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Sample records for dry sorbent powder

  1. evaluation-dry-sorbent-urs | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Evaluation of Dry Sorbent Technology for Pre-Combustion CO2 Capture Project No.: DE-FE0000465 Scanning Electron Microsopy (SEM) and Transmission Electron Miscroscopy (TEM) images of a multi-functional sorbent synthesized by a novel method. Scanning Electron Microsopy (SEM) and Transmission Electron Miscroscopy (TEM) images of a multi-functional sorbent synthesized by a novel method. URS and the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign are investigating a dry sorbent process configured to

  2. Spray-dried fluid-bed sorbents tests - CMP-5

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gangwal, S.K.; Gupta, R.P.

    1995-12-01

    The objective of this study is to determine the feasibility of manufacturing highly reactive and attrition-resistant zinc titanate sorbents by spray drying, suitable for bubbling (conventional) as well as transport-type fluidized-bed reactor systems.

  3. CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE FROM FLUE GAS USING DRY REGENERABLE SORBENTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David A. Green; Brian S. Turk; Jeffrey W. Portzer; Raghubir P. Gupta; William J. McMichael; Thomas Nelson

    2004-07-01

    This report describes research conducted between April 1, 2004 and June 30, 2004 on the preparation and use of dry regenerable sorbents for removal of carbon dioxide from flue gas. Support materials and supported sorbents were prepared by spray drying. Sorbents consisting of 20 to 50% sodium carbonate on a ceramic support were prepared by spray drying in batches of approximately 300 grams. The supported sorbents exhibited greater carbon dioxide capture rates than unsupported calcined sodium bicarbonate in laboratory tests. Preliminary process design and cost estimation for a retrofit application suggested that costs of a dry regenerable sodium carbonate-based process could be lower than those of a monoethanolamine absorption system. In both cases, the greatest part of the process costs come from power plant output reductions due to parasitic consumption of steam for recovery of carbon dioxide from the capture medium.

  4. CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE FROM FLUE GAS USING DRY REGENERABLE SORBENTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David A. Green; Brian S. Turk; Jeffrey W. Portzer; Thomas Nelson; Raghubir P. Gupta

    2005-01-01

    This report describes research conducted between October 1, 2004 and December 31, 2004 on the use of dry regenerable sorbents for removal of carbon dioxide from flue gas. Two supported sorbents were tested in a bench scale fluidized bed reactor system. The sorbents were prepared by impregnation of sodium carbonate on to an inert support at a commercial catalyst manufacturing facility. One sorbent, tested through five cycles of carbon dioxide sorption in an atmosphere of 3% water vapor and 0.8 to 3% carbon dioxide showed consistent reactivity with sodium carbonate utilization of 7 to 14%. A second, similarly prepared material, showed comparable reactivity in one cycle of testing. Batches of 5 other materials were prepared in laboratory scale quantities (primarily by spray drying). These materials generally have significantly greater surface areas than calcined sodium bicarbonate. Small scale testing showed no significant adsorption of mercury on representative carbon dioxide sorbent materials under expected flue gas conditions.

  5. Wetter for fine dry powder

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hall, James E.; Williams, Everett H.

    1977-01-01

    A system for wetting fine dry powders such as bentonite clay with water or other liquids is described. The system includes a wetting tank for receiving water and a continuous flow of fine powder feed. The wetting tank has a generally square horizontal cross section with a bottom end closure in the shape of an inverted pyramid. Positioned centrally within the wetting tank is a flow control cylinder which is supported from the walls of the wetting tank by means of radially extending inclined baffles. A variable speed motor drives a first larger propeller positioned immediately below the flow control cylinder in a direction which forces liquid filling the tank to flow downward through the flow control cylinder and a second smaller propeller positioned below the larger propeller having a reverse pitch to oppose the flow of liquid being driven downward by the larger propeller.

  6. Carbon Dioxide Capture from Flue Gas Using Dry Regenerable Sorbents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas Nelson; David Green; Paul Box; Raghubir Gupta; Gennar Henningsen

    2007-06-30

    Regenerable sorbents based on sodium carbonate (Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}) can be used to separate carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) from coal-fired power plant flue gas. Upon thermal regeneration and condensation of water vapor, CO{sub 2} is released in a concentrated form that is suitable for reuse or sequestration. During the research project described in this report, the technical feasibility and economic viability of a thermal-swing CO{sub 2} separation process based on dry, regenerable, carbonate sorbents was confirmed. This process was designated as RTI's Dry Carbonate Process. RTI tested the Dry Carbonate Process through various research phases including thermogravimetric analysis (TGA); bench-scale fixed-bed, bench-scale fluidized-bed, bench-scale co-current downflow reactor testing; pilot-scale entrained-bed testing; and bench-scale demonstration testing with actual coal-fired flue gas. All phases of testing showed the feasibility of the process to capture greater than 90% of the CO{sub 2} present in coal-fired flue gas. Attrition-resistant sorbents were developed, and these sorbents were found to retain their CO{sub 2} removal activity through multiple cycles of adsorption and regeneration. The sodium carbonate-based sorbents developed by RTI react with CO{sub 2} and water vapor at temperatures below 80 C to form sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) and/or Wegscheider's salt. This reaction is reversed at temperatures greater than 120 C to release an equimolar mixture of CO{sub 2} and water vapor. After condensation of the water, a pure CO{sub 2} stream can be obtained. TGA testing showed that the Na{sub 2}CO3 sorbents react irreversibly with sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and hydrogen chloride (HCl) (at the operating conditions for this process). Trace levels of these contaminants are expected to be present in desulfurized flue gas. The sorbents did not collect detectable quantities of mercury (Hg). A process was designed for the Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-based sorbent that includes a co-current downflow reactor system for adsorption of CO{sub 2} and a steam-heated, hollow-screw conveyor system for regeneration of the sorbent and release of a concentrated CO{sub 2} gas stream. An economic analysis of this process (based on the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory's [DOE/NETL's] 'Carbon Capture and Sequestration Systems Analysis Guidelines') was carried out. RTI's economic analyses indicate that installation of the Dry Carbonate Process in a 500 MW{sub e} (nominal) power plant could achieve 90% CO{sub 2} removal with an incremental capital cost of about $69 million and an increase in the cost of electricity (COE) of about 1.95 cents per kWh. This represents an increase of roughly 35.4% in the estimated COE - which compares very favorable versus MEA's COE increase of 58%. Both the incremental capital cost and the incremental COE were projected to be less than the comparable costs for an equally efficient CO{sub 2} removal system based on monoethanolamine (MEA).

  7. Sodium-based dry regenerable sorbent for carbon dioxide capture from power plant flue gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, J.B.; Ryu, C.K.; Baek, J.I.; Lee, J.H.; Eom, T.H.; Kim, S.H.

    2008-07-15

    Dry regenerable sorbent technology is one of the emerging technologies as a cost-effective and energy-efficient technology for CO{sub 2} capture from flue gas. Six sodium-based dry regenerable sorbents were prepared by spray-drying techniques. Their physical properties and reactivities were tested to evaluate their applicability to a fluidized-bed or fast transport-bed CO{sub 2} capture process. Each sorbents contained 20-50 wt% of Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} or NaHCO{sub 3}. All sorbents except for Sorb NX30 were insufficient with either attrition resistance or reactivity, or both properties. Sorb NX30 sorbent satisfied most of the physical requirements for a commercial fluidized-bed reactor process along with good chemical reactivity. Sorb NX30 sorbent had a spherical shape, an average size of 89 {mu}m, a size distribution of 38-250 {mu}m, and a bulk density of approximately 0.87 g/mL. The attrition index (AI) of Sorb NX30 reached below 5% compared to about 20% for commercial fluidized catalytic cracking (FCC) catalysts. CO{sub 2} sorption capacity of Sorb NX30 was approximately 10 wt% (>80% sorbent utilization) in the simulated flue gas condition compared with 6 of 30 wt% MEA solution (33% sorbent utilization). All sorbents showed almost-complete regeneration at temperatures less than 120{sup o}C.

  8. Evaluation of Dry Sorbent Injection Technology for Pre-Combustion CO{sub 2}

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Capture (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect SciTech Connect Search Results Technical Report: Evaluation of Dry Sorbent Injection Technology for Pre-Combustion CO{sub 2} Capture Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Evaluation of Dry Sorbent Injection Technology for Pre-Combustion CO{sub 2} Capture This document summarizes the work performed on Cooperative Agreement DE-FE0000465, "Evaluation of Dry Sorbent Technology for Pre-Combustion CO{sub 2} Capture," during the period of

  9. Evaluation of Dry Sorbent Injection Technology for Pre-Combustion CO{sub 2}

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Capture (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Evaluation of Dry Sorbent Injection Technology for Pre-Combustion CO{sub 2} Capture Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Evaluation of Dry Sorbent Injection Technology for Pre-Combustion CO{sub 2} Capture This document summarizes the work performed on Cooperative Agreement DE-FE0000465, "Evaluation of Dry Sorbent Technology for Pre-Combustion CO{sub 2} Capture," during the period of performance of January 1, 2010 through September

  10. Evaluation of Dry Sorbent Injection Technology for Pre-Combustion...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    were conducted at the laboratory scale to examine sorbents for their COsub 2 capacity, conversion of CO to COsub 2, and impacts of adsorption and regeneration conditions, and...

  11. Dry powder mixes comprising phase change materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Salyer, I.O.

    1994-12-06

    A free flowing, conformable powder-like mix of silica particles and a phase change material (PCM) is provided. The silica particles have a critical size of about 0.005 to about 0.025 microns and the PCM must be added to the silica in an amount of 75% or less PCM per combined weight of silica and PCM. The powder-like mix can be used in tableware items, medical wraps, tree wraps, garments, quilts and blankets, and particularly in applications for heat protection for heat sensitive items, such as aircraft flight recorders, and for preventing brake fade in automobiles, buses, trucks and aircraft. 3 figures.

  12. Dry powder mixes comprising phase change materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Salyer, Ival O.

    1994-01-01

    A free flowing, conformable powder-like mix of silica particles and a phase change material (PCM) is provided. The silica particles have a critical size of about 0.005 to about 0.025 microns and the PCM must be added to the silica in an amount of 75% or less PCM per combined weight of silica and PCM. The powder-like mix can be used in tableware items, medical wraps, tree wraps, garments, quilts and blankets, and particularly in applications for heat protection for heat sensitive items, such as aircraft flight recorders, and for preventing brake fade in automobiles, buses, trucks and aircraft.

  13. Dry powder mixes comprising phase change materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Salyer, I.O.

    1995-12-26

    A free flowing, conformable powder-like mix of silica particles and a phase change material (PCM) is provided. The silica particles have a critical size of about 0.005 to about 0.025 microns and the PCM must be added to the silica in an amount of 75% or less PCM per combined weight of silica and PCM. The powder-like mix can be used in tableware items, medical wraps, tree wraps, garments, quilts and blankets, and particularly in applications for heat protection for heat sensitive items, such as aircraft flight recorders, and for preventing brake fade in automobiles, buses, trucks and aircraft. 3 figs.

  14. Dry powder mixes comprising phase change materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Salyer, Ival O.

    1995-01-01

    A free flowing, conformable powder-like mix of silica particles and a phase change material (PCM) is provided. The silica particles have a critical size of about 0.005 to about 0.025 microns and the PCM must be added to the silica in an amount of 75% or less PCM per combined weight of silica and PCM. The powder-like mix can be used in tableware items, medical wraps, tree wraps, garments, quilts and blankets, and particularly in applications for heat protection for heat sensitive items, such as aircraft flight recorders, and for preventing brake fade in automobiles, buses, trucks and aircraft.

  15. Evaluation of Dry Sorbent Injection Technology for Pre-Combustion CO{sub 2} Capture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richardson, Carl; Steen, William; Triana, Eugenio; Machalek, Thomas; Davila, Jenny; Schmit, Claire; Wang, Andrew; Temple, Brian; Lu, Yongqi; Lu, Hong; Zhang, Luzheng; Ruhter, David; Rostam-Abadi, Massoud; Sayyah, Maryam; Ito, Brandon; Suslick, Kenneth

    2013-09-30

    This document summarizes the work performed on Cooperative Agreement DE-FE0000465, “Evaluation of Dry Sorbent Technology for Pre-Combustion CO{sub 2} Capture,” during the period of performance of January 1, 2010 through September 30, 2013. This project involves the development of a novel technology that combines a dry sorbent-based carbon capture process with the water-gas-shift reaction for separating CO{sub 2} from syngas. The project objectives were to model, develop, synthesize and screen sorbents for CO{sub 2} capture from gasified coal streams. The project was funded by the DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory with URS as the prime contractor. Illinois Clean Coal Institute and The University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign were project co-funders. The objectives of this project were to identify and evaluate sorbent materials and concepts that were suitable for capturing carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) from warm/hot water-gas-shift (WGS) systems under conditions that minimize energy penalties and provide continuous gas flow to advanced synthesis gas combustion and processing systems. Objectives included identifying and evaluating sorbents that efficiently capture CO{sub 2} from a gas stream containing CO{sub 2}, carbon monoxide (CO), and hydrogen (H{sub 2}) at temperatures as high as 650 °C and pressures of 400-600 psi. After capturing the CO{sub 2}, the sorbents would ideally be regenerated using steam, or other condensable purge vapors. Results from the adsorption and regeneration testing were used to determine an optimal design scheme for a sorbent enhanced water gas shift (SEWGS) process and evaluate the technical and economic viability of the dry sorbent approach for CO{sub 2} capture. Project work included computational modeling, which was performed to identify key sorbent properties for the SEWGS process. Thermodynamic modeling was used to identify optimal physical properties for sorbents and helped down-select from the universe of possible sorbent materials to seven that were deemed thermodynamically viable for the process. Molecular modeling was used to guide sorbent synthesis through first principles simulations of adsorption and regeneration. Molecular dynamics simulations also modeled the impact of gas phase impurities common in gasified coal streams (e.g., H{sub 2}S) on the adsorption process. The role of inert dopants added for mechanical durability to active sorbent materials was also investigated through molecular simulations. Process simulations were conducted throughout the project to help determine the overall feasibility of the process and to help guide laboratory operating conditions. A large component of the program was the development of sorbent synthesis methods. Three different approaches were used: mechanical alloying (MA), flame spray pyrolysis (FSP), and ultrasonic spray pyrolysis (USP). Sorbents were characterized by a host of analytical techniques and screened for SEWGS performance using a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA). A feedback loop from screening efforts to sorbent synthesis was established and used throughout the project lifetime. High temperature, high pressure reactor (HTPR) systems were constructed to test the sorbents at conditions mimicking the SEWGS process as identified through process modeling. These experiments were conducted at the laboratory scale to examine sorbents for their CO{sub 2} capacity, conversion of CO to CO{sub 2}, and impacts of adsorption and regeneration conditions, and syngas composition (including impurities and H2O:CO ratio). Results from the HTPR testing showed sorbents with as high as 0.4 g{sub CO{sub 2}}/g{sub sorbent} capacity with the ability to initially shift the WGS completely towards CO{sub 2}/H{sub 2}. A longer term experiment with a simple syngas matrix and N{sub 2}/steam regeneration stream showed a USP sorbent to be stable through 50 adsorption-regeneration cycles, though the sorbent tested had a somewhat diminished initial capacity. The program culminated in a technoeconomic assessment in which two different approaches were taken; one approach was intended to be technically conservative while the second required several key engineering challenges to be met in order to succeed. The project team is confident that, with the proper support, those challenges could be met. The second approach relies on a slipstream of H{sub 2} from the shifted syngas and O{sub 2} from an air separation unit (ASU) to be combusted in the presence of the sorbent for regeneration; termed a regenerating boiler. The approach also makes use of the heat of adsorption to generate >400 MW of turbine quality steam; total plant gross energy output as high as 1 GW was estimated for an IGCC with an initial gross energy output of 737 MW, without any additional coal usage. The regenerating boiler concept could benefit further from additional heat integration, but the results of this effort show a COE of $97.50 per MWh for a rational combination of operating parameters and sorbent lifetime as well as conservative estimates for steam turbines, gas turbine, and ASU. If the COE of CO{sub 2} transmission, storage and monitoring ($5.60 / MWh) is added to the base case for an IGCC ($81.30 / MWh for Case 5 from the DOE Bituminous Coal Report), the cost of CO{sub 2} capture for the regenerating boiler was only $10.60 / MWh; other regenerating boiler cases are as low $6.90 / MWh. The project met all agreed upon milestones and was completed within budget, more than 25% cost share provided by the project team. Results from the program showed that the SEWGS process has great promise, and with further study and evaluation could become a component of a comprehensive carbon capture program. SEWGS requires a paradigm shift in the traditional approach to carbon capture because the regenerating boiler concept is not a ‘back-end’ solution to CO{sub 2} mitigation. Rather, it is an integral part of the plant operations and is responsible for generating more electricity than the IGCC itself. Schemes could be envisioned where the H{sub 2} production is used exclusively to regenerate the sorbent, with any excess sold as a commodity, and the heat of adsorption serving as the primary driver for power generation. Further work with sorbent evaluation, process modeling and heat integration, and scale-up would be needed to more fully vet SEWGS, but the culmination of this program indicates that additional study is warranted.

  16. Dry powder mixes comprising phase change materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Salyer, I.O.

    1993-10-19

    Free flowing, conformable powder-like mix of silica particles and a phase change material (pcm) is disclosed. The silica particles have a critical size of about 7[times]10[sup [minus]3] to about 7[times]10[sup [minus]2] microns and the pcm must be added to the silica in an amount of 80 wt. % or less pcm per combined weight of silica and pcm. The powder-like mix can be used in tableware items, medical wraps, tree wraps, garments, quilts and blankets, and in cementitious compositions of the type in which it is beneficial to use a pcm material. The silica-pcm mix can also be admixed with soil to provide a soil warming effect and placed about a tree, flower, or shrub. 10 figures.

  17. Dry powder mixes comprising phase change materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Salyer, I.O.

    1993-05-18

    Free flowing, conformable powder-like mix of silica particles and a phase change material (p.c.m.) is disclosed. The silica particles have a critical size of about 7[times]10[sup [minus]3] to about 7[times]10[sup [minus]2] microns and the p.c.m. must be added to the silica in an amount of 80 wt. % or less p.c.m. per combined weight of silica and p.c.m. The powder-like mix can be used in tableware items, medical wraps, tree wraps, garments, quilts and blankets, and in cementitious compositions of the type in which it is beneficial to use a p.c.m. material. The silica-p.c.m. mix can also be admixed with soil to provide a soil warming effect and placed about a tree, flower, or shrub.

  18. Dry powder mixes comprising phase change materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Salyer, Ival O.

    1993-01-01

    Free flowing, conformable powder-like mix of silica particles and a phase change material (p.c.m.) is disclosed. The silica particles have a critical size of about 7.times.10.sup.-3 to about 7.times.10.sup.-2 microns and the pcm must be added to the silica in an amount of 80 wt. % or less pcm per combined weight of silica and pcm. The powder-like mix can be used in tableware items, medical wraps, tree wraps, garmets, quilts and blankets, and in cementitious compositions of the type in which it is beneficial to use a pcm material. The silica-pcm mix can also be admixed with soil to provide a soil warming effect and placed about a tree, flower, or shrub.

  19. Dry powder mixes comprising phase change materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Salyer, I.O.

    1992-04-21

    A free flowing, conformable powder-like mix of silica particles and a phase change material (p.c.m.) is disclosed. The silica particles have a critical size of about 7 [times] 10[sup [minus]3] to about 7 [times] 10[sup [minus]2] microns and the pcm must be added to the silica in an amount of 80 wt. % or less pcm per combined weight of silica and pcm. The powder-like mix can be used in tableware items, medical wraps, tree wraps, garments, quilts and blankets, and in cementitious compositions of the type in which it is beneficial to use a pcm material. The silica-pcm mix can also be admixed with soil to provide a soil warming effect and placed about a tree, flower, or shrub. 9 figs.

  20. Dry powder mixes comprising phase change materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Salyer, Ival O.

    1993-01-01

    Free flowing, conformable powder-like mix of silica particles and a phase change material (p.c.m.) is disclosed. The silica particles have a critical size of about 7.times.10.sup.-3 to about 7.times.10.sup.-2 microns and the pcm must be added to the silica in an amount of 80 wt. % or less pcm per combined weight of silica and pcm. The powder-like mix can be used in tableware items, medical wraps, tree wraps, garments, quilts and blankets, and in cementitious compositions of the type in which it is beneficial to use a pcm material. The silica-pcm mix can also be admixed with soil to provide a soil warming effect and placed about a tree, flower, or shrub.

  1. Dry powder mixes comprising phase change materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Salyer, I.O.

    1994-02-01

    Free flowing, conformable powder-like mix of silica particles and a phase change material (PCM) is provided. The silica particles have a critical size of about 0.005 to about 0.025 microns and the PCM must be added to the silica in an amount of 75% or less PCM per combined weight of silica and PCM. The powder-like mix can be used in tableware items, medical wraps, tree wraps, garments, quilts and blankets, and in cementitious compositions of the type in which it is beneficial to use a PCM material. The silica-PCM mix can also be admixed with soil to provide a soil warming effect and placed about a tree, flower, or shrub. 2 figures.

  2. Dry powder mixes comprising phase change materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Salyer, Ival O.

    1994-01-01

    Free flowing, conformable powder-like mix of silica particles and a phase change material (PCM) is provided. The silica particles have a critical size of about 0.005 to about 0.025 microns and the PCM must be added to the silica in an amount of 75% or less PCM per combined weight of silica and PCM. The powder-like mix can be used in tableware items, medical wraps, tree wraps, garments, quilts and blankets, and in cementitious compositions of the type in which it is beneficial to use a PCM material. The silica-PCM mix can also be admixed with soil to provide a soil warming effect and placed about a tree, flower, or shrub.

  3. Dry powder mixes comprising phase change materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Salyer, Ival O.

    1992-01-01

    Free flowing, conformable powder-like mix of silica particles and a phase change material (p.c.m.) is disclosed. The silica particles have a critical size of about 7.times.10.sup.-3 to about 7.times.10.sup.-2 microns and the pcm must be added to the silica in an amount of 80 wt. % or less pcm per combined weight of silica and pcm. The powder-like mix can be used in tableware items, medical wraps, tree wraps, garments, quilts and blankets, and in cementitious compositions of the type in which it is beneficial to use a pcm material. The silica-pcm mix can also be admixed with soil to provide a soil warming effect and placed about a tree, flower, or shrub.

  4. Bench-Scale Development of Fluidized-Bed Spray-Dried Sorbents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gupta, R.P.; Turk, B.S.; Gangwal, S.K.

    1996-12-31

    Successful development of regenerable mixed-metal oxide sorbents for removal of reduced sulfur species (such as H{sub 2}S and COS) from coal-derived fuel gas streams at high=temperature, high-pressure (HTHP) conditions is a key to commercialization of the integrated-gasification-combined-cycle (IGCC) power systems. Among the various available coal-to-electricity pathways, IGCC power plants have the most potential with high thermal efficiency, simple system configuration, low emissions of SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x} and other contaminants, modular design, and low capital cost. Due to these advantages, the power plants of the 21st century are projected to utilize IGCC technology worldwide. Sorbents developed for sulfur removal are primarily zinc oxide-based inorganic materials, because of their ability to reduce fuel gas sulfur level to a few parts-per-million (ppm). This project extends the prior work on the development of fluidizable zinc titanate particles using a spray-drying technique to impart high reactivity and attrition resistance. Specific objectives are to develop highly reactive and attrition-resistant zinc titanate sorbents in 40- to 150-{mu}m particle size range for transport reactor applications using semicommercial- to full commercial-scale spray dryers, to transfer sorbent production technology to private sector, and to provide technical support for Sierra Pacific`s Clean Coal Technology Demonstration plant and METC`s hot-gas desulfurization process development unit (PDU), both employing a transport reactor system.

  5. Highly Attrition Resistant Zinc Oxide-Based Sorbents for H2S Removal by Spray Drying Technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ryu, C.K.; Lee, J.B.; Ahn, D.H.; Kim, J.J.; Yi, C.K.

    2002-09-19

    Primary issues for the fluidized-bed/transport reactor process are high attrition resistant sorbent, its high sorption capacity and regenerability, durability, and cost. The overall objective of this project is the development of a superior attrition resistant zinc oxide-based sorbent for hot gas cleanup in integrated coal gasification combined cycle (IGCC). Sorbents applicable to a fluidized-bed hot gas desulfurization process must have a high attrition resistance to withstand the fast solid circulation between a desulfurizer and a regenerator, fast kinetic reactions, and high sulfur sorption capacity. The oxidative regeneration of zinc-based sorbent usually initiated at greater than 600 C with highly exothermic nature causing deactivation of sorbent as well as complication of sulfidation process by side reaction. Focusing on solving the sorbent attrition and regenerability of zinc oxide-based sorbent, we have adapted multi-binder matrices and direct incorporation of regeneration promoter. The sorbent forming was done with a spray drying technique that is easily scalable to commercial quantity.

  6. A dry powder stump applicator for a feller-buncher.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karsky, Richard, J.; Cram Michelle; Thistle, Harold

    1998-07-11

    Karsky, D., M. Cram, and H. Thistle. 1998. A dry powder borax stump applicator for a feller-buncher. Presented at the 1998 ASAE Annual International Meeting at Colorado Springs Resort, Orlando, Florida, July 11-16, 1998. Paper No. 987023. ASAE, 2950 Niles Road, St. Joseph, MI 49085-9659. Annosum root rot affects conifers throughout the Northern Hemisphere, infecting the roots and eventually killing the trees. An applicator attachment has been developed that mounts to the back of a feller-buncher saw head, that can reduce mortality from Heterobasidion annosum. The attachment applies a borax powder to a stump immediately after the tree has been cut. This document provides information on the design, development and testing of an applicator for applying dry borax on tree stumps at the time of harvesting to reduce future losses due to root rot.

  7. Investigation and Demonstration of Dry Carbon-Based Sorbent Injection for Mercury Control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jason Ruhl; Justin Smith; Sharon Sjostrom; Sheila Haythorthwaite; Terry Hunt

    1997-08-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) issued Public Service Company of Colorado (PSCO) a cost sharing contract to evaluate carbon-based sorbents for mercury control on a 600 acfm laboratory-scale particulate control module (PCM). The PCM can be configured as simulate an electrostatic precipitator, a pulse-jet fabric filter, or a reverse-gas fabric filter and is installed on an operating coal-fired power plant. Three different dry carbon-based sorbents were tested this quarter to determine their mercury removal capability in the different configurations. The project is currently in the seventh quarter of an eight-quarter Phase I project. Testing in all configurations is nearly complete. Original plans included the use of an on-line mercury analyzer to collect test data. However, due to very low baseline mercury concentration, on-line measurement did not provide accurate data. The project used a modified MESA method grab sample technique to determine inlet and outlet mercury concentrations. A major concern during sorbent evaluations was the natural ability of the flyash at the test site to remove mercury. This often made determination of sorbent only mercury removal difficult. The PCM was configured as a reverse-gas baghouse and brought online with "clean" flue gas on March 10* at an A/C of 2.0 ft/min. The dustcake forms the filtering media in a reverse gas baghouse. In the absence of flyash, the bags were precoated with a commercially available alumina silicate material to form an inert dustcake. Some baseline tests were completed with clean gas for comparison to clean gas pulse jet tests. The PCM was reconfigured as a TOXECON unit in April 1997 with testing completed in May 1997. TOXECON, an EPIU patented technology, is a pulse-jet baghouse operating at a high A/C ratio downstream of a primary particulate colIector with sorbent injection upstream of the baghouse for air toxics removal. Mercury removals of O to 97o/0 were obtained depending on test conditions.

  8. Integrated dry NO{sub x}/SO{sub 2} emissions control system calcium-based dry sorbent injection. Test report, April 30--November 2, 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shiomoto, G.H.; Smith, R.A.; Muzio, L.J.; Hunt, T.

    1994-12-01

    The DOE sponsored Integrated Dry NO{sub x}SO{sub 2} Emissions Control System program, which is a Clean Coal Technology III demonstration, is being conducted by Public Service Company of Colorado. The test site is Arapahoe Generating Station Unit 4, which is a 100 MWe, down-fired utility boiler burning a low sulfur Western coal. The project goal is to demonstrate up to 70 percent reductions in NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2} emissions through the integration of: (1) down-fired low-NO{sub x} burners with overfire air; (2) Selective Non-Catalytic Reduction (SNCR) for additional NO{sub x} removal; and (3) dry sorbent injection and duct humidification for SO{sub 2} removal. The effectiveness of the integrated system on a high-sulfur coal will also be investigated. This report documents the fifth phase of the test program, where the performance of the dry sorbent injection of calcium was evaluated as an SO{sub 2} removal technique. Dry sorbent injection with humidification was performed downstream of the air heater (in-duct). Calcium injection before the economizer was also investigated. The in-duct calcium sorbent and humidification retrofit resulted in SO{sub 2} reductions of 28 to 40 percent, with a Ca/S of 2, and a 25 to 30{degrees}F approach to adiabatic saturation temperature. The results of the economizer calcium injection tests were disappointing with less than 10 percent SO{sub 2} removal at a Ca/S of 2. Poor sorbent distribution due to limited access into the injection cavity was partially responsible for the low overall removals. However, even in areas of high sorbent concentration (local Ca/S ratios of approximately 6), SO{sub 2} removals were limited to 30 percent. It is suspected that other factors (sorbent properties and limited residence times) also contributed to the poor performance.

  9. INVESTIGATION AND DEMONSTRATION OF DRY CARBON-BASED SORBENT INJECTION FOR MERCURY CONTROL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Terry Hunt; Mark Fox; Lillian Stan; Sheila Haythornthwaite; Justin Smith; Jason Ruhl

    1998-10-01

    This quarterly report describes the activities that have taken place during the first full quarter of the Phase II project ''Investigation and Demonstration of Dry Carbon-Based Sorbent Injection for Mercury Control''. Modifications were completed and sampling began at the 600 acfm pilot-scale particulate control module (PCM) located at the Comanche Station in Pueblo, CO. The PCM was configured as an electrostatic precipitator for these tests. A Perkin-Elmer flue gas mercury analyzer was installed on-site and operated. Initial test results using both manual sampling methodology and the mercury analyzer are presented herein. Preparations were made during this period for full-scale mercury testing of several PSCo units. A site visit was made to Arapahoe and Cherokee Generating Stations to determine sample locations and to develop a test plan.

  10. Development of a Dry Sorbent-based Post-Combustion CO2 Capture Technology for Retrofit in Existing Power Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nelson, Thomas; Coleman, Luke; Anderson, Matthew; Gupta, Raghubir; Herr, Joshua; Kalluri, Ranjeeth; Pavani, Maruthi

    2009-12-31

    The objective of this research and development (R&D) project was to further the development of a solid sorbent-based CO2 capture process based on sodium carbonate (i.e. the Dry Carbonate Process) that is capable of capturing>90% of the CO2 as a nearly pure stream from coal-fired power plant flue gas with <35% increase in the cost of electrictiy (ICOE).

  11. Enhancement of Ca(OH){sub 2}/fly ash sorbent for the dry-desulfurization process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mitsuo Yamamoto; Satoshi Komaki; Daichi Nakajima; Norihiko Matsushima; Dan Liu; Masateru Nishioka; Masayoshi Sadakata

    2006-10-15

    Ca(OH){sub 2}/fly ash sorbent has been studied as an effective method for SO{sub 2} removal. The effect of iron and other species for enhancing the ability of Ca(OH){sub 2}/fly ash sorbent was investigated in this study. At first, Fe(NO{sub 3}){sub 3} was added in the preparation of the sorbent, and TG analysis was carried out. The Ca utilization rate over a period of 90 min was about 10% greater than that for Ca(OH){sub 2}/fly ash sorbent. However, it was found that iron is not effective for enhancing the ability of Ca(OH){sub 2}/fly ash sorbent but that NO{sub 3}{sup -} was the most effective factor to enhance it. The mechanism of enhancing the Ca utilization rate was also investigated, and it was found that Ca(NO{sub 3})2 was produced in the sorbent and reacted with SO{sub 2}, so that the reaction Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} + SO{sub 2} {yields} CaSO{sub 4} + 2NO + O{sub 2} proceeded. 12 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  12. Investigation and demonstration of dry carbon-based sorbent injection for mercury control. Quarterly technical report, July 1, 1996--September 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hunt, T.; Sjostrom, S.; Smith, J.

    1996-11-06

    The overall objective of this two phase program is to investigate the use of dry carbon-based sorbents for mercury control. This information is important to the utility industry in anticipation of pending regulations. During Phase I, a bench-scale field test device that can be configured as an electrostatic precipitator, a pulse-jet baghouse, or a reverse-gas baghouse has been designed, built and integrated with an existing pilot-scale facility at PSCo`s Comanche Station. Up to three candidate sorbents will be injected into the flue gas stream upstream of the test device to and mercury concentration measurements will be made to determine the mercury removal efficiency for each sorbent. During the Phase II effort, component integration for the most promising dry sorbent technology shall be tested at the 5000 acfm pilot-scale.

  13. Investigation and demonstration of dry carbon-based sorbent injection for mercury control. Quarterly technical report, April 1--June 30, 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hunt, T.; Sjostrom, S.; Smith, J.; Chang, R.

    1996-07-27

    The overall objective this two phase program is to investigate the use of dry carbon-based sorbents for mercury control. During Phase 1, a bench-scale field test device that can be configured as an electrostatic precipitator, a pulse-jet baghouse, or a reverse-gas baghouse has been designed and will be integrated with an existing pilot-scale facility at PSCo`s Comanche Station. Up to three candidate sorbents will then be injected into the flue gas stream upstream of the test device to determine the mercury removal efficiency for each sorbent. During the Phase 11 effort, component integration for the most promising dry sorbent technology (technically and economically feasible) shall be tested at the 5000 acfm pilot-scale. An extensive work plan has been developed for the project. Three sorbents will be selected for evaluation at the facility through investigation, presentation, and discussion among team members: PSCO, EPRI, ADA, and DOE. The selected sorbents will be tested in the five primary bench-scale configurations: pulse `et baghouse, TOXECON, reverse-gas baghouse, electrostatic precipitator, and an ESP or fabric filter `with no Comanche ash in the flue gas stream. In the EPRI TOXECON system, mercury sorbents will be injected downstream of a primary particulate control device, and collected in a pulse-jet baghouse operated at air-to-cloth ratios of 12 to 16 ft/min, thus separating the mercury and sorbent from the captured flyash. In the no-ash configuration, an external flyash sample will be injected into a clean gas stream to investigate possible variations in sorbent effectiveness in the presence of different ashes. The use of an existing test facility, a versatile design for the test fixture, and installation of a continuous mercury analyzer will allow for the completion of this ambitious test plan. The primary activity during the quarter was to complete fabrication and installation of the facility.

  14. Decontamination formulation with sorbent additive

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tucker; Mark D. , Comstock; Robert H.

    2007-10-16

    A decontamination formulation and method of making that neutralizes the adverse health effects of both chemical and biological compounds, especially chemical warfare (CW) and biological warfare (BW) agents, and toxic industrial chemicals. The formulation provides solubilizing compounds that serve to effectively render the chemical and biological compounds, particularly CW and BW compounds, susceptible to attack, and at least one reactive compound that serves to attack (and detoxify or kill) the compound. The formulation includes at least one solubilizing agent, a reactive compound, a bleaching activator, a sorbent additive, and water. The highly adsorbent, water-soluble sorbent additive (e.g., sorbitol or mannitol) is used to "dry out" one or more liquid ingredients, such as the liquid bleaching activator (e.g., propylene glycol diacetate or glycerol diacetate) and convert the activator into a dry, free-flowing powder that has an extended shelf life, and is more convenient to handle and mix in the field.

  15. Characteristics of alumina powders prepared by spray-drying of boehmite sol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Varma, H.K.; Mani, T.V.; Damodaran, A.D.; Warrier, K.G. ); Balachandran, U. . Energy Technology Div.)

    1994-06-01

    Boehmite sol prepared from aluminum nitrate has been spray-dried to obtain micrometer-size spherical particles consisting of submicrometer crystallites. The spray-dried powder was further washed with solvents of varying polarities such as acetone, 2-propanol, and 2-methyl-2-propanol. Particle-size distribution, morphology, density, compaction, and sintering characteristics of powders washed with different solvents are reported. The effect of post treatments on the boehmite-sol-derived powders toward reducing agglomeration and obtaining high-density bodies is discussed.

  16. Sox/Nox Sorbent And Process Of Use

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ziebarth, Michael S.; Hager, Michael J.; Beeckman, Jean W.; Plecha, Stanislaw

    1995-06-27

    An alumina sorbent capable of adsorbing NOx and SOx from waste gases and being regenerated by heating above 650.degree. C. is made by incorporating an alumina stabilizing agent into the sorbent. A preferred method is to add the stabilizer when the alumina is precipitated. The precipitated powder is formed subsequently into a slurry, milled and spray dried to form the stabilized spheroidal alumina particles having a particle size of less than 500 microns. These particles are impregnated with an alkali metal or alkaline earth metal to form the stabilized sorbent. Alumina stabilizers include one or more of silica, lanthana, other rare earths, titania, zirconia and alkaline earths.

  17. Sox/Nox Sorbent And Process Of Use

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ziebarth, Michael S.; Hager, Michael J.; Beeckman, Jean W.; Plecha, Stanislaw

    1996-12-17

    An alumina sorbent capable of adsorbing NOx and SOx from waste gases and being regenerated by heating above 650.degree. C. is made by incorporating an alumina stabilizing agent into the sorbent. A preferred method is to add the stabilizer when the alumina is precipitated. The precipitated powder is formed subsequently into a slurry, milled and spray dried to form the stabilized spheroidal alumina particles having a particle size of less than 500 microns. These particles are impregnated with an alkali metal or alkaline earth metal to form the stabilized sorbent. Alumina stabilizers include one or more of silica, lanthana, other rare earths, titania, zirconia and alkaline earths.

  18. Non-aqueous spray drying as a route to ultrafine ceramic powders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Armor, J.N. ); Fanelli, A.J.; Marsh, G.M. ); Zambri, P.M. )

    1988-09-01

    Spray drying imparts unique powder handling features to a wide variety of dried products and is usually carried out in a heated air stream while feeding an aqueous suspension of some solid material. The present work, however, describes non-aqueous spray drying as a means of preparing fine powders of metal oxides. In this case an alcohol solvent was used in place of water and the slurry sprayed under an inert atmosphere. Using the non-aqueous technique, the product consists of distinct but loosely aggregated primary particles. Such materials have potential for use as catalysts or catalyst supports.

  19. Highly attrition-resistant zinc oxide-based sorbents for H{sub 2}S removal by spray-drying technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, J.B.; Baek, J.I.; Ryu, C.K.; Yi, C.K.; Jo, S.H.; Kim, S.H.

    2008-07-15

    A ZnO-based sorbent, ZAC 32N, applicable to transport reactors was successfully prepared by the spray-drying technique. Another sorbent, ZAC 32SU, was prepared by scale-up preparation of ZAC 32N sorbent. The physical properties of the sorbents such as attrition resistance, specific surface area, pore volume, and particle size were extensively characterized and exhibited a good potential for use in transport applications. The chemical reactivity tested in the thermogravimetric analyzer and microreactor exhibited desirable characteristics for effective desulfurization of syngas streams in the range of 450-550{sup o}C. Bench-scale tests for the sorbent ZAC 32SU were performed for a continuous 160 h with a steady solid circulation of 54.6 kg/h. The results showed 99.5%+ desulfurization at 500-550{sup o}C and reasonable regenerability at 550-620{sup o}C. Test results on the physical properties and chemical reactivity indicated that the performance of developed sorbents proved to be outstanding.

  20. Rapid formation of phase-clean 110 K (Bi-2223) powders derived via freeze-drying process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Balachandran, Uthamalingam

    1996-01-01

    A process for the preparation of amorphous precursor powders for Pb-doped Bi.sub.2 Sr.sub.2 Ca.sub.2 Cu.sub.3 O.sub.x (2223) includes a freeze-drying process incorporating a splat-freezing step. The process generally includes splat freezing a nitrate solution of Bi, Pb, Sr, Ca, and Cu to form flakes of the solution without any phase separation; grinding the frozen flakes to form a powder; freeze-drying the frozen powder; heating the dried powder to form a dry green precursor powders; denitrating the green-powders; heating the denitrated powders to form phase-clean Bi-2223 powders. The grain boundaries of the 2223 grains appear to be clean, leading to good intergrain contact between 2223 grains.

  1. Rapid formation of phase-clean 110 K (Bi-2223) powders derived via freeze-drying process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Balachandran, U.

    1996-06-04

    A process for the preparation of amorphous precursor powders for Pb-doped Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2} Ca{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub x} (2223) includes a freeze-drying process incorporating a splat-freezing step. The process generally includes splat freezing a nitrate solution of Bi, Pb, Sr, Ca, and Cu to form flakes of the solution without any phase separation; grinding the frozen flakes to form a powder; freeze-drying the frozen powder; heating the dried powder to form a dry green precursor powders; denitrating the green-powders; heating the denitrated powders to form phase-clean Bi-2223 powders. The grain boundaries of the 2223 grains appear to be clean, leading to good intergrain contact between 2223 grains. 11 figs.

  2. Integrated dry NO{sub x}/SO{sub 2} emissions control system sodium-based dry sorbent injection test report. Test period: August 4, 1993--July 29, 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, R.A.; Shimoto, G.H.; Muzio, L.J.; Hunt, T.

    1997-04-01

    The project goal is to demonstrate up to 70% reductions in NOx and SO{sub 2} emissions through the integration of: (1) down-fired low-NOx burners with overfire air; (2) Selective Non-Catalytic Reduction (SNCR) for additional NOx removal; and (3) dry sorbent injection and duct humidification for SO{sub 2} removal. This report documents the sixth phase of the test program, where the performance of dry sorbent injection with sodium compounds was evaluated as a SO{sub 2} removal technique. Dry sorbent injection was performed in-duct downstream of the air heater (ahead of the fabric filter), as well as at a higher temperature location between the economizer and air heater. Two sodium compounds were evaluated during this phase of testing: sodium sesquicarbonate and sodium bicarbonate. In-duct sodium injection with low levels of humidification was also investigated. This sixth test phase was primarily focused on a parametric investigation of sorbent type and feed rate, although boiler load and sorbent preparation parameters were also varied.

  3. Fabrication and characterization of hexagonal boron nitride powder by spray drying and calcining-nitriding technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shi Xiaoliang Wang Sheng; Yang Hua; Duan Xinglong; Dong Xuebin

    2008-09-15

    Hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) powder was fabricated prepared by the spray drying and calcining-nitriding technology. The effects of nitrided temperature on the phases, morphology and particle size distribution of hBN powder, were investigated. The synthesized powders were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), Fourier transformed infrared spectrum, ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectrum and photoluminescence (PL) spectrum. UV-vis spectrum revealed that the product had one obvious band gap (4.7 eV) and PL spectrum showed that it had a visible emission at 457 nm ({lambda}{sub ex}=230 nm). FESEM image indicated that the particle size of the synthesized hBN was mainly in the range of 0.5-1.5 {mu}m in diameter, and 50-150 nm in thickness. The high-energy ball-milling process following 900 deg. C calcining process was very helpful to obtain fully crystallized hBN at lower temperature. - Graphical abstract: hBN powder was fabricated prepared by spray drying and calcining-nitriding technology. The results indicated that spray drying and calcining-nitriding technology assisted with high-energy ball-milling process following calcined process was a hopeful way to manufacture hBN powder with high crystallinity in industrial scale.

  4. Investigation and demonstration of dry carbon-based sorbent injection for mercury control. Quarterly technical report, October 1--December 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hunt, T.; Sjostrom, S.; Ruhl, J.; Smith, J.

    1997-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has issued Public Service Company of Colorado (PSCo) a cost sharing contract to evaluate carbon-based sorbents for mercury control on a 600 acfm laboratory scale particulate control module (PCM). The PCM can simulate an electrostatic precipitator, a pulse-jet fabric filter, and a reverse air fabric filter and uses actual flue gas from an operating coal-fired power plant. Up to 3 different dry carbon-based sorbents will be tested to determine the mercury removal capability in the different configurations. The project is currently in the fifth quarter of an eight quarter Phase I project. The PCM has been fabricated and mercury removal testing with the ESP configuration has been completed. Original plans included the use on an on-line meercury analyzer to collect the test data. However, due to very low baseline mercury concentration, on-line measurement did not provide accurate data. The project has continued using a modified MESA method grab sample technique to determine inlet and outlet mercury concentrations. A major concern during sorbent evaluations has been the natural ability of the flyash at the test site to remove mercury. This has made determination of sorbent only mercury removal difficult. Overall vapor-phase mercury removals of 15 to 70% have been obtained but this includes mercury removals in the range of 30% by the flyash. It is believed that a maximum of approximately 40% removal due to the sorbent only has been obtained. A number of test and sampling modifications are in progress to increase the data confidence and many questions remain. Startup of the pulse jet configuration began in early November but results of this testing are not available at this time. The project team has decided to proceed with pulse jet testing using flue gas that does not contain significant flyash quantities to further investigate the sorbent only mercury removal.

  5. Aerogel sorbents

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Begag, Redouane; Rhine, Wendell E; Dong, Wenting

    2016-04-05

    The current invention describes methods and compositions of various sorbents based on aerogels of various silanes and their use as sorbent for carbon dioxide. Methods further provide for optimizing the compositions to increase the stability of the sorbents for prolonged use as carbon dioxide capture matrices.

  6. Mercury removal sorbents

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alptekin, Gokhan

    2016-03-29

    Sorbents and methods of using them for removing mercury from flue gases over a wide range of temperatures are disclosed. Sorbent materials of this invention comprise oxy- or hydroxyl-halogen (chlorides and bromides) of manganese, copper and calcium as the active phase for Hg.sup.0 oxidation, and are dispersed on a high surface porous supports. In addition to the powder activated carbons (PACs), this support material can be comprised of commercial ceramic supports such as silica (SiO.sub.2), alumina (Al.sub.2O.sub.3), zeolites and clays. The support material may also comprise of oxides of various metals such as iron, manganese, and calcium. The non-carbon sorbents of the invention can be easily injected into the flue gas and recovered in the Particulate Control Device (PCD) along with the fly ash without altering the properties of the by-product fly ash enabling its use as a cement additive. Sorbent materials of this invention effectively remove both elemental and oxidized forms of mercury from flue gases and can be used at elevated temperatures. The sorbent combines an oxidation catalyst and a sorbent in the same particle to both oxidize the mercury and then immobilize it.

  7. Zinc titanate sorbents

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gupta, Raghubir P.; Gangwal, Santosh K.; Jain, Suresh C.

    1998-01-01

    The present invention provides a zinc titanate sorbent material useful in desulfurization applications. The zinc titanate material is in the form of generally spherical particles of substantially uniform chemical distribution. The sorbent material is capable of absorbing sulfur compounds from a gaseous feed in an amount of at least about 15 weight percent based on the weight of the sorbent. The sorbent material is prepared by a process including: (a) forming a zinc oxide/titanium dioxide dry blend, (b) preparing a substantially uniform aqueous slurry comprising the zinc oxide/titanium dioxide dry blend, organic binder, and at least about 1 weight percent inorganic binder based on the solids weight of the slurry, (c) spray drying the slurry to produce substantially spherical particles, and (d) calcining the particles at a temperature of between about 750.degree. C. to about 950.degree. C. The dry blend is formed by mixing between about 0.5 to about 2 parts zinc oxide having a median particle size of less than about 0.5 .mu., and about 1 part titanium dioxide having a median particle size of less than about 1 .mu.. The slurry contains substantially no free silica and may be prepared by the process including (1) preparing an aqueous solution of organic binder, (2) adding the dry blend to the aqueous solution of organic binder, and (3) adding the inorganic binder to the solution of organic binder, and blend. Additional reagents, such as a surfactant, may also be incorporated into the sorbent material. The present invention also provides a process for desulfurizing a gaseous stream. The process includes passing a gaseous stream through a reactor containing an attrition resistant zinc titanate sorbent material of the present invention.

  8. Zinc titanate sorbents

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gupta, R.P.; Gangwal, S.K.; Jain, S.C.

    1998-02-03

    The present invention provides a zinc titanate sorbent material useful in desulfurization applications. The zinc titanate material is in the form of generally spherical particles of substantially uniform chemical distribution. The sorbent material is capable of absorbing sulfur compounds from a gaseous feed in an amount of at least about 15 weight percent based on the weight of the sorbent. The sorbent material is prepared by a process including: (a) forming a zinc oxide/titanium dioxide dry blend, (b) preparing a substantially uniform aqueous slurry comprising the zinc oxide/titanium dioxide dry blend, organic binder, and at least about 1 weight percent inorganic binder based on the solids weight of the slurry, (c) spray drying the slurry to produce substantially spherical particles, and (d) calcining the particles at a temperature of between about 750 to about 950 C. The dry blend is formed by mixing between about 0.5 to about 2 parts zinc oxide having a median particle size of less than about 0.5 microns, and about 1 part titanium dioxide having a median particle size of less than about 1 micron. The slurry contains substantially no free silica and may be prepared by the process including (1) preparing an aqueous solution of organic binder, (2) adding the dry blend to the aqueous solution of organic binder, and (3) adding the inorganic binder to the solution of organic binder, and blend. Additional reagents, such as a surfactant, may also be incorporated into the sorbent material. The present invention also provides a process for desulfurizing a gaseous stream. The process includes passing a gaseous stream through a reactor containing an attrition resistant zinc titanate sorbent material of the present invention.

  9. Feasibility study results for dry sorbent furnace injection for SO sub 2 control Prairie Creek No. 4 Iowa Electric Light and Power Company

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, P.V. ); Rehrauer, H.W. )

    1991-01-01

    As a result of the recent passage of new amendments to the Clean Air Act, many U.S. power plants will be required to reduce sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) emissions. Iowa Electric Light and Power (IELP) was interested in investigating a number of options that will allow Prairie Creek Unit 4 to operate in compliance with these new regulations. One of these options was Dry Sorbent Injection (DSI), a relatively simple and low cost retrofit technique, useful for controlling SO{sub 2} concentrations in coal combustion flue gas. The purpose of the program was to obtain operational data necessary to aid in the identification and assessment of DSI options that have a high potential for successful application. This paper contains a summary and analysis of the data obtained during the test effort. It also contains a discussion of the results of each of the major tasks undertaken to accomplish this feasibility study.

  10. Preparation of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Mo nanocomposite powder via chemical route and spray drying

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lo, M.; Cheng, F.; Wei, W.J.

    1996-08-01

    A route to prepare nanometer-sized Mo particulates in Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} was attempted by a combination of solution reactions in molecular scale and forcing precipitation by a spray-drying technique. MoO{sub 3} was first dissolved in ammonia water and then added in the slurry with high purity, submicrometer Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} powder. Mixed suspension was spray-dried, and then the dried granules were reduced by hydrogen gas and further hot-pressing to a bulky composite at various temperatures. Dissolution of Mo oxide, adsorption reactions on alumina surface, and surface potential of alumina particles in homogeneous ammonia suspension were studied. Characterization of the granules, including compactability, flowing properties, surface morphology, grain growth of Mo and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and mixing homogeneity, were examined. Homogeneity of the spray-dried granules was determined by the calculation of mixing index and the observation of the microstructure of sintered body. The existence of intergranular, intragranular, and nanosized Mo particulates within Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} grains was observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). All the evidences revealed that homogeneous composites with nanometer-sized Mo had been successfully prepared by this attempt with the proposed chemical route and following spray-drying process. {copyright}{ital 1996 Materials Research Society.}

  11. Powder treatment process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weyand, J.D.

    1988-02-09

    Disclosed are: (1) a process comprising spray drying a powder-containing slurry, the slurry containing a powder constituent susceptible of oxidizing under the temperature conditions of the spray drying, while reducing the tendency for oxidation of the constituent by including as a liquid constituent of the slurry an organic liquid; (2) a process comprising spray drying a powder-containing slurry, the powder having been pretreated to reduce content of a powder constituent susceptible of oxidizing under the temperature conditions of the spray drying, the pretreating comprising heating the powder to react the constituent; and (3) a process comprising reacting ceramic powder, grinding the reacted powder, slurrying the ground powder, spray drying the slurried powder, and blending the dried powder with metal powder. 2 figs.

  12. Powder treatment process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weyand, John D. (Greensburg, PA)

    1988-01-01

    (1) A process comprising spray drying a powder-containing slurry, the slurry containing a powder constituent susceptible of oxidizing under the temperature conditions of the spray drying, while reducing the tendency for oxidation of the constituent by including as a liquid constituent of the slurry an organic liquid; (2) a process comprising spray drying a powder-containing slurry, the powder having been pretreated to reduce content of a powder constituent susceptible of oxidizing under the temperature conditions of the spray drying, the pretreating comprising heating the powder to react the constituent; and (3) a process comprising reacting ceramic powder, grinding the reacted powder, slurrying the ground powder, spray drying the slurried powder, and blending the dried powder with metal powder.

  13. Factors affecting strength of agglomerates formed during spray drying of nanophase powders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maskara, A.; Smith, D.M.

    1994-12-31

    Nanosized silica particles dispersed in various solvents were spray dried and the change in size distribution, agglomerate strength, and strength distribution was determined. The effect of solvent surface tension, pH, and particle surface chemistry on strength of agglomerates formed during spray drying was studied for particle sizes between 15 and 500 nm. Alcohol/water mixtures having different surface tension, and water at different pH levels, were employed to separate the effects of capillary pressure and surface hydroxyl condensation reactions. The agglomerate strength was determined using an ultrasonic measurement technique. The particle size was determined using sedimentation. The strength and strength distribution of agglomerates was found to depend on the solvent surface tension, solubility (pH), and primary particle size.

