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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dry steam number" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

Steam atmosphere drying exhaust steam recompression system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

This invention relates to a heated steam atmosphere drying system comprising dryer in combination with an exhaust recompression system which is extremely energy efficient and eliminates dangers known to air dryers. The system uses superheated steam as the drying medium, which recirculates through the system where its heat of evaporation and heat of compression is recovered, thereby providing a constant source of heat to the drying chamber. The dryer has inlets whereby feedstock and superheated steam are fed therein. High heat transfer and drying rates are achieved by intimate contact of the superheated steam with the particles being dried. The dryer comprises a vessel which enables the feedstock and steam to enter and recirculate together. When the feedstock becomes dry it will exit the dryer with the steam and become separated from the steam through the use of a curvilinear louver separator (CLS). The CLS enables removal of fine and ultrafine particles from the dryer. Water vapor separated from the particles in the CLS as superheated steam, may then be recovered and recirculated as steam through the use of a compressor to either directly or indirectly heat the dryer, and a heat exchanger or a heater to directly provide heat to the dryer. This system not only provides a very efficient heat transfer system but results in a minimum carry-over of ultrafine particles thereby eliminating any explosive hazard. 17 figures.

Becker, F.E.; Smolensky, L.A.; Doyle, E.F.; DiBella, F.A.

1994-03-08T23:59:59.000Z

2

Systematic Errors in Measuring the Energy of Wet Steam with Dry-Steam Meters  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Systematic errors are considered in measuring mass flow rate, specific enthalpy, thermal power, and energy for wet steam by means of meters intended for dry saturated steam.

E. G. Abarinov; K. S. Sarelo

2002-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

3

Type A: Magma-heated, Dry Steam Resource | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

source source History View New Pages Recent Changes All Special Pages Semantic Search/Querying Get Involved Help Apps Datasets Community Login | Sign Up Search Page Edit History Facebook icon Twitter icon » Type A: Magma-heated, Dry Steam Resource Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Print PDF Type A: Magma-heated, Dry Steam Resource Dictionary.png Type A: Magma-heated, Dry Steam Resource: No definition has been provided for this term. Add a Definition Brophy Occurrence Models This classification scheme was developed by Brophy, as reported in Updating the Classification of Geothermal Resources.[1] Type A: Magma-heated, Dry Steam Resource Type B: Andesitic Volcanic Resource Type C: Caldera Resource Type D: Sedimentary-hosted, Volcanic-related Resource Type E: Extensional Tectonic, Fault-Controlled Resource

4

Mathematical model of steam drying of wood chips and other hygroscopic porous media  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A model is presented that is focused on the drying kinetics of single wood chips as a function of time and external conditions, such as temperature, pressure and velocity of the superheated steam. A multiphase and 2-D approach was used to model the coupled transport of water, vapor, air and heat in anisotropic hygroscopic porous media. The model was verified by drying experiments where measurements of the average moisture content, center temperature and pressure in a single wood chip could be performed simultaneously. A comparison between the calculations and the measurements showed that the drying behavior was well predicted. The drying can be divided into three stages: a heat-up period when condensation on the surface initially increases the moisture content; a period of constant drying rate when the external heat transfer controls the drying rate; and a period of decreasing drying rate when the drying is controlled by internal mass transfer. Many interesting features of the drying could be assigned to the strong anisotropicity of wood, which makes a 2-D model necessary.

Fyhr, C.; Rasmuson, A. [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Gothenburg (Sweden). Dept. of Chemical Engineering Design] [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Gothenburg (Sweden). Dept. of Chemical Engineering Design

1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

5

Evaluation of the economic and environmental impact of combining dry reforming with steam reforming of methane  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Lately, there has been considerable interest in the development of more efficient processes to generate syngas, an intermediate in the production of fuels and chemicals, including methanol, dimethyl ether, ethylene, propylene and Fischer–Tropsch fuels. Steam methane reforming (SMR) is the most widely applied method of producing syngas from natural gas. Dry reforming of methane (DRM) is a process that uses waste carbon dioxide to produce syngas from natural gas. Dry reforming alone has not yet been implemented commercially; however, a combination of steam methane reforming and dry reforming of methane (SMR + DRM) has been used in industry for several years. The aim of this work was to simulate both the SMR and SMR + DRM processes and to conduct an economic and environmental analysis to determine whether the SMR + DRM process is competitive with the more popular SMR process. The results indicate that the SMR + DRM process has a lower carbon footprint. Further research on DRM catalysts could make this process economically competitive with steam methane reforming.

Preeti Gangadharan; Krishna C. Kanchi; Helen H. Lou

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

6

Study of Chemical Structure Changes of Chinese Lignite upon Drying in Superheated Steam, Microwave, and Hot Air  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Study of Chemical Structure Changes of Chinese Lignite upon Drying in Superheated Steam, Microwave, and Hot Air ... An estimated 45% of the world’s coal reserves consist of low-rank coals. ... A range of samples varying from lignites to bituminous coals were used at 30-180°. ...

Arash Tahmasebi; Jianglong Yu; Yanna Han; Fengkui Yin; Sankar Bhattacharya; David Stokie

2012-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

7

Geothermal Steam Power Plant | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

(Redirected from Dry Steam) (Redirected from Dry Steam) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home General List of Dry Steam Plants List of Flash Steam Plants Steam Power Plants Dry Steam Power Plants Simple Dry Steam Powerplant process description - DOE EERE 2012 Dry steam plants use hydrothermal fluids that are primarily steam. The steam travels directly to a turbine, which drives a generator that produces electricity. The steam eliminates the need to burn fossil fuels to run the turbine (also eliminating the need to transport and store fuels). These plants emit only excess steam and very minor amounts of gases.[1] Dry steam power plants systems were the first type of geothermal power generation plants built (they were first used at Lardarello in Italy in 1904). Steam technology is still effective today at currently in use at The

8

Integration of biomass fast pyrolysis and precedent feedstock steam drying with a municipal combined heat and power plant  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Biomass fast pyrolysis (BFP) is a promising pre-treatment technology for converting biomass to transport fuel and in the future also for high-grade chemicals. BFP can be integrated with a municipal combined heat and power (CHP) plant. This paper shows the influence of BFP integration on a CHP plant's main parameters and its effect on the energetic and environmental performance of the connected district heating network. The work comprises full- and part-load operation of a CHP plant integrated with BFP and steam drying. It also evaluates different usage alternatives for the BFP products (char and oil). The results show that the integration is possible and strongly beneficial regarding energetic and environmental performance. Offering the possibility to provide lower district heating loads, the operation hours of the plant can be increased by up to 57%. The BFP products should be sold rather than applied for internal use as this increases the district heating network's primary energy efficiency the most. With this integration strategy future CHP plants can provide valuable products at high efficiency and also can help to mitigate global CO2 emissions.

Thomas Kohl; Timo P. Laukkanen; Mika P. Järvinen

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

9

Geothermal Steam Power Plant | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Jump to: navigation, search Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home General List of Dry Steam Plants List of Flash Steam Plants Steam Power Plants Dry Steam Power Plants Simple Dry Steam Powerplant process description - DOE EERE 2012 Dry steam plants use hydrothermal fluids that are primarily steam. The steam travels directly to a turbine, which drives a generator that produces electricity. The steam eliminates the need to burn fossil fuels to run the turbine (also eliminating the need to transport and store fuels). These plants emit only excess steam and very minor amounts of gases.[1] Dry steam power plants systems were the first type of geothermal power generation plants built (they were first used at Lardarello in Italy in 1904). Steam technology is still effective today at currently in use at The

10

Improving steam turbine efficiency  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper describes the condition of a significant number of fossil steam turbines operating in the United States and the maintenance practices used to improve their performance. Through the use of steam path audits conducted by the authors` company and by several utilities, a large data base of information on turbine heat rate, casing efficiency, and maintenance practices is available to help the power generation industry understand how different maintenance practices and steam path damage impact turbine performance. The data base reveals that turbine cycle heat rate is typically 5.23% poorer than design just prior to major outages. The degraded condition of steam turbines presents an opportunity for utilities to improve heat rate and reduce emissions without increasing fuel costs. The paper describes what losses typically contribute to the 5.23% heat rate degradation and how utilities can recover steam turbine performance through maintenance actions aimed at improving steam path efficiency.

Cioffi, D.H.; Mitchell, D.R.; Whitecar, S.C. [Encotech, Inc., Schenectady, NY (United States)

1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

11

Steam in the Ring Discharge  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The behaviour of steam and its decomposition products in the ring discharge has been examined. Dry hydrogen is not dissociated. The production of atomic hydrogen is dependent upon the presence of steam which dissociates into hydroxyl and atomic hydrogen. A secondary source of atomic hydrogen is then afforded by the interaction of hydroxyl with molecular hydrogen. The escape from the discharge of atomic hydrogen, a long-lived species, favours the dissociation of steam. Mercury vapour, on the other hand, inhibits the formation of atomic hydrogen and thus leads to a high equilibrium steam concentration. Unlike dry hydrogen, dry oxygen is dissociated into atoms, but these have a short life as such and recombine in the discharge to form molecular oxygen and ozone. The reaction mechanisms occurring in the discharge are discussed in the light of spectrographic results.

G I Finch

1949-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

Effective Steam Trap Selection/Maintenance - Its Payback  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In oil refineries and petrochemical plants large number of steam traps are used to discharge condensate from steam mains, tracers and process equipment. Early efforts on steam traps focused almost exclusively on their selection and sizing...

Garcia, E.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

13

Superheated steam power plant with steam to steam reheater. [LMFBR  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A desuperheater is disposed in a steam supply line supplying superheated steam to a shell and tube reheater.

Silvestri, G.J.

1981-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

14

Impingement drying of potato chips  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Superheated steam impingement drying was used as an alternative technique to develop nutritious fat-free potato chips. The effect of superheated steam temperature (115, 130, and 145° C) and convective heat transfer coefficient (100 and 160 W/m˛ °C...

Caixeta, Aline Teixeira

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

15

The Steam System Assessment Tool (SSAT): Estimating Steam System Energy, Cost, and Emission Savings  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The U. S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Industrial Technology Program BestPractices Steam effort is developing a number of software tools to assist industrial energy users to improve the efficiency of their steam system. A major new Best...

Wright, A.; Bealing, C.; Eastwood, A.; Tainsh, R.; Hahn, G.; Harrell, G.

16

Steam Turbine Cogeneration  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Steam turbines are widely used in most industrial facilities because steam is readily available and steam turbine is easy to operate and maintain. If designed properly, a steam turbine co-generation (producing heat and power simultaneously) system...

Quach, K.; Robb, A. G.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

Achieve Steam System Excellence- Steam Overview  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This fact sheet describes a steam systems approach to help companies operate and maintain their industrial steam plants and thermal manufacturing processes more efficiently.

18

HP Steam Trap Monitoring  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Consumption Peak Demand Mgt Peak Demand Mgt Similar Weather Day Analysis Metering and Verafication Steam Meter Monitoring ? Peak Demand Management ? Steam Consumption Management ? Steam Bill Verification ? Measurement and Verification ... Consumption Peak Demand Mgt Peak Demand Mgt Similar Weather Day Analysis Metering and Verafication Steam Meter Monitoring ? Peak Demand Management ? Steam Consumption Management ? Steam Bill Verification ? Measurement and Verification ...

Pascone, S.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

19

Steam System Survey Guide  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This guide provides technical information for steam system operational personnel and plant energy managers on some of the major opportunities available to improve the energy efficiency and productivity of industrial steam systems. The guide covers five main areas of investigation: (1) profiling a steam system, (2) identifying steam properties for the steam system, (3) improving boiler operations, (4) improving resource utilization in the steam system, and (5) investigating energy losses in the steam distribution system.

20

Steam Path Audits on Industrial Steam Turbines  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

steam Path Audits on Industrial steam Turbines DOUGLAS R. MITCHELL. ENGINEER. ENCOTECH, INC., SCHENECTADY, NEW YORK ABSTRACT The electric utility industry has benefitted from steam path audits on steam turbines for several years. Benefits... not extend the turbine outage. To assure that all of the turbine audit data are available, the audit engineer must be at the turbine site the day the steam path is first exposed. A report of the opening audit findings is generated to describe the as...

Mitchell, D. R.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dry steam number" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Thomas Reddinger Director, Steam  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Thomas Reddinger Director, Steam Operations Steven Richards Assistant Manager of Maintenance Supervisor (Distribution) Deborah Moorhead Office Coordinator III Martin Bower Steam Plant Operator Richard Redfield Steam Plant Operator SU Steam Station/Chilled Water Plant Bohdan Sawa Steam Plant Operator Robert

McConnell, Terry

22

Drying of fiber webs  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process and an apparatus are disclosed for high-intensity drying of fiber webs or sheets, such as newsprint, printing and writing papers, packaging paper, and paperboard or linerboard, as they are formed on a paper machine. The invention uses direct contact between the wet fiber web or sheet and various molten heat transfer fluids, such as liquefied eutectic metal alloys, to impart heat at high rates over prolonged durations, in order to achieve ambient boiling of moisture contained within the web. The molten fluid contact process causes steam vapor to emanate from the web surface, without dilution by ambient air; and it is differentiated from the evaporative drying techniques of the prior industrial art, which depend on the uses of steam-heated cylinders to supply heat to the paper web surface, and ambient air to carry away moisture, which is evaporated from the web surface. Contact between the wet fiber web and the molten fluid can be accomplished either by submersing the web within a molten bath or by coating the surface of the web with the molten media. Because of the high interfacial surface tension between the molten media and the cellulose fiber comprising the paper web, the molten media does not appreciatively stick to the paper after it is dried. Steam generated from the paper web is collected and condensed without dilution by ambient air to allow heat recovery at significantly higher temperature levels than attainable in evaporative dryers. 6 figs.

Warren, D.W.

1997-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

23

SteamMaster: Steam System Analysis Software  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

STEAMMASTER: STEAM SYSTEM ANALYSIS SOFTW ARE Greg Wheeler Associate Professor Oregon State University Corvallis, OR 9733 I ABSTRACT As director of Oregon's ]ndustrial Assessment Center, [ have encountered many industrial steam systems during... plant visits. We analyze steam systems and make recommendations to improve system efficiency. [n nearly 400 industrial assessments, we have recommended 210 steam system improvements, excluding heat recovery, that would save $1.5 million/year with a...

Wheeler, G.

24

Methane-steam reforming  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A discussion covers steam reforming developments to the 1950's; the kinetics of methane-steam reforming, of the water-gas shift during methane-steam reforming, and of the carbon formation during methane-steam reforming, as approached by Akers and Camp.

Van Hook, J.P.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

25

Experience, Engagement and Social Interaction at a Steam Locomotive  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of two interactive stations (figure 2) where visitors can add coal and water to the steam engine at station 1 and regulate the steam pressure in the engine at station 2, as well as a number of visualExperience, Engagement and Social Interaction at a Steam Locomotive Multimodal Interactive Museum

Hornecker, Eva

26

Steam Systems | Department of Energy  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

Reduction: Opportunities and Issues How to Calculate the True Cost of Steam Industrial Heat Pumps for Steam and Fuel Savings Industrial Steam System Heat-Transfer Solutions...

27

Number  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

' ' , /v-i 2 -i 3 -A, This dow'at consists ~f--~-_,_~~~p.~,::, Number -------of.-&--copies, 1 Series.,-a-,-. ! 1 THE UNIVERSITY OF ROCHESTER 1; r-.' L INTRAMURALCORRESPONDENCE i"ks' 3 2.. September 25, 1947 Memo.tor Dr. A. H, Dovdy . From: Dr. H. E, Stokinger Be: Trip Report - Mayvood Chemical Works A trip vas made Nednesday, August 24th vith Messrs. Robert W ilson and George Sprague to the Mayvood Chemical F!orks, Mayvood, New Jersey one of 2 plants in the U.S.A. engaged in the production of thorium compounds. The purpose of the trip vas to: l 1. Learn the type of chemical processes employed in the thorium industry (thorium nitrate). 2. Survey conditions of eeosure of personnel associated vith these chemical processes. 3. Obtain samples of atmospheric contaminants in the plant, as

28

Steam Oxidation of Advanced Steam Turbine Alloys  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Power generation from coal using ultra supercritical steam results in improved fuel efficiency and decreased greenhouse gas emissions. Results of ongoing research into the oxidation of candidate nickel-base alloys for ultra supercritical steam turbines are presented. Exposure conditions range from moist air at atmospheric pressure (650°C to 800°C) to steam at 34.5 MPa (650°C to 760°C). Parabolic scale growth coupled with internal oxidation and reactive evaporation of chromia are the primary corrosion mechanisms.

Holcomb, Gordon R.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

The effect of chemical admixtures on the drying shrinkage of concrete  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of the aggzegate used. Table 8 Data Taken by Tramper (11) Drying Shrinkage after Number of Days Shown Each value is the average of 12 specimens from 4 batches; values are in percent . ~At A Control Admixture I Admixture '2 7 14 28 7 14 28 7 14 ' 28... Change of Steam Cured Port- t dC* tth& dd* *t", ~P**d, ll*' C *t Institute, Volume 31, 1935. 5. Carlson, Roy W. , "Drying Shrinkage of Concrete as Affected by Many Factors", Proceedin s of American Societ for Testin Materials, Volume 38, 1938. 6...

Torrans, Patrick Henry

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

30

Quantitative description of steam channels after steam flooding  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Steam channeling is one of the main barriers for EOR after steam flooding. In order to enhance the oil recovery in steam flooded reservoirs, steam channel volumes should be precisely known. In ... methods has bee...

Qiang Zheng; HuiQing Liu; Fang Li; Qing Wang…

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

Waste Steam Recovery  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

An examination has been made of the recovery of waste steam by three techniques: direct heat exchange to process, mechanical compression, and thermocompression. Near atmospheric steam sources were considered, but the techniques developed are equally...

Kleinfeld, J. M.

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

32

Downhole steam quality measurement  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention relates to an empirical electrical method for remote sensing of steam quality utilizing flow-through grids which allow measurement of the electrical properties of a flowing two-phase mixture. The measurement of steam quality in the oil field is important to the efficient application of steam assisted recovery of oil. Because of the increased energy content in higher quality steam it is important to maintain the highest possible steam quality at the injection sandface. The effectiveness of a steaming operation without a measure of steam quality downhole close to the point of injection would be difficult to determine. Therefore, a need exists for the remote sensing of steam quality.

Lee, D.O.; Montoya, P.C.; Muir, J.F.; Wayland, J.R. Jr.

1985-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

33

Steam Digest 2001  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Steam Digest 2001 chronicles BestPractices Program's contributions to the industrial trade press for 2001, and presents articles that cover technical, financial and managerial aspects of steam optimization.

Not Available

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

34

Sequential steam; An engineered cyclic steaming method  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Cyclic steam injection has been the most widely used EOR method in areas of the Potter sand in the Midway-Sunset field, Kern County, CA. This paper discusses the field pilot and the statistical and theoretical studies leading to the design of a sequential steaming process,plus the implementation of this process on three leases.

Jones, J. (Santa Fe Energy Resources Inc., Bakersfield, CA (US)); Cawthon, J. (Groundwater Resources Inc. (US))

1990-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

35

Hydrocarbon steam reforming using series steam superheaters  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In a process for steam reforming of a hydrocarbon gas feedstream wherein: the hydrocarbon gas feedstream is partially reformed at elevated temperatures in indirect heat exchange with hot combustion gases in a direct fired primary reforming furnace provided with a convection section for recovery of excess heat from said combustion gases; and the partially reformed feedstream is then further reformed in the presence of an oxygen-containing gas and steam in a secondary reformer to form a secondary reformer gaseous effluent; the improvement which comprises recovering waste heat from said secondary reformer effluent gas and from said primary reforming combustion products by heating a high pressure saturated steam in a first steam superheating zone by indirect heat exchange with at least a portion of said secondary reformer effluent gas to form a first superheated steam stream; and further heating said first superheated steam in a second steam superheating zone by indirect heat exchange with at least a portion of said primary reformer hot combustion gases for form a second superheated steam stream.

Osman, R. M.

1985-10-08T23:59:59.000Z

36

Measurement of steam quality in two-phase critical flow  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

through a venturi for subczitical flow of steam-water 45 13 Steam quality as a function of vapor-phase Reynolds number for subczitical flow of steam-water 46 14 Steam quality as a function of Collins and Gacesa parameter for subcritical flow of steam... high degree of accuracy. He suggested that the following correlation may be used to calculate two-phase flow rates through orifices to within an error of 1. 5 percent 339 K 3 9 9' J 9 v v a v w f + [ 1. 26 (1-f ) K Y /K ] ~p p where V and L...

Sinclair, John William

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

37

Syngas as an Additional Energy Carrier in the Pulp and Paper Industry: A Mill-Wide System Analysis of a Combined Drying Concept, Utilizing On-Site Generated Gas and Steam  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

syngas combusted in a burner; flue gases mixed into the impingement section drying air ... Furthermore, there is an uncertainty about the assumption that char burns in the bed, because the char from the gasification reactor that enters the boiler BFB might partly elutriate from the bed and burn in the boiler freeboard, which would further lower the bed temperature. ... 25-45% of the initial fixed carbon followed this pathway, with the remainder being directly burnt as coarse char. ...

Christer Gustavsson; Lars Nilsson; Roger Renström

2014-08-18T23:59:59.000Z

38

Geothermal steam quality testing  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Geothermal steam quality and purity have a significant effect on the operational efficiency and life of geothermal steam turbines and accessory equipment. Poor steam processing can result in scaled nozzles/blades, erosion, corrosion, reduced utilization efficiency, and early fatigue failures accelerated by stress corrosion cracking (SCC). Upsets formed by undetected slugs of liquid entering the turbine can cause catastrophic failure. The accurate monitoring and determination of geothermal steam quality/purity is intrinsically complex which often results in substantial errors. This paper will review steam quality and purity relationships, address some of the errors, complexities, calibration and focus on: thermodynamic techniques for evaluating and monitoring steam quality by use of the modified throttling calorimeters.

Jung, D.B. [Two-Phase Engineering & Research, Inc., Santa Rosa, CA (United States)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

39

Steam generator support system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A support system for connection to an outer surface of a J-shaped steam generator for use with a nuclear reactor or other liquid metal cooled power source. The J-shaped steam generator is mounted with the bent portion at the bottom. An arrangement of elongated rod members provides both horizontal and vertical support for the steam generator. The rod members are interconnected to the steam generator assembly and a support structure in a manner which provides for thermal distortion of the steam generator without the transfer of bending moments to the support structure and in a like manner substantially minimizes forces being transferred between the support structure and the steam generator as a result of seismic disturbances.

Moldenhauer, James E. (Simi Valley, CA)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

40

Steam generator support system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A support system for connection to an outer surface of a J-shaped steam generator for use with a nuclear reactor or other liquid metal cooled power source is disclosed. The J-shaped steam generator is mounted with the bent portion at the bottom. An arrangement of elongated rod members provides both horizontal and vertical support for the steam generator. The rod members are interconnected to the steam generator assembly and a support structure in a manner which provides for thermal distortion of the steam generator without the transfer of bending moments to the support structure and in a like manner substantially minimizes forces being transferred between the support structure and the steam generator as a result of seismic disturbances. 4 figs.

Moldenhauer, J.E.

1987-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dry steam number" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

The Invisibility of Steam  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Almost everyone “knows” that steam is visible. After all one can see the cloud of white issuing from the spout of a boiling tea kettle. In reality steam is the gaseous phase of water and is invisible. What you see is light scattered from the tiny droplets of water that are the result of the condensation of the steam as its temperature falls below 100 °C (under standard conditions).

Thomas B. Greenslade Jr.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

Steam reforming analyzed  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper reports that maximum steam reformer operation without excessive coking reactions requires careful control of thermodynamic and kinetic conditions. Regardless of the syngas-based feedstock composition, carbon formation problems can be avoided while increasing reformer CO or H{sub 2} production. Steam reforming technology is best understood via: Primary steam reformer developments, Kinetics of methane steam reforming, Simulation of an industrial steam/CO{sub 2} reformer, Example conditions (steam/CO{sub 2} reforming), Thermodynamic approach (minimum to steam ratio). Hydrogen and carbon monoxide are two of the most important building blocks in the chemical industry. Hydrogen is mainly used in ammonia and methanol synthesis and petroleum refining. Carbon monoxide is used to produce pains, plastics, foams, pesticides and insecticides, to name a few. Production of H{sub 2} and CO is usually carried out by the following processes: Steam reforming (primary and secondary) of hydrocarbons, Partial oxidation of hydrocarbons, Coal gasification. Coal gasification and partial oxidation do not use catalysts and depend on partial combustion of the feedstock to internally supply reaction heat. Secondary (autothermal) reforming is a type of steam reforming that also uses the heat of partial combustion but afterwards uses a catalyst of promote the production of hydrogen and CO.

Wagner, E.S. (KTI Corp., San Dimas, CA (US)); Froment, G.F. (Ghent Rijksuniversiteit (Belgium))

1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

Catalytic steam gasification of coals  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Catalytic steam gasification of coals ... Steam–Coal Gasification Using CaO and KOH for in Situ Carbon and Sulfur Capture ... Steam–Coal Gasification Using CaO and KOH for in Situ Carbon and Sulfur Capture ...

P. Pereira; G. A. Somorjai; H. Heinemann

1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

Options for Generating Steam Efficiently  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This paper describes how plant engineers can efficiently generate steam when there are steam generators and Heat Recovery Steam Generators in their plant. The process consists of understanding the performance characteristics of the various equipment...

Ganapathy, V.

45

Solar Steam Nanobubbles  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Solar Steam Nanobubbles ... The generated steam may also be used to drive a turbine directly for electricity generation. ... Furthermore, sputtering at gas–solid and gas–liquid interfaces may occur, and thermal desorption at the metal–water interface may affect the heat transfer as well. ...

Albert Polman

2013-01-02T23:59:59.000Z

46

Inspect and Repair Steam Traps  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This tip sheet on inspecting and repairing steam traps provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

47

Hog Fuel Drying Using Vapour Recompression  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A continuous hog fuel drying pilot plant based on the principle of mixing hog fuel with a hot oil (e.g., crude tall oil) as the heat transfer medium, and recirculating the suspension through a steam heated exchanger was designed, built...

Azarniouch, M. K.; MacEachen, I.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

48

Streams of Steam The Steam Boiler Specification Case Study  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Streams of Steam ­ The Steam Boiler Specification Case Study Manfred Broy, Franz Regensburger-tuned con- cepts of FOCUS by its application of the requirements specification of a steam boiler, see [Abr96-studies. In this context, applying FOCUS to the steam boiler case study ([Abr96]) led us to a couple of questions re- #12

49

Production of Liquid Feedstock from Biomass via Steam Pyrolysis in a Fluidized Bed Reactor  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Dry basis. ... loss on ignition ... A pre-charred, wood-based carbonaceous precursor was activated using a two-step process (steam-pyrolysis activation) to investigate the potential for optimizing an activation protocol for the prodn. of powd. ...

Efthymios Kantarelis; Weihong Yang; Wlodzimierz Blasiak

2013-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

50

Refurbishing steam turbines  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Power-plant operators are reducing maintenance costs of their aging steam turbines by using wire-arc spray coating and shot peening to prolong the service life of components, and by replacing outmoded bearings and seals with newer designs. Steam-turbine operators are pressed with the challenge of keeping their aging machines functioning in the face of wear problems that are exacerbated by the demand for higher efficiencies. These problems include intense thermal cycling during both start-up and shutdown, water particles in steam and solid particles in the air that pit smooth surfaces, and load changes that cause metal fatigue.

Valenti, M.

1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

Evaluating Steam Trap Performance  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

~LmT " TRIf' 1 TRIf' 2 Figure 2 It has become common practice for engineers to oversize steam traps and place more emphasis on first cost than on maintenance cost and operating 766 3 4 ESL-IE-86-06-126 Proceedings from the Eighth Annual Industrial...EVALUATING STEAM TRAP PERFORMANCE Noel Y Fuller, P.E. Holston Defense Corporation Kingsport, Tennessee ABSTRACT Laboratory tests were conducted on several types of steam traps at Holston Defense Corporation in Kingsport, Tennessee. Data...

Fuller, N. Y.

52

Steam Champions in Manufacturing  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

into equivalent corporate rewards, such as increased profitability, reliability, workplace safety, and other benefits. The prerequisites for becoming a true steam champion will include engineering, business, and management skills....

Russell, C.

53

Steam Trap Application  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

characteristics. 2. Understand advantages and limitations of various checking methods. 3. Use more than one checking method. 4. Understand flash condensate. 5. Condensate makes more noise than steam. 6. Trouble shoot the system. 7. Review trap... or failed steam and condensate flow~' H closed to be undetected -Not always insensitive to back ground or ambient noise -Noise in electrical system if volume too high -Head set quality important -Location of probe on trap, contact force, pressure drop...

Murphy, J. J.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

Process for generating steam in a fuel cell powerplant  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The steam for a steam reforming reactor of a fuel cell powerplant is generated by humidifying the reactor feed gas in a saturator by evaporating a small portion of a mass of liquid water which circulates in a loop passing through the saturator. The water is reheated in each pass through the loop by waste heat from the fuel cell, but is not boiled. In the saturator the relatively dry feed gas passes in direct contact with the liquid water over and through a bed a high surface area material to cause evaporation of some of the water in the loop. All the steam requirements for the reactor can be generated in this manner without the need for a boiler; and steam can be raised at a higher total pressure than in a boiler heated by the same source.

Sederquist, R. A.

1985-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

55

DOE's BestPractices Steam End User Training Steam End User Training  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

DOE's BestPractices Steam End User Training Steam End User Training Steam Distribution Losses Module 1 June 29, 2010 Steam EndUser Training Steam Distribution System Losses Module Slide 1 pressure. #12;DOE's BestPractices Steam End User Training Steam End User Training Steam Distribution

Oak Ridge National Laboratory

56

Methane-steam reforming  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The literature relating to the kinetics of methane-steam reforming involving integral and differential reactor data, porous nickel catalysts and nickel foil, and data over large ranges of temperature (500 to 1700/sup 0/F), pressure (0.01 to 50 atm), and intrinsic catalyst activities (200,000-fold) was reviewed. A simple reversible first-order kinetic expression for the steam-methane reaction appears to be applicable throughout the operable region of steam-to-carbon ratios. Internal pore diffusion limitation on the conversion rate, due to catalyst size and/or intrinsic catalyst activity and total operating pressure was underlined. S-shaped Arrhenium plots (changing activation energy) are obtained when steam reforming is conducted over a temperature range sufficient to produce intrinsic kinetics (low temperature, inactive catalyst, or small catalyst size), pore diffusional limitations, and reaction on the outside surface. Homogeneous gas-phase kinetics appear to contribute only at relatively high temperature (1400/sup 0/F). In steam reforming, the water-gas shift reaction departs from its equilibrium position, especially at low methane conversion level. A general correlation of approach to water-gas shift equilibration as a function of conversion level only was indicated. (DP) 18 figures, 6 tables.

Van Hook, J.P.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

57

" Row: NAICS Codes;" " Column: Supplier Sources of Purchased Electricity, Natural Gas, and Steam;"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

8 Number of Establishments by Quantity of Purchased Electricity, Natural Gas, and Steam, 2002;" 8 Number of Establishments by Quantity of Purchased Electricity, Natural Gas, and Steam, 2002;" " Level: National Data; " " Row: NAICS Codes;" " Column: Supplier Sources of Purchased Electricity, Natural Gas, and Steam;" " Unit: Establishment Counts." ,,,"Electricity","Components",,,"Natural","Gas","Components",,"Steam","Components" ,,,,"Electricity","Electricity",,,"Natural Gas","Natural Gas",,,"Steam","Steam" " "," ",,,"from Only","from Both",,,"from Only","from Both",,,"from Only","from Both"," ",," "

58

Steam Basics: Use Available Data to Lower Steam System Cost  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Industrial steam users recognize the need to reduce system cost in order to remain internationally competitive. Steam systems are a key utility that influence cost significantly, and represent a high value opportunity target. However, the quality...

Risko, J. R.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

Process-circuit and layout solutions for steam-turbine units and performance efficiency of thermal power plants  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Criteria for evaluating process-circuit and layout solutions adopted in designing steam-turbine units are presented together with their values for a number of steam-turbine units produced by the Ural Turbine Work...

A. A. Gol’dberg; T. L. Shibaev

2014-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

Steam System Improvements at a Manufacturing Plant  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

BWX Technologies, Naval Nuclear Fuel Division (NNFD) is a manufacturing company with a steam system consisting of two Babcock & Wilcox boilers and approximately 350 steam traps. The steam system is used to produce and distribute steam for space...

Compher, J.; Morcom, B.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dry steam number" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Steam Power Partnership: Improving Steam System Efficiency Through Marketplace Partnerships  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to support the steam efficiency program. Today, the Steam Team includes, the North American Insulation Manufacturers Association (NAIMA), the American Gas Association (AGA), the Council of Industrial Boiler Owners (ClBO), Armstrong International... pinch technology, and high performance steam. ? Armstrong International - Three worldwide factory seminar facilities, 13 North American sales representative facilities, 4 international sales representative facilities, 8 co-sponsored facilities, 2...

Jones, T.

62

Reduction in Unit Steam Production  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In 2001 the company's Arch-Brandenburg facility faced increased steam costs due to high natural gas prices and decreased production due to shutdown of a process. The facility was challenged to reduce unit steam consumption to minimize the effects...

Gombos, R.

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

Belgrade Lot Steam Plant Lot  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

2 2A 2A Belgrade Lot Steam Plant Lot Alfond Lot Satellite Lot North Gym Lot Corbett Lot Dunn Lot Hamlin Steam Plant Crosby Machine Tool Lab Children's Center Rogers N S Estabrooke Memorial Gym Stevens

Thomas, Andrew

64

Heat Recovery Steam Generator Simulation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The paper discusses the applications of Heat Recovery Steam Generator Simulation. Consultants, plant engineers and plant developers can evaluate the steam side performance of HRSGs and arrive at the optimum system which matches the needs...

Ganapathy, V.

65

Consider Steam Turbine Drives for Rotating Equipment  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This tip sheet outlines the benefits of steam turbine drives for rotating equipment as part of optimized steam systems.

66

Steam Turbine Control Valve Noise  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Although noise problems with steam turbine control valves have existed before they have become more prominent with nuclear turbines whose valves range to 20 in. in diameter. Our first?generation nuclear control valves were unacceptably noisy when operating under chocked conditions. These noise levels have been ameliorated by incorporation of a valve cage with numerous small holes. Rational design rules for this “dispersive muffler” have been developed from published multiple?jet noise data and improved through our own tests. However we are also evaluating other low?noise valve configurations which are consistent with turbine requirements. The approach we are developing is to investigate the internal aerodynamic noisegeneration in small air model tests and to combine this with measurements of pipe?wall transmission characteristics (being reported separately) to predict externally radiated noise. These predictions will be checked in a new steam test facility for complete scale?model valves. The small air tests show that acoustic efficiencies of throttling valve flows tend to vary with third power of Mach number when exhausting into space and with a lesser power when enclosed in a downstream pipe. At some pressure ratios narrow?band spikes appear in the spectrum and for some configurations step changes in sound power are associated with transitions in flow regimes.

Frank J. Heymann; Michael A. Staiano

1973-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

Watt steam governor  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The physics of the fly-ball governor, introduced to regulate the speed of steam engines, is here analysed anew. The original analysis is generalized to arbitrary governor geometry. The well-known stability criterion for the linearized system breaks down for large excursions from equilibrium; we show approximately how this criterion changes.

Mark Denny

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

Steamed dinosaur eggs  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... a Cretaceous hatchery shows that some dinosaurs liked their nesting sites steam-heated — by geothermal vents. A paper in Nature Communications today says that certain dinosaurs regularly returned to ... vents. A paper in Nature Communications today says that certain dinosaurs regularly returned to geothermal fields to shape nests and deposit eggs more than 100 million years ago. ...

Rex Dalton

2010-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

69

Steam management in composite mature steam floods, Midway Sunset field  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Vogel noted that oil production rates in many steam floods are not predictable from steam injection rates and must be estimated on some other basis. He presented a conservative method, based on simple models assuming instantaneous steam overlay, to calculate heat requirements once the oil rate is known. By more accurately describing the reservoir being flooded and the steam flood process, Vogel`s method was refined resulting in significant steam savings for SWEPI`s leasehold in the northern part of the Midway Sunset field. Analytical expressions are presented for (1) the heat required to support a steam chest descending into an oil column, (2) the heating of a cap or base rock already partially heated by an adjacent steam flood and (3) the heating of a cap or base rock which is exposed to a uniformly growing steam zone. A method is also described to operate a mature steam flood at a constant oil steam ratio while scavenging some heat stored in the steam zone.

Dorp, J.J. van; Roach, R.H.

