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1

Investigation and Demonstration of Dry Carbon-Based Sorbent Injection for Mercury Control  

SciTech Connect

Public Service Company of Colorado and ADA Technologies, Inc. have performed a study of the injection of activated carbon for the removal of vapor-phase mercury from coal-fired flue gas streams. The project was completed under contract to the US Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory, with contributions from EPRI and Public Service Company. The prime contractor for the project was Public Service Company, with ADA Technologies as the major subcontractor providing technical support to all aspects of the project. The research and development effort was conducted in two phases. In Phase I a pilot facility was fabricated and tests were performed using dry carbon-based sorbent injection for mercury control on a coal-fired flue gas slipstream extracted from an operating power plant. Phase II was designed to move carbon injection technology towards commercial application on coal-fired power plants by addressing key reliability and operability concerns. Phase II field work included further development work with the Phase I pilot and mercury measurements on several of PSCo's coal-fired generating units. In addition, tests were run on collected sorbent plus fly ash to evaluate the impact of the activated carbon sorbent on the disposal of fly ash. An economic analysis was performed where pilot plant test data was used to develop a model to predict estimated costs of mercury removal from plants burning western coals. Testing in the pilot plant was undertaken to quantify the effects of plant configuration, flue gas temperature, and activated carbon injection rate on mercury removal. All three variables were found to significantly impact the mercury removal efficiency in the pilot. The trends were clear: mercury removal rates increased with decreasing flue gas temperature and with increasing carbon injection rates. Mercury removal was much more efficient with reverse-gas and pulse-jet baghouse configurations than with an ESP as the particulate control device. The native fly ash of the host unit provided significant mercury removal capacity, so that the activated carbon sorbent served as an incremental mercury removal mechanism. Tests run to characterize the waste product, a combination of fly ash and activated carbon on which mercury was present, showed that mercury and other RCRA metals of interest were all below Toxic Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) regulatory limits in the leachate. The presence of activated carbon in the fly ash was shown to have an effect on the use of fly ash as an additive in the manufacture of concrete, which could limit the salability of fly ash from a plant where activated carbon was used for mercury control.

Jim Butz; Terry Hunt

2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

2

INVESTIGATION AND DEMONSTRATION OF DRY CARBON-BASED SORBENT INJECTION FOR MERCURY CONTROL  

SciTech Connect

This quarterly report describes the activities that have taken place during the first full quarter of the Phase II project ''Investigation and Demonstration of Dry Carbon-Based Sorbent Injection for Mercury Control''. Modifications were completed and sampling began at the 600 acfm pilot-scale particulate control module (PCM) located at the Comanche Station in Pueblo, CO. The PCM was configured as an electrostatic precipitator for these tests. A Perkin-Elmer flue gas mercury analyzer was installed on-site and operated. Initial test results using both manual sampling methodology and the mercury analyzer are presented herein. Preparations were made during this period for full-scale mercury testing of several PSCo units. A site visit was made to Arapahoe and Cherokee Generating Stations to determine sample locations and to develop a test plan.

Terry Hunt; Mark Fox; Lillian Stan; Sheila Haythornthwaite; Justin Smith; Jason Ruhl

1998-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

3

Field evaluation of natural gas and dry sorbent injection for MWC emissions control  

SciTech Connect

The Institute of Gas Technology (IGT), in cooperation with the Olmsted Waste-to-Energy Facility (OWEF) and with subcontracted engineering services from the Energy and Environmental Research Corporation (EER), has completed the detailed engineering and preparation of construction specifications for an Emissions Reduction Testing System (ERTS). The ERTS has been designed for retrofit to one of two 100-ton/day municipal waste combustors at the OWEF, located in Rochester, Minnesota. The purpose of the retrofit is to conduct a field evaluation of a combined natural gas and sorbent injection process (IGT`s METHANE de-TOX{sup SM}, IGT Patent No. 5,105,747) for reducing the emissions of oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}), hydrochloric acid (HCI), oxides of sulfur (SO{sub x}), carbon monoxide (CO), total hydrocarbons (THC), and chlorinated hydrocarbons (dioxin/furans). In addition, the design includes modifications for the control of heavy metals (HM). Development of the process should allow the waste-to-energy industry to meet the Federal New Source Performance Standards for these pollutants at significantly lower costs when compared to existing technology of Thermal deNO{sub x} combined with spray dryer scrubber/fabric filters. Additionally, the process should reduce boiler corrosion and increase both the thermal and power production efficiency of the facility.

Wohadlo, S.; Abbasi, H.; Cygan, D. [Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (United States)] Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (United States)

1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

4

Supported-sorbent injection. Final report  

SciTech Connect

A new retrofitable, wastefree acid-rain control concept was pilot-tested at Ohio Edison`s high-sulfur coal-fired R.E. Burger generating station at the 2-MWe level. During the project, moistened {open_quotes}supported{close_quotes} sorbents, made from a combination of lime and vermiculite or perlite, were injected into a humidified 6,500-acfm flue-gas slipstream. After the sorbents reacted with the sulfur dioxide in the flue gas, they were removed from ductwork with a cyclone and baghouse. The $1.0 million project was co-funded by Sorbent Technologies Corporation, the Ohio Edison Company, and the Ohio Coal Development Office. The project included a preliminary bench-scale testing phase, construction of the pilot plant, parametric studies, numerous series of recycle tests, and a long-term run. The project proceeded as anticipated and achieved its expected results. This duct injection technology successfully demonstrated SO{sub 2}-removal rates of 80 to 90% using reasonable stoichiometric injection ratios (2:1 Ca:S) and approach temperatures (20-25F). Under similar conditions, dry injection of hydrated lime alone typically only achieves 40 to 50% SO{sub 2} removal. During the testing, no difficulties were encountered with deposits in the ductwork or with particulate control, which have been problems in tests of other duct-injection schemes.

Nelson, S. Jr.

1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

5

Alkaline sorbent injection for mercury control  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A mercury removal system for removing mercury from combustion flue gases is provided in which alkaline sorbents at generally extremely low stoichiometric molar ratios of alkaline earth or an alkali metal to sulfur of less than 1.0 are injected into a power plant system at one or more locations to remove at least between about 40% and 60% of the mercury content from combustion flue gases. Small amounts of alkaline sorbents are injected into the flue gas stream at a relatively low rate. A particulate filter is used to remove mercury-containing particles downstream of each injection point used in the power plant system.

Madden, Deborah A. (Boardman, OH); Holmes, Michael J. (Washington Township, Stark County, OH)

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

6

Alkaline sorbent injection for mercury control  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A mercury removal system for removing mercury from combustion flue gases is provided in which alkaline sorbents at generally extremely low stoichiometric molar ratios of alkaline earth or an alkali metal to sulfur of less than 1.0 are injected into a power plant system at one or more locations to remove at least between about 40% and 60% of the mercury content from combustion flue gases. Small amounts of alkaline sorbents are injected into the flue gas stream at a relatively low rate. A particulate filter is used to remove mercury-containing particles downstream of each injection point used in the power plant system.

Madden, Deborah A. (Boardman, OH); Holmes, Michael J. (Washington Township, Stark County, OH)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

7

Carbon Dioxide Capture from Flue Gas Using Dry, Regenerable Sorbents  

SciTech Connect

This report describes research conducted between July 1, 2006 and September 30, 2006 on the use of dry regenerable sorbents for removal of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) from coal combustion flue gas. Modifications to the integrated absorber/ sorbent regenerator/ sorbent cooler system were made to improve sorbent flow consistency and measurement reliability. Operation of the screw conveyor regenerator to achieve a sorbent temperature of at least 120 C at the regenerator outlet is necessary for satisfactory carbon dioxide capture efficiencies in succeeding absorption cycles. Carbon dioxide capture economics in new power plants can be improved by incorporating increased capacity boilers, efficient flue gas desulfurization systems and provisions for withdrawal of sorbent regeneration steam in the design.

David A. Green; Thomas O. Nelson; Brian S. Turk; Paul D. Box Raghubir P. Gupta

2006-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

8

Evaluation of Sorbent Injection for Mercury Control  

SciTech Connect

The power industry in the U.S. is faced with meeting new regulations to reduce the emissions of mercury compounds from coal-fired plants. These regulations are directed at the existing fleet of nearly 1,100 boilers. These plants are relatively old with an average age of over 40 years. Although most of these units are capable of operating for many additional years, there is a desire to minimize large capital expenditures because of the reduced (and unknown) remaining life of the plant to amortize the project. Injecting a sorbent such as powdered activated carbon into the flue gas represents one of the simplest and most mature approaches to controlling mercury emissions from coal-fired boilers. This is the final site report for tests conducted at Laramie River Station Unit 3, one of five sites evaluated in this DOE/NETL program. The overall objective of the test program is to evaluate the capabilities of activated carbon injection at five plants: Sunflower Electric's Holcomb Station Unit 1, AmerenUE's Meramec Station Unit 2, Missouri Basin Power Project's Laramie River Station Unit 3, Detroit Edison's Monroe Power Plant Unit 4, and AEP's Conesville Station Unit 6. These plants have configurations that together represent 78% of the existing coal-fired generation plants. The goals for the program established by DOE/NETL are to reduce the uncontrolled mercury emissions by 50 to 70% at a cost 25 to 50% lower than the benchmark established by DOE of $60,000/lb mercury removed. The goals of the program were exceeded at Laramie River Station by achieving over 90% mercury removal at a sorbent cost of $3,980/lb ($660/oz) mercury removed for a coal mercury content of 7.9 lb/TBtu.

Sharon Sjostrom

2005-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

9

LIFAC sorbent injection desulfurization demonstration project  

SciTech Connect

In December 1990, the US Department of Energy selected 13 projects for funding under the Federal Clean Coal Technology Program (Round 3). One of the projects selected was the project sponsored by LIFAC North America, (LIFAC NA), titled LIFAC Sorbent Injection Desulfurization Demonstration Project.'' The host site for this $17 million, three-phase project is Richmond Power and Light's Whitewater Valley Unit No. 2 in Richmond, Indiana. The LIFAC technology uses upper-furnace limestone injection with patented humidification of the flue gas to remove 75--80% of the sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) in the flue gas. In November 1990, after a ten (10) month negotiation period, LIFAC NA and the US DOE entered into a Cooperative Agreement for the design, construction, and demonstration of the LIFAC system. This report is the first Technical Progress Report covering the period from project execution through the end of December 1990. Due to the power plant's planned outage schedule, and the time needed for engineering, design and procurement of critical equipment, DOE and LIFAC NA agreed to execute the Design Phase of the project in August 1990, with DOE funding contingent upon final signing of the Cooperative Agreement.

Not Available

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

10

NETL: Mercury Emissions Control Technologies - Sorbent Injection for Small  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Sorbent Injection for Small ESP Mercury Control in Low Sulfur Eastern Bituminous Coal Flue Gas Sorbent Injection for Small ESP Mercury Control in Low Sulfur Eastern Bituminous Coal Flue Gas URS Group and their test team will evaluate sorbent injection for mercury control on sites with low-SCA ESPs, burning low sulfur Eastern bituminous coals. Full-scale tests will be performed at Plant Yates Units 1 and 2 to evaluate sorbent injection performance across a cold-side ESP/wet FGD and a cold-side ESP with a dual NH3/SO3 flue gas conditioning system, respectively. Short-term parametric tests on Units 1 and 2 will provide data on the effect of sorbent injection rate on mercury removal and ash/FGD byproduct composition. Tests on Unit 2 will also evaluate the effect of dual-flue gas conditioning on sorbent injection performance. Results from a one-month injection test on Unit 1 will provide insight to the long-term performance and variability of this process as well as any effects on plant operations. The goals of the long-term testing are to obtain sufficient operational data on removal efficiency over time, effects on the ESP and balance of plant equipment, and on injection equipment operation to prove process viability.

11

Evaluation of Sorbent Injection for Mercury Control  

SciTech Connect

The power industry in the U.S. is faced with meeting new regulations to reduce the emissions of mercury compounds from coal-fired plants. These regulations are directed at the existing fleet of nearly 1,100 boilers. These plants are relatively old with an average age of over 40 years. Although most of these units are capable of operating for many additional years, there is a desire to minimize large capital expenditures because of the reduced (and unknown) remaining life of the plant to amortize the project. Injecting a sorbent such as powdered activated carbon into the flue gas represents one of the simplest and most mature approaches to controlling mercury emissions from coal-fired boilers. This is the final site report for tests conducted at DTE Energy's Monroe Power Plant, one of five sites evaluated in this DOE/NETL program. The overall objective of the test program was to evaluate the capabilities of activated carbon injection at five plants: Sunflower Electric's Holcomb Station Unit 1, AmerenUE's Meramec Station Unit 2, Missouri Basin Power Project's Laramie River Station Unit 3, Detroit Edison's Monroe Power Plant Unit 4, and AEP's Conesville Station Unit 6. These plants have configurations that together represent 78% of the existing coal-fired generation plants. The goals for the program established by DOE/NETL were to reduce the uncontrolled mercury emissions by 50 to 70% at a cost 25 to 50% lower than the target established by DOE of $60,000/lb mercury removed. The results from Monroe indicate that using DARCO{reg_sign} Hg would result in higher mercury removal (80%) at a sorbent cost of $18,000/lb mercury, or 70% lower than the benchmark. These results demonstrate that the goals established by DOE/NETL were exceeded during this test program. The increase in mercury removal over baseline conditions is defined for this program as a comparison in the outlet emissions measured using the Ontario Hydro method during the baseline and long-term test periods. The change in outlet emissions from baseline to long-term testing was 81%.

Sharon Sjostrom

2006-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

12

Enhancing the use of coals by gas reburning-sorbent injection  

SciTech Connect

This Clean Coal Technology project will demonstrate a combination of two developed technologies to reduce both NO[sub x] and SO[sub x] emissions: gas reburning and calcium based dry sorbent injection. The demonstrations will be conducted on two pre-NSPS utility boilers representative of the US boilers which contribute significantly to the inventory of acid rain precursor emissions: tangentially and cyclone fired units. Gas reburning is a combustion modification technique that consists of firing 80--85 percent of the fuel (corresponding to the total heat release) in the lower furnace. Reduction of NO[sub x] to molecular nitrogen (N[sub 2]) is accomplished via the downstream injection of the remaining fuel requirement in the form of natural gas (which also reduces the total SO[sub x] emissions). In a third stage, burnout air is injected at lower temperatures in the upper furnace to complete the combustion process without generating significant additional NO[sub x]. Dry sorbent injection consists of injecting calcium based sorbents (such as limestone, dolomite, or hydrated lime) into the combustion products. For sulfation of the sorbent to CaSO[sub 4], an injection temperature of about 1230[degrees]C is optimum, but calcium-sulfur reactions can also take place at lower temperatures. Thus, the sorbent may be injected at different locations, such as with the burnout air, at the exit from the superheater, or into the ducting downstream of the air heater with H[sub 2]0 added for humidification. The calcium sulfate or sulfite products are collected together with unreacted sorbent fly ash by the electrostatic precipitator. The specific goal of this project is to demonstrate NO[sub x] and SO[sub x] emission reductions of 60 percent and 50 percent, respectively, on two coal fired utility boilers having the design characteristics mentioned above.

Not Available

1992-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

13

Enhancing the use of coals by gas reburning-sorbent injection  

SciTech Connect

Clean Coal Technology implies the use of coal in an environmentally acceptable manner. Coal combustion results in the emission of two types of acid rain precursors: oxides of sulfur (sox) and oxides of nitrogen (NO[sub x]). This Clean Coal Technology project will demonstrate a combination of two developed technologies to reduce both NO[sub x] and SO[sub x] emissions. Gas reburning and calcium based dry sorbent injection. The demonstrations will be conducted on two pre-NSPS utility boilers representative of the US boilers which contribute significantly to the inventory of acid rain precursor emissions. Gas reburning is a combustion modification technique that consists of firing 80--85 percent of the fuel (corresponding to the total heat release) in the lower furnace. Reduction of NO[sub x] to molecular nitrogen (N[sub 2]) is accomplished via the downstream injection of the remaining fuel requirement in the form of natural gas (which also reduces the total SO[sub x] emissions). In a third stage, burnout air is injected at lower temperatures in the upper furnace to complete the combustion process without generating significant additional NO[sub x]. Dry sorbent injection consists of injecting calcium based sorbents (such as limestone, dolomite, or hydrated lime) into the combustion products. For sulfation of the sorbent to CaSO[sub 4], an injection temperature of about 1230[degrees]C is optimum, but calcium-sulfur reactions can also take place at lower temperatures. Thus, the sorbent may be injected at different locations, such as with the burnout air, at the exit from the superheater, or into the ducting downstream of the air heater with H[sub 2]O added for humidification. The specific goal of this project is to demonstrate NO[sub x] and SO[sub x] emission reductions of 60 percent and 50 percent, respectively, on two coal fired utility boilers having the design characteristics mentioned above.

Not Available

1992-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

14

Carbon Dioxide Capture from Flue Gas Using Dry Regenerable Sorbents  

SciTech Connect

Regenerable sorbents based on sodium carbonate (Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}) can be used to separate carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) from coal-fired power plant flue gas. Upon thermal regeneration and condensation of water vapor, CO{sub 2} is released in a concentrated form that is suitable for reuse or sequestration. During the research project described in this report, the technical feasibility and economic viability of a thermal-swing CO{sub 2} separation process based on dry, regenerable, carbonate sorbents was confirmed. This process was designated as RTI's Dry Carbonate Process. RTI tested the Dry Carbonate Process through various research phases including thermogravimetric analysis (TGA); bench-scale fixed-bed, bench-scale fluidized-bed, bench-scale co-current downflow reactor testing; pilot-scale entrained-bed testing; and bench-scale demonstration testing with actual coal-fired flue gas. All phases of testing showed the feasibility of the process to capture greater than 90% of the CO{sub 2} present in coal-fired flue gas. Attrition-resistant sorbents were developed, and these sorbents were found to retain their CO{sub 2} removal activity through multiple cycles of adsorption and regeneration. The sodium carbonate-based sorbents developed by RTI react with CO{sub 2} and water vapor at temperatures below 80 C to form sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) and/or Wegscheider's salt. This reaction is reversed at temperatures greater than 120 C to release an equimolar mixture of CO{sub 2} and water vapor. After condensation of the water, a pure CO{sub 2} stream can be obtained. TGA testing showed that the Na{sub 2}CO3 sorbents react irreversibly with sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and hydrogen chloride (HCl) (at the operating conditions for this process). Trace levels of these contaminants are expected to be present in desulfurized flue gas. The sorbents did not collect detectable quantities of mercury (Hg). A process was designed for the Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-based sorbent that includes a co-current downflow reactor system for adsorption of CO{sub 2} and a steam-heated, hollow-screw conveyor system for regeneration of the sorbent and release of a concentrated CO{sub 2} gas stream. An economic analysis of this process (based on the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory's [DOE/NETL's] 'Carbon Capture and Sequestration Systems Analysis Guidelines') was carried out. RTI's economic analyses indicate that installation of the Dry Carbonate Process in a 500 MW{sub e} (nominal) power plant could achieve 90% CO{sub 2} removal with an incremental capital cost of about $69 million and an increase in the cost of electricity (COE) of about 1.95 cents per kWh. This represents an increase of roughly 35.4% in the estimated COE - which compares very favorable versus MEA's COE increase of 58%. Both the incremental capital cost and the incremental COE were projected to be less than the comparable costs for an equally efficient CO{sub 2} removal system based on monoethanolamine (MEA).

Thomas Nelson; David Green; Paul Box; Raghubir Gupta; Gennar Henningsen

2007-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

15

NETL: Evaluation of Dry Sorbent Technology for Pre-Combustion CO2 Capture  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Evaluation of Dry Sorbent Technology for Pre-Combustion CO2 Capture Evaluation of Dry Sorbent Technology for Pre-Combustion CO2 Capture Project No.: DE-FE0000465 Scanning Electron Microsopy (SEM) and Transmission Electron Miscroscopy (TEM) images of a multi-functional sorbent synthesized by a novel method. Scanning Electron Microsopy (SEM) and Transmission Electron Miscroscopy (TEM) images of a multi-functional sorbent synthesized by a novel method. URS and the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign are investigating a dry sorbent process configured to combine the water-gas-shift (WGS) reaction with carbon dioxide (CO2) removal for coal gasification systems. A combination of process simulation modeling and sorbent molecular and thermodynamic analyses will be performed to predict optimal sorbent properties and identify optimal operating temperature and pressure ranges

16

Evaluation of Sorbent Injection for Mercury Control  

SciTech Connect

ADA-ES, Inc., with support from DOE/NETL, EPRI, and industry partners, studied mercury control options at six coal-fired power plants. The overall objective of the this test program was to evaluate the capabilities of activated carbon injection at six plants: Sunflower Electric's Holcomb Station Unit 1, AmerenUE's Meramec Station Unit 2, Missouri Basin Power Project's Laramie River Station Unit 3, Detroit Edison's Monroe Power Plant Unit 4, American Electric Power's Conesville Station Unit 6, and Labadie Power Plant Unit 2. These plants have configurations that together represent 78% of the existing coal-fired generation plants. The financial goals for the program established by DOE/NETL were to reduce the uncontrolled mercury emissions by 50 to 70% at a cost 25 to 50% lower than the target established by DOE of $60,000 per pound of mercury removed. Results from testing at Holcomb, Laramie, Meramec, Labadie, and Monroe indicate the DOE goal was successfully achieved. However, further improvements for plants with conditions similar to Conesville are recommended that would improve both mercury removal performance and economics.

Sharon Sjostrom

2008-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

17

Enahancing the Use of Coals by Gas Reburning - Sorbent Injection Volume 5 - Guideline Manual  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the Guideline Manual is to provide recommendations for the application of combined gas reburning-sorbent injection (GR-SI) technologies to pre-NSPS boilers. The manual includes design recommendations, performance predictions, economic projections and comparisons with competing technologies. The report also includes an assessment of boiler impacts. Two full-scale demonstrations of gas reburning-sorbent injection form the basis of the Guideline Manual. Under the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Coal Technology Program (Round 1), a project was completed to demonstrate control of boiler emissions that comprise acid rain precursors, specifically oxides of nitrogen (NOX) and sulfur dioxide (S02). Other project sponsors were the Gas Research Institute and the Illinois State Department of Commerce and Community Affairs. The project involved demonstrating the combined use of Gas Reburning and Sorbent Injection (GR-SI) to assess the air emissions reduction potential of these technologies.. Three potential coal-fired utility boiler host sites were evaluated: Illinois Power's tangentially-fired 71 MWe (net) Hennepin Unit W, City Water Light and Power's cyclone- fired 33 MWe (gross) Lakeside Unit #7, and Central Illinois Light Company's wall-fired 117 MWe (net) Edwards Unit #1. Commercial demonstrations were completed on the Hennepin and Lakeside Units. The Edwards Unit was removed from consideration for a site demonstration due to retrofit cost considerations. Gas Reburning (GR) controls air emissions of NOX. Natural gas is introduced into the furnace hot flue gas creating a reducing reburning zone to convert NOX to diatomic nitrogen (N,). Overfire air is injected into the furnace above the reburning zone to complete the combustion of the reducing (fuel) gases created in the reburning zone. Sorbent Injection (S1) consists of the injection of dry, calcium-based sorbents into furnace hot flue gas to achieve S02 capture. At each site where the techno!o@es were to be demonstrated, petiormance goals were set to achieve air emission reductions of 60 percent for NO. and 50 percent for SO2. These performance goals were exceeded during long term demonstration testing. For the tangentially fired unit, NOX emissions were reduced by 67.2% and S02 emissions by 52.6%. For the cyclone-fired unit, NOX emissions were reduced by 62.9% and SOZ emissions by 57.9%.