  14. High capacity carbon dioxide sorbent

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dietz, Steven Dean; Alptekin, Gokhan; Jayaraman, Ambalavanan

    2015-09-01

    The present invention provides a sorbent for the removal of carbon dioxide from gas streams, comprising: a CO.sub.2 capacity of at least 9 weight percent when measured at 22.degree. C. and 1 atmosphere; an H.sub.2O capacity of at most 15 weight percent when measured at 25.degree. C. and 1 atmosphere; and an isosteric heat of adsorption of from 5 to 8.5 kilocalories per mole of CO.sub.2. The invention also provides a carbon sorbent in a powder, a granular or a pellet form for the removal of carbon dioxide from gas streams, comprising: a carbon content of at least 90 weight percent; a nitrogen content of at least 1 weight percent; an oxygen content of at most 3 weight percent; a BET surface area from 50 to 2600 m.sup.2/g; and a DFT micropore volume from 0.04 to 0.8 cc/g.

  15. DEVELOPMENT OF DISPOSABLE SORBENTS FOR CHLORIDE REMOVAL FROM HIGH TEMPERATURE COAL-DERIVED GASES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gopala Krishnan; Raghubir Gupta

    1999-09-01

    Advanced integrated-gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) and integrated-gasification fuel cell (IGFC) systems require the development of high temperature sorbents for the removal of hydrogen chloride (HCl) vapor to less than 1 parts-per-million (ppm) levels. HCl is a highly reactive, corrosive, and toxic gas which must be removed to meet environmental regulations, to protect power generation equipment, and to minimize deterioration of hot gas desulfurization sorbents. The objective of this program was to develop disposable, alkali-based sorbents capable of reducing HCl vapor levels to less than 1 ppm in the temperature range from 400 to 750 C and pressures in the range from 1 to 20 atm. The primary areas of focus of this program were to investigate different methods of sorbent fabrication, testing their suitability for different reactor configurations, obtaining reaction kinetics data, and conducting a preliminary economic feasibility assessment. This program was a joint effort between SRI International (SRI), Research Triangle Institute (RTI), and General Electric Corporate Research and Development (GE-CRD). SRI, the prime contractor and RTI, a major subcontractor, performed most of the work in this program. Thermochemical calculations indicated that sodium-based sorbents were capable of reducing HCl vapor levels to less than 1 ppm at temperatures up to 650 C, but the regeneration of spent sorbents would require complex process steps. Nahcolite (NaHCO{sub 3}), a naturally-occurring mineral, could be used as an inexpensive sorbent to remove HCl vapor in hot coal gas streams. In the current program, nahcolite powder was used to fabricate pellets suitable for fixed-bed reactors and granules suitable for fluidized-bed reactors. Pilot-scale equipment were used to prepare sorbents in large batches: pellets by disk pelletization and extrusion techniques, and granules by granulation and spray-drying techniques. Bench-scale fixed- and fluidized-bed reactors were assembled at SRI and RTI to conduct tests at high-temperature, high-pressure conditions (HTHP). The HTHP tests confirmed the ability of nahcolite pellets and granules to reduce the HCl vapor levels to less than 1 ppm levels with a very high sorbent utilization for chloride capture. The effect of several operating variables such as temperature, pressure, presence of hydrogen sulfide, and sorbent preparation methods was studied on the efficacy of HCl removal by the sorbent. Pilot-scale tests were performed in the fluidized-bed mode at the gasifier facility at the GE-CRD. Sorbent exposure tests were also conducted using a hot coal gas stream from the DOE/FETC's fluidized-bed gasifier at Morgantown, WV. These tests confirmed the results obtained at SRI and RTI. A preliminary economic assessment showed that the cost of HCl removal in a commercial IGCC system will be about $0.001/kWh (1 mills/kWh).

  16. Regenerable solid imine sorbents

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gray, McMahan; Champagne, Kenneth J.; Fauth, Daniel; Beckman, Eric

    2013-09-10

    Two new classes of amine-based sorbents are disclosed. The first class comprises new polymer-immobilized tertiary amine sorbents; the second class new polymer-bound amine sorbents. Both classes are tailored to facilitate removal of acid anhydrides, especially carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2), from effluent gases. The amines adsorb acid anhydrides in a 1:1 molar ratio. Both classes of amine sorbents adsorb in the temperature range from about 20.degree. C. upwards to 90.degree. C. and can be regenerated by heating upwards to 100.degree. C.

  17. SOX/NOX sorbent and process of use

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ziebarth, Michael S.; Hager, Michael J.; Beeckman, Jean W.; Plecha, Stanislaw

    1995-01-01

    An alumina sorbent capable of adsorbing NOx and SOx from waste gases and being regenerated by heating above 600.degree. C. is made by incorporating an alumina stabilizing agent into the sorbent. A preferred method is to add the stabilizer when the alumina is precipitated. The precipitated powder is formed subsequently into a slurry, milled and dripped to form the stabilized spheroidal alumina particles. These particles are impregnated with an alkali metal or alkaline earth metal to form the stabilized sorbent. Alumina stabilizers include one or more of silica, lanthana, other rare earths, titania, zirconia and alkaline earths.

  18. SOx/NOx sorbent and process of use

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ziebarth, Michael S.; Hager, Michael J.; Beeckman, Jean W.; Plecha, Stanislaw

    1993-01-19

    An alumina sorbent capable of adsorbing NOx and SOx from waste gases and being regenerated by heating above 600.degree. C. is made by incorporating an alumina stabilizing agent into the sorbent. A preferred method is to add the stabilizer when the alumina is precipitated. The precipitated powder is formed subsequently into a slurry, milled and dripped to form the stabilizing spheroidal alumina particles. These particles are impregnated with an alkali metal or alkaline earth metal to form the stabilized sorbent. Alumina stabilizers include one or more of silica, lanthana, other rare earths, titania, zirconia and alkaline earths.

  19. SOx/NOx sorbent and process of use

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ziebarth, M.S.; Hager, M.J.; Beeckman, J.W.; Plecha, S.

    1993-01-19

    An alumina sorbent capable of adsorbing NOx and SOx from waste gases and being regenerated by heating above 600 C. is made by incorporating an alumina stabilizing agent into the sorbent. A preferred method is to add the stabilizer when the alumina is precipitated. The precipitated powder is formed subsequently into a slurry, milled and dripped to form the stabilizing spheroidal alumina particles. These particles are impregnated with an alkali metal or alkaline earth metal to form the stabilized sorbent. Alumina stabilizers include one or more of silica, lanthana, other rare earths, titania, zirconia and alkaline earths.

  20. SOX/NOX sorbent and process of use

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ziebarth, M.S.; Hager, M.J.; Beeckman, J.W.; Plecha, S.

    1995-05-09

    An alumina sorbent capable of adsorbing NOx and SOx from waste gases and being regenerated by heating above 600 C is made by incorporating an alumina stabilizing agent into the sorbent. A preferred method is to add the stabilizer when the alumina is precipitated. The precipitated powder is formed subsequently into a slurry, milled and dripped to form the stabilized spheroidal alumina particles. These particles are impregnated with an alkali metal or alkaline earth metal to form the stabilized sorbent. Alumina stabilizers include one or more of silica, lanthana, other rare earths, titania, zirconia and alkaline earths. 3 figs.

  1. Desulfurization Sorbents for Transport-Bed Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gupta, Raghubir P.; Turk, Brian S.; Vierheilig, Albert A.

    1997-07-01

    This project extends the prior work on the development of fluidizable zinc titanate particles using a spray-drying technique to impart high reactivity and attrition resistance. The specific objectives are: (1) To develop highly reactive and attrition-resistant zinc titanate sorbents in 40- to 150-{micro}m particle size range for transport reactor applications; (2) To transfer sorbent production technology to private sector; and (3) To provide technical support to Sierra Pacific Clean Coal Technology Demonstration plant and FETC's Hot-Gas Desulfurization Process Development Unit (PDU), both employing a transport reactor system.

  2. Desulfurization sorbent regeneration

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jalan, V.M.; Frost, D.G.

    1982-07-07

    A spent solid sorbent resulting from the removal of hydrogen sulfide from a fuel gas flow is regenerated with a steam-air mixture. The mixture of steam and air may also include additional nitrogen or carbon dioxide. The gas mixture contacts the spent sorbent containing metal sulfide at a temperature above 500/sup 0/C to regenerate the sulfide to metal oxide or carbonate. Various metal species including the period four transition metals and the lanthanides are suitable sorbents that may be regenerated by this method. In addition, the introduction of carbon dioxide gas permits carbonates such as those of strontium, barium and calcium to be regenerated. The steam permits regeneration of spent sorbent without formation of metal sulfate. Moreover, the regeneration will proceed with low oxygen concentrations and will occur without the increase in temperature to minimize the risk of sintering and densification of the sorbent. This method may be used for high-temperature fuel cells.

  3. Kinetics and structural evolution of sorbents at high temperatures. Final report, September 1, 1994--February 29, 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fan, Liang-Shih; Ghosh-Dastidar, A.; Mahuli, S.; Agnihotri, R.

    1996-03-01

    The focus of this project is on furnace sorbent injection technology using dry calcium-based sorbents for the flue gas desulfurization. The goal is to provide fundamental research kinetics and effects of sorbent properties, aimed at improving SO{sub 2} removal and increasing sorbent utilization in a cost-effective manner. The fifth year project work has been carried out in two phases: (1) modified sorbent studies to understand the influence of sorbent modifications (both physical and chemical) on reaction mechanisms, and (2) development of a comprehensive sulfation model to interpret and predict short-time simultaneous calcination, sulfation and sintering processes. This report discusses these two phases of research.

  4. Sorbent preparation/modification/additives. Final report, September 1, 1992--November 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prudich, M.E.; Venkataramakrishnan, R.

    1994-02-01

    Sorbent preparation techniques used today have generally been adapted from techniques traditionally used by the lime industry. Traditional dry hydration and slaking processes have been optimized to produce materials intended for use in the building industry. These preparation techniques should be examined with an eye to optimization of properties important to the SO{sub 2} capture process. The study of calcium-based sorbents for sulfur dioxide capture is complicated by two factors: (1) little is known about the chemical mechanisms by which the standard sorbent preparation and enhancement techniques work, and (2) a sorbent preparation technique that produces a calcium-based sorbent that enjoys enhanced calcium utilization in one regime of operation [flame zone (>2400 F), in-furnace (1600--2400 F), economizer (800--1100 F), after air preheater (<350 F)] may not produce a sorbent that enjoys enhanced calcium utilization in the other reaction zones. Again, an in-depth understanding of the mechanism of sorbent enhancement is necessary if a systematic approach to sorbent development is to be used. As a long-term goal, an experimental program is being carried out for the purpose of (1) defining the effects of slaking conditions on the properties of calcium-based sorbents, (2) determining how the parent limestone properties of calcium-based sorbents, and (3) elucidating the mechanism(s) relating to the activity of various dry sorbent additives. An appendix contains a one-dimensional duct injection model with modifications to handle the sodium additives.

  5. Enhanced durability of desulfurization sorbents for fluidized-bed applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gupta, R.P.; Gangwal, S.K.

    1991-06-01

    Advanced integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power systems require the development of high-temperature desulfurization sorbents capable of removing hydrogen sulfide from coal gasifier down to very low levels. The objective of this investigation was to identify and demonstrate methods for enhancing the long-term chemical reactivity and mechanical strength of zinc ferrite, a leading regenerable sorbent, for fluidized-bed applications. Fluidized sorbent beds offer significant potential in IGCC systems because of their ability to control the highly exothermic regeneration involved. However, fluidized beds require a durable, attrition-resistant sorbent in the 100--300 {mu}m size range. A bench-scale high-temperature, high- pressure (HTHP) fluidized-bed reactor (7.6-cm I.D.) system capable of operating up to 24 atm and 800{degree}C was designed, built and tested. A total of 175 sulfidation-regeneration cycles were carried out using KRW-type coal gas with various zinc ferrite formulations. A number of sorbent manufacturing techniques including spray drying, impregnation, crushing and screening, and granulation were investigated. While fluidizable sorbents prepared by crushing durable pellets and screening had acceptable sulfur capacity, they underwent excessive attrition during multicycle testing. The sorbent formulations prepared by a proprietary technique were found to have excellent attrition resistance and acceptable chemical reactivity during multicycle testing. However, zinc ferrite was found to be limited to 550{degree}C, beyond which excessive sorbent weakening due to chemical transformations, e.g., iron oxide reduction, was observed.

  6. Ca(OH)[sub 2]/fly ash sorbents for SO[sub 2] removal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ho, C.S.; Shih, S.M. )

    1992-04-01

    In this paper, the reactivity of Ca(OH)[sub 2]/fly ash sorbent with SO[sub 2] is studied by using a fixed-bed differential reactor under the conditions simulating the bag filters of the spray-drying flue gas desulfurization. The source of fly ash and the sorbent preparation conditions affect the reactivity of the sorbent. The reactivity of the sorbent was found to be closely related to the content of the calcium silicate hydrate formed in the sorbent preparation. The sorbent has a much higher utilization of Ca(OH)[sub 2] than that of pure Ca(OH)[sub 2] sorbent, and in some range of Ca(OH)[sub 2] content the sorbent also has a higher SO[sub 2] capture capacity per unit weight of sorbent than that of pure lime. The fly ash from the Shin-Da plant of the Taiwan Power Company produced the best sorbent of all fly ashes in this study. The higher ratio of fly ash/Ca(OH)[sub 2], the higher slurrying temperature, the longer slurrying time, and the smaller particles of fly ash enhance the utilization of Ca(OH)[sub 2], but the water/solid ratio has an optimal value. The relative humidity in the reactor has a significant effect on the reactivity of Ca(PH)[sub 2]/fly ash sorbents, but the effect of the sulfation temperature is subtle.

  7. Inorganic ion sorbents

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Teter, David M.; Brady, Patrick V.; Krumhansl, James L.

    2006-10-17

    A process and medium for decontamination of water containing anionic species including arsenic and chromium, wherein compounds comprising divalent and trivalent metal oxides and sulfides are used to form surface complexes with contaminants under pH conditions within the range of potable water. In one embodiment natural and synthetic spinels and spinel-like materials are used as the sorbent substance.

  8. Inorganic ion sorbent method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Teter, David M.; Brady, Patrick V.; Krumhansl, James L.

    2007-07-17

    A process and medium for decontamination of water containing anionic species including arsenic and chromium, wherein compounds comprising divalent and trivalent metal oxides and sulfides are used to form surface complexes with contaminants under pH conditions within the range of potable water. In one embodiment natural and synthetic spinels and spinel-like materials are used as the sorbent substance.

  9. Sorbent Storage Materials

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Fuel Cell Technologies Office's sorbent storage materials research focuses on increasing the dihydrogen binding energies and improving the hydrogen volumetric capacity by optimizing the material's pore size, pore volume, and surface area, as well as investigating effects of material densification.

  10. Modified clay sorbents

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fogler, H. Scott; Srinivasan, Keeran R.

    1990-01-01

    A novel modified clay sorbent and method of treating industrial effluents to remove trace pollutants, such as dioxins, biphenyls, and polyaromatics such as benzo(a)pyrene and pentachlorophenol. The novel clay sorbent has a composite structure in which the interlayer space of an expandable clay, such as smectite, is filled with polyvalent or multivalent inorganic cations which forces weaker surfactant cations to locate on the surface of the clay in such an orientation that the resulting composite is hydrophilic in nature. A specific example is cetylpyridinium-hydroxy aluminum-montmorillonite. In certain embodiments, a non-expanding clay, such as kaolinite, is used and surfactant cations are necessarily located on an external surface of the clay. A specific example is cetylpyridinium-kaolinite.

  11. Enhanced durability of desulfurization sorbents for fluidized-bed applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gupta, R.P.; Gangwal, S.K.

    1992-11-01

    To extend the operating temperature range and further improve the durability of fluidizable sorbents, zinc titanate, another leading regenerable sorbent, was selected for development in the later part of this project. A number of zinc titanate formulations were prepared in the 50 to 300 [mu]m range using granulation and spray drying methods. Important sorbent preparation variables investigated included zinc to titanium ratio, binder type, binder amount, and various chemical additives such as cobalt and molybdenum. A number of sorbents selected on the basis of screening tests were subjected to bench-scale testing for 10 cycles at high temperature, high pressure (HTHP) conditions using the reactor system designed and constructed during the base program. This reactor system is capable of operation either as a 2.0 in. or 3.0 in. I.D. bubbling bed and is rated up to 20 atm operation at 871[degrees]C. Bench-scale testing variables included sorbent type, temperature (550 to 750[degrees]C), gas type (KRW or Texaco gasifier gas), steam content of coal gas, and fluidizing gas velocity (6 to 15 cm/s). The sorbents prepared by spray drying showed poor performance in terms of attrition resistance and chemical reactivity. On the other hand, the granulation method proved to be very successful. For example, a highly attrition-resistant zinc titanate formulation, ZT-4, prepared by granulation exhibited virtually no zinc loss and demonstrated a constant high reactivity and sulfur capacity over 10 cycles, i.e., approximately a 60 percent capacity utilization, with Texaco gas at 750[degrees]C, 15 cm/s fluidizing velocity and 15 atm pressure. The commercial potential of the granulation method for zinc titanate manufacture was demonstrated by preparing two 80 lb batches of sorbent with zinc to titanium mol ratios of 0.8 and 1.5.

  12. Enhanced durability of desulfurization sorbents for fluidized-bed applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gupta, R.P.; Gangwal, S.K.

    1992-11-01

    To extend the operating temperature range and further improve the durability of fluidizable sorbents, zinc titanate, another leading regenerable sorbent, was selected for development in the later part of this project. A number of zinc titanate formulations were prepared in the 50 to 300 {mu}m range using granulation and spray drying methods. Important sorbent preparation variables investigated included zinc to titanium ratio, binder type, binder amount, and various chemical additives such as cobalt and molybdenum. A number of sorbents selected on the basis of screening tests were subjected to bench-scale testing for 10 cycles at high temperature, high pressure (HTHP) conditions using the reactor system designed and constructed during the base program. This reactor system is capable of operation either as a 2.0 in. or 3.0 in. I.D. bubbling bed and is rated up to 20 atm operation at 871{degrees}C. Bench-scale testing variables included sorbent type, temperature (550 to 750{degrees}C), gas type (KRW or Texaco gasifier gas), steam content of coal gas, and fluidizing gas velocity (6 to 15 cm/s). The sorbents prepared by spray drying showed poor performance in terms of attrition resistance and chemical reactivity. On the other hand, the granulation method proved to be very successful. For example, a highly attrition-resistant zinc titanate formulation, ZT-4, prepared by granulation exhibited virtually no zinc loss and demonstrated a constant high reactivity and sulfur capacity over 10 cycles, i.e., approximately a 60 percent capacity utilization, with Texaco gas at 750{degrees}C, 15 cm/s fluidizing velocity and 15 atm pressure. The commercial potential of the granulation method for zinc titanate manufacture was demonstrated by preparing two 80 lb batches of sorbent with zinc to titanium mol ratios of 0.8 and 1.5.

  13. solid-sorbent | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Evaluation of Solid Sorbents as a Retrofit Technology for CO2 Capture from Coal-Fired Power Plants Project No.: DE-NT0005649 ADA-ES Sorbent Test Equipment. ADA-ES Sorbent Test ...

  14. Sorbents for mercury removal from flue gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Granite, Evan J.; Hargis, Richard A.; Pennline, Henry W.

    1998-01-01

    A review of the various promoters and sorbents examined for the removal of mercury from flue gas is presented. Commercial sorbent processes are described along with the chemistry of the various sorbent-mercury interactions. Novel sorbents for removing mercury from flue gas are suggested. Since activated carbons are expensive, alternate sorbents and/or improved activated carbons are needed. Because of their lower cost, sorbent development work can focus on base metal oxides and halides. Additionally, the long-term sequestration of the mercury on the sorbent needs to be addressed. Contacting methods between the flue gas and the sorbent also merit investigation.

  15. Advanced dry scrubbing on Ohio coals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Amrhein, G.T.; Kudlac, G.A.; Smith, P.V.

    1994-12-31

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate, at pilot scale, that advanced dry-scrubbing-based technologies can attain the performance levels specified by the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments for SO{sub 2} emissions while burning high-sulfur Ohio coal, and that these technologies are economically competitive with wet scrubber systems. Dry scrubbing involves injecting an atomized mist of sorbent-containing slurry droplets into hot flue gas. The reaction products exit the scrubber as a dry powder that can be filtered from the gas and recycled or disposed. The project consists of testing an advanced dry scrubber system on two high sulfur Ohio coals. All testing will be conducted in the 5 MBtu pilot facility at B and W`s Alliance Research Center. The facility consists of a test furnace, a dry scrubber using a B and W DuraJet{trademark} two fluid atomizer, a pulse-jet baghouse, and an ash slaking system. Tests were conducted with and without recycling the solids collected from the baghouse. During recycle operation the solids were slurried with water and injected into the dry scrubber with the fresh lime slurry. Test results will be presented, including SO{sub 2} removal (70--99%), calcium to sulfur ratios (1.1--1.9), dry scrubber outlet temperatures (10--30 F), and system performance. An advanced feature of the project was the use of the B and W patented Droplet Impingement Device which removes large slurry droplets from the gas stream prior to the baghouse to prevent baghouse deposition. This allows operation at low approach temperatures.

  16. Full containment spray drying

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Masters, K.

    1999-11-01

    Aspects of safety, environmental protection, and powder quality will continue to influence advances within spray dryer design and operation, and the concept of full containment spray drying offers a means to meet future industrial requirements. Process air recycle and powder containment within the drying chamber leads to no process air discharge to atmosphere, provides a more favorable operator environment around the spray dryer installation, reduces regions within the dryer layout where potential explosive powder/air mixtures can exist, improves yields, reduces powder losses, and provides easier cleaning operations with reduced wash water requirements.

  17. dry-regen | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Dry Regenerable Sorbents Project No.: FC26-07NT43089 Schematic of RTI's Dry Carbonate Process (click image to enlarge) Research Triangle Institute (RTI) International completed two projects, NT43089 and NT40923, to investigate the use of sodium carbonate (Na2CO3 or soda ash) as an inexpensive, dry, and regenerable sorbent for carbon dioxide (CO2) capture in the Dry Carbonate Process. In this process, Na2CO3 reacts with CO2 and water to form sodium bicarbonate at the temperature of the flue gas

  18. High capacity immobilized amine sorbents

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gray, McMahan L.; Champagne, Kenneth J.; Soong, Yee; Filburn, Thomas

    2007-10-30

    A method is provided for making low-cost CO.sub.2 sorbents that can be used in large-scale gas-solid processes. The improved method entails treating an amine to increase the number of secondary amine groups and impregnating the amine in a porous solid support. The method increases the CO.sub.2 capture capacity and decreases the cost of utilizing an amine-enriched solid sorbent in CO.sub.2 capture systems.

  19. Powder processing for the fabrication of Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} ceramics. 1: Influence of spray-dried granule strength on pore size distribution in green compacts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kamiya, Hidehiro; Isomura, Kenji; Jimbo, Genji; Junichiro, Tsubaki

    1995-01-01

    The effect of spray-dried granule strength on the microstructure of green compacts obtained by isostatic pressing was quantitatively analyzed. The fracture strength of single granules of Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} powder made with ultrafine Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} powders was measured directly by diametral compression. It was found that fracture strength increased notably with the increasing relative density of the granule and the decreasing size of agglomerates in suspension before spray-drying. Even when green bodies were prepared at an isostatic pressure of 200 MPa, intergranular pores, which negatively affected densification of the sintered bodies, occurred between unfractured granules. The volume and size of these pores in the green compacts increased with the increasing fracture strength of the granules. In the case of closely packed granules, an isostatic pressure of 800 MPa was required to completely collapse the intergranular pores. A simple equation was derived to calculate the isostatic pressure necessary for complete collapse of intergranular pores in the green compacts, and it was determined that granule strength must be kept as low as possible to obtain uniform green compacts.

  20. Durable zinc ferrite sorbent pellets for hot coal gas desulfurization

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jha, Mahesh C.; Blandon, Antonio E.; Hepworth, Malcolm T.

    1988-01-01

    Durable, porous sulfur sorbents useful in removing hydrogen sulfide from hot coal gas are prepared by water pelletizing a mixture of fine zinc oxide and fine iron oxide with inorganic and organic binders and small amounts of activators such as sodium carbonate and molybdenite; the pellets are dried and then indurated at a high temperature, e.g., 1800.degree. C., for a time sufficient to produce crush-resistant pellets.

  1. Sol-gel derived sorbents

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sigman, Michael E.; Dindal, Amy B.

    2003-11-11

    Described is a method for producing copolymerized sol-gel derived sorbent particles for the production of copolymerized sol-gel derived sorbent material. The method for producing copolymerized sol-gel derived sorbent particles comprises adding a basic solution to an aqueous metal alkoxide mixture for a pH.ltoreq.8 to hydrolyze the metal alkoxides. Then, allowing the mixture to react at room temperature for a precalculated period of time for the mixture to undergo an increased in viscosity to obtain a desired pore size and surface area. The copolymerized mixture is then added to an immiscible, nonpolar solvent that has been heated to a sufficient temperature wherein the copolymerized mixture forms a solid upon the addition. The solid is recovered from the mixture, and is ready for use in an active sampling trap or activated for use in a passive sampling trap.

  2. Evaluation of Sorbent Injection for Mercury Control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sharon Sjostrom

    2005-12-30

    The power industry in the U.S. is faced with meeting new regulations to reduce the emissions of mercury compounds from coal-fired plants. These regulations are directed at the existing fleet of nearly 1,100 boilers. These plants are relatively old with an average age of over 40 years. Although most of these units are capable of operating for many additional years, there is a desire to minimize large capital expenditures because of the reduced (and unknown) remaining life of the plant to amortize the project. Injecting a sorbent such as powdered activated carbon into the flue gas represents one of the simplest and most mature approaches to controlling mercury emissions from coal-fired boilers. This is the final site report for tests conducted at Laramie River Station Unit 3, one of five sites evaluated in this DOE/NETL program. The overall objective of the test program is to evaluate the capabilities of activated carbon injection at five plants: Sunflower Electric's Holcomb Station Unit 1, AmerenUE's Meramec Station Unit 2, Missouri Basin Power Project's Laramie River Station Unit 3, Detroit Edison's Monroe Power Plant Unit 4, and AEP's Conesville Station Unit 6. These plants have configurations that together represent 78% of the existing coal-fired generation plants. The goals for the program established by DOE/NETL are to reduce the uncontrolled mercury emissions by 50 to 70% at a cost 25 to 50% lower than the benchmark established by DOE of $60,000/lb mercury removed. The goals of the program were exceeded at Laramie River Station by achieving over 90% mercury removal at a sorbent cost of $3,980/lb ($660/oz) mercury removed for a coal mercury content of 7.9 lb/TBtu.

  3. Trends in powder processing equipment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sheppard, L.M.

    1993-05-01

    Spray drying is the most widely used process for producing particles. It is used in industries other than ceramics including food, chemicals, and pharmaceutical. The process involves the atomization of a liquid feed stock into a spray of droplets and contacting the droplets with hot air in a drying chamber. The sprays are produced by either rotary or nozzle atomizers. Evaporation of moisture from the droplets and formation of dry particles proceed under controlled temperature and airflow conditions. Powder is then discharged continuously from the drying chamber. Spray drying equipment is being improved to handle an ever-increasing number of applications. Several developments in particle-size reduction equipment are also described.

  4. Method for removing metal ions from solution with titanate sorbents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lundquist, S.H.; White, L.R.

    1999-11-23

    A method for removing metal ions from solution comprises the steps of providing titanate particles by spray-drying a solution or slurry comprising sorbent titanates having a particle size up to 20 micrometers, optionally in the presence of polymer free of cellulose functionality as binder. The sorbent is active towards heavy metals from Periodic Table (CAS version) Groups IA, IIA, IB, IIB, IIIB, and VIII, to provide monodisperse, substantially spherical particles in a yield of at least 70% of theoretical yield which have a particle size distribution in the range of 1 to 500 micrometers. The particles can be used free flowing in columns or beds, or entrapped in a nonwoven, fibrous web or matrix or a cast porous membrane, to selectively remove metal ions from aqueous or organic liquid.

  5. Method for removing metal ions from solution with titanate sorbents

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lundquist, Susan H.; White, Lloyd R.

    1999-01-01

    A method for removing metal ions from solution comprises the steps of providing titanate particles by spray-drying a solution or slurry comprising sorbent titanates having a particle size up to 20 micrometers, optionally in the presence of polymer free of cellulose functionality as binder, said sorbent being active towards heavy metals from Periodic Table (CAS version) Groups IA, IIA, IB, IIB, IIIB, and VIII, to provide monodisperse, substantially spherical particles in a yield of at least 70 percent of theoretical yield and having a particle size distribution in the range of 1 to 500 micrometers. The particles can be used free flowing in columns or beds, or entrapped in a nonwoven, fibrous web or matrix or a cast porous membrane, to selectively remove metal ions from aqueous or organic liquid.

  6. Large Particle Titanate Sorbents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taylor-Pashow, K.

    2015-10-08

    This research project was aimed at developing a synthesis technique for producing large particle size monosodium titanate (MST) to benefit high level waste (HLW) processing at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Two applications were targeted, first increasing the size of the powdered MST used in batch contact processing to improve the filtration performance of the material, and second preparing a form of MST suitable for deployment in a column configuration. Increasing the particle size should lead to improvements in filtration flux, and decreased frequency of filter cleaning leading to improved throughput. Deployment of MST in a column configuration would allow for movement from a batch process to a more continuous process. Modifications to the typical MST synthesis led to an increase in the average particle size. Filtration testing on dead-end filters showed improved filtration rates with the larger particle material; however, no improvement in filtration rate was realized on a crossflow filter. In order to produce materials suitable for column deployment several approaches were examined. First, attempts were made to coat zirconium oxide microspheres (196 µm) with a layer of MST. This proved largely unsuccessful. An alternate approach was then taken synthesizing a porous monolith of MST which could be used as a column. Several parameters were tested, and conditions were found that were able to produce a continuous structure versus an agglomeration of particles. This monolith material showed Sr uptake comparable to that of previously evaluated samples of engineered MST in batch contact testing.

  7. Manganese and Ceria Sorbents for High Temperature Sulfur Removal from Biomass-Derived Syngas -- The Impact of Steam on Capacity and Sorption Mode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheah, S.; Parent, Y. O.; Jablonski, W. S.; Vinzant, T.; Olstad, J. L.

    2012-07-01

    Syngas derived from biomass and coal gasification for fuel synthesis or electricity generation contains sulfur species that are detrimental to downstream catalysts or turbine operation. Sulfur removal in high temperature, high steam conditions has been known to be challenging, but experimental reports on methods to tackle the problem are not often reported. We have developed sorbents that can remove hydrogen sulfide from syngas at high temperature (700 C), both in dry and high steam conditions. The syngas composition chosen for our experiments is derived from statistical analysis of the gasification products of wood under a large variety of conditions. The two sorbents, Cu-ceria and manganese-based, were tested in a variety of conditions. In syngas containing steam, the capacity of the sorbents is much lower, and the impact of the sorbent in lowering H{sub 2}S levels is only evident in low space velocities. Spectroscopic characterization and thermodynamic consideration of the experimental results suggest that in syngas containing 45% steam, the removal of H{sub 2}S is primarily via surface chemisorptions. For the Cu-ceria sorbent, analysis of the amount of H{sub 2}S retained by the sorbent in dry syngas suggests both copper and ceria play a role in H{sub 2}S removal. For the manganese-based sorbent, in dry conditions, there is a solid state transformation of the sorbent, primarily into the sulfide form.

  8. Silica powders for powder evacuated thermal insulating panel and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Harris, Michael T.; Basaran, Osman A.; Kollie, Thomas G.; Weaver, Fred J.

    1996-01-01

    A powder evacuated thermal insulating panel using generally spherical and porous silica particles of a median size less than about 100 nanometers in diameter, a pour packing density of about 0.4 to 0.6 g/cm.sup.3 and an external surface area in the range of about 90 to 600 m.sup.2/ g is described. The silica powders are prepared by reacting a tetraakyl silicate with ammonia and water in an alcohol solvent, distilling the solution after the reaction to remove the ammonia and recover the alcohol. The resulting aqueous slurry was dried, ball-milled, and dried again to provide the silica particles with defined internal and external porosity. The nanometer size and the large external surface area of the silica particles along with the internal and external porosity of the silica particles provide powder evacuated thermal insulating panels with significantly higher R-values than obtainable using previously known silica powders.

  9. Silica powders for powder evacuated thermal insulating panel and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Harris, Michael T.; Basaran, Osman A.; Kollie, Thomas G.; Weaver, Fred J.

    1994-01-01

    A powder evacuated thermal insulating panel using generally spherical and porous silica particles of a median size less than about 100 nanometers in diameter, a pour packing density of about 0.4 to 0.6 g/cm.sup.3 and an external surface area in the range of about 90 to 600 m.sup.2 /g is described. The silica powders are prepared by reacting a tetraakyl silicate with ammonia and water in an alcohol solvent, distilling the solution after the reaction to remove the ammonia and recover the alcohol. The resulting aqueous slurry was dried, ball-milled, and dried again to provide the silica particles with defined internal and external porosity. The nanometer size and the large external surface area of the silica particles along with the internal and external porosity of the silica particles provide powder evacuated thermal insulating panels with significantly higher R-values than obtainable using previously known silica powders.

  10. Silica powders for powder evacuated thermal insulating panel and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Harris, Michael T.; Basaran, Osman A.; Kollie, Thomas G.; Weaver, Fred J.

    1995-01-01

    A powder evacuated thermal insulating panel using generally spherical and porous silica particles of a median size less than about 100 nanometers in diameter, a pour packing density of about 0.4 to 0.6 g/cm.sup.3 and an external surface area in the range of about 90 to 600 m.sup.2/ g is described. The silica powders are prepared by reacting a tetraakyl silicate with ammonia and water in an alcohol solvent, distilling the solution after the reaction to remove the ammonia and recover the alcohol. The resulting aqueous slurry was dried, ball-milled, and dried again to provide the silica particles with defined internal and external porosity. The nanometer size and the large external surface area of the silica particles along with the internal and external porosity of the silica particles provide powder evacuated thermal insulating panels with significantly higher R-values than obtainable using previously known silica powders.

  11. Silica powders for powder evacuated thermal insulating panel and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Harris, M.T.; Basaran, O.A.; Kollie, T.G.; Weaver, F.J.

    1996-01-02

    A powder evacuated thermal insulating panel using generally spherical and porous silica particles of a median size less than about 100 nanometers in diameter, a pour packing density of about 0.4 to 0.6 g/cm{sup 3} and an external surface area in the range of about 90 to 600 m{sup 2}/g is described. The silica powders are prepared by reacting a tetraalkyl silicate with ammonia and water in an alcohol solvent, distilling the solution after the reaction to remove the ammonia and recover the alcohol. The resulting aqueous slurry was dried, ball-milled, and dried again to provide the silica particles with defined internal and external porosity. The nanometer size and the large external surface area of the silica particles along with the internal and external porosity of the silica particles provide powder evacuated thermal insulating panels with significantly higher R-values than obtainable using previously known silica powders. 2 figs.

  12. Rapid formation of the Bi{sub 2{minus}x}Pb{sub x}Sr{sub 2}Ca{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub y} high {Tc}-phase, using spray-dried nitrate precursor powders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Van Driessche, I.; Mouton, R.; Hoste, S.

    1996-08-01

    This study describes the use of spray-dried nitrate precursor powders in the synthesis of Bi-2223 high {Tc}-superconductors. The decomposition of the precursor powder is studied using TGA/DTA, XRD, IR, and nitrogen analyses. The particle size is determined using SEM. The low decomposition temperature of the nitrates ({approximately}600 C) and the small particle size of the spray dried powder ({approximately}3{center_dot}10{sup {minus}6} m), resulting in a lowering of the calcination temperature and a shortening of the sinter time, enabled the authors to synthesize a > 96% pure Bi-2223 phase (from XRD peak intensities) after a thermal process of 5h at 650 C and 60 h at 855 C.

  13. Mechanisms of dry SO/sub 2/ control processes. Final report Sep 80-Sep 81

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Apple, C.; Kelly, M.E.

    1982-04-01

    The report discusses physical and chemical processes and reaction mechanisms for lime spray drying and dry injection of sodium compounds in dry flue gas desulfurization (FGD) processes. It includes: chemical reactions, physical changes, proposed reaction mechanisms and mathematical models, process parameters affecting reactions and their rates, and data needed to verify proposed reaction mechanisms and models. Published technical papers were the primary reference sources. The report focuses on coal-fired boiler dry FGD applications. Lime spray drying reactions are primarily gas/liquid-phase reactions, with SO/sub 2/ removal depending on moisture in the lime slurry droplet. Initially, the moisture content is high, and the reaction rate is controlled by diffusion of SO/sub 2/ to the droplet surface; most SO/sub 2/ removal occurs during this phase. As evaporation reduces the moisture, the dissolution of Ca(OH)/sub 2/ into ions limits the SO/sub 2/ removal rate. Later, the precipitation of CaSO/sub 3/.1/2 H/sub 2/O onto the surface of the lime particles retards diffusion of SO/sub 2/ to the unreacted sorbent. Injecting sodium compound powders into flue gas removes SO/sub 2/ via gas/solid reactions. First, NaHCO/sub 3/ is thermally decomposed to Na/sub 2/CO/sub 3/ (small pores in the sorbent particles increase the particles' surface area and reactivity). Then the SO/sub 2/ reacts with Na/sub 2/CO/sub 3/ to form Na/sub 2/SO/sub 3/, starting at the particle surface.

  14. Photopatternable sorbent and functionalized films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grate, Jay W.; Nelson, David A.

    2006-01-31

    A composition containing a polymer, a crosslinker and a photo-activatable catalyst is placed on a substrate. The composition is exposed to a predetermined pattern of light, leaving an unexposed region. The light causes the polymer to become crosslinked by hydrosilylation. A solvent is used to remove the unexposed composition from the substrate, leaving the exposed pattern to become a sorbent polymer film that will absorb a predetermined chemical species when exposed to such chemical species.

  15. Durable zinc oxide containing sorbents for moving bed and fluid-bed applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siriwardane, R.V.

    1998-12-31

    A series of novel regenerable desulfurization sorbents operational at a wide range of temperatures (260--600 C) has been developed by the in-house research staff at the US Department of Energy`s Federal Energy Technology Center. The sorbent, identified as METC10, has demonstrated very high attrition resistance as well as very high and stable reactivity conducted under numerous testing regimes under both simulated and actual fuel gas conditions. The METC10 sorbent suitable for moving bed reactor applications is the only sorbent which has exceeded all the criteria required for use in the Tampa Electric Company (TECO) Clean Coal Technology (CCT) demonstration project. The required criteria for the TECO project included, a sulfur loading of 6.7 lb/ft{sup 3} while maintaining the outlet H{sub 2}S level < 20 ppmv, attrition of < 5 wt% after 25 cycle test and regeneration under the very drastic conditions of 10% SO{sub 2} at 510 C under 5--7 atmospheres. In addition, the sorbent was also tested at temperatures ranging from 370 C to 260 C with simulated coal gas. At this low temperature, it was possible to achieve a sulfur loading > 6 lb/ft{sup 3}, indicating that the sorbent is suitable for applications over a wide range of temperatures. It was also possible to prepare METC10 sorbent suitable for fluidized/transport reactor bed applications utilizing spray drying technique. These sorbents had both high attrition resistance (> 95%) and high sulfur capacity (> 14 wt%), and showed stable reactivity during multi-cycle testing.

  16. low-cost-sorbent | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Low Cost Sorbent for Capturing CO2 Emissions Generated by Existing Coal-Fired Power Plants Project No.: DE-NT0005497 TDA sorbent test equipment TDA sorbent test equipment. TDA ...

  17. Durable zinc oxide-containing sorbents for coal gas desulfurization

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Siriwardane, Ranjani V.

    1996-01-01

    Durable zinc-oxide containing sorbent pellets for removing hydrogen sulfide from a gas stream at an elevated temperature are made up to contain titania as a diluent, high-surface-area silica gel, and a binder. These materials are mixed, moistened, and formed into pellets, which are then dried and calcined. The resulting pellets undergo repeated cycles of sulfidation and regeneration without loss of reactivity and without mechanical degradation. Regeneration of the pellets is carried out by contacting the bed with an oxidizing gas mixture.

  18. Polyacrylonitrile-Chalcogel Hybrid Sorbents for Radioiodine Capture...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Polyacrylonitrile-Chalcogel Hybrid Sorbents for Radioiodine Capture Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Polyacrylonitrile-Chalcogel Hybrid Sorbents for Radioiodine Capture ...

  19. Process for the manufacture of an attrition resistant sorbent used for gas desulfurization

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Venkataramani, Venkat S.; Ayala, Raul E.

    2003-09-16

    This process produces a sorbent for use in desulfurization of coal gas. A zinc titanate compound and a metal oxide are mixed by milling the compounds in an aqueous medium, the resulting mixture is dried and then calcined, crushed, sleved and formed into pellets for use in a moving-bed reactor. Metal oxides suitable for use as an additive in this process include: magnesium oxide, magnesium oxide plus molybdenum oxide, calcium oxide, yttrium oxide, hafnium oxide, zirconium oxide, cupric oxide, and tin oxide. The resulting sorbent has a percentage of the original zinc or titanium ions substituted for the oxide metal of the chosen additive.

  20. Regenerable sorbents for CO.sub.2 capture from moderate and high temperature gas streams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Siriwardane, Ranjani V.

    2008-01-01

    A process for making a granular sorbent to capture carbon dioxide from gas streams comprising homogeneously mixing an alkali metal oxide, alkali metal hydroxide, alkaline earth metal oxide, alkaline earth metal hydroxide, alkali titanate, alkali zirconate, alkali silicate and combinations thereof with a binder selected from the group consisting of sodium ortho silicate, calcium sulfate dihydrate (CaSO.sub.4.2H.sub.2O), alkali silicates, calcium aluminate, bentonite, inorganic clays and organic clays and combinations thereof and water; drying the mixture and placing the sorbent in a container permeable to a gas stream.

  1. Evaluation of Dry Sorbent Injection Technology for Pre-Combustion...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The project was funded by the DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory with URS as the prime contractor. Illinois Clean Coal Institute and The University of Illinois ...

  2. ZnO-based regenerable sulfur sorbents for fluid-bed/transport reactor applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Slimane, Rachid B.; Abbasian, Javad; Williams, Brett E.

    2004-09-21

    A method for producing regenerable sulfur sorbents in which a support material precursor is mixed with isopropanol and a first portion of deionized water at an elevated temperature to form a sol mixture. A metal oxide precursor comprising a metal suitable for use as a sulfur sorbent is dissolved in a second portion of deionized water, forming a metal salt solution. The metal salt solution and the sol mixture are mixed with a sol peptizing agent while heating and stirring, resulting in formation of a peptized sol mixture. The metal oxide precursor is dispersed substantially throughout the peptized sol mixture, which is then dried, forming a dry peptized sol mixture. The dry peptized sol mixture is then calcined and the resulting calcined material is then converted to particles.

  3. Experimental study of toxic metal-sorbent reactions in a bench scale combustor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Owens, T.M.; Biswas, P.

    1996-11-01

    Toxic metals may enter a combustion chamber in many physical or chemical forms, for example, as a constituent of a hazardous or municipal solid waste to be incinerated or as a trace quantity in coal. Control of toxic metal emissions from combustors is currently being stipulated by the US EPA in the form of maximum achievable control technologies (MACT) for 11 metals and their compounds under Title 3 of the 1990 Clean Air Amendments. Several researchers have proposed using bulk solid sorbents in several geometries (packed bed, fluidized bed, and dry sorbent injection) and have demonstrated the potential to effectively remove metals form an air stream by means of chemisorption. In this paper the authors compare the use of a vapor phase silica precursor with a calcium precursor for lead capture in a high temperature flow reactor. The use of vapor phase sorbent precursors has the potential for more effective sorbent utilization. In a real system, the vapor phase sorbent precursors would be injected into the combustor where the precursor would first decompose, then be oxidized to form an aerosol in the high temperature environment, and provide a surface onto which metal compound vapors condense. Calcium-based sorbents are used in capturing sulfur compounds from coal combustion effluent gases but their effectiveness in chemisorbing toxic metals has not been studied extensively. The objective of this work is to show how the sorbent precursor addition affects the outlet metal aerosol`s chemical composition and size distribution. Specifically, the reactions and interactions that result when a vapor phase silica precursor, hexamethyl disiloxane, or a calcium precursor, calcium acetate, is inlet into a high temperature flow reactor along with an organic lead compound are investigated.

  4. Screening of zinc-based sorbents for hot-gas desulfurization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joong B. Lee; Chong K. Ryu; Chang K. Yi; Sung H. Jo; Sung H. Kim

    2008-03-15

    Highly reactive and attrition-resistant ZnO-based sorbents that are suitable for bubbling fluidized-bed reactors can be produced using the spray-drying method. Most of the ZnO-based sorbents prepared here (ZAC-X, X = 18N-25N) satisfy the physical and chemical criteria for bubbling fluidized-bed application (spherical shape, average particle size, 90-110 {mu}m; size distribution, 40-230 {mu}m; bulk density, 0.9-1.0 g/mL; attrition index (AI), 40-80%; sulfur sorption capacity, 14-17 wt %; sorbent use, 70-80%). The performance test of the ZAC-C sorbent at Korea Institute of Energy Research (KIER) with a bubbling fluidized-bed for 70 h also demonstrated that it had good sulfidation and regeneration performance (11 wt % sorption capacity and 52% sorbent use) as well as reasonable attrition resistance (1.1% attrition loss for 70 h). 14 refs., 7 figs., 6 tabs.

  5. Sorbents for the oxidation and removal of mercury

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Olson, Edwin S. (Grand Forks, ND); Holmes, Michael J. (Thompson, ND); Pavlish, John H. (East Grand Forks, MN)

    2008-10-14

    A promoted activated carbon sorbent is described that is highly effective for the removal of mercury from flue gas streams. The sorbent comprises a new modified carbon form containing reactive forms of halogen and halides. Optional components may be added to increase reactivity and mercury capacity. These may be added directly with the sorbent, or to the flue gas to enhance sorbent performance and/or mercury capture. Mercury removal efficiencies obtained exceed conventional methods. The sorbent can be regenerated and reused. Sorbent treatment and preparation methods are also described. New methods for in-flight preparation, introduction, and control of the active sorbent into the mercury contaminated gas stream are described.

  6. Sorbents for the oxidation and removal of mercury

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Olson, Edwin S.; Holmes, Michael J.; Pavlish, John Henry

    2014-09-02

    A promoted activated carbon sorbent is described that is highly effective for the removal of mercury from flue gas streams. The sorbent comprises a new modified carbon form containing reactive forms of halogen and halides. Optional components may be added to increase reactivity and mercury capacity. These may be added directly with the sorbent, or to the flue gas to enhance sorbent performance and/or mercury capture. Mercury removal efficiencies obtained exceed conventional methods. The sorbent can be regenerated and reused. Sorbent treatment and preparation methods are also described. New methods for in-flight preparation, introduction, and control of the active sorbent into the mercury contaminated gas stream are described.

  7. Surface characterizatin of palladium-alumina sorbents for high-temperature capture of mercury and arsenic from fuel gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baltrus, J.P.; Granite, E.J.; Pennline, H.W.; Stanko, D.; Hamilton, H.; Rowsell, L.; Poulston, S.; Smith, A.; Chu, W.

    2010-01-01

    Coal gasification with subsequent cleanup of the resulting fuel gas is a way to reduce the impact of mercury and arsenic in the environment during power generation and on downstream catalytic processes in chemical production, The interactions of mercury and arsenic with PdlAl2D3 model thin film sorbents and PdlAh03 powders have been studied to determine the relative affinities of palladium for mercury and arsenic, and how they are affected by temperature and the presence of hydrogen sulfide in the fuel gas. The implications of the results on strategies for capturing the toxic metals using a sorbent bed are discussed.

  8. Sorbent utilization studies using a mini-pilot spray dryer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keener, T.C.; Khang, S.J.; Wang, J. )

    1992-10-01

    This report stems from a program supported by the Ohio Coal Development Office, that is part of a multi-task, multi-university effort concerned with developing and enhancing the efficiency of dry'' high-sulfur flue gas scrubbing processes using calcium based sorbents. The application of spray-drying flue gas desulfurization (FGD) to sources burning Ohio coal will depend on many factors, two of which are process simplicity and flexibility, and overall cost. The ability of the system to be able to handle variations in volumetric flow SO[sub 2] concentration, and even perhaps, new regulatory requirements imposed in the future are very important In addition, the amount and characteristics of the waste produced will be a major component in the operating costs of these systems. Spray-drying FGD has been shown to have a capital, cost advantage over conventional wet scrubbing, and the method has been proven to be comparatively simple and flexible. The major disadvantage is the inability of these systems to obtain high (> 90%) S0[sub 2] removal efficiencies on flue gas from high sulfur coal sources. This is the result of chemical mass transfer and thermal limitations imposed on these systems using calcium hydroxide in a slurry as the scrubbing agent. The project 1.5 has investigated a number of novel methods to improve the performance of these systems in a mini-pilot plant spray dryer facility. The objectives of project 1.5 were the following: Perform baseline parametric testing, study the effect of additives on reactivity, and perform sorbent recycle tests.

  9. Continuous fluidized-bed contactor with recycle of sorbent

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Scott, Charles D.; Petersen, James N.; Davison, Brian H.

    1996-01-01

    A continuous fluidized-bed contactor containing sorbent particles is used to remove solutes from liquid solvents. As the sorbent particles, for example gel beads, sorb the solute, for example metal ion species, the sorbent particles tend to decrease in diameter. These smaller loaded sorbent particles rise to the top of the contactor, as larger sorbent particles remain at the bottom of the contactor as a result of normal hydraulic forces. The smaller loaded sorbent particles are then recovered, regenerated, and reintroduced into the contactor. Alternatively, the loaded sorbent particles may also slightly increase in diameter, or exhibit no change in diameter but an increase in density. As a result of normal hydraulic forces the larger loaded sorbent particles fall to the bottom of the contactor. The larger loaded sorbent particles are then recovered, regenerated, and reintroduced into the contactor.

  10. Continuous fluidized-bed contactor with recycle of sorbent

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Scott, C.D.; Petersen, J.N.; Davison, B.H.

    1996-07-09

    A continuous fluidized-bed contactor containing sorbent particles is used to remove solutes from liquid solvents. As the sorbent particles, for example gel beads, sorb the solute, for example metal ion species, the sorbent particles tend to decrease in diameter. These smaller loaded sorbent particles rise to the top of the contactor, and larger sorbent particles remain at the bottom of the contactor as a result of normal hydraulic forces. The smaller loaded sorbent particles are then recovered, regenerated, and reintroduced into the contactor. Alternatively, the loaded sorbent particles may also slightly increase in diameter, or exhibit no change in diameter but an increase in density. As a result of normal hydraulic forces the larger loaded sorbent particles fall to the bottom of the contactor. The larger loaded sorbent particles are then recovered, regenerated, and reintroduced into the contactor. 8 figs.

  11. Process for preparing active oxide powders

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berard, Michael F.; Hunter, Jr., Orville; Shiers, Loren E.; Dole, Stephen L.; Scheidecker, Ralph W.

    1979-02-20

    An improved process for preparing active oxide powders in which cation hydroxide gels, prepared in the conventional manner are chemically dried by alternately washing the gels with a liquid organic compound having polar characteristics and a liquid organic compound having nonpolar characteristics until the mechanical water is removed from the gel. The water-free cation hydroxide is then contacted with a final liquid organic wash to remove the previous organic wash and speed drying. The dried hydroxide treated in the conventional manner will form a highly sinterable active oxide powder.

  12. Effect of spray drying on the sintering of Y2O3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rasmussen, M.D.; Akinc, M.; Milius, D.; Mctaggart, M.G.

    1985-02-01

    The effect of spray drying of precipitates on the sintering of yttrium oxide was studied. Spray drying of the oxide precursors improves the sinterability of powders significantly compared to powders obtained by pan drying. The improvement in sintered density was explained by the morphology of the powders produced. For spray-dried powders, statistical analysis shows that higher atomizer air flow rates favor higher sintered densities. 21 references.

  13. Energetic powder

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jorgensen, Betty S.; Danen, Wayne C.

    2003-12-23

    Fluoroalkylsilane-coated metal particles. The particles have a central metal core, a buffer layer surrounding the core, and a fluoroalkylsilane layer attached to the buffer layer. The particles may be prepared by combining a chemically reactive fluoroalkylsilane compound with an oxide coated metal particle having a hydroxylated surface. The resulting fluoroalkylsilane layer that coats the particles provides them with excellent resistance to aging. The particles can be blended with oxidant particles to form energetic powder that releases chemical energy when the buffer layer is physically disrupted so that the reductant metal core can react with the oxidant.

  14. Method of removing hydrogen sulfide from gases utilizing a zinc oxide sorbent and regenerating the sorbent

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jalan, Vinod M.; Frost, David G.

    1984-01-01

    A spent solid sorbent resulting from the removal of hydrogen sulfide from a fuel gas flow is regenerated with a steam-air mixture. The mixture of steam and air may also include additional nitrogen or carbon dioxide. The gas mixture contacts the spent sorbent containing metal sulfide at a temperature above 500.degree. C. to regenerate the sulfide to metal oxide or carbonate. Various metal species including the period four transition metals and the lanthanides are suitable sorbents that may be regenerated by this method. In addition, the introduction of carbon dioxide gas permits carbonates such as those of strontium, barium and calcium to be regenerated. The steam permits regeneration of spent sorbent without formation of metal sulfate. Moreover, the regeneration will proceed with low oxygen concentrations and will occur without the increase in temperature to minimize the risk of sintering and densification of the sorbent.

  15. Trace-Metal Scavenging from Biomass Syngas with Novel High-Temperature Sorbents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gale, Thomas K.; Walsh, Pete M.