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

70

Steam System Balancing and Tuning  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Steam System Balancing and Steam System Balancing and Tuning Building America Stakeholder Meeting Austin, TX Jayne Choi, Energy Analyst, CNT Energy March 2, 2012 PARR Current collaboration with GTI as a part of the PARR Building America team - Steam Systems Balancing and Tuning Study - Heating season 2011-2012 Background In Chicago, heating is the focus of residential energy use Of the 470,000 multifamily units in the Chicago region, at least 70,000 of those are steam heated Old steam systems invariably suffer from imbalance - Tenants must use supplemental heat or open their windows to cool their apartments during the heating season Buildings are often overheated Problem Statement (CNT Energy) Steam Heating Steam heat was the best option for buildings constructed between 1900 and 1930

71

Performance of Steam Production by Biomass Combustor for Agro-industry  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract This research paper aims to particularly raise the issue how optimization of steam production produced by a biomass combustor is regarded to agricultural industry, for the produced steam will consequently be applied to sterilization or even drying process. The most optimal level of steam production will be explored as to how to optimally achieve flow rate of air, rate of fuel input, the rate of steam production, and steam production in compliance with the given 100 kg/h capacity and the required temperature of between 90-100°C . Biomass steam production incorporates 3 major parts: 1) biomass combustor, 2) heat exchanger system (coiled tube), and 3) control system, administered the whole process, located at the School of Renewable Energy Technology, Naresuan University, Phitsanulok. A combustion system was tested through the implementation of eucalyptus charcoal as the main source of energy. The research finding revealed that the combustion system could generate steam at 100 kg/h which consumed eucalyptus charcoal at the temperature value of Heating value of fuel (HHV) was 30.0 MJ/kg. This was conducted within the biomass combustor, engaged with a coil tube, at the flow rate of 172.8 kg/h, the value of feed rate of fuel at 15 kg/h, and a steam production rate at 100 kg/h respectively. The efficiency of steam production was at 58.25%. When the taken result was brought to compare with a mathematical model with experiment result of steam production, it was found out that the error value was 0.9997 which could usefully be used to predict steam production in the system. With reference to the economical benefit, when compared to steam production produced by LPG fuel at 100 kg/h production rate, it was obvious that steam production generated by biomass could redeem the spent investing cost with less than one year. This would greatly be interesting and applicable to industry particularly agriculture that steam production by biomass combustor with helical coiled boiler technique will be used to energy backup for drying system. However steam production will be supported drying system after utilization in another thermal process the temperature not more than 100°C within industrial or industrial house hold.

B. Prasit; P. Maneechot

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

dist_steam.pdf  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

District Steam Usage Form District Steam Usage Form 1999 Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS) 1. Timely submission of this report is mandatory under Public Law 93-275, as amended. 2. This completed questionnaire is due by 3. Data reported on this questionnaire are for the entire building identified in the label to the right. 4. Data may be submitted directly on this questionnaire or in any other format, such as a computer-generated listing, which provides the same i nformation and is conve nient for y our company. a. You may submit a single report for the entire building, or if it i s easier, a separate report for each of several accounts in the building. These will then be aggregated by the survey contractor. b. If you are concerned about your individual account information, you may c

73

GRR/Section 3-UT-e - Geothermal Steam Lease (Utah Trust Lands) | Open  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

3-UT-e - Geothermal Steam Lease (Utah Trust Lands) 3-UT-e - Geothermal Steam Lease (Utah Trust Lands) < GRR Jump to: navigation, search GRR-logo.png GEOTHERMAL REGULATORY ROADMAP Roadmap Home Roadmap Help List of Sections Section 3-UT-e - Geothermal Steam Lease (Utah Trust Lands) 03UTEGeothermalSteamLeaseUtahTrustLands.pdf Click to View Fullscreen Contact Agencies Utah School and Institutional Trust Lands Administration Utah Division of Water Rights Regulations & Policies UC 53C-4-102 UTLA Lease and Permit Covenants R850-27 UTLA Geothermal Steam Regulations Triggers None specified Click "Edit With Form" above to add content 03UTEGeothermalSteamLeaseUtahTrustLands.pdf Error creating thumbnail: Page number not in range. Error creating thumbnail: Page number not in range. Error creating thumbnail: Page number not in range.

74

Air-cooled vacuum steam condenser  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This patent describes a steam powered system. It comprises: a turbine for converting steam energy into mechanical energy upon expansion of steam therein, a boiler for generating steam to be fed to the turbine, and a conduit arrangement coupling the boiler to the turbine and then recoupling the turbine exhaust to the boiler through steam condensing mechanisms.

Larinoff, M.W.

1990-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

75

Steam Pressure Reduction: Opportunities and Issues; A BestPractices Steam Technical Brief  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A BestPractices Technical Brief describing industrial steam generation systems and opportunities for reducing steam system operating pressure.

Not Available

2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

Steam Cracker Furnace Energy Improvements  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Channel, ~ 25 mi. east of Houston ? Includes 4 manufacturing sites, 2 technology/engineering offices ?Significant community involvement Baytown Refinery Page 4 Steam Cracking to Olefins ? Process 60+ years old; ExxonMobil one of pioneers... Steam Cracker Furnace Energy Improvements Tim Gandler Energy Coordinator Baytown Olefins Plant, Baytown Tx 2010 Industrial Energy Technology Conference May, 2010 Page 2 ? Baytown Complex ? Steam Cracking to Olefins ? Furnace overview...

Gandler, T.

77

Steam System Forecasting and Management  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

by manipulation of operating schedules to avoid steam balances that result in steam venting, off gas-flaring, excessive condensing on extraction/condensing turbines, and ineffective use of extraction turbines. For example, during the fourth quarter of 1981... minimum turndown levels. Several boilers would have oeen shut down; by-product fuel gas would have been flared; and surplus low level steam would have been vented to the atmosphere. Several scenarios were studied with SFC and evaluated based...

Mongrue, D. M.; Wittke, D. O.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

Assessment of the need for dry cooling: 1981 update  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An assessment of the need for dry cooling of steam-electric power plants over the time period 2000 to 2020 is documented. In the assessment three scenarios for future growth in electrical energy were examined. Characteristics of fresh water supply and consumptive use of water in each of the 99 aggregated subareas within the contiguous United States were reviewed; based on this review the need for dry cooling in each pertinent subarea was delineated.

Sonnichsen, J.C.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

Experimental and analytical studies of hydrocarbon yields under dry-, steam-, and steam with propane-distillation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

from Instituto Mexicano del Petróleo (IMP), Dr. Fernando Rodriguez de la Garza, and Dr. Jose Luis Sanchez Bujanos from Petróleos Mexicanos (PEMEX), and Lawyer Rolando Rueda de Leon from Diario de Mexico, for their help and valuable advice. I would...

Ramirez Garnica, Marco Antonio

2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

80

Deaerators in Industrial Steam Systems  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This tip sheet on deaerators provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dry steam number" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Steam System Improvement: A Case Study  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. For industries, this will result in the reduction of production cost. In industry where steam is utilized, the steam production and distribution system consumes a significant portion of energy. Therefore, optimization of steam system is among the biggest energy...

Venkatesan, V. V.; Leigh, N.

82

Large steam turbine repair: A survey  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report covers a survey taken to document the current state-of-the-art in repairs to large steam turbines. One objective was to provide information to assist utilities in making repair or replacement decisions. The survey revealed that a large number of repairs have been successfully repaired involving both mechanical and welding repair techniques. Repair techniques have been improving in recent years and are being used more frequently. No guidelines or codes exist for the repair of steam turbine components so each repair is primarily controlled by agreement between the utility, contractor and insurer. Types of repairs are reviewed in this report and in addition, the capabilities of various contractors who are currently active in providing repair service. 40 refs., 10 figs., 4 tabs.

Findlan, S.J.; Lube, B. (EPRI Nondestructive Evaluation Center, Charlotte, NC (United States))

1991-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

83

Training: Steam Systems | Department of Energy  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

required to register. Steam End User - 1 day workshop Availability: Onsite instructor-led and online self-paced workshop This course covers the operation of typical steam...

84

Benchmark the Fuel Cost of Steam Generation  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This tip sheet on benchmarking the fuel cost of steam provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

85

Steam System Modeler | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Efficiency (%) Isentropic Efficiency (%) Blowdown Rate (%) Deaerator Vent Rate (%) Heat Loss (%) Condensate Return (%) Steam Mass Flow Feedwater Mass Flow Initial HP Steam...

86

ULTRA-SUPERCRITICAL STEAM CORROSION  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Efficiency increases in fossil energy boilers and steam turbines are being achieved by increasing the temperature and pressure at the turbine inlets well beyond the critical point of water. To allow these increases, advanced materials are needed that are able to withstand the higher temperatures and pressures in terms of strength, creep, and oxidation resistance. As part of a larger collaborative effort, the Albany Research Center (ARC) is examining the steam-side oxidation behavior for ultrasupercritical (USC) steam turbine applications. Initial tests are being done on six alloys identified as candidates for USC steam boiler applications: ferritic alloy SAVE12, austenitic alloy Super 304H, the high Cr-high Ni alloy HR6W, and the nickel-base superalloys Inconel 617, Haynes 230, and Inconel 740. Each of these alloys has very high strength for its alloy type. Three types of experiments are planned: cyclic oxidation in air plus steam at atmospheric pressure, thermogravimetric ana lysis (TGA) in steam at atmospheric pressure, and exposure tests in supercritical steam up to 650 C (1202 F) and 34.5 MPa (5000 psi). The atmospheric pressure tests, combined with supercritical exposures at 13.8, 20.7, 24.6, and 34.5 MPa (2000, 3000, 4000, and 5000 psi) should allow the determination of the effect of pressure on the oxidation process.

Holcomb, G.R.; Alman, D.E.; Bullard, S.B.; Covino, B.S., Jr.; Cramer, S.D.; Ziomek-Moroz, M.

2003-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

87

Implementation and Rejection of Industrial Steam System Energy Efficiency  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Implementation and Rejection of Industrial Steam System Energy Efficiency Implementation and Rejection of Industrial Steam System Energy Efficiency Measures Title Implementation and Rejection of Industrial Steam System Energy Efficiency Measures Publication Type Journal Article Refereed Designation Unknown LBNL Report Number LBNL-6288E Year of Publication 2013 Authors Therkelsen, Peter L., and Aimee T. McKane Journal Energy Policy Volume 57 Start Page 318 Date Published 06/2013 Publisher Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Keywords industrial energy efficiency, industrial energy efficiency barriers, steam system efficiency Abstract Steam systems consume approximately one third of energy applied at U.S. industrial facilities. To reduce energy consumption, steam system energy assessments have been conducted on a wide range of industry types over the course of five years through the Energy Savings Assessment (ESA) program administered by the U.S. Department of Energy (U.S. DOE). ESA energy assessments result in energy efficiency measure recommendations that are given potential energy and energy cost savings and potential implementation cost values. Saving and cost metrics that measure the impact recommended measures will have at facilities, described as percentages of facility baseline energy and energy cost, are developed from ESA data and used in analyses. Developed savings and cost metrics are examined along with implementation and rejection rates of recommended steam system energy efficiency measures. Based on analyses, implementation of steam system energy efficiency measures is driven primarily by cost metrics: payback period and measure implementation cost as a percentage of facility baseline energy cost (implementation cost percentage). Stated reasons for rejecting recommended measures are primarily based upon economic concerns. Additionally, implementation rates of measures are not only functions of savings and cost metrics, but time as well.

88

Blow-down tests in a sodium-heated steam generator tube. [LMFBR  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The design of steam generators for liquid metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR) electric power plants is based on both normal load operation and plant transient conditions. Perhaps the most severe transient to which an LMFBR steam generator may be subjected is known as the water-side isolation and dump transient, often called the blow-down transient. LMFBR steam generators must be designed to accommodate a small but finite number of the blow-down transients. The purpose of this investigation was to perform a blow-down experiment in a well instrumented, full scale, single tube model of an LMFBR steam generator. The data may be used directly in steam generator design and as a validation point for steam generator mathematical models in plant transient computer codes.

France, D.M.; Carlson, R.D.; Chiang, T.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

GCFR steam generator conceptual design  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The gas-cooled fast reactor (GCFR) steam generators are large once-through heat exchangers with helically coiled tube bundles. In the GCFR demonstration plant, hot helium from the reactor core is passed through these units to produce superheated steam, which is used by the turbine generators to produce electrical power. The paper describes the conceptual design of the steam generator. The major components and functions of the design are addressed. The topics discussed are the configuration, operating conditions, design criteria, and the design verification and support programs.

Holm, R.A.; Elliott, J.P.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

90

Combined Heat and Power Plant Steam Turbine  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Combined Heat and Power Plant Steam Turbine Steam Turbine Chiller Campus Heat Load Steam (recovered waste heat) Gas Turbine University Substation High Pressure Natural Gas Campus Electric Load Southern Generator Heat Recovery Alternative Uses: 1. Campus heating load 2. Steam turbine chiller to campus cooling

Rose, Michael R.

91

Steam System Tool Suite Introduction Guide  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

)........................................................................................8 Steam System Assessment Tool (SSAT Tool, the Steam System Assessment Tool, and the 3E Plus Insulation Tool. Each one of these trainings.S.DOE Steam Tools are designed to aid in assessing steam systems by identifying areas to investigate

Oak Ridge National Laboratory

92

Wet-steam erosion of steam turbine disks and shafts  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A study of wet-steam erosion of the disks and the rotor bosses or housings of turbines in thermal and nuclear power plants shows that the rate of wear does not depend on the diagrammed degree of moisture, but is determined by moisture condensing on the surfaces of the diaphragms and steam inlet components. Renovating the diaphragm seals as an assembly with condensate removal provides a manifold reduction in the erosion.

Averkina, N. V. [JSC 'NPO TsKTI' (Russian Federation); Zheleznyak, I. V. [Leningradskaya AES branch of JSC 'Kontsern Rosenergoatom' (Russian Federation); Kachuriner, Yu. Ya.; Nosovitskii, I. A.; Orlik, V. G., E-mail: orlikvg@mail.ru [JSC 'NPO TsKTI' (Russian Federation); Shishkin, V. I. [Leningradskaya AES branch of JSC 'Kontsern Rosenergoatom' (Russian Federation)

2011-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

93

DOE's BestPractices Steam End User Training Steam End User Training  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

DOE's BestPractices Steam End User Training Steam End User Training Welcome Module - 1 8/27/2010 Steam End User Training Welcome Module Slide 1 ­ Steam End User Training Welcome to the Department of Energy's Industrial Technologies Program BestPractices Steam End-User Training. The Department of Energy

Oak Ridge National Laboratory

94

The Steam System Scoping Tool: Benchmarking Your Steam Operations Through Best Practices  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

system efficiency. The BestPractices Steam effort, a part of the DOE-OIT effort, has developed a new tool that steam energy managers and operations personnel can use to assess their steam operations and improve their steam energy usage -the Steam System...

Wright, A.; Hahn, G.

95

Steam Field | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Field Field Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Print PDF Sanyal Temperature Classification: Steam Field Dictionary.png Steam Field: No definition has been provided for this term. Add a Definition Sanyal Temp Classification This temperature scheme was developed by Sanyal in 2005 at the request of DOE and GEA, as reported in Classification of Geothermal Systems: A Possible Scheme. Extremely Low Temperature Very Low Temperature Low Temperature Moderate Temperature High Temperature Ultra High Temperature Steam Field Steam field reservoirs are special cases where the fluid is predominantly found in a gas phase between 230°C to 240°C. "This special class of resource needs to be recognized, its uniqueness being the remarkably consistent initial temperature and pressure

96

Managing the Steam Trap Population  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

hundred steam traps installed only 58 were working effectively -- 42% needed attention! These programs had associated cost benefits of at least 100% return on investment, a maximum six month breakeven on cash flow, and an energy cost reduction amounting...

Atlas, R. D.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

Foam Cleaning of Steam Turbines  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The efficiency and power output of a steam turbine can be dramatically reduced when deposits form on the turbine blades. Disassembly and mechanical cleaning of the turbine is very time consuming and costly. Deposits can be removed from the turbine...

Foster, C.; Curtis, G.; Horvath, J. W.

98

The steam engine and industrialization  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Simon Schaffer in York Rail Museum talks to the camera about the relationship between the steam engine and industrialization and whatsteam meant; a regular supply of moving power for workshops and factories....

Dugan, David

2004-08-17T23:59:59.000Z

99

Capturing Energy Savings with Steam Traps  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Capturing Energy Savings with Steam Traps Richard C; Bockwinkel General Manager Armstrong Service? A Division of Armstrong International, Inc. Orlando, Florida ABSTRACT This paper will discuss the energy savings potential of steam... Engineer Steam Traps Armstrong International, Inc. Three Rivers, Michigan basis. Finally, it's important to recognize that a steam trap program will reduce steam waste> which will reduce the amount of fuel burned> which will reduce pollutants...

Bockwinkel, R. G.; French, S. A.

100

Review of Orifice Plate Steam Traps  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This guide was prepared to serve as a foundation for making informed decisions about when orifice plate steam traps should be considered for use in new or existing steam systems. It presents background information about different types of steam traps and defines their unique functional and operational characteristics. The advantages and disadvantages associated with using orifice plate steam traps are provided to highlight their capabilities and limitations. Finally, recommendations for using orifice plate steam traps are presented, and possible applications are identified.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dry steam number" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

The Elimination of Steam Traps  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

claims and misinformation gener ated by over thirty-six steam trap manufacturers in the United States alone. A PARTIAL LIST OF STEAM TRAP MANUFACTURERS AAF GESTRA ANDERSON HIROSS ARMSTRONG HOFFMAN BARNES &JONES HONEYWELL BRAUKMANN BESTOBELL... removal had been devised and these same methods, with minor variations, are employed today. The inverted bucket trap was in vented in 1910 by Otto Arner, a friend of Adam Armstrong. Armstrong began his business career by making bicycle spokes...

Dickman, F.

102

Development and Application of Advanced Models for Steam Hydrogasification: Process Design and Economic Evaluation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to make additional steam for the steam turbine cycle. Thein multi-pressure-level steam turbines to produce additionalthe superheated steam to the steam turbine cycle. The most

Lu, Xiaoming

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

103

Dynamic underground stripping: steam and electric heating for in situ decontamination of soils and groundwater  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A dynamic underground stripping process removes localized underground volatile organic compounds from heterogeneous soils and rock in a relatively short time. This method uses steam injection and electrical resistance heating to heat the contaminated underground area to increase the vapor pressure of the contaminants, thus speeding the process of contaminant removal and making the removal more complete. The injected steam passes through the more permeable sediments, distilling the organic contaminants, which are pumped to the surface. Large electrical currents are also applied to the contaminated area, which heat the impermeable subsurface layers that the steam has not penetrated. The condensed and vaporized contaminants are withdrawn by liquid pumping and vacuum extraction. The steam injection and electrical heating steps are repeated as necessary. Geophysical imaging methods can be used to map the boundary between the hot, dry, contamination-free underground zone and the cool, damp surrounding areas to help monitor the dynamic stripping process. 4 figs.

Daily, W.D.; Ramirez, A.L.; Newmark, R.L.; Udell, K.; Buetnner, H.M.; Aines, R.D.

1995-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

104

Modeling of UO{sub 2} oxidation in steam atmosphere  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Nuclear fuel oxidation is an important phenomenon affecting fission product behavior. As indicated by a number of studies, uranium dioxide shows a very wide range of nonstoichiometric states. In steam, fuel oxidation produces a hyperstoichiometric composition, changing the transport properties. Variation of stoichiometry changes diffusion coefficients for oxygen, noble gases, and fission products substantially, affecting the release of fission products.

Dobrov, B.V.; Likhanskii, V.V. [Triniti Research Center, Triniti, Moscow (Russian Federation); Ozrin, V.D. [Nuclear Safety Institute IBREA, Moscow (Russian Federation)] [and others

1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

Best Management Practice #8: Boiler and Steam Systems | Department...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

implement a routine inspection and maintenance program to check steam traps and steam lines for leaks. Repair leaks and replace faulty steam traps as soon as possible. Develop...

106

Use Steam Jet Ejectors or Thermocompressors to Reduce Venting of Low-Pressure Steam  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This tip sheet on steam jet ejectors and thermocompressors provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

107

Some Comments on James Watt's Published Account of His Work on Steam and Steam Engines  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

1 June 1971 research-article Some Comments on James Watt's Published Account of His Work on Steam and Steam Engines W. A. Smeaton

1971-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

Use Steam Jet Ejectors or Thermocompressors to Reduce Venting of Low-Pressure Steam  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Industrial Technologies Program's BestPractices tip sheet on improving efficiency of industrial steam systems by recovery latent heat from low-pressure steam.

Not Available

2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

Steam Pressure Reduction, Opportunities, and Issues  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Steam pressure reduction has the potential to reduce fuel consumption for a minimum capital investment. When the pressure at the boiler is reduced, fuel and steam are saved as a result of changes in the high-pressure side of the steam system from the boiler through the condensate return system. In the boiler plant, losses from combustion, boiler blowdown, radiation, and steam venting from condensate receivers would be reduced by reducing steam pressure. Similarly, in the steam distribution system, losses from radiation, flash steam vented from condensate receivers, and component and steam trap leakage would also be reduced. There are potential problems associated with steam pressure reduction, however. These may include increased boiler carryover, boiler water circulation problems in watertube boilers, increased steam velocity in piping, loss of power in steam turbines, and issues with pressure reducing valves. This paper is based a Steam Technical Brief sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy and Enbridge Gas Distribution, Inc. (5). An example illustrates the use of DOE BestPractices Steam System Assessment Tool to model changes in steam, fuel, electricity generation, and makeup water and to estimate resulting economic benefits.

Berry, Jan [ORNL; Griffin, Mr. Bob [Enbridge Gas Distribution, Inc.; Wright, Anthony L [ORNL

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

Aspects of Solar Drying  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

For the economical utilization of solar energy for drying it is necessary to coordinate ... the drying purposes with the specific characteristic of solar radiation /e.g. small power demand;...

L. Imre

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

Numerical simulation of micro/mini-channel based methane-steam reformer.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Numerical modeling of methane-steam reforming is performed in a micro/mini-channel with heat input through catalytic channel walls. The low-Mach number, variable density Navier-Stokes equations together… (more)

Peterson, Daniel Alan

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

112

EA-1178: 300 Area Steam Plant Replacement, Hanford Site, Richland,  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

78: 300 Area Steam Plant Replacement, Hanford Site, Richland, 78: 300 Area Steam Plant Replacement, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington EA-1178: 300 Area Steam Plant Replacement, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington SUMMARY This EA evaluates the environmental impacts for a proposed energy conservation measure for a number of buildings in the 300 Area of the U.S. Department of Energy Hanford Site. The proposed action includes replacing the centralized heating system with heating units for individual buildings or groups of buildings, constructing new natural gas pipelines to provide a source for many of these units and constructing a central control building to operate and maintain the system. PUBLIC COMMENT OPPORTUNITIES None available at this time. DOCUMENTS AVAILABLE FOR DOWNLOAD March 12, 1997 EA-1178: Finding of No Significant Impact

113

Catalytic steam reforming of hydrocarbons  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The hot effluent from the catalytic steam reforming of a major portion of a fluid hydrocarbon feed stream in the reformer tubes of a primary reformer, or said effluent after secondary reforming thereof, is mixed with the hot effluent from the catalytic steam reforming of the remaining portion of the feed discharged from the reformer tubes of a primary reformer-exchanger. The combined gas steam is passed on the shell side of the reformer-exchanger countercurrently to the passage of feed in the reformer tubes thereof, thus supplying the heat for the reforming of the portion of the feed passed through the reformer tubes of the reformerexchanger. At least about 2/3 of the hydrocarbon feed stream is passed to the reformer tubes of said primary reformer, heated by radiant heat transfer and/or by contact with combustion gases, at a steam/hydrocarbon mole ratio of about 2-4/1. The remainder of said feed stream is passed to the reformer tubes of said reformer -exchanger at a steam/hydrocarbon mole ratio of about 3-6/1. The reformer shell of the reformer-exchanger is internally insulated by a refractory lining or by use of a double shell with passage of water or a portion of the feed material between the inner and outer shells. There is no significant difference between the pressure inside and outside of the reformer tubes of said primary reformer-exchanger.

Fuderer, A.

1982-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

114

Steam Gasification of Bio-Oil and Bio-Oil/Char Slurry in a Fluidized Bed Reactor  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In the present study, the steam gasification of bio-oil/char slurry was investigated using a lab-scale fluidized bed reactor filled with either Ni-based naphtha steam reforming catalyst or silica sand. ... LOI: Loss on ignition after a 30 min fusion at 1000 °C. ... Table 5. Product Gas Composition (in Mol %) and Heating Value from Steam Gasification of the Bio-Oil and the Slurry with the Catalyst and the Sand at T ? 800°C, H2O/C ? 5.5, and GC1HSV ? 340 h?1; Wet with Nitrogen and Dry Nitrogen Free Basisa ...

Masakazu Sakaguchi; A. Paul Watkinson; Naoko Ellis

2010-08-23T23:59:59.000Z

115

Cooking with Dry Beans  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

E-77 12/08 Cooking with Dry Beans Dry beans are nutritious and inexpensive. They are also very low in fat and sodium. Dry beans are great sources of fiber, folic acid, and protein. Cooked dry beans are also a good source of iron. To get the most... protein from the beans, serve them along with grain foods such as corn, rice or wheat. A serving size of cooked dry beans is ? cup. Uses Use beans as a tasty side dish or include it in casseroles, soups, and salads. Beans are often packaged in 1-pound...

Anding, Jenna

2008-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

116

Evaluation of steam path audits  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Tri-State Generation and Transmission association is the operating agent for the 1350 megawatt Craig Generating Station, located in northwestern Colorado. Tri-State has recently incorporated turbine steam path audits into their aggressive performance improvement program. The intent of the audits are to quantify and attain the most cost effective increase in turbine performance as a result of a major outage. Valuable information about performance losses in the turbine has been obtained from steam path audits conducted on the three Craig Units. However, accurate audit results often depend on the quality of measurements and the experience of the auditor. Without a second method to verify the results of a steam path audit, repairs might be performed on a non-cost effective basis, or significant performance degradations might be overlooked. In addition, an inaccurate audit may lead to erroneous expectations for performance improvements resulting from the maintenance performed during the outage.

Caudill, M.B. [Tri-State Generation and Transmission Association, Inc., Montrose, CO (United States); Griebenow, R.D. [SAIC, Huntersville, NC (United States)

1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

117

Lowest Pressure Steam Saves More BTU's Than You Think  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ABSTRACT Steam is the most transferring heat from But most steam systems LOWEST PRESSURE STEAM SAVES MORE BTU'S THAN YOU THINK Stafford J. Vallery Armstrong Machine Works Three Rivers, Michigan steam to do the process heating rather than...

Vallery, S. J.

118

The steam engine and what it needs  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Simon Schaffer explains that to produce an effective steam engine you do not just need specific inventions, such as the separate condenser of James Watt, but also skills from clockworking, distillation, metal working and so on. Then the steam power...

Dugan, David

2004-08-18T23:59:59.000Z

119

Insulate Steam Distribution and Condensate Return Lines  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This tip sheet on insulating steam distribution and condensate return lines provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

120

The Future of Steam: A Preliminary Discussion  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Steam production represents a significant proportion of today's industrial energy demand. But the evolution of process technologies, as well as turbulence in energy markets, suggests that steam's role may be subject to change in the next decade...

Russell, C.; Harrell, G.; Moore, J.; French, S.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dry steam number" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Benchmark the Fuel Cost of Steam Generation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This revised ITP tip sheet on benchmarking the fuel cost of steam provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

Not Available

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

122

Insulate Steam Distribution and Condensate Return Lines  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This revised ITP tip sheet on insulating steam distribution and condensate return lines provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

Not Available

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

Steam System Assessment Tool (CD-ROM)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The tool will help users determine the potential energy cost and emission savings of key steam-system improvements. The tool is designed for energy operations, production, project managers, and engineers who are responsible for steam systems.

Not Available

2002-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

124

FEMP-FTA--Steam Trap Performance Assessment  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Steam Trap Function Steam Trap Function Steam traps are automatic valves used in every steam system to remove conden- sate, air, and other non-condensable gases while preventing or minimizing the passing of steam. If condensate is allowed to collect, it reduces the flow capacity of steam lines and the thermal capacity of heat transfer equipment. In addition, excess condensate can lead to "water hammer," with potentially destructive and dangerous results. Air that remains after system startup reduces steam pressure and temperature and may also reduce the thermal capacity of heat transfer equipment. Non-condensable gases, such as oxygen and carbon dioxide, cause corrosion. Steam that passes through the trap provides no heating ser- vice. This effectively reduces the heating capacity

125

Warm or Steaming Ground | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Warm or Steaming Ground Warm or Steaming Ground Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Print PDF Warm or Steaming Ground Dictionary.png Warm or Steaming Ground: An area where geothermal heat is conducted to the earth's surface, warming the ground and sometimes causing steam to form when water is present. Other definitions:Wikipedia Reegle Modern Geothermal Features Typical list of modern geothermal features Hot Springs Fumaroles Warm or Steaming Ground Mudpots, Mud Pools, or Mud Volcanoes Geysers Blind Geothermal System Steam rising from the ground at Eldvorp, a 10 km row of craters, in Southwestern Iceland. http://www.visiticeland.com/SearchResults/Attraction/eldvorp Warm or steaming ground is often an indicator of a geothermal system beneath the surface. In some cases a geothermal system may not show any

126

Improving Steam System Performance: A Sourcebook for Industry...  

Energy Savers [EERE]

in Industrial Steam Systems Insulate Steam Distribution and Condensate Return Lines Advanced Manufacturing Home Key Activities Research & Development Projects Facilities...

127

"Greening" Industrial Steam Generation via On-demand Steam Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

boiler technology currently in service in the U.S., it is critical to raise awareness and examine the role of emerging new technologies to address the energy and environmental challenges inherent with steam generation. In the same way that tank...

Smith, J. P.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

The Increased Expansion of Steam Attainable in Steam Trubines1  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... of steam discovered by James Watt, and to endeavour to trace their application in the engines constructed by him and by the firm of Bolton and Watt, then in the ... and Watt, then in the more highly developed forms of compound, triple, and quadruple reciprocating ...

1909-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

129

DOE's BestPractices Steam End User Training Steam End User Training  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

DOE's BestPractices Steam End User Training Steam End User Training Navigational Tutorial - 1 8/27/2010 Steam End User Training Navigational Tutorial Module Slide 1 ­ Introduction Hello, and welcome to the Steam End User Training. I would like to take a few minutes to show you how to navigate through

Oak Ridge National Laboratory

130

DOE's BestPractices Steam End User Training Steam End User Training  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

DOE's BestPractices Steam End User Training Steam End User Training Introduction Module - 1 8/27/2010 Steam End User Training Introduction Module Slide 1 - Introduction Title Page Hello, and welcome to the Steam System End User training. In this training, we will investigate how to assess, evaluate

Oak Ridge National Laboratory

131

GRR/Section 3-UT-d - Geothermal Steam Lease (Utah Non-Trust Lands) | Open  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

GRR/Section 3-UT-d - Geothermal Steam Lease (Utah Non-Trust Lands) GRR/Section 3-UT-d - Geothermal Steam Lease (Utah Non-Trust Lands) < GRR Jump to: navigation, search GRR-logo.png GEOTHERMAL REGULATORY ROADMAP Roadmap Home Roadmap Help List of Sections Section 3-UT-d - Geothermal Steam Lease (Utah Non-Trust Lands) 03UTDGeothermalSteamLeaseUtahNonTrustLands.pdf Click to View Fullscreen Contact Agencies Utah Division of Forestry, Fire and State Lands Utah Department of Natural Resources Utah Division of Water Rights Utah School and Institutional Trust Lands Administration Regulations & Policies UC 65A-2-2 Mineral Leases - Division to Prescribe Rules R652-20 Mineral Resources Triggers None specified Click "Edit With Form" above to add content 03UTDGeothermalSteamLeaseUtahNonTrustLands.pdf Error creating thumbnail: Page number not in range.

132

Low pressure combustor for generating steam downhole  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A compact catalytic combustor for generating steam downhole in an oil reservoir has steam generating tubes that are attached to a metal catalyst support. The metal support comprises sheets of metal that are spaced apart and transverse to the tubes. Heat from combustion is generated on the metal sheets and is conducted to the steam generating tubes. The steam is injected into the oil reservoir. The combustion gas is vented to ground level.

Retallick, W.B.

1983-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

133

Save Energy Now in Your Steam Systems  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This brief outlines typical ways to increase steam system efficiency through changes in distribution, generation, and recovery.

134

Plant View On Reducing Steam Trap Energy Loss  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of the steam traps are passing excess steam. This is caused by neglect of aged steam traps which have worn out and misapplication of steam traps by oversizing or using the 'wrong' type trap. Elimination of steam wastes by an effective well engineered steam trap...

Vallery, S. J.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

Steam reformer study proposed by Battelle  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Steam reformer study proposed by Battelle ... At a meeting held at Battelle's Columbus, Ohio, laboratories, D. B. Roach told representatives of 24 firms involved in various aspects of steam reforming that, though production of hydrogen through steam reforming has been a highly successful process, "increased plant size and more severe operating conditions have given rise to serious problems." ...

1969-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

136

Steam System Improvement: A Case Study  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

usage) where steam generation accounts for 85% of the total energy used. Therefore, optimization of the steam system has the biggest energy saving potential. This paper mill produces 40,000 pounds of steam at 600 psig and distributes it to the paper...

Leigh, N.; Venkatesan, V. V.

137

Plugging of steam generator tubes and consequences for plant operation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The simulation of pressurized water reactor (SIROP) code was created using the SICLE software developed by the study and research department at Electricite de France. It is the largest computer code with this software (260 tubes, 1800 computation points, 19 water-steam cavities, 9 pumps, 6 turbines, 32 control system elements). It simulates the general operating conditions of a 900-MW(electric) CP2 power plant by computing the main physical parameters from the reactor core to the condenser. The study was performed by the study and research department (Reactor Physics Division) with the help of SEPTEN following an SPT (power operation department) request. It consisted of identifying the change in margins with respect to emergency shutdown protections (especially for ..delta..T protections) as a function of the number of plugged steam generators (1, 2, or 3) and the degree of plugging (10, 20, and 30%) under the following operating conditions: (1) steady state at 100% full power; and (2) main transients: manual load rejection, load rejection induced by grid fault, turbine tripping. The purpose was to assess the effect of a large number of steam generator plugged tubes on the behavior of the plant to secure a long-term prediction for the date of replacement of these steam generators.

Agnoux, D.; Chenal, J.C.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

Alternative technologies to steam-methane reforming  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Steam-methane reforming (SMR) has been the conventional route for hydrogen and carbon monoxide production from natural gas feedstocks. However, several alternative technologies are currently finding favor for an increasing number of applications. The competing technologies include: steam-methane reforming combined with oxygen secondary reforming (SMR/O2R); autothermal reforming (ATR); thermal partial oxidation (POX). Each of these alternative technologies uses oxygen as a feedstock. Accordingly, if low-cost oxygen is available, they can be an attractive alternate to SMR with natural gas feedstocks. These technologies are composed technically and economically. The following conclusions can be drawn: (1) the SMR/O2R, ATR and POX technologies can be attractive if low-cost oxygen is available; (2) for competing technologies, the H{sub 2}/CO product ratio is typically the most important process parameter; (3) for low methane slip, the SMR/O2R, ATR and POX technologies are favored; (4) for full CO{sub 2} recycle, POX is usually better than ATR; (5) relative to POX, the ATR is a nonlicensed technology that avoids third-party involvement; (6) economics of each technology are dependent on the conditions and requirements for each project and must be evaluated on a case-by-case basis.

Tindall, B.M.; Crews, M.A. [Howe-Baker Engineers, Inc., Tyler, TX (United States)

1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

Materials Performance in USC Steam  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The proposed steam inlet temperature in the Advanced Ultra Supercritical (A-USC) steam turbine is high enough (760 °C) that traditional turbine casing and valve body materials such as ferritic/martensitic steels will not suffice due to temperature limitations of this class of materials. Cast versions of several traditionally wrought Ni-based superalloys were evaluated for use as casing or valve components for the next generation of industrial steam turbines. The full size castings are substantial: 2-5,000 kg each half and on the order of 100 cm thick. Experimental castings were quite a bit smaller, but section size was retained and cooling rate controlled to produce equivalent microstructures. A multi-step homogenization heat treatment was developed to better deploy the alloy constituents. The most successful of these cast alloys in terms of creep strength (Haynes 263, Haynes 282, and Nimonic 105) were subsequently evaluated by characterizing their microstructure as well as their steam oxidation resistance (at 760 and 800 °C).

G. R. Holcomb, P. Wang, P. D. Jablonski, and J. A. Hawk

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

Recover heat from steam reforming  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Steam reforming is one of the most important chemical processes--it is used in the manufacture of ammonia, hydrogen, methanol, and many chemicals made from hydrogen and carbon monoxide. Furthermore, many current trends will increase its importance. For example, methanol for addition to gasoline is likely to be produced by steam reforming. Because steam reforming occurs at high temperatures--typically 750 C--900 C--it generates a large amount of waste heat. Clearly, heat recovery is crucial to process economics. A typical 50,000 Nm[sup 3]/h hydrogen plant using natural gas feed has a radiant heat duty of about 50 MW. At a radiant efficiency of 50% and fuel cost of $3/GJ, this means that the reformer fires $9 million worth of fuel per year. Obviously, this amount of fuel justifies a close loot at ways to reduce costs. This article first provides a brief overview of steam reforming. It then outlines the available heat-recovery options and explains how to select the best method.

Fleshman, J.D. (Foster Wheeler USA Corp., Livingston, NJ (United States))

1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dry steam number" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Generating Steam by Waste Incineration  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Combustible waste is a significant source of steam at the new John Deere Tractor Works assembly plant in Waterloo, Iowa. The incinerators, each rated to consume two tons of solid waste per hour, are expected to provide up to 100 percent of the full...

Williams, D. R.; Darrow, L. A.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

Cooling Dry Cows  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This publication discusses the effects of heat stress on dairy cows, methods of cooling cows, and research on the effects of cooling cows in the dry period....

Stokes, Sandra R.