None

1998-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

Enhancing the Use of Coals by Gas Reburning - Sorbent Injection Volume 5 - Guideline Manual  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the Guideline Manual is to provide recommendations for the application of combined gas reburning-sorbent injection (GR-SI) technologies to pre-NSPS boilers. The manual includes design recommendations, performance predictions, economic projections and comparisons with competing technologies. The report also includes an assessment of boiler impacts. Two full-scale demonstrations of gas reburning-sorbent injection form the basis of the Guideline Manual. Under the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Coal Technology Program (Round 1), a project was completed to demonstrate control of boiler emissions that comprise acid rain precursors, specifically oxides of nitrogen (NOX) and sulfur dioxide (S02). Other project sponsors were the Gas Research Institute and the Illinois State Department of Commerce and Community Affairs. The project involved d,emonstrating the combined use of Gas Reburning and Sorbent Injection (GR-SI) to assess the air emissions reduction potential of these technologies.. Three potential coal-fired utility boiler host sites were evaluated: Illinois Power's tangentially-fired 71 MWe (net) Hennepin Unit #1, City Water Light and Power's cyclone- fired 33 MWe (gross) Lakeside Unit #7, and Central Illinois Light Company's wall-fired 117 MWe (net) Edwards Unit #1. Commercial demonstrations were completed on the Hennepin and Lakeside Units. The Edwards Unit was removed from consideration for a site demonstration due to retrofit cost considerations. Gas Reburning (GR) controls air emissions of NOX. Natural gas is introduced into the furnace hot flue gas creating a reducing reburning zone to convert NOX to diatomic nitrogen (N,). Overfire air is injected into the furnace above the reburning zone to complete the combustion of the reducing (fuel) gases created in the reburning zone. Sorbent Injection (S1) consists of the injection of dry, calcium-based sorbents into furnace hot flue gas to achieve S02 capture. `At each site where the technologies were to be demonstrated, performance goals were set to achieve air emission reductions of 60 percent for NOX and 50 percent for S02. These performance goals were exceeded during long term demonstration testing. For the tangentially fired unit, NO, emissions were reduced by 67.2?40 and SOZ emissions by 52.6Y0. For the cyclone-fired unit, NO, emissions were reduced by 62.9% and SOZ emissions by 57.9Y0.

None

1998-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

19

FURNACE INJECTION OF ALKALINE SORBENTS FOR SULFURIC ACID CONTROL  

SciTech Connect

This document summarizes progress on Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-99FT40718, Furnace Injection of Alkaline Sorbents for Sulfuric Acid Control, during the time period April 1, 2001 through September 30, 2001. The objective of this project is to demonstrate the use of alkaline reagents injected into the furnace of coal-fired boilers as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions. The coincident removal of hydrochloric acid and hydrofluoric acid is also being determined, as is the removal of arsenic, a known poison for NO{sub x} selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts. EPRI, the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), FirstEnergy Corporation, and the Dravo Lime Company are project co-funders. URS Corporation is the prime contractor. During the current period, American Electric Power (AEP) joined the project as an additional co-funder and as a provider of a host site for testing. This is the fourth reporting period for the subject Cooperative Agreement. During this period, two long-term sorbent injection tests were conducted, one on Unit 3 at FirstEnergy's Bruce Mansfield Plant (BMP) and one on Unit 1 at AEP's Gavin Station. These tests determined the effectiveness of injecting alkaline slurries into the upper furnace of the boiler as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions from these units. The alkaline slurries tested included commercially available magnesium hydroxide slurry (Gavin Station), and a byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry (both Gavin Station and BMP). The tests showed that injecting either the commercial or the byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry could achieve up to 70 to 75% sulfuric acid removal. At BMP, the overall removal was limited by the need to maintain acceptable electrostatic precipitator (ESP) particulate control performance. At Gavin Station, the overall sulfuric acid removal was limited because the furnace injected sorbent was less effective at removing SO{sub 3} formed across the SCR system installed on the unit for NO{sub x} control than at removing SO{sub 3} formed in the furnace. Balance of plant impacts, primarily on the ESP particulate control device, were also determined during both tests. These results are presented and discussed in this report.

Gary M. Blythe

2001-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

20

Enhancing the use of coals by gas reburning-sorbent injection  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to evaluate and demonstrate a cost effective emission control technology for acid rain precursors, oxides of nitrogen (NO[sub x]) and sulfur (SO[sub x]) on two coal fired utility boilers in Illinois. The units selected are representative of pre-NSPS design practices: tangential and cyclone fired. Work on a third unit, wall fired, has been stopped because of funding limitations. The specific objectives are to demonstrate reductions of 60 percent in NO[sub x] and 50 percent in SO[sub x] emissions, by a combination of two developed technologies, gas reburning (GR) and sorbent injection (SI). With GR, about 80--85 percent of the coal fuel is fired in the primary combustion zone. The balance of the fuel is added downstream as natural gas to create a slightly fuel rich environment in which NO[sub x] is converted to N[sub 2]. The combustion process is completed by overfire air addition. So[sub x] emissions are reduced by injecting dry sorbents (usually calcium based) into the upper furnace. The sorbents trap SO[sub x] as solid sulfates that are collected in the particulate control device. This project is conducted in three phases at each site: (1) Design and Permitting; (2) Construction and Startup; and, (3) Operation, Data Collection, Reporting and Disposition. Technology transfer to industry is accomplished through the formation of an industry panel.

Not Available

1992-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dry sorbent injection" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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21

Field Demonstration of Enhanced Sorbent Injection for Mercury Control  

SciTech Connect

Alstom Power Inc. has conducted a DOE/NETL-sponsored program (under DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-04NT42306) to demonstrate Mer-Cure{trademark}, one of Alstom's mercury control technologies for coal-fired boilers. Mer-Cure{trademark} utilizes a small amount of Mer-Clean{trademark} sorbent that is injected into the flue gas stream for oxidation and adsorption of gaseous mercury. Mer-Clean{trademark} sorbents are carbon-based and prepared with chemical additives that promote oxidation and capture of mercury. Mer-Cure{trademark} is unique in that the sorbent is injected into an environment where the mercury capture kinetics is accelerated. This full-scale demonstration program was comprised of three seven-week long test campaigns at three host sites including PacifiCorp's 240-MW{sub e} Dave Johnston Unit No.3 burning a Powder River Basin (PRB) coal, Basin Electric's 220-MW{sub e} Leland Olds Unit No.1 burning a North Dakota lignite, and Reliant Energy's 170-MW{sub e} Portland Unit No.1 burning an Eastern bituminous coal. All three boilers are equipped with electrostatic precipitators. The goals for this Round 2 program, established by DOE/NETL under the original solicitation, were to reduce the uncontrolled mercury emissions by 50 to 70% at a cost 25 to 50% lower than the previous target of $60,000/lb mercury removed. The results for all three host sites indicated that Mer-Cure{trademark} technology could achieve mercury removal of 90%. The estimated mercury removal costs were 25-92% lower than the benchmark of $60,000/lb mercury removed. The estimated costs for control, at sorbent cost of $1.25 to $2.00/lb respectively, are as follows: (1) Dave Johnston Unit No.3--$2,650 to $4,328/lb Hg removed (92.8% less than $60k/lb); (2) Leland Olds Unit No.1--$8,680 to $13,860/lb Hg removed (76.7% less than $60k/lb); and (3) Portland Unit No.1--$28,540 to $45,065/lb Hg removed (24.9% less than $60k/lb). In summary, the results from demonstration testing at all three host sites show that the goals established by DOE/NETL were exceeded during this test program. Mercury removal performance4 of greater than 90% reduction was above the 50-70% reduction goal, and mercury removal cost of 25-92% lower than the benchmark was above the 25 to 50% cost reduction goal.

Shin Kang; Robert Schrecengost

2009-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

22

LIFAC Sorbent Injection Desulfurization Demonstration Project: A DOE Assessment  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

41 41 LIFAC Sorbent Injection Desulfurization Demonstration Project: A DOE Assessment January 2001 U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory P.O. Box 880, 3610 Collins Ferry Road Morgantown, WV 26507-0880 and P.O. Box 10940, 626 Cochrans Mill Road Pittsburgh, PA 15236-0940 website: www.netl.doe.gov Disclaimer 2 Disclaimer This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference

23

Enhancing the use of coals by gas reburning-sorbent injection  

SciTech Connect

Clean Coal Technology implies the use of coal in an environmentally acceptable manner. Coal combustion results in the emission of two types of acid rain precursors: oxides of sulfur (SO{sub x}) and oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}). This Clean Coal Technology project will demonstrate a combination of two developed technologies to reduce both NO{sub x} and SO{sub x} emissions: gas reburning and calcium based dry sorbent injection. The demonstrations will be conducted on two pre-NSPS utility boilers representative of the US boilers which contribute significantly to the inventory of acid rain precursor emissions: tangentially and cyclone fired units. Because of cost growth and lack of available funding, no further work has been done after Phase 1 at site B; the wall fired unit.

Not Available

1992-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

24

Enhancing the use of coals by gas reburning-sorbent injection. Environmental monitoring quarterly report No. 9, July 1--September 30, 1992  

SciTech Connect

This Clean Coal Technology project will demonstrate a combination of two developed technologies to reduce both NO{sub x} and SO{sub x} emissions: gas reburning and calcium based dry sorbent injection. The demonstrations will be conducted on two pre-NSPS utility boilers representative of the US boilers which contribute significantly to the inventory of acid rain precursor emissions: tangentially and cyclone fired units. Gas reburning is a combustion modification technique that consists of firing 80--85 percent of the fuel (corresponding to the total heat release) in the lower furnace. Reduction of NO{sub x} to molecular nitrogen (N{sub 2}) is accomplished via the downstream injection of the remaining fuel requirement in the form of natural gas (which also reduces the total SO{sub x} emissions). In a third stage, burnout air is injected at lower temperatures in the upper furnace to complete the combustion process without generating significant additional NO{sub x}. Dry sorbent injection consists of injecting calcium based sorbents (such as limestone, dolomite, or hydrated lime) into the combustion products. For sulfation of the sorbent to CaSO{sub 4}, an injection temperature of about 1230{degrees}C is optimum, but calcium-sulfur reactions can also take place at lower temperatures. Thus, the sorbent may be injected at different locations, such as with the burnout air, at the exit from the superheater, or into the ducting downstream of the air heater with H{sub 2}0 added for humidification. The calcium sulfate or sulfite products are collected together with unreacted sorbent fly ash by the electrostatic precipitator. The specific goal of this project is to demonstrate NO{sub x} and SO{sub x} emission reductions of 60 percent and 50 percent, respectively, on two coal fired utility boilers having the design characteristics mentioned above.

Not Available

1992-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

25

Using high temperature baghouses to enhance desulfurization following economizer sorbent injection  

SciTech Connect

In order to explore the potential of using high temperature baghouses to enhance SO{sub 2} removal following upstream sorbent injection, an integrated two-stage reactor system has been built. It consists of an injection stage and a filtration stage. Distinct from one-stage fixed-bed reactors, sorbent particles in this system are initially converted under controlled injection conditions before entering the filtration reactor chamber. By the aid of the system, several unique features regarding the gas-solid reactions in the baghouse after economizer zone sorbent injection have been revealed. Results have shown that the appropriate usage of a high temperature baghouse may substantially enhance the performance of the process. The further SO{sub 2} removal in the baghouse is comprehensively affected by both the conditions in the injection zone and those in the baghouse.

Li, G.; Keener, T.C. [Univ. of Cincinnati, OH (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

26

Enhancing the use of coals by gas reburning-sorbent injection. Environmental monitoring quarterly report No. 8, April 1--June 30, 1992  

SciTech Connect

Clean Coal Technology implies the use of coal in an environmentally acceptable manner. Coal combustion results in the emission of two types of acid rain precursors: oxides of sulfur (sox) and oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}). This Clean Coal Technology project will demonstrate a combination of two developed technologies to reduce both NO{sub x} and SO{sub x} emissions. Gas reburning and calcium based dry sorbent injection. The demonstrations will be conducted on two pre-NSPS utility boilers representative of the US boilers which contribute significantly to the inventory of acid rain precursor emissions. Gas reburning is a combustion modification technique that consists of firing 80--85 percent of the fuel (corresponding to the total heat release) in the lower furnace. Reduction of NO{sub x} to molecular nitrogen (N{sub 2}) is accomplished via the downstream injection of the remaining fuel requirement in the form of natural gas (which also reduces the total SO{sub x} emissions). In a third stage, burnout air is injected at lower temperatures in the upper furnace to complete the combustion process without generating significant additional NO{sub x}. Dry sorbent injection consists of injecting calcium based sorbents (such as limestone, dolomite, or hydrated lime) into the combustion products. For sulfation of the sorbent to CaSO{sub 4}, an injection temperature of about 1230{degrees}C is optimum, but calcium-sulfur reactions can also take place at lower temperatures. Thus, the sorbent may be injected at different locations, such as with the burnout air, at the exit from the superheater, or into the ducting downstream of the air heater with H{sub 2}O added for humidification. The specific goal of this project is to demonstrate NO{sub x} and SO{sub x} emission reductions of 60 percent and 50 percent, respectively, on two coal fired utility boilers having the design characteristics mentioned above.

Not Available

1992-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

27

Enhancing the use of coals by gas reburning-sorbent injection. Quarterly report No. 20, July 1--September 30, 1992  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to evaluate and demonstrate a cost effective emission control technology for acid rain precursors, oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}) and sulfur (SO{sub x}) on two coal fired utility boilers in Illinois. The units selected are representative of pre-NSPS design practices: tangential and cyclone fired. Work on a third unit, wall fired, has been stopped because of funding limitations. The specific objectives are to demonstrate reductions of 60 percent in NO{sub x} and 50 percent in SO{sub x} emissions, by a combination of two developed technologies, gas reburning (GR) and sorbent injection (SI). With GR, about 80--85 percent of the coal fuel is fired in the primary combustion zone. The balance of the fuel is added downstream as natural gas to create a slightly fuel rich environment in which NO{sub x} is converted to N{sub 2}. The combustion process is completed by overfire air addition. So{sub x} emissions are reduced by injecting dry sorbents (usually calcium based) into the upper furnace. The sorbents trap SO{sub x} as solid sulfates that are collected in the particulate control device. This project is conducted in three phases at each site: (1) Design and Permitting; (2) Construction and Startup; and, (3) Operation, Data Collection, Reporting and Disposition. Technology transfer to industry is accomplished through the formation of an industry panel.

Not Available

1992-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

28

Sorbent Injection for Small ESP Mercury Control in Low Sulfur Eastern Bituminous Coal Flue Gas  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Sorbent InjectIon for Small eSP Sorbent InjectIon for Small eSP mercury control In low Sulfur eaStern bItumInouS coal flue GaS Background Full-scale field testing has demonstrated the effectiveness of activated carbon injection (ACI) as a mercury-specific control technology for certain coal-fired power plants, depending on the plant's coal feedstock and existing air pollution control device configuration. In a typical configuration, powdered activated carbon (PAC) is injected downstream of the plant's air heater and upstream of the existing particulate control device - either an electrostatic precipitator (ESP) or a fabric filter (FF). The PAC adsorbs the mercury from the combustion flue gas and is subsequently captured along with the fly ash in the ESP or FF. ACI can have some negative side

29

MODELING POWDERED SORBENT INJECTION IN COMBINATION WITHE FABRIC FILTER FOR THE CONTROL OF MERCURY EMISSIONS  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

POWDERED SORBENT INJECTION IN POWDERED SORBENT INJECTION IN COMBINATION WITH FABRIC FILTER FOR THE CONTROL OF MERCURY EMISSIONS Joseph R. V. Flora Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208 Richard A. Hargis, William J. O'Dowd, Henry W. Pennline National Energy Technology Laboratory, U.S. Department of Energy P.O. Box, 10940, Pittsburgh, PA 15236 Radisav D. Vidic * Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15261 ABSTRACT A two-stage mathematical model for mercury removal using powdered activated carbon injection upstream of a baghouse filter was developed, with the first stage accounting for removal in the ductwork and the second stage accounting for additional removal due to the

30

Enhancing the use of coals by gas reburning-sorbent injection. Quarterly report, January 1--March 31, 1996  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to evaluate and demonstrate a cost effective emission control technology for acid rain precursors, oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}) and sulfur (SO{sub x}), on two coal fired utility boilers in Illinois. The units selected are representative of pre-NSPS design practices: tangential and cyclone fired. Work on a third unit, wall fired, has been stopped because of funding limitations. The specific objectives are to demonstrate reductions of 60 percent in NO{sub x} and 50 percent in SO{sub x} emissions, by a combination of two developed technologies, gas reburning (GR) and sorbent injection (SI). With GR, about 80--85 percent of the coal fuel is fired in the primary combustion zone. The balance of the fuel is added downstream as natural gas to create a slightly fuel rich environment in which NO{sub x} is converted to N{sub 2}. The combustion process is completed by overfire air addition. SO{sub x} emissions are reduced by injecting dry sorbents (usually calcium based) into the upper furnace. The sorbents trap SO{sub x} as solid sulfates that are collected in the particulate control device. This project is conducted in three phases at each site: (1) Design and Permitting, (2) Construction and Startup, and (3) Operation, Data Collection, Reporting and Disposition. Technology transfer to industry is accomplished through the formation of an industry panel. Phase I of the project commenced on June 5, 1987. Phases I, II and III for the Illinois Power Project have been completed; Phases I and II for the CWLP project have been completed; Phase III is in progress. All site activities have been completed with the exception of restoration at CWLP.

NONE

1996-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

31

Enhancing the use of coals by gas reburning-sorbent injection. Quarterly report No. 33, October 1--December 31, 1995  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to evaluate and demonstrate a cost effective emission control technology for acid rain precursors, oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}) and sulfur (SO{sub 2}), on two coal fired utility boilers in Illinois. The units selected are representative of pre-NSPS design practices: tangential and cyclone fired. Work on a third unit, wall fired, has been stopped because of funding limitations. The specific objectives are to demonstrate reductions of 60 percent in NO{sub x} and 50 percent in SO{sub x} emissions, by a combination of two developed technologies, gas reburning (GR) and sorbent injection (SI). With GR, about 80--85 percent of the coal fuel is fired in the primary combustion zone. The balance of the fuel is added downstream as natural gas to create a slightly fuel rich environment in which NO{sub x} is converted to N{sub 2}. The combustion process is completed by overfire air addition. SO{sub x} emissions are reduced by injecting dry sorbents (usually calcium based) into the upper furnace. The sorbents trap SO{sub x} as solid sulfates that are collected in the particulate control device. This project is conducted in three phases at each site: (1) Design and Permitting, (2) Construction and Startup, shed through the formation of an industry, and (3) Operation, Data Collection, Reporting and Disposition. Technology transfer to industry is accomplished through the formation of an industry panel. Phase 1 of the project commenced on June 5, 1987. Phases 1, 2 and 3 for the Illinois Power Project have been completed; Phases 1 and 2 for the CWLP project have been completed; Phase 3 is in progress. All site activities have been completed with the exception of restoration at CWLP.

NONE

1996-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

32

Development of a Dry Sorbent-Based Post Combustion CO2 Capture Technology for Retrofit in Existing Power Plants  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Dry Sorbent-Based Dry Sorbent-Based Post Combustion CO 2 Capture Technology for Retrofit in Existing Power Plants Background Currently available commercial processes to remove carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) from flue gas streams are costly and energy intensive. RTI International is heading a research team to continue development and scale-up of an innovative process for CO 2 capture that has significant potential to be less expensive and less energy intensive than conventional technologies. The "Dry Carbonate Process" utilizes a dry,

33

SciTech Connect: Evaluation of Dry Sorbent Injection Technology...  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory with URS as the prime contractor. Illinois Clean Coal Institute and The University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign were project co-funders....

34

Enhancing the use of coals by gas reburning-sorbent injection. Quarterly report No. 6, October 1--December 31, 1991  

SciTech Connect

Clean Coal Technology implies the use of coal in an environmentally acceptable manner. Coal combustion results in the emission of two types of acid rain precursors: oxides of sulfur (SO{sub x}) and oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}). This Clean Coal Technology project will demonstrate a combination of two developed technologies to reduce both NO{sub x} and SO{sub x} emissions: gas reburning and calcium based dry sorbent injection. The demonstrations will be conducted on two pre-NSPS utility boilers representative of the US boilers which contribute significantly to the inventory of acid rain precursor emissions: tangentially and cyclone fired units. Because of cost growth and lack of available funding, no further work has been done after Phase 1 at site B; the wall fired unit.

Not Available

1992-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

35

Highly Attrition Resistant Zinc Oxide-Based Sorbents for H2S Removal by Spray Drying Technique  

SciTech Connect

Primary issues for the fluidized-bed/transport reactor process are high attrition resistant sorbent, its high sorption capacity and regenerability, durability, and cost. The overall objective of this project is the development of a superior attrition resistant zinc oxide-based sorbent for hot gas cleanup in integrated coal gasification combined cycle (IGCC). Sorbents applicable to a fluidized-bed hot gas desulfurization process must have a high attrition resistance to withstand the fast solid circulation between a desulfurizer and a regenerator, fast kinetic reactions, and high sulfur sorption capacity. The oxidative regeneration of zinc-based sorbent usually initiated at greater than 600 C with highly exothermic nature causing deactivation of sorbent as well as complication of sulfidation process by side reaction. Focusing on solving the sorbent attrition and regenerability of zinc oxide-based sorbent, we have adapted multi-binder matrices and direct incorporation of regeneration promoter. The sorbent forming was done with a spray drying technique that is easily scalable to commercial quantity.

Ryu, C.K.; Lee, J.B.; Ahn, D.H.; Kim, J.J.; Yi, C.K.

2002-09-19T23:59:59.000Z

36

Advanced in-duct sorbent injection for SO{sub 2} control. Topical report number 3, Subtask 2.3: Sorbent optimization  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this research project is to develop second-generation duct injection technology as a cost-effective compliance option for the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments. Specific process performance goals are to achieve 90% SO{sub 2} removal and 60% sorbent utilization efficiency. Research is focused on the Advanced Coolside process, which has shown the potential of achieving these targets. The objective of Subtask 2.3, Sorbent Optimization, was to explore means of improving performance and economics of the Advanced Coolside process through optimizing the sorbent system. Pilot plant tests of commercial and specially prepared hydrated limes showed that the process is relatively insensitive to sorbent source. This can be an important economic advantage, allowing the use of the lowest cost sorbent available at a site. A pilot plant hydration study conducted in cooperation with Dravo Lime Company further indicated the relative insensitivity of process performance to lime source and to lime physical properties. Pilot plant tests indicated that the use of very small amounts of additives in the Advanced Coolside process can improve performance under some circumstances; however, additives are not necessary to exceed process performance targets.

Rosenhoover, W.A.; Maskew, J.T.; Withum, J.A.; Stouffer, M.R.

1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

37

Enhancing the Use of Coals by Gas Reburning-Sorbent Injection  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

0 0 Enhancing the Use of Coals by Gas Reburning-Sorbent Injection A DOE Assessment January 2001 U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory P.O. Box 880, 3610 Collins Ferry Road Morgantown, WV 26507-0880 and P.O. Box 10940, 626 Cochrans Mill Road Pittsburgh, PA 15236-0940 website: www.netl.doe.gov Disclaimer This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference therein to any specific commercial

38

Development of a Dry Sorbent-based Post-Combustion CO2 Capture Technology for Retrofit in Existing Power Plants  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this research and development (R&D) project was to further the development of a solid sorbent-based CO2 capture process based on sodium carbonate (i.e. the Dry Carbonate Process) that is capable of capturing>90% of the CO2 as a nearly pure stream from coal-fired power plant flue gas with <35% increase in the cost of electrictiy (ICOE).

Nelson, Thomas; Coleman, Luke; Anderson, Matthew; Gupta, Raghubir; Herr, Joshua; Kalluri, Ranjeeth; Pavani, Maruthi

2009-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

39

Proof of concept testing of an integrated dry injection system for SO{sub 2}/NO{sub x} control. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The integrated Dry Injection Process (IDIP) consists of combustion modification using low NO{sub x} burners to reduce NO{sub x} emissions, dry injection of hydrated line at economizer temperatures for primary capture of SO{sub 2}, dry injection of a commercial grade sodium bicarbonate at the air heater exit for additional SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} removal, and humidification for precipitator conditioning. IDIP offers the potential for simultaneously achieving 90% SO{sub 2} removal, and 65% NO{sub x} removal from a high sulfur flue gas. The process is well suited for new or retrofit applications since it can be incorporated within existing economizer and downstream ductwork. Subscale tests were performed in order to identify the best calcium and sodium sorbents. These tests involved the injection of calcium hydroxide and sodium sorbents at various points of the flue gas system downstream of a 0.25 MM BTU/hr. coal fired combustor, and the gas residence times, cooling rates and temperatures were comparable to those found for full-scale utility boilers. These tests verified that a high surface area hydrated lime provides maximum sorbent utilization and identified an alcohol-water hydrated lime as yielding the highest surface area and the best SO{sub 2} removal capability. The tests also identified sodium bicarbonate to be somewhat more effective than sodium sesquicarbonate for SO{sub 2} removal. The proof of concept demonstration was conducted on the large combustor at the Riley Stoker Research Facility in Worcester, MA. When economically compared to conventional limestone slurry scrubbing on a 300 MW plant, the dry injection process shows lower capital cost but higher operating cost. Hydrated lime injection can be less costly than limestone scrubbing when two or more of the following conditions exist: plant is small (less than 100MW); yearly operating hours are small (less than 3000); and the remaining plant lifetime is small (less than 10 years).