    2007-03-21

    Effective syngas cleanup is one of the remaining major technical challenges yet to be resolved and one that will provide the most benefit to the suite of bio-thermochemical process technologies. Beyond tars and acid gases, which are themselves a significant detriment to reforming catalysts and associated equipment, semi-volatile metals can also damage cleanup systems, catalysts, and contaminate the fungible products. Metals are a difficult challenge to deal with whether using hot-gas filtration or low-temperature processing. Even though most of the metal tends to condense before the barrier filter of hot-gas cleanup systems, some small percentage of the metal (large enough to damage syngas-reforming catalysts, the candle filters themselves, and gas turbine blades) does pass through these barrier filters along with the clean syngas. Low-temperature processing requires expensive measures to remove metals from the process stream. Significant costs are required to remove these metals and if they are not removed before contacting the catalyst, they will significantly reduce the life of the catalyst. One approach to solving the metals problem is to use high-temperature sorbents to capture all of the semi-volatile metals upstream of the barrier filter, which would prevent even small amounts of metal from passing through the filter with the clean syngas. High Temperature sorbents have already been developed that have been shown to be effective at capturing semi-volatile metals from vitiated combustion effluent, i.e., high-temperature flue gas. The objective on this project was to evaluate these same sorbents for their ability to scavenge metals from inert, reducing, and real syngas environments. Subsequently, it was the objective of this project to develop designer sorbents and an injection technology that would optimize the effectiveness of these sorbents at capturing metals from syngas, protecting the barrier filters from damage, and protecting the catalysts and other downstream equipment from damage. Finally, the high-temperature sorbent technology would be expanded to look at the role that these sorbents play in relation to tars and acid gases, which are the other significant pollutants within syngas. In addition to the technology development work described above, all of the information obtained in this work was to be incorporated into a syngas speciation model, which would allow direct prediction of transformations that occur in syngas as it passes from the gasifier and the sorbent-injection section and through the barrier filters. Unfortunately, Congressional budget cuts prevented most of this work from being accomplished. Hopefully, additional funds will be provided to this work in the future, which will allow its completion. However, at the halting point of this project, the following has been accomplished. A major initial objective of the project was accomplished, which was to determine whether or not high-temperature sorbents found to work within vitiated air might also work in an inert environment. Kaolinite, one of the sorbents previously investigated as a high-temperature sorbent for incinerators, was found to effectively capture potassium. In addition, while previous work on short-time (i.e., 1 to 2 seconds) dispersed-phase reactions found that sorbent utilization was limited to two metal oxide species captured for every one aluminosilicate crystal structure, the present investigation found that many times higher insoluble metal/sorbent capture ratios were obtained. This result not only suggests that small additions of sorbent might be highly effective, but the fact that the products were insoluble (in part due to the temperature of sorbent injection, i.e., < 1500 °F) may be an indication that the products are unlikely to react with, corrode, or otherwise damage the candle-filter elements. There has been little work on the capture of potassium metal vapor by high-temperature sorbents, prior to this work. The fact that potassium can be effectively captured by kaolinite clay powder is a significant finding of this work, which applies both to combustion and gasification. The effect of different temperatures and pressures on the effectiveness of sorbent at capturing metal and protecting the filters needs to be evaluated. The impact of tars on sorbents and sorbents on tars also needs to be considered, and is one of the major questions about this technology. There is much left to be done in this area, which if performed will greatly benefit the advancement of this technology and the world through its application.

  16. Iodine Sorbent Performance in FY 2012 Deep Bed Tests (Technical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Iodine Sorbent Performance in FY 2012 Deep Bed Tests Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Iodine Sorbent Performance in FY 2012 Deep Bed Tests You are accessing a document ...

  17. Sulfur tolerant highly durable CO.sub.2 sorbents

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smirniotis, Panagiotis G.; Lu, Hong

    2012-02-14

    A sorbent for the capture of carbon dioxide from a gas stream is provided, the sorbent containing calcium oxide (CaO) and at least one refractory dopant having a Tammann temperature greater than about 530.degree. C., wherein the refractory dopant enhances resistance to sintering, thereby conserving performance of the sorbent at temperatures of at least about 530.degree. C. Also provided are doped CaO sorbents for the capture of carbon dioxide in the presence of SO.sub.2.

  18. Regenerable Sorbent Technique for Capturing CO2 Using Immobilized Amine

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Sorbents - Energy Innovation Portal Industrial Technologies Industrial Technologies Advanced Materials Advanced Materials Find More Like This Return to Search Regenerable Sorbent Technique for Capturing CO2 Using Immobilized Amine Sorbents The BIAS (Basic Immobilized Amine Sorbent) Process National Energy Technology Laboratory Contact NETL About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary This technology allows for optimal CO2 removal capacity for a given absorption and regeneration reactor

  19. Attrition resistant, zinc titanate-containing, reduced sulfur sorbents

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vierheilig, Albert A.; Gupta, Raghubir P.; Turk, Brian S.

    2004-11-02

    The disclosure is directed to sorbent compositions for removing reduced sulfur species (e.g., H.sub.2 S, COS and CS.sub.2) a feed stream. The sorbent is formed from a multi-phase composition including a zinc titanate phase and a zinc oxide-aluminate phase. The sorbent composition is substantially free of unreacted alumina.

  20. Alkaline sorbent injection for mercury control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Madden, Deborah A.; Holmes, Michael J.

    2002-01-01

    A mercury removal system for removing mercury from combustion flue gases is provided in which alkaline sorbents at generally extremely low stoichiometric molar ratios of alkaline earth or an alkali metal to sulfur of less than 1.0 are injected into a power plant system at one or more locations to remove at least between about 40% and 60% of the mercury content from combustion flue gases. Small amounts of alkaline sorbents are injected into the flue gas stream at a relatively low rate. A particulate filter is used to remove mercury-containing particles downstream of each injection point used in the power plant system.

  1. Alkaline sorbent injection for mercury control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Madden, Deborah A.; Holmes, Michael J.

    2003-01-01

    A mercury removal system for removing mercury from combustion flue gases is provided in which alkaline sorbents at generally extremely low stoichiometric molar ratios of alkaline earth or an alkali metal to sulfur of less than 1.0 are injected into a power plant system at one or more locations to remove at least between about 40% and 60% of the mercury content from combustion flue gases. Small amounts of alkaline sorbents are injected into the flue gas stream at a relatively low rate. A particulate filter is used to remove mercury-containing particles downstream of each injection point used in the power plant system.

  2. Topical Report 5: Sorbent Performance Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krutka, Holly; Sjostrom, Sharon

    2011-05-31

    ADA-ES has completed an extensive sorbent screening program funded primarily through DOE NETL cooperative agreement DE-NT0005649 with support from EPRI and industry cost-share participants. Tests were completed on simulated and actual flue gas. The overall project objective is to address the viability and accelerate development of a solid-based postcombustion CO2 capture technology that can be retrofit to the existing fleet of coal-fired power plants. An important component of the viability assessment was to evaluate the state of development of sorbents and measure key performance characteristics under realistic operating conditions.

  3. Sorbent for use in hot gas desulfurization

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gasper-Galvin, Lee D.; Atimtay, Aysel T.

    1993-01-01

    A multiple metal oxide sorbent supported on a zeolite of substantially silicon oxide is used for the desulfurization of process gas streams, such as from a coal gasifier, at temperatures in the range of about 1200.degree. to about 1600.degree. F. The sorbent is provided by a mixture of copper oxide and manganese oxide and preferably such a mixture with molybdenum oxide. The manganese oxide and the molybdenum are believed to function as promoters for the reaction of hydrogen sulfide with copper oxide. Also, the manganese oxide inhibits the volatilization of the molybdenum oxide at the higher temperatures.

  4. LONG-TERM DEMONSTRATION OF SORBENT ENHANCEMENT ADDITIVE TECHNOLOGY FOR MERCURY CONTROL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jason D. Laumb; Dennis L. Laudal; Grant E. Dunham; John P. Kay; Christopher L. Martin; Jeffrey S. Thompson; Nicholas B. Lentz; Alexander Azenkeng; Kevin C. Galbreath; Lucinda L. Hamre

    2011-05-27

    Long-term demonstration tests of advanced sorbent enhancement additive (SEA) technologies have been completed at five coal-fired power plants. The targeted removal rate was 90% from baseline conditions at all five stations. The plants included Hawthorn Unit 5, Mill Creek Unit 4, San Miguel Unit 1, Centralia Unit 2, and Hoot Lake Unit 2. The materials tested included powdered activated carbon, treated carbon, scrubber additives, and SEAs. In only one case (San Miguel) was >90% removal not attainable. The reemission of mercury from the scrubber at this facility prevented >90% capture.

  5. Powder dispersion system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gorenz, Heather M. (Albuquerque, NM); Brockmann, John E. (Albuquerque, NM); Lucero, Daniel A. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2011-09-20

    A powder dispersion method and apparatus comprising an air eductor and a powder dispensing syringe inserted into a suction connection of the air eductor.

  6. Drying '84

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baunack, F.

    1984-01-01

    This book covers the following topics: mechanism of water sorption-desorption in polymers; progress in freeze drying; on drying of materials in through circulation system; safety aspects of spray drying; dewatering process enhanced by electroosmosis; pressure drop and particle circulation studies in modified slot spouted beds; and experience in drying coal slurries.

  7. Carbon dioxide capture process with regenerable sorbents

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pennline, Henry W.; Hoffman, James S.

    2002-05-14

    A process to remove carbon dioxide from a gas stream using a cross-flow, or a moving-bed reactor. In the reactor the gas contacts an active material that is an alkali-metal compound, such as an alkali-metal carbonate, alkali-metal oxide, or alkali-metal hydroxide; or in the alternative, an alkaline-earth metal compound, such as an alkaline-earth metal carbonate, alkaline-earth metal oxide, or alkaline-earth metal hydroxide. The active material can be used by itself or supported on a substrate of carbon, alumina, silica, titania or aluminosilicate. When the active material is an alkali-metal compound, the carbon-dioxide reacts with the metal compound to generate bicarbonate. When the active material is an alkaline-earth metal, the carbon dioxide reacts with the metal compound to generate carbonate. Spent sorbent containing the bicarbonate or carbonate is moved to a second reactor where it is heated or treated with a reducing agent such as, natural gas, methane, carbon monoxide hydrogen, or a synthesis gas comprising of a combination of carbon monoxide and hydrogen. The heat or reducing agent releases carbon dioxide gas and regenerates the active material for use as the sorbent material in the first reactor. New sorbent may be added to the regenerated sorbent prior to subsequent passes in the carbon dioxide removal reactor.

  8. Sol-spray preparation, particulate characteristics, and sintering of alumina powders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Varma, H.K.; Mani, T.V.; Damodaran, A.D.; Warrier, K.G.K.; Balachandran, U.

    1993-07-01

    Fine alumina powders of spherical morphology and narrow particle-size distribution have been synthesized by a technique that uses precipitation/peptization/spray drying of boehmite sol prepared from aluminum nitrate. The spray-dried powder was further washed with solvents of varying polarities, such as acetone, isopropanol, and tert-butanol. This post-spray-drying treatment changed the powder`s particle-size distribution, morphology, density, and compaction characteristics. Microstructure, dielectric properties, and effect of post-treatment on the boehmite-sol-derived alumina powders in reducing agglomeration are discussed.

  9. Evaluation of Ohio fly ash/hydrated lime slurries and Type 1 cement sorbent slurries in the U.C. Pilot spray dryer facility. Final report, September 1, 1993--August 31, 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keener, T.C.; Khang, S.J.; Meyers, G.R.

    1995-02-01

    The objectives of this year`s work included an evaluation of the performance of fly ash/hydrated lime as well as hydrated cement sorbents for spray drying adsorption (SDA) of SO{sub 2} from a simulated high-sulfur flue gas. These sorbents were evaluated for several different hydration methods, and under different SDA operating conditions. In addition, the physical properties of surface area and porosity of the sorbents was determined. The most reactive fly ash/hydrated lime sorbent studied was prepared at room temperature with milled fly ash. Milling fly ash prior to hydration with lime did have a beneficial effect on calcium utilization. No benefit in utilization was experienced either by hydrating the slurries at a temperature of 90{degrees}C as compared to hydration at room temperature, or by increasing hydration time. While the surface areas varied greatly from sorbent to sorbent, the pore size distributions indicated ``ink bottle`` pores with surface porosity on the order of 0.5 microns. No correlation could be drawn between the surface area of the sorbents and calcium utilization. These results suggest that the composition of the resulting sorbent might be more important than its surface area. The most effective sorbent studied this year was produced by hydrating cement for 3 days at room temperature. This sorbent provided a removal efficiency and a calcium utilization over 25 percent higher than baseline results at an approach to saturation temperature of 30{degrees}F and a stoichiometric ratio of 0.9. A maximum SO{sub 2} removal efficiency of about 90 percent was experienced with this sorbent at an approach to saturation temperature of 20{degrees}F.

  10. Regenerable hydrogen chloride removal sorbent and regenerable multi-functional hydrogen sulfide and hydrogen chloride removal sorbent for high temperature gas streams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Siriwardane, Ranjani

    2010-08-03

    Regenerable hydrogen chloride removal sorbent and regenerable multi-functional hydrogen sulfide and hydrogen chloride removal sorbent for high temperature gas streams

  11. Preparing titanium nitride powder

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bamberger, Carlos E.

    1989-01-01

    A process for making titanium nitride powder by reaction of titanium phosphates with sodium cyanide.

  12. Preparation of titanium diboride powder

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brynestad, Jorulf; Bamberger, Carlos E.

    1985-01-01

    Finely-divided titanium diboride or zirconium diboride powders are formed by reacting gaseous boron trichloride with a material selected from the group consisting of titanium powder, zirconium powder, titanium dichloride powder, titanium trichloride powder, and gaseous titanium trichloride.

  13. Preparation of metal diboride powders

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brynestad, J.; Bamberger, C.E.

    Finely-divided titanium diboride or zirconium diboride powders are formed by reacting gaseous boron trichloride with a material selected from the group of consisting of titanium powder, zirconium powder, titanium dichloride powder, titanium trichloride powder, and gaseous titanium trichloride.

  14. Kinetic studies of dry sorent for medium temperature applications. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keener, T.C.; Wang, Z.

    1996-07-12

    The purpose of this project is to investigate the fundamental nature of sorbent reactivity and reaction kinetics in the medium temperature range from 600{degrees}F (316{degrees}C) to 1200{degrees}F (649{degrees}C) available in the convective pass of a boiler upstream of the economizer, where dry sorbents are injected to remove SO{sub 2} from the flue gas. Research focuses on the mechanisms of sorbent- flue gas interaction under economizer and hot baghouse conditions utilizing the experimental setup and the results of the first four years of research.

  15. Utility flue gas mercury control via sorbent injection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang, R.; Carey, T.; Hargrove, B.

    1996-12-31

    The potential for power plant mercury control under Title III of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments generated significant interest in assessing whether cost effective technologies are available for removing the mercury present in fossil-fired power plant flue gas. One promising approach is the direct injection of mercury sorbents such as activated carbon into flue gas. This approach has been shown to be effective for mercury control from municipal waste incinerators. However, tests conducted to date on utility fossil-fired boilers show that it is much more difficult to remove the trace species of mercury present in flue gas. EPRI is conducting research in sorbent mercury control including bench-scale evaluation of mercury sorbent activity and capacity with simulated flue gas, pilot testing under actual flue gas conditions, evaluation of sorbent regeneration and recycle options, and the development of novel sorbents. A theoretical model that predicts maximum mercury removals achievable with sorbent injection under different operating conditions is also being developed. This paper presents initial bench-scale and model results. The results to date show that very fine and large amounts of sorbents are needed for mercury control unless long residence times are available for sorbent-mercury contact. Also, sorbent activity and capacity are highly dependent on flue gas composition, temperature, mercury species, and sorbent properties. 10 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Process for preparing fine grain silicon carbide powder

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wei, G.C.

    Method of producing fine-grain silicon carbide powder comprises combining methyltrimethoxysilane with a solution of phenolic resin, acetone and water or sugar and water, gelling the resulting mixture, and then drying and heating the obtained gel.

  17. Fly ash properties and mercury sorbent affect mercury release from curing concrete

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Danold W. Golightly; Chin-Min Cheng; Linda K. Weavers; Harold W. Walker; William E. Wolfe

    2009-04-15

    The release of mercury from concrete containing fly ashes from various generator boilers and powdered activated carbon sorbent used to capture mercury was measured in laboratory experiments. Release of gaseous mercury from these concretes was less than 0.31% of the total quantity of mercury present. The observed gaseous emissions of mercury during the curing process demonstrated a dependency on the organic carbon content of the fly ash, with mercury release decreasing with increasing carbon content. Further, lower gaseous emissions of mercury were observed for concretes incorporating ash containing activated carbon sorbent than would be expected based on the observed association with organic carbon, suggesting that the powdered activated carbon more tightly binds the mercury as compared to unburned carbon in the ash. Following the initial 28-day curing interval, mercury release diminished with time. In separate leaching experiments, average mercury concentrations leached from fly ash concretes were less than 4.1 ng/L after 18 h and 7 days, demonstrating that less than 0.02% of the mercury was released during leaching. 25 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  18. Layered solid sorbents for carbon dioxide capture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Li, Bingyun; Jiang, Bingbing; Gray, McMahan L; Fauth, Daniel J; Pennline, Henry W; Richards, George A

    2014-11-18

    A solid sorbent for the capture and the transport of carbon dioxide gas is provided having at least one first layer of a positively charged material that is polyethylenimine or poly(allylamine hydrochloride), that captures at least a portion of the gas, and at least one second layer of a negatively charged material that is polystyrenesulfonate or poly(acryclic acid), that transports the gas, wherein the second layer of material is in juxtaposition to, attached to, or crosslinked with the first layer for forming at least one bilayer, and a solid substrate support having a porous surface, wherein one or more of the bilayers is/are deposited on the surface of and/or within the solid substrate. A method of preparing and using the solid sorbent is provided.

  19. ADVANCED SORBENT DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM; DEVELOPMENT OF SORBENTS FOR MOVING-BED AND FLUIDIZED-BED APPLICATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R.E. AYALA; V.S. VENKATARAMANI

    1998-09-30

    The integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power system using high-temperature coal gas cleanup is one of the most promising advanced technologies for the production of electric power from coal in an environmentally acceptable manner. Unlike conventional low-temperature cleanup systems that require costly heat exchangers, high-temperature coal gas cleanup systems can be operated near 482-538 C (900-1000F) or higher, conditions that are a closer match with the gasifier and turbine components in the IGCC system, thus resulting is a more efficient overall system. GE is developing a moving-bed, high-temperature desulfurization system for the IGCC power cycle in which zinc-based regenerable sorbents are currently being used as desulfurization sorbents. Zinc titanate and other proprietary zinc-based oxides are being considered as sorbents for use in the Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program at Tampa Electric Co.?s (TECo) Polk Power Station. Under cold startup conditions at TECo, desulfurization and regeneration may be carried out at temperatures as low as 343 C (650 F), hence a versatile sorbent is desirable to perform over this wide temperature range. A key to success in the development of high-temperature desulfurization systems is the matching of sorbent properties for the selected process operating conditions, namely, sustainable desulfurization kinetics, high sulfur capacity, and mechanical durability over multiple cycles. Additionally, the sulfur species produced during regeneration of the sorbent must be in a form compatible with sulfur recovery systems, such as sulfuric acid or elemental sulfur processes. The overall objective of this program is to develop regenerable sorbents for hydrogen sulfide removal from coal-derived fuel gases in the temperature range 343-538 C (650-1000 F). Two categories of reactor configurations are being considered: moving-bed reactors and fluidized-bed (bubbling and circulating) reactors. In addition, a cost assessment and a market plan for large-scale fabrication of sorbents were developed. As an optional task, long-term bench-scale tests of the best moving-bed sorbents were conducted. Starting from thermodynamic calculations, several metal oxides were identified for potential use as hot gas cleanup sorbents using constructed phase stability diagrams and laboratory screening of various mixed-metal oxide formulations. Modified zinc titanates and other proprietary metal oxide formulations were evaluated at the bench scale and many of them found to be acceptable for operation in the target desulfurization temperature range of 370 C (700 F) to 538 C (1000 F) and regeneration tempera-tures up to 760 C (1400 F). Further work is still needed to reduce the batch-to-batch repeatability in the fabrication of modified zinc titanates for larger scale applications. The information presented in this Volume 1 report contains the results of moving-bed sorbent develop-ment at General Electric?s Corporate Research and Development (GE-CRD). A separate Volume 2 report contains the results of the subcontract on fluidized-bed sorbent development at the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT).

  20. Regenerable sorbent technique for capturing CO.sub.2 using immobilized amine sorbents

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pennline, Henry W; Hoffman, James S; Gray, McMahan L; Fauth, Daniel J; Resnik, Kevin P

    2013-08-06

    The disclosure provides a CO.sub.2 absorption method using an amine-based solid sorbent for the removal of carbon dioxide from a gas stream. The method disclosed mitigates the impact of water loading on regeneration by utilizing a conditioner following the steam regeneration process, providing for a water loading on the amine-based solid sorbent following CO.sub.2 absorption substantially equivalent to the moisture loading of the regeneration process. This assists in optimizing the CO.sub.2 removal capacity of the amine-based solid sorbent for a given absorption and regeneration reactor size. Management of the water loading in this manner allows regeneration reactor operation with significant mitigation of energy losses incurred by the necessary desorption of adsorbed water.

  1. Approved Sorbents, Stabilizers, and Void Fillers - Hanford Site

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Sorbents, Stabilizers, and Void Fillers About Us Hanford Site Solid Waste Acceptance Program What's New Acceptance Criteria Acceptance Process Tools Approved High Integrity Containers Approved Sorbents, Stabilizers, and Void Fillers Disposal Information Points of Contact Approved Sorbents, Stabilizers, and Void Fillers Email Email Page | Print Print Page |Text Increase Font Size Decrease Font Size Approved list has been temporarily discontinued. Please contact your waste services POC.

  2. Theoretical Predictions of the thermodynamic Properties of Solid Sorbents

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Capture CO2 Applications (Conference) | SciTech Connect Conference: Theoretical Predictions of the thermodynamic Properties of Solid Sorbents Capture CO2 Applications Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Theoretical Predictions of the thermodynamic Properties of Solid Sorbents Capture CO2 Applications We are establishing a theoretical procedure to identify most potential candidates of CO{sub 2} solid sorbents from a large solid material databank to meet the DOE programmatic goal for

  3. Enhancing the use of coals by gas reburning-sorbent injection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1988-12-22

    The objective of this project is to evaluate and demonstrate a cost effective emission control technology for acid rain precursors, oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}) and sulfur (SO{sub x}), on three coal fired utility boilers in Illinois. The units selected are representative of pre-NSPS design practices; tangential, wall, and cyclone fired. The specific objectives are to demonstrate reductions of 60 percent in NO{sub x} and 50 percent in SO{sub x} emissions, by a combination of two developed technologies, gas reburning (GR) and sorbent injection (SI). With GR, about 80--85 percent of the coal fuel is fired in the primary combustion zone. The balance of the fuel is added downstream as natural gas to create a slightly fuel rich environment in which NO{sub x} is converted to N{sub 2}. The combustion process is completed by overfire air addition. SO{sub x} emissions are reduced by injecting dry sorbents (usually calcium based) into the upper furnace, at the superheater exit or into the ducting following the air heater. The sorbents trap SO{sub x} as solid sulfates and sulfites, which are collected in the particulate control device.

  4. Efficient Theoretical Screening of Solid Sorbents for CO2 Capture...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Efficient Theoretical Screening of Solid Sorbents for CO2 Capture Applications* Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Efficient Theoretical Screening of Solid ...

  5. Biogas Purifications for Fuel Cells: SulfaTrap Sorbents

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    over 70 tons of sorbent products for distributed fuel cell systems and chemical synthesis plants * Natural gas, LPG, biogas, ethylene and reformate gas desulfurization TDA 2 2 ...

  6. Enhanced durability and reactivity for zinc ferrite desulfurization sorbent

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jha, M.C.; Berggren, M.H.

    1989-05-02

    AMAX Research Development Center (AMAX R D) has been investigating methods for enhancing the reactivity and durability of the zinc ferrite desulfurization sorbent. Zinc ferrite sorbents are intended for use in desulfurization of hot coal gas in integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) or molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) applications. For the present program, the reactivity of the sorbent may be defined as its sulfur sorption capacity at the breakthrough point and at saturation in a bench-scale, fixed-bed reactor. Durability may be defined as the ability of the sorbent to maintain important physical characteristics such As size, strength, and specific surface area during 10 cycles of sulfidation and oxidation.

  7. Enhanced durability and reactivity for zinc ferrite desulfurization sorbent

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jha, M.C.; Berggren, M.H.

    1988-11-14

    AMAX Research Development Center (AMAX R D) has been investigating methods for enhancing the reactivity and durability of the zinc ferrite desulfurization sorbent. Zinc ferrite sorbents are intended for use in desulfurization of hot coal gas in integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) or molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) applications. For the present program, the reactivity of the sorbent may be defined as its sulfur sorption capacity at the breakthrough point and at saturation in a bench-scale, fixed-bed reactor. Durability may be defined as the ability of the sorbent to maintain important physical characteristics such As size, strength, and specific surface area during 10 cycles of sulfidation and oxidation.

  8. Enhanced durability and reactivity for zinc ferrite desulfurization sorbent

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jha, M.C.; Berggren, M.H.

    1989-03-06

    AMAX Research Development Center (AMAX R D) has been investigating methods for enhancing the reactivity and durability of the zinc ferrite desulfurization sorbent. Zinc ferrite sorbents are intended for use in desulfurization of hot coal gas in integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) or molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) applications. For the present program, the reactivity of the sorbent may be defined as its sulfur sorption capacity at the breakthrough point and at saturation in a bench-scale, fixed-bed reactor. Durability may be defined as the ability of the sorbent to maintain important physical characteristics such As size, strength, and specific surface area during 10 cycles of sulfidation and oxidation.

  9. Enhanced durability and reactivity for zinc ferrite desulfurization sorbent

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jha, M.C.; Berggren, M.H.

    1988-08-19

    AMAX Research Development Center (AMAX R D) has been investigating methods for enhancing the reactivity and durability of the zinc ferrite desulfurization sorbent. Zinc ferrite sorbents are intended for use in desulfurization of hot coal gas in integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) or molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) applications. For the present program, the reactivity of the sorbent may be defined as its sulfur sorption capacity at the breakthrough point and at saturation in a bench-scale, fixed-bed reactor. Durability may be defined as the ability of the sorbent to maintain important physical characteristics such As size, strength, and specific surface area during 10 cycles of sulfidation and oxidation.

  10. Enhanced durability and reactivity for zinc ferrite desulfurization sorbent

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jha, M.C.; Baltich, L.K.; Berggren, M.H.

    1987-05-18

    AMAX Research Development Center (AMAX R D) has been investigating methods for enhancing the reactivity and durability of the zinc ferrite desulfurization sorbent. Zinc ferrite sorbents are intended for use in desulfurization of hot coal gas in integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) or molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) applications. For the present program, the reactivity of the sorbent may be defined as its sulfur sorption capacity at the breakthrough point and at saturation in a bench-scale, fixed-bed reactor. Durability may be defined as the ability of the sorbent to maintain important physical characteristics such As size, strength, and specific surface area during 10 cycles of sulfidation and oxidation.

  11. Enhanced durability and reactivity for zinc ferrite desulfurization sorbent

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jha, M.C.; Baltich, L.K.; Berggren, M.H.

    1987-08-28

    AMAX Research Development Center (AMAX R D) has been investigating methods for enhancing the reactivity and durability of the zinc ferrite desulfurization sorbent. Zinc ferrite sorbents are intended for use in desulfurization of hot coal gas in integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) or molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) applications. For the present program, the reactivity of the sorbent may be defined as its sulfur sorption capacity at the breakthrough point and at saturation in a bench-scale, fixed-bed reactor. Durability may be defined as the ability of the sorbent to maintain important physical characteristics such As size, strength, and specific surface area during 10 cycles of sulfidation and oxidation.

  12. regenerable-sorbent-tda | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A Low Cost, High Capacity Regenerable Sorbent for Pre-combustion CO2 Capture Project No.: DE-FE0000469 TDA Research (TDA) is testing and validating the technical and economic potential of a regenerable physical sorbent for pre-combustion CO2 capture. TDA has developed a novel, low-cost regenerable sorbent to remove CO2 and has demonstrated its long-term stability through several thousand adsorption-desorption cycles. This new regenerable sorbent method for pre-combustion CO2 capture will remove

  13. sorbent-univerisity-north-dakota | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Evaluation of CO2 Capture from Existing Coal-Fired Plants by Hybrid Sorption Using Solid Sorbents (CACHYS(tm)) Project No.: DE-FE0007603 The University of North Dakota (UND) is scaling up and demonstrating a solid sorbent technology for carbon dioxide (CO2) capture and separation from coal combustion-derived flue gas. The technology - Capture from Existing Coal-Fired Plants by Hybrid Sorption Using Solid Sorbents Capture (CACHYS(tm)) - is a novel solid sorbent process based on the following

  14. Catalyst functionalized buffer sorbent pebbles for rapid separation...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    of carbon dioxide from gas mixtures Title: Catalyst functionalized buffer sorbent pebbles for rapid separation of carbon dioxide from gas mixtures A method for separating ...

  15. Ab initio thermodynamic approach to identify mixed solid sorbents...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    for CO2 capture technology Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Ab initio thermodynamic approach to identify mixed solid sorbents for CO2 capture technology Because the ...

  16. Precision powder feeder

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schlienger, M. Eric (Albuquerque, NM); Schmale, David T. (Albuquerque, NM); Oliver, Michael S. (Sandia Park, NM)

    2001-07-10

    A new class of precision powder feeders is disclosed. These feeders provide a precision flow of a wide range of powdered materials, while remaining robust against jamming or damage. These feeders can be precisely controlled by feedback mechanisms.

  17. Theoretical Screening of Mixed Solid Sorbent for

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    xtended A b stra c t o f 2 0 1 4 AICliE S pring M eeting, New O rleans, LA, M ar.30-A pr.02, 20 1 4 Theoretical Screening of Mixed Solid Sorbent for Applications to C 0 2 Capture Technology Yuhua Duan' N ational E nergy T echnology Laboratory, United States D epartm ent o f Energy, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15236, USA Abstract Since current technologies for capturing CO2 to fight global clim ate change are still too energy intensive, there is a critical need for developm ent o f new m aterials

  18. Enhanced durability and reactivity for zinc ferrite desulfurization sorbent

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jha, M.C.; Berggren, M.H.

    1987-10-27

    AMAX Research Development Center (AMAX R D) has been investigating methods for improving the reactivity and durability of the zinc ferrite desulfurization sorbent. Zinc ferrite sorbents are intended for use in desulfurization of hog coal gas in integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) or molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) applications. The reactivity of the sorbent may be defined as its sulfur sorption capacity at the breakthrough point in a bench-scale fixed-bed reactor. The durability may be defined as the ability of the sorbent to maintain its reactivity and other important physical characteristics such as size, strength, and specific surface area during 10 cycles of sulfidation and regeneration. Two base case sorbents, spherical pellets and cylindrical extrudes used in related METC sponsored projects, are being used to provide a basis for the comparison of physical characteristics and chemical reactivity.

  19. Porous desulfurization sorbent pellets containing a reactive metal oxide and an inert zirconium compound

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gardner, Todd H.; Gasper-Galvin, Lee D.

    1996-12-01

    Sorbent pellets for removing hydrogen sulfide from coal gas are prepared by combining a reactive oxide, in particular zinc oxide, with a zirconium compound such as an oxide, silicate, or aluminate of zirconium, and an inorganic binder and pelletizing and calcining the mixture. Alternately, the zinc oxide may be replaced by copper oxide or a combination of copper, molybdenum, and manganese oxides. The pellet components may be mixed in dry form, moistened to produce a paste, and converted to pellets by forming an aqueous slurry of the components and spray drying the slurry, or the reactive oxide may be formed on existing zirconium-containing catalyst-carrier pellets by infusing a solution of a salt of the active metal onto the existing pellets and firing at a high temperature to produce the oxide. Pellets made according to this invention show a high reactivity with hydrogen sulfide and durability such as to be useful over repeated cycles of sorption and regeneration.

  20. Multiple feed powder splitter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lewis, Gary K. (Los Alamos, NM); Less, Richard M. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2001-01-01

    A device for providing uniform powder flow to the nozzles when creating solid structures using a solid fabrication system such as the directed light fabrication (DLF) process. In the DLF process, gas entrained powders are passed through the focal point of a moving high-power laser light which fuses the particles in the powder to a surface being built up in layers. The invention is a device providing uniform flow of gas entrained powders to the nozzles of the DLF system. The device comprises a series of modular splitters which are slidably interconnected and contain an integral flow control mechanism. The device can take the gas entrained powder from between one to four hoppers and split the flow into eight tubular lines which feed the powder delivery nozzles of the DLF system.

  1. Multiple feed powder splitter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lewis, Gary K. (Los Alamos, NM); Less, Richard M. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2002-01-01

    A device for providing uniform powder flow to the nozzles when creating solid structures using a solid fabrication system such as the directed light fabrication (DLF) process. In the DLF process, gas entrained powders are passed through the focal point of a moving high-power laser light which fuses the particles in the powder to a surface being built up in layers. The invention is a device providing uniform flow of gas entrained powders to the nozzles of the DLF system. The device comprises a series of modular splitters which are slidably interconnected and contain an integral flow control mechanism. The device can take the gas entrained powder from between one to four hoppers and split the flow into eight tubular lines which feed the powder delivery nozzles of the DLF system.

  2. Enahancing the Use of Coals by Gas Reburning - Sorbent Injection Volume 5 - Guideline Manual

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-09-01

    The purpose of the Guideline Manual is to provide recommendations for the application of combined gas reburning-sorbent injection (GR-SI) technologies to pre-NSPS boilers. The manual includes design recommendations, performance predictions, economic projections and comparisons with competing technologies. The report also includes an assessment of boiler impacts. Two full-scale demonstrations of gas reburning-sorbent injection form the basis of the Guideline Manual. Under the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Coal Technology Program (Round 1), a project was completed to demonstrate control of boiler emissions that comprise acid rain precursors, specifically oxides of nitrogen (NOX) and sulfur dioxide (S02). Other project sponsors were the Gas Research Institute and the Illinois State Department of Commerce and Community Affairs. The project involved demonstrating the combined use of Gas Reburning and Sorbent Injection (GR-SI) to assess the air emissions reduction potential of these technologies.. Three potential coal-fired utility boiler host sites were evaluated: Illinois Power's tangentially-fired 71 MWe (net) Hennepin Unit W, City Water Light and Power's cyclone- fired 33 MWe (gross) Lakeside Unit #7, and Central Illinois Light Company's wall-fired 117 MWe (net) Edwards Unit #1. Commercial demonstrations were completed on the Hennepin and Lakeside Units. The Edwards Unit was removed from consideration for a site demonstration due to retrofit cost considerations. Gas Reburning (GR) controls air emissions of NOX. Natural gas is introduced into the furnace hot flue gas creating a reducing reburning zone to convert NOX to diatomic nitrogen (N,). Overfire air is injected into the furnace above the reburning zone to complete the combustion of the reducing (fuel) gases created in the reburning zone. Sorbent Injection (S1) consists of the injection of dry, calcium-based sorbents into furnace hot flue gas to achieve S02 capture. At each site where the techno!o@es were to be demonstrated, petiormance goals were set to achieve air emission reductions of 60 percent for NO. and 50 percent for SO2. These performance goals were exceeded during long term demonstration testing. For the tangentially fired unit, NOX emissions were reduced by 67.2% and S02 emissions by 52.6%. For the cyclone-fired unit, NOX emissions were reduced by 62.9% and SOZ emissions by 57.9%.

  3. Enhancing the Use of Coals by Gas Reburning - Sorbent Injection Volume 5 - Guideline Manual

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-06-01

    The purpose of the Guideline Manual is to provide recommendations for the application of combined gas reburning-sorbent injection (GR-SI) technologies to pre-NSPS boilers. The manual includes design recommendations, performance predictions, economic projections and comparisons with competing technologies. The report also includes an assessment of boiler impacts. Two full-scale demonstrations of gas reburning-sorbent injection form the basis of the Guideline Manual. Under the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Coal Technology Program (Round 1), a project was completed to demonstrate control of boiler emissions that comprise acid rain precursors, specifically oxides of nitrogen (NOX) and sulfur dioxide (S02). Other project sponsors were the Gas Research Institute and the Illinois State Department of Commerce and Community Affairs. The project involved d,emonstrating the combined use of Gas Reburning and Sorbent Injection (GR-SI) to assess the air emissions reduction potential of these technologies.. Three potential coal-fired utility boiler host sites were evaluated: Illinois Power's tangentially-fired 71 MWe (net) Hennepin Unit #1, City Water Light and Power's cyclone- fired 33 MWe (gross) Lakeside Unit #7, and Central Illinois Light Company's wall-fired 117 MWe (net) Edwards Unit #1. Commercial demonstrations were completed on the Hennepin and Lakeside Units. The Edwards Unit was removed from consideration for a site demonstration due to retrofit cost considerations. Gas Reburning (GR) controls air emissions of NOX. Natural gas is introduced into the furnace hot flue gas creating a reducing reburning zone to convert NOX to diatomic nitrogen (N,). Overfire air is injected into the furnace above the reburning zone to complete the combustion of the reducing (fuel) gases created in the reburning zone. Sorbent Injection (S1) consists of the injection of dry, calcium-based sorbents into furnace hot flue gas to achieve S02 capture. `At each site where the technologies were to be demonstrated, performance goals were set to achieve air emission reductions of 60 percent for NOX and 50 percent for S02. These performance goals were exceeded during long term demonstration testing. For the tangentially fired unit, NO, emissions were reduced by 67.2?40 and SOZ emissions by 52.6Y0. For the cyclone-fired unit, NO, emissions were reduced by 62.9% and SOZ emissions by 57.9Y0.

  4. Enhanced durability and reactivity for zinc ferrite desulfurization sorbent

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berggren, M.H.; Jha, M.C.

    1989-10-01

    AMAX Research Development Center (AMAX R D) investigated methods for enhancing the reactivity and durability of zinc ferrite desulfurization sorbents. Zinc ferrite sorbents are intended for use in desulfurization of hot coal gas in integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) or molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) applications. For this program, the reactivity of the sorbent may be defined as its sulfur sorption capacity at the breakthrough point and at saturation in a bench-scale, fixed-bed reactor. Durability may be defined as the ability of the sorbent to maintain important physical characteristics such as size, strength, and specific surface area during 10 cycles of sulfidation and oxidation. Two base case sorbents, a spherical pellet and a cylindrical extrude used in related METC-sponsored projects, were used to provide a basis for the aimed enhancement in durability and reactivity. Sorbent performance was judged on the basis of physical properties, single particle kinetic studies based on thermogravimetric (TGA) techniques, and multicycle bench-scale testing of sorbents. A sorbent grading system was utilized to quantify the characteristics of the new sorbents prepared during the program. Significant enhancements in both reactivity and durability were achieved for the spherical pellet shape over the base case formulation. Overall improvements to reactivity and durability were also made to the cylindrical extrude shape. The primary variables which were investigated during the program included iron oxide type, zinc oxide:iron oxide ratio, inorganic binder concentration, organic binder concentration, and induration conditions. The effects of some variables were small or inconclusive. Based on TGA studies and bench-scale tests, induration conditions were found to be very significant.

  5. Sulfur tolerant highly durable CO.sub.2 sorbents (Patent) | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Patent: Sulfur tolerant highly durable CO.sub.2 sorbents Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Sulfur tolerant highly durable CO.sub.2 sorbents A sorbent for the capture of carbon dioxide from a gas stream is provided, the sorbent containing calcium oxide (CaO) and at least one refractory dopant having a Tammann temperature greater than about 530.degree. C., wherein the refractory dopant enhances resistance to sintering, thereby conserving performance of the sorbent at temperatures of at

  6. Biaxially textured articles formed by powder metallurgy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goyal, Amit; Williams, Robert K.; Kroeger, Donald M.

    2003-08-05

    A biaxially textured alloy article having a magnetism less than pure Ni includes a rolled and annealed compacted and sintered powder-metallurgy preform article, the preform article having been formed from a powder mixture selected from the group of ternary mixtures consisting of: Ni powder, Cu powder, and Al powder, Ni powder, Cr powder, and Al powder; Ni powder, W powder and Al powder; Ni powder, V powder, and Al powder; Ni powder, Mo powder, and Al powder; the article having a fine and homogeneous grain structure; and having a dominant cube oriented {100}<100> orientation texture; and further having a Curie temperature less than that of pure Ni.

  7. Octahedral molecular sieve sorbents and catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Li, Liyu [Richland, WA; King, David L [Richland, WA

    2010-04-20

    Octahedral molecular sieve sorbents and catalysts are disclosed, including silver hollandite and cryptomelane. These materials can be used, for example, to catalyze the oxidation of CO.sub.x (e.g., CO), NO.sub.x (e.g., NO), hydrocarbons (e.g., C.sub.3H.sub.6) and/or sulfur-containing compounds. The disclosed materials also may be used to catalyze other reactions, such as the reduction of NO.sub.2. In some cases, the disclosed materials are capable of sorbing certain products from the reactions they catalyze. Silver hollandite, in particular, can be used to remove a substantial portion of certain sulfur-containing compounds from a gas or liquid by catalysis and/or sorption. The gas or liquid can be, for example, natural gas or a liquid hydrocarbon.

  8. Metal sulfide initiators for metal oxide sorbent regeneration

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Turk, Brian S.; Gupta, Raghubir P.

    2001-01-01

    A process of regenerating a sulfided sorbent is provided. According to the process of the invention, a substantial portion of the energy necessary to initiate the regeneration reaction is provided by the combustion of a particulate metal sulfide additive. In using the particulate metal sulfide additive, the oxygen-containing gas used to regenerate the sulfided sorbent can be fed to the regeneration zone without heating or at a lower temperature than used in conventional processes wherein the regeneration reaction is initiated only by heating the oxygen-containing gas. The particulate metal sulfide additive is preferably an inexpensive mineral ore such as iron pyrite which does not adversely affect the regeneration or corresponding desulfurization reactions. The invention further includes a sorbent composition comprising the particulate metal sulfide additive in admixture with an active metal oxide sorbent capable of removing one or more sulfur compounds from a sulfur-containing gas stream.

  9. Metal sulfide initiators for metal oxide sorbent regeneration

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Turk, B.S.; Gupta, R.P.

    1999-06-22

    A process of regenerating a sulfided sorbent is provided. According to the process of the invention, a substantial portion of the energy necessary to initiate the regeneration reaction is provided by the combustion of a particulate metal sulfide additive. In using the particulate metal sulfide additive, the oxygen-containing gas used to regenerate the sulfided sorbent can be fed to the regeneration zone without heating or at a lower temperature than used in conventional processes wherein the regeneration reaction is initiated only by heating the oxygen-containing gas. The particulate metal sulfide additive is preferably an inexpensive mineral ore such as iron pyrite which does not adversely affect the regeneration or corresponding desulfurization reactions. The invention further includes a sorbent composition comprising the particulate metal sulfide additive in admixture with an active metal oxide sorbent capable of removing one or more sulfur compounds from a sulfur-containing gas stream. 1 fig.

  10. Metal sulfide initiators for metal oxide sorbent regeneration

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Turk, Brian S.; Gupta, Raghubir P.

    1999-01-01

    A process of regenerating a sulfided sorbent is provided. According to the process of the invention, a substantial portion of the energy necessary to initiate the regeneration reaction is provided by the combustion of a particulate metal sulfide additive. In using the particulate metal sulfide additive, the oxygen-containing gas used to regenerate the sulfided sorbent can be fed to the regeneration zone without heating or at a lower temperature than used in conventional processes wherein the regeneration reaction is initiated only by heating the oxygen-containing. The particulate metal sulfide additive is preferably an inexpensive mineral ore such as iron pyrite which does not adversely affect the regeneration or corresponding desulfurization reactions. The invention further includes a sorbent composition comprising the particulate metal sulfide additive in admixture with an active metal oxide sorbent capable of removing one or more sulfur compounds from a sulfur-containing gas stream.

  11. Carbon nanocomposite sorbent and methods of using the same for...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Carbon nanocomposite sorbent and methods of using the same for separation of one or more materials from a gas stream Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Carbon nanocomposite ...

  12. sorbent-tda-research | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A Low-Cost, High-Capacity Regenerable Sorbent for CO2 Capture From Existing Coal-Fired Power Plants Project No.: DE-FE0007580 TDA Research, Inc is developing a low cost, high...

  13. Novel Sorbent to Clean Up Biogas for CHPs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alptekin, Gökhan O.; Jayataman, Ambalavanan; Schaefer, Matthew; Ware, Michael; Hunt, Jennifer; Dobek, Frank

    2015-05-30

    In this project, TDA Research Inc. (TDA) has developed low-cost (on a per unit volume of gas processed basis), high-capacity expendable sorbents that can remove both the H2S and organic sulfur species in biogas to the ppb levels. The proposed sorbents will operate downstream of a bulk desulfurization system as a polishing bed to provide an essentially sulfur-free gas to a fuel cell (or any other application that needs a completely sulfur-free feed). Our sorbents use a highly dispersed mixed metal oxides active phase with desired modifiers prepared over on a mesoporous support. The support structure allows the large organic sulfur compounds (such as the diethyl sulfide and dipropyl sulfide phases with a large kinetic diameter) to enter the sorbent pores so that they can be adsorbed and removed from the gas stream.

  14. Process for preparing zinc oxide-based sorbents

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gangwal, Santosh Kumar; Turk, Brian Scott; Gupta, Raghubir Prasad

    2011-06-07

    The disclosure relates to zinc oxide-based sorbents, and processes for preparing and using them. The sorbents are preferably used to remove one or more reduced sulfur species from gas streams. The sorbents comprise an active zinc component, optionally in combination with one or more promoter components and/or one or more substantially inert components. The active zinc component is a two phase material, consisting essentially of a zinc oxide (ZnO) phase and a zinc aluminate (ZnAl.sub.2O.sub.4) phase. Each of the two phases is characterized by a relatively small crystallite size of typically less than about 500 Angstroms. Preferably the sorbents are prepared by converting a precursor mixture, comprising a precipitated zinc oxide precursor and a precipitated aluminum oxide precursor, to the two-phase, active zinc oxide containing component.

  15. Carbon nanocomposite sorbent and methods of using the same for...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    from a gas stream Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Carbon nanocomposite sorbent and methods of using the same for separation of one or more materials from a gas stream ...

  16. sorbent-univerisity-north-dakota | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Evaluation of CO2 Capture from Existing Coal-Fired Plants by Hybrid Sorption Using Solid Sorbents (CACHYS(tm)) Project No.: DE-FE0007603 The University of North Dakota (UND) is...

  17. Nano-Composite Arsenic Sorbent - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Industrial Technologies Industrial Technologies Advanced Materials Advanced Materials Find More Like This Return to Search Nano-Composite Arsenic Sorbent N-CAS: A low cost, highly effective arsenic removal technology Idaho National Laboratory Contact INL About This Technology Publications: PDF Document Publication Nano-Composite Arsenic Sorbent (N-CAS) Fact Sheet (1,859 KB) Technology Marketing Summary INL nanotechnology researchers have engineered a revolutionary and affordable material called

  18. Catalyst functionalized buffer sorbent pebbles for rapid separation of

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    carbon dioxide from gas mixtures (Patent) | DOEPatents Catalyst functionalized buffer sorbent pebbles for rapid separation of carbon dioxide from gas mixtures Title: Catalyst functionalized buffer sorbent pebbles for rapid separation of carbon dioxide from gas mixtures A method for separating CO.sub.2 from gas mixtures uses a slurried media impregnated with buffer compounds and coating the solid media with a catalyst or enzyme that promotes the transformation of CO.sub.2 to carbonic acid.

  19. Chalcogenide aerogels as sorbents for radioactive iodine (Journal Article)

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    | SciTech Connect Chalcogenide aerogels as sorbents for radioactive iodine Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Chalcogenide aerogels as sorbents for radioactive iodine Iodine (129I) is one of the radionuclides released in nuclear fuel reprocessing and poses risk to public safety due to its involvement in human metabolic processes. In order to prevent the leaching of hazardous radioactive iodine into the environment, its effective capture and sequestration is pivotal. In the context of

  20. Theoretical calculating the thermodynamic properties of solid sorbents for

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    CO{sub 2} capture applications (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Technical Report: Theoretical calculating the thermodynamic properties of solid sorbents for CO{sub 2} capture applications Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Theoretical calculating the thermodynamic properties of solid sorbents for CO{sub 2} capture applications Since current technologies for capturing CO{sub 2} to fight global climate change are still too energy intensive, there is a critical need for development

  1. Pyrotechnic filled molding powder

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hartzel, Lawrence W.; Kettling, George E.

    1978-01-01

    The disclosure relates to thermosetting molding compounds and more particularly to a pyrotechnic filled thermosetting compound comprising a blend of unfilled diallyl phthalate molding powder and a pyrotechnic mixture.

  2. Regenerable sorbent technique for capturing CO.sub.2 using immobilized

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    amine sorbents (Patent) | SciTech Connect Patent: Regenerable sorbent technique for capturing CO.sub.2 using immobilized amine sorbents Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Regenerable sorbent technique for capturing CO.sub.2 using immobilized amine sorbents The disclosure provides a CO.sub.2 absorption method using an amine-based solid sorbent for the removal of carbon dioxide from a gas stream. The method disclosed mitigates the impact of water loading on regeneration by utilizing a

  3. Biaxially textured articles formed by powder metallurgy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goyal, Amit; Williams, Robert K.; Kroeger, Donald M.

    2004-09-28

    A biaxially textured alloy article having a magnetism less than pure Ni includes a rolled and annealed compacted and sintered powder-metallurgy preform article, the preform article having been formed from a powder mixture selected from the group of mixtures consisting of: at least 60 at % Ni powder and at least one of Cr powder, W powder, V powder, Mo powder, Cu powder, Al powder, Ce powder, YSZ powder, Y powder, Mg powder, and RE powder; the article having a fine and homogeneous grain structure; and having a dominant cube oriented {100}<100> orientation texture; and further having a Curie temperature less than that of pure Ni.

  4. Biaxially textured articles formed by powder metallurgy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goyal, Amit; Williams, Robert K.; Kroeger, Donald M.

    2003-08-19

    A biaxially textured alloy article having a magnetism less than pure Ni includes a rolled and annealed compacted and sintered powder-metallurgy preform article, the preform article having been formed from a powder mixture selected from the group of mixtures consisting of: at least 60 at % Ni powder and at least one of Cr powder, W powder, V powder, Mo powder, Cu powder, Al powder, Ce powder, YSZ powder, Y powder, Mg powder, and RE powder; the article having a fine and homogeneous grain structure; and having a dominant cube oriented {100}<100> orientation texture; and further having a Curie temperature less than that of pure Ni.

  5. Biaxially textured articles formed by powder metallurgy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goyal, Amit; Williams, Robert K.; Kroeger, Donald M.

    2004-09-14

    A biaxially textured alloy article having a magnetism less than pure Ni includes a rolled and annealed compacted and sintered powder-metallurgy preform article, the preform article having been formed from a powder mixture selected from the group of mixtures consisting of: at least 60 at % Ni powder and at least one of Cr powder, W powder, V powder, Mo powder, Cu powder, Al powder, Ce powder, YSZ powder, Y powder, Mg powder, and RE powder; the article having a fine and homogeneous grain structure; and having a dominant cube oriented {100}<100> orientation texture; and further having a Curie temperature less than that of pure Ni.

  6. Biaxially textured articles formed by powder metallurgy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goyal, Amit; Williams, Robert K.; Kroeger, Donald M.

    2005-01-25

    A biaxially textured alloy article having a magnetism less than pure Ni includes a rolled and annealed compacted and sintered powder-metallurgy preform article, the preform article having been formed from a powder mixture selected from the group of mixtures consisting of: at least 60 at % Ni powder and at least one of Cr powder, W powder, V powder, Mo powder, Cu powder, Al powder, Ce powder, YSZ powder, Y powder, Mg powder, and RE powder; the article having a fine and homogeneous grain structure; and having a dominant cube oriented {100}<100> orientation texture; and further having a Curie temperature less than that of pure Ni.

  7. Biaxially textured articles formed by powder metallurgy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goyal, Amit; Williams, Robert K.; Kroeger, Donald M.

    2005-05-10

    A biaxially textured alloy article having a magnetism less than pure Ni includes a rolled and annealed compacted and sintered powder-metallurgy preform article, the preform article having been formed from a powder mixture selected from the group of mixtures consisting of at least 60 at % Ni powder and at least one of Cr powder, W powder, V powder, Mo powder, Cu powder, Al powder, Ce powder, YSZ powder, Y powder, Mg powder, and RE powder; the article having a fine and homogeneous grain structure; and having a dominant cube oriented {100}<100> orientation texture; and further having a Curie temperature less than that of pure Ni.

  8. Biaxially textured articles formed by powder metallurgy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goyal, Amit; Williams, Robert K.; Kroeger, Donald M.

    2003-08-26

    A biaxially textured alloy article having a magnetism less than pure Ni includes a rolled and annealed compacted and sintered powder-metallurgy preform article, the preform article having been formed from a powder mixture selected from the group of mixtures consisting of: at least 60 at % Ni powder and at least one of Cr powder, W powder, V powder, Mo powder, Cu powder, Al powder, Ce powder, YSZ powder, Y powder, Mg powder, and RE powder; the article having a fine and homogeneous grain structure; and having a dominant cube oriented {100}<100> orientation texture; and further having a Curie temperature less than that of pure Ni.

  9. Biaxially textured articles formed by powder metallurgy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goyal, Amit; Williams, Robert K.; Kroeger, Donald M.