2000-07-17T23:59:59.000Z

143

Sandia National Laboratories: DRI  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

DRI ECIS-Princeton Power Systems, Inc.: Demand Response Inverter On March 19, 2013, in DETL, Distribution Grid Integration, Energy, Energy Surety, Facilities, Grid Integration,...

144

Cooking with Dried Potatoes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This fact sheet describes the nutritional value and safe storage of dried potatoes, a commodity food. It also offers food preparation ideas....

Anding, Jenna

2008-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

145

Flash Steam Power Plant | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Flash Steam Power Plant Flash Steam Power Plant (Redirected from Flash Steam Power Plants) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Flash Steam Power Plants General List of Flash Steam Plants Flash Steam power plant process diagram - DOE EERE 2012 Flash steam plants are the most common type of geothermal power generation plants in operation in the world today. Fluid at temperatures greater than 360°F (182°C) is pumped under high pressure into a tank at the surface held at a much lower pressure, causing some of the fluid to rapidly vaporize, or "flash." The vapor then drives a turbine, which drives a generator. If any liquid remains in the tank, it can be flashed again in a second tank to extract even more energy.[1] Facility Name Owner Capacity (MW) Facility

146

Air-cooled vacuum steam condenser  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This patent describes a steam powered system. It comprises: a turbine for converting steam energy into mechanical energy upon expansion of steam therein, a boiler for generating steam to be fed to the turbine, and a conduit arrangement coupling the boiler to the turbine and then recoupling the turbine exhaust to the boiler through steam condensing mechanisms. The condensing mechanisms including: a plurality of finned tubes through which the expanded exhaust steam flows and is condensed; a plurality of bundle from headers at the lower ends of the condensing tubes for receiving exhaust steam from the turbine; a plurality of bundle divided rear headers, one for each tube row in the bundle, at the higher ends of the condensing tubes for receiving non-condensible gases; and means in the rear and last headers to remove non-condensible gasses from the rear headers along their full length.

Larinoff, M.W.

1990-03-06T23:59:59.000Z

147

Hydrogen production by high-temperature steam gasification of biomass and coal  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

High-temperature steam gasification of paper, yellow pine woodchips, and Pittsburgh bituminous coal was investigated in a batch-type flow reactor at temperatures in the range of 700 to 1,200{sup o}C at two different ratios of steam to feedstock molar ratios. Hydrogen yield of 54.7% for paper, 60.2% for woodchips, and 57.8% for coal was achieved on a dry basis, with a steam flow rate of 6.3 g/min at steam temperature of 1,200{sup o}C. Yield of both the hydrogen and carbon monoxide increased while carbon dioxide and methane decreased with the increase in gasification temperature. A 10-fold reduction in tar residue was obtained at high-temperature steam gasification, compared to low temperatures. Steam and gasification temperature affects the composition of the syngas produced. Higher steam-to-feedstock molar ratio had negligible effect on the amount of hydrogen produced in the syngas in the fixed-batch type of reactor. Gasification temperature can be used to control the amounts of hydrogen or methane produced from the gasification process. This also provides mean to control the ratio of hydrogen to CO in the syngas, which can then be processed to produce liquid hydrocarbon fuel since the liquid fuel production requires an optimum ratio between hydrogen and CO. The syngas produced can be further processed to produce pure hydrogen. Biomass fuels are good source of renewable fuels to produce hydrogen or liquid fuels using controlled steam gasification.

Kriengsak, S.N.; Buczynski, R.; Gmurczyk, J.; Gupta, A.K. [University of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

2009-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

148

Effect of surface treatments on radiation buildup in steam generators  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A study of the effect of surface preparation on the radiation buildup of steam generator materials of construction was conducted. The tests consisted of exposing treated manway seal plates to primary reactor coolant during the second through the fifth fuel cycle of the Chinon B1 pressurized water reactor. The pretreatments included: mechanical polishing, electropolishing (either on the as received surface or on a surface which had been previously mechanically polished), and passivation via the RCT (laboratory) process or the Framatome (in situ) process. Radioactivity buildup was determined at the end of each fuel cycle. A selected number of the seal plates were removed from the steam generators after each exposure cycle for destructive examinations. The electropolished surfaces exhibited a significantly lower radioactive buildup rate; an average factor of five less buildup compared to an as-received surface. Passivation of the electropolished surface, especially via the RCT process, reduced the buildup rate still further by a factor of two over the electropolished-only surface. Examination of the surfaces by profilometry, scanning electron microscopy, etc., after exposure indicated no detrimental effects on the surface characteristics attributable to the surface treatments. A program has now been instituted to electropolish the steam generator channel heads of all new reactors in France, as well as the steam generators intended for replacement in existing plants. 1 ref., 5 figs., 10 tabs.

Not Available

1991-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

Steam Turbine Materials and Corrosion  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ultra-supercritical (USC) power plants offer the promise of higher efficiencies and lower emissions. Current goals of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Power Systems Initiatives include coal generation at 60% efficiency, which would require steam temperatures of up to 760 °C. In prior years this project examined the steamside oxidation of alloys for use in high- and intermediate-pressure USC turbines. This steamside oxidation research is continuing and progress is presented, with emphasis on chromia evaporation.

Holcomb, G.H.; Hsu, D.H.

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

150

Investigation of thermal storage and steam generator issues  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A review and evaluation of steam generator and thermal storage tank designs for commercial nitrate salt technology showed that the potential exists to procure both on a competitive basis from a number of qualified vendors. The report outlines the criteria for review and the results of the review, which was intended only to assess the feasibility of each design, not to make a comparison or select the best concept.

Not Available

1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

Compressional and shear velocities of dry and saturated jointed rock: a laboratory study  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......classification of rock mass qualities, Geophys...shallow jointed rock, Int. J...a jointed sandstone, in Mechanical...fracture permeability, Int. J...microcrack porosity. By modelling...and steam reservoirs require...hot-dry-rock method are...evaluating the quality of large...and fluid permeability. Seismic...aperture or porosity. Moos...velocity in a sandstone is independent......

R. M. Stesky

1985-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

152

Flash Steam Power Plant | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Flash Steam Power Plant Flash Steam Power Plant Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Flash Steam Power Plants General List of Flash Steam Plants Flash Steam power plant process diagram - DOE EERE 2012 Flash steam plants are the most common type of geothermal power generation plants in operation in the world today. Fluid at temperatures greater than 360°F (182°C) is pumped under high pressure into a tank at the surface held at a much lower pressure, causing some of the fluid to rapidly vaporize, or "flash." The vapor then drives a turbine, which drives a generator. If any liquid remains in the tank, it can be flashed again in a second tank to extract even more energy.[1] Facility Name Owner Capacity (MW) Facility Type Commercial Online Date Geothermal Area

153

Proceedings of design, repair, and refurbishment of steam turbines  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This book reports on the proceedings of design, repair and refurbishment of steam engines. Topics covered include: Advisor/Expert Systems for Steam Turbines; Moisture Effects on the Operating and Performance of Steam Turbines; Turbine Steam Path Development; Repair and Refurbishment of the Electric Generator Components; and Advanced Steam Turbine Designs.

Warnock, A.S. (Lehigh Univ., PA (United States))

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

Numerical study of primary steam superheating effects on steam ejector flow and its pumping performance  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The effects of primary steam superheating on steam condensation in nozzle and the performance of steam ejector were investigated using CFD (computational fluid dynamics) method. Using a wet steam model being proposed in our previous study, simulations based on the primary steam with five superheated levels were performed, and the results demonstrate the superheating operation of the primary steam weakens the spontaneous condensation intensity and postpones its occurrence within the nozzle vicinity. Due to the droplets nucleation refinement for the condensation of superheated steam, the mixing process between the primary and the secondary fluids is improved. Consequently, a higher entrainment ratio is achieved. However, the superheating operation may not exceed 20 K, as its contribution on entrainment ratio improvement is not as significant as 0 K–20 K superheating, and too much superheating will requires more energy as input, which is not a practical solution to further improve the steam ejector pumping performance.

Xiaodong Wang; Jingliang Dong; Ao Li; Hongjian Lei; Jiyuan Tu

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

Use Steam Jet Ejectors or Thermocompressors to Reduce Venting of Low-Pressure Steam  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This revised ITP tip sheet on steam jet ejectors and thermocompressors provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

Not Available

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

An experimental investigation of high temperature, high pressure paper drying  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

CONCLUSIONS RECOMMENDATIONS 50 51 REFERENCES APPENDIX A EXPERIMENTAL DATA 52 54 VITA 105 vail LIST OF FIGURES Page Fig. 1 Schematic of test facility 13 Fig. 2 Comparison of Texas A&M drying facility operating ranges to other drying processes... of number of drying passes for drying temperatures of 93, 149, and 204 'C (200, 300, and 400 'F), a contact pressure of 1. 4 MPa (200 psi), a basis weight of 25 g/m' (0. 005 lb/ft'), and contact times between 20 to 180 msec with same side drying...

Patel, Kamal Raoji

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

157

Energy Savings Through Steam Trap Management  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Energy Savings through Steam Trap Management Chris Gibbs, Account Manager, Armstrong International, Inc., Three Rivers, MI ESL-IE-08-05-08 Proceedings from theThirtieth Industrial Energy Technology Conference...-based steam trap management application developed by Armstrong International. The application calculates steam loss, fuel loss, dollar loss and CO 2 emission generation. The database allows for trend analysis, automatic energy report generation...

Gibbs, C.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

Steam reforming utilizing high activity catalyst  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

High activity, sulfur tolerant steam reforming catalysts are described comprising rhodium or nickel supported on lanthanum stabilized alumina or magnesium promoted lanthanum stabilized alumina. The catalysts have improved activity over conventionally used catalysts in the presence of sulfur containing hydrocarbon fuel (such as No. 2 fuel oil) in a steam reforming environment. The material has particular utility in autothermal, tubular, cyclic and adiabatic steam reforming processes.

Setzer, H. J.

1985-03-05T23:59:59.000Z

159

Electrical Cost Reduction Via Steam Turbine Cogeneration  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ELECTRICAL COST REDUCTION VIA STEAM TURBINE COGENERATION LYNN B. DI TULLIO, P.E. Project Engineer Ewing Power Systems, Inc. South Deerfield, Mass. ABSTRACT Steam turbine cogeneration is a well established technology which is widely used... mature technology. Steam turbines and engines have been used by industry to cogen erate power since before there were electric utilities. While the technology for turbines, generators and controls has continued to develop there is very little about...

Ewing, T. S.; Di Tullio, L. B.

160

Reduce Steam Trap Failures at Chambers Works  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Ultrasonic Inspection At least 2 times per year Steam Trap Surveyor Submit reports to area management, energy team, and reliability engineers for each area every month Steam Trap Team Leader Control Plan ? Process Owner agrees...Reduce Steam Trap Failures at Chambers Works GB/BB Name: Cyndi Kouba Mentor/MBB: Andrew Degraff Team Members Michael Crowley(Site Energy Lead), (Charlie) Flanigan (Aramids-maintenance), Ben Snyder (Aramids-ATO), Michael Scruggs (Central...

Kouba, C.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dry steam number" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Steam Conservation and Boiler Plant Efficiency Advancements  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

leakage is controlled by daily monitoring of make-up water volume. All recent heating water distribution projects have utilized above-ground, fiberglass insulated piping on elevated pipe support structures in order to avoid the potential corrosion...-insulated piping on elevated pipe support structures in order to avoid the potential corrosion and leakage issues associated with underground steam distribution. STEAM COST The remaining challenge was to minimize annual steam costs in order to enhance...

Fiorino, D. P.

162

6 - Pipeline Drying  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Publisher Summary This chapter reviews pipeline dewatering, cleaning, and drying. Dewatering can be a simple process or, if the procedure is not properly planned, a difficult one. Pipelines used to transport crude oil and/or refined products will probably only require removal of the test water before the line is placed in service. If the pipeline will be used to transport materials that must meet a specified dryness requirement, the pipeline will need to be dewatered, cleaned, and dried. Pipelines used to transport natural gas will need some drying, depending on the operating pressure and the location of the line, to prevent the formation of hydrates. Other pipelines may require drying to protect the pipe from internal corrosion caused by the formation of corrosive acids, such as carbonic acid in the case of carbon dioxide pipelines.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

Freeze drying apparatus  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention provides methods and apparatus for freeze drying in which a solution, which can be a radioactive salt dissolved within an acid, is frozen into a solid on vertical plates provided within a freeze drying chamber. The solid is sublimated into vapor and condensed in a cold condenser positioned above the freeze drying chamber and connected thereto by a conduit. The vertical positioning of the cold condenser relative to the freeze dryer helps to help prevent substances such as radioactive materials separated from the solution from contaminating the cold condenser. Additionally, the system can be charged with an inert gas to produce a down rush of gas into the freeze drying chamber to also help prevent such substances from contaminating the cold condenser.

Coppa, Nicholas V. (Malvern, PA); Stewart, Paul (Youngstown, NY); Renzi, Ernesto (Youngstown, NY)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

Freeze drying method  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention provides methods and apparatus for freeze drying in which a solution, which can be a radioactive salt dissolved within an acid, is frozen into a solid on vertical plates provided within a freeze drying chamber. The solid is sublimated into vapor and condensed in a cold condenser positioned above the freeze drying chamber and connected thereto by a conduit. The vertical positioning of the cold condenser relative to the freeze dryer helps to help prevent substances such as radioactive materials separated from the solution from contaminating the cold condenser. Additionally, the system can be charged with an inert gas to produce a down rush of gas into the freeze drying chamber to also help prevent such substances from contaminating the cold condenser.

Coppa, Nicholas V. (Malvern, PA); Stewart, Paul (Youngstown, NY); Renzi, Ernesto (Youngstown, NY)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

Dry Process Electrode Fabrication  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

250m of free standing dry process cathode at thickness >200 m thickness. + Validate cost model by running pilot coating line at >25 mmin. + Deliver 24 cells in A123 SOA EV...

166

Dry Process Electrode Fabrication  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

free standing dry process cathode that retains 50% capacity at 1C rate. + Validate cost model by running pilot coating line. + Deliver 24 cells in SOA EV cell format....

167

Dry Process Electrode Fabrication  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

free standing dry process cathode that retains 50% capacity at 1C rate. + Validate cost model by running pilot coating line. + Deliver 24 cells in SOA EV cell format. 3...

168

Final Environmental Assessment for the Y-12 Steam Plant Life Extenstion Project - Steam Plant Replacement Subproject  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

93 93 Final Environmental Assessment for the Y-12 Steam Plant Life Extension Project - Steam Plant Replacement Subproject U.S. Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration August 2007 Final Y-12 Steam Plant Life Extension Project - Steam Plant Replacement Subproject - August 2007 i TABLE OF CONTENTS List of Acronyms and Abbreviations............................................................................................. vi Chemicals and Units of Measure ................................................................................................. ix Conversion Chart ......................................................................................................................... xi Metric Prefixes .............................................................................................................................xii

169

Efficiently generate steam from cogeneration plants  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As cogeneration gets more popular, some plants have two choices of equipment for generating steam. Plant engineers need to have a decision chart to split the duty efficiently between (oil-fired or gas-fired) steam generators (SGs) and heat recovery steam generators (HRSGs) using the exhaust from gas turbines. Underlying the dilemma is that the load-versus-efficiency characteristics of both types of equipment are different. When the limitations of each type of equipment and its capability are considered, analysis can come up with several selection possibilities. It is almost always more efficient to generate steam in an HRSG (designed for firing) as compared with conventional steam generators. However, other aspects, such as maintenance, availability of personnel, equipment limitations and operating costs, should also be considered before making a final decision. Loading each type of equipment differently also affects the overall efficiency or the fuel consumption. This article describes the performance aspects of representative steam generators and gas turbine HRSGs and suggests how plant engineers can generate steam efficiently. It also illustrates how to construct a decision chart for a typical installation. The equipment was picked arbitrarily to show the method. The natural gas fired steam generator has a maximum capacity of 100,000 lb/h, 400-psig saturated steam, and the gas-turbine-exhaust HRSG has the same capacity. It is designed for supplementary firing with natural gas.

Ganapathy, V. [ABCO Industries, Abilene, TX (United States)

1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

The Bending of Wood With Steam.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Based on experimentation with the steam bending of wood to curved shapes, this thesis describes my involvement with three basic aspects of the process. First… (more)

Cottey Jr., James H.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

Coreflood experimental study of steam displacement.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??The main objective of this study was to verify experimentally whether or not a Buckley-Leverett shock front exists when steam displaces oil in a porous… (more)

Cerutti, Andres Enrique

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

172

Covered Product Category: Commercial Steam Cookers | Department...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

energy cost with an average commercial electric steam cooker life of 12 years. Future electricity price trends and a 3% discount rate are based on Federal guidelines (NISTIR...

173

Covered Product Category: Commercial Steam Cookers  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) provides acquisition guidance for commercial steam cookers, which are covered by the ENERGY STAR program.

174

Industrial Steam System Heat-Transfer Solutions  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This brief provides an overview of considerations for selecting the best heat-transfer equipment for various steam systems and applications.

175

Modeling of Sorption-Enhanced Steam Reforming in a Dual Fluidized Bubbling Bed Reactor  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The kinetics of the steam methane reforming and water-gas shift reactions are based on literature values, whereas experimentally derived carbonation kinetics are used for the carbonation of a dolomite. ... An equilibrium H2 concentration of ?98% on a dry basis was reached at 600 °C and 1 atm, with Arctic dolomite (Franzefoss A/S) as the CO2-acceptor. ... loss?by?ignition ...

Kim Johnsen; John R. Grace; Said S. E. H. Elnashaie; Leiv Kolbeinsen; Dag Eriksen

2006-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

176

DOE's BestPractices Steam End User Training Steam End User Training  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

DOE's BestPractices Steam End User Training Steam End User Training Conclusion Module 1 June 28, 2010 Steam EndUser Training Conclusion Module Slide 1 Conclusions Let's briefly examine the major items we have covered in this training. [Slide Visual ­ Contents of Module Sections

Oak Ridge National Laboratory

177

Designing an ultrasupercritical steam turbine  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Carbon emissions produced by the combustion of coal may be collected and stored in the future, but a better approach is to reduce the carbon produced through efficient combustion technologies. Increasing the efficiency of new plants using ultrasupercritical (USC) technology will net less carbon released per megawatt-hour using the world's abundant coal reserves while producing electricity at the lowest possible cost. The article shows how increasing the steam turbine operating conditions for a new USC project in the USA and quantify the potential CO{sub 2} reduction this advanced design makes possible. 7 figs., 3 tabs.

Klotz, H.; Davis, K.; Pickering, E. [Alstom (Germany)

2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

178

Geismar TDI Plant Steam Optimization  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

BASF North America 7 ESL-IE-13-05-19 Proceedings of the Thrity-Fifth Industrial Energy Technology Conference New Orleans, LA. May 21-24, 2013 BASF?s strategic principles A conscientious commitment to our investors, customers, employees...Geismar TDI Plant Steam Optimization May 23rd, 2013 IET Conference Meredith Bailey, PDP Engineer BASF Corporation (734) 324-5047 meredith.bailey@basf.com ESL-IE-13-05-19 Proceedings of the Thrity-Fifth Industrial Energy Technology...

Baily, M.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

Steam Plant Replaces Outdated Coal-Fired System | Department...  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

Steam Plant Replaces Outdated Coal-Fired System September 1, 2012 - 12:00pm Addthis A new natural gas-fired steam plant will replace an older coal-fired steam plant shown here. The...

180

Integrated Dry NOx/SO2 Emissions Control System, A DOE Assessment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The goal of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Clean Coal Technology (CCT) Program is to furnish the energy marketplace with a number of advanced, more efficient, and environmentally responsible coal utilization technologies through demonstration projects. These projects seek to establish the commercial feasibility of the most promising advanced coal technologies that have developed beyond the proof-of-concept stage. This document serves as a DOE post-project assessment (PPA) of a project selected in CCT Round III, the Integrated Dry NO{sub x}/SO{sub 2} Emissions Control System (IDECS), as described in a Report to Congress (U.S. Department of Energy 1991). The desire to reduce emissions of nitrogen oxides (NO, nitric oxide, and NO{sub 2}, nitrogen dioxide, collectively referred to as NO{sub x}) and sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) by up to 70 percent at a minimum capital expenditure, while limiting waste production to dry solids that can be handled by conventional ash-removal equipment, prompted Public Service Company of Colorado (PSCC) to submit the proposal for the IDECS project. In March 1991, PSCC entered into a cooperative agreement with DOE to conduct the study. The project was sited at PSCC's Arapahoe Steam Electric Generating Station in Denver, Colorado. The purpose of this CCT project was to demonstrate the reduction of NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2} emissions by installing a combination of existing and emerging technologies, which were expected to work synergistically to reduce emissions. The technologies were low-NO{sub x} burners (LNBS), overfire air (OFA), and selective noncatalytic reduction (SNCR) for NO{sub x} reduction; and dry sorbent injection (DSI), both with and without flue-gas humidification (FGH), for SO{sub 2} reduction. DOE provided 50 percent of the total project funding of $26.2 million.

National Energy Technology Laboratory

2001-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dry steam number" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Steam turbine materials and corrosion  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ultra supercritical (USC) power plants offer the promise of higher efficiencies and lower emissions. Current goals of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Power Systems Initiatives include coal generation at 60% efficiency, which would require steam temperatures of up to 760°C. This research examines the steamside oxidation of alloys for use in USC systems, with emphasis placed on applications in high- and intermediate-pressure turbines. The list of alloys being examined is discussed, including the addition of new alloys to the study. These include alloy 625, selected because of its use as one of the two alloys used for turbine rotors, valves, casings, blading and bolts in the European AD700 full-scale demonstration plant (Scholven Unit F). The other alloy, alloy 617, is already one of the alloys currently being examined by this project. Other new alloys to the study are the three round robin alloys in the UK-US collaboration: alloys 740, TP347HFG, and T92. Progress on the project is presented on cyclic oxidation in 50% air – 50% water vapor, furnace exposures in moist air, and thermogravimetric analysis in argon with oxygen saturated steam. An update on the progress towards obtaining an apparatus for high pressure exposures is given.

Holcomb, G.R.; Ziomek-Moroz, M.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

Steam engines on a microscopic scale  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This article describes the operation of a miniature steam engine that can develop 100 times more power than existing microsystems actuated by electrostatic forces. The topics of the article include current uses for electrostatic actuators and possible applications of the miniature steam engine, the design and operation of the engine, and problems associated with increasing the operating frequency of the engine.

O'Connor, L.

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

183

Steam Plant Conversion Eliminating Campus Coal Use  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

high-efficiency NG/fuel oil boilers · Slight reduction in steam production capacity · Requires: Building heating Domestic hot water Lab sterilization UT's Steam Plant #12;· Powered by 5 boilers: 2 emissions standard (Boiler MACT): · For existing boilers w/ heat input capacity of 10 MMBtu/hr or greater

Dai, Pengcheng

184

Steam reforming utilizing sulfur tolerant catalyst  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This patent describes a steam reforming process for converting hydrocarbon material to hydrogen gas in the presence of sulfur which consists of: adding steam to the hydrocarbon material and passing the steam and hydrocarbon material over catalyst material at elevated temperatures. The improvement comprises utilizing as a catalyst material high activity, sulfur tolerant catalyst of platinum supported on lanthanum stabilized alumina or magnesium promoted lanthanum stabilized alumina. It also describes a steam process for converting hydrocarbon material to hydrogen gas in the presence of sulfur which consists of steam to the hydrocarbon material over catalyst material at elevated temperatures. The improvement comprises utilizing as a catalyst material high activity, sulfur tolerant catalysts consisting essentially of iridium supported on lanthanum stabilized alumina or magnesium promoted lanthanum stabilized alumina. In addition a steam reforming process is described for converting hydrocarbon material to hydrogen gas in the presence of sulfur comprising adding steam to the hydrocarbon material and passing the steam and hydrocarbon material over catalyst material at elevated temperatures. The improvement comprises utilizing as a catalyst material high activity sulfur tolerant catalysts consisting essentially of palladium supported on lanthanum stabilized alumina or magnesium promoted lanthanum stabilized alumina.

Setzer, H.J.; Karavolis, S.; Bett, J.A.S.

1987-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

185

Steam System Optimization: A Case Study  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This paper highlights the study findings in a steam system in a plant from a multinational Petrochemical giant in an European country. The steam system operates with an annual budget of $8.9 million (local currency was converted to US Dollars...

Iordanova, N.; Venkatesan, V. V.

186

The Progress of the Steam Turbine  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... in pressure, and the steam expands gradually by small increments. In a moderate-sized turbo-motor there may be from thirty to eighty successive rings, and when the steam ... and relieve end pressure on the thrust bearing. Fig. 3 shows a 350 kilowatt turbo-alternator, thirteen of which size are now at work in the London stations.

1897-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

187

Program assists steam drive design project  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A new program for the HP-41CV programmable calculator will compute all parameters required for a steam drive project design. The Marx and Langenheim model assumptions are used to solve a more advanced version of the Myhill and Stegemeier model. Also, the Mandl and Volek model assuptions are used to compute the size of the steam zone.

Mendez, A.A.

1984-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

188

Use Vapor Recompression to Recover Low-Pressure Waste Steam  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This tip sheet on recovering low-pressure waste steam provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

189

An in-line microwave steam quality sensor.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Saturated steam is a widely used industrial medium for the efficient transfer of energy. The proportion of saturated vapor steam to saturated condensate of the… (more)

Faulkner, Christopher D.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

190

Savannah River's Biomass Steam Plant Success with Clean and Renewable...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Savannah River's Biomass Steam Plant Success with Clean and Renewable Energy Savannah River's Biomass Steam Plant Success with Clean and Renewable Energy In order to meet the...

191

Use Low-Grade Waste Steam to Power Absorption Chillers  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This tip sheet on waste steam to power absorption chillers provides how-to advice for improving steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

192

Industrial Steam System Process-Control Schemes | Department...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Steam System Process-Control Schemes (July 2003) More Documents & Publications Compressed Air Storage Strategies Save Energy Now in Your Steam Systems CIBO Energy Efficiency...

193

Experimental study on steam plume and temperature distribution for sonic steam jet  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The sonic steam jet in subcooled water was investigated experimentally over a wide range of steam mass flux and water temperature conditions. Four different steam plume shapes were observed in present test conditions, and the condensation form was mainly controlled by the steam mass flux and water temperature. Moreover, the unstable jet was observed on the condition of low steam mass flux and high water temperature. The transition criterion of unstable-stable jet was also given. The temperature fields in the steam plume and in the surrounding water were measured. Axial temperature distributions represented the four typical steam plumes, and the fluctuation of axial temperature confirmed the existence of expansion and compression waves. Additionally, the radial temperature distributions were independent of water temperature for small radial distance at nozzle exit, and further the axial location was apart from the nozzle exit, longer the radial distance affected by the momentum diffusion.

Xinzhuang Wu; Junjie Yan; Wenjun Li; Dongdong Pan; Ying Li

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

194

Effect of steam injection location on syngas obtained from an air–steam gasifier  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract For a fluidized-bed gasifier, reaction conditions vary along the height of the reactor. Hence, the steam injection location may have a considerable effect on the syngas quality. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of steam injection location and steam-to-biomass ratio (SBR) on the syngas quality generated from an air–steam gasification of switchgrass in a 2–5 kg/h autothermal fluidized-bed gasifier. Steam injection locations of 51, 152, and 254 mm above the distributor plate and \\{SBRs\\} of 0.1, 0.2, and 0.3 were selected. Results showed that the syngas H2 and CO yields were significantly influenced by the steam injection location (p gasifier efficiencies (cold gas efficiency of 67%, hot gas efficiency of 72%, and carbon conversion efficiency of 96%) were at the steam injection location of 254 mm and SBR of 0.2.

Ashokkumar M. Sharma; Ajay Kumar; Raymond L. Huhnke

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

Analysis of the FLECHT SEASET unblocked bundle steam-cooling and boiloff tests. [PWR  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A series of forced convection steam cooling tests at low Reynolds numbers and bundle boiloff tests were conducted in the unblocked bundle task of the FLECHT SEASET program. The COBRA-IV-I computer code was utilized to simulate the steam cooling tests, so that the effects of the housing, disconnected heater rods in the bundle, and subchannel mixing were accurately accounted for. After careful data screening, a steady-state forced convection steam cooling heat transfer correlation was developed using the measured heater rod power, heater rod surface temperatures calculated from the measured cladding inner surface temperature by an inverse conduction code, and the vapor temperatures at various subchannels calculated by the COBRA-IV-I code The new correlation was found to give higher heat transfer than the conventional Dittus-Boelter correlation in the low Reynolds number region. At higher Reynolds numbers, the data begin to merge with the Dittus-Boelter correlation.

Wong, S.; Hochreiter, L.E.

1981-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

196

High Temperature Steam Corrosion of Cladding for Nuclear Applications: Experimental  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Stability of cladding materials under off-normal conditions is an important issue for the safe operation of light water nuclear reactors. Metals, ceramics, and metal/ceramic composites are being investigated as substitutes for traditional zirconium-based cladding. To support down-selection of these advanced materials and designs, a test apparatus was constructed to study the onset and evolution of cladding oxidation, and deformation behavior of cladding materials, under loss-of-coolant accident scenarios. Preliminary oxidation tests were conducted in dry oxygen and in saturated steam/air environments at 1000OC. Tube samples of Zr-702, Zr-702 reinforced with 1 ply of a ß-SiC CMC overbraid, and sintered a-SiC were tested. Samples were induction heated by coupling to a molybdenum susceptor inside the tubes. The deformation behavior of He-pressurized tubes of Zr-702 and SiC CMC-reinforced Zr-702, heated to rupture, was also examined.

McHugh, Kevin M; Garnier, John E; Sergey Rashkeev; Michael V. Glazoff; George W. Griffith; Shannong M. Bragg-Sitton

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

Downward two-phase flow effects in heat-loss and pressure-drop modeling of steam injection wells  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Modelling of the pressure drop and heat loss in steam injection wells has undergone a gradual evolution since the heavy interest in enhanced oil recovery by steam injection in the mid-60's. After briefly reviewing the evolution of steam models this paper presents a model which advances the state-of-the-art of steam modelling. The main advance presented in this paper is modelling the effects of the various flow regimens that occur during steam injection. The paper describes the formulation of a two-phase downward vertical flow pressure drop model which is not limited by the ''no-slip'' homogeneous flow assumptions in most previously published models. By using different correlations for mist, bubble, and slug flow, improved pressure drop calculations result, which in turn improve temperature predictions. The paper describes how the model handles temperature predictions differently in the single and two-phase steam flow situations. The paper also describes special features in the model to account for layered soil properties, soil dry out, cyclic injection, coupling heat losses, and reflux boiling in wet annuli. Two examples problems are presented which illustrate some of these features.

Galate, J.W.; Mitchell, R.F.

1985-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

Steam Coal Import Costs - EIA  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Steam Coal Import Costs for Selected Countries Steam Coal Import Costs for Selected Countries U.S. Dollars per Metric Ton1 (Average Unit Value, CIF2) Country 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 Belgium 46.96 39.34 39.76 66.29 70.83 70.95 82.81 150.58 NA Denmark 40.78 31.65 50.27 56.29 61.84 59.15 75.20 113.34 NA Finland 40.83 37.08 39.99 58.45 62.80 67.65 72.64 134.21 NA France 45.36 42.59 42.63 64.08 75.23 72.92 84.49 135.53 NA Germany 41.46 36.80 39.00 61.22 72.48 70.12 81.49 138.84 NA Ireland3 45.25 47.88 50.08 80.90 74.91 101.78 125.15 143.08 NA Italy 44.83 41.25 42.45 63.54 73.20 69.16 86.00 143.68 NA Japan 37.95 36.95 34.93 51.48 62.73 63.33 70.92 125.42 NA Netherlands 40.09 35.81 37.27 55.09 68.86 68.57 79.12 133.50 NA

199

Screening reactor steam/water piping systems for water hammer  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A steam/water system possessing a certain combination of thermal, hydraulic and operational states, can, in certain geometries, lead to a steam bubble collapse induced water hammer. These states, operations, and geometries are identified. A procedure that can be used for identifying whether an unbuilt reactor system is prone to water hammer is proposed. For the most common water hammer, steam bubble collapse induced water hammer, six conditions must be met in order for one to occur. These are: (1) the pipe must be almost horizontal; (2) the subcooling must be greater than 20 C; (3) the L/D must be greater than 24; (4) the velocity must be low enough so that the pipe does not run full, i.e., the Froude number must be less than one; (5) there should be void nearby; (6) the pressure must be high enough so that significant damage occurs, that is the pressure should be above 10 atmospheres. Recommendations on how to avoid this kind of water hammer in both the design and the operation of the reactor system are made.

Griffith, P. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States)

1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

Steam turbine upgrades: A utility based approach  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In the increasingly competitive power generation markets utilities must strive towards lower electricity generation costs, whilst relying on an aging steam turbine fleet. By the year 2000 more than 25% of the global steam turbine capacity will be older than 30 years. The heat rate of such units is generally considerably higher than that of equivalent new plant, and such equipment can be further disadvantaged by increased maintenance costs and forced outage rates. Over the past decade steam turbine conversion, modification, and upgrade packages have become an increasingly important part of the European steam turbine market. Furthermore, many utilities now realize that enhanced cost-effectiveness can often be obtained by moving away from the original equipment manufacturer (OEM), and the upgrading of other manufacturers' plant is now routine within the steam turbine industry. By working closely with customers, GE has developed a comprehensive range of steam turbine upgrade packages, including advanced design steampaths which can increase the performance of existing turbine installations to levels comparable with new plant. Such packages are tailor-made to the requirements of each customer, to ensure that the most cost-effective engineering solution is identified. This paper presents an overview of GE's state-of-the-art steam turbine technology, and continues to describe typical economic models for turbine upgrades.

Wakeley, G.R.

1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dry steam number" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Steam reforming utilizing iron oxide catalyst  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

High activity steam reforming iron oxide catalysts are described. Such catalysts can be unsupported utilizing at least 90% by weight iron oxide and various modifiers (Ai/sub 2/O/sub 3/, K/sub 2/O, CaO, SiO/sub 2/) or unmodified and supported on such things as alumina, CaO impregnated alumina, and lanthanum stabilized alumina. When used in steam reformers such as autothermal and tubular steam reformers, these catalysts demonstrate much improved resistance to carbon plugging.

Setzer, H. T.; Bett, J. A. S.

1985-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

202

Baton Rouge Complex Steam Real Time Optimization  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Baton Rouge Complex Steam Real Time Optimization IETC 2014 New Orleans, Louisiana Tope Iyun ExxonMobil Chemical Company May 22, 2014 ESL-IE-14-05-32 Proceedings of the Thrity-Sixth Industrial Energy Technology Conference New Orleans, LA. May 20...-23, 2014 Proprietary 2 Agenda • Baton Rouge Complex • Steam System Overview • Energy Efficiency Improvement Strategy • Site-Wide Steam System Optimization • Results • Benefits/Wrap-Up ESL-IE-14-05-32 Proceedings of the Thrity-Sixth Industrial Energy...

Iyun, T.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

Economic Analysis of "Steam-Shock" and "Pasteurization"  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Economic Analysis of "Steam-Shock" and "Pasteurization" Processes for Oyster Shucking JOHN W. BROWN Introduction "Steam-shock" is an oyster shucking process that uses steam to relax the oyster's adductor muscle of the shucking process as in integral part of the operation of an existing oyster-shucking house. The term "steam

204

Steam gasification of Indonesian subbituminous coal with calcium carbonate as a catalyst raw material  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The effect of Ca catalysts prepared from CaCO3 on the steam gasification of Indonesian subbituminous coal at 700–800 °C is examined. The char obtained by pyrolyzing the coal with 0.59 wt.% of Ca (dry basis) showed conversions in steam gasification at 750 and 800 °C of around 70 and 90 wt.% (dry ash and catalyst free basis), which were 2 and 1.5 times larger than those of the coal without the Ca catalyst, respectively. The activity of this Ca catalyst was as high as that prepared using an aqueous solution of Ca(OH)2. The TPD and XRD measurements demonstrated that the Ca catalyst from CaCO3 was initially present in the ion-exchanged form, and as a finely dispersed calcium species after pyrolysis. These results confirm that CaCO3 is effective as a catalyst raw material in the steam gasification of subbituminous coal, even at low catalyst loadings.

Kenji Murakami; Masahiko Sato; Naoto Tsubouchi; Yasuo Ohtsuka; Katsuyasu Sugawara

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

Synthesis and Optimization of Steam System Networks. 2. Multiple Steam Levels  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Tim Price † and Thokozani Majozi *†‡ ... (6) In its simplest form, it represents the ratio of the energy content of the steam to the energy content of the fuel. ...

Tim Price; Thokozani Majozi

2010-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

206

Standard Steam Trust LLC | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Steam Trust LLC Steam Trust LLC (Redirected from Standard Steam Trust) Jump to: navigation, search Name Standard Steam Trust LLC Place Denver, Colorado Sector Geothermal energy Product Subsidiary of Denver-based geothermal project developer, Terra Caliente. Coordinates 39.74001°, -104.992259° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":39.74001,"lon":-104.992259,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

207

LNG Vaporizer Utilizing Vacuum Steam Condensing  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This report concerns the field test results of a new type of peak-shaving LNG vaporizer (VSV) whose heat source is ... heat of vacuum steam to vaporize and superheat LNG within heat transfer tubes. Prior to the.....

