

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Hosted by the American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy (ACEEE) and the Consortium for Energy Efficiency (CEE), this three-day conference features speakers covering topics within the scope of market transformation.

  6. Transform Solar | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    search Name: Transform Solar Place: Boise, Idaho Product: Idaho-based PV module maker and joint venture between Micron and Origin Energy. Coordinates: 43.60698, -116.193409...

  7. Ultrafast Transformations in Superionic Nanocrystals

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Ultrafast Transformations in Superionic Nanocrystals Ultrafast Transformations in Superionic Nanocrystals Print Wednesday, 29 January 2014 00:00 A superionic material is a multi-component solid with simultaneous characteristics of both a solid and a liquid. Above a critical temperature associated with a structural phase transition, one of the atomic species in the material will exhibit liquid-like ionic conductivity and dynamic disorder within the rigid crystalline structure of the other.

  8. Market Transformation | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Market Transformation Market Transformation Significant research and development progress has paved the way for fuel cells to enter today's commercial marketplace for a variety of applications, including specialty vehicles and stationary and portable power. The growing number of commercial products, in combination with the federal and state financial incentives available now, are instrumental in supporting the role that fuel cells play in our nation's energy portfolio. Through its market

  9. National Electric Delivery Technologies Roadmap: Transforming...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Delivery Technologies Roadmap: Transforming the Grid to Revolutionize Electric Power in North America National Electric Delivery Technologies Roadmap: Transforming the Grid to ...

  10. Market Transformation: Fuel Cell Early Adoption (Presentation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Transformation: Fuel Cell Early Adoption (Presentation) Market Transformation: Fuel Cell Early Adoption (Presentation) Presented at the DOE Fuel Cell Pre-Solicitation Workshop held ...

  11. Metamaterial flexible sheets could transform optics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Metamaterial flexible sheets could transform optics Metamaterial flexible sheets could transform optics Advances would boost security screening systems, infrared thermal cameras,...

  12. Building America Expert Meeting: Transforming Existing Buildings...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Transforming Existing Buildings through New Media--An Idea Exchange Building America Expert Meeting: Transforming Existing Buildings through New Media--An Idea Exchange This report...

  13. SAR image formation with azimuth interpolation after azimuth transform

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Doerry; Armin W. , Martin; Grant D. , Holzrichter; Michael W.

    2008-07-08

    Two-dimensional SAR data can be processed into a rectangular grid format by subjecting the SAR data to a Fourier transform operation, and thereafter to a corresponding interpolation operation. Because the interpolation operation follows the Fourier transform operation, the interpolation operation can be simplified, and the effect of interpolation errors can be diminished. This provides for the possibility of both reducing the re-grid processing time, and improving the image quality.

  14. Methods of Using Alpha Channeling Together with Transformer Recharging |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Princeton Plasma Physics Lab Methods of Using Alpha Channeling Together with Transformer Recharging A tokamak current can be sustained using rf waves for transformer recharging at low density and high-Z with high efficiency if the resistivity is kept high enough during the radio frequency recharging stage. At the same time, operation in the hot ion mode via alpha channeling increases the effective fusion reactivity. The two separate inventions can be made to work synergistically.

  15. SPOT Suite Transforms Beamline Science

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    SPOT Suite Transforms Beamline Science SPOT Suite Transforms Beamline Science SPOT Suite brings advanced algorithms, high performance computing and data management to the masses August 18, 2014 Contact: Linda Vu, +1 510 495 2402, lvu@lbl.gov als.jpg Advanced Light Source (ALS) at Berkeley Lab (Photo by Roy Kaltschmidt) Some mysteries of science can only be explained on a nanometer scale -even smaller than a single strand of human DNA, which is about 2.5 nanometers wide. At this scale, scientists

  16. Marketing and Market Transformation | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Market Transformation Marketing and Market Transformation Presents how going green will grow your business, as well as how programs can overcome appraisal challenges. PDF icon Marketing and Market Transformation Presentation More Documents & Publications Marketing and Market Transformation Working with the Real Estate Sector Trends in Real Estate and Energy Efficiency

  17. Evaluate and characterize mechanisms controlling transport, fate and effects of army smokes in an aerosol wind tunnel: Transport, transformations, fate and terrestrial ecological effects of fog oil obscurant smokes: Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cataldo, D.A.; Van Voris, P.; Ligotke, M.W.; Fellows, R.J.; McVeety, B.D.; Li, Shu-mei W.; Bolton, H. Jr.; Fredrickson, J.K.

    1989-01-01

    The terrestrial transport, chemical fate, and ecological effects of fog oil (FO) smoke obscurants were evaluated under controlled wind tunnel conditions. The primary objectives of this research program are to characterize and assess the impacts of smoke and obscurants on: (1) natural vegetation characteristic of US Army training sites in the United States; (2) physical and chemical properties of soils representative of these training sites; and (3) soil microbiological and invertebrate communities. Impacts and dose/responses were evaluated based on an exposure scenario, including exposure duration, exposure rate, and sequential cumulative dosing. Key to understanding the environmental impacts of fog oil smoke/obscurants is establishing the importance of environmental parameters, such as relative humidity and wind speed on airborne aerosol characteristics and deposition to receptor surfaces. Direct and indirect biotic effects were evaluated using five plant species and three soil types. 29 refs., 35 figs., 32 tabs.

  18. biomass-to-biofuels transformation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    biomass-to-biofuels transformation - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management

  19. Ultrafast Transformations in Superionic Nanocrystals

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Ultrafast Transformations in Superionic Nanocrystals Print A superionic material is a multi-component solid with simultaneous characteristics of both a solid and a liquid. Above a critical temperature associated with a structural phase transition, one of the atomic species in the material will exhibit liquid-like ionic conductivity and dynamic disorder within the rigid crystalline structure of the other. Discovered by Michael Faraday almost 200 years ago, superionic materials today hold promise

  20. Ultrafast Transformations in Superionic Nanocrystals

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Ultrafast Transformations in Superionic Nanocrystals Print A superionic material is a multi-component solid with simultaneous characteristics of both a solid and a liquid. Above a critical temperature associated with a structural phase transition, one of the atomic species in the material will exhibit liquid-like ionic conductivity and dynamic disorder within the rigid crystalline structure of the other. Discovered by Michael Faraday almost 200 years ago, superionic materials today hold promise

  1. Ultrafast Transformations in Superionic Nanocrystals

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Transformations in Superionic Nanocrystals Print A superionic material is a multi-component solid with simultaneous characteristics of both a solid and a liquid. Above a critical temperature associated with a structural phase transition, one of the atomic species in the material will exhibit liquid-like ionic conductivity and dynamic disorder within the rigid crystalline structure of the other. Discovered by Michael Faraday almost 200 years ago, superionic materials today hold promise for use in

  2. Ultrafast Transformations in Superionic Nanocrystals

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Ultrafast Transformations in Superionic Nanocrystals Print A superionic material is a multi-component solid with simultaneous characteristics of both a solid and a liquid. Above a critical temperature associated with a structural phase transition, one of the atomic species in the material will exhibit liquid-like ionic conductivity and dynamic disorder within the rigid crystalline structure of the other. Discovered by Michael Faraday almost 200 years ago, superionic materials today hold promise

  3. Ultrafast Transformations in Superionic Nanocrystals

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Ultrafast Transformations in Superionic Nanocrystals Print A superionic material is a multi-component solid with simultaneous characteristics of both a solid and a liquid. Above a critical temperature associated with a structural phase transition, one of the atomic species in the material will exhibit liquid-like ionic conductivity and dynamic disorder within the rigid crystalline structure of the other. Discovered by Michael Faraday almost 200 years ago, superionic materials today hold promise

  4. Ultrafast Transformations in Superionic Nanocrystals

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Ultrafast Transformations in Superionic Nanocrystals Print A superionic material is a multi-component solid with simultaneous characteristics of both a solid and a liquid. Above a critical temperature associated with a structural phase transition, one of the atomic species in the material will exhibit liquid-like ionic conductivity and dynamic disorder within the rigid crystalline structure of the other. Discovered by Michael Faraday almost 200 years ago, superionic materials today hold promise

  5. Ultrafast Transformations in Superionic Nanocrystals

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Ultrafast Transformations in Superionic Nanocrystals Print A superionic material is a multi-component solid with simultaneous characteristics of both a solid and a liquid. Above a critical temperature associated with a structural phase transition, one of the atomic species in the material will exhibit liquid-like ionic conductivity and dynamic disorder within the rigid crystalline structure of the other. Discovered by Michael Faraday almost 200 years ago, superionic materials today hold promise

  6. Phase Transformations in Cast Duplex Stainless Steels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoon-Jun Kim

    2004-12-19

    Duplex stainless steels (DSS) constitute both ferrite and austenite as a matrix. Such a microstructure confers a high corrosion resistance with favorable mechanical properties. However, intermetallic phases such as {sigma} and {chi} can also form during casting or high-temperature processing and can degrade the properties of the DSS. This research was initiated to develop time-temperature-transformation (TTT) and continuous-cooling-transformation (CCT) diagrams of two types of cast duplex stainless steels, CD3MN (Fe-22Cr-5Ni-Mo-N) and CD3MWCuN (Fe-25Cr-7Ni-Mo-W-Cu-N), in order to understand the time and temperature ranges for intermetallic phase formation. The alloys were heat treated isothermally or under controlled cooling conditions and then characterized using conventional metallographic methods that included tint etching, and also using electron microscopy (SEM, TEM) and wavelength dispersive spectroscopy (WDS). The kinetics of intermetallic-phase ({sigma} + {chi}) formation were analyzed using the Johnson-Mehl-Avrami (MA) equation in the case of isothermal transformations and a modified form of this equation in the case of continuous cooling transformations. The rate of intermetallic-phase formation was found to be much faster in CD3MWCuN than CD3MN due mainly to differences in the major alloying contents such as Cr, Ni and Mo. To examine in more detail the effects of these elements of the phase stabilities; a series of eight steel castings was designed with the Cr, Ni and Mo contents systematically varied with respect to the nominal composition of CD3MN. The effects of varying the contents of alloying additions on the formation of intermetallic phases were also studied computationally using the commercial thermodynamic software package, Thermo-Calc. In general, {sigma} was stabilized with increasing Cr addition and {chi} by increasing Mo addition. However, a delicate balance among Ni and other minor elements such as N and Si also exists. Phase equilibria in DSS can be affected by local composition fluctuations in the cast alloy. This may cause discrepancy between thermodynamic prediction and experimental observation.

  7. 2016 National Symposium on Market Transformation | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    National Symposium on Market Transformation 2016 National Symposium on Market Transformation March 20, 2016 9:00AM EDT to March 22, 2016 5:00PM EDT Hyatt Regency Baltimore ...

  8. Sandia Energy - Energy Supply Transformation Needed

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    News Distribution Grid Integration News & Events Systems Analysis Energy Assurance Microgrid Transmission Grid Integration Systems Engineering Energy Supply Transformation...

  9. Solar Energy Technologies Program: Market Transformation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-10-26

    Fact sheet summarizing the goals and activities of the DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program efforts within its market transformation subprogram

  10. Market Transformation Fact Sheet | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Market Transformation Fact Sheet Market Transformation Fact Sheet This fact sheet describes the Fuel Cell Technologies Office's Market Transformation strategies and activities, which are aimed at accelerating early market adoption and advancing pre-competitive technologies. PDF icon Market Transformation More Documents & Publications Early Markets: Fuel Cells for Material Handling Equipment Identification and Characterization of Near-Term Direct Hydrogen PEM Fuel Cell Markets Early Markets:

  11. Mechanisms of cellular transformation by carcinogenic agents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grunberger, D.; Goff, S.P.

    1987-01-01

    This book contains 14 chapters. Some of the chapter titles are: DNA Modification by Chemical Carcinogens; Role of DNA Lesions and Repair in the Transformation of Human Cells; The Induction and Regulation of Radiogenic Transformation In Vitro: Cellular and Molecular Mechanisms; Cellular Transformation by Adenoviruses; and The fos Gene.

  12. High flux solar energy transformation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Winston, R.; Gleckman, P.L.; O'Gallagher, J.J.

    1991-04-09

    Disclosed are multi-stage systems for high flux transformation of solar energy allowing for uniform solar intensification by a factor of 60,000 suns or more. Preferred systems employ a focusing mirror as a primary concentrative device and a non-imaging concentrator as a secondary concentrative device with concentrative capacities of primary and secondary stages selected to provide for net solar flux intensification of greater than 2000 over 95 percent of the concentration area. Systems of the invention are readily applied as energy sources for laser pumping and in other photothermal energy utilization processes. 7 figures.

  13. High flux solar energy transformation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Winston, Roland (Chicago, IL); Gleckman, Philip L. (Chicago, IL); O'Gallagher, Joseph J. (Flossmoor, IL)

    1991-04-09

    Disclosed are multi-stage systems for high flux transformation of solar energy allowing for uniform solar intensification by a factor of 60,000 suns or more. Preferred systems employ a focusing mirror as a primary concentrative device and a non-imaging concentrator as a secondary concentrative device with concentrative capacities of primary and secondary stages selected to provide for net solar flux intensification of greater than 2000 over 95 percent of the concentration area. Systems of the invention are readily applied as energy sources for laser pumping and in other photothermal energy utilization processes.

  14. Computing Instantaneous Frequency by normalizing Hilbert Transform

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Huang, Norden E.

    2005-05-31

    This invention presents Normalized Amplitude Hilbert Transform (NAHT) and Normalized Hilbert Transform(NHT), both of which are new methods for computing Instantaneous Frequency. This method is designed specifically to circumvent the limitation set by the Bedorsian and Nuttal Theorems, and to provide a sharp local measure of error when the quadrature and the Hilbert Transform do not agree. Motivation for this method is that straightforward application of the Hilbert Transform followed by taking the derivative of the phase-angle as the Instantaneous Frequency (IF) leads to a common mistake made up to this date. In order to make the Hilbert Transform method work, the data has to obey certain restrictions.

  15. Microbial Transformations of Actinides and Other Radionuclides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Francis,A.J.; Dodge, C. J.

    2009-01-07

    Microorganisms can affect the stability and mobility of the actinides and other radionuclides released from nuclear fuel cycle and from nuclear fuel reprocessing plants. Under appropriate conditions, microorganisms can alter the chemical speciation, solubility and sorption properties and thus could increase or decrease the concentrations of radionuclides in solution in the environment and the bioavailability. Dissolution or immobilization of radionuclides is brought about by direct enzymatic action or indirect non-enzymatic action of microorganisms. Although the physical, chemical, and geochemical processes affecting dissolution, precipitation, and mobilization of radionuclides have been extensively investigated, we have only limited information on the effects of microbial processes and biochemical mechanisms which affect the stability and mobility of radionuclides. The mechanisms of microbial transformations of the major and minor actinides U, Pu, Cm, Am, Np, the fission products and other radionuclides such as Ra, Tc, I, Cs, Sr, under aerobic and anaerobic conditions in the presence of electron donors and acceptors are reviewed.

  16. Energy Technology Solutions: Public-Private Partnerships Transforming...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Energy Technology Solutions: Public-Private Partnerships Transforming Industry, November 2010 Energy Technology Solutions: Public-Private Partnerships Transforming Industry,...

  17. NEMA Distribution Transformers, CCE Overview and Update presentation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Distribution Transformers, CCE Overview and Update presentation, dated 05242011 NEMA Distribution Transformers, CCE Overview and Update presentation, dated 05242011 This...

  18. One-way transformation of information

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cooper, James A. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1989-01-01

    Method and apparatus are provided for one-way transformation of data according to multiplication and/or exponentiation modulo a prime number. An implementation of the invention permits the one way residue transformation, useful in encryption and similar applications, to be implemented by n-bit computers substantially with no increase in difficulty or complexity over a natural transformation thereby, using a modulus which is a power of two.

  19. Articles about Market Transformation | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Market Transformation Articles about Market Transformation RSS Below are stories about market transformation featured by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Wind Program. September 29, 2015 New Report Shows Domestic Offshore Wind Industry Potential, 21 Projects Planned in U.S. Waters The Energy Department today released a new report showing strong progress for the U.S. offshore wind market-including the start of construction of the nation's first commercial-scale offshore wind farm, one of 21

  20. Wavelet transform techniques and signal analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Perez, R.B.; Mattingly, J.K. Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN . Dept. of Nuclear Engineering); Perez, J.S. . Facultad de Informatica)

    1993-01-01

    Traditionally, the most widely used signal analysis tool is the Fourier transform which, by producing power spectral densities (PSDs), allows time dependent signals to be studied in the frequency domain. However, the Fourier transform is global -- it extends over the entire time domain -- which makes it ill-suited to study nonstationary signals which exhibit local temporal changes in the signal's frequency content. To analyze nonstationary signals, the family of transforms commonly designated as short-time Fourier transforms (STFTs), capable of identifying temporally localized changes in the signal's frequency content, were developed by employing window functions to isolate temporal regions of the signal. For example, the Gabor STFT uses a Gaussian window. However, the applicability of STFTs is limited by various inadequacies. The Wavelet transform (NW), recently developed by Grossman and Morlet and explored in depth by Daubechies (2) and Mallat, remedies the inadequacies of STFTs. Like the Fourier transform, the WT can be implemented as a discrete transform (DWT) or as a continuous (integral) transform (CWT). This paper briefly illustrates some of the potential applications of the wavelet transform algorithms to signal analysis.

  1. Wavelet transform techniques and signal analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Perez, R.B.; Mattingly, J.K. |; Perez, J.S.

    1993-03-01

    Traditionally, the most widely used signal analysis tool is the Fourier transform which, by producing power spectral densities (PSDs), allows time dependent signals to be studied in the frequency domain. However, the Fourier transform is global -- it extends over the entire time domain -- which makes it ill-suited to study nonstationary signals which exhibit local temporal changes in the signal`s frequency content. To analyze nonstationary signals, the family of transforms commonly designated as short-time Fourier transforms (STFTs), capable of identifying temporally localized changes in the signal`s frequency content, were developed by employing window functions to isolate temporal regions of the signal. For example, the Gabor STFT uses a Gaussian window. However, the applicability of STFTs is limited by various inadequacies. The Wavelet transform (NW), recently developed by Grossman and Morlet and explored in depth by Daubechies (2) and Mallat, remedies the inadequacies of STFTs. Like the Fourier transform, the WT can be implemented as a discrete transform (DWT) or as a continuous (integral) transform (CWT). This paper briefly illustrates some of the potential applications of the wavelet transform algorithms to signal analysis.

  2. Ecology Action: Small Market Advanced Retrofit Transformation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Small Market Advanced Retrofit Transformation Program - 2014 BTO Peer Review More Documents & Publications Assessment of Evaluation, Measurement, and Verification Methods - 2014 ...

  3. Investigating Processes of Nanocrystal Formation and Transformation...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Investigating Processes of Nanocrystal Formation and Transformation via Liquid Cell TEM Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Investigating Processes of Nanocrystal Formation...

  4. Marketing and Market Transformation | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Marketing and Market Transformation Presents how going green will grow your business, as well as how programs can overcome appraisal challenges. PDF icon Marketing and Market ...

  5. Titanium ? - ? phase transformation pathway and a predicted...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Titanium - phase transformation pathway and a predicted metastable structure Citation Details In-Document Search This content will become publicly available on January 14,...

  6. 500 kV Spare Transformer Procurement

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Procurement capital project is for the acquisition of five, 500 kV spare transformers, which are to be strategically located throughout the system, and for the...

  7. CSV to ISO XML metadata transformation tool

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2009-08-01

    Django app for converting CSV records to XML metadata documents. This transformation from the metadata content model to parsed ISO XML documents allows for metadata integration into NGDS.

  8. Ad Lucem: Modeling Market Transformation Pathways Workshop

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This white paper summarizes the information discussed during the Ad Lucem: Modeling Market Transformation Pathways Workshop, Feb. 17, 2012, in Berkeley, California.

  9. Biochemical transformation of solid carbonaceous material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lin, Mow S. (Rocky Point, NY); Premuzic, Eugene T. (East Moriches, NY)

    2001-09-25

    A method of biochemically transforming macromolecular compounds found in solid carbonaceous materials, such as coal is provided. The preparation of new microorganisms, metabolically weaned through challenge growth processes to biochemically transform solid carbonaceous materials at extreme temperatures, pressures, pH, salt and toxic metal concentrations is also disclosed.

  10. Enterprise transformation :lessons learned, pathways to success.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Slavin, Adam M.; Woodard, Joan Brune

    2006-05-01

    In this report, we characterize the key themes of transformation and tie them together in a ''how to'' guide. The perspectives were synthesized from strategic management literature, case studies, and from interviews with key management personnel from private industry on their transformation experiences.

  11. Demonstration & Market Transformation Plenary Presentation

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Plenary Presentation Jim Spaeth Program Manager Demonstration & Market Transformation March 23, 2015 2 | Bioenergy Technologies Office DMT Plenary - Outline * Goals and Objectives * Key Barriers * Approach to Overcoming Barriers * Key Accomplishments * Portfolio * Budget History * Funding Opportunity Announcements * Coordination Efforts * Future Directions * BETO Staff * Reviewers 3 | Bioenergy Technologies Office Introduction to Demonstration & Market Transformation The Demonstration

  12. The feasibility of replacing or upgrading utility distribution transformers during routine maintenance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barnes, P.R.; Van Dyke, J.W.; McConnell, B.W.; Cohn, S.M.; Purucker, S.L.

    1995-04-01

    It is estimated that electric utilities use about 40 million distribution transformers in supplying electricity to customers in the United States. Although utility distribution transformers collectively have a high average efficiency, they account for approximately 61 billion kWh of the 229 billion kWh of energy lost annually in the delivery of electricity. Distribution transformers are being replaced over time by new, more efficient, lower-loss units during routine utility maintenance of power distribution systems. Maintenance is typically not performed on units in service. However, units removed from service with appreciable remaining life are often refurbished and returned to stock. Distribution transformers may be removed from service for many reasons, including failure, over- or underloading, or line upgrades such as voltage changes or rerouting. When distribution transformers are removed from service, a decision must be made whether to dispose of the transformer and purchase a lower-loss replacement or to refurbish the transformer and return it to stock for future use. This report contains findings and recommendations on replacing utility distribution transformers during routine maintenance, which is required by section 124(c) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992. The objectives of the study are to evaluate the practicability, cost-effectiveness, and potential energy savings of replacing or upgrading existing transformers during routine utility maintenance and to develop recommendations on was to achieve the potential energy savings.

  13. Feasibility of SF6 Gas-Insulated Transformers

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Feasibility of SF 6 Gas-Insulated Transformers Brandon Bouwman, P.E. Electrical Engineer, Generation Equipment Section Hydroelectric Design Center 14 June 2012 BUILDING STRONG ® PORTLAND DISTRICT 2 Outline  Transformer Background & Basics  Oil-filled transformers  Oil-filled transformer concerns  Gas-insulated transformers (GIT)  Gas-insulated transformer benefits  Gas-insulated transformer concerns  Risks and Unknowns  Questions? BUILDING STRONG ® PORTLAND DISTRICT

  14. Atomic Structure and Phase Transformations in Pu Alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schwartz, A J; Cynn, H; Blobaum, K M; Wall, M A; Moore, K T; Evans, W J; Farber, D L; Jeffries, J R; Massalski, T B

    2008-04-28

    Plutonium and plutonium-based alloys containing Al or Ga exhibit numerous phases with crystal structures ranging from simple monoclinic to face-centered cubic. Only recently, however, has there been increased convergence in the actinides community on the details of the equilibrium form of the phase diagrams. Practically speaking, while the phase diagrams that represent the stability of the fcc {delta}-phase field at room temperature are generally applicable, it is also recognized that Pu and its alloys are never truly in thermodynamic equilibrium because of self-irradiation effects, primarily from the alpha decay of Pu isotopes. This article covers past and current research on several properties of Pu and Pu-(Al or Ga) alloys and their connections to the crystal structure and the microstructure. We review the consequences of radioactive decay, the recent advances in understanding the electronic structure, the current research on phase transformations and their relations to phase diagrams and phase stability, the nature of the isothermal martensitic {delta} {yields} {alpha}{prime} transformation, and the pressure-induced transformations in the {delta}-phase alloys. New data are also presented on the structures and phase transformations observed in these materials following the application of pressure, including the formation of transition phases.

  15. Bioenergy in Energy Transformation and Climate Management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rose, Steven K.; Kriegler, Elmar; Bibas, Ruben; Calvin, Katherine V.; Popp, Alexander; van Vuuren, Detlef; Weyant, John

    2014-04-01

    Unlike fossil fuels, biomass is a renewable resource that can sequester carbon during growth, be converted to energy, and then re-grown. Biomass is also a flexible fuel that can service many end-uses. This paper explores the importance of bioenergy to potential future energy transformation and climate change management. Using a model comparison of fifteen models, we characterize and analyze future dependence on, and the value of, bioenergy in achieving potential long-run climate objectivesreducing radiative forcing to 3.7 and 2.8 W/m2 in 2100 (approximately 550 and 450 ppm carbon dioxide equivalent atmospheric concentrations). Model scenarios project, by 2050, bioenergy growth of 2 to 10% per annum reaching 5 to 35 percent of global primary energy, and by 2100, bioenergy becoming 15 to 50 percent of global primary energy. Non-OECD regions are projected to be the dominant suppliers of biomass, as well as consumers, with up to 35 percent of regional electricity from biopower by 2050, and up to 70 percent of regional liquid fuels from biofuels by 2050. Bioenergy is found to be valuable to many models with significant implications for mitigation costs and world consumption. The availability of bioenergy, in particular biomass with carbon dioxide capture and storage (BECCS), notably affects the cost-effective global emissions trajectory for climate management by accommodating prolonged near-term use of fossil fuels. We also find that models cost-effectively trade-off land carbon and nitrous oxide emissions for the long-run climate change management benefits of bioenergy. Overall, further evaluation of the viability of global large-scale bioenergy is merited.

  16. Darboux transformation for the NLS equation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aktosun, Tuncay; Mee, Cornelis van der

    2010-03-08

    We analyze a certain class of integral equations associated with Marchenko equations and Gel'fand-Levitan equations. Such integral equations arise through a Fourier transformation on various ordinary differential equations involving a spectral parameter. When the integral operator is perturbed by a finite-rank perturbation, we explicitly evaluate the change in the solution in terms of the unperturbed quantities and the finite-rank perturbation. We show that this result provides a fundamental approach to derive Darboux transformations for various systems of ordinary differential operators. We illustrate our theory by providing the explicit Darboux transformation for the Zakharov-Shabat system and show how the potential and wave function change when a simple discrete eigenvalue is added to the spectrum, and thus we also provide a one-parameter family of Darboux transformations for the nonlinear Schroedinger equation.

  17. 2010 Solar Market Transformation Analysis and Tools

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2010-04-01

    This document describes the DOE-funded solar market transformation analysis and tools under development in Fiscal Year 2010 so that stakeholders can access available resources and get engaged where interested.

  18. Density driven structural transformations in amorphous semiconductor

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    clathrates (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Density driven structural transformations in amorphous semiconductor clathrates Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Density driven structural transformations in amorphous semiconductor clathrates The pressure induced crystalline collapse at 14.7 GPa and polyamorphic structures of the semiconductor clathrate Sr8Ga16Ge30 are reported up to 35 GPa. In-situ total scattering measurements under pressure allow the direct microscopic inspection

  19. Density driven structural transformations in amorphous semiconductor

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    clathrates (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Density driven structural transformations in amorphous semiconductor clathrates Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Density driven structural transformations in amorphous semiconductor clathrates Authors: Tulk, C.A. ; dos Santos, A.M. ; Neuefeind, J.C. ; Molaison, J.J. ; Sales, B.C. ; Honkimäki, V. [1] ; ESRF) [2] + Show Author Affiliations (ORNL) ( Publication Date: 2015-09-22 OSTI Identifier: 1221429 Resource Type: Journal Article

  20. Transforming PV Installations toward Dispatchable, Schedulable Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Solutions | Department of Energy Transforming PV Installations toward Dispatchable, Schedulable Energy Solutions Transforming PV Installations toward Dispatchable, Schedulable Energy Solutions Advanced Energy logo.png Advanced Energy (AE) will address three important needs in the further deployment of photovoltaic (PV) systems: 1) demonstrating and commercializing a new anti-islanding method utilizing Phasor Measurement Units (PMUs), 2) demonstrating a set of advanced grid support

  1. How Atomic Vibrations Transform Vanadium Dioxide

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    How Atomic Vibrations Transform Vanadium Dioxide How Atomic Vibrations Transform Vanadium Dioxide Calculations Confirm Material's Potential for Next-Generation Electronics, Energy November 10, 2014 Contact: Dawn Levy, levyd@ornl.gov, 865.576.6448 Budaivibe Vanadium atoms (blue) have unusually large thermal vibrations that stabilize the metallic state of a vanadium dioxide crystal. Red depicts oxygen atoms. Image credit: Oak Ridge National Laboratory For more than 50 years, scientists have

  2. Metamaterial flexible sheets could transform optics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Metamaterial flexible sheets could transform optics Metamaterial flexible sheets could transform optics Advances would boost security screening systems, infrared thermal cameras, energy harvesting, and radar systems June 5, 2013 A burst of laser energy 50 times greater than the worldwide output of electrical power slams into an extremely thin foil target to produce neutrons at Los Alamos National Laboratory's TRIDENT laser facility during a recent experiment, which proved that laser-driven

  3. Department of Energy/ National Power Transformer Reserve

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Energy/ National Power Transformer Reserve "National Power Transformer Reserve" This refers to the Request for Information No. 5 (Procurement and Management): From a non-discriminatory standpoint, the procurement process needs to be transparent and consistent with established purchasing practices considering all qualified manufacturers and not limited to only US manufacturers. It is recommended that to be considered a qualified manufacturer; the manufacturer must have prior experience

  4. Building America Whole-House Solutions for New Homes: Transformations...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Transformations, Inc. Net Zero Energy Communities (Fact Sheet) Building America Whole-House Solutions for New Homes: Transformations, Inc. Net Zero Energy Communities (Fact Sheet)...

  5. DOE Zero Energy Ready Home Case Study: Transformation Inc., Production...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Transformation Inc., Production House, Devens, MA DOE Zero Energy Ready Home Case Study: Transformation Inc., Production House, Devens, MA Case study of a DOE Zero Energy Ready ...

  6. Phase coexistence and transformations in field-cooled ternary...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Phase coexistence and transformations in field-cooled ternary piezoelectric single ... Title: Phase coexistence and transformations in field-cooled ternary piezoelectric single ...

  7. The Fuel Cell Mobile Light Project - A DOE Market Transformation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    The Fuel Cell Mobile Light Project - A DOE Market Transformation Activity The Fuel Cell Mobile Light Project - A DOE Market Transformation Activity Download the presentation slides...

  8. Vortex Hydro Energy Develops Transformational Technology to Harness...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Vortex Hydro Energy Develops Transformational Technology to Harness Energy from Water Currents Vortex Hydro Energy Develops Transformational Technology to Harness Energy from Water ...

  9. Driving Transformation to Energy Efficient Buildings:Policies...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Transformation to Energy Efficient Buildings:Policies and Actions Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Driving Transformation to Energy Efficient...

  10. Metal Ion-Assisted Transformations of 2-Pyridinealdoxime and...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Metal Ion-Assisted Transformations of 2-Pyridinealdoxime and Hexafluorophosphate Metal Ion-Assisted Transformations of 2-Pyridinealdoxime and Hexafluorophosphate Print Monday, 05...

  11. 2015 Peer Review Presentations-Demonstration and Market Transformation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Demonstration and Market Transformation 2015 Peer Review Presentations-Demonstration and Market Transformation The Bioenergy Technologies Office hosted its 2015 Project Peer Review...

  12. Y-12 and the 2000 decade ? Modernization to Transformation,...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Transformation, part 2 As we continue with Tom Smith's account of the transition from "Modernization" to "Transformation" he notes, "The original plan was to put three new special...

  13. Report of the ADVANCED NUCLEAR TRANSFORMATION TECHNOLOGY SUBCOMMITTEE...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of the ADVANCED NUCLEAR TRANSFORMATION TECHNOLOGY SUBCOMMITTEE of the NUCLEAR ENERGY RESEARCH ADVISORY COMMITTEE Report of the ADVANCED NUCLEAR TRANSFORMATION TECHNOLOGY...

  14. Institute for Atom-Efficient Chemical Transformations Energy...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Institute for Atom-Efficient Chemical Transformations - an Energy Frontier Research Center The Institute for Atom-Efficient Chemical Transformations (IACT) employs a...

  15. Institute for Atom-Efficient Chemical Transformations Energy...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    scientific roadblocks to U.S. energy security. Institute for Atom-Efficient Chemical Transformations The Institute for Atom-Efficient Chemical Transformations (IACT)...

  16. Method for distinguishing normal and transformed cells using G1 kinase inhibitors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Crissman, H.A.; Gadbois, D.M.; Tobey, R.A.; Bradbury, E.M.

    1993-02-09

    A G[sub 1] phase kinase inhibitor is applied in a low concentration to a population of normal and transformed mammalian cells. The concentration of G[sub 1] phase kinase inhibitor is selected to reversibly arrest normal mammalian cells in the G[sub 1] cell cycle without arresting growth of transformed cells. The transformed cells may then be selectively identified and/or cloned for research or diagnostic purposes. The transformed cells may also be selectively killed by therapeutic agents that do not affect normal cells in the G[sub 1] phase, suggesting that such G[sub 1] phase kinase inhibitors may form an effective adjuvant for use with chemotherapeutic agents in cancer therapy for optimizing the killing dose of chemotherapeutic agents while minimizing undesirable side effects on normal cells.

  17. Method for distinguishing normal and transformed cells using G1 kinase inhibitors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Crissman, Harry A.; Gadbois, Donna M.; Tobey, Robert A.; Bradbury, E. Morton

    1993-01-01

    A G.sub.1 phase kinase inhibitor is applied in a low concentration to a population of normal and transformed mammalian cells. The concentration of G.sub.1 phase kinase inhibitor is selected to reversibly arrest normal mammalian cells in the G.sub.1 cell cycle without arresting growth of transformed cells. The transformed cells may then be selectively identified and/or cloned for research or diagnostic purposes. The transformed cells may also be selectively killed by therapeutic agents that do not affect normal cells in the G.sub.1 phase, suggesting that such G.sub.1 phase kinase inhibitors may form an effective adjuvant for use with chemotherapeutic agents in cancer therapy for optimizing the killing dose of chemotherapeutic agents while minimizing undesirable side effects on normal cells.

  18. Commissioning of the new AGS MMPS transformers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bajon,E.; Badea, V. S.; Bannon, M.; Bonati, R.; Marneris, I. M.; Porqueddu, r.; Roser, T.; Sandberg, J.; Savatteri, S.

    2009-05-04

    The Brookhaven AGS Main Magnet Power Supply (MMPS) is a thyristor control supply rated at 5500 Amps. +/-9000 Volts. The peak magnet power is 50 MWatts. The power supply is fed from a motor/generator manufactured by Siemens. During rectify and invert operation the P Bank power supplies are used. During the flattops the F Bank power supplies are used. The P Bank power supplies are fed from two 23 MVA transformers and the F Bank power supplies are fed from two 5.3 MYA transformers. The fundamental frequency of the F Bank power supplies is 1440 Hz, however the fundamental frequency of the P banks was 720 Hz. It was very important to reduce the ripple during rectify to improve polarized proton operations. For this reason and also because the original transformers were 45 years old we replaced these transformers with new ones and we made the fundamental frequency of both P and F banks 1440 Hz. This paper will highlight the major hurdles that were involved during the installation of the new transformers. It will present waveforms while running at different power levels up to 6MW full load. It will show the transition from the F-Bank power supplies to the P-Banks and also show the improvements in ripple made on the P-Bank power supplies.

  19. Extraction and transformation of proton beam at RHIC using bent crystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nurushev, S.B.; Krivosheev, O.E.; Pivovarov, Y.L.; Potylitsin, A.P.

    1995-09-01

    The effect of transformation of polarization of relativistic protons using extraction and deflection by bent crystal is investigated by means of computer simulation. The 250 {ital GeV}/{ital c} proton beam from RHIC can be deflected to an angle, {theta}{sub {ital p}}=3 mrad with simultaneous transformation of initial longitudinal polarization to transverse polarization. {copyright} {ital 1995 American Institute of Physics.}

  20. Symmetry transformation in the problem of the conductivity of anisotropic composites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balagurov, B. Ya.

    2013-11-15

    A transformation of the coordinates, current density, and electric field strength has been proposed such that holds the direct-current equations. One of the components of a composite can be made isotropic by choosing the coefficients of the transformation. This allows the generalization of the standard theory of the effective medium to the case of an anisotropic composite with inclusions of an arbitrary shape.

  1. A scoping study on energy-efficiency market transformation by California Utility DSM Programs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eto, J.; Prahl, R.; Schlegel, J.

    1996-07-01

    Market transformation has emerged as a central policy objective for future publicly-funded energy-efficiency programs in California. California Public Utilities Commission (CPUC) Decision 95-12-063 calls for public funding to shift to activities designed to transform the energy-efficiency market. The CPUC envisions that funding {open_quotes}would only be needed for specific and limited periods of time to cause the market to be transformed{close_quotes}. At the same time, the CPUC also acknowledges that {open_quotes}there are many definitions of market transformation{close_quotes} ... and does {open_quotes}not attempt to refine those definitions today{close_quotes}. We argue that a definition of market transformation is essential. The literature is now replete with definitions, and an operational definition is needed for the CPUC to decide on which programs should be supported with public funds. The CPUC decision initially indicated a preference for programs that do not provide financial assistance 4-efficiency programs that rely on financial assistance to customers. However, energy customers have traditionally accounted for a substantial portion of California utility`s DSM programs, so the CPUC`s direction to use ratepayer funds to support programs that will transform the market raises critical questions about how to analyze what has happened in order to plan effectively for the future: Which utility energy-efficiency programs, including those that provide financial assistance to customers, have had market transforming effects? To what extent do current regulatory rules and practices encourage or discourage utilities from running programs that are designed to transform the market? Should the rules and programs be modified, and, if so, how, to promote market transformation?

  2. Linear transformer driver for pulse generation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kim, Alexander A; Mazarakis, Michael G; Sinebryukhov, Vadim A; Volkov, Sergey N; Kondratiev, Sergey S; Alexeenko, Vitaly M; Bayol, Frederic; Demol, Gauthier; Stygar, William A

    2015-04-07

    A linear transformer driver includes at least one ferrite ring positioned to accept a load. The linear transformer driver also includes a first power delivery module that includes a first charge storage devices and a first switch. The first power delivery module sends a first energy in the form of a first pulse to the load. The linear transformer driver also includes a second power delivery module including a second charge storage device and a second switch. The second power delivery module sends a second energy in the form of a second pulse to the load. The second pulse has a frequency that is approximately three times the frequency of the first pulse. The at least one ferrite ring is positioned to force the first pulse and the second pulse to the load by temporarily isolating the first pulse and the second pulse from an electrical ground.

  3. eXtension: Transformation of Cooperative Extension

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    eXtension eXtension Transformation of Transformation of Cooperative Extension Cooperative Extension Kevin Gamble State Energy Advisory Board October 17, 2007 eXtension eXtension, the nation's first 24/7/365 collaboratively built non-formal education and information system available on any Internet-ready device How it works How it works ... ... P P P r r r o o o d d d u u u c c c t t t s s s Basic Information Ask the Experts FAQs Distance Diagnostics Discussion & Chat Decision Tools

  4. 2010 Solar Market Transformation Analysis and Tools

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This document is an overview describing the solar analysis and tool development projects funded by the DOE Market Transformation team for fiscal year 2010. These quick snapshots are intended to give you a basic look at the scope, timeline, and expected deliverables for each project.

  5. Information retrieval system utilizing wavelet transform

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brewster, Mary E. (Kennewick, WA); Miller, Nancy E. (Kennewick, WA)

    2000-01-01

    A method for automatically partitioning an unstructured electronically formatted natural language document into its sub-topic structure. Specifically, the document is converted to an electronic signal and a wavelet transform is then performed on the signal. The resultant signal may then be used to graphically display and interact with the sub-topic structure of the document.

  6. Staring 2-D hadamard transform spectral imager

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gentry, Stephen M. (Albuquerque, NM); Wehlburg, Christine M. (Albuquerque, NM); Wehlburg, Joseph C. (Albuquerque, NM); Smith, Mark W. (Albuquerque, NM); Smith, Jody L. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2006-02-07

    A staring imaging system inputs a 2D spatial image containing multi-frequency spectral information. This image is encoded in one dimension of the image with a cyclic Hadamarid S-matrix. The resulting image is detecting with a spatial 2D detector; and a computer applies a Hadamard transform to recover the encoded image.

  7. Low Dose Suppression of Neoplastic Transformation in Vitro

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John Leslie Redpath

    2012-05-01

    This grant was to study the low dose suppression of neoplastic transformation in vitro and the shape of the dose-response curve at low doses and dose-rates of ionizing radiation. Previous findings had indicated a suppression of transformation at dose <10cGy of low-LET radiation when delivered at high dose-rate. The present study indicates that such suppression extends out to doses in excess of 100cGy when the dose (from I-125 photons) is delivered at dose-rates as low as 0.2 mGy/min and out to in excess of {approx}25cGy the highest dose studied at the very low dose-rate of 0.5 mGy/day. We also examined dose-rate effects for high energy protons (which are a low-LET radiation) and suppression was evident below {approx}10cGy for high dose-rate delivery and at least out to 50cGy for low dose-rate (20cGy/h) delivery. Finally, we also examined the effect of low doses of 1 GeV/n iron ions (a high-LET radiation) delivered at high dose-rate on transformation at low doses and found a suppression below {approx}10cGy that could be attributable to an adaptive response in bystander cells induced by the associated low-LET delta rays. These results have implications for cancer risk assessment at low doses.

  8. Two-dimensional fourier transform spectrometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    DeFlores, Lauren; Tokmakoff, Andrei

    2013-09-03

    The present invention relates to a system and methods for acquiring two-dimensional Fourier transform (2D FT) spectra. Overlap of a collinear pulse pair and probe induce a molecular response which is collected by spectral dispersion of the signal modulated probe beam. Simultaneous collection of the molecular response, pulse timing and characteristics permit real time phasing and rapid acquisition of spectra. Full spectra are acquired as a function of pulse pair timings and numerically transformed to achieve the full frequency-frequency spectrum. This method demonstrates the ability to acquire information on molecular dynamics, couplings and structure in a simple apparatus. Multi-dimensional methods can be used for diagnostic and analytical measurements in the biological, biomedical, and chemical fields.