    2003-07-29

    A biaxially textured alloy article having a magnetism less than pure Ni includes a rolled and annealed compacted and sintered powder-metallurgy preform article, the preform article having been formed from a powder mixture selected from the group of mixtures consisting of: at least 60 at % Ni powder and at least one of Cr powder, W powder, V powder, Mo powder, Cu powder, Al powder, Ce powder, YSZ powder, Y powder, Mg powder, and RE powder; the article having a fine and homogeneous grain structure; and having a dominant cube oriented {100}<100> orientation texture; and further having a Curie temperature less than that of pure Ni.

  10. Biaxially textured articles formed by powder metallurgy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goval, Amit; Williams, Robert K.; Kroeger, Donald M.

    2005-06-07

    A biaxially textured alloy article having a magnetism less than pure Ni includes a rolled and annealed compacted and sintered powder-metallurgy preform article, the preform article having been formed from a powder mixture selected from the group of mixtures consisting of: at least 60 at % Ni powder and at least one of Cr powder, W powder, V powder, Mo powder, Cu powder, Al powder, Ce powder, YSZ powder, Y powder, Mg powder, and RE powder; the article having a fine and homogeneous grain structure; and having a dominant cube oriented {100}<100> orientation texture; and further having a Curie temperature less than that of pure Ni.

  11. Chalcogen-Based Aerogels as Sorbents for Radionuclide Remediation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Riley, Brian J.; Chun, Jaehun; Um, Wooyong; Lepry, William C.; Matyas, Josef; Olszta, Matthew J.; Li, Xiaohong; Polychronopoulou, Kyriaki; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G.

    2013-06-13

    The efficient capture of radionuclides having long half-lives such as technetium-99 (99Tc), uranium-238 (238U), and iodine-129 (129I) is pivotal to prevent their transport into groundwater and/or release into the atmosphere. While different sorbents have been considered for capturing each of them, in the current work, a new nanostructured chalcogen-based aerogel, called a chalcogel, is shown to be very effective to capture ionic forms of 99Tc and 238U, as well as nonradioactive gaseous iodine (i.e., a surrogate for 129I), irrespective of the sorbent polarity. Some of the chalcogels performed better than others but the PtGeS sorbent performed the best with capture efficiencies of 98% and 99.4% for 99Tc and 238U, respectively. All sorbents showed >99% capture efficiency for iodine over the test duration. This unified sorbent would be an attractive option in environmental remediation for various radionuclides associated with legacy wastes from nuclear weapons production, wastes from nuclear power production, or potential future nuclear fuel reprocessing.

  12. Ultrafine hydrogen storage powders

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, Iver E.; Ellis, Timothy W.; Pecharsky, Vitalij K.; Ting, Jason; Terpstra, Robert; Bowman, Robert C.; Witham, Charles K.; Fultz, Brent T.; Bugga, Ratnakumar V.

    2000-06-13

    A method of making hydrogen storage powder resistant to fracture in service involves forming a melt having the appropriate composition for the hydrogen storage material, such, for example, LaNi.sub.5 and other AB.sub.5 type materials and AB.sub.5+x materials, where x is from about -2.5 to about +2.5, including x=0, and the melt is gas atomized under conditions of melt temperature and atomizing gas pressure to form generally spherical powder particles. The hydrogen storage powder exhibits improved chemcial homogeneity as a result of rapid solidfication from the melt and small particle size that is more resistant to microcracking during hydrogen absorption/desorption cycling. A hydrogen storage component, such as an electrode for a battery or electrochemical fuel cell, made from the gas atomized hydrogen storage material is resistant to hydrogen degradation upon hydrogen absorption/desorption that occurs for example, during charging/discharging of a battery. Such hydrogen storage components can be made by consolidating and optionally sintering the gas atomized hydrogen storage powder or alternately by shaping the gas atomized powder and a suitable binder to a desired configuration in a mold or die.

  13. SulfaTrap(tm): Novel Sorbent to Clean Biogas for Fuel Cell Combined...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    SulfaTrap(tm): Novel Sorbent to Clean Biogas for Fuel Cell Combined Heat and Power SulfaTrap(tm): Novel Sorbent to Clean Biogas for Fuel Cell Combined Heat and Power Improving ...

  14. Sorbents and Carbon-Based Materials for Hydrogen Storage Research and Development

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Energy's research and development on sorbents and carbon-based materials for hydrogen storage targets breakthrough concepts for storing hydrogen in high-surface-area sorbents...

  15. Novel Sorbent to Clean Biogas for Fuel Cell Combined Heat and...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Sorbent to Clean Biogas for Fuel Cell Combined Heat and Power - Fact Sheet, 2015 Novel Sorbent to Clean Biogas for Fuel Cell Combined Heat and Power - Fact Sheet, 2015 TDA Research ...

  16. Sorbents for the oxidation and removal of mercury (Patent) | SciTech

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Connect Patent: Sorbents for the oxidation and removal of mercury Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Sorbents for the oxidation and removal of mercury A promoted activated carbon sorbent is described that is highly effective for the removal of mercury from flue gas streams. The sorbent comprises a new modified carbon form containing reactive forms of halogen and halides. Optional components may be added to increase reactivity and mercury capacity. These may be added directly with the

  17. Sorbents for the oxidation and removal of mercury (Patent) | SciTech

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Connect Sorbents for the oxidation and removal of mercury Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Sorbents for the oxidation and removal of mercury A promoted activated carbon sorbent is described that is highly effective for the removal of mercury from flue gas streams. The sorbent comprises a new modified carbon form containing reactive forms of halogen and halides. Optional components may be added to increase reactivity and mercury capacity. These may be added directly with the

  18. Sorbents for the oxidation and removal of mercury (Patent) | SciTech

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Connect A promoted activated carbon sorbent is described that is highly effective for the removal of mercury from flue gas streams. The sorbent comprises a new modified carbon form containing reactive forms of halogen and halides. Optional components may be added to increase reactivity and mercury capacity. These may be added directly with the sorbent, or to the flue gas to enhance sorbent performance and/or mercury capture. Mercury removal efficiencies obtained exceed conventional methods.

  19. Carbon nanocomposite sorbent and methods of using the same for separation

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    of one or more materials from a gas stream (Patent) | SciTech Connect Carbon nanocomposite sorbent and methods of using the same for separation of one or more materials from a gas stream Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Carbon nanocomposite sorbent and methods of using the same for separation of one or more materials from a gas stream The present invention relates to carbon nanocomposite sorbents. The present invention provides carbon nanocomposite sorbents, methods for making the

  20. Iowa Powder Atomization Technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-01-01

    The same atomization effect seen in a fuel injector is being applied to titanium metal resulting in fine titanium powders that are less than half the width of a human hair. Titanium melts above 3,000°F and is highly corrosive therefore requiring specialized containers. The liquid titanium is poured through an Ames Laboratory - USDOE patented tube which is intended to increase the energy efficiency of the atomization process, which has the ability to dramatically decrease the cost of fine titanium powders. This novel process could open markets for green manufacturing of titanium components from jet engines to biomedical implants.

  1. Iowa Powder Atomization Technologies

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2013-03-01

    The same atomization effect seen in a fuel injector is being applied to titanium metal resulting in fine titanium powders that are less than half the width of a human hair. Titanium melts above 3,000°F and is highly corrosive therefore requiring specialized containers. The liquid titanium is poured through an Ames Laboratory - USDOE patented tube which is intended to increase the energy efficiency of the atomization process, which has the ability to dramatically decrease the cost of fine titanium powders. This novel process could open markets for green manufacturing of titanium components from jet engines to biomedical implants.

  2. Gelcasting compositions having improved drying characteristics and machinability

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Janney, Mark A.; Walls, Claudia A. H.

    2001-01-01

    A gelcasting composition has improved drying behavior, machinability and shelf life in the dried and unfired state. The composition includes an inorganic powder, solvent, monomer system soluble in the solvent, an initiator system for polymerizing the monomer system, and a plasticizer soluble in the solvent. Dispersants and other processing aides to control slurry properties can be added. The plasticizer imparts an ability to dry thick section parts, to store samples in the dried state without cracking under conditions of varying relative humidity, and to machine dry gelcast parts without cracking or chipping. A method of making gelcast parts is also disclosed.

  3. Study of in-duct spray drying using condensation aerosol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, W.J.R.; Chang, S.M.; Adikesavalu, R. )

    1992-06-01

    Sulfur removal efficiency of in-duct spray drying is limited by sorbent content and surface properties of the sorbent-water aerosol. It was the purpose of this study to improve the sulfur removal efficiency for in-duct spray drying by injecting condensation aerosol instead of conventional dispersion aerosol. The program was composed of three phases. In Phase I, a novel pulsed fluid bed feeder was developed and was used to feed hydrated lime for subsequent experiments. A small condensation aerosol generator was then built, which produces a lime-water condensation aerosol by condensing steam on lime particles. The results show that novel lime-water aerosols less than 10 microns were generated. The central task in Phase II was to simulate experimentally in-duct spray drying using condensation aerosols and compare the results with those using dispersion aerosols reported in the literature. A small entrained-flow reactor was constructed to simulate an in-duct spray dryer. The condensation aerosol was then introduced to the reactor at various approach to saturation temperature, calcium/sulfur stoichiometry and sulfur dioxide concentration for desulfurization study. The results show that we have improved the sulfur removal efficiency for in-duct spray drying to 90 percent or above. Thus we have met and exceeded the stated project goal of 70 percent sulfur removal. A comprehensive computer code was employed to calculate sulfur removal efficiency in Phase III.

  4. Inorganic ion sorbents and methods for using the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Teter, David M.; Brady, Patrick V.; Krumhansl, James L.

    2006-07-11

    A process and medium for decontamination of water containing anionic species including arsenic and chromium, wherein compounds comprising divalent and trivalent metal oxides and sulfides are used to form surface complexes with contaminants under pH conditions within the range of potable water. In one embodiment natural and synthetic spinels and spinel-like materials are used as the sorbent substance.

  5. Core-in-shell sorbent for hot coal gas desulfurization

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wheelock, Thomas D.; Akiti, Jr., Tetteh T.

    2004-02-10

    A core-in-shell sorbent is described herein. The core is reactive to the compounds of interest, and is preferably calcium-based, such as limestone for hot gas desulfurization. The shell is a porous protective layer, preferably inert, which allows the reactive core to remove the desired compounds while maintaining the desired physical characteristics to withstand the conditions of use.

  6. Method for synthesizing powder materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Buss, R.J.; Ho, P.

    1988-01-21

    A method for synthesizing ultrafine powder materials, for example, ceramic and metal powders, comprises admitting gaseous reactants from which the powder material is to be formed into a vacuum reaction chamber maintained at a pressure less than atmospheric and at a temperature less than about 400/degree/K (127/degree/C). The gaseous reactants are directed through a glow discharge provided in the vacuum reaction chamber to form the ultrafine powder material. 1 fig.

  7. Method to blend separator powders

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Guidotti, Ronald A.; Andazola, Arthur H.; Reinhardt, Frederick W.

    2007-12-04

    A method for making a blended powder mixture, whereby two or more powders are mixed in a container with a liquid selected from nitrogen or short-chain alcohols, where at least one of the powders has an angle of repose greater than approximately 50 degrees. The method is useful in preparing blended powders of Li halides and MgO for use in the preparation of thermal battery separators.

  8. Solid Sorbents for Removal of Carbon Dioxide from Gas Streams at Low Temperatures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sirwardane, Ranjani V.

    2005-06-21

    New low-cost CO2 sorbents are provided that can be used in large-scale gas-solid processes. A new method is provided for making these sorbents that involves treating substrates with an amine and/or an ether so that the amine and/or ether comprise at least 50 wt. percent of the sorbent. The sorbent acts by capturing compounds contained in gaseous fluids via chemisorption and/or physisorption between the unit layers of the substrate's lattice where the polar amine liquids and solids and/or polar ether liquids and solids are located. The method eliminates the need for high surface area supports and polymeric materials for the preparation of CO2 capture systems, and provides sorbents with absorption capabilities that are independent of the sorbents' surface areas. The sorbents can be regenerated by heating at temperatures in excess of 35 degrees C.

  9. Solid sorbents for removal of carbon dioxide from gas streams at low temperatures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sirwardane, Ranjani V.

    2005-06-21

    New low-cost CO.sub.2 sorbents are provided that can be used in large-scale gas-solid processes. A new method is provided for making these sorbents that involves treating substrates with an amine and/or an ether so that the amine and/or ether comprise at least 50 wt. percent of the sorbent. The sorbent acts by capturing compounds contained in gaseous fluids via chemisorption and/or physisorption between the unit layers of the substrate's lattice where the polar amine liquids and solids and/or polar ether liquids and solids are located. The method eliminates the need for high surface area supports and polymeric materials for the preparation of CO.sub.2 capture systems, and provides sorbents with absorption capabilities that are independent of the sorbents' surface areas. The sorbents can be regenerated by heating at temperatures in excess of 35.degree. C.

  10. Recovery of Rare Earths, Precious Metals and Other Critical Materials from Geothermal Waters with Advanced Sorbent Structures

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Pamela M. Kinsey

    2015-09-30

    The work evaluates, develops and demonstrates flexible, scalable mineral extraction technology for geothermal brines based upon solid phase sorbent materials with a specific focus upon rare earth elements (REEs). The selected organic and inorganic sorbent materials demonstrated high performance for collection of trace REEs, precious and valuable metals. The nanostructured materials typically performed better than commercially available sorbents. Data contains organic and inorganic sorbent removal efficiency, Sharkey Hot Springs (Idaho) water chemsitry analysis, and rare earth removal efficiency from select sorbents.

  11. Preparation of superconductor precursor powders

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bhattacharya, Raghunath

    1998-01-01

    A process for the preparation of a precursor metallic powder composition for use in the subsequent formation of a superconductor. The process comprises the steps of providing an electrodeposition bath comprising an electrolyte medium and a cathode substrate electrode, and providing to the bath one or more soluble salts of one or more respective metals which are capable of exhibiting superconductor properties upon subsequent appropriate treatment. The bath is continually energized to cause the metallic and/or reduced particles formed at the electrode to drop as a powder from the electrode into the bath, and this powder, which is a precursor powder for superconductor production, is recovered from the bath for subsequent treatment. The process permits direct inclusion of all metals in the preparation of the precursor powder, and yields an amorphous product mixed on an atomic scale to thereby impart inherent high reactivity. Superconductors which can be formed from the precursor powder include pellet and powder-in-tube products.

  12. Model for flue-gas desulfurization in a circulating dry scrubber

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neathery, J.K.

    1996-01-01

    A simple model was developed to describe the absorption of SO{sub 2} in a circulating dry scrubbing (CDS) process, which is a semi dry, lime-based, flue-gas desulfurization (FGD) process that utilizes a circulating fluidized bed arrangement for contacting a sorbent with SO{sub 2}-laden flue gas under coolside conditions. The reaction chemistry is thought to be similar to that of spray-drying absorption. The liquid-phase mass-transfer coefficient was successfully modeled as a function of the sorbent particle spacing on the wetted surfaces. Gas-phase mass-transfer resistances were assumed to be insignificant. Due to the high surface area available in a CDS reactor, the evaporation rate of water from the slurry was modeled as constant-rate drying according to classic spray-dryer theory. However, the falling-rate and diffusion evaporation stages were negligible in CDS since sorbent particle bunching at the surface of the slurry is nonexistent.

  13. Silicon nitride/silicon carbide composite powders

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dunmead, Stephen D.; Weimer, Alan W.; Carroll, Daniel F.; Eisman, Glenn A.; Cochran, Gene A.; Susnitzky, David W.; Beaman, Donald R.; Nilsen, Kevin J.

    1996-06-11

    Prepare silicon nitride-silicon carbide composite powders by carbothermal reduction of crystalline silica powder, carbon powder and, optionally, crystalline silicon nitride powder. The crystalline silicon carbide portion of the composite powders has a mean number diameter less than about 700 nanometers and contains nitrogen. The composite powders may be used to prepare sintered ceramic bodies and self-reinforced silicon nitride ceramic bodies.

  14. Process for preparing fine grain titanium carbide powder

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Janney, M.A.

    1985-03-12

    A method for preparing finely divided titanium carbide powder in which an organotitanate is reacted with a carbon precursor polymer to provide an admixture of the titanium and the polymer at a molecular level due to a crosslinking reaction between the organotitanate and the polymer. The resulting gel is dried, pyrolyzed to drive off volatile components and provide carbon. The resulting solids are then heated at an elevated temperature to convert the titanium and carbon to high-purity titanium carbide powder in a submicron size range.

  15. Process for preparing fine grain titanium carbide powder

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Janey, Mark A.

    1986-01-01

    A method for preparing finely divided titanium carbide powder in which an organotitanate is reacted with a carbon precursor polymer to provide an admixture of the titanium and the polymer at a molecular-level due to a crosslinking reaction between the organotitanate and the polymer. The resulting gel is dried, pyrolyzed to drive off volatile components and provide carbon. The resulting solids are then heated at an elevated temperature to convert the titanium and carbon to high-purity titanium carbide powder in a submicron size range.

  16. Hydrogen storage materials and method of making by dry homogenation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jensen, Craig M.; Zidan, Ragaiy A.

    2002-01-01

    Dry homogenized metal hydrides, in particular aluminum hydride compounds, as a material for reversible hydrogen storage is provided. The reversible hydrogen storage material comprises a dry homogenized material having transition metal catalytic sites on a metal aluminum hydride compound, or mixtures of metal aluminum hydride compounds. A method of making such reversible hydrogen storage materials by dry doping is also provided and comprises the steps of dry homogenizing metal hydrides by mechanical mixing, such as be crushing or ball milling a powder, of a metal aluminum hydride with a transition metal catalyst. In another aspect of the invention, a method of powering a vehicle apparatus with the reversible hydrogen storage material is provided.

  17. Sorbent utilization studies using a mini-pilot spray dryer. Final report, August 1, 1991--August 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keener, T.C.; Khang, S.J.; Wang, J.

    1992-10-01

    This report stems from a program supported by the Ohio Coal Development Office, that is part of a multi-task, multi-university effort concerned with developing and enhancing the efficiency of ``dry`` high-sulfur flue gas scrubbing processes using calcium based sorbents. The application of spray-drying flue gas desulfurization (FGD) to sources burning Ohio coal will depend on many factors, two of which are process simplicity and flexibility, and overall cost. The ability of the system to be able to handle variations in volumetric flow SO{sub 2} concentration, and even perhaps, new regulatory requirements imposed in the future are very important In addition, the amount and characteristics of the waste produced will be a major component in the operating costs of these systems. Spray-drying FGD has been shown to have a capital, cost advantage over conventional wet scrubbing, and the method has been proven to be comparatively simple and flexible. The major disadvantage is the inability of these systems to obtain high (> 90%) S0{sub 2} removal efficiencies on flue gas from high sulfur coal sources. This is the result of chemical mass transfer and thermal limitations imposed on these systems using calcium hydroxide in a slurry as the scrubbing agent. The project 1.5 has investigated a number of novel methods to improve the performance of these systems in a mini-pilot plant spray dryer facility. The objectives of project 1.5 were the following: Perform baseline parametric testing, study the effect of additives on reactivity, and perform sorbent recycle tests.

  18. Amine enriched solid sorbents for carbon dioxide capture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gray, McMahan L.; Soong, Yee; Champagne, Kenneth J.

    2003-04-15

    A new method for making low-cost CO.sub.2 sorbents that can be used in large-scale gas-solid processes. The new method entails treating a solid substrate with acid or base and simultaneous or subsequent treatment with a substituted amine salt. The method eliminates the need for organic solvents and polymeric materials for the preparation of CO.sub.2 capture systems.

  19. Licensing Agreement Moves Two NETL-Patented Carbon Capture Sorbents Closer

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    to Commercialization | Department of Energy Licensing Agreement Moves Two NETL-Patented Carbon Capture Sorbents Closer to Commercialization Licensing Agreement Moves Two NETL-Patented Carbon Capture Sorbents Closer to Commercialization March 23, 2011 - 1:00pm Addthis Washington, DC - Two new patented sorbents used for carbon dioxide (CO2) capture from coal-based power plants have moved closer to commercialization as a result of a licensing agreement between the Office of Fossil Energy's (FE)

  20. Layered solid sorbents for carbon dioxide capture (Patent) | SciTech

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Connect Patent: Layered solid sorbents for carbon dioxide capture Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Layered solid sorbents for carbon dioxide capture A solid sorbent for the capture and the transport of carbon dioxide gas is provided having at least one first layer of a positively charged material that is polyethylenimine or poly(allylamine hydrochloride), that captures at least a portion of the gas, and at least one second layer of a negatively charged material that is

  1. Organoclay Sorbent for Removal of Carbon Dioxide from Gas Streams at Low

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Temperatures - Energy Innovation Portal Organoclay Sorbent for Removal of Carbon Dioxide from Gas Streams at Low Temperatures National Energy Technology Laboratory Contact NETL About This Technology Publications: PDF Document Publication S-126827 (Organoclay Sorbent).pdf (292 KB) Technology Marketing Summary By incorporating amines inside clay containing quaternary ammonium salts (organoclay) minerals, this invention has created a way to prepare sorbents that capture carbon dioxide (CO2)

  2. NETL Patented CO2-Removal Sorbents Promise Power and Cost Savings |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy NETL Patented CO2-Removal Sorbents Promise Power and Cost Savings NETL Patented CO2-Removal Sorbents Promise Power and Cost Savings May 30, 2012 - 1:00pm Addthis Washington, DC - Carbon dioxide removal sorbents developed by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) could result in power and cost savings for users of some heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems under a recently signed license agreement. NETL, the

  3. Advanced Utility Mercury-Sorbent Field-Testing Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ronald Landreth

    2007-12-31

    This report summarizes the work conducted from September 1, 2003 through December 31, 2007 on the project entitled Advanced Utility Mercury-Sorbent Field-Testing Program. The project covers the testing at the Detroit Edison St. Clair Plant and the Duke Power Cliffside and Buck Stations. The St. Clair Plant used a blend of subbituminous and bituminous coal and controlled the particulate emissions by means of a cold-side ESP. The Duke Power Stations used bituminous coals and controlled their particulate emissions by means of hot-side ESPs. The testing at the Detroit Edison St. Clair Plant demonstrated that mercury sorbents could be used to achieve high mercury removal rates with low injection rates at facilities that burn subbituminous coal. A mercury removal rate of 94% was achieved at an injection rate of 3 lb/MMacf over the thirty day long-term test. Prior to this test, it was believed that the mercury in flue gas of this type would be the most difficult to capture. This is not the case. The testing at the two Duke Power Stations proved that carbon- based mercury sorbents can be used to control the mercury emissions from boilers with hot-side ESPs. It was known that plain PACs did not have any mercury capacity at elevated temperatures but that brominated B-PAC did. The mercury removal rate varies with the operation but it appears that mercury removal rates equal to or greater than 50% are achievable in facilities equipped with hot-side ESPs. As part of the program, both sorbent injection equipment and sorbent production equipment was acquired and operated. This equipment performed very well during this program. In addition, mercury instruments were acquired for this program. These instruments worked well in the flue gas at the St. Clair Plant but not as well in the flue gas at the Duke Power Stations. It is believed that the difference in the amount of oxidized mercury, more at Duke Power, was the difference in instrument performance. Much of the equipment was purchased used and all of the equipment has nearly reached the end of its useful service.

  4. Attrition resistant catalysts and sorbents based on heavy metal poisoned FCC catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gangwal, Santosh (Cary, NC); Jothimurugesan, Kandaswamy (Hampton, VA)

    1999-01-01

    A heavy metal poisoned, spent FCC catalyst is treated by chemically impregnating the poisoned catalyst with a new catalytic metal or metal salt to provide an attrition resistant catalyst or sorbent for a different catalytic or absorption processes, such as catalysts for Fischer-Tropsh Synthesis, and sorbents for removal of sulfur gasses from fuel gases and flue-gases. The heavy metal contaminated FCC catalyst is directly used as a support for preparing catalysts having new catalytic properties and sorbents having new sorbent properties, without removing or "passivating" the heavy metals on the spent FCC catalyst as an intermediate step.

  5. A fine-fiber filled polymer as an effective sorbent of acid vapors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Samsonov, D.P.; Golovkin, A.V.; Gordeev, Y.M.

    1985-11-01

    This paper studies a polymeric ultrafine-fiber material with fibers filled with an inorganic hydroxide capable of binding acid vapors. This material can be an efficient sorbent if the polymer matrix does not exhibit significant diffusion resistance when the reagents enter the volume of the fiber. The sorbent efficiently works in conditions of low moisture. The capacity of the sorbent with respect to HC1 is greater than 30 wt. %. Efficient purification of gases can be conducted on thin beds of the sorbent, and the length of the working bed does not exceed 0.1-0.3 cm.

  6. Attrition resistant catalysts and sorbents based on heavy metal poisoned FCC catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gangwal, S.; Jothimurugesan, K.

    1999-07-27

    A heavy metal poisoned, spent FCC catalyst is treated by chemically impregnating the poisoned catalyst with a new catalytic metal or metal salt to provide an attrition resistant catalyst or sorbent for a different catalytic or absorption process, such as catalysts for Fischer-Tropsh Synthesis, and sorbents for removal of sulfur gases from fuel gases and flue-gases. The heavy metal contaminated FCC catalyst is directly used as a support for preparing catalysts having new catalytic properties and sorbents having new sorbent properties, without removing or passivating the heavy metals on the spent FCC catalyst as an intermediate step.

  7. Aqueous slip casting of stabilized AlN powders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Groat, E.A.; Mroz, T.J. )

    1994-11-01

    Because of the interest in aluminum nitride (AlN) for various refractory and structural applications, methods are required to cost-effectively process a water-sensitive material into the required shapes. The existence of water-resistant AlN powders has allowed the consideration of aqueous processing of a material that previously required solvent-based formulation. The composition and procedures developed for aqueous slip-casting water-resistant AlN powders provide a manufacturing route for the fabrication of large and complex geometries. Technology to create aqueous dispersions of these powders also potentially enables other manufacturing processes, such as extrusion and spray drying, to utilize the cost advantages of aqueous processing.

  8. Method and apparatus for the production of metal oxide powder

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Harris, Michael T. (Knoxville, TN); Scott, Timothy C. (Knoxville, TN); Byers, Charles H. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1992-01-01

    The present invention provides a method for preparing metal oxide powder. A first solution, which is substantially organic, is prepared. A second solution, which is an aqueous solution substantially immiscible in the first solution, is prepared and delivered as drops to the first solution. The drops of the second solution are atomized by a pulsed electric field forming micro-drops of the second solution. Reagents in the first solution diffuse into and react with reactants in the micro-drops of the second solution forming metal hydroxide or oxalate particles. The metal hydroxide or metal oxalate particles are then recovered and dried to produce the metal oxide powder. An apparatus for preparing a metal oxide powder is also disclosed.

  9. Method and apparatus for the production of metal oxide powder

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Harris, Michael T. (Knoxville, TN); Scott, Timothy C. (Knoxville, TN); Byers, Charles H. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1993-01-01

    The present invention provides a method for preparing metal oxide powder. A first solution, which is substantially organic, is prepared. A second solution, which is an aqueous solution substantially immiscible in the first solution, is prepared and delivered as drops to the first solution. The drops of the second solution are atomized by a pulsed electric field forming micro-drops of the second solution. Reagents in the first solution diffuse into and react with reactants in the micro-drops of the second solution forming metal hydroxide or oxalate particles. The metal hydroxide or metal oxalate particles are then recovered and dried to produce the metal oxide powder. An apparatus for preparing a metal oxide powder is also disclosed.

  10. Method and apparatus for the production of metal oxide powder

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Harris, M.T.; Scott, T.C.; Byers, C.H.

    1992-06-16

    The present invention provides a method for preparing metal oxide powder. A first solution, which is substantially organic, is prepared. A second solution, which is an aqueous solution substantially immiscible in the first solution, is prepared and delivered as drops to the first solution. The drops of the second solution are atomized by a pulsed electric field forming micro-drops of the second solution. Reagents in the first solution diffuse into and react with reactants in the micro-drops of the second solution forming metal hydroxide or oxalate particles. The metal hydroxide or metal oxalate particles are then recovered and dried to produce the metal oxide powder. An apparatus for preparing a metal oxide powder is also disclosed. 2 figs.

  11. Mesoporous-silica films, fibers, and powders by evaporation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bruinsma, P.J.; Baskaran, S.; Bontha, J.R.; Liu, J.

    1999-07-13

    This invention pertains to surfactant-templated nanometer-scale porosity of a silica precursor solution and forming a mesoporous material by first forming the silica precursor solution into a preform having a high surface area to volume ratio, then rapid drying or evaporating a solvent from the silica precursor solution. The mesoporous material may be in any geometric form, but is preferably in the form of a film, fiber, powder or combinations thereof. The rapid drying or evaporation of solvent from the solution is accomplished by layer thinning, for example spin casting, liquid drawing, and liquid spraying respectively. Production of a film is by layer thinning, wherein a layer of the silica precursor solution is formed on a surface followed by removal of an amount of the silica precursor solution and leaving a geometrically thinner layer of the silica precursor solution from which the solvent quickly escapes via evaporation. Layer thinning may be by any method including but not limited to squeegeeing and/or spin casting. In powder formation by spray drying, the same conditions of fast drying exists as in spin-casting (as well as in fiber spinning) because of the high surface-area to volume ratio of the product. When a powder is produced by liquid spraying, the particles or micro-bubbles within the powder are hollow spheres with walls composed of mesoporous silica. Mesoporous fiber formation starts with a similar silica precursor solution but with an added pre-polymer making a pituitous mixture that is drawn into a thin strand from which solvent is evaporated leaving the mesoporous fiber(s). 24 figs.

  12. Mesoporous-silica films, fibers, and powders by evaporation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bruinsma, Paul J.; Baskaran, Suresh; Bontha, Jagannadha R.; Liu, Jun

    2008-05-06

    This invention pertains to surfactant-templated nanometer-scale porosity of a silica precursor solution and forming a mesoporous material by first forming the silica precursor solution into a preform having a high surface area to volume ratio, then rapid drying or evaporating a solvent from the silica precursor solution. The mesoporous material may be in any geometric form, but is preferably in the form of a film, fiber, powder or combinations thereof. The rapid drying or evaporation of solvent from the solution is accomplished by layer thinning, for example spin casting, liquid drawing, and liquid spraying respectively. Production of a film is by layer thinning, wherein a layer of the silica precursor solution is formed on a surface followed by removal of an amount of the silica precursor solution and leaving a geometrically thinner layer of the silica precursor solution from which the solvent quickly escapes via evaporation. Layer thinning may be by any method including but not limited to squeegeeing and/or spin casting. In powder formation by spray drying, the same conditions of fast drying exists as in spin-casting (as well as in fiber spinning) because of the high surface-area to volume ratio of the product. When a powder is produced by liquid spraying, the particles or micro-bubbles within the powder are hollow spheres with walls composed of mesoporous silica. Mesoporous fiber formation starts with a similar silica precursor solution but with an added pre-polymer making a pituitous mixture that is drawn into a thin strand from which solvent is evaporated leaving the mesoporous fiber(s).

  13. Mesoporous-silica films, fibers, and powders by evaporation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bruinsma, Paul J.; Baskaran, Suresh; Bontha, Jagannadha R.; Liu, Jun

    1999-01-01

    This invention pertains to surfactant-templated nanometer-scale porosity of a silica precursor solution and forming a mesoporous material by first forming the silica precursor solution into a preform having a high surface area to volume ratio, then rapid drying or evaporating a solvent from the silica precursor solution. The mesoporous material may be in any geometric form, but is preferably in the form of a film, fiber, powder or combinations thereof. The rapid drying or evaporation of solvent from the solution is accomplished by layer thinning, for example spin casting, liquid drawing, and liquid spraying respectively. Production of a film is by layer thinning, wherein a layer of the silica precursor solution is formed on a surface followed by removal of an amount of the silica precursor solution and leaving a geometrically thinner layer of the silica precursor solution from which the solvent quickly escapes via evaporation. Layer thinning may be by any method including but not limited to squeegeeing and/or spin casting. In powder formation by spray drying, the same conditions of fast drying exists as in spin-casting (as well as in fiber spinning) because of the high surface-area to volume ratio of the product. When a powder is produced by liquid spraying, the particles or micro-bubbles within the powder are hollow spheres with walls composed of mesoporous silica. Mesoporous fiber formation starts with a similar silica precursor solution but with an added pre-polymer making a pituitous mixture that is drawn into a thin strand from which solvent is evaporated leaving the mesoporous fiber(s).

  14. Iowa Powder Atomization Technologies, Inc.

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Iowa Powder Atomization Technologies, Inc. (IPAT), based in Nevada, Iowa, is using gas atomization technology developed at Ames Laboratory to make titanium powder with processes that are ten times more efficient than traditional powder-making methods — significantly lowering the cost of the powder to manufacturers. The powder form of titanium is easier to work with than having to cast the metal — where manufacturers melt and pour liquid metal into molds — particularly given titanium’s tendency to react with the materials used to form molds. Titanium’s strength, light weight, biocompatibility and resistance to corrosion make it ideal for use in a variety of parts — from components for artificial limbs — like those used by wounded veterans returning from Iraq and Afghanistan — to military vehicle components, biomedical implants, aerospace fasteners and chemical plant valves.

  15. Method for producing microcomposite powders using a soap solution

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maginnis, Michael A.; Robinson, David A.

    1996-01-01

    A method for producing microcomposite powders for use in superconducting and non-superconducting applications. A particular method to produce microcomposite powders for use in superconducting applications includes the steps of: (a) preparing a solution including ammonium soap; (b) dissolving a preselected amount of a soluble metallic such as silver nitrate in the solution including ammonium soap to form a first solution; (c) adding a primary phase material such as a single phase YBC superconducting material in particle form to the first solution; (d) preparing a second solution formed from a mixture of a weak acid and an alkyl-mono-ether; (e) adding the second solution to the first solution to form a resultant mixture; (f) allowing the resultant mixture to set until the resultant mixture begins to cloud and thicken into a gel precipitating around individual particles of the primary phase material; (g) thereafter drying the resultant mixture to form a YBC superconducting material/silver nitrate precursor powder; and (h) calcining the YBC superconducting material/silver nitrate precursor powder to convert the silver nitrate to silver and thereby form a YBC/silver microcomposite powder wherein the silver is substantially uniformly dispersed in the matrix of the YBC material.

  16. Preparation of superconductor precursor powders

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bhattacharya, Raghunath; Blaugher, Richard D.

    1995-01-01

    A process for the preparation of a precursor metallic powder composition for use in the subsequent formation of a superconductor. The process comprises the steps of providing an electrodeposition bath comprising an electrolyte medium and a cathode substrate electrode, and providing to the bath one or more soluble salts of one or more respective metals, such as nitrate salts of thallium, barium, calcium, and copper, which are capable of exhibiting superconductor properties upon subsequent appropriate treatment. The bath is continually energized to cause the metallic particles formed at the electrode to drop as a powder from the electrode into the bath, and this powder, which is a precursor powder for superconductor production, is recovered from the bath for subsequent treatment. The process permits direct inclusion of thallium in the preparation of the precursor powder, and yields an amorphous product mixed on an atomic scale to thereby impart inherent high reactivity. Superconductors which can be formed from the precursor powder include pellet and powder-in-tube products.

  17. Preparation of superconductor precursor powders

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bhattacharya, R.

    1998-08-04

    A process for the preparation of a precursor metallic powder composition for use in the subsequent formation of a superconductor. The process comprises the steps of providing an electrodeposition bath comprising an electrolyte medium and a cathode substrate electrode, and providing to the bath one or more soluble salts of one or more respective metals which are capable of exhibiting superconductor properties upon subsequent appropriate treatment. The bath is continually energized to cause the metallic and/or reduced particles formed at the electrode to drop as a powder from the electrode into the bath, and this powder, which is a precursor powder for superconductor production, is recovered from the bath for subsequent treatment. The process permits direct inclusion of all metals in the preparation of the precursor powder, and yields an amorphous product mixed on an atomic scale to thereby impart inherent high reactivity. Superconductors which can be formed from the precursor powder include pellet and powder-in-tube products. 7 figs.

  18. Dry borax applicator operator's manual.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karsky, Richard, J.

    1999-01-01

    Annosum root rot affects conifers throughout the Northern Hemisphere, infecting their roots and eventually killing the trees. The fungus Heterobasidion annosum causes annosum root rot. The fungus colonizes readily on freshly cut stumps. Partially cut stands have a high risk of infestation because the fungus can colonize on each of the stumps and potentially infect the neighboring trees. Wind and rain carry the annosum spores. Spores that land on freshly cut stumps grow down the stump's root system where they can infect living trees through root grafts or root contacts. Once annosum becomes established, it can remain active for many years in the Southern United States and for several decades in the north. About 7% of the trees that become infected die. When thinning, stumps can be treated successfully using a competing fungus, Phlebia gigantea, and with ''Tim-Bor'' in liquid formulations. These liquid products are no longer approved in the United States. Only the dry powder form is registered and approved by the EPA. Stumps can be treated with a dry formula of borax, (Sporax), significantly reducing one of the primary routes by which Heterobasidion annosum infects a stand of trees. Sporax is used by the USDA Forest Service to control annosum root rot. Sporax is now applied by hand, but once the felled trees are skidded it becomes very hard to locate the stumps. A stump applicator will reduce error, labor costs, and hazards to workers.

  19. Low Temperature Sorbents for Removal of Sulfur Compounds from Fluid Feed Streams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Siriwardane, Ranjani

    2004-06-01

    A sorbent material is provided comprising a material reactive with sulfur, a binder unreactive with sulfur and an inert material, wherein the sorbent absorbs the sulfur at temperatures between 30 and 200 C. Sulfur absorption capacity as high as 22 weight percent has been observed with these materials.

  20. Method for molding ceramic powders

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Janney, Mark A.

    1990-01-01

    A method for molding ceramic powders comprises forming a slurry mixture including ceramic powder, a dispersant for the metal-containing powder, and a monomer solution. The monomer solution includes at least one multifunctional monomer, a free-radical initiator, and an organic solvent. The slurry mixture is transferred to a mold, and the mold containing the slurry mixture is heated to polymerize and crosslink the monomer and form a firm polymer-solvent gel matrix. The solid product may be removed from the mold and heated to first remove the solvent and subsequently remove the polymer, whereafter the product may be sintered.

  1. Method for molding ceramic powders

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Janney, M.A.

    1990-01-16

    A method for molding ceramic powders comprises forming a slurry mixture including ceramic powder, a dispersant for the metal-containing powder, and a monomer solution. The monomer solution includes at least one multifunctional monomer, a free-radical initiator, and an organic solvent. The slurry mixture is transferred to a mold, and the mold containing the slurry mixture is heated to polymerize and crosslink the monomer and form a firm polymer-solvent gel matrix. The solid product may be removed from the mold and heated to first remove the solvent and subsequently remove the polymer, where after the product may be sintered.

  2. Method for reducing sulfate formation during regeneration of hot-gas desulfurization sorbents

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bissett, Larry A. (Morgantown, WV); Strickland, Larry D. (Morgantown, WV); Rockey, John M. (Westover, WV)

    1994-01-01

    The regeneration of sulfur sorbents having sulfate forming tendencies and used for desulfurizing hot product gas streams such as provided by coal gasification is provided by employing a two-stage regeneration method. Air containing a sub-stoichiometric quantity of oxygen is used in the first stage for substantially fully regenerating the sorbent without sulfate formation and then regeneration of the resulting partially regenerated sorbent is completed in the second stage with air containing a quantity of oxygen slightly greater than the stoichiometric amount adequate to essentially fully regenerate the sorbent. Sulfate formation occurs in only the second stage with the extent of sulfate formation being limited only to the portion of the sulfur species contained by the sorbent after substantially all of the sulfur species have been removed therefrom in the first stage.

  3. Rotary powder feed through apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lewis, Gary K. (Los Alamos, NM); Less, Richard M. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2001-01-01

    A device for increasing the uniformity of solids within a solids fabrication system, such as a direct light fabrication (DLF) system in which gas entrained powders are passed through the focal point of a moving high-power light which fuses the particles in the powder to a surface being built up in layers. The invention provides a feed through interface wherein gas entrained powders input from stationary input lines are coupled to a rotating head of the fabrication system. The invention eliminates the need to provide additional slack in the feed lines to accommodate head rotation, and therefore reduces feed line bending movements which induce non-uniform feeding of gas entrained powder to a rotating head.

  4. Two-stage regeneration of zinc ferrite desulfurization sorbent

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jha, M.C.; Berggren, M.H.

    1988-06-28

    The Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) of the US Department of Energy (DOE) is interested in the potential of using a two-step process for regenerating the zinc ferrite desulfurization sorbent. In the first regeneration step, a gas mixture consisting of 12 percent SO{sub 2}, 2 percent O{sub 2}, and 86 percent N{sub 2} is used to convert zinc and iron sulfides to their sulfate forms using a sorbent bed inlet temperature of about 850{degrees}F (454{degrees}C). For the second step, the temperature is raised to about 1400{degrees}F (760{degrees}C), and the sulfates are decomposed to oxides with the concurrent release of sulfur dioxide. The same gas composition used for first step is also used for the second step. The proposed technique would require no steam and also has the advantage of producing a regeneration gas rich in sulfur dioxide. In a commercial operation, recirculating regeneration gas would be supplemented with air as required to supply the necessary oxygen. A bleed stream from regeneration (concentrated SO{sub 2} gas in nitrogen) would constitute feed to sulfur recovery.

  5. Neutron detectors comprising boron powder

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang, Zhehui; Morris, Christopher; Bacon, Jeffrey Darnell; Makela, Mark F; Spaulding, Randy Jay

    2013-05-21

    High-efficiency neutron detector substrate assemblies comprising a first conductive substrate, wherein a first side of the substrate is in direct contact with a first layer of a powder material comprising .sup.10boron, .sup.10boron carbide or combinations thereof, and wherein a conductive material is in proximity to the first layer of powder material; and processes of making said neutron detector substrate assemblies.

  6. Powder collection apparatus/method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, I.E.; Terpstra, R.L.; Moore, J.A.

    1994-01-11

    Device for separating and collecting ultrafine atomized powder from the gas stream of a gas atomizing apparatus comprises a housing having an interior wall oriented at an angle relative to horizontal so as to form a downwardly converging, conical expansion chamber, an inlet conduit communicated to the expansion chamber proximate an upper region thereof for receiving the gas stream, and an outlet proximate a lower region of the expansion chamber. The inlet conduit is oriented at a compound inclined angle (with respect to horizontal) selected to promote separation and collection of powder from the gas stream in the expansion chamber. The compound angle comprises a first entrance angle that is greater than the angle of repose of the powder on the housing interior wall such that any powder accumulation in the inlet conduit tends to flow down the wall toward the outlet. The second angle is selected generally equal to the angle of the housing interior wall measured from the same horizontal plane so as to direct the gas stream into the expansion chamber generally tangent to the housing interior wall to establish a downward swirling gas stream flow in the expansion chamber. A powder collection container is communicated to the outlet of the expansion chamber to collect the powder for further processing. 4 figures.

  7. Methods and sorbents for utilizing a hot-side electrostatic precipitator for removal of mercury from combustion gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nelson, Sidney

    2011-02-15

    Methods are provided for reducing emission of mercury from a gas stream by treating the gas with carbonaceous mercury sorbent particles to reduce the mercury content of the gas; collecting the carbonaceous mercury sorbent particles on collection plates of a hot-side ESP; periodically rapping the collection plates to release a substantial portion of the collected carbonaceous mercury sorbent particles into hoppers; and periodically emptying the hoppers, wherein such rapping and emptying are done at rates such that less than 70% of mercury adsorbed onto the mercury sorbent desorbs from the collected mercury sorbent into the gas stream.

  8. Ceramic oxide powders and the formation thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Katz, Joseph L.; Hung, Cheng-Hung

    1993-01-01

    Ceramic oxide powders and a method for their preparation. Ceramic oxide powders are obtained using a flame process whereby two or more precursors of ceramic oxides are introduced into a counterflow diffusion flame burner wherein said precursors are converted into ceramic oxide powders. The morphology, particle size, and crystalline form of the ceramic oxide powders are determined by process conditions.

  9. Ceramic oxide powders and the formation thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Katz, J.L.; Chenghung Hung.

    1993-12-07

    Ceramic oxide powders and a method for their preparation. Ceramic oxide powders are obtained using a flame process whereby two or more precursors of ceramic oxides are introduced into a counterflow diffusion flame burner wherein said precursors are converted into ceramic oxide powders. The morphology, particle size, and crystalline form of the ceramic oxide powders are determined by process conditions. 14 figures.

  10. Second survey of dry SO/sub 2/ control systems. Final report Mar-Sep 80

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kelly, M.E.; Shareef, S.A.

    1981-02-01

    The report is an updated assessment of dry flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. Current and recently completed research, development, and commercial activities in the U.S. since October 1979, are reviewed including: (1) spray dryers with a fabric filter or an electrostatic precipitator (ESP), (2) dry injection of alkaline material into flue gas combined with particulate collection in an ESP or fabric filter, and (3) combustion of coal/alkali fuel mixtures. Spray drying remains the only commercially applied dry FGD process. Since the last survey, completed late in 1979, eight utility and two industrial spray drying systems have been sold. Nine of them use lime as the sorbent, and nine use a fabric filter for particulate collection. Removal guarantees for so/sub 2/ range from 62 to 85%, depending on coal sulfur content. Two full-scale industrial spray drying systems are currently operating. The first large utility system is scheduled for startup early in 1981. Several publicly and privately funded pilot-scale programs have been completed in the past year. EPA is currently funding three such programs (two spray drying and one dry injection), as well as development of two combustion modification processes for SO2 control (combustion of coal/limestone pellets and of a pulverized coal/alkali mixture in a low-NOx burner). The DoE and others are studying dry injection on a pilot scale.

  11. Dephosphorization when using DRI

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2005-09-21

    The increase in high quality steel production in electric arc furnaces (EAFs) requires the use of scrap substitute materials, such as Direct Reduced Iron (DRI) and Hot Briquetted Iron (HBI). Although DRI and HBI products have lower copper and nickel contents than most scrap materials, they can contain up to ten times more phosphorus. This project, led by Carnegie Mellon Universitys Center for Iron and Steelmaking Research, improves the understanding of how phosphorus behaves when DRI and HBI melt.

  12. High-temperature sorbent method for removal of sulfur-containing gases from gaseous mixtures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Young, J.E.; Jalan, V.M.

    1982-07-07

    A copper oxide-zinc oxide mixture is used as a sorbent for removing hydrogen sulfide and other sulfur containing gases at high temperatures from a gaseous fuel mixture. This high-temperature sorbent is especially useful for preparing fuel gases for high temperature fuel cells. The copper oxide is initially reduced in a preconditioning step to elemental copper and is present in a highly dispersed state throughout the zinc oxide which serves as a support as well as adding to the sulfur sorbtion capacity. The spent sorbent is regenerated by high-temperature treatment with an air fuel, air steam mixture followed by hydrogen reduction to remove and recover the sulfur.

  13. High-temperature sorbent method for removal of sulfur containing gases from gaseous mixtures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Young, John E.; Jalan, Vinod M.

    1984-01-01

    A copper oxide-zinc oxide mixture is used as a sorbent for removing hydrogen sulfide and other sulfur containing gases at high temperatures from a gaseous fuel mixture. This high-temperature sorbent is especially useful for preparing fuel gases for high temperature fuel cells. The copper oxide is initially reduced in a preconditioning step to elemental copper and is present in a highly dispersed state throughout the zinc oxide which serves as a support as well as adding to the sulfur sorption capacity. The spent sorbent is regenerated by high-temperature treatment with an air fuel, air steam mixture followed by hydrogen reduction to remove and recover the sulfur.

  14. Novel Sorbent to Clean Biogas for Fuel Cell Combined Heat and Power - Fact

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Sheet, 2015 | Department of Energy Sorbent to Clean Biogas for Fuel Cell Combined Heat and Power - Fact Sheet, 2015 Novel Sorbent to Clean Biogas for Fuel Cell Combined Heat and Power - Fact Sheet, 2015 TDA Research Inc., in collaboration with FuelCell Energy, is developing a new, high-capacity sorbent to remove sulfur from anaerobic digester gas. This technology will enable the production of a nearly sulfur-free biogas to replace natural gas in fuel cell power plants while reducing

  15. High-temperature sorbent method for removal of sulfur containing gases from gaseous mixtures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Young, J.E.; Jalan, V.M.

    1984-06-19

    A copper oxide-zinc oxide mixture is used as a sorbent for removing hydrogen sulfide and other sulfur containing gases at high temperatures from a gaseous fuel mixture. This high-temperature sorbent is especially useful for preparing fuel gases for high temperature fuel cells. The copper oxide is initially reduced in a preconditioning step to elemental copper and is present in a highly dispersed state throughout the zinc oxide which serves as a support as well as adding to the sulfur sorption capacity. The spent sorbent is regenerated by high-temperature treatment with an air fuel, air steam mixture followed by hydrogen reduction to remove and recover the sulfur.

  16. Regenerable immobilized aminosilane sorbents for carbon dioxide capture applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gay, McMahan; Choi, Sunho; Jones, Christopher W

    2014-09-16

    A method for the separation of carbon dioxide from ambient air and flue gases is provided wherein a phase separating moiety with a second moiety are simultaneously coupled and bonded onto an inert substrate to create a mixture which is subsequently contacted with flue gases or ambient air. The phase-separating moiety is an amine whereas the second moiety is an aminosilane, or a Group 4 propoxide such as titanium (IV) propoxide (tetrapropyl orthotitanate, C.sub.12H.sub.28O.sub.4Ti). The second moiety makes the phase-separating moiety insoluble in the pores of the inert substrate. The new sorbents have a high carbon dioxide loading capacity and considerable stability over hundreds of cycles. The synthesis method is readily scalable for commercial and industrial production.

  17. PROCESS OF FORMING POWDERED MATERIAL

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Glatter, J.; Schaner, B.E.

    1961-07-14

    A process of forming high-density compacts of a powdered ceramic material is described by agglomerating the powdered ceramic material with a heat- decompossble binder, adding a heat-decompossble lubricant to the agglomerated material, placing a quantity of the material into a die cavity, pressing the material to form a compact, pretreating the compacts in a nonoxidizing atmosphere to remove the binder and lubricant, and sintering the compacts. When this process is used for making nuclear reactor fuel elements, the ceramic material is an oxide powder of a fissionsble material and after forming, the compacts are placed in a cladding tube which is closed at its ends by vapor tight end caps, so that the sintered compacts are held in close contact with each other and with the interior wall of the cladding tube.

  18. Surface modification of silicon nitride powder with aluminum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Han, K.R.; Lim, C.S.; Hong, M.J.; Choi, S.K.; Kwon, S.H.

    1996-02-01

    Surface modification of Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} with alumina was tried. It was achieved by simply mixing Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} powder with an alumina sol up to {approximately}2 wt% as alumina in an aqueous medium, dried, and followed by calcination at 400 C for 1 h. A TEM micrograph showed a coating layer of {approximately} 15 nm thickness. The isoelectric point of the modified Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} powder with porous alumina was at 0H 7.8, which is different from 5.8 and 8.6 for Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} and amorphous alumina, respectively.

  19. Zinc-oxide-based sorbents and processes for preparing and using same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gangwal, Santosh Kumar; Turk, Brian Scott; Gupta, Raghubir Prasael

    2010-03-23

    Zinc oxide-based sorbents, and processes for preparing and using them are provided. The sorbents are preferably used to remove one or more reduced sulfur species from gas streams. The sorbents comprise an active zinc component, optionally in combination with one or more promoter components and/or one or more substantially inert components. The active zinc component is a two phase material, consisting essentially of a zinc oxide (ZnO) phase and a zinc aluminate (ZnAl.sub.2O.sub.4) phase. Each of the two phases is characterized by a relatively small crystallite size of typically less than about 500 Angstroms. Preferably the sorbents are prepared by converting a precursor mixture, comprising a precipitated zinc oxide precursor and a precipitated aluminum oxide precursor, to the two-phase, active zinc oxide containing component.

  20. Zinc oxide-based sorbents and processes for preparing and using same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gangwal, Santosh Kumar; Turk, Brian Scott; Gupta, Raghubir Prasad

    2005-10-04

    Zinc oxide-based sorbents, and processes for preparing and using them are provided, wherein the sorbents are preferably used to remove one or more reduced sulfur species from gas streams. The sorbents contain an active zinc component, optionally in combination with one or more promoter components and/or one or more substantially inert components. The active zinc component is a two phase material, consisting essentially of a zinc oxide (ZnO) phase and a zinc aluminate (ZnAl.sub.2 O.sub.4) phase. Each of the two phases is characterized by a relatively small crystallite size of typically less than about 500 Angstroms. Preferably the sorbents are prepared by converting a precursor mixture, containing a precipitated zinc oxide precursor and a precipitated aluminum oxide precursor, to the two-phase, active zinc oxide containing component.

  1. Novel Sorbent Achieves 90 Percent Carbon Capture in DOE-Sponsored Test

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The successful bench-scale test of a novel carbon dioxide capturing sorbent promises to further advance the process as a possible technological option for reducing CO2 emissions from coal-fired power plants.

  2. Spray-dryer spent-sorbent hazardous-waste fixating and cementitious properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schultz, T.D.; Berger, R.L.; Fishbein, K.

    1989-03-01

    The primary purpose of the project was to develop a use for the spent sorbent from a spray dryer flue gas desulfurization system. In addition to spent sorbent, fly ash was included in the utilization schemes because it is a byproduct of coal combustion and because it is a pozzolan. It would be helpful to find uses for these two substances and thus decrease the amount of land needed for their disposal and help offset the costs of flue gas desulfurization.