Y. Miyata; M. Hanamure; H. Kujirai; Y. Sato…

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

Cash Flow Impacts of Industrial Steam Efficiency  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Steam efficiency is a major opportunity for manufacturers to boost financial performance in an increasingly competitive environment. An immediate policy challenge is to raise manufacturers' awareness of these opportunities. A major barrier...

Russell, C.

209

Energy & Environmental Benefits from Steam & Electricity Cogeneration  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the electricity required by TEX and sells excess power to wholesale customers in the region. It provides a large portion of TEX steam requirements, with sufficient reliability such that TEX decommissioned its coal-fired powerhouse and reduced operations...

Ratheal, R.

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

210

Extraction Steam Controls at EPLA-W  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ExxonMobil's Baton Rouge site encompasses a world-scale refinery, chemical plant and third party power station. Historically, inflexible and unreliable control systems on two high-pressure, extracting/condensing steam turbines prevented the site...

Brinker, J. L.

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

A Multistage Steam Reformer Utilizing Solar Heat  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Today a large amount of the required hydrogen or synthesis gas (mixture of hydrogen and carbonmonoxide) is won by steam reforming of low hydrocarbons, especially methane. Hereby the mixture of hydrocarbons and...

W. Jäger; U. Leuchs; W. Siebert

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

The revolutionary impact of the steam engine  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Sitting with a model of Stephenson’s Rocket, Simon Schaffer reflects on the steam revolution and how it changed the world in the nineteenth century in so many different ways....

Dugan, David

2004-08-18T23:59:59.000Z

213

How did the Rocket steam engine work?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Simon Schaffer talks to a museum curator at the York railway museum about the way in which steam engines worked and the imagination and technical ability of George Stephenson....

Dugan, David

2004-08-17T23:59:59.000Z

214

Optimizing Steam & Condensate System: A Case Study  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Optimization of Steam & Condensate systems in any process plant results in substantial reduction of purchased energy cost. During periods of natural gas price hikes, this would benefit the plant in controlling their fuel budget significantly...

Venkatesan, V. V.; Norris, C.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

215

Steam System Optimization : A Case Study  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The steam system optimization (generation, distribution, use and condensate return) offers a large opportunity for action to comply with the new levels of energy efficiency standards. Superior design and improved maintenance practices are the two...

Iordanova, N.; Venkatesan, V. V.; Calogero, M.

216

Steam turbine upgrading: low-hanging fruit  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The thermodynamic performance of the steam turbine, more than any other plant component, determines overall plant efficiency. Upgrading steam path components and using computerized design tools and manufacturing techniques to minimise internal leaks are two ways to give tired steam turbines a new lease on life. The article presents three case studies that illustrate how to do that. These are at Unit 1 of Dairyland's J.P. Madgett Station in Alma, WI, a coal-fired subcritical steam plant; the four units at AmerenUE's 600 MW coal-fired Labadie plant west of St. Louis; and Unit 3 of KeyPlan Corp's Northport Power Station on Long Island. 8 figs.

Peltier, R.

2006-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

217

Greenville Steam Biomass Facility | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Greenville Steam Biomass Facility Greenville Steam Biomass Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Greenville Steam Biomass Facility Facility Greenville Steam Sector Biomass Location Piscataquis County, Maine Coordinates 45.7049857°, -69.3375071° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":45.7049857,"lon":-69.3375071,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

218

Apparatus and methods of reheating gas turbine cooling steam and high pressure steam turbine exhaust in a combined cycle power generating system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

In a combined cycle system having a multi-pressure heat recovery steam generator, a gas turbine and steam turbine, steam for cooling gas turbine components is supplied from the intermediate pressure section of the heat recovery steam generator supplemented by a portion of the steam exhausting from the HP section of the steam turbine, steam from the gas turbine cooling cycle and the exhaust from the HP section of the steam turbine are combined for flow through a reheat section of the HRSG. The reheated steam is supplied to the IP section inlet of the steam turbine. Thus, where gas turbine cooling steam temperature is lower than optimum, a net improvement in performance is achieved by flowing the cooling steam exhausting from the gas turbine and the exhaust steam from the high pressure section of the steam turbine in series through the reheater of the HRSG for applying steam at optimum temperature to the IP section of the steam turbine.

Tomlinson, Leroy Omar (Niskayuna, NY); Smith, Raub Warfield (Ballston Lake, NY)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

219

Rod Bundle Heat Transfer: Steady-State Steam Cooling Experiments  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Through the joint efforts of the Pennsylvania State University and the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission, an experimental rod bundle heat transfer (RBHT) facility was designed and built. The rod bundle consists of a 7 x 7 square pitch array with spacer grids and geometry similar to that found in a modern pressurized water reactor. From this facility, a series of steady-state steam cooling experiments were performed. The bundle inlet Reynolds number was varied from 1 400 to 30 000 over a pressure range from 1.36 to 4 bars (20 to 60 psia). The bundle inlet steam temperature was controlled to be at saturation for the specified pressure and the fluid exit temperature exceeded 550 deg. C in the highest power tests. One important quantity of interest is the local convective heat transfer coefficient defined in terms of the local bulk mean temperature of the flow, local wall temperature, and heat flux. Steam temperatures were measured at the center of selected subchannels along the length of the bundle by traversing miniaturized thermocouples. Using an analogy between momentum and energy transport, a method was developed for relating the local subchannel centerline temperature measurement to the local bulk mean temperature. Wall temperatures were measured using internal thermocouples strategically placed along the length of each rod and the local wall heat flux was obtained from an inverse conduction program. The local heat transfer coefficient was calculated from the data at each rod thermocouple location. The local heat transfer coefficients calculated for locations where the flow was fully developed were compared against several published correlations. The Weisman and El-Genk correlations were found to agree best with the RBHT steam cooling data, especially over the range of turbulent Reynolds numbers. The effect of spacer grids on the heat transfer enhancement was also determined from instrumentation placed downstream of the spacer grid locations. The local heat transfer was found to be greatest at locations immediately downstream of the grid, and as the flow moved further downstream from the grid it became more developed, thus causing the heat transfer to diminish. The amount of heat transfer enhancement was found to depend not only on the spacer grid design, but also on the local Reynolds number. It was seen that decreasing Reynolds number leads to greater heat transfer enhancement. (authors)

Spring, J.P.; McLaughlin, D.M. [The Pennsylvania State University, 201 Shields Building University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

Running dry at the power plant  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In the future, competition for water will require electricity generators in the United States to address conservation of fresh water. There are a number of avenues to consider. One is to use dry-cooling and dry-scrubbing technologies. Another is to find innovative ways to recycle water within the power plant itself. A third is to find and use alternative sources of water, including wastewater supplies from municipalities, agricultural runoff, blackish groundwater, or seawater. Dry technologies are usually more capital intensive and typically exact a penalty in terms of plant performance, which in turn raises the cost of power generation. On the other hand, if the cost of water increases in response to greater demand, the cost differences between dry and wet technologies will be reduced. EPRI has a substantial R & D programme evaluating new water-conserving power plant technologies, improving dry and hybrid cooling technologies, reducing water losses in cooling towers, using degraded water sources and developing resource assessment and management decision support tools. 5 refs., 10 figs.

Barker, B.

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dry steam number" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Oxidation of advanced steam turbine alloys  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Advanced or ultra supercritical (USC) steam power plants offer the promise of higher efficiencies and lower emissions. Current goals of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Power Systems Initiatives include coal generation at 60% efficiency, which would require steam temperatures of up to 760°C. This research examines the steamside oxidation of advanced alloys for use in USC systems, with emphasis placed on alloys for high- and intermediate-pressure turbine sections.

Holcomb, G.R.; Covino, B.S., Jr.; Bullard, S.J.; Ziomek-Moroz, M.

2006-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

Savings in Steam Systems (A Case Study)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Savings in Steam Systems (A Case Study) Rich DeBat Steam Systems Engineer Armstrong Service, Inc. Three Rivers, MI ABSTRACT Armstrong Service Inc. (ASI) conducted an engineered evaluation at an Ammonium Nitrate Manufacturing facility during... existing burner system after refractory repair and continue with normal operation of the existing boiler. Annstrong Service cannot guarantee any aspect of this option. Option 2. Armstrong Service, Inc. proposes to evaluate, select and install a...

DeBat, R.

223

World Class Boilers and Steam Distribution System  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

WORLD CLASS BOILERS AND STEAM DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM Vernon P. Portell, Ph.D. Manager Armstrong Service, Inc. ABSTRACT categorizing, measuring, and comparing subjects which are of interest to us is the way we identify the "World class" is a... of information can also be obtained through an independent firm that provides third-party assessment of steam systems. One of these third parties, Armstrong Energy Certification, Inc., has used data gleaned from decades of industrial experience...

Portell, V. P.

224

Cheng Cycle Brings Flexibility to Steam Plant  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Based upon an estimated steam load between 5,000 and 50,000 Ibjhr and an electrical load of approximately 1500 KW, the Engineering Department examined several energy optimization systems for this site. It was determined that a modified gas turbine... within the borders allows exact tracking of desired electrical and thermal outputs. The Allison engine used in the Cheng Cycle system was selected for its proved performance and its ample surge margin which permits stable steam injection...

Keller, D. C.; Bynum, D.; Kosla, L.

225

Control system for fluid heated steam generator  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A control system for controlling the location of the nucleate-boiling region in a fluid heated steam generator comprises means for measuring the temperature gradient (change in temperature per unit length) of the heating fluid along the steam generator; means for determining a control variable in accordance with a predetermined function of temperature gradients and for generating a control signal in response thereto; and means for adjusting the feedwater flow rate in accordance with the control signal.

Boland, J.F.; Koenig, J.F.

1984-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

226

VOLUME72, NUMBER16 P H Y S I C A L R E V I E W L E T T E R S 18 APRIL 1994 Molecular Combustion Motors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

analog of a steam engine. Since then, several models formally related to the Feynrnan ratchet have been. PACS numbers: 87.22.513,05.40.fj Cells have a service infrastructure, just like cities have steam

227

Development and Application of Advanced Models for Steam Hydrogasification: Process Design and Economic Evaluation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

+ H 2 -41 MJ/kmol Steam methane reforming reaction CH 4 + Htechnologies such as steam methane reforming, gas shiftingand preparation, steam methane reforming and FT synthesis,

Lu, Xiaoming

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

Development of Steam Turbine Inlet Control Valve for Supercritical Pressure at Siemens Industrial Turbomachinery AB.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

?? The development in the steam turbine business is heading for applications with much higher steam parameters since this enables a raised efficiency. Steam parameters… (more)

Sors, Felix

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

A Better Steam Engine: Designing a Distributed Concentrating Solar Combined Heat and Power System  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A Better Steam Engine: Designing a Distributed Concentrating2011 Abstract A Better Steam Engine: Designing a Distributedprovided for a steam Rankine cycle heat engine achieving 50%

Norwood, Zachary Mills

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

230

E-Print Network 3.0 - acoustical steam silencers Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

seasonal steam demand loads... convective steam gen erating tubes, then through an economizer, and finally through a two field electrostatic... psi, 520F. superheated steam at...

231

Method of drying articles  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of drying a green particulate article includes the steps of: a. Providing a green article which includes a particulate material and a pore phase material, the pore phase material including a solvent; and b. contacting the green article with a liquid desiccant for a period of time sufficient to remove at least a portion of the solvent from the green article, the pore phase material acting as a semipermeable barrier to allow the solvent to be sorbed into the liquid desiccant, the pore phase material substantially preventing the liquid desiccant from entering the pores.

Janney, Mark A. (Knoxville, TN); Kiggans, Jr., James O. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

Method of drying articles  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of drying a green particulate article includes the steps of: (a) Providing a green article which includes a particulate material and a pore phase material, the pore phase material including a solvent; and (b) contacting the green article with a liquid desiccant for a period of time sufficient to remove at least a portion of the solvent from the green article, the pore phase material acting as a semipermeable barrier to allow the solvent to be sorbed into the liquid desiccant, the pore phase material substantially preventing the liquid desiccant from entering the pores. 3 figs.

Janney, M.A.; Kiggans, J.O. Jr.

1999-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

233

Boiler Efficiency vs. Steam Quality- The Challenge of Creating Quality Steam Using Existing Boiler Efficiencies  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A boiler works under pressure and it is not possible to see what is happening inside of it. The terms "wet steam" and "carry over" are every day idioms in the steam industry, yet very few people have ever seen these phenomena and the actual water...

Hahn, G.

234

Development of one-dimensional computer code DESOPT for thermal hydraulic design of sodium-heated once through steam generators  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Once-through Steam Generator (SG) is a critical component of Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) plant. It is a counter current heat exchanger, in which heat is transferred from the hot sodium flowing on the shell side to water/steam in tube side. High pressure subcooled water enters the SG tube from bottom, gets heated up to saturation, goes through nucleate boiling, dry out and post dry out heat transfer, getting converted to saturated steam and finally gets superheated. For this the process design needs to be carried out accurately. A computer code DESOPT has been developed for the process design of straight vertical, serpentine and helical geometries and validated against reported designs in literature. Recently a test facility to test a 5.5 MWt sodium heated steam generator has been commissioned. The predictions of the code have been compared with the measurements and found satisfactory. This paper brings out different heat transfer mechanisms in SG and describes the one-dimensional code, its validation based on literature and in-house tests and presents the results of comparison between predicted and actual operation at different part loads.

G. Vaidyanathan; A.L. Kothandaraman; L.S. Siva Kumar; V. Vinod; I.B. Noushad; K.K. Rajan; P. Kalyanasundaram

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

235

Best Management Practice: Boiler/Steam Systems | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Best Management Practice: Boiler/Steam Systems Best Management Practice: Boiler/Steam Systems Best Management Practice: Boiler/Steam Systems October 7, 2013 - 3:17pm Addthis Boilers and steam generators are commonly used in large heating systems, institutional kitchens, or in facilities where large amounts of process steam are used. This equipment consumes varying amounts of water depending on system size, the amount of steam used, and the amount of condensate returned. Operation and Maintenance Options To maintain water efficiency in operations and maintenance, Federal agencies should: Develop and implement a routine inspection and maintenance program to check steam traps and steam lines for leaks. Repair leaks and replace faulty steam traps as soon as possible. Develop and implement a boiler tuning program to be completed a minimum of

236

US DOE Industrial Steam BestPractices Software Tools  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

DOW RESTRICTED For internal DOW RESTRICTED For internal use only US DOE Industrial Steam BestPractices Software Tools Riyaz Papar, PE, CEM Hudson Technologies Company Phone: (281) 298 0975 Email: rpapar@hudsontech.com - Agenda * Introduction * Steam System BP Tools Suite - SSST - SSAT - 3EPlus * Q & A 1 Steam System Management Objective: Minimize Steam Use, Energy Losses And Most Importantly STEAM COST!! Steam Market Assessment Takeaways * Fuel savings estimates - individual projects - ranged from 0.6 percent to 5.2 percent * Estimated payback periods generally very attractive - Ranged from 2 to 34 months - Most less than 2 years * Potential steam savings in target industries - over 12 percent of fuel use 2 Promising Areas To Achieve Steam Energy and Cost Savings? Use Steam System Scoping Tool (SSST) For

237

Solving chemical and mechanical problems of PWR steam generators  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Steam generators in power plants, based on pressurized water reactors (PWRs), transfer heat from a primary coolant system (pressurized water) to a secondary coolant system. Primary coolant water is heated in the core and passes through the steam generator that transfers heat to the secondary coolant water to make steam. The steam then drives a turbine that turns an electric generator. Steam is condensed and returned to the steam generator as feedwater. Two types of PWR steam generators are in use: recirculating steam generators (RSGs) and once-through steam generators (OTSGs). Since most of the units are vertical, only vertical units are discussed in this article. Some vertical units have operated with a minimum of problems, while others have experienced a variety of corrosion and mechanically-induced problems that have caused unscheduled outages and expensive repairs.

Green, S.J.

1987-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

Dry reforming of hydrocarbon feedstocks  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Developments in catalyst technology for the dry reforming of hydrocarbon feedstocks are reviewed for methane, higher hydrocarbons and alcohols. Thermodynamics, mechanisms and the kinetics of dry reforming are also reviewed. The literature on Ni catalysts, bi-metallic Ni catalysts and the role of promoters on Ni catalysts is critically evaluated. The use of noble and transitional metal catalysts for dry reforming is discussed. The application of solid oxide and metal carbide catalysts to dry reforming is also evaluated. Finally, various mechanisms for catalyst deactivation are assessed. This review also examines the various process related issues associated with dry reforming such as its application and heat optimization. Novel approaches such as supercritical dry reforming and microwave assisted dry reforming are briefly expanded upon.

Shah, Yatish T. [Norfolk State University; Gardner, Todd H. [U.S. DOE

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

An evaluation of the benefits of combined steam and fireflooding as a recovery process for heavy oils  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Lack of oil mobility is a major problem with in situ combustion field projects, since the combustion front displaces oil into an essentially unheated reservoir. One way of ensuring oil mobility is to utilize steam injection during the early life of the process, and then switch to combustion when heated communication paths have been developed. The in situ combustion characteristics of cores from the Primrose reservoir of Northeastern Alberta were investigated in a comprehensive series of 22 combustion tube tests. The program was carried out in order to evaluate the effectiveness of fireflooding in both cores that had been preheated to the extent that the oil was mobile and in those which were steam-flooded prior to dry combustion. Both normal- and 95% oxygen-enriched air were evaluated. Wet combustion tests were performed utilizing both liquid water and steam injection. The effects of parameters such as pressure, oxygen enrichment and injection flux on the combustion characteristics were examined. This paper will discuss the results of this study, which show that steam co-injection is more effective at lowering the oxygen requirement than was combustion following steam. Additionally, the cores which were preheated exhibited similar oxygen requirements to those which were presteamed to a near-residual saturation.

Moore, R.G.; Laureshen, C.J.; Belgrave, J.D.M.; Ursenbach, M.G. [Univ. of Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Jha, K.N. [Dept. of Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa (Canada)

1995-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

Energy Savings with Computerized Steam Trap Maintenance Program  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

by Armstrong International, Inc. Five other manufacturers each have about a 5% share of the tmp population, and about 5 more account for the remaining steam traps. 6,430 STEAM TRAPS COLl3Il~) FIGURE 3 - Steam trap population by application. 8,430 STEAM... standardized using the inverted bucket steam trap made by Armstrong International, Inc. "or equal", with approval, wherever applicable and sensible. I believe the inverted bucket steam trap is the best one for this. The selection of a good manufacturer...

Klidzejs, A. M.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dry steam number" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Calculation of geothermal reservoir temperatures and steam fractions from gas compositions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper deals with the chemical equilibria and physical characteristics of the fluid in the reservoir (temperature, steam fraction with respect to total water, gas/steam ratio, redox conditions), which seem to be responsible for the observed concentrations of some reactive species found in the geothermal fluids (CO2, H2, H2S and CH4). Gas geochemistry is of particular interest in vapor-dominated fields where the fluid discharged consists of almost pure steam containing a limited number of volatile chemical species. Considering several geothermal systems, a good correlation has been obtained among the temperatures calculated from the gas geothermometers and the temperatures measured in the reservoir of evaluated by other physical or chemical methods. 24 refs., 5 figs.

D'Amore, F.; Truesdell, A.H.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

242

Draft dry year tools (generation/planning)  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Generation > Planning > Generation Hydro Power Wind Power Monthly GSP BPA White Book Dry Year Tools Firstgov Dry Year Tools November 9, 2006 - Final Dry Year Guide: The Final Dry...

243

Simulation of Steam Reformers for Methane  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract A model is developed for industrial steam reformers for both top fired and side fired furnaces. The catalyst tube model is a one-dimensional heterogeneous model with intra-particle diffusional resistances. The two point boundary value differential equations of the catalyst pellets are solved using a modified novel orthogonal collocation technique to obtain the effectiveness factor variation along the length of the reactor. The side fired furnace equations are algebraic equations, the top fired furnace equations are two-point boundary value differential equations which are solved using the orthogonal collocation technique. A recently developed more general rate expression is used. The model performance is checked against industrial steam reformers. The model is used to investigate the effect of various parameters on the behaviour of the catalyst tubes and the furnace. The effectiveness factor variation along the length of the catalyst tube is also analysed. Keywords: Steam Reforming, Reactor modeling, Digital Simulation, effectiveness factor

M.A. Soliman; S.S.E.H. El-Nashaie; A.S. Al-Ubaid; A. Adris

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

Ultra supercritical turbines--steam oxidation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ultra supercritical (USC) power plants offer the promise of higher efficiencies and lower emissions, which are goals of the U.S. Department of Energy?s Advanced Power Systems Initiatives. Most current coal power plants in the U.S. operate at a maximum steam temperature of 538?C. However, new supercritical plants worldwide are being brought into service with steam temperatures of up to 620?C. Current Advanced Power Systems goals include coal generation at 60% efficiency, which would require steam temperatures of up to 760?C. This research examines the steamside oxidation of advanced alloys for use in USC systems, with emphasis placed on alloys for high- and intermediate-pressure turbine sections. Initial results of this research are presented.

Holcomb, Gordon R.; Covino, Bernard S., Jr.; Bullard, Sophie J.; Cramer, Stephen D.; Ziomek-Moroz, Margaret; Alman, David E.

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

245

Feasibility of Steam Hydrogasification of Microalgae for Production of Synthetic Fuels  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and is followed by steam methane reforming ( SMR). The finalReaction: Steam Methane Reforming: Fischer–Tropsch Reaction:methane and steam in steam methane reforming generates the

Suemanotham, Amornrat

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

246

E-Print Network 3.0 - advanced steam generators Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

THEORY AND IN PRACTICE. BY R... OF A HISTORY OF THE STEAM-EN- GINE, A MANUAL OF THE STEAM-ENGINE, A MANUAL OF STEAM-BOILERS, ETC., ETC., ETC... treatise on Steam-Boiler Explosions...

247

On water, steam, and string theory  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

At a pressure of 220 atm and a temperature of 374?°C there is a second-order phase transition between water and steam. Understanding it requires a key concept of both condensed matter and elementary particle physics: the renormalization group. Its basic ideas are explained with images from computer simulations of the lattice gas model. Then I briefly review how the renormalization group is used to compute critical coefficients for the water–steam phase transition. The results of this calculation are in good agreement with experiment. Finally some applications in particle physics and string theory are mentioned.

Christof Schmidhuber

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

248

Steam Trap Maintenance as a Profit Center  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the Eighteenth Industrial Energy Technology Conference, Houston, TX, April 17-18, 1996 EXCUSES Everybody thinks his or her steam trap maintenance is good. Surveysl have shown the following are the most popular excuses encountered when managers are confronted... for steam traps. 192 ESL-IE-96-04-28 Proceedings from the Eighteenth Industrial Energy Technology Conference, Houston, TX, April 17-18, 1996 5. Set up a trap maintenance program C. Prepare and present a report to that will: management on the results...

Bouchillon, J. L.

249

Improved plant performance through evaporative steam condensing  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Combining an open cooling tower and a steam condenser into one common unit is a proven technology with many advantages in power generation application, including reduced first cost of equipment, reduced parasitic energy consumption, simplified design, reduced maintenance, and simplified water treatment, Performance of the steam turbine benefits from the direct approach to wet bulb temperature, and operating flexibility and reliability improve compared to a system with a cooling tower and surface condenser. System comparisons and case histories will be presented to substantiate improved systems economies.

Hutton, D.

1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

250

23rd steam-station cost survey  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The results of the 23rd Steam Station Cost Survey covering the year 1982 are summarized. The major categories of the survey are as follows: general data; output data, 1982; fuel consumption, 1982; operation 1982 (mills/net kWh); investment ($/net kWh); energy cost, 1982 (mills/net kWh); and station performance, 1982. Thirty-one fossil-fuel steam plants and four nuclear stations were included in the survey. Fuel and operating cost increases are felt to be responsible for the moderate rise in total busbar-enery costs. 11 figures, 1 table.

Friedlander, G.D.; Going, M.C.

1983-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

251

Solar drying of seafood products  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The solar drying of seafood products by forced air convection and by direct insolation, as well as hot smoking fish with a solar assisted fish smoker are investigated.

Baird, C.D.; Deng, J.C.; Chau, K.V.; Heinis, J.J.; Perez, M.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

Finding Benefits by Modeling and Optimizing Steam and Power Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A site-wide steam modeling and optimization program (Visual MESA) was implemented at the INEOS Chocolate Bayou site. This program optimizes steam production, compressor turbine extraction, pump operation (turbine/motor) operation, as well...

Jones, B.; Nelson, D.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

CIBO's Energy Efficiency Handbook for Steam Power Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Council of Industrial Boiler Owners (CIBO) has developed a handbook to help boiler operators get the best performance from their industrial steam systems. This energy efficiency handbook takes a comprehensive look at the boiler and steam system...

Bessette, R. D.

254

Case Study- Steam System Improvements at Dupont Automotive Marshall Laboratory  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and implement small scale cogeneration. These recommendations included reducing the medium pressure steam distribution to low pressure, eliminating the medium pressure to low pressure reducing stations, installing a back pressure steam turbine generator...

Larkin, A.

255

Energy Conservation Thru Steam Trap Surveys and Preventive Maintenance Programs  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ENERGY CONSERVATION THRU STEAM TRAP SURVEYS AND PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE PROGRAMS Terry Boynton, Armstrong, Three Rivers, Mich. Bob Dewhirst, Armstrong, New Braunfels, Texas. This paper will deal with steam trap surveys and preventive maintenance...

Boynton, T.; Dewhirst, B.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

256

Use a Vent Condenser to Recover Flash Steam Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This tip sheet on using vent condensers to recover flash steam energy provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

257

Pafnuty Chebyshev, Steam Engines, and Polynomials by John Albert  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Pafnuty Chebyshev, Steam Engines, and Polynomials by John Albert OU Mathfest, January 2009 1 professorship at age 61, but continued to work on mathematics right up to his death at age 73. 2. Steam Engines

Albert, John

258

Following Where the Steam Goes: Industry's Business Opportunity  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Many associated benefits accrue from plant projects which comprehensively address steam systems. The DOE-Alliance to Save Energy Steam Challenge program was initiated shortly after last year's IETC on April 30, 1998 to promote awareness...

Jaber, D.; Jones, T.

259

Optimization of Steam Network in Tehran Oil Refinery  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

case study and its steam network is analyzed. At the first step, using STAR software, the steam network is simulated and then optimized, which determines the optimum conditions. In this regard, energy saving potential was identified and total operating...

Khodaie, H.; Nasr, M. R. J.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

260

The Analysis and Development of Large Industrial Steam Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Chemicals, petroleum, pulp and paper, and many other industries depend heavily on extensive complex steam systems for thermal and mechanical energy delivery. Steam's versatility and desirable characteristics as both a heat transfer medium and a...

Waterland, A. F.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dry steam number" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Use a Vent Condenser to Recover Flash Steam Energy (Revised)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This revised ITP tip sheet on vent condenser to recover flash steam energy provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

Not Available

2006-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

Numerical study of the partial oxidation of a coal particle in steam and dry air atmospheres  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......and oxygen on particle combustion rate are approximately...modelling of particle combustion, studies on the in...coupled with a simple chemistry) on the influences...and velocity of the coal char particle, and...establishment of the combustion or gasification regimes......

M. Kestel; P. Nikrityuk; O. Hennig; C. Hasse

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

263

Size Dependence of the Drying Characteristics of Single Lignite Particles in Superheated Steam  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Lignite, or brown coal, is the lowest ... accounts for 23 pct of the proven recoverable reserves of all coal.[1...] Because of its high moisture content, which makes the cost of transporting the raw lignite high,...

Tsuyoshi Kiriyama; Hideaki Sasaki…

2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

Materials for Ultra-Supercritical Steam Power Plants  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

for Advanced Ultra-Supercritical for Advanced Ultra-Supercritical Steam Power Plants Background The first ultra-supercritical (USC) steam plants in the U.S. were designed, constructed, and operated in the late 1950s. The higher operating temperatures and pressures in USC plants were designed to increase the efficiency of steam plants. However, materials performance problems forced the reduction of steam temperatures in these plants, and discouraged further developmental efforts on low heat-rate units.

265

Manganese and Ceria Sorbents for High Temperature Sulfur Removal from Biomass-Derived Syngas -- The Impact of Steam on Capacity and Sorption Mode  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Syngas derived from biomass and coal gasification for fuel synthesis or electricity generation contains sulfur species that are detrimental to downstream catalysts or turbine operation. Sulfur removal in high temperature, high steam conditions has been known to be challenging, but experimental reports on methods to tackle the problem are not often reported. We have developed sorbents that can remove hydrogen sulfide from syngas at high temperature (700 C), both in dry and high steam conditions. The syngas composition chosen for our experiments is derived from statistical analysis of the gasification products of wood under a large variety of conditions. The two sorbents, Cu-ceria and manganese-based, were tested in a variety of conditions. In syngas containing steam, the capacity of the sorbents is much lower, and the impact of the sorbent in lowering H{sub 2}S levels is only evident in low space velocities. Spectroscopic characterization and thermodynamic consideration of the experimental results suggest that in syngas containing 45% steam, the removal of H{sub 2}S is primarily via surface chemisorptions. For the Cu-ceria sorbent, analysis of the amount of H{sub 2}S retained by the sorbent in dry syngas suggests both copper and ceria play a role in H{sub 2}S removal. For the manganese-based sorbent, in dry conditions, there is a solid state transformation of the sorbent, primarily into the sulfide form.

Cheah, S.; Parent, Y. O.; Jablonski, W. S.; Vinzant, T.; Olstad, J. L.

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

An Object-Oriented Algebraic Steam-Boiler Control Specification  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

An Object-Oriented Algebraic Steam-Boiler Control Specification Peter Csaba ()lveczky, Poland Abstract. In this paper an object-oriented algebraic solution of the steam-boiler specification Introduction The steam-boiler control specification problem has been proposed as a challenge for different

Ă?lveczky, Peter Csaba

267

Steam boiler control speci cation problem: A TLA solution  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Steam boiler control speci cation problem: A TLA solution Frank Le ke and Stephan Merz Institut fur of the state of the steam boiler, detect failures, and model message transmission. We give a more detailed between the physi- cal state of the steam boiler and the model maintained by the controller and discuss

268

Steam boiler control specification problem: A TLA solution  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Steam boiler control specification problem: A TLA solution Frank Le�ke and Stephan Merz Institut f of the state of the steam boiler, detect failures, and model message transmission. We give a more detailed between the physi­ cal state of the steam boiler and the model maintained by the controller and discuss

Merz, Stephan

269

An Object-Oriented Algebraic Steam-Boiler Control Specification  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

An Object-Oriented Algebraic Steam-Boiler Control Specification.In this paper an object-oriented algebraic solution of the steam-boiler specification problem is presented computations cannot happen. 1 Introduction The steam-boiler control specification problem has been

Ă?lveczky, Peter Csaba

270

Supported metal catalysts for alcohol/sugar alcohol steam reforming  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Despite extensive studies on hydrogen production via steam reforming of alcohols and sugar alcohols, catalysts typically suffer a variety of issues from poor hydrogen selectivity to rapid deactivation. Here, we summarize recent advances in fundamental understanding of functionality and structure of catalysts for alcohol/sugar alcohol steam reforming, and provide perspectives on further development required to design highly efficient steam reforming catalysts.

Davidson, Stephen; Zhang, He; Sun, Junming; Wang, Yong

2014-08-21T23:59:59.000Z

271

Numerical Simulation of a Natural Circulation Steam Generator  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Numerical Simulation of a Natural Circulation Steam Generator W. Linzer \\Lambda , K. Ponweiser circulation steam generator. We focus on a model with a simple geometry consisting of two vertical pipes properties of water and steam. We present a numerical algorithm based on an explicit upwind discretization

WeinmĂĽller, Ewa B.

272

The Catalysis of the Carbon Monoxide-Steam Reaction  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...The Catalysis of the Carbon Monoxide-Steam Reaction F. J. Long K. W. Sykes The kinetics of the carbon monoxide-steam reaction occurring heterogeneously at...nearly unity, while that with respect to steam is correspondingly lowered; a slight...

1952-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

273

COMPUTATION OF TWO-PHASE FLOW IN STEAM GENERATOR  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

COMPUTATION OF TWO-PHASE FLOW IN STEAM GENERATOR USING DOMAIN DECOMPOSITION AND LOCAL ZOOM METHODS Abstract We present ow simulations in the Steam Generator of a pressurized water nuclear reactor using coherence between the zoom and the full domain. Key words: Steam Generator, Zoom, Domain Decomposition

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

274

GLC Analysis of Organic Chelating Agents in Steam Propulsion Systems  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......Chelating Agents in Steam Propulsion Systems by Paul J. Sniegoski...iminodi- acetic acid) in steam propulsion systems. For chromatogra...as an addi- tive to steam propulsion systems to prevent build-up...Fourth Internaval Conference on Marine Cor- rosion, Naval Research......

Paul J. Sniegoski; David L. Venezky

1974-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

275

Best Management Practice #8: Boiler and Steam Systems  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Boilers and steam generators are commonly used in large heating systems, institutional kitchens, or in facilities where large amounts of process steam are used. This equipment consumes varying amounts of water depending on system size, the amount of steam used, and the amount of condensate returned.

276

Project Recap Humanitarian Engineering Biodiesel Boiler System for Steam Generator  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Project Recap Humanitarian Engineering ­ Biodiesel Boiler System for Steam Generator Currently 70 biodiesel boiler system to drive a steam engine generator. This system is to provide electricity the customer needs, a boiler fueled by biodiesel and outputting to a steam engine was decided upon. The system

Demirel, Melik C.

277

Improving Steam System Performance: A Sourcebook for Industry, Second Edition  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This sourcebook is designed to provide steam system users with a reference that describes the basic steam system components, outlines opportunities for energy and performance improvements, and discusses the benefits of a systems approach in identifying and implementing these improvement opportunities. The sourcebook is divided into three main sections: steam system basics, performance improvement opportunities, and where to find help.

278

Steam Traps-The Oft Forgotten Energy Conservation Treasure  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In these days of high technology, the steam trap is often treated as a commodity item, forgotten by many and respected by a relative few. Yet, in many facilities, widespread undetected failure of steam traps has wasted 5-15% of a plant's total steam...

Pychewicz, F. S.

279

Industrial Steam Power Cycles Final End-Use Classification  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Final end uses of steam include two major classifications: those uses that condense the steam against heat transfer surfaces to provide heat to an item of process or service equipment; and those that require a mass flow of steam for stripping...

Waterland, A. F.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

Development of knowledge bases for large steam turbine transients  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

At this time, a number of high-qualified expert teams in different countries have accumulated significant experience in working up and introducing proficient algorithms of automated control, diagnostics, monitoring, on-line informative support, and off-line analysis for large steam turbines of fossil-fired and nuclear power plant units at their transients. In particular, such works were carried out at All-Russia Thermal Engineering Research Institute in Moscow. When put into effect, these developments do improve plant unit operation and maintenance. The creation of these algorithms is based on deep technological research of turbine transients with the use of their mathematical modeling. Currently, the central problem becomes a reiteration and adaptation of these developments to other objects which differ in design, scheme, and operation features. This problem is to be solved at the least cost. For certain complex tasks, it seems to be expedient to use expert system methodology with special knowledge bases. Along with the selection of such tasks, the creation of more or less general knowledge bases requires us to stratify the potential objects according to their principle features. The proposed forms of a knowledge presentation, including the mathematical models and logical rules, should correspond to the considered tasks and objects, as well as to the program tools to be applied. Such developments have been carried out for some tasks of the operating informative support and post-operating analysis of large steam turbine transients as well as their mathematical modeling.

Leyzerovich, A. [Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO (United States)

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dry steam number" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Optimization of industrial steam supply and steam-and-condensate farming of machine building enterprise  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The article studies efficient control methods of steam condensing economy of the machine building enterprise. There are recommendations about development of complex decisions based on indicators of energy, technical and economic efficiency.

I A Konahina; N F Kashapov; I R Gil'manshin; R R Ganiev

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

282

Steam Challenge: Developing A New DOE Program to Help Industry be Steam Smart  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Last year, the Alliance to Save Energy, the Department of Energy's Office of Industrial Technologies, and a cadre of private companies and associations formed an innovative "Steam Partnership" with the goal of developing a new, DOE technical...

Jones, T.; Hart, F.

283

The Utilisation of Volcanic Steam in Italy  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... exploitation of natural resources; and the welkin is still ringing with cries of “increase production,”“back to the land,” and “keep the home-fires burning.” Examples ... definite and successful effort been made in this direction, namely, by utilising the natural steam which emerges from the earth in volcanic districts. The jets of ...

1924-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

284

Task 1—Steam Oxidation (NETL-US)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The proposed steam in let temperature in the Advanced Ultra Supercritical (A·USC) steam turbine is high enough (760°C) Ihat traditional turbine casing and valve body materials such as ferr;tic/manensitic steels will not suffice due to temperature lim itations of this class of materials. Cast versions of three traditionally wrought Ni-based superalloys (Haynes 263. Haynes 282, and Nimonic 105) were evaluated for use as casing or valve components for the next generation of industrial steam turbines. The full size castings are substantia l: 2-5,000 kg each half and on the order of 100 nun thick. Experimental castings were quite a bit smaller, but section size was retained and cooling rate controlled to produce equi valem microslruclUre •. A multi_step homogenization heat treatment was d~ve loped to better disperse the al loy constituents. These castings were subsequently evaluated by characterizing their microstructure as well as their steam oxidation resistance (al 760 and 800 "C).