  9. Nano-fabricated plasmonic optical transformer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Choo, Hyuck; Cabrini, Stefano; Schuck, P. James; Liang, Xiaogan; Yablonovitch, Eli

    2015-06-09

    The present invention provides a plasmonic optical transformer to produce a highly focuses optical beam spot, where the transformer includes a first metal layer, a dielectric layer formed on the first metal layer, and a second metal layer formed on the dielectric layer, where the first metal layer, the dielectric layer, and the second layer are patterned to a shape including a first section having a first cross section, a second section following the first section having a cross-section tapering from the first section to a smaller cross-section, and a third section following the second section having a cross-section matching the tapered smaller cross-section of the second section.

  10. Detrecting and Locating Partial Discharges in Transformers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shourbaji, A.; Richards, R.; Kisner, R. A.; Hardy, J.

    2005-02-04

    A collaborative research between the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), the American Electric Power (AEP), the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), and the State of Ohio Energy Office (OEO) has been formed to conduct a feasibility study to detect and locate partial discharges (PDs) inside large transformers. The success of early detection of the PDs is necessary to avoid costly catastrophic failures that can occur if the process of PD is ignored. The detection method under this research is based on an innovative technology developed by ORNL researchers using optical methods to sense the acoustical energy produced by the PDs. ORNL researchers conducted experimental studies to detect PD using an optical fiber as an acoustic sensor capable of detecting acoustical disturbances at any point along its length. This technical approach also has the potential to locate the point at which the PD was sensed within the transformer. Several optical approaches were experimentally investigated, including interferometric detection of acoustical disturbances along the sensing fiber, light detection and ranging (LIDAR) techniques using frequency modulation continuous wave (FMCW), frequency modulated (FM) laser with a multimode fiber, FM laser with a single mode fiber, and amplitude modulated (AM) laser with a multimode fiber. The implementation of the optical fiber-based acoustic measurement technique would include installing a fiber inside a transformer allowing real-time detection of PDs and determining their locations. The fibers are nonconductive and very small (core plus cladding are diameters of 125 μm for single-mode fibers and 230 μm for multimode fibers). The research identified the capabilities and limitations of using optical technology to detect and locate sources of acoustical disturbances such as in PDs in large transformers. Amplitude modulation techniques showed the most promising results and deserve further research to better quantify the technique’s sensitivity and its ability to characterize a PD event. Other sensing techniques have been also identified, such as the wavelength shifting fiber optics and custom fabricated fibers with special coatings.

  11. Residential market transformation: National and regional indicators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Van Wie McGrory, Laura L.; McNamara, Maureen; Suozzo, Margaret

    2000-06-01

    A variety of programs are underway to address market barriers to the adoption of energy-efficient residential technologies and practices. Most are administered by utilities, states, or regions that rely on the Energy Star as a consistent platform for program marketing and messaging. This paper reviews regional and national market transformation activities for three key residential end-uses -- air conditioning, clothes washing, and lighting -- characterizing current and ongoing programs; reporting on progress; identifying market indicators; and discussing implications.

  12. Changing Mindsets, Transforming Classrooms: Broadening Participation In

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    STEM | Argonne National Laboratory Contact education@anl.gov Changing Mindsets, Transforming Classrooms: Broadening Participation In STEM Diversity: the art of thinking independently together. - Malcolm Forbes Thank you to everyone for a successful event! The Changing Mindsets workshop not only broadened perspectives, but ignited hope. The conversations do not end here. Future opportunities will be provided if you are interested in joining in the conversation. Argonne Education and

  13. Transformation of gram positive bacteria by sonoporation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yang, Yunfeng; Li, Yongchao

    2014-03-11

    The present invention provides a sonoporation-based method that can be universally applied for delivery of compounds into Gram positive bacteria. Gram positive bacteria which can be transformed by sonoporation include, for example, Bacillus, Streptococcus, Acetobacterium, and Clostridium. Compounds which can be delivered into Gram positive bacteria via sonoporation include nucleic acids (DNA or RNA), proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, viruses, small organic and inorganic molecules, and nano-particles.

  14. Effects of phase transformation on the microstructures and magnetostri...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... Subject: 75 CONDENSED MATTER PHYSICS, SUPERCONDUCTIVITY AND SUPERFLUIDITY; DOMAIN STRUCTURE; FERROMAGNETIC MATERIALS; FERROMAGNETISM; GALLIUM ALLOYS; IRON BASE ALLOYS; ...

  15. 2016 National Symposium on Market Transformation | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    National Symposium on Market Transformation 2016 National Symposium on Market Transformation March 20, 2016 9:00AM EDT to March 22, 2016 5:00PM EDT Hyatt Regency Baltimore Baltimore, Maryland

  16. DOE Zero Energy Ready Home Case Study: Transformations Inc.,...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Transformations Inc., Custom House, Devens, MA DOE Zero Energy Ready Home Case Study: Transformations Inc., Custom House, Devens, MA Case study of a DOE Zero Energy Ready Home in ...

  17. Houston Transforming with Solar Energy | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Transforming with Solar Energy Houston Transforming with Solar Energy January 12, 2010 - 8:54am Addthis Houston is a Solar America Cities participant. | File photo Houston is a ...

  18. Ad Lucem: Modeling of Market Transformation Pathways Workshop Agenda

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This document details the agenda for the DOE Ad Lucem: Modeling of Market Transformation Pathways Workshop on Feb. 17, 2012.

  19. Market Transformation: Solar Energy Technologies Program (SETP) (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2009-10-01

    Fact sheet summarizing the goals and activities of the DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program efforts within its market transformation subprogram.

  20. PRESENTATION: TRANSFORMATION OF THE GRID | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    TRANSFORMATION OF THE GRID PRESENTATION: TRANSFORMATION OF THE GRID A briefing to the Secretary's Energy Advisory Board on the transformation of the grid delivered by Patricia Hoffman, U.S. Department of Energy. PDF icon Transformation of the Grid More Documents & Publications Grid Modernization Multi-Year Program Plan (MYPP) NARUC Vision of the Future Grid Webinar (January 2012) FY13 OE Budget Request Presentation by Patricia Hoffman

  1. Institute for Market Transformation: Putting Data to Work | Department of

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Energy Institute for Market Transformation: Putting Data to Work Institute for Market Transformation: Putting Data to Work Institute for Market Transformation: Putting Data to Work Lead Performer: Institute for Market Transformation (IMT) - Washington, DC Partners: -- Vermont Energy Investment Corporation/District of Columbia Sustainable Energy Utility (VEIC/DCSEU) -- District of Columbia Department of Energy and Environment (DOEE) -- New York State Energy Research and Development Authority

  2. Transformers: The Levers and Gears of Electricity | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Transformers: The Levers and Gears of Electricity Transformers: The Levers and Gears of Electricity Addthis Description This video is a great resource for teachers, demonstrating how transformers work. It includes experiments and demos that can be shared with students. Duration 8:36 Credit James Lincoln, AAPT Films

  3. Transformer current sensor for superconducting magnetic coils

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shen, S.S.; Wilson, C.T.

    1985-04-16

    The present invention is a current transformer for operating currents larger than 2kA (two kiloamps) that is capable of detecting a millivolt level resistive voltage in the presence of a large inductive voltage. Specifically, the present invention includes substantially cylindrical primary turns arranged to carry a primary current and substantially cylindrical secondary turns arranged coaxially with and only partially within the primary turns, the secondary turns including an active winding and a dummy winding, the active and dummy windings being coaxial, longitudinally separated and arranged to mutually cancel voltages excited by commonly experienced magnetic fields, the active winding but not the dummy winding being arranged within the primary turns.

  4. Building Energy Performance Data Transforming Markets

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Building Energy Performance Data Transforming Markets Cliff M ajersik, Execu2ve D irector cliff@imt.org;@IMTCliff. June 16, 2015 US spends $400 billion per year to power b uildings The b uilding s ector i s t he d ominant u ser o f e nergy a nd generator o f C O 2 e missions i n t he U .S. T his i s m ore t rue i n c ities due t o d ensity. 38 70 51 65 75 62 75 74 US Chicago Dallas Minneapolis New York City Philadelphia Salt Lake City Washington, DC Percentage of Total Carbon Emissions from

  5. Linear Transformation Method for Multinuclide Decay Calculation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ding Yuan

    2010-12-29

    A linear transformation method for generic multinuclide decay calculations is presented together with its properties and implications. The method takes advantage of the linear form of the decay solution N(t) = F(t)N{sub 0}, where N(t) is a column vector that represents the numbers of atoms of the radioactive nuclides in the decay chain, N{sub 0} is the initial value vector of N(t), and F(t) is a lower triangular matrix whose time-dependent elements are independent of the initial values of the system.

  6. Transforming the U.S. Energy Infrastructure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Larry Demick

    2010-07-01

    The U.S. energy infrastructure is among the most reliable, accessible and economic in the world. On the other hand, the U.S. energy infrastructure is excessively reliant on foreign sources of energy, experiences high volatility in energy prices, does not practice good stewardship of finite indigenous energy resources and emits significant quantities of greenhouse gases (GHG). This report presents a Technology Based Strategy to achieve a full transformation of the U.S. energy infrastructure that corrects these negative factors while retaining the positives.

  7. Energy Department Issues New Appliance Efficiency Standards ...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    light kits; illuminated exit signs; torchieres; low-voltage dry-type distribution transformers; traffic signal modules and pedestrian modules; unit heaters; medium base compact...

  8. Optimization of distribution transformer efficiency characteristics. Final report, March 1979

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-06-01

    A method for distribution transformer loss evaluation was derived. The total levalized annual cost method was used and was extended to account properly for conditions of energy cost inflation, peak load growth, and transformer changeout during the evaluation period. The loss costs included were the no-load and load power losses, no-load and load reactive losses, and the energy cost of regulation. The demand and energy components of loss costs were treated separately to account correctly for the diversity of load losses and energy cost inflation. The complete distribution transformer loss evaluation equation is shown, with the nomenclature and definitions for the parameters provided. Tasks described are entitled: Establish Loss Evaluation Techniques; Compile System Cost Parameters; Compile Load Parameters and Loading Policies; Develop Transformer Cost/Performance Relationship; Define Characteristics of Multiple Efficiency Transformer Package; Minimize Life Cycle Cost Based on Single Efficiency Characteristic Transformer Design; Minimize Life Cycle Cost Based on Multiple Efficiency Characteristic Transformer Design; and Interpretation.

  9. MICROBIAL TRANSFORMATIONS OF RADIONUCLIDES RELEASED FROM NUCLEAR FUEL REPROCESSING PLANTS.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    FRANCIS,A.J.

    2006-10-18

    Microorganisms can affect the stability and mobility of the actinides U, Pu, Cm, Am, Np, and the fission products Tc, I, Cs, Sr, released from nuclear fuel reprocessing plants. Under appropriate conditions, microorganisms can alter the chemical speciation, solubility and sorption properties and thus could increase or decrease the concentrations of radionuclides in solution and the bioavailability. Dissolution or immobilization of radionuclides is brought about by direct enzymatic action or indirect non-enzymatic action of microorganisms. Although the physical, chemical, and geochemical processes affecting dissolution, precipitation, and mobilization of radionuclides have been investigated, we have only limited information on the effects of microbial processes. The mechanisms of microbial transformations of the major and minor actinides and the fission products under aerobic and anaerobic conditions in the presence of electron donors and acceptors are reviewed.

  10. Swift heavy ion irradiation of Pt nanocrystals: I. shape transformation and dissolution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Giulian, R.; Araujo, L.L.; Kluth, P.; Sprouster, D.J.; Schnohr, C.S.; Byrne, A.P.; Ridgway, M.C. (ANU)

    2014-09-24

    We report on the effects of swift heavy ion irradiation of embedded Pt nanocrystals (NCs), which change from spheres to prolate spheroids to rods upon irradiation. Using a broad range of ion irradiation energies and NC mean sizes we demonstrate that the elongation and dissolution processes are energy and size dependent, attaining comparable levels of shape transformation and dissolution upon a given energy density deposited in the matrix. The NC shape transformation remains operative despite discontinuous ion tracks in the matrix and exhibits a constant threshold size for elongation. In contrast, for ion irradiations in which the ion tracks are continuous, the threshold size for elongation is clearly energy dependent.

  11. Transformation toughening of ceramics. Final report, 1 September 1985-31 August 1988

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marshall, D.B.

    1988-12-01

    The results of a three-year study, aimed at understanding factors that dictate microstructural evolution and mechanical properties of transformation toughened ceramics, are summarized. Large crack-growth resistance curves (rather than single-valued toughness) were discovered in toughened zirconia, and these were shown to be responsible for strength-toughness relations, damage tolerance, and other mechanical properties. New insight was gained into mechanisms of controlling grain growth during processing, and a method for forming high strength, fine-grained ZrO/sub 2/ fibers was discovered. In the final year's work, reported in detail here, a new tetragonal-to-orthorhomic phase transformation at low temperatures was discovered and shown to have a dramatic effect on mechanical properties. New methods were applied to measure the amount and location of phase transformation within crack tip zones and to quantify crack tip shielding, evaluate stability and reversibility of the martensitic transformation, and to determine the net transformation strain that gives to toughening. Finally, crack growth under cyclic loading was demonstrated to be important in zirconia materials.

  12. Apparatus and method for transforming living cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Okandan, Murat; Galambos, Paul C.

    2003-11-11

    An apparatus and method are disclosed for in vitro transformation of living cells. The apparatus, which is formed as a microelectromechanical device by surface micromachining, can be used to temporarily disrupt the cell walls or membrane of host cells one at a time so that a particular substance (e.g. a molecular tag, nucleic acid, bacteria, virus etc.) can be introduced into the cell. Disruption of the integrity of the host cells (i.e. poration) can be performed mechanically or electrically, or by both while the host cells are contained within a flow channel. Mechanical poration is possible using a moveable member which has a pointed or serrated edge and which is driven by an electrostatic actuator to abrade, impact or penetrate the host cell. Electroporation is produced by generating a relatively high electric field across the host cell when the host cell is located in the flow channel between a pair of electrodes having a voltage applied therebetween.

  13. Invariant relationships deriving from classical scaling transformations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bludman, Sidney; Kennedy, Dallas C.

    2011-04-15

    Because scaling symmetries of the Euler-Lagrange equations are generally not variational symmetries of the action, they do not lead to conservation laws. Instead, an extension of Noether's theorem reduces the equations of motion to evolutionary laws that prove useful, even if the transformations are not symmetries of the equations of motion. In the case of scaling, symmetry leads to a scaling evolutionary law, a first-order equation in terms of scale invariants, linearly relating kinematic and dynamic degrees of freedom. This scaling evolutionary law appears in dynamical and in static systems. Applied to dynamical central-force systems, the scaling evolutionary equation leads to generalized virial laws, which linearly connect the kinetic and potential energies. Applied to barotropic hydrostatic spheres, the scaling evolutionary equation linearly connects the gravitational and internal energy densities. This implies well-known properties of polytropes, describing degenerate stars and chemically homogeneous nondegenerate stellar cores.

  14. Transformer current sensor for superconducting magnetic coils

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shen, Stewart S.; Wilson, C. Thomas

    1988-01-01

    A transformer current sensor having primary turns carrying a primary current for a superconducting coil and secondary turns only partially arranged within the primary turns. The secondary turns include an active winding disposed within the primary turns and a dummy winding which is not disposed in the primary turns and so does not experience a magnetic field due to a flow of current in the primary turns. The active and dummy windings are wound in opposite directions or connected in series-bucking relationship, and are exposed to the same ambient magnetic field. Voltages which might otherwise develop in the active and dummy windings due to ambient magnetic fields thus cancel out. The resultant voltage is purely indicative of the rate of change of current flowing in the primary turns.

  15. Optimization of Drive-Bunch Current Profile for Enhanced Transformer Ratio in Beam-Driven Acceleration Techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lemery, F.; Mihalcea, D.; Prokop, C.R.; Piot, P.; /Northern Illinois U. /Fermilab

    2012-07-08

    In recent years, wakefield acceleration has gained attention due to its high acceleration gradients and cost effectiveness. In beam-driven wakefield acceleration, a critical parameter to optimize is the transformer ratio. It has been shown that current shaping of electron beams allows for enhanced (> 2) transformer ratios. In this paper we present the optimization of the pulse shape of the drive bunch for dielectric-wakefield acceleration.

  16. Transform, Protect and Advance - DOE's IT Modernization Strategy |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Transform, Protect and Advance - DOE's IT Modernization Strategy Transform, Protect and Advance - DOE's IT Modernization Strategy September 5, 2012 - 12:57pm Addthis The Obama Administration's Digital Government Strategy provides a vision for a 21st century government that lays a strong foundation for modernizing technology services across the Federal Government. At Energy, we're implementing a three-pillar approach -- Transform, Protect and Advance - as part of this

  17. NREL: Measurements and Characterization - Fourier-Transform Infrared and

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Raman Spectroscopy Fourier-Transform Infrared and Raman Spectroscopy Image of FTIR map FTIR mapping capabilities are extremely useful for the quick, nondestructive characterization of heterogeneous free carrier properties of transparent conduction oxides. Infrared spectroscopy is a nondestructive, highly sensitive technique that provides information about impurities, chemical environment, and free-carrier properties. Performing both Fourier transform (FT)-Raman and Fourier transform infrared

  18. Improved technique for one-way transformation of information

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cooper, J.A.

    1987-05-11

    Method and apparatus are provided for one-way transformation of data according to multiplication and/or exponentiation modulo a prime number. An implementation of the invention permits the one way residue transformation, useful in encryption and similar applications, to be implemented by n-bit computers substantially with no increase in difficulty or complexity over a natural transformation thereby, using a modulus which is a power of two. 9 figs.

  19. NEMA Distribution Transformers, CCE Overview and Update presentation, dated

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    05/24/2011 | Department of Energy Distribution Transformers, CCE Overview and Update presentation, dated 05/24/2011 NEMA Distribution Transformers, CCE Overview and Update presentation, dated 05/24/2011 This document is the U.S. Department of Energys presentation titled NEMA Distribution Transformers, CCE Overview and UpdateŽ, date - May 24, 2011 PDF icon nema_distributiontransformers_presentation.pdf More Documents & Publications Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products

  20. 2015 Peer Review Presentations-Demonstration and Market Transformation |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Demonstration and Market Transformation 2015 Peer Review Presentations-Demonstration and Market Transformation The Bioenergy Technologies Office hosted its 2015 Project Peer Review on March 23-27, 2015, at the Hilton Mark Center in Alexandria, Virginia. The presentations from the demonstration and market transformation sessions are available to view and download below. For detailed session descriptions and presentation titles, view the 2015 Project Peer Review Program

  1. ARPA-E Issues Open Call for Transformational Energy Technologies |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Issues Open Call for Transformational Energy Technologies ARPA-E Issues Open Call for Transformational Energy Technologies March 2, 2012 - 2:31pm Addthis Washington, D.C. - Today, the Advanced Research Projects Agency - Energy (ARPA-E) issued a $150 million funding opportunity open to all transformational energy technologies to support the Obama Administration's all-of-the-above approach to solving our nation's most pressing energy challenges. This Open Funding

  2. DOE Selects 16 Transformational Carbon Capture Technologies Projects for

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Funding | Department of Energy 16 Transformational Carbon Capture Technologies Projects for Funding DOE Selects 16 Transformational Carbon Capture Technologies Projects for Funding August 13, 2015 - 9:59am Addthis The Department of Energy's (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) has selected 16 projects to receive funding through NETL's Carbon Capture Program. The program funds development and testing of transformational carbon dioxide (CO2) capture systems for new and existing

  3. Modeling and simulation, and their validation of three-phase transformers with three legs under DC bias

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fuchs, E.F.; You, Y.; Roesler, D.J.

    1999-04-01

    This paper proposes a new model for three-phase transformers with three legs with and without tank under DC bias based on electric and magnetic circuit theory. For the calculation of the nonsinusoidal no-load currents, a combination of time and frequency domains is used. The analysis shows that (1) asymmetric three-phase transformers with three legs generate magnetizing currents with triplen harmonics not being of the zero-sequence type. (2) The wave shapes of the three magnetizing currents of (asymmetric) transformers are dependent on the phase sequence. (3) The magnetic history of transformer magnetization -- due to residual magnetization and hysteresis of the tank -- cannot be ignored if a DC bias is present and the magnetic influence of the tank is relatively strong, e.g., for oil-cooled transformers. (4) Symmetric three-phase transformers with three legs generate no-load currents without triplen harmonics. (5) The effects of DC bias currents (e.g., reactive power demand, harmonic distortion) can be suppressed employing symmetric three-phase transformers with three legs including tank. Measurements corroborate computational results; thus this nonlinear model is valid and accurate.

  4. Structural transformation of nickel hydroxide films during anodic oxidation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crocker, R.W.; Muller, R.H.

    1992-05-01

    The transformation of anodically formed nickel hydroxide/oxy-hydroxide electrodes has been investigated. A mechanism is proposed for the anodic oxidation reaction, in which the reaction interface between the reduced and oxidized phases of the electrode evolves in a nodular topography that leads to inefficient utilization of the active electrode material. In the proposed nodular transformation model for the anodic oxidation reaction, nickel hydroxide is oxidized to nickel oxy-hydroxide in the region near the metal substrate. Since the nickel oxy-hydroxide is considerably more conductive than the surrounding nickel hydroxide, as further oxidation occurs, nodular features grow rapidly to the film/electrolyte interface. Upon emerging at the electrolyte interface, the reaction boundary between the nickel hydroxide and oxy-hydroxide phases spreads laterally across the film/electrolyte interface, creating an overlayer of nickel oxy-hydroxide and trapping uncharged regions of nickel hydroxide within the film. The nickel oxy-hydroxide overlayer surface facilitates the oxygen evolution side reaction. Scanning tunneling microscopy of the electrode in its charged state revealed evidence of 80 {endash} 100 Angstrom nickel oxy-hydroxide nodules in the nickel hydroxide film. In situ spectroscopic ellipsometer measurements of films held at various constant potentials agree quantitatively with optical models appropriate to the nodular growth and subsequent overgrowth of the nickel oxy-hydroxide phase. A two-dimensional, numerical finite difference model was developed to simulate the current distribution along the phase boundary between the charged and uncharged material. The model was used to explore the effects of the physical parameters that govern the electrode behavior. The ratio of the conductivities of the nickel hydroxide and oxy-hydroxide phases was found to be the dominant parameter in the system.

  5. Buying market transformation -- A cautionary tale from the Northwest

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baylon, D.; Davis, B.; Hewes, T.

    1998-07-01

    Beginning in April 1992, Pacific Northwest utilities, the Bonneville Power Administration, and eighteen manufactured home (HUD-code) builders undertook a large-scale experiment. Manufacturers were paid acquisition payments (initially $2,500/home) to install better insulation and windows in new electrically-heated homes. This resulted in homes 60% more efficient than HUD regulations dictated. Initial production projections of 10,000 homes per year were easily exceeded, with 94% of the manufactured homes (55,000) built to these standards during the 3.5 year program. During the Manufactured Housing Acquisition Program (MAP), production and on-site installation standards improved significantly. Manufactured homes made inroads into new construction markets, accounting for about 30% of regional production of new housing and competing with low- to mid-priced site-built homes in some areas. The market was transformed. Or was it? Two years have passed since the incentives stopped and the participating manufacturers were left to fend for themselves. Since MAP ended, production of homes built to the higher BPA Super Good Cents (SGC) energy efficiency standards has dropped throughout the region. The state energy offices (SEOs) have maintained an SGC inspection and certification program for which manufacturers pay $30/home, which has helped energy-efficient manufactured homes retain market share in some localities. However, where local codes do not require strict levels of energy efficiency for new homes, saturation of energy-efficient manufactured homes has declined dramatically. This paper examines factors affecting market transformation since the cessation of direct incentives, including fuel choice issues and the effects of state codes on production, infrastructure and sitting levels.

  6. Distribution-Transformer Level Flynn, Eric B. [Los Alamos National

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Taming the Grid: Dynamic Load Composition Quantification at the Distribution-Transformer Level Flynn, Eric B. Los Alamos National Laboratory; Holby, Edward F. Los Alamos...

  7. Building America Whole-House Solutions for New Homes: Transformations...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Zero Energy Communities (Fact Sheet) In 2009, Transformations, Inc. partnered with the Building Science Corporation team to build new net zero energy houses in three...

  8. Expanding Transformer Production for U.S. Market

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Metglas, which makes Amorphous Metal Transformers from an amorphous metal alloy with unique mechanical and magnetic properties, is creating jobs from advance manufacturing tax credits.

  9. Beijing Transform United New Energy Investment Co Ltd | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    United New Energy Investment Co Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Beijing Transform United New Energy Investment Co.,Ltd. Place: Beijing, China Zip: 100005 Product: The clean...

  10. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Phase Transformation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    in High Pressure Die Cast Magnesium Alloys Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Phase Transformation Kinetics and Alloy Microsegregation in High Pressure Die Cast ...

  11. Dominican Republic-Fast-Track Development of TransformativeClimate...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Fast-Track Development of Transformative Climate-Compatible Development Plans and Building of Regional and Local Capacities Jump to: navigation, search Logo: Dominican...

  12. Reverse phase transformation of martensite to austenite in stainless...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Reverse phase transformation of martensite to austenite in stainless steels: a 3D phase-field study Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Reverse phase...

  13. Phase-field Modeling of Displacive Phase Transformations in Elasticall...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Phase-field Modeling of Displacive Phase Transformations in Elastically Anisotropic and Inhomogeneous Polycrystals Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Phase-field Modeling...

  14. Transforming the Commercial Building Operations - 2014 BTO Peer...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    - 2014 BTO Peer Review Transforming the Commercial Building Operations - 2014 BTO Peer Review Project Objective The overall goal of this project is to train building operations...

  15. Monitoring CO2 intrusion and associated geochemical transformations...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Monitoring CO2 intrusion and associated geochemical transformations in a shallow groundwater system using complex electrical methods Citation Details In-Document Search Title:...

  16. Coexistence pressure for a martensitic transformation from theory...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    for a martensitic transformation from theory and experiment: Revisiting the bcc-hcp transition of iron under pressure Citation Details In-Document Search This content will...

  17. Request for Information on a National Power Transformer Reserve...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Notice Volume 80, No. 131 - July 9, 2015 Request for Information on a National Power Transformer ... The Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy ...

  18. Monitoring CO2 intrusion and associated geochemical transformations...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Monitoring CO2 intrusion and associated geochemical transformations in a shallow ... Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Monitoring CO2 intrusion and associated ...

  19. Microsoft PowerPoint - SWPA Transformer Oil Spill Risk Final...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    to develop a system wide response to the issue of secondary containment of oil for transformers in service at Corps powerhouses and dam switchyards within Southwestern's marketing...

  20. Crystalline to amorphous transformation in silicon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheruvu, S.M.

    1982-09-01

    In the present investigation, an attempt was made to understand the fundamental mechanism of crystalline-to-amorphous transformation in arsenic implanted silicon using high resolution electron microscopy. A comparison of the gradual disappearance of simulated lattice fringes with increasing Frenkel pair concentration with the experimental observation of sharp interfaces between crystalline and amorphous regions was carried out leading to the conclusion that when the defect concentration reaches a critical value, the crystal does relax to an amorphous state. Optical diffraction experiments using atomic models also supported this hypothesis. Both crystalline and amorphous zones were found to co-exist with sharp interfaces at the atomic level. Growth of the amorphous fraction depends on the temperature, dose rate and the mass of the implanted ion. Preliminary results of high energy electron irradiation experiments at 1.2 MeV also suggested that clustering of point defects occurs near room temperature. An observation in a high resolution image of a small amorphous zone centered at the core of a dislocation is presented as evidence that the nucleation of an amorphous phase is heterogeneous in nature involving clustering or segregation of point defects near existing defects.

  1. Smart Grid - Transforming Power System Operations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Widergren, Steven E.; Kirkham, Harold

    2010-04-28

    AbstractElectric power systems are entering a new realm of operations. Large amounts of variable generation tax our ability to reliably operate the system. Couple this with a greater reliance on the electricity network to serve consumer demand that is likely to rise significantly even as we drive for greater efficiency. Trade-offs between energy and environmental needs will be constantly negotiated, while a reliable supply of electricity needs even greater assurance in a world where threats of disruption have risen. Smart grid capabilities are being proposed to help address the challenges confronting system operations. This paper reviews the impact of smart grid functionality on transforming power system operations. It explores models for distributed energy resources (DER generation, storage, and load) that are appearing on the system. It reviews the evolving nature of electricity markets to deal with this complexity and a change of emphasis on signals from these markets to affect power system control. Smart grid capabilities will also impact reliable operations, while cyber security issues must be addressed as a culture change that influences all system design, implementation, and maintenance. Lastly, the paper explores significant questions for further research and the need for a simulation environment that supports such investigation and informs deployments to mitigate operational issues as they arise.

  2. FINAL REPORT: Transformational electrode drying process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Claus Daniel, C.; Wixom, M.

    2013-12-19

    This report includes major findings and outlook from the transformational electrode drying project performance period from January 6, 2012 to August 1, 2012. Electrode drying before cell assembly is an operational bottleneck in battery manufacturing due to long drying times and batch processing. Water taken up during shipment and other manufacturing steps needs to be removed before final battery assembly. Conventional vacuum ovens are limited in drying speed due to a temperature threshold needed to avoid damaging polymer components in the composite electrode. Roll to roll operation and alternative treatments can increase the water desorption and removal rate without overheating and damaging other components in the composite electrode, thus considerably reducing drying time and energy use. The objective of this project was the development of an electrode drying procedure, and the demonstration of processes with no decrease in battery performance. The benchmark for all drying data was an 80C vacuum furnace treatment with a residence time of 18 22 hours. This report demonstrates an alternative roll to roll drying process with a 500-fold improvement in drying time down to 2 minutes and consumption of only 30% of the energy compared to vacuum furnace treatment.

  3. Wedge assembly for electrical transformer component spacing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baggett, Franklin E. (Paducah, KY); Cage, W. Franklin (LaCenter, KY)

    1991-01-01

    A wedge assembly that is easily inserted between two surfaces to be supported thereby, and thereafter expanded to produce a selected spacing between those surfaces. This wedge assembly has two outer members that are substantially identical except that they are mirror images of each other. Oppositely directed faces of these of these outer members are substantially parallel for the purpose of contacting the surfaces to be separated. The outer faces of these outer members that are directed toward each other are tapered so as to contact a center member having complementary tapers on both faces. A washer member is provided to contact a common end of the outer members, and a bolt member penetrates this washer and is threadably received in a receptor of the center member. As the bolt member is threaded into the center member, the center member is drawn further into the gap between the outer members and thereby separates these outer members to contact the surfaces to be separated. In the preferred embodiment, the contacting surfaces of the outer member and the center member are provided with guide elements. The wedge assembly is described for use in separating the secondary windings from the laminations of an electrical power transformer.

  4. In Situ Photoelectron Emission Microscopy of a Thermally Induced Martensitic Transformation in a CuZnAI Shape Memory Alloy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xiong, Gang; Joly, Alan G.; Beck, Kenneth M.; Hess, Wayne P.; Cai, Mingdong; Langford, Stephen C.; Dickinson, J T.

    2006-02-27

    Photoemission electron microscopy, in conjunction with photoemission spectroscopy, reflectivity, and surface roughness measurements, is used to study the thermally-induced martensitic transformation in a CuZnAI shape memory alloy. Real-time phase transformation is observed as a nearly instantaneous change of photoelectron intensity, accompanied by microstructural deformation and displacement due to the shape memory effect. The difference in the photoelectron intensity before and after the phase transformation is attributed to the concomitant change of work function as measured by photoelectron spectroscopy. Photoemission electron microscopy is shown to be a valuable new technique facilitating the study of phase transformations in shape memory alloys, and provides real-time information on microstructural changes and phase-dependent electronic properties.

  5. MOLECULAR MECHANISM OF SUPPRESSION OF NEOPLASTIC TRANSFORMATION BY LOW DOSES OF LOW LET RADIATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J.LESIE REDPATH, PH.D.

    2011-03-29

    We are currently funded (9/01-8/04) by the DOE Low Dose Radiation Research Program to examine mechanisms underlying the suppression of neoplastic transformation in vitro by low doses of low LET radiation. For the new studies proposed under Notice 04-21, we intend to follow up on our observation that upregulation of DNA repair may be an important factor and that its importance is dose-dependent. The experimental system will be the human hybrid cell neoplastic transformation assay that we are currently using. We propose to test the following hypothesis: Down-regulation of DNA dsb repair will abrogate the low dose suppression of neoplastic transformation. Using the technique of RNA silencing, it is proposed to test the effect of down-regulation of the two major DNA dsb repair pathways, homologous recombination (HR) and non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ), on the dose response relationship for neoplastic transformation. Based on prior studies, we predict that this will result in abrogation of the suppressive effect at doses in the range 1 to 10 cGy, but not at lower doses. The proposed experiments will also help address the question as to which of the two DNA repair pathways may be the most important in causing suppression of transformation. HR is a pathway that is predominant in S and G2 phase cells and is known to be less error-prone than the NHEJ pathway that is predominant in G1 phase. We hypothesize that down-regulation of HR will result in the most effective abrogation of suppression. An important component of this study will be the determination of the how abrogation of DNA dsb repair impacts the spontaneous transformation frequency, presumably a consequence of endogeneous DNA damage. Experiments will be carried out using partially synchronized populations of cells enriched for G1 and S/G2 respectively. In addition to the endpoint of neoplastic transformation the impact of down-regulation of HR and NHEJ on the formation and disappearance of the DNA dsb marker, gamma-H2AX, will be studied.

  6. Transforming Commercial Building Operations - 2013 BTO Peer Review |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Commercial Building Operations - 2013 BTO Peer Review Transforming Commercial Building Operations - 2013 BTO Peer Review Commercial Buildings Integration Project for the 2013 Building Technologies Office's Program Peer Review PDF icon commlbldgs13_underhill_040413.pdf More Documents & Publications Transforming the Commercial Building Operations - 2014

  7. Multiple DC, single AC converter with a switched DC transformer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Donnelly, M.K.; Hammerstrom, D.J.

    1997-05-20

    The invention is an improvement of the PASC inverter, wherein the improvements include the reduction from two shorting gates per transformer to one shorting gate per transformer and replacement of active control of the shorting gate with passive control of the shorting gate. Further advantages are obtained through the use of anti-parallel gate sets. 14 figs.

  8. How Atomic Vibrations Transform Vanadium Dioxide

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    to thwart intruding signals and field-effect transistors to manipulate electronics in ... Materials are stabilized by a competition between internal energy and entropy (a measure ...

  9. Effects

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Effects of particles with large gyroradii on resistive magnetohydrodynamic stability V. A. Svidzinski and S. C. Prager University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 ͑Received 19 September 2003; accepted 25 November 2003͒ Fast ions in tokamaks are known to have a significant influence on global plasma instabilities. In normal mode analyses for tokamaks, the perturbed electric and magnetic fields have been evaluated at the position of the particle's guiding center. The effect of

  10. Liquid chromatography/Fourier transform IR spectrometry interface flow cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnson, Charles C.; Taylor, Larry T.

    1986-01-01

    A zero dead volume (ZDV) microbore high performance liquid chromatography (.mu.HPLC)/Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) interface flow cell includes an IR transparent crystal having a small diameter bore therein through which a sample liquid is passed. The interface flow cell further includes a metal holder in combination with a pair of inner, compressible seals for directly coupling the thus configured spectrometric flow cell to the outlet of a .mu.HPLC column end fitting to minimize the transfer volume of the effluents exiting the .mu.HPLC column which exhibit excellent flow characteristics due to the essentially unencumbered, open-flow design. The IR beam passes transverse to the sample flow through the circular bore within the IR transparent crystal, which is preferably comprised of potassium bromide (KBr) or calcium fluoride (CaF.sub.2), so as to minimize interference patterns and vignetting encountered in conventional parallel-plate IR cells. The long IR beam pathlength and lensing effect of the circular cross-section of the sample volume in combination with the refractive index differences between the solvent and the transparent crystal serve to focus the IR beam in enhancing sample detection sensitivity by an order of magnitude.

  11. Liquid chromatography/Fourier transform IR spectrometry interface flow cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnson, C.C.; Taylor, L.T.

    1985-01-04

    A zero dead volume (ZDV) microbore high performance liquid chromatography (..mu.. HPLC)/Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) interface flow cell includes an IR transparent crystal having a small diameter bore therein through which a sample liquid is passed. The interface flow cell further includes a metal holder in combination with a pair of inner, compressible seals for directly coupling the thus configured spectrometric flow cell to the outlet of a ..mu.. HPLC column end fitting to minimize the transfer volume of the effluents exiting the ..mu.. HPLC column which exhibit excellent flow characteristics due to the essentially unencumbered, open-flow design. The IR beam passes transverse to the sample flow through the circular bore within the IR transparent crystal, which is preferably comprised of potassium bromide (KBr) or calcium fluoride (CaF/sub 2/), so as to minimize interference patterns and vignetting encountered in conventional parallel-plate IR cells. The long IR beam pathlength and lensing effect of the circular cross-section of the sample volume in combination with the refractive index differences between the solvent and the transparent crystal serve to focus the IR beam in enhancing sample detection sensitivity by an order of magnitude.

  12. Hexagonal phase transformation in the engineered scavenger compound lithium titanate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Collins, W.K.; Riley, W.D.; Jong, B.W.

    1993-01-01

    Engineered scavenger compounds (ESC's) developed by the US Bureau of Mines are a novel class of compounds that selectively can recover a desired element from a solid or molten alloy. Lithium titanate (Li[sub 2]Ti[sub 3]O[sub 7] or Li[sub 2]O [center dot] 3TiO[sub 2]) is used as an ESC to recover lithium (Li) from aluminum-lithium (Al-Li) alloys. X-ray diffraction measurements have shown that Li[sub 2]Ti[sub 3]O[sub 7] undergoes a phase change during scavenging from an orthorhombic structure to a hexagonal structure. This change is due to the incorporation of lithium in the matrix of the material and the effect of temperature. Although both phases are metastable, the hexagonal phase that forms during the scavenging of lithium from Al-Li alloys appears to be the more stable phase. Recovering lithium from the ESC by electrodeposition does not cause the structure to revert to the orthorhombic phase. The orthorhombic and the hexagonal structures of Li[sub 2]Ti[sub 3]O[sub 7] have similar scavenging capacities for lithium. This report proposes a new mechanism for the phase transformation.

  13. Optical and magneto-optical studies of martensitic transformation in

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Ni-Mn-Ga magnetic shape memory alloys (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Optical and magneto-optical studies of martensitic transformation in Ni-Mn-Ga magnetic shape memory alloys Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Optical and magneto-optical studies of martensitic transformation in Ni-Mn-Ga magnetic shape memory alloys Optical and magneto-optical properties of single crystal of Ni{sub 50.1}Mn{sub 28.4}Ga{sub 21.5} magnetic shape memory alloy during its transformation from

  14. Phase coexistence and transformations in field-cooled ternary piezoelectric

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    single crystals near the morphotropic phase boundary (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Phase coexistence and transformations in field-cooled ternary piezoelectric single crystals near the morphotropic phase boundary Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Phase coexistence and transformations in field-cooled ternary piezoelectric single crystals near the morphotropic phase boundary Structural phase transformations in (100)-oriented Pb(In{sub 1/2}Nb{sub 1/2})O{sub 3}-Pb(Mg{sub 1/3}Nb{sub

  15. New Book Updates INL's History, Documents a Decade of Transformation |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy New Book Updates INL's History, Documents a Decade of Transformation New Book Updates INL's History, Documents a Decade of Transformation June 21, 2012 - 12:00pm Addthis Media Contacts Brad Bugger 208-526-0833 Tim Jackson 208-526-8484 The U.S. Department of Energy is releasing an update to the history of the Idaho National Laboratory, documenting a decade of transformation at the laboratory, and a "decade of doing" for the Idaho Cleanup Project.

  16. Market Transformation in Connecticut: Integrating Home Performance Into Existing Trades

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Market Transformation in Connecticut: Integrating Home Performance Into Existing Trades, Evolving to Whole Home Success, Session 2: Sustainable Business Models presentation. Provides an overview of Connecticut's various home energy programs, the Connecticut Energy Efficiency Fund, and contractor involvement.

  17. Combinatorial discovery of enzymes with utility in biomass transformation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fox, Brian G; Elsen, Nathaniel L

    2015-02-03

    Methods for the cell-free identification of polypeptide and polypeptide combinations with utility in biomass transformation, as well as specific novel polypeptides and cell-free systems containing polypeptide combinations discovered by such methods are disclosed.

  18. EERE Success Story-Iowa: West Union Green Transformation Project...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    West Union Green Transformation Project EERE Success Story-Iowa: West Union Green ... These grant funds will be used to close up their buildings-making them more energy ...

  19. Y-12 and the 2000 decade … Modernization to Transformation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Transformation Tom Smith, who for a number of years has led the forward thinking and long-range planning functions at Y-12, observed the following about the Infrastructure ...

  20. Live Broadcast on Transforming Digital Technologies Across Government

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    On Thursday, March 24 at 1:00pm ET, join the Office of the Chief Information Office for a discussion on transforming digital technologies across the federal government.

  1. Methods for performing fast discrete curvelet transforms of data

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Candes, Emmanuel; Donoho, David; Demanet, Laurent

    2010-11-23

    Fast digital implementations of the second generation curvelet transform for use in data processing are disclosed. One such digital transformation is based on unequally-spaced fast Fourier transforms (USFFT) while another is based on the wrapping of specially selected Fourier samples. Both digital transformations return a table of digital curvelet coefficients indexed by a scale parameter, an orientation parameter, and a spatial location parameter. Both implementations are fast in the sense that they run in about O(n.sup.2 log n) flops for n by n Cartesian arrays or about O(N log N) flops for Cartesian arrays of size N=n.sup.3; in addition, they are also invertible, with rapid inversion algorithms of about the same complexity.

  2. Pressure-Induced Amorphization and Phase Transformations in...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    SciTech Connect Search Results Journal Article: Pressure-Induced Amorphization and Phase Transformations in beta-LiAlSiOsubscript 4 Citation Details In-Document Search Title: ...

  3. The kinetics of the [omega] to [alpha] phase transformation in...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The kinetics of the omega to alpha phase transformation in Zr, Ti: Analysis of data from shock-recovered samples and atomistic simulations Citation Details In-Document Search ...