Helfritch, D.J.; Bortz, S.J. [Research-Cottrell, Inc., Somerville, NJ (United States); Beittel, R. [Riley Stoker Corp., Worcester, MA (United States)

1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

40

Enhancing the use of coals by gas reburning-sorbent injection: Volume 4 -- Gas reburning-sorbent injection at Lakeside Unit 7, City Water, Light and Power, Springfield, Illinois. Final report  

SciTech Connect

A demonstration of Gas Reburning-Sorbent Injection (GR-SI) has been completed at a cyclone-fired utility boiler. The Energy and Environmental Research Corporation (EER) has designed, retrofitted and tested a GR-SI system at City Water Light and Power`s 33 MWe Lakeside Station Unit 7. The program goals of 60% NO{sub x} emissions reduction and 50% SO{sub 2} emissions reduction were exceeded over the long-term testing period; the NO{sub x} reduction averaged 63% and the SO{sub 2} reduction averaged 58%. These were achieved with an average gas heat input of 22% and a calcium (sorbent) to sulfur (coal) molar ratio of 1.8. GR-SI resulted in a reduction in thermal efficiency of approximately 1% at full load due to firing natural gas which forms more moisture in flue gas than coal and also results in a slight increase in air heater exit gas temperature. Minor impacts on other areas of unit performance were measured and are detailed in this report. The project at Lakeside was carried out in three phases, in which EER designed the GR-SI system (Phase 1), completed construction and start-up activities (Phase 2), and evaluated its performance with both short parametric tests and a long-term demonstration (Phase 3). This report contains design and technical performance data; the economics data for all sites are presented in Volume 5.

NONE

1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dry sorbent injection" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Enhancing the use of coals by Gas Reburning: Sorbent injection. [Quarterly report], July 28--October 1, 1993  

SciTech Connect

Energy and Environmental Research Corporation (EER) has completed demonstrations of Gas Reburning-Sorbent Injection (GR-SI) at two field sites. The discussions which follow pertain to measurements taken from the demonstration at City Water, Light and Power`s (CWLP) Lakeside Station Unit 7 in Springfield, Illinois. Environmental monitoring was conducted for two purposes, to satisfy the requirements of operating permits granted by the Illinois Environmental Protection Agency (IEPA) and to verify environmental acceptability of the GR-SI process. The GR-SI demonstration program at Lakeside Unit 7 was performed in three phases. Phase I -- Design and Permitting, entailed characterization of the host boiler, then finalization of process and engineering, design of the GR-SI system. Phase I was initiated in June 1987 and completed in March 1989. Phase II -- Construction and Startup, was initiated upon completion of design tasks and was completed in February 1993. Phase III -- Operation, Data Collection, Reporting and Disposition, was conducted from July 1993 to June 1994. In Phase III, the GR-SI system performance was evaluated initially through optimization tests, which are short-term tests in which specific operating parameters are varied to determine their impact on emissions and boiler performance. The optimization testing included GR only tests, SI only tests, and GR-SI tests. Results from these tests, carried out from July 28 to October 1, 1993, are presented in this report. Following Optimization testing, long-term GR-SI operation was initiated to demonstrate the combined technology over an extended period with the unit under dispatch load control. Long-term GR-SI testing was conducted from October 4, 1993 to June 3, 1994. The long-term environmental monitoring data are presented in a separate report.

NONE

1995-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

New, high-capacity, calcium-based sorbents: Calcium silicate sorbents. Final report  

SciTech Connect

A search is being carried out for new calcium-based SO{sub 2} sorbents for induct injection. More specifically, a search is being carried out for induct injection calcium silicate sorbents that are highly cost effective. The objectives of the past year were to study the sorption of SO{sub 2} by representative calcium silicates, to study the composition of the Ca(OH){sub 2}-fly ash sorbent, and to install a humidity sensor in the sorption system.

Kenney, M.E.; Chiang, Ray-Kuang

1993-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

43

Dry formation of polymer hole injection layer for top emitting organic light emitting diodes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Dry formation of polymer hole injection layer is introduced as an effective method for improving the performance of top emitting organic light emitting diodes (TOLEDs). This method involves transferring a metal/polymer bilayer to the surface of organic layers of the device by pressing. An added advantage of this method is the ability to pattern the anode in the transfer process. Fabrication of the inverted TOLED by this method results in a drastic reduction of the turn-on voltage from 14.5 to 6.5 V when compared with a reference.

Soon-min Seo; Jong H. Kim; Hong H. Lee

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

Kinetic studies of dry sorent for medium temperature applications. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this project is to investigate the fundamental nature of sorbent reactivity and reaction kinetics in the medium temperature range from 600{degrees}F (316{degrees}C) to 1200{degrees}F (649{degrees}C) available in the convective pass of a boiler upstream of the economizer, where dry sorbents are injected to remove SO{sub 2} from the flue gas. Research focuses on the mechanisms of sorbent- flue gas interaction under economizer and hot baghouse conditions utilizing the experimental setup and the results of the first four years of research.

Keener, T.C.; Wang, Z.

1996-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

45

Proof of concept testing of an integrated dry injection system for SO2/NOx control  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the subscale test program were designed to provide sorbent and additive selection guidance, and, in so doing, supply answers to the questions posed in the preceding section. The objectives are: Identify the best commercial hydrate sorbent and the best enhanced hydrate sorbent from a list of nine types, based upon S0{sub 2} removal at Ca/S=2. Determine the relative effectiveness of sodium sesquicarbonate versus sodium bicarbonate for S0{sub 2} and NO{sub x} control over the temperature range of 200{degrees}F--400{degrees}F. Identify the best NO{sub 2} suppressing additive among the group of ammonia, urea, and activated carbon.

Helfritch, D.J.; Bortz, S.J. (Research-Cottrell, Inc., Somerville, NJ (United States)); Beittel, R. (Riley Stoker Corp., Worcester, MA (United States))

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

Integrated dry NO{sub x}/SO{sub 2} emissions control systems: Advanced retractable injection lance SNCR test report. NOELL ARIL test period: April 20, 1995--December 21, 1995; DPSC test period: August 16--26, 1996  

SciTech Connect

The test site is Arapahoe Generating Station Unit 4, a 100 MWe down-fired utility boiler burning a low-sulfur western coal. The project goal is to demonstrate up to 70% reductions in NOx and SO{sub 2} emission through the integration of: (1) down-fired low-NOx burners with overfire air; (2) Selective Non-Catalytic Reduction (SNCR) for additional NOx removal; and (3) dry sorbent injection and duct humidification for SO{sub 2} removal. This report documents the third phase of SNCR tests, where an additional injection location was installed to increase the low-load NOx removal performance. The new injectors consist of a pair of retractable in-furnace lances which were designed to provide a high degree of load following flexibility through on-line adjustments of the injection angle. With the new lances, NOx removals in excess of 35% are achievable at the same load and HN{sub 3} slip limit. At loads of 43 to 60 MWe, NOx removals with the lances range from 37--52%. At loads greater than 60 MWe, the wall-injection location is more efficient, and at loads of 70 to 100 MWe, NOx removals range from 37--41%. The coal mill-in-service pattern was found to have a large effect on both NOx removal and NH{sub 3} slip for injection at the new lance location. At 60 MWe, the NOx removal at the 10 ppm NH{sub 3} slip limit ranges from 28--52% depending on the mill-in-service pattern. Biasing the coal mills to provide uniform combustion conditions ahead of the injection location was found to be the best option for improving SNCR system performance under these conditions.

Muzio, L.J.; Smith, R.A. [Fossil Energy Research Corp., Laguna Hills, CA (United States)] [Fossil Energy Research Corp., Laguna Hills, CA (United States); Hunt, T. [Public Service Co. of Colorado, Denver, CO (United States)] [Public Service Co. of Colorado, Denver, CO (United States)

1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

47

Management of solid wastes from the Limestone Injection Dry Scrubbing (LIDS) clean coal technology. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of this project were to characterize by-products from a pilot Limestone Injection Dry Scrubbing (LIDS) process and to develop processes directed toward the safe and economic use or disposal of these wastes. Because LIDS is a developing Clean Coal technology, a database of chemical and physical characteristics of the by-product was first developed. During the course of this project, it was found that the waste alone did not form high-strength products sufficient for use in construction and engineering applications. Therefore, the project was redirected to evaluate the by-product as a soil-cement and Portland cement raw material, agricultural liming agent, backfill/landfill material component, and mine reclamation/neutralizing agent. Based on these evaluations, the most viable uses for the LIDS byproduct include use in mine reclamation or as a neutralization agent. If soluble sulfites can be minimized by avoiding a dolomitic LIDS reagent, use as an agricultural liming agent has promise. Interest from an Ohio utility in the LIDS process suggests possible application of results at the demonstration or commercial stages.

Musiol, W.F. Jr.; Czuczwa, J.M.

1993-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

48

Dry low NOx combustion system with pre-mixed direct-injection secondary fuel nozzle  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A combustion system includes a first combustion chamber and a second combustion chamber. The second combustion chamber is positioned downstream of the first combustion chamber. The combustion system also includes a pre-mixed, direct-injection secondary fuel nozzle. The pre-mixed, direct-injection secondary fuel nozzle extends through the first combustion chamber into the second combustion chamber.

Zuo, Baifang; Johnson, Thomas; Ziminsky, Willy; Khan, Abdul

2013-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

49

New high-capacity, calcium-based sorbents, calcium silicate sorbents. Final report  

SciTech Connect

A search is being carried out for new calcium-based SO{sub 2} sorbents for induct injection. More specifically, a search is being carried out for induct injection calcium silicate sorbents that are highly cost effective. The current year objectives include the study of sorbents made by hydrating ordinary or Type I portland cement or portland cement clinker (a cement intermediate) under carefully selected conditions. Results of this study show that an excellent portland cement sorbent can be prepared by milling cement at 120{degrees}C at 600 rpm for 15 minutes with MgO-stabilized ZrO{sub 2} beads. They also show that clinker, which is cheaper than cement can be used interchangeably with cement as a starting material. Further, it is clear that while a high surface area may be a desirable property of a good sorbent, it is not a requisite property. Among the hydration reaction variables, milling time is highly important, reaction temperature is important and stirring rate and silicate-to-H{sub 2}O ratio are moderately important. The components of hydrated cement sorbent are various combinations of C-S-H, calcium silicate hydrate:Ca(OH){sub 2};AFm. a phase in hydrated cement.

Kenney, M.E.

1996-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

50

NETL: Mercury Emissions Control Technologies - Evaluation of Sorbent  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Evaluation of Sorbent Injection for Mercury Control Evaluation of Sorbent Injection for Mercury Control ADA Environmental Solutions will evaluate injection of activated carbon and other sorbents to remove mercury for a variety of coal and air pollution control equipment configurations. The scope of work is for 36 months and intended to gather operating data that will document actual performance levels and accurate cost information to assess the costs of controlling mercury from coal fired utilities. Testing will be conducted at four different host sites that represent a significant percentage of unit configurations. The subsequent cost analyses will include capital costs, by-product utilization issues, sorbent usage, any necessary enhancements, such as SO3 control or flue gas conditioning, balance of plant, manpower requirements and waste issues. The host sites are Sunflower Electric's Holcomb Station, Ontario Power Generation's Nanticoke Station, AmerenUE's Meramec Station and American Electric Power's (AEP) Conesville Station.

51

Desulfurization sorbent regeneration  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A spent solid sorbent resulting from the removal of hydrogen sulfide from a fuel gas flow is regenerated with a steam-air mixture. The mixture of steam and air may also include additional nitrogen or carbon dioxide. The gas mixture contacts the spent sorbent containing metal sulfide at a temperature above 500/sup 0/C to regenerate the sulfide to metal oxide or carbonate. Various metal species including the period four transition metals and the lanthanides are suitable sorbents that may be regenerated by this method. In addition, the introduction of carbon dioxide gas permits carbonates such as those of strontium, barium and calcium to be regenerated. The steam permits regeneration of spent sorbent without formation of metal sulfate. Moreover, the regeneration will proceed with low oxygen concentrations and will occur without the increase in temperature to minimize the risk of sintering and densification of the sorbent. This method may be used for high-temperature fuel cells.

Jalan, V.M.; Frost, D.G.

1982-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

52

New high-capacity, calcium-based sorbents, calcium silicate sorbents. Final report, 1993--August 31, 1994  

SciTech Connect

A search is being carried out for new calcium-based S0{sub 2} sorbents for induct injection. More specifically, a search is being carried out for induct injection calcium silicate sorbents that are highly cost effective. The objectives for the current year include the study of sorbents made from Ca(OH){sub 2}, from mixtures of Ca(OH){sub 2} and SiO{sub 2}, and from portland cement. They also include the study of sorbents made from model compounds. During this year, sorbents prepared from Ca(OH){sub 2} and from mixtures of Ca(OH){sub 2} and fumed SiO{sub 2} were investigated. The results show that very good SiO{sub 2}-modified Ca(OH){sub 2} sorbents in which the Si-to-Ca reactant ratio is low can be prepared from Ca(OH){sub 2} and fumed SiO{sub 2}. Sorbents prepared from Ca(OH){sub 2} and natural SiO{sub 2} or natural SiO{sub 2} sources were also studied. The results obtained show that very good SiO{sub 2}-modified Ca(OH){sub 2} sorbents and calcium silicate hydrate sorbents, C-S-H sorbents, can be prepared from Ca(OH){sub 2} and diatomite, pumice or perlite, minerals that are readily available. In addition. sorbents prepared from Ca{sub 3}SiO{sub 5} and {beta}-Ca{sub 2}SiO{sub 4} and from mixtures of these compounds and SiO{sub 2} were studied. The results secured demonstrate that very good C-S-H rich sorbents can be prepared from these compounds and from mixtures of them with SiO{sub 2}. They also provide information useful for interpreting the cement sorbent results. Sorbents prepared from cement and from mixtures of cement and natural SiO{sub 2} or SiO{sub 2} sources were investigated as well. The results secured show that cement and mixtures of it with diatomite, pumice or perlite rapidly yield excellent sorbents with the proper reaction conditions.

Kenney, M.C.; Chiang, R.K.; Fillgrove, K.L. [Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States)

1995-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

53

Modified clay sorbents  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A novel modified clay sorbent and method of treating industrial effluents to remove trace pollutants, such as dioxins, biphenyls, and polyaromatics such as benzo(a)pyrene and pentachlorophenol. The novel clay sorbent has a composite structure in which the interlayer space of an expandable clay, such as smectite, is filled with polyvalent or multivalent inorganic cations which forces weaker surfactant cations to locate on the surface of the clay in such an orientation that the resulting composite is hydrophilic in nature. A specific example is cetylpyridinium-hydroxy aluminum-montmorillonite. In certain embodiments, a non-expanding clay, such as kaolinite, is used and surfactant cations are necessarily located on an external surface of the clay. A specific example is cetylpyridinium-kaolinite.

Fogler, H. Scott (Ann Arbor, MI); Srinivasan, Keeran R. (Livonia, MI)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

ASSESSMENT OF LOW COST NOVEL SORBENTS FOR COAL-FIRED POWER PLANT MERCURY CONTROL  

SciTech Connect

The injection of sorbents upstream of a particulate control device is one of the most promising methods for controlling mercury emissions from coal-fired utility boilers with electrostatic precipitators and fabric filters. Studies carried out at the bench-, pilot-, and full-scale have shown that a wide variety of factors may influence sorbent mercury removal effectiveness. These factors include mercury species, flue gas composition, process conditions, existing pollution control equipment design, and sorbent characteristics. The objective of the program is to obtain the necessary information to assess the viability of lower cost alternatives to commercially available activated carbon for mercury control in coal-fired utilities. Prior to injection testing, a number of sorbents were tested in a slipstream fixed-bed device both in the laboratory and at two field sites. Based upon the performance of the sorbents in a fixed-bed device and the estimated cost of mercury control using each sorbent, seventeen sorbents were chosen for screening in a slipstream injection system at a site burning a Western bituminous coal/petcoke blend, five were chosen for screening at a site burning a subbituminous Powder River Basin (PRB) coal, and nineteen sorbents were evaluated at a third site burning a PRB coal. Sorbents evaluated during the program were of various materials, including: activated carbons, treated carbons, other non-activated carbons, and non-carbon material. The economics and performance of the novel sorbents evaluated demonstrate that there are alternatives to the commercial standard. Smaller enterprises may have the opportunity to provide lower price mercury sorbents to power generation customers under the right set of circumstances.

Sharon Sjostrom

2004-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

Enhanced durability of desulfurization sorbents for fluidized-bed applications  

SciTech Connect

To extend the operating temperature range and further improve the durability of fluidizable sorbents, zinc titanate, another leading regenerable sorbent, was selected for development in the later part of this project. A number of zinc titanate formulations were prepared in the 50 to 300 {mu}m range using granulation and spray drying methods. Important sorbent preparation variables investigated included zinc to titanium ratio, binder type, binder amount, and various chemical additives such as cobalt and molybdenum. A number of sorbents selected on the basis of screening tests were subjected to bench-scale testing for 10 cycles at high temperature, high pressure (HTHP) conditions using the reactor system designed and constructed during the base program. This reactor system is capable of operation either as a 2.0 in. or 3.0 in. I.D. bubbling bed and is rated up to 20 atm operation at 871{degrees}C. Bench-scale testing variables included sorbent type, temperature (550 to 750{degrees}C), gas type (KRW or Texaco gasifier gas), steam content of coal gas, and fluidizing gas velocity (6 to 15 cm/s). The sorbents prepared by spray drying showed poor performance in terms of attrition resistance and chemical reactivity. On the other hand, the granulation method proved to be very successful. For example, a highly attrition-resistant zinc titanate formulation, ZT-4, prepared by granulation exhibited virtually no zinc loss and demonstrated a constant high reactivity and sulfur capacity over 10 cycles, i.e., approximately a 60 percent capacity utilization, with Texaco gas at 750{degrees}C, 15 cm/s fluidizing velocity and 15 atm pressure. The commercial potential of the granulation method for zinc titanate manufacture was demonstrated by preparing two 80 lb batches of sorbent with zinc to titanium mol ratios of 0.8 and 1.5.

Gupta, R.P.; Gangwal, S.K.

1992-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

Enhanced durability of desulfurization sorbents for fluidized-bed applications  

SciTech Connect

To extend the operating temperature range and further improve the durability of fluidizable sorbents, zinc titanate, another leading regenerable sorbent, was selected for development in the later part of this project. A number of zinc titanate formulations were prepared in the 50 to 300 [mu]m range using granulation and spray drying methods. Important sorbent preparation variables investigated included zinc to titanium ratio, binder type, binder amount, and various chemical additives such as cobalt and molybdenum. A number of sorbents selected on the basis of screening tests were subjected to bench-scale testing for 10 cycles at high temperature, high pressure (HTHP) conditions using the reactor system designed and constructed during the base program. This reactor system is capable of operation either as a 2.0 in. or 3.0 in. I.D. bubbling bed and is rated up to 20 atm operation at 871[degrees]C. Bench-scale testing variables included sorbent type, temperature (550 to 750[degrees]C), gas type (KRW or Texaco gasifier gas), steam content of coal gas, and fluidizing gas velocity (6 to 15 cm/s). The sorbents prepared by spray drying showed poor performance in terms of attrition resistance and chemical reactivity. On the other hand, the granulation method proved to be very successful. For example, a highly attrition-resistant zinc titanate formulation, ZT-4, prepared by granulation exhibited virtually no zinc loss and demonstrated a constant high reactivity and sulfur capacity over 10 cycles, i.e., approximately a 60 percent capacity utilization, with Texaco gas at 750[degrees]C, 15 cm/s fluidizing velocity and 15 atm pressure. The commercial potential of the granulation method for zinc titanate manufacture was demonstrated by preparing two 80 lb batches of sorbent with zinc to titanium mol ratios of 0.8 and 1.5.

Gupta, R.P.; Gangwal, S.K.

1992-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

57

Integrated dry NO sub x /SO sub 2 emissions control system  

SciTech Connect

This project's goal is to demonstrate the removal up to 70% of the NO{sub x} and 70% of the SO{sub 2} emissions from coal fired utility boilers. It will establish an alternative emissions control technology integrating a combination of several processes, while minimizing capital expenditures and limiting waste production to dry solids that are handled with convention ash removal equipment. These processes include low-NO{sub x} burners and urea injection for NO{sub x} control, sodium- or calcium-based sorbent injection for SO{sub 2} control, and flue gas humidification to enhance the reactivity of the SO{sub 2} control compound.

Not Available

1991-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

58

High Capacity Immobilized Amine Sorbents  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Capacity Immobilized Amine Sorbents Capacity Immobilized Amine Sorbents Opportunity The Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory is seeking licensing partners interested in implementing United States Patent Number 7,288,136 entitled "High Capacity Immobilized Amine Sorbents." Disclosed in this patent is the invention of a method that facilitates the production of low-cost carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) sorbents for use in large-scale gas-solid processes. This method treats an amine to increase the number of secondary amine groups and impregnates the amine in a porous solid support. As a result of this improvement, the method increases CO 2 capture capacity and decreases the cost of using an amine-enriched solid sorbent in CO 2 capture systems. Overview The U.S. Department of Energy has placed a high priority on the separation

59

High capacity immobilized amine sorbents  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is provided for making low-cost CO.sub.2 sorbents that can be used in large-scale gas-solid processes. The improved method entails treating an amine to increase the number of secondary amine groups and impregnating the amine in a porous solid support. The method increases the CO.sub.2 capture capacity and decreases the cost of utilizing an amine-enriched solid sorbent in CO.sub.2 capture systems.

Gray, McMahan L. (Pittsburgh, PA); Champagne, Kenneth J. (Fredericktown, PA); Soong, Yee (Monroeville, PA); Filburn, Thomas (Granby, CT)

2007-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

60

Proof of concept testing of an integrated dry injection system for SO2/NOx control. Quarterly technical progress report, October--December 1991  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the subscale test program were designed to provide sorbent and additive selection guidance, and, in so doing, supply answers to the questions posed in the preceding section. The objectives are: Identify the best commercial hydrate sorbent and the best enhanced hydrate sorbent from a list of nine types, based upon S0{sub 2} removal at Ca/S=2. Determine the relative effectiveness of sodium sesquicarbonate versus sodium bicarbonate for S0{sub 2} and NO{sub x} control over the temperature range of 200{degrees}F--400{degrees}F. Identify the best NO{sub 2} suppressing additive among the group of ammonia, urea, and activated carbon.

Helfritch, D.J.; Bortz, S.J. [Research-Cottrell, Inc., Somerville, NJ (United States); Beittel, R. [Riley Stoker Corp., Worcester, MA (United States)

1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dry sorbent injection" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

sorbent-rti | netl.doe.gov  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Novel Solid Sorbents for Post-Combustion CO2 Capture Project No.: DE-FE0007707 RTI International is developing and demonstrating an advanced, solid sorbent-based CO2 capture...

62

Integrated dry NO{sub x}/SO{sub 2} emissions control system. Quarterly report No. 1, January 1--March 31, 1991  

SciTech Connect

This project`s goal is to demonstrate the removal up to 70% of the NO{sub x} and 70% of the SO{sub 2} emissions from coal fired utility boilers. It will establish an alternative emissions control technology integrating a combination of several processes, while minimizing capital expenditures and limiting waste production to dry solids that are handled with convention ash removal equipment. These processes include low-NO{sub x} burners and urea injection for NO{sub x} control, sodium- or calcium-based sorbent injection for SO{sub 2} control, and flue gas humidification to enhance the reactivity of the SO{sub 2} control compound.

Not Available

1991-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

63

NETL: IEP – Post-Combustion CO2 Emissions Control - Dry Regenerable  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Dry Regenerable Sorbents Dry Regenerable Sorbents Project No.: FC26-07NT43089 CLICK ON IMAGE TO ENLARGE Schematic of RTI’s Dry Carbonate Process Research Triangle Institute (RTI) International completed two projects, NT43089 and NT40923, to investigate the use of sodium carbonate (Na2CO3 or soda ash) as an inexpensive, dry, and regenerable sorbent for carbon dioxide (CO2) capture in the Dry Carbonate Process. In this process, Na2CO3 reacts with CO2 and water to form sodium bicarbonate at the temperature of the flue gas exhaust; the sorbent is then regenerated at modest temperatures (~120°C) to yield a concentrated stream of CO2 for sequestration or other use. The regenerated sorbent is recycled to the absorption step for subsequent CO2 capture. See schematic of RTI's Dry Carbonate Process.