G. R. Holcomb

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

Reducing emissions by addressing steam turbine inefficiencies  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper reports that inefficient steam turbines increase fossil plant emissions because additional fuel must be burned to meet the power output requirements. During a turbine outage, plant performance and maintenance staff make and prioritize repair decisions within tight time and budget constraints. This paper describes how Georgia Power identifies performance losses of degraded components in the steam path and determines their impact on heat rate. Turbine performance is assessed by a steam path audit program that Encotech has developed and make available to utilities. Georgia Power has conducted several operating tests that give good correlation with audit results. Georgia Power uses the audit information to make the most cost-effective repairs to maintain a low heat rate and to reduce emissions. The Clean Air Act presents electric utilities with the challenge of reducing emissions from fossil plants in the most cost-effective way possible. Meeting the stack emissions limitations often translates to large capital expenditures and increased cycle heat rate. One resource the electric utilities have to reduce the costly impact of compliance with the Clean Air Act is control over the efficiency of their steam turbines.

Harris, J.C. (Georgia Power Co., Atlanta, GA (United States)); Cioffi, D.H. (Encotech, Inc., Schenectady, NY (United States))

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

286

Natural Steam Power Developments at Larderello  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... utilised since 1818 for the extraction of boric acid, the presence FIG. 2.-The turbine room at Larderello; three turbo-alternators of 2500 kw. each. The ... room at Larderello; three turbo-alternators of 2500 kw. each. The turbines are fed with volcanic steam which has been stripped of about 90 per cent, ...

1928-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

287

Carbon deposition in steam reforming and methanation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this review is to survey recent studies of carbon deposition on metals used as catalysts in steam reforming and methanation, emphasizing research where significant progress has been made. Where possible, an attempt is made to treat the fundamental nature of carbon formation and deactivation by carbon and the relationships between these two phenomena. Steam reforming and methanation are emphasized in this review because (1) deactivation of catalysts by carbon deposits is a serious concern in both processes, (2) much of the previous research with carbon formation on metals involved one or the other of these two reactions, and (3) there are interesting differences and similarities between these two reactions; for example, methanation is typically carried out at moderate reaction temperatures (200-450/sup 0/C) while steam reforming is typically carried out at significantly higher reaction temperatures (600-900/sup 0/C). Yet the two reactions are very closely related, since methane steam reforming is the reverse of methanation of CO. Moreover, there is evidence that some of the carbons formed in these two different processes are similar in their morphology.

Bartholomew, C.H.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

288

Fuel cell integrated with steam reformer  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A H.sub.2 -air fuel cell integrated with a steam reformer is disclosed wherein a superheated water/methanol mixture is fed to a catalytic reformer to provide a continuous supply of hydrogen to the fuel cell, the gases exhausted from the anode of the fuel cell providing the thermal energy, via combustion, for superheating the water/methanol mixture.

Beshty, Bahjat S. (Lower Makefield, PA); Whelan, James A. (Bricktown, NJ)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

Natural gas-assisted steam electrolyzer  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An efficient method of producing hydrogen by high temperature steam electrolysis that will lower the electricity consumption to an estimated 65 percent lower than has been achievable with previous steam electrolyzer systems. This is accomplished with a natural gas-assisted steam electrolyzer, which significantly reduces the electricity consumption. Since this natural gas-assisted steam electrolyzer replaces one unit of electrical energy by one unit of energy content in natural gas at one-quarter the cost, the hydrogen production cost will be significantly reduced. Also, it is possible to vary the ratio between the electricity and the natural gas supplied to the system in response to fluctuations in relative prices for these two energy sources. In one approach an appropriate catalyst on the anode side of the electrolyzer will promote the partial oxidation of natural gas to CO and hydrogen, called Syn-Gas, and the CO can also be shifted to CO.sub.2 to give additional hydrogen. In another approach the natural gas is used in the anode side of the electrolyzer to burn out the oxygen resulting from electrolysis, thus reducing or eliminating the potential difference across the electrolyzer membrane.

Pham, Ai-Quoc (San Jose, CA); Wallman, P. Henrik (Berkeley, CA); Glass, Robert S. (Livermore, CA)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

Analysis and decision document in support of acquisition of steam supply for the Hanford 200 Area  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The US Department of Energy (DOE) is now evaluating its facility requirements in support of its cleanup mission at Hanford. One of the early findings is that the 200-Area steam plants, constructed in 1943, will not meet future space heating and process needs. Because the 200 Area will serve as the primary area for waste treatment and long-term storage, a reliable steam supply is a critical element of Hanford operations. This Analysis and Decision Document (ADD) is a preliminary review of the steam supply options available to the DOE. The ADD contains a comprehensive evaluation of the two major acquisition options: line-term versus privatization. It addresses the life-cycle costs associated with each alternative, as well as factors such as contracting requirements and the impact of market, safety, security, and regulatory issues. Specifically, this ADD documents current and future steam requirements for the 200 Area, describes alternatives available to DOE for meeting these requirements, and compares the alternatives across a number of decision criteria, including life-cycle cost. DOE has currently limited the ADD evaluation alternatives to replacing central steam plants rather than expanding the study to include alternative heat sources, such as a distributed network of boilers or heat pumps. Thirteen project alternatives were analyzed in the ADD. One of the alternatives was the rehabilitation of the existing 200-East coal-fired facility. The other twelve alternatives are combinations of (1) coal- or gas-fueled plants, (2) steam-only or cogeneration facilities, (3) primary or secondary cogeneration of electricity, and (4) public or private ownership.

Brown, D.R.; Daellenbach, K.K.; Hendrickson, P.L.; Kavanaugh, D.C.; Reilly, R.W.; Shankle, D.L.; Smith, S.A.; Weakley, S.A.; Williams, T.A. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Grant, T.F. [Battelle Human Affairs Research Center, Seattle, WA (United States)

1992-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

Consider Steam Turbine Drives for Rotating Equipment: Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) Steam Tip Fact Sheet No.21  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Steam turbines are well suited as prime movers for driving boiler feedwater pumps, forced or induced-draft fans, blowers, air compressors, and other rotating equipment. This service generally calls for a backpressure non-condensing steam turbine. The low-pressure steam turbine exhaust is available for feedwater heating, preheating of deaerator makeup water, and/or process requirements.

Not Available

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

292

A parametric study of steam injected gas turbine with steam injector  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The interest in the STIG concept has arisen from the fact that the application shows high flexibility in power output, and therefore can serve well as a peak load unit. A new addition to the STIG-cycle is proposed and investigated in this paper. The introduction of steam injectors at the injection point of the steam is proposed to lightly raise the pressure of the gas flow entering the expander. The injector reduces the thermodynamic irreversibilities associated with the throttling nature of injecting a high pressure steam into a lower pressure region. A thermodynamic study has been conducted on the STIG with steam injectors for power generation. Steam pressure and superheating temperature are the main parameters for the system. The impact and usefulness of supplementary firing before the HRSG has also been investigated. The results are compared with a STIG with throttling valves instead of injectors. The efficiency and power output proves to increase somewhat upon introducing the steam injectors. This modification can be of commercial interest since the injectors are of low installation cost and need virtually no maintenance.

Aagren, N.D.; Svedberg, G. [Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden); Frutschi, H.U. [ABB Power Generation Ltd., Baden (Switzerland)

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

293

Investigation of Dry and Near-Dry Electrical Discharge Milling Processes.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??The dry and near-dry electrical discharge machining (EDM) processes are investigated in this research. Dry EDM uses gas to replace the liquid dielectric fluid in… (more)

Tao, Jia

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

294

Thermochemically recuperated and steam cooled gas turbine system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A gas turbine system in which the expanded gas from the turbine section is used to generate the steam in a heat recovery steam generator and to heat a mixture of gaseous hydrocarbon fuel and the steam in a reformer. The reformer converts the hydrocarbon gas to hydrogen and carbon monoxide for combustion in a combustor. A portion of the steam from the heat recovery steam generator is used to cool components, such as the stationary vanes, in the turbine section, thereby superheating the steam. The superheated steam is mixed into the hydrocarbon gas upstream of the reformer, thereby eliminating the need to raise the temperature of the expanded gas discharged from the turbine section in order to achieve effective conversion of the hydrocarbon gas.

Viscovich, Paul W. (Longwood, FL); Bannister, Ronald L. (Winter Springs, FL)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

Thermochemically recuperated and steam cooled gas turbine system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A gas turbine system is described in which the expanded gas from the turbine section is used to generate the steam in a heat recovery steam generator and to heat a mixture of gaseous hydrocarbon fuel and the steam in a reformer. The reformer converts the hydrocarbon gas to hydrogen and carbon monoxide for combustion in a combustor. A portion of the steam from the heat recovery steam generator is used to cool components, such as the stationary vanes, in the turbine section, thereby superheating the steam. The superheated steam is mixed into the hydrocarbon gas upstream of the reformer, thereby eliminating the need to raise the temperature of the expanded gas discharged from the turbine section in order to achieve effective conversion of the hydrocarbon gas. 4 figs.

Viscovich, P.W.; Bannister, R.L.

1995-07-11T23:59:59.000Z

296

A three-dimensional laboratory steam injection model allowing in situ saturation measurements. [Comparing steam injection and steam foam injection with nitrogen and without nitrogen  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The CT imaging technique together with temperature and pressure measurements were used to follow the steam propagation during steam and steam foam injection experiments in a three dimensional laboratory steam injection model. The advantages and disadvantages of different geometries were examined to find out which could best represent radial and gravity override flows and also fit the dimensions of the scanning field of the CT scanner. During experiments, steam was injected continuously at a constant rate into the water saturated model and CT scans were taken at six different cross sections of the model. Pressure and temperature data were collected with time at three different levels in the model. During steam injection experiments, the saturations obtained by CT matched well with the temperature data. That is, the steam override as observed by temperature data was also clearly seen on the CT pictures. During the runs where foam was present, the saturation distributions obtained from CT pictures showed a piston like displacement. However, the temperature distributions were different depending on the type of steam foam process used. The results clearly show that the pressure/temperature data alone are not sufficient to study steam foam in the presence of non-condensible gas.

Demiral, B.M.R.; Pettit, P.A.; Castanier, L.M.; Brigham, W.E.

1992-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

297

Carbon Dioxide Capture from Flue Gas Using Dry, Regenerable Sorbents  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report describes research conducted between July 1, 2006 and September 30, 2006 on the use of dry regenerable sorbents for removal of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) from coal combustion flue gas. Modifications to the integrated absorber/ sorbent regenerator/ sorbent cooler system were made to improve sorbent flow consistency and measurement reliability. Operation of the screw conveyor regenerator to achieve a sorbent temperature of at least 120 C at the regenerator outlet is necessary for satisfactory carbon dioxide capture efficiencies in succeeding absorption cycles. Carbon dioxide capture economics in new power plants can be improved by incorporating increased capacity boilers, efficient flue gas desulfurization systems and provisions for withdrawal of sorbent regeneration steam in the design.

David A. Green; Thomas O. Nelson; Brian S. Turk; Paul D. Box Raghubir P. Gupta

2006-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

298

NEWTON: Preventing Tire Dry Rot  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Preventing Tire Dry Rot Preventing Tire Dry Rot Name: Millard Status: student Grade: 9-12 Location: MD Country: USA Date: Spring 2013 Question: My dad has a classic car, and because it gets driven very little each year, the tires dry rot before he can get much tread wear on them. What could be used to protect the tires from dry rot and cracking? Replies: Hi Millard, Thanks for the question. I would recommend keeping the car on blocks so that there is no weight on the tires. Additionally, I would recommend that no electrical equipment (motors, switches, and other things that spark) be used around the car. The sparks generate ozone and ozone can cause rubber items such as tires, belts, and hoses to crack. I hope this helps. Please let me know if you have more questions. Thanks Jeff Grell

299

DRI Companies | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

DRI Companies DRI Companies Jump to: navigation, search Name DRI Companies Place Irvine, California Zip 92614 Sector Solar Product US-based residential and commercial installer of turnkey solar systems, through subsidiary iDRI Energy. Coordinates 41.837752°, -79.268594° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":41.837752,"lon":-79.268594,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

300

Sustaining dry surfaces under water  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Rough surfaces immersed under water remain practically dry if the liquid-solid contact is on roughness peaks, while the roughness valleys are filled with gas. Mechanisms that prevent water from invading the valleys are well studied. However, to remain practically dry under water, additional mechanisms need consideration. This is because trapped gas (e.g. air) in the roughness valleys can dissolve into the water pool, leading to invasion. Additionally, water vapor can also occupy the roughness valleys of immersed surfaces. If water vapor condenses, that too leads to invasion. These effects have not been investigated, and are critically important to maintain surfaces dry under water. In this work, we identify the critical roughness scale below which it is possible to sustain the vapor phase of water and/or trapped gases in roughness valleys - thus keeping the immersed surface dry. Theoretical predictions are consistent with molecular dynamics simulations and experiments.

Paul R. Jones; Xiuqing Hao; Eduardo R. Cruz-Chu; Konrad Rykaczewski; Krishanu Nandy; Thomas M. Schutzius; Kripa K. Varanasi; Constantine M. Megaridis; Jens H. Walther; Petros Koumoutsakos; Horacio D. Espinosa; Neelesh A. Patankar

2014-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dry steam number" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Steam turbine/generator NDE workshop  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

On September 12--15, 1989, EPRI sponsored a workshop in Charlotte, North Carolina on steam turbine/generator rotating components. The approximate 185 attendees represented a broad spectrum of utilities, equipment manufactures, forging suppliers, service organizations, universities, insurance carriers, and consultants from the United States and abroad. Canada, England, Finland, France, Germany, Japan, Korea, Italy, Spain, and Sweden were represented at the workshop, and 81 of the attendees represented 44 domestic utilities. Nondestructive examination equipment demonstrations by 16 vendors and 2 utilities at the EPRI NDE Center complemented the technical presentation. In addition to 23 formal, technical presentations of prepared papers of specific topics, 8 tutorial presentations, plus various opening and closing remarks and addresses, were given at the workshop. Presentations were organized under the following general topics: bucket blades and/or attachment regions; retaining rings; wheels/disks; steam turbine/generator testing and evaluation; and tutorials. Each individual paper has been cataloged separately.

Nottingham, L.D.; Sabourin, P.F. (Jones (J.A.) Applied Research Co., Charlotte, NC (USA))

1990-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

302

Simulation of steam reformers for methane  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A model is developed for industrial steam reformers for both top fired and side fired furnaces. The catalyst tube model is a one-dimensional heterogeneous model with intra-particle diffusional resistances. The two point boundary value differential equations of the catalyst pellets are solved using a modified novel orthogonal collocation technique to obtain the effectiveness factor variation along the length of the reactor. The side fired furnace equations are algebraic equations, the top fired furnace equations are two-point boundary value differential equations which are solved using the orthogonal collocation technique. A recently developed more general rate expression is used. The model performance is checked against industrial steam reformers. The model is used to investigate the effect of various parameters on the behaviour of the catalyst tubes and the furnace. The effectiveness factor variation along the length of the catalyst tube is also analysed.

M.A. Soliman; S.S.E.H. El-Nashaie; A.S. Al-Ubaid; A. Adris

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

303

Effect of steam on supported metal catalysts  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In order to examine the effect of steam on supported metal catalysts, model supported metal catalysts of Ni, Co, or Fe on alumina have been heated in steam at 700/sup 0/C. The transmission electron micrographs show that for all these metals, patches of film extend from the crystallites. Prolonged heating results in the disappearance of the patches which probably spread as a contiguous film over the entire surface of the substrate. The degree of spreading is in the order: C0 > Ni > Fe. On subsequent heating in H/sub 2/, small crystallites were generated, probably via the rupture of the contiguous film. The contraction of the patches of film bridging two or several particles caused the coalescence of the latter. This subsequent heating in H/sub 2/ favors redispersion only when the heating time is sufficiently short. Prolonged heating in H/sub 2/ leads to the disappearance of the small particles.

Ruckenstein, E.; Hu, X.D.

1986-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

304

Laser removal of sludge from steam generators  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of removing unwanted chemical deposits known as sludge from the metal surfaces of steam generators with laser energy is provided. Laser energy of a certain power density, of a critical wavelength and frequency, is intermittently focused on the sludge deposits to vaporize them so that the surfaces are cleaned without affecting the metal surface (sludge substrate). Fiberoptic tubes are utilized for laser beam transmission and beam direction. Fiberoptics are also utilized to monitor laser operation and sludge removal.

Nachbar, Henry D. (Ballston Lake, NY)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

305

Materials Performance in USC Steam Portland  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Goals of the U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Power Systems Initiatives include power generation from coal at 60% efficiency, which requires steam conditions of up to 760 C and 340 atm, co-called advanced ultrasupercritical (A-USC) steam conditions. A limitation to achieving the goal is a lack of cost-effective metallic materials that can perform at these temperatures and pressures. Some of the more important performance limitations are high-temperature creep strength, fire-side corrosion resistance, and steam-side oxidation resistance. Nickel-base superalloys are expected to be the materials best suited for steam boiler and turbine applications above about 675 C. Specific alloys of interest include Haynes 230 and 282, Inconel 617, 625 and 740, and Nimonic 263. Further validation of a previously developed chromia evaporation model is shown by examining the reactive evaporation effects resulting from exposure of Haynes 230 and Haynes 282 to moist air environments as a function of flow rate and water content. These two alloys differ in Ti and Mn contents, which may form outer layers of TiO{sub 2} or Cr-Mn spinels. This would in theory decrease the evaporation of Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} from the scale by decreasing the activity of chromia at the scale surface, and be somewhat self-correcting as chromia evaporation concentrates the Ti and Mn phases. The apparent approximate chromia activity was found for each condition and alloy that showed chromia evaporation kinetics. As expected, it was found that increasing the gas flow rate led to increased chromia evaporation and decreased chromia activity. However, increasing the water content in moist air increased the evaporation, but results were mixed with its effect on chromia activity.

G.R. Holcomb; J. Tylczak; R. Hu

2011-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

306

The Economics of Steam Electric Generation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

by manufacturers, data available from past installations and recent installations. 7) Labor costs were based on labor rates in ~he Lansing, Michigan area. 8) Power plant labor and supervision costs were based on manning data supplied by the Board of Water...-service. No other figures, including labor, fuel cost, outside services and other costs have been escalated. 12) Operating costs were established, based on steam generation. Credit has been allotted to any program for the electric power generated during...

Ophaug, R. A.; Birget, C. D.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

Underground coal gasification using oxygen and steam  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this paper, through model experiment of the underground coal gasification, the effects of pure oxygen gasification, oxygen-steam gasification, and moving-point gasification methods on the underground gasification process and gas quality were studied. Experiments showed that H{sub 2} and CO volume fraction in product gas during the pure oxygen gasification was 23.63-30.24% and 35.22-46.32%, respectively, with the gas heating value exceeding 11.00 MJ/m{sup 3}; under the oxygen-steam gasification, when the steam/oxygen ratio stood at 2: 1, gas compositions remained virtually stable and CO + H{sub 2} was basically between 61.66 and 71.29%. Moving-point gasification could effectively improve the changes in the cavity in the coal seams or the effects of roof inbreak on gas quality; the ratio of gas flowing quantity to oxygen supplying quantity was between 3.1:1 and 3.5:1 and took on the linear changes; on the basis of the test data, the reasons for gas quality changes under different gasification conditions were analyzed.

Yang, L.H.; Zhang, X.; Liu, S. [China University of Mining & Technology, Xuzhou (China)

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

Measuring non-condensable gases in steam  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In surgery, medical devices that are used should be sterilized. To obtain surface steam sterilization conditions, not only in the sterilizer chamber itself but also in the loads to be sterilized, the amount of non-condensable gases (NCGs), for instance air, should be very low. Even rather small fractions of NCGs (below 1 %) seriously hamper steam penetration in porous materials or devices with hollow channels (e.g., endoscopes). A recently developed instrument which might detect the presence of residual NCGs in a reliable and reproducible way is the 3M{sup TM} Electronic Test System (ETS). In this paper, a physical model is presented that describes the behavior of this instrument. This model has been validated by experiments in which known fractions of NCGs were introduced in a sterilizer chamber in which an ETS was placed. Despite several approximations made in the model, a good agreement is found between the model predictions and the experimental results. The basic principle of the ETS, measuring the heat transfer by condensation on a cooled surface, permits a very sensitive detection of NCGs in harsh environments like water vapor at high temperatures and pressures. Our model may serve to develop adapted and optimized versions of this instrument for use outside the field of sterilization, e.g., in heat exchangers based on steam condensation.

Doornmalen, J. P. C. M. van; Kopinga, K., E-mail: k.kopinga@tue.nl [Department of Applied Physics, Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands)

2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

309

Energy Tips: Benchmark the Fuel Cost of Steam Generation  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Type (sales unit) Type (sales unit) Energy Content Combustion (Btu/sales unit) Efficiency (%) Natural Gas (therm) 100,000 81.7 Natural Gas (cubic foot) 1,030 81.7 Distillate/No. 2 Oil (gallon) 138,700 84.6 Residual/No. 6 Oil (gallon) 149,700 86.1 Coal (ton) 27,000,000 87.6 Benchmark the Fuel Cost of Steam Generation Benchmarking the fuel cost of steam generation ($/1000 lbs of steam) is an effective way to assess the efficiency of your steam system. This cost is dependent upon fuel type, unit fuel cost, boiler efficiency, feedwater temperature, and steam pressure. This calculation provides a good first approximation for the cost of generating steam and serves as a tracking device to allow for boiler performance monitoring. Table 1 shows the heat input required to produce one pound of saturated

310

Review of High Temperature Water and Steam Cooled Reactor Concepts  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This review summarizes design concepts of supercritical-pressure water cooled reactors (SCR), nuclear superheaters and steam cooled fast reactors from 1950's to the present time. It includes water moderated supercritical steam cooled reactor, SCOTT-R and SC-PWR of Westinghouse, heavy water moderated light water cooled SCR of GE, SCLWR and SCFR of the University of Tokyo, B-500SKDI of Kurchatov Institute, CANDU -X of AECL, nuclear superheaters of GE, subcritical-pressure steam cooled FBR of KFK and B and W, Supercritical-pressure steam cooled FBR of B and W, subcritical-pressure steam cooled high converter by Edlund and Schultz and subcritical-pressure water-steam cooled FBR by Alekseev. This paper is prepared based on the previous review of SCR2000 symposium, and some author's comments are added. (author)

Oka, Yoshiaki [Nuclear Engineering Research Laboratory, The University of Tokyo, 3-1, Hongo 7-Chome, Bunkyo-ku (Japan)

2002-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

311

Comments on US LMFBR steam generator base technology  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The development of steam generators for the LMFBR was recognized from the onset by the AEC, now DOE, as a difficult, challenging, and high-priority task. The highly reactive nature of sodium with water/steam requires that the sodium-water/steam boundaries of LMFBR steam generators possess a degree of leak-tightness reliability not normally attempted on a commercial scale. In addition, the LMFBR steam generator is subjected to high fluid temperatures and severe thermal transients. These requirements place great demand on materials, fabrication processes, and inspection methods; and even greater demands on the designer to provide steam generators that can meet these demanding requirements, be fabricated without unreasonable shop requirements, and tolerate off-normal effects.

Simmons, W.R.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

Why Condensing Steam Turbines are More Efficient than Gas Turbines  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

.80 is used. POWER PRODUCED: :13.000 KW STEAM PRODUCED: 250,000 Ib/hr 250 psig steam :100,000 Ib/hr 30 psig steam :33,000 KW U.0) = 33,000 KW 41 '70 250.000 Ib/hr 10.1325 KWH/lbHO.80) = 26,500 KW :33'70 I 300.000 Ib/hr 10.0888 KWH/lbHO.80) = 21,300 KW....80 is used. POWER PRODUCED: :13.000 KW STEAM PRODUCED: 250,000 Ib/hr 250 psig steam :100,000 Ib/hr 30 psig steam :33,000 KW U.0) = 33,000 KW 41 '70 250.000 Ib/hr 10.1325 KWH/lbHO.80) = 26,500 KW :33'70 I 300.000 Ib/hr 10.0888 KWH/lbHO.80) = 21,300 KW...

Nelson, K. E.

313

The Development of Warm Gas Cleanup Technologies for the Removal of Sulfur Containing Species from Steam Hydrogasification  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

steam methane reforming .H 2 O ? CO 2 + H 2 Steam methane reforming reaction: CH 4 +by the SMR (Steam Methane Reforming) step and a final step

Luo, Qian

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

314

Final Technical Report Steam Cycle Washer for Unbleached Pulp  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Project Abstract for “Steam Cycle Washer for Unbleached Pulp” When completed, the patented SC Washer will provide an innovative, energy efficient demonstration project to wash unbleached pulp using a pressure vessel charged with steam. The Port Townsend Paper Corporation’s pulp mill in Port Townsend, WA was initially selected as the host site for conducting the demonstration of the SCW. Due to 2006 and 2007 delays in the project caused by issues with 21st Century Pulp & Paper, the developer of the SCW, and the 2007 bankruptcy proceedings and subsequent restructuring at Port Townsend Paper, the mill can no longer serve as a host site. An alternate host site is now being sought to complete the commercial demonstration of the Steam Cycle Washer for Unbleached Pulp. Additionally, estimated costs to complete the project have more than doubled since the initial estimates for the project were completed in 2002. Additional grant funding from DOE was sought and in July, 2008 the additional DOE funds were procured under a new DOE award, DE-PS36-08GO98014 issued to INL. Once the new host site is secured the completion of the project will begin under the management of INL. Future progress reports and milestone tracking will be completed under requirements of new DOE Award Number DE-PS36-08GO98014. The following are excerpts from the project Peer Review completed in 2006. They describe the project in some detail. Additional information can be found by reviewing DOE Award Number: DE-PS36-08GO98014. 5. Statement of Problem and Technical Barriers: The chemical pulping industry is one of the major users of fresh water in the United States. On average the industry uses over 80 tons of water to produce one ton of pulp, some states use up to 50% more (Washington 120 and Wisconsin 140). In order to process one ton of pulp using 80 tons of process water, a large amount of: • energy is used in process heat and • power is required for pumping the large volume of pulp slurries through the pulping phases. Most water used in the pulping process ends up as warm waste water in the mill’s effluent discharge, which subsequently pollutes receiving waterways and carries an enormous amount of energy with it. Wash water reduction in brown stock washing with the Steam Cycle Washers (SCW) will save energy, up to 1+ million BTUs per ton of pulp in the evaporators alone. Reduction of liquid volume through bleaching stages will save process heat energy in the amount of 2+ million BTUs per ton of pulp, and as much as 80 – 100 kWhrs of electrical power per ton of pulp due to reduced pumping costs. Currently, the technical barriers to water reduction in chemical pulping are basically as follows: • conventional pulp washers wash the pulp at 10 - 14% consistency, • conventional pulp washers use 12 – 16 tons of wash water per ton of pulp, and • they leave 30 – 70 lbs of soda (Na2SO4) per ton of pulp as soda loss into the washed pulp. The amount of wash water in excess of the amount of process liquid in the pulp is called Dilution Factor (DF), even though it is not a factor in the mathematical sense but an addition. Modern pulp washing lines can wash efficiently with a DF of 3 but most pulp mills in the United States are washing with a DF of 5-7. Therefore, at 10% washing consistency 14-16 tons of wash water is required and 14% consistency requires 11-13 tons of wash water.

Starkey, Yvonne; Salminen, Reijo; Karlsnes, Andy

2008-09-22T23:59:59.000Z

315

Table A44. Average Prices of Purchased Electricity and Steam  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

4. Average Prices of Purchased Electricity and Steam" 4. Average Prices of Purchased Electricity and Steam" " by Type of Supplier, Census Region, Census Division, and" " Economic Characteristics of the Establishment, 1994" " (Estimates in Dollars per Physical Units)" ," Electricity",," Steam" ," (kWh)",," (million Btu)" ,,,,,"RSE" ,"Utility","Nonutility","Utility","Nonutility","Row" "Economic Characteristics(a)","Supplier(b)","Supplier(c)","Supplier(b)","Supplier(c)","Factors"

316

Table A39. Total Expenditures for Purchased Electricity and Steam  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

9. Total Expenditures for Purchased Electricity and Steam" 9. Total Expenditures for Purchased Electricity and Steam" " by Type of Supplier, Census Region, Census Division, and" " Economic Characteristics of the Establishment, 1994" " (Estimates in Million Dollars)" ," Electricity",," Steam" ,,,,,"RSE" ,"Utility","Nonutility","Utility","Nonutility","Row" "Economic Characteristics(a)","Supplier(b)","Supplier(c)","Supplier(b)","Supplier(c)","Factors" ,"Total United States" "RSE Column Factors:",0.3,2,1.6,1.2

317

The Engineered Approach to Energy and Maintenance Effective Steam Trapping  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

., Chemical Engineering 9/1/75. 4. Maintenance Engineering, May 1976. 5. "How Much Does Lost Steam Cost",Armstrong Machine works, Hydrocarbon Processing, p.129, Jan. 1976. 6. "Setter Steam Trapping Cuts Energy Waste", wesley Yates, Yarway Corp..., Georgia Tech Industrial Energy Extension Service, Chemical Engineering, 2/11/80. 10. ''Basic Facts & Enerqv Saving Tips" ,Lawrence R. O'Dell, Armstrong Machine Works, Heating/Piping/ Air Conditioning, May 1977. 11. Steam Trap Report - Energy Loss...

Krueger, R. G.; Wilt, G. W.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

Steam generator for liquid metal fast breeder reactor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Improvements in the design of internal components of J-shaped steam generators for liquid metal fast breeder reactors. Complex design improvements have been made to the internals of J-shaped steam generators which improvements are intended to reduce tube vibration, tube jamming, flow problems in the upper portion of the steam generator, manufacturing complexities in tube spacer attachments, thermal stripping potentials and difficulties in the weld fabrication of certain components.

Gillett, James E. (Greensburg, PA); Garner, Daniel C. (Murrysville, PA); Wineman, Arthur L. (Greensburg, PA); Robey, Robert M. (North Huntingdon, PA)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

Steam System Opportunity Assessment for the Pulp and Paper, Chemical...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

System Opportunity Assessment for the Pulp and Paper, Chemical Manufacturing, and Petroleum Refining Industries Steam System Opportunity Assessment for the Pulp and Paper,...

320

Computational Modeling of Combined Steam Pyrolysis and Hydrogasification of Ethanol  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

JL, Kinetics of Coal Gasification, New York, John Wiley &applications to technical gasification processes- A review.kinetics of steam gasification for a transport gasifier.

Singh, S; Park, C S; Norbeck, J N

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dry steam number" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Computational Modeling of Combined Steam Pyrolysis and Hydrogasification of Ethanol  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Model for High Temperature Ethanol Oxidation" Int. J. Chem.and Hydro- gasification of Ethanol Surinder P. Singh*, Chanand steam) steps to convert ethanol to methane. Ethanol was

Singh, S; Park, C S; Norbeck, J N

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

322

Solar Steam Reforming of Methane (SSRM) Program Proposals  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Within the intended development work to supply solar HT process heat to industrial processes, especially chemical processes, the steam reforming process is considered suitable in particular.

A. Kalt

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

323

Droplet Characterization in the Wake of Steam Turbine Cascades.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

?? In low-pressure steam turbines, water droplet formation on the surfaces of stationary stator blades can lead to erosion on downstream turbine blades and other… (more)

Plondke, Adam Charles

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

324

Energy Savings By Recovery of Condensate From Steam Heating System  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and reduces steam supply, saving 4061 tons of industrial water per year. The total saved steam amounts to 25.~ of the total amount of steM supply. The total saved cost is 39616 yuan per year; the total saved amount of coal is 329.9 tons per year... and reduces steam supply, saving 4061 tons of industrial water per year. The total saved steam amounts to 25.~ of the total amount of steM supply. The total saved cost is 39616 yuan per year; the total saved amount of coal is 329.9 tons per year...

Cheng, W. S.; Zhi, C. S.

325

Solid oxide steam electrolysis for high temperature hydrogen production .  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??This study has focused on solid oxide electrolyser cells for high temperature steam electrolysis. Solid oxide electrolysis is the reverse operation of solid oxide fuel… (more)

Eccleston, Kelcey L.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

326

Dry cleaning of Turkish coal  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This study dealt with the upgrading of two different type of Turkish coal by a dry cleaning method using a modified air table. The industrial size air table used in this study is a device for removing stones from agricultural products. This study investigates the technical and economical feasibility of the dry cleaning method which has never been applied before on coals in Turkey. The application of a dry cleaning method on Turkish coals designated for power generation without generating environmental pollution and ensuring a stable coal quality are the main objectives of this study. The size fractions of 5-8, 3-5, and 1-3 mm of the investigated coals were used in the upgrading experiments. Satisfactory results were achieved with coal from the Soma region, whereas the upgrading results of Hsamlar coal were objectionable for the coarser size fractions. However, acceptable results were obtained for the size fraction 1-3 mm of Hsamlar coal.

Cicek, T. [Dokuz Eylul University, Izmir (Turkey). Faculty of Engineering

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

327

Solar Drying of Sliced Potatoes. An Experimental Investigation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The work presented in this paper was aimed to investigate an indirect solar dryer, locally designed and constructed, In order to adjust appropriate conditions for safe store of sliced potatoes. Throughout this study, by the mean of several experiments performed at Ouargla City in southern Saharan of Algeria. We searched to improve the performance of our solar drying system. An electrical resistance supplied by a variable number of photovoltaic panels was used to enhance the thermal efficiency. On the other hand, we tried to follow the impact of various controlling factors of hybrid solar drying on the quality of dried potato slices. Our present findings showed that the best operating conditions to ensure best efficiency, low duration time and higher product quality were selected as follows:1- Hybrid drying (solar energy) with improving the delivery of solar panels, drying time and quality of the product. Used operating conditions were: air flow speed 0.51 m/s in duration of 2 h 45 min through the period between Mai 06th, 2012 and Mai 28th, 2012.2- Hybrid drying (conventional electric power) using a maximum speed, performed at: 0.5 m/s in duration of 1 h 15 min through the period between Mai 13th, 2012 to Mai 18th, 2012.

Samira Chouicha; Abdelghani Boubekri; Djamel Mennouche; Mohamed Hafed Berrbeuh

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

328

DOE's BestPractices Steam End User Training Steam End User Training  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

generation efficiency and the primary factors that affect it. . The general concepts of boiler efficiency. As a result, water-tube boilers were developed. These boilers contain hundreds of tubes that hold the high the exhaust gases. The pressure vessel holds all of the stress of the high-pressure steam. Water-tube boilers

Oak Ridge National Laboratory

329

Influence of steam on the flammability limits of premixed natural gas/oxygen/steam mixtures  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Synthesis gas (Syngas) is an intermediate in a variety of industrial processes. Its production is energy and capital intensive and any improvement of existing technologies allowing simpler and economic production is of great interest. Recently, a new method known as short contact time-catalytic partial oxidation (SCT-CPO) has been developed into a commercial technology [1–4]. SCT-CPO is an entirely heterogeneous catalytic process converting premixed flammable feedstocks inside a very small reactor. In order to ensure safety and a high selectivity towards CO and H2 it has been important to determine and understand flammability properties of the gaseous reactant mixtures. Here we report on the results obtained within a windowed tube reactor equipped with multiple photodetectors and pressure transducers that has allowed the study of ignition, flame propagation, and explosion characteristics of gas mixtures similar to those used as reactants in the SCT-CPO reactor. The tests were conducted at various pressures with different amounts of steam and two different compositions of natural gas (NG). A flammability boundary for each mixture, based on normalized pressure and mole fraction of steam, was determined. The results conclude that these mixtures’ flammability could be suppressed in two very different ways. Depending on the adiabatic flame temperature of the mixture, suppression could be caused by steam's chemical influence increasing chain-termination or by a large amount of steam decreasing the reaction zone temperature.

Matthew J. Degges; J. Eric Boyer; Kenneth K. Kuo; Luca Basini

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

330

Steam Oxidation of Fossil Power Plant Materials: Collaborative Research to Enable Advanced Steam Power Cycles  

DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

Research into improved materials systems and associated manufacturing and reliability issues is a major part of initiatives to produce cleaner and cheaper energy systems in the UK and the USA. Under the auspices of a Memorandum of Understanding on Energy R&D, a work programme concerned with steam oxidation has been conducted. The focus was on the generation of definitive information regarding the oxidation behaviour in steam of current and developmental ferritic steels, austenitic steels, and nickelbased alloys required to enable advanced steam power cycles. The results were intended to provide a basis for quantifying the rate of metal loss expected under advanced steam cycle conditions, as well as understanding of the evolution of oxide scale morphologies with time and temperature to identify features that could influence scale exfoliation characteristics. This understanding and acquired data were used to develop and validate models of oxide growth and loss by exfoliation. This paper provides an overview of the activity and highlights a selection of the results coming from the programme.

A. T. Fry; I. G Wright; N. J Simms; B. McGhee; G. R. Holcomb

2013-11-19T23:59:59.000Z

331

The value of steam turbine upgrades  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Technological advances in mechanical and aerodynamic design of the turbine steam path are resulting in higher reliability and efficiency. A recent study conducted on a 390 MW pulverized coal-fired unit revealed just how much these new technological advancements can improve efficiency and output. The empirical study showed that the turbine upgrade raised high pressure (HP) turbine efficiency by 5%, intermediate pressure (IP) turbine efficiency by 4%, and low pressure (LP) turbine efficiency by 2.5%. In addition, the unit's highest achievable gross generation increased from 360 MW to 371 MW. 3 figs.