  4. Effect of H2O on the morphological changes of KNO3 formed on K2O/Al2O3 NOx storage materials: Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) and time-resolved x-ray diffraction (TR-XRD) studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Do Heui; Mudiyanselage, Kumudu K.; Szanyi, Janos; Hanson, Jonathan C.; Peden, Charles HF

    2014-02-27

    Based on combined FTIR and XRD studies, we report here that H2O induces a morphological change of KNO3 species formed on model K2O/Al2O3 NOx storage-reduction catalysts. Specifically as evidenced by FTIR, the contact of H2O with NO2 pre-adsorbed on K2O/Al2O3 promotes the transformation from bidentate (surface-like) KNO3 species to ionic (bulk-like) ones irrespective of K loadings. Once H2O is removed from the sample, a reversible transformation into bidentate KNO3 is observed, demonstrating a significant dependence of H2O on such morphological changes. TR-XRD results show the formation of two different types of bulk KNO3 phases (orthorhomobic and rhombohedral) in an as-impregnated sample. Once H2O begins to desorb above 400 K, the former is transformed into the latter, resulting in the existence of only the rhombohedral KNO3 phase. On the basis of consistent FTIR and TR-XRD results, we propose a model for the morphological changes of KNO3 species with respect to NO2 adsorption/desorption, H2O and/or heat treatments. Compared with the BaO/Al2O3 system, K2O/Al2O3 shows some similarities with respect to the formation of bulk nitrates upon H2O contact. However, there are significant differences that originate from the lower melting temperature of KNO3 relative to Ba(NO3)2.

  5. NREL: Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Research - Market Transformation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Market Transformation NREL's market transformation activities address technical and non-technical barriers to the commercialization of hydrogen and fuel cell technologies to ensure that laboratory advances can be realized in the marketplace. Projects focus on deploying hydrogen and fuel cells in key early markets-specialty vehicles, backup and remote power, portable power, and primary power for critical applications such as hospitals or data centers-and renewable hydrogen production

  6. Martensite transformation of epitaxial Ni-Ti films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buschbeck, J.; Kozhanov, A.; Kawasaki, J. K.; James, R. D.; Palmstroem, C. J.

    2011-05-09

    The structure and phase transformations of thin Ni-Ti shape memory alloy films grown by molecular beam epitaxy are investigated for compositions from 43 to 56 at. % Ti. Despite the substrate constraint, temperature dependent x-ray diffraction and resistivity measurements reveal reversible, martensitic phase transformations. The results suggest that these occur by an in-plane shear which does not disturb the lattice coherence at interfaces.

  7. 3 Innovations That Are Transforming America's Home Building Industry |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy 3 Innovations That Are Transforming America's Home Building Industry 3 Innovations That Are Transforming America's Home Building Industry December 12, 2013 - 3:07pm Addthis A worker caulks the exterior of a home window. Advanced window framing techniques can help homeowners save energy and money. | Photo courtesy of Weatherization Assistance Program Technical Center A worker caulks the exterior of a home window. Advanced window framing techniques can help homeowners save

  8. Monitoring CO2 intrusion and associated geochemical transformations in a

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    shallow groundwater system using complex electrical methods (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Monitoring CO2 intrusion and associated geochemical transformations in a shallow groundwater system using complex electrical methods Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Monitoring CO2 intrusion and associated geochemical transformations in a shallow groundwater system using complex electrical methods Authors: Dafflon, B. ; Wu, Y. ; Hubbard, S. S. ; Birkholzer, J. T. ; Daley, T. M. ; Pugh,

  9. Orthogonal Transformations for the Ensemble Kalman Filter (Conference) |

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    SciTech Connect Orthogonal Transformations for the Ensemble Kalman Filter Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Orthogonal Transformations for the Ensemble Kalman Filter Authors: Godinez Vazquez, Humberto C. [1] ; Lawrence, Earl Christopher [1] ; Higdon, David Mitchell [1] + Show Author Affiliations Los Alamos National Laboratory Publication Date: 2015-03-18 OSTI Identifier: 1209285 Report Number(s): LA-UR-15-21977 DOE Contract Number: AC52-06NA25396 Resource Type: Conference Resource

  10. Phase-field Modeling of Displacive Phase Transformations in Elastically

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Anisotropic and Inhomogeneous Polycrystals (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Phase-field Modeling of Displacive Phase Transformations in Elastically Anisotropic and Inhomogeneous Polycrystals Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Phase-field Modeling of Displacive Phase Transformations in Elastically Anisotropic and Inhomogeneous Polycrystals Authors: Heo, T W ; Chen, L Q Publication Date: 2014-03-06 OSTI Identifier: 1169262 Report Number(s): LLNL-JRNL-651372 DOE Contract Number:

  11. Market Transformation: Fuel Cell Early Adoption (Presentation) | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy Transformation: Fuel Cell Early Adoption (Presentation) Market Transformation: Fuel Cell Early Adoption (Presentation) Presented at the DOE Fuel Cell Pre-Solicitation Workshop held January 23-24, 2008 in Golden, Colorado. PDF icon fuelcell_pre-solicitation_wkshop_jan08_devlin.pdf More Documents & Publications Idaho Operations AMWTP Fact Sheet Heating Ventilation and Air Conditioning Efficiency Greenpower Trap Mufflerl System

  12. Environmental Report Project Transforms Students into Informed Stakeholders

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    | Department of Energy Environmental Report Project Transforms Students into Informed Stakeholders Environmental Report Project Transforms Students into Informed Stakeholders June 20, 2014 - 9:49am Addthis Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant Site Lead Joel Bradburne, left, is pictured with faculty, staff and students of Eastern High School during an ASER Summary Project recognition ceremony conducted recently at the high school. Bradburne applauded the students' work and said the project puts

  13. Pressure-Induced Amorphization and Phase Transformations in

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    [beta]-LiAlSiO[subscript 4] (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Pressure-Induced Amorphization and Phase Transformations in [beta]-LiAlSiO[subscript 4] Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Pressure-Induced Amorphization and Phase Transformations in [beta]-LiAlSiO[subscript 4] Authors: Zhang, Jianzhong ; Zhao, Yusheng ; Xu, Hongwu ; Zelinskas, Matthew V. ; Wang, Liping ; Wang, Yanbin ; Uchida, Takeyuki [1] ; UC) [2] ; LANL) [2] ; Buffalo) [2] + Show Author Affiliations Delaware State (

  14. Surface transformations of platinum grains from Fifield, New South Wales,

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Australia (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect SciTech Connect Search Results Journal Article: Surface transformations of platinum grains from Fifield, New South Wales, Australia Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Surface transformations of platinum grains from Fifield, New South Wales, Australia Authors: Campbell, S. Gordon ; Reith, Frank ; Etschmann, Barbara ; Brugger, Joël ; Martinez-Criado, Gema ; Gordon, Robert A. ; Southam, Gordon [1] ; CLS) [2] ; Monash) [2] ; SA Museum) [2] ;

  15. An Iterated, Multipoint Differential Transform Method for Numerically

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Evolving Partial Differential Equation Initial-Value Problems (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Journal Article: An Iterated, Multipoint Differential Transform Method for Numerically Evolving Partial Differential Equation Initial-Value Problems Citation Details In-Document Search Title: An Iterated, Multipoint Differential Transform Method for Numerically Evolving Partial Differential Equation Initial-Value Problems Authors: Finkel, H. J. [1] + Show Author Affiliations (LCF) Publication

  16. November 2014 PSERC Webinar: Transforming the Grid from the Distribution

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    System Out | Department of Energy 2014 PSERC Webinar: Transforming the Grid from the Distribution System Out November 2014 PSERC Webinar: Transforming the Grid from the Distribution System Out October 13, 2014 - 5:57pm Addthis The DOE-funded Power Systems Engineering Research Center (PSERC) is offering a free public webinar presenting the challenges and opportunities associated with dynamic distribution system architecture. This new dynamic distribution system connects central and local

  17. Researchers Discover a New Kind of Neutrino Transformation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Researchers Discover a New Kind of Neutrino Transformation Researchers Discover a New Kind of Neutrino Transformation NERSC, ESnet and computational scientists help researchers discover how neutrinos flavor-shift as they travel at near light-speed March 8, 2012 Linda Vu, lvu@lbl.gov, +1 510 495 2402 Daya Bay Neutrino Facility in China. Photo by: Roy Kaltschmidt, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. Neutrinos, the wispy particles that flooded the universe in the earliest moments after the Big

  18. Chemical Transformations | U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    Chemical Transformations Chemical Sciences, Geosciences, & Biosciences (CSGB) Division CSGB Home About Research Areas Energy Frontier Research Centers (EFRCs) DOE Energy Innovation Hubs Reports and Activities Science Highlights Principal Investigators' Meetings BES Home Research Areas Chemical Transformations Print Text Size: A A A FeedbackShare Page Research themes include the characterization, control, and optimization of chemistry in many forms. Catalysis science underpins the design of

  19. Final Complex Transformation Supplemental Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement October 2008

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Summary Summary DOE/EIS-0236-S4 National Nuclear Security Administration U.S. Department of Energy October 2008 C C CO O OM MP PL LE EXtransfo o or r rm m mat on COVER SHEET RESPONSIBLE AGENCY: U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration TITLE: Final Complex Transformation Supplemental Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (Complex Transformation SPEIS, DOE/EIS-0236-S4) CONTACTS: For further information on this SPEIS, For general information on the DOE write or

  20. VIDEO: Transforming a House into a Home | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Transforming a House into a Home VIDEO: Transforming a House into a Home October 28, 2013 - 10:30am Addthis In the video above, Lakiya Culley talks about how her solar-powered, passive home, located in D.C.'s Deanwood neighborhood, has changed her family's future. | Video by Matty Greene, Energy Department. Rebecca Matulka Rebecca Matulka Former Digital Communications Specialist, Office of Public Affairs Matty Greene Matty Greene Former Videographer At universities all across the country,

  1. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Phase Transformation

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Kinetics and Alloy Microsegregation in High Pressure Die Cast Magnesium Alloys | Department of Energy Phase Transformation Kinetics and Alloy Microsegregation in High Pressure Die Cast Magnesium Alloys Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Phase Transformation Kinetics and Alloy Microsegregation in High Pressure Die Cast Magnesium Alloys Presentation given by University of Michigan at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and

  2. Metal Ion-Assisted Transformations of 2-Pyridinealdoxime and

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hexafluorophosphate Metal Ion-Assisted Transformations of 2-Pyridinealdoxime and Hexafluorophosphate Metal Ion-Assisted Transformations of 2-Pyridinealdoxime and Hexafluorophosphate Print Monday, 05 March 2012 15:26 Metal-ion mediated reactions of 2-pyridinealdoxime and hexafluorophosphate lead to ZnII complexes containing picolinic acid, picolinamide and monofluorophosphate (-2) as ligands. Article Link (PDF) Read more about this publication in the ALS Science Brief Metal-Ion-Mediated

  3. The Linear Engine Pathway of Transformation | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    The Linear Engine Pathway of Transformation The Linear Engine Pathway of Transformation This poster highlights the major milestones in the history of the linear engine in terms of technological advances, novel designs, and economic/social impact. PDF icon p-06_covington.pdf More Documents & Publications Difficulty of Measuring Emissions from Heavy-Duty Engines Equipped with SCR and DPF Development of a Stand-Alone Urea-SCR System for NOx Reduction in Marine Diesel Engines Modeling the

  4. Benefits of Using Mobile Transformers and Mobile Substations for Rapidly

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Restoring Electrical Service: a Report to the United States Congress Pursuant to Section 1816 of the Energy Policy Act of 2005 (August 2006) | Department of Energy Using Mobile Transformers and Mobile Substations for Rapidly Restoring Electrical Service: a Report to the United States Congress Pursuant to Section 1816 of the Energy Policy Act of 2005 (August 2006) Benefits of Using Mobile Transformers and Mobile Substations for Rapidly Restoring Electrical Service: a Report to the United

  5. Bold, Transformational Energy Research Projects Win $151 Million in Funding

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    | Department of Energy Bold, Transformational Energy Research Projects Win $151 Million in Funding Bold, Transformational Energy Research Projects Win $151 Million in Funding October 26, 2009 - 12:00am Addthis San Francisco, Calif. - The Department of Energy today announced major funding for 37 ambitious research projects - including some that could allow intermittent energy sources like wind and solar to provide a steady flow of power, or use bacteria to produce automotive fuel from

  6. Building America Expert Meeting: Transforming Existing Buildings through

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    New Media--An Idea Exchange | Department of Energy Transforming Existing Buildings through New Media--An Idea Exchange Building America Expert Meeting: Transforming Existing Buildings through New Media--An Idea Exchange This report describes results of a Building America expert meeting on September 13, 2011, in Las Vegas, Nevada, hosted by the Building America Retrofit Alliance (BARA). This meeting provided a forum for presentations and discussions on the use of new media to work with

  7. Energy Technology Solutions: Public-Private Partnerships Transforming

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Industry, November 2010 | Department of Energy Energy Technology Solutions: Public-Private Partnerships Transforming Industry, November 2010 Energy Technology Solutions: Public-Private Partnerships Transforming Industry, November 2010 PDF icon itp_successes.pdf More Documents & Publications Energy Technology Solutions ITP Energy Intensive Processes: Energy-Intensive Processes Portfolio: Addressing Key Energy Challenges Across U.S. Industry Energy-Intensive Processes Portfolio: Addressing

  8. Innovative Facility Kicks Off First Experiment to Transform Building Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Performance | Department of Energy Facility Kicks Off First Experiment to Transform Building Energy Performance Innovative Facility Kicks Off First Experiment to Transform Building Energy Performance April 14, 2014 - 5:51pm Addthis Dr. David Danielson, Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (second from left), tours FLEXLAB with Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory officials in California today. FLEXLAB is the only facility in the nation that allows researchers and

  9. National Electric Delivery Technologies Roadmap: Transforming the Grid to

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Revolutionize Electric Power in North America | Department of Energy Delivery Technologies Roadmap: Transforming the Grid to Revolutionize Electric Power in North America National Electric Delivery Technologies Roadmap: Transforming the Grid to Revolutionize Electric Power in North America This Roadmap provides a framework for all of the stakeholders that comprise the electric industry to work together to achieve common aims. PDF icon National Electric Delivery Technologies Roadmap:

  10. Vortex Hydro Energy Develops Transformational Technology to Harness Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    from Water Currents | Department of Energy Vortex Hydro Energy Develops Transformational Technology to Harness Energy from Water Currents Vortex Hydro Energy Develops Transformational Technology to Harness Energy from Water Currents April 10, 2013 - 12:00am Addthis EERE is funding Vortex Hydro Energy to commercialize the Vortex Induced Vibration Aquatic Clean Energy (VIVACE) converter, which is a University of Michigan-patented marine and hydrokinetic energy device designed to harness the

  11. Transformative Battery Technology at the National Labs | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Transformative Battery Technology at the National Labs Transformative Battery Technology at the National Labs January 17, 2012 - 10:45am Addthis Vince Battaglia leads a behind-the-scenes tour of Berkeley Lab's Batteries for Advanced Transportation Technologies Program where researchers aim to improve batteries upon which the range, efficiency, and power of tomorrow's electric cars will depend. Michael Hess Michael Hess Former Digital Communications Specialist, Office of Public Affairs

  12. EERE Success Story-Vortex Hydro Energy Develops Transformational

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Technology to Harness Energy from Water Currents | Department of Energy Vortex Hydro Energy Develops Transformational Technology to Harness Energy from Water Currents EERE Success Story-Vortex Hydro Energy Develops Transformational Technology to Harness Energy from Water Currents April 10, 2013 - 12:00am Addthis EERE is funding Vortex Hydro Energy to commercialize the Vortex Induced Vibration Aquatic Clean Energy (VIVACE) converter, which is a University of Michigan-patented marine and

  13. Energy-transformation properties and mechanisms in transverse-flow-discharged CO2 lasers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhongxiang, W.

    1991-12-10

    We simulated, calculated, and analyzed the effects on the various energy state transformation properties of dielectric media of such factors as dielectric media gas pressures, flow speeds, light cavity position, strength of radiation in the cavity, degree of output coupling, and other similar factors in transverse flow discharged CO2 laser devices. This article did concrete calculations of the corresponding energy transformation properties for the apparatus and the conditions in reference (transverse flow, discharge, CO2 laser device, dielectric medium constituent ratio of CO2:N2:H = 5:17:78, an initial temperature of 293K, a discharge current of 2A, E/N: 2.15X10-16 V/cm2, light cavity 160 cm2 long, height 1.8cm, as well as other parameters).

  14. Temperature-driven phase transformation in Y3Co: Neutron scattering...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Temperature-driven phase transformation in Y3Co: Neutron scattering and first-principles studies Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Temperature-driven phase transformation ...

  15. Temperature-sensitive junction transformations for mid-wavelength HgCdTe photovoltaic infrared detector arrays by laser beam induced current microscope

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qiu, Weicheng; Hu, Weida Lin, Tie; Yin, Fei; Zhang, Bo; Chen, Xiaoshuang; Lu, Wei; Cheng, Xiang'ai Wang, Rui

    2014-11-10

    In this paper, we report on the disappearance of the photosensitive area extension effect and the unusual temperature dependence of junction transformation for mid-wavelength, n-on-p HgCdTe photovoltaic infrared detector arrays. The n-type region is formed by B{sup +} ion implantation on Hg-vacancy-doped p-type HgCdTe. Junction transformations under different temperatures are visually captured by a laser beam induced current microscope. A physical model of temperature dependence on junction transformation is proposed and demonstrated by using numerical simulations. It is shown that Hg-interstitial diffusion and temperature activated defects jointly lead to the p-n junction transformation dependence on temperature, and the weaker mixed conduction compared with long-wavelength HgCdTe photodiode contributes to the disappearance of the photosensitive area extension effect in mid-wavelength HgCdTe infrared detector arrays.

  16. Mathematical investigation of one-way transform matrix options.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cooper, James Arlin

    2006-01-01

    One-way transforms have been used in weapon systems processors since the mid- to late-1970s in order to help recognize insertion of correct pre-arm information while maintaining abnormal-environment safety. Level-One, Level-Two, and Level-Three transforms have been designed. The Level-One and Level-Two transforms have been implemented in weapon systems, and both of these transforms are equivalent to matrix multiplication applied to the inserted information. The Level-Two transform, utilizing a 6 x 6 matrix, provided the basis for the ''System 2'' interface definition for Unique-Signal digital communication between aircraft and attached weapons. The investigation described in this report was carried out to find out if there were other size matrices that would be equivalent to the 6 x 6 Level-Two matrix. One reason for the investigation was to find out whether or not other dimensions were possible, and if so, to derive implementation options. Another important reason was to more fully explore the potential for inadvertent inversion. The results were that additional implementation methods were discovered, but no inversion weaknesses were revealed.

  17. A model for heterogeneous materials including phase transformations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Addessio, F.L.; Clements, B.E.; Williams, T.O.

    2005-04-15

    A model is developed for particulate composites, which includes phase transformations in one or all of the constituents. The model is an extension of the method of cells formalism. Representative simulations for a single-phase, brittle particulate (SiC) embedded in a ductile material (Ti), which undergoes a solid-solid phase transformation, are provided. Also, simulations for a tungsten heavy alloy (WHA) are included. In the WHA analyses a particulate composite, composed of tungsten particles embedded in a tungsten-iron-nickel alloy matrix, is modeled. A solid-liquid phase transformation of the matrix material is included in the WHA numerical calculations. The example problems also demonstrate two approaches for generating free energies for the material constituents. Simulations for volumetric compression, uniaxial strain, biaxial strain, and pure shear are used to demonstrate the versatility of the model.

  18. Transformer coupling for transmitting direct current through a barrier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brown, Ralph L. (Albuquerque, NM); Guilford, Richard P. (Albuquerque, NM); Stichman, John H. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1988-01-01

    The transmission system for transmitting direct current from an energy source on one side of an electrical and mechanical barrier to a load on the other side of the barrier utilizes a transformer comprising a primary core on one side of the transformer and a secondary core on the other side of the transformer. The cores are magnetically coupled selectively by moving a magnetic ferrite coupler in and out of alignment with the poles of the cores. The direct current from the energy source is converted to a time varying current by an oscillating circuit, which oscillating circuit is optically coupled to a secondary winding on the secondary core to interrupt oscillations upon the voltage in the secondary winding exceeding a preselected level.

  19. Transformer coupling for transmitting direct current through a barrier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brown, R.L.; Guilford, R.P.; Stichman, J.H.

    1987-06-29

    The transmission system for transmitting direct current from an energy source on one side of an electrical and mechanical barrier to a load on the other side of the barrier utilizes a transformer comprising a primary core on one side of the transformer and a secondary core on the other side of the transformer. The cores are magnetically coupled selectively by moving a magnetic ferrite coupler in and out of alignment with the poles of the cores. The direct current from the energy source is converted to a time varying current by an oscillating circuit, which oscillating circuit is optically coupled to a secondary winding on the secondary core to interrupt oscillations upon the voltage in the secondary winding exceeding a preselected level. 4 figs.

  20. Phase-field modeling of the beta to omega phase transformation in Zr–Nb alloys

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Yeddu, Hemantha Kumar; Lookman, Turab

    2015-05-01

    A three-dimensional elastoplastic phase-field model is developed, using the Finite Element Method (FEM), for modeling the athermal beta to omega phase transformation in Zr–Nb alloys by including plastic deformation and strain hardening of the material. The microstructure evolution during athermal transformation as well as under different stress states, e.g. uni-axial tensile and compressive, bi-axial tensile and compressive, shear and tri-axial loadings, is studied. The effects of plasticity, stress states and the stress loading direction on the microstructure evolution as well as on the mechanical properties are studied. The input data corresponding to a Zr – 8 at.% Nb alloy aremore » acquired from experimental studies as well as by using the CALPHAD method. Our simulations show that the four different omega variants grow as ellipsoidal shaped particles. Our results show that due to stress relaxation, the athermal phase transformation occurs slightly more readily in the presence of plasticity compared to that in its absence. The evolution of omega phase is different under different stress states, which leads to the differences in the mechanical properties of the material. The variant selection mechanism, i.e. formation of different variants under different stress loading directions, is also nicely captured by our model.« less

  1. Predicting the onset of transformation under noncontinuous cooling conditions. Part 2: Application to the austenite pearlite transformation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pham, T.T.; Hawbolt, E.B.; Brimacombe, J.K.

    1995-08-01

    A detailed review of the additivity principle with respect to the incubation of the austenite decomposition was summarized in Part 1 of this two-part series and led to the concept of an ideal time-temperature-transformation (TTT) diagram. This curve is characteristic of the chemistry and austenite grain size in the steel and allows nonisothermal behavior to be described assuming additivity holds. The derivation of mathematical relationships between the ideal and experimental cooling data was presented in the first article. In this second article, an ideal curve for the austenite-to-pearlite transformation was derived from cooling data. The applicability of the ideal TTT curve for predicting the start of transformation under continuous cooling conditions was assessed for a range of cooling rates. Experiments were conducted under both isothermal and varying temperature conditions, including an industrial cooling schedule, using a Gleeble Thermal Simulator. Reasonable agreement was found between the predictions and the observed transformation start temperatures; predictions were consistent and compared favorably against other methods which have been frequently used to estimate the transformation start temperature for nonisothermal conditions.

  2. Application of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy to silica diagenesis: The opal-A to opal-CT transformation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rice, S.B.; Freund, H.; Huang, W.L.; Clouse, J.A.; Isaacs, C.M.

    1995-10-02

    An important goal in silica diagenesis research is to understand the kinetics of opal transformation from noncrystalline opal-A to the disordered silica polymorph opal-CT. Because the conventional technique for monitoring the transformation, powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), is applicable only to phases with long-range order, the authors used Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) to monitor the transformation. They applied this technique, combined with XRD and TEM, to experimental run products and natural opals from the Monterey Formation and from siliceous deposits in the western Pacific Ocean. Using a ratio of two infrared absorption intensities ({omega} = I{sub 472 cm{sup {minus}1}}/I{sub 500 cm{sup {minus}1}}), the relative proportions of opal-A and opal-CT can be determined. The progress of the transformation is marked by changes in slope of {omega} vs. depth or time when a sufficient stratigraphic profile is available. There are three stages in the opal-A to opal-CT reaction: (1) opal-A dissolution; (2) opal-CT precipitation, whose end point is marked by completion of opal-A dissolution; and (3) opal-CT ordering, during which tridymite stacking is eliminated in favor of crystobalite stacking.

  3. Correlation between Fermi surface transformations and superconductivity in

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    the electron-doped high- T c superconductor Nd 2 - x Ce x CuO 4 (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Journal Article: Correlation between Fermi surface transformations and superconductivity in the electron-doped high- T c superconductor Nd 2 - x Ce x CuO 4 Citation Details In-Document Search This content will become publicly available on August 31, 2016 Title: Correlation between Fermi surface transformations and superconductivity in the electron-doped high- T c superconductor Nd 2 - x Ce x

  4. Direct evidence for stress-induced transformation between coexisting

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    multiple martensites in a Ni-Mn-Ga multifunctional alloy (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect evidence for stress-induced transformation between coexisting multiple martensites in a Ni-Mn-Ga multifunctional alloy Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Direct evidence for stress-induced transformation between coexisting multiple martensites in a Ni-Mn-Ga multifunctional alloy Authors: Huang, L. ; Cong, D. Y. ; Wang, Z. L. ; Nie, Z. H. ; Dong, Y. H. ; Zhang, Y. ; Ren, Yang ; Wang, Y. D.

  5. Phase transformations in steels: Processing, microstructure, and performance

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Gibbs, Paul J.

    2014-04-03

    In this study, contemporary steel research is revealing new processing avenues to tailor microstructure and properties that, until recently, were only imaginable. Much of the technological versatility facilitating this development is provided by the understanding and utilization of the complex phase transformation sequences available in ferrous alloys. Today we have the opportunity to explore the diverse phenomena displayed by steels with specialized analytical and experimental tools. Advances in multi-scale characterization techniques provide a fresh perspective into microstructural relationships at the macro- and micro-scale, enabling a fundamental understanding of the role of phase transformations during processing and subsequent deformation.

  6. New Modularization Framework Transforms FAST Wind Turbine Modeling Tool |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Modularization Framework Transforms FAST Wind Turbine Modeling Tool New Modularization Framework Transforms FAST Wind Turbine Modeling Tool January 6, 2014 - 10:00am Addthis 2013qtr4_fast_large.gif This is an excerpt from the Fourth Quarter 2013 edition of the Wind Program R&D Newsletter. The U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) recently released an expanded version of its FAST wind turbine computer-aided engineering tool under a

  7. Fourier-transform and global contrast interferometer alignment methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goldberg, Kenneth A.

    2001-01-01

    Interferometric methods are presented to facilitate alignment of image-plane components within an interferometer and for the magnified viewing of interferometer masks in situ. Fourier-transforms are performed on intensity patterns that are detected with the interferometer and are used to calculate pseudo-images of the electric field in the image plane of the test optic where the critical alignment of various components is being performed. Fine alignment is aided by the introduction and optimization of a global contrast parameter that is easily calculated from the Fourier-transform.

  8. Diffractive optical elements for transformation of modes in lasers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sridharan, Arun K.; Pax, Paul H.; Heebner, John E.; Drachenberg, Derrek R.; Armstrong, James P.; Dawson, Jay W.

    2015-09-01

    Spatial mode conversion modules are described, with the capability of efficiently transforming a given optical beam profile, at one plane in space into another well-defined optical beam profile at a different plane in space, whose detailed spatial features and symmetry properties can, in general, differ significantly. The modules are comprised of passive, high-efficiency, low-loss diffractive optical elements, combined with Fourier transform optics. Design rules are described that employ phase retrieval techniques and associated algorithms to determine the necessary profiles of the diffractive optical components. System augmentations are described that utilize real-time adaptive optical techniques for enhanced performance as well as power scaling.

  9. Final Complex Transformation Supplemental Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement October 2008

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    I Volume I Chapters 1 - 4 Chapters 1 - 4 DOE/EIS-0236-S4 National Nuclear Security Administration U.S. Department of Energy October 2008 C C CO O OM MP PL LE EXtransfo o or r rm m mat on COVER SHEET RESPONSIBLE AGENCY: U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration TITLE: Final Complex Transformation Supplemental Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (Complex Transformation SPEIS, DOE/EIS-0236-S4) CONTACTS: For further information on this SPEIS, For general information

  10. Final Complex Transformation Supplemental Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement October 2008

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    II Volume II Chapters 5 - 15 and Chapters 5 - 15 and Appendices A - G Appendices A - G DOE/EIS-0236-S4 National Nuclear Security Administration U.S. Department of Energy October 2008 C C CO O OM MP PL LE EXtransfo o or r rm m mat on COVER SHEET RESPONSIBLE AGENCY: U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration TITLE: Final Complex Transformation Supplemental Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (Complex Transformation SPEIS, DOE/EIS-0236-S4) CONTACTS: For further

  11. Reverse phase transformation of martensite to austenite in stainless

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    steels: a 3D phase-field study (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Reverse phase transformation of martensite to austenite in stainless steels: a 3D phase-field study Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Reverse phase transformation of martensite to austenite in stainless steels: a 3D phase-field study Authors: Yeddu, Hemantha K. [1] ; Lookman, Turab [1] ; Saxena, Avadh B. [1] + Show Author Affiliations Los Alamos National Laboratory Publication Date: 2014-08-19 OSTI Identifier:

  12. Monitoring & Diagnosis of Transformers | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Monitoring and Diagnosis of Transformers Click to email this to a friend (Opens in new window) Share on Facebook (Opens in new window) Click to share (Opens in new window) Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window) Click to share on Tumblr (Opens in new window) Monitoring and Diagnosis of Transformers Luiz Felipe Willcox 2015.04.30 It was a Friday evening in the spring of 1994 and I was going out for a pizza with my old man. I had just received my degree in electrical engineering. As my

  13. Secretary Moniz Awards $125 Million for 41 Transformational Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Technology Projects Ahead of COP21 in Paris | Department of Energy Awards $125 Million for 41 Transformational Energy Technology Projects Ahead of COP21 in Paris Secretary Moniz Awards $125 Million for 41 Transformational Energy Technology Projects Ahead of COP21 in Paris November 23, 2015 - 3:36pm Addthis News Media Contact 202-586-4940 DOENews@hq.doe.gov WASHINGTON - U.S. Energy Secretary Ernest Moniz today announced $125 million across 41 cutting-edge energy technologies awarded by the

  14. Iowa: West Union Green Transformation Project | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    West Union Green Transformation Project Iowa: West Union Green Transformation Project March 17, 2014 - 11:26am Addthis Utilizing funding from EERE and cost shares from other federal agencies, the City of West Union, Iowa, drilled geothermal wells in order to install a closed-loop geothermal heating and cooling system. The system is designed to serve 330,000 square feet of mixed used space in the downtown area, including 80% of the 60 downtown buildings. Funds have also been allocated to provide

  15. Iowa: West Union Green Transformation Project | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    West Union Green Transformation Project Iowa: West Union Green Transformation Project March 17, 2014 - 11:26am Addthis Utilizing funding from EERE and cost shares from other federal agencies, the City of West Union, Iowa, drilled geothermal wells in order to install a closed-loop geothermal heating and cooling system. The system is designed to serve 330,000 square feet of mixed used space in the downtown area, including 80% of the 60 downtown buildings. Funds have also been allocated to provide

  16. Transformation behavior and shape memory characteristics of thermo-mechanically treated Ti(45?x)Ni5CuxV (at%) alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jang, Jae-young; Chun, Su-jin; Choi, Eunsoo; Liu, Yinong; Yang, Hong; Nam, Tae-hyun

    2012-10-15

    Transformation behavior, shape memory characteristics and superelasticity of thermo-mechanically treated Ti(45?x)Ni5CuxV (at%) (x = 0.52.0) alloys were investigated by means of differential scanning calorimetry, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffractions, thermal cycling tests under constant load and tensile tests. The B2B19? transformation occurred when V content was 0.5 at%, above which the B2B19B19? transformation occurred. The B2B19 transformation was not separated clearly from the B19B19? transformation. Thermo-mechanically treated Ti(45?x)Ni5CuxV alloys showed perfect shape memory effect and transformation hysteresis(?T) of Ti43.5Ni5.0Cu1.5V and Ti43.0Ni5.0Cu2.0V alloys was about 9 K which was much smaller than that of a Ti44.5Ni5.0Cu0.5V alloy(23.3 K). More than 90% of superelastic recovery ratio was observed in all specimens and transformation hysteresis (??) of a Ti44.5Ni5.0Cu0.5V alloy was about 70 MPa, which was much larger than that of a Ti43.0Ni5.0Cu2.0V alloy (35 MPa).

  17. Spheromak reactor with poloidal flux-amplifying transformer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Furth, Harold P. (Princeton, NJ); Janos, Alan C. (East Windsor, NJ); Uyama, Tadao (Osaka, JP); Yamada, Masaaki (Lawrenceville, NJ)

    1987-01-01

    An inductive transformer in the form of a solenoidal coils aligned along the major axis of a flux core induces poloidal flux along the flux core's axis. The current in the solenoidal coil is then reversed resulting in a poloidal flux swing and the conversion of a portion of the poloidal flux to a toroidal flux in generating a spheromak plasma wherein equilibrium approaches a force-free, minimum Taylor state during plasma formation, independent of the initial conditions or details of the formation. The spheromak plasma is sustained with the Taylor state maintained by oscillating the currents in the poloidal and toroidal field coils within the plasma-forming flux core. The poloidal flux transformer may be used either as an amplifier stage in a moving plasma reactor scenario for initial production of a spheromak plasma or as a method for sustaining a stationary plasma and further heating it. The solenoidal coil embodiment of the poloidal flux transformer can alternately be used in combination with a center conductive cylinder aligned along the length and outside of the solenoidal coil. This poloidal flux-amplifying inductive transformer approach allows for a relaxation of demanding current carrying requirements on the spheromak reactor's flux core, reduces plasma contamination arising from high voltage electrode discharge, and improves the efficiency of poloidal flux injection.

  18. A Superconducting transformer system for high current cable testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Godeke, A.; Dietderich, D. R.; Joseph, J. M.; Lizarazo, J.; Prestemon, S. O.; Miller, G.; Weijers, H. W.

    2010-02-15

    This article describes the development of a direct-current (dc) superconducting transformer system for the high current test of superconducting cables. The transformer consists of a core-free 10 464 turn primary solenoid which is enclosed by a 6.5 turn secondary. The transformer is designed to deliver a 50 kA dc secondary current at a dc primary current of about 50 A. The secondary current is measured inductively using two toroidal-wound Rogowski coils. The Rogowski coil signal is digitally integrated, resulting in a voltage signal that is proportional to the secondary current. This voltage signal is used to control the secondary current using a feedback loop which automatically compensates for resistive losses in the splices to the superconducting cable samples that are connected to the secondary. The system has been commissioned up to 28 kA secondary current. The reproducibility in the secondary current measurement is better than 0.05% for the relevant current range up to 25 kA. The drift in the secondary current, which results from drift in the digital integrator, is estimated to be below 0.5 A/min. The system's performance is further demonstrated through a voltage-current measurement on a superconducting cable sample at 11 T background magnetic field. The superconducting transformer system enables fast, high resolution, economic, and safe tests of the critical current of superconducting cable samples.

  19. Materials and Sensor R&D to Transform the Nuclear Stockpile: Livermore?s

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Transformational Materials Initiative (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Materials and Sensor R&D to Transform the Nuclear Stockpile: Livermore?s Transformational Materials Initiative Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Materials and Sensor R&D to Transform the Nuclear Stockpile: Livermore?s Transformational Materials Initiative As the nation's nuclear weapons age and the demands placed on them change, significant challenges face the nuclear stockpile. Risks include material

  20. Materials and Sensor R&D to Transform the Nuclear Stockpile: Livermore?s

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Transformational Materials Initiative (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Materials and Sensor R&D to Transform the Nuclear Stockpile: Livermore?s Transformational Materials Initiative Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Materials and Sensor R&D to Transform the Nuclear Stockpile: Livermore?s Transformational Materials Initiative × You are accessing a document from the Department of Energy's (DOE) SciTech Connect. This site is a product of DOE's Office of Scientific and

  1. Fundamental Mechanisms Driving the Amorphous to Crystalline Phase Transformation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reed, B W; Browning, N D; Santala, M K; LaGrange, T; Gilmer, G H; Masiel, D J; Campbell, G H; Raoux, S; Topuria, T; Meister, S; Cui, Y

    2011-01-04

    Phase transformations are ubiquitous, fundamental phenomena that lie at the heart of many structural, optical and electronic properties in condensed matter physics and materials science. Many transformations, especially those occurring under extreme conditions such as rapid changes in the thermodynamic state, are controlled by poorly understood processes involving the nucleation and quenching of metastable phases. Typically these processes occur on time and length scales invisible to most experimental techniques ({micro}s and faster, nm and smaller), so our understanding of the dynamics tends to be very limited and indirect, often relying on simulations combined with experimental study of the ''time infinity'' end state. Experimental techniques that can directly probe phase transformations on their proper time and length scales are therefore key to providing fundamental insights into the whole area of transformation physics and materials science. LLNL possesses a unique dynamic transmission electron microscope (DTEM) capable of taking images and diffraction patterns of laser-driven material processes with resolution measured in nanometers and nanoseconds. The DTEM has previously used time-resolved diffraction patterns to quantitatively study phase transformations that are orders of magnitude too fast for conventional in situ TEM. More recently the microscope has demonstrated the ability to directly image a reaction front moving at {approx}13 nm/ns and the nucleation of a new phase behind that front. Certain compound semiconductor phase change materials, such as Ge{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 5} (GST), Sb{sub 2}Te and GeSb, exhibit a technologically important series of transformations on scales that fall neatly into the performance specifications of the DTEM. If a small portion of such material is heated above its melting point and then rapidly cooled, it quenches into an amorphous state. Heating again with a less intense pulse leads to recrystallization into a vacancy-stabilized metastable rock salt structure. Each transformation takes {approx}10-100 ns, and the cycle can be driven repeatedly a very large number of times with a nanosecond laser such as the DTEM's sample drive laser. These materials are widely used in optical storage devices such as rewritable CDs and DVDs, and they are also applied in a novel solid state memory technology - phase change memory (PCM). PCM has the potential to produce nonvolatile memory systems with high speed, extreme density, and very low power requirements. For PCM applications several materials properties are of great importance: the resistivities of both phases, the crystallization temperature, the melting point, the crystallization speed, reversibility (number of phase-transformation cycles without degradation) and stability against crystallization at elevated temperature. For a viable technology, all these properties need to have good scaling behavior, as dimensions of the memory cells will shrink with every generation. In this LDRD project, we used the unique single-shot nanosecond in situ experimentation capabilities of the DTEM to watch these transformations in GST on the time and length scales most relevant for device applications. Interpretation of the results was performed in conjunction with atomistic and finite-element computations. Samples were provided by collaborators at IBM and Stanford University. We observed, and measured the kinetics of, the amorphous-crystalline and melting-solidification transitions in uniform thin-film samples. Above a certain threshold, the crystal nucleation rate was found to be enormously high (with many nuclei appearing per cubic {micro}m even after nanosecond-scale incubation times), in agreement with atomistic simulation and consistent with an extremely low nucleation barrier. We developed data reduction techniques based on principal component analysis (PCA), revealing the complex, multi-dimensional evolution of the material while suppressing noise and irrelevant information. Using a novel specimen geometry, we also achieved repeated switching betw

  2. Influence of Ni on Martensitic Phase Transformations in NiTi Shape Memory Alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frenzel, J.; George, Easo P; Dlouhy, A.; Somsen, Ch.; Wagner, M. F.-X; Eggeler, G.

    2010-01-01

    High-precision data on phase transformation temperatures in NiTi, including numerical expressions for the effect of Ni on M{sub S}, M{sub F}, A{sub S}, A{sub F} and T{sub 0}, are obtained, and the reasons for the large experimental scatter observed in previous studies are discussed. Clear experimental evidence is provided confirming the predictions of Tang et al. 1999 regarding deviations from a linear relation between the thermodynamic equilibrium temperature and Ni concentration. In addition to affecting the phase transition temperatures, increasing Ni contents are found to decrease the width of thermal hysteresis and the heat of transformation. These findings are rationalized on the basis of the crystallographic data of Prokoshkin et al. 2004 and the theory of Ball and James. The results show that it is important to document carefully the details of the arc-melting procedure used to make shape memory alloys and that, if the effects of processing are properly accounted for, precise values for the Ni concentration of the NiTi matrix can be obtained.

  3. FUNDAMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF FUEL TRANSFORMATIONS IN PULVERIZED COAL COMBUSTION AND GASIFICATION TECHNOLOGIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert Hurt; Joseph Calo; Thomas H. Fletcher; Alan Sayre

    2005-04-29

    The goal of this project was to carry out the necessary experiments and analyses to extend current capabilities for modeling fuel transformations to the new conditions anticipated in next-generation coal-based, fuel-flexible combustion and gasification processes. This multi-organization, multi-investigator project has produced data, correlations, and submodels that extend present capabilities in pressure, temperature, and fuel type. The combined experimental and theoretical/computational results are documented in detail in Chapters 1-8 of this report, with Chapter 9 serving as a brief summary of the main conclusions. Chapters 1-3 deal with the effect of elevated pressure on devolatilization, char formation, and char properties. Chapters 4 and 5 deal with advanced combustion kinetic models needed to cover the extended ranges of pressure and temperature expected in next-generation furnaces. Chapter 6 deals with the extension of kinetic data to a variety of alternative solid fuels. Chapter 7 focuses on the kinetics of gasification (rather than combustion) at elevated pressure. Finally, Chapter 8 describes the integration, testing, and use of new fuel transformation submodels into a comprehensive CFD framework. Overall, the effects of elevated pressure, temperature, heating rate, and alternative fuel use are all complex and much more work could be further undertaken in this area. Nevertheless, the current project with its new data, correlations, and computer models provides a much improved basis for model-based design of next generation systems operating under these new conditions.

  4. Magnetostructural phase transformations in Tb 1-x Mn 2

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zou, Junding; Paudyal, Durga; Liu, Jing; Mudryk, Yaroslav; Pecharsky, Vitalij K.; Gschneidner, Karl A.

    2015-01-16

    Magnetism and phase transformations in non-stoichiometric Tb1-xMn2 (x = 0.056, 0.039) have been studied as functions of temperature and magnetic field using magnetization, heat capacity, and X-ray powder diffraction measurements. Lowering the temperature, the compounds sequentially order ferrimagnetically and antiferromagnetically, and finally, exhibit spin reorientation transitions. Moreover, these structural distortions from room temperature cubic to low temperature rhombohedral structures occur at TN, and are accompanied by large volume changes reaching ~-1.27% and -1.42%, respectively. First principles electronic structure calculations confirm the phase transformation from the ferrimagnetic cubic structure to the antiferromagnetic rhombohedral structure in TbMn2.