64

Sorbent characterization for FBC application  

SciTech Connect

Fluidized-bed boilers operating at both atmospheric and elevated pressures have received considerable attention from utilities and independent power producers because of their ability to remove SO{sub 2} from the flue gas during combustion and to minimize NO{sub x} production. The technology has advanced rapidly in the 1980s because of its adaptability to a range of fuel types, boiler capacities, and operating conditions without seriously compromising efficiency or performance. A sorbent, typically limestone or dolostone, is used in the fluidized-bed boiler to capture the combustion-generated SO{sub 2}. Many CFBC boiler operators are now realizing that optimizing sorbent usage is important for economical and environmentally acceptable operation of their plants. It is reported (mostly based on studies using a few sorbents) that particle size, porosity and pore size distribution, extent of sulfation, combustor temperature, pressure and CaCO{sub 3} content affect extent of sulfation.

Pisupati, S.V.; Scaroni, A.W. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

65

Method for removing metal ions from solution with titanate sorbents  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for removing metal ions from solution comprises the steps of providing titanate particles by spray-drying a solution or slurry comprising sorbent titanates having a particle size up to 20 micrometers, optionally in the presence of polymer free of cellulose functionality as binder, said sorbent being active towards heavy metals from Periodic Table (CAS version) Groups IA, IIA, IB, IIB, IIIB, and VIII, to provide monodisperse, substantially spherical particles in a yield of at least 70 percent of theoretical yield and having a particle size distribution in the range of 1 to 500 micrometers. The particles can be used free flowing in columns or beds, or entrapped in a nonwoven, fibrous web or matrix or a cast porous membrane, to selectively remove metal ions from aqueous or organic liquid.

Lundquist, Susan H. (White Bear Township, MN); White, Lloyd R. (Minneapolis, MN)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

Manganese and Ceria Sorbents for High Temperature Sulfur Removal from Biomass-Derived Syngas -- The Impact of Steam on Capacity and Sorption Mode  

SciTech Connect

Syngas derived from biomass and coal gasification for fuel synthesis or electricity generation contains sulfur species that are detrimental to downstream catalysts or turbine operation. Sulfur removal in high temperature, high steam conditions has been known to be challenging, but experimental reports on methods to tackle the problem are not often reported. We have developed sorbents that can remove hydrogen sulfide from syngas at high temperature (700 C), both in dry and high steam conditions. The syngas composition chosen for our experiments is derived from statistical analysis of the gasification products of wood under a large variety of conditions. The two sorbents, Cu-ceria and manganese-based, were tested in a variety of conditions. In syngas containing steam, the capacity of the sorbents is much lower, and the impact of the sorbent in lowering H{sub 2}S levels is only evident in low space velocities. Spectroscopic characterization and thermodynamic consideration of the experimental results suggest that in syngas containing 45% steam, the removal of H{sub 2}S is primarily via surface chemisorptions. For the Cu-ceria sorbent, analysis of the amount of H{sub 2}S retained by the sorbent in dry syngas suggests both copper and ceria play a role in H{sub 2}S removal. For the manganese-based sorbent, in dry conditions, there is a solid state transformation of the sorbent, primarily into the sulfide form.

Cheah, S.; Parent, Y. O.; Jablonski, W. S.; Vinzant, T.; Olstad, J. L.

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

Long-Term Demonstration of Sorbent Enhancement Additive Technology for Mercury Control  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Long-Term DemonsTraTion of sorbenT Long-Term DemonsTraTion of sorbenT enhancemenT aDDiTive TechnoLogy for mercury conTroL Background The 2005 Clean Air Mercury Rule will require significant reductions in mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants. The combustion of subbituminous coals typically results in higher fractions of elemental mercury emissions than the combustion of bituminous coals. This complicates mercury capture efforts, particularly for technologies using powdered activated carbon (PAC) injection, because elemental mercury is not readily captured by PAC injection alone. In short, unmodified PACs are better suited for bituminous coals than for subbituminous coals. Various proprietary sorbent enhancement additives (SEA) have been developed to increase the mercury reactivity of PACs, and perhaps fly

68

Interactions between trace metals, sodium and sorbents in combustion. Quarterly report No. 3, April 1, 1995--June 30, 1995  

SciTech Connect

The proposed research is directed at an understanding of how to exploit interactions between sodium, toxic metals and sorbents, in order to optimize sorbents injection procedures, which can be used to capture and transform these metals into environmentally benign forms. The research will use a 17kW downflow, laboratory combustor, to yield data that can be interpreted in terms of fundamental kinetic mechanisms. Metals to be considered are lead, cadmium, and arsenic. Sorbents will be kaolinite, bauxite, and limestone. The role of sulfur will also be determined.

Wendt, J.O.L.

1995-09-06T23:59:59.000Z

69

Advanced Utility Mercury-Sorbent Field-Testing Program  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the work conducted from September 1, 2003 through December 31, 2007 on the project entitled Advanced Utility Mercury-Sorbent Field-Testing Program. The project covers the testing at the Detroit Edison St. Clair Plant and the Duke Power Cliffside and Buck Stations. The St. Clair Plant used a blend of subbituminous and bituminous coal and controlled the particulate emissions by means of a cold-side ESP. The Duke Power Stations used bituminous coals and controlled their particulate emissions by means of hot-side ESPs. The testing at the Detroit Edison St. Clair Plant demonstrated that mercury sorbents could be used to achieve high mercury removal rates with low injection rates at facilities that burn subbituminous coal. A mercury removal rate of 94% was achieved at an injection rate of 3 lb/MMacf over the thirty day long-term test. Prior to this test, it was believed that the mercury in flue gas of this type would be the most difficult to capture. This is not the case. The testing at the two Duke Power Stations proved that carbon- based mercury sorbents can be used to control the mercury emissions from boilers with hot-side ESPs. It was known that plain PACs did not have any mercury capacity at elevated temperatures but that brominated B-PAC did. The mercury removal rate varies with the operation but it appears that mercury removal rates equal to or greater than 50% are achievable in facilities equipped with hot-side ESPs. As part of the program, both sorbent injection equipment and sorbent production equipment was acquired and operated. This equipment performed very well during this program. In addition, mercury instruments were acquired for this program. These instruments worked well in the flue gas at the St. Clair Plant but not as well in the flue gas at the Duke Power Stations. It is believed that the difference in the amount of oxidized mercury, more at Duke Power, was the difference in instrument performance. Much of the equipment was purchased used and all of the equipment has nearly reached the end of its useful service.

Ronald Landreth

2007-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

70

Photopatternable sorbent and functionalized films  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A composition containing a polymer, a crosslinker and a photo-activatable catalyst is placed on a substrate. The composition is exposed to a predetermined pattern of light, leaving an unexposed region. The light causes the polymer to become crosslinked by hydrosilylation. A solvent is used to remove the unexposed composition from the substrate, leaving the exposed pattern to become a sorbent polymer film that will absorb a predetermined chemical species when exposed to such chemical species.

Grate, Jay W. (West Richland, WA); Nelson, David A. (Richland, WA)

2006-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

71

Method for Regeneration of Immobilized Amine Sorbents for Use...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Method for Regeneration of Immobilized Amine Sorbents for Use in CO 2 Capture Opportunity Research is currently active on the patent-pending technology "Regenerable Sorbent...

72

Regenerable sorbents for CO.sub.2 capture from moderate and high temperature gas streams  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for making a granular sorbent to capture carbon dioxide from gas streams comprising homogeneously mixing an alkali metal oxide, alkali metal hydroxide, alkaline earth metal oxide, alkaline earth metal hydroxide, alkali titanate, alkali zirconate, alkali silicate and combinations thereof with a binder selected from the group consisting of sodium ortho silicate, calcium sulfate dihydrate (CaSO.sub.4.2H.sub.2O), alkali silicates, calcium aluminate, bentonite, inorganic clays and organic clays and combinations thereof and water; drying the mixture and placing the sorbent in a container permeable to a gas stream.

Siriwardane, Ranjani V. (Morgantown, WV)

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

Method for Regeneration of Immobilized Amine Sorbents  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Regeneration of Immobilized Amine Sorbents Regeneration of Immobilized Amine Sorbents for Use in CO 2 Capture Opportunity Research is currently active on the patent-pending technology "Regenerable Sorbent Technique for Capturing CO 2 Using Immobilized Amine Sorbents." The technology is available for licensing and/or further collaborative research from the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory. Overview Carbon sequestration entails a multi-step process in which anthropogenic CO 2 emissions are captured from CO 2 -laden process gas streams and perma- nently stored. Carbon capture is a critical step in the process and accounts for a considerable portion of the overall cost. Newly developed, high-capacity amine-based sorbents offer many advantages over existing technology

74

Sorption of petroleum products by carbon sorbents  

SciTech Connect

A comparative study of the adsorption of petroleum products by micro- and macroporous carbon sorbents was performed. For this purpose, four carbon sorbent samples prepared from various raw materials by various processing techniques were used. The following raw materials were used: (1) fuel mill from the Mezinoskoe deposit; (2) wood waste, shaving and sawdust in ratio (%) of 50:50; and (3) low-caking gas coal of the 2G group from the mine im.Kirova in the Kuznetsk Basin. The pore structures and adsorption capacities of these sorbents for petroleum products were studied. It was found that the adsorption of petroleum products on porous and nonporous carbon sorbents occurred in different manners. In this case, macroporous sorbents with a weakly developed structure of sorbing micro- and mesopores exhibited a maximum capacity for petroleum products.

M.A. Perederii; Y.I. Kurakov; I.N. Malikov; S.V. Molchanov [Institute for Fossil Fuels, Moscow (Russian Federation)

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

Sorbent utilization prediction methodology: sulfur control in fluidized-bed combustors  

SciTech Connect

The United States Government has embarked on an ambitious program to develop and commercialize technologies to efficiently extract energy from coal in an environmentally acceptable manner. One of the more promising new technologies for steam and power generation is the fluidized-bed combustion of coal. In this process, coal is burned in a fluidized bed composed mainly of calcined limestone sorbent. The calcium oxide reacts chemically to capture the sulfur dioxide formed during the combustion and to maintain the stack gas sulfur emissions at acceptable levels. The spent sulfur sorbent, containing calcium sulfate, is a dry solid that can be disposed of along with coal ash or potentially used. Other major advantages of fluidized-bed combustion are the reduction in nitrogen oxide emissions because of the relatively low combustion temperatures, the capability of burning wide varieties of fuel, the high carbon combustion efficiencies, and the high heat-transfer coefficients. A key to the widespread commercialization of fluidized-bed technology is the ability to accurately predict the amount of sulfur that will be captured by a given sorbent. This handbook meets this need by providing a simple, yet reliable, user-oriented methodology (the ANL method) that allows performance of a sorbent to be predicted. The methodology is based on only three essential sorbent parameters, each of which can be readily obtained from standardized laboratory tests. These standard tests and the subsequent method of data reduction are described in detail.

Fee, D.C.; Wilson, W.I.; Shearer, J.A.; Smith, G.W.; Lenc, J.F.; Fan, L.S.; Myles, K.M.; Johnson, I.

1980-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

Sorbents for the oxidation and removal of mercury  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A promoted activated carbon sorbent is described that is highly effective for the removal of mercury from flue gas streams. The sorbent comprises a new modified carbon form containing reactive forms of halogen and halides. Optional components may be added to increase reactivity and mercury capacity. These may be added directly with the sorbent, or to the flue gas to enhance sorbent performance and/or mercury capture. Mercury removal efficiencies obtained exceed conventional methods. The sorbent can be regenerated and reused. Sorbent treatment and preparation methods are also described. New methods for in-flight preparation, introduction, and control of the active sorbent into the mercury contaminated gas stream are described.

Olson, Edwin S. (Grand Forks, ND); Holmes, Michael J. (Thompson, ND); Pavlish, John H. (East Grand Forks, MN)

2008-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

77

Sorbents for the oxidation and removal of mercury  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A promoted activated carbon sorbent is described that is highly effective for the removal of mercury from flue gas streams. The sorbent comprises a new modified carbon form containing reactive forms of halogen and halides. Optional components may be added to increase reactivity and mercury capacity. These may be added directly with the sorbent, or to the flue gas to enhance sorbent performance and/or mercury capture. Mercury removal efficiencies obtained exceed conventional methods. The sorbent can be regenerated and reused. Sorbent treatment and preparation methods are also described. New methods for in-flight preparation, introduction, and control of the active sorbent into the mercury contaminated gas stream are described.

Olson, Edwin S.; Holmes, Michael J.; Pavlish, John Henry

2014-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

78

Carbon Dioxide Capture Process with Regenerable Sorbents  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Dioxide Capture Process with Regenerable Sorbents Dioxide Capture Process with Regenerable Sorbents sorbent material. Additionally, the design of the system incorporates a cross- flow moving-bed reactor where the gas flows horizontally through a "panel" of solid sorbent that is slowly moving down-wards under gravity flow. With the expanded use of fossil fuels expected throughout the world, the increase in CO 2 emissions may prove to contribute even more significantly to global climate change. To address this problem, carbon sequestration scientists and engineers have proposed a number of methods to remove CO 2 from gas streams, such as chemical absorption with a solvent, membrane separation, and cryogenic fractionation. However, all of these methods are expensive and possibly cost-prohibitive for a specific application.

79

Adsorption and Ultrasound-Assisted Sorbent Regeneration  

SciTech Connect

This work was conducted for the department of Energy. In this work, we developed a class of new sorbents that were highly sulfur selective and had high sulfur capacities. The study consisted of two sections. Development of the new sorbents is described in Section 1, and Section was a fundamental study, conducted for a better understanding for desulfurization of jet fuels. More details of the results are given blow separately for the two sections.

Yuhe Wang; Liping Ma; Ralph T. Yang

2006-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

80

Enhanced durability of high-temperature desulfurization sorbents for moving-bed applications. Option 2 Program: Development and testing of zinc titanate sorbents  

SciTech Connect

One of the most advantageous configurations of the integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power system is coupling it with a hot gas cleanup for the more efficient production of electric power in an environmentally acceptable manner. In conventional gasification cleanup systems, closely heat exchangers are necessary to cool down the fuel gases for cleaning, sometimes as low as 200--300{degree}F, and to reheat the gases prior to injection into the turbine. The result is significant losses in efficiency for the overall power cycle. High-temperature coal gas cleanup in the IGCC system can be operated near 1000{degree}F or higher, i.e., at conditions compatible with the gasifier and turbine components, resulting is a more efficient overall system. GE is developing a moving-bed, high-temperature desulfurization system for IGCC power systems in which mixed-metal oxides are currently being used as desulfurization sorbents. The objective of this contract is to identify and test fabrication methods and sorbent chemical compositions that enhance the long-term chemical reactivity and mechanical durability of zinc ferrite and other novel sorbents for moving-bed, high-temperature desulfurization of coal-derived gases. Zinc ferrite was studied under the base program of this contract. In the next phase of this program novel sorbents, particularly zinc titanate-based sorbents, are being studied under the remaining optional programs. This topical report summarizes only the work performed under the Option 2 program. In the course of carrying out the program, more than 25 zinc titanate formulations have been prepared and characterized to identify formulations exhibiting enhanced properties over the baseline zinc titanate formulation selected by the US Department of Energy.

Ayala, R.E.

1993-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dry sorbent injection" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Brominated Sorbents for Small Cold-Side ESPs, Hot-Side ESPs and Fly Ash Use in Concrete  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the work conducted from September 16, 2005 through December 31, 2008 on the project entitled â??Brominated Sorbents for Small Cold-Side ESPs, Hot-Side ESPs and Fly Ash Use in Concreteâ?. The project covers testing at three host sites: Progress Energy H.F. Lee Station and the Midwest Generation Crawford and Will County Stations. At Progress Energy Lee 1, parametric tests were performed both with and without SO{sub 3} injection in order to determine the impact on the mercury sorbent performance. In addition, tests were performed on the hot-side of the air preheater, before the SO{sub 3} is injected, with H-PACâ?¢ sorbents designed for use at elevated temperatures. The BPACâ?¢ injection provided the expected mercury removal when the SO{sub 3} injection was off. A mercury removal rate due to sorbent of more than 80% was achieved at an injection rate of 8 lb/MMacf. The operation with SO{sub 3} injection greatly reduced the mercury sorbent performance. An important learning came from the injection of H-PACâ?¢ on the hot-side of the air preheater before the SO{sub 3} injection location. The H-PACâ?¢ injected in this manner appeared to be independent of the SO{sub 3} injection and provided better mercury removal than with injecting on the cold-side with SO{sub 3} injection. Consequently, one solution for plants like Lee, with SO{sub 3} injection, or plants with SO{sub 3} generated by the SCR catalyst, is to inject H-PACâ?¢ on the hot-side before the SO{sub 3} is in the flue gas. Even better performance is possible by injecting on the cold-side without the SO{sub 3}, however. During the parametric testing, it was discovered that the injection of B-PACâ?¢ (or H-PACâ?¢) was having a positive impact upon ESP performance. It was decided to perform a 3-day continuous injection run with B-PACâ?¢ in order to determine whether Lee 1 could operate without SO{sub 3} injection. If the test proved positive, the continuous injection would continue as part of the long-term test. The injection of B-PACâ?¢ did allow for the operation of Lee 1 without SO{sub 3} injection and the long-term test was conducted from March 8 through April 7, 2006. The total mercury removal for the 30-day long-term test, excluding the first day when SO{sub 3} was injected and the last day when a plain PAC was used, averaged 85%. The achievement of 85% Hg removal over the 30 days longterm test is another milestone in the history of achievement of the Albemarle Environmental f/k/a Sorbent Technologies Corporation B-PACâ?¢ sorbent. A clear indication of the impact of B-PACâ?¢ on opacity came at the end of the long-term test. It was hoped that Lee 1 could be operated for several days after the end of the long-term test. It took less than a day before the opacity began to increase. The discovery that B-PACâ?¢ can improve ESP performance while capturing a large amount of mercury is another milestone for the B-PACâ?¢ mercury sorbent. The parametric testing at the Midwest Generation Crawford Station was divided into two phases; the first using C-PACâ?¢, the concrete friendly sorbent, and the other using nonconcrete friendly materials. The first phase of the parametric tests was conducted before the long-term test. The second phase of the parametric testing was performed after the long-term test in order to avoid contaminating the fly ash containing the concrete friendly sorbents. The parametric test began with an injection rate of 1 lb/MMacf and, after a period to allow the mercury concentration to stabilize, the rate was increased to 3 lb/MMacf. The Hg removal for this test was about 60% due to sorbent and 69% total at the injection rate of 1 lb/MMacf and 80% due to sorbent and 84% total for the 3 lb/MMacf injection rate. The average total vapor phase mercury removal for the first 21 days of the long-term test was 82% at an injection rate o

Ronald Landreth

2008-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

82

Management of dry flue gas dsulfurization by-products in underground mines - an update  

SciTech Connect

In 1993, the U.S. produced about 100 million tons of coal combustion by-products (CCBs) primarily from conventional coal-fired boilers. The requirement to reduce SO{sub x} and NO{sub x} emissions to comply with the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) force utilities to adopt advanced combustion and flue gas desulfurization (FGD) technologies, such as wet scrubbers, fluidized bed combustion (FBC), dry sorbent duct or furnace injection. These technologies will double to triple the amount of FGD by-products while only slightly increasing the amounts of conventional combustion residues, such as fly ash, bottom ash and boiler slag. This paper describes a program concerned with the underground disposal of combustion products in abandoned underground coal mines.

Chugh, Y.P.; Thomasson, E.M. [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States)

1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

83

Sulfur tolerant highly durable CO.sub.2 sorbents  

SciTech Connect

A sorbent for the capture of carbon dioxide from a gas stream is provided, the sorbent containing calcium oxide (CaO) and at least one refractory dopant having a Tammann temperature greater than about 530.degree. C., wherein the refractory dopant enhances resistance to sintering, thereby conserving performance of the sorbent at temperatures of at least about 530.degree. C. Also provided are doped CaO sorbents for the capture of carbon dioxide in the presence of SO.sub.2.

Smirniotis, Panagiotis G. (Cincinnati, OH); Lu, Hong (Urbana, IL)

2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

84

Topical Report 5: Sorbent Performance Report  

SciTech Connect

ADA-ES has completed an extensive sorbent screening program funded primarily through DOE NETL cooperative agreement DE-NT0005649 with support from EPRI and industry cost-share participants. Tests were completed on simulated and actual flue gas. The overall project objective is to address the viability and accelerate development of a solid-based postcombustion CO2 capture technology that can be retrofit to the existing fleet of coal-fired power plants. An important component of the viability assessment was to evaluate the state of development of sorbents and measure key performance characteristics under realistic operating conditions.

Krutka, Holly; Sjostrom, Sharon

2011-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

85

Evaluation of Type I cement sorbent slurries in the U.C. pilot spray dryer facility. Final report, November 1, 1994--February 28, 1996  

SciTech Connect

This research was focused on evaluating hydrated cement sorbents in the U. C. pilot spray dryer. The main goal of this work was to determine the hydration conditions resulting in reactive hydrated cement sorbents. Hydration of cement was achieved by stirring or by grinding in a ball mill at either room temperature or elevated temperatures. Also, the effects of several additives were studied. Additives investigated include calcium chloride, natural diatomite, calcined diatomaceous earth, and fumed silica. The performance of these sorbents was compared with conventional slaked lime. Further, the specific surface area and pore volume of the dried SDA sorbents were measured and compared to reactivity. Bench-scale tests were performed to obtain a more detailed picture of the development of the aforementioned physical properties as a function of hydration time.

Keener, T.C.; Khang, S.J.

1996-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

86

Capture of carbon dioxide by solid amine sorbents  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The reaction of tetraethylorthrosilcate (TEOS) with y-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTS) has produced stable solid amine sorbents for the capture of carbon dioxide. The resulting amine-enriched silicon sorbent (SBA-15) has been proven to be competitive with existing environmental CO2 controlled life sorbents based on the immobilised amine technology. XPS analysis has indicated that the amine groups (N1s Peak) were incorporated onto the surfaces of this amine-based sorbent in the range of 7%. The performance of the SBA-15 was comparable to the commercially available immobilised amine sorbent (IAS).

M.L. Gray; Y. Soong; K.J. Champagne; H.W. Pennline; J. Baltrus; R.W. Stevens Jr.; R. Khatri; S.S.C. Chuang

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

Carbon dioxide capture process with regenerable sorbents  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process to remove carbon dioxide from a gas stream using a cross-flow, or a moving-bed reactor. In the reactor the gas contacts an active material that is an alkali-metal compound, such as an alkali-metal carbonate, alkali-metal oxide, or alkali-metal hydroxide; or in the alternative, an alkaline-earth metal compound, such as an alkaline-earth metal carbonate, alkaline-earth metal oxide, or alkaline-earth metal hydroxide. The active material can be used by itself or supported on a substrate of carbon, alumina, silica, titania or aluminosilicate. When the active material is an alkali-metal compound, the carbon-dioxide reacts with the metal compound to generate bicarbonate. When the active material is an alkaline-earth metal, the carbon dioxide reacts with the metal compound to generate carbonate. Spent sorbent containing the bicarbonate or carbonate is moved to a second reactor where it is heated or treated with a reducing agent such as, natural gas, methane, carbon monoxide hydrogen, or a synthesis gas comprising of a combination of carbon monoxide and hydrogen. The heat or reducing agent releases carbon dioxide gas and regenerates the active material for use as the sorbent material in the first reactor. New sorbent may be added to the regenerated sorbent prior to subsequent passes in the carbon dioxide removal reactor.