Potter, K.; Olear, D.; [General Physics Corp. (United States)

2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

332

EVALUATION OF A SULFUR OXIDE CHEMICAL HEAT STORAGE PROCESS FOR A STEAM SOLAR ELECTRIC PLANT  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

IOUT *MEBP *STC(QAAN. R )-STEAM TURBINE CALC. ~ETFQMIN~5 ST~KJ/S) 1JC. /(GROSS STEAM TURBINE POWER PRODUCTION) STEA~ GENprogram then prints the steam turbine results. All flows in

Dayan, J.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

333

Effect of Steam Sterilization and Gamma Irradiation of Peat on Quality of Rhizobium Inoculants  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...and Industrial Microbiology Effect of Steam Sterilization and Gamma Irradiation of...Inoculants for M. sativa manufactured with steam-sterilized peat were similar in quality...higher gamma irradiation dosage. Effect of steam sterilization and gamma irradiation of...

Barend W. Strijdom; Henri Jansen van Rensburg

1981-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

334

COAGULATION AND STERILIZATION OF LOEFFLER'S BLOOD SERUM MEDIA UNDER STEAM PRESSURE  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...OF LOEFFLER'S BLOOD SERUM MEDIA UNDER STEAM PRESSURE A. J. Hinkleman Oklahoma City...of Loeffler's Blood Serum Media under Steam Pressure. | Journal Article COAGULATION...OF LOEFFLER'S BLOOD SERUM MEDIA UNDER STEAM PRESSURE A. J. HINKLENIAN Oklahoma City...

A. J. Hinkleman

1923-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

NETL: Gasification- Water-Gas Shift (WGS) Tests to Reduce Steam Use  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Syngas Processing Systems Syngas Processing Systems Water-Gas Shift (WGS) Tests to Reduce Steam Use National Carbon Capture Center at the Power Systems Development Facility Southern Company Services, Inc. Project Number: NT0000749 Project Description The National Carbon Capture Center is testing commercial water-gas shift (WGS) catalysts from multiple vendors in support of developing WGS reactor systems which will reduce the cost of carbon dioxide (CO2) capture from the production of syngas using coal. These tests have revealed that steam-to-carbon monoxide (CO) ratios can be reduced, resulting in a substantial increase in the net power output and significantly reducing the cost of electricity from an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plant with CO2 capture. Several commercially available WGS catalysts have been tested, and the results are being provided to the manufacturers to aid them in specifying future WGS systems for IGCC plants incorporating CO2 capture.

336

Technical and economic comparison of steam-injected versus combined- cycle retrofits on FT-4 engines  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The study discusses the findings of a conceptual site-specific investigation of the technical and economic aspects of converting the TPM FT4 simple cycle combustion turbines into either the steam injected gas turbine (SIGT) cycle or the combined cycle (CC). It describes the selection of the best retrofit alternatives through the evaluation and data analysis of a large number of sites and units at two utilities. Conceptual designs are performed on the best retrofit alternatives. Flow diagrams and general arrangement drawings are developed for various configurations utilizing drum type and once-through type multipressure heat recovery steam generators. Auxiliary power consumption and capital cost estimates are presented together with an economic evaluation and comparison of the retrofit alternatives. While the investigation is performed utilizing the FT4 combustion turbines, the steps presented in the report may be used as a guide for investigating the conversion of other gas turbines to either cycle at any utility site.

Silaghy, F.J. (Burns and Roe, Inc., Oradell, NJ (United States))

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

337

UNIT NUMBER:  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

193 UNIT NUMBER: 197 UNIT NAME: CONCRETE RUBBLE PILE (30) REGULATORY STATUS: AOC LOCATION: Outside plant security fence, north of the plant on Big Bayou Creek on private property....

338

UNIT NUMBER  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

7 UNIT NUMBER UNIT NAME Rubble oile 41 REGULATORY STATUS: AOC LOCATION: Butler Lake Dam, West end of Butler Lake top 20 ft wide, 10 ft APPROXIMATE DIMENSIONS: 200 ft long, base 30...

339

Cool, Dry, Quiet Dehumidification with  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Representative dehumidification increase using Trane CDQ dehumidification system Standard HVAC coil - 20% latent dehumidification system as the best new HVAC dehumidification product for 2006. #12;Trane CDQTM (Cool Dry Quiet, supply fan, cooling coil, optional reheat coil, optional final filters. A CDQ system in a Custom Climate

Oak Ridge National Laboratory

340

THE DIRT ON DRY MERGERS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Using data from the Spitzer Space Telescope, we analyze the mid-infrared (3-70 {mu}m) spectral energy distributions of dry merger candidates in the Booetes field of the NOAO Deep Wide-Field Survey. These candidates were selected by previous authors to be luminous, red, early-type galaxies with morphological evidence of recent tidal interactions. We find that a significant fraction of these candidates exhibit 8 and 24 {mu}m excesses compared to expectations for old stellar populations. We estimate that a quarter of dry merger candidates have mid-infrared-derived star formation rates greater than {approx}1 M{sub sun} yr{sup -1}. This represents a 'frosting' on top of a large old stellar population, and has been seen in previous studies of elliptical galaxies. Further, the dry merger candidates include a higher fraction of star-forming galaxies relative to a control sample without tidal features. We therefore conclude that the star formation in these massive ellipticals is likely triggered by merger activity. Our data suggest that the mergers responsible for the observed tidal features were not completely dry, and may be minor mergers involving a gas-rich dwarf galaxy.

Desai, Vandana; Soifer, B. T. [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Dey, Arjun [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, Tucson, AZ 85726-6732 (United States); Cohen, Emma [California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Le Floc'h, Emeric, E-mail: desai@ipac.caltech.edu [AIM, CNRS, Universite Paris Diderot, Bat. 709, CEA-Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France)

2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dry steam number" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Table N11.4. Expenditures for Purchased Electricity, Natural Gas, and Steam, 19  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

4. Expenditures for Purchased Electricity, Natural Gas, and Steam, 1998;" 4. Expenditures for Purchased Electricity, Natural Gas, and Steam, 1998;" " Level: National Data and Regional Totals; " " Row: NAICS Codes;" " Column: Supplier Sources of Purchased Electricity, Natural Gas, and Steam;" " Unit: Million U.S. Dollars." ,,,"Electricity","Components",,"Natural Gas","Components",,"Steam","Components" " "," ",,,"Electricity",,,"Natural Gas",,,"Steam"," ",," " " "," ",,"Electricity","from Sources",,"Natural Gas","from Sources",,"Steam","from Sources","RSE"

342

Table 7.7 Quantity of Purchased Electricity, Natural Gas, and Steam, 2002  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

7 Quantity of Purchased Electricity, Natural Gas, and Steam, 2002;" 7 Quantity of Purchased Electricity, Natural Gas, and Steam, 2002;" " Level: National and Regional Data;" " Row: NAICS Codes;" " Column: Supplier Sources of Purchased Electricity, Natural Gas, and Steam;" " Unit: Physical Units or Btu." ,,,"Electricity","Components",,"Natural Gas","Components",,"Steam","Components" " "," ",,,"Electricity",,,"Natural Gas",,,"Steam"," ",," " " "," ",,"Electricity","from Sources",,"Natural Gas","from Sources",,"Steam","from Sources"

343

Table 7.10 Expenditures for Purchased Electricity, Natural Gas, and Steam, 2002  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

0 Expenditures for Purchased Electricity, Natural Gas, and Steam, 2002;" 0 Expenditures for Purchased Electricity, Natural Gas, and Steam, 2002;" " Level: National and Regional Data; " " Row: NAICS Codes;" " Column: Supplier Sources of Purchased Electricity, Natural Gas, and Steam;" " Unit: Million U.S. Dollars." ,,,"Electricity","Components",,"Natural Gas","Components",,"Steam","Components" " "," ",,,"Electricity",,,"Natural Gas",,,"Steam"," ",," " " "," ",,"Electricity","from Sources",,"Natural Gas","from Sources",,"Steam","from Sources","RSE"

344

Table 7.3 Average Prices of Purchased Electricity, Natural Gas, and Steam, 20  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

3 Average Prices of Purchased Electricity, Natural Gas, and Steam, 2002;" 3 Average Prices of Purchased Electricity, Natural Gas, and Steam, 2002;" " Level: National and Regional Data; " " Row: NAICS Codes;" " Column: Supplier Sources of Purchased Electricity, Natural Gas, and Steam;" " Unit: U.S. Dollars per Physical Units." ,,,"Electricity","Components",,"Natural Gas","Components",,"Steam","Components" " "," ",,,"Electricity",,,"Natural Gas",,,"Steam"," ",," " " "," ",,"Electricity","from Sources",,"Natural Gas","from Sources",,"Steam","from Sources"

345

OXIDATION OF DRY HYDROCARBONS AT HIGH-POWER DENSITY ANODES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This work builds upon discoveries by the University of Pennsylvania and others pertaining to the oxidation of dry hydrocarbon fuels in high temperature solid oxide fuel cells. The work reported here was restricted primarily to dry methane and confirms that YSZ-based cells, having ceria in the anode as a catalyst and copper in the anode as a current collector, can operate on dry methane for extended periods. Thirty-three lab-scale cells of various designs were fabricated and operated under a variety of conditions. The longest-lived cell gave stable performance on dry methane at 800 C for over 305 hours. Only slight carbon deposition was noted at the completion of the test. A corresponding nickel/YSZ-based anode would have lasted for less than an hour under these test conditions (which included open circuit potential measurements) before carbon fouling essentially destroyed the cell. The best performing cell achieved 112 mW/cm{sub 2} on dry methane at 800 C. Several problems were encountered with carbon fouling and declining open circuit voltages in many of the test cells after switching from operation on hydrogen to dry methane. Although not rigorously confirmed by experimentation, the results suggested that air infiltration through less than perfect perimeter seals or pinholes in the electrolytes, or both gave rise to conditions that caused the carbon fouling and OCV decline. Small amounts of air reacting with methane in a partial oxidation reaction could produce carbon monoxide that, in turn, would deposit the carbon. If this mechanism is confirmed, it implies that near perfect hardware is required for extended operation. Some evidence was also found for the formation of electrical shorts, probably from carbon deposits bridging the electrolyte. Work with odorized methane and with methane containing 100-ppm hydrogen sulfide confirmed that copper is stable at 800 C in dry hydrocarbon fuels in the presence of sulfur. In a number of cases, but not exclusively, the performance life on dry methane with sulfur compounds was much longer than with dry methane alone. The effect of sulfur compounds in these cases appeared to correlate with inhibition of carbon deposition. Mixed results were obtained for the effect of the sulfur compounds on power density. Progress also was made in understanding the mechanisms involved in direct utilization of dry natural gas. Evidence was developed for three possible mechanisms for dry methane utilization in addition to the usually cited mechanism--direct oxidation of methane by oxygen anions. Further work is required at a fundamental level before the knowledge gained here can be translated into higher levels of performance.

K.Krist; O. Spaldon-Stewart; R. Remick

2004-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

346

Low severity hydrocarbon steam reforming process  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A process is described for producing ammonia which comprises: (a) primary catalytically reforming at super atmospheric pressure in a direct-fired primary reforming zone, a hydrocarbon feedstock with steam to produce a gas containing carbon oxides, hydrogen and methane; (b) secondary catalytically reforming the gas from step (a) by introducing air and bringing the mixture towards equilibrium thereby producing a secondary reformer effluent gas containing nitrogen, carbon oxides, hydrogen and a decreased quantity of methane; (c) converting carbon monoxide catalytically with steam to carbon dioxide and hydrogen; (d) removing carbon oxides to give an ammonia synthesis gas comprising nitrogen and hydrogen and compressing the gas to ammonia synthesis pressure; (e) reacting the synthesis gas in an ammonia synthesis zone to produce ammonia and recovering ammonia from the reacted gas to produce an ammonia-depleted gas stream; (f) recycling at least a portion of the ammonia-depleted gas stream to the ammonia synthesis zone; and (g) treating a sidestream of the ammonia-depleted gas to separate a stream enriched in hydrogen and an inerts-enriched gas stream, and returning the enriched hydrogen stream to the ammonia synthesis zone.

Osman, R.M.; Byington, R.G.

1986-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

347

Using HYTECH to Synthesize Control Parameters for a Steam Boiler ?;??  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Using HYTECH to Synthesize Control Parameters for a Steam Boiler ?;?? Thomas A. Henzinger 1 Howard model a steam­boiler control system using hybrid au­ tomata. We provide two abstracted linear models of the nonlinear be­ havior of the boiler. For each model, we define and verify a controller that maintains

Henzinger, Thomas A.

348

Using HYTECH to Synthesize Control Parameters for a Steam Boiler? ??  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Using HYTECH to Synthesize Control Parameters for a Steam Boiler? ?? Thomas A. Henzinger1 Howard model a steam-boiler control system using hybrid au- tomata. We provide two abstracted linear models of the nonlinear be- havior of the boiler. For each model, we de ne and verify a controller that maintains the safe

Henzinger, Thomas A.

349

Finding Benefits by Modeling and Optimizing Steam and Power Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A site-wide steam modeling and optimization program (Visual Mesa) was implemented at the Bayou Cogen plant in Bayport, Texas in 1997 and has been in use continuously since that time. This program optimizes steam production among four cogen units...

Harper, C.; Nelson, D. A.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

350

ExxonMobile Beaumont Chemical Plant Steam Integration Project  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and petrochemical manufacturing facility. ? Energy optimization across the Complex requires flexibility to accommodate variations in operations, seasonality, maintenance outages, etc. ? The steam system spans the Complex and is generated from various sources... and petrochemical manufacturing facility. ? Energy optimization across the Complex requires flexibility to accommodate variations in operations, seasonality, maintenance outages, etc. ? The steam system spans the Complex and is generated from various sources...

Long, T.

351

How to Calculate the True Cost of Steam  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This brief details how to calculate the true cost of steam, which is important for monitoring and managing energy use in a plant, evaluating proposed design changes to the generation or distribution infrastructure and the process itself, and for continuing to identify competitive advantages through steam system and plant efficiency improvements.

352

STeam Injected Piston Engine Troels Hrding Pedersen Bjrn Kjellstrm  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

STIPE STeam Injected Piston Engine Troels Hørding Pedersen Björn Kjellström Thomas Koch Erik Balck stempelmotor med dampindsprøjtning". English title: "Steam injected piston engine, a feasibility study ......................................................................................12 Stationary engines for decentralised CHP or industrial CHP

353

Development and Application of Advanced Models for Steam Hydrogasification: Process Design and Economic Evaluation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

HHV) Capital Costs Feed Handling & Preparation Gasification Warm Gas Cleanup Steam MethaneHHV) Capital Costs Feed Handling & Preperation Gasification Warm Gas Cleanup Steam Methane

Lu, Xiaoming

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

354

Flash High-Pressure Condensate to Regenerate Low-Pressure Steam  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This tip sheet outlines optimal conditions for flashing high-pressure condensate to regenerate low-pressure steam in steam systems.

355

Bullet trains and steam engines: Exogenous attention zips but endogenous attention chugs along  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Bullet trains and steam engines: Exogenous attention zips but endogenous attention chugs along: Chakravarthi, R., & VanRullen, R. (2011). Bullet trains and steam engines: Exogenous attention zips

VanRullen, Rufin

356

Feasibility of Steam Hydrogasification of Microalgae for Production of Synthetic Fuels  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Figure 2.2. Biomass Air Steam Oxygen Hydrogen Gasifier typeAir GasifierSteam Gasifier Oxygen Gasifier Hydrogen Gasifier

Suemanotham, Amornrat

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

357

Technology Maturation Plan (TMP) Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR)  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Maturation Plan (TMP) Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming Maturation Plan (TMP) Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) Technology for Tank 48H Treatment Project (TTP) Technology Maturation Plan (TMP) Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) Technology for Tank 48H Treatment Project (TTP) This assessment determines the technology maturity level of the candidate Tank 48H treatment technologies that are being considered for implementation at DOE's SRS - specifically Fluidized Bed Steam Reformer System. Technology Maturation Plan (TMP) Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) Technology for Tank 48H Treatment Project (TTP) More Documents & Publications Technology Maturation Plan (TMP) Wet Air Oxidation (WAO) Technology for Tank 48H Treatment Project (TTP) SRS Tank 48H Waste Treatment Project Technology Readiness Assessment

358

Issues in the selection of the LMFBR steam cycle  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Unlike the light-water reactor, the liquid-metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR) allows the designer considerable latitude in the selection of the steam cycle. This latitude in selection has been exercised by both foreign and domestic designers, and thus, despite the fact that over 25 LMFBR's have been built or are under construction, a consensus steam cycle has not yet evolved. This paper discusses the LMFBR steam cycles of interest to the LMFBR designer, reviews which of these cycles have been employed to date, discusses steam-cycle selection factors, discusses why a consensus has not evolved, and finally, concludes that the LMFBR steam-cycle selection is primarily one of technical philosophy with several options available.

Buschman, H.W.; McConnell, R.J.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

359

Issues in the selection of the LMFBR steam cycle  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Unlike the light water reactor, the liquid metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR) allows the designer considerable latitude in the selection of the steam cycle. This latitude in selection has been exercised by both foreign and domestic designers, and thus, despite the fact that over 25 LMFBR's have been built or are under construction, a consensus steam cycle has not yet evolved. This paper discusses the LMFBR steam cycles of interest to the LMFBR designer, reviews which of these cycles have been employed to date, discusses steam-cycle selection factors, discusses why a consensus has not evolved, and finally, concludes that the LMFBR steam-cycle selection is primarily one of technical philosophy with several options available.

Buschchman, H.W.; McConnell, R.J.

1983-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

360

Experience in the repair of steam generator auxiliary feedwater nozzle  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The auxiliary feedwater nozzle is quite often subjected to more thermal stress cycles and other loading mechanisms during their service life than the material was designed and fabricated for at the nozzle of the earlier steam generators in many nuclear plants. During plant operation, the auxiliary feedwater nozzle outlet is exposed to the hot steam from the generator side, while the auxiliary feedwater piping which contains subcooled water from the inlet often induces water hammer as a result of the steam-water mixing phenomena. The thermal cycles and the steam bubble collapse at the nozzle may cause cracking in the nozzle liner and interior surface of the nozzle, and subsequently results in structural damage to the steam generator. This presentation is intended to share the lessons learned from the evaluation of the nozzle condition and the subsequent modification and repair made to the auxiliary feedwater nozzle at the Palisades Nuclear Plant. Other nuclear plant owners may benefit from this experience.

Chao, K.K.N. [Consumers Power Co., Jackson, MI (United States)

1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dry steam number" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Guides and Case Studies for Hot-Dry and Mixed-Dry Climates | Department of  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Dry and Mixed-Dry Climates Dry and Mixed-Dry Climates Guides and Case Studies for Hot-Dry and Mixed-Dry Climates Map of the Hot-Dry and Mixed-Dry Zone of the United States. The zone contains the eastern side of California and follows the US border to cover the western half of Texas. The Department of Energy (DOE) has developed a series of best practices and case studies to help builders improve whole-house energy performance in buildings found in hot-dry and mixed-dry climates. Best Practice Guides New Construction Case Studies Improvements to Existing Homes Case Studies Best Practice Guides 40% Whole-House Energy Savings in Hot-Dry and Mixed-Dry Climates - Volume 9 New Construction Case Studies Arizona Project: Gordon Estates - Phoenix Builder: Mandalay Homes Profile: Fourteen homes in this subdivision achieved Challenge Home

362

DOE/ID-Number  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

of synthetic fuels from natural gas, cogeneration of electricity and steam, and oil shale and oil sand processing varies from 750 to 950C. Additional study is required to...

363

Flammability Limits of Binary Mixtures of 1,2-Ethanediol + Steam and 1,2-Propanediol + Steam  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Flammability Limits of Binary Mixtures of 1,2-Ethanediol + Steam and 1,2-Propanediol + Steam ... In addition, the experimental results were compared with the estimated values based on the adiabatic flame temperature method. ... Shortly before ignition, the stirrer was turned off, and the mixture was left for 1 min to eliminate turbulence. ...

Ke Zhang; Xianyang Meng; Jiangtao Wu

2013-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

364

Steam Reforming Application for Treatment of DOE Sodium Bearing Tank Wastes at INL for ICP  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The patented THOR® steam reforming waste treatment technology has been selected as the technology of choice for treatment of Sodium Bearing Waste (SBW) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) for the Idaho Cleanup Project (ICP). SBW is an acidic tank waste at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) at INL. It consists primarily of waste from decontamination activities and laboratory wastes. SBW contains high concentrations of nitric acid, alkali and aluminum nitrates, with minor amounts of many inorganic compounds including radionuclides, mainly cesium and strontium. The THOR® steam reforming process will convert the SBW tank waste feed into a dry, solid, granular product. The THOR® technology was selected to treat SBW, in part, because it can provide flexible disposal options to accommodate the final disposition path selected for SBW. THOR® can produce a final end-product that will meet anticipated requirements for disposal as Remote-Handled TRU (RH-TRU) waste; and, with modifications, THOR® can also produce a final endproduct that could be qualified for disposal as High Level Waste (HLW). SBW treatment will be take place within the Integrated Waste Treatment Unit (IWTU), a new facility that will be located at the INTEC. This paper provides an overview of the THOR® process chemistry and process equipment being designed for the IWTU.

J. Bradley Mason; Kevin Ryan; Scott Roesener; Michael Cowen; Duane Schmoker; Pat Bacala; Bill Landman

2006-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

365

Improved bio-energy yields via sequential ethanol fermentation and biogas digestion of steam exploded oat straw  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Using standard laboratory equipment, thermochemically pretreated oat straw was enzymatically saccharified and fermented to ethanol, and after removal of ethanol the remaining material was subjected to biogas digestion. A detailed mass balance calculation shows that, for steam explosion pretreatment, this combined ethanol fermentation and biogas digestion converts 85–87% of the higher heating value (HHV) of holocellulose (cellulose and hemicellulose) in the oat straw into biofuel energy. The energy (HHV) yield of the produced ethanol and methane was 9.5–9.8 MJ/(kg dry oat straw), which is 28–34% higher than direct biogas digestion that yielded 7.3–7.4 MJ/(kg dry oat straw). The rate of biogas formation from the fermentation residues was also higher than from the corresponding pretreated but unfermented oat straw, indicating that the biogas digestion could be terminated after only 24 days. This suggests that the ethanol process acts as an additional pretreatment for the biogas process.

Debebe Yilma Dererie; Stefan Trobro; Majid Haddad Momeni; Henrik Hansson; Johanna Blomqvist; Volkmar Passoth; Anna Schnürer; Mats Sandgren; Jerry Stĺhlberg

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

Steam Oxidation and Chromia Evaporation in Ultra-Supercritical Steam Boilers and Turbines  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

U.S. Department of Energy’s goals include power generation from coal at 60% efficiency, which requires steam conditions of up to 760 °C and 340 atm, so-called ultra-supercritical (USC) conditions. Evaporation of protective chromia scales is expected to be a primary corrosion mechanism. A methodology to calculate Cr evaporation rates from chromia scales was developed and combined with Cr diffusion calculations within the alloy (with a constant flux of Cr leaving the alloy from evaporation) to predict Cr concentration profiles and to predict the time until breakaway oxidation. At the highest temperatures and pressures, the time until breakaway oxidation was predicted to be quite short for the turbine blade, and of concern within the steam pipe and the higher temperature portions of the superheater tube. Alloy additions such as Ti may allow for a reduction in evaporation rate with time, mitigating the deleterious effects of chromia evaporation.

Gordon H. Holcomb

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

367

Steam oxidation and chromia evaporation in ultrasupercritical steam boilers and turbines  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The U.S. Department of Energy's goals include power generation from coal at 60% efficiency, which requires steam conditions of up to 760 {sup o}C and 340 atm, so-called ultrasupercritical conditions. Evaporation of protective chromia scales is a primary corrosion mechanism. A methodology to calculate Cr evaporation rates from chromia scales was developed and combined with Cr diffusion calculations within the alloy (with a constant flux of Cr leaving the alloy from evaporation) to predict Cr concentration profiles and to predict the time until breakaway oxidation. At the highest temperatures and pressures, the time until breakaway oxidation was quite short for the turbine blade, and of concern within the steam pipe and the higher temperature portions of the superheater tube. Alloy additions such as Ti may allow for a reduction in evaporation rate with time, mitigating the deleterious effects of chromia evaporation.

Holcomb, G.R. [US DOE, Albany, OR (United States)

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

Textile Drying Via Wood Gasification  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

TEXTILE DRYING VIA WOOD GASIFICATION Thomas F. ;McGowan, Anthony D. Jape Georgia Institute of Technology Atlanta, Georgia ABSTRACT This project was carried out to investigate the possibility of using wood gas as a direct replacement... for dryers. In addition to the experimental program described above, the DOE grant covered two other major areas. A survey of the textile industry was made to assess the market for gasification equip ment. The major findings were that a large amount...

McGowan, T. F.; Jape, A. D.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

369

High-temperature hydrogen-air-steam detonation experiments in the BNL small-scale development apparatus  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Small-Scale Development Apparatus (SSDA) was constructed to provide a preliminary set of experimental data to characterize the effect of temperature on the ability of hydrogen-air-steam mixtures to undergo detonations and, equally important, to support design of the larger scale High-Temperature Combustion Facility (HTCF) by providing a test bed for solution of a number of high-temperature design and operational problems. The SSDA, the central element of which is a 10-cm inside diameter, 6.1-m long tubular test vessel designed to permit detonation experiments at temperatures up to 700K, was employed to study self-sustained detonations in gaseous mixtures of hydrogen, air, and steam at temperatures between 300K and 650K at a fixed initial pressure of 0.1 MPa. Hydrogen-air mixtures with hydrogen composition from 9 to 60 percent by volume and steam fractions up to 35 percent by volume were studied for stoichiometric hydrogen-air-steam mixtures. Detonation cell size measurements provide clear evidence that the effect of hydrogen-air gas mixture temperature, in the range 300K-650K, is to decrease cell size and, hence, to increase the sensitivity of the mixture to undergo detonations. The effect of steam content, at any given temperature, is to increase the cell size and, thereby, to decrease the sensitivity of stoichiometric hydrogen-air mixtures. The hydrogen-air detonability limits for the 10-cm inside diameter SSDA test vessel, based upon the onset of single-head spin, decreased from 15 percent hydrogen at 300K down to between 9 and 10 percent hydrogen at 650K. The one-dimensional ZND model does a very good job at predicting the overall trends in the cell size data over the range of hydrogen-air-steam mixture compositions and temperature studied in the experiments.

Ciccarelli, G.; Ginsburg, T.; Boccio, J.; Economos, C.; Finfrock, C.; Gerlach, L. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Sato, K.; Kinoshita, M. [Nuclear Power Engineering Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

370

Hydrogen production by steam reforming of simulated liquefied natural gas (LNG) over mesoporous nickel–M–alumina (M = Ni, Ce, La, Y, Cs, Fe, Co, and Mg) aerogel catalysts  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Mesoporous nickel–M–alumina aerogel catalysts (denoted as NiMAE) with different second metal (M = Ni, Ce, La, Y, Cs, Fe, Co, and Mg) were prepared by a single-step sol–gel method and a subsequent CO2 supercritical drying method. The effect of second metal of mesoporous nickel–M–alumina aerogel catalysts on their physicochemical properties and catalytic activity for steam reforming of simulated liquefied natural gas (LNG) was investigated. Textural and chemical properties of NiMAE catalysts were strongly influenced by the identity of second metal. Nickel species were highly dispersed on the surface of NiMAE catalysts through the formation of nickel aluminate phase. In the steam reforming of LNG, both LNG conversion and hydrogen yield decreased in the order of NiLaAE > NiCeAE > NiYAE > NiCsAE > NiNiAE > NiFeAE > NiCoAE > NiMgAE. Average nickel diameter of NiMAE catalysts was well correlated with LNG conversion and hydrogen yield over the catalysts. Among the catalysts tested, NiLaAE catalyst exhibited the best catalytic performance due to its smallest average nickel diameter. Furthermore, NiLaAE catalyst exhibited a strong capability of facilitating heat and mass transfer of reactant and product during the steam reforming of LNG. Water–gas shift reaction governed the steam reforming reaction over NiLaAE catalyst under the steam-rich reaction condition (steam/carbon > 2).

Jeong Gil Seo; Min Hye Youn; Yongju Bang; In Kyu Song

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

Standard Steam Trust LLC | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Trust LLC Trust LLC Jump to: navigation, search Name Standard Steam Trust LLC Place Denver, Colorado Sector Geothermal energy Product Subsidiary of Denver-based geothermal project developer, Terra Caliente. Coordinates 39.74001°, -104.992259° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":39.74001,"lon":-104.992259,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

372

Microsoft Word - Steam System Energy.doc  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

LBNL---6288E LBNL---6288E ERNEST ORLANDO LAWRENCE BERKELEY NATIONAL LABORATORY Implementation a nd Rejection o f I ndustrial Steam S ystem E nergy Efficiency M easures Peter T herkelsen a nd A imee M cKane Environmental E nergy T echnologies D ivision Lawrence B erkeley N ational L aboratory Reprint version of journal article published in " Energy P olicy", p lease c ite a s: Peter T herkelsen, A imee M cKane, Implementation a nd r ejection o f i ndustrial s team system e nergy e fficiency m easures, E nergy Policy, V olume 5 7, J une 2 013, P ages 3 18---328 May 2 013 2 Disclaimer This d ocument w as p repared a s a n a ccount o f w ork s ponsored b y t he U nited States Government. While this document is believed to contain correct information, neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof,

373

SUPERCRITICAL STEAM CYCLE FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANT  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Revolutionary improvement of the nuclear plant safety and economy with light water reactors can be reached with the application of micro-fuel elements (MFE) directly cooled by a supercritical pressure light-water coolant-moderator. There are considerable advantages of the MFE as compared with the traditional fuel rods, such as: Using supercritical and superheated steam considerably increases the thermal efficiency of the Rankine cycle up to 44-45%. Strong negative coolant and void reactivity coefficients with a very short thermal delay time allow the reactor to shutdown quickly in the event of a reactivity or power excursion. Core melting and the creation of corium during severe accidents are impossible. The heat transfer surface area is larger by several orders of magnitude due to the small spherical dimensions of the MFE. The larger heat exchange surface significantly simplifies residual heat removal by natural convection and radiation from the core to a subsequent passive system of heat removal.

Tsiklauri, Georgi V.; Talbert, Robert J.; Schmitt, Bruce E.; Filippov, Gennady A.; Bogojavlensky, Roald G.; Grishanin, Evgeny I.

2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

Catalyst for steam reforming of hydrocarbons  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A catalyst's resistance to deactivation by polymer formation is vital to the successful gasification of heavy feedstocks such as kerosene and gas oil. The improved polymer-resistance performance of this steam-reforming catalyst is directly relate to the distribution of the pore sizes in its calcined (but unreduced) precursor form and to a certain pore-size ratio: 1) At least 55% of the pore volume of pores having a radius of between 12 and 120 A(2000A) is in the range of 12-30 A(2000A) and 2) the ratio of the pore volume contained in pores of 10-50 A(2000A) to the volume contained in pores of 50-300 A(2000A) is at least 5:1. The catalyst-preparation method involves coprecipitation with a minimum of heat treatment (at temperatures not greater than 140/sup 0/F or 60/sup 0/C).

Banks, R.G.S.; Williams, A.

1980-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

375

Performance tests for steam methane reformers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Most of the synthesis gas plants in operation in the United States for production of hydrogen, carbon monoxide, methanol, and ammonia use steam methane reforming (SMR). Economic projections indicate that the SMR plant may continue to be the most favorable process choice through the 1980s or until partial oxidation or coal gasification processes are technically proven. The complexity of an efficiently designed SMR plant for production of these chemicals requires a thorough understanding of many unit operations to correctly evaluate the performance of an operating plant. Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. (APCI) owns and operates various types of SMR plants for production of hydrogen and carbon monoxide gases for pipe line sales, liquid hydrogen for merchant sale, methanol and ammonia. Over the past few years, APCI has developed guidelines and procedures for plant performance tests done at its major SMR plants. This article documents the plant test procedure used in conducting onsite SMR plant performance tests.

Wang, S.I.; DiMartino, S.P.; Patel, N.M.; Smith, D.D.

1982-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

376

Process for steam reforming of hydrocarbons  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A process is provided for the steam reforming of normally liquid hydrocarbons to produce carbon monoxide and hydrogen, which does not promote the deposition of carbonacious materials upon catalytic surfaces. The catalyst consists of nickel promoted with the oxides of iron and manganese within a specific manganese to iron ratio, said metal and metal oxides being supported upon a refractory support. The support is preferably aluminum oxide in its alpha phase having a surface area of more than 0.5 m2/gm but no more than 10 m2/gm. The metallic constituents are impregnated onto said refractory low surface area support as salts and are calcined at sufficiently high temperature to convert the salts to the oxide but at a sufficiently low temperature that they do not chemically react with the support.

Broughton, D.R.; Russ, K.J.

1980-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

377

Steam turbine path evaluation during maintenance  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The deterioration of a turbine (Steam & Gas) flow path affects the efficiency of the turbine. The most critical factors which affect the efficiency of turbines are: wearing out of the trailing edges of the blades by solid particle erosion, deposits, material loss due to corrosion (also sand blast) which increases the flow area, increases in blade surface roughness, etc. Wearing out of the seals caused by shaft vibrations or rapid start-up leads to significant leakage losses. Some of these effects can be estimated with some precision during operation of the turbine, but an exact evaluation can be carried out during a maintenance applying a special fluid flow analysis program. Such a program has been developed and then adapted to achieve this goal. During maintenance the complete geometry of the steam path is measured (blades lengths, widths, angles, clearances, etc.) in the condition encountered before any corrections. Then the similar measurement is undertaken after, for example, clearance corrections, blade replacements, cleaning of the blades, etc. Using the program first of all the design data is calculated. Then the actual data is fed into the program and compared to the design data. Thus the effect of the blade surface roughness, increased seal clearances, flow area increase, solid particle damage to the trailing edge and so on for each particular stage is calculated. The effect is expressed in [kW] as a deviation from the design points. This data can be helpful during online evaluation of the turbine performance. This evaluation helps the management of the plant in undertaking the correct decision concerning the date of the next major maintenance and replacement part procurement. Many turbines in the Mexican utility have been evaluated in such a manner. Some examples are presented.

Kubiak, J.; Angel, F. del; Carnero, A.; Campos, A. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Temixo, Morelos (Mexico)] [and others

1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

378

FLUIDIZED BED STEAM REFORMER MONOLITH FORMATION  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) is being considered as an alternative technology for the immobilization of a wide variety of aqueous high sodium containing radioactive wastes at various DOE facilities in the United States. The addition of clay, charcoal, and a catalyst as co-reactants converts aqueous Low Activity Wastes (LAW) to a granular or ''mineralized'' waste form while converting organic components to CO{sub 2} and steam, and nitrate/nitrite components, if any, to N{sub 2}. The waste form produced is a multiphase mineral assemblage of Na-Al-Si (NAS) feldspathoid minerals with cage-like structures that atomically bond radionuclides like Tc-99 and anions such as SO{sub 4}, I, F, and Cl. The granular product has been shown to be as durable as LAW glass. Shallow land burial requires that the mineralized waste form be able to sustain the weight of soil overburden and potential intrusion by future generations. The strength requirement necessitates binding the granular product into a monolith. FBSR mineral products were formulated into a variety of monoliths including various cements, Ceramicrete, and hydroceramics. All but one of the nine monoliths tested met the <2g/m{sup 2} durability specification for Na and Re (simulant for Tc-99) when tested using the Product Consistency Test (PCT; ASTM C1285). Of the nine monoliths tested the cements produced with 80-87 wt% FBSR product, the Ceramicrete, and the hydroceramic produced with 83.3 wt% FBSR product, met the compressive strength and durability requirements for an LAW waste form.

Jantzen, C

2006-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

379

Methane steam reforming at low temperature: Effect of light alkanes’ presence on coke formation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Steam reforming of natural gas for the production of hydrogen at low operation temperature offers significant financial and environmental advantages. However, the presence of higher hydrocarbons as minor components of natural gas can significantly affect the formation of coke and thus the effectiveness of the catalyst. In this study, the effect of the presence of C2–C3 alkanes in the feedstock on the carbon accumulation during low temperature steam reforming of methane is investigated over Ni and Rh catalysts supported on lanthanum doped ceria–zirconia mixed oxide. Both catalysts showed high resistance to coke formation and especially in the case of Rh/La/CeO2–ZrO2, the carbon accumulation detected was low even after 10 h on stream in steam reforming of all mixtures of hydrocarbons tested. The presence of higher alkanes in methane increased the amount of carbon on Ni(10)CeZrLa compared to pure methane as well as the nature of the carbonaceous species. Increase in the C-number of the additive alkane had almost no influence on the total amount of carbon formed (C/H feed ratio = constant) but favored the formation of filamentous carbon.

Sofia D. Angeli; Fotis G. Pilitsis; Angeliki A. Lemonidou

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

380

300 Area steam plant replacement, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington: Environmental assessment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Steam to support process operations and facility heating is currently produced by a centralized oil-fired plant located in the 300 Area and piped to approximately 26 facilities in the 300 Area. This plant was constructed during the 1940s and, because of tis age, is not efficient, requires a relatively large operating and maintenance staff, and is not reliable. The US Department of Energy is proposing an energy conservation measure for a number of buildings in the 300 Area of the Hanford Site. This action includes replacing the centralized heating system with heating units for individual buildings or groups of buildings, constructing new natural gas pipelines to provide a fuel source for many of these units and constructing a central control building to operate and maintain the system. A new steel-sided building would be constructed in the 300 Area in a previously disturbed area at least 400 m (one-quarter mile) from the Columbia River, or an existing 300 Area building would be modified and used. This Environmental Assessment evaluates alternatives to the proposed actions. Alternatives considered are: (1) the no action alternative; (2) use of alternative fuels, such as low-sulfur diesel oil; (3) construction of a new central steam plant, piping and ancillary systems; (4) upgrade of the existing central steam plant and ancillary systems; and (5) alternative routing of the gas distribution pipeline that is a part of the proposed action. A biological survey and culture resource review and survey were also conducted.