  5. Nanowire growth by an electron beam induced massive phase transformation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sood, Shantanu; Kisslinger, Kim; Gouma, Perena

    2014-11-15

    Tungsten trioxide nanowires of a high aspect ratio have been synthesized in-situ in a TEM under an electron beam of current density 14A/cm due to a massive polymorphic reaction. Sol-gel processed pseudocubic phase nanocrystals of tungsten trioxide were seen to rapidly transform to one dimensional monoclinic phase configurations, and this reaction was independent of the substrate on which the material was deposited. The mechanism of the self-catalyzed polymorphic transition and accompanying radical shape change is a typical characteristic of metastable to stable phase transformations in nanostructured polymorphic metal oxides. A heuristic model is used to confirm the metastable to stable growth mechanism. The findings are important to the control electron beam deposition of nanowires for functional applications starting from colloidal precursors.

  6. Nanowire growth by an electron beam induced massive phase transformation

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Sood, Shantanu; Kisslinger, Kim; Gouma, Perena

    2014-11-15

    Tungsten trioxide nanowires of a high aspect ratio have been synthesized in-situ in a TEM under an electron beam of current density 14A/cm² due to a massive polymorphic reaction. Sol-gel processed pseudocubic phase nanocrystals of tungsten trioxide were seen to rapidly transform to one dimensional monoclinic phase configurations, and this reaction was independent of the substrate on which the material was deposited. The mechanism of the self-catalyzed polymorphic transition and accompanying radical shape change is a typical characteristic of metastable to stable phase transformations in nanostructured polymorphic metal oxides. A heuristic model is used to confirm the metastable to stablemore » growth mechanism. The findings are important to the control electron beam deposition of nanowires for functional applications starting from colloidal precursors.« less

  7. Science on Saturday: Reimagining the Possible: Scientific Transformations

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Shaping the Path Towards Fusion Energy | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab March 5, 2016, 9:30am Science On Saturday MBG Auditorium at PPPL Science on Saturday: Reimagining the Possible: Scientific Transformations Shaping the Path Towards Fusion Energy Dr. Edmund Synakowski Department of Energy, Office of Science Abstract: PDF icon Synakowski.pdf Science_on_Saturday05Mar2016_ESynakowski Contact Information Coordinator(s): Ms. Deedee Ortiz-Arias dortiz@pppl.gov Host(s): Dr. Andrew Zwicker

  8. Non-Equilibrium Pathways during Electrochemical Phase Transformations in

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Single Crystals Revealed by Dynamic Chemical Imaging at Nanoscale Resolution | Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource Non-Equilibrium Pathways during Electrochemical Phase Transformations in Single Crystals Revealed by Dynamic Chemical Imaging at Nanoscale Resolution Friday, February 27, 2015 The energy density of current batteries is limited by the practical capacity of the positive electrode, which is the determined by the properties of the active material and its concentration in the

  9. Small Variations Mean Big Changes in Oxide's Transformation from

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    Insulator to Conductor | U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC) Small Variations Mean Big Changes in Oxide's Transformation from Insulator to Conductor Basic Energy Sciences (BES) BES Home About Research Facilities Science Highlights Benefits of BES Funding Opportunities Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee (BESAC) Community Resources Contact Information Basic Energy Sciences U.S. Department of Energy SC-22/Germantown Building 1000 Independence Ave., SW Washington, DC 20585 P: (301) 903-3081 F:

  10. Cooperative Catalyst leads to Transformative Results | The Ames Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Cooperative Catalyst leads to Transformative Results Capitalizing on the concept that everything proceeds faster with a little cooperation, researchers showed how designing cooperation into solid catalysts leads to enormous benefits.Catalysts attached to a porous solid support are preferred industrially because they are easier to separate from liquid products and reuse. But, these bound catalysts typically do not perform as well and probing their interiors to figure out how to improve them has

  11. SMART Scale: Small Market Advanced Retrofit Transformation Program

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    SMART Scale Small Market Advanced Retrofit Transformation Program 2015 Building Technologies Office Peer Review Colin Clark, CClark@ecoact.org ECOLOGY ACTION Project Summary Timeline:  Start date: October 1, 2013  Planned end date: September 30, 2016 Key Milestones :  June 2014: Research and develop list of measures needed to enhance Ecology !ction's DI 2.0 model to achieve an average of at least 20% energy savings  June 2015: Review of EM&V on completed projects showing an

  12. Apparatus and methods for continuous beam fourier transform mass spectrometry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McLuckey, Scott A.; Goeringer, Douglas E.

    2002-01-01

    A continuous beam Fourier transform mass spectrometer in which a sample of ions to be analyzed is trapped in a trapping field, and the ions in the range of the mass-to-charge ratios to be analyzed are excited at their characteristic frequencies of motion by a continuous excitation signal. The excited ions in resonant motions generate real or image currents continuously which can be detected and processed to provide a mass spectrum.

  13. The Structural Evolution and Diffusion During the Chemical Transformation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    from Cobalt to Cobalt Phosphide Nanoparticles > Research Highlights > Research > The Energy Materials Center at Cornell Research Highlights In This Section The Structural Evolution and Diffusion During the Chemical Transformation from Cobalt to Cobalt Phosphide Nanoparticles Joint Density-Functional Theory of Electrochemistry Double-band Electrode Channel Flow DEMS Cell Sulfur@Carbon Cathodes for Lithium Sulfur Batteries Better Ham & Cheese: Enhanced Anodes and Cathodes for Fuel

  14. Transformational Energy Action Management (TEAM) Wireless Energy Efficiency Keys Initiative

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    by Transformational Energy Action Management (TEAM) Wireless Energy Efficiency Keys Initiative *Ways of Using Wireless Technology to Help You Reduce Energy Usage at your Facility Together with our industry partners, we strive to: * Accelerate adoption of the many energy-efficient technologies and practices available today * Conduct vigorous technology innovation to radically improve future energy diversity, resource efficiency, and carbon mitigation * Promote a corporate culture of energy

  15. Transforming the Commercial Building Operations (subcontract of PNNL)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Transforming the Commercial Building Operations (subcontract of PNNL) 2014 Building Technologies Office Peer Review Photo credit: Marta Milan Marta Milan, martamilan@waypointbuilding.com Waypoint Building Group Project Summary Timeline: Start date: Oct 1, 2011 Planned end date: Sept 30, 2014 Key Milestones 1. Coordinate up to 5 trainings; September 15, 2014 2. Develop up to 6 detailed case studies and outreach marketing materials; July 30, 2014 Budget: Total DOE $ to date: $929K Total future DOE

  16. Texture evolution during nitinol martensite detwinning and phase transformation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cai, S.; Schaffer, J. E.; Ren, Y.

    2013-12-09

    Nitinol has been widely used to make medical devices for years due to its unique shape memory and superelastic properties. However, the texture of the nitinol wires has been largely ignored due to inherent complexity. In this study, in situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction has been carried out during uniaxial tensile testing to investigate the texture evolution of the nitinol wires during martensite detwinning, variant reorientation, and phase transformation. It was found that the thermal martensitic nitinol wire comprised primarily an axial (1{sup }20), (120), and (102)-fiber texture. Detwinning initially converted the (120) and (102) fibers to the (1{sup }20) fiber and progressed to a (1{sup }30)-fiber texture by rigid body rotation. At strains above 10%, the (1{sup }30)-fiber was shifted to the (110) fiber by (21{sup }0) deformation twinning. The austenitic wire exhibited an axial (334)-fiber, which transformed to the near-(1{sup }30) martensite texture after the stress-induced phase transformation.

  17. An accurate continuous calibration system for high voltage current transformer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tong Yue; Li Binhong

    2011-02-15

    A continuous calibration system for high voltage current transformers is presented in this paper. The sensor of this system is based on a kind of electronic instrument current transformer, which is a clamp-shape air core coil. This system uses an optical fiber transmission system for its signal transmission and power supply. Finally the digital integrator and fourth-order convolution window algorithm as error calculation methods are realized by the virtual instrument with a personal computer. It is found that this system can calibrate a high voltage current transformer while energized, which means avoiding a long calibrating period in the power system and the loss of power metering expense. At the same time, it has a wide dynamic range and frequency band, and it can achieve a high accuracy measurement in a complex electromagnetic field environment. The experimental results and the on-site operation results presented in the last part of the paper, prove that it can reach the 0.05 accuracy class and is easy to operate on site.

  18. Wavelength-encoded tomography based on optical temporal Fourier transform

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Chi; Wong, Kenneth K. Y.

    2014-09-01

    We propose and demonstrate a technique called wavelength-encoded tomography (WET) for non-invasive optical cross-sectional imaging, particularly beneficial in biological system. The WET utilizes time-lens to perform the optical Fourier transform, and the time-to-wavelength conversion generates a wavelength-encoded image of optical scattering from internal microstructures, analogous to the interferometery-based imaging such as optical coherence tomography. Optical Fourier transform, in principle, comes with twice as good axial resolution over the electrical Fourier transform, and will greatly simplify the digital signal processing after the data acquisition. As a proof-of-principle demonstration, a 150?-?m (ideally 36??m) resolution is achieved based on a 7.5-nm bandwidth swept-pump, using a conventional optical spectrum analyzer. This approach can potentially achieve up to 100-MHz or even higher frame rate with some proven ultrafast spectrum analyzer. We believe that this technique is innovative towards the next-generation ultrafast optical tomographic imaging application.

  19. Transforming Epidemiology for 21st Century Medicine and Public Health

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khoury, Muin J; Lam, Tram Kim; Ioannidis, John; Hartge, Patricia; Spitz, Margaret R.; Buring, Julie E.; Chanock, Stephen J.; Tourassi, Georgia; Zauber, Ann; Schully, Sheri D

    2013-01-01

    n 2012, the National Cancer Institute (NCI) engaged the scientific community to provide a vision for cancer epidemiology in the 21st century. Eight overarching thematic recommendations, with proposed corresponding actions for consideration by funding agencies, professional societies, and the research community emerged from the collective intellectual discourse. The themes are (i) extending the reach of epidemiology beyond discovery and etiologic research to include multilevel analysis, intervention evaluation, implementation, and outcomes research; (ii) transforming the practice of epidemiology by moving toward more access and sharing of protocols, data, metadata, and specimens to foster collaboration, to ensure reproducibility and replication, and accelerate translation; (iii) expanding cohort studies to collect exposure, clinical, and other information across the life course and examining multiple health-related endpoints; (iv) developing and validating reliable methods and technologies to quantify exposures and outcomes on a massive scale, and to assess concomitantly the role of multiple factors in complex diseases; (v) integrating big data science into the practice of epidemiology; (vi) expanding knowledge integration to drive research, policy, and practice; (vii) transforming training of 21st century epidemiologists to address interdisciplinary and translational research; and (viii) optimizing the use of resources and infrastructure for epidemiologic studies. These recommendations can transform cancer epidemiology and the field of epidemiology, in general, by enhancing transparency, interdisciplinary collaboration, and strategic applications of new technologies. They should lay a strong scientific foundation for accelerated translation of scientific discoveries into individual and population health benefits.

  20. Transformation of surface plasmon polaritons to radiation in graphene in terahertz regime

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gong, Sen; Zhao, Tao; Hu, Min; Zhong, Renbin; Chen, Xiaoxing; Zhang, Ping; Liu, Shenggang; Sanderson, Matthew; Zhang, Chao

    2015-06-01

    We demonstrate a concept that allows direct excitation of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) by a moving electron bunch above a single layer graphene sheet deposited on a dielectric substrate without any additional coupling requirements. We show that if the two-dimensional current in the graphene is dominated by the third order nonlinear effect when the surface electric field exceeds a moderate strength of ?5?kV/cm, the SPP mode can cross the light line although the group velocity remains much smaller than the speed of light. This effect gives rise to direct transformation of SPPs into radiation. The underlying mechanism of the crossing of the SPP dispersion into the light line is the energy shift of charged particles in the nonlinear regime and the finite transport scattering time in graphene. Both the energy and lifetime of the SPPs increase with the field intensity. The radiation intensity and frequency can be tuned with an AC bias.

  1. Aging Management Guideline for commercial nuclear power plants: Power and distribution transformers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Toman, G.; Gazdzinski, R.

    1994-05-01

    This Aging Management Guideline (AMG) provides recommended methods for effective detection and mitigation of age-related degradation mechanisms in power and distribution transformers important to license renewal in commercial nuclear power plants. The intent of this AMG to assist plant maintenance and operations personnel in maximizing the safe, useful life of these components. It also supports the documentation of effective aging management programs required under the License Renewal Rule 10 CFR Part 54. This AMG is presented in a manner which allows personnel responsible for performance analysis and maintenance to compare their plant-specific aging mechanisms (expected or already experienced) and aging management program activities to the more generic results and recommendations presented herein.

  2. Apigenin suppresses migration and invasion of transformed cells through down-regulation of C-X-C chemokine receptor 4 expression

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Lei; Kuang, Lisha; Hitron, John Andrew; Son, Young-Ok; Wang, Xin; Budhraja, Amit; Lee, Jeong-Chae; Pratheeshkumar, Poyil; Chen, Gang; Zhang, Zhuo; Luo, Jia; Shi, Xianglin

    2013-10-01

    Environmental exposure to arsenic is known to cause various cancers. There are some potential relationships between cell malignant transformation and C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4) expressions. Metastasis, one of the major characteristics of malignantly transformed cells, contributes to the high mortality of cells. CXCR4 and its natural chemokine ligand C-X-C motif ligand 12 (CXCL12) play a critical role in metastasis. Therefore, identification of nutritional factors which are able to inhibit CXCR4 is important for protection from environmental arsenic-induced carcinogenesis and for abolishing metastasis of malignantly transformed cells. The present study demonstrates that apigenin (4?,5,7-trihydroxyflavone), a natural dietary flavonoid, suppressed CXCR4 expression in arsenic-transformed Beas-2B cells (B-AsT) and several other types of transformed/cancer cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Neither proteasome nor lysosome inhibitor had any effect in reducing the apigenin-induced down-regulation of CXCR4, indicating that apigenin-induced down-regulation of CXCR4 is not due to proteolytic degradation. The down-regulation of CXCR4 is mainly due to the inhibition of nuclear factor ?B (NF-?B) transcriptional activity. Apigenin also abolished migration and invasion of transformed cells induced by CXCL12. In a xenograft mouse model, apigenin down-regulated CXCR4 expression and suppressed tumor growth. Taken together, our results show that apigenin is a novel inhibitor of CXCR4 expression. This dietary flavonoid has the potential to suppress migration and invasion of transformed cells and prevent environmental arsenic-induced carcinogenesis. - Highlights: Apigenin has a potential in preventing environmental arsenic induced carcinogenesis. Apigenin suppresses CXCR4 in malignant transformed cells in vitro and in vivo. The down-regulation of CXCR4 is mainly due to inhibition of NF-?B activity.

  3. Shape-memory transformations of NiTi: Minimum-energy pathways...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Shape-memory transformations of NiTi: Minimum-energy pathways between austenite, ... Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Shape-memory transformations of NiTi: ...

  4. Materials and Sensor R&D to Transform the Nuclear Stockpile:...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Materials and Sensor R&D to Transform the Nuclear Stockpile: Livermore?s Transformational Materials Initiative As the nation's nuclear weapons age and the demands placed on ...

  5. Getting from here to there energy technology transformation pathways in the EMF-27 scenarios

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krey, Volker; Luderer, Gunnar; Clarke, Leon E.; Kriegler, Elmar

    2014-04-01

    This apper discusses Getting from here to there energy technology transformation pathways in the EMF-27 scenarios

  6. Status Report on Power System Transformation: A 21st Century Power Partnership Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, Mackay; Martinot, Eric; Cox, Sadie; Speer, Bethany; Zinaman, Owen; Booth, Sam; Zissler, Romain; Cochran, Jaquelin; Soonee, S. K.; Audinet, Pierre; Munuera, Luis; Arent, Doug

    2015-05-27

    This report has three primary goals: (1) to articulate the concept of power system transformation; (2) to explore the current global landscape of ‘innovations’ that constitute power system transformation and provide evidence of how these innovations are emerging; and (3) to suggest an analytical framework for assessing the status of power system transformation on an on-going basis.

  7. Automatic Transformation of MPI Programs to Asynchronous, Graph-Driven Form

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baden, Scott B; Weare, John H; Bylaska, Eric J

    2013-04-30

    The goals of this project are to develop new, scalable, high-fidelity algorithms for atomic-level simulations and program transformations that automatically restructure existing applications, enabling them to scale forward to Petascale systems and beyond. The techniques enable legacy MPI application code to exploit greater parallelism though increased latency hiding and improved workload assignment. The techniques were successfully demonstrated on high-end scalable systems located at DOE laboratories. Besides the automatic MPI program transformations efforts, the project also developed several new scalable algorithms for ab-initio molecular dynamics, including new massively parallel algorithms for hybrid DFT and new parallel in time algorithms for molecular dynamics and ab-initio molecular dynamics. These algorithms were shown to scale to very large number of cores, and they were designed to work in the latency hiding framework developed in this project. The effectiveness of the developments was enhanced by the direct application to real grand challenge simulation problems covering a wide range of technologically important applications, time scales and accuracies. These included the simulation of the electronic structure of mineral/fluid interfaces, the very accurate simulation of chemical reactions in microsolvated environments, and the simulation of chemical behavior in very large enzyme reactions.

  8. Ad Lucem: Modeling of Market Transformation Pathways Workshop Agenda

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Ad Lucem: Modeling of Market Transformation Pathways Workshop Agenda Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California Friday, February 17, 2012 8:30 - 9:00 REGISTRATION & BREAKFAST 9:00 - 9:10 Welcome Adam Cohen, Fellow 9:10 - 9:50 Solar: The Social Phenomenon Danny Kennedy, Sungevity 9:50 - 10:15 SunShot overview & Ad Lucem objectives Aimee Gotway Bailey & Adam Cohen, Fellows 10:15 - 10:30 BREAK 10:30 - 12:00 Morning breakout sessions 1. Modeling solar technology market

  9. Multiple Reference Fourier Transform Holography: Five Images for the Price

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of One Multiple Reference Fourier Transform Holography: Five Images for the Price of One Improving the quality of a high magnification image on an optical microscope is simply a matter of cranking up the intensity of the illumination lamp. The same is true for x-ray microscopes, but complications arise when there just aren't enough x-rays or even worse when the sample is susceptible to damage caused by the intense x-ray beam. To address these challenges we have demonstrated a novel technique

  10. Coresident sensor fusion and compression using the wavelet transform

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yocky, D.A.

    1996-03-11

    Imagery from coresident sensor platforms, such as unmanned aerial vehicles, can be combined using, multiresolution decomposition of the sensor images by means of the two-dimensional wavelet transform. The wavelet approach uses the combination of spatial/spectral information at multiple scales to create a fused image. This can be done in both an ad hoc or model-based approach. We compare results from commercial ``fusion`` software and the ad hoc, wavelet approach. Results show the wavelet approach outperforms the commercial algorithms and also supports efficient compression of the fused image.

  11. Temperature limited heaters using phase transformation of ferromagnetic material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vitek, John Michael [Oak Ridge, TN; Brady, Michael Patrick [Oak Ridge, TN

    2009-10-06

    Systems, methods, and heaters for treating a subsurface formation are described herein. Systems and methods for making heaters are described herein. At least one heater includes a ferromagnetic conductor and an electrical conductor. The electrical conductor is electrically coupled to the ferromagnetic conductor. The heater provides a first amount of heat at a lower temperature. The heater may provide a second reduced amount of heat when the heater reaches a selected temperature, or enters a selected temperature range, at which the ferromagnetic conductor undergoes a phase transformation.

  12. Method to transform algae, materials therefor, and products produced thereby

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dunahay, T.G.; Roessler, P.G.; Jarvis, E.E.

    1997-08-26

    Disclosed is a method to transform chlorophyll C-containing algae. The method includes introducing a recombinant molecule comprising a nucleic acid molecule encoding a dominant selectable marker operatively linked to an algal regulatory control sequence into a chlorophyll C-containing alga in such a manner that the marker is produced by the alga. In a preferred embodiment the algal regulatory control sequence is derived from a diatom and preferably Cyclotella cryptica. Also disclosed is a chimeric molecule having one or more regulatory control sequences derived from one or more chlorophyll C-containing algae operatively linked to a nucleic acid molecule encoding a selectable marker, an RNA molecule and/or a protein, wherein the nucleic acid molecule does not normally occur with one or more of the regulatory control sequences. Further, specifically disclosed are molecules pACCNPT10, pACCNPT4.8 and pACCNPT5.1. The methods and materials of the present invention provide the ability to accomplish stable genetic transformation of chlorophyll C-containing algae. 2 figs.

  13. Method to transform algae, materials therefor, and products produced thereby

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dunahay, Terri Goodman; Roessler, Paul G.; Jarvis, Eric E.

    1997-01-01

    Disclosed is a method to transform chlorophyll C-containing algae which includes introducing a recombinant molecule comprising a nucleic acid molecule encoding a dominant selectable marker operatively linked to an algal regulatory control sequence into a chlorophyll C-containing alga in such a manner that the marker is produced by the alga. In a preferred embodiment the algal regulatory control sequence is derived from a diatom and preferably Cyclotella cryptica. Also disclosed is a chimeric molecule having one or more regulatory control sequences derived from one or more chlorophyll C-containing algae operatively linked to a nucleic acid molecule encoding a selectable marker, an RNA molecule and/or a protein, wherein the nucleic acid molecule does not normally occur with one or more of the regulatory control sequences. Further specifically disclosed are molecules pACCNPT10, pACCNPT4.8 and pACCNPT5.1. The methods and materials of the present invention provide the ability to accomplish stable genetic transformation of chlorophyll C-containing algae.

  14. Plants having modified response to ethylene by transformation with an ETR nucleic acid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Meyerowitz, Elliott M. (Pasadena, CA); Chang, Caren (Pasadena, CA); Bleecker, Anthony B. (Madison, WI)

    2001-01-01

    The invention includes transformed plants having at least one cell transformed with a modified ETR nucleic acid. Such plants have a phenotype characterized by a decrease in the response of at least one transformed plant cell to ethylene as compared to a plant not containing the transformed plant cell. Tissue and/or temporal specificity for expression of the modified ETR nucleic acid is controlled by selecting appropriate expression regulation sequences to target the location and/or time of expression of the transformed nucleic acid. The plants are made by transforming at least one plant cell with an appropriate modified ETR nucleic acid, regenerating plants from one or more of the transformed plant cells and selecting at least one plant having the desired phenotype.

  15. Shear-transformation-zone theory of yielding in athermal amorphous materials

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Langer, J. S.

    2015-07-22

    Yielding transitions in athermal amorphous materials undergoing steady-state shear flow resemble critical phenomena. Historically, they have been described by the Herschel-Bulkley rheological formula, which implies singular behaviors at yield points. In this paper, I examine this class of phenomena using an elementary version of the thermodynamic shear-transformation-zone (STZ) theory, focusing on the role of the effective disorder temperature, and paying special attention to scaling and dimensional arguments. I find a wide variety of Herschel-Bulkley-like rheologies but, for fundamental reasons not specific to the STZ theory, conclude that the yielding transition is not truly critical. Specifically, for realistic many-body models withmore »short-range interactions, there is a correlation length that grows rapidly but ultimately saturates near the yield point.« less

  16. Collaborative Proposal: Transforming How Climate System Models are Used: A Global, Multi-Resolution Approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Estep, Donald

    2013-04-15

    Despite the great interest in regional modeling for both weather and climate applications, regional modeling is not yet at the stage that it can be used routinely and effectively for climate modeling of the ocean. The overarching goal of this project is to transform how climate models are used by developing and implementing a robust, efficient, and accurate global approach to regional ocean modeling. To achieve this goal, we will use theoretical and computational means to resolve several basic modeling and algorithmic issues. The first task is to develop techniques for transitioning between parameterized and high-fidelity regional ocean models as the discretization grid transitions from coarse to fine regions. The second task is to develop estimates for the error in scientifically relevant quantities of interest that provide a systematic way to automatically determine where refinement is needed in order to obtain accurate simulations of dynamic and tracer transport in regional ocean models. The third task is to develop efficient, accurate, and robust time-stepping schemes for variable spatial resolution discretizations used in regional ocean models of dynamics and tracer transport. The fourth task is to develop frequency-dependent eddy viscosity finite element and discontinuous Galerkin methods and study their performance and effectiveness for simulation of dynamics and tracer transport in regional ocean models. These four projects share common difficulties and will be approach using a common computational and mathematical toolbox. This is a multidisciplinary project involving faculty and postdocs from Colorado State University, Florida State University, and Penn State University along with scientists from Los Alamos National Laboratory. The completion of the tasks listed within the discussion of the four sub-projects will go a long way towards meeting our goal of developing superior regional ocean models that will transform how climate system models are used.

  17. Parallelization and checkpointing of GPU applications through program transformation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Solano-Quinde, Lizandro Dami#19;an

    2012-11-15

    GPUs have emerged as a powerful tool for accelerating general-purpose applications. The availability of programming languages that makes writing general-purpose applications for running on GPUs tractable have consolidated GPUs as an alternative for accelerating general purpose applications. Among the areas that have beneffited from GPU acceleration are: signal and image processing, computational fluid dynamics, quantum chemistry, and, in general, the High Performance Computing (HPC) Industry. In order to continue to exploit higher levels of parallelism with GPUs, multi-GPU systems are gaining popularity. In this context, single-GPU applications are parallelized for running in multi-GPU systems. Furthermore, multi-GPU systems help to solve the GPU memory limitation for applications with large application memory footprint. Parallelizing single-GPU applications has been approached by libraries that distribute the workload at runtime, however, they impose execution overhead and are not portable. On the other hand, on traditional CPU systems, parallelization has been approached through application transformation at pre-compile time, which enhances the application to distribute the workload at application level and does not have the issues of library-based approaches. Hence, a parallelization scheme for GPU systems based on application transformation is needed. Like any computing engine of today, reliability is also a concern in GPUs. GPUs are vulnerable to transient and permanent failures. Current checkpoint/restart techniques are not suitable for systems with GPUs. Checkpointing for GPU systems present new and interesting challenges, primarily due to the natural differences imposed by the hardware design, the memory subsystem architecture, the massive number of threads, and the limited amount of synchronization among threads. Therefore, a checkpoint/restart technique suitable for GPU systems is needed. The goal of this work is to exploit higher levels of parallelism and to develop support for application-level fault tolerance in applications using multiple GPUs. Our techniques reduce the burden of enhancing single-GPU applications to support these features. To achieve our goal, this work designs and implements a framework for enhancing a single-GPU OpenCL application through application transformation.

  18. Suppression of alkylating agent induced cell transformation and gastric ulceration by low-dose alkylating agent pretreatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Onodera, Akira; Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kobegakuin University, 1-1-3 Minatojima, Chuo-ku, Kobe 650-8586 ; Kawai, Yuichi; Kashimura, Asako; Ogita, Fumiya; Tsutsumi, Yasuo; Itoh, Norio

    2013-06-14

    Highlights: Low-dose MNNG pretreatment suppresses high-dose MNNG induced in vitro transformation. Gastric ulcers induced by high-dose MNNG decreased after low-dose MNNG pretreatment. Efficacy of low-dose MNNG related to resistance of mutation and oxidative stress. -- Abstract: Exposure to mild stress by chemicals and radiation causes DNA damage and leads to acquired stress resistance. Although the linear no-threshold (LNT) model of safety assessment assumes risk from any dose, evidence from radiological research demonstrates a conflicting hormetic phenomenon known as the hormesis effect. However, the mechanisms underlying radiation hormesis have not yet been clarified, and little is known about the effects of low doses of chemical carcinogens. We analyzed the efficacy of pretreatment with low doses of the alkylating agent N-methyl-N?-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) on the subsequent induction of cell transformation and gastric ulceration by high-dose MNNG. We used an in vitro Balb/3T3 A31-1-1 cell transformation test and monitored the formation of gastric ulcers in 5-week-old male ICR mice that were administered MNNG in drinking water. The treatment concentrations of MNNG were determined by the cell survival rate and past reports. For low-dose in vitro and in vivo experiments, MNNG was used at 0.028 ?M, and 2.8 ?g/mL, respectively. The frequency of cell transformation induced by 10 ?m MNNG was decreased by low-dose MNNG pretreatment to levels similar to that of spontaneous transformation. In addition, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and mutation frequencies induced by 10 ?m MNNG were decreased by low-dose MNNG pretreatment. Importantly, low-dose MNNG pretreatment had no effect on cell proliferation. In vivo studies showed that the number of gastric ulcers induced by 1 mg/mL MNNG decreased after low-dose MNNG pretreatment. These data indicate that low-dose pretreatment with carcinogens may play a beneficial role in the prevention of chemical toxicity under specified conditions.

  19. Sparse matrix transform for fast projection to reduced dimension

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Theiler, James P; Cao, Guangzhi; Bouman, Charles A

    2010-01-01

    We investigate three algorithms that use the sparse matrix transform (SMT) to produce variance-maximizing linear projections to a lower-dimensional space. The SMT expresses the projection as a sequence of Givens rotations and this enables computationally efficient implementation of the projection operator. The baseline algorithm uses the SMT to directly approximate the optimal solution that is given by principal components analysis (PCA). A variant of the baseline begins with a standard SMT solution, but prunes the sequence of Givens rotations to only include those that contribute to the variance maximization. Finally, a simpler and faster third algorithm is introduced; this also estimates the projection operator with a sequence of Givens rotations, but in this case, the rotations are chosen to optimize a criterion that more directly expresses the dimension reduction criterion.

  20. Development of high frequency spice models for ferrite core inductors and transformers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Muyshondt, G.P.; Portnoy, W.M. . Dept. of Electrical Engineering)

    1989-01-01

    In this work high frequency SPICE models were developed to simulate the hysteresis and saturation effects of toroidal shaped ferrite core inductors and transformers. The models include the nonlinear, multi-valued B-H characteristic of the core material, leakage flux, stray capacitances, and core losses. The saturation effects were modeled using two diode clamping arrangements in conjunction with nonlinear dependent sources. Two possible controlling schemes were developed for the saturation switch. One of the arrangements used the current flowing through a series RC branch to control the switch, while the other used a NAND gate. The NAND gate implementation of the switch proved to be simpler and the parameters associated with it were easier to determine from the measurements and the B-H characteristics of the material. Lumped parameters were used to simulate the parasitic effects. Techniques for measuring these parasitic are described. The models were verified using manganese-zinc ferrite-type toroidal cores and they have general applicability to all circuit analysis codes equivalent function blocks such as multipliers, adders, and logic components. 7 refs., 22 figs.

  1. Effects of aging on the characteristics of TiNiPd shape memory alloy thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang Congchun

    2008-07-15

    TiNiPd thin films have been deposited on glass substrate using R.F. magnetron sputtering. Effects of annealing and aging on the microstructure, phase transformation behaviors and shape memory effects of these thin films have been studied by X-ray diffractometry, differential scanning calorimeter, tensile tests and internal friction characteristics. The TiNiPd thin films annealed at 750 deg. C exhibit uniform martensite/austenite transformations and shape memory effect. Aging at 450 deg. C for 1 h improved the uniformity of transformations and shape memory effect. Long time aging decreased transformation temperatures and increased the brittleness of TiNiPd thin films.

  2. CLEAN CAST STEEL TECHNOLOGY: DETERMINATION OF TRANSFORMATION DIAGRAMS FOR DUPLEX STAINLESS STEEL.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chumbley. L., S.

    2005-09-18

    Duplex stainless steels (DSS) constitute both ferrite and austenite as a matrix. Such a microstructure confers a high corrosion resistance with favorable mechanical properties. However, intermetallic phases such as sigma (???????????????¯??????????????????????????????³) and chi (???????????????¯??????????????????????????????£) can also form during casting or high-temperature processing and can degrade the properties of the DSS. This research was initiated to develop time-temperature-transformation (TTT) and continuous-cooling- transformation (CCT) diagrams of two types of cast duplex stainless steels, CD3MN (Fe 22Cr-5Ni-Mo-N) and CD3MWCuN (Fe-25Cr-7Ni-Mo-W-Cu-N), in order to understand the time and temperature ranges for intermetallic phase formation. The alloys were heat treated isothermally or under controlled cooling conditions and then characterized using conventional metallographic methods that included tint etching, and also using electron microscopy (SEM, TEM) and wavelength dispersive spectroscopy (WDS). The kinetics of intermetallic-phase (???????????????¯??????????????????????????????³ + ???????????????¯??????????????????????????????£) formation were analyzed using the Johnson-Mehl-Avrami (JMA) equation in the case of isothermal transformations and a modified form of this equation in the case of continuous cooling transformations, The rate of intermetallic-phase formation was found to be much faster in CD3MWCuN than CD3MN due mainly to differences in the major alloying contents such as Cr, Ni and Mo. To examine in more detail the effects of these elements of the phase stabilities, a series of eight steel castings was designed with the Cr, Ni and Mo contents systematically varied with respect to the nominal composition of CD3MN. The effects of varying the contents of alloying additions on the formation of intermetallic phases were also studied computationally using the commercial thermodynamic software package, Thermo-Calc. In general, ???????????????¯??????????????????????????????³ was stabilized with increasing Cr addition and by increasing Mo addition. However, a delicate balance among Ni and other minor elements such as N and Si also exists. Phase equilibria in DSS can be affected by local composition fluctuations in the cast alloy. This may cause discrepancy between thermodynamic prediction and experimental observation.

  3. Secretary Chu Awards $9.6 Million for Transformational Energy Research

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Projects | Department of Energy Awards $9.6 Million for Transformational Energy Research Projects Secretary Chu Awards $9.6 Million for Transformational Energy Research Projects September 10, 2010 - 12:00am Addthis Washington, D.C. - U.S. Secretary of Energy Steven Chu today announced the selection of six transformational energy research and development projects that could revolutionize how the country uses, stores and produces energy. Funded with $9.6 million from the American Recovery and

  4. Large Power Transformers and the U.S. Electric Grid Report Update (April

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    2014) | Department of Energy Large Power Transformers and the U.S. Electric Grid Report Update (April 2014) Large Power Transformers and the U.S. Electric Grid Report Update (April 2014) The Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability has released an update to its 2012 Large Power Transformers and the U.S. Electric Grid report. The new report includes updated information about global electrical steel supply conditions and discusses the increased domestic production of large power

  5. Building America Whole-House Solutions for New Homes: Transformations, Inc.

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Net Zero Energy Communities (Fact Sheet) | Department of Energy Building America Whole-House Solutions for New Homes: Transformations, Inc. Net Zero Energy Communities (Fact Sheet) Building America Whole-House Solutions for New Homes: Transformations, Inc. Net Zero Energy Communities (Fact Sheet) In 2009, Transformations, Inc. partnered with the Building Science Corporation team to build new net zero energy houses in three developments in Massachusetts that achieve a 45% reduction in energy

  6. ARPA-E Announces $43 Million for Transformational Energy Storage Projects

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    to Advance Electric Vehicle and Grid Technologies | Department of Energy 43 Million for Transformational Energy Storage Projects to Advance Electric Vehicle and Grid Technologies ARPA-E Announces $43 Million for Transformational Energy Storage Projects to Advance Electric Vehicle and Grid Technologies August 2, 2012 - 10:34am Addthis News Media Contact (202) 586-4940 WASHINGTON - The Department of Energy today announced that 19 transformative new projects will receive a total of $43 million

  7. Biotic and Abiotic Transformation of a Volatile Organics Plume in a Semi-Arid Vadose Zone

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Studer, J.E.; Singletary, M.A.; Miller, D.R.

    1999-04-08

    An evaluation of biotic and abiotic attenuation processes potentially important to chlorinated and non-chlorinated volatile organic compound (VOC) fate and transport in the 148 meter thick vadose zone beneath the Chemical Waste Landfill (CWL) was conducted. A unique feature of this evaluation is the comparison of two estimates of VOC mass present in the soil gas, pore-water, and solid phases (but not including mass as non-aqueous phase liquid [NAPL]) of the vadose zone in 1993. One estimate, 1,800 kg, was obtained from vadose zone transport modeling that incorporated molecular diffusion and volatilization to the atmosphere, but not biotic or chemical processes. The other estimate, 2,120 kg, was obtained from the sum of VOC mass physically removed during soil vapor extraction and an estimate of VOC mass remaining in the vadose zone in 1998, both adjusted to exclude NAPL mass. This comparison indicates that biogeochemical processes were at best slightly important to historical VOC plume development. Some evidence of aerobic degradation of non-chlorinated VOCs and abiotic transformation of 1,1,1-Trichloroethane was identified. Despite potentially amenable site conditions, no evidence was found of cometabolic and anaerobic transformation pathways. Relying principally on soil-gas analytical results, an upper-bound estimate of 21% mass reduction due to natural biogeochemical processes was developed. Although available information for the CWL indicates that natural attenuation processes other than volatilization to the atmosphere did not effective y enhance groundwater protection, these processes could be important in significantly reducing groundwater contamination and exposure risks at other sites. More laboratory and field research is required to improve our collective ability to characterize and exploit natural VOC attenuation processes, especially with respect to the combination of relatively thick and dry vadose zones and chlorinated VOCs.

  8. An In Situ Study of the Martensitic Transformation in Shape Memory Alloys Using Photoemission Electron Microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cai, Mingdong; Langford, Stephen C.; Dickinson, J. T.; Xiong, Gang; Droubay, Timothy C.; Joly, Alan G.; Beck, Kenneth M.; Hess, Wayne P.

    2007-04-15

    Thermally-induced martensitic phase transformations in polycrystalline CuZnAl and thin-film NiTiCu shape memory alloys were probed using photoemission electron microscopy (PEEM). Ultra-violet photoelectron spectroscopy shows a reversible change in the apparent work function during transformation, presumably due to the contrasting surface electronic structures of the martensite and austenite phases. In situ PEEM images provide information on the spatial distribution of these phases and the evolution of the surface microstructure during transformation. PEEM offers considerable potential for improving our understanding of martensitic transformations in shape memory alloys in real time.

  9. Hidden disorder in the α'→δ transformation of Pu-1.9 at....

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    retained as a metastable state at room temperature, but at low temperatures, the phase ... We report an experimental measurement of the entropy of the ' transformation that ...

  10. Update to Large Power Transformers and the U.S. Electric Grid Report Now Available

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability has released an update to its 2012 Large Power Transformers and the U.S. Electric Grid report.

  11. OE Requests Comments on Potential Creation of a Reserve of Large Power Transformers

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    OE issued a Request for Information (RFI), asking for comments on the possible establishment of a reserve of large power transformers that would support the nation’s bulk power system. Large power transformers (LPTs), which are a critical component of the power grid, are a concern because transformer failures can interrupt electricity service to a large number of customers and replacing one quickly could be difficult. Today’s RFI responds to the recommendation in the Energy Department’s Quadrennial Energy Review to evaluate a national initiative to mitigate the risks associated with the loss of transformers.

  12. Update to Large Power Transformers and the U.S. Electric Grid...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Delivery and Energy Reliability has released an update to its 2012 Large Power Transformers and the U.S. Electric Grid report. The new report includes updated information...

  13. Diagnostic and Prognostic Models for Generator Step-Up Transformers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vivek Agarwal; Nancy J. Lybeck; Binh T. Pham

    2014-09-01

    In 2014, the online monitoring (OLM) of active components project under the Light Water Reactor Sustainability program at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) focused on diagnostic and prognostic capabilities for generator step-up transformers. INL worked with subject matter experts from the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) to augment and revise the GSU fault signatures previously implemented in the Electric Power Research Institute’s (EPRI’s) Fleet-Wide Prognostic and Health Management (FW-PHM) Suite software. Two prognostic models were identified and implemented for GSUs in the FW-PHM Suite software. INL and EPRI demonstrated the use of prognostic capabilities for GSUs. The complete set of fault signatures developed for GSUs in the Asset Fault Signature Database of the FW-PHM Suite for GSUs is presented in this report. Two prognostic models are described for paper insulation: the Chendong model for degree of polymerization, and an IEEE model that uses a loading profile to calculates life consumption based on hot spot winding temperatures. Both models are life consumption models, which are examples of type II prognostic models. Use of the models in the FW-PHM Suite was successfully demonstrated at the 2014 August Utility Working Group Meeting, Idaho Falls, Idaho, to representatives from different utilities, EPRI, and the Halden Research Project.

  14. A transmission-loss monitor using current transformers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Power, J.F.; Gilpatrick, J.D.; Jason, A.J.

    1993-12-01

    A system for measuring the amount of beam-charge loss in a linear-accelerator structure has been developed that uses a pair of beam-current transformers, otherwise used to monitor the linac beam current. This system is necessary to enable the Ground Test Accelerator (GTA) fast-protect system to shut off the accelerated beam in the event of a beam loss that would deposit sufficient energy to damage the accelerator structure. The present GTA accelerator consists of a 2.5-MeV, H{sup {minus}} RFQ, an intermediate matching section (IMS) and a single DTL cavity with an output energy of 3.2-MeV and transmitted current of 35 mA. Based on the RFQ output beam, melting of the copper structures will occur when about 40 nC of beam is deposited in a point loss. For a grazing angle of 30 mrad, up to 640 nC may be tolerated. The beam-current-transmission-loss monitor (BCTLM) system in conjunction with the fast-protect system measures the amount of beam loss between two toroidal beam-current monitors and automatically terminates the macropulse when the integrated loss reaches a predetermined set point. The design and operation of the BCTLM system used in the IMS and DTL section of the accelerator is described.

  15. Single beam Fourier transform digital holographic quantitative phase microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anand, A. Chhaniwal, V. K.; Mahajan, S.; Trivedi, V.; Faridian, A.; Pedrini, G.; Osten, W.; Dubey, S. K.; Javidi, B.

    2014-03-10

    Quantitative phase contrast microscopy reveals thickness or height information of a biological or technical micro-object under investigation. The information obtained from this process provides a means to study their dynamics. Digital holographic (DH) microscopy is one of the most used, state of the art single-shot quantitative techniques for three dimensional imaging of living cells. Conventional off axis DH microscopy directly provides phase contrast images of the objects. However, this process requires two separate beams and their ratio adjustment for high contrast interference fringes. Also the use of two separate beams may make the system more vulnerable to vibrations. Single beam techniques can overcome these hurdles while remaining compact as well. Here, we describe the development of a single beam DH microscope providing whole field imaging of micro-objects. A hologram of the magnified object projected on to a diffuser co-located with a pinhole is recorded with the use of a commercially available diode laser and an arrayed sensor. A Fourier transform of the recorded hologram directly yields the complex amplitude at the image plane. The method proposed was investigated using various phase objects. It was also used to image the dynamics of human red blood cells in which sub-micrometer level thickness variation were measurable.

  16. Analysis of hyper-spectral data derived from an imaging Fourier transform: A statistical perspective

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sengupta, S.K.; Clark, G.A.; Fields, D.J.