Pennline, Henry W. (Bethel Park, PA); Hoffman, James S. (Library, PA)

2002-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

88

Regenerable Hydrogen Chloride Removal Sorbent and Regenerable Multifunctional Hydrogen Sulfide and Hydrogen Chloride Removal Sorbent for High Temperature Gas Streams  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Hydrogen Chloride and Hydrogen Sulfide Hydrogen Chloride and Hydrogen Sulfide Removal Sorbents for High Temperature Gas Streams Opportunity The Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) is seeking licensing partners interested in implementing United States Patent Number 7,767,000 entitled "Regenerable Hydrogen Chloride Removal Sorbent and Regenerable Multifunctional Hydrogen Sulfide and Hydrogen Chloride Removal Sorbent for High Temperature Gas Streams." Disclosed in this patent is the invention of a unique regenerable sorbent process that can remove contaminants from gas produced by the gasification of fossil fuels. Specifically, the process removes hydrogen chloride by using the regenerable sorbent and simultaneously extracts hydrogen chloride compounds and hydrogen

89

KINETICS OF HOT-GAS DESULFURIZATION SORBENTS FOR TRANSPORT REACTORS  

SciTech Connect

Hot-gas desulfurization for the integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) process has been investigated by many researchers to remove effectively hydrogen sulfide with various metal oxide sorbents at elevated temperatures. Various metal oxide sorbents are formulated with metal oxides such as Fe, Co, Zn, and Ti. Initial reaction kinetics of formulated sorbents with hydrogen sulfide is studied in the presence of various amounts of moisture and hydrogen at various reaction temperatures. The objectives of this research are to study initial reaction kinetics for a sorbent-hydrogen sulfide heterogeneous reaction system, to investigate effects of concentrations of hydrogen sulfide, hydrogen, and moisture on dynamic absorption of H{sub 2}S into sorbents, and to evaluate effects of temperature and sorbent amounts on dynamic absorption of H{sub 2}S into sorbents. Experimental data on initial reaction kinetics of hydrogen sulfide with metal oxide sorbents were obtained with a 0.83-cm{sup 3} differential reactor. In this report, the reactivity of AHI-5 was examined. This sorbent was obtained from the Research Triangle Institute (RTI). The sorbent in the form of 70 {micro}m particles are reacted with 9000-18000 ppm hydrogen sulfide at 350-500 C. The range of space time of reaction gas mixtures is 0.071-0.088 s. The range of reaction duration is 4-10800 s.

K.C. Kwon

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

90

Pilot-scale testing of a new sorbent for combined SO{sub 2}/NO{sub x} removal. Final report  

SciTech Connect

A new regenerable sorbent concept for SO{sub 2} and NOx removal was pilot-tested at Ohio Edison`s Edgewater generating station at a 1.5 to 2-MW(e) level. A radial panel-bed filter of a new dry, granular sorbent was exposed to flue gas and regenerated in an experimental proof-of-concept program. The project was successful in demonstrating the new sorbent`s ability to achieve 90% SO{sub 2} removal, 30% NOx removal, and over 80% removal of residual particulates with realistic approach temperatures and low pressure drops. Based on the results of this project, the retrofit cost of this technology is expected to be on the order of $400 per ton of SO{sub 2} and $900 per ton of NOx removed. This assumes that gas distribution is even and methane regeneration is used for a 30% average utilization. For a 2.5%-sulfur Ohio coal, this translates to a cost of approximately $17 per ton of coal. Two by-product streams were generated in the process that was tested: a solid, spent-sorbent stream and a highly-concentrated SO{sub 2} or elemental-sulfur stream. While not within the scope of the project, it was found possible to process these streams into useful products. The spent sorbent materials were shown to be excellent substrates for soil amendments; the elemental sulfur produced is innocuous and eminently marketable.

Nelson, S. Jr. [Sorbent Technologies Corp., Twinsburg, OH (United States)

1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

Preparation of sorbents containing ettringite phase from concrete sludge and their performance in removing borate and fluoride ions from waste water  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Concrete sludge is an industrial waste slurry containing hydrated cement, aggregates and water. Solid sorbents containing ettringite, Ca6Al2(SO4)3(OH)1226H2O, were prepared from concrete sludge by adding various amounts of aluminum sulfate to enhance ettringite formation. Anion exchange performance of the sorbents was examined using model waste waters containing boron or fluoride ions. The removal behavior depended on the calcium/aluminum ratio and the heat treatment temperature after drying. For the same Ca/Al ratio, improved removal performance was observed for sorbents treated at higher temperatures. The highest removal capacity was found when the sorbent was prepared with a molar ratio of Ca/Al of 3.2 and heat treatment at 175C. The final concentrations of boron and fluoride were 6.3mg-B/L, and less than 4mg-F/L for initial concentrations of 100mg-B/L and 300mg-F/L. Treatment of the sorbents at higher temperature dehydrated the ettringite phase to form metaettringite phase. The sorbents prepared in the present study can be used in a boron and fluoride removal process that meets the effluent standard in Japan.

Yusuke Tsunashima; Atsushi Iizuka; Junichiro Akimoto; Teruhisa Hongo; Akihiro Yamasaki

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

Layered solid sorbents for carbon dioxide capture  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A solid sorbent for the capture and the transport of carbon dioxide gas is provided having at least one first layer of a positively charged material that is polyethylenimine or poly(allylamine hydrochloride), that captures at least a portion of the gas, and at least one second layer of a negatively charged material that is polystyrenesulfonate or poly(acryclic acid), that transports the gas, wherein the second layer of material is in juxtaposition to, attached to, or crosslinked with the first layer for forming at least one bilayer, and a solid substrate support having a porous surface, wherein one or more of the bilayers is/are deposited on the surface of and/or within the solid substrate. A method of preparing and using the solid sorbent is provided.

Li, Bingyun; Jiang, Bingbing; Gray, McMahan L; Fauth, Daniel J; Pennline, Henry W; Richards, George A

2014-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

93

ADVANCED SORBENT DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM DEVELOPMENT OF SORBENTS FOR MOVING-BED AND FLUIDIZED-BED APPLICATIONS  

SciTech Connect

The integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power system using high-temperature coal gas cleanup is one of the most promising advanced technologies for the production of electric power from coal in an environmentally acceptable manner. Unlike conventional low-temperature cleanup systems that require costly heat exchangers, high-temperature coal gas cleanup systems can be operated near 482-538 C (900-1000 F) or higher, conditions that are a closer match with the gasifier and turbine components in the IGCC system, thus resulting is a more efficient overall system. GE is developing a moving-bed, high-temperature desulfurization system for the IGCC power cycle in which zinc-based regenerable sorbents are currently being used as desulfurization sorbents. Zinc titanate and other proprietary zinc-based oxides are being considered as sorbents for use in the Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program at Tampa Electric Co.'s (TECo) Polk Power Station. Under cold startup conditions at TECo, desulfurization and regeneration may be carried out at temperatures as low as 343 C (650 F), hence a versatile sorbent is desirable to perform over this wide temperature range. A key to success in the development of high-temperature desulfurization systems is the matching of sorbent properties for the selected process operating conditions, namely, sustainable desulfurization kinetics, high sulfur capacity, and mechanical durability over multiple cycles. Additionally, the sulfur species produced during regeneration of the sorbent must be in a form compatible with sulfur recovery systems, such as sulfuric acid or elemental sulfur processes. The overall objective of this program is to develop regenerable sorbents for hydrogen sulfide removal from coal-derived fuel gases in the temperature range 343-538 C (650-1000 F). Two categories of reactor configurations are being considered: moving-bed reactors and fluidized-bed (bubbling and circulating) reactors. In addition, a cost assessment and a market plan for large-scale fabrication of sorbents were developed. As an optional task, long-term bench-scale tests of the best moving-bed sorbents were conducted. Starting from thermodynamic calculations, several metal oxides were identified for potential use as hot gas cleanup sorbents using constructed phase stability diagrams and laboratory screening of various mixed-metal oxide formulations. Modified zinc titanates and other proprietary metal oxide formulations were evaluated at the bench scale and many of them found to be acceptable for operation in the target desulfurization temperature range of 370 C (700 F) to 538 C (1000 F) and regeneration temperatures up to 760 C (1400 F). Further work is still needed to reduce the batch-to-batch repeatability in the fabrication of modified zinc titanates for larger scale applications. The information presented in this Volume 1 report contains the results of moving-bed sorbent development at General Electric's Corporate Research and Development (GE-CRD). A separate Volume 2 report contains the results of the subcontract on fluidized-bed sorbent development at the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT).

R.E Ayala; V.S. Venkataramani; Javad Abbasian; Rachid B. Slimane; Brett E. Williams; Minoo K. Zarnegar; James R. Wangerow; Andy H. Hill

2000-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

94

ADVANCED SORBENT DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM; DEVELOPMENT OF SORBENTS FOR MOVING-BED AND FLUIDIZED-BED APPLICATIONS  

SciTech Connect

The integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power system using high-temperature coal gas cleanup is one of the most promising advanced technologies for the production of electric power from coal in an environmentally acceptable manner. Unlike conventional low-temperature cleanup systems that require costly heat exchangers, high-temperature coal gas cleanup systems can be operated near 482-538 C (900-1000F) or higher, conditions that are a closer match with the gasifier and turbine components in the IGCC system, thus resulting is a more efficient overall system. GE is developing a moving-bed, high-temperature desulfurization system for the IGCC power cycle in which zinc-based regenerable sorbents are currently being used as desulfurization sorbents. Zinc titanate and other proprietary zinc-based oxides are being considered as sorbents for use in the Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program at Tampa Electric Co.?s (TECo) Polk Power Station. Under cold startup conditions at TECo, desulfurization and regeneration may be carried out at temperatures as low as 343 C (650 F), hence a versatile sorbent is desirable to perform over this wide temperature range. A key to success in the development of high-temperature desulfurization systems is the matching of sorbent properties for the selected process operating conditions, namely, sustainable desulfurization kinetics, high sulfur capacity, and mechanical durability over multiple cycles. Additionally, the sulfur species produced during regeneration of the sorbent must be in a form compatible with sulfur recovery systems, such as sulfuric acid or elemental sulfur processes. The overall objective of this program is to develop regenerable sorbents for hydrogen sulfide removal from coal-derived fuel gases in the temperature range 343-538 C (650-1000 F). Two categories of reactor configurations are being considered: moving-bed reactors and fluidized-bed (bubbling and circulating) reactors. In addition, a cost assessment and a market plan for large-scale fabrication of sorbents were developed. As an optional task, long-term bench-scale tests of the best moving-bed sorbents were conducted. Starting from thermodynamic calculations, several metal oxides were identified for potential use as hot gas cleanup sorbents using constructed phase stability diagrams and laboratory screening of various mixed-metal oxide formulations. Modified zinc titanates and other proprietary metal oxide formulations were evaluated at the bench scale and many of them found to be acceptable for operation in the target desulfurization temperature range of 370 C (700 F) to 538 C (1000 F) and regeneration tempera-tures up to 760 C (1400 F). Further work is still needed to reduce the batch-to-batch repeatability in the fabrication of modified zinc titanates for larger scale applications. The information presented in this Volume 1 report contains the results of moving-bed sorbent develop-ment at General Electric?s Corporate Research and Development (GE-CRD). A separate Volume 2 report contains the results of the subcontract on fluidized-bed sorbent development at the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT).

R.E. AYALA; V.S. VENKATARAMANI

1998-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

95

Manganese-based sorbents for coal gas desulfurization  

SciTech Connect

The intent of this study is to perform a preliminary screening on a particular Mn-based sorbent, CST-939 (from Chemetals), for hot gas desulfurization. The purpose of the preliminary screening is to determine which temperature and type of coal gas this sorbent demonstrates the greatest capacity and efficiency for sulfur removal. The following conclusions were made from the data collected on the CST-939 sorbent: The sorbent efficiency and capacity are much greater at 343{degrees}C (650{degrees}F) than at 871{degrees}C (1,600{degrees}F). The sorbent efficiency and capacity are much greater in the presence of the more highly-reducing Shell gas than with the less-reducing KRW gas. The sorbent showed tremendous capacity for sulfur pickup, with actual loadings as high as 21 weight percent. Oxidative regeneration at 871{degrees}C (1,600{degrees}F) appeared to decompose sulfate; however, unusually high SO{sub 2} release during the second sulfidations and/or reductive regenerations indicated incomplete regeneration. The average crush strength of the reacted sorbent did not indicate any loss of strength as compared to the fresh sorbent. Superior sorbent performance was obtained in the presence of simulated Shell gas at 538{degrees}C (1,000{degrees}F).

Gasper-Galvin, L.D.; Fisher, E.P. [USDOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center, WV (United States); Goyette, W.J. [Chemetals, Inc., Baltimore, MD (United States)

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

96

Sorbents and Carbon-Based Materials for Hydrogen Storage Research...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

for storing hydrogen in high-surface-area sorbents such as hybrid carbon nanotubes, aerogels, and nanofibers, as well as metal-organic frameworks and conducting polymers. A...

97

Functionalized sorbent for chemical separations and sequential forming process  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A highly functionalized sorbent and sequential process for making are disclosed. The sorbent includes organic short-length amino silanes and organic oligomeric polyfunctional amino silanes that are dispersed within pores of a porous support that form a 3-dimensional structure containing highly functionalized active binding sites for sorption of analytes.

Fryxell, Glen E. (Kennewick, WA); Zemanian, Thomas S. (Richland, WA)

2012-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

98

NETL: Mercury Emissions Control Technologies - Advanced Mercury Sorbents  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Advanced Mercury Sorbents with Low Impact on Power Plant Operations Advanced Mercury Sorbents with Low Impact on Power Plant Operations Apogee Scientific, Inc. (Apogee) will lead a Team comprised of Southern Company Services, TXU, Tennessee Valley Authority, EPRI, URS Group, University of Illinois-Illinois State Geological Survey (ISGS), Southern Research Institute (SRI), Calgon Carbon, and TDA Research, Inc., to evaluate a number of advanced sorbents for removing vapor-phase mercury from coal-fired flue gas that have minimal impact on by-product utilization and/or on existing particulate collection devices (PCD). The main objective of this program is to evaluate several advanced sorbents for removing mercury from coal-fired flue gas while posing minimal impact on plant operations through three advanced sorbent concepts: 1) Sorbents which minimize impact on concrete production through selective chemical passivation of activated carbon and use of non-carbon material, 2) sorbents that minimize baghouse pressure drop and ESP emissions, and 3) sorbents that can be recovered and reused.

99

Development of advanced, dry, SO{sub x}/NO{sub x} emission control technologies for high-sulfur coal. Final report, April 1, 1993--December 31, 1994  

SciTech Connect

Dry Scrubbing is a common commercial process that has been limited to low- and medium-sulfur coal applications because high-sulfur coal requires more reagent than can be efficiently injected into the process. Babcock & Wilcox has made several advances that extend dry scrubbing technologies to higher sulfur coals by allowing deposit-free operation at low scrubber exit temperatures. This not only increases the amount of reagent that can be injected into the scrubber, but also increases SO{sub 2} removal efficiency and sorbent utilization. The objectives of this project were to demonstrate, at pilot scale, that advanced, dry-scrubbing-based technologies can attain the performance levels specified by the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments for SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} emissions while burning high-sulfur coal, and that these technologies are economically competitive with wet scrubber systems. The use of these technologies by utilities in and around Ohio, on new or retrofit applications, will ensure the future of markets for high-sulfur coal by creating cost effective options to coal switching.

Amrhein, G.T.

1994-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

100

Integrated Dry NO sub x /SO sub 2 Emissions Control System baseline test report, November 11--December 15, 1991  

SciTech Connect

The DOE sponsored Integrated Dry NO{sub x}/SO{sub 2} Emissions Control System program, which is a Clean Coal Technology Ill demonstration, is being conducted by Public Service Company of Colorado. The test site is Arapahoe Generating Station Unit 4, which is a 100 MWe, down-fired utility boiler burning a low sulfur western coal. The project goal is to demonstrate 70 percent reductions in NO{sub x} and S0{sub 2} emissions through the integration of: (1) down-fired low-NO{sub x} burners with overfire air; (2) urea injection for additional NO{sub x} removal; and (3) dry sorbent injection and duct humidification for SO{sub 2} removal. The effectiveness of the integrated system on a high sulfur coal will also be tested. This report documents the first baseline test results conducted during the program. The baseline tests were conducted with the original burners and auxiliary equipment and represent the unmodified boiler emissions. The burner design of Arapahoe Unit 4 results in relatively high NO{sub x} levels ranging from 740 to 850 ppM (corrected to 3% O{sub 2}, dry) over the load range. Excess air level was the primary factor influencing NO{sub x} emissions. During normal boiler operations, there was a wide range in NO{sub x} emissions, due to the variations of excess air, boiler load and other, secondary parameters. SO{sub 2} emissions ranged from 350 to 600 ppM (corrected to 3% O{sub 2}, dry) and reflected variations in the coal sulfur content.

Shiomoto, G.H.; Smith, R.A.

1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dry sorbent injection" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

SOx/NOx sorbent and process of use  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An alumina sorbent capable of adsorbing NOx and SOx from waste gases and being regenerated by heating above 600 C. is made by incorporating an alumina stabilizing agent into the sorbent. A preferred method is to add the stabilizer when the alumina is precipitated. The precipitated powder is formed subsequently into a slurry, milled and dripped to form the stabilizing spheroidal alumina particles. These particles are impregnated with an alkali metal or alkaline earth metal to form the stabilized sorbent. Alumina stabilizers include one or more of silica, lanthana, other rare earths, titania, zirconia and alkaline earths.

Ziebarth, M.S.; Hager, M.J.; Beeckman, J.W.; Plecha, S.

1993-01-19T23:59:59.000Z

102

Octahedral molecular sieve sorbents and catalysts  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Octahedral molecular sieve sorbents and catalysts are disclosed, including silver hollandite and cryptomelane. These materials can be used, for example, to catalyze the oxidation of CO.sub.x (e.g., CO), NO.sub.x (e.g., NO), hydrocarbons (e.g., C.sub.3H.sub.6) and/or sulfur-containing compounds. The disclosed materials also may be used to catalyze other reactions, such as the reduction of NO.sub.2. In some cases, the disclosed materials are capable of sorbing certain products from the reactions they catalyze. Silver hollandite, in particular, can be used to remove a substantial portion of certain sulfur-containing compounds from a gas or liquid by catalysis and/or sorption. The gas or liquid can be, for example, natural gas or a liquid hydrocarbon.

Li, Liyu [Richland, WA; King, David L [Richland, WA

2010-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

103

Regenerable Immobilized Aminosilane Sorbents for Carbon Dioxide Capture  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Immobilized Aminosilane Sorbents Immobilized Aminosilane Sorbents for Carbon Dioxide Capture Opportunity Research is currently active on the patent-pending technology titled "Regenerable Immobilized Aminosilane Sorbents for Carbon Dioxide Capture." The technology is available for licensing and/or further collaborative research from the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory. Overview Carbon sequestration entails a multi-step process in which CO 2 is first separated / captured from gas streams followed by permanent storage. Carbon capture represents a critical step in the process and accounts for a considerable portion of the overall cost. Newly developed, high capacity amine-based sorbents offer many advantages over existing technology including increased CO

104

sorbent-univerisity-north-dakota | netl.doe.gov  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

of North Dakota (UND) is scaling up and demonstrating a solid sorbent technology for carbon dioxide (CO2) capture and separation from coal combustion-derived flue gas. The...

105

eval-solid-sorbent | netl.doe.gov  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Evaluation of Solid Sorbents as a Retrofit Technology for CO2 Capture Project No.: DE-FE0004343 3-D model and Photograph of 1 kW System 3-D model and Photograph of 1 kW System...

106

Process for preparing zinc oxide-based sorbents  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The disclosure relates to zinc oxide-based sorbents, and processes for preparing and using them. The sorbents are preferably used to remove one or more reduced sulfur species from gas streams. The sorbents comprise an active zinc component, optionally in combination with one or more promoter components and/or one or more substantially inert components. The active zinc component is a two phase material, consisting essentially of a zinc oxide (ZnO) phase and a zinc aluminate (ZnAl.sub.2O.sub.4) phase. Each of the two phases is characterized by a relatively small crystallite size of typically less than about 500 Angstroms. Preferably the sorbents are prepared by converting a precursor mixture, comprising a precipitated zinc oxide precursor and a precipitated aluminum oxide precursor, to the two-phase, active zinc oxide containing component.

Gangwal, Santosh Kumar (Cary, NC); Turk, Brian Scott (Durham, NC); Gupta, Raghubir Prasad (Durham, NC)

2011-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

107

Molten iron oxysulfide as a superior sulfur sorbent. Final report, [September 1989--1993  

SciTech Connect

The studies had as original objective the analysis of conditions for using liquid iron oxysulfide as a desulfuring agent during coal gasification. Ancillary was a comparison of iron oxysulfide with lime as sorbents under conditions where lime reacts with S-bearing gases to form Ca sulfate or sulfide. Primary thrust is to determine the thermodynamic requirements for desulfurization by iron additions (e.g., taconite concentrate) during combustion in gasifiers operating at high equivalence ratios. Thermodynamic analysis of lime-oxygen-sulfur system shows why lime is injected into burners under oxidizing conditions; reducing conditions forms CaS, requiring its removal, otherwise oxidation and release of S would occur. Iron as the oxysulfide liquid has a range of stability and can be used as a desulfurizing agent, if the burner/gasifier operates in a sufficiently reducing regime (high equivalence ratio); this operating range is given and is calculable for a coal composition, temperature, stoichiometry. High moisture or hydrogen contents of the coal yield a poorer degree of desulfurization. Kinetic tests on individual iron oxide particles on substrates or Pt cups with a TGA apparatus fail to predict reaction rates within a burner. Preliminary tests on the Dynamic Containment Burner with acetylene give some promise that this system can produce the proper conditions of coal gasification for use of added iron as a sulfur sorbent.

Hepworth, M.T.

1993-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

108

Integrated Dry NOx/SO2 Emissions Control System, A DOE Assessment  

SciTech Connect

The goal of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Clean Coal Technology (CCT) Program is to furnish the energy marketplace with a number of advanced, more efficient, and environmentally responsible coal utilization technologies through demonstration projects. These projects seek to establish the commercial feasibility of the most promising advanced coal technologies that have developed beyond the proof-of-concept stage. This document serves as a DOE post-project assessment (PPA) of a project selected in CCT Round III, the Integrated Dry NO{sub x}/SO{sub 2} Emissions Control System (IDECS), as described in a Report to Congress (U.S. Department of Energy 1991). The desire to reduce emissions of nitrogen oxides (NO, nitric oxide, and NO{sub 2}, nitrogen dioxide, collectively referred to as NO{sub x}) and sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) by up to 70 percent at a minimum capital expenditure, while limiting waste production to dry solids that can be handled by conventional ash-removal equipment, prompted Public Service Company of Colorado (PSCC) to submit the proposal for the IDECS project. In March 1991, PSCC entered into a cooperative agreement with DOE to conduct the study. The project was sited at PSCC's Arapahoe Steam Electric Generating Station in Denver, Colorado. The purpose of this CCT project was to demonstrate the reduction of NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2} emissions by installing a combination of existing and emerging technologies, which were expected to work synergistically to reduce emissions. The technologies were low-NO{sub x} burners (LNBS), overfire air (OFA), and selective noncatalytic reduction (SNCR) for NO{sub x} reduction; and dry sorbent injection (DSI), both with and without flue-gas humidification (FGH), for SO{sub 2} reduction. DOE provided 50 percent of the total project funding of $26.2 million.

National Energy Technology Laboratory

2001-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

Preparation and selection of Fe-Cu sorbent for COS removal in syngas  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A series of iron-based sorbents prepared with iron trioxide hydrate, cupric oxide by a novel method was studied in a fixed-bed reactor for COS removal from syngas at moderate temperature. In addition, the sorbent...

Bowu Cheng; Zhaofei Cao; Yong Bai

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

Novel Sorbent to Clean Biogas for Fuel Cell Combined Heat and...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Novel Sorbent to Clean Biogas for Fuel Cell Combined Heat and Power - Fact Sheet, 2011 Novel Sorbent to Clean Biogas for Fuel Cell Combined Heat and Power - Fact Sheet, 2011 TDA...

111

R&D Strategies for Compressed, Cryo-Compressed and Cryo-Sorbent...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

R&D Strategies for Compressed, Cryo-Compressed and Cryo-Sorbent Hydrogen Storage Technologies Workshops R&D Strategies for Compressed, Cryo-Compressed and Cryo-Sorbent Hydrogen...

112

Sorbents and Carbon-Based Materials for Hydrogen Storage Research and Development  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The U.S. Department of Energy's research and development on sorbents and carbon-based materials for hydrogen storage targets breakthrough concepts for storing hydrogen in high-surface-area sorbents...