NONE

1997-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dry steam number" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
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We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Field measurement of solid particle erosion in utility steam turbines  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

For the first time, extensive field testing has characterized solid particle erosion (SPE) in terms of size and frequency. This is particularly important because SPE damage to large steam turbine components can degrade plant efficiency, increasing operating costs by up to $3 million/yr per unit for a total of $150 million nationwide. The objective was to characterize under various operating conditions the level and distribution of magnetite particles in turbine steam and the resulting SPE. The project team developed a field test program to characterize the solid particles in turbine steam and measure the erosion resistance of various coatings. At Dayton Power Light, a 600-MW turbine generator unit with a coal-fired once-through supercritical boiler was fitted with two steam sampling systems, the first for isokinetic sampling and the second for erosion evaluation. The team took roughly 300 isokinetic steam samples from the main steam line during both startup and full-load operation. They condensed and filtered each steam sample, then determined the level and distribution of magnetite particles.

Duncan, D.; Vohr, J.H.; Shalvoy, R.S. (General Electric Co., Schenectady, NY (United States). Turbine Technology Dept.)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

382

NOx formation by steam injection using detailed chemical kinetics  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In order to improve thermal efficiency of gas turbine system and better control NOx emission, the injection of steam into a gas turbine combustor has been employed. This study has used both chemical equilibrium calculations and the counterflow diffusion flame calculations of methane-air flame aiming at the elucidation of the NOx reduction mechanism due to the steam injection. The influence of the equivalence ratios, the amount of steam and method of injection, the influence of the temperature of the preheated air and fuel has been also investigated. In this study, the GRI-Mech was employed for modelling the chemical reactions.

H. Yamashita; D. Zhao; S.N. Danov; T. Furuhata; N. Arai

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

383

Extending the useful life of industrial steam turbines  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper reports that technology, uprating, and steam-path degradation reversal can extend the life and boost the efficiency of aging turbines. With the advent of modern machine tool technology, plus extensive R and D efforts, designers could apply improved bucket designs like the laminar flow design. Today's technology is represented by the Schlict design, which minimizes flow separations and boundary layer losses. Schlict buckets can be retrofitted in most designs as long as the diaphragm is also replaced. Adoption of steam-path design advance developed for new units and degradation reversal are the two areas of greatest opportunity in efficiency improvement of aging steam turbine-generators.

O'Connor, M.F.; Timmerman, D.C. (GE Power Generation, Schenectady, NY (US))

1990-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

Production and mitigation of acid chlorides in geothermal steam  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Measurements of the equilibrium distribution of relatively nonvolatile solutes between aqueous liquid and vapor phases have been made at temperatures to 350{degrees}C for HCl(aq) and chloride salts. These data are directly applicable to problems of corrosive-steam production in geothermal steam systems. Compositions of high-temperature brines which could produce steam having given concentrations of chlorides may be estimated at various boiling temperatures. Effects of mitigation methods (e.g., desuperheating) can be calculated based on liquid-vapor equilibrium constants and solute mass balances under vapor-saturation conditions.

Simonson, J.M.; Palmer, D.A.

1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

385

Investigation of the Effect of In-Situ Catalyst on the Steam Hydrogasification of Biomass  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

H 2 Equation (1.8) Steam methane reforming CH 4 + H 2 O ? 3HH 2 +CO) by the Steam Methane Reforming (SMR). The steam2 Equation (1.10) Steam Methane Reforming: CH 4 + H 2 O ? 3H

FAN, XIN

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

The economics of the use of cermet seals in steam turbines  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The use of cermet sealing materials in steam turbines improves their reliability and produces considerable savings...

Z. P. Dorf; É. T. Denisenko

1965-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

387

Graphical Procedure for Comparing Thermal Death of Bacillus stearothermophilus Spores in Saturated and Superheated Steam  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...stearothermophilus Spores in Saturated and Superheated Steam James J. Shull 1 Robert R. Ernst Wilmot...Bacillus stearothermophilus in saturated steam was characterized by three phases: (i...death curve of the spores in saturated steam. A jacketed steam sterilizer, equipped...

James J. Shull; Robert R. Ernst

1962-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

388

1 6/11/2003 Progress in Microchannel SteamProgress in  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 6/11/2003 Progress in Microchannel SteamProgress in Reformation of Hydrocarbon Fuels Progress in MicrochannelMicrochannel SteamSteam Reformation of HydrocarbonReformation of Hydrocarbon FuelsFuels 2003 steam reformer at higher temperature. Productivity for benchmark fuel increased 3X between 650°C and 850

389

Enviro-Friendly Hydrogen Generation From Steel Mill-Scale via Metal-Steam Reforming  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Enviro-Friendly Hydrogen Generation From Steel Mill-Scale via Metal-Steam Reforming Abdul of certain metals with steam, called metal- steam reforming (MSR). This technique does not gen- erate any: hydrogen generation; metal-steam reform- ing; mill-scale; nanoscale iron; electron microscopy Hydrogen

Azad, Abdul-Majeed

390

DYNAMIC SIMULATION OF MONO-TUBE CAVITY RECEIVERS FOR DIRECT STEAM GENERATION  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

that includes a 4 cylinder steam engine coupled with a 3 phase generator. This paper describes ongoing research cavity receiver [2] mounted to the 500 m2 dish receiver supports, a modified steam engine coupled transports superheated steam via rotary joints to the ground and then to a 4 cylinder steam engine

391

SSST Module Slide 1: Hello, and welcome to this introduction on the Steam System Tool Suite.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the Steam System Scoping Tool, the Steam System Assessment Tool, and the 3E Plus Insulation Tool: When assessing the condition of your steam system the first tool you should use is the scoping toolSSST Module 9/30/2009 Slide 1: Hello, and welcome to this introduction on the Steam System Tool

Oak Ridge National Laboratory

392

Development of a novel 2-stage entrained flow coal dry powder gasifier  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Coal-fired gasifiers are the key technology for clean power generation and coal chemical process. This paper presents a 2-stage entrained flow dry powder gasifier in which coal is entrained into the lower chamber burner with oxygen and steam to raise the temperature of the crude gas up to 1700 °C. The lower chamber is linked to the upper gasification chamber through a middle throat, where additional coal and steam is fed to cool down the slag to less than 900 °C for deslagging from the lower chamber bottom. Various coals have been characterized and gasified with this 2-stage entrained flow dry powder gasifier and comparisons made with single stage gasifiers. The results show that the 2-stage gasifier is suitable for a broad range of coal varieties and gives carbon conversion up to 98.9% with cold syngas efficiency of 83.2% at a pressure of 3.0 MPa, while the oxygen and coal consumption are lower than with the single stage gasifier.

Shisen Xu; Yongqiang Ren; Baomin Wang; Yue Xu; Liang Chen; Xiaolong Wang; Tiancun Xiao

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

393

The 700°C steam turbine power plant â?? status of development and outlook  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper appraises the current development status of the 700°C steam power plant under consideration of process optimisation as well as design aspects of the steam turbine and steam generator. The results for a compact arrangement of the steam turbine and steam generator are also presented. Based on a cycle analysis, a net efficiency between 49.3% and 51.4% can be achieved with the 700°C steam power plant â?? depending on the implementation and based on an inland plant site. No competing development activities for the 700°C steam power plant are known from the USA or Japan.

Heiner Edelmann; Martin Effert; Kai Wieghardt; Holger Kirchner

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

394

Florida Dry Natural Gas Reserves Acquisitions (Billion Cubic...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

data. Release Date: 1242014 Next Release Date: 12312015 Referring Pages: Dry Natural Gas Reserves Acquisitions Florida Dry Natural Gas Proved Reserves Dry Natural Gas Proved...

395

Florida Dry Natural Gas Reserves New Field Discoveries (Billion...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

2014 Next Release Date: 12312015 Referring Pages: New Field Discoveries of Dry Natural Gas Reserves Florida Dry Natural Gas Proved Reserves Dry Natural Gas Proved Reserves New...

396

Analysis of design variables for an efficient natural gas steam reforming process comprised in a small scale hydrogen fueling station  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Natural gas steam reforming process comprised in a small scale H2-fueling station for on-site hydrogen production was simulated and analyzed. The effects of process variables on the process efficiency of hydrogen production were investigated, and their optimum set point values were suggested to minimize the sizes of the process sub-units and to secure a stable operability of the reforming process. Steam to carbon (S/C) ratio of the reforming reactants was found to be a crucial parameter mostly governing both the hydrogen production efficiency and the stable operability of the process. In this study, a process run was assumed stable if feed water (WR) as a reforming reactant could have been completely evaporated into dry steam through a heat recovery steam generator (HRSG). The optimum S/C ratio was 3.0 where the process efficiency of hydrogen production was maximized and the stable operability of the process was secured. The optimum feed rates of natural gas (NGR) and WR as reforming reactants and of natural gas (NGB) as a burner fuel were also determined for a target rate of hydrogen production, 27 Nm3/h. Set point temperatures of the combustion flue gas (CFG) and the reformed gas (RFG) from the reformer had no effects on the hydrogen production efficiency, however, they were important parameters affecting the stable operability of the process. The effect of the set point temperatures of the RFG from cooler and the CFG from HRSG on the hydrogen production efficiency was not much significant as compared to the S/C ratio, but needed to be adjusted because of their considerable effects on the stable operability of the process and the required heat transfer areas in cooler and HRSG.

Deuk Ki Lee; Kee Young Koo; Dong Joo Seo; Wang Lai Yoon

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

397

Dry-cleaning of graphene  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Studies of the structural and electronic properties of graphene in its pristine state are hindered by hydrocarbon contamination on the surfaces. Also, in many applications, contamination reduces the performance of graphene. Contamination is introduced during sample preparation and is adsorbed also directly from air. Here, we report on the development of a simple dry-cleaning method for producing large atomically clean areas in free-standing graphene. The cleanness of graphene is proven using aberration-corrected high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and electron spectroscopy.

Algara-Siller, Gerardo [Central Facility for Electron Microscopy, Group of Electron Microscopy of Materials Science, Ulm University, Albert-Einstein-Allee 11, Ulm 89081 (Germany); Department of Chemistry, Technical University Ilmenau, Weimarer Strasse 25, Ilmenau 98693 (Germany); Lehtinen, Ossi; Kaiser, Ute, E-mail: ute.kaiser@uni-ulm.de [Central Facility for Electron Microscopy, Group of Electron Microscopy of Materials Science, Ulm University, Albert-Einstein-Allee 11, Ulm 89081 (Germany); Turchanin, Andrey [Faculty of Physics, University of Bielefeld, Universitätsstr. 25, Bielefeld 33615 (Germany)

2014-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

398

Number Plastic Type Common Items Number of Items (tally) 1 polyethylene terephthalate  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

End Time: Number Plastic Type Common Items Number of Items (tally) 1 polyethylene terephthalate and vegetable oil containers; ovenable food trays. 2 high density polyethylene Milk jugs, juice bottles; bleach, piping, candy wrappers 4 low density polyethylene Squeezable bottles; bread, frozen food, dry cleaning

Schladow, S. Geoffrey

399

Coyote Canyon Steam Plant Biomass Facility | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Steam Plant Biomass Facility Steam Plant Biomass Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Coyote Canyon Steam Plant Biomass Facility Facility Coyote Canyon Steam Plant Sector Biomass Facility Type Landfill Gas Location Orange County, California Coordinates 33.7174708°, -117.8311428° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":33.7174708,"lon":-117.8311428,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

400

Steam Generator Tube Integrity Program [Corrosion and Mechanics of  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Steam Generator Tube Steam Generator Tube Integrity Program Capabilities Materials Testing Environmentally Assisted Cracking (EAC) of Reactor Materials Corrosion Performance/Metal Dusting Overview Light Water Reactors Fatigue Testing of Carbon Steels and Low-Alloy Steels Environmentally Assisted Cracking of Ni-Base Alloys Irradiation-Induced Stress Corrosion Cracking of Austenitic Stainless Steels Steam Generator Tube Integrity Program Air Oxidation Kinetics for Zr-based Alloys Fossil Energy Fusion Energy Metal Dusting Publications List Irradiated Materials Steam Generator Tube Integrity Other Facilities Work with Argonne Contact us For Employees Site Map Help Join us on Facebook Follow us on Twitter NE on Flickr Corrosion and Mechanics of Materials Light Water Reactors Bookmark and Share

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dry steam number" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

A Compact and Efficient Steam Methane Reformer for Hydrogen Production.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??A small-scale steam-methane reforming system for localized, distributed production of hydrogen offers improved performance and lower cost by integrating the following technologies developed at the… (more)

Quon, Willard

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

402

Selectivity of the steam reforming of methane over metallic catalysts  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The activity and selectivity of the methane-steam reaction has been studied in a gradientless reactor at atmospheric pressure and 700–850 °C. Differences were found in the course of the reaction on Pd relative...

T. Borowiecki; J. Barcicki

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

403

Halophilic Archaea determined from geothermal steam vent aerosols  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the leaching of salts and minerals through the highly porous volcanic rock, creating a chemically complex differentials to condense steam into gamma-irradiated polypropylene centrifuge tubes (Fig. 1B), collected up

Kelley, Scott

404

Motive Power. Steam Turbines. High Speed Navigation1  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... ancient Egyptian civilisation that we find the first records of the early history of the steam-engine. In Alexandria, the home of Euclid, and possibly contemporary with Archimedes, Hero ... contrivances.

1900-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

405

Steam turbine restart temperature maintenance system and method  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A restart temperature maintenance system is described for a steam turbine system; the steam turbine system comprising a steam turbine, the turbine including a rotation shaft, an outer metal shell means. The restart temperature maintenance system consists of: (a) fastener means affixed to the outer surface of the shell means at predetermined positions; (b) air gap spacer means affixed to the outer surface of the shell means, the air gap spacer means substantially covering the shell means; (c) a plurality of electric heating blanket means of predetermined size and shape positioned in insulative relationship over the air gap spacer means and the heating blanket means maintained in predetermined position by the fastener means; (d) heat sensor means affixed to the outer metal shell means of the steam turbine in predetermined position; (e) power supply means for supplying power to the heating blanket means; (f) heat sensor monitor and controller means connected in circuit between the power supply means and the heat sensor means.

McClelland, T.R.

1986-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

406

Efficient steam turbines produced by the “Ural Turbine Plant” company  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Design features and efficiency of some steam turbines produced at present by a plant formed as a result of division of the “Turbine Motor Plant” Company into several enterprises are...

G. D. Barinberg; A. E. Valamin

407

Calculation of the Limiting CESSAR Steam Line Break Transients  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), under contract to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, performed audit calculations of the limiting and Steam Line Break (SLB) [1] transient presented in the CESSAR FSAR. The r...

G. B. Peeler; D. L. Caraher; J. Guttmann

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

408

Thermohydraulic analysis of U-tube steam generators  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Recent trends in plant safety analysis reveal a need for benchmark analytical representations of the steam generators to aid in the improvement of system codes and of fast codes for operator assistance. A model for such ...

da Silva, Hugo Cardoso

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

Suez SNC-Lavalin Nuclear to replace US steam generator  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

SNC-Lavalin Nuclear (USA) has signed a contract with Xcel Energy to replace the Unit #2 steam generators at the Prairie Island Nuclear Generating Plant (PINGP) in Welch, Minnesota.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

410

Modelling, simulation and sensitivity analysis of steam-methane reformers  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A mathematical model to calculate temperature, conversion and pressure profiles for static operations in steam-methane reformers was simulated. A rigorous kinetic model describing steam-methane reactions was compared to a first order one and an empirical heat distribution model was fitted to describe heat absorbed along the reactor length. A control interface was simulated to allow sensitivity analysis with different control schemes. The kinetic models were tested with data from industrial steam-gas reformers. Simulation results agreed with actual plant data for conversion, temperature and pressure. Nevertheless, the first order kinetic model gave unrealistic sensitivity results to pressure and steam-to-carbon ratio variations. The rigorous model could confidently be used for design analysis, control, and economic evaluation purposes.

I.M. Alatiqi; A.M. Meziou; G.A. Gasmelseed

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

411

Experiences of niobium-containing alloys for steam reformers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Destructive testing of niobium alloys was made in steam reformer as well as the study of the effects of the chemical compositions on the creep rupture and tensile properties.

Shibasaki, T.; Takemura, K.; Kawai, T.; Mohri, T.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

412

Steam Turbines for Critical Applications and Emergency or Standby Drives  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Steam turbines are frequently preferred over electric motors where operational continuity is important. This often imposes extreme premiums in operating cost. The parameters affecting relative economics are explored and a range of alternatives...

Waterland, A. F.

413

Industrial Heat Pumps for Steam and Fuel Savings  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This brief introduces heat-pump technology and its application in industrial processes as part of steam systems. The focus is on the most common applications, with guidelines for initial identification and evaluation of the opportunities being provided.

414

Clock mechanisms and their effects, leads into steam engine  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In a clock-maker’s shop, Simon Schaffer explains the great precision needed to make clocks, and the development of standardized parts. The feed-back mechanisms or governors are absolutely essential in the first stationary steam engines....

Dugan, David

2004-08-17T23:59:59.000Z

415

An Analysis of Steam Process Heater Condensate Drainage Options  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The production and reliability performance of Steam Process Heaters can be significantly affected by the condensate drainage design that is employed. There are currently a variety of drainage options which can be confusing to a system designer who...

Risko, J. R.

416

Optimizing Steam and Condensate System: A Case Study  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Optimization of Steam & Condensate systems in any process plant results in substantial reduction in purchased energy cost. During periods of natural gas price hikes, this would benefit the plant in controlling their fuel budget significantly...

Venkatesan, V. V.; Merritt, B.; Tully, R. C.

417

Steam Efficiency: Impacts from Boilers to the Boardroom  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to the corporate bottom-line. The challenge is to present efficiency investments in the financial "language" that permits comparison to other corporate investment opportunities. This paper presents a framework for linking steam efficiency to financial goals. A...

Russell, C.

418

Highly Active Steam Reforming Catalyst for Hydrogen and Syngas Production  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Toyo Engineering Corporation developed a steam reforming catalyst, which is four times as active as conventional catalysts, for hydrogen and syngas production from light natural gas. The catalyst has...3 plant. B...

Toru Numaguchi

2001-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

419

C++ Implementation of IAPWS Water/Steam Properties  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

For the calculations of water-involved systems, such as safety analysis of light water reactors, it is essential to provide accurate water properties. The International Association for the Properties of Water and Steam is an international non-profit association of national organizations concerned with the properties of water and steam. It provides internationally accepted formulations of water/steam properties for scientific and industrial applications. The purpose of this work is to provide a stand-alone software package in C++ programming language to provide accurate and efficient water/steam properties evaluation, based on the latest IAPWS releases. The discussion on related IAPWS releases, code implementations and verifications are provided in details.

Ling Zou; Haihua Zhao; Hongbin Zhang; Qiyue Lu

2014-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

420

The Global Steam Coal Market and Supply Curve  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The modern steam coal trade is only about three decades old. ... market difficulties. In order to understand the coal market one needs to understand the global ... . In the chapter the author considers the economic

Dr. Lars Schernikau

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dry steam number" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Steam System Management Program Yields Fuel Savings for Refinery  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Phillips refinery at Borger, Texas, determined the need to develop a utility monitoring system. Shortly after this commitment was made, the refinery was introduced to a flowsheet modeling program that could be used to model and optimize steam...

Gaines, L. D.; Hagan, K. J.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

422

Dongfang Steam Turbine Works DFSTW | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Dongfang Steam Turbine Works DFSTW Dongfang Steam Turbine Works DFSTW Jump to: navigation, search Name Dongfang Steam Turbine Works (DFSTW) Place Deyang, Sichuan Province, China Zip 618000 Sector Wind energy Product Manufacturer of several kinds of steam turbines and accessory equipment. Manufactures wind turbines under licence from REpower. Coordinates 31.147209°, 104.375023° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":31.147209,"lon":104.375023,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

423

Covered Product Category: Commercial Steam Cookers | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Steam Cookers Steam Cookers Covered Product Category: Commercial Steam Cookers October 7, 2013 - 11:15am Addthis ENERGY STAR Qualified Products FEMP provides acquisition guidance across a variety of product categories, including commercial steam cookers, which are an ENERGY STAR®-qualified product category. Federal laws and executive orders mandate that agencies meet these efficiency requirements in all procurement and acquisition actions that are not specifically exempted by law. Most manufacturers display the ENERGY STAR label on complying models. For a model not displaying this label, check the Energy Efficiency Requirements for Federal Purchases For the most up-to-date efficiency levels required by ENERGY STAR, look for the ENERGY STAR label or visit the ENERGY STAR Product Specifications

424

Case Number:  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Name of Petitioner: Name of Petitioner: Date of Filing: Case Number: Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 JUL 2 2 2009 DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OFFICE OF HEARINGS AND APPEALS Appeal Dean P. Dennis March 2, 2009 TBA-0072 Dean D. Dennis filed a complaint of retaliation under the Department of Energy (DOE) Contractor Employee Protection Program, 10 C.F.R. Part 708. Mr. Dennis alleged that he engaged in protected activity and that his employer, National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec ), subsequently terminated him. An Office of Hearings and Appeals (OHA) Hearing Officer denied relief in Dean P. Dennis, Case No. TBH-0072, 1 and Mr. Dennis filed the instant appeal. As discussed below, the appeal is denied. I. Background The DOE established its Contractor Employee Protection Program to "safeguard public

425

JOB NUMBER  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

. . . . . . . . . .: LEAVE BLANK (NARA use only) JOB NUMBER N/-&*W- 9d - 3 DATE RECEIVED " -1s - 9 J - NOTIFICATION TOAGENCY , In accordance with the provisions of 44 U.S.C. 3303a the disposition request. including amendments, is ap roved except , . l for items that may be marke,, ,"dis osition not approved" or "withdrawn in c o i m n 10. 4. NAME OF PERSON WITH WHOM TO CONFER 5 TELEPHONE Jannie Kindred (202) 5&-333 5 - 2 -96 6 AGENCYCERTIFICATION -. ~ - I hereby certify that I am authorized to act for this agency in matters pertaining to the disposition of its records and that the records roposed for disposal are not now needed for the business of this agency or wiRnot be needed after t G t r & s s d ; and that written concurrence from

426

KPA Number  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Supports CMM-SW Level 3 Supports CMM-SW Level 3 Mapping of the DOE Information Systems Engineering Methodology to the Software Engineering Institute (SEI) Software Capability Maturity Model (CMM-SW) level 3. Date: September 2002 Page 1 KPA Number KPA Activity SEM Section SEM Work Product SQSE Web site http://cio.doe.gov/sqse ORGANIZATION PROCESS FOCUS OPF-1 The software process is assessed periodically, and action plans are developed to address the assessment findings. Chapter 1 * Organizational Process Management * Process Improvement Action Plan * Methodologies ! DOE Methodologies ! SEM OPF-2 The organization develops and maintains a plan for its software process development and improvement activities. Chapter 1 * Organizational Process Management * Process Improvement

427

The Use of Electrochemical Techniques to Characterize Wet Steam Environments  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The composition of a steam phase in equilibrium with a water phase at high temperature is remarkably affected by the varying capabilities of the water phase constituents to partition into the steam. Ionic impurities (sodium, chloride, sulfate, etc.) tend to remain in the water phase, while weakly ionic or gaseous species (oxygen) partition into the steam. Analysis of the water phase can provide misleading results concerning the steam phase composition or environment. This paper describes efforts that were made to use novel electrochemical probes and sampling techniques to directly characterize a wet steam phase environment in equilibrium with high temperature water. Probes were designed to make electrochemical measurements in the thin film of water existing on exposed surfaces in steam over a water phase. Some of these probes were referenced against a conventional high temperature electrode located in the water phase. Others used two different materials (typically tungsten and platinum) to make measurements without a true reference electrode. The novel probes were also deployed in a steam space removed from the water phase. It was necessary to construct a reservoir and an external, air-cooled condenser to automatically keep the reservoir full of condensed steam. Conventional reference and working electrodes were placed in the water phase of the reservoir and the novel probes protruded into the vapor space above it. Finally, water phase probes (both reference and working electrodes) were added to the hot condensed steam in the external condenser. Since the condensing action collapsed the volatiles back into the water phase, these electrodes proved to be extremely sensitive at detecting oxygen, which is one of the species of highest concern in high temperature power systems. Although the novel steam phase probes provided encouraging initial results, the tendency for tungsten to completely corrode away in the steam phase limited their usefulness. However, the conventional water phase electrodes, installed both in the reservoir and in the external condensing coil, provided useful data showing the adverse impact of oxygen and carbon dioxide on the REDOX potential and high temperature pH, respectively.

Bruce W. Bussert; John A. Crowley; Kenneth J. Kimball; Brian J. Lashway

2003-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

428

Method for increasing steam decomposition in a coal gasification process  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The gasification of coal in the presence of steam and oxygen is significantly enhanced by introducing a thermochemical water-splitting agent such as sulfuric acid, into the gasifier for decomposing the steam to provide additional oxygen and hydrogen usable in the gasification process for the combustion of the coal and enrichment of the gaseous gasification products. The addition of the water-splitting agent into the gasifier also allows for the operation of the reactor at a lower temperature.

Wilson, Marvin W. (Fairview, WV)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

429

Estimate steam-turbine losses to justify maintenance funds  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A procedure to estimate steam-turbine losses is described. The estimates are based on analytical calculations and field inspections of turbines with known performance deterioration resulting from their environment, not their construction. They are, therefore, applicable to many types of steam turbines. Common causes of deterioration are the following: solid particle erosion, deposits, increased clearances, and peening or damage from foreign material. Performance losses due to these factors are analyzed. An example of application is given.

Not Available

1982-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

430

Steam Partnerships: Case Study of Improved Energy Efficiency  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Steam Partnerships: Case Study of Improved Energy Efficiency Michael V. Calogero, P.E., CEM Robert E. Hess Novi Leigh Director, Northeast Operations Sr. Energy Systems Engineer Energy Systems Engineer Armstrong Service, Inc ABSTRACT Effective.... 1998-2001 operating data from client's laundry processing facility. 3. Turner, Wayne C., Energy Management Handbook, 2 nd edition, 1993. 4. Armstrong International, Inc., Steam Conservation Guidelines for Condensate Drainage, Handbook N-1 01, 1997...

Calogero, M. V.; Hess, R. E.; Leigh, N.

431

Method for increasing steam decomposition in a coal gasification process  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The gasification of coal in the presence of steam and oxygen is significantly enhanced by introducing a thermochemical water- splitting agent such as sulfuric acid, into the gasifier for decomposing the steam to provide additional oxygen and hydrogen usable in the gasification process for the combustion of the coal and enrichment of the gaseous gasification products. The addition of the water-splitting agent into the gasifier also allows for the operation of the reactor at a lower temperature.

Wilson, M.W.

1987-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

432

Influences of energy economy on steam turbine design  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The pulp and paper industry uses condensing, backpressure, and automatic extraction types of steam turbines. Small drive turbines have better efficiency with multiple stages. The author presents a summary of some alternate steam turbine designs and shows the impact on operating energy costs. There is a summary of operating parameters for various cogeneration design options with illustration of the relative energy cost of each of the various designs.

Garner, J.W. (BE and K Engineering, Morrisville, NC (United States))

1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

433

NETL: Gasification Systems - Evaluation of the Benefits of Advanced Dry  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Feed Systems Feed Systems Evaluation of the Benefits of Advanced Dry Feed System for Low Rank Coal Project Number: DE-FE0007902 General Electric Company (GE) is evaluating and demonstrating the benefits of novel dry feed technologies to effectively, reliably, and economically provide feeding of low-cost, low-rank coals into commercial Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) systems. GE is completing comparative techno-economic studies of two IGCC power plant cases, one without and one with advanced dry feed technologies. A common basis of design is being developed so that overall assumptions and methodologies are common in the two cases for both technical and economic areas. The baseline case, without advanced dry feed technologies, will use operational data from the Eastman Chemical Company Kingsport gasification facility in combination with DOE/NETL's Cost and Performance Baseline Low-Rank Coal to Electricity IGCC study for both cost and performance comparisons. Advanced dry feed technologies, based upon the Posimetric® pump currently under development by GE, will be developed to match the proposed plant conditions and configuration, and will be analyzed to provide comparative performance and cost information to the baseline plant case. The scope of this analysis will cover the feed system from the raw coal silo up to, and including, the gasifier injector. Test data from previous and current testing will be summarized in a report to support the assumptions used to evaluate the advanced technologies and the potential value for future applications. This study focuses primarily on IGCC systems with 90 percent carbon capture, utilization, and storage (CCUS), but the dry feed system will be applicable to all IGCC power generating plants, as well as other industries requiring pressurized syngas.

434

The Bakerian Lecture: Experimental Researches to Determine the Density of Steam at Different Temperatures, and to Determine the Law of Expansion of Superheated Steam  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...research-article The Bakerian Lecture: Experimental Researches to Determine the Density of Steam at Different Temperatures, and to Determine the Law of Expansion of Superheated Steam William Fairbairn Thomas Tate The Royal Society is collaborating with JSTOR...

1860-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

435

An Experimental Investigation of the Thermodynamical Properties of Super-Heated Steam. On the Cooling of Saturated Steam by Free Expansion  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...research-article An Experimental Investigation of the Thermodynamical Properties of Super-Heated Steam. On the Cooling of Saturated Steam by Free Expansion John H. Grindley The Royal Society is collaborating with JSTOR to digitize, preserve...

1900-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

436

NPO Turboatom steam turbine design features and modifications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Since its foundation in 1934, the Kharkov Turbine Works, parent of Turboatom has developed, manufactured, adjusted and operated steam turbine plants for thermal and nuclear power stations. More than 300 steam turbines for thermal power stations with a total capacity over 100,000 MW have been manufactured. Steam turbines rated 25 to 500 MW for pressures of 2.9 to 23.5 MPa for stations operating on fossil fuel and turbines rated 30 to 1100 MW for nuclear power stations (NPS) have been produced. unique experience was gained during building and operation of the SKR-100 turbine rated 100 MW for initial steam conditions of 29.4 MPa, 650{sup o}C with steam cooling and minimum use of high-temperature materials. In addition to the turbine plants made for the power stations of the former USSR, Turboatom has manufactured 95 steam turbines for export. These are installed at 7 nuclear and 16 thermal power stations throughout the world, including Bulgaria, China, Cuba, Finland, Germany, Hungary, Korea and Rumania. Turboatom produces turbines operating at 25; 50 or 60 l/s speed of rotation.

Levchenko, E.V. [NPO Turboatom, Kharkov (Ukraine)

1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

437

Single pressure steam bottoming cycle for gas turbines combined cycle  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This patent describes a process for recapturing waste heat from the exhaust of a gas turbine to drive a high pressure-high temperature steam turbine and a low pressure steam turbine. It comprises: delivering the exhaust of the gas turbine to the hot side of an economizer-reheater apparatus; delivering a heated stream of feedwater and recycled condensate through the cold side of the economizer-reheater apparatus in an indirect heat exchange relationship with the gas turbine exhaust on the hot side of the economizer-reheater apparatus to elevate the temperature below the pinch point of the boiler; delivering the discharge from the high pressure-high temperature steam turbine through the economizer-reheater apparatus in an indirect heat exchange relationship with the gas turbine exhaust on the hot side of the economizer-reheater apparatus; driving the high pressure-high temperature steam turbine with the discharge stream of feedwater and recycled condensate which is heated to a temperature below the pinch point of the boiler by the economizer-reheater apparatus; and driving the low pressure steam turbine with the discharged stream of the high pressure-high temperature steam turbine reheated below the pinch point of the boiler by the economizer-reheater apparatus.

Zervos, N.

1990-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

438

A theoretical and numerical investigation of turbulent steam jets in BWR steam blowdown.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The preliminary results of PHOENICS and RELAP5 show that the current numerical models are adequate in predicting steam flow and stratification patterns in the upper Drywell of a BWR containment subsequent to a blow-down event. However, additional modeling is required in order to study detailed local phenomena such as condensation with non-condensables, natural convection, and stratification effects. Analytically, the intermittence modified similarity solutions show great promise. Once {gamma} is accounted for, the jet's turbulent shear stress can be determined with excellent accuracy.

NguyenLe, Q.

1998-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

439

The Ringhals 2 steam generator replacement  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Righals 2, located on the west coast of Sweden and operated by Vattenfall (Swedish State Power), is a Westinghouse 800-MW three-loop pressurized water reactor that started commercial operation in 1975. In 1983, a task force was assigned to make a study of the steam generator (SG) tube corrosion problems, mainly stress corrosion cracking in the tubesheet area, which caused between two and three unscheduled outages each year. The task force study concluded that replacement was clearly the best of the three alternatives considered. Late in 1984, a decision was made to replace the SG in the summer of 1989. It was also decided to take advantage of existing margins in the plant by increasing the heat transfer area of the new SG. A power increase of 9% would then be possible by fairly moderate modifications of the turbine plant. The SG replacement project was on time, below budget, and much below dose budget. As a consequence of the 9% uprating, the cost of the SG replacement will be recovered after 3 to 4 yr.

Looft, H.

1990-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

440

Numerical analysis of nanoaluminum combustion in steam  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The comprehensive analysis of chain mechanism development in the Al–H2O system is performed on the base of novel reaction mechanism taking into account quantum chemistry studies of potential energy surfaces of the elementary reactions with Al-containing species and estimations of rate constants of corresponding reaction channels. As well the physical properties of Al-containing species involved in the reaction mechanism and needed for the calculation of their transport coefficients are reported. The developed reaction mechanism makes it possible to describe with reasonable accuracy the experimental data on ignition temperature in Al–O2–Ar and Al–H2O systems and obtain the qualitative agreement with measured value of laminar flame speed. The two-stage regime of ignition in the Al–H2O reacting system was revealed both when the aluminum is in the liquid phase and when it comes into steam environment in the gas phase. It was shown that decreasing the ignition temperature one can increase the hydrogen yield in the combustion exhaust.

Alexander M. Starik; Pavel S. Kuleshov; Alexander S. Sharipov; Nataliya S. Titova; Chuen-Jinn Tsai

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dry steam number" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Sizing sliding gate valves for steam service  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Sliding gate valves have been used in thousands of applications during the past 40 yr. While steam control is a common application for these valves, thy are also used to control other gases and liquids. The sliding gate design provides straight-through flow, which minimizes turbulence, vibration, and noise. Seats are self-cleaning and self-lapping to provide a tight, long-lasting shutoff. A correctly sized valve is essential for accurate control. Valve size should be determined by service and system requirements, not by the size of the existing pipeline. Sizing a valve on the basis of pipeline size usually results in an oversized valve and poor control. Generally, regulator size is smaller than pipe size. Whenever complete information is known (inlet pressure, outlet pressure, or pressure drop, and required flow), determine the valve flow coefficient (C{sub v}) using the equations in ANSI/ISA S75.01 or a flow sizing chart. Tables of values for various types of valves are available from manufacturers. However, when complete system requirements are not known, valve oversizing is prevented by determining the design capacity of piping downstream from the valve. The valve should not be sized to pass more flow than the maximum amount the pipe can handle at a reasonable velocity. An example calculation is given.

Bollinger, R. [Jordan Value, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

1995-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

442

Finding of No Significant Impact and Final Environmental Assessment for the Y-12 Steam Plant Life Extenstion Project - Steam Plant Replacement Subproject  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

93 93 Finding of No Significant Impact and Final Environmental Assessment for the Y-12 Steam Plant Life Extension Project - Steam Plant Replacement Subproject U.S. Department of Energy Oak Ridge Y-12 Site Office National Nuclear Security Administration August 2007 DOE/EA-1593 Finding of No Significant Impact and Final Environmental Assessment for the Y-12 Steam Plant Life Extension Project - Steam Plant Replacement Subproject U.S. Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration

443

Hydrogen From MillHydrogen From Mill--Scale Waste Via MetalScale Waste Via Metal--Steam ReformingSteam Reforming INTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTION  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Hydrogen From MillHydrogen From Mill--Scale Waste Via MetalScale Waste Via Metal--Steam ReformingSteam Reforming INTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTION Hydrogen is considered to be the ideal energy carrying medium for fuel and supplying hydrogen to the end user in more reversible, much simpler and far safer ways. Metal-steam

Azad, Abdul-Majeed

444

Unique Luminescences of Dry Chlorophylls  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Dry chlorophylls a and b in a rigid glass hydrocarbon solvent have intense emission at 7550 A and 7330 A respectively. In each case the room temperature absorption spectra show the presence of a band shoulder on the long wavelength side of the main red band. Both the emission and the absorption bands disappear in the presence of hydroxyllic solvents. The absorption and emission are interpreted as n??* singlet and n??* triplet transitions respectively. The lifetime of the n??* triplet emission in chlorophyll a is estimated to be 10—3 second. Cu chlorophyll b has an intense phosphorescence at 8740 A with a lifetime of less than 10—4 second. The differences in the room temperature emission spectra for chlorophylls a and b are discussed.