  3. Iodine Sorbent Performance in FY 2012 Deep Bed Tests (Technical Report) |

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    SciTech Connect Iodine Sorbent Performance in FY 2012 Deep Bed Tests Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Iodine Sorbent Performance in FY 2012 Deep Bed Tests Nuclear fission results in the production of fission products and activation products, some of which tend to be volatile during used fuel reprocessing and evolve in gaseous species into the reprocessing facility off-gas systems. Analyses have shown that I-129, due to its radioactivity, high potential mobility in the environment,

  4. Sorbents for the oxidation and removal of mercury (Patent) | SciTech

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Connect Sorbents for the oxidation and removal of mercury Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Sorbents for the oxidation and removal of mercury × You are accessing a document from the Department of Energy's (DOE) SciTech Connect. This site is a product of DOE's Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) and is provided as a public service. Visit OSTI to utilize additional information resources in energy science and technology. A paper copy of this document is also

  5. Sorbents for the oxidation and removal of mercury (Patent) | SciTech

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Connect Sorbents for the oxidation and removal of mercury Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Sorbents for the oxidation and removal of mercury × You are accessing a document from the Department of Energy's (DOE) SciTech Connect. This site is a product of DOE's Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) and is provided as a public service. Visit OSTI to utilize additional information resources in energy science and technology. A paper copy of this document is also

  6. Ab initio thermodynamic approach to identify mixed solid sorbents for CO2

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    capture technology (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Journal Article: Ab initio thermodynamic approach to identify mixed solid sorbents for CO2 capture technology Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Ab initio thermodynamic approach to identify mixed solid sorbents for CO2 capture technology Because the current technologies for capturing CO2 are still too energy intensive, new materials must be developed that can capture CO2 reversibly with acceptable energy costs. At a given CO2

  7. Ranking low cost sorbents for mercury capture from simulated flue gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    H. Revata Seneviratne; Cedric Charpenteau; Anthe George; Marcos Millan; Denis R. Dugwell; Rafael Kandiyoti

    2007-12-15

    Coal fired utility boilers are the largest anthropogenic source of mercury release to the atmosphere, and mercury abatement legislation is already in place in the USA. The present study aimed to rank low cost mercury sorbents (char and activated carbon from the pyrolysis of scrap tire rubber and two coal fly ashes from UK power plants) against Norit Darco HgTM for mercury retention by using a novel bench-scale reactor. In this scheme, a fixed sorbent bed was tested for mercury capture efficiency from a simulated flue gas stream. Experiments with a gas stream of only mercury and nitrogen showed that while the coal ashes were the most effective in mercury capture, char from the pyrolysis of scrap tire rubber was as effective as the commercial sorbent Norit Darco HgTM. Tests conducted at 150{sup o}C, with a simulated flue gas mix that included N{sub 2}, NO, NO{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, O{sub 2}, SO{sub 2} and HCl, showed that all the sorbents captured approximately 100% of the mercury in the gas stream. The introduction of NO and NO{sub 2} was found to significantly improve the mercury capture, possibly by reactions between NOx and the mercury. Since the sorbents' efficiency decreased with increasing test temperature, physical sorption could be the initial step in the mercury capture process. As the sorbents were only exposed to 64 ng of mercury in the gas stream, the mercury loadings on the samples were significantly less than their equilibrium capacities. The larger capacities of the activated carbons due to their more microporous structure were therefore not utilized. Although the sorbents have been characterized by BET surface area analysis and XRD analysis, further analysis is needed in order to obtain a more conclusive correlation of how the characteristics of the different sorbents correlate with the observed variations in mercury capture ability. 34 refs., 8 figs., 6 tabs.

  8. Parametric study for an immobilized amine sorbent in a regenerative carbon

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    dioxide capture process (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Journal Article: Parametric study for an immobilized amine sorbent in a regenerative carbon dioxide capture process Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Parametric study for an immobilized amine sorbent in a regenerative carbon dioxide capture process Authors: Hoffman, James S. ; Hammache, Sonia ; Gray, McMahan L. ; Fauth, Daniel J. ; Pennline, Henry W. Publication Date: 2014-10-01 OSTI Identifier: 1168807 Report Number(s):

  9. Deep Bed Iodine Sorbent Testing FY 2011 Report (Technical Report) | SciTech

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Connect Deep Bed Iodine Sorbent Testing FY 2011 Report Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Deep Bed Iodine Sorbent Testing FY 2011 Report Nuclear fission results in the production of fission products (FPs) and activation products that increasingly interfere with the fission process as their concentrations increase. Some of these fission and activation products tend to evolve in gaseous species during used nuclear fuel reprocessing. Analyses have shown that I129, due to its

  10. Thermodynamic Properties of CO{sub 2} Capture Reaction by Solid Sorbents:

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Theoretical Predictions and Experimental Validations (Conference) | SciTech Connect Conference: Thermodynamic Properties of CO{sub 2} Capture Reaction by Solid Sorbents: Theoretical Predictions and Experimental Validations Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Thermodynamic Properties of CO{sub 2} Capture Reaction by Solid Sorbents: Theoretical Predictions and Experimental Validations It is generally accepted that current technologies for capturing CO{sub 2} are still too energy

  11. Theoretical Screening of Mixed Solid Sorbents for CO{sub 2} Capture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duan, Y; Sorescu, D C; Luebke, D; Li, B Y; Zhang, K; King, D

    2013-05-16

    We are establishing a theoretical procedure to identify most potential candidates of CO{sub 2} solid sorbents from a large solid material databank to meet the DOE programmatic goal for energy conversion; A further objective is to explore the optimal working conditions for the promised CO{sub 2} solid sorbents, especially from room to warm T ranges with optimal energy usage, used for both pre- and post-combustion capture technologies.

  12. Polymer quenched prealloyed metal powder

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hajaligol, Mohammad R.; Fleischhauer, Grier; German, Randall M.

    2001-01-01

    A powder metallurgical process of preparing a sheet from a powder having an intermetallic alloy composition such as an iron, nickel or titanium aluminide. The sheet can be manufactured into electrical resistance heating elements having improved room temperature ductility, electrical resistivity, cyclic fatigue resistance, high temperature oxidation resistance, low and high temperature strength, and/or resistance to high temperature sagging. The iron aluminide has an entirely ferritic microstructure which is free of austenite and can include, in weight %, 4 to 32% Al, and optional additions such as .ltoreq.1% Cr, .gtoreq.0.05% Zr .ltoreq.2% Ti, .ltoreq.2% Mo, .ltoreq.1% Ni, .ltoreq.0.75% C, .ltoreq.0.1% B, .ltoreq.1% submicron oxide particles and/or electrically insulating or electrically conductive covalent ceramic particles, .ltoreq.1% rare earth metal, and/or .ltoreq.3 % Cu. The process includes forming a non-densified metal sheet by consolidating a powder having an intermetallic alloy composition such as by roll compaction, tape casting or plasma spraying, forming a cold rolled sheet by cold rolling the non-densified metal sheet so as to increase the density and reduce the thickness thereof and annealing the cold rolled sheet. The powder can be a water, polymer or gas atomized powder which is subjecting to sieving and/or blending with a binder prior to the consolidation step. After the consolidation step, the sheet can be partially sintered. The cold rolling and/or annealing steps can be repeated to achieve the desired sheet thickness and properties. The annealing can be carried out in a vacuum furnace with a vacuum or inert atmosphere. During final annealing, the cold rolled sheet recrystallizes to an average grain size of about 10 to 30 .mu.m. Final stress relief annealing can be carried out in the B2 phase temperature range.

  13. Novel Sorbent-Based Process for High Temperature Trace Metal Removal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gokhan Alptekin

    2008-09-30

    The objective of this project was to demonstrate the efficacy of a novel sorbent can effectively remove trace metal contaminants (Hg, As, Se and Cd) from actual coal-derived synthesis gas streams at high temperature (above the dew point of the gas). The performance of TDA's sorbent has been evaluated in several field demonstrations using synthesis gas generated by laboratory and pilot-scale coal gasifiers in a state-of-the-art test skid that houses the absorbent and all auxiliary equipment for monitoring and data logging of critical operating parameters. The test skid was originally designed to treat 10,000 SCFH gas at 250 psig and 350 C, however, because of the limited gas handling capabilities of the test sites, the capacity was downsized to 500 SCFH gas flow. As part of the test program, we carried out four demonstrations at two different sites using the synthesis gas generated by the gasification of various lignites and a bituminous coal. Two of these tests were conducted at the Power Systems Demonstration Facility (PSDF) in Wilsonville, Alabama; a Falkirk (North Dakota) lignite and a high sodium lignite (the PSDF operator Southern Company did not disclose the source of this lignite) were used as the feedstock. We also carried out two other demonstrations in collaboration with the University of North Dakota Energy Environmental Research Center (UNDEERC) using synthesis gas slipstreams generated by the gasification of Sufco (Utah) bituminous coal and Oak Hills (Texas) lignite. In the PSDF tests, we showed successful operation of the test system at the conditions of interest and showed the efficacy of sorbent in removing the mercury from synthesis gas. In Test Campaign No.1, TDA sorbent reduced Hg concentration of the synthesis gas to less than 5 {micro}g/m{sup 3} and achieved over 99% Hg removal efficiency for the entire test duration. Unfortunately, due to the relatively low concentration of the trace metals in the lignite feed and as a result of the intermittent operation of the PSDF gasifier (due to the difficulties in the handling of the low quality lignite), only a small fraction of the sorbent capacity was utilized (we measured a mercury capacity of 3.27 mg/kg, which is only a fraction of the 680 mg/kg Hg capacity measured for the same sorbent used at our bench-scale evaluations at TDA). Post reaction examination of the sorbent by chemical analysis also indicated some removal As and Se (we did not detect any significant amounts of Cd in the synthesis gas or over the sorbent). The tests at UNDEERC was more successful and showed clearly that the TDA sorbent can effectively remove Hg and other trace metals (As and Se) at high temperature. The on-line gas measurements carried out by TDA and UNDEERC separately showed that TDA sorbent can achieve greater than 95% Hg removal efficiency at 260 C ({approx}200g sorbent treated more than 15,000 SCF synthesis gas). Chemical analysis conducted following the tests also showed modest amounts of As and Se accumulation in the sorbent bed (the test durations were still short to show higher capacities to these contaminants). We also evaluated the stability of the sorbent and the fate of mercury (the most volatile and unstable of the trace metal compounds). The Synthetic Ground Water Leaching Procedure Test carried out by an independent environmental laboratory showed that the mercury will remain on the sorbent once the sorbent is disposed. Based on a preliminary engineering and cost analysis, TDA estimated the cost of mercury removal from coal-derived synthesis gas as $2,995/lb (this analysis assumes that this cost also includes the cost of removal of all other trace metal contaminants). The projected cost will result in a small increase (less than 1%) in the cost of energy.

  14. Development of a Catalyst/Sorbent for Methane Reforming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    B.H. Shans; T.D. Wheelock; Justinus Satrio; Karl Albrecht; Tanya Harris Janine Keeley; Ben Silva; Aaron Shell; Molly Lohry; Zachary Beversdorf

    2008-12-31

    This project led to the further development of a combined catalyst and sorbent for improving the process technology required for converting CH{sub 4} and/or CO into H{sub 2} while simultaneously separating the CO{sub 2} byproduct all in a single step. The new material is in the form of core-in-shell pellets such that each pellet consists of a CaO core surrounded by an alumina-based shell capable of supporting a Ni catalyst. The Ni is capable of catalyzing the reactions of steam with CH{sub 4} or CO to produce H{sub 2} and CO{sub 2}, whereas the CaO is capable of absorbing the CO{sub 2} as it is produced. The absorption of CO{sub 2} eliminates the reaction inhibiting effects of CO{sub 2} and provides a means for recovering the CO{sub 2} in a useful form. The present work showed that the lifecycle performance of the sorbent can be improved either by incorporating a specific amount of MgO in the material or by calcining CaO derived from limestone at 1100 C for an extended period. It also showed how to prepare a strong shell material with a large surface area required for supporting an active Ni catalyst. The method combines graded particles of {alpha}-alumina with noncrystalline alumina having a large specific surface area together with a strength promoting additive followed by controlled calcination. Two different additives produced good results: 3 {micro}m limestone and lanthanum nitrate which were converted to their respective oxides upon calcination. The oxides partially reacted with the alumina to form aluminates which probably accounted for the strength enhancing properties of the additives. The use of lanthanum made it possible to calcine the shell material at a lower temperature, which was less detrimental to the surface area, but still capable of producing a strong shell. Core-in-shell pellets made with the improved shell materials and impregnated with a Ni catalyst were used for steam reforming CH{sub 4} at different temperatures and pressures. Under all conditions tested, the CH{sub 4} conversion was large (>80%) and nearly equal to the predicted thermodynamic equilibrium level as long as CO{sub 2} was being rapidly absorbed. Similar results were obtained with both shell material additives. Limited lifecycle tests of the pellets also produced similar results that were not affected by the choice of additive. However, during each lifecycle test the period during which CO{sub 2} was rapidly absorbed declined from cycle to cycle which directly affected the corresponding period when CH{sub 4} was reformed rapidly. Therefore, the results showed a continuing need for improving the lifecycle performance of the sorbent. Core-in-shell pellets with the improved shell materials were also utilized for conducting the water gas shift reaction in a single step. Three different catalyst formulations were tested. The best results were achieved with a Ni catalyst, which proved capable of catalyzing the reaction whether CO{sub 2} was being absorbed or not. The calcined alumina shell material by itself also proved to be a very good catalyst for the reaction as long as CO{sub 2} was being fully absorbed by the core material. However, neither the alumina nor a third formulation containing Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} were good catalysts for the reaction when CO{sub 2} was not absorbed by the core material. Furthermore, the Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-containing catalyst was not as good as the other two catalysts when CO{sub 2} was being absorbed.

  15. Evaluation of Carbon Dioxide Capture From Existing Coal Fired Plants by Hybrid Sorption Using Solid Sorbents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benson, Steven; Srinivasachar, Srivats; Laudal, Daniel; Browers, Bruce

    2014-12-31

    A novel hybrid solid sorbent technology for CO₂ capture and separation from coal combustion-derived flue gas was evaluated. The technology – Capture of CO₂ by Hybrid Sorption (CACHYS™) – is a solid sorbent technology based on the following ideas: 1) reduction of energy for sorbent regeneration, 2) utilization of novel process chemistry, 3) contactor conditions that minimize sorbent-CO₂ heat of reaction and promote fast CO₂ capture, and 4) low-cost method of heat management. This report provides key information developed during the course of the project that includes sorbent performance, energy for sorbent regeneration, physical properties of the sorbent, the integration of process components, sizing of equipment, and overall capital and operational cost of the integrated CACHYS™ system. Seven sorbent formulations were prepared and evaluated at the lab-scale for energy requirements and CO₂ capture performance. Sorbent heat of regeneration ranged from 30-80 kJ/mol CO₂ and was found to be dependent on process conditions. Two sorbent formulations (designated HCK-4 & HCK-7) were down-selected for additional fixed-bed testing. Additional testing involved subjecting the sorbents to 100 continuous cycles in the fixed-bed reactor to determine performance as a function of time. The working capacity achieved for HCK-4 sorbent ranged from 5.5-8.0 g CO₂/100 g sorbent, while the HCK-7 typically ranged from 8.0-10.0 g CO₂/100 g sorbent. Overall, there was no deterioration in capacity with continuous cycling for either sorbent. The CACHYS™ bench-scale testing system designed and fabricated under this award consists of a dual circulating fluidized-bed adsorber and a moving-bed regenerator. The system takes a flue gas slipstream from the University of North Dakota’s coal-fired steam plant. Prior to being sent to the adsorber, the flue gas is scrubbed to remove SO₂ and particulate. During parametric testing of the adsorber, CO₂ capture achieved using the 2-bed configuration with recirculation in both beds was 65-70% with a high flue gas CO₂ loading (~7%) and up to 85% with a low flue gas CO₂ loading (~4%). A sorbent regenerator system consisting of a pre-heater, desorber, and cooler is used to heat the CO₂-rich sorbent with direct and indirect steam producing a nearly 100% pure stream of CO₂. Parametric testing of the regenerator system demonstrated the impact of process conditions on both desorption rate and the heat of regeneration. Clear evidence of the use of specific process conditions that lower the overall energy of desorption was identified. This observation validates measurements made at the laboratory-scale. Several longer-term continuous tests were conducted to evaluate the performance of the sorbent/process as a function of time. Using a 2-bed configuration, sustained capture efficiency of 40-60% with a high flue gas CO₂ loading (~8%) and 70-80% with a low flue gas CO₂ loading (~4%) were achieved. However, sorbent working capacity was found to be considerably lower than laboratory-scale measurements. The low working capacity is attributed to insufficient sorbent/gas contact time in the adsorber. Sorbent properties that had a significant impact on CO₂ capture performance were identified. The results show that controlling these sorbent properties substantially improves CO₂ capture performance, with preliminary estimates indicating that relative improvement of ~30% is possible. Testing culminated with an operationally trouble-free test of 15 hours with sustainable performance. Overall, several practical strategies to increase performance of the sorbent and process were identified. The initial technical and economic assessment of the CACHYS™ process estimated the cost of CO2 capture was $36.19/ton with a 48.6% increase in levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) for the 550 MWe net plant. Using additional data gathered over the course of the project, and with revised technical and economic assumptions, the estimated cost of CO₂ capture with the CACHYS™ process is $39/ton (only includes the cost of the CO2 capture system) with an increase in LCOE of 55.9%. Overall, CACHYS™ represents a significant improvement over the benchmark MEA system, and has demonstrated progress towards achieving DOE’s goals for CO₂ capture technologies.

  16. Development of Novel Sorbents for Uranium Extraction from Seawater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, Wenbin; Taylor-Pashow, Kathryn

    2014-01-08

    As the uranium resource in terrestrial ores is limited, it is difficult to ensure a long-term sustainable nuclear energy technology. The oceans contain approximately 4.5 billion tons of uranium, which is one thousand times the amount of uranium in terrestrial ores. Development of technologies to recover the uranium from seawater would greatly improve the uranium resource availability, sustaining the fuel supply for nuclear energy. Several methods have been previously evaluated including solvent extraction, ion exchange, flotation, biomass collection, and adsorption; however, none have been found to be suitable for reasons such as cost effectiveness, long term stability, and selectivity. Recent research has focused on the amidoxime functional group as a promising candidate for uranium sorption. Polymer beads and fibers have been functionalized with amidoxime functional groups, and uranium adsorption capacities as high as 1.5 g U/kg adsorbent have recently been reported with these types of materials. As uranium concentration in seawater is only ~3 ppb, great improvements to uranium collection systems must be made in order to make uranium extraction from seawater economically feasible. This proposed research intends to develop transformative technologies for economic uranium extraction from seawater. The Lin group will design advanced porous supports by taking advantage of recent breakthroughs in nanoscience and nanotechnology and incorporate high densities of well-designed chelators into such nanoporous supports to allow selective and efficient binding of uranyl ions from seawater. Several classes of nanoporous materials, including mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs), mesoporous carbon nanoparticles (MCNs), meta-organic frameworks (MOFs), and covalent-organic frameworks (COFs), will be synthesized. Selective uranium-binding liagnds such as amidoxime will be incorporated into the nanoporous materials to afford a new generation of sorbent materials that will be evaluated for their uranium extraction efficiency. The initial testing of these materials for uranium binding will be carried out in the Lin group, but more detailed sorption studies will be carried out by Dr. Taylor-Pashow of Savannah River National Laboratory in order to obtain quantitative uranyl sorption selectivity and kinetics data for the proposed materials. The proposed nanostructured sorbent materials are expected to have higher binding capacities, enhanced extraction kinetics, optimal stripping efficiency for uranyl ions, and enhanced mechanical and chemical stabilities. This transformative research will significantly impact uranium extraction from seawater as well as benefit DOE’s efforts on environmental remediation by developing new materials and providing knowledge for enriching and sequestering ultralow concentrations of other metals.

  17. Freeze drying method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coppa, Nicholas V.; Stewart, Paul; Renzi, Ernesto

    1999-01-01

    The present invention provides methods and apparatus for freeze drying in which a solution, which can be a radioactive salt dissolved within an acid, is frozen into a solid on vertical plates provided within a freeze drying chamber. The solid is sublimated into vapor and condensed in a cold condenser positioned above the freeze drying chamber and connected thereto by a conduit. The vertical positioning of the cold condenser relative to the freeze dryer helps to help prevent substances such as radioactive materials separated from the solution from contaminating the cold condenser. Additionally, the system can be charged with an inert gas to produce a down rush of gas into the freeze drying chamber to also help prevent such substances from contaminating the cold condenser.

  18. Freeze drying apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coppa, Nicholas V.; Stewart, Paul; Renzi, Ernesto

    2001-01-01

    The present invention provides methods and apparatus for freeze drying in which a solution, which can be a radioactive salt dissolved within an acid, is frozen into a solid on vertical plates provided within a freeze drying chamber. The solid is sublimated into vapor and condensed in a cold condenser positioned above the freeze drying chamber and connected thereto by a conduit. The vertical positioning of the cold condenser relative to the freeze dryer helps to help prevent substances such as radioactive materials separated from the solution from contaminating the cold condenser. Additionally, the system can be charged with an inert gas to produce a down rush of gas into the freeze drying chamber to also help prevent such substances from contaminating the cold condenser.

  19. Freeze drying method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coppa, N.V.; Stewart, P.; Renzi, E.

    1999-12-07

    The present invention provides methods and apparatus for freeze drying in which a solution, which can be a radioactive salt dissolved within an acid, is frozen into a solid on vertical plates provided within a freeze drying chamber. The solid is sublimated into vapor and condensed in a cold condenser positioned above the freeze drying chamber and connected thereto by a conduit. The vertical positioning of the cold condenser relative to the freeze dryer helps to help prevent substances such as radioactive materials separated from the solution from contaminating the cold condenser. Additionally, the system can be charged with an inert gas to produce a down rush of gas into the freeze drying chamber to also help prevent such substances from contaminating the cold condenser.

  20. Land application uses for dry FGD by-products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bigham, J.; Dick, W.; Forster, L.; Hitzhusen, F.; McCoy, E.; Stehouwer, R.; Traina, S.; Wolfe, W. ); Haefner, R. . Water Resources Div.)

    1993-04-01

    The 1990 amendments to the Clean Air Act have spurred the development of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) processes, several of which produce a dry, solid by-product material consisting of excess sorbent, reaction products containing sulfates and sulfites, and coal fly ash. Presently FGD by-product materials are treated as solid wastes and must be landfilled. However, landfill sites are becoming more scarce and tipping fees are constantly increasing. It is, therefore, highly desirable to find beneficial reuses for these materials provided the environmental impacts are minimal and socially acceptable. Phase 1 results of a 4 and 1/2 year study to demonstrate large volume beneficial uses of FGD by-products are reported. The purpose of the Phase 1 portion of the project was to characterize the chemical, physical, mineralogical and engineering properties of the FGD by-product materials obtained from various FGD technologies being developed in the state of Ohio. Phase 1 also involved the collection of baseline economic data related to the beneficial reuse of these FGD materials. A total of 58 samples were collected and analyzed. In summary Phase 1 results revealed that FGD by-product materials are essentially coal fly ash materials diluted with unreacted sorbent and reaction products. High volume beneficial reuses will depend on the economics of their substituting for existing materials for various types of applications (e.g. as an agricultural liming material, soil borrow for highway embankment construction, and reclamation of active and abandoned surface coal mines). Environmental constraints to the beneficial reuse of dry FGD byproduct materials, based on laboratory and leachate studies, seem to be less than for coal fly ash.

  1. Powder processing for fabricating Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} ceramics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kamiya, Hidehiro; Naito, Makio; Hotta, Tadashi; Isomura, Kenji; Tsubaki, Junichiro; Uematsu, Keizo

    1997-10-01

    Usually, the densification of silicon nitride ceramics requires a sintering aid, e.g., alumina and yttria fine powders. Many types of dispersants have been used to obtain a uniform mixture of silicon nitride and sintering aid. These dispersants affect the microstructure and strength of the spray-dried granules. However, few studies have been made of the effects of the microstructure and strength of spray-dried granules. However, few studies have been made of the effects of the microstructure and strength of spray-dried granules on the sintered and mechanical properties of non-oxide ceramics. This article shows the effect of such intergranular porosity--controlled by the strength and structure of spray-dried granules--on the densification of green compacts during sintering. Furthermore, relationships between the fracture strength distribution of spray-dried granules and bending strength distributions of sintered bodies are discussed.

  2. Enhanced durability and reactivity for zinc ferrite desulfurization sorbent. Quarterly technical progress report 8, July--September 1988

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jha, M.C.; Berggren, M.H.

    1988-11-14

    AMAX Research & Development Center (AMAX R&D) has been investigating methods for enhancing the reactivity and durability of the zinc ferrite desulfurization sorbent. Zinc ferrite sorbents are intended for use in desulfurization of hot coal gas in integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) or molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) applications. For the present program, the reactivity of the sorbent may be defined as its sulfur sorption capacity at the breakthrough point and at saturation in a bench-scale, fixed-bed reactor. Durability may be defined as the ability of the sorbent to maintain important physical characteristics such As size, strength, and specific surface area during 10 cycles of sulfidation and oxidation.

  3. Enhanced durability and reactivity for zinc ferrite desulfurization sorbent. Quarterly technical progress report 9, October--December 1988

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jha, M.C.; Berggren, M.H.

    1989-03-06

    AMAX Research & Development Center (AMAX R&D) has been investigating methods for enhancing the reactivity and durability of the zinc ferrite desulfurization sorbent. Zinc ferrite sorbents are intended for use in desulfurization of hot coal gas in integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) or molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) applications. For the present program, the reactivity of the sorbent may be defined as its sulfur sorption capacity at the breakthrough point and at saturation in a bench-scale, fixed-bed reactor. Durability may be defined as the ability of the sorbent to maintain important physical characteristics such As size, strength, and specific surface area during 10 cycles of sulfidation and oxidation.

  4. Enhanced durability and reactivity for zinc ferrite desulfurization sorbent. Quarterly technical progress report No. 3, April--June 1987

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jha, M.C.; Baltich, L.K.; Berggren, M.H.

    1987-08-28

    AMAX Research & Development Center (AMAX R&D) has been investigating methods for enhancing the reactivity and durability of the zinc ferrite desulfurization sorbent. Zinc ferrite sorbents are intended for use in desulfurization of hot coal gas in integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) or molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) applications. For the present program, the reactivity of the sorbent may be defined as its sulfur sorption capacity at the breakthrough point and at saturation in a bench-scale, fixed-bed reactor. Durability may be defined as the ability of the sorbent to maintain important physical characteristics such As size, strength, and specific surface area during 10 cycles of sulfidation and oxidation.

  5. Enhanced durability and reactivity for zinc ferrite desulfurization sorbent. Quarterly technical progress report 2, January--March 1987

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jha, M.C.; Baltich, L.K.; Berggren, M.H.

    1987-05-18

    AMAX Research & Development Center (AMAX R&D) has been investigating methods for enhancing the reactivity and durability of the zinc ferrite desulfurization sorbent. Zinc ferrite sorbents are intended for use in desulfurization of hot coal gas in integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) or molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) applications. For the present program, the reactivity of the sorbent may be defined as its sulfur sorption capacity at the breakthrough point and at saturation in a bench-scale, fixed-bed reactor. Durability may be defined as the ability of the sorbent to maintain important physical characteristics such As size, strength, and specific surface area during 10 cycles of sulfidation and oxidation.

  6. Enhanced durability and reactivity for zinc ferrite desulfurization sorbent. Volume 1, Bench-scale testing and analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jha, M.C.; Berggren, M.H.

    1989-05-02

    AMAX Research & Development Center (AMAX R&D) has been investigating methods for enhancing the reactivity and durability of the zinc ferrite desulfurization sorbent. Zinc ferrite sorbents are intended for use in desulfurization of hot coal gas in integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) or molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) applications. For the present program, the reactivity of the sorbent may be defined as its sulfur sorption capacity at the breakthrough point and at saturation in a bench-scale, fixed-bed reactor. Durability may be defined as the ability of the sorbent to maintain important physical characteristics such As size, strength, and specific surface area during 10 cycles of sulfidation and oxidation.

  7. Enhanced durability and reactivity for zinc ferrite desulfurization sorbent. Quarterly technical progress report 7, April--June 1988

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jha, M.C.; Berggren, M.H.

    1988-08-19

    AMAX Research & Development Center (AMAX R&D) has been investigating methods for enhancing the reactivity and durability of the zinc ferrite desulfurization sorbent. Zinc ferrite sorbents are intended for use in desulfurization of hot coal gas in integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) or molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) applications. For the present program, the reactivity of the sorbent may be defined as its sulfur sorption capacity at the breakthrough point and at saturation in a bench-scale, fixed-bed reactor. Durability may be defined as the ability of the sorbent to maintain important physical characteristics such As size, strength, and specific surface area during 10 cycles of sulfidation and oxidation.

  8. 7-forming, superconducting filaments through bicomponent dry spinning

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tuominen, Olli P.; Morgan, Carol W.; Burlone, Dominick A.; Blankenship, Keith V.

    2001-01-01

    Fibers which contain potentially superconducting material are dry spun by the steps of preparing a suspension of potentially superconducting powder in a thickened solvent; preparing a solution of fiber-forming polymer; supplying the suspension and the solution to a spinning apparatus; in the spinning apparatus, arranging the solution and the suspension in a bicomponent arrangement; extruding the arranged solution and suspension from a spinneret as a bicomponent filament; and removing the solvent from the filament.

  9. Screening of low cost sorbents for arsenic and mercury capture in gasification systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cedric Charpenteau; Revata Seneviratne; Anthe George; Marcos Millan; Denis R. Dugwell; Rafael Kandiyoti

    2007-09-15

    A novel laboratory-scale fixed-bed reactor has been developed to investigate trace metal capture on selected sorbents for cleaning the hot raw gas in Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) power plants. The new reactor design is presented, together with initial results for mercury and arsenic capture on five sorbents. It was expected that the capture efficiency of sorbents would decrease with increasing temperature. However, a commercial activated carbon, Norit Darco 'Hg', and a pyrolysis char prepared from scrap tire rubber exhibit similar efficiencies for arsenic at 200 and at 400{sup o}C (70% and 50%, respectively). Meta-kaolinite and fly ash both exhibit an efficiency of around 50% at 200{sup o}C, which then dropped as the test temperature was increased to 400{sup o}C. Activated scrap tire char performed better at 200{sup o}C than the pyrolysis char showing an arsenic capture capacity similar to that of commercial Norit Darco 'Hg'; however, efficiency dropped to below 40% at 400{sup o}C. These results suggest that the capture mechanism of arsenic (As4) is more complex than purely physical adsorption onto the sorbents. Certain elements within the sorbents may have significant importance for chemical adsorption, in addition to the effect of surface area, as determined by the BET method. This was indeed the case for the mercury capture efficiency for all four sorbents tested. Three of the sorbents tested retained 90% of the mercury when operated at 100{sup o}C. As the temperature increased, the efficiency of activated carbon and pyrolysis char reduced significantly. Curiously, despite having the smallest Brunauer-Emmet-Teller (BET) surface area, a pf-combustion ash was the most effective in capturing mercury over the temperature range studied. These observations suggest that the observed mercury capture was not purely physical adsorption but a combination of physical and chemical processes. 27 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  10. Drying '86. Volume 1-2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mujumdar, A.S. )

    1986-01-01

    These proceedings contain 123 papers grouped under the headings of: Drying theory and modelling; Drying of granular materials; Spray drying; Drying of paper and wood products; Drying of foodstuff and biomaterials; Drying of agricultural products and grains; Superheated steam drying; Industrial drying systems and novel dryers; Use of solar energy in drying; Measurement and control of humidity and moisture; and Dewatering.

  11. SO2-Resistant Immobilized Amine Sorbents for CO2 Capture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tumuluri, Uma

    2014-01-01

    The solid amine sorbent for CO2 capture process has advantages of simplicity and low operating cost compared to the MEA (monoethanolamine) process. Solid amine sorbents reported so far suffered from either low CO2 capture capacity or low stability in the flue gas environment. This project is aimed at developing a SO2-resistant solid amine sorbent for capturing CO2 from coalfired power plants with SCR/FGD which emits SO2ranging from 15 to 30 ppm and NO ranging from 5 to 10 ppm. The amine sorbent we developed in a previous project degraded rapidly with 65% decrease in the initial capture capacity in presence of 1% SO2. This amine sorbent was further modified by coating with polyethyleneglycol (PEG) to increase the SO2-resistance. Polyethylene glycol (PEG) was found to decrease the SO2-amine interaction, resulting in the decrease in the maximum SO desorption temperature (Tmax ) of amine sorbent. The PEG-coated amine sorbent exhibited higher stability with only 40% decrease in the initial capture capacity compared to un-coated amine sorbents. The cost of the solid amine sorbent developed in this project is estimated to be less than $7.00/lb; the sorbent exhibited CO2 capture capacity more than 2.3 mmol/g. The results of this study provided the scientific basis for further development of SO2-resistant sorbents.

  12. Manganese Doping of Magnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles: Tailoring Surface Reactivity for a Regenerable Heavy Metal Sorbent

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Warner, Cynthia L.; Chouyyok, Wilaiwan; Mackie, Katherine E.; Neiner, Doinita; Saraf, Laxmikant; Droubay, Timothy C.; Warner, Marvin G.; Addleman, Raymond S.

    2012-02-28

    A method for tuning the analyte affinity of magnetic, inorganic nanostructured sorbents for heavy metal contaminants is described. The manganese-doped iron oxide nanoparticle sorbents have a remarkably high affinity compared to the precursor material. Sorbent affinity can be tuned toward an analyte of interest simply by adjustment of the dopant quantity. The results show that following the Mn doping process there is a large increase in affinity and capacity for heavy metals (i.e., Co, Ni, Zn, As, Ag, Cd, Hg, and Tl). Capacity measurements were carried out for the removal of cadmium from river water and showed significantly higher loading than the relevant commercial sorbents tested for comparison. The reduction in Cd concentration from 100 ppb spiked river water to 1 ppb (less than the EPA drinking water limit of 5 ppb for Cd) was achieved following treatment with the Mn-doped iron oxide nanoparticles. The Mn-doped iron oxide nanoparticles were able to load 1 ppm of Cd followed by complete stripping and recovery of the Cd with a mild acid wash. The Cd loading and stripping is shown to be consistent through multiple cycles with no loss of sorbent performance.

  13. Integrated dry NO{sub x}/SO{sub 2} emissions control system performance summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hunt, T.; Muzio, L.J.; Smith, R.; Jones, D.; Hebb, J.L.; Stallings, J.

    1997-12-31

    The Integrated Dry NO{sub x}/SO{sub 2} Emissions Control System was installed at Public Service Company of Colorado`s Arapahoe 4 generating station in 1992 in cooperation with the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). This full-scale 100 MWe demonstration combines low-NO{sub x} burners, overfire, air, and selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) for NO{sub x} control and dry sorbent injection (DSI) with or without humidification for SO{sub 2} control. Operation and testing of the Integrated Dry NO{sub x}/SO{sub 2} Emissions Control System began in August 1992 and will continue through 1996. Results of the NO{sub x} control technologies show that the original system goal of 70% NO{sub x} removal has been easily met and the combustion and SNCR systems can achieve NO{sub x} removals of up to 80% at full load. Duct injection of commercial calcium hydroxide has achieved a maximum SO{sub 2} removal of nearly 40% while humidifying the flue gas to a 20 F approach to saturation. Sodium-based dry sorbent injection has provided SO{sub 2} removal of over 70% without the occurrence of a visible NO{sub 2} plume. Recent test work has improved SNCR performance at low loads and has demonstrated that combined dry sodium injection and SNCR yields both lower NO{sub 2} levels and NH{sub 3} slip than either technology alone.

  14. Using high temperature baghouses to enhance desulfurization following economizer sorbent injection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, G.; Keener, T.C.

    1995-12-31

    In order to explore the potential of using high temperature baghouses to enhance SO{sub 2} removal following upstream sorbent injection, an integrated two-stage reactor system has been built. It consists of an injection stage and a filtration stage. Distinct from one-stage fixed-bed reactors, sorbent particles in this system are initially converted under controlled injection conditions before entering the filtration reactor chamber. By the aid of the system, several unique features regarding the gas-solid reactions in the baghouse after economizer zone sorbent injection have been revealed. Results have shown that the appropriate usage of a high temperature baghouse may substantially enhance the performance of the process. The further SO{sub 2} removal in the baghouse is comprehensively affected by both the conditions in the injection zone and those in the baghouse.

  15. Carbon nanocomposite sorbent and methods of using the same for separation of one or more materials from a gas stream

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Olson, Edwin S; Pavlish, John H

    2015-04-21

    The present invention relates to carbon nanocomposite sorbents. The present invention provides carbon nanocomposite sorbents, methods for making the same, and methods for separation of a pollutant from a gas that includes that pollutant. Various embodiments provide a method for reducing the mercury content of a mercury-containing gas.

  16. Preparation of powders suitable for conversion to useful .beta.-aluminas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morgan, Peter E. D.

    1982-01-01

    A process for forming a precursor powder which, when suitably pressed and sintered forms highly pure, densified .beta.- or .beta."-alumina, comprising the steps of: (1) forming a suspension (or slurry) of Bayer-derived Al(OH).sub.3 in a water-miscible solvent; (2) adding an aqueous solution of a Mg compound, a Li compound, a Na compound or mixtures thereof to the Bayer-derived Al(OH).sub.3 suspension while agitating the mixture formed thereby, to produce a gel; (3) drying the gel at a temperature above the normal boiling point of water to produce a powder material; (4) lightly ball milling and sieving said powder material; and (5) heating the ball-milled and sieved powder material at a temperature of between 350.degree. to 900.degree. C. to form the .beta.- or .beta."-alumina precursor powder. The precursor powder, thus formed, may be subsequently isopressed at a high pressure and sintered at an elevated temperature to produce .beta.- or .beta."-alumina. BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

  17. Study of in-duct spray drying using condensation aerosol. Final report, June 16, 1990--June 15, 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, W.J.R.; Chang, S.M.; Adikesavalu, R.

    1992-06-01

    Sulfur removal efficiency of in-duct spray drying is limited by sorbent content and surface properties of the sorbent-water aerosol. It was the purpose of this study to improve the sulfur removal efficiency for in-duct spray drying by injecting condensation aerosol instead of conventional dispersion aerosol. The program was composed of three phases. In Phase I, a novel pulsed fluid bed feeder was developed and was used to feed hydrated lime for subsequent experiments. A small condensation aerosol generator was then built, which produces a lime-water condensation aerosol by condensing steam on lime particles. The results show that novel lime-water aerosols less than 10 microns were generated. The central task in Phase II was to simulate experimentally in-duct spray drying using condensation aerosols and compare the results with those using dispersion aerosols reported in the literature. A small entrained-flow reactor was constructed to simulate an in-duct spray dryer. The condensation aerosol was then introduced to the reactor at various approach to saturation temperature, calcium/sulfur stoichiometry and sulfur dioxide concentration for desulfurization study. The results show that we have improved the sulfur removal efficiency for in-duct spray drying to 90 percent or above. Thus we have met and exceeded the stated project goal of 70 percent sulfur removal. A comprehensive computer code was employed to calculate sulfur removal efficiency in Phase III.

  18. Operating experience with the integrated dry NO{sub x}/SO{sub 2} emissions control system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, R.A.; Muzio, L.J.; Shiomoto, G.H.

    1994-12-31

    This paper presents the results to date from the Public Service Company of Colorado (PSCC), U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), and Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), sponsored Integrated Dry NO{sub x}/SO{sub 2} Emissions Control System project. This DOE Clean Coal Technology III demonstration project is being conducted at PSCC`s Arapahoe Generating Station Unit 4, located in Denver, Colorado. The Integrated Dry NO{sub x}/SO{sub 2} Emissions Control System consists of five major control technologies that are combined to form an integrated system to control both NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2} emissions. NO{sub x} reduction is obtained through the use of low-NO{sub x} burners, overfire air, and urea-based Selective Non-Catalytic Reduction (SNCR), while dry sorbent injection using either sodium- or calcium-based reagents with humidification is used to control SO{sub 2} emissions. The project goal is to provide up to a 70% reduction of both NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2} emissions. The combustion modifications were expected to reduce NO{sub x} by 50% with the expectation that the SNCR system would provide the remaining 20% reduction. Dry Sorbent Injection was expected to provide 50% removal of the SO{sub 2} emissions while using calcium-based reagents. As sodium is much more reactive than calcium, it was expected to provide SO{sub 2} removals of up to 70%.

  19. Spray-drying FGD

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yeager, K.

    1984-05-01

    Limited data are available on spray drying for SO/SUB/2 and particulate control to enable utilities to evaluate the claims of vendors. EPRI is sponsoring pilot- and full-scale testing of this technology and some results are presented.

  20. Dry piston coal feeder

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hathaway, Thomas J.; Bell, Jr., Harold S.

    1979-01-01

    This invention provides a solids feeder for feeding dry coal to a pressurized gasifier at elevated temperatures substantially without losing gas from the gasifier by providing a lock having a double-acting piston that feeds the coals into the gasifier, traps the gas from escaping, and expels the trapped gas back into the gasifier.

  1. CO{sub 2} Capture from Flue Gas Using Solid Molecular Basket Sorbents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fillerup, Eric; Zhang, Zhonghua; Peduzzi, Emanuela; Wang, Dongxiang; Guo, Jiahua; Ma, Xiaoliang; Wang, Xiaoxing; Song, Chunshan

    2012-08-31

    The objective of this project is to develop a new generation of solid, regenerable polymeric molecular basket sorbent (MBS) for more cost-efficient capture and separation of CO{sub 2} from flue gas of coal-fired power plants. The primary goal is to develop a cost-effective MBS sorbent with better thermal stability. To improve the cost-effectiveness of MBS, we have explored commercially available and inexpensive support to replace the more expensive mesoporous molecular sieves like MCM-41 and SBA- 15. In addition, we have developed some advanced sorbent materials with 3D pore structure such as hexagonal mesoporous silica (HMS) to improve the CO{sub 2} working capacity of MBS, which can also reduce the cost for the whole CO{sub 2} capture process. During the project duration, the concern regarding the desorption rate of MBS sorbents has been raised, because lower desorption rate increases the desorption time for complete regeneration of the sorbent which in turn leads to a lower working capacity if the regeneration time is limited. Thus, the improvement in the thermal stability of MBS became a vital task for later part of this project. The improvement in the thermal stability was performed via increasing the polymer density either using higher molecular weight PEI or PEI cross-linking with an organic compound. Moreover, we have used the computational approach to estimate the interaction of CO{sub 2} with different MBSs for the fundamental understanding of CO{sub 2} sorption, which may benefit the development, design and modification of the sorbents and the process.

  2. Sorbents for High Temperature Removal of Arsenic from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alptekin, G.O.; Copeland, R.; Dubovik, M.; Gershanovich, Y.

    2002-09-20

    Gasification technologies convert coal and other heavy feedstocks into synthesis gas feed streams that can be used in the production of a wide variety of chemicals, ranging from hydrogen through methanol, ammonia, acetic anhydride, dimethyl ether (DME), methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE), high molecular weight liquid hydrocarbons and waxes. Syngas can also be burned directly as a fuel in advanced power cycles to generate electricity with very high efficiency. However, the coal-derived synthesis gas contains a myriad of trace contaminants that may poison the catalysts that are used in the downstream manufacturing processes and may also be regulated in power plant emissions. Particularly, the catalysts used in the conversion of synthesis gas to methanol and other liquid fuels (Fischer-Tropsch liquids) have been found to be very sensitive to the low levels of poisons, especially arsenic, that are present in the synthesis gas from coal. TDA Research, Inc. (TDA) is developing an expendable high capacity, low-cost chemical absorbent to remove arsenic from coal-derived syngas. Unlike most of the commercially available sorbents that physically adsorb arsenic, TDA's sorbent operates at elevated temperatures and removes the arsenic through chemical reaction. The arsenic content in the coal gas stream is reduced to ppb levels with the sorbent by capturing and stabilizing the arsenic gas (As4) and arsenic hydrides (referred to as arsine, AsH3) in the solid state. To demonstrate the concept of high temperature arsenic removal from coal-derived syngas, we carried out bench-scale experiments to test the absorption capacity of a variety of sorbent formulations under representative conditions. Using on-line analysis techniques, we monitored the pre- and post-breakthrough arsine concentrations over different sorbent samples. Some of these samples exhibited pre-breakthrough arsine absorption capacity over 40% wt. (capacity is defined as lb of arsenic absorbed/lb of sorbent), while maintaining an arsine outlet concentration at less than 10 ppb.

  3. Enhanced durability and reactivity for zinc ferrite desulfurization sorbent. Quarterly technical progress report 4, July--September 1987

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jha, M.C.; Berggren, M.H.

    1987-10-27

    AMAX Research & Development Center (AMAX R&D) has been investigating methods for improving the reactivity and durability of the zinc ferrite desulfurization sorbent. Zinc ferrite sorbents are intended for use in desulfurization of hog coal gas in integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) or molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) applications. The reactivity of the sorbent may be defined as its sulfur sorption capacity at the breakthrough point in a bench-scale fixed-bed reactor. The durability may be defined as the ability of the sorbent to maintain its reactivity and other important physical characteristics such as size, strength, and specific surface area during 10 cycles of sulfidation and regeneration. Two base case sorbents, spherical pellets and cylindrical extrudes used in related METC sponsored projects, are being used to provide a basis for the comparison of physical characteristics and chemical reactivity.

  4. Subtask 4.27 - Evaluation of the Multielement Sorbent Trap (MEST) Method at

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    an Illinois Coal-Fired Plant (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Subtask 4.27 - Evaluation of the Multielement Sorbent Trap (MEST) Method at an Illinois Coal-Fired Plant Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Subtask 4.27 - Evaluation of the Multielement Sorbent Trap (MEST) Method at an Illinois Coal-Fired Plant × You are accessing a document from the Department of Energy's (DOE) SciTech Connect. This site is a product of DOE's Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) and

  5. Subtask 4.27 - Evaluation of the Multielement Sorbent Trap (MEST) Method at

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    an Illinois Coal-Fired Plant (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Subtask 4.27 - Evaluation of the Multielement Sorbent Trap (MEST) Method at an Illinois Coal-Fired Plant Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Subtask 4.27 - Evaluation of the Multielement Sorbent Trap (MEST) Method at an Illinois Coal-Fired Plant Owners of fossil fuel-fired power plants face the challenge of measuring stack emissions of trace metals and acid gases at much lower levels than in the past as a result of

  6. Process for the synthesis of iron powder

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Welbon, W.W.

    1983-11-08

    A process for preparing iron powder suitable for use in preparing the iron-potassium perchlorate heat-powder fuel mixture used in thermal batteries, comprises preparing a homogeneous, dense iron oxide hydroxide precipitate by homogeneous precipitation from an aqueous mixture of a ferric salt, formic or sulfuric acid, ammonium hydroxide and urea as precipitating agent; and then reducing the dense iron oxide hydroxide by treatment with hydrogen to prepare the iron powder. 2 figs.

  7. Process for the synthesis of iron powder

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Welbon, William W.

    1983-01-01

    A process for preparing iron powder suitable for use in preparing the iron-potassium perchlorate heat-powder fuel mixture used in thermal batteries, comprises preparing a homogeneous, dense iron oxide hydroxide precipitate by homogeneous precipitation from an aqueous mixture of a ferric salt, formic or sulfuric acid, ammonium hydroxide and urea as precipitating agent; and then reducing the dense iron oxide hydroxide by treatment with hydrogen to prepare the iron powder.

  8. Process for the synthesis of iron powder

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Not Available

    1982-03-06

    A process for preparing iron powder suitable for use in preparing the iron-potassium perchlorate heat-powder fuel mixture used in thermal batteries, comprises preparing a homogeneous, dense iron oxide hydroxide precipitate by homogeneous precipitation from an aqueous mixture of a ferric salt, formic or sulfuric acid, ammonium hydroxide and urea as precipitating agent; and then reducing the dense iron oxide hydroxide by treatment with hydrogen to prepare the iron powder.

  9. High-Performance Sorbents for Carbon Dioxide Capture from Air

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sholl, David; Jones, Christopher

    2013-03-13

    This project has focused on capture of CO{sub 2} from ambient air (air capture). If this process is technically and economically feasible, it could potentially contribute to net reduction of CO{sub 2} emissions in ways that are complementary to better developed techniques for CO{sub 2} from concentrated point sources. We focused on cyclic adsorption processes for CO{sub 2} capture from air in which the entire cycle is performed at moderate temperatures. The project involved both experimental studies of sorbent materials and process level modeling of cyclic air capture processes. In our experimental work, a series of amine-functionalized silica adsorbents were prepared and characterized to determine the impact of molecular architecture on CO{sub 2} capture. Some key findings were: Amine functionalized silicas can be prepared with high enough CO{sub 2} capacities under ambient conditions to merit consideration for use in air capture processes. Primary amines are better candidates for CO{sub 2} capture than secondary or tertiary amines, both in terms of amine efficiency for CO{sub 2} adsorption and enhanced water affinity. Mechanistic understanding of degradation of these materials can enable control of molecular architecture to significantly improve material stability. Our process modeling work provided the first publically available cost and energy estimates for cyclic adsorption processes for air capture of CO{sub 2}. Some key findings were: Cycles based on diurnal ambient heating and cooling cannot yield useful purities or amounts of captured CO{sub 2}. Cycles based on steam desorption at 110 oC can yield CO{sub 2} purities of ~88%. The energy requirements for cycles using steam desorption are dominated by needs for thermal input, which results in lower costs than energy input in the form of electricity. Cyclic processes with operational costs of less than $100 tCO{sub 2}-net were described, and these results point to process and material improvements that could substantially reduce these costs. The most critical conclusions from our work are that (i) CO{sub 2} capture from ambient air using moderate temperature cyclic adsorption processes is technically feasible and (ii) the operational costs of realistic versions of these processes are moderate enough to encourage future development of this technology. Because of the very modest net investment that has been made in R&D associated with this approach from all sources worldwide (relative to the massive public and private investment that has been made in technologies for CO{sub 2} from concentrated point sources), our results strongly suggest that continued development of air capture is justified.

  10. Draft dry year tools (generation/planning)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    BPA White Book Dry Year Tools Firstgov Dry Year Tools November 9, 2006 - Final Dry Year Guide: The Final Dry Year Guide (PDF, 5 pages, 44 kb) and Figure 1 - Dry Year Strategy (PDF,...

  11. Denudation of metal powder layers in laser powder bed fusion processes

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Journal Article) | DOE PAGES Denudation of metal powder layers in laser powder bed fusion processes « Prev Next » Title: Denudation of metal powder layers in laser powder bed fusion processes Authors: Matthews, Manyalibo J. Search DOE PAGES for author "Matthews, Manyalibo J." Search DOE PAGES for ORCID "0000000335197221" Search orcid.org for ORCID "0000000335197221" ; Guss, Gabe ; Khairallah, Saad A. ; Rubenchik, Alexander M. ; Depond, Philip J. ; King, Wayne

  12. Dry Natural Gas

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Estimated natural gas plant liquids and dry natural gas content of total natural gas proved reserves, 2014 million barrels and billion cubic feet 2014 Dry Natural Gas billion cubic feet billion cubic feet Alaska 6,805 241 6,745 Lower 48 States 382,036 14,788 361,959 Alabama 2,121 59 2,036 Arkansas 12,795 5 12,789 California 2,260 112 2,107 Coastal Region Onshore 277 12 261 Los Angeles Basin Onshore 84 4 80 San Joaquin Basin Onshore 1,823 96 1,690 State Offshore 76 0 76 Colorado 21,992 813 20,851

  13. Durable Zinc Oxide-Based Regenerable Sorbents for Desulfurization of Syngas in a Fixed-Bed Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siriwardane, Ranjani V.; Cicero, Daniel C. (U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory, Morgantown); Stiegel, Gary J.; Gupta, Raghubir P. (U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory, Pittsburgh); Turk, Brian S. (Research Triangle Institute)

    2001-11-06

    A fixed-bed regenerable desulfurization sorbent, identified as RVS-land developed by researchers at the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory, was awarded the R&D 100 award in 2000 and is currently offered as a commercial product by Sued-Chemie Inc. An extensive testing program for this sorbent was undertaken which included tests at a wide range of temperatures, pressures and gas compositions both simulated and generated in an actual gasifier for sulfidation and regeneration. This testing has demonstrated that during these desulfurization tests, the RVS-1 sorbent maintained an effluent H2S concentration of <5 ppmv at temperatures from 260 to 600 C (500-1100 F) and pressures of 203-2026 kPa(2 to 20 atm) with a feed containing 1.2 vol% H{sub 2}S. The types of syngas tested ranged from an oxygen-blown Texaco gasifier to biomass-generated syngas. The RVS-1 sorbent has high crush strength and attrition resistance, which, unlike past sorbent formulations, does not decrease with extended testing at actual at operating conditions. The sulfur capacity of the sorbent is roughly 17 to 20 wt.% and also remains constant during extended testing (>25 cycles). In addition to H{sub 2}S, the RVS-1 sorbent has also demonstrated the ability to remove dimethyl sulfide and carbonyl sulfide from syngas. During regeneration, the RVS-1 sorbent has been regenerated with dilute oxygen streams (1 to 7 vol% O{sub 2}) at temperatures as low as 370 C (700 F) and pressures of 304-709 kPa(3 to 7 atm). Although regeneration can be initiated at 370 C (700 F), regeneration temperatures in excess of 538 C (1000 F) were found to be optimal. The presence of steam, carbon dioxide or sulfur dioxide (up to 6 vol%) did not have any visible effect on regeneration or sorbent performance during either sulfidation or regeneration. A number of commercial tests involving RVS-1 have been either conducted or are planned in the near future. The RVS-1 sorbent has been tested by Epyx, Aspen Systems and McDermott Technology (MTI), Inc for desulfurization of syngas produced by reforming of hydrocarbon liquid feedstocks for fuel cell applications. The RVS-1 sorbent was selected by MTI over other candidate sorbents for demonstration testing in their 500-kW ship service fuel cell program. It was also possible to obtain sulfur levels in the ppbv range with the modified RVS-1 sorbent.