113

Direct sulfur recovery during sorbent regeneration. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this research project was to improve the direct elemental sulfur yields that occur during the regeneration of SO{sub 2}-saturated MgO-vermiculite sorbents (MagSorbents) by examining three approaches or strategies. The three approaches were regeneration-gas recycle, high-pressure regeneration, and catalytic reduction of the SO{sub 2} gas using a new catalyst developed by Research Triangle Institute (RTI). Prior to the project, Sorbent Technologies Corporation (Sorbtech) had developed a sorbent-regeneration process that yielded directly a pure elemental sulfur product. In the process, typically about 25 to 35 percent of the liberated S0{sub 2} was converted directly to elemental sulfur. The goal of this project was to achieve a conversion rate of over 90 percent. Good success was attained in the project. About 90 percent or more conversion was achieved with two of the approaches that were examined, regeneration-gas recycle and use of the RTI catalyst. Of these approaches, regeneration-gas recycle gave the best results (essentially 100 percent conversion in some cases). In the regeneration-gas recycle approach, saturated sorbent is simply heated to about 750{degree}C in a reducing gas (methane) atmosphere. During heating, a gas containing elemental sulfur, water vapor, H{sub 2}S, S0{sub 2}, and C0{sub 2} is evolved. The elemental sulfur and water vapor in the gas stream are condensed and removed, and the remaining gas is recycled back through the sorbent bed. After several recycles, the S0{sub 2} and H{sub 2}S completely disappear from the gas stream, and the stream contains only elemental sulfur, water vapor and C0{sub 2}.

Nelson, S.G.; Little, R.C. [Sorbent Technologies Corp., Twinsburg, OH (United States)

1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

A Reusable Calcium-Based Sorbent for Desulfurizing Hot Coal Gas  

SciTech Connect

The overall objective of this project has been to develop a superior, regenerable, calcium-based sorbent for desulfurizing hot coal gas. The sorbent should be strong, durable, inexpensive to manufacture, and capable of being reused many times. To achieve these objectives the project has focused on the development of the very promising core-in-shell sorbent.

Wheelock, T.D.; Hasler, D.J.L.

2002-09-19T23:59:59.000Z

115

NETL: IEP - Post-Combustion CO2 Emissions Control - Low Cost Sorbent for  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Low Cost Sorbent for Capturing CO2 Emissions Generated by Existing Coal-Fired Power Plants Low Cost Sorbent for Capturing CO2 Emissions Generated by Existing Coal-Fired Power Plants Project No.: DE-NT0005497 TDA sorbent test equipment TDA sorbent test equipment. TDA Research Inc. will produce and evaluate a low-cost solid sorbent developed in prior laboratory testing. The process uses an alkalized alumina adsorbent to capture carbon dioxide (CO2) at intermediate temperature and near ambient pressure. The physical adsorbent is regenerated with low-pressure steam. Although the regeneration is primarily by concentration swing, the adsorption of steam on the sorbent during regeneration also provides approximately 8°C to 10°C of temperature swing, further enhancing the regeneration rate. The sorbent is transferred between two moving bed reactors. Cycling results in gas

116

Solid Sorbents for Removal of Carbon Dioxide from Gas Streams at Low Temperatures  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Sorbents for Removal of Carbon Dioxide from Sorbents for Removal of Carbon Dioxide from Gas Streams at Low Temperatures Opportunity The Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory is seeking licensing partners interested in implementing United States Patent Number 6,908,497 entitled "Solid Sorbents for Removal of Carbon Dioxide from Gas Streams at Low Temperatures." Disclosed in this patent is a new low-cost carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) sorbent that can be used in large-scale gas-solid processes. Researchers have developed a new method to prepare these sorbents by treating substrates with an amine and/or an ether in a way that either one comprises at least 50 weight percent of the sorbent. The sorbent captures compounds contained in gaseous fluids through chemisorptions and/or

117

Development of Novel Carbon Sorbents for CO2 Capture  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Carbon Sorbents Carbon Sorbents for CO 2 Capture Background The mission of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Existing Plants, Emissions & Capture (EPEC) Research and Development (R&D) Program is to develop innovative environmental control technologies to enable full use of the nation's vast coal re- serves, while at the same time allowing the current fleet of coal-fired power plants to comply with existing and emerging environmental regulations. The EPEC R&D Program portfolio of post- and oxy-combustion carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions control technologies and CO 2 compression is focused on advancing technological options for the existing fleet of coal-fired power plants in the event of carbon constraints. Pulverized coal (PC)-fired power plants are large, stationary sources of CO

118

Adsorption and Desorption of CO2 on Solid Sorbents  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

ADSORPTION AND DESORPTION OF CO ON SOLID SORBENTS ADSORPTION AND DESORPTION OF CO ON SOLID SORBENTS 2 Ranjani Siriwardane (rsiiw@netl.doe.gov; 304-285-4513) Ming Shen (mshen@netl.doe.gov; 304-285-4112) Edward Fisher (efishe@netl.doe.gov; 304-285-4011) James Poston (jposto@netl.doe.gov; 304-285-4635) Abolghasem Shamsi (ashams@netl.doe.gov; 304-285-4360) U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory, 3610 Collins Ferry Road, P.O.Box 880, Morgantown, WV 26507-0880 INTRODUCTION Fossil fuels supply more than 98% of the world's energy needs. However, the combustion of fossil fuels is one of the major sources of the green house gas CO . It is necessary to develop 2 technologies that will allow us to utilize the fossil fuels while reducing the emissions of green house gases. Commercial CO capture technology that exists today is very expensive and energy

119

NETL Patented CO2-Removal Sorbents Promise Power and Cost Savings |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Patented CO2-Removal Sorbents Promise Power and Cost Savings Patented CO2-Removal Sorbents Promise Power and Cost Savings NETL Patented CO2-Removal Sorbents Promise Power and Cost Savings May 30, 2012 - 1:00pm Addthis Washington, DC - Carbon dioxide removal sorbents developed by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) could result in power and cost savings for users of some heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems under a recently signed license agreement. NETL, the research and development laboratory for DOE's Office of Fossil Energy, entered into a patent license agreement with Boston-based Enverid Systems Inc. for NETL-developed solid sorbents that remove CO2 from gas streams. NETL's sorbents will be incorporated into an Enverid product called EnClaire™, which adds on to HVAC systems to reduce power

120

Attrition resistant catalysts and sorbents based on heavy metal poisoned FCC catalysts  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A heavy metal poisoned, spent FCC catalyst is treated by chemically impregnating the poisoned catalyst with a new catalytic metal or metal salt to provide an attrition resistant catalyst or sorbent for a different catalytic or absorption process, such as catalysts for Fischer-Tropsh Synthesis, and sorbents for removal of sulfur gases from fuel gases and flue-gases. The heavy metal contaminated FCC catalyst is directly used as a support for preparing catalysts having new catalytic properties and sorbents having new sorbent properties, without removing or passivating the heavy metals on the spent FCC catalyst as an intermediate step.

Gangwal, S.; Jothimurugesan, K.

1999-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dry sorbent injection" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Novel Sorbent to Clean Biogas for Fuel Cell Combined Heat and...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Sorbent to Clean Biogas for Fuel Cell Combined Heat and Power Improving Desulfurization to Enable Fuel Cell Utilization of Digester Gases This project will develop a new,...

122

Novel Sorbent to Clean Biogas for Fuel Cell Combined Heat and Power- Fact Sheet, 2011  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Factsheet describing project objective to develop a new, high-capacity, expendable sorbent to remove sulfur species from anaerobic digester gas

123

Attrition resistant catalysts and sorbents based on heavy metal poisoned FCC catalysts  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A heavy metal poisoned, spent FCC catalyst is treated by chemically impregnating the poisoned catalyst with a new catalytic metal or metal salt to provide an attrition resistant catalyst or sorbent for a different catalytic or absorption processes, such as catalysts for Fischer-Tropsh Synthesis, and sorbents for removal of sulfur gasses from fuel gases and flue-gases. The heavy metal contaminated FCC catalyst is directly used as a support for preparing catalysts having new catalytic properties and sorbents having new sorbent properties, without removing or "passivating" the heavy metals on the spent FCC catalyst as an intermediate step.

Gangwal, Santosh (Cary, NC); Jothimurugesan, Kandaswamy (Hampton, VA)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

124

Partially sulfated lime-fly ash sorbents activated by water or steam for SO{sub 2} removal at a medium temperature  

SciTech Connect

Laboratory experiments were conducted to investigate the reactivity of partially sulfated lime-fly ash sorbents activated by water or steam for SO{sub 2} removal. Sulfation tests were performed at 550{sup o}C using a fixed bed reactor under conditions simulating economizer zone injection flue gas desulfurization. Activation experiments were conducted with water or steam using a range of temperatures between 100 and 550{sup o}C. The results showed that the reactivity of the sorbents was closely related to the content of Ca(OH){sub 2} formed in the activation process, which varied with the water or steam temperature. The sulfur dioxide capture capacity of Ca(OH){sub 2} in the sorbent is higher than that of CaO at a medium temperature. Water or steam temperatures in the range of 100-200{sup o}C are favorable to the formation of Ca(OH){sub 2} from CaO. 15 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

Liming Shi; Xuchang Xu [Tsinghua University, Beijing (China). Department of Thermal Engineering

2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

Subtask 4.27 - Evaluation of the Multielement Sorbent Trap (MEST) Method at an Illinois Coal-Fired Plant  

SciTech Connect

Owners of fossil fuel-fired power plants face the challenge of measuring stack emissions of trace metals and acid gases at much lower levels than in the past as a result of increasingly stringent regulations. In the United States, the current reference methods for trace metals and halogens are wet-chemistry methods, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Methods 29 and 26 or 26A, respectively. As a possible alternative to the EPA methods, the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) has developed a novel multielement sorbent trap (MEST) method to be used to sample for trace elements and/or halogens. Sorbent traps offer a potentially advantageous alternative to the existing sampling methods, as they are simpler to use and do not require expensive, breakable glassware or handling and shipping of hazardous reagents. Field tests comparing two sorbent trap applications (MEST-H for hydrochloric acid and MEST-M for trace metals) with the reference methods were conducted at two power plant units fueled by Illinois Basin bituminous coal. For hydrochloric acid, MEST measured concentrations comparable to EPA Method 26A at two power plant units, one with and one without a wet flue gas desulfurization scrubber. MEST-H provided lower detection limits for hydrochloric acid than the reference method. Results from a dry stack unit had better comparability between methods than results from a wet stack unit. This result was attributed to the very low emissions in the latter unit, as well as the difficulty of sampling in a saturated flue gas. Based on these results, the MEST-H sorbent traps appear to be a good candidate to serve as an alternative to Method 26A (or 26). For metals, the MEST trap gave lower detection limits compared to EPA Method 29 and produced comparable data for antimony, arsenic, beryllium, cobalt, manganese, selenium, and mercury for most test runs. However, the sorbent material produced elevated blanks for cadmium, nickel, lead, and chromium at levels that would interfere with accurate measurement at U.S. hazardous air pollutant emission limits for existing coal-fired power plant units. Longer sampling times employed during this test program did appear to improve comparative results for these metals. Although the sorbent contribution to the sample was reduced through improved trap design, additional research is still needed to explore lower-background materials before the MEST-M application can be considered as a potential alternative method for all of the trace metals. This subtask was funded through the EERCU.S. Department of Energy Joint Program on Research and Development for Fossil Energy-Related Resources Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-08NT43291. Nonfederal funding was provided by the Electric Power Research Institute, the Illinois Clean Coal Institute, Southern Illinois Power Company, and the Center for Air Toxic Metals Affiliates Program.

Pavlish, John; Thompson, Jeffrey; Dunham, Grant

2014-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

126

Low Temperature Sorbents for removal of Sulfur Compounds from fluid feed Streams  

SciTech Connect

A sorbent material is provided comprising a material reactive with sulfur, a binder unreactive with sulfur and an inert material, wherein the sorbent absorbs the sulfur at temperatures between 30 and 200 C. Sulfur absorption capacity as high as 22 weight percent has been observed with these materials.

Siriwardane, Ranjan

1999-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

127

Low Temperature Sorbents for Removal of Sulfur Compounds from Fluid Feed Streams  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A sorbent material is provided comprising a material reactive with sulfur, a binder unreactive with sulfur and an inert material, wherein the sorbent absorbs the sulfur at temperatures between 30 and 200 C. Sulfur absorption capacity as high as 22 weight percent has been observed with these materials.

Siriwardane, Ranjani

2004-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

Nanoclay-Based Solid Sorbents for CO2 Capture  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Nanoclay-Based Solid Sorbents for CO2 Capture ... As seen from the figure, the untreated nanoclay shows very little CO2 capture, while amine-treated nanoclays show considerably higher CO2 capture capacities, demonstrating the effectiveness of the amine treatment. ... The CO2 sorption capacity increases as the temperature is increased from 50 to 85 C, and it reaches as high as 7.5% at 85 C for the nanoclay treated with both APTMS and PEI, although the nanoclays treated with either APTMS or PEI show about 6% CO2 capture capacity. ...

Elliot A. Roth; Sushant Agarwal; Rakesh K. Gupta

2013-03-19T23:59:59.000Z

129

Novel Sorbent Achieves 90 Percent Carbon Capture in DOE-Sponsored Test |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Sorbent Achieves 90 Percent Carbon Capture in DOE-Sponsored Sorbent Achieves 90 Percent Carbon Capture in DOE-Sponsored Test Novel Sorbent Achieves 90 Percent Carbon Capture in DOE-Sponsored Test August 21, 2012 - 1:00pm Addthis Washington, DC - The successful bench-scale test of a novel carbon dioxide (CO2) capturing sorbent promises to further advance the process as a possible technological option for reducing CO2 emissions from coal-fired power plants. The new sorbent, BrightBlack™, was originally developed for a different application by Advanced Technology Materials Inc. (ATMI) , a subcontractor to SRI for the Department of Energy (DOE)-sponsored test at the University of Toledo. Through partnering with the Office of Fossil Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) and others, SRI developed a method to

130

Novel Sorbent Achieves 90 Percent Carbon Capture in DOE-Sponsored Test |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Novel Sorbent Achieves 90 Percent Carbon Capture in DOE-Sponsored Novel Sorbent Achieves 90 Percent Carbon Capture in DOE-Sponsored Test Novel Sorbent Achieves 90 Percent Carbon Capture in DOE-Sponsored Test August 21, 2012 - 1:00pm Addthis Washington, DC - The successful bench-scale test of a novel carbon dioxide (CO2) capturing sorbent promises to further advance the process as a possible technological option for reducing CO2 emissions from coal-fired power plants. The new sorbent, BrightBlack™, was originally developed for a different application by Advanced Technology Materials Inc. (ATMI) , a subcontractor to SRI for the Department of Energy (DOE)-sponsored test at the University of Toledo. Through partnering with the Office of Fossil Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) and others, SRI developed a method to

131

Methods and sorbents for utilizing a hot-side electrostatic precipitator for removal of mercury from combustion gases  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Methods are provided for reducing emission of mercury from a gas stream by treating the gas with carbonaceous mercury sorbent particles to reduce the mercury content of the gas; collecting the carbonaceous mercury sorbent particles on collection plates of a hot-side ESP; periodically rapping the collection plates to release a substantial portion of the collected carbonaceous mercury sorbent particles into hoppers; and periodically emptying the hoppers, wherein such rapping and emptying are done at rates such that less than 70% of mercury adsorbed onto the mercury sorbent desorbs from the collected mercury sorbent into the gas stream.

Nelson, Sidney (Hudson, OH)

2011-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

132

Aspects of Solar Drying  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

For the economical utilization of solar energy for drying it is necessary to coordinate ... the drying purposes with the specific characteristic of solar radiation /e.g. small power demand;...

L. Imre

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

Organoclay Sorbent for Removal of Carbon Dioxide from Gas Streams at Low Temperatures  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Organoclay Sorbent for Removal of Carbon Dioxide from Gas Organoclay Sorbent for Removal of Carbon Dioxide from Gas Streams at Low Temperatures Contact NETL Technology Transfer Group techtransfer@netl.doe.gov October 2012 Significance * Energy mixing is maximized * Mobilizing of the particulates is complete * No "dead zones" exist * Packing of material is minimized * Eroding effects are significantly reduced Applications * Mixing nuclear waste at Hanford * Any similar industrial process involving heavy solids in a carrier fluid Opportunity Research is currently active on the patent-pending technology "Organoclay Sorbent for Removal of Carbon Dioxide from

134

High-temperature sorbent method for removal of sulfur containing gases from gaseous mixtures  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A copper oxide-zinc oxide mixture is used as a sorbent for removing hydrogen sulfide and other sulfur containing gases at high temperatures from a gaseous fuel mixture. This high-temperature sorbent is especially useful for preparing fuel gases for high temperature fuel cells. The copper oxide is initially reduced in a preconditioning step to elemental copper and is present in a highly dispersed state throughout the zinc oxide which serves as a support as well as adding to the sulfur sorption capacity. The spent sorbent is regenerated by high-temperature treatment with an air fuel, air steam mixture followed by hydrogen reduction to remove and recover the sulfur.

Young, John E. (Woodridge, IL); Jalan, Vinod M. (Concord, MA)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

High-temperature sorbent method for removal of sulfur-containing gases from gaseous mixtures  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A copper oxide-zinc oxide mixture is used as a sorbent for removing hydrogen sulfide and other sulfur containing gases at high temperatures from a gaseous fuel mixture. This high-temperature sorbent is especially useful for preparing fuel gases for high temperature fuel cells. The copper oxide is initially reduced in a preconditioning step to elemental copper and is present in a highly dispersed state throughout the zinc oxide which serves as a support as well as adding to the sulfur sorbtion capacity. The spent sorbent is regenerated by high-temperature treatment with an air fuel, air steam mixture followed by hydrogen reduction to remove and recover the sulfur.

Young, J.E.; Jalan, V.M.

1982-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

136

High-temperature sorbent method for removal of sulfur containing gases from gaseous mixtures  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A copper oxide-zinc oxide mixture is used as a sorbent for removing hydrogen sulfide and other sulfur containing gases at high temperatures from a gaseous fuel mixture. This high-temperature sorbent is especially useful for preparing fuel gases for high temperature fuel cells. The copper oxide is initially reduced in a preconditioning step to elemental copper and is present in a highly dispersed state throughout the zinc oxide which serves as a support as well as adding to the sulfur sorption capacity. The spent sorbent is regenerated by high-temperature treatment with an air fuel, air steam mixture followed by hydrogen reduction to remove and recover the sulfur.

Young, J.E.; Jalan, V.M.

1984-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

137

Original articles: Sorption properties of a fibrous polypropylene-polyacrylic acid sorbent and its analytical application  

SciTech Connect

The advantages of fibrous sorbents and their growing role in the preconcentration of trace elements have repeatedly been noted elsewhere. The sorption properties of a sorbent are known to be determined by the nature of its functional groups. In this communication, the authors shall present the results of a study of the sorption properties of a fibrous sorbent based on polypropylene and polyacrylic acid (PP-PAA) which contains carboxyl groups as functional groups, with respect to bismuth(III), zirconium, and titanium (IV), and they shall describe a procedure for the preconcentration of bismuth from solutions of copper alloys followed by its photometric determination.

Chaprasova, L.V.; Shesterova, I.P.; Vaisova, M.; Turabov, N.; Kurbanov, Sh.A. [Tashkent State Univ. (Russian Federation)

1994-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

138

Cooking with Dry Beans  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

E-77 12/08 Cooking with Dry Beans Dry beans are nutritious and inexpensive. They are also very low in fat and sodium. Dry beans are great sources of fiber, folic acid, and protein. Cooked dry beans are also a good source of iron. To get the most... protein from the beans, serve them along with grain foods such as corn, rice or wheat. A serving size of cooked dry beans is ? cup. Uses Use beans as a tasty side dish or include it in casseroles, soups, and salads. Beans are often packaged in 1-pound...

Anding, Jenna

2008-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

139

Regenerable immobilized aminosilane sorbents for carbon dioxide capture applications  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for the separation of carbon dioxide from ambient air and flue gases is provided wherein a phase separating moiety with a second moiety are simultaneously coupled and bonded onto an inert substrate to create a mixture which is subsequently contacted with flue gases or ambient air. The phase-separating moiety is an amine whereas the second moiety is an aminosilane, or a Group 4 propoxide such as titanium (IV) propoxide (tetrapropyl orthotitanate, C.sub.12H.sub.28O.sub.4Ti). The second moiety makes the phase-separating moiety insoluble in the pores of the inert substrate. The new sorbents have a high carbon dioxide loading capacity and considerable stability over hundreds of cycles. The synthesis method is readily scalable for commercial and industrial production.

Gay, McMahan; Choi, Sunho; Jones, Christopher W

2014-09-16T23:59:59.000Z

140

Regenerable MgO-based sorbent for high temperature CO2 removal from syngas: 3. CO2 capture and sorbent enhanced water gas shift reaction  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Regenerable MgO-based sorbent, which was prepared and evaluated in the thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) in part 1, was also evaluated in high-pressure packed-bed unit in CO2/N2/H2O mixture and simulated pre-combustion syngas environment. In CO2/N2/H2O environment, the CO2 absorption capacity of the sorbent increases with increasing temperatures from 6.7% at 350C to 9.5% 450C. The sorbent is capable of achieving over 95% CO2 capture and 40% conversion in the water gas shift (WGS) reaction, which should be attributed to positive effect of WGS reaction in producing CO2 during the process. The sorbent reactivity and absorption capacity toward CO2, as well as its WGS catalytic activity decreases with increasing temperature. The maximum pre-breakthrough WGS conversion occurs at 350C, which diminishes as the sorbent is carbonated. The variable diffusivity shrinking core reaction model coupled with the two-fluid computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model was shown to accurately predict the break-through gas compositions at different operating conditions.

Emadoddin Abbasi; Armin Hassanzadeh; Shahin Zarghami; Hamid Arastoopour; Javad Abbasian

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dry sorbent injection" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Licensing Agreement Moves Two NETL-Patented Carbon Capture Sorbents Closer  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Licensing Agreement Moves Two NETL-Patented Carbon Capture Sorbents Licensing Agreement Moves Two NETL-Patented Carbon Capture Sorbents Closer to Commercialization Licensing Agreement Moves Two NETL-Patented Carbon Capture Sorbents Closer to Commercialization March 23, 2011 - 1:00pm Addthis Washington, DC - Two new patented sorbents used for carbon dioxide (CO2) capture from coal-based power plants have moved closer to commercialization as a result of a licensing agreement between the Office of Fossil Energy's (FE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) and ADA Environmental Solutions (ADA-ES). The nonexclusive agreement facilitates negotiations on intellectual property rights, protects proprietary information, and grants non-exclusive licensing of the new technology. Under federal regulations, NETL is authorized to obtain, maintain, and own patent protection for its

142

Licensing Agreement Moves Two NETL-Patented Carbon Capture Sorbents Closer  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Licensing Agreement Moves Two NETL-Patented Carbon Capture Sorbents Licensing Agreement Moves Two NETL-Patented Carbon Capture Sorbents Closer to Commercialization Licensing Agreement Moves Two NETL-Patented Carbon Capture Sorbents Closer to Commercialization March 23, 2011 - 1:00pm Addthis Washington, DC - Two new patented sorbents used for carbon dioxide (CO2) capture from coal-based power plants have moved closer to commercialization as a result of a licensing agreement between the Office of Fossil Energy's (FE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) and ADA Environmental Solutions (ADA-ES). The nonexclusive agreement facilitates negotiations on intellectual property rights, protects proprietary information, and grants non-exclusive licensing of the new technology. Under federal regulations, NETL is authorized to obtain, maintain, and own patent protection for its

143

Novel Sorbent to Clean Biogas for Fuel Cell Combined Heat and...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

develop a low-cost, high-capacity expendable sorbent to remove both sulfur species in biogas to ppb levels, making its use possible in a fuel cell CHP unit The high...

144

Analysis of Hydroxide Sorbents for CO2 Capture from Warm Syngas  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Analysis of Hydroxide Sorbents for CO2 Capture from Warm Syngas ... (1, 2) However, conventional coal combustion releases large amounts of the greenhouse gas CO2 into the atmosphere. ...

David J. Couling; Ujjal Das; William H. Green

2012-09-04T23:59:59.000Z

145

Zinc-oxide-based sorbents and processes for preparing and using same  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Zinc oxide-based sorbents, and processes for preparing and using them are provided. The sorbents are preferably used to remove one or more reduced sulfur species from gas streams. The sorbents comprise an active zinc component, optionally in combination with one or more promoter components and/or one or more substantially inert components. The active zinc component is a two phase material, consisting essentially of a zinc oxide (ZnO) phase and a zinc aluminate (ZnAl.sub.2O.sub.4) phase. Each of the two phases is characterized by a relatively small crystallite size of typically less than about 500 Angstroms. Preferably the sorbents are prepared by converting a precursor mixture, comprising a precipitated zinc oxide precursor and a precipitated aluminum oxide precursor, to the two-phase, active zinc oxide containing component.