Jose Fernandez; Ralph S. Becker

1959-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

445

Clean Firetube Boiler Waterside Heat Transfer Surfaces, Energy Tips: STEAM, Steam Tip Sheet #7 (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A steam energy tip sheet for the Advanced Manufacturing Office (AMO). The prevention of scale formation in firetube boilers can result in substantial energy savings. Scale deposits occur when calcium, magnesium, and silica, commonly found in most water supplies, react to form a continuous layer of material on the waterside of the boiler heat exchange tubes. Scale creates a problem because it typically possesses a thermal conductivity, an order of magnitude less than the corresponding value for bare steel. Even thin layers of scale serve as an effective insulator and retard heat transfer. The result is overheating of boiler tube metal, tube failures, and loss of energy efficiency. Fuel consumption may increase by up to 5% in firetube boilers because of scale. The boilers steam production may be reduced if the firing rate cannot be increased to compensate for the decrease in combustion efficiency. Energy losses as a function of scale thickness and composition are given. Any scale in a boiler is undesirable. The best way to deal with scale is not to let it form in the first place. Prevent scale formation by: (1) Pretreating of boiler makeup water (using water softeners, demineralizers, and reverse osmosis to remove scale-forming minerals); (2) Injecting chemicals into the boiler feedwater; and (3) Adopting proper boiler blowdown practices.

Not Available

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

446

Reliable steam: To cogenerate or not to cogenerate?  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Leading industrial companies and institutions are forever seeking new and better ways to reduce their expenses, reduce waste, meet environmental standards, and, in general, improve their bottom-line. One approach to achieving all of these goals is a 100 year-old concept, cogeneration. Many industrial and institutional plants need thermal energy, generally as steam, for manufacturing processes and heating. They also need electric power for motors, lighting, compressed air and air conditioning. Traditionally, these fundamental needs are met separately. Steam is produced with industrial boilers and electricity is purchased from a local utility company. However, these needs can be met at the same time with cogeneration, using the same heat source. Cogeneration is the concurrent production of electrical power and thermal energy from the same heat source. Large steam users commonly take advantage of cogeneration by using high pressure steam with a back pressure turbine to generate electricity, and extract lower pressure steam from the turbine exhaust for their process needs. This approach reduces their electric utility bills while still providing thermal energy for industrial processes. The result is also a more efficient process that uses less total heat and discharges less smoke up the stack. Newer technologies are making cogeneration opportunities available to smaller-sized thermal plants, and electric utility deregulation opportunities are causing many CEOs to seriously consider cogeneration in their manufacturing plants. Whether steam is created through cogeneration or separate generation, many opportunities exist to improve productivity in the distribution system, operation, and maintenance. These opportunities are captured by taking a systems approach, which is promoted by programs such as the Department of Energy's Steam Challenge.

Jaber, D.; Jones, T.; D'Anna, L.; Vetterick, R.

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

447

,"New York Dry Natural Gas Proved Reserves"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","New York Dry Natural Gas Proved Reserves",10,"Annual",2013,"6301977" ,"Release Date:","124...

448

DRI Research Parks Ltd | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Sector: Services Product: General Financial & Legal Services ( Academic Research foundation ) References: DRI Research Parks Ltd1 This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI...

449

,"New Mexico Dry Natural Gas Proved Reserves"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","New Mexico Dry Natural Gas Proved Reserves",10,"Annual",2012,"6301977" ,"Release Date:","410...

450

,"California Dry Natural Gas Proved Reserves"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","California Dry Natural Gas Proved Reserves",10,"Annual",2012,"6301977" ,"Release Date:","4...

451

Propane earth materials drying techniques and technologies.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??A feasibility study for the use of propane as a subbase drying technique. Michael Blahut (1) Dr. Vernon Schaefer (2) Dr. Chris Williams (3) The… (more)

Blahut, Michael Edward

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

452

,"New York Dry Natural Gas Proved Reserves"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","New York Dry Natural Gas Proved Reserves",10,"Annual",2012,"6301977" ,"Release Date:","410...

453

Optimization of steam explosion pretreatment. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Different operating conditions are required to optimize the yield from each of the various fractions in the substrate. Xylose recovery is maximized at short cooking times whereas maximum lignin recovery requires much longer cooking times. Peak glucose yield and rumen digestibility occur at intermediate times. If process conditions are set for maximum glucose yield we have achieved a yield of 68% of the theoretical, based on an average of a dozen substrates tested. Individual results ranged from 46 to 87%. If the process is optimized for maximum total sugars (i.e. glucose plus xylose) we have obtained an average yield of 60%, with a range of 31 to 75%. With rumen microflora, the average value of the in-vitro cellulose digestibility was 82%, with a range of 41 to 90%. The optimum operating conditions for total sugars are a pressure of 500 to 550 psig with a cooking time of 40 to 50 seconds and 35% starting moisture content. Particle size is not a significant factor, nor is pre-steaming or use of a constricting die in the gun nozzle. High quality lignin can be extracted with 80% yield. The Iotech lignin is very soluble, has a low molecular weight and is reactive. The unique properties of the lignin derive from the explosion at the end of the pretreatment. A lignin formaldehyde resin has been successfully formulated and tested. It represents a high value utilization of the lignin byproduct with immediate market potential. A detailed engineering design of the process gives an estimated operating cost of $7.50/OD ton of biomass. At this low cost, the Iotech process achieves many important pretreatment goals in a single step. The substrate has been sterilized; it has been pulverized into a powder; the cellulose has been accessible; and a highly reactive lignin fraction can be recovered and utilized.

Foody, P.

1980-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

454

The Role of Disturbance in Dry Tropical Forest Landscapes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Disturbance can be defined as 'any relatively discrete event in time that disrupts ecosystem, community, or population structure and changes resources, substrate availability, or the physical environment'. This definition requires that the spatial and temporal scales of the system and disturbance be determined. Disturbances are typically characterized by their size, spatial distribution, frequency or return time, predictability, and magnitude (which includes both intensity and severity). These disturbance attributes set the parameters for the suite of species, both plant and animal, that can persist within a given system. As such, an understanding of seasonally dry tropical forests in Asia requires an understanding of disturbance within the region. However, disturbances are relatively poorly understood in dry tropical forests, partly because of the weak seasonality in temperature and high tree species diversity of these forests relative to most forest systems of the world. There are about 1,048,700 km{sup 2} of dry tropical forests worldwide and that only 3% of this land is in conservation status. In other words, 97% of the world's seasonally dry tropical forest is at risk of human disturbance. About half of this forest occurs in South America, where most of the conservation lands are located. Satellite imagery based on MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) data shows that only about 3.8% of the world's dry tropical forests are in Australia and South east Asia. The susceptibility of these forests to human disturbances is of great concern and is largely unstudied. Because natural disturbance regimes shape the ecosystem structure and are in many ways integral to these forest systems, it is critical to know how natural disturbance affects dry forest in order to understand the effects of human activities on these forests. Even basic information about disturbances in dry tropical forests is only recently available. Therefore this chapter brings together much of the available information from dry tropical forest throughout the world with the goal of developing an understanding of the role of disturbance in Asian dry forests. Most ecologists now recognize that disturbances, rather than being catastrophic agents of destruction, are a normal, perhaps even an integral, part of long-term system dynamics. The composition, structure, organization, and development and trophic dynamics of most forest systems are the products of disturbances. As an example, the forest composition for two disturbances in the Anaikatty Hills of Western Ghats were compared, where the low disturbance was from past logging followed by cutting and illicit felling and grazing and the high disturbance was due to human presence, past logging, and fuelwood collection. They found higher species richness and Shannon-Wiener diversity index for the low-disturbance forest (98 and 3.9, respectively) compared to the high-disturbance stand (45 and 2.71, respectively) as well as significant differences in mean basal area of trees, density of seedlings, number of species, density and diversity of shrubs, and number of species and diversity of herbs. Some ecological systems contain species that have evolved in response to disturbances. Adaptations typical of dry tropical forest plants are drought tolerance, seed dispersal mechanisms, and the ability to sprout subsequent to disturbance. In contrast, evidence was found that human disturbance in Kakamega Forest of western Kenya has significantly reduced allelic richness and heterozygosity, increased inbreeding, and slightly reduced gene flow in Prunus africana in the past century.

Dale, Virginia H [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

455

Precipitation scavenging, dry deposition, and resuspension. Volume 2: dry deposition and resuspension  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Papers are presented under the headings: dry deposition of gases, dry deposition of particles, wind erosion, plutonium deposition and resuspension, air-sea exchange, tropical and polar, global scale, and future studies.

Pruppacher, H.R.; Semanin, R.G.; Slinn, W.G.N.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

456

Advanced steam parameters for pulverized coal fired boilers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

After the enormous efforts made in the eighties towards minimization of pollutant concentration in flue gases from power stations, public attention today has turned increasingly toward CO{sub 2} emissions from fossil fuel fired plants. This interest has, in turn, renewed interest in increasing the efficiency of thermal power plants, as this approach is by far the most practical means of reducing the specific CO{sub 2} emission rate. The Rankine steam cycle is the workhorse of the power industry. However, the steam power cycle is often regarded as having reached a maximum practical efficiency, and development effort has shifted to indirect fired cycles. In reality, Rankine cycle efficiencies equivalent to the combined Brayton/Rankine cycles are possible, and may be economically practical. The development work which would allow such steam cycle efficiencies to be realized has been limited in recent years, due to low growth rates, falling energy prices, and tying up of investment funds in environmental control equipment. This paper presents a short survey of the application for advanced steam parameters in power generation and discusses critical areas in more detail. A program undertaken by a consortium of European manufacturers and EC governments for the advancement of steam cycle efficiency is described.

Heiermann, G.; Husemann, R.U.; Kather, A.; Knizia, M.; Hougaard, P.

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

457

Advanced method for turbine steam path deterioration and performance analysis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The deterioration of a Steam Path affects the efficiency of a turbine. The most critical factors which affect the efficiency of steam and gas turbines are: seals wearing out, deposits, corrosion which causes material losses, solid particle erosion which leads to severe blade trailing edge material losses and others. Computer programs for design analysis of steam and gas turbines were developed. The input data are the steam or gas parameters before and after the turbine, mass flow and the blade path geometry (length, width, diameter, metal angles and clearances). The program calculates steam and gas parameters and their deviation from the design data. The blade path deterioration changes the dimensions such as blade throat, and in extreme cases also the angles. Putting the actual geometry into the program, the deviations from the design points are calculated exactly. The deviations expressed in kW as losses per stage are determined and listed. The paper briefly describes the program algorithm, sensitivity to geometry measurement errors and overall exactitude. Also, examples from field evaluations of some turbines are presented and illustrated. These tools are very helpful to the management the power plants in undertaking a correct decision concerning the date of the next major maintenance and replacement part procurement. The data gathered can be utilized for a more precise performance diagnostic during operation of the turbine.

Kubiak, J.; Angel, F. del; Carnero, A.; Campos, A.; Urquiza, G.; Marino, C.; Villegas, M. [Inst. de Investigaciones Electricas, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico). Div. Sistemas Mecanicos

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

458

Downhole steam generator with improved preheating, combustion and protection features  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An apparatus for generation of steam in a borehole for penetration into an earth formation wherein feedback preheater means are provided for the fuel and water before entering the combustor assembly. First, combustion gases are conducted from the combustion chamber to locations in proximity to the water and fuel supplies. Secondly, both hot combustion gases and steam are conducted from the borehole back to the water and fuel supply. The water used for conversion to steam is passed in a countercurrent manner through a plurality of annular water flow channels surrounding the combustion chamber. In this manner, the water is preheated, and the combustion chamber is cooled simultaneously, thereby minimizing thermal stresses and deterioration of the walls of the combustion chamber. The water is injected through slotted inlets along the combustion chamber wall to provide an unstable boundary layer and stripping of the water from the wall for efficient steam generation. Pressure responsive doors are provided at the steam outlet of the combustor assembly. The outlet doors and fluid flow functions may be controlled by a diagnostic/control module. The module is positioned in the water flow channel to maintain a relatively constant, controlled temperature.

Fox, Ronald L. (Albuquerque, NM)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

459

Effect of steam partial pressure on gasification rate and gas composition of product gas from catalytic steam gasification of HyperCoal  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

HyperCoal was produced from coal by a solvent extraction method. The effect of the partial pressure of steam on the gasification rate and gas composition at temperatures of 600, 650, 700, and 750{sup o}C was examined. The gasification rate decreased with decreasing steam partial pressure. The reaction order with respect to steam partial pressure was between 0.2 and 0.5. The activation energy for the K{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-catalyzed HyperCoal gasification was independent of the steam partial pressure and was about 108 kJ/mol. The gas composition changed with steam partial pressure and H{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} decreased and CO increased with decreasing steam partial pressure. By changing the partial pressure of the steam, the H{sub 2}/CO ratio of the synthesis gas can be controlled. 18 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

Atul Sharma; Ikuo Saito; Toshimasa Takanohashi [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Ibaraki (Japan). Advanced Fuel Group

2009-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

460

Drying: a comparison of radial jet reattachment and standard in-line jets  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

line of the nozzle but is shown in two dimensions as seen in the flow visualization. The flow rate of water corresponds to an exit velocity in air of approximately 75 meters per second, using Reynolds number similarity. The reattachment ring.... In this research endeavor, RJR nozzles have been compared to the drying industry's common method of air impingement drying, namely, standard In-Line Jets (ILJ), for several different combinations of flow and geometrical parameters. This gives evidence...

Habetz, Darren Keith

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dry steam number" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

A new profile control design based on quantitative identification of steam breakthrough channel in heavy oil reservoirs  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Steam breakthrough has a great negative influence on the development of steam flooding in heavy oil reservoirs. In this article, a new profile control design based on quantitative identification of steam break...

Chuan Lu; Huiqing Liu; Zhanxi Pang…

2014-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

462

Industrialization and Urbanization: Did the Steam Engine Contribute to the Growth of Cities in the United States?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in the Century of the Steam Engine, Vol. 1. University Pressat Work: The Corliss Steam Engine in the Late-Nineteenth-and Adoption of the Steam Engine in American Manufacturing,”

Kim, Sukkoo

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

463

Energy Savings Accomplished by Replacing Steam Ejectors with Electric Driven Vacuum Pumps in Crude Distillation Vacuum Towers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The low cost of steam combined with the maintenance free operation of steam ejectors has assured their unquestioned use in providing the necessary vacuum for crude distillation vacuum towers. However, the cost of steam production has risen...

Nelson, R. E.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

464

Cold vacuum drying facility 90% design review  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document contains review comment records for the CVDF 90% design review. Spent fuels retrieved from the K Basins will be dried at the CVDF. It has also been recommended that the Multi-Conister Overpacks be welded, inspected, and repaired at the CVD Facility before transport to dry storage.

O`Neill, C.T.

1997-05-02T23:59:59.000Z

465

Life assessment product catalog for boilers, steam pipes, and steam turbines  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Aging fossil power plants, escalating costs of new plant construction, and load growth rate uncertainties are motivating utilities to make the most effective use of critical components in existing power plants. To help meet this need, EPRI has refined existing methods and developed new methods of predicting the remaining life of key fossil plant components with greater accuracy and confidence. This report describes 16 EPRI products (guidelines, computer programs, and other tools) that apply these techniques to boiler tubes, boiler headers, steam lines, and turbine rotors, blades, and casings. Utility personnel, including plant engineers, maintenance supervisor, engineering department staff, plant operating staff, and performance engineers, can use these products to assess remaining component life, as well as to set cost-effective maintenance procedures, inspection schedules, and operating procedures.

Hoffman, S. (Hoffman (S.), Santa Clara, CA (United States))

1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

466

Steam reforming of carbo-metallic oils  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A process is disclosed for economically converting carbo-metallic oils to liquid fuel products by bringing a converter feed containing 650/sup 0/ F. + material characterized by a carbon residue on pyrolysis of at least about 1 and by containing at least about 4 ppm of nickel equivalents of heavy metals, including nickel, into contact with a particulate cracking catalyst in a progressive flow type reactor having an elongated conversion zone. The suspension of catalyst and feed in the reactor has a vapor residence time in the range of about 0.5 to about 10 seconds, a temperature of about 900/sup 0/ F. to about 1400/sup 0/ F. and a pressure of about 10 to about 50 pounds per square inch absolute for causing a conversion per pass in the range of about 50 to about 90 percent while depositing nickel on the catalyst and coke on the catalyst in amounts in the range of about 0.3 to about 3 percent by weight. The coke-laden catalyst is separated from the resulting stream of hydrocarbons and regenerated by combustion of the coke with oxygen, the regenerated catalyst being characterized by deposited nickel in at least a partially oxidized state and a level of carbon on catalyst of about 0.25 percent by weight or less. The regenerated catalyst is contacted with a reducing gas under reducing conditions sufficient to reduce at least a portion of the oxidized nickel deposits to a reduced state and the regenerated catalyst with reduced nickel deposits is recycled to the conversion zone for contact with fresh feed. Water is also introduced into the reactor conversion zone and the amount of water and the amount of reduced nickel on the recycled catalyst are sufficient to provide a steam reforming reaction so that hydrogen deficient components of the feed are converted to products having higher hydrogen to carbon ratios and the amount of feed converted to coke is reduced. The amount of deposited nickel on catalyst is preferably in the range from about 2,000 to about 20,000 ppm.

Myers, G.D.; Hettinger, W.P. Jr.; Kovach, S.M.; Zandona, O.J.

1984-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

467

Graphite dust resuspension in an HTR-10 steam generator  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Graphite dust has an important effect on the safety of high-temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTR). The flow field in the steam generator was studied by the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) method, with the results indicating that the friction velocity in the windward and the leeward of the heat transfer tubes is relatively low and is higher at the sides. Further analysis of the resuspension of graphite dust indicates that the resuspension fraction reaches nearly zero for particles with a diameter less than 1 ?m, whereas it will increases as the helium velocity in the steam generator increases for particle size larger than 1 ?m. Moreover, the resuspension fraction increases as the particle size increases. The results also indicate that resuspension of the particles with sizes larger than 1 ?m exhibited obvious differences in different parts of the steam generator.

Wei Peng; Tianqi Zhang; Yanan Zhen; Suyuan Yu

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

468

Warming systems prolong steam-turbine life, accelerate startup  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Cycling capability is one of the top challenges in the design, operation, and maintenance of today's powerplants. This article describes how permanent warming systems can be a powerful ally in meeting this challenge, particularly for aging steam turbines. The warming system is typically used to hold steam-turbine shell temperatures during short shutdowns (up to about three days), or to pre-warm shells after longer shut-downs. Permanent warming systems elevate metal temperature above 500 F, distinguishing them from heat tracing systems that operate at much lower temperatures for freeze protection or viscosity control. Permanent warming systems can reduced steam-turbine damage during both startup heating and off-line cooling, and can reduce plant startup time.

Swanekamp, R.

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

469

Steam driven centrifugal pump for low cost boiler feed service  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This article describes a steam driven centrifugal pump for boiler feed-water and other high pressure water applications, which was awarded Top Honors in the special pumps category of the 1982 Chemical processing Vaaler competition, because the simple design with turbine, pump and controls combined in an integral unit provides high operating efficiency and reliable performance with minimal maintenance. Single source responsibility for all components when the pump may have to be serviced is another advantage. These features meet the requirements for boiler feed pumps that are critical to maintaining a consistent steam supply in a process plant where downtime can be extremely expensive. The annual cost to operate the pump for 8000 hours is about $100,000, if electricity costs 5 cents/kwh. These pumps can be run for about $30,000 on steam, if natural gas costs $4.00/mcf. Cost savings are $70,000 annually.

Not Available

1982-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

470

Steam injection method and apparatus for recovery of oil  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A method and apparatus for recovering oil from an oil bearing formation utilizing steam injected into the formation. A working fluid is heated at the surface to produce a reversible, chemical reaction, particularly a reforming reaction in a reforming/methanation reaction cycle. The products of the reforming reaction are transported at near ambient temperatures to a downhole heat exchanger through which water is circulated. There a catalyst triggers the methanation reaction, liberating heat energy to convert the water to steam. The products of the methanation reaction are recirculated to the surface to repeat the cycle. In one embodiment the products of the methanation reaction are injected into the formation along with the steam. Various catalysts, and various systems for heating the working fluid are disclosed.

Meeks, T.; Rhoades, C.A.

1983-02-08T23:59:59.000Z

471

Geothermal Steam Act of 1970 | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Steam Act of 1970 Steam Act of 1970 Jump to: navigation, search To encourage the development of geothermal energy, the United States government passed the Geothermal Steam Act in 1970 allowing the leasing of land containing geothermal resources; however, Congress excluded any lands within the National Park System, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service lands, and any other lands prohibited from leasing by the Mineral Leasing Act of 1920. The Bureau of Land Management (BLM) administrates the Act, issuing distinct authorizations for the exploration, development, production, and closeout of a geothermal resource. When a lessee first receives a lease, they have ten years to reach a certain level of development with the land; upon demonstrating such development, BLM extends their lease to 40 years, after

472

Superalloys for ultra supercritical steam turbines--oxidation behavior  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Goals of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Power Systems Initiatives include power generation from coal at 60% efficiency, which requires steam conditions of up to 760 °C and 340 atm, so called ultra-supercritical (USC) steam conditions. One of the important materials performance considerations is steam-side oxidation resistance. Evaporation of protective chromia scales is expected to be a primary corrosion mechanism under USC conditions. A methodology to calculate Cr evaporation rates from chromia scales with cylindrical geometries was developed that allows for the effects of CrO2(OH)2 saturation within the gas phase. This approach was combined with Cr diffusion calculations within the alloy (with a constant flux of Cr leaving the alloy from evaporation) to predict Cr concentration profiles as a function of exposure time and to predict the time until the alloy surface concentration of Cr reaches zero. This time is a rough prediction of the time until breakaway oxidation. A hypothetical superheater tube, steam pipe, and high pressure turbine steam path was examined. At the highest temperatures and pressures, the time until breakaway oxidation was predicted to be quite short for the turbine blade, and of concern within the steam pipe and the higher temperature portions of the superheater tube. The predicted time until breakaway oxidation increases dramatically with decreases in temperature and total pressure. Possible mitigation techniques were discussed, including those used in solid oxide fuel cell metallic interconnects (lowering the activity of Cr in the oxide scale by adding Mn to the alloy), and thermal barrier coating use on high pressure turbine blades for both erosion and chromia evaporation protection.

Holcomb, G.R.

2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

473

A simplified model of decontamination by BWR steam suppression pools  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Phenomena that can decontaminate aerosol-laden gases sparging through steam suppression pools of boiling water reactors during reactor accidents are described. Uncertainties in aerosol properties, aerosol behavior within gas bubbles, and bubble behavior in plumes affect predictions of decontamination by steam suppression pools. Uncertainties in the boundary and initial conditions that are dictated by the progression of severe reactor accidents and that will affect predictions of decontamination by steam suppression pools are discussed. Ten parameters that characterize boundary and initial condition uncertainties, nine parameters that characterize aerosol property and behavior uncertainties, and eleven parameters that characterize uncertainties in the behavior of bubbles in steam suppression pools are identified. Ranges for the values of these parameters and subjective probability distributions for parametric values within the ranges are defined. These uncertain parameters are used in Monte Carlo uncertainty analyses to develop uncertainty distributions for the decontamination that can be achieved by steam suppression pools and the size distribution of aerosols that do emerge from such pools. A simplified model of decontamination by steam suppression pools is developed by correlating features of the uncertainty distributions for total decontamination factor, DF(total), mean size of emerging aerosol particles, d{sub p}, and the standard deviation of the emerging aerosol size distribution, {sigma}, with pool depth, H. Correlations of the median values of the uncertainty distributions are suggested as the best estimate of decontamination by suppression pools. Correlations of the 10 percentile and 90 percentile values of the uncertainty distributions characterize the uncertainty in the best estimates. 295 refs., 121 figs., 113 tabs.

Powers, D.A.

1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

474

Nitrogen oxide stack sampling at the U.S. DOE Oak Ridge Y-12 Steam Plant  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

On November 7, 1997, the EPA proposed a Nitrogen Oxides State Implementation Plan Call (NO{sub x} SIP Call) for 22 states in the Eastern US which included the state of Tennessee. This initial proposal was followed by proposed statewide NO{sub x} budgets in the May 11, 1998, Supplemental Notice of Proposed Rulemaking. In the development of the NO{sub x} SIP Call, EPA performed a number of air quality analyses and determined that NO{sub x} emissions from Tennessee should be reduced. Industrial boilers, turbines, stationary internal combustion engines, and cement manufacturing are the only non-electric generating unit sources for which reductions are assumed in the budget calculation. Emission reductions are required if specific source heat input capacity is greater than 250 million Btu per hour. The US Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Y-12 Steam Plant consists of four Wickes pulverized coal fired boilers each rated at a maximum heat input capacity of 298 million Btu per hour, and will therefore be impacted by these regulatory actions. Each boiler is equipped with two pulverizing mills. Coal or natural gas or a combination of these two fuels may be fired. This paper provides the results of NO{sub x} emission stack testing conducted June 15--21, 1999, on the Y-12 Steam Plant Boilers 1 and 2. Measurements of oxygen (O{sub 2}), carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), and stack gas flow were also performed. Information gained from these stack tests will be used to determine NO{sub x} emission control strategies for the steam plant for compliance with future emission requirements resulting from the NO{sub x} SIP Call.

L.V. Gibson, jr.; M.P. Humphreys; J.M. Skinner

2000-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

475

List of Steam-system upgrades Incentives | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

upgrades Incentives upgrades Incentives Jump to: navigation, search The following contains the list of 100 Steam-system upgrades Incentives. CSV (rows 1 - 100) Incentive Incentive Type Place Applicable Sector Eligible Technologies Active AlabamaSAVES Revolving Loan Program (Alabama) State Loan Program Alabama Commercial Industrial Institutional Building Insulation Doors Energy Mgmt. Systems/Building Controls Lighting Lighting Controls/Sensors Steam-system upgrades Water Heaters Windows Biodiesel Biomass CHP/Cogeneration Ethanol Fuel Cells using Renewable Fuels Geothermal Electric Hydroelectric energy Landfill Gas Photovoltaics Renewable Fuels Solar Water Heat Commercial Refrigeration Equipment Natural Gas Yes Ameren Missouri (Gas) - Business Energy Efficiency Program (Missouri) Utility Rebate Program Missouri Commercial

476

The nuclear heated steam reformer — Design and semitechnical operating experiences  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Good operating experiences of the EVA I- and EVA II-plant have been described. Therin the comparison of the different catalyst concepts has been given. Further the behaviour of the bundle of EVA II plant by isolation of individual reformer tubes as well as the performance of the bundle under transient conditions have been explained. Different design concepts for a nuclear heated steam reformer based on the concentric tubes and baffles have been given. Main points of studies are constructional details, thermohydraulic of the bundle and stress analysis. It can be shown that the present standard of knowledge allows the application of the steam reformer for coal refinement with nuclear heat.

J. Singh; H.F. Niessen; R. Harth; H. Fedders; H. Reutler; W. Panknin; W.D. Müller; H.G. Harms

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

477

High temperature gas cooled reactor steam-methane reformer design  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The concept of the long distance transportation of process heat energy from a High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor (HTGR) heat source, based on the steam-methane reforming reaction, is being evaluated by the Department of Energy as an energy source/application for use early in the 21st century. This paper summaries the design of a helium heated steam reformer utilized in conjunction with an intermediate loop, 850/degree/C reactor outlet temperature, HTGR process heat plant concept. This paper also discusses various design considerations leading to the mechanical design features, the thermochemical performance, the materials selection and the structural design analysis. 12 refs.

Impellezzeri, J.R.; Drendel, D.B.; Odegaard, T.K.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

478

A Comparative Study between Co and Rh for Steam Reforming of...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

between Co and Rh for Steam Reforming of Ethanol. A Comparative Study between Co and Rh for Steam Reforming of Ethanol. Abstract: Rh and Co-based catalyst performance was compared...

479

Catalytic roles of Co0 and Co2+ during steam reforming of ethanol...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

roles of Co0 and Co2+ during steam reforming of ethanol on CoMgO catalysts . Catalytic roles of Co0 and Co2+ during steam reforming of ethanol on CoMgO catalysts . Abstract:...

480

Microsoft Word - Seattle Steam Draft EA for concurrence-6-16...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

The exhaust gas from the turbine would be routed to a once-through (heat recovery) steam generator, which would be equipped with natural gas-fired duct burners to increase steam...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dry steam number" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


481

FLUIDIZABLE CATALYSTS FOR PRODUCING HYDROGEN BY STEAM REFORMING BIOMASS PYROLYSIS LIQUIDS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

FLUIDIZABLE CATALYSTS FOR PRODUCING HYDROGEN BY STEAM REFORMING BIOMASS PYROLYSIS LIQUIDS Kimberly established that biomass pyrolysis oil could be steam-reformed to generate hydrogen using non pyrolysis oil could be almost stoichiometrically converted to hydrogen. However, process performance

482

Experimental Research on Low-Temperature Methane Steam Reforming Technology in a Chemically Recuperated Gas Turbine  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Under the operating parameters of a chemically recuperated gas turbine (CRGT), the low-temperature methane steam reforming test bench is designed and built; systematic experimental studies about fuel steam reforming are conducted. Four different reforming ...

Qian Liu; Hongtao Zheng

2014-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

483

Revitalization of a Steam Lab to Meet Energy Challenge and Strengthen Mechanical Engineering Education  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

An 'old' and 'obsolete' boiler system was revitalized and an enhanced Steam Lab was established based on that system. In this project, modifications and improvements were made to the facility, which contains a 150 BHP boiler, condenser, steam...

Kozman, T.; Simon, W. E.; Guidry, J.; Liu, Y.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

484

E-Print Network 3.0 - analyzing steam generator Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

the early develop- ment of high-pressure steam... A History of the Growth of the Steam Engine (1883) Hero of Alexandria, who lived around 60 AD, con- ducted Source: Leveson,...

485

E-Print Network 3.0 - area steam plants Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Renewables 79 copyright Summary: Figure 1: 50 kW prototype solar power plant using Steam Engine Induction Generator Paraboloid dish... Modelling of a 400m2 steam based...

486

Steam System Opportunity Assessment for the Pulp and Paper, Chemical Manufacturing, and Petroleum Refining Industries  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This report assesses steam generation and use in the pulp and paper, chemical manufacturing, and the petroleum refining industries. The report also estimates the energy savings potential available from implementing steam system performance and efficiency improvements.

487

The Passenger Steamboat Phoenix: An Archaeological Study of Early Steam Propulsion in North America  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The advent of steam contributed heavily to the economic transformation of early America, facilitating trade through the transportation of goods along the country’s lakes, rivers, and canals. Serious experimentation with steam navigation began...

Schwarz, George 1977-

2012-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

488

From Basic Control to Optimized Systems-Applying Digital Control Systems to Steam Boilers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This presentation examines the application of Distributed Digital Controls in order to review the application of this recent control technology towards Steam Boilers in a step-by-step manner. The main purpose of a steam generating boiler...

Hockenbury, W. D.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

489

Energy Comparison Vacuum Producing Equipment - Mechanical Vacuum Pumps vs. Steam Ejectors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

vacuum on condensers, process reactors, or equipment and processes requiring subatmospheric conditions, has been to utilize steam ejectors. Due to the inherent operating inefficiency and wastefulness of the steam ejector, coupled with the rapidly...

Foisy, E. C.; Munkittrick, M. T.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

490

Flash High-Pressure Condensate to Regenerate Low-Pressure Steam  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This revised ITP tip sheet on regenerating low-pressure steam provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

Not Available

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

491

Steam turbines of the Ural Turbine Works for advanced projects of combined-cycle plants  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We describe the design features, basic thermal circuits, and efficiency of steam turbines developed on the basis of serially produced steam turbines of Ural Turbine Works and used as part of combined-cycle plants...

G. D. Barinberg; A. E. Valamin; A. Yu. Kultyshev

2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

492

New draft projects of steam turbines for combined-cycle plants  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We describe the design features, basic thermal circuits, and efficiency of steam turbines developed on the basis of serially produced steam turbines at the Ural Turbine Works and intended for use as part of combined

G. D. Barinberg; A. E. Valamin; A. Yu. Kultyshev; A. A. Ivanovskii…

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

493

Modelling of a Coil Steam Generator for Concentrated Solar Power Applications.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??The project investigates a new design for a CSP plant steam generation system, the Coil Steam Generator(CSG). This system allows faster start-ups and therefore higher… (more)

PELAGOTTI, LEONARDO

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

494

Table A55. Number of Establishments by Total Inputs of Energy for Heat, Powe  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Number of Establishments by Total Inputs of Energy for Heat, Power, and Electricity Generation," Number of Establishments by Total Inputs of Energy for Heat, Power, and Electricity Generation," " by Industry Group, Selected Industries, and" " Presence of Cogeneration Technologies, 1994: Part 2" ,,,"Steam Turbines",,,,"Steam Turbines" ,," ","Supplied by Either","Conventional",,,"Supplied by","One or More",," " " "," ",,"Conventional","Combustion ","Combined-Cycle","Internal Combustion","Heat Recovered from","Cogeneration",,"RSE" "SIC"," ",,"or Fluidized","Turbines with","Combustion","Engines with","High-Temperature","Technologies","None","Row"

495

Syngas production in a novel methane dry reformer by utilizing of tri-reforming process for energy supplying: Modeling and simulation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract In this study, tri-reforming process has been utilized as an energy source for driving highly endothermic process of methane dry reforming process in a multi-tubular recuperative thermally coupled reactor (TCTDR). 184 two-concentric-tubes have been proposed for this configuration. Outer tube sides of the two-concentric-tubes have been considered for the tri-reforming reactions while dry reforming process takes place in inner tube sides. Simulation results of co-current mode have been compared with corresponding predictions of thermally coupled tri- and steam reformer (TCTSR); in which the tri-reforming process has been coupled with steam reforming of methane in same conditions. A mathematical heterogeneous model has been applied to simulate both dry and tri-reforming sides of the TCTDR. Results showed that methane conversion at the output of dry and tri-reforming sides reached to 63% and 93%, respectively. Also, molar flow rate of syngas at the output of DR side of TCTDR reached to 7464 kmol h?1 in comparison to 3912 kmol h?1 for SR side of TCTSR.

Mehdi Farniaei; Mohsen Abbasi; Hamid Rahnama; Mohammad Reza Rahimpour; Alireza Shariati

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

496

Energy Management of Steam Distribution Systems Through Energy Audits and Computerized Reporting Programs  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ENERGY KANAGEKBNT OF STEAM DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS THROUGH BNKRGY AUDITS AND COItPlTl'ERIZED REPORTING PROGRAtIS NORMAN J. RIVERS and HARTIN MANDZUK Armstrong Machine Works, Inc. Three Rivers, Michigan ABSTRACT This presentation will highlight... the economic losses associated with steam distribution systems and how to establish good energy management programs to reduce energy cost by 15 to 25 percent. Recognizing energy losses in steam systems involves I 1. Steam lost through defective valves...

Rivers, N.; Mandzuk, N.

497

Statistical mechanics of dry granular materials: Between fragile solid (jamming) and dry fluid (rheology)  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Dry granular matter with infinite tangential friction is modeled as a connected graph of grains linked by purely repulsive contacts. The degrees of freedom of a grain are non-slip rotation on and disconnection from another. The material stability under shear (jamming) is ensured by odd circuits of grains in contact that prevent the grains from rolling on each other. A dense hard granular material has two possible states: fragile solid blocked by odd circuits and dry fluid or bearing in the absence of odd circuits that flows under shear by creation and glide of a pair of dislocations as in plasticity of continuous media. We did introduce the notions of blob a region of the material containing only even circuits and of critical contact that closes an odd circuit. The granular material is then represented at low energies and critical applied shear as a chain of blobs connected by critical contacts. The entropy is the logarithm of the number of spanning trees constrained to go through critical links. For a vanishing tangential friction the graph description with the frustrating odd circuits is still valid because the force between grains remains a scalar and repulsive. A granular material inside a cylindrical drum rotating at constant velocity around its horizontal axis alternates intermittently between solid and fluid states. As a fragile solid it follows a limit cycle of avalanches (slip) and stuck rotations with the drum. This is the stick-slip behavior of a solid subjected to solid friction (to the driving drum) and gravity. In the fluid state the friction is viscous and the granular material flows to a fixed point with constant slope.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

498

http://www.wrcc.dri.edu/cemp/Radiation.html  

National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

the body, date archaelogical and geological events, and turn water into steam for electricity. Radioactive sensors are in smoke detectors, and uranium puts the gleam in...

499

The apparent “super-Carnot” efficiency of hurricanes: Nature’s steam engine versus the steam locomotive  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The thermodynamics of the hurricane—Nature’s steam engine—presents surprising contrasts with that of the steam locomotive. The hurricane rejects not only its waste heat at the lowest available temperature (as all heat engines must do to maximize efficiency) but also its work (that is the kinetic energy of its winds) via frictional dissipation at the highest available temperature. We show how the hurricane’s “super-Carnot” efficiency is consistent with the laws of thermodynamics. We also show that even standard heat engines can achieve “super-Carnot” efficiency albeit via a different mechanism and to a far inferior degree than the hurricane.

Jack Denur

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

500

"Table A49. Average Prices of Purchased Electricity, Steam, and Natural Gas"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

9. Average Prices of Purchased Electricity, Steam, and Natural Gas" 9. Average Prices of Purchased Electricity, Steam, and Natural Gas" " by Type of Supplier, Census Region, and Economic Characteristics of the" " Establishment, 1991" " (Estimates in Dollars per Physical Units)" ," Electricity",," Steam",," Natural Gas" ," (Million kWh)",," (Billion Btu)",," (1000 cu ft)" ,"-","-----------","-","-----------","-","-","-","RSE" " ","Utility","Nonutility","Utility","Nonutility","Utility","Transmission","Other","Row"