  14. Session: Hot Dry Rock

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tennyson, George P. Jr.; Duchane, David V.; Ponden, Raymond F.; Brown, Donald W.

    1992-01-01

    This session at the Geothermal Energy Program Review X: Geothermal Energy and the Utility Market consisted of four presentations: ''Hot Dry Rock - Summary'' by George P. Tennyson, Jr.; ''HDR Opportunities and Challenges Beyond the Long Term Flow Test'' by David V. Duchane; ''Start-Up Operations at the Fenton Hill HDR Pilot Plant'' by Raymond F. Ponden; and ''Update on the Long-Term Flow Testing Program'' by Donald W. Brown.

  15. Ultrasonic Clothes Drying Technology

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Patel, Viral; Momen, Ayyoub

    2016-05-12

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory researchers Ayyoub Momen and Viral Patel demonstrate a direct contact ultrasonic clothes dryer under development by ORNL in collaboration with General Electric (GE) Appliances. This novel approach uses high-frequency mechanical vibrations instead of heat to extract moisture as cold mist, dramatically reducing drying time and energy use. Funding for this project was competitively awarded by DOE?s Building Technologies Office in 2014. For more information please contact momena@ornl.gov.

  16. Drying of fiber webs

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Warren, D.W.

    1997-04-15

    A process and an apparatus are disclosed for high-intensity drying of fiber webs or sheets, such as newsprint, printing and writing papers, packaging paper, and paperboard or linerboard, as they are formed on a paper machine. The invention uses direct contact between the wet fiber web or sheet and various molten heat transfer fluids, such as liquefied eutectic metal alloys, to impart heat at high rates over prolonged durations, in order to achieve ambient boiling of moisture contained within the web. The molten fluid contact process causes steam vapor to emanate from the web surface, without dilution by ambient air; and it is differentiated from the evaporative drying techniques of the prior industrial art, which depend on the uses of steam-heated cylinders to supply heat to the paper web surface, and ambient air to carry away moisture, which is evaporated from the web surface. Contact between the wet fiber web and the molten fluid can be accomplished either by submersing the web within a molten bath or by coating the surface of the web with the molten media. Because of the high interfacial surface tension between the molten media and the cellulose fiber comprising the paper web, the molten media does not appreciatively stick to the paper after it is dried. Steam generated from the paper web is collected and condensed without dilution by ambient air to allow heat recovery at significantly higher temperature levels than attainable in evaporative dryers. 6 figs.

  17. Drying of fiber webs

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Warren, David W.

    1997-01-01

    A process and an apparatus for high-intensity drying of fiber webs or sheets, such as newsprint, printing and writing papers, packaging paper, and paperboard or linerboard, as they are formed on a paper machine. The invention uses direct contact between the wet fiber web or sheet and various molten heat transfer fluids, such as liquified eutectic metal alloys, to impart heat at high rates over prolonged durations, in order to achieve ambient boiling of moisture contained within the web. The molten fluid contact process causes steam vapor to emanate from the web surface, without dilution by ambient air; and it is differentiated from the evaporative drying techniques of the prior industrial art, which depend on the uses of steam-heated cylinders to supply heat to the paper web surface, and ambient air to carry away moisture, which is evaporated from the web surface. Contact between the wet fiber web and the molten fluid can be accomplished either by submersing the web within a molten bath or by coating the surface of the web with the molten media. Because of the high interfacial surface tension between the molten media and the cellulose fiber comprising the paper web, the molten media does not appreciately stick to the paper after it is dried. Steam generated from the paper web is collected and condensed without dilution by ambient air to allow heat recovery at significantly higher temperature levels than attainable in evaporative dryers.

  18. Enhanced durability for high-temperature desulfurization sorbents for moving-bed applications -- Option 3 program: Development and testing of additional zinc titanate sorbents. Final report, September 1992--May 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ayala, R.E.; Chuck, T.L.

    1996-12-31

    GE is developing a moving-bed, high-temperature desulfurization system for the integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) power cycle in which zinc-based regenerable sorbents are currently being used as desulfurization sorbents. Zinc titanate and other zinc-based oxides are being considered as sorbents for use in the Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program at Tampa Electric Co.`s Polk Power Station. A key to success in the development of high-temperature desulfurization systems is the matching of sorbent properties for the selected process operating conditions, namely, sustainable desulfurization kinetics, high sulfur capacity, and mechanical durability over multiple cycles. Additionally, the sulfur species produced during regeneration of the sorbent must be in a form compatible with sulfur recovery systems, such as sulfuric acid or elemental sulfur processes. The objective of this contract is to identify and test sorbent fabrication methods and chemical compositions that enhance the long-term chemical reactivity and mechanical strength of zinc titanate and other novel sorbents for moving-bed, high-temperature desulfurization of coal-derived gases. A parametric study on the use of calcium sulfate additives to zinc titanate was conducted for zinc titanates having a 2:1 and 1.5:1 zinc-to-titanium molar ratio, and they showed a beneficial effect on crush strength of fresh 2:1 zinc titanate sorbents. In addition, a test procedure was developed to screen sorbent formulations based on resistance to spalling and pellet breakage induced by zinc sulfate formation in the presence of sulfur dioxide and excess oxygen conditions.

  19. Technical task plan for testing filter box sorbent-paint filter test

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kilpatrick, L.L.

    1993-09-01

    At the Savannah River Plant, High Level Waste Engineering (HLWE) asked Interim Waste Technology (IWT) to choose and test a sorbent to add to the ITP filter box that meets the EPA requirement for land disposal of containerized liquid hazardous wastes per Paint Filter Liquids (PFL) test method 9095. This report outlines the process to be used in accomplishing this task.

  20. Novel Sorbent to Clean Biogas for Fuel Cell Combined Heat and Power

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-11-01

    TDA Research Inc., in collaboration with FuelCell Energy, will develop a new, high-capacity sorbent to remove sulfur from anaerobic digester gas. This technology will enable the production of a nearly sulfur-free biogas to replace natural gas in fuel cell power plants while reducing greenhouse gas emissions from fossil fuels.

  1. Catalyst functionalized buffer sorbent pebbles for rapid separation of carbon dioxide from gas mixtures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aines, Roger D

    2015-03-31

    A method for separating CO.sub.2 from gas mixtures uses a slurried media impregnated with buffer compounds and coating the solid media with a catalyst or enzyme that promotes the transformation of CO.sub.2 to carbonic acid. Buffer sorbent pebbles with a catalyst or enzyme coating are provided for rapid separation of CO.sub.2 from gas mixtures.

  2. Catalyst functionalized buffer sorbent pebbles for rapid separation of carbon dioxide from gas mixtures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aines, Roger D.

    2013-03-12

    A method for separating CO.sub.2 from gas mixtures uses a slurried media impregnated with buffer compounds and coating the solid media with a catalyst or enzyme that promotes the transformation of CO.sub.2 to carbonic acid. Buffer sorbent pebbles with a catalyst or enzyme coating are provided for rapid separation of CO.sub.2 from gas mixtures.

  3. Novel Sorbent to Clean Biogas for Fuel Cell Combined Heat and...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Polishing desulfurization sorbent One-step solution to all contaminants ... Approach 2.6 2.6 2.6 6.8 7.2 2.2 2.2 1.8 11.1 2.6 2.6 ...

  4. DRY FLUORINE SEPARATION METHOD

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Seaborg, G.T.; Gofman, J.W.; Stoughton, R.W.

    1959-05-19

    Preparation and separation of U/sup 233/ by irradiation of ThF/sub 4/ is described. During the neutron irradiation to produce Pa/sup 233/ a fluorinating agent such as HF, F/sub 2/, or HF + F/sub 2/ is passed through the ThF/sub 4/ powder to produce PaF/sub 5/. The PaF/sub 5/, being more volatile, is removed as a gas and allowed to decay radioactively to U/sup 233/ fluoride. A batch procedure in which ThO/sub 2/ or Th metal is irradiated and fluorinated is suggested. Some Pa and U fluoride volatilizes away. Then the remainder is fluorinated with F/sub 2/ to produce very volatile UF/sub 6/ which is recovered. (T.R.H.)

  5. Wet powder seal for gas containment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stang, Louis G.

    1982-01-01

    A gas seal is formed by a compact layer of an insoluble powder and liquid filling the fine interstices of that layer. The smaller the particle size of the selected powder, such as sand or talc, the finer will be the interstices or capillary spaces in the layer and the greater will be the resulting sealing capacity, i.e., the gas pressure differential which the wet powder layer can withstand. Such wet powder seal is useful in constructing underground gas reservoirs or storage cavities for nuclear wastes as well as stopping leaks in gas mains buried under ground or situated under water. The sealing capacity of the wet powder seal can be augmented by the hydrostatic head of a liquid body established over the seal.

  6. Wet powder seal for gas containment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stang, L.G.

    1979-08-29

    A gas seal is formed by a compact layer of an insoluble powder and liquid filling the fine interstices of that layer. The smaller the particle size of the selected powder, such as sand or talc, the finer will be the interstices or capillary spaces in the layer and the greater will be the resulting sealing capacity, i.e., the gas pressure differential which the wet powder layer can withstand. Such wet powder seal is useful in constructing underground gas reservoirs or storage cavities for nuclear wastes as well as stopping leaks in gas mains buried under ground or situated under water. The sealing capacity of the wet powder seal can be augmented by the hydrostatic head of a liquid body established over the seal.

  7. A Low Cost, High Capacity Regenerable Sorbent for Pre-combustion CO{sub 2} Capture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alptekin, Gokhan

    2012-09-30

    The overall objective of the proposed research is to develop a low cost, high capacity CO{sub 2} sorbent and demonstrate its technical and economic viability for pre-combustion CO{sub 2} capture. The specific objectives supporting our research plan were to optimize the chemical structure and physical properties of the sorbent, scale-up its production using high throughput manufacturing equipment and bulk raw materials and then evaluate its performance, first in bench-scale experiments and then in slipstream tests using actual coal-derived synthesis gas. One of the objectives of the laboratory-scale evaluations was to demonstrate the life and durability of the sorbent for over 10,000 cycles and to assess the impact of contaminants (such as sulfur) on its performance. In the field tests, our objective was to demonstrate the operation of the sorbent using actual coal-derived synthesis gas streams generated by air-blown and oxygen-blown commercial and pilot-scale coal gasifiers (the CO{sub 2} partial pressure in these gas streams is significantly different, which directly impacts the operating conditions hence the performance of the sorbent). To support the field demonstration work, TDA collaborated with Phillips 66 and Southern Company to carry out two separate field tests using actual coal-derived synthesis gas at the Wabash River IGCC Power Plant in Terre Haute, IN and the National Carbon Capture Center (NCCC) in Wilsonville, AL. In collaboration with the University of California, Irvine (UCI), a detailed engineering and economic analysis for the new CO{sub 2} capture system was also proposed to be carried out using Aspen PlusTM simulation software, and estimate its effect on the plant efficiency.

  8. Sorbent utilization studies using a mini-pilot spray dryer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keener, T.C.; Khang, S.J.; Yang, Q. )

    1992-07-01

    The objectives of project 1.5 were to design, construct and evaluate (by means of parametric testing) a mini-pilot spray dryer facility. To date, the mini-pilot facility has been designed and is currently 100% constructed. The unit was evaluated based on such parameters as air flow rate, uniformity, residence time, Ca(OH)[sub 2] Slurry concentration the nozzle can handle, heater's heating capacity and the baseline SO[sub 2] removal efficiency. The mini-pilot facility will allow research in all aspects of spray drying fluid gas desulfurization. The unit was designed for a nominal gas flow rate of 100 scfm (3 n[sup 3]/min) and will be able be used with either nozzle spray or rotary atomization. In addition, a theoretical modeling of spray drying has been completed. Results of the simulation indicate that counter-current (referring to air flow) spray pattern will benefit in overall SO[sub 2] removal with respect to co-current spray pattern. This result needs to be further tested in the pilot scale spray dryer. Baseline testing has indicated that the mini-pilot plant provides data which is comparable to that from the large scale spray dryer facility at the Electric Power Research Institute's High Sulfur Test Facility. The results of these baseline tests have shown that SO[sub 2] removal efficiency increases with a decrease in the approach to saturation temperature, or an increase in lime stoichiometric ratio (at a constant approach to saturation temperature).

  9. Method of drying articles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Janney, M.A.; Kiggans, J.O. Jr.

    1999-03-23

    A method of drying a green particulate article includes the steps of: (a) Providing a green article which includes a particulate material and a pore phase material, the pore phase material including a solvent; and (b) contacting the green article with a liquid desiccant for a period of time sufficient to remove at least a portion of the solvent from the green article, the pore phase material acting as a semipermeable barrier to allow the solvent to be sorbed into the liquid desiccant, the pore phase material substantially preventing the liquid desiccant from entering the pores. 3 figs.

  10. Method of drying articles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Janney, Mark A.; Kiggans, Jr., James O.

    1999-01-01

    A method of drying a green particulate article includes the steps of: a. Providing a green article which includes a particulate material and a pore phase material, the pore phase material including a solvent; and b. contacting the green article with a liquid desiccant for a period of time sufficient to remove at least a portion of the solvent from the green article, the pore phase material acting as a semipermeable barrier to allow the solvent to be sorbed into the liquid desiccant, the pore phase material substantially preventing the liquid desiccant from entering the pores.

  11. Dry reforming of hydrocarbon feedstocks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shah, Yatish T.; Gardner, Todd H.

    2014-09-25

    Developments in catalyst technology for the dry reforming of hydrocarbon feedstocks are reviewed for methane, higher hydrocarbons and alcohols. Thermodynamics, mechanisms and the kinetics of dry reforming are also reviewed. The literature on Ni catalysts, bi-metallic Ni catalysts and the role of promoters on Ni catalysts is critically evaluated. The use of noble and transitional metal catalysts for dry reforming is discussed. The application of solid oxide and metal carbide catalysts to dry reforming is also evaluated. Finally, various mechanisms for catalyst deactivation are assessed. This review also examines the various process related issues associated with dry reforming such as its application and heat optimization. Novel approaches such as supercritical dry reforming and microwave assisted dry reforming are briefly expanded upon.

  12. Solid State Processing of New Low Cost Titanium Powders Enabling...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Processing of New Low Cost Titanium Powders Enabling Affordable Automotive Components Solid State Processing of New Low Cost Titanium Powders Enabling Affordable Automotive ...

  13. Water Outgassing from PBX-9502 powder by isoconversional thermal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Water Outgassing from PBX-9502 powder by isoconversional thermal analysis Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Water Outgassing from PBX-9502 powder by isoconversional ...

  14. NanoComposite Stainless Steel Powder Technologies (Technical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    NanoComposite Stainless Steel Powder Technologies Citation Details In-Document Search Title: NanoComposite Stainless Steel Powder Technologies You are accessing a document from ...

  15. Sorbent selection and design considerations for uranium trapping. [H-151 alumina, XF-100 alumina, F-1 alumina, sodium fluoride

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schultz, R.M.; Hobbs, W.E.; Norton, J.L.; Stephenson, M.J.

    1981-07-01

    The efficient removal of UF/sub 6/ from effluent streams can be accomplished through the selection of the best solid sorbent and the implementation of good design principles. Pressure losses, sorbent capacity, reaction kinetics, sorbent regeneration/uranium recovery requirements and the effects of other system components are the performance factors which are summarized. The commonly used uranium trapping materials highlighted are sodium fluoride, H-151 alumina, XF-100 alumina, and F-1 alumina. Sorbent selection and trap design have to be made on a case-by-case basis but the theoretical modeling studies and the evaluation of the performance factors presented can be used as a guide for other chemical trap applications.

  16. Regeneration of carboxylic acid-laden basic sorbents by leaching with a volatile base in an organic solvent

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    King, C. Judson; Husson, Scott M.

    1999-01-01

    Carboxylic acids are sorbed from aqueous feedstocks onto a solid adsorbent. The acids are freed from the sorbent phase by treating it with an organic solution of alkylamine thus forming an alkylamine/carboxylic acid complex which is decomposed with improved efficiency to the desired carboxylic acid and the alkylamine. Carbon dioxide addition can be used to improve the adsorption or the carboxylic acids by the solid phase sorbent.

  17. Laminated composite of magnetic alloy powder and ceramic powder and process for making same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moorhead, A.J.; Kim, H.

    1999-08-10

    A laminated composite structure of alternating metal powder layers, and layers formed of an inorganic bonding media powder, and a method for manufacturing same are disclosed. The method includes the steps of assembling in a cavity alternating layers of a metal powder and an inorganic bonding media of a ceramic, glass, and glass-ceramic. Heat, with or without pressure, is applied to the alternating layers until the particles of the metal powder are sintered together and bonded into the laminated composite structure by the layers of sintered inorganic bonding media to form a strong composite structure. The method finds particular application in the manufacture of high performance magnets wherein the metal powder is a magnetic alloy powder. 9 figs.

  18. Laminated composite of magnetic alloy powder and ceramic powder and process for making same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moorhead, Arthur J.; Kim, Hyoun-Ee

    1999-01-01

    A laminated composite structure of alternating metal powder layers, and layers formed of an inorganic bonding media powder, and a method for manufacturing same are discosed. The method includes the steps of assembling in a cavity alternating layers of a metal powder and an inorganic bonding media of a ceramic, glass, and glass-ceramic. Heat, with or without pressure, is applied to the alternating layers until the particles of the metal powder are sintered together and bonded into the laminated composite structure by the layers of sintered inorganic bonding media to form a strong composite structure. The method finds particular application in the manufacture of high performance magnets wherein the metal powder is a magnetic alloy powder.

  19. Synthesis and processing of monosized oxide powders

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barringer, Eric A.; Fegley, Jr., M. Bruce; Bowen, H. Kent

    1985-01-01

    Uniform-size, high-purity, spherical oxide powders are formed by hydrolysis of alkoxide precursors in dilute alcoholic solutions. Under controlled conditions (concentrations of 0.03 to 0.2 M alkoxide and 0.2 to 1.5 M water, for example) oxide particles on the order of about 0.05 to 0.7 micron can be produced. Methods of doping such powders and forming sinterable compacts are also disclosed.

  20. Synthesis and processing of monosized oxide powders

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barringer, E.A.; Fegley, M.B. Jr.; Bowen, H.K.

    1985-09-24

    Uniform-size, high-purity, spherical oxide powders are formed by hydrolysis of alkoxide precursors in dilute alcoholic solutions. Under controlled conditions (concentrations of 0.03 to 0.2 M alkoxide and 0.2 to 1.5 M water, for example) oxide particles on the order of about 0.05 to 0.7 microns can be produced. Methods of doping such powders and forming sinterable compacts are also disclosed. 6 figs.

  1. Biaxially textured articles formed by powder metallurgy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goyal, Amit; Williams, Robert K.

    2001-01-01

    A biaxially textured alloy article comprises Ni powder and at least one powder selected from the group consisting of Cr, W, V, Mo, Cu, Al, Ce, YSZ, Y, Rare Earths, (RE), MgO, CeO.sub.2, and Y.sub.2 O.sub.3 ; compacted and heat treated, then rapidly recrystallized to produce a biaxial texture on the article. In some embodiments the alloy article further comprises electromagnetic or electro-optical devices and possesses superconducting properties.

  2. EVALUATION OF SOLID SORBENTS AS A RETROFIT TECHNOLOGY FOR CO2 CAPTURE FROM COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holly Krutka; Sharon Sjostrom

    2011-07-31

    Through a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) funded cooperative agreement DE-NT0005649, ADA Environmental Solutions (ADA) has begun evaluating the use of solid sorbents for CO{sub 2} capture. The project objective was to address the viability and accelerate development of a solid-based CO{sub 2} capture technology. To meet this objective, initial evaluations of sorbents and the process/equipment were completed. First the sorbents were evaluated using a temperature swing adsorption process at the laboratory scale in a fixed-bed apparatus. A slipstream reactor designed to treat flue gas produced by coal-fired generation of nominally 1 kWe was designed and constructed, which was used to evaluate the most promising materials on a more meaningful scale using actual flue gas. In a concurrent effort, commercial-scale processes and equipment options were also evaluated for their applicability to sorbent-based CO{sub 2} capture. A cost analysis was completed that can be used to direct future technology development efforts. ADA completed an extensive sorbent screening program funded primarily through this project, DOE NETL cooperative agreement DE-NT0005649, with support from the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and other industry participants. Laboratory screening tests were completed on simulated and actual flue gas using simulated flue gas and an automated fixed bed system. The following types and quantities of sorbents were evaluated: 87 supported amines; 31 carbon based materials; 6 zeolites; 7 supported carbonates (evaluated under separate funding); and 10 hydrotalcites. Sorbent evaluations were conducted to characterize materials and down-select promising candidates for further testing at the slipstream scale. More than half of the materials evaluated during this program were supported amines. Based on the laboratory screening four supported amine sorbents were selected for evaluation at the 1 kW scale at two different field sites. ADA designed and fabricated a slipstream pilot to allow an evaluation of the kinetic behavior of sorbents and provide some flexibility for the physical characteristics of the materials. The design incorporated a transport reactor for the adsorber (co-current reactor) and a fluidized-bed in the regenerator. This combination achieved the sorbent characterization goals and provided an opportunity to evaluate whether the potential cost savings associated with a relatively simple process design could overcome the sacrifices inherent in a co-current separation process. The system was installed at two field sites during the project, Luminant's Martin Lake Steam Electric Station and Xcel Energy's Sherburne County Generating Station (Sherco). Although the system could not maintain continuous 90% CO{sub 2} removal with the sorbents evaluated under this program, it was useful to compare the CO{sub 2} removal properties of several different sorbents on actual flue gas. One of the supported amine materials, sorbent R, was evaluated at both Martin Lake and Sherco. The 1 kWe pilot was operated in continuous mode as well as batch mode. In continuous mode, the sorbent performance could not overcome the limitations of the cocurrent adsorbent design. In batch mode, sorbent R was able to remove up to 90% CO{sub 2} for several cycles. Approximately 50% of the total removal occurred in the first three feet of the adsorption reactor, which was a transport reactor. During continuous testing at Sherco, CO{sub 2} removal decreased to approximately 20% at steady state. The lack of continuous removal was due primarily to the combination of a co-current adsorption system with a fluidized bed for regeneration, a combination which did not provide an adequate driving force to maintain an acceptable working CO{sub 2} capacity. In addition, because sorbent R consisted of a polymeric amine coated on a silica substrate, it was believed that the 50% amine loaded resulted in mass diffusion limitations related to the CO{sub 2} uptake rate. Three additional supported amine materials, sorbents AX, F, and BN, were selected for evaluation using the 1 kW pilot at Sherco. Sorbent AX was operated in batch mode and performed similarly to sorbent R (i.e. could achieve up to 90% removal when given adequate regeneration time). Sorbent BN was not expected to be subject to the same mass diffusion limitations as experienced with sorbent R. When sorbent BN was used in continuous mode the steady state CO{sub 2} removal was approximately double that of sorbent R, which highlighted the importance of sorbents without kinetic limitations.

  3. Dry particle coating of polymer particles for tailor-made product properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blümel, C. Schmidt, J. Dielesen, A. Sachs, M. Winzer, B. Peukert, W. Wirth, K.-E.

    2014-05-15

    Disperse polymer powders with tailor-made particle properties are of increasing interest in industrial applications such as Selective Laser Beam Melting processes (SLM). This study focuses on dry particle coating processes to improve the conductivity of the insulating polymer powder in order to assemble conductive devices. Therefore PP particles were coated with Carbon Black nanoparticles in a dry particle coating process. This process was investigated in dependence of process time and mass fraction of Carbon Black. The conductivity of the functionalized powders was measured by impedance spectroscopy. It was found that there is a dependence of process time, respectively coating ratio and conductivity. The powder shows higher conductivities with increasing number of guest particles per host particle surface area, i.e. there is a correlation between surface functionalization density and conductivity. The assembled composite particles open new possibilities for processing distinct polymers such as PP in SLM process. The fundamentals of the dry particle coating process of PP host particles with Carbon Black guest particles as well as the influence on the electrical conductivity will be discussed.

  4. Synthesis of nanoscale magnesium diboride powder

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Finnemore, D. K.; Marzik, J. V.

    2015-12-18

    A procedure has been developed for the preparation of small grained magnesium diboride (MgB2) powder by reacting nanometer size boron powder in a magnesium vapor. Plasma synthesized boron powder that had particle sizes ranging from 20 to 300nm was mixed with millimeter size chunks of Mg by rolling stoichiometric amounts of the powders in a sealed cylindrical container under nitrogen gas. This mixture then was placed in a niobium reaction vessel, evacuated, and sealed by e-beam welding. The vessel was typically heated to approximately 830°C for several hours. The resulting MgB2 particles have a grain size in the 200 nmmore » to 800 nm range. Agglomerates of loosely bound particles could be broken up by light grinding in a mortar and pestle. At 830°C, many particles are composed of several grains grown together so that the average particle size is about twice the average grain size. Furthermore, experiments were conducted primarily with undoped boron powder, but carbon-doped boron powder showed very similar results.« less

  5. CO.sub.2 removal sorbent composition with high chemical stability during multiple cycles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Siriwardane, Ranjani V.; Rosencwaig, Shira

    2015-09-22

    Disclosed herein is a clay-alkali-amine CO.sub.2 sorbent composition prepared by integrating a clay substrate, basic alkali salt, and amine liquid. The basic alkali salt is present relative to the clay substrate in a weight ratio of from about 1 part to about 50 parts per 100 parts of the clay substrate. The amine liquid is present relative to a clay-alkali combination in a weight ratio of from about 1 part to about 10 parts per 10 parts of the clay-alkali combination. The clay-alkali-amine C02 sorbent is particularly advantageous for low temperature CO.sub.2 removal cycles in a gas stream having a C02 concentration less than around 2000 ppm and an oxygen concentration around 21%, such as air.

  6. Imprint-coating synthesis of selective functionalized ordered mesoporous sorbents for separation and sensors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dai, Sheng; Burleigh, Mark C.; Shin, Yongsoon

    2001-01-01

    The present invention relates generally to mesoporous sorbent materials having high capacity, high selectivity, fast kinetics, and molecular recognition capability. The invention also relates to a process for preparing these mesoporous substrates through molecular imprinting techniques which differ from convention techniques in that a template molecule is bound to one end of bifunctional ligands to form a complex prior to binding of the bifunctional ligands to the substrate. The present invention also relates to methods of using the mesoporous sorbent materials, for example, in the separation of toxic metals from process effluents, paints, and other samples; detection of target molecules, such as amino acids, drugs, herbicides, fertilizers, and TNT, in samples; separation and/or detection of substances using chromatography; imaging agents; sensors; coatings; and composites.

  7. Heat recovery from sorbent-based CO.sub.2 capture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jamal, Aqil; Gupta, Raghubir P

    2015-03-10

    The present invention provides a method of increasing the efficiency of exothermic CO.sub.2 capture processes. The method relates to withdrawing heat generated during the exothermic capture of CO.sub.2 with various sorbents via heat exchange with a working fluid. The working fluid is provided at a temperature and pressure such that it is in the liquid state, and has a vaporization temperature in a range such that the heat arising from the reaction of the CO.sub.2 and the sorbent causes a phase change from liquid to vapor state in whole or in part and transfers heat from to the working fluid. The resulting heated working fluid may subsequently be used to generate power.

  8. No Heat Spray Drying Technology

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Project Objective Advance research from prototype dryer ... First commercial market is dry flavors designed to ... change from existing practice Requires novel dryer ...

  9. DRI Companies | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Irvine, California Zip: 92614 Sector: Solar Product: US-based residential and commercial installer of turnkey solar systems, through subsidiary iDRI Energy. Coordinates:...

  10. Hot coal gas desulfurization with manganese-based sorbents. Annual report, September 1992--September 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hepworth, M.T.

    1993-12-01

    The focus of work being performed on Hot Coal Gas Desulfurization at the Morgantown Energy Technology Center is primarily in the use of zinc ferrite and zinc titanate sorbents; however, prior studies at the US Steel Fundamental Research Laboratories in Monroeville, PA, by E. T. Turkdogan indicated that an alternate sorbent, manganese dioxide-containing ore in mixture with alumina (75 wt % ore + 25 wt % Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) may be a viable alternative to zinc-based sorbents. Manganese, for example, has a lower vapor pressure in the elemental state than zinc hence it is not as likely to undergo depletion from the sorbent surface upon loading and regeneration cycles. Also manganese oxide is less readily reduced to the elemental state than iron hence the range of reduction potentials for oxygen is somewhat greater than for zinc ferrite. In addition, thermodynamic analysis of the manganese-oxygen-sulfur system shows it to be less amenable to sulfation than zinc ferrite. Potential also exists for utilization of manganese at higher temperatures than zinc ferrite or zinc titanate. This Annual Topical Report documents progress in pelletizing and testing via thermo-gravimetric analysis of individual pellet formulations of manganese ore/ alumina combinations and also manganese carbonate/alumina with two binders, dextrin and bentonite. It includes the prior Quarterly Technical Reports which indicate that the manganese carbonate material, being of higher purity than the manganese ore, has a higher degree of sulfur capacity and more rapid absorption kinetics. A 2-inch fixed-bed reactor has been fabricated and is now ready for subjecting pellets to cyclic loading and regeneration.

  11. Land application uses for dry flue gas desulfurization by-products: Phase 3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dick, W.; Bigham, J.; Forster, R.; Hitzhusen, F.; Lal, R.; Stehouwer, R.; Traina, S.; Wolfe, W.; Haefner, R.; Rowe, G.

    1999-01-31

    New flue gas desulfurization (FGD) scrubbing technologies create a dry, solid by-product material consisting of excess sorbent, reaction product that contains sulfate and sulfite, and coal fly ash. Generally, dry FGD by-products are treated as solid wastes and disposed in landfills. However, landfill sites are becoming scarce and tipping fees are constantly increasing. Provided the environmental impacts are socially and scientifically acceptable, beneficial uses via recycling can provide economic benefits to both the producer and the end user of the FGD. A study titled ''Land Application Uses for Dry Flue Gas Desulfurization By-Products'' was initiated in December, 1990 to develop and demonstrate large volume, beneficial uses of FGD by-products. Phase 1 and Phase 2 reports have been published by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), Palo Alto, CA. Phase 3 objectives were to demonstrate, using field studies, the beneficial uses of FGD by-products (1) as an amendment material on agricultural lands and on abandoned surface coal mine land, (2) as an engineering material for soil stabilization and raid repair, and (3) to assess the environmental and economic impacts of such beneficial uses. Application of dry FGD by-product to three soils in place of agricultural limestone increased alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) and corn (Zea may L.) yields. No detrimental effects on soil and plant quality were observed.

  12. Process for CO.sub.2 capture using a regenerable magnesium hydroxide sorbent

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Siriwardane, Ranjani V; Stevens, Jr., Robert W

    2013-06-25

    A process for CO.sub.2 separation using a regenerable Mg(OH).sub.2 sorbent. The process absorbs CO.sub.2 through the formation of MgCO.sub.3 and releases water product H.sub.2O. The MgCO.sub.3 is partially regenerated through direct contact with steam, which acts to heat the magnesium carbonate to a higher temperature, provide heat duty required to decompose the magnesium carbonate to yield MgO and CO.sub.2, provide an H.sub.2O environment over the magnesium carbonate thereby shifting the equilibrium and increasing the potential for CO.sub.2 desorption, and supply H.sub.2O for rehydroxylation of a portion of the MgO. The mixture is polished in the absence of CO.sub.2 using water product H.sub.2O produced during the CO.sub.2 absorption to maintain sorbent capture capacity. The sorbent now comprised substantially of Mg(OH).sub.2 is then available for further CO.sub.2 absorption duty in a cyclic process.

  13. Investigation of combined SO{sub 2}/NO{sub x} removal by ceria sorbents. Quarterly technical progress report, [April--June 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akyurtlu, A.; Akyurtlu, J.F.

    1995-07-01

    Simultaneous removal of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} using a regenerable solid sorbent will constitute an important improvement over the use of separate processes for the removal of these two pollutants from stack gases and possibly eliminate several shortcomings of the individual SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} removal operations. Recent studies at PETC considered cerium oxide as an alternate sorbent to CuO. The present study aims to determine the effects of ammonia on the sulfation of the sorbent and to obtain a rate expression for the regeneration of alumina-supported CeO{sub 2} sorbents. In this quarter runs for methane regeneration were completed. The data obtained were evaluated and interpreted. When the sulfated sorbent was regenerated with methane coke formation on the sorbent was observed. Treatment of fresh sorbent with methane also resulted in coking. Coke formed on the sorbent disappeared very rapidly after the methane flow was replaced with nitrogen. The order of the regeneration reaction with respect to methane was estimated as 0:76 and the activation energy of the reaction was estimated as 130 kJ/mol. During repeated sulfation-regeneration cycles the decrease in the sulfur capacity after the first cycle was slightly more when regeneration was done with methane compared to that observed with hydrogen regeneration. In the subsequent 4 cycles, the ceria sorbent preserved its sulfur capacity. The regenerated sorbent was able to capture 1.5 sulfur atoms per cerium atom in less than an hour of sulfation, compared to S/Ce of 2.5 for fresh sorbents and 2 for sorbents regenerated with hydrogen.

  14. A novel process route for the production of spherical SLS polymer powders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schmidt, Jochen; Sachs, Marius; Blmel, Christina; Winzer, Bettina; Toni, Franziska; Wirth, Karl-Ernst; Peukert, Wolfgang

    2015-05-22

    Currently, rapid prototyping gradually is transferred to additive manufacturing opening new applications. Especially selective laser sintering (SLS) is promising. One drawback is the limited choice of polymer materials available as optimized powders. Powders produced by cryogenic grinding show poor powder flowability resulting in poor device quality. Within this account we present a novel process route for the production of spherical polymer micron-sized particles of good flowability. The feasibility of the process chain is demonstrated for polystyrene e. In a first step polymer microparticles are produced by a wet grinding method. By this approach the mean particle size and the particle size distribution can be tuned between a few microns and several 10 microns. The applicability of this method will be discussed for different polymers and the dependencies of product particle size distribution on stressing conditions and process temperature will be outlined. The comminution products consist of microparticles of irregular shape and poor powder flowability. An improvement of flowability of the ground particles is achieved by changing their shape: they are rounded using a heated downer reactor. The influence of temperature profile and residence time on the product properties will be addressed applying a viscous-flow sintering model. To further improve the flowability of the cohesive spherical polymer particles nanoparticles are adhered onto the microparticles surface. The improvement of flowability is remarkable: rounded and dry-coated powders exhibit a strongly reduced tensile strength as compared to the comminution product. The improved polymer powders obtained by the process route proposed open new possibilities in SLS processing including the usage of much smaller polymer beads.

  15. Slip casting nano-particle powders for making transparent ceramics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kuntz, Joshua D.; Soules, Thomas F.; Landingham, Richard Lee; Hollingsworth, Joel P.

    2011-04-12

    A method of making a transparent ceramic including the steps of providing nano-ceramic powders in a processed or unprocessed form, mixing the powders with de-ionized water, the step of mixing the powders with de-ionized water producing a slurry, sonifing the slurry to completely wet the powder and suspend the powder in the de-ionized water, separating very fine particles from the slurry, molding the slurry, and curing the slurry to produce the transparent ceramic.

  16. QER - Comment of Powder River Energy Corporation | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Powder River Energy Corporation QER - Comment of Powder River Energy Corporation From: Mike Easley [mikee@precorp.coop] Sent: Wednesday, August 20, 2014 11:59 PM To: QERcomments Subject: Comment on the QER Public Meeting in Cheyenne, WY: Infrastructure Siting Attachment: Michael Easley CEO Powder River Energy Corporation - Statement.pdf Statement of Michael E Easley Panel 1-Electric Infrastructure Siting Best Regards, Mike Michael Easley CEO Powder River Energy Corporation Powder River Energy,

  17. Spray drying of metal alkoxide sol for strontium titanate ceramics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Varma, H.K.; Pillai, P.K.; Mani, T.V.; Warrier, K.G.K.; Damodaran, A.D.

    1994-01-01

    Conditions for obtaining a stable sol in an isopropyl alcohol-water medium containing titanium isopropoxide and strontium nitrate, and acetic acid as a modifier, have been described. Spray drying of the sol results in submicrometer spherical agglomerates which on further thermal decomposition yield submicrometer particles of strontium titanate at temperatures as low as 500 C. The thermal decomposition characteristics of the spray-dried precursor and the development of strontium titanate phase have been discussed. Calcined precursor powder possesses a specific surface area of 12 m{sup 2}/g, a compaction density of 57%, and a sintered density of > 98%. The optimum sintering temperature of such a powder was 1450 C, which resulted in a sintered grain size around 1.5 {mu}m. Further, such a sintered sample had a dielectric constant of 260 and a loss factor of 0.008 at 1 kHz. This method appears to be very convenient with respect to handling of stable sols and thus avoids the usual difficulties regarding extended gelation as well as inhomogeneous precipitation.

  18. Die-target for dynamic powder consolidation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Flinn, J.E.; Korth, G.E.

    1985-06-27

    A die/target is disclosed for consolidation of a powder, especially an atomized rapidly solidified metal powder, to produce monoliths by the dynamic action of a shock wave, especially a shock wave produced by the detonation of an explosive charge. The die/target comprises a rectangular metal block having a square primary surface with four rectangular mold cavities formed therein to receive the powder. The cavities are located away from the geometrical center of the primary surface and are distributed around such center while also being located away from the geometrical diagonals of the primary surface to reduce the action of reflected waves so as to avoid tensile cracking of the monoliths. The primary surface is covered by a powder retention plate which is engaged by a flyer plate to transmit the shock wave to the primary surface and the powder. Spawl plates are adhesively mounted on other surfaces of the block to act as momentum traps so as to reduce reflected waves in the block. 4 figs.

  19. Die-target for dynamic powder consolidation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Flinn, John E.; Korth, Gary E.

    1986-01-01

    A die/target is disclosed for consolidation of a powder, especially an atomized rapidly solidified metal powder, to produce monoliths by the dynamic action of a shock wave, especially a shock wave produced by the detonation of an explosive charge. The die/target comprises a rectangular metal block having a square primary surface with four rectangular mold cavities formed therein to receive the powder. The cavities are located away from the geometrical center of the primary surface and are distributed around such center while also being located away from the geometrical diagonals of the primary surface to reduce the action of reflected waves so as to avoid tensile cracking of the monoliths. The primary surface is covered by a powder retention plate which is engaged by a flyer plate to transmit the shock wave to the primary surface and the powder. Spawl plates are adhesively mounted on other surfaces of the block to act as momentum traps so as to reduce reflected waves in the block.

  20. Multi-component testing using HZ-PAN and AgZ-PAN Sorbents for OSPREY Model validation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garn, Troy G.; Greenhalgh, Mitchell; Lyon, Kevin L.; Law, Jack D.

    2015-04-01

    In efforts to further develop the capability of the Off-gas SeParation and RecoverY (OSPREY) model, multi-component tests were completed using both HZ-PAN and AgZ-PAN sorbents. The primary purpose of this effort was to obtain multi-component xenon and krypton capacities for comparison to future OSPREY predicted multi-component capacities using previously acquired Langmuir equilibrium parameters determined from single component isotherms. Experimental capacities were determined for each sorbent using two feed gas compositions of 1000 ppmv xenon and 150 ppmv krypton in either a helium or air balance. Test temperatures were consistently held at 220 K and the gas flowrate was 50 sccm. Capacities were calculated from breakthrough curves using TableCurve 2D software by Jandel Scientific. The HZ-PAN sorbent was tested in the custom designed cryostat while the AgZ-PAN was tested in a newly installed cooling apparatus. Previous modeling validation efforts indicated the OSPREY model can be used to effectively predict single component xenon and krypton capacities for both engineered form sorbents. Results indicated good agreement with the experimental and predicted capacity values for both krypton and xenon on the sorbents. Overall, the model predicted slightly elevated capacities for both gases which can be partially attributed to the estimation of the parameters and the uncertainty associated with the experimental measurements. Currently, OSPREY is configured such that one species adsorbs and one does not (i.e. krypton in helium). Modification of OSPREY code is currently being performed to incorporate multiple adsorbing species and non-ideal interactions of gas phase species with the sorbent and adsorbed phases. Once these modifications are complete, the sorbent capacities determined in the present work will be used to validate OSPREY multicomponent adsorption predictions.

  1. Biaxially textured articles formed by powder metallurgy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goyal, Amit; Williams, Robert K.; Kroeger, Donald M.

    2003-10-21

    A strengthened, biaxially textured alloy article having a magnetism less than pure Ni includes a rolled and annealed, compacted and sintered powder-metallurgy preform article, the preform article having been formed from a powder mixture selected from the group of mixtures consisting of: Ni, Ag, Ag--Cu, Ag--Pd, Ni--Cu, Ni--V, Ni--Mo, Ni--Al, Ni--Cr--Al, Ni--W--Al, Ni--V--Al, Ni--Mo--Al, Ni--Cu--Al; and at least one fine metal oxide powder; the article having a grain size which is fine and homogeneous; and having a dominant cube oriented {100}<100> orientation texture; and further having a Curie temperature less than that of pure Ni.

  2. Atomization methods for forming magnet powders

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sellers, Charles H.; Branagan, Daniel J.; Hyde, Timothy A.

    2000-01-01

    The invention encompasses methods of utilizing atomization, methods for forming magnet powders, methods for forming magnets, and methods for forming bonded magnets. The invention further encompasses methods for simulating atomization conditions. In one aspect, the invention includes an atomization method for forming a magnet powder comprising: a) forming a melt comprising R.sub.2.1 Q.sub.13.9 B.sub.1, Z and X, wherein R is a rare earth element; X is an element selected from the group consisting of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen and mixtures thereof; Q is an element selected from the group consisting of Fe, Co and mixtures thereof; and Z is an element selected from the group consisting of Ti, Zr, Hf and mixtures thereof; b) atomizing the melt to form generally spherical alloy powder granules having an internal structure comprising at least one of a substantially amorphous phase or a substantially nanocrystalline phase; and c) heat treating the alloy powder to increase an energy product of the alloy powder; after the heat treatment, the alloy powder comprising an energy product of at least 10 MGOe. In another aspect, the invention includes a magnet comprising R, Q, B, Z and X, wherein R is a rare earth element; X is an element selected from the group consisting of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen and mixtures thereof; Q is an element selected from the group consisting of Fe, Co and mixtures thereof; and Z is an element selected from the group consisting of Ti, Zr, Hf and mixtures thereof; the magnet comprising an internal structure comprising R.sub.2.1 Q.sub.13.9 B.sub.1.

  3. Desensitizing nano powders to electrostatic discharge ignition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steelman, Ryan; Clark, Billy; Pantoya, Michelle L.; Heaps, Ronald J.; Daniels, Michael A.

    2015-08-01

    Electrostatic discharge (ESD) is a main cause for ignition in powder media ranging from grain silos to fireworks. Nanoscale particles are orders of magnitude more ESD ignition sensitive than their micron scale counterparts. This study shows that at least 13 vol. % carbon nanotubes (CNT) added to nano-aluminum and nano-copper oxide particles (nAl + CuO) eliminates ESD ignition sensitivity. The CNT act as a conduit for electric energy and directs electric charge through the powder to desensitize the reactive mixture to ignition. For nanoparticles, the required CNT concentration for desensitizing ESD ignition acts as a diluent to quench energy propagation.

  4. Synthesis of ultrafine powders by microwave heating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Meek, Thomas T.; Sheinberg, Haskell; Blake, Rodger D.

    1988-01-01

    A method of synthesizing ultrafine powders using microwaves is described. A water soluble material is dissolved in water and the resulting aqueous solution is exposed to microwaves until the water has been removed. The resulting material is an ultrafine powder. This method can be used to make Al.sub.2 O.sub.3, NiO+Al.sub.2 O.sub.3 and NiO as well as a number of other materials including GaBa.sub.2 Cu.sub.3 O.sub.x.

  5. Synthesis of ultrafine powders by microwave heating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Meek, T.T.; Sheinberg, H.; Blake, R.D.

    1987-04-24

    A method of synthesizing ultrafine powders using microwaves is described. A water soluble material is dissolved in water and the resulting aqueous solution is exposed to microwaves until the water has dissolved. The resulting material is an ultrafine powder. This method can be used to make Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/, NiO /plus/ Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ and NiO as well as a number of other materials including GaBa/sub 2/Cu/sub 3/O/sub x/. 1 tab.

  6. Advanced NDE Technologies for Powder Metal Components

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martin, P; Haskins, J; Thomas, G; Dolan, K

    2003-05-01

    Nondestructive evaluation encompasses numerous technologies that assess materials and determine important properties. This paper demonstrates the applicability of several of these technologies to the field of powder metallurgy. The usual application of nondestructive evaluation is to detect and quantify defects in fully sintered product. But probably its most appealing role is to sense problems earlier in the manufacturing process to avoid making defects at all. Also nondestructive evaluation can be incorporated into the manufacturing processes to monitor important parameters and control the processes to produce defect free product. Nondestructive evaluation can characterize powders, evaluate components in the green state, monitor the sintering process, and inspect the final component.

  7. Development of Novel Carbon Sorbents for CO{sub 2} Capture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krishnan, Gopala; Hornbostel, Marc; Bao, Jianer; Perez, Jordi; Nagar, Anoop; Sanjurjo, Angel

    2013-11-30

    An innovative, low-cost, and low-energy-consuming carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) capture technology was developed, based on CO{sub 2}adsorption on a high-capacity and durable carbon sorbent. This report describes the (1) performance of the concept on a bench-scale system; (2) results of parametric tests to determine the optimum operating conditions; (3) results of the testing with a flue gas from coal-fired boilers; and (4) evaluation of the technical and economic viability of the technology. The process uses a falling bed of carbon sorbent microbeads to separate the flue gas into two streams: a CO{sub 2} -lean flue gas stream from which > 90% of the CP{sub 2} is removed and a pure stream of CO{sub 2} that is ready for compression and sequestration. The carbo sorbent microbeads have several unique properties such as high CO{sub 2} capacity, low heat of adsorption and desorption (25 to 28 kJ/mole), mechanically robust, and rapid adsorption and desorption rates. The capture of CO{sub 2} from the flue gas is performed at near ambient temperatures in whic the sorbent microbeads flow down by gravity counter-current with the up-flow of the flue gas. The adsorbed CO{sub 2} is stripped by heating the CO{sub 2}-loaded sorbent to - 100C, in contact with low-pressure (- 5 psig) steam in a section at the bottom of the adsorber. The regenerated sorben is dehydrated of adsorbed moisture, cooled, and lifted back to the adsorber. The CO{sub 2} from the desorber is essentially pure and can be dehydrated, compressed, and transported to a sequestration site. Bench-scale tests using a simulated flue gas showed that the integrated system can be operated to provide > 90% CO{sub 2} capture from a 15% CO{sub 2} stream in the adsorber and produce > 98% CO{sub 2} at the outlet of the stripper. Long-term tests ( 1,000 cycles) showed that the system can be operated reliably without sorbent agglomeration or attrition. The bench-scale reactor was also operated using a flue gas stream from a coal-fired boil at the University of Toledo campus for about 135 h, comprising 7,000 cycles of adsorption and desorption using the desulfurized flue gas that contained only 4.5% v/v CO{sub 2}. A capture efficiency of 85 to 95% CO{sub 2} was achieved under steady-state conditi ons. The CO{sub 2} adsorption capacity did not change significantly during the field test, as determined from the CO{sub 2} adsorptio isotherms of fresh and used sorbents. The process is also being tested using the flue gas from a PC-fired power plant at the National Carbon Capture Center (NCCC), Wilsonville, AL. The cost of electricity was calculated for CO{sub 2} capture using the carbon sorbent and compared with the no-CO{sub 2} capture and CO{sub 2} capture with an amine-based system. The increase i the levelized cost of electricity (L-COE) is about 37% for CO{sub 2} capture using the carbon sorbent in comparison to 80% for an amine-based system, demonstrating the economic advantage of C capture using the carbon sorbent. The 37% increase in the L-COE corresponds to a cost of capture of $30/ton of CO{sub 2}, including compression costs, capital cost for the capture system, and increased plant operating and capital costs to make up for reduced plant efficiency. Preliminary sensitivity analyses showed capital costs, pressure drops in the adsorber, and steam requirement for the regenerator are the major variables in determining the cost of CO{sub 2} capture. The results indicate that further long-term testing with a flue gas from a pulverized coal fired boiler should be performed to obtain additional data relating to the effects of flue gas contaminants, the ability to reduce pressure drop by using alternate structural packing , and the use of low-cost construction materials.

  8. Development of a dry-feed system for a coal-fired gas turbine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rothrock, J.W. Jr.; Smith, C.F.

    1993-11-01

    The objective of the reported of the reported work is to develop a dry coal feed system that provides smooth, controllable flow of coal solids into the high pressure combustor of the engine and all test rigs. The system must start quickly and easily, run continuously with automatic transfer of coal from low pressure hoppers to the high pressure delivery system, and offer at least a 3:1 smooth turn-down ratio. cost of the equipment must be minimized to maintain the economic attractiveness of the whole system. Before the current contract started some work was done with dry powder coal. For safety and convenience reasons, coal water slurry was selected as the fuel for all work on the program. Much of the experimental work, including running the Allison 501-KM engine was done with coal slurry. Recent economic analysis led to a change to powdered coal.

  9. Land application uses for dry FGD by-products, Phase 1 report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bigham, J.; Dick, W.; Forster, L.; Hitzhusen, F.; McCoy, E.; Stehouwer, R.; Traina, S.; Wolfe, W.

    1993-04-01

    The 1990 amendments to the Clean Air Act have spurred the development of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) processes, several of which produce a dry, solid by-product material consisting of excess sorbent, reaction products containing sulfates and sulfites, and coal fly ash. FGD by-product materials are treated as solid wastes and must be landfilled. It is highly desirable to find beneficial reuses for these materials provided the environmental impacts are minimal and socially acceptable. Phase 1 results of a 4 and 1/2 year study to demonstrate large volume beneficial uses of FGD by-products are reported. The purpose of the Phase 1 portion of the project was to characterize the chemical, physical, mineralogical and engineering properties of the FGD by-product materials obtained from various FGD technologies being developed in the state of Ohio. Phase 1 also involved the collection of baseline economic data related to the beneficial reuse of these FGD materials. A total of 58 samples were collected and analyzed. The results indicated the chemical composition of the FGD by-product materials were dominated by Ca, S, Al, and Si. Many of the elements regulated by the US Environmental Protection Agency reside primarily in the fly ash. Phase 1 results revealed that FGD by-product materials are essentially coal fly ash materials diluted with unreacted sorbent and reaction products. High volume beneficial reuses will depend on the economics of their substituting for existing materials for various types of applications (e.g. as an agricultural liming material, soil borrow for highway embankment construction, and reclamation of active and abandoned surface coal mines). Environmental constraints to the beneficial reuse of dry FGD by-product materials, based on laboratory and leachate studies, seem to be less than for coal fly ash.

  10. Report on Biomass Drying Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Amos, W. A.

    1999-01-12

    Using dry fuel provides significant benefits to combustion boilers, mainly increased boiler efficiency, lower air emissions, and improved boiler operation. The three main choices for drying biomass are rotary dryers, flash dryers, and superheated steam dryers. Which dryer is chosen for a particular application depends very much on the material characteristics of the biomass, the opportunities for integrating the process and dryer, and the environmental controls needed or already available.

  11. Fabrication of TiO{sub 2} Thick Film for Photocatalyst from Commercial TiO{sub 2} Powder

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Asteti, S. Fuji; Syarif, D. Gustaman

    2008-03-17

    Photocatalytic activity of TiO{sub 2} thick film ceramics made of commercial TiO{sub 2} powder has been studied. The TiO{sub 2} powder was nano sized one that was derived from dried TiO{sub 2} suspension. The TiO{sub 2} suspension was made by pouring some blended commercial TiO{sub 2} powder into some amount of water. The paste of TiO{sub 2} was made by mixing the nano sized TiO{sub 2} powder with organic vehicle and glass frit. The paste was spread on a glass substrate. The paste was dried at 100 deg. C and heated at different temperatures (400 deg. C and 500 deg. C) for 60 minutes to produce thick film ceramics. The photocatalytic activity of these films was evaluated by measuring the concentration of a solution of methylene blue where the thick films were inside after being illuminated by UV light at various periods of times. The initial concentration of the methylene blue solution was 5 ppm. Structural analyses were carried out by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The XRD analyses showed that the produced thick film ceramic had mainly crystal structure of anatase. According to the photocatalytical data, it was known that the produced thick film ceramics were photocatalyst which were capable of decomposing an organic compound such as the methylene blue.

  12. Effect of palladium dispersion on the capture of toxic components from fuel gas by palladium-alumina sorbents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baltrus, John P.; Granite, Evan J.; Rupp, Erik C.; Stanko, Dennis C.; Howard, Bret; Pennline, Henry W.

    2011-05-01

    The dispersion and location of Pd in alumina-supported sorbents prepared by different methods was found to influence the performance of the sorbents in the removal of mercury, arsine, and hydrogen selenide from a simulated fuel gas. When Pd is well dispersed in the pores of the support, contact interaction with the support is maximized, Pd is less susceptible to poisoning by sulfur, and the sorbent has better long-term activity for adsorption of arsine and hydrogen selenide, but poorer adsorption capacity for Hg. As the contact interaction between Pd and the support is lessened the Pd becomes more susceptible to poisoning by sulfur, resulting in higher capacity for Hg, but poorer long-term performance for adsorption of arsenic and selenium.

  13. Effect of palladium dispersion on the capture of toxic components from fuel gas by palladium-alumina sorbents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baltrus, J.P.; Granite, E.J.; Rupp, E.C.; Stanko, D.C.; Howard, B.; Pennline, H.W.