Gangwal, Santosh Kumar (Cary, NC); Turk, Brian Scott (Durham, NC); Gupta, Raghubir Prasael (Durham, NC)

2010-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

146

Theoretical Predictions of the thermodynamic Properties of Solid Sorbents Capture CO2 Applications  

SciTech Connect

We are establishing a theoretical procedure to identify most potential candidates of CO{sub 2} solid sorbents from a large solid material databank to meet the DOE programmatic goal for energy conversion; and to explore the optimal working conditions for the promising CO{sub 2} solid sorbents, especially from room to warm T ranges with optimal energy usage, used for both pre- and post-combustion capture technologies.

Duan, Yuhua; Sorescu, Dan; Luebke David; Pennline, Henry

2012-05-02T23:59:59.000Z

147

NETL: Pilot Testing of a Highly Effective Pre-Combustion Sorbent-Based  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Pilot Testing of a Highly Effective Pre-Combustion Sorbent-Based Carbon Capture System Pilot Testing of a Highly Effective Pre-Combustion Sorbent-Based Carbon Capture System Project No.: DE-FE0013105 TDA is developing a new sorbent-based pre-combustion carbon capture technology for integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants. The process, which was evaluated at bench-scale under a previous effort, uses an advanced physical adsorbent that selectively removes CO2 from coal derived synthesis gas (syngas) above the dew point of the gas. The sorbent consists of a mesoporous carbon grafted with surface functional groups that remove CO2 via an acid-base interaction. The reactor design will be optimized by using computational fluid dynamics and adsorption modeling to improve the pressure swing adsorption cycle sequence. The research will include: two 0.1 MWe tests with a fully-equipped prototype unit using actual synthesis gas to prove the viability of the new technology; long-term sorbent life evaluation in a bench-scale setup of 20,000 cycles; the fabrication of a pilot-scale testing unit that will contain eight sorbent reactors; and the design of a CO2 purification sub-system. The CO2 removal technology will significantly improve (3 to 4 percent) the IGCC process efficiency needed for economically viable production of power from coal.

148

Cooling Dry Cows  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This publication discusses the effects of heat stress on dairy cows, methods of cooling cows, and research on the effects of cooling cows in the dry period....

Stokes, Sandra R.

2000-07-17T23:59:59.000Z

149

Sandia National Laboratories: DRI  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

DRI ECIS-Princeton Power Systems, Inc.: Demand Response Inverter On March 19, 2013, in DETL, Distribution Grid Integration, Energy, Energy Surety, Facilities, Grid Integration,...

150

Cooking with Dried Potatoes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This fact sheet describes the nutritional value and safe storage of dried potatoes, a commodity food. It also offers food preparation ideas....

Anding, Jenna

2008-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

151

Novel Sorbent-Based Process for High Temperature Trace Metal Removal  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project was to demonstrate the efficacy of a novel sorbent can effectively remove trace metal contaminants (Hg, As, Se and Cd) from actual coal-derived synthesis gas streams at high temperature (above the dew point of the gas). The performance of TDA's sorbent has been evaluated in several field demonstrations using synthesis gas generated by laboratory and pilot-scale coal gasifiers in a state-of-the-art test skid that houses the absorbent and all auxiliary equipment for monitoring and data logging of critical operating parameters. The test skid was originally designed to treat 10,000 SCFH gas at 250 psig and 350 C, however, because of the limited gas handling capabilities of the test sites, the capacity was downsized to 500 SCFH gas flow. As part of the test program, we carried out four demonstrations at two different sites using the synthesis gas generated by the gasification of various lignites and a bituminous coal. Two of these tests were conducted at the Power Systems Demonstration Facility (PSDF) in Wilsonville, Alabama; a Falkirk (North Dakota) lignite and a high sodium lignite (the PSDF operator Southern Company did not disclose the source of this lignite) were used as the feedstock. We also carried out two other demonstrations in collaboration with the University of North Dakota Energy Environmental Research Center (UNDEERC) using synthesis gas slipstreams generated by the gasification of Sufco (Utah) bituminous coal and Oak Hills (Texas) lignite. In the PSDF tests, we showed successful operation of the test system at the conditions of interest and showed the efficacy of sorbent in removing the mercury from synthesis gas. In Test Campaign No.1, TDA sorbent reduced Hg concentration of the synthesis gas to less than 5 {micro}g/m{sup 3} and achieved over 99% Hg removal efficiency for the entire test duration. Unfortunately, due to the relatively low concentration of the trace metals in the lignite feed and as a result of the intermittent operation of the PSDF gasifier (due to the difficulties in the handling of the low quality lignite), only a small fraction of the sorbent capacity was utilized (we measured a mercury capacity of 3.27 mg/kg, which is only a fraction of the 680 mg/kg Hg capacity measured for the same sorbent used at our bench-scale evaluations at TDA). Post reaction examination of the sorbent by chemical analysis also indicated some removal As and Se (we did not detect any significant amounts of Cd in the synthesis gas or over the sorbent). The tests at UNDEERC was more successful and showed clearly that the TDA sorbent can effectively remove Hg and other trace metals (As and Se) at high temperature. The on-line gas measurements carried out by TDA and UNDEERC separately showed that TDA sorbent can achieve greater than 95% Hg removal efficiency at 260 C ({approx}200g sorbent treated more than 15,000 SCF synthesis gas). Chemical analysis conducted following the tests also showed modest amounts of As and Se accumulation in the sorbent bed (the test durations were still short to show higher capacities to these contaminants). We also evaluated the stability of the sorbent and the fate of mercury (the most volatile and unstable of the trace metal compounds). The Synthetic Ground Water Leaching Procedure Test carried out by an independent environmental laboratory showed that the mercury will remain on the sorbent once the sorbent is disposed. Based on a preliminary engineering and cost analysis, TDA estimated the cost of mercury removal from coal-derived synthesis gas as $2,995/lb (this analysis assumes that this cost also includes the cost of removal of all other trace metal contaminants). The projected cost will result in a small increase (less than 1%) in the cost of energy.

Gokhan Alptekin

2008-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

152

Development of a Catalyst/Sorbent for Methane Reforming  

SciTech Connect

This project led to the further development of a combined catalyst and sorbent for improving the process technology required for converting CH{sub 4} and/or CO into H{sub 2} while simultaneously separating the CO{sub 2} byproduct all in a single step. The new material is in the form of core-in-shell pellets such that each pellet consists of a CaO core surrounded by an alumina-based shell capable of supporting a Ni catalyst. The Ni is capable of catalyzing the reactions of steam with CH{sub 4} or CO to produce H{sub 2} and CO{sub 2}, whereas the CaO is capable of absorbing the CO{sub 2} as it is produced. The absorption of CO{sub 2} eliminates the reaction inhibiting effects of CO{sub 2} and provides a means for recovering the CO{sub 2} in a useful form. The present work showed that the lifecycle performance of the sorbent can be improved either by incorporating a specific amount of MgO in the material or by calcining CaO derived from limestone at 1100 C for an extended period. It also showed how to prepare a strong shell material with a large surface area required for supporting an active Ni catalyst. The method combines graded particles of {alpha}-alumina with noncrystalline alumina having a large specific surface area together with a strength promoting additive followed by controlled calcination. Two different additives produced good results: 3 {micro}m limestone and lanthanum nitrate which were converted to their respective oxides upon calcination. The oxides partially reacted with the alumina to form aluminates which probably accounted for the strength enhancing properties of the additives. The use of lanthanum made it possible to calcine the shell material at a lower temperature, which was less detrimental to the surface area, but still capable of producing a strong shell. Core-in-shell pellets made with the improved shell materials and impregnated with a Ni catalyst were used for steam reforming CH{sub 4} at different temperatures and pressures. Under all conditions tested, the CH{sub 4} conversion was large (>80%) and nearly equal to the predicted thermodynamic equilibrium level as long as CO{sub 2} was being rapidly absorbed. Similar results were obtained with both shell material additives. Limited lifecycle tests of the pellets also produced similar results that were not affected by the choice of additive. However, during each lifecycle test the period during which CO{sub 2} was rapidly absorbed declined from cycle to cycle which directly affected the corresponding period when CH{sub 4} was reformed rapidly. Therefore, the results showed a continuing need for improving the lifecycle performance of the sorbent. Core-in-shell pellets with the improved shell materials were also utilized for conducting the water gas shift reaction in a single step. Three different catalyst formulations were tested. The best results were achieved with a Ni catalyst, which proved capable of catalyzing the reaction whether CO{sub 2} was being absorbed or not. The calcined alumina shell material by itself also proved to be a very good catalyst for the reaction as long as CO{sub 2} was being fully absorbed by the core material. However, neither the alumina nor a third formulation containing Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} were good catalysts for the reaction when CO{sub 2} was not absorbed by the core material. Furthermore, the Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-containing catalyst was not as good as the other two catalysts when CO{sub 2} was being absorbed.

B.H. Shans; T.D. Wheelock; Justinus Satrio; Karl Albrecht; Tanya Harris Janine Keeley; Ben Silva; Aaron Shell; Molly Lohry; Zachary Beversdorf

2008-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

153

Development of Novel Sorbents for Uranium Extraction from Seawater  

SciTech Connect

As the uranium resource in terrestrial ores is limited, it is difficult to ensure a long-term sustainable nuclear energy technology. The oceans contain approximately 4.5 billion tons of uranium, which is one thousand times the amount of uranium in terrestrial ores. Development of technologies to recover the uranium from seawater would greatly improve the uranium resource availability, sustaining the fuel supply for nuclear energy. Several methods have been previously evaluated including solvent extraction, ion exchange, flotation, biomass collection, and adsorption; however, none have been found to be suitable for reasons such as cost effectiveness, long term stability, and selectivity. Recent research has focused on the amidoxime functional group as a promising candidate for uranium sorption. Polymer beads and fibers have been functionalized with amidoxime functional groups, and uranium adsorption capacities as high as 1.5 g U/kg adsorbent have recently been reported with these types of materials. As uranium concentration in seawater is only ~3 ppb, great improvements to uranium collection systems must be made in order to make uranium extraction from seawater economically feasible. This proposed research intends to develop transformative technologies for economic uranium extraction from seawater. The Lin group will design advanced porous supports by taking advantage of recent breakthroughs in nanoscience and nanotechnology and incorporate high densities of well-designed chelators into such nanoporous supports to allow selective and efficient binding of uranyl ions from seawater. Several classes of nanoporous materials, including mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs), mesoporous carbon nanoparticles (MCNs), meta-organic frameworks (MOFs), and covalent-organic frameworks (COFs), will be synthesized. Selective uranium-binding liagnds such as amidoxime will be incorporated into the nanoporous materials to afford a new generation of sorbent materials that will be evaluated for their uranium extraction efficiency. The initial testing of these materials for uranium binding will be carried out in the Lin group, but more detailed sorption studies will be carried out by Dr. Taylor-Pashow of Savannah River National Laboratory in order to obtain quantitative uranyl sorption selectivity and kinetics data for the proposed materials. The proposed nanostructured sorbent materials are expected to have higher binding capacities, enhanced extraction kinetics, optimal stripping efficiency for uranyl ions, and enhanced mechanical and chemical stabilities. This transformative research will significantly impact uranium extraction from seawater as well as benefit DOEs efforts on environmental remediation by developing new materials and providing knowledge for enriching and sequestering ultralow concentrations of other metals.

Lin, Wenbin; Taylor-Pashow, Kathryn

2014-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

154

Polyacrylonitrile-Chalcogel Hybrid Sorbents for Radioiodine Capture  

SciTech Connect

Powders of a Sn2S3 chalcogen-based aerogel (chalcogel) were combined with powdered polyacrylonitrile (PAN) in different mass ratios (SnS33, SnS50, and SnS70 in mass% of chalcogel), dissolved into dimethyl sulfoxide, and dropped into deionized water to form pellets of a porous PAN-chalcogel hybrid material. Pellets of these hybrid sorbents, along with pure powdered (SnSp) and granular (SnSg) forms of the chalcogel, were then used to adsorb iodine gas under both concentrated and dilute conditions. Both the SnSp and SnSg chalcogels showed very high maximum iodine loadings at 67.2 and 68.3 mass%. The maximum iodine loadings in the SnS33 and SnS50 were high at 32.8 and 53.5 mass%. In all cases, X-ray diffraction results showed the formation of Sn-I phases of SnI4 and SnI4(S8)2 revealing that the iodine binding in these materials is mainly due to a chemisorption process although some evidence also exists that supports a physisorption process.

Riley, Brian J.; Pierce, David A.; Chun, Jaehun; Matyas, Josef; Lepry, William C.; Garn, Troy; Law, Jack; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G.

2014-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

155

Polyacrylonitrile-Chalcogel Hybrid Sorbents for Radioiodine Capture  

SciTech Connect

Powders of a Sn2S3 chalcogen-based aerogel (chalcogel) were combined with powdered polyacrylonitrile (PAN) in different mass ratios (SnS33, SnS50, and SnS70; # = mass% of chalcogel), dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide, and added dropwise to deionized water to form pellets of a porous PAN-chalcogel hybrid material. These pellets, along with pure powdered (SnSp) and granular (SnSg) forms of the chalcogel, were then used to capture iodine gas under both dynamic (dilute) and static (concentrated) conditions. Both SnSp and SnSg chalcogels showed very high iodine loadings at 67.2 and 68.3 mass%, respectively. The SnS50 hybrid sorbent demonstrated a high, although slightly reduced, maximum iodine loading (53.5 mass%) with greatly improved mechanical rigidity. In all cases, X-ray diffraction results showed the formation of crystalline SnI4 and SnI4(S8)2, revealing that the iodine binding in these materials is mainly due to a chemisorption process, although a small amount of physisorption was observed.

Brian J. Riley; David A. Pierce; Jaehun Chun; Josef Matyas; William C. Lepry; Troy G. Garn; Jack D. Law; Mercouri G. Kanatzidis

2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

INVESTIGATION OF MIXED METAL SORBENT/CATALYSTS FOR THE SIMULTANEOUS REMOVAL OF SULFUR AND NITROGEN OXIDES  

SciTech Connect

Simultaneous removal of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} using a regenerable solid sorbent will constitute an important improvement over the use of separate processes for the removal of these two pollutants from stack gases and possibly eliminate several shortcomings of the individual SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} removal operations. The work done at PETC and the DOE-funded investigation of the investigators on the sulfation and regeneration of alumina-supported cerium oxide sorbents have shown that they can perform well at relatively high temperatures (823-900 K) as regenerable desulfurization sorbents. Survey of the recent literature shows that addition of copper oxide to ceria lowers the sulfation temperature of ceria down to 773 K, sulfated ceria-based sorbents can function as selective SCR catalysts even at elevated temperatures, SO{sub 2} can be directly reduced to sulfur by CO on CuO-ceria catalysts, and ceria-based catalysts may have a potential for selective catalytic reduction of NO{sub x} by methane. These observations indicate a possibility of developing a ceria-based sorbent/catalyst which can remove both SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} from flue gases within a relatively wide temperature window, produce significant amounts of elemental sulfur during regeneration, and use methane for the selective catalytic reduction of NO{sub x}. The objective of this research is to conduct kinetic and parametric studies of the selective catalytic reduction of NO{sub x} with NH{sub 3} and CH{sub 4} over alumina-supported cerium oxide and copper oxide-cerium oxide sorbent/catalysts; investigate SO{sub 2} removal at lower temperatures by supported copper oxide-cerium oxide sorbents; and investigate the possibility of elemental sulfur production during regeneration with CO or with CH{sub 4}-air mixtures.

Ates Akyurtlu; Jale F. Akyurtlu

2000-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

157

INVESTIGATION OF MIXED METAL SORBENT/CATALYSTS FOR THE SIMULTANEOUS REMOVAL OF SULFUR AND NITROGEN OXIDES  

SciTech Connect

Simultaneous removal of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} using a regenerable solid sorbent will constitute an important improvement over the use of separate processes for the removal of these two pollutants from stack gases and possibly eliminate several shortcomings of the individual SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} removal operations. The work done at PETC and the DOE-funded research of the investigators on the sulfation and regeneration of alumina-supported cerium oxide sorbents have shown that they can perform well at relatively high temperatures (823-900 K) as regenerable desulfurization sorbents. Survey of the recent literature shows that addition of copper oxide to ceria lowers the sulfation temperature of ceria down to 773 K, sulfated ceria-based sorbents can function as selective SCR catalysts even at elevated temperatures, SO{sub 2} can be directly reduced to sulfur by CO on CuO-ceria catalysts, and ceria-based catalysts may have a potential for selective catalytic reduction of NO{sub x} by methane. These observations indicate a possibility of developing a ceria-based sorbent/catalyst which can remove both SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} from flue gases within a relatively wide temperature window, produce significant amounts of elemental sulfur during regeneration, and use methane for the selective catalytic reduction of NO{sub x}. The objective of this research is to conduct kinetic and parametric studies of the selective catalytic reduction of NO{sub x} with NH{sub 3} and CH{sub 4} over alumina-supported cerium oxide and copper oxide-cerium oxide sorbent/catalysts; investigate SO{sub 2} removal at lower temperatures by supported copper oxide-cerium oxide sorbents; and investigate the possibility of elemental sulfur production during regeneration with CO or with CH{sub 4} air mixtures.

Ates Akyurtlu; Jale F. Akyurtlu

1999-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

158

Investigation of mixed metal sorbent/catalysts for the simultaneous removal of sulfur and nitrogen oxides  

SciTech Connect

Simultaneous removal of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} using a regenerable solid sorbent will constitute an important improvement over the use of separate processes for the removal of these two pollutants from stack gases and possibly eliminate several shortcomings of the individual SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} removal operations. The work done at PETC and the DOE-funded investigation of the investigators on the sulfation and regeneration of alumina-supported cerium oxide sorbents have shown that they can perform well at relatively high temperatures (823-900 K) as regenerable desulfurization sorbents. Survey of the recent literature shows that addition of copper oxide to ceria lowers the sulfation temperature of ceria down to 773 K, sulfated ceria-based sorbents can function as selective SCR catalysts even at elevated temperatures, SO{sub 2} can be directly reduced to sulfur by CO on CuO-ceria catalysts, and ceria-based catalysts may have a potential for selective catalytic reduction of NO{sub x} by methane. These observations indicate a possibility of developing a ceria-based sorbent/catalyst which can remove both SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} from flue gases within a relatively wide temperature window, produce significant amounts of elemental sulfur during regeneration, and use methane for the selective catalytic reduction of NO{sub x}. The objective of this research is to conduct kinetic and parametric studies of the selective catalytic reduction of NO{sub x} with NH{sub 3} and CH{sub 4} over alumina-supported cerium oxide and copper oxide-cerium oxide sorbent/catalysts; investigate SO{sub 2} removal at lower temperatures by supported copper oxide-cerium oxide sorbents; and investigate the possibility of elemental sulfur production during regeneration with CO or with CH{sub 4}-air mixtures.

Akyurtlu, A.; Akyurtlu, J.F.

1999-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

159

NETL: A Low-Cost, High-Capacity Regenerable Sorbent for CO2 Capture From  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

A Low Cost, High Capacity Regenerable Sorbent for CO2 Capture from Existing Coal-Fired Power Plants A Low Cost, High Capacity Regenerable Sorbent for CO2 Capture from Existing Coal-Fired Power Plants Project No.: DE-FE0007580 TDA Research, Inc is developing a low cost, high capacity CO2 adsorbent and demonstrating its technical and economic viability for post-combustion CO2 capture for existing pulverized coal-fired power plants. TDA is using an advanced physical adsorbent to selectively remove CO2 from flue gas. The sorbent exhibits a much higher affinity to adsorb CO2 than N2, H2O or O2, enabling effective CO2 separation from the flue gas. The sorbent binds CO2 more strongly than common adsorbents, providing the chemical potential needed to remove the CO2, however, because CO2 does not form a true covalent bond with the surface sites, regeneration can be carried out with only a small energy input. The heat input to regenerate the sorbent is only 4.9 kcal per mol of CO2, which is much lower than that for chemical absorbents or amine based solvents.

160

Hot coal gas desulfurization with manganese-based sorbents. Final report, September 1992--December 1994  

SciTech Connect

The focus of much current work being performed by the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) of the Department of Energy on hot coal-derived fuel gas desulfurization is in the use of zinc-based sorbents. METC has shown interest in formulating and testing manganese-based pellets as alternative effective sulfur sorbents in the 700 to 1200{degree}C temperature range. To substantiate the potential superiority of Mn-based pellets, a systematic approach toward the evaluation of the desulfurizing power of single-metal sorbents is developed based on thermodynamic considerations. This novel procedure considered several metal-based sorbents and singled out manganese oxide as a prime candidate sorbent capable of being utilized under a wide temperature range, irrespective of the reducing power (determined by CO{sub 2}/CO ratio) of the fuel gas. Then, the thermodynamic feasibility of using Mn-based pellets for the removal of H{sub 2}S from hot-coal derived fuel gases, and the subsequent oxidative regeneration of loaded (sulfided) pellets was established. It was concluded that MnO is the stable form of manganese for virtually all commercially available coal-derived fuel gases. In addition, the objective of reducing the H{sub 2}S concentration below 150 ppMv to satisfy the integrated gasification combined cycle system requirement was shown to be thermodynamically feasible. A novel process is developed for the manufacture of Mn-based spherical pellets which have the desired physical and chemical characteristics required.

Hepworth, M.T.; Slimane, R.B.

1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dry sorbent injection" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Theoretical Screening of Solid Sorbents for CO{sub 2} Capture Applications  

SciTech Connect

The work reported in this presentation was establishing a theoretical procedure to identify most potential candidates of CO{sub 2} solid sorbents from a large solid material databank; and to explore the optimal working conditions for the promised CO{sub 2} solid sorbents and provide guidelines to the experimentalists. Our methodology can predict thermodynamic properties of solid materials and their CO{sub 2} capture reactions. Single solid may not satisfy the industrial operating conditions as CO{sub 2} sorbent, however, by mixing two or more solids, the new formed solid may satisfy the industrial needs. By exploring series of lithium silicates with different Li{sub 2}O/SiO{sub 2} ratio, we found that with decreasing Li{sub 2}O/SiO{sub 2} ratio the corresponding silicate has a lower turnover temperature and vice versa. Compared to pure MgO, the Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}, K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} and CaCO{sub 3} promoted MgO sorbent has a higher turnover T. These results provide guidelines to synthesize sorbent materials by mixing different solids with different ratio.

Duan, Y [NETL

2013-08-07T23:59:59.000Z

162

Novel regenerable magnesium hydroxide sorbents for CO2 capture at warm gas temperatures  

SciTech Connect

A novel sorbent consisting of Mg(OH)2 was developed for carbon dioxide (CO2) capture at 200-315 C suitable for CO2 capture applications such as coal gasification systems. Thermodynamic analysis conducted with the FactSage software package indicated that the Mg(OH)2 sorbent system is highly favorable for CO2 capture up to 400 C at 30 atm. MgCO3 formed during sorption decomposes to release CO2 at temperatures as low as 375 C up to 20 atm. MgO rehydroxylation to form Mg(OH)2 is possible at temperatures up to 300 C at 20 atm. The experimental data show that the sorbent is regenerable at 375 C at high pressure and that steam does not affect the sorbent performance. A multicycle test conducted in a high-pressure fixed-bed flow reactor at 200 C with 28% CO2 showed stable reactivity during the cyclic tests. The capture capacity also increased with increasing pressure. The sorbent is unique because it exhibits a high CO2 capture capacity of more than 3 mol/kg at 200 C and also is regenerable at a low temperature of 375 C and high pressure. High-pressure regeneration is advantageous because the CO2 compression costs required for sequestration can be reduced.