    1996-01-10

    Fourier transform spectrometers (FTS) using optical sensors are increasingly being used in various branches of science. Typically, a FTS generates a three-dimensional data cube with two spatial dimensions and one frequency/wavelength dimension. The number of frequency dimensions in such data cubes is generally very large, often in the hundreds, making data analytical procedures extremely complex. In the present report, the problem is viewed from a statistical perspective. A set of procedures based on the high degree of inter-channel correlation structure often present in such hyper-spectral data, has been identified and applied to an example data set of dimension 100 x 128 x 128 comprising 128 spectral bands. It is shown that in this case, the special eigen-structure of the correlation matrix has allowed the authors to extract just a few linear combinations of the channels (the significant principal vectors) that effectively contain almost all of the spectral information contained in the data set analyzed. This in turn, enables them to segment the objects in the given spatial frame using, in a parsimonious yet highly effective way, most of the information contained in the data set.

  17. Transformative Reduction of Transportation Greenhouse Gas Emissions. Opportunities for Change in Technologies and Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vimmerstedt, Laura; Brown, Austin; Newes, Emily; Markel, Tony; Schroeder, Alex; Zhang, Yimin; Chipman, Peter; Johnson, Shawn

    2015-04-30

    The transportation sector is changing, influenced by concurrent, ongoing, dynamic trends that could dramatically affect the future energy landscape, including effects on the potential for greenhouse gas emissions reductions. Battery cost reductions and improved performance coupled with a growing number of electric vehicle model offerings are enabling greater battery electric vehicle market penetration, and advances in fuel cell technology and decreases in hydrogen production costs are leading to initial fuel cell vehicle offerings. Radically more efficient vehicles based on both conventional and new drivetrain technologies reduce greenhouse gas emissions per vehicle-mile. Net impacts also depend on the energy sources used for propulsion, and these are changing with increased use of renewable energy and unconventional fossil fuel resources. Connected and automated vehicles are emerging for personal and freight transportation systems and could increase use of low- or non-emitting technologies and systems; however, the net effects of automation on greenhouse gas emissions are uncertain. The longstanding trend of an annual increase in transportation demand has reversed for personal vehicle miles traveled in recent years, demonstrating the possibility of lower-travel future scenarios. Finally, advanced biofuel pathways have continued to develop, highlighting low-carbon and in some cases carbon-negative fuel pathways. We discuss the potential for transformative reductions in petroleum use and greenhouse gas emissions through these emerging transportation-sector technologies and trends and present a Clean Transportation Sector Initiative scenario for such reductions, which are summarized in Table ES-1.

  18. EIS-0236-S4: Final Complex Transformation Supplemental Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This Complex Transformation Supplemental Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (SPEIS) analyzes the potential environmental impacts of reasonable alternatives to continue transformation of the nuclear weapons complex to be smaller, and more responsive, efficient, and secure in order to meet national security requirements.

  19. Integration of planar transformer and/or planar inductor with power switches in power converter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, Kanghua (Canton, MI); Ahmed, Sayeed (Canton, MI); Zhu, Lizhi (Canton, MI)

    2007-10-30

    A power converter integrates at least one planar transformer comprising a multi-layer transformer substrate and/or at least one planar inductor comprising a multi-layer inductor substrate with a number of power semiconductor switches physically and thermally coupled to a heat sink via one or more multi-layer switch substrates.

  20. Magnetic and magneto-transport studies of substrate effect on the

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    martensitic transformation in a NiMnIn shape memory alloy (Journal Article) | DOE PAGES Published Article: Magnetic and magneto-transport studies of substrate effect on the martensitic transformation in a NiMnIn shape memory alloy Title: Magnetic and magneto-transport studies of substrate effect on the martensitic transformation in a NiMnIn shape memory alloy Authors: Sokolov, Andrei [1] ; Kirianov, Eugene [2] ; Zlenko, Albina [2] ; Quetz, Abdiel [3] ; Aryal, Anil [3] ; Pandey, Sudip [3] ;

  1. Microstructure of warm rolling and pearlitic transformation of ultrafine-grained GCr15 steel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Jun-Jie; Lian, Fu-Liang; Liu, Hong-Ji; Jiang, Tao; Guo, Sheng-Wu; Du, Lin-Xiu; Liu, Yong-Ning

    2014-09-15

    Pearlitic transformation mechanisms have been investigated in ultra-fine grained GCr15 steel. The ultrafine-grained steel, whose grain size was less than 1 ?m, was prepared by thermo-mechanical treatment at 873 K and then annealing at 923 K for 2 h. Pearlitic transformation was conducted by reheating the ultra-fine grained samples at 1073 K and 1123 K for different periods of time and then cooling in air. Scanning electron microscope observation shows that normal lamellar pearlite, instead of granular cementite and ferrite, cannot be formed when the grain size is approximately less than 4( 0.6) ?m, which yields a critical grain size for normal lamellar pearlitic transformations in this chromium alloyed steel. The result confirms that grain size has a great influence on pearlitic transformation by increasing the diffusion rate of carbon atoms in the ultra-fine grained steel, and the addition of chromium element doesn't change this pearlitic phase transformation rule. Meanwhile, the grain growth rate is reduced by chromium alloying, which is beneficial to form fine grains during austenitizing, thus it facilitating pearlitic transformation by divorced eutectoid transformation. Moreover, chromium element can form a relatively high gradient in the frontier of the undissolved carbide, which promotes carbide formation in the frontier of the undissolved carbide, i.e., chromium promotes divorced eutectoid transformation. - Highlights: Ultrafine-grained GCr15 steel was obtained by warm rolling and annealing technology. Reduction of grain size makes pearlite morphology from lamellar to granular. Adding Cr does not change normal pearlitic phase transformation rule in UFG steel. Cr carbide resists grain growth and facilitates pearlitic transformation by DET.

  2. Metastable phases in the aluminum-germanium alloy system: Synthesis by mechanical alloying and pressure induced transformations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yvon, P.

    1994-01-01

    Al and Ge form a simple equilibrium eutectic with limited mutual solubility and no intermetallic intermediate phases. We used a regular solution approach to model effects of pressure on Al-Ge. Effects of pressure are to extend solubility of Ge in Al, to displace the eutectic composition towards the Ge rich side, and to slightly decrease the eutectic temperature. We designed thermobaric treatments to induce crystal-to-glass transformations in fine grain mixtures of Al and Ge. We used Merrill-Bassett diamond anvil cells to perform experiments at high pressures. We built an x-ray apparatus to determine the structure of alloys at pressure and from cryogenic temperatures to 400C. Two-phase Al-Ge samples with fine microstructures were prepared by splat-quenching and mechanical alloying. We observed a crystal-to-glass transformation at about 80 kbar. The amorphous phase formed was metastable at ambient temperature after pressure release. This was confirmed by TEM. The amorphous phase obtained by pressurization was found to have a liquid-like structure and was metallic. In the TEM samples we also observed the presence of a second amorphous phase formed upon release of the pressure. This second phase had a tetrahedrally-bonded continuous random network structure, similar to that of semi-conducting amorphous germanium.

  3. Transformation of cis- and trans-2,3-dimethyloxiranes on a Pd/SiO{sub 2} catalyst

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fasi, A.; Notheisz, F.; Bartok, M.

    1997-04-01

    The transformation of cis- and trans-2,3-dimethyloxiranes on a Pd/SiO{sub 2} catalyst, leading to the formation of 2-butanone and 2-butanol, was studied in hydrogen and deuterium atmosphere. The effect of hydrogen and deuterium atmosphere. The effect of hydrogen pressure (1.3-100 kPa) and temperature (323-423 K) on the reaction rate was also measured. The transformation of the two stereoisomers involves different mechanisms. In the case of the cis-isomer, hydrogen participates in the cleavage of the C-O bond and different surface species belong to the two products. In the case of the trans-isomer, ring opening by hydrogen (the formation of 2-butanol) is less significant and the main reaction is intramolecular migration leading to the formation of 2-butanone. Considering the geometry of the adsorbed species, cis-2,3-dimethyloxirane is most probably adsorbed on the surface of the Pd catalyst in a planar manner, while the adsorption of the trans-isomer is intermediate between edgewise and planar adsorption model. 18 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. Building Structural Complexity in Semiconductor Nanocrystals through Chemical Transformations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sadtler, Bryce F

    2009-05-20

    Methods are presented for synthesizing nanocrystal heterostructures comprised of two semiconductor materials epitaxially attached within individual nanostructures. The chemical transformation of cation exchange, where the cations within the lattice of an ionic nanocrystal are replaced with a different metal ion species, is used to alter the chemical composition at specific regions ofa nanocrystal. Partial cation exchange was performed in cadmium sulfide (CdS) nanorods of well-defined size and shape to examine the spatial organization of materials within the resulting nanocrystal heterostructures. The selectivity for cation exchange to take place at different facets of the nanocrystal plays an important role in determining the resulting morphology of the binary heterostructure. The exchange of copper (I) (Cu+) cations in CdS nanorods occurs preferentially at the ends of the nanorods. Theoretical modeling of epitaxial attachments between different facets of CdS and Cu2S indicate that the selectivity for cation exchange at the ends of the nanorods is a result of the low formation energy of the interfaces produced. During silver (I) (Ag+) cation exchange in CdS nanorods, non-selective nucleation of silver sulfide (Ag2S), followed by partial phase segregation leads to significant changes in the spatial arrangement of CdS and Ag2S regions at the exchange reaction proceeds through the nanocrystal. A well-ordered striped pattern of alternating CdS and Ag2S segments is found at intermediate fractions of exchange. The forces mediating this spontaneous process are a combination of Ostwald ripening to reduce the interfacial area along with a strain-induced repulsive interaction between Ag2S segments. To elucidate why Cu+ and Ag+ cation exchange with CdS nanorods produce different morphologies, models for epitaxial attachments between various facets of CdS with Cu2S or Ag2S lattices were used to calculate interface formation energies. The formation energies indicate the favorability for interface nucleation at different facets of the nanorod and the stability of the interfaces during growth of the secondary material (Cu2S or Ag2S) within the CdS nanocrystal. The physical properties of the CdS-Ag2S and CdS-Cu2S binary nanorods are discussed in terms of the electronic structure of their components and the heterostructure morphology.

  5. Methods for transforming and expression screening of filamentous fungal cells with a DNA library

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Teter, Sarah; Lamsa, Michael; Cherry, Joel; Ward, Connie

    2015-06-02

    The present invention relates to methods for expression screening of filamentous fungal transformants, comprising: (a) isolating single colony transformants of a DNA library introduced into E. coli; (b) preparing DNA from each of the single colony E. coli transformants; (c) introducing a sample of each of the DNA preparations of step (b) into separate suspensions of protoplasts of a filamentous fungus to obtain transformants thereof, wherein each transformant contains one or more copies of an individual polynucleotide from the DNA library; (d) growing the individual filamentous fungal transformants of step (c) on selective growth medium, thereby permitting growth of the filamentous fungal transformants, while suppressing growth of untransformed filamentous fungi; and (e) measuring activity or a property of each polypeptide encoded by the individual polynucleotides. The present invention also relates to isolated polynucleotides encoding polypeptides of interest obtained by such methods, to nucleic acid constructs, expression vectors, and recombinant host cells comprising the isolated polynucleotides, and to methods of producing the polypeptides encoded by the isolated polynucleotides.

  6. Transmission level instrument transformers and transient event recorders characterization for harmonic measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meliopoulos, A.P.S.; Zhang, Fan ); Cokkinides, G.J. ); Coffeen, L.; Burnett, R.; McBride, J. ); Zelingher, S.; Stillman, G.

    1993-07-01

    This paper presents a technique for laboratory characterization of instrument transformers designed for transmission level voltage and current measurements. The technique is also extended to Transient Event Recorders (TERs). The objective of the method is to determine the suitability of existing substation instrument transformers for harmonic measurements, particularly in the frequency range of 60 to 1500 Hz covering the first 25 harmonics. Specifically, the following characteristics are of interest in the frequency range of 60 to 1500 Hz: transfer function magnitude and phase, linearity, and sensitivity of the frequency response to burdens. The measurement technique is based on exciting the instrument transformer primary with an impulsive waveform. Both input and output waveforms are recorded using laboratory grade probes and digitizers. Subsequently, digital signal processing techniques are used to compute the instrument transformer frequency response. Several voltage transformers (both PTs and CCVTs) and current transformers in the 230kV-765kV voltage range were tested. The results of these tests are described in the paper. Conclusions are presented regarding the suitability of the instrument transformers and transient event recorders for harmonic measurement and the requirements for such a system. A quantitative analysis of the measurement accuracy and software based methods to enhance the measurement accuracy is also presented.

  7. An accurate system for onsite calibration of electronic transformers with digital output

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhi Zhang; Li Hongbin

    2012-06-15

    Calibration systems with digital output are used to replace conventional calibration systems because of principle diversity and characteristics of digital output of electronic transformers. But precision and unpredictable stability limit their onsite application even development. So fully considering the factors influencing accuracy of calibration system and employing simple but reliable structure, an all-digital calibration system with digital output is proposed in this paper. In complicated calibration environments, precision and dynamic range are guaranteed by A/D converter with 24-bit resolution, synchronization error limit is nanosecond by using the novelty synchronization method. In addition, an error correction algorithm based on the differential method by using two-order Hanning convolution window has good inhibition of frequency fluctuation and inter-harmonics interference. To verify the effectiveness, error calibration was carried out in the State Grid Electric Power Research Institute of China and results show that the proposed system can reach the precision class up to 0.05. Actual onsite calibration shows that the system has high accuracy, and is easy to operate with satisfactory stability.

  8. Localization of polyhydroxybutyrate in sugarcane using Fourier-transform infrared microspectroscopy and multivariate imaging

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Lupoi, Jason S.; Smith-Moritz, Andreia; Singh, Seema; McQualter, Richard; Scheller, Henrik V.; Simmons, Blake A.; Henry, Robert J.

    2015-07-10

    Background: Slow-degrading, fossil fuel-derived plastics can have deleterious effects on the environment, especially marine ecosystems. The production of bio-based, biodegradable plastics from or in plants can assist in supplanting those manufactured using fossil fuels. Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) is one such biodegradable polyester that has been evaluated as a possible candidate for relinquishing the use of environmentally harmful plastics. Results: PHB, possessing similar properties to polyesters produced from non-renewable sources, has been previously engineered in sugarcane, thereby creating a high-value co-product in addition to the high biomass yield. This manuscript illustrates the coupling of a Fourier-transform infrared microspectrometer, equipped with a focalmore » plane array (FPA) detector, with multivariate imaging to successfully identify and localize PHB aggregates. Principal component analysis imaging facilitated the mining of the abundant quantity of spectral data acquired using the FPA for distinct PHB vibrational modes. PHB was measured in the chloroplasts of mesophyll and bundle sheath cells, acquiescent with previously evaluated plant samples. Conclusion: This study demonstrates the power of IR microspectroscopy to rapidly image plant sections to provide a snapshot of the chemical composition of the cell. While PHB was localized in sugarcane, this method is readily transferable to other value-added co-products in different plants.« less

  9. Hexagonal phase transformation in the engineered scavenger compound lithium titanate. Report of Investigations/1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Collins, W.K.; Riley, W.D.; Jong, B.W.

    1993-01-01

    Engineered scavenger compounds (ESC's) developed by the US Bureau of Mines are a novel class of compounds that selectively can recover a desired element from a solid or molten alloy. Lithium titanate (Li2Ti3O7 or Li2O center dot 3TiO2) is used as an ESC to recover lithium (Li) from aluminum-lithium (Al-Li) alloys. X-ray diffraction measurements have shown that Li2Ti3O7 undergoes a phase change during scavenging from an orthorhombic structure to a hexagonal structure. This change is due to the incorporation of lithium in the matrix of the material and the effect of temperature. Although both phases are metastable, the hexagonal phase that forms during the scavenging of lithium from Al-Li alloys appears to be the more stable phase. Recovering lithium from the ESC by electrodeposition does not cause the structure to revert to the orthorhombic phase. The orthorhombic and the hexagonal structures of Li2Ti3O7 have similar scavenging capacities for lithium. The report proposes a new mechanism for the phase transformation.

  10. In situ HVEM studies of phase transformation in Zr alloys and compounds under irradiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Motta, A.T.; Faldowski, J.A.; Howe, L.M.; Okamoto, P.R.

    1996-01-01

    The High Voltage Electron Microscope (HVEM)/Tandem facility at Argonne National Laboratory has been used to conduct detailed studies of the phase stability and microstructural evolution in zirconium alloys and compounds under ion and electron irradiation. Detailed kinetic studies of the crystalline-to-amorphous transformation of the intermetallic compounds Zr{sub 3}(Fe{sub 1-x}Ni{sub x}), Zr(Fe{sub 1-x},Cr{sub x}){sub 2}, Zr{sub 3}Fe, and Zr{sub 1.5} Nb{sub 1.5} Fe, both as second phase precipitates and in bulk form, have been performed using the in-situ capabilities of the Argonne facility, under a variety of irradiation conditions (temperature, dose rate). Results include a verification of a dose rate effect on amorphization and the influence of material variables (stoichiometry x, presence of stacking faults, crystal structure) on the critical temperature and on the critical dose for amorphization. Studies were also conducted of the microstructural evolution under irradiation of specially tailored binary and ternary model alloys. The stability of the {omega}-phase in Zr-20%Nb under electron and Ar ion irradiation was investigated as well as the {beta}-phase precipitation in Zr-2.5%Nb under Ar ion irradiation. The ensemble of these results is discussed in terms of theoretical models of amorphization and of irradiation-altered solubility.

  11. A combined compensation method for the output voltage of an insulated core transformer power supply

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, L.; Yang, J. Liu, K. F.; Qin, B.; Chen, D. Z.

    2014-06-15

    An insulated core transformer (ICT) power supply is an ideal high-voltage generator for irradiation accelerators with energy lower than 3 MeV. However, there is a significant problem that the structure of the segmented cores leads to an increase in the leakage flux and voltage differences between rectifier disks. A high level of consistency in the output of the disks helps to achieve a compact structure by improving the utilization of both the rectifier components and the insulation distances, and consequently increase the output voltage of the power supply. The output voltages of the disks which are far away from the primary coils need to be improved to reduce their inhomogeneity. In this study, by investigating and comparing the existing compensation methods, a new combined compensation method is proposed, which increases the turns on the secondary coils and employs parallel capacitors to improve the consistency of the disks, while covering the entire operating range of the power supply. This method turns out to be both feasible and effective during the development of an ICT power supply. The non-uniformity of the output voltages of the disks is less than 3.5% from no-load to full-load, and the power supply reaches an output specification of 350 kV/60 mA.

  12. Localization of polyhydroxybutyrate in sugarcane using Fourier-transform infrared microspectroscopy and multivariate imaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lupoi, Jason S.; Smith-Moritz, Andreia; Singh, Seema; McQualter, Richard; Scheller, Henrik V.; Simmons, Blake A.; Henry, Robert J.

    2015-07-10

    Background: Slow-degrading, fossil fuel-derived plastics can have deleterious effects on the environment, especially marine ecosystems. The production of bio-based, biodegradable plastics from or in plants can assist in supplanting those manufactured using fossil fuels. Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) is one such biodegradable polyester that has been evaluated as a possible candidate for relinquishing the use of environmentally harmful plastics. Results: PHB, possessing similar properties to polyesters produced from non-renewable sources, has been previously engineered in sugarcane, thereby creating a high-value co-product in addition to the high biomass yield. This manuscript illustrates the coupling of a Fourier-transform infrared microspectrometer, equipped with a focal plane array (FPA) detector, with multivariate imaging to successfully identify and localize PHB aggregates. Principal component analysis imaging facilitated the mining of the abundant quantity of spectral data acquired using the FPA for distinct PHB vibrational modes. PHB was measured in the chloroplasts of mesophyll and bundle sheath cells, acquiescent with previously evaluated plant samples. Conclusion: This study demonstrates the power of IR microspectroscopy to rapidly image plant sections to provide a snapshot of the chemical composition of the cell. While PHB was localized in sugarcane, this method is readily transferable to other value-added co-products in different plants.

  13. Phase-field modeling of the beta to omega phase transformation in Zr-Nb

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    alloys (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Phase-field modeling of the beta to omega phase transformation in Zr-Nb alloys Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Phase-field modeling of the beta to omega phase transformation in Zr-Nb alloys A three-dimensional elastoplastic phase-field model is developed, using the finite element method (FEM), for modeling the athermal beta to omega phase transformation in Zr-Nb alloys by including plastic deformation and strain hardening of the material.

  14. Phase-field modeling of the beta to omega phase transformation in Zr-Nb

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    alloys (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Phase-field modeling of the beta to omega phase transformation in Zr-Nb alloys Citation Details In-Document Search This content will become publicly available on May 1, 2016 Title: Phase-field modeling of the beta to omega phase transformation in Zr-Nb alloys A three-dimensional elastoplastic phase-field model is developed, using the Finite Element Method (FEM), for modeling the athermal beta to omega phase transformation in Zr-Nb alloys by

  15. Magnetostructural phase transformations in Tb 1-x Mn 2 (Journal Article) |

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    SciTech Connect SciTech Connect Search Results Journal Article: Magnetostructural phase transformations in Tb 1-x Mn 2 Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Magnetostructural phase transformations in Tb 1-x Mn 2 Magnetism and phase transformations in non-stoichiometric Tb1-xMn2 (x = 0.056, 0.039) have been studied as functions of temperature and magnetic field using magnetization, heat capacity, and X-ray powder diffraction measurements. Lowering the temperature, the compounds

  16. Modeling the viscoplastic micromechanical response of two-phase materials using fast Fourier transforms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lebensohn, Ricardo A; Lee, Sukbin; Rollett, Anthony D

    2009-01-01

    A viscoplastic approach using the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) method for obtaining local mechanical response is utilized to study microstructure-property relationships in composite materials. Specifically, three-dimensional, two-phase digital materials containing isotropically coarsened particles surrounded by a matrix phase, generated through a Kinetic Monte Carlo Potts model for Ostwald ripening, are used as instantiations in order to calculate the stress and strain rate fields under uniaxial tension. The effects of the morphology of the matrix phase, the volume fraction and the contiguity of particles, and the polycrystallinity of matrix phase, on the stress and strain rate fields under uniaxial tension are examined. It is found that the first moments of the stress and strain rate fields have a different dependence on the particle volume fraction and the particle contiguity from their second moments. The average stresses and average strain rates of both phases and of the overall composite have rather simple relationships with the particle volume fraction whereas their standard deviations vary strongly, especially when the particle volume fraction is high, and the contiguity of particles has a noticeable effect on the mechanical response. It is also found that the shape of stress distribution in the BCC hard particle phase evolves as the volume fraction of particles in the composite varies, such that it agrees with the stress field in the BCC polycrystal as the volume of particles approaches unity. Finally, it is observed that the stress and strain rate fields in the microstructures with a polycrystalline matrix are less sensitive to changes in volume fraction and contiguity of particles.

  17. Examination of phase transformations and decomposition chemistry in thermally aged thin-film explosives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Erickson, K.L.; Trott, W.M.; Renlund, A.M.

    1993-09-01

    To develop predictive models for the response of weapon systems to abnormal thermal environments, such as cookoff, an improved understanding of temperature-dependent thermophysical phenomena (such as phase transformations) and decomposition chemistry in totally confined explosive samples is needed. It is particularly important to examine the effects of maintaining-intimate contact between the decomposition products and the remaining condensed-phase explosive during slow reaction at elevated temperatures since confinement of the decomposition products may significantly affect thermophysical phenomena and decomposition reaction rates. The purpose of this work has been to examine experimentally the effects on condensed-phase chemistry which result when decomposition products remain in intimate contact with the reacting explosive during isothermal aging experiments at temperatures below those of the DTA exotherm for the explosive. To provide confinement, minimize vapor space, and permit condensed-phase chemical analysis, experiments were done using thin-film samples of the explosive, which were pressed and sealed between two infrared-transmitting windows, so that condensed-phase chemistry could be monitored using infrared spectroscopy. Experiments were done with NC, HMX, HMX-NC composite, and RDX samples. Results from the experiments with NC showed that for some decomposition mechanisms, the reaction rates for confined samples compared favorably with published reaction rates from unconfined samples. However, the results also demonstrated that for other mechanisms, the reaction rates were significantly affected by confinement of the decomposition products. The experiments with HMX and RDX indicated that some decomposition occurred at temperatures well below the temperatures of the respective DTA exotherms, and the experiments with HMX-NC composite samples showed some interaction between NC and HMX at temperatures as low as 150{degrees}C.

  18. Clean Energy Policies Analysis: The Role of Policy in Clean Energy Market Transformation (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doris, E.

    2010-11-01

    This presentation was written and presented by Elizabeth Doris (NREL) at the November 17 TAP Webinar to provide background detail about how state policies are transforming the clean energy market in different regions of the country.

  19. TIME Magazine Profiles Transformative Work by DOE and the Recovery Act

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In case you missed it, TIME magazine published a feature story last week about the incredible, transformative work being done by the Department of Energy through the Recovery Act.

  20. Linking Transformational Materials and Processing for an Energy-Efficient and Low-Carbon Economy, 2010

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hunt, Warren H.; Brindle, Ross; James, Mallory; Justiniano, Mauricio; Sabouni, Ridah; Seader, Melanie; Ruch, Jennifer; Andres, Howard; Zafar, Muhammad

    2010-06-01

    The Energy Materials Blue Ribbon Panel, representing experts from industry, academia, and government, identifies new materials and processing breakthroughs that could lead to transformational advances in energy efficiency, energy security, and carbon reduction.

  1. Transformations in Lighting: The Eighth Annual Solid-State Lighting R&D Workshop

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    More than 350 researchers, manufacturers, and other industry insiders and observers gathered in San Diego February 1–3, 2011, to participate in DOE's "Transformations in Lighting" Solid-State Lighting (SSL) R&D Workshop.

  2. Transformations in Lighting: The Ninth Annual Solid-State Lighting R&D Workshop

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Nearly 300 researchers, manufacturers, and other industry insiders and observers gathered in Atlanta January 31–February 2, 2012, to participate in DOE's "Transformations in Lighting" Solid-State Lighting (SSL) R&D Workshop.

  3. Phase-field Modeling of Nucleation in Solid-State Phase Transformation...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Phase-field Modeling of Nucleation in Solid-State Phase Transformations Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Phase-field Modeling of Nucleation in Solid-State Phase...

  4. Project Profile: Transformational Approach to Reducing the Total System Costs of Building-Integrated Photovoltaics

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Dow Chemical Company, under the BOS-X funding opportunity, has launched a transformational product in the building-integrated photovoltaics (BIPV) industry: the Dow POWERHOUSE Solar Shingle.

  5. Layered ZIF-Polymer Membranes Through On-Polymer Chemical Transformations

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of Colloidal Nanocrystal Films | Center for Gas SeparationsRelevant to Clean Energy Technologies | Blandine Jerome Layered ZIF-Polymer Membranes Through On-Polymer Chemical Transformations of Colloidal Nanocrystal Films

  6. "Large Power Transformers and the U.S. Electric Grid" Report (June 2012)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability has released the "Large Power Transformers and the U.S. Electric Grid" report, an assessment of the procurement and supply environment of...

  7. Large Power Transformers and the U.S. Electric Grid Report Update...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    an update to its 2012 Large Power Transformers and the U.S. Electric Grid report. The new report includes updated information about global electrical steel supply conditions and...

  8. X-ray diffraction study of the phase transformations in NiTi shape memory alloy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Uchil, J.; Fernandes, F.M. Braz . E-mail: kkmahesh@rediffmail.com

    2007-03-15

    The phase transformations occurring in heat-treated NiTi shape memory alloys have been studied through the analysis of variation in integrated peak area (integrated intensity) with temperature, under the XRD peak profiles in the transformation temperature range. For this purpose, integrated peak area under the prominent peak corresponding to (110) plane of the austenitic phase has been chosen. The results so obtained are compared with those got from the DSC method. The XRD method is found to be more sensitive.

  9. Getting on the same page-transformation | Y-12 National Security Complex

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Getting on the same ... Getting on the same page-transformation Posted: August 17, 2015 - 9:53am Transformation is an effort to unify the Pantex Plant and the Y-12 National Security Complex as one team, working better together, to serve the National Nuclear Security Administration's mission and deliver critical products and services. In the dynamic international nuclear environment, we must prove that our strong traditions and reputation of excellence are still relevant, while adapting our

  10. Planar Optical Waveguide Coupler Transformers for High-Power Solar Enegy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Collection and Transmission | Department of Energy Planar Optical Waveguide Coupler Transformers for High-Power Solar Enegy Collection and Transmission Planar Optical Waveguide Coupler Transformers for High-Power Solar Enegy Collection and Transmission This presentation was delivered at the SunShot Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) Program Review 2013, held April 23-25, 2013 near Phoenix, Arizona. PDF icon csp_review_meeting_042313_kobayashi.pdf More Documents & Publications Chemically

  11. Shape-memory transformations of NiTi: Minimum-energy pathways between

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    austenite, martensites, and kinetically limited intermediate states (Journal Article) | DOE PAGES Shape-memory transformations of NiTi: Minimum-energy pathways between austenite, martensites, and kinetically limited intermediate states « Prev Next » Title: Shape-memory transformations of NiTi: Minimum-energy pathways between austenite, martensites, and kinetically limited intermediate states NiTi is the most used shape-memory alloy, nonetheless, a lack of understanding remains regarding

  12. Shape-memory transformations of NiTi: Minimum-energy pathways between

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    austenite, martensites, and kinetically limited intermediate states (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Journal Article: Shape-memory transformations of NiTi: Minimum-energy pathways between austenite, martensites, and kinetically limited intermediate states Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Shape-memory transformations of NiTi: Minimum-energy pathways between austenite, martensites, and kinetically limited intermediate states NiTi is the most used shape-memory alloy, nonetheless, a

  13. Shape-memory transformations of NiTi: Minimum-energy pathways between

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    austenite, martensites, and kinetically limited intermediate states (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Shape-memory transformations of NiTi: Minimum-energy pathways between austenite, martensites, and kinetically limited intermediate states Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Shape-memory transformations of NiTi: Minimum-energy pathways between austenite, martensites, and kinetically limited intermediate states × You are accessing a document from the Department of Energy's (DOE)

  14. The Fuel Cell Mobile Light Project - A DOE Market Transformation Activity |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy The Fuel Cell Mobile Light Project - A DOE Market Transformation Activity The Fuel Cell Mobile Light Project - A DOE Market Transformation Activity Download the presentation slides from the Fuel Cell Technologies Program webinar, "Fuel Cell Mobile Lighting," held on November 13, 2012. PDF icon Fuel Cell Mobile Lighting Webinar Slides More Documents & Publications DOE/Boeing Sponsored Projects in Aviation Fuel Cell Technology at Sandia Fuel Cell Product

  15. Shape-memory transformations of NiTi: Minimum-energy pathways between

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    austenite, martensites, and kinetically limited intermediate states (Journal Article) | DOE PAGES Shape-memory transformations of NiTi: Minimum-energy pathways between austenite, martensites, and kinetically limited intermediate states Title: Shape-memory transformations of NiTi: Minimum-energy pathways between austenite, martensites, and kinetically limited intermediate states NiTi is the most used shape-memory alloy, nonetheless, a lack of understanding remains regarding the associated

  16. Temperature-driven phase transformation in Y3Co: Neutron scattering and

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    first-principles studies (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Temperature-driven phase transformation in Y3Co: Neutron scattering and first-principles studies Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Temperature-driven phase transformation in Y3Co: Neutron scattering and first-principles studies Authors: Podlesnyak, A. ; Ehlers, G. ; Cao, H. ; Matsuda, M. ; Frontzek, M. ; Zaharko, O. ; Kazantsev, V. A. ; Gubkin, A. F. ; Baranov, N. V. Publication Date: 2013-07-26 OSTI Identifier: 1104316

  17. The kinetics of the [omega] to [alpha] phase transformation in Zr, Ti:

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Analysis of data from shock-recovered samples and atomistic simulations (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect The kinetics of the [omega] to [alpha] phase transformation in Zr, Ti: Analysis of data from shock-recovered samples and atomistic simulations Citation Details In-Document Search Title: The kinetics of the [omega] to [alpha] phase transformation in Zr, Ti: Analysis of data from shock-recovered samples and atomistic simulations Authors: Zong, Hongxiang ; Lookman, Turab ; Ding, Xiangdong

  18. Recovery Act Provides $9.6 Million for Transformational Energy Research

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Projects | Department of Energy Recovery Act Provides $9.6 Million for Transformational Energy Research Projects Recovery Act Provides $9.6 Million for Transformational Energy Research Projects September 10, 2010 - 3:05pm Addthis John Schueler John Schueler Former New Media Specialist, Office of Public Affairs Today, Secretary Chu announced $9.6 million dollars of Recovery Act funding for six projects that could revolutionize how the country uses, stores and produces energy. Selected by the

  19. SEP Success Story: Louisiana Company Makes Switch to CNG, Helps Transform

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Local Fuel Supplies | Department of Energy Louisiana Company Makes Switch to CNG, Helps Transform Local Fuel Supplies SEP Success Story: Louisiana Company Makes Switch to CNG, Helps Transform Local Fuel Supplies April 23, 2014 - 10:15am Addthis Shreveport, Louisiana's first public heavy duty CNG fueling station officially opened on Earth Day. | Photo courtesy of Ivan Smith Furniture Shreveport, Louisiana's first public heavy duty CNG fueling station officially opened on Earth Day. | Photo

  20. July 16, 2008, Visiting Speakers Program - National Academy of Public Administration - Closing the Gap on Transformation

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    08 National Academy of Public Administration. All rights reserved. September 16, 2008. How Collaborative Technologies Are Revolutionizing The Way We Drive Change Closing the Gap on Transformation 2 © 2008 National Academy of Public Administration. All rights reserved. September 16, 2008. www.collaborationproject.org Thinking About Change Proactive Reactive Incremental Redirecting Adapting Overhauling Tuning Transformational Within the Frame Frame Bending Frame Breaking A Change is not a Change

  1. Louisiana Company Makes Switch to CNG, Helps Transform Local Fuel Supplies

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    | Department of Energy Louisiana Company Makes Switch to CNG, Helps Transform Local Fuel Supplies Louisiana Company Makes Switch to CNG, Helps Transform Local Fuel Supplies April 23, 2014 - 1:43pm Addthis Shreveport, Louisiana's first public heavy duty CNG fueling station officially opened on Earth Day. | Photo courtesy of Ivan Smith Furniture Shreveport, Louisiana's first public heavy duty CNG fueling station officially opened on Earth Day. | Photo courtesy of Ivan Smith Furniture Cedric

  2. Comments of the Institute for Market Transformation on the Dept. of

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Energy's Energy Efficiency and Sustainable Design Standards for New Federal Buildings: Notice of Proposed Rulemaking | Department of Energy Institute for Market Transformation on the Dept. of Energy's Energy Efficiency and Sustainable Design Standards for New Federal Buildings: Notice of Proposed Rulemaking Comments of the Institute for Market Transformation on the Dept. of Energy's Energy Efficiency and Sustainable Design Standards for New Federal Buildings: Notice of Proposed Rulemaking

  3. ARPA-E Awards $130 Million for 66 Transformational Energy Technology

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Projects | Department of Energy Awards $130 Million for 66 Transformational Energy Technology Projects ARPA-E Awards $130 Million for 66 Transformational Energy Technology Projects November 28, 2012 - 1:00pm Addthis NEWS MEDIA CONTACT (202) 586-4940 WASHINGTON - Today, Energy Secretary Steven Chu announced 66 cutting-edge research projects selected by the Energy Department's Advanced Research Projects Agency - Energy (ARPA-E) to receive a total of $130 million in funding through its

  4. Magnetic and magneto-transport studies of substrate effect on...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    in a NiMnIn shape memory alloy Title: Magnetic and magneto-transport studies of substrate effect on the martensitic transformation in a NiMnIn shape memory alloy Authors: ...

  5. Ab initio molecular dynamics simulation of pressure-induced phase transformation of BeO

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xiao, H. Y.; Duan, G.; Zu, X. T.; Weber, W. J.

    2011-05-05

    Ab initio molecular dynamics (MD) method has been used to study high pressure-induced phase transformation in BeO based on the local density approximation (LDA) and the generalized gradient approximation (GGA). Both methods show that the wurtzite (WZ) and zinc blende (ZB) BeO transforms to the rocksalt (RS) structure smoothly at high pressure. The transition pressures obtained from the LDA method are about 40 GPa larger than the GGA result for both WZ ? RS and ZB ? RS phase transformations, and the phase transformation mechanisms revealed by the LDA and GGA methods are different. For WZ ? RS phase transformations both mechanisms obtained from the LDA and GGA methods are not comparable to the previous ab initio MD simulations of WZ BeO at 700 GPa based on the GGA method. It is suggested that the phase transformation mechanisms of BeO revealed by the ab initio MD simulations are affected remarkably by the exchangecorrelation functional employed and the way of applying pressure.

  6. Study of Martensitic Phase transformation in a NiTiCu Thin Film Shape Memory Alloy Using Photoelectron Emission Microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cai, Mingdong; Langford, Stephen C.; Wu, Maggie J.; Huang, W. M.; Xiong, Gang; Droubay, Timothy C.; Joly, Alan G.; Beck, Kenneth; Hess, Wayne P.; Dickinson, J. T.

    2007-01-01

    The thermally-induced martensitic phase transformation in a polycrystalline NiTiCu thin film shape memory alloy was probed by photoelectron emission microscopy (PEEM). In situ PEEM images reveal distinct changes in microstructure and photoemission intensity at the phase transition temperatures. In particular, images of the low temperature, martensite phase are brighter than that of the high temperature, austenite phase, due to the relatively lower work function of the martensite. Ultra-violet photoelectron spectroscopy shows that the effective work function changes by about 0.16 eV during thermal cycling. In situ PEEM images also show that the network of trenches observed on the room temperature film disappear suddenly during heating and reappear suddenly during subsequent cooling. These trenches are also characterized by atomic force microscopy at selected temperatures. We describe implications of these observations with respect to the spatial distribution of phases during thermal cycling in this thin film shape memory alloy.

  7. Phase retrieval with the transport-of-intensity equation in an arbitrarily-shaped aperture by iterative discrete cosine transforms

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Huang, Lei; Zuo, Chao; Idir, Mourad; Qu, Weijuan; Asundi, Anand

    2015-04-21

    A novel transport-of-intensity equation (TIE) based phase retrieval method is proposed with putting an arbitrarily-shaped aperture into the optical wavefield. In this arbitrarily-shaped aperture, the TIE can be solved under non-uniform illuminations and even non-homogeneous boundary conditions by iterative discrete cosine transforms with a phase compensation mechanism. Simulation with arbitrary phase, arbitrary aperture shape, and non-uniform intensity distribution verifies the effective compensation and high accuracy of the proposed method. Experiment is also carried out to check the feasibility of the proposed method in real measurement. Comparing to the existing methods, the proposed method is applicable for any types of phasemore » distribution under non-uniform illumination and non-homogeneous boundary conditions within an arbitrarily-shaped aperture, which enables the technique of TIE with hard aperture become a more flexible phase retrieval tool in practical measurements.« less

  8. A complex guided spectral transform Lanczos method for studying quantum resonance states

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu, Hua-Gen

    2014-12-28

    A complex guided spectral transform Lanczos (cGSTL) algorithm is proposed to compute both bound and resonance states including energies, widths and wavefunctions. The algorithm comprises of two layers of complex-symmetric Lanczos iterations. A short inner layer iteration produces a set of complex formally orthogonal Lanczos (cFOL) polynomials. They are used to span the guided spectral transform function determined by a retarded Green operator. An outer layer iteration is then carried out with the transform function to compute the eigen-pairs of the system. The guided spectral transform function is designed to have the same wavefunctions as the eigenstates of the original Hamiltonian in the spectral range of interest. Therefore the energies and/or widths of bound or resonance states can be easily computed with their wavefunctions or by using a root-searching method from the guided spectral transform surface. The new cGSTL algorithm is applied to bound and resonance states of HO?, and compared to previous calculations.

  9. Non-parametric transformation for data correlation and integration: From theory to practice

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Datta-Gupta, A.; Xue, Guoping; Lee, Sang Heon

    1997-08-01

    The purpose of this paper is two-fold. First, we introduce the use of non-parametric transformations for correlating petrophysical data during reservoir characterization. Such transformations are completely data driven and do not require a priori functional relationship between response and predictor variables which is the case with traditional multiple regression. The transformations are very general, computationally efficient and can easily handle mixed data types for example, continuous variables such as porosity, permeability and categorical variables such as rock type, lithofacies. The power of the non-parametric transformation techniques for data correlation has been illustrated through synthetic and field examples. Second, we utilize these transformations to propose a two-stage approach for data integration during heterogeneity characterization. The principal advantages of our approach over traditional cokriging or cosimulation methods are: (1) it does not require a linear relationship between primary and secondary data, (2) it exploits the secondary information to its fullest potential by maximizing the correlation between the primary and secondary data, (3) it can be easily applied to cases where several types of secondary or soft data are involved, and (4) it significantly reduces variance function calculations and thus, greatly facilitates non-Gaussian cosimulation. We demonstrate the data integration procedure using synthetic and field examples. The field example involves estimation of pore-footage distribution using well data and multiple seismic attributes.

  10. In-Situ Observations of Phase Transformations in the HAZ of 2205 Duplex Stainless Steel Weldments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Palmer, T A; Elmer, J W; Wong, J

    2001-08-15

    Ferrite ({delta})/austenite ({gamma}) transformations in the heat affected zone (HAZ) of a gas tungsten arc (GTA) weld in 2205 duplex stainless steel are observed in real-time using spatially resolved X-ray diffraction (SRXRD) with high intensity synchrotron radiation. A map showing the locations of the {delta} and {gamma} phases with respect to the calculated weld pool dimensions has been constructed from a series of SRXRD scans. Regions of liquid, completely transformed {gamma}, a combination of partially transformed {gamma} with untransformed {delta}, and untransformed {delta}+{gamma} are identified. Analysis of each SRXRD pattern provides a semi-quantitative definition of both the {delta}/{gamma} phase balance and the extent of annealing which are mapped for the first time with respect to the calculated weld pool size and shape. A combination of these analyses provides a unique real-time description of the progression of phase transformations in the HAZ. Using these real-time observations, important kinetic information about the transformations occurring in duplex stainless steels during heating and cooling cycles typical of welding can be determined.