    2011-01-01

    The dispersion and location of Pd in alumina-supported sorbents prepared by different methods was found to influence the performance of the sorbents in the removal of mercury, arsine, and hydrogen selenide from a simulated fuel gas. When Pd is well dispersed in the pores of the support, contact interaction with the support is maximized, Pd is less susceptible to poisoning by sulfur. and the sorbent has better long-term activity for adsorption of arsine and hydrogen selenide. but poorer adsorption capacity for Hg. As the contact interaction between Pd and the support is lessened the Pd becomes more susceptible to poisoning by sulfur. resulting in higher capacity for Hg, but poorer long-term performance for adsorption of arsenic and selenium.

  14. Molybdenum-based additives to mixed-metal oxides for use in hot gas cleanup sorbents for the catalytic decomposition of ammonia in coal gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ayala, Raul E.

    1993-01-01

    This invention relates to additives to mixed-metal oxides that act simultaneously as sorbents and catalysts in cleanup systems for hot coal gases. Such additives of this type, generally, act as a sorbent to remove sulfur from the coal gases while substantially simultaneously, catalytically decomposing appreciable amounts of ammonia from the coal gases.

  15. EVALUATION OF CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE FROM EXISTING COAL FIRED PLANTS BY HYBRID SORPTION USING SOLID SORBENTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benson, Steven; Browers, Bruce; Srinivasachar, Srivats; Laudal, Daniel

    2014-12-31

    Under contract DE-FE0007603, the University of North Dakota conducted the project Evaluation of Carbon Dioxide Capture from Existing Coal Fired Plants by Hybrid Sorption Using Solid Sorbents. As an important element of this effort, a Technical and Economic Feasibility Study was conducted by Barr Engineering Co. (Barr) in association with the University of North Dakota. The assessment developed a process flow diagram, major equipment list, heat balances for the SCPC power plant, capital cost estimate, operating cost estimate, levelized cost of electricity, cost of CO2 capture ($/ton) and three sensitivity cases for the CACHYS™ process.

  16. Sorbents for the oxidation and removal of mercury (Patent) | SciTech

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Connect × You are accessing a document from the Department of Energy's (DOE) SciTech Connect. This site is a product of DOE's Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) and is provided as a public service. Visit OSTI to utilize additional information resources in energy science and technology. A paper copy of this document is also available for sale to the public from the National Technical Information Service, Springfield, VA at www.ntis.gov. A promoted activated carbon sorbent

  17. Novel Sorbent to Clean Biogas for Fuel Cell Combined Heat and Power Systems

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Gökhan O. Alptekin TDA Research, Inc. Wheat Ridge, CO U.S. DOE Advanced Manufacturing Office Peer Review Meeting Washington, D.C. May 6-7, 2014 This presentation does not contain any proprietary, confidential, or otherwise restricted information. Project Objective  The objective is to develop a low-cost, high-capacity expendable sorbent to remove both sulfur species in biogas to ppb levels, making its use possible in a fuel cell CHP unit  The high concentrations of sulfur species in the

  18. Theoretical Screening of Solid Sorbents for CO{sub 2} Capture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duan, Y [NETL; Sorescu, D C [NETL; Luebke, D [NETL; Morreale, B [NETL; Li, B Y; Zhang, B; Johnson, J K; Zhang, K; Li, X S; King, D

    2013-04-11

    By combining thermodynamic database searches with density functional theory and lattice phonon dynamics, a screening methodology was developed to identify promising solid sorbent candidates for CO{sub 2} capture. This methodology has been used to screen hundreds of solid compounds and some of the promising candidates to date have been reported in literature. This screening methodology is particularly relevant for the case of materials for which experimental thermodynamic data is not available. Such areas of interest are represented by the case of solid mixtures and doped materials, where thermodynamic data are generally not available but for which the crystallographic structure is known or can be easily determined.

  19. Evaluation of Solid Sorbents As A Retrofit Technology for CO{sub 2} Capture from Coal-Fired Power Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krutka, Holly; Sjostrom, Sharon

    2011-07-31

    Through a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) funded cooperative agreement DE-NT0005649, ADA Environmental Solutions (ADA) has begun evaluating the use of solid sorbents for CO{sub 2} capture. The project objective was to address the viability and accelerate development of a solid-based CO{sub 2} capture technology. To meet this objective, initial evaluations of sorbents and the process / equipment were completed. First the sorbents were evaluated using a temperature swing adsorption process at the laboratory scale in a fixed-bed apparatus. A slipstream reactor designed to treat flue gas produced by coal-fired generation of nominally 1 kWe was designed and constructed, which was used to evaluate the most promising materials on a more meaningful scale using actual flue gas. In a concurrent effort, commercial-scale processes and equipment options were also evaluated for their applicability to sorbent-based CO{sub 2} capture. A cost analysis was completed that can be used to direct future technology development efforts. ADA completed an extensive sorbent screening program funded primarily through this project, DOE NETL cooperative agreement DE-NT0005649, with support from the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and other industry participants. Laboratory screening tests were completed on simulated and actual flue gas using simulated flue gas and an automated fixed bed system. The following types and quantities of sorbents were evaluated: 87 supported amines, 31 carbon based materials, 6 zeolites, 7 supported carbonates (evaluated under separate funding), 10 hydrotalcites. Sorbent evaluations were conducted to characterize materials and down-select promising candidates for further testing at the slipstream scale. More than half of the materials evaluated during this program were supported amines. Based on the laboratory screening four supported amine sorbents were selected for evaluation at the 1 kW scale at two different field sites. ADA designed and fabricated a slipstream pilot to allow an evaluation of the kinetic behavior of sorbents and provide some flexibility for the physical characteristics of the materials. The design incorporated a transport reactor for the adsorber (co-current reactor) and a fluidized-bed in the regenerator. This combination achieved the sorbent characterization goals and provided an opportunity to evaluate whether the potential cost savings associated with a relatively simple process design could overcome the sacrifices inherent in a co-current separation process. The system was installed at two field sites during the project, Luminant’s Martin Lake Steam Electric Station and Xcel Energy’s Sherburne County Generating Station (Sherco). Although the system could not maintain continuous 90% CO{sub 2} removal with the sorbents evaluated under this program, it was useful to compare the CO{sub 2} removal properties of several different sorbents on actual flue gas. One of the supported amine materials, sorbent R, was evaluated at both Martin Lake and Sherco. The 1 kWe pilot was operated in continuous mode as well as batch mode. In continuous mode, the sorbent performance could not overcome the limitations of the co-current adsorbent design. In batch mode, sorbent R was able to remove up to 90% CO{sub 2} for several cycles. Approximately 50% of the total removal occurred in the first three feet of the adsorption reactor, which was a transport reactor. During continuous testing at Sherco, CO{sub 2} removal decreased to approximately 20% at steady state. The lack of continuous removal was due primarily to the combination of a co-current adsorption system with a fluidized bed for regeneration, a combination which did not provide an adequate driving force to maintain an acceptable working CO{sub 2} capacity. In addition, because sorbent R consisted of a polymeric amine coated on a silica substrate, it was believed that the 50% amine loaded resulted in mass diffusion limitations related to the CO{sub 2} uptake rate. Three additional supported amine materials, sorbents AX, F, and BN, were selected for evaluation using the 1 kW pilot at Sherco. Sorbent AX was operated in batch mode and performed similarly to sorbent R (i.e. could achieve up to 90% removal when given adequate regeneration time). Sorbent BN was not expected to be subject to the same mass diffusion limitations as experienced with sorbent R. When sorbent BN was used in continuous mode the steady state CO{sub 2} removal was approximately double that of sorbent R, which highlighted the importance of sorbents without kinetic limitations. Many different processes and equipment designs exist that may be applicable for postcombustion CO{sub 2} capture using solids in a temperature-swing system. A thorough technology survey was completed to identify the most promising options, which were grouped and evaluated based on the four main unit operations involved with sorbent based capture: Adsorption; Heating and cooling, or heat transfer; Conveying; Desorption. The review included collecting information from a wide variety of sources, including technology databases, published papers, advertisements, web searches, and vendor interviews. Working with power producers, scoring sheets were prepared and used to compare the different technology options. Although several technologies were interesting and promising, those that were selected for the final conceptual design were commercially available and performed multiple steps simultaneously. For the adsorption step, adsorption and conveying were both accomplished in a circulating fluidized bed. A rotary kiln was selected for desorption and cooling because it can simultaneously accomplish conveying and effective heat transfer. The final technology selection was used to complete preliminary costs assessments for a conceptual 500 MW CO{sub 2} capture process. The high level cost analysis was completed to determine the key cost drivers. The conceptual sorbent-based capture options yielded significant energy penalty and cost savings versus an aqueous amine system. Specifically, the estimated levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) for final concept design without a CO{sub 2} laden/lean sorbent heat exchanger or any other integration, was over 30% lower than that of the MEA capture process. However, this cost savings was not enough to meet the DOE’s target of ≤35% increase in LCOE. In order to reach this target, the incremental LCOE due to the CO{sub 2} capture can be no higher than 2.10 ¢/kWh above the LCOE of the non-capture equivalent power plant (6.0 ¢/kWh). Although results of the 1 kWe pilot evaluations suggest that the initial full-scale concept design must be revisited to address the technical targets, the cost assessment still provides a valuable high-level estimate of the potential costs of a solids-based system. A sensitivity analysis was conducted to determine the cost drivers and the results of the sensitivity analysis will be used to direct future technology development efforts. The overall project objective was to assess the viability and accelerate development of a solid-based post-combustion CO{sub 2} capture technology that can be retrofit to the existing fleet of coal-fired power plants. This objective was successfully completed during the project along with several specific budget period goals. Based on sorbent screening and a full-scale equipment evaluation, it was determined that solid sorbents for post-combustion capture is promising and warrants continued development efforts. Specifically, the lower sensible heat could result in a significant reduction in the energy penalty versus solvent based capture systems, if the sorbents can be paired with a process and equipment that takes advantage of the beneficial sorbent properties. It was also determined that a design using a circulating fluidized bed adsorber with rotary kilns for heating during regeneration, cooling, and conveying highlighted the advantage of sorbents versus solvents. However, additional technology development and cost reductions will be required to meet the DOE’s final technology goal of 90% CO{sub 2} capture with ≤35% increase in the cost of electricity. The cost analysis identified specific targets for the capital and operating costs, which will be used as the targets for future technology development efforts.

  20. Scale-up of Lithium Aluminate Pellet Manufacturing with a Flowable Powder

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hollenberg, Glenn W.; Bagaasen, Larry M.; Kurosky, Randal P.; Tonn, D.; Carty, W.

    2004-01-01

    Thin-walled, high-density lithium aluminate pellets are challenging to manufacture for nuclear reactor applications. The key to scale-up of production was the development of flowable, high density, lithium aluminate powder that permitted (1) automated isostatic pressing, (2) low compaction during pressing, (3) low shrinkage during firing, (4) elimination of chlorine-containing fumed alumina and (5) near-net shape forming. A triple spray drying process was developed that included: (I) a unique-feedstock blend cycle, (II) a post-calcination grinding cycle, and (III) a high-pH final cycle with high solids loading slurry that was spray dried into flowable high-density spheres with large, uniform diameters. Today, pellet manufacturing at a rate of more than 400,000 per year is possible.

  1. Method of making highly sinterable lanthanum chromite powder

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Richards, Von L.; Singhal, Subhash C.

    1992-01-01

    A highly sinterable powder consisting essentially of LaCrO.sub.3, containing from 5 weight % to 20 weight % of a chromite of dopant Ca, Sr, Co, Ba, or Mg and a coating of a chromate of dopant Ca, Sr, Co, Ba, or Mg; is made by (1) forming a solution of La, Cr, and dopant; (2) heating their solutions; (3) forming a combined solution having a desired ratio of La, Cr, and dopant and heating to reduce solvent; (4) forming a foamed mass under vacuum; (5) burning off organic components and forming a charred material; (6) grinding the charred material; (7) heating the char at from 590.degree. C. to 950 C. in inert gas containing up to 50,000 ppm O.sub.2 to provide high specific surface area particles; (8) adding that material to a mixture of a nitrate of Cr and dopant to form a slurry; (9) grinding the particles in the slurry; (10) freeze or spray drying the slurry to provide a coating of nitrates on the particles; and (11) heating the coated particles to convert the nitrate coating to a chromate coating and provide a highly sinterable material having a high specific surface area of over 7 m.sup.2 /g.

  2. Method of making highly sinterable lanthanum chromite powder

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Richards, V.L.; Singhal, S.C.

    1992-09-01

    A highly sinterable powder consisting essentially of LaCrO[sub 3], containing from 5 weight % to 20 weight % of a chromite of dopant Ca, Sr, Co, Ba, or Mg and a coating of a chromate of dopant Ca, Sr, Co, Ba, or Mg; is made by (1) forming a solution of La, Cr, and dopant; (2) heating their solutions; (3) forming a combined solution having a desired ratio of La, Cr, and dopant and heating to reduce solvent; (4) forming a foamed mass under vacuum; (5) burning off organic components and forming a charred material; (6) grinding the charred material; (7) heating the char at from 590 C to 950 C in inert gas containing up to 50,000 ppm O[sub 2] to provide high specific surface area particles; (8) adding that material to a mixture of a nitrate of Cr and dopant to form a slurry; (9) grinding the particles in the slurry; (10) freeze or spray drying the slurry to provide a coating of nitrates on the particles; and (11) heating the coated particles to convert the nitrate coating to a chromate coating and provide a highly sinterable material having a high specific surface area of over 7 m[sup 2]/g. 2 figs.

  3. High-Pressure and High-Temperature Powder Diffraction (Journal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    High-Pressure and High-Temperature Powder Diffraction Citation Details In-Document Search Title: High-Pressure and High-Temperature Powder Diffraction Authors: Fei, Yingwei ; Wang, ...

  4. California Dry Natural Gas Reserves Revision Decreases (Billion...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Decreases (Billion Cubic Feet) California Dry Natural Gas Reserves Revision Decreases ... Dry Natural Gas Reserves Revision Decreases California Dry Natural Gas Proved Reserves Dry ...

  5. California Dry Natural Gas Reserves Revision Increases (Billion...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Increases (Billion Cubic Feet) California Dry Natural Gas Reserves Revision Increases ... Dry Natural Gas Reserves Revision Increases California Dry Natural Gas Proved Reserves Dry ...

  6. Texas Dry Natural Gas Expected Future Production (Billion Cubic...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Expected Future Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Texas Dry Natural Gas Expected Future ... Dry Natural Gas Proved Reserves as of Dec. 31 Texas Dry Natural Gas Proved Reserves Dry ...

  7. Removal of Mercury from Aqueous Streams of Fossil Fuel Power Plants Using Novel Functionalized Nanoporous Sorbents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mattigod, Shas V.; Fryxell, Glen E.; Feng, X; Parker, Kent E.; Pierce, Eric M.

    2006-01-11

    A new class of hybrid nanoporous materials has been developed at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for removing toxic heavy metals such as mercury from aqueous and nonaqueous waste streams. These novel materials consist of functional molecules capable of selectively binding mercury (thiol groups) covalently bound (as densely populated monolayers) to the synthetic nanoporous substrates. Tests indicated that this sorbent (Self-Assembled Monolayers on Mesoporous Silica - SAMMS) can achieve mercury loading as high as {approx}635 mg/g. The high affinity for Hg adsorption by this material was reflected by Kd values as high as 3.5 x 108 ml/g. Data indicated that SAMMS can adsorb both inorganic and organic forms of mercury. Experimental data indicated that mercury adsorption performance of SAMMS was not significantly affected by pH, ionic strength, presence of other cations (Na, Ca, Cd, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, and Zn), and complexing anions (Cl, CN, CO3, SO4, and PO4) in solution. Adsorption kinetics studies indicated that SAMMS adsorbed mercury very rapidly (about 99.9% adsorption occurring within first five minutes). Tests conducted using samples of different aqueous and non-aqueous waste streams have confirmed the exemplary performance characteristics of SAMMS sorbents. Preliminary cost estimates indicated that using SAMMS would result in significant savings in mercury remediation costs as compared to the use of conventional adsorbents such as ion exchange resin and activated carbon.

  8. Multi-Phase CFD Modeling of Solid Sorbent Carbon Capture System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ryan, Emily M.; DeCroix, David; Breault, Ronald W.; Xu, Wei; Huckaby, E. D.; Saha, Kringan; Darteville, Sebastien; Sun, Xin

    2013-07-30

    Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations are used to investigate a low temperature post-combustion carbon capture reactor. The CFD models are based on a small scale solid sorbent carbon capture reactor design from ADA-ES and Southern Company. The reactor is a fluidized bed design based on a silica-supported amine sorbent. CFD models using both Eulerian-Eulerian and Eulerian-Lagrangian multi-phase modeling methods are developed to investigate the hydrodynamics and adsorption of carbon dioxide in the reactor. Models developed in both FLUENT and BARRACUDA are presented to explore the strengths and weaknesses of state of the art CFD codes for modeling multi-phase carbon capture reactors. The results of the simulations show that the FLUENT Eulerian-Lagrangian simulations (DDPM) are unstable for the given reactor design; while the BARRACUDA Eulerian-Lagrangian model is able to simulate the system given appropriate simplifying assumptions. FLUENT Eulerian-Eulerian simulations also provide a stable solution for the carbon capture reactor given the appropriate simplifying assumptions.

  9. Multi-phase CFD modeling of solid sorbent carbon capture system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ryan, E. M.; DeCroix, D.; Breault, Ronald W.; Xu, W.; Huckaby, E. David

    2013-01-01

    Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations are used to investigate a low temperature post-combustion carbon capture reactor. The CFD models are based on a small scale solid sorbent carbon capture reactor design from ADA-ES and Southern Company. The reactor is a fluidized bed design based on a silica-supported amine sorbent. CFD models using both EulerianEulerian and EulerianLagrangian multi-phase modeling methods are developed to investigate the hydrodynamics and adsorption of carbon dioxide in the reactor. Models developed in both FLUENT and BARRACUDA are presented to explore the strengths and weaknesses of state of the art CFD codes for modeling multi-phase carbon capture reactors. The results of the simulations show that the FLUENT EulerianLagrangian simulations (DDPM) are unstable for the given reactor design; while the BARRACUDA EulerianLagrangian model is able to simulate the system given appropriate simplifying assumptions. FLUENT EulerianEulerian simulations also provide a stable solution for the carbon capture reactor given the appropriate simplifying assumptions.

  10. LIFAC sorbent injection desulfurization demonstration project. Final report, volume II: Project performance and economics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-01-01

    This publication discusses the demonstration of the LIFAC sorbent injection technology at Richmond Power and Light`s Whitewater Valley Unit No. 2, performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) Clean Coal Technology Program. LIFAC is a sorbent injection technology capable of removing 75 to 85 percent of a power plant`s SO{sub 2} emissions using limestone at calcium to sulfur molar ratios of between 2 and 2.5 to 1. The site of the demonstration is a coal-fired electric utility power plant located in Richmond, Indiana. The project is being conducted by LIFAC North America (LIFAC NA), a joint venture partnership of Tampella Power Corporation and ICF Kaiser Engineers, in cooperation with DOE, RP&L, and Research Institute (EPRI), the State of Indiana, and Black Beauty Coal Company. The purpose of Public Design Report Volume 2: Project Performance and Economics is to consolidate, for public use, the technical efficiency and economy of the LIFAC Process. The report has been prepared pursuant to the Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC22-90PC90548 between LIFAC NA and the U.S. Department of Energy.

  11. Thoria-based cermet nuclear fuel : sintered microsphere fabrication by spray drying.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Solomon, A.A.; McDeavitt, S.M.; Chandrmouli, V.; Anthonysamy, S.; Kuchibhotla, S.; Downar, T.J.

    2002-01-09

    Cermet nuclear fuels have been demonstrated to have significant potential to enhance fuel performance because of low internal fuel temperatures and low stored energy. The combination of these benefits with the inherent proliferation resistance, high burnup capability, and favorable neutronic properties of the thorium fuel cycle produces intriguing options for advanced nuclear fuel cycles. This paper describes aspects of a Nuclear Energy Research Initiative (NERI) project with two primary goals: (1) Evaluate the feasibility of implementing the thorium fuel cycle in existing or advanced reactors using a zirconium-matrix cermet fuel, and (2) Develop enabling technologies required for the economic application of this new fuel form. Spray drying is a physical process of granulating fine powders that is used widely in the chemical, pharmaceutical, ceramic, and food industries. It is generally used to produce flowable fine powders. Occasionally it is used to fabricate sintered bodies like cemented carbides, but it has not, heretofore, been used to produce sintered microspheres. As a physical process, it can be adapted to many powder types and mixtures and thus, has appeal for nuclear fuels and waste forms of various compositions. It also permits easy recycling of process ''wastes'' and minimal chemical waste streams that can arise in chemical sol/gel processing. On the other hand, for radioactive powders, it presents safety challenges for processing these materials in powder form and in achieving microspheres of high density and perfection.

  12. Ignition of THKP and TKP pyrotechnic powders :

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maharrey, Sean P.; Erikson, William W; Highley, Aaron M.; Wiese-Smith, Deneille; Kay, Jeffrey J

    2014-03-01

    We have conducted Simultaneous Thermogravimetric Modulated Beam Mass Spectrometry (STMBMS) experiments on igniter/actuator pyrotechnic powders to characterize the reactive processes controlling the ignition and combustion behavior of these materials. The experiments showed a complex, interactive reaction manifold involving over ten reaction pathways. A reduced dimensionality reaction manifold was developed from the detailed 10-step manifold and is being incorporated into existing predictive modeling codes to simulate the performance of pyrotechnic powders for NW component development. The results from development of the detailed reaction manifold and reduced manifold are presented. The reduced reaction manifold has been successfully used by SNL/NM modelers to predict thermal ignition events in small-scale testing, validating our approach and improving the capability of predictive models.

  13. Fabricating solid carbon porous electrodes from powders

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kaschmitter, J.L.; Tran, T.D.; Feikert, J.H.; Mayer, S.T.

    1997-06-10

    Fabrication is described for conductive solid porous carbon electrodes for use in batteries, double layer capacitors, fuel cells, capacitive deionization, and waste treatment. Electrodes fabricated from low surface area (<50 m{sup 2}/gm) graphite and cokes exhibit excellent reversible lithium intercalation characteristics, making them ideal for use as anodes in high voltage lithium insertion (lithium-ion) batteries. Electrodes having a higher surface area, fabricated from powdered carbon blacks, such as carbon aerogel powder, carbon aerogel microspheres, activated carbons, etc. yield high conductivity carbon composites with excellent double layer capacity, and can be used in double layer capacitors, or for capacitive deionization and/or waste treatment of liquid streams. By adding metallic catalysts to high surface area carbons, fuel cell electrodes can be produced. 1 fig.

  14. Fabricating solid carbon porous electrodes from powders

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kaschmitter, James L.; Tran, Tri D.; Feikert, John H.; Mayer, Steven T.

    1997-01-01

    Fabrication of conductive solid porous carbon electrodes for use in batteries, double layer capacitors, fuel cells, capacitive dionization, and waste treatment. Electrodes fabricated from low surface area (<50 m.sup.2 /gm) graphite and cokes exhibit excellent reversible lithium intercalation characteristics, making them ideal for use as anodes in high voltage lithium insertion (lithium-ion) batteries. Electrodes having a higher surface area, fabricated from powdered carbon blacks, such as carbon aerogel powder, carbon aerogel microspheres, activated carbons, etc. yield high conductivity carbon compositives with excellent double layer capacity, and can be used in double layer capacitors, or for capacitive deionization and/or waste treatment of liquid streams. By adding metallic catalysts to be high surface area carbons, fuel cell electrodes can be produced.

  15. Powder Injection Molding of Titanium Components

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simmons, Kevin L.; Nyberg, Eric A.; Weil, K. Scott; Miller, Megan R.

    2005-01-01

    Powder injection molding (PIM) is a well-established, cost-effective method of fabricating small-to-moderate size metal components. Derived from plastic injection molding and employing a mixture of metal powder and plastic binder, the process has been used with great success in manufacturing a wide variety of metal products, including those made from stainless steel, nickel-based superalloys, and copper alloys. Less progress has been achieved with titanium and other refractory metal alloys because of problems with alloy impurities that are directly attributable to the injection molding process. Specifically, carbon, oxygen, and nitrogen are left behind during binder removal and become incorporated into the chemistry and microstructure of the material during densification. Even at low concentration, these impurities can cause severe degradation in the mechanical properties of titanium and its alloys. We have developed a unique blend of PIM constituents where only a small volume fraction of binder (~5 10 vol%) is required for injection molding; the remainder of the mixture consists of the metal powder and binder solvent. Because of the nature of decomposition in the binder system and the relatively small amount used, the binder is eliminated almost completely from the pre-sintered component during the initial stage of a two-step heat treatment process. Results will be presented on the first phase of this research, in which the binder, injection molding, de-binding and sintering schedule were developed. Additional data on the mechanical and physical properties of the material produced will be discussed.

  16. Full body powder antichip. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-04-17

    Chipping is the major paint defect listed for automobile customer dissatisfaction. The improved chip resistance and smoother paint surfaces produced by full body powder antichip will result in greater customer satisfaction and greater demand for US-produced automobiles. Powder antichip contains virtually no solvent, thereby reducing the potential VOC emissions from Newark Assembly by more than 90 tons per year as compared to the solvent-borne material presently applied in most full body applications. Since Newark Assembly Plant is in a severe non-attainment air quality area, which must demonstrate a 15% reduction in emissions by 1996, projects such as this are crucial to the longevity of industry in this region. The liquid paint spray systems include incineration of the oven volatile organic compounds (VOC`s) at 1,500 F. Since there are minimal VOC`s in powder coatings and the only possible releases occur only during polymerization, incineration is not required. The associated annual savings resulting from the elimination of the incinerator utilized on the liquid spray system is 1.44 {times} 10{sup 10} BTU`s per unit installed. The annual cost savings is approximately $388 thousand, far below the original estimates.

  17. Counterflow diffusion flame synthesis of ceramic oxide powders

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Katz, J.L.; Miquel, P.F.

    1997-07-22

    Ceramic oxide powders and methods for their preparation are revealed. Ceramic oxide powders are obtained using a flame process whereby one or more precursors of ceramic oxides are introduced into a counterflow diffusion flame burner wherein the precursors are converted into ceramic oxide powders. The nature of the ceramic oxide powder produced is determined by process conditions. The morphology, particle size, and crystalline form of the ceramic oxide powders may be varied by the temperature of the flame, the precursor concentration ratio, the gas stream and the gas velocity. 24 figs.

  18. Counterflow diffusion flame synthesis of ceramic oxide powders

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Katz, Joseph L.; Miquel, Philippe F.

    1997-01-01

    Ceramic oxide powders and methods for their preparation are revealed. Ceramic oxide powders are obtained using a flame process whereby one or more precursors of ceramic oxides are introduced into a counterflow diffusion flame burner wherein the precursors are converted into ceramic oxide powders. The nature of the ceramic oxide powder produced is determined by process conditions. The morphology, particle size, and crystalline form of the ceramic oxide powders may be varied by the temperature of the flame, the precursor concentration ratio, the gas stream and the gas velocity.

  19. Development of Superior Sorbents for Separation of CO2 from Flue Gas at a Wide Temperature range during Coal Combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Panagiotis Smirniotis

    2002-09-17

    A number basic sorbents based on CaO were synthesized, characterized with novel techniques and tested for sorption of CO{sub 2} and selected gas mixtures simulating flue gas from coal fired boilers. Our studies resulted in highly promising sorbents which demonstrated zero affinity for N{sub 2}, O{sub 2}, SO{sub 2}, and NO very low affinity for water, ultrahigh CO{sub 2} sorption capacities, and rapid sorption characteristics, CO{sub 2} sorption at a very wide temperature range, durability, and low synthesis cost. One of the 'key' characteristics of the proposed materials is the fact that we can control very accurately their basicity (optimum number of basic sites of the appropriate strength) which allows for the selective chemisorption of CO{sub 2} at a wide range of temperatures. These unique characteristics of this family of sorbents offer high promise for development of advanced industrial sorbents for the effective CO{sub 2} removal.

  20. Cross-flow, filter-sorbent catalyst for particulate, SO sub 2 and NO sub x control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-03-01

    This synopsis describes a new concept for integrated pollutant control: a cross-flow filter comprised of layered, gas permeable membranes that act as a particulate filter, an SO{sub 2} sorbent, and a NO{sub x} reduction catalyst.

  1. Method of preparation of a CO.sub.2 removal sorbent with high chemical stability during multiple cycles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Siriwardane, Ranjani V.; Rosencwaig, Shira

    2015-07-14

    Method for the production of a clay-alkali-amine CO.sub.2 sorbent prepared by integrating a clay substrate, basic alkali salt, and amine liquid. The basic alkali salt is present relative to the clay substrate in a weight ratio of from about 1 part to about 50 parts per 100 parts of the clay substrate. The amine liquid is present relative to a clay-alkali combination in a weight ratio of from about 1 part to about 10 parts per 10 parts of the clay-alkali combination. The clay substrate and basic alkali salt may be combined in a solid-solid heterogeneous mixture and followed by introduction of the amine liquid. Alternatively, an alkaline solution may be blended with the amine solution prior to contacting the clay substrate. The clay-alkali-amine CO.sub.2 sorbent is particularly advantageous for low temperature CO.sub.2 removal cycles in a gas stream having a CO.sub.2 concentration less than around 2000 ppm and an oxygen concentration around 21%, such as air. Results are presented illustrating the performance of the clay-alkali-amine CO.sub.2 sorbent compared to a clay-amine sorbent lacking the alkali inclusion.

  2. Low Cost Sorbent for Capturing CO{sub 2} Emissions Generated by Existing Coal-fired Power Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elliott, Jeannine

    2013-08-31

    TDA Research, Inc. has developed a novel sorbent based post-combustion CO{sub 2} removal technology. This low cost sorbent can be regenerated with low-pressure (ca. 1 atm) superheated steam without temperature swing or pressure-swing. The isothermal and isobaric operation is a unique and advantageous feature of this process. The objective of this project was to demonstrate the technical and economic merit of this sorbent based CO{sub 2} capture approach. Through laboratory, bench-scale and field testing we demonstrated that this technology can effectively and efficiently capture CO{sub 2} produced at an existing pulverized coal power plants. TDA Research, Inc is developing both the solid sorbent and the process designed around that material. This project addresses the DOE Program Goal to develop a capture technology that can be added to an existing or new coal fired power plant, and can capture 90% of the CO{sub 2} produced with the lowest possible increase in the cost of energy. .

  3. Drying rate and temperature profile for superheated steam vacuum drying and moist air drying of softwood lumber

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pang, S.; Dakin, M. [New Zealand Forest Research Inst., Ltd., Rotorua (New Zealand). Mfg. Technologies Portfolio

    1999-07-01

    Two charges of green radiata pine sapwood lumber were dried, ether using superheated steam under vacuum (90 C, 0.2 bar abs.) or conventionally using hot moist air (90/60 C). Due to low density of the drying medium under vacuum, the circulation velocity used was 10 m/s for superheated steam drying and 5.0 m/s for moist air drying, and in both cases, the flow was unidirectional. In drying, stack drying rate and wood temperatures were measured to examine the differences between the superheated steam drying and drying using hot moist air. The experimental results have shown that the stack edge board in superheated steam drying dried faster than in the hot moist air drying. Once again due to the low density of the steam under vacuum, a prolonged maximum temperature drop across load (TDAL) was observed in the superheated steam drying, however, the whole stack dried slower and the final moisture content distribution was more variable than for conventional hot moist air drying.

  4. Silicon nitride/silicon carbide composite densified materials prepared using composite powders

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dunmead, S.D.; Weimer, A.W.; Carroll, D.F.; Eisman, G.A.; Cochran, G.A.; Susnitzky, D.W.; Beaman, D.R.; Nilsen, K.J.

    1997-07-01

    Prepare silicon nitride-silicon carbide composite powders by carbothermal reduction of crystalline silica powder, carbon powder and, optionally, crystalline silicon nitride powder. The crystalline silicon carbide portion of the composite powders has a mean number diameter less than about 700 nanometers and contains nitrogen. The composite powders may be used to prepare sintered ceramic bodies and self-reinforced silicon nitride ceramic bodies.

  5. Development of an advanced process for drying fine coal in an inclined fluidized bed

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boysen, J.E.; Cha, C.Y.; Barbour, F.A.; Turner, T.F.; Kang, T.W.; Berggren, M.H.; Hogsett, R.F.; Jha, M.C.

    1990-02-01

    The objective of this research project was to demonstrate a technically feasible and economically viable process for drying and stabilizing high-moisture subbituminous coal. Controlled thermal drying of coal fines was achieved using the inclined fluidized-bed drying and stabilization process developed by the Western Research Institute. The project scope of work required completion of five tasks: (1) project planning, (2) characterization of two feed coals, (3) bench-scale inclined fluidized-bed drying studies, (4) product characterization and testing, and (5) technical and economic evaluation of the process. High moisture subbituminous coals from AMAX Eagle Butte mine located in the Powder River Basin of Wyoming and from Usibelli Coal Mine, Inc. in Healy, Alaska were tested in a 10-lb/hr bench-scale inclined fluidized-bed. Experimental results show that the dried coal contains less than 1.5% moisture and has a heating value over 11,500 Btu/lb. The coal fines entrainment can be kept below 15 wt % of the feed. The equilibrium moisture of dried coal was less than 50% of feed coal equilibrium moisture. 7 refs., 60 figs., 47 tabs.

  6. EVALUATION OF CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE FROM EXISTING COAL FIRED PLANTS BY HYBRID SORPTION USING SOLID SORBENTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benson, Steven; Palo, Daniel; Srinivasachar, Srivats; Laudal, Daniel

    2014-12-01

    Under contract DE-FE0007603, the University of North Dakota conducted the project Evaluation of Carbon Dioxide Capture from Existing Coal Fired Plants by Hybrid Sorption Using Solid Sorbents. As an important element of this effort, an Environmental Health and Safety (EH&S) Assessment was conducted by Barr Engineering Co. (Barr) in association with the University of North Dakota. The assessment addressed air and particulate emissions as well as solid and liquid waste streams. The magnitude of the emissions and waste streams was estimated for evaluation purposes. EH&S characteristics of materials used in the system are also described. This document contains data based on the mass balances from both the 40 kJ/mol CO2 and 80 kJ/mol CO2 desorption energy cases evaluated in the Final Technical and Economic Feasibility study also conducted by Barr Engineering.

  7. Large Bore Powder Gun Qualification (U)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rabern, Donald A.; Valdiviez, Robert

    2012-04-02

    A Large Bore Powder Gun (LBPG) is being designed to enable experimentalists to characterize material behavior outside the capabilities of the NNSS JASPER and LANL TA-55 PF-4 guns. The combination of these three guns will create a capability to conduct impact experiments over a wide range of pressures and shock profiles. The Large Bore Powder Gun will be fielded at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) U1a Complex. The Complex is nearly 1000 ft below ground with dedicated drifts for testing, instrumentation, and post-shot entombment. To ensure the reliability, safety, and performance of the LBPG, a qualification plan has been established and documented here. Requirements for the LBPG have been established and documented in WE-14-TR-0065 U A, Large Bore Powder Gun Customer Requirements. The document includes the requirements for the physics experiments, the gun and confinement systems, and operations at NNSS. A detailed description of the requirements is established in that document and is referred to and quoted throughout this document. Two Gun and Confinement Systems will be fielded. The Prototype Gun will be used primarily to characterize the gun and confinement performance and be the primary platform for qualification actions. This gun will also be used to investigate and qualify target and diagnostic modifications through the life of the program (U1a.104 Drift). An identical gun, the Physics Gun, will be fielded for confirmatory and Pu experiments (U1a.102D Drift). Both guns will be qualified for operation. The Gun and Confinement System design will be qualified through analysis, inspection, and testing using the Prototype Gun for the majority of process. The Physics Gun will be qualified through inspection and a limited number of qualification tests to ensure performance and behavior equivalent to the Prototype gun. Figure 1.1 shows the partial configuration of U1a and the locations of the Prototype and Physics Gun/Confinement Systems.

  8. Laser production of articles from powders

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lewis, G.K.; Milewski, J.O.; Cremers, D.A.; Nemec, R.B.; Barbe, M.R.

    1998-11-17

    Method and apparatus for forming articles from materials in particulate form in which the materials are melted by a laser beam and deposited at points along a tool path to form an article of the desired shape and dimensions. Preferably the tool path and other parameters of the deposition process are established using computer-aided design and manufacturing techniques. A controller comprised of a digital computer directs movement of a deposition zone along the tool path and provides control signals to adjust apparatus functions, such as the speed at which a deposition head which delivers the laser beam and powder to the deposition zone moves along the tool path. 20 figs.

  9. Laser production of articles from powders

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lewis, Gary K.; Milewski, John O.; Cremers, David A.; Nemec, Ronald B.; Barbe, Michael R.

    1998-01-01

    Method and apparatus for forming articles from materials in particulate form in which the materials are melted by a laser beam and deposited at points along a tool path to form an article of the desired shape and dimensions. Preferably the tool path and other parameters of the deposition process are established using computer-aided design and manufacturing techniques. A controller comprised of a digital computer directs movement of a deposition zone along the tool path and provides control signals to adjust apparatus functions, such as the speed at which a deposition head which delivers the laser beam and powder to the deposition zone moves along the tool path.

  10. Scalable synthesis of nanoporous palladium powders.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robinson, David B.; Tran, Kim L.; Clift, W. Miles; Arslan Ilke; Langham, Mary Elizabeth; Ong, Markus D.; Fares, Stephen James

    2009-03-01

    Nanoporous palladium powders are synthesized on milligram to gram scales by chemical reduction of tetrachloro complexes by ascorbate in a concentrated aqueous surfactant at temperatures between -20 and 30 C. Particle diameters are approximately 50 nm, and each particle is perforated by 3 nm pores, as determined by electron tomography. These materials are of potential value for storage of hydrogen isotopes and electrical charge; producing them at large scales in a safe and efficient manner will help realize this. A slightly modified procedure also results in nanoporous platinum.

  11. Combined Corex/DRI technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Flickenschild, A.J.; Reufer, F.; Eberle, A.; Siuka, D.

    1996-08-01

    A feasible steelmaking alternative, the Corex/direct reduction/electric arc furnace combination, provides an economic route for the production of high quality steel products. This combination is a major step into a new generation of iron and steel mills. These mills are based on the production of liquid steel using noncoking coal and comply with the increasing demands of environmental protection. The favorable production costs are based on: Utilization of Corex and DRI/HBI plants; Production of hot metal equal to blast furnace quality; Use of low cost raw materials such as noncoking coal and lump ore; Use of process gas as reducing agent for DRI/HBI production; and Use of electric arc furnace with high hot metal input as the steelmaking process. The high flexibility of the process permits the adjustment of production in accordance with the strategy of the steel mills. New but proven technologies and applications of the latest state of art steelmaking process, e.g., Corex, in conjunction with DRI production as basic raw material for an electric arc furnace, will insure high quality, high availability, optimized energy generation at high efficiency rates, and high product quality for steelmaking.

  12. The influence of the drying medium on high temperature convective drying of single wood chips

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johansson, A.; Rasmuson, A.

    1997-10-01

    High temperature convective drying of single wood chips with air and superheated steam respectively is studied theoretically. The two-dimensional model presented describes the coupled transport of water, vapor, air and heat. Transport mechanisms included are the convection of gas and liquid, intergas as well as bound water diffusion. In the initial part of the drying process, moisture is transported to the surface mainly due to capillary forces in the transversal direction where evaporation occurs. As the surface becomes dry, the drying front moves towards the center of the particle and an overpressure is simultaneously built up which affects the drying process. The differences between drying in air and steam respectively can be assigned to the physical properties of the drying medium. The period of constant drying rate which does not exist (or is very short) in air drying becomes more significant with decreasing amounts of air in the drying medium and is clearly visible in pure superheated steam drying. The maximal drying rate is larger in air drying, and shorter drying times are obtained since the heat flux to the wood chip particle increases with increasing amounts of air in the drying medium. The period of falling drying rate can be divided into two parts: in the first, the drying rate is dependent upon the humidity of the drying medium whereas in the second, there is no such correlation.

  13. Guides and Case Studies for Hot-Dry and Mixed-Dry Climates | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Dry and Mixed-Dry Climates Guides and Case Studies for Hot-Dry and Mixed-Dry Climates Map of the Hot-Dry and Mixed-Dry Zone of the United States. The zone contains the eastern side of California and follows the US border to cover the western half of Texas. The Department of Energy (DOE) has developed a series of best practices and case studies to help builders improve whole-house energy performance in buildings found in hot-dry and mixed-dry climates. Best Practice Guides 40%

  14. Method for preparing metal powder, device for preparing metal powder, method for processing spent nuclear fuel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Park, Jong-Hee (Clarendon Hills, IL)

    2011-11-29

    A method for producing metal powder is provided the comprising supplying a molten bath containing a reducing agent, contacting a metal oxide with the molten bath for a time and at a temperature sufficient to reduce the metal in the metal oxide to elemental metal and produce free oxygen; and isolating the elemental metal from the molten bath.

  15. NanoComposite Stainless Steel Powder Technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeHoff, R.; Glasgow, C.

    2012-07-25

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory has been investigating a new class of Fe-based amorphous material stemming from a DARPA, Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency initiative in structural amorphous metals. Further engineering of the original SAM materials such as chemistry modifications and manufacturing processes, has led to the development of a class of Fe based amorphous materials that upon processing, devitrify into a nearly homogeneous distribution of nano sized complex metal carbides and borides. The powder material is produced through the gas atomization process and subsequently utilized by several methods; laser fusing as a coating to existing components or bulk consolidated into new components through various powder metallurgy techniques (vacuum hot pressing, Dynaforge, and hot isostatic pressing). The unique fine scale distribution of microstructural features yields a material with high hardness and wear resistance compared to material produced through conventional processing techniques such as casting while maintaining adequate fracture toughness. Several compositions have been examined including those specifically designed for high hardness and wear resistance and a composition specifically tailored to devitrify into an austenitic matrix (similar to a stainless steel) which poses improved corrosion behavior.

  16. Selection of powder factor in large diameter blastholes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eloranta, J.

    1995-12-31

    This paper documents the relationship between material handling and processing costs compared to blasting cost. The old adage, The cheapest crushing is done in the pit, appears accurate in this case study. Comparison of the accumulated cost of: powder, selected wear materials and electricity; indicate a strong, inverse correlation with powder factor (lbs powder/long ton of rock). In this case, the increased powder cost is more than offset by electrical savings alone. Measurable, overall costs decline while shovel and crusher productivity rise by about 5% when powder factor rises by 15%. These trends were previously masked by the effects of: weather, ore grade fluctuations and accounting practices. Attempts to correlate increased powder factor to: wear materials in the crushing plant and to shovel hoist rope life have not shown the same benefit.

  17. Steam drying of products containing solvent mixtures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pothmann, E.; Schluender, E.U. [Univ. Karlsruhe (Germany). Inst. fuer Thermische Verfahrenstechnik

    1995-12-31

    Drying experiments with single, porous spheres wetted with mixtures of 2-propanol and water were performed using superheated steam, air, or steam-air mixtures as drying agent. Both the drying rate and the moisture composition were determined experimentally for different temperatures and compositions of the drying agent and for different initial compositions of the moisture. It is shown that evaporation of 2-propanol is enhanced by using superheated steam as drying agent instead of air due to steam condensing on the sample. While the overall drying rate increases with rising steam temperature, the evaporation rate of 2-propanol is hardly affected. When drying samples containing mixtures of 2-propanol and water, internal boiling can occur depending on the vapor-liquid equilibrium. Vapor generated inside the sample may cause mechanical dewatering of the sample which greatly increases the drying rate.

  18. Densification of alkoxide-derived fine silica powder compact by ultra-high-pressure cold isostatic pressing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kamiya, Hidehiro . Dept. of Chemical Engineering); Suzuki, Hisao ); Kato, Daisuke; Jimbo, Genji . Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1993-01-01

    Powder compacts of alkoxide-derived fine silica powders were consolidated into a highly dense and uniform structure by ultra-high-pressure cold isostatic pressing of granules with controlled structure. The diameters of spherical and nearly monosized amorphous silica particles, prepared from metal alkoxide, were successfully controlled in the range of 9 to 760 nm by varying the concentration of ammonia. Close-packed granules of these powders were produced by spray drying. These powders were isostatically pressed up to 1 GPa at room temperature. Although the average particle diameter was less than 100 nm, the maximum relative density of the compacts was more than 78% of theoretical density. The optimum particle size to obtain highly dense compacts was in the range of 30 to 300 nm at 1 GPa. Furthermore, the ratio of mode pore diameter in these compacts to particle diameter was less than 0.155, which corresponded to the minimum ratio of calculated three-particle pore channel radii for hexagonal close packing. Viscous deformation of particles under ultra-high isostatic pressure played an important role in the densification of the compacts.

  19. Electrochemical cell with powdered electrically insulative material as a separator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mathers, James P.; Olszanski, Theodore W.; Boquist, Carl W.

    1978-01-01

    A secondary electrochemical cell includes electrodes separated by a layer of electrically insulative powder. The powder includes refractory materials selected from the oxides and nitrides of metals and metaloids. The powdered refractory material, blended with electrolyte particles, can be compacted in layers with electrode materials to form an integral electrode structure or separately assembled into the cell. The assembled cell is heated to operating temperature leaving porous layers of electrically insulative, refractory particles, containing molten electrolyte between the electrodes.

  20. Water Outgassing from PBX-9502 powder by isoconversional thermal analysis

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Water Outgassing from PBX-9502 powder by isoconversional thermal analysis Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Water Outgassing from PBX-9502 powder by isoconversional thermal analysis Temperature programmed desorption/decomposition (TPD) were performed on PBX-9502 after 3 hours of vacuum pump. TPD data were analyzed by the technique of isoconversional analysis to obtain outgassing kinetics and moisture content of PBX-9502 powder as well as to

  1. Dry scrubbing of SO/sub 2/

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shah, N.D.

    1982-06-01

    The advantages of dry scrubbing over wet scrubbing or spray drying are considered. One of the problem areas is that of waste disposal. The most cost-effective solutions are land disposal or landfill in clay cells. The factors influencing the selection of an SO/sub 2/ scrubbing system are discussed. Nahcolite appears to be the most promising agent for dry scrubbing.

  2. Compton Dry-Cask Imaging System

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2013-05-28

    The Compton-Dry Cask Imaging Scanner is a system that verifies and documents the presence of spent nuclear fuel rods in dry-cask storage and determines their isotopic composition without moving or opening the cask. For more information about this project, visit http://www.inl.gov/rd100/2011/compton-dry-cask-imaging-system/

  3. Forming gas treatment of lithium ion battery anode graphite powders

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Contescu, Cristian Ion; Gallego, Nidia C; Howe, Jane Y; Meyer, III, Harry M; Payzant, Edward Andrew; Wood, III, David L; Yoon, Sang Young

    2014-09-16

    The invention provides a method of making a battery anode in which a quantity of graphite powder is provided. The temperature of the graphite powder is raised from a starting temperature to a first temperature between 1000 and 2000.degree. C. during a first heating period. The graphite powder is then cooled to a final temperature during a cool down period. The graphite powder is contacted with a forming gas during at least one of the first heating period and the cool down period. The forming gas includes H.sub.2 and an inert gas.

  4. Process for synthesizing compounds from elemental powders and product

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rabin, Barry H.; Wright, Richard N.

    1993-01-01

    A process for synthesizing intermetallic compounds from elemental powders. The elemental powders are initially combined in a ratio which approximates the stoichiometric composition of the intermetallic compound. The mixed powders are then formed into a compact which is heat treated at a controlled rate of heating such that an exothermic reaction between the elements is initiated. The heat treatment may be performed under controlled conditions ranging from a vacuum (pressureless sintering) to compression (hot pressing) to produce a desired densification of the intermetallic compound. In a preferred form of the invention, elemental powders of Fe and Al are combined to form aluminide compounds of Fe.sub.3 Al and FeAl.

  5. Joining of parts via magnetic heating of metal aluminum powders

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baker, Ian

    2013-05-21

    A method of joining at least two parts includes steps of dispersing a joining material comprising a multi-phase magnetic metal-aluminum powder at an interface between the at least two parts to be joined and applying an alternating magnetic field (AMF). The AMF has a magnetic field strength and frequency suitable for inducing magnetic hysteresis losses in the metal-aluminum powder and is applied for a period that raises temperature of the metal-aluminum powder to an exothermic transformation temperature. At the exothermic transformation temperature, the metal-aluminum powder melts and resolidifies as a metal aluminide solid having a non-magnetic configuration.

  6. POWDERED ACTIVATED CARBON FROM NORTH DAKOTA LIGNITE: AN OPTION...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    CARBON FROM NORTH DAKOTA LIGNITE: AN OPTION FOR DISINFECTION BY-PRODUCT CONTROL IN WATER TREATMENT PLANTS Citation Details In-Document Search Title: POWDERED ACTIVATED...

  7. Stabilized Lithium Metal Powder, Enabling Material and Revolutionary...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Stabilized Lithium Metal Powder, Enabling Material and Revolutionary Technology for High Energy Li-ion Batteries Vehicle Technologies Office: 2015 Energy Storage R&D Annual Report ...

  8. Land application uses for dry FGD by-products. Phase 1, [Annual report], December 1, 1991--November 30, 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bigham, J.; Dick, W.; Forster, L.; Hitzhusen, F.; McCoy, E.; Stehouwer, R.; Traina, S.; Wolfe, W.; Haefner, R.

    1993-04-01

    The 1990 amendments to the Clean Air Act have spurred the development of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) processes, several of which produce a dry, solid by-product material consisting of excess sorbent, reaction products containing sulfates and sulfites, and coal fly ash. Presently FGD by-product materials are treated as solid wastes and must be landfilled. However, landfill sites are becoming more scarce and tipping fees are constantly increasing. It is, therefore, highly desirable to find beneficial reuses for these materials provided the environmental impacts are minimal and socially acceptable. Phase 1 results of a 4 and 1/2 year study to demonstrate large volume beneficial uses of FGD by-products are reported. The purpose of the Phase 1 portion of the project was to characterize the chemical, physical, mineralogical and engineering properties of the FGD by-product materials obtained from various FGD technologies being developed in the state of Ohio. Phase 1 also involved the collection of baseline economic data related to the beneficial reuse of these FGD materials. A total of 58 samples were collected and analyzed. In summary Phase 1 results revealed that FGD by-product materials are essentially coal fly ash materials diluted with unreacted sorbent and reaction products. High volume beneficial reuses will depend on the economics of their substituting for existing materials for various types of applications (e.g. as an agricultural liming material, soil borrow for highway embankment construction, and reclamation of active and abandoned surface coal mines). Environmental constraints to the beneficial reuse of dry FGD byproduct materials, based on laboratory and leachate studies, seem to be less than for coal fly ash.

  9. PRELIMINARY CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE TECHNICAL AND ECONOMIC FEASIBILITY STUDY EVALUATION OF CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE FROM EXISTING COAL FIRED PLANTS BY HYBRID SORPTION USING SOLID SORBENTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benson, Steven; Envergex, Srivats; Browers, Bruce; Thumbi, Charles

    2013-01-01

    Barr Engineering Co. was retained by the Institute for Energy Studies (IES) at University of North Dakota (UND) to conduct a technical and economic feasibility analysis of an innovative hybrid sorbent technology (CACHYS™) for carbon dioxide (CO2) capture and separation from coal combustion–derived flue gas. The project team for this effort consists of the University of North Dakota, Envergex LLC, Barr Engineering Co., and Solex Thermal Science, along with industrial support from Allete, BNI Coal, SaskPower, and the North Dakota Lignite Energy Council. An initial economic and feasibility study of the CACHYS™ concept, including definition of the process, development of process flow diagrams (PFDs), material and energy balances, equipment selection, sizing and costing, and estimation of overall capital and operating costs, is performed by Barr with information provided by UND and Envergex. The technology—Capture from Existing Coal-Fired Plants by Hybrid Sorption Using Solid Sorbents Capture (CACHYS™)—is a novel solid sorbent technology based on the following ideas: reduction of energy for sorbent regeneration, utilization of novel process chemistry, contactor conditions that minimize sorbent-CO2 heat of reaction and promote fast CO2 capture, and a low-cost method of heat management. The technology’s other key component is the use of a low-cost sorbent.

  10. Dry-cleaning of graphene

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Algara-Siller, Gerardo; Lehtinen, Ossi; Kaiser, Ute; Turchanin, Andrey

    2014-04-14

    Studies of the structural and electronic properties of graphene in its pristine state are hindered by hydrocarbon contamination on the surfaces. Also, in many applications, contamination reduces the performance of graphene. Contamination is introduced during sample preparation and is adsorbed also directly from air. Here, we report on the development of a simple dry-cleaning method for producing large atomically clean areas in free-standing graphene. The cleanness of graphene is proven using aberration-corrected high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and electron spectroscopy.

  11. Dry Transfer Systems for Used Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brett W. Carlsen; Michaele BradyRaap

    2012-05-01

    The potential need for a dry transfer system (DTS) to enable retrieval of used nuclear fuel (UNF) for inspection or repackaging will increase as the duration and quantity of fuel in dry storage increases. This report explores the uses for a DTS, identifies associated general functional requirements, and reviews existing and proposed systems that currently perform dry fuel transfers. The focus of this paper is on the need for a DTS to enable transfer of bare fuel assemblies. Dry transfer systems for UNF canisters are currently available and in use for transferring loaded canisters between the drying station and storage and transportation casks.

  12. Process for preparing titanium nitride powder

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bamberger, C.E.