Siriwardane, R.; Stevens, R.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

Opacity reduction using hydrated lime injection  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this investigation is to study the effects of injecting dry hydrated lime into flue gas to reduce sulfur trioxide (SO{sub 3}) concentrations and consequently stack opacity at the University of Missouri, Columbia power plant. Burning of high sulfur coal (approx. 4% by weight) at the power plant resulted in opacity violations. The opacity problem was due to sulfuric acid mist (H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}) forming at the stack from high SO{sub 3} concentrations. As a result of light scattering by the mist, a visible plume leaves the stack. Therefore, reducing high concentrations of SO{sub 3} reduces the sulfuric acid mist and consequently the opacity problem. The current hydrated lime injection system has reduced the opacity to acceptable limits. To reduce SO{sub 3} concentrations, dry hydrated lime is injected into the flue gas upstream of a particulate collection device (baghouse) and downstream of the induced draft fan. The lime is periodically injected into the flue via a pneumatic piping system. The hydrated lime is transported down the flue and deposited on the filter bags in the baghouse. As the hydrated lime is deposited on the bags a filter cake is established. The reaction between the SO{sub 3} and the hydrated lime takes place on the filter bags. The hydrated lime injection system has resulted in at least 95% reduction in the SO{sub 3} concentration. Low capital equipment requirements and operating cost coupled with easy installation and maintenance makes the system very attractive to industries with similar problems. This paper documents the hydrated lime injection system and tests the effectiveness of the system on SO{sub 3} removal and subsequent opacity reduction. Measurements Of SO{sub 3} concentrations, flue gas velocities, and temperatures have been performed at the duct work and baghouse. A complete analysis of the hydrated lime injection system is provided.

Wolf, D.E.; Seaba, J.P. [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States)

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

164

6 - Pipeline Drying  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Publisher Summary This chapter reviews pipeline dewatering, cleaning, and drying. Dewatering can be a simple process or, if the procedure is not properly planned, a difficult one. Pipelines used to transport crude oil and/or refined products will probably only require removal of the test water before the line is placed in service. If the pipeline will be used to transport materials that must meet a specified dryness requirement, the pipeline will need to be dewatered, cleaned, and dried. Pipelines used to transport natural gas will need some drying, depending on the operating pressure and the location of the line, to prevent the formation of hydrates. Other pipelines may require drying to protect the pipe from internal corrosion caused by the formation of corrosive acids, such as carbonic acid in the case of carbon dioxide pipelines.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

Freeze drying apparatus  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention provides methods and apparatus for freeze drying in which a solution, which can be a radioactive salt dissolved within an acid, is frozen into a solid on vertical plates provided within a freeze drying chamber. The solid is sublimated into vapor and condensed in a cold condenser positioned above the freeze drying chamber and connected thereto by a conduit. The vertical positioning of the cold condenser relative to the freeze dryer helps to help prevent substances such as radioactive materials separated from the solution from contaminating the cold condenser. Additionally, the system can be charged with an inert gas to produce a down rush of gas into the freeze drying chamber to also help prevent such substances from contaminating the cold condenser.

Coppa, Nicholas V. (Malvern, PA); Stewart, Paul (Youngstown, NY); Renzi, Ernesto (Youngstown, NY)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

166

Freeze drying method  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention provides methods and apparatus for freeze drying in which a solution, which can be a radioactive salt dissolved within an acid, is frozen into a solid on vertical plates provided within a freeze drying chamber. The solid is sublimated into vapor and condensed in a cold condenser positioned above the freeze drying chamber and connected thereto by a conduit. The vertical positioning of the cold condenser relative to the freeze dryer helps to help prevent substances such as radioactive materials separated from the solution from contaminating the cold condenser. Additionally, the system can be charged with an inert gas to produce a down rush of gas into the freeze drying chamber to also help prevent such substances from contaminating the cold condenser.

Coppa, Nicholas V. (Malvern, PA); Stewart, Paul (Youngstown, NY); Renzi, Ernesto (Youngstown, NY)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

Dry Process Electrode Fabrication  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

250m of free standing dry process cathode at thickness >200 m thickness. + Validate cost model by running pilot coating line at >25 mmin. + Deliver 24 cells in A123 SOA EV...

168

Dry Process Electrode Fabrication  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

free standing dry process cathode that retains 50% capacity at 1C rate. + Validate cost model by running pilot coating line. + Deliver 24 cells in SOA EV cell format....

169

Dry Process Electrode Fabrication  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

free standing dry process cathode that retains 50% capacity at 1C rate. + Validate cost model by running pilot coating line. + Deliver 24 cells in SOA EV cell format. 3...

170

Rich catalytic injection  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A gas turbine engine includes a compressor, a rich catalytic injector, a combustor, and a turbine. The rich catalytic injector includes a rich catalytic device, a mixing zone, and an injection assembly. The injection assembly provides an interface between the mixing zone and the combustor. The injection assembly can inject diffusion fuel into the combustor, provides flame aerodynamic stabilization in the combustor, and may include an ignition device.

Veninger, Albert (Coventry, CT)

2008-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

171

Partially Sulfated Lime-Fly Ash Sorbents Activated by Water or Steam for SO2 Removal at a Medium Temperature  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Partially Sulfated Lime-Fly Ash Sorbents Activated by Water or Steam for SO2 Removal at a Medium Temperature ... The low utilization of calcium-based sorbent is caused by the formation of calcium sulfite or sulfate, which have larger molar volumes than CaO or Ca(OH)2. ... ignition?loss ...

Liming Shi; Xuchang Xu

2005-08-23T23:59:59.000Z

172

CO{sub 2} Capture from Flue Gas Using Solid Molecular Basket Sorbents  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to develop a new generation of solid, regenerable polymeric molecular basket sorbent (MBS) for more cost-efficient capture and separation of CO{sub 2} from flue gas of coal-fired power plants. The primary goal is to develop a cost-effective MBS sorbent with better thermal stability. To improve the cost-effectiveness of MBS, we have explored commercially available and inexpensive support to replace the more expensive mesoporous molecular sieves like MCM-41 and SBA- 15. In addition, we have developed some advanced sorbent materials with 3D pore structure such as hexagonal mesoporous silica (HMS) to improve the CO{sub 2} working capacity of MBS, which can also reduce the cost for the whole CO{sub 2} capture process. During the project duration, the concern regarding the desorption rate of MBS sorbents has been raised, because lower desorption rate increases the desorption time for complete regeneration of the sorbent which in turn leads to a lower working capacity if the regeneration time is limited. Thus, the improvement in the thermal stability of MBS became a vital task for later part of this project. The improvement in the thermal stability was performed via increasing the polymer density either using higher molecular weight PEI or PEI cross-linking with an organic compound. Moreover, we have used the computational approach to estimate the interaction of CO{sub 2} with different MBSs for the fundamental understanding of CO{sub 2} sorption, which may benefit the development, design and modification of the sorbents and the process.

Fillerup, Eric; Zhang, Zhonghua; Peduzzi, Emanuela; Wang, Dongxiang; Guo, Jiahua; Ma, Xiaoliang; Wang, Xiaoxing; Song, Chunshan

2012-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

173

Stabilization of spent sorbents from coal gasification. Final technical report, September 1, 1992--August 31, 1993  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this investigation was to determine the rates of reactions involving partially sulfided dolomite and oxygen, which is needed for the design of the reactor system for the stabilization of sulfide-containing solid wastes from gasification of high sulfur coals. To achieve this objective, samples of partially sulfided dolomite were reacted with oxygen at a variety of operating conditions in a fluidized-bed reactor. The effect of external diffusion was eliminated by using small quantities of the sorbent and maintaining a high flow rate of the reactant gas. The reacted sorbents were analyzed to determine the extent of conversion as a function of operating variables including sorbent particle size, reaction temperature and pressure, and oxygen concentration. The results of sulfation tests indicate that the rate of reaction increases with increasing temperature, increasing oxygen partial pressure, and decreasing sorbent particle size. The rate of the sulfation reaction can be described by a diffuse interface model where both chemical reaction and intraparticle diffusion control the reaction rate. The kinetic model of the sulfation reaction was used to determine the requirements for the reactor system, i.e., reactor size and operating conditions, for successful stabilization of sulfide-containing solid wastes from gasification of high sulfur coals (with in-bed desulfurization using calcium based sorbents). The results indicate that the rate of reaction is fast enough to allow essentially complete sulfation in reactors with acceptable dimensions. The optimum sulfation temperature appears to be around 800{degrees}C for high pressure as well as atmospheric stabilization of the spent sorbents.

Abbasian, J.; Hill, A.H.; Rue, D.M.; Wangerow, J.R. [Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (United States)

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

174

DEVELOPMENT OF A HYDROGEN MORDENITE SORBENT FOR THE CAPTURE OF KRYPTON FROM USED NUCLEAR FUEL REPROCESSING OFF-GAS STREAMS  

SciTech Connect

A novel new sorbent for the separation of krypton from off-gas streams resulting from the reprocessing of used nuclear fuel has been developed and evaluated. A hydrogen mordenite powder was successfully incorporated into a macroporous polymer binder and formed into spherical beads. The engineered form sorbent retained the characteristic surface area and microporosity indicative of mordenite powder. The sorbent was evaluated for krypton adsorption capacities utilizing thermal swing operations achieving capacities of 100 mmol of krypton per kilogram of sorbent at a temperature of 191 K. A krypton adsorption isotherm was also obtained at 191 K with varying krypton feed gas concentrations. Adsorption/desorption cycling effects were also evaluated with results indicating that the sorbent experienced no decrease in krypton capacity throughout testing.

Mitchell Greenhalgh; Troy G. Garn; Jack D. Law

2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

175

High-Performance Sorbents for Carbon Dioxide Capture from Air  

SciTech Connect

This project has focused on capture of CO{sub 2} from ambient air (air capture). If this process is technically and economically feasible, it could potentially contribute to net reduction of CO{sub 2} emissions in ways that are complementary to better developed techniques for CO{sub 2} from concentrated point sources. We focused on cyclic adsorption processes for CO{sub 2} capture from air in which the entire cycle is performed at moderate temperatures. The project involved both experimental studies of sorbent materials and process level modeling of cyclic air capture processes. In our experimental work, a series of amine-functionalized silica adsorbents were prepared and characterized to determine the impact of molecular architecture on CO{sub 2} capture. Some key findings were: Amine functionalized silicas can be prepared with high enough CO{sub 2} capacities under ambient conditions to merit consideration for use in air capture processes. Primary amines are better candidates for CO{sub 2} capture than secondary or tertiary amines, both in terms of amine efficiency for CO{sub 2} adsorption and enhanced water affinity. Mechanistic understanding of degradation of these materials can enable control of molecular architecture to significantly improve material stability. Our process modeling work provided the first publically available cost and energy estimates for cyclic adsorption processes for air capture of CO{sub 2}. Some key findings were: Cycles based on diurnal ambient heating and cooling cannot yield useful purities or amounts of captured CO{sub 2}. Cycles based on steam desorption at 110 oC can yield CO{sub 2} purities of ~88%. The energy requirements for cycles using steam desorption are dominated by needs for thermal input, which results in lower costs than energy input in the form of electricity. Cyclic processes with operational costs of less than $100 tCO{sub 2}-net were described, and these results point to process and material improvements that could substantially reduce these costs. The most critical conclusions from our work are that (i) CO{sub 2} capture from ambient air using moderate temperature cyclic adsorption processes is technically feasible and (ii) the operational costs of realistic versions of these processes are moderate enough to encourage future development of this technology. Because of the very modest net investment that has been made in R&D associated with this approach from all sources worldwide (relative to the massive public and private investment that has been made in technologies for CO{sub 2} from concentrated point sources), our results strongly suggest that continued development of air capture is justified.

Sholl, David; Jones, Christopher

2013-03-13T23:59:59.000Z

176

NETL: SO2-Resistent Immobilized Amine Sorbents for CO2 Capture  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Post-Combustion CO2 Emissions Control Post-Combustion CO2 Emissions Control SO2-Resistent Immobilized Amine Sorbents for CO2 Capture Project No.: DE-FE0001780 DOE is partnering with the University of Akron (Akron) to conduct research and training to develop an effective solid amine sorbent for large scale post-combustion CO2 capture from power plant flue gas. Sorbent materials developed by Akron consist of immobilized carbon and hydrogen structures (paraffin) distributed inside of the amine pores and aromatic amines located on the external surface and the pore mouth of the sorbent. The immobilized paraffinic amines have been shown to display excellent CO2 capture capacity by adsorbing CO2 at temperatures below 55 °C and releasing it at temperatures between 80-120 °C. This effort will focus on increasing scientific understanding of the chemical and physical principles affecting amines deposited on a series of porous solids that generally have large pore space, high surface area, and/or high thermal conductivity.

177

Amino Acid-Functionalized Ionic Liquid Solid Sorbents for Post-Combustion Carbon Capture  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Amino Acid-Functionalized Ionic Liquid Solid Sorbents for Post-Combustion Carbon Capture ... Amino acid ionic liquids (AAILs) are potential green substitutes of aqueous amine solutions for carbon dioxide (CO2) capture. ... However, the viscous nature of AAILs greatly hinders their further development in CO2 capture applications. ...

Xianfeng Wang; Novruz G. Akhmedov; Yuhua Duan; David Luebke; David Hopkinson; Bingyun Li

2013-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

178

Screening Evaluation of Alternate Sorbents and Methods for Strontium and Actinide Removal from Alkaline Salt Solution  

SciTech Connect

This report describes results from screening tests evaluating strontium and actinide removal characteristics of three different titanium-containing sorbents, crystalline silicotitanate (CST) manufactured by UPO, SrTreat(R) offered by Fortum Engineering, sodium nonatitanate developed by Clearfield and coworkers at Texas A and M University and offered commercially by Honeywell. We also report results from an alternate removal method, coprecipitation.

Hobbs, D.T.

2001-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

179

A Regenerable Calcium-Based Core-in-Shell Sorbent for Desulfurizing Hot Coal Gas  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Other materials used in the sorbent formulations included reagent-grade calcium carbonate from the Fisher Co. and calcium sulfate hemihydrate obtained as commercial-grade plaster of Paris. ... Once coated, the pellets were allowed to tumble for 2.0 h to consolidate the coating. ...

T. T. Akiti, Jr.; K. P. Constant; L. K. Doraiswamy; T. D. Wheelock

2002-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

180

Microporous Metal Organic Materials: Promising Candidates as Sorbents for Hydrogen Storage  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Microporous Metal Organic Materials: Promising Candidates as Sorbents for Hydrogen Storage Long Pan coordination structures represent a promising new entry to the field of hydrogen storage materials.2 To fully that effectively store hydrogen are needed for use in fuel cell powered vehicles. Among the various candidate

Li, Jing

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dry sorbent injection" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
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181

Activated Carbon Injection  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

History of the Clean Air Act and how the injection of carbon into a coal power plant's flu smoke can reduce the amount of mercury in the smoke.

None

2014-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

182

Underground Injection Control (Louisiana)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The Injection and Mining Division (IMD) has the responsibility of implementing two major federal environmental programs which were statutorily charged to the Office of Conservation: the Underground...

183

NEUTRAL-BEAM INJECTION  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

energy, coming from an electron source, are injected intodischarges. In an electron bombardment source electrons ofsimply called electron bombardment sources (Kaufman, 1974).

Kunkel, W.B.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

Activated Carbon Injection  

SciTech Connect

History of the Clean Air Act and how the injection of carbon into a coal power plant's flu smoke can reduce the amount of mercury in the smoke.

None

2014-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

185

Uranium Sequestration via Phosphate Infiltration/Injection Test...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

- Immediate sequestration - Stable mineral form * Apatite formation - Sorbent for uranium - Conversion to autunite 5 Advantages of Phosphate Technology * Direct treatment...

186

A Low Cost, High Capacity Regenerable Sorbent for Pre-combustion CO{sub 2} Capture  

SciTech Connect

The overall objective of the proposed research is to develop a low cost, high capacity CO{sub 2} sorbent and demonstrate its technical and economic viability for pre-combustion CO{sub 2} capture. The specific objectives supporting our research plan were to optimize the chemical structure and physical properties of the sorbent, scale-up its production using high throughput manufacturing equipment and bulk raw materials and then evaluate its performance, first in bench-scale experiments and then in slipstream tests using actual coal-derived synthesis gas. One of the objectives of the laboratory-scale evaluations was to demonstrate the life and durability of the sorbent for over 10,000 cycles and to assess the impact of contaminants (such as sulfur) on its performance. In the field tests, our objective was to demonstrate the operation of the sorbent using actual coal-derived synthesis gas streams generated by air-blown and oxygen-blown commercial and pilot-scale coal gasifiers (the CO{sub 2} partial pressure in these gas streams is significantly different, which directly impacts the operating conditions hence the performance of the sorbent). To support the field demonstration work, TDA collaborated with Phillips 66 and Southern Company to carry out two separate field tests using actual coal-derived synthesis gas at the Wabash River IGCC Power Plant in Terre Haute, IN and the National Carbon Capture Center (NCCC) in Wilsonville, AL. In collaboration with the University of California, Irvine (UCI), a detailed engineering and economic analysis for the new CO{sub 2} capture system was also proposed to be carried out using Aspen PlusTM simulation software, and estimate its effect on the plant efficiency.

Alptekin, Gokhan

2012-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

187

Desulfurization behavior of iron-based sorbent with MgO and TiO{sub 2} additive in hot coal gas  

SciTech Connect

The sulfidation behaviors of iron-based sorbent with MgO and MgO-TiO{sub 2} are studied under different isothermal conditions from 623 to 873 K in a fixed bed reactor. The results of sorbents sulfidation experiments indicate that the sorbents with MgO and TiO{sub 2} additives are more attractive than those without additives for desulfurization of hot coal gas. The sulfur capacity (16.17, 18.45, and 19.68 g S/100 g sorbent) of M1F, M3F, and M5F sorbent containing 1, 3, and 5% MgO, respectively, is obviously bigger than that (15.02 g S/100 g sorbent) of M0F without additive. The feasible sulfidation temperature range for M3F sorbent is 773-873 K. The M3F sorbent is optimally regenerated at the temperature of 873 K, under the gas containing 2% oxygen, 15% steam and N{sub 2}, in the space velocity of 2500 h{sup -1}. The sorbent regenerated is also well performed in the second sulfidation (the effective sulfur capacities of 17.98 g S/100 g sorbents and the efficiency of removal sulfur of 99%). The capacity to remove sulfur decreases with steam content increasing in feeding gas from 0 to 10%, but it can restrain the formation of carbon and iron carbide. The addition of TiO{sub 2} in sorbent can shift the optimal sulfidation temperature lower. The iron-based sorbent with 3% MgO and 10% TiO{sub 2} (MFT) is active to the deep removal of H{sub 2}S and COS, especially in the temperature range of 673-723 K. The sulfur removal capacity of MFT sorbent is 21.60 g S/100 g sorbent. 16 refs., 12 figs., 8 tabs.

Weiren Bao; Zong-you Zhang; Xiu-rong Ren; Fan Li; Li-ping Chang [Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan (China). Key Laboratory of Coal Science and Technology

2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

188

Cross-flow, filter-sorbent catalyst for particulate, SO sub 2 and NO sub x control  

SciTech Connect

This report describes work performed on a new concept for integrated pollutant control: a cross-flow filter comprised of layered, gas permeable membranes that act as a particle filter, an SO {sub 2} sorbent, and a NO {sub x} reduction catalyst. One critical element of the R D program is the development of mixed metal oxide materials that serve as combined SO {sub 2} sorbents and NO {sub x} reduction catalysts. In this seventh quarterly progress report, we summarize the performance characteristics of three promising sorbent/catalyst materials tested in powder form.

Benedek, K. (Little (Arthur D.), Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States)); Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, M. (Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States))

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

189

Evaluation of Solid Sorbents as a Retrofit Technology for CO2 Capture from Coal-Fired Power Plants  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Solid Sorbents as a Solid Sorbents as a Retrofit Technology for CO 2 Capture from Coal-fired Power Plants Background Retrofitting the current fleet of pulverized coal (PC)-fired power plants for the separation and sequestration of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) is one of the most significant challenges for effective, long-term carbon management. Post-combustion CO 2 capture using solid-sorbent based technologies is a potential resolution to this challenge that could be appropriate for both new and existing PC-fired power plant

190

Storage capacity in hot dry rock reservoirs  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of extracting thermal energy, in a cyclic manner, from geologic strata which may be termed hot dry rock. A reservoir comprised of hot fractured rock is established and water or other liquid is passed through the reservoir. The water is heated by the hot rock, recovered from the reservoir, cooled by extraction of heat by means of heat exchange apparatus on the surface, and then re-injected into the reservoir to be heated again. Water is added to the reservoir by means of an injection well and recovered from the reservoir by means of a production well. Water is continuously provided to the reservoir and continuously withdrawn from the reservoir at two different flow rates, a base rate and a peak rate. Increasing water flow from the base rate to the peak rate is accomplished by rapidly decreasing backpressure at the outlet of the production well in order to meet periodic needs for amounts of thermal energy greater than a baseload amount, such as to generate additional electric power to meet peak demands. The rate of flow of water provided to the hot dry rock reservoir is maintained at a value effective to prevent depletion of the liquid

Brown, Donald W. (Los Alamos, NM)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

Drying of fiber webs  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process and an apparatus are disclosed for high-intensity drying of fiber webs or sheets, such as newsprint, printing and writing papers, packaging paper, and paperboard or linerboard, as they are formed on a paper machine. The invention uses direct contact between the wet fiber web or sheet and various molten heat transfer fluids, such as liquefied eutectic metal alloys, to impart heat at high rates over prolonged durations, in order to achieve ambient boiling of moisture contained within the web. The molten fluid contact process causes steam vapor to emanate from the web surface, without dilution by ambient air; and it is differentiated from the evaporative drying techniques of the prior industrial art, which depend on the uses of steam-heated cylinders to supply heat to the paper web surface, and ambient air to carry away moisture, which is evaporated from the web surface. Contact between the wet fiber web and the molten fluid can be accomplished either by submersing the web within a molten bath or by coating the surface of the web with the molten media. Because of the high interfacial surface tension between the molten media and the cellulose fiber comprising the paper web, the molten media does not appreciatively stick to the paper after it is dried. Steam generated from the paper web is collected and condensed without dilution by ambient air to allow heat recovery at significantly higher temperature levels than attainable in evaporative dryers. 6 figs.

Warren, D.W.

1997-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

192

High-Resolution Simulations of Coal Injection in A Gasifier  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

High-Resolution Simulations of Coal Injection in A Gasifier ... The shrinkage of the coal particles because of devolatilization and drying was ignored, and a single mean particle size was used. ... Simulations with three different grid resolutions were conducted (denoted by coarse, medium, and fine). ...

Tingwen Li; Aytekin Gel; Madhava Syamlal; Chris Guenther; Sreekanth Pannala

2010-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

193

Novel sorbents for removal of gadolinium-based contrast agents in sorbent dialysis and hemoperfusion: preventive approaches to nephrogenic systemic fibrosis  

SciTech Connect

Gd based contrast agents in many forms of organocomplex have recently been linked to a debilitating and a potentially fatal skin disease called Nephrogenic Systemic Fibrosis (NSF) in patients with renal failures. Free Gd released from the complexes by transmetallation is believed to be the most important trigger for NSF. Removal of Gd complex from the patients immediately after the contrast study would prevent the dissociation of Gd and should eliminate NSF as a complication. Although removal of Gd based contrast agents may be accomplished with conventional hemodialysis, it requires three hemodialysis sessions at 3 hours each to remove 98% of the contrast agents. In this work, mesoporous silica material that are functionalized with 1-hydroxy-2-pyridinone (1,2-HOPO-SAMMS) has been evaluated for effective removal of both free and chelated Gd (Magnevist, a brand of gadopentetate dimeglumine) from the dialysate and sodium chloride solution. The material has high affinity, rapid removal rate, and large sorption capacity for both free and chelated Gd, the properties that are far superior to those of activated carbon and zirconium phosphate currently used in the state-of-the-art sorbent dialysis systems. 99% of both free and chelated Gd would be removed in a single pass thru the sorbent bed of 1,2-HOPO-SAMMS. The sorbent provides an effective and predicable strategy for removing Gd from patients with impaired renal function, thus it would allow for the continued use of contrast MRI while removing the risk of NSF and would represent a safe alternative to traditional contrast studies in the patient population.

Yantasee, Wassana; Fryxell, Glen E.; Porter, George A.; Pattamakomsan, Kanda; Sukwarotwat, Vichaya; Chouyyok, Wilaiwan; Koonsiripaiboon, View; Xu, Jide; Raymond, Kenneth N.

2010-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

194

A Study of the Zn-based Desulfurization Sorbents for H2S Removal in the IGCC  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Recently, the possibility for the simultaneous removal of H2S and NH3...on the ZnTi-based sorbents has been tested by various researchers using several additives like Co, Ni, Fe, Mo and ... W. However, the resea...

Suk Yong Jung; Soo Chool Lee; Hee Kwon Jun; Jae Chang Kim

2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

Sorbent selection and design considerations for uranium trapping. [H-151 alumina, XF-100 alumina, F-1 alumina, sodium fluoride  

SciTech Connect

The efficient removal of UF/sub 6/ from effluent streams can be accomplished through the selection of the best solid sorbent