  11. A complex guided spectral transform Lanczos method for studying quantum resonance states

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Yu, Hua-Gen

    2014-12-28

    A complex guided spectral transform Lanczos (cGSTL) algorithm is proposed to compute both bound and resonance states including energies, widths and wavefunctions. The algorithm comprises of two layers of complex-symmetric Lanczos iterations. A short inner layer iteration produces a set of complex formally orthogonal Lanczos (cFOL) polynomials. They are used to span the guided spectral transform function determined by a retarded Green operator. An outer layer iteration is then carried out with the transform function to compute the eigen-pairs of the system. The guided spectral transform function is designed to have the same wavefunctions as the eigenstates of the originalmore » Hamiltonian in the spectral range of interest. Therefore the energies and/or widths of bound or resonance states can be easily computed with their wavefunctions or by using a root-searching method from the guided spectral transform surface. The new cGSTL algorithm is applied to bound and resonance states of HO₂, and compared to previous calculations.« less

  12. Transformation and Crystallization Energetics of Synthetic and Biogenic Amorphous Calcium Carbonate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Radha, A. V.; Forbes, Tori Z.; Killian, Christopher E.; Gilbert, P.U.P.A; Navrotsky, Alexandra

    2010-01-01

    Amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC) is a metastable phase often observed during low temperature inorganic synthesis and biomineralization. ACC transforms with aging or heating into a less hydrated form, and with time crystallizes to calcite or aragonite. The energetics of transformation and crystallization of synthetic and biogenic (extracted from California purple sea urchin larval spicules, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus) ACC were studied using isothermal acid solution calorimetry and differential scanning calorimetry. Transformation and crystallization of ACC can follow an energetically downhill sequence: more metastable hydrated ACC ? less metastable hydrated ACC?anhydrous ACC ~ biogenic anhydrous ACC?vaterite ? aragonite ? calcite. In a given reaction sequence, not all these phases need to occur. The transformations involve a series of ordering, dehydration, and crystallization processes, each lowering the enthalpy (and free energy) of the system, with crystallization of the dehydrated amorphous material lowering the enthalpy the most. ACC is much more metastable with respect to calcite than the crystalline polymorphs vaterite or aragonite. The anhydrous ACC is less metastable than the hydrated, implying that the structural reorganization during dehydration is exothermic and irreversible. Dehydrated synthetic and anhydrous biogenic ACC are similar in enthalpy. The transformation sequence observed in biomineralization could be mainly energetically driven; the first phase deposited is hydrated ACC, which then converts to anhydrous ACC, and finally crystallizes to calcite. The initial formation of ACC may be a first step in the precipitation of calcite under a wide variety of conditions, including geological CO? sequestration.

  13. High-temperature phase transformation in Cr added TiAl base alloy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abe, E.; Niinobe, K.; Nobuki, M.; Nakamura, M.; Tsujimoto, T.

    1999-07-01

    The authors have investigated a microstructure evolution of a Ti-48Al-3.5Cr (in at.%) alloy at high-temperatures ({gt} 1,473K). In the alloy annealed at 1673K for 1.8ks, followed by air-cooling, a characteristic microstructure with a feathery fashion was uniformly formed. From a cooling-rate-controlling study, it was found that formation of the feathery structure is accomplished during continuous cooling from 1673K to 1573K, within the {alpha} + {gamma} two-phase region. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that the feathery structure is composed of lamellar colonies (5--10{micro}m) which are crystallographically tilted slightly (a few degree) with their neighbors. A surprising fact is that lamellae in each colony are mostly the {gamma} phase with few {alpha}{sub 2} phase less than 5% in volume. This suggests that the feathery structure is a metastable product and has not resulted from the {alpha} {r{underscore}arrow} {alpha} + {gamma} transformation above 1,573 K. Instead, the feathery structure formation should be attributed to the non-equilibrium {alpha} {r{underscore}arrow} {gamma} transformation which occurs at high-temperatures with a small degree of supercooling. The authors discuss this interesting phase transformation in terms of the {alpha} {r{underscore}arrow} {gamma} massive transformation, based on the continuous-cooling-transformation (CCT) diagram constructed for the present alloy.

  14. Role of reactive oxygen species in arsenic-induced transformation of human lung bronchial epithelial (BEAS-2B) cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Zhuo; Pratheeshkumar, Poyil; Budhraja, Amit; Son, Young-Ok; Kim, Donghern; Shi, Xianglin

    2015-01-09

    Highlights: Short term exposure of cells to arsenic causes ROS generation. Chronical exposure of cells to arsenic causes malignant cell transformation. Inhibition of ROS generation reduces cell transformation by arsenic. Arsenic-transformed cells exhibit reduced capacity of generating ROS. Arsenic-transformed cells exhibit increased levels of antioxidants. - Abstract: Arsenic is an environmental carcinogen, its mechanisms of carcinogenesis remain to be investigated. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are considered to be important. A previous study (Carpenter et al., 2011) has measured ROS level in human lung bronchial epithelial (BEAS-2B) cells and arsenic-transformed BEAS-2B cells and found that ROS levels were higher in transformed cells than that in parent normal cells. Based on these observations, the authors concluded that cell transformation induced by arsenic is mediated by increased cellular levels of ROS. This conclusion is problematic because this study only measured the basal ROS levels in transformed and parent cells and did not investigate the role of ROS in the process of arsenic-induced cell transformation. The levels of ROS in arsenic-transformed cells represent the result and not the cause of cell transformation. Thus question concerning whether ROS are important in arsenic-induced cell transformation remains to be answered. In the present study, we used expressions of catalase (antioxidant against H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) and superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2, antioxidant against O{sub 2}{sup ?}) to decrease ROS level and investigated their role in the process of arsenic-induced cell transformation. Our results show that inhibition of ROS by antioxidant enzymes decreased arsenic-induced cell transformation, demonstrating that ROS are important in this process. We have also shown that in arsenic-transformed cells, ROS generation was lower and levels of antioxidants are higher than those in parent cells, in a disagreement with the previous report. The present study has also shown that the arsenic-transformed cells acquired apoptosis resistance. The inhibition of catalase to increase ROS level restored apoptosis capability of arsenic-transformed BEAS-2B cells, further showing that ROS levels are low in these cells. The apoptosis resistance due to the low ROS levels may increase cells proliferation, providing a favorable environment for tumorigenesis of arsenic-transformed cells.

  15. Application of Distribution Transformer Thermal Life Models to Electrified Vehicle Charging Loads Using Monte-Carlo Method: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuss, M.; Markel, T.; Kramer, W.

    2011-01-01

    Concentrated purchasing patterns of plug-in vehicles may result in localized distribution transformer overload scenarios. Prolonged periods of transformer overloading causes service life decrements, and in worst-case scenarios, results in tripped thermal relays and residential service outages. This analysis will review distribution transformer load models developed in the IEC 60076 standard, and apply the model to a neighborhood with plug-in hybrids. Residential distribution transformers are sized such that night-time cooling provides thermal recovery from heavy load conditions during the daytime utility peak. It is expected that PHEVs will primarily be charged at night in a residential setting. If not managed properly, some distribution transformers could become overloaded, leading to a reduction in transformer life expectancy, thus increasing costs to utilities and consumers. A Monte-Carlo scheme simulated each day of the year, evaluating 100 load scenarios as it swept through the following variables: number of vehicle per transformer, transformer size, and charging rate. A general method for determining expected transformer aging rate will be developed, based on the energy needs of plug-in vehicles loading a residential transformer.

  16. Interoperability format translation and transformation between IFC architectural design file and simulation file formats

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chao, Tian-Jy; Kim, Younghun

    2015-01-06

    Automatically translating a building architecture file format (Industry Foundation Class) to a simulation file, in one aspect, may extract data and metadata used by a target simulation tool from a building architecture file. Interoperability data objects may be created and the extracted data is stored in the interoperability data objects. A model translation procedure may be prepared to identify a mapping from a Model View Definition to a translation and transformation function. The extracted data may be transformed using the data stored in the interoperability data objects, an input Model View Definition template, and the translation and transformation function to convert the extracted data to correct geometric values needed for a target simulation file format used by the target simulation tool. The simulation file in the target simulation file format may be generated.

  17. Interoperability format translation and transformation between IFC architectural design file and simulation file formats

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chao, Tian-Jy; Kim, Younghun

    2015-02-03

    Automatically translating a building architecture file format (Industry Foundation Class) to a simulation file, in one aspect, may extract data and metadata used by a target simulation tool from a building architecture file. Interoperability data objects may be created and the extracted data is stored in the interoperability data objects. A model translation procedure may be prepared to identify a mapping from a Model View Definition to a translation and transformation function. The extracted data may be transformed using the data stored in the interoperability data objects, an input Model View Definition template, and the translation and transformation function to convert the extracted data to correct geometric values needed for a target simulation file format used by the target simulation tool. The simulation file in the target simulation file format may be generated.

  18. The backward phase flow and FBI-transform-based Eulerian Gaussian beams for the Schroedinger equation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leung Shingyu; Qian Jianliang

    2010-11-20

    We propose the backward phase flow method to implement the Fourier-Bros-Iagolnitzer (FBI)-transform-based Eulerian Gaussian beam method for solving the Schroedinger equation in the semi-classical regime. The idea of Eulerian Gaussian beams has been first proposed in . In this paper we aim at two crucial computational issues of the Eulerian Gaussian beam method: how to carry out long-time beam propagation and how to compute beam ingredients rapidly in phase space. By virtue of the FBI transform, we address the first issue by introducing the reinitialization strategy into the Eulerian Gaussian beam framework. Essentially we reinitialize beam propagation by applying the FBI transform to wavefields at intermediate time steps when the beams become too wide. To address the second issue, inspired by the original phase flow method, we propose the backward phase flow method which allows us to compute beam ingredients rapidly. Numerical examples demonstrate the efficiency and accuracy of the proposed algorithms.

  19. Subsurface characterization of an oxidation-induced phase transformation and twinning in nickel-based superalloy exposed to oxy-combustion environments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhu, Jingxi; Holcomb, Gordon R.; Jablonski, Paul D.; Wise, Adam; Li, Jia; Laughlin, David E.; Sridhar, Seetharaman

    2012-07-30

    In the integration of oxy-fuel combustion to turbine power generation system, turbine alloys are exposed to high temperature and an atmosphere comprised of steam, CO{sub 2} and O{sub 2}. While surface and internal oxidation of the alloy takes place, the microstructure in the subsurface region also changes due to oxidation. In this study, bare metal coupons of Ni-base superalloys were exposed in oxy-fuel combustion environment for up to 1000 h and the oxidation-related microstructures were examined. Phase transformation occurred in the subsurface region in Ni-based superalloy and led to twinning. The transformation product phases were analyzed through thermodynamic equilibrium calculations and various electron microscopy techniques, including scanning electron microscopy (SEM), orientation imaging microscopy (OIM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The mechanism by which the phase transformation and the formation of the microstructure occurred was also discussed. The possible effects of the product phases on the performance of the alloy in service were discussed.

  20. Maskelynite formation via solid-state transformation: Evidence of infrared and x-ray anisotropy

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Jaret, Steven J.; Ehm, Lars; Woerner, William R.; Phillips, Brian L.; Nekvasil, Hanna; Wright, Shawn P.; Glotch, Timothy D.

    2015-03-24

    We present optical microscopy, micro-Raman spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, high-energy X-ray total scattering experiments, and micro-Fourier transform infrared (micro-FTIR) spectroscopy on shocked labradorite from the Lonar Crater, India. We show that maskelynite of shock class 2 is structurally more similar to fused glass than to crystalline plagioclase. However, there are slight but significant differences – preservation of original pre-impact igneous zoning, anisotropy at Infrared wavelengths, X-ray anisotropy, and preservation of some intermediate range order – which are all consistent with a solid-state transformation formation of maskelynite.

  1. Bill Wilcox … The transformation and second birth of Oak Ridge, Part 3

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    3 As we continue to examine the transition of the city of Oak Ridge in the late 1950s toward incorporation, the speech Bill Wilcox, who was the Oak Ridge city historian until his passing on September 2, 2013, gave on Jun 4, 2010, The Transformation and Second Birth of Oak Ridge "Independence Day," June 4, 1960, in honor of the city of Oak Ridge's incorporation on June 2, 1960, sheds light on the events transforming the city. Bill's personal recollection and use of key primary resources

  2. Maskelynite formation via solid-state transformation: Evidence of infrared and x-ray anisotropy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jaret, Steven J.; Ehm, Lars; Woerner, William R.; Phillips, Brian L.; Nekvasil, Hanna; Wright, Shawn P.; Glotch, Timothy D.

    2015-03-24

    We present optical microscopy, micro-Raman spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, high-energy X-ray total scattering experiments, and micro-Fourier transform infrared (micro-FTIR) spectroscopy on shocked labradorite from the Lonar Crater, India. We show that maskelynite of shock class 2 is structurally more similar to fused glass than to crystalline plagioclase. However, there are slight but significant differences preservation of original pre-impact igneous zoning, anisotropy at Infrared wavelengths, X-ray anisotropy, and preservation of some intermediate range order which are all consistent with a solid-state transformation formation of maskelynite.

  3. Phase-field Modeling of Nucleation in Solid-State Phase Transformations

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Phase-field Modeling of Nucleation in Solid-State Phase Transformations Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Phase-field Modeling of Nucleation in Solid-State Phase Transformations Authors: Heo, T W ; Chen, L Q Publication Date: 2014-02-19 OSTI Identifier: 1212137 Report Number(s): LLNL-JRNL-650216 DOE Contract Number: DE-AC52-07NA27344 Resource Type: Journal Article Resource Relation: Journal Name: JOM, vol. 66, no. 8, June 25, 2014, pp. 1520

  4. EO 12866 meeting materials from 2/8 - DOE Distrubtion Transformers

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    (1904-AC04) | Department of Energy meeting materials from 2/8 - DOE Distrubtion Transformers (1904-AC04) EO 12866 meeting materials from 2/8 - DOE Distrubtion Transformers (1904-AC04) PDF icon BGE's Comments - DOE Rulemaking 100 CFR Part 431_Final (2).pdf PDF icon BGE's Comments - DOE Rulemaking Final.pdf PDF icon ComEd Helicopter Pictures.pdf PDF icon DOE Dist Trans NOPR ComEd Comments Apr 2012.pdf PDF icon DOE Dist Trans NOPR SA Com Ed Comments Jun 2012.pdf PDF icon DOE Dist Trans Prelim

  5. Fair Oaks Farms and AMP Americas Transform Waste into Fuel | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Fair Oaks Farms and AMP Americas Transform Waste into Fuel Fair Oaks Farms and AMP Americas Transform Waste into Fuel March 7, 2013 - 9:00am Addthis Learn how an Indiana dairy fuels milk delivery trucks with compressed natural gas. Shannon Brescher Shea Communications Manager, Clean Cities Program What are the key facts? An anaerobic digester is helping Fair Oaks Farms and AMP Americas turn agriculture waste into renewable natural gas. The natural gas will be used to fuel the fleet of

  6. Titanium α-ω phase transformation pathway and a predicted metastable structure

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zarkevich, Nickolai A.; Johnson, Duane D.

    2016-01-15

    A titanium is a highly utilized metal for structural lightweighting and its phases, transformation pathways (transition states), and structures have scientific and industrial importance. Using a proper solid-state nudged elastic band method employing two climbing images combined with density functional theory DFT + U methods for accurate energetics, we detail the pressure-induced α (ductile) to ω (brittle) transformation at the coexistence pressure. We also find two transition states along the minimal-enthalpy path and discover a metastable body-centered orthorhombic structure, with stable phonons, a lower density than the end-point phases, and decreasing stability with increasing pressure.

  7. Energy Transformation in the U.S. Virgin Islands | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Transformation in the U.S. Virgin Islands Energy Transformation in the U.S. Virgin Islands Click on the graphic to learn more the USVI's progress toward its 60% by 2025 goal. Click on the graphic to learn more the USVI's progress toward its 60% by 2025 goal. Location U.S. Virgin Islands Partners National Renewable Energy Laboratory Virgin Islands Water and Power Authority Virgin Islands Energy Office The U.S. Virgin Islands (USVI) worked with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) from 2009 to 2013

  8. Fair Oaks Farms and AMP Americas Transform Waste into Fuel | Department of

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Energy Fair Oaks Farms and AMP Americas Transform Waste into Fuel Fair Oaks Farms and AMP Americas Transform Waste into Fuel March 7, 2013 - 9:00am Addthis Learn how an Indiana dairy fuels milk delivery trucks with compressed natural gas. Shannon Brescher Shea Communications Manager, Clean Cities Program What are the key facts? An anaerobic digester is helping Fair Oaks Farms and AMP Americas turn agriculture waste into renewable natural gas. The natural gas will be used to fuel the fleet of

  9. 5 Super-Sized Solar Projects Transforming the Clean Energy Landscape |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Super-Sized Solar Projects Transforming the Clean Energy Landscape 5 Super-Sized Solar Projects Transforming the Clean Energy Landscape April 8, 2013 - 4:00pm Addthis The California Valley Solar Ranch has a capacity of 250 MW -- enough energy to power the equivalent of every home in San Luis Obispo County. | Photo courtesy of SunPower. The California Valley Solar Ranch has a capacity of 250 MW -- enough energy to power the equivalent of every home in San Luis Obispo

  10. ARPA-E FY2010 Annual Report Highlights Transformational Projects Since

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Agency's Establishment | Department of Energy FY2010 Annual Report Highlights Transformational Projects Since Agency's Establishment ARPA-E FY2010 Annual Report Highlights Transformational Projects Since Agency's Establishment June 22, 2011 - 10:30am Addthis Liisa O'Neill Liisa O'Neill Former New Media Specialist, Office of Public Affairs What does this mean for me? ARPA-E has funded 121 projects -- in amounts ranging from roughly $400,000 to $9 million, with an average award value of $3

  11. ARPA-E Q&A: Transforming How We Get Our Fuel | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Q&A: Transforming How We Get Our Fuel ARPA-E Q&A: Transforming How We Get Our Fuel October 23, 2013 - 12:13pm Addthis ARPA-E Program Director Dr. Ramon Gonzalez focuses on using microorganisms to convert natural gas into liquid fuel. | Photo courtesy of Jeff Fitlow, Rice University. ARPA-E Program Director Dr. Ramon Gonzalez focuses on using microorganisms to convert natural gas into liquid fuel. | Photo courtesy of Jeff Fitlow, Rice University. Mark D. Mitchell Communications Support

  12. The PDZ-binding motif of Yes-associated protein is required for its co-activation of TEAD-mediated CTGF transcription and oncogenic cell transforming activity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shimomura, Tadanori; Miyamura, Norio; Hata, Shoji; Miura, Ryota; Hirayama, Jun Nishina, Hiroshi

    2014-01-17

    Highlights: Loss of the PDZ-binding motif inhibits constitutively active YAP (5SA)-induced oncogenic cell transformation. The PDZ-binding motif of YAP promotes its nuclear localization in cultured cells and mouse liver. Loss of the PDZ-binding motif inhibits YAP (5SA)-induced CTGF transcription in cultured cells and mouse liver. -- Abstract: YAP is a transcriptional co-activator that acts downstream of the Hippo signaling pathway and regulates multiple cellular processes, including proliferation. Hippo pathway-dependent phosphorylation of YAP negatively regulates its function. Conversely, attenuation of Hippo-mediated phosphorylation of YAP increases its ability to stimulate proliferation and eventually induces oncogenic transformation. The C-terminus of YAP contains a highly conserved PDZ-binding motif that regulates YAPs functions in multiple ways. However, to date, the importance of the PDZ-binding motif to the oncogenic cell transforming activity of YAP has not been determined. In this study, we disrupted the PDZ-binding motif in the YAP (5SA) protein, in which the sites normally targeted by Hippo pathway-dependent phosphorylation are mutated. We found that loss of the PDZ-binding motif significantly inhibited the oncogenic transformation of cultured cells induced by YAP (5SA). In addition, the increased nuclear localization of YAP (5SA) and its enhanced activation of TEAD-dependent transcription of the cell proliferation gene CTGF were strongly reduced when the PDZ-binding motif was deleted. Similarly, in mouse liver, deletion of the PDZ-binding motif suppressed nuclear localization of YAP (5SA) and YAP (5SA)-induced CTGF expression. Taken together, our results indicate that the PDZ-binding motif of YAP is critical for YAP-mediated oncogenesis, and that this effect is mediated by YAPs co-activation of TEAD-mediated CTGF transcription.

  13. Fuel Cell Technologies Office Multi-Year Research, Development, and Demonstration Plan - Section 3.9 Market Transformation

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    MARKET TRANSFORMATION SECTION Multi-Year Research, Development, and Demonstration Plan Page 3.9 - 1 3.9 Market Transformation The Market Transformation sub-program is conducting activities to help implement and promote commercial and pre-commercial hydrogen and fuel cell systems in real world operating environments. These activities also provide feedback to research programs, U.S. industry manufacturers, and potential technology users. Currently, the capital and installation costs of early

  14. Effects of a Transition to a Hydrogen Economy on Employment in the United States Report to Congress

    Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

    DOE's Effects of a Transition to a Hydrogen Economy on Employment in the United States Report to Congress estimates the employment effects of a transformation of the U.S. economy to the use of hydroge

  15. Operation of the DC current transformer intensity monitors at FNAL during run II

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crisp, J.; Fellenz, B.; Heikkinen, D.; Ibrahim, M.A.; Meyer, T.; Vogel, G.; /Fermilab

    2012-01-01

    Circulating beam intensity measurements at FNAL are provided by five DC current transformers (DCCT), one per machine. With the exception of the DCCT in the Recycler, all DCCT systems were designed and built at FNAL. This paper presents an overview of both DCCT systems, including the sensor, the electronics, and the front-end instrumentation software, as well as their performance during Run II.

  16. A transform of complementary aspects with applications to entropic uncertainty relations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mandayam, Prabha; Wehner, Stephanie; Balachandran, Niranjan

    2010-08-15

    Even though mutually unbiased bases and entropic uncertainty relations play an important role in quantum cryptographic protocols, they remain ill understood. Here, we construct special sets of up to 2n+1 mutually unbiased bases (MUBs) in dimension d=2{sup n}, which have particularly beautiful symmetry properties derived from the Clifford algebra. More precisely, we show that there exists a unitary transformation that cyclically permutes such bases. This unitary can be understood as a generalization of the Fourier transform, which exchanges two MUBs, to multiple complementary aspects. We proceed to prove a lower bound for min-entropic entropic uncertainty relations for any set of MUBs and show that symmetry plays a central role in obtaining tight bounds. For example, we obtain for the first time a tight bound for four MUBs in dimension d=4, which is attained by an eigenstate of our complementarity transform. Finally, we discuss the relation to other symmetries obtained by transformations in discrete phase space and note that the extrema of discrete Wigner functions are directly related to min-entropic uncertainty relations for MUBs.

  17. User's Guide to MBC3: Multi-Blade Coordinate Transformation Code for 3-Bladed Wind Turbine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bir, G. S.

    2010-09-01

    This guide explains how to use MBC3, a MATLAB-based script NREL developed to perform multi-blade coordinate transformation of system matrices for three-bladed wind turbines. In its current form, MBC3 can be applied to system matrices generated by FAST.2.

  18. INSIGHT On Transforming Our Global Energy Economy, 2015 Annual Report (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2015-03-01

    From its inception, JISEA has provided critical clarity and insights to inform decision making through leading-edge interdisciplinary research and objective, credible, cross-functional analysis. JISEA, drawing on the unique capabilities of its founding institutions and research affiliates around the world, continues to inform the landscape of transformation.

  19. Industrial Scale Demonstration of Smart Manufacturing Achieving Transformational Energy Productivity Gains

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Manufacturing ADVANCED MANUFACTURING OFFICE Industrial Scale Demonstration of Smart Manufacturing Achieving Transformational Energy Productivity Gains Development of an Open Architecture, Widely Applicable Smart Manufacturing Platform While many U.S. manufacturing operations utilize optimization for individual unit processes, smart manufacturing (SM) systems that integrate manufacturing intelligence in real time across an entire production operation are rare in large companies and virtually

  20. Transformational, Large Area Fabrication of Nanostructured Materials Using Plasma Arc Lamps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-03-01

    This factsheet describes a study that will address critical additional steps over large areas of as-synthesized nanostructured materials, such as annealing, phase transformation, or activation of dopants, dramatically reducing the processing costs of the solid-state lighting and photovoltaic materials.

  1. p53 regulates the proliferation, differentiation and spontaneous transformation of mesenchymal stem cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Armesilla-Diaz, Alejandro; Elvira, Gema; Silva, Augusto

    2009-12-10

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) have been extensively studied and gained wide popularity due to their therapeutic potential. Spontaneous transformation of MSC, from both human and murine origin, has been reported in many studies. MSC transformation depends on the culture conditions, the origin of the cells and the time on culture; however, the precise biological characteristics involved in this process have not been fully defined yet. In this study, we investigated the role of p53 in the biology and transformation of murine bone marrow (BM)-derived MSC. We demonstrate that the MSC derived from p53KO mice showed an augmented proliferation rate, a shorter doubling time and also morphologic and phenotypic changes, as compared to MSC derived from wild-type animals. Furthermore, the MSC devoid of p53 had an increased number of cells able to generate colonies. In addition, not only proliferation but also MSC differentiation is controlled by p53 since its absence modifies the speed of the process. Moreover, genomic instability, changes in the expression of c-myc and anchorage independent growth were also observed in p53KO MSC. In addition, the absence of p53 implicates the spontaneous transformation of MSC in long-term cultures. Our results reveal that p53 plays a central role in the biology of MSC.

  2. Apparatus and method for controlling the temperature of the core of a super-conducting transformer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Golner, Thomas; Pleva, Edward; Mehta, Shirish

    2006-10-10

    An apparatus for controlling the temperature of a core of a transformer is provided that includes a core, a shield surrounding the core, a cast formed between the core and the shield, and tubing positioned on the shield. The cast directs heat from the core to the shield and cooling fluid is directed through the tubing to cool the shield.

  3. Terahertz spectroscopy with a holographic Fourier transform spectrometer plus array detector using coherent synchrotron radiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nikolay I. Agladz, John Klopf, Gwyn Williams, Albert J. Sievers

    2010-06-01

    By use of coherent terahertz synchrotron radiation, we experimentally tested a holographic Fourier transform spectrometer coupled to an array detector to determine its viability as a spectral device. Somewhat surprisingly, the overall performance strongly depends on the absorptivity of the birefringent lithium tantalate pixels in the array detector.

  4. Substantial Transformation

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    create a material that has different properties than the properties of the individual raw materials." See 2 C.F.R. 176.140(a)(1). The OMB guidelines further define a "domestic...

  5. Communicating Transformation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    th Lomonosov Conference, 19 Aug 2011 Warren Huelsnitz, LANL whuelsn@fnal.gov 1 2  Electron Neutrino and Antineutrino Appearance  Review of previous results  Updated antineutrino appearance results  Muon Neutrino and Antineutrino Disappearance  Review of previous results  New MiniBooNE/SciBooNE joint analysis  Cross Section Measurements from MiniBooNE LSND Saw an excess of  e : 87.9 ± 22.4 ± 6.0 events. With an oscillation probability of (0.264 ± 0.067 ± 0.045)%. 3.8 s

  6. Communicating Transformation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    SUSY11 01 Sep, 2011 Warren Huelsnitz, LANL whuelsn@fnal.gov 1 2  Electron Neutrino and Antineutrino Appearance  Review of previous results  Updated antineutrino appearance results  Muon Neutrino and Antineutrino Disappearance  Review of previous results  New MiniBooNE/SciBooNE joint analysis LSND Saw an excess of  e : 87.9 ± 22.4 ± 6.0 events. With an oscillation probability of (0.264 ± 0.067 ± 0.045)%. 3.8 s evidence for oscillation. 3 The three oscillation signals

  7. Request for Information on a National Power Transformer Reserve: Federal Register Notice Volume 80, No. 131- July 9, 2015

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability (OE), is seeking comments and information from interested parties to inform its policy development related to the possible establishment of a national reserve of power transformers that support the bulk power grid. The focus of the RFI is on the design and implementation of a National Power Transformer Reserve Program.

  8. Transformation of Resources to Reserves: Next Generation Heavy-Oil Recovery Techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stanford University; Department of Energy Resources Engineering Green Earth Sciences

    2007-09-30

    This final report and technical progress report describes work performed from October 1, 2004 through September 30, 2007 for the project 'Transformation of Resources to Reserves: Next Generation Heavy Oil Recovery Techniques', DE-FC26-04NT15526. Critical year 3 activities of this project were not undertaken because of reduced funding to the DOE Oil Program despite timely submission of a continuation package and progress on year 1 and 2 subtasks. A small amount of carried-over funds were used during June-August 2007 to complete some work in the area of foamed-gas mobility control. Completion of Year 3 activities and tasks would have led to a more thorough completion of the project and attainment of project goals. This progress report serves as a summary of activities and accomplishments for years 1 and 2. Experiments, theory development, and numerical modeling were employed to elucidate heavy-oil production mechanisms that provide the technical foundations for producing efficiently the abundant, discovered heavy-oil resources of the U.S. that are not accessible with current technology and recovery techniques. Work fell into two task areas: cold production of heavy oils and thermal recovery. Despite the emerging critical importance of the waterflooding of viscous oil in cold environments, work in this area was never sanctioned under this project. It is envisioned that heavy oil production is impacted by development of an understanding of the reservoir and reservoir fluid conditions leading to so-called foamy oil behavior, i.e, heavy-oil solution gas drive. This understanding should allow primary, cold production of heavy and viscous oils to be optimized. Accordingly, we evaluated the oil-phase chemistry of crude oil samples from Venezuela that give effective production by the heavy-oil solution gas drive mechanism. Laboratory-scale experiments show that recovery correlates with asphaltene contents as well as the so-called acid number (AN) and base number (BN) of the crude oil. A significant number of laboratory-scale tests were made to evaluate the solution gas drive potential of West Sak (AK) viscous oil. The West Sak sample has a low acid number, low asphaltene content, and does not appear foamy under laboratory conditions. Tests show primary recovery of about 22% of the original oil in place under a variety of conditions. The acid number of other Alaskan North Slope samples tests is greater, indicating a greater potential for recovery by heavy-oil solution gas drive. Effective cold production leads to reservoir pressure depletion that eases the implementation of thermal recovery processes. When viewed from a reservoir perspective, thermal recovery is the enhanced recovery method of choice for viscous and heavy oils because of the significant viscosity reduction that accompanies the heating of oil. One significant issue accompanying thermal recovery in cold environments is wellbore heat losses. Initial work on thermal recovery found that a technology base for delivering steam, other hot fluids, and electrical heat through cold subsurface environments, such as permafrost, was in place. No commercially available technologies are available, however. Nevertheless, the enabling technology of superinsulated wells appears to be realized. Thermal subtasks focused on a suite of enhanced recovery options tailored to various reservoir conditions. Generally, electrothermal, conventional steam-based, and thermal gravity drainage enhanced oil recovery techniques appear to be applicable to 'prime' Ugnu reservoir conditions to the extent that reservoir architecture and fluid conditions are modeled faithfully here. The extent of reservoir layering, vertical communication, and subsurface steam distribution are important factors affecting recovery. Distribution of steam throughout reservoir volume is a significant issue facing thermal recovery. Various activities addressed aspects of steam emplacement. Notably, hydraulic fracturing of horizontal steam injection wells and implementation of steam trap control that limits steam entry into hor

  9. Rolled-up transformer structure for a radiofrequency integrated circuit (RFIC)

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Li, Xiuling; Huang, Wen

    2015-01-27

    A rolled-up transformer structure comprises a multilayer sheet having a rolled configuration comprising multiple turns about a longitudinal axis. The multilayer sheet comprises more than one conductive pattern layer on a strain-relieved layer, including a first conductive film and a second conductive film separated from the first conductive film in a thickness direction. The first conductive film comprises an even number of primary conductive strips, where each primary conductive strip has a length extending in the rolling direction, and the second conductive film comprises an even number of secondary conductive strips, where each secondary conductive strip has a length extending in the rolling direction. In the rolled configuration, turns of the primary conductive strips and turns of the secondary conductive strips wrap around the longitudinal axis. The primary conductive strips serve as a primary winding and the secondary conductive strips serve as a secondary winding of the rolled-up transformer structure.

  10. Video compression of coronary angiograms based on discrete wavelet transform with block classification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ho, B.K.T.; Tsai, M.J.; Wei, J.; Ma, M.; Saipetch, P.

    1996-12-01

    A new method of video compression for angiographic images has been developed to achieve high compression ratio ({approximately}20:1) while eliminating block artifacts which leads to loss of diagnostic accuracy. This method adopts motion picture experts group`s (MPEG`s) motion compensated prediction to take advantage of frame to frame correlation. However, in contrast to MPEG, the error images arising from mismatches in the motion estimation are encoded by discrete wavelet transform (DWT) rather than block discrete cosine transform (DCT). Furthermore, the authors developed a classification scheme which label each block in an image as intra, error, or background type and encode it accordingly. This hybrid coding can significantly improve the compression efficiency in certain cases. This method can be generalized for any dynamic image sequences applications sensitive to block artifacts.

  11. Magnetic-field-induced transformation in FeMnGa alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhu, W.; Liu, E. K.; Feng, L.; Tang, X. D.; Chen, J. L.; Wu, G. H.; Liu, H. Y.; Meng, F. B.; Luo, H. Z.

    2009-11-30

    A kind of ferromagnetic shape memory alloy with off-stoichiometric composition of Heusler alloy Fe{sub 2}MnGa has been synthesized. By optimizing composition, the martensitic transformation has been modified to occur at about 163 K accompanying spontaneous magnetization, which enables a magnetic field-induced structural transition from a paramagnetic parent phase to a ferromagnetic martensite with high magnetization of 93.8 emu/g. The material performs a quite large lattice distortion through the transformation, (c-a)/c=33.5%, causing a shape memory strain upto 3.6%. Such large lattice distortions strongly influence the electron structures, and thus some special physical behavior related to the transport and conductive properties is investigated.

  12. Vertically-tapered optical waveguide and optical spot transformer formed therefrom

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bakke, Thor; Sullivan, Charles T.

    2004-07-27

    An optical waveguide is disclosed in which a section of the waveguide core is vertically tapered during formation by spin coating by controlling the width of an underlying mesa structure. The optical waveguide can be formed from spin-coatable materials such as polymers, sol-gels and spin-on glasses. The vertically-tapered waveguide section can be used to provide a vertical expansion of an optical mode of light within the optical waveguide. A laterally-tapered section can be added adjacent to the vertically-tapered section to provide for a lateral expansion of the optical mode, thereby forming an optical spot-size transformer for efficient coupling of light between the optical waveguide and a single-mode optical fiber. Such a spot-size transformer can also be added to a III-V semiconductor device by post processing.

  13. Selective transformations between nanoparticle superlattices via the reprogramming of DNA-mediated interactions

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhang, Yugang; Pal, Suchetan; Srinivasan, Babji; Vo, Thi; Kumar, Sanat; Gang, Oleg

    2015-05-25

    The rapid development of self-assembly approaches has enabled the creation of materials with desired organization of nanoscale components. However, achieving dynamic control, wherein the system can be transformed on demand into multiple entirely different states, is typically absent in atomic and molecular systems and has remained elusive in designed nanoparticle systems. Here, we demonstrate with in situ small-angle x-ray scattering that, by using DNA strands as inputs, the structure of a three-dimensional lattice of DNA-coated nanoparticles can be switched from an initial 'mother' phase into one of multiple 'daughter' phases. The introduction of different types of re-programming DNA strands modifiesmore » the DNA shells of the nanoparticles within the superlattice, thereby shifting interparticle interactions to drive the transformation into a particular daughter phase. We mapped quantitatively with free-energy calculations the selective re-programming of interactions onto the observed daughter phases.« less

  14. Transformation process for production of ultrahigh carbon steels and new alloys

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Strum, Michael J. (Pleasanton, CA); Goldberg, Alfred (Livermore, CA); Sherby, Oleg D. (Palo Alto, CA); Landingham, Richard L. (Livermore, CA)

    1995-01-01

    Ultrahigh carbon steels with superplastic properties are produced by heating a steel containing ferrite and carbide phases to a soaking temperature approximately 50.degree. C. above the A.sub.1 transformation temperature, soaking the steel above the A.sub.1 temperature for a sufficient time that the major portion of the carbides dissolve into the austenite matrix, and then cooling the steel in a controlled manner within predetermined limits of cooling rate or transformation temperature, to obtain a steel having substantially spheroidal carbides. New alloy compositions contain aluminum and solute additions which promote the formation of a fine grain size and improve the resistance of the carbides to coarsening at the forming temperature.

  15. Transformation process for production of ultrahigh carbon steels and new alloys

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Strum, M.J.; Goldberg, A.; Sherby, O.D.; Landingham, R.L.

    1995-08-29

    Ultrahigh carbon steels with superplastic properties are produced by heating a steel containing ferrite and carbide phases to a soaking temperature approximately 50 C above the A{sub 1} transformation temperature, soaking the steel above the A{sub 1} temperature for a sufficient time that the major portion of the carbides dissolve into the austenite matrix, and then cooling the steel in a controlled manner within predetermined limits of cooling rate or transformation temperature, to obtain a steel having substantially spheroidal carbides. New alloy compositions contain aluminum and solute additions which promote the formation of a fine grain size and improve the resistance of the carbides to coarsening at the forming temperature. 9 figs.

  16. High frequency transformers and high Q factor inductors formed using epoxy-based magnetic polymer materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sanchez, Robert O. (Los Lunas, NM); Gunewardena, Shelton (Walnut, CA); Masi, James V. (Cape Elizabeth, ME)

    2007-11-27

    An electrical component in the form of an inductor or transformer is disclosed which includes one or more coils and a magnetic polymer material located near the coils or supporting the coils to provide an electromagnetic interaction therewith. The magnetic polymer material is preferably a cured magnetic epoxy which includes a mercaptan derivative having a ferromagnetic atom chemically bonded therein. The ferromagnetic atom can be either a transition metal or rare-earth atom.

  17. High frequency transformers and high Q factor inductors formed using epoxy-based magnetic polymer materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sanchez, Robert O.; Gunewardena, Shelton; Masi, James V.

    2005-03-29

    An electrical component in the form of an inductor or transformer is disclosed which includes one or more coils and a magnetic polymer material located near the coils or supporting the coils to provide an electromagnetic interaction therewith. The magnetic polymer material is preferably a cured magnetic epoxy which includes a mercaptan derivative having a ferromagnetic atom chemically bonded therein. The ferromagnetic atom can be either a transition metal or rare-earth atom.

  18. Executive Summary - Natural Gas and the Transformation of the U.S. Energy Sector: Electricity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Logan, J.; Heath, G.; Macknick, J.; Paranhos, E.; Boyd, W.; Carlson, K.

    2013-01-01

    In November 2012, the Joint Institute for Strategic Energy Analysis (JISEA) released a new report, 'Natural Gas and the Transformation of the U.S. Energy Sector: Electricity.' The study provides a new methodological approach to estimate natural gas related greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, tracks trends in regulatory and voluntary industry practices, and explores various electricity futures. The Executive Summary provides key findings, insights, data, and figures from this major study.

  19. Opening Remarks, Achieving Air Quality and Climate Change Goals through Energy and Transportation Transformation

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Air Quality and Climate Change Goals through Energy and Transportation Transformation Analisa Bevan CARB May 14, 2014 Sacramento California  Healthy Air Quality for All Californians  Continued progress towards ozone attainment  Reduce localized exposure to pollutants and toxics  Stable Global Climate  Reduce greenhouse gases (GHG) 80% below 1990 levels by 2050 Driving Forces Behind CARB Policies 2 Source: American Lung Association Over 90% of Californians still breathing unhealthy

  20. Changes in mobility of plastic crystal ethanol during its transformation into the monoclinic crystal state

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sanz, Alejandro Nogales, Aurora; Ezquerra, Tiberio A.; Puente-Orench, Ins; Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Aragn, ICMA-CSIC, Pedro Cerbuna 12, 50009 Zaragoza ; Jimnez-Ruiz, Mnica

    2014-02-07

    Transformation of deuterated ethanol from the plastic crystal phase into the monoclinic one is investigated by means of a singular setup combining simultaneously dielectric spectroscopy with neutron diffraction. We postulate that a dynamic transition from plastic crystal to supercooled liquid-like configuration through a deep reorganization of the hydrogen-bonding network must take place as a previous step of the crystallization process. Once these precursor regions are formed, subsequent crystalline nucleation and growth develop with time.

  1. Transformations in Lighting: The Seventh Annual Solid-State Lighting R&D Workshop

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    More than 350 researchers, manufacturers, and other industry insiders and observers gathered in Raleigh, N.C., February 2–4, 2010, to participate in the "Transformations in Lighting" Solid-State Lighting R&D Workshop, hosted by DOE. The workshop was the seventh annual DOE meeting to accelerate SSL technology advances and guide market introduction of quality SSL products, and it brought together a diverse gathering of participants to share insights, ideas, and updates.

  2. The enigma of post-perovskite anisotropy: deformation versus transformation textures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miyagi, Lowell; Kanitpanyacharoen, Waruntorn; Stackhouse, Stephen; Militzer, Burkhard; Wenk, Hans-Rudolf

    2012-01-20

    The D'' region that lies just above the core mantle boundary exhibits complex anisotropy that this is likely due to preferred orientation (texturing) of the constituent minerals. (Mg,Fe)SiO{sub 3} post-perovskite is widely thought to be the major mineral phase of the D''. Texture development has been studied in various post-perovskite phases (MgSiO{sub 3}, MgGeO{sub 3}, and CaIrO{sub 3}), and different results were obtained. To clarify this controversy, we report on transformation and deformation textures in MgGeO{sub 3} post-perovskite synthesized and deformed at room temperature in the diamond anvil cell. Transformed from the enstatite phase, MgGeO{sub 3} post-perovskite exhibits a transformation texture characterized by (100) planes at high angles to the direction of compression. Upon subsequent deformation, this texture changes and (001) lattice planes become oriented nearly perpendicular to compression, consistent with dominant (001)[100] slip. When MgGeO{sub 3} post-perovskite is synthesized from the perovskite phase, a different transformation texture is observed. This texture has (001) planes at high angle to compression and becomes slightly stronger upon compression. We also find that the yield strength of MgGeO{sub 3} post-perovskite is dependent on grain size and texture. Finer-grained samples exhibit higher yield strength and are harder to induce plastic deformation. Strong textures also affect the yield strength and can result in higher differential stresses. The inferred dominant (001) slip for pPv is significant for geophysics, because, when applied to geodynamic convection models, it predicts the observed anisotropies of S-waves as well as an anti-correlation between P- and S-waves.