    1988-06-17

    A process for making titanium nitride powder by reaction of titanium phosphates with sodium cyanide. The process of this invention may comprise mixing one or more phosphates of Ti with a cyanide salt in the absence of oxygen and heating to a temperature sufficient to cause reaction to occur. In the preferred embodiment the ratio of cyanide salt to Ti should be at least 2 which results in the major Ti-containing product being TiN rather than sodium titanium phosphate byproducts. The process is an improvement over prior processes since the byproducts are water soluble salts of sodium which can easily be removed from the preferred TiN product by washing. 2 tabs.

  13. Apparatus for producing nanoscale ceramic powders

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Helble, Joseph J.; Moniz, Gary A.; Morse, Theodore F.

    1997-02-04

    An apparatus provides high temperature and short residence time conditions for the production of nanoscale ceramic powders. The apparatus includes a confinement structure having a multiple inclined surfaces for confining flame located between the surfaces so as to define a flame zone. A burner system employs one or more burners to provide flame to the flame zone. Each burner is located in the flame zone in close proximity to at least one of the inclined surfaces. A delivery system disposed adjacent the flame zone delivers an aerosol, comprising an organic or carbonaceous carrier material and a ceramic precursor, to the flame zone to expose the aerosol to a temperature sufficient to induce combustion of the carrier material and vaporization and nucleation, or diffusion and oxidation, of the ceramic precursor to form pure, crystalline, narrow size distribution, nanophase ceramic particles.

  14. Apparatus for producing nanoscale ceramic powders

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Helble, Joseph J.; Moniz, Gary A.; Morse, Theodore F.

    1995-09-05

    An apparatus provides high temperature and short residence time conditions for the production of nanoscale ceramic powders. The apparatus includes a confinement structure having a multiple inclined surfaces for confining flame located between the surfaces so as to define a flame zone. A burner system employs one or more burners to provide flame to the flame zone. Each burner is located in the flame zone in close proximity to at least one of the inclined surfaces. A delivery system disposed adjacent the flame zone delivers an aerosol, comprising an organic or carbonaceous carrier material and a ceramic precursor, to the flame zone to expose the aerosol to a temperature sufficient to induce combustion of the carrier material and vaporization and nucleation, or diffusion and oxidation, of the ceramic precursor to form pure, crystalline, narrow size distribution, nanophase ceramic particles.

  15. Federal Offshore--Gulf of Mexico Dry Natural Gas Production ...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Dry Natural Gas Production (Million Cubic Feet) Federal Offshore--Gulf of Mexico Dry ... Natural Gas Dry Production Federal Offshore Gulf of Mexico Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals ...

  16. California Dry Natural Gas Reserves Sales (Billion Cubic Feet...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Sales (Billion Cubic Feet) California Dry Natural Gas Reserves Sales (Billion Cubic Feet) ... Referring Pages: Dry Natural Gas Reserves Sales California Dry Natural Gas Proved Reserves ...

  17. California--State Offshore Natural Gas Dry Production (Million...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Dry Production (Million Cubic Feet) California--State Offshore Natural Gas Dry Production ... Referring Pages: Natural Gas Dry Production California State Offshore Natural Gas Gross ...

  18. California Dry Natural Gas Reserves Estimated Production (Billion...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Estimated Production (Billion Cubic Feet) California Dry Natural Gas Reserves Estimated ... Dry Natural Gas Reserves Estimated Production California Dry Natural Gas Proved Reserves ...

  19. California Dry Natural Gas Reserves Acquisitions (Billion Cubic...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Acquisitions (Billion Cubic Feet) California Dry Natural Gas Reserves Acquisitions ... Referring Pages: Dry Natural Gas Reserves Acquisitions California Dry Natural Gas Proved ...

  20. California Dry Natural Gas Reserves Extensions (Billion Cubic...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Extensions (Billion Cubic Feet) California Dry Natural Gas Reserves Extensions (Billion ... Referring Pages: Dry Natural Gas Reserves Extensions California Dry Natural Gas Proved ...

  1. California Dry Natural Gas Reserves New Field Discoveries (Billion...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    New Field Discoveries (Billion Cubic Feet) California Dry Natural Gas Reserves New Field ... New Field Discoveries of Dry Natural Gas Reserves California Dry Natural Gas Proved ...

  2. California Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) California Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments (Billion ... Referring Pages: Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments California Dry Natural Gas Proved ...

  3. Microwave drying of ferric oxide pellets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pickles, C.A.; Xia, D.K.

    1997-12-31

    The application of microwave energy for the drying of ferric oxide pellets has been investigated and evaluated. It is shown that the microwave drying rates are much higher than those observed in the conventional process. Also there is some potential for improved quality of the product. As a stand-alone technology it is unlikely that microwave drying would be economical for pellets due to the low cost of conventional fuels. However, based on an understanding of the drying mechanisms in the conventional process and in the microwave process, it is shown that microwave-assisted drying offers considerable potential. In this hybrid process, the advantages of the two drying techniques are combined to provide an improved drying process.

  4. Brominated Sorbents for Small Cold-Side ESPs, Hot-Side ESPs and Fly Ash Use in Concrete

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ronald Landreth

    2008-06-30

    This report summarizes the work conducted from September 16, 2005 through December 31, 2008 on the project entitled â??Brominated Sorbents for Small Cold-Side ESPs, Hot-Side ESPs and Fly Ash Use in Concreteâ?. The project covers testing at three host sites: Progress Energy H.F. Lee Station and the Midwest Generation Crawford and Will County Stations. At Progress Energy Lee 1, parametric tests were performed both with and without SO{sub 3} injection in order to determine the impact on the mercury sorbent performance. In addition, tests were performed on the hot-side of the air preheater, before the SO{sub 3} is injected, with H-PACâ?¢ sorbents designed for use at elevated temperatures. The BPACâ?¢ injection provided the expected mercury removal when the SO{sub 3} injection was off. A mercury removal rate due to sorbent of more than 80% was achieved at an injection rate of 8 lb/MMacf. The operation with SO{sub 3} injection greatly reduced the mercury sorbent performance. An important learning came from the injection of H-PACâ?¢ on the hot-side of the air preheater before the SO{sub 3} injection location. The H-PACâ?¢ injected in this manner appeared to be independent of the SO{sub 3} injection and provided better mercury removal than with injecting on the cold-side with SO{sub 3} injection. Consequently, one solution for plants like Lee, with SO{sub 3} injection, or plants with SO{sub 3} generated by the SCR catalyst, is to inject H-PACâ?¢ on the hot-side before the SO{sub 3} is in the flue gas. Even better performance is possible by injecting on the cold-side without the SO{sub 3}, however. During the parametric testing, it was discovered that the injection of B-PACâ?¢ (or H-PACâ?¢) was having a positive impact upon ESP performance. It was decided to perform a 3-day continuous injection run with B-PACâ?¢ in order to determine whether Lee 1 could operate without SO{sub 3} injection. If the test proved positive, the continuous injection would continue as part of the long-term test. The injection of B-PACâ?¢ did allow for the operation of Lee 1 without SO{sub 3} injection and the long-term test was conducted from March 8 through April 7, 2006. The total mercury removal for the 30-day long-term test, excluding the first day when SO{sub 3} was injected and the last day when a plain PAC was used, averaged 85%. The achievement of 85% Hg removal over the 30 days longterm test is another milestone in the history of achievement of the Albemarle Environmental f/k/a Sorbent Technologies Corporation B-PACâ?¢ sorbent. A clear indication of the impact of B-PACâ?¢ on opacity came at the end of the long-term test. It was hoped that Lee 1 could be operated for several days after the end of the long-term test. It took less than a day before the opacity began to increase. The discovery that B-PACâ?¢ can improve ESP performance while capturing a large amount of mercury is another milestone for the B-PACâ?¢ mercury sorbent. The parametric testing at the Midwest Generation Crawford Station was divided into two phases; the first using C-PACâ?¢, the concrete friendly sorbent, and the other using nonconcrete friendly materials. The first phase of the parametric tests was conducted before the long-term test. The second phase of the parametric testing was performed after the long-term test in order to avoid contaminating the fly ash containing the concrete friendly sorbents. The parametric test began with an injection rate of 1 lb/MMacf and, after a period to allow the mercury concentration to stabilize, the rate was increased to 3 lb/MMacf. The Hg removal for this test was about 60% due to sorbent and 69% total at the injection rate of 1 lb/MMacf and 80% due to sorbent and 84% total for the 3 lb/MMacf injection rate. The average total vapor phase mercury removal for the first 21 days of the long-term test was 82% at an injection rate o

  5. Sorbent Testing for the Solidification of Unidentified Rocky Flats Laboratory Waste Stored at the Idaho National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bickford, J.; Kimmitt, R.

    2007-07-01

    At the request of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), MSE Technology Applications, Inc. (MSE) evaluated various commercially available sorbents to solidify unidentified laboratory liquids from Rocky Flats that are stored at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The liquids are a collection of laboratory wastes that were generated from various experiments and routine analytical laboratory activities carried out at Rocky Flats. The liquids are in bottles discovered inside of buried waste drums being exhumed from the subsurface disposal area at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) by the contractor, CH2M Hill Washington International (CWI). Free liquids are unacceptable at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), and some of these liquids cannot be returned to the retrieval pit. Stabilization of the liquids into a solid mass will allow these materials to be sent to an appropriate disposal location. The selected sorbent or sorbent combinations should produce a stabilized mass that is capable of withstanding conditions similar to those experienced during storage, shipping, and burial. The final wasteform should release less than 1% liquid by volume per the WIPP Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC). The absence or presence of free liquid in the solidified waste-forms was detected when tested by SW-846, Method 9095B, Paint Filter Free Liquids, and the amount of liquid released from the wasteform was determined by SW-846, Method 9096, Liquid Release Test. Reactivity testing was also conducted on the solidified laboratory liquids. (authors)

  6. Novel Sorbent Development and Evaluation for the Capture of Krypton and Xenon from Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing Off-Gas Streams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Troy G. Garn; Mitchell R. Greenhalgh; Jack D. Law

    2013-09-01

    The release of volatile radionuclides generated during Used Nuclear Fuel reprocessing in the US will most certainly need to be controlled to meet US regulatory emission limits. A US DOE sponsored Off-Gas Sigma Team has been tasked with a multi-lab collaborative research and development effort to investigate and evaluate emissions and immobilization control technologies for the volatile radioactive species generated from commercial Used Nuclear Fuel (UNF) Reprocessing. Physical Adsorption technology is a simpler and potential economical alternative to cryogenic distillation processes that can be used for the capture of krypton and xenon and has resulted in a novel composite sorbent development procedure using synthesized mordenite as the active material. Utilizing the sorbent development procedure, INL sigma team members have developed two composite sorbents that have been evaluated for krypton and xenon capacities at ambient and 191 K temperature using numerous test gas compositions. Adsorption isotherms have been generated to predict equilibration and maximum capacities enabling modeling to support process equipment scale-up.

  7. Novel Sorbent Development and Evaluation for the Capture of Krypton and Xenon from Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing Off-Gas Streams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Troy G. Garn; Mitchell R. Greenhalgh; Jack D. Law

    2013-10-01

    The release of volatile radionuclides generated during Used Nuclear Fuel reprocessing in the US will most certainly need to be controlled to meet US regulatory emission limits. A US DOE sponsored Off-Gas Sigma Team has been tasked with a multi-lab collaborative research and development effort to investigate and evaluate emissions and immobilization control technologies for the volatile radioactive species generated from commercial Used Nuclear Fuel (UNF) Reprocessing. Physical Adsorption technology is a simpler and potential economical alternative to cryogenic distillation processes that can be used for the capture of krypton and xenon and has resulted in a novel composite sorbent development procedure using synthesized mordenite as the active material. Utilizing the sorbent development procedure, INL sigma team members have developed two composite sorbents that have been evaluated for krypton and xenon capacities at ambient and 191 K temperature using numerous test gas compositions. Adsorption isotherms have been generated to predict equilibration and maximum capacities enabling modeling to support process equipment scale-up.

  8. Synthesis of Cr-doped CaTiSiO{sub 5} ceramic pigments by spray drying

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lyubenova, T. Stoyanova Matteucci, F.; Costa, A.L.; Dondi, M.; Ocana, M.

    2009-04-02

    Cr-doped CaTiSiO{sub 5} was synthesized by spray drying and conventional ceramic method in order to assess its potential as ceramic pigment. The evolution of the phase composition with thermal treatment was investigated by X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) and thermal analyses (DTA-TGA-EGA). Powder morphology and particle size distribution were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and laser diffraction, respectively. The color efficiency of pigments was evaluated by optical spectroscopy (UV-vis-NIR) and colorimetric analysis (CIE Lab). Results proved that spray drying is an efficient procedure to prepare highly reactive pigment precursors. The spray-dried powders consist of hollow spherical particles with aggregate size in the 1-10 {mu}m range, developing a brown coloration. Optical spectra reveal the occurrence of Cr(III) and Cr(IV), both responsible for the brown color of this pigment. The former occupies the octahedral site of titanite, in substitution of Ti(IV), while the latter is located at the tetrahedral site, where replaces Si(IV)

  9. Large scale synthesis of nanostructured zirconia-based compounds from freeze-dried precursors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gomez, A.; Villanueva, R.; Vie, D.; Murcia-Mascaros, S.; Martinez, E.; Beltran, A.; Sapina, F.; Vicent, M.; Sanchez, E.

    2013-01-15

    Nanocrystalline zirconia powders have been obtained at the multigram scale by thermal decomposition of precursors resulting from the freeze-drying of aqueous acetic solutions. This technique has equally made possible to synthesize a variety of nanostructured yttria or scandia doped zirconia compositions. SEM images, as well as the analysis of the XRD patterns, show the nanoparticulated character of those solids obtained at low temperature, with typical particle size in the 10-15 nm range when prepared at 673 K. The presence of the monoclinic, the tetragonal or both phases depends on the temperature of the thermal treatment, the doping concentration and the nature of the dopant. In addition, Rietveld refinement of the XRD profiles of selected samples allows detecting the coexistence of the tetragonal and the cubic phases for high doping concentration and high thermal treatment temperatures. Raman experiments suggest the presence of both phases also at relatively low treatment temperatures. - Graphical abstract: Zr{sub 1-x}A{sub x}O{sub 2-x/2} (A=Y, Sc; 0{<=}x{<=}0.12) solid solutions have been prepared as nanostructured powders by thermal decomposition of precursors obtained by freeze-drying, and this synthetic procedure has been scaled up to the 100 g scale. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Zr{sub 1-x}A{sub x}O{sub 2-x/2} (A=Y, Sc; 0{<=}x{<=}0.12) solid solutions have been prepared as nanostructured powders. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The synthetic method involves the thermal decomposition of precursors obtained by freeze-drying. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The temperature of the thermal treatment controls particle sizes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The preparation procedure has been scaled up to the 100 g scale. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This method is appropriate for the large-scale industrial preparation of multimetallic systems.

  10. Use of a TM sub 010 microwave cavity at 2. 45 GHz for aerosol and filament drying

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Christiansen, D.E.; Unruh, W.P.

    1991-01-01

    As part of the development of a generic spray-drying process for aerosol preparation of homogeneous powders of complex metal oxide systems, we have investigated the use of 2.45 GHz power in a high-Q single-mode TM{sub 010} cavity coupled directly to aerosols of aqueous solutions. Partial success was attained with a concentrated solution of ferric nitrate. Although all particulates showed drying, only a few percent of the particles were fully dried prior to collection. The cavity operated at a power level just below that sufficient to cause electric field breakdown in the carrier gas (dry nitrogen). The large inherent dielectric shielding of the spherical droplets makes it difficult to couple enough power into an aerosol at 2.45 GHz to overcome the heat loss from individual droplets to the surrounding gas and achieve full particulate drying. The calculated and measured dielectric shielding of a thin cylinder of water aligned with the cavity electric field is very much smaller. We have produced heating rates in water {approximately}600 times more rapid than could be achieved with aerosols. This suggests using 2.45 GHz microwave power for drying extruded filaments and then calcining those dried filaments to ceramic fiber. 3 refs., 4 figs.

  11. Design and Development of New Carbon-Based Sorbent Systems for an Effective Containment of Hydrogen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alan C. Cooper

    2012-05-03

    This is a summary for work performed under cooperative agreement DE FC36 04GO14006 (Design and Development of New Carbon-based Sorbent Systems for an Effective Containment of Hydrogen). The project was directed to discover new solid and liquid materials that use reversible catalytic hydrogenation as the mechanism for hydrogen capture and storage. After a short period of investigation of solid materials, the inherent advantages of storing and transporting hydrogen using liquid-phase materials focused our attention exclusively on organic liquid hydrogen carriers (liquid carriers). While liquid carriers such as decalin and methylcyclohexane were known in the literature, these carriers suffer from practical disadvantages such as the need for very high temperatures to release hydrogen from the carriers and difficult separation of the carriers from the hydrogen. In this project, we were successful in using the prediction of reaction thermodynamics to discover liquid carriers that operate at temperatures up to 150 C lower than the previously known carriers. The means for modifying the thermodynamics of liquid carriers involved the use of certain molecular structures and incorporation of elements other than carbon into the carrier structure. The temperature decrease due to the more favorable reaction thermodynamics results in less energy input to release hydrogen from the carriers. For the first time, the catalytic reaction required to release hydrogen from the carriers could be conducted with the carrier remaining in the liquid phase. This has the beneficial effect of providing a simple means to separate the hydrogen from the carrier.

  12. Ab initio thermodynamic approach to identify mixed solid sorbents for CO2 capture technology

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Duan, Yuhua

    2015-10-15

    Because the current technologies for capturing CO2 are still too energy intensive, new materials must be developed that can capture CO2 reversibly with acceptable energy costs. At a given CO2 pressure, the turnover temperature (Tt) of the reaction of an individual solid that can capture CO2 is fixed. Such Tt may be outside the operating temperature range (ΔTo) for a practical capture technology. To adjust Tt to fit the practical ΔTo, in this study, three scenarios of mixing schemes are explored by combining thermodynamic database mining with first principles density functional theory and phonon lattice dynamics calculations. Our calculated resultsmore » demonstrate that by mixing different types of solids, it’s possible to shift Tt to the range of practical operating temperature conditions. According to the requirements imposed by the pre- and post- combustion technologies and based on our calculated thermodynamic properties for the CO2 capture reactions by the mixed solids of interest, we were able to identify the mixing ratios of two or more solids to form new sorbent materials for which lower capture energy costs are expected at the desired pressure and temperature conditions.« less

  13. Wet/dry cooling tower and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Glicksman, Leon R.; Rohsenow, Warren R.

    1981-01-01

    A wet/dry cooling tower wherein a liquid to-be-cooled is flowed along channels of a corrugated open surface or the like, which surface is swept by cooling air. The amount of the surface covered by the liquid is kept small compared to the dry part thereof so that said dry part acts as a fin for the wet part for heat dissipation.

  14. DRI Research Parks Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Research Parks Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: DRI Research Parks Ltd Place: United States Sector: Services Product: General Financial & Legal Services ( Academic Research...

  15. ,"New Mexico Dry Natural Gas Proved Reserves"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","New Mexico Dry Natural Gas Proved Reserves",10,"Annual",2014,"06301977" ,"Release Date:","11...

  16. Cold vacuum drying system conceptual design report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bradshaw, F.W.

    1996-05-01

    This document summarizes the activities involved in the removal of the SNF from the leaking basins and to place it in stable dry storage.

  17. FINAL REPORT: Transformational electrode drying process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Claus Daniel, C.; Wixom, M.

    2013-12-19

    This report includes major findings and outlook from the transformational electrode drying project performance period from January 6, 2012 to August 1, 2012. Electrode drying before cell assembly is an operational bottleneck in battery manufacturing due to long drying times and batch processing. Water taken up during shipment and other manufacturing steps needs to be removed before final battery assembly. Conventional vacuum ovens are limited in drying speed due to a temperature threshold needed to avoid damaging polymer components in the composite electrode. Roll to roll operation and alternative treatments can increase the water desorption and removal rate without overheating and damaging other components in the composite electrode, thus considerably reducing drying time and energy use. The objective of this project was the development of an electrode drying procedure, and the demonstration of processes with no decrease in battery performance. The benchmark for all drying data was an 80°C vacuum furnace treatment with a residence time of 18 – 22 hours. This report demonstrates an alternative roll to roll drying process with a 500-fold improvement in drying time down to 2 minutes and consumption of only 30% of the energy compared to vacuum furnace treatment.

  18. Extruded plastic scintillator including inorganic powders

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bross, Alan D.; Mellott, Kerry L.; Pla-Dalmau, Anna

    2006-06-27

    A method for producing a plastic scintillator is disclosed. A plurality of nano-sized particles and one or more dopants can be combined with a plastic material for the formation of a plastic scintillator thereof. The nano-sized particles, the dopant and the plastic material can be combined within the dry inert atmosphere of an extruder to produce a reaction that results in the formation of a plastic scintillator thereof and the deposition of energy within the plastic scintillator, such that the plastic scintillator produces light signifying the detection of a radiative element. The nano-sized particles can be treated with an inert gas prior to processing the nano-sized particles, the dopant and the plastic material utilizing the extruder. The plastic scintillator can be a neutron-sensitive scintillator, x-ray sensitive scintillator and/or a scintillator for the detection of minimum ionizing particles.

  19. Melting of Uranium Metal Powders with Residual Salts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jin-Mok Hur; Dae-Seung Kang; Chung-Seok Seo

    2007-07-01

    The Advanced Spent Fuel Conditioning Process (ACP) of the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute focuses on the conditioning of Pressurized Water Reactor spent oxide nuclear fuel. After the oxide reduction step of the ACP, the resultant metal powders containing {approx} 30 wt% residual LiCl-Li{sub 2}O should be melted for a consolidation of the fine metal powders. In this study, we investigated the melting behaviors of uranium metal powders considering the effects of a LiCl-Li{sub 2}O residual salt. (authors)

  20. Atomizing apparatus for making polymer and metal powders and whiskers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Otaigbe, Joshua U.; McAvoy, Jon M.; Anderson, Iver E.; Ting, Jason; Mi, Jia; Terpstra, Robert

    2003-03-18

    Method for making polymer particulates, such as spherical powder and whiskers, by melting a polymer material under conditions to avoid thermal degradation of the polymer material, atomizing the melt using gas jet means in a manner to form atomized droplets, and cooling the droplets to form polymer particulates, which are collected for further processing. Atomization parameters can be controlled to produce polymer particulates with controlled particle shape, particle size, and particle size distribution. For example, atomization parameters can be controlled to produce spherical polymer powders, polymer whiskers, and combinations of spherical powders and whiskers. Atomizing apparatus also is provided for atoomizing polymer and metallic materials.

  1. Recent progress of spray drying in China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jinxin, T.; Zonglian, W.; Lixin, H.

    1999-10-01

    The development of spray drying technique during past 10 years of China is reviewed. Main achievements in research, development and utilization of three types of atomization are described and summarized. General trend of spray drying research and development in 21st century is forecasted.

  2. Cold vacuum drying facility 90% design review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O`Neill, C.T.

    1997-05-02

    This document contains review comment records for the CVDF 90% design review. Spent fuels retrieved from the K Basins will be dried at the CVDF. It has also been recommended that the Multi-Conister Overpacks be welded, inspected, and repaired at the CVD Facility before transport to dry storage.

  3. Dry phase reactor for generating medical isotopes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mackie, Thomas Rockwell; Heltemes, Thad Alexander

    2016-05-03

    An apparatus for generating medical isotopes provides for the irradiation of dry-phase, granular uranium compounds which are then dissolved in a solvent for separation of the medical isotope from the irradiated compound. Once the medical isotope is removed, the dissolved compound may be reconstituted in dry granular form for repeated irradiation.

  4. Apparatus for making environmentally stable reactive alloy powders

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, Iver E.; Lograsso, Barbara K.; Terpstra, Robert L.

    1996-12-31

    Apparatus and method for making powder from a metallic melt by atomizing the melt to form droplets and reacting the droplets downstream of the atomizing location with a reactive gas. The droplets are reacted with the gas at a temperature where a solidified exterior surface is formed thereon and where a protective refractory barrier layer (reaction layer) is formed whose penetration into the droplets is limited by the presence of the solidified surface so as to avoid selective reduction of key reactive alloyants needed to achieve desired powder end use properties. The barrier layer protects the reactive powder particles from environmental constituents such as air and water in the liquid or vapor form during subsequent fabrication of the powder to end-use shapes and during use in the intended service environment.

  5. Environmentally stable reactive alloy powders and method of making same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, Iver E.; Lograsso, Barbara K.; Terpstra, Robert L.

    1998-09-22

    Apparatus and method for making powder from a metallic melt by atomizing the melt to form droplets and reacting the droplets downstream of the atomizing location with a reactive gas. The droplets are reacted with the gas at a temperature where a solidified exterior surface is formed thereon and where a protective refractory barrier layer (reaction layer) is formed whose penetration into the droplets is limited by the presence of the solidified surface so as to avoid selective reduction of key reactive alloyants needed to achieve desired powder end use properties. The barrier layer protects the reactive powder particles from environmental constituents such as air and water in the liquid or vapor form during subsequent fabrication of the powder to end-use shapes and during use in the intended service environment.

  6. Process for synthesizing compounds from elemental powders and product

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rabin, B.H.; Wright, R.N.

    1993-12-14

    A process for synthesizing intermetallic compounds from elemental powders is described. The elemental powders are initially combined in a ratio which approximates the stoichiometric composition of the intermetallic compound. The mixed powders are then formed into a compact which is heat treated at a controlled rate of heating such that an exothermic reaction between the elements is initiated. The heat treatment may be performed under controlled conditions ranging from a vacuum (pressureless sintering) to compression (hot pressing) to produce a desired densification of the intermetallic compound. In a preferred form of the invention, elemental powders of Fe and Al are combined to form aluminide compounds of Fe[sub 3] Al and FeAl. 25 figures.

  7. Apparatus for making environmentally stable reactive alloy powders

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, I.E.; Lograsso, B.K.; Terpstra, R.L.

    1996-12-31

    Apparatus and method are disclosed for making powder from a metallic melt by atomizing the melt to form droplets and reacting the droplets downstream of the atomizing location with a reactive gas. The droplets are reacted with the gas at a temperature where a solidified exterior surface is formed thereon and where a protective refractory barrier layer (reaction layer) is formed whose penetration into the droplets is limited by the presence of the solidified surface so as to avoid selective reduction of key reactive alloyants needed to achieve desired powder end use properties. The barrier layer protects the reactive powder particles from environmental constituents such as air and water in the liquid or vapor form during subsequent fabrication of the powder to end-use shapes and during use in the intended service environment. 7 figs.

  8. Environmentally stable reactive alloy powders and method of making same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, I.E.; Lograsso, B.K.; Terpstra, R.L.

    1998-09-22

    Apparatus and method are disclosed for making powder from a metallic melt by atomizing the melt to form droplets and reacting the droplets downstream of the atomizing location with a reactive gas. The droplets are reacted with the gas at a temperature where a solidified exterior surface is formed thereon and where a protective refractory barrier layer (reaction layer) is formed whose penetration into the droplets is limited by the presence of the solidified surface so as to avoid selective reduction of key reactive alloys needed to achieve desired powder end use properties. The barrier layer protects the reactive powder particles from environmental constituents such as air and water in the liquid or vapor form during subsequent fabrication of the powder to end-use shapes and during use in the intended service environment. 7 figs.

  9. Integrated Dry NO sub x /SO sub 2 Emissions Control System baseline test report, November 11--December 15, 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shiomoto, G.H.; Smith, R.A.

    1992-03-01

    The DOE sponsored Integrated Dry NO{sub x}/SO{sub 2} Emissions Control System program, which is a Clean Coal Technology Ill demonstration, is being conducted by Public Service Company of Colorado. The test site is Arapahoe Generating Station Unit 4, which is a 100 MWe, down-fired utility boiler burning a low sulfur western coal. The project goal is to demonstrate 70 percent reductions in NO{sub x} and S0{sub 2} emissions through the integration of: (1) down-fired low-NO{sub x} burners with overfire air; (2) urea injection for additional NO{sub x} removal; and (3) dry sorbent injection and duct humidification for SO{sub 2} removal. The effectiveness of the integrated system on a high sulfur coal will also be tested. This report documents the first baseline test results conducted during the program. The baseline tests were conducted with the original burners and auxiliary equipment and represent the unmodified boiler emissions. The burner design of Arapahoe Unit 4 results in relatively high NO{sub x} levels ranging from 740 to 850 ppM (corrected to 3% O{sub 2}, dry) over the load range. Excess air level was the primary factor influencing NO{sub x} emissions. During normal boiler operations, there was a wide range in NO{sub x} emissions, due to the variations of excess air, boiler load and other, secondary parameters. SO{sub 2} emissions ranged from 350 to 600 ppM (corrected to 3% O{sub 2}, dry) and reflected variations in the coal sulfur content.

  10. Inspection of Used Fuel Dry Storage Casks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dennis C. Kunerth; Tim McJunkin; Mark McKay; Sasan Bakhtiari

    2012-09-01

    ABSTRACT The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulates the storage of used nuclear fuel, which is now and will be increasingly placed in dry storage systems. Since a final disposition pathway is not defined, the fuel is expected to be maintained in dry storage well beyond the time frame originally intended. Due to knowledge gaps regarding the viability of current dry storage systems for long term use, efforts are underway to acquire the technical knowledge and tools required to understand the issues and verify the integrity of the dry storage system components. This report summarizes the initial efforts performed by researchers at Idaho National Laboratory and Argonne National Laboratory to identify and evaluate approaches to in-situ inspection dry storage casks. This task is complicated by the design of the current storage systems that severely restrict access to the casks.

  11. Method for removing oxide contamination from titanium diboride powder

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brynestad, Jorulf; Bamberger, Carlos E.

    1984-01-01

    A method for removing oxide contamination from titanium diboride powder involves the direct chemical treatment of TiB.sub.2 powders with a gaseous boron halide, such as BCl.sub.3, at temperatures in the range of 500.degree.-800.degree. C. The BCl.sub.3 reacts with the oxides to form volatile species which are removed by the BCl.sub.3 exit stream.

  12. Method for removing oxide contamination from titanium diboride powder

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brynestad, J.; Bamberger, C.E.

    A method for removing oxide contamination from titanium diboride powder involves the direct chemical treatment of TiB/sub 2/ powders with a gaseous boron halide, such as BCl/sub 3/, at temperatures in the range of 500 to 800/sup 0/C. The BCl/sub 3/ reacts with the oxides to form volatile species which are removed by the BCl/sub 3/ exit stream.

  13. Compacting Plastic-Bonded Explosive Molding Powders to Dense Solids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    B. Olinger

    2005-04-15

    Dense solid high explosives are made by compacting plastic-bonded explosive molding powders with high pressures and temperatures for extended periods of time. The density is influenced by manufacturing processes of the powders, compaction temperature, the magnitude of compaction pressure, pressure duration, and number of repeated applications of pressure. The internal density variation of compacted explosives depends on method of compaction and the material being compacted.

  14. Quality experimental and calculated powder x-ray diffraction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sullenger, D.B.; Cantrell, J.S.; Beiter, T.A.; Tomlin, D.W.

    1996-08-01

    For several years, we have submitted quality powder XRD patterns to the International Centre for Diffraction Data for inclusion as reference standards in their Powder Diffraction File. The procedure followed is described; examples used are {beta}-UH{sub 3}, {alpha}- BaT{sub 2}, alpha-lithium disilicate ({alpha}-Li{sub 2}Si{sub 2}O{sub 5}), and 2,2`,4,4`,6,6`hexanitroazobenzene-III (HNAB-III).

  15. Neutron detectors comprising ultra-thin layers of boron powder

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang, Zhehul; Morris, Christopher

    2013-07-23

    High-efficiency neutron detector substrate assemblies comprising a first conductive substrate, wherein a first side of the substrate is in direct contact with a first layer of a powder material having a thickness of from about 50 nm to about 250 nm and comprising .sup.10boron, .sup.10boron carbide or combinations thereof, and wherein a conductive material is in proximity to the first layer of powder material; and processes of making said neutron detector substrate assemblies.

  16. TITANIUM SHEET PRODUCTION FROM COMMERCIAL POWDERS (Technical Report) |

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    SciTech Connect SciTech Connect Search Results Technical Report: TITANIUM SHEET PRODUCTION FROM COMMERCIAL POWDERS Citation Details In-Document Search Title: TITANIUM SHEET PRODUCTION FROM COMMERCIAL POWDERS Authors: Muth, Thomas R [1] ; Peter, William H [1] ; Yamamoto, Yukinori [1] ; Chen, Wei [1] ; Harper, David C [1] ; Harper, Kevin D [1] ; Cox, Gregory A [1] ; Lowe, Larry E [1] + Show Author Affiliations ORNL Publication Date: 2013-04-01 OSTI Identifier: 1072995 Report Number(s):

  17. Hot Dry Rock; Geothermal Energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1990-01-01

    The commercial utilization of geothermal energy forms the basis of the largest renewable energy industry in the world. More than 5000 Mw of electrical power are currently in production from approximately 210 plants and 10 000 Mw thermal are used in direct use processes. The majority of these systems are located in the well defined geothermal generally associated with crustal plate boundaries or hot spots. The essential requirements of high subsurface temperature with huge volumes of exploitable fluids, coupled to environmental and market factors, limit the choice of suitable sites significantly. The Hot Dry Rock (HDR) concept at any depth originally offered a dream of unlimited expansion for the geothermal industry by relaxing the location constraints by drilling deep enough to reach adequate temperatures. Now, after 20 years intensive work by international teams and expenditures of more than $250 million, it is vital to review the position of HDR in relation to the established geothermal industry. The HDR resource is merely a body of rock at elevated temperatures with insufficient fluids in place to enable the heat to be extracted without the need for injection wells. All of the major field experiments in HDR have shown that the natural fracture systems form the heat transfer surfaces and that it is these fractures that must be for geothermal systems producing from naturally fractured formations provide a basis for directing the forthcoming but, equally, they require accepting significant location constraints on HDR for the time being. This paper presents a model HDR system designed for commercial operations in the UK and uses production data from hydrothermal systems in Japan and the USA to demonstrate the reservoir performance requirements for viable operations. It is shown that these characteristics are not likely to be achieved in host rocks without stimulation processes. However, the long term goal of artificial geothermal systems developed by systematic engineering procedures at depth may still be attained if high temperature sites with extensive fracturing are developed or exploited. [DJE -2005

  18. Supercritical fluid molecular spray thin films and fine powders

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, Richard D.

    1988-01-01

    Solid films are deposited, or fine powders formed, by dissolving a solid material into a supercritical fluid solution at an elevated pressure and then rapidly expanding the solution through a short orifice into a region of relatively low pressure. This produces a molecular spray which is directed against a substrate to deposit a solid thin film thereon, or discharged into a collection chamber to collect a fine powder. The solvent is vaporized and pumped away. Solution pressure is varied to determine, together with flow rate, the rate of deposition and to control in part whether a film or powder is produced and the granularity of each. Solution temperature is varied in relation to formation of a two-phase system during expansion to control porosity of the film or powder. A wide variety of film textures and powder shapes are produced of both organic and inorganic compounds. Films are produced with regular textural feature dimensions of 1.0-2.0 .mu.m down to a range of 0.01 to 0.1 .mu.m. Powders are formed in very narrow size distributions, with average sizes in the range of 0.02 to 5 .mu.m.

  19. Titanium Metal Powder Production by the Plasma Quench Process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R. A. Cordes; A. Donaldson

    2000-09-01

    The goals of this project included the scale-up of the titanium hydride production process to a production rate of 50 kg/hr at a purity level of 99+%. This goal was to be achieved by incrementally increasing the production capability of a series of reactor systems. This methodic approach was designed to allow Idaho Titanium Technologies to systematically address the engineering issues associated with plasma system performance, and powder collection system design and performance. With quality powder available, actual fabrication with the titanium hydride was to be pursued. Finally, with a successful titanium production system in place, the production of titanium aluminide was to be pursued by the simultaneously injection of titanium and aluminum precursors into the reactor system. Some significant accomplishments of the project are: A unique and revolutionary torch/reactor capable of withstanding temperatures up to 5000 C with high thermal efficiency has been operated. The dissociation of titanium tetrachloride into titanium powder and HC1 has been demonstrated, and a one-megawatt reactor potentially capable of producing 100 pounds per hour has been built, but not yet operated at the powder level. The removal of residual subchlorides and adsorbed HC1 and the sintering of powder to form solid bodies have been demonstrated. The production system has been operated at production rates up to 40 pounds per hour. Subsequent to the end of the project, Idaho Titanium Technologies demonstrated that titanium hydride powder can indeed be sintered into solid titanium metal at 1500 C without sintering aids.

  20. Enhancing the use of coals by gas reburning-sorbent injection: Volume 4 -- Gas reburning-sorbent injection at Lakeside Unit 7, City Water, Light and Power, Springfield, Illinois. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-03-01

    A demonstration of Gas Reburning-Sorbent Injection (GR-SI) has been completed at a cyclone-fired utility boiler. The Energy and Environmental Research Corporation (EER) has designed, retrofitted and tested a GR-SI system at City Water Light and Power`s 33 MWe Lakeside Station Unit 7. The program goals of 60% NO{sub x} emissions reduction and 50% SO{sub 2} emissions reduction were exceeded over the long-term testing period; the NO{sub x} reduction averaged 63% and the SO{sub 2} reduction averaged 58%. These were achieved with an average gas heat input of 22% and a calcium (sorbent) to sulfur (coal) molar ratio of 1.8. GR-SI resulted in a reduction in thermal efficiency of approximately 1% at full load due to firing natural gas which forms more moisture in flue gas than coal and also results in a slight increase in air heater exit gas temperature. Minor impacts on other areas of unit performance were measured and are detailed in this report. The project at Lakeside was carried out in three phases, in which EER designed the GR-SI system (Phase 1), completed construction and start-up activities (Phase 2), and evaluated its performance with both short parametric tests and a long-term demonstration (Phase 3). This report contains design and technical performance data; the economics data for all sites are presented in Volume 5.

  1. Acoustically enhanced heat exchange and drying apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bramlette, T.T.; Keller, J.O.

    1987-07-10

    A heat transfer drying apparatus includes an acoustically augmented heat transfer chamber for receiving material to be dried. The chamber includes a first heat transfer gas inlet, a second heat transfer gas inlet, a material inlet, and a gas outlet which also serves as a dried material and gas outlet. A non-pulsing first heat transfer gas source provides a first drying gas to the acoustically augmented heat transfer chamber through the first heat transfer gas inlet. A valveless, continuous second heat transfer gas source provides a second drying gas to the acoustically augmented heat transfer chamber through the second heat transfer gas inlet. The second drying gas also generates acoustic waves which bring about acoustical coupling with the gases in the acoustically augmented heat transfer chamber. The second drying gas itself oscillates at an acoustic frequency of approximately 180 Hz due to fluid mechanical motion in the gas. The oscillations of the second heat transfer gas coupled to the first heat transfer gas in the acoustically augmented heat transfer chamber enhance heat and mass transfer by convection within the chamber. 3 figs.

  2. Durable regenerable sorbent pellets for removal of hydrogen sulfide from coal gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Siriwardane, R.V.

    1999-02-02

    Pellets for removing hydrogen sulfide from a coal gasification stream at an elevated temperature are prepared in durable form, usable over repeated cycles of absorption and regeneration. The pellets include a material reactive with hydrogen sulfide, in particular zinc oxide, a binder, and an inert material, in particular calcium sulfate (drierite), having a particle size substantially larger than other components of the pellets. A second inert material and a promoter may also be included. Preparation of the pellets may be carried out by dry, solid-state mixing of components, moistening the mixture, and agglomerating it into pellets, followed by drying and calcining. Pellet size is selected, depending on the type of reaction bed for which the pellets are intended. The use of inert material with a large particle size provides a stable pellet structure with increased porosity, enabling effective gas contact and prolonged mechanical durability.

  3. Durable regenerable sorbent pellets for removal of hydrogen sulfide from coal gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Siriwardane, R.V.

    1997-12-30

    Pellets for removing hydrogen sulfide from a coal gasification stream at an elevated temperature are prepared in durable form usable over repeated cycles of absorption and regeneration. The pellets include a material reactive with hydrogen sulfide, in particular zinc oxide, a binder, and an inert material, in particular calcium sulfate (drierite), having a particle size substantially larger than other components of the pellets. A second inert material and a promoter may also be included. Preparation of the pellets may be carried out by dry, solid-state mixing of components, moistening the mixture, and agglomerating it into pellets, followed by drying and calcining. Pellet size is selected, depending on the type of reaction bed for which the pellets are intended. The use of inert material with a large particle size provides a stable pellet structure with increased porosity, enabling effective gas contact and prolonged mechanical durability.

  4. Durable regenerable sorbent pellets for removal of hydrogen sulfide coal gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Siriwardane, Ranjani V.

    1999-01-01

    Pellets for removing hydrogen sulfide from a coal gasification stream at an elevated temperature are prepared in durable form, usable over repeated cycles of absorption and regeneration. The pellets include a material reactive with hydrogen sulfide, in particular zinc oxide, a binder, and an inert material, in particular calcium sulfate (drierite), having a particle size substantially larger than other components of the pellets. A second inert material and a promoter may also be included. Preparation of the pellets may be carried out by dry, solid-state mixing of components, moistening the mixture, and agglomerating it into pellets, followed by drying and calcining. Pellet size is selected, depending on the type of reaction bed for which the pellets are intended. The use of inert material with a large particle size provides a stable pellet structure with increased porosity, enabling effective gas contact and prolonged mechanical durability.

  5. Durable regenerable sorbent pellets for removal of hydrogen sulfide from coal gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Siriwardane, Ranjani V.

    1997-01-01

    Pellets for removing hydrogen sulfide from a coal gasification stream at an elevated temperature are prepared in durable form usable over repeated cycles of absorption and regeneration. The pellets include a material reactive with hydrogen sulfide, in particular zinc oxide, a binder, and an inert material, in particular calcium sulfate (drierite), having a particle size substantially larger than other components of the pellets. A second inert material and a promoter may also be included. Preparation of the pellets may be carried out by dry, solid-state mixing of components, moistening the mixture, and agglomerating it into pellets, followed by drying and calcining. Pellet size is selected, depending on the type of reaction bed for which the pellets are intended. The use of inert material with a large particle size provides a stable pellet structure with increased porosity, enabling effective gas contact and prolonged mechanical durability.

  6. Airless drying -- Developments since IDS'94

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stubbing, T.J.

    1999-09-01

    Since its introduction to IDS'94 delegates, significant progress has been made with the development of airless drying technology. The ceramic industry internationally is beginning to benefit from both the energy use and drying time reductions it achieves, while on the basis of further theoretical work carried out since 1993 other industries, including the bioenergy sector, should also soon begin to exploit its advantages. As global warming becomes a reality and oil reserves decline, superheated steam drying and gasification of biomass will contribute to the mitigation of those problems.

  7. Preparation of sorbent pellets with high integrity for sorption of CO.sub.2 from gas streams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Siriwardane, Ranjani V.

    2016-05-10

    Method for the production of a CO.sub.2 sorbent prepared by integrating a clay substrate, basic alkali salt, amine liquid, hydraulic binder, and a liquid binder. The basic alkali salt is present relative to the clay substrate in a weight ratio of from about 1 part to about 50 parts per 100 parts of the clay substrate. The amine liquid is present relative to a clay-alkali combination in a weight ratio of from about 1 part to about 10 parts per 10 parts of the clay-alkali combination. The clay substrate and basic alkali salt may be combined in a solid-solid heterogeneous mixture and followed by introduction of the amine liquid. Alternatively, an alkaline solution may be blended with the amine solution prior to contacting the clay substrate. The clay-alkali-amine CO.sub.2 sorbent is particularly advantageous for low temperature CO.sub.2 removal cycles in a gas stream having a CO.sub.2 concentration less than around 2000 ppm and an oxygen concentration around 21%, such as air.

  8. Adsorption Isotherms for Xenon and Krypton using INL HZ-PAN and AgZ-PAN Sorbents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Troy G. Garn; Mitchell Greenhalgh; Veronica J. Rutledge; Jack D. Law

    2014-08-01

    The generation of adsorption isotherms compliments the scale-up of off-gas processes used to control the emission of encapsulated radioactive volatile fission and activation products released during Used Nuclear Fuel (UNF) reprocessing activities. A series of experiments were conducted to obtain capacity results for varying Kr and Xe gas concentrations using HZ-PAN and AgZ-PAN engineered form sorbents. Gas compositions for Kr ranged from 150-40,000 ppmv and 250-5020 ppmv for Xe in a helium balance. The experiments were all performed at 220 K at a flowrate of 50 sccm. Acquired capacities were then respectively fit to the Langmuir equation using the Langmuir linear regression method to obtain the equilibrium parameters Qmax and Keq. Generated experimental adsorption isotherms were then plotted with the Langmuir predicted isotherms to illustrate agreement between the two. The Langmuir parameters were provided for input into the OSPREY model to predict breakthrough of single component adsorption of Kr and Xe on HZ-PAN and AgZ-PAN sorbents at the experimental conditions tested. Kr and Xe capacities resulting from model breakthrough predictions were then compared to experimental capacities for model validation.

  9. High strength air-dried aerogels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coronado, Paul R.; Satcher, Jr., Joe H.

    2012-11-06

    A method for the preparation of high strength air-dried organic aerogels. The method involves the sol-gel polymerization of organic gel precursors, such as resorcinol with formaldehyde (RF) in aqueous solvents with R/C ratios greater than about 1000 and R/F ratios less than about 1:2.1. Using a procedure analogous to the preparation of resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF) aerogels, this approach generates wet gels that can be air dried at ambient temperatures and pressures. The method significantly reduces the time and/or energy required to produce a dried aerogel compared to conventional methods using either supercritical solvent extraction. The air dried gel exhibits typically less than 5% shrinkage.

  10. Dry Cask Storage Study Feb 1989

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This report on the use of dry-cask-storage technologies at the sites of civilian nuclear power reactors has been prepared by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE} in response to the requirements of...

  11. Geothermal Food Processors Agricultural Drying Low Temperature...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Processors is an Agricultural Drying low temperature direct use geothermal facility in Brady Hot Springs E of Fernley, Nevada. This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by...

  12. Bioenergy Impacts … Billion Dry Tons

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    by 2030 at least one billion dry tons of non-food biomass resources, yielding up to 60 billion gallons of biofuels, as well as bio- based chemicals, products, and electricity. ...

  13. Spray drying for high-sulfur coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rhudy, R.

    1988-09-01

    Recent pilot plant tests indicate that spray drying, now used to control SO/sub 2/ emissions from low-sulfur coal, can also be effective for high-sulfur coal. Spray drying coupled with baghouse particulate removal is the most effective configuration tested to date, removing over 90% of SO/sub 2/ while easily meeting New Source Performance Standards for particulate emissions. 2 figures, 1 table.

  14. AVLIS modified direct denitration: UO{sub 3} powder evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Slagle, O.D.; Davis, N.C.; Parchen, L.J.

    1994-02-01

    The evaluation study demonstrated that AVLIS-enriched uranium converted to UO{sub 3} can be used to prepare UO{sub 3} pellets having densities in the range required for commercial power reactor fuel. Specifically, the program has demonstrated that MDD (Modified Direct Denitration)-derived UO{sub 2} powders can be reduced to sinterable UO{sub 2} powder using reduction techniques that allow control of the final powder characteristics; the resulting UO{sub 2} powders can be processed/sintered using standard powder preparation and pellet fabrication techniques to yield pellets with densities greater than 96% TD; pellet microstructures appear similar to those of power reactor fuel, and because of the high final pellet densities, it is expected that they would remain stable during in-reactor operation; the results of the present study confirm the results of a similar study carried out in 1982 (Davis and Griffin 1992). The laboratory processes were selected on the basis that they could be scaled up to standard commercial fuel processing. However, larger scale testing may be required to establish techniques compatible with commercial fuel fabrication techniques.

  15. Microstructural Development in Al-Si Powder During Rapid Solidification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Amber Lynn Genau

    2004-12-19

    Powder metallurgy has become an increasingly important form of metal processing because of its ability to produce materials with superior mechanical properties. These properties are due in part to the unique and often desirable microstructures which arise as a result of the extreme levels of undercooling achieved, especially in the finest size powder, and the subsequent rapid solidification which occurs. A better understanding of the fundamental processes of nucleation and growth is required to further exploit the potential of rapid solidification processing. Aluminum-silicon, an alloy of significant industrial importance, was chosen as a model for simple eutectic systems displaying an unfaceted/faceted interface and skewed coupled eutectic growth zone, Al-Si powder produced by high pressure gas atomization was studied to determine the relationship between microstructure and alloy composition as a function of powder size and atomization gas. Critical experimental measurements of hypereutectic (Si-rich) compositions were used to determine undercooling and interface velocity, based on the theoretical models which are available. Solidification conditions were analyzed as a function of particle diameter and distance from nucleation site. A revised microstructural map is proposed which allows the prediction of particle morphology based on temperature and composition. It is hoped that this work, by providing enhanced understanding of the processes which govern the development of the solidification morphology of gas atomized powder, will eventually allow for better control of processing conditions so that particle microstructures can be optimized for specific applications.

  16. Steam atmosphere drying exhaust steam recompression system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Becker, F.E.; Smolensky, L.A.; Doyle, E.F.; DiBella, F.A.

    1994-03-08

    This invention relates to a heated steam atmosphere drying system comprising dryer in combination with an exhaust recompression system which is extremely energy efficient and eliminates dangers known to air dryers. The system uses superheated steam as the drying medium, which recirculates through the system where its heat of evaporation and heat of compression is recovered, thereby providing a constant source of heat to the drying chamber. The dryer has inlets whereby feedstock and superheated steam are fed therein. High heat transfer and drying rates are achieved by intimate contact of the superheated steam with the particles being dried. The dryer comprises a vessel which enables the feedstock and steam to enter and recirculate together. When the feedstock becomes dry it will exit the dryer with the steam and become separated from the steam through the use of a curvilinear louver separator (CLS). The CLS enables removal of fine and ultrafine particles from the dryer. Water vapor separated from the particles in the CLS as superheated steam, may then be recovered and recirculated as steam through the use of a compressor to either directly or indirectly heat the dryer, and a heat exchanger or a heater to directly provide heat to the dryer. This system not only provides a very efficient heat transfer system but results in a minimum carry-over of ultrafine particles thereby eliminating any explosive hazard. 17 figures.

  17. Steam atmosphere drying exhaust steam recompression system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Becker, Frederick E.; Smolensky, Leo A.; Doyle, Edward F.; DiBella, Francis A.

    1994-01-01

    This invention relates to a heated steam atmosphere drying system comprising dryer in combination with an exhaust recompression system which is extremely energy efficient and eliminates dangers known to air dryers. The system uses superheated steam as the drying medium, which recirculated through the system where its heat of evaporation and heat of compression is recovered, thereby providing a constant source of heat to the drying chamber. The dryer has inlets whereby feedstock and superheated steam are fed therein. High heat transfer and drying rates are achieved by intimate contact of the superheated steam with the particles being dried The dryer comprises a vessel which enables the feedstock and steam to enter recirculate together. When the feedstock becomes dry it will exit the dryer with the steam and become separated from the steam through the use of a curvilinear louver separator (CLS). The CLS enables removal of fine and ultrafine particles from the dryer. Water vapor separated from the particles in the CLS as superheated steam, may then be recovered and recirculated as steam through the use of a compressor to either directly or indirectly heat the dryer, and a heat exchanger or a heater to directly provide heat to the dryer. This system not only provides a very efficient heat transfer system but results in a minimum carry-over of ultrafine particles thereby eliminating any explosive hazard.

  18. Development of advanced, dry, SO{sub x}/NO{sub x} emission control technologies for high-sulfur coal. Final report, April 1, 1993--December 31, 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Amrhein, G.T.

    1994-12-23

    Dry Scrubbing is a common commercial process that has been limited to low- and medium-sulfur coal applications because high-sulfur coal requires more reagent than can be efficiently injected into the process. Babcock & Wilcox has made several advances that extend dry scrubbing technologies to higher sulfur coals by allowing deposit-free operation at low scrubber exit temperatures. This not only increases the amount of reagent that can be injected into the scrubber, but also increases SO{sub 2} removal efficiency and sorbent utilization. The objectives of this project were to demonstrate, at pilot scale, that advanced, dry-scrubbing-based technologies can attain the performance levels specified by the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments for SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} emissions while burning high-sulfur coal, and that these technologies are economically competitive with wet scrubber systems. The use of these technologies by utilities in and around Ohio, on new or retrofit applications, will ensure the future of markets for high-sulfur coal by creating cost effective options to coal switching.

  19. Cross-flow, filter-sorbent catalyst for particulate, SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} control. First quarterly technical progress report, 1990

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-03-01

    This synopsis describes a new concept for integrated pollutant control: a cross-flow filter comprised of layered, gas permeable membranes that act as a particulate filter, an SO{sub 2} sorbent, and a NO{sub x} reduction catalyst.

  20. A simple procedure to prepare spherical {alpha}-alumina powders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu Hongyu [State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemicals, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116012 (China); Ning Guiling [State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemicals, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116012 (China)], E-mail: ninggl@dlut.edu.cn; Gan Zhihong; Lin Yuan [State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemicals, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116012 (China)

    2009-04-02

    Spherical {alpha}-alumina powders were prepared by the controlled hydrolysis of aluminum isopropoxide in a hydrolysis system consisting of octanol and acetonitrile. Diverse solvents to dissolve reactant formed diverse hydrolysis systems and affected particle shape of {alpha}-alumina powders. The precursors crystallized to {gamma}-alumina at 1000 deg. C and converted to {alpha}-alumina at 1150 deg. C without intermediate phases. The particle morphology of precursor was retained after it crystallized to {alpha}-alumina. The heating rate influenced the particle shape and the state of agglomeration during calcination process. The thermal properties of the precursors were characterized by thermal gravimetric and differential thermal analysis. X-ray diffraction technique was used to confirm the conversion of crystalline phase of alumina powders from amorphous to {alpha}-phase. Transmission electron microscopy was used to investigate the morphologies and size of the precursors and products.