  3. A collaboration of labs: The Institute for Atom-Efficient Chemical Transformations (IACT)

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Lobo, Rodrigo; Marshall, Chris; Cheng, Lei; Stair, Peter; Wu, Tianpan; Ray, Natalie; O'Neil, Brandon; Dietrich, Paul

    2013-04-19

    The Institute for Atom-Efficient Chemical Transformations (IACT) is an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the U.S. Department of Energy. IACT focuses on advancing the science of catalysis to improve the efficiency of producing fuels from biomass and coal. IACT is a collaborative effort that brings together a diverse team of scientists from Argonne National Laboratory, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Northwestern University, Purdue University and the University of Wisconsin. For more information, visit www.iact.anl.gov

  4. Expert Meeting Report: Transforming Existing Buildings through New Media--An Idea Exchange

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Transforming Existing Buildings through New Media - An Idea Exchange Stacy Hunt Building America Retrofit Alliance (BARA) May 2012 NOTICE This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States government. Neither the United States government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, subcontractors, or affiliated partners makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or

  5. The Fuel Cell Mobile Light Project - A DOE Market Transformation Activity

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fuel Cell Mobile Light Project -- A DOE Market Transformation Activity-- Lennie Klebanoff Sandia National Laboratories Chris Radley Altergy Systems Torsten Erbel Multiquip Inc. DOE Fuel Cell Technologies Webinar November 13, 2012 "Exceptional Service in the National Interest" 1 Boeing Interested in Bringing Fuel Cell Technology to Ground Support Equipment (GSE) 3/1/2008: "We (Boeing) would like Sandia to lead an effort with us to bring hydrogen fuel cell technology to airport

  6. Understanding strain-induced phase transformations in BiFeO3 thin films

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Dixit, Hemant; Beekman, Christianne; Schlepütz, Christian M.; Siemons, Wolter; Yang, Yongsoo; Senabulya, Nancy; Clarke, Roy; Chi, Miaofang; Christen, Hans M.; Cooper, Valentino R.

    2015-05-01

    Experiments demonstrate that under large epitaxial strain a coexisting striped phase emerges in BiFeO₃ thin films, which comprises a tetragonal-like (T´) and an intermediate S´ polymorph. It exhibits a relatively large piezoelectric response when switching between the coexisting phase and a uniform T´ phase. This strain-induced phase transformation is investigated through a synergistic combination of first-principles theory and experiments. The results show that the S´ phase is energetically very close to the T´ phase, but is structurally similar to the bulk rhombohedral (R) phase. By fully characterizing the intermediate S´ polymorph, it is demonstrated that the flat energy landscape resultingmore » in the absence of an energy barrier between the T´ and S´ phases fosters the above-mentioned reversible phase transformation. This ability to readily transform between the S´ and T´ polymorphs, which have very different octahedral rotation patterns and c/a ratios, is crucial to the enhanced piezoelectricity in strained BiFeO3 films. Additionally, a blueshift in the band gap when moving from R to S´ to T´ is observed. These results emphasize the importance of strain engineering for tuning electromechanical responses or, creating unique energy harvesting photonic structures, in oxide thin film architectures.« less

  7. An 8-GW long-pulse generator based on Tesla transformer and pulse forming network

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Su, Jiancang; Zhang, Xibo; Li, Rui; Zhao, Liang Sun, Xu; Wang, Limin; Zeng, Bo; Cheng, Jie; Wang, Ying; Peng, Jianchang; Song, Xiaoxin

    2014-06-15

    A long-pulse generator TPG700L based on a Tesla transformer and a series pulse forming network (PFN) is constructed to generate intense electron beams for the purpose of high power microwave (HPM) generation. The TPG700L mainly consists of a 12-stage PFN, a built-in Tesla transformer in a pulse forming line, a three-electrode gas switch, a transmission line with a trigger, and a load. The Tesla transformer and the compact PFN are the key technologies for the development of the TPG700L. This generator can output electrical pulses with a width as long as 200 ns at a level of 8 GW and a repetition rate of 50 Hz. When used to drive a relative backward wave oscillator for HPM generation, the electrical pulse width is about 100 ns on a voltage level of 520 kV. Factors affecting the pulse waveform of the TPG700L are also discussed. At present, the TPG700L performs well for long-pulse HPM generation in our laboratory.

  8. Understanding strain-induced phase transformations in BiFeO3 thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dixit, Hemant; Beekman, Christianne; Schlepütz, Christian M.; Siemons, Wolter; Yang, Yongsoo; Senabulya, Nancy; Clarke, Roy; Chi, Miaofang; Christen, Hans M.; Cooper, Valentino R.

    2015-05-01

    Experiments demonstrate that under large epitaxial strain a coexisting striped phase emerges in BiFeO₃ thin films, which comprises a tetragonal-like (T´) and an intermediate S´ polymorph. It exhibits a relatively large piezoelectric response when switching between the coexisting phase and a uniform T´ phase. This strain-induced phase transformation is investigated through a synergistic combination of first-principles theory and experiments. The results show that the S´ phase is energetically very close to the T´ phase, but is structurally similar to the bulk rhombohedral (R) phase. By fully characterizing the intermediate S´ polymorph, it is demonstrated that the flat energy landscape resulting in the absence of an energy barrier between the T´ and S´ phases fosters the above-mentioned reversible phase transformation. This ability to readily transform between the S´ and T´ polymorphs, which have very different octahedral rotation patterns and c/a ratios, is crucial to the enhanced piezoelectricity in strained BiFeO3 films. Additionally, a blueshift in the band gap when moving from R to S´ to T´ is observed. These results emphasize the importance of strain engineering for tuning electromechanical responses or, creating unique energy harvesting photonic structures, in oxide thin film architectures.

  9. Atmospheric pressure plasma jet with high-voltage power supply based on piezoelectric transformer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Babij, Micha?; Kowalski, Zbigniew W. Nitsch, Karol; Gotszalk, Teodor; Silberring, Jerzy

    2014-05-15

    The dielectric barrier discharge plasma jet, an example of the nonthermal atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ), generates low-temperature plasmas that are suitable for the atomization of volatile species and can also be served as an ionization source for ambient mass and ion mobility spectrometry. A new design of APPJ for mass spectrometry has been built in our group. In these plasma sources magnetic transformers (MTs) and inductors are typically used in power supplies but they present several drawbacks that are even more evident when dealing with high-voltage normally used in APPJs. To overcome these disadvantages, high frequency generators with the absence of MT are proposed in the literature. However, in the case of miniaturized APPJs these conventional power converters, built of ferromagnetic cores and inductors or by means of LC resonant tank circuits, are not so useful as piezoelectric transformer (PT) based power converters due to bulky components and small efficiency. We made and examined a novel atmospheric pressure plasma jet with PT supplier served as ionization source for ambient mass spectrometry, and especially mobile spectrometry where miniaturization, integration of components, and clean plasma are required. The objective of this paper is to describe the concept, design, and implementation of this miniaturized piezoelectric transformer-based atmospheric pressure plasma jet.

  10. Probing the size and environment induced phase transformation in CdSe quantum dots

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karakoti, Ajay S.; Sanghavi, Shail P.; Nachimuthu, Ponnusamy; Yang, Ping; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai

    2011-11-17

    The structural and electronic properties of CdSe quantum dots in toluene and drop-casted on Si wafer were investigated by in-situ micro X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and UV-Vis absorption and emission spectroscopy. The in-situ micro diffraction data show that the CdSe quantum dots capped with TOPO or hexadecylamine (HDA) in toluene exhibit predominantly wurtzite crystal structure, which undergoes a phase transformation to zinc blende crystal structure following drop casting on Si and this phase transition increases with decreasing the size of the CdSe quantum dots. Decreasing the size of quantum dots also increases the Se vacancies that facilitate the phase transformation. The X-ray photoelectron spectra show a systematic increase in the core level binding energies of Cd 3d and Se 3d, the band gap and the Cd/Se ratio as the size of the quantum dots decreases from 6.6nm to 2.1nm. This is attributed to the quantum confinement of CdSe crystallites by the capping ligands in toluene which increases with decreasing the size of the quantum dots. However, drop-casting quantum dots on Si alter the density and arrangement of capping ligands and solvent molecules on the quantum dots which causes significant phase transformation.

  11. Magnetic and magneto-transport studies of substrate effect on the

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    martensitic transformation in a NiMnIn shape memory alloy (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect SciTech Connect Search Results Journal Article: Magnetic and magneto-transport studies of substrate effect on the martensitic transformation in a NiMnIn shape memory alloy Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Magnetic and magneto-transport studies of substrate effect on the martensitic transformation in a NiMnIn shape memory alloy Authors: Sokolov, Andrei [1] ; Kirianov, Eugene [2] ; Zlenko,

  12. The use of information systems to transform utilities and regulatory commissions: The application of geographic information systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wirick, D.W.; Montgomery, G.E.; Wagman, D.C.; Spiers, J.

    1995-09-01

    One technology that can assist utilities remain financially viable in competitive markets and help utilities and regulators to better serve the public is information technology. Because geography is an important part of an electric, natural gas, telecommunications, or water utility, computer-based Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and related Automated Mapping/Facilities Management systems are emerging as core technologies for managing an ever-expanding variety of formerly manual or paper-based tasks. This report focuses on GIS as an example of the types of information systems that can be used by utilities and regulatory commissions. Chapter 2 provides general information about information systems and effects of information on organizations; Chapter 3 explores the conversion of an organization to an information-based one; Chapters 4 and 5 set out GIS as an example of the use of information technologies to transform the operations of utilities and commissions; Chapter 6 describes the use of GIS and other information systems for organizational reengineering efforts; and Chapter 7 examines the regulatory treatment of information systems.

  13. EXPLORING THE POTENTIAL OF SHORT-TIME FOURIER TRANSFORMS FOR ANALYZING SKIN CONDUCTANCE AND PUPILLOMETRY IN REAL-TIME APPLICATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roger Lew; Brian P. Dyre; Steffen Werner; Jeffrey C. Joe; Brian Wotring; Tuan Tran

    2008-09-01

    The development of real-time predictors of mental workload is critical for the practical application of augmented cognition to human-machine systems. This paper explores a novel method based on a short-time Fourier transform (STFT) for analyzing galvanic skin conductance (SC) and pupillometry time-series data to extract estimates of mental workload with temporal bandwidth high-enough to be useful for augmented cognition applications. We tested the method in the context of a process control task based on the DURESS simulation developed by Vincente and Pawlak (1994; ported to Java by Cosentino,& Ross, 1999). SC, pupil dilation, blink rate, and visual scanning patterns were measured for four participants actively engaged in controlling the simulation. Fault events were introduced that required participants to diagnose errors and make control adjustments to keep the simulator operating within a target range. We were interested in whether the STFT of these measures would produce visible effects of the increase in mental workload and stress associated with these events. Graphical exploratory data analysis of the STFT showed visible increases in the power spectrum across a range of frequencies directly following fault events. We believe this approach shows potential as a relatively unobtrusive, low-cost, high bandwidth measure of mental workload that could be particularly useful for the application of augmented cognition to human-machine systems.

  14. Magneto-structural transformations via a solid-state nudged elastic band method: Application to iron under pressure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zarkevich, N. A.; Johnson, D. D.

    2015-08-14

    We extend the solid-state nudged elastic band method to handle a non-conserved order parameter, in particular, magnetization, that couples to volume and leads to many observed effects in magnetic systems. We apply this formalism to the well-studied magneto-volume collapse during the pressure-induced transformation in ironfrom ferromagnetic body-centered cubic (bcc) austenite to hexagonal close-packed (hcp) martensite. We also find a bcc-hcp equilibrium coexistence pressure of 8.4 GPa, with the transition-state enthalpy of 156 meV/Fe at this pressure. A discontinuity in magnetization and coherent stress occurs at the transition state, which has a form of a cusp on the potential-energy surface (yet all the atomic and cell degrees of freedom are continuous); the calculated pressure jump of 25 GPa is related to the observed 25 GPa spread in measured coexistence pressures arising from martensitic and coherency stresses in samples. Furthermore, our results agree with experiments, but necessarily differ from those arising from drag and restricted parametrization methods having improperly constrained or uncontrolled degrees of freedom.

  15. Magneto-structural transformations via a solid-state nudged elastic band method: Application to iron under pressure

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zarkevich, N. A.; Johnson, D. D.

    2015-08-14

    We extend the solid-state nudged elastic band method to handle a non-conserved order parameter, in particular, magnetization, that couples to volume and leads to many observed effects in magnetic systems. We apply this formalism to the well-studied magneto-volume collapse during the pressure-induced transformation in iron—from ferromagnetic body-centered cubic (bcc) austenite to hexagonal close-packed (hcp) martensite. We also find a bcc-hcp equilibrium coexistence pressure of 8.4 GPa, with the transition-state enthalpy of 156 meV/Fe at this pressure. A discontinuity in magnetization and coherent stress occurs at the transition state, which has a form of a cusp on the potential-energy surface (yetmore » all the atomic and cell degrees of freedom are continuous); the calculated pressure jump of 25 GPa is related to the observed 25 GPa spread in measured coexistence pressures arising from martensitic and coherency stresses in samples. Furthermore, our results agree with experiments, but necessarily differ from those arising from drag and restricted parametrization methods having improperly constrained or uncontrolled degrees of freedom.« less

  16. Magnetic field-induced phase transformation in NiMnCoIn magnetic shape memory alloys - a new actuation mechanism with large work output.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karaca, H. E.; Karaman, I.; Basaran, B.; Ren, Y.; Chumlyakov, Y. I.; Maier, H. J.; X-Ray Science Division; Texsas A&M Univ.; Univ. of Kentucky; Siberian Physical-Technical Inst.; Univ. of Paderborn

    2009-04-09

    Magnetic shape memory alloys (MSMAs) have recently been developed into a new class of functional materials that are capable of magnetic-field-induced actuation, mechanical sensing, magnetic refrigeration, and energy harvesting. In the present work, the magnetic field-induced martensitic phase transformation (FIPT) in Ni{sub 45}Mn{sub 36.5}Co{sub 5}In{sub 13.5} MSMA single crystals is characterized as a new actuation mechanism with potential to result in ultra-high actuation work outputs. The effects of the applied magnetic field on the transformation temperatures, magnetization, and superelastic response are investigated. The magnetic work output of NiMnCoIn alloys is determined to be more than 1 MJ m{sup -3} per Tesla, which is one order of magnitude higher than that of the most well-known MSMAs, i.e., NiMnGa alloys. In addition, the work output of NiMnCoIn alloys is orientation independent, potentially surpassing the need for single crystals, and not limited by a saturation magnetic field, as opposed to NiMnGa MSMAs. Experimental and theoretical transformation strains and magnetostress levels are determined as a function of crystal orientation. It is found that [111]-oriented crystals can demonstrate a magnetostress level of 140 MPa T{sup -1} with 1.2% axial strain under compression. These field-induced stress and strain levels are significantly higher than those from existing piezoelectric and magnetostrictive actuators. A thermodynamical framework is introduced to comprehend the magnetic energy contributions during FIPT. The present work reveals that the magnetic FIPT mechanism is promising for magnetic actuation applications and provides new opportunities for applications requiring high actuation work-outputs with relatively large actuation frequencies. One potential issue is the requirement for relatively high critical magnetic fields and field intervals (1.5-3 T) for the onset of FIPT and for reversible FIPT, respectively.

  17. Small-angle neutron scattering study of magnetic ordering and inhomogeneity across the martensitic phase transformation in Ni50–xCoxMn₄₀Sn₁₀ alloys

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Bhatti, Kanwal Preet; El-Khatib, S.; Srivastava, Vijay; James, R. D.; Leighton, C.

    2012-04-27

    The Heusler-derived multiferroic alloy Ni50–xCoxMn₄₀Sn₁₀ has recently been shown to exhibit, at just above room temperature, a highly reversible martensitic phase transformation with an unusually large magnetization change. In this work the nature of the magnetic ordering above and below this transformation has been studied in detail in the critical composition range x = 6–8 via temperature-dependent (5–600 K) magnetometry and small-angle neutron scattering (SANS). We observe fairly typical paramagnetic to long-range-ordered ferromagnetic phase transitions on cooling to 420–430 K, with the expected critical spin fluctuations, followed by first-order martensitic phase transformations to a nonferromagnetic state below 360–390 K. Themore » static magnetization reveals complex magnetism in this low-temperature nonferromagnetic phase, including a Langevin-like field dependence, distinct spin freezing near 60 K, and significant exchange bias effects, consistent with superparamagnetic blocking of ferromagnetic clusters of nanoscopic dimensions. We demonstrate that these spin clusters, whose existence has been hypothesized in a variety of martensitic alloys exhibiting competition between ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic exchange interactions, can be directly observed by SANS. The scattering data are consistent with a liquidlike spatial distribution of interacting magnetic clusters with a mean center-to-center spacing of 12 nm. Considering the behavior of the superparmagnetism, cooling-field and temperature-dependent exchange bias, and magnetic SANS, we discuss in detail the physical form and origin of these spin clusters, their intercluster interactions, the nature of the ground-state magnetic ordering in the martensitic phase, and the implications for our understanding of such alloy systems.« less

  18. FUNDAMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF FUEL TRANSFORMATIONS IN PULVERIZED COAL COMBUSTION AND GASIFICATION TECHNOLOGIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert Hurt; Joseph Calo; Thomas Fletcher; Alan Sayre

    2003-01-01

    The goal of this project is to carry out the necessary experiments and analyses to extend leading submodels of coal transformations to the new conditions anticipated in next-generation energy technologies. During the first project quarter, a technical kick-off meeting was held on the Brown campus involving PIs from Brown (Hurt, Calo), BYU (Fletcher), and B&W (Sayre, Burge). Following this first meeting the current version of CBK (Version 8) was transferred to B&W McDermott and the HP-CBK code developed by BYU was transferred to Brown to help guide the code development in this project. Also during the first project year, progress was reviewed at an all-hands meeting was held at Brigham Young University in August, 2001. The meeting was attended by PIs Fletcher, Hurt, Calo, and Sayre, and also by affiliated investigators Steven Burge from McDermott and Prof. William Hecker from BYU. During the first project year, significant progress was made on several fronts, as described in detail in the previous annual report. In the current second annual report, we report on progress made on two important project tasks. At Brown University: (1) Char combustion reactivities at 500 C in air were determined for a diverse set of solid fuels and organic model compound chars. These varied over 4 orders of magnitude for the chars prepared at 700 C, and over 3 orders of magnitude for the chars prepared at 1000 C. The resultant reactivities correlate poorly with organic elemental composition and with char surface area. (2) Specially-acquired model materials with minute amounts of inorganic matter exhibit low reactivities that fall in a narrow band as a function of wt-% carbon. Reactivities in this sample subset correlate reasonably well with total char surface area. (3) A hybrid chemical/statistical model was developed which explains most of the observed reactivity variation based on four variables: the amounts of nano-dispersed K, nanodispersed (Ca+Mg), elemental carbon (wt-% daf), and nano-dispersed vanadium, listed in decreasing order of importance. Catalytic effects play a very significant role in the oxidation of most practical solid fuel chars. Some degree of reactivity estimation is possible using only elemental analyses of parent fuels, but only if correlative techniques make use of the existing body of knowledge on the origin, form and dispersion of inorganic matter in various fuel classes. During the past year at BYU, work focused primarily on renovation of the BYU high pressure drop tube reactor (HPDT). This work has included design and testing of a flat-flame burner that can be operated at high pressure. A high-temperature, high-pressure gas profile has been achieved within this high-pressure flat-flame burner (HP-FFB). Detailed descriptions of the design and testing of the HP-FFB are given in this report. In addition, continued char reactivity experiments in the high pressure thermogravimetric analyzer (HP-TGA) have been performed on chars produced at different pressures in the HPDT. Results of the HP-TGA reactivity studies on a high-volatile A bituminous (Pittsburgh No.8) char are that intrinsic char activation energy increases with pyrolysis pressure, and that the oxygen order is roughly 0.9. These results are different than previous research on chars produced at atmospheric pressure. These new data show that the rate constant decreases with increasing pyrolysis pressure. However, the hydrogen content of the new chars produced at elevated pressures was fairly high ({approx}2 wt. %, daf), and char samples produced at higher temperatures are desired. During the next project year, experimental work on oxygen reactivity at high pressure will continue at BYU, and on CO{sub 2} reactivity at high pressure at Brown University. Selected chars produced at BYU under high pressure conditions will also be used at Brown for reactivity studies.

  19. Method of forming high density oxide pellets by hot pressing at 50$sup 0$ to 100$sup 0$C above the cubic to monoclinic phase transformation temperature

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pasto, A.E.

    1975-08-01

    A process for low temperature sintering of rare earth and actinide oxides which have a cubic to monoclinic transformation is described. The process involves hot pressing a powder compact at a temperature just above the transformation temperature. (auth)

  20. Measurement of nitrogen content in a gas mixture by transforming the nitrogen into a substance detectable with nondispersive infrared detection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Owen, Thomas E. (Helotes, TX); Miller, Michael A. (San Antonio, TX)

    2010-08-24

    A method of determining the amount of nitrogen in a gas mixture. The constituent gases of the mixture are dissociated and transformed to create a substance that may measured using nondispersive infrared adsorption techniques.

  1. Measurement of nitrogen content in a gas mixture by transforming the nitrogen into a substance detectable with nondispersive infrared detection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Owen, Thomas E.; Miller, Michael A.

    2007-03-13

    A method of determining the amount of nitrogen in a gas mixture. The constituent gases of the mixture are dissociated and transformed to create a substance that may measured using nondispersive infrared adsorption techniques.

  2. Building America Whole-House Solutions for New Homes: Transformations, Inc. Net Zero Energy Communities (Fact Sheet)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In 2009, Transformations, Inc. partnered with the Building Science Corporation team to build new net zero energy houses in three developments in Massachusetts that achieve a 45% reduction in energy use compared to 2009 International Residential Code.

  3. In-Situ Phase Mapping and Direct Observations of Phase Transformations During Arc Welding of 1045 Steel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elmer, J; Palmer, T

    2005-09-13

    In-situ Spatially Resolved X-Ray Diffraction (SRXRD) experiments were performed during gas tungsten arc (GTA) welding of AISI 1045 C-Mn steel. Ferrite ({alpha}) and austenite ({gamma}) phases were identified and quantified in the weld heat-affected zone (HAZ) from the real time x-ray diffraction data. The results were compiled along with weld temperatures calculated using a coupled thermal fluids weld model to create a phase map of the HAZ. This map shows the {alpha} {yields} {gamma} transformation taking place during weld heating and the reverse {gamma} {yields} {alpha} transformation taking place during weld cooling. Superheating is required to complete the {alpha} {yields} {gamma} phase transformation, and the amount of superheat above the A3 temperature was shown to vary with distance from the centerline of the weld. Superheat values as high as 250 C above the A3 temperature were observed at heating rates of 80 C/s. The SRXRD experiments also revealed details about the {gamma} phase not observable by conventional techniques, showing that {gamma} is present with two distinct lattice parameters as a result of inhomogeneous distribution of carbon and manganese in the starting pearlitic/ferritic microstructure. During cooling, the reverse {gamma} {yields} {alpha} phase transformation was shown to depend on the HAZ location. In the fine grained region of the HAZ, at distances greater than 2 mm from the fusion line, the {gamma} {yields} {alpha} transformation begins near the A3 temperature and ends near the A1 temperature. In this region of the HAZ where the cooling rates are below 40 C/s, the transformation occurs by nucleation and growth of pearlite. For HAZ locations closer to the fusion line, undercoolings of 200 C or more below the A1 temperature are required to complete the {gamma} {yields} {alpha} transformation. In this region of the HAZ, grain growth coupled with cooling rates in excess of 50 C/s causes the transformation to occur by a bainitic mechanism.

  4. Phase transformation during mechano-synthesis of nanocrystalline/amorphous Fe32Mn6Si alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Amini, Rasool; Shamsipoor, Ali; Ghaffari, Mohammad; Alizadeh, Morteza; Okyay, Ali Kemal

    2013-10-15

    Mechano-synthesis of Fe32Mn6Si alloy by mechanical alloying of the elemental powder mixtures was evaluated by running the ball milling process under an inert argon gas atmosphere. In order to characterize the as-milled powders, powder sampling was performed at predetermined intervals from 0.5 to 192 h. X-ray florescence analyzer, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope, and high resolution transmission electron microscope were utilized to investigate the chemical composition, structural evolution, morphological changes, and microstructure of the as-milled powders, respectively. According to the results, the nanocrystalline FeMnSi alloys were completely synthesized after 48 h of milling. Moreover, the formation of a considerable amount of amorphous phase during the milling process was indicated by quantitative X-ray diffraction analysis as well as high resolution transmission electron microscopy image and its selected area diffraction pattern. It was found that the ?-to-? and subsequently the amorphous-to-crystalline (especially martensite) phase transformation occurred by milling development. - Graphical abstract: Mechano-synthesis of nanocrystalline/amorphous Fe32Mn6Si shape memory alloys in the powder form: amorphous phase formation, ?-to-? phase transformation, mechano-crystallization of the amorphous, and martensite phase formation during the process. Highlights: During MA, the ?-to-? phase transformation and amorphization occurred. Mechano-crystallization of the amorphous phase occurred at sufficient milling time. The formation of high amount of ?-martensite was evidenced at high milling times. The platelet, spherical, and then irregular particle shapes was extended by MA. By MA, the particles size was increased, then reduced, and afterward re-increased.

  5. Martensitic transformation behaviors of rapidly solidified TiNiMo powders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Yeon-wook

    2012-10-15

    For the fabrication of bulk near-net-shape shape memory alloys and porous metallic biomaterials, consolidation of TiNiMo alloy powders is more useful than that of elemental powders of Ti, Ni and Mo. Ti{sub 50}Ni{sub 49.9}Mo{sub 0.1} shape memory alloy powders were prepared by gas atomization, and transformation temperatures and microstructures of those powders were investigated as a function of powder size. XRD analysis showed that the B2RB19 martensitic transformation occurred in powders smaller than 150 ?m. According to DSC analysis of the as-atomized powders, the B2R transformation temperature (T{sub R}) of the 2550 ?m powders was 18.4 C. The T{sub R} decreased with increasing powder size, however, the difference in T{sub R} between 2550 ?m powders and 100150 ?m powders is only 1 C. Evaluation of powder microstructures was based on SEM examination of the surface and the polished and etched powder cross sections and the typical images of the rapidly solidified powders showed cellular morphology. Porous cylindrical foams of 10 mm diameter and 1.5 mm length were fabricated by spark plasma sintering (SPS) at 800 C and 5 MPa. Finally these porous TiNi alloy samples are heat-treated for 1 h at 850 C, and then quenched in ice water. The bulk samples have 23% porosity and 4.6 g/cm{sup 3} density and their T{sub R} is 17.8 C.

  6. Oxidative Remobilization of Technetium Sequestered by Sulfide-Transformed Nano Zerovalent Iron

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fan, Dimin; Anitori, Roberto; Tebo, Bradley M.; Tratnyek, P. G.; Lezama Pacheco, Juan S.; Kukkadapu, Ravi K.; Kovarik, Libor; Engelhard, Mark H.; Bowden, Mark E.

    2014-06-02

    The dissolution of Tc(IV) sulfide and concurrent transformation of sulfidated ZVI during 2 oxidation were examined. Kinetic data obtained with 10 mL batch reactors showed that Tc(VII) 3 reduced by sulfidated nZVI has significantly slower reoxidation rates than Tc(VII) reduced by 4 nZVI only. In a 50 mL batch reactor, initial inhibition of Tc(IV) dissolution was apparent and 5 lasted until 120 hours at S/Fe = 0.112, presumably due to the redox buffer capacity of FeS. This 6 is evidenced by the parallel trends in oxidation-reduction potentials (ORP) and Tc dissolution 7 kinetics. M?ssbauer spectra and micro X-ray diffraction of S/Fe = 0.112 suggested the 8 persistence of FeS after 24-h oxidation although X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy indicated 9 substantial surface oxidation. After 120-h oxidation, all characterizations showed complete 10 oxidation of FeS, which further indicates that FeS inhibits Tc oxidation. X-ray absorption 11 spectroscopy for S/Fe = 0.011 showed significantly increasing percentage of TcS2 in the solid 12 phase after 24-h oxidation, indicating TcS2 is more resistant to oxidation than TcO2. At S/Fe = 13 0.112, the XAS results revealed significant transformation of Tc speciation from TcS2 to TcO2 14 after 120-h oxidation at S/Fe = 0.112. Given that no apparent Tc dissolution occurred during this 15 period, the speciation transformation might play a secondary role in hindering Tc oxidation, 16 especially as redox buffer capacity approached depletion.

  7. Bill Wilcox … The transformation and second birth of Oak Ridge, Part 1

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1 Bill Wilcox, who was the Oak Ridge city historian, until his passing on September 2, 2013, gave a speech on June 4, 2010, entitled The Transformation and Second Birth of Oak Ridge "Independence Day," June 4, 1960, in honor of the city of Oak Ridge's incorporation on June 2, 1960. Bill's personal recollection and use of key primary resources such as A City is Born, The History of Oak Ridge, Tennessee, and A Report to the Atomic Energy Commission on the Master Plan, Oak Ridge,

  8. Method and apparatus for connecting high voltage leads to a high temperature super-conducting transformer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Golner, Thomas M.; Mehta, Shirish P.

    2005-07-26

    A method and apparatus for connecting high voltage leads to a super-conducting transformer is provided that includes a first super-conducting coil set, a second super-conducting coil set, and a third super-conducting coil set. The first, second and third super-conducting coil sets are connected via an insulated interconnect system that includes insulated conductors and insulated connectors that are utilized to connect the first, second, and third super-conducting coil sets to the high voltage leads.

  9. Transformations in Lighting: The Sixth Annual Solid-State Lighting R&D Workshop

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    More than 400 SSL technology leaders from industry, research organizations, universities, national laboratories, manufacturing, energy efficiency organizations, utilities and municipalities gathered in San Francisco, CA to participate in the "Transformations in Lighting" Solid-State Lighting Workshop on February 3-5, 2009. The workshop, hosted by DOE, with sponsors BetaLED, Echelon, Pacific Gas & Electric, and Southern California Edison, was the sixth annual DOE meeting to accelerate SSL technology advances and guide market introduction of quality SSL products. The workshop brought together a diverse gathering of participants - from the R&D community to lighting designers and architects - to share insights, ideas, and updates on the rapidly evolving SSL market.

  10. Integrated Deployment Model: A Comprehensive Approach to Transforming the Energy Economy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Integrated Deployment Model: A Comprehensive Approach to Transforming the Energy Economy Mary Werner Technical Report NREL/TP-7A20-49230 November 2010 NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC. National Renewable Energy Laboratory 1617 Cole Boulevard Golden, Colorado 80401 303-275-3000 * www.nrel.gov Contract No. DE-AC36-08GO28308 Integrated Deployment Model: A

  11. Detection and measurement of electroreflectance on quantum cascade laser device using Fourier transform infrared microscope

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Enobio, Eli Christopher I.; Ohtani, Keita; Ohno, Yuzo; Ohno, Hideo

    2013-12-02

    We demonstrate the use of a Fourier Transform Infrared microscope system to detect and measure electroreflectance (ER) from mid-infrared quantum cascade laser (QCL) device. To characterize intersubband transition (ISBT) energies in a functioning QCL device, a microscope is used to focus the probe on the QCL cleaved mirror. The measured ER spectra exhibit resonance features associated to ISBTs under applied electric field in agreement with the numerical calculations and comparable to observed photocurrent, and emission peaks. The method demonstrates the potential as a characterization tool for QCL devices.

  12. Laboratory Investigation of Contact Freezing and the Aerosol to Ice Crystal Transformation Process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shaw, Raymond A.

    2014-10-28

    This project has been focused on the following objectives: 1. Investigations of the physical processes governing immersion versus contact nucleation, specifically surface-induced crystallization; 2. Development of a quadrupole particle trap with full thermodynamic control over the temperature range 0 to 40 C and precisely controlled water vapor saturation ratios for continuous, single-particle measurement of the aerosol to ice crystal transformation process for realistic ice nuclei; 3. Understanding the role of ice nucleation in determining the microphysical properties of mixed-phase clouds, within a framework that allows bridging between laboratory and field measurements.

  13. Inverse scattering transform for the focusing nonlinear Schrdinger equation with nonzero boundary conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biondini, Gino; Kova?i?, Gregor

    2014-03-15

    The inverse scattering transform for the focusing nonlinear Schrdinger equation with non-zero boundary conditions at infinity is presented, including the determination of the analyticity of the scattering eigenfunctions, the introduction of the appropriate Riemann surface and uniformization variable, the symmetries, discrete spectrum, asymptotics, trace formulae and the so-called theta condition, and the formulation of the inverse problem in terms of a Riemann-Hilbert problem. In addition, the general behavior of the soliton solutions is discussed, as well as the reductions to all special cases previously discussed in the literature.

  14. Energy Technology Solutions: Public-Private Partnerships Transforming Industry, November 2010

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    IndustrIal technologIes save energy and Boost competItIveness EnErgy TEchnology SoluTionS public-private partnerships transforming Industry december 2010 "We need a sustained commitment to research and development. only r&d can yield game-changing technologies to lower costs, accelerate innovation, and drive new american industries and jobs." Dr. Steven Chu Secretary of Energy Welcome Dear Stakeholder, The economic challenges facing American industry today highlight the critical

  15. Ferromagnetic interactions and martensitic transformation in Fe doped Ni-Mn-In shape memory alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lobo, D. N.; Priolkar, K. R.; Emura, S.; Nigam, A. K.

    2014-11-14

    The structure, magnetic, and martensitic properties of Fe doped Ni-Mn-In magnetic shape memory alloys have been studied by differential scanning calorimetry, magnetization, resistivity, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and EXAFS. While Ni{sub 2}MnIn{sub 1?x}Fe{sub x} (0???x???0.6) alloys are ferromagnetic and non martensitic, the martensitic transformation temperature in Ni{sub 2}Mn{sub 1.5}In{sub 1?y}Fe{sub y} and Ni{sub 2}Mn{sub 1.6}In{sub 1?y}Fe{sub y} increases for lower Fe concentrations (y???0.05) before decreasing sharply for higher Fe concentrations. XRD analysis reveals presence of cubic and tetragonal structural phases in Ni{sub 2}MnIn{sub 1?x}Fe{sub x} at room temperature with tetragonal phase content increasing with Fe doping. Even though the local structure around Mn and Ni in these Fe doped alloys is similar to martensitic Mn rich Ni-Mn-In alloys, presence of ferromagnetic interactions and structural disorder induced by Fe affect Mn-Ni-Mn antiferromagnetic interactions resulting in suppression of martensitic transformation in these Fe doped alloys.

  16. Evidence for the temperature dependence of phase transformation behavior of silicon at nanoscale

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mangalampalli S. R. N., Kiran; Tran, Tuan; Smillie, Lachlan; Haberl, Bianca; Subianto, D.; Williams, James S.; Bradby, Jodie E.

    2015-01-01

    This study uses the in-situ high-temperature nanoindentation coupled with electrical measurements to investigate the temperature dependence (25 to 200 C) of the phase transformation behavior of crystalline silicon (dc-Si) at the nanoscale. Along with in-situ indentation and electrical data, ex-situ characterizations such as Raman and cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (XTEM) have been used to reveal the dominant mode of deformation under the indenter. In contrast to the previous studies, the dominant mode of deformation under the nanoindenter at elevated temperatures is not the dc-Si to metallic phase ( -Sn) transformation. Instead, XTEM images from 150 C indents reveal that the dominant mode of deformation is twinning along {111} planes. While the in-situ high-temperature electrical measurements show an increase in the current due to metallic phase formation up to 125 C, it is absent 150 C, revealing that the formation of the metallic phase is negligible in this regime. Thus, this work provides clear insight into the temperature dependent deformation mechanisms in dc-Si at the nanoscale.

  17. Hidden disorder in the α'→δ transformation of Pu-1.9 at.% Ga

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Jeffries, J. R.; Manley, M. E.; Wall, M. A.; Blobaum, K. J. M.; Schwartz, A. J.

    2012-06-06

    Enthalpy and entropy are thermodynamic quantities critical to determining how and at what temperature a phase transition occurs. At a phase transition, the enthalpy and temperature-weighted entropy differences between two phases are equal (ΔH=TΔS), but there are materials where this balance has not been experimentally or theoretically realized, leading to the idea of hidden order and disorder. In a Pu-1.9 at. % Ga alloy, the δ phase is retained as a metastable state at room temperature, but at low temperatures, the δ phase yields to a mixed-phase microstructure of δ- and α'-Pu. The previously measured sources of entropy associated withmore » the α'→δ transformation fail to sum to the entropy predicted theoretically. We report an experimental measurement of the entropy of the α'→δ transformation that corroborates the theoretical prediction, and implies that only about 65% of the entropy stabilizing the δ phase is accounted for, leaving a missing entropy of about 0.5 kB/atom. Some previously proposed mechanisms for generating entropy are discussed, but none seem capable of providing the necessary disorder to stabilize the δ phase. This hidden disorder represents multiple accessible states per atom within the δ phase of Pu that may not be included in our current understanding of the properties and phase stability of δ-Pu.« less

  18. Homogeneous and Heterogeneous Reaction and Transformation of Hg and Trace Metals in Combustion Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. Helble; Clara Smith; David Miller

    2009-08-31

    The overall goal of this project was to produce a working dynamic model to predict the transformation and partitioning of trace metals resulting from combustion of a broad range of fuels. The information provided from this model will be instrumental in efforts to identify fuels and conditions that can be varied to reduce metal emissions. Through the course of this project, it was determined that mercury (Hg) and arsenic (As) would be the focus of the experimental investigation. Experiments were therefore conducted to examine homogeneous and heterogeneous mercury oxidation pathways, and to assess potential interactions between arsenic and calcium. As described in this report, results indicated that the role of SO{sub 2} on Hg oxidation was complex and depended upon overall gas phase chemistry, that iron oxide (hematite) particles contributed directly to heterogeneous Hg oxidation, and that As-Ca interactions occurred through both gas-solid and within-char reaction pathways. Modeling based on this study indicated that, depending upon coal type and fly ash particle size, vaporization-condensation, vaporization-surface reaction, and As-CaO in-char reaction all play a role in arsenic transformations under combustion conditions.

  19. Online Monitoring Technical Basis and Analysis Framework for Large Power Transformers; Interim Report for FY 2012

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nancy J. Lybeck; Vivek Agarwal; Binh T. Pham; Heather D. Medema; Kirk Fitzgerald

    2012-09-01

    The Light Water Reactor Sustainability program at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is actively conducting research to develop and demonstrate online monitoring (OLM) capabilities for active components in existing Nuclear Power Plants. A pilot project is currently underway to apply OLM to Generator Step-Up Transformers (GSUs) and Emergency Diesel Generators (EDGs). INL and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) are working jointly to implement the pilot project. The EPRI Fleet-Wide Prognostic and Health Management (FW-PHM) Software Suite will be used to implement monitoring in conjunction with utility partners: the Shearon Harris Nuclear Generating Station (owned by Duke Energy for GSUs, and Braidwood Generating Station (owned by Exelon Corporation) for EDGs. This report presents monitoring techniques, fault signatures, and diagnostic and prognostic models for GSUs. GSUs are main transformers that are directly connected to generators, stepping up the voltage from the generator output voltage to the highest transmission voltages for supplying electricity to the transmission grid. Technical experts from Shearon Harris are assisting INL and EPRI in identifying critical faults and defining fault signatures associated with each fault. The resulting diagnostic models will be implemented in the FW-PHM Software Suite and tested using data from Shearon-Harris. Parallel research on EDGs is being conducted, and will be reported in an interim report during the first quarter of fiscal year 2013.

  20. Structure-toxicity assessment of metabolites of the aerobic bacterial transformation of substituted naphthalenes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LeBlond, J.D.; Applegate, B.M.; Menn, F.M.; Schultz, T.W.; Sayler, G.S.

    2000-05-01

    Pseudomonas fluorescens 5R, a naphthalene-degrading bacterium isolated from manufactured gas plant soil contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, was examined for its degradative capacity of a number of substituted naphthalenes. In general, those compounds substituted on only one ring with an electrically neutral substituent were found to be transformed primarily to substituted salicylic acids according to the classical (NAH7) naphthalene dioxygenase-initiated upper pathway reactions of the naphthalene degradative pathway (i.e., the NAH system). Dimethylnaphthalenes with a substituent on each ring, and certain halogenated naphthalenes, were transformed via a monohydroxylation reaction to form hydroxylated dead-end products. Of the substituted salicylic acids examined, only 3- and 4-methylsalicylic acid, the respective products of the degradation of 1- and 2-methylnaphthalene, were further degraded by salicylate hydroxylase and catechol 2,3-dioxygenase, the first two enzymes of the NAH lower pathway. Using the Tetrahymena pyriformis acute toxicity assay, many of the monohydroxylated products of incomplete biodegradation were found to be polar narcotics. Substituted salicylic acids that are not further degraded by the NAH lower pathway were found to be toxic via carboxylic acid narcosis.

  1. Mos1 transposon-based transformation of fish cell lines using baculoviral vectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yokoo, Masako; Fujita, Ryosuke; Innate Immunity Laboratory, Graduate School of Life Science and Creative Research Institution, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 001-0021 ; Nakajima, Yumiko; Yoshimizu, Mamoru; Kasai, Hisae; Asano, Shin-ichiro; Bando, Hisanori

    2013-09-13

    Highlights: •The baculovirus vector infiltrates the cells of economic important fishes. •Drosophila Mos1 transposase expressed in fish cells maintains its ability to localize to the nucleus. •The baculoviral vector carrying Mos1 is a useful tool to stably transform fish cells. -- Abstract: Drosophila Mos1 belongs to the mariner family of transposons, which are one of the most ubiquitous transposons among eukaryotes. We first determined nuclear transportation of the Drosophila Mos1-EGFP fusion protein in fish cell lines because it is required for a function of transposons. We next constructed recombinant baculoviral vectors harboring the Drosophila Mos1 transposon or marker genes located between Mos1 inverted repeats. The infectivity of the recombinant virus to fish cells was assessed by monitoring the expression of a fluorescent protein encoded in the viral genome. We detected transgene expression in CHSE-214, HINAE, and EPC cells, but not in GF or RTG-2 cells. In the co-infection assay of the Mos1-expressing virus and reporter gene-expressing virus, we successfully transformed CHSE-214 and HINAE cells. These results suggest that the combination of a baculovirus and Mos1 transposable element may be a tool for transgenesis in fish cells.

  2. Bainitic transformation in austempered ductile iron with reference to untransformed austenite volume phenomenon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ahmadabadai, M.N.

    1997-10-01

    Much interest has been focused on austempered ductile iron (ADI) because of its superior mechanical properties, which might be improved by further control of microstructure. It has so far been assumed that segregation of alloying elements in the intercellular region just delays bainitic reaction in these regions. However, the existence of bainite-free regions (UAV) even after 10,000 minutes at test temperature, e.g., 375 C, indicates something intrinsic to the mechanism of bainitic transformation. The bainitic transformation start (B{sub s}) temperature is a function of alloying elements; segregation of alloying elements can also alter the B{sub s} temperature. In other words, B{sub s} temperature in the region near graphite should be different from the intercellular region. Therefore, the intercellular region with higher concentration of alloying elements such as Mn should have a lower B{sub s} temperature, which leads to formation of UAV even after a long high-temperature austempering time (hereafter, this stable UAV will be named as the minimum UAV value). To examine this concept, theoretical and experimental procedures were employed.

  3. Evidence for the temperature dependence of phase transformation behavior of silicon at nanoscale

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Mangalampalli S. R. N., Kiran; Tran, Tuan; Smillie, Lachlan; Haberl, Bianca; Subianto, D.; Williams, James S.; Bradby, Jodie E.

    2015-01-01

    This study uses the in-situ high-temperature nanoindentation coupled with electrical measurements to investigate the temperature dependence (25 to 200 C) of the phase transformation behavior of crystalline silicon (dc-Si) at the nanoscale. Along with in-situ indentation and electrical data, ex-situ characterizations such as Raman and cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (XTEM) have been used to reveal the dominant mode of deformation under the indenter. In contrast to the previous studies, the dominant mode of deformation under the nanoindenter at elevated temperatures is not the dc-Si to metallic phase ( -Sn) transformation. Instead, XTEM images from 150 C indents reveal that themore » dominant mode of deformation is twinning along {111} planes. While the in-situ high-temperature electrical measurements show an increase in the current due to metallic phase formation up to 125 C, it is absent 150 C, revealing that the formation of the metallic phase is negligible in this regime. Thus, this work provides clear insight into the temperature dependent deformation mechanisms in dc-Si at the nanoscale.« less

  4. C60 -induced Devil's Staircase transformation on a Pb/Si(111) wetting layer

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wang, Lin -Lin; Johnson, Duane D.; Tringides, Michael C.

    2015-12-03

    Density functional theory is used to study structural energetics of Pb vacancy cluster formation on C60/Pb/Si(111) to explain the unusually fast and error-free transformations between the “Devil's Staircase” (DS) phases on the Pb/Si(111) wetting layer at low temperature (~110K). The formation energies of vacancy clusters are calculated in C60/Pb/Si(111) as Pb atoms are progressively ejected from the initial dense Pb wetting layer. Vacancy clusters larger than five Pb atoms are found to be stable with seven being the most stable, while vacancy clusters smaller than five are highly unstable, which agrees well with the observed ejection rate of ~5 Pbmore » atoms per C60. Furthermore, the high energy cost (~0.8 eV) for the small vacancy clusters to form indicates convincingly that the unusually fast transformation observed experimentally between the DS phases, upon C60 adsorption at low temperature, cannot be the result of single-atom random walk diffusion but of correlated multi-atom processes.« less

  5. Spectral induced polarization and electrodic potential monitoring of microbially mediated iron sulfide transformations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hubbard, Susan; Personna, Y.R.; Ntarlagiannis, D.; Slater, L.; Yee, N.; O'Brien, M.; Hubbard, S.

    2008-02-15

    Stimulated sulfate-reduction is a bioremediation technique utilized for the sequestration of heavy metals in the subsurface.We performed laboratory column experiments to investigate the geoelectrical response of iron sulfide transformations by Desulfo vibriovulgaris. Two geoelectrical methods, (1) spectral induced polarization (SIP), and (2) electrodic potential measurements, were investigated. Aqueous geochemistry (sulfate, lactate, sulfide, and acetate), observations of precipitates (identified from electron microscopy as iron sulfide), and electrodic potentials on bisulfide ion (HS) sensitive silver-silver chloride (Ag-AgCl) electrodes (630 mV) were diagnostic of induced transitions between an aerobic iron sulfide forming conditions and aerobic conditions promoting iron sulfide dissolution. The SIP data showed 10m rad anomalies during iron sulfide mineralization accompanying microbial activity under an anaerobic transition. These anomalies disappeared during iron sulfide dissolution under the subsequent aerobic transition. SIP model parameters based on a Cole-Cole relaxation model of the polarization at the mineral-fluid interface were converted to (1) estimated biomineral surface area to pore volume (Sp), and (2) an equivalent polarizable sphere diameter (d) controlling the relaxation time. The temporal variation in these model parameters is consistent with filling and emptying of pores by iron sulfide biofilms, as the system transitions between anaerobic (pore filling) and aerobic (pore emptying) conditions. The results suggest that combined SIP and electrodic potential measurements might be used to monitor spatiotemporal variability in microbial iron sulfide transformations in the field.

  6. Quantization maps, algebra representation, and non-commutative Fourier transform for Lie groups

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guedes, Carlos; Oriti, Daniele; Raasakka, Matti; LIPN, Institut Galile, Universit Paris-Nord, 99, av. Clement, 93430 Villetaneuse

    2013-08-15

    The phase space given by the cotangent bundle of a Lie group appears in the context of several models for physical systems. A representation for the quantum system in terms of non-commutative functions on the (dual) Lie algebra, and a generalized notion of (non-commutative) Fourier transform, different from standard harmonic analysis, has been recently developed, and found several applications, especially in the quantum gravity literature. We show that this algebra representation can be defined on the sole basis of a quantization map of the classical Poisson algebra, and identify the conditions for its existence. In particular, the corresponding non-commutative star-product carried by this representation is obtained directly from the quantization map via deformation quantization. We then clarify under which conditions a unitary intertwiner between such algebra representation and the usual group representation can be constructed giving rise to the non-commutative plane waves and consequently, the non-commutative Fourier transform. The compact groups U(1) and SU(2) are considered for different choices of quantization maps, such as the symmetric and the Duflo map, and we exhibit the corresponding star-products, algebra representations, and non-commutative plane waves.

  7. Isothermal Solid-State Transformation Kinetics Applied to Pd/Cu Alloy Membrane Fabrication

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pomerantz, Natalie L; Payzant, E Andrew; Ma, Yi Hua

    2010-01-01

    In this work, time-resolved, in situ high-temperature X-ray diffraction (HT-XRD) was used to study the solid-state transformation kinetics of the formation of the fcc Pd/Cu alloy from Pd/Cu bi-layers for the purpose of fabricating sulfur tolerant Pd/Cu membranes for H2 separation. Thin layers of Pd and Cu (total ~15 wt% Cu) were deposited on porous stainless steel (PSS) with the electroless deposition method and annealed in H2 at 500, 550 and 600 C. The kinetics of the annealing process were successfully described by the Avrami nucleation and growth model showing that the annealing process was diffusion controlled and one dimensional. The activation energy for the solid-state transformation was 175 kJ/mol, which was similar to the activation energy of Pd-Cu bulk interdiffusion. Furthermore, the Avrami model was able to successfully describe the changes in permeance and activation energy observed in Pd/Cu alloy membranes during characterization as they were annealed at high temperatures.

  8. Coupled-cluster representation of Green function employing modified spectral resolutions of similarity transformed Hamiltonians

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kowalski, Karol; Bhaskaran-Nair, Kiran; Shelton, William A.

    2014-09-07

    In this paper we discuss a new formalism for producing an analytic coupled-cluster (CC) Greens function that renders a highly scalable computational accurate method for producing an analytic coupled-cluster Greens function for an N-electron system by shifting the poles of similarity transformed Hamiltonians represented in N?1 and N +1 electron Hilbert spaces. Simple criteria are derived for the states in N ?1 and N + 1 electron spaces that are then corrected in the spectral resolution of the cor- responding matrix representations of the similarity transformed Hamiltonian. The accurate description of excited state processes within a Greens function formalism would be of significant importance to a number of scientific communities ranging from physics and chemistry to engineering and the biological sciences. This is because the Greens function methodology provides a direct path for not only calculating prop- erties whose underlying origins come from coupled many-body interactions but it also provides a straightforward path for calculating electron transport, response and correlation functions that allows for a direct link with experiment. As a special case of this general formulation, we discuss the application of this technique for Greens function defined by the CCSD (CC with singles and doubles) representation of the ground-state wave function.

  9. From Nanowires to Biofilms: An Exploration of Novel Mechanisms of Uranium Transformation Mediated by Geobacter Bacteria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    REGUERA, GEMMA

    2014-01-16

    One promising strategy for the in situ bioremediation of radioactive groundwater contaminants that has been identified by the SBR Program is to stimulate the activity of dissimilatory metal-reducing microorganisms to reductively precipitate uranium and other soluble toxic metals. The reduction of U(VI) and other soluble contaminants by Geobacteraceae is directly dependent on the reduction of Fe(III) oxides, their natural electron acceptor, a process that requires the expression of Geobacters conductive pili (pilus nanowires). Expression of conductive pili by Geobacter cells leads to biofilm development on surfaces and to the formation of suspended biogranules, which may be physiological closer to biofilms than to planktonic cells. Biofilm development is often assumed in the subsurface, particularly at the matrix-well screen interface, but evidence of biofilms in the bulk aquifer matrix is scarce. Our preliminary results suggest, however, that biofilms develop in the subsurface and contribute to uranium transformations via sorption and reductive mechanisms. In this project we elucidated the mechanism(s) for uranium immobilization mediated by Geobacter biofilms and identified molecular markers to investigate if biofilm development is happening in the contaminated subsurface. The results provided novel insights needed in order to understand the metabolic potential and physiology of microorganisms with a known role in contaminant transformation in situ, thus having a significant positive impact in the SBR Program and providing novel concept to monitor, model, and predict biological behavior during in situ treatments.

  10. Anaerobic cometabolic transformation of polycyclic and heterocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: evidence from laboratory and field studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael Safinowski; Christian Griebler; Rainer U. Meckenstock

    2006-07-01

    The sulfate-reducing enrichment culture N47 can grow on naphthalene or 2-methylnaphthalene as the sole carbon and energy source. The study reported shows that the culture can furthermore cometabolically transform a variety of polycyclic and heteroaromatic compounds with naphthalene or methylnaphthalene as the auxiliary substrate. Most of the cosubstrates were converted to the corresponding carboxylic acids, frequently to several isomers. The mass spectra of specific metabolites that were extracted from supernatants of cultures containing the cosubstrates benzothiophene, benzofuran, and 1-methylnaphthalene resembled known intermediates of the anaerobic naphthalene and 2-methylnaphthalene degradation pathways. This indicates that some of the tested compounds were first methylated and then transformed to the corresponding methylsuccinic acids by a fumarate addition to the methyl group. For some of the cosubstrates, a partial or total inhibition of growth on the auxiliary substrate was observed. This was caused by a specific combination of auxiliary substrate and cosubstrate. None of the cosubstrates tested could be utilized as the sole carbon source and electron donor by the enrichment culture N47. Field investigations at the tar-oil-contaminated aquifer (at a former gasworks in southwest Germany), where strain N47 originated, revealed the presence of metabolites similar to the ones identified in batch culture supernatants. The findings suggest that aromatic hydrocarbons and heterocyclic compounds can be converted by aquifer organisms and produce a variety of polar compounds that become mobile in groundwater. 51 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Tribology of improved transformation-toughened ceramics-heat engine test

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lilley, E.; Rossi, G.A.; Pelletier, P.J. . Advanced Ceramics Div.)

    1992-04-01

    A short term study has been carried out to evaluate the suitability as cam roller followers of three ceria zirconia toughened aluminas and two yttria stabilized tetragonal zirconias (YTZPs) previously enhanced in programs supported by ORNL. Norton Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} (NBD-100) was also included in this study as a reference material, because it was known from work at Northwestern University that Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} to experienced little or no wear in this application, and NBD-100 is currently a successful commercial bearing material. The tribological studies were subcontracted to the Torrington Company. They found that in cam roller follower simulated tests that there was essentially no wear after 1 hour and 5 hours of testing detectable by weighing and concluded that all of these ceramics are, therefore, candidate materials. Because of the minute amounts of wear it was not possible to identify the wear mechanism or to make any correlations with the other physical properties which were evaluated such as MOR, K{sub IC} hardness, density and grain size. Phase transformation during rolling has been of interest in the tribology of zirconia contain materials. The least stable of the ceria zirconia toughened aluminas resulted in as much as 33% monoclinic phase after testing whereas the yttria stabilized (TTZ) contained very little of this transformed phase. The results of this study show that oxide materials can now be considered as candidates for cam roller followers in heat engines.

  12. HYDROGEN EFFECTS ON STRAIN-INDUCED MARTENSITE FORMATION IN TYPE 304L STAINLESS STEEL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morgan, M; Ps Lam, P

    2008-12-11

    Unstable austenitic stainless steels undergo a strain-induced martensite transformation. The effect of hydrogen on this transformation is not well understood. Some researchers believe that hydrogen makes the transformation to martensite more difficult because hydrogen is an austenite stabilizer. Others believe that hydrogen has little or no effect at all on the transformation and claim that the transformation is simply a function of strain and temperature. Still other researchers believe that hydrogen should increase the ability of the metal to transform due to hydrogen-enhanced dislocation mobility and slip planarity. While the role of hydrogen on the martensite transformation is still debated, it has been experimentally verified that this transformation does occur in hydrogen-charged materials. What is the effect of strain-induced martensite on hydrogen embrittlement? Martensite near crack-tips or other highly strained regions could provide much higher hydrogen diffusivity and allow for quicker hydrogen concentration. Martensite may be more intrinsically brittle than austenite and has been shown to be severely embrittled by hydrogen. However, it does not appear to be a necessary condition for embrittlement since Type 21-6-9 stainless steel is more stable than Type 304L stainless steel but susceptible to hydrogen embrittlement. In this study, the effect of hydrogen on strain-induced martensite formation in Type 304L stainless steel was investigated by monitoring the formation of martensite during tensile tests of as-received and hydrogen-charged samples and metallographically examining specimens from interrupted tensile tests after increasing levels of strain. The effect of hydrogen on the fracture mechanisms was also studied by examining the fracture features of as-received and hydrogen-charged specimens and relating them to the stress-strain behavior.

  13. Arsenite induces cell transformation by reactive oxygen species, AKT, ERK1/2, and p70S6K1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carpenter, Richard L.; Jiang, Yue; Jing, Yi; He, Jun; Rojanasakul, Yon; Liu, Ling-Zhi; Jiang, Bing-Hua

    2011-10-28

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Chronic exposure to arsenite induces cell proliferation and transformation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Arsenite-induced transformation increases ROS production and downstream signalings. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Inhibition of ROS levels via catalase reduces arsenite-induced cell transformation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Interruption of AKT, ERK, or p70S6K1 inhibits arsenite-induced cell transformation. -- Abstract: Arsenic is naturally occurring element that exists in both organic and inorganic formulations. The inorganic form arsenite has a positive association with development of multiple cancer types. There are significant populations throughout the world with high exposure to arsenite via drinking water. Thus, human exposure to arsenic has become a significant public health problem. Recent evidence suggests that reactive oxygen species (ROS) mediate multiple changes to cell behavior after acute arsenic exposure, including activation of proliferative signaling and angiogenesis. However, the role of ROS in mediating cell transformation by chronic arsenic exposure is unknown. We found that cells chronically exposed to sodium arsenite increased proliferation and gained anchorage-independent growth. This cell transformation phenotype required constitutive activation of AKT, ERK1/2, mTOR, and p70S6K1. We also observed these cells constitutively produce ROS, which was required for the constitutive activation of AKT, ERK1/2, mTOR, and p70S6K1. Suppression of ROS levels by forced expression of catalase also reduced cell proliferation and anchorage-independent growth. These results indicate cell transformation induced by chronic arsenic exposure is mediated by increased cellular levels of ROS, which mediates activation of AKT, ERK1/2, and p70S6K1.

  14. {ital In} {ital situ} x-ray diffraction analysis of the C49--C54 titanium silicide phase transformation in narrow lines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roy, R.A.; Clevenger, L.A.; Cabral, C. Jr.; Saenger, K.L.; Brauer, S.; Jordan-Sweet, J.; Bucchignano, J.; Stephenson, G.B.; Morales, G.; Ludwig, K.F. Jr.

    1995-04-03

    The transformation of titanium silicide from the C49 to the C54 structure was studied using x-ray diffraction of samples containing arrays of narrow lines of preformed C49 TiSi{sub 2}. Using a synchrotron x-ray source, diffraction patterns were collected at 1.5--2 {degree}C intervals during sample heating at rates of 3 or 20 {degree}C/s to temperatures of 1000--1100 {degree}C. The results show a monotonic increase in the C54 transition temperature by as much as 180 {degree}C with a decreasing linewidth from 1.0 to 0.1 {mu}m. Also observed is a monotonic increase in (040) preferred orientation of the C54 phase with decreasing linewidth. The results demonstrate the power of {ital in} {ital situ} x-ray diffraction of narrow line arrays as a tool to study finite size effects in thin-film reactions.

  15. Benzene under high pressure: A story of molecular crystals transforming to saturated networks, with a possible intermediate metallic phase

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wen, Xiao-Dong; Hoffmann, Roald; Ashcroft, N. W.

    2011-01-01

    In a theoretical study, benzene is compressed up to 300 GPa. The transformations found between molecular phases generally match the experimental findings in the moderate pressure regime (<20 GPa): phase I (Pbca) is found to be stable up to 4 GPa, while phase II (P43212) is preferred in a narrow pressure range of 47 GPa. Phase III (P21/c) is at lowest enthalpy at higher pressures. Above 50 GPa, phase V (P21 at 0 GPa; P21/c at high pressure) comes into play, slightly more stable than phase III in the range of 5080 GP, but unstable to rearrangement to a saturated, four-coordinate (at C), one-dimensional polymer. Actually, throughout the entire pressure range, crystals of graphane possess lower enthalpy than molecular benzene structures; a simple thermochemical argument is given for why this is so. In several of the benzene phases there nevertheless are substantial barriers to rearranging the molecules to a saturated polymer, especially at low temperatures. Even at room temperature these barriers should allow one to study the effect of pressure on the metastable molecular phases. Molecular phase III (P21/c) is one such; it remains metastable to higher pressures up to ~200 GPa, at which point it too rearranges spontaneously to a saturated, tetracoordinate CH polymer. At 300 K the isomerization transition occurs at a lower pressure. Nevertheless, there may be a narrow region of pressure, between P = 180 and 200 GPa, where one could find a metallic, molecular benzene state. We explore several lower dimensional models for such a metallic benzene. We also probe the possible first steps in a localized, nucleated benzene polymerization by studying the dimerization of benzene molecules. Several new (C6H6)2 dimers are predicted.

  16. Transformations, Inc.. Partnering To Build Net-Zero Energy Houses in Massachusetts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ueno, K.; Bergey, D.; Wytrykowska, H.

    2013-09-01

    Transformations, Inc. is a residential development and building company that has partnered with Building Science Corporation to build new construction net-zero energy houses in Massachusetts under the Building America program. There are three communities that will be constructed through this partnership: Devens Sustainable Housing ("Devens"), The Homes at Easthampton Meadow ("Easthampton") and Phase II of the Coppersmith Way Development ("Townsend"). This report intends to cover all of the single-family new construction homes that have been completed to date. The houses built in these developments are net zero energy homes built in a cold climate. They will contribute to finding answers to specific research questions for homes with high R double stud walls and high efficiency ductless air source heat pump systems ("mini-splits"); allow to explore topics related to the financing of photovoltaic systems and basements vs. slab-on-grade construction; and provide feedback related to the performance of ductless mini-split air source heat pumps.

  17. High pressure phase-transformation induced texture evolution and strengthening in zirconium metal: Experiment and modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu, Xiaohui; Zhang, Ruifeng; Weldon, David; Vogel, Sven C.; Zhang, Jianzhong; Brown, Donald W.; Wang, Yanbin; Reiche, Helmut M.; Wang, Shanmin; Du, Shiyu; Jin, Changqing; Zhao, Yusheng

    2015-07-28

    We studied the phase-transition induced texture changes and strengthening mechanism for zirconium metal under quasi-hydrostatic compression and uni-axial deformation under confined high pressure using the deformation-DIA (D-DIA) apparatus. It is shown that the experimentally obtained texture for ?-phase Zr can be qualitatively described by combining a subset of orientation variants previously proposed in two different models. The determined flow stress for the high-pressure ?-phase is 0.51.2 GPa, more than three times higher than that of the ?-phase. Using first-principles calculations, we investigated the mechanical and electronic properties of the two Zr polymorphs. We find that the observed strengthening can be attributed to the relatively strong directional bonding in the ? phase, which significantly increases its shear plastic resistance over the ?-phase Zr. The present findings provide an alternate route for Zr metal strengthening by high-pressure phase transformation.

  18. Detecting and Removing Data Artifacts in Hadamard Transform Ion Mobility-Mass Spectrometry Measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prost, Spencer A.; Crowell, Kevin L.; Baker, Erin Shammel; Ibrahim, Yehia M.; Clowers, Brian H.; Monroe, Matthew E.; Anderson, Gordon A.; Smith, Richard D.; Payne, Samuel H.

    2014-12-01

    Applying Hadamard transform multiplexing to ion mobility separations (IMS) can significantly improve the signal-to-noise ratio and throughput for IMS coupled mass spectrometry (MS) measurements by increasing the ion utilization efficiency. However, it has been determined that both fluctuations in ion intensity as well as spatial shifts in the multiplexed data lower the signal-to-noise ratios and appear as noise in downstream processing of the data. To address this problem, we have developed a novel algorithm that discovers and eliminates data artifacts. The algorithm uses knowledge of the true signal peaks derived from the encoded data and allows for both artifacts and noise to be removed with high confidence, decreasing the likelihood of false identifications in subsequent data processing. The result is that IMS-MS can be applied to increase measurement sensitivity while avoiding artifacts that have previously limited its utility.

  19. Micro/nano-mechanical test system employing tensile test holder with push-to-pull transformer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Oh, Yunje; Cyrankowski, Edward; Shan, Zhiwei; Asif, Syed Amanula Syed

    2013-05-07

    A micromachined or microelectromechanical system (MEMS) based push-to-pull mechanical transformer for tensile testing of micro-to-nanometer scale material samples including a first structure and a second structure. The second structure is coupled to the first structure by at least one flexible element that enables the second structure to be moveable relative to the first structure, wherein the second structure is disposed relative to the first structure so as to form a pulling gap between the first and second structures such that when an external pushing force is applied to and pushes the second structure in a tensile extension direction a width of the pulling gap increases so as to apply a tensile force to a test sample mounted across the pulling gap between a first sample mounting area on the first structure and a second sample mounting area on the second structure.

  20. Micro/nano-mechanical test system employing tensile test holder with push-to-pull transformer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Oh, Yunje; Cyrankowski, Edward; Shan, Zhiwei; Syed Asif, Syed Amanula

    2014-07-29

    A micromachined or microelectromechanical system (MEMS) based push-to-pull mechanical transformer for tensile testing of micro-to-nanometer scale material samples including a first structure and a second structure. The second structure is coupled to the first structure by at least one flexible element that enables the second structure to be moveable relative to the first structure, wherein the second structure is disposed relative to the first structure so as to form a pulling gap between the first and second structures such that when an external pushing force is applied to and pushes the second structure in a tensile extension direction a width of the pulling gap increases so as to apply a tensile force to a test sample mounted across the pulling gap between a first sample mounting area on the first structure and a second sample mounting area on the second structure.

  1. Precise measurement of the resolution in light microscopy using Fourier transform

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vainrub, Arnold

    2008-04-15

    The resolution power of light microscope has been accurately measured ({+-}5%) by Fourier transform of various object images and further evaluation of the highest spatial frequency in Fourier spectrum. Any unknown shape plane object with a shape feature's size smaller than the resolution to be measured was shown to provide a reliable resolution test. This simple method gives a direct measurement of the resolution power as defined by Abbe [Archiv. F. Mikroskopische Anat. 9, 413 (1873)]. The results have been justified by comparison to a standard resolution measurement by using calibrated periodic line patterns. Notably, the approach is applicable in super-resolution light microscopy (transmission, reflection, and fluorescence), where calibrated resolution targets do not occur. It was conveniently implemented by using a compact disk as a test object and free IMAGEJ imaging software.

  2. Low-e Storm Windows: Market Assessment and Pathways to Market Transformation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cort, Katherine A.

    2013-06-08

    Field studies sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) have shown that the use of low-e storm windows can lead to significant heating and cooling energy savings in residential homes. This study examines the market for low-e storm windows based on market data, case studies, and recent experience with weatherization deployment programs. It uses information from interviews conducted with DOE researchers and industry partners involved in case studies and early deployment efforts related to low-e storm windows. In addition, this study examines potential barriers to market acceptance, assesses the market and energy savings potential, and identifies opportunities to transform the market for low-e storm windows and overcome market adoption barriers.

  3. Exploring two-dimensional electron gases with two-dimensional Fourier transform spectroscopy

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Paul, J.; Dey, P.; Tokumoto, T.; Reno, J. L.; Hilton, D. J.; Karaiskaj, D.

    2014-10-07

    The dephasing of excitons in a modulation doped single quantum well was carefully measured using time integrated four-wave mixing (FWM) and two-dimensional Fourier transform (2DFT) spectroscopy. These are the first 2DFT measurements performed on a modulation doped single quantum well. The inhomogeneous and homogeneous excitonic line widths were obtained from the diagonal and cross-diagonal profiles of the 2DFT spectra. The laser excitation density and temperature were varied and 2DFT spectra were collected. A very rapid increase of the dephasing decay, and as a result, an increase in the cross-diagonal 2DFT linewidths with temperature was observed. Furthermore, the lineshapes of themore » 2DFT spectra suggest the presence of excitation induced dephasing and excitation induced shift.« less

  4. Off-resonance frequency operation for power transfer in a loosely coupled air core transformer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Scudiere, Matthew B

    2012-11-13

    A power transmission system includes a loosely coupled air core transformer having a resonance frequency determined by a product of inductance and capacitance of a primary circuit including a primary coil. A secondary circuit is configured to have a substantially same product of inductance and capacitance. A back EMF generating device (e.g., a battery), which generates a back EMF with power transfer, is attached to the secondary circuit. Once the load power of the back EMF generating device exceeds a certain threshold level, which depends on the system parameters, the power transfer can be achieved at higher transfer efficiency if performed at an operating frequency less than the resonance frequency, which can be from 50% to 95% of the resonance frequency.

  5. Microbial transformations of uranium in wastes and implication on its mobility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Suzuki,Y.; Nankawa, T.; Ozaki, T.; Ohnuki, T.; Francis, A.J.; Enokida, Y.; Yamamoto, I.

    2008-09-14

    Uranium exists in several chemical forms in mining and mill tailings and in nuclear and weapons production wastes. Under appropriate conditions, microorganisms can affect the stability and mobility of U in wastes by altering the chemical speciation, solubility and sorption properties and thus could increase or decrease the concentrations of U in solution and the bioavailability. Dissolution or immobilization of U is brought about by direct enzymatic action or indirect nonenzymatic action of microorganisms. Although the physical, chemical, and geochemical processes affecting dissolution, precipitation, and mobilization of U have been extensively investigated, we have only limited information on the mechanisms of microbial transformations of various chemical forms of U in the presence of electron donors and acceptors.

  6. Real-time observation of morphological transformations in II-VI semiconducting nanobelts via environmental transmission electron microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Agarwal, Rahul; Zakharov, Dmitri N.; Krook, Nadia M.; Liu, Wenjing; Berger, Jacob; Stach, Eric A.; Agarwal, Ritesh

    2015-05-01

    It has been observed that wurtzite II–VI semiconducting nanobelts transform into single-crystal, periodically branched nanostructures upon heating. The mechanism of this novel transformation has been elucidated by heating II–VI nanobelts in an environmental transmission electron microscope (ETEM) in oxidizing, reducing and inert atmospheres while observing their structural changes with high spatial resolution. The interplay of surface reconstruction of high-energy surfaces of the wurtzite phase and environment-dependent anisotropic chemical etching of certain crystal surfaces in the branching mechanism of nanobelts has been observed. Understanding of structural and chemical transformations of materials via in situ microscopy techniques and their role in designing new nanostructured materials is discussed.

  7. Real-time observation of morphological transformations in II-VI semiconducting nanobelts via environmental transmission electron microscopy

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Agarwal, Rahul; Zakharov, Dmitri N.; Krook, Nadia M.; Liu, Wenjing; Berger, Jacob; Stach, Eric A.; Agarwal, Ritesh

    2015-05-01

    It has been observed that wurtzite II–VI semiconducting nanobelts transform into single-crystal, periodically branched nanostructures upon heating. The mechanism of this novel transformation has been elucidated by heating II–VI nanobelts in an environmental transmission electron microscope (ETEM) in oxidizing, reducing and inert atmospheres while observing their structural changes with high spatial resolution. The interplay of surface reconstruction of high-energy surfaces of the wurtzite phase and environment-dependent anisotropic chemical etching of certain crystal surfaces in the branching mechanism of nanobelts has been observed. Understanding of structural and chemical transformations of materials via in situ microscopy techniques and their role in designingmore » new nanostructured materials is discussed.« less

  8. AISI/DOE Technology Roadmap Program: Development of Appropriate Resistance Spot Welding Practice for Transformation-Hardened Steels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wayne Chuko; Jerry Gould

    2002-07-08

    This report describes work accomplished in the project, titled ''Development of Appropriate Resistance Spot Welding Practice for Transformation-Hardened Steels.'' The Phase 1 of the program involved development of in-situ temper diagrams for two gauges of representative dual-phase and martensitic grades of steels. The results showed that tempering is an effective way of reducing hold-time sensitivity (HTS) in hardenable high-strength sheet steels. In Phase 2, post-weld cooling rate techniques, incorporating tempering, were evaluated to reduce HTS for the same four steels. Three alternative methods, viz., post-heating, downsloping, and spike tempering, for HTS reduction were investigated. Downsloping was selected for detailed additional study, as it appeared to be the most promising of the cooling rate control methods. The downsloping maps for each of the candidate steels were used to locate the conditions necessary for the peak response. Three specific downslope conditions (at a fix ed final current for each material, timed for a zero-, medium-, and full-softening response) were chosen for further metallurgical and mechanical testing. Representative samples, were inspected metallographically, examining both local hardness variations and microstructures. The resulting downslope diagrams were found to consist largely of a C-curve. The softening observed in these curves, however, was not supported by subsequent metallography, which showed that all welds made, regardless of material and downslope condition, were essentially martensitic. CCT/TTT diagrams, generated based on microstructural modeling done at Oak Ridge National Laboratories, showed that minimum downslope times of 2 and 10 s for the martensitic and dual-phase grades of steels, respectively, were required to avoid martensite formation. These times, however, were beyond those examined in this study. These results show that downsloping is not an effective means of reducing HTS for production resistance spot welding (RSW). The necessary downslope times (2-10s) are prohibited by the welding rates currently used today (up to 60 welds/s). Based on the observations made in this study, spike tempering appears to be the best compromise of microstructural improvement and short cycle time. It is recommended that future work be focused on exploring the robustness of this approach, and its applicability for a wider range of steels.

  9. Implementation of Remaining Useful Lifetime Transformer Models in the Fleet-Wide Prognostic and Health Management Suite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Agarwal, Vivek; Lybeck, Nancy J.; Pham, Binh; Rusaw, Richard; Bickford, Randall

    2015-02-01

    Research and development efforts are required to address aging and reliability concerns of the existing fleet of nuclear power plants. As most plants continue to operate beyond the license life (i.e., towards 60 or 80 years), plant components are more likely to incur age-related degradation mechanisms. To assess and manage the health of aging plant assets across the nuclear industry, the Electric Power Research Institute has developed a web-based Fleet-Wide Prognostic and Health Management (FW-PHM) Suite for diagnosis and prognosis. FW-PHM is a set of web-based diagnostic and prognostic tools and databases, comprised of the Diagnostic Advisor, the Asset Fault Signature Database, the Remaining Useful Life Advisor, and the Remaining Useful Life Database, that serves as an integrated health monitoring architecture. The main focus of this paper is the implementation of prognostic models for generator step-up transformers in the FW-PHM Suite. One prognostic model discussed is based on the functional relationship between degree of polymerization, (the most commonly used metrics to assess the health of the winding insulation in a transformer) and furfural concentration in the insulating oil. The other model is based on thermal-induced degradation of the transformer insulation. By utilizing transformer loading information, established thermal models are used to estimate the hot spot temperature inside the transformer winding. Both models are implemented in the Remaining Useful Life Database of the FW-PHM Suite. The Remaining Useful Life Advisor utilizes the implemented prognostic models to estimate the remaining useful life of the paper winding insulation in the transformer based on actual oil testing and operational data.

  10. Two-stage sintering inhibits abnormal grain growth during beta to alpha transformation in SiC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kueck, Aaron M.; De Jonghe, Lutgard C.

    2007-09-17

    Free sintering of SiC with Al, B, and C additions in two successive stages, first under nitrogen and then under argon, produced a near full-density ceramic with equiaxed grain structure. The beta to alpha transformation proceeded to completion; however, the grain shape remained equiaxed due to the action of nitrogen present during the first stage of sintering. It is found that the beta to alpha transformation is necessary but not sufficient for producing the microstructure of interlocking plates found in high-toughness SiC.

  11. Data Center Transformer from "Always On" to "Always Available" | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy Data Center Transformer from "Always On" to "Always Available" Data Center Transformer from "Always On" to "Always Available" Data Center Monitoring System for Controlling Power Utilization Reduces Energy Usage About 25% of a company's information technology (IT) costs results from electricity consumed by data centers because of the "Always On" operation of the data center. Typically, data centers are built to meet peak demand but

  12. Transformations, Inc. Net Zero Energy Communities, Devens, Easthampton, Townsend, Massachusetts (Fact Sheet), Building America Case Study: Whole-House Solutions for New Homes, Building Technologies Office (BTO)

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Transformations, Inc. Net Zero Energy Communities Devens, Easthampton, Townsend, Massachusetts PROJECT INFORMATION Construction: New home Type: Single-family, market-rate and affordable Builder: Transformations, Inc. www.transformations-inc.com Size: 1,064 to 2,365 ft 2 Price Range: $125,000-$400,000 Date Completed: 2010-ongoing Climate Zone: Cold PERFORMANCE DATA HERS Index Range: -21 to 43 Projected annual energy cost: $88* Incremental cost of energy efficiency measures: $3/ft 2 * Incremental

  13. Optical and magneto-optical studies of martensitic transformation in Ni-Mn-Ga magnetic shape memory alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beran, L.; Cejpek, P.; Kulda, M.; Antos, R.; Holy, V.; Veis, M.; Straka, L.; Heczko, O.

    2015-05-07

    Optical and magneto-optical properties of single crystal of Ni{sub 50.1}Mn{sub 28.4}Ga{sub 21.5} magnetic shape memory alloy during its transformation from martensite to austenite phase were systematically studied. Crystal orientation was approximately along (100) planes of parent cubic austenite. X-ray reciprocal mapping confirmed modulated 10?M martensite phase. Temperature depended measurements of saturation magnetization revealed the martensitic transformation at 335?K during heating. Magneto-optical spectroscopy and spectroscopic ellipsometry were measured in the sample temperature range from 297 to 373?K and photon energy range from 1.2 to 6.5?eV. Magneto-optical spectra of polar Kerr rotation as well as the spectra of ellipsometric parameter ? exhibited significant changes when crossing the transformation temperature. These changes were assigned to different optical properties of Ni-Mn-Ga in martensite and austenite phases due to modification of electronic structure near the Fermi energy during martensitic transformation.

  14. Gas/solvent-induced transformation and expansion of a nonporous solid to 1:1 host guest form

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thallapally, Praveen K.; McGrail, B. Peter; Dalgarno, Scott J.; Atwood, Jerry L.

    2008-07-01

    Herein we report the gas (CO2, N2O and propane) and solvent (CS2 and acetone) induced transformation and expansion of guest free thermodynamic form of a p-tert-butylcalix [4]arene to 1:1 host guest form.

  15. Applications of Micro-Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) in the Geological Sciences—A Review

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Chen, Yanyan; Zou, Caineng; Mastalerz, Maria; Hu, Suyun; Gasaway, Carley; Tao, Xiaowan

    2015-12-18

    Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) can provide crucial information on the molecular structure of organic and inorganic components and has been used extensively for chemical characterization of geological samples in the past few decades. In this paper, recent applications of FTIR in the geological sciences are reviewed. Particularly, its use in the characterization of geochemistry and thermal maturation of organic matter in coal and shale is addressed. These investigations demonstrate that the employment of high-resolution micro-FTIR imaging enables visualization and mapping of the distributions of organic matter and minerals on a micrometer scale in geological samples, and promotes an advancedmore » understanding of heterogeneity of organic rich coal and shale. Additionally, micro-FTIR is particularly suitable for in situ, non-destructive characterization of minute microfossils, small fluid and melt inclusions within crystals, and volatiles in glasses and minerals. This technique can also assist in the chemotaxonomic classification of macrofossils such as plant fossils. These features, barely accessible with other analytical techniques, may provide fundamental information on paleoclimate, depositional environment, and the evolution of geological (e.g., volcanic and magmatic) systems.« less

  16. Study of the hydrolysis of uranium hexafluoride by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, S.P.

    1982-08-01

    The reaction of uranium hexafluoride with water has been studied by using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. Several different methods for accomplishing this task have been carried out. In addition, interpretatins of the results have been made. These interpretations have been based on literature values for the reactants and for compounds analogous to possible products. It was shown that classical matrix-isolation techniques proved to be unsatisfactory for studying this reaction. Other methods were developed in order to obtain results. They were: (1) the codeposition of pure UF/sub 6/ and H/sub 2/O on a cold window at 16/sup 0/K, (2) the codeposition of argon matrix to sample ratios of 10:1 to 2:1 of UF/sub 6/ and H/sub 2/O at 16/sup 0/K, and (3) the annealing of the samples produced by (1) and (2) while they were being scanned with FT-IR. 78 refs., 86 figs., 7 tabs.

  17. Fast dose kernel interpolation using Fourier transform with application to permanent prostate brachytherapy dosimetry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Derek Sloboda, Ron S.

    2014-05-15

    Purpose: Boyer and Mok proposed a fast calculation method employing the Fourier transform (FT), for which calculation time is independent of the number of seeds but seed placement is restricted to calculation grid points. Here an interpolation method is described enabling unrestricted seed placement while preserving the computational efficiency of the original method. Methods: The Iodine-125 seed dose kernel was sampled and selected values were modified to optimize interpolation accuracy for clinically relevant doses. For each seed, the kernel was shifted to the nearest grid point via convolution with a unit impulse, implemented in the Fourier domain. The remaining fractional shift was performed using a piecewise third-order Lagrange filter. Results: Implementation of the interpolation method greatly improved FT-based dose calculation accuracy. The dose distribution was accurate to within 2% beyond 3 mm from each seed. Isodose contours were indistinguishable from explicit TG-43 calculation. Dose-volume metric errors were negligible. Computation time for the FT interpolation method was essentially the same as Boyer's method. Conclusions: A FT interpolation method for permanent prostate brachytherapy TG-43 dose calculation was developed which expands upon Boyer's original method and enables unrestricted seed placement. The proposed method substantially improves the clinically relevant dose accuracy with negligible additional computation cost, preserving the efficiency of the original method.

  18. Applications of Micro-Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) in the Geological Sciences—A Review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Yanyan; Zou, Caineng; Mastalerz, Maria; Hu, Suyun; Gasaway, Carley; Tao, Xiaowan

    2015-12-18

    Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) can provide crucial information on the molecular structure of organic and inorganic components and has been used extensively for chemical characterization of geological samples in the past few decades. In this paper, recent applications of FTIR in the geological sciences are reviewed. Particularly, its use in the characterization of geochemistry and thermal maturation of organic matter in coal and shale is addressed. These investigations demonstrate that the employment of high-resolution micro-FTIR imaging enables visualization and mapping of the distributions of organic matter and minerals on a micrometer scale in geological samples, and promotes an advanced understanding of heterogeneity of organic rich coal and shale. Additionally, micro-FTIR is particularly suitable for in situ, non-destructive characterization of minute microfossils, small fluid and melt inclusions within crystals, and volatiles in glasses and minerals. This technique can also assist in the chemotaxonomic classification of macrofossils such as plant fossils. These features, barely accessible with other analytical techniques, may provide fundamental information on paleoclimate, depositional environment, and the evolution of geological (e.g., volcanic and magmatic) systems.

  19. Transformative research issues and opportunities in alternative energy generation and storage.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rockett, A.; Chung, Y. W.; Blaschek, H.; Butterfield, S.; Chance, R. R.; Ferekides, C.; Robinson, M.; Snyder, S. W; Thackeray, M.

    2011-01-01

    This article presents a summary of research issues and opportunities in alternative energy source research identified by panels of experts assembled by the Engineering Directorate of the US National Science Foundation. The objective was to identify transformative research issues and opportunities to make alternative energy sources viable. The article presents motivations for energy research, grand challenges, and specific challenges in the research areas covered. The grand challenges identified for the United States include supplying 30% of US electricity from photovoltaics by 2030, supplying 25% of US electricity from wind by 2025, displacing 30% of US hydrocarbon use by 2030 with bio-based products, and providing a practical 250-300 W h/kg energy storage system by 2025. Similar challenges could be outlined along the same lines for the remainder of the world. Examples of specific areas of research focus identified as promising include high performance p-type transparent conductors, multijunction thin-film photovoltaic devices, defects in chalcogenide semiconductors, experimental study and numerical modeling of the fluid mechanics of airflow as applied to wind turbines, improved materials for wind turbines, methods for creating high energy density transportable biological feedstocks, biorefinery processes yielding infrastructure-compatible biofuels and biochemicals directly, and improved electrodes and electrolytes for Li ion batteries. Arguments for each of these as research priorities are given.

  20. High pressure phase-transformation induced texture evolution and strengthening in zirconium metal: Experiment and modeling

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Yu, Xiaohui; Zhang, Ruifeng; Weldon, David; Vogel, Sven C.; Zhang, Jianzhong; Brown, Donald W.; Wang, Yanbin; Reiche, Helmut M.; Wang, Shanmin; Du, Shiyu; et al

    2015-07-28

    We studied the phase-transition induced texture changes and strengthening mechanism for zirconium metal under quasi-hydrostatic compression and uni-axial deformation under confined high pressure using the deformation-DIA (D-DIA) apparatus. It is shown that the experimentally obtained texture for ω-phase Zr can be qualitatively described by combining a subset of orientation variants previously proposed in two different models. The determined flow stress for the high-pressure ω-phase is 0.5–1.2 GPa, more than three times higher than that of the α-phase. Using first-principles calculations, we investigated the mechanical and electronic properties of the two Zr polymorphs. We find that the observed strengthening can bemore » attributed to the relatively strong directional bonding in the ω phase, which significantly increases its shear plastic resistance over the α-phase Zr. The present findings provide an alternate route for Zr metal strengthening by high-pressure phase transformation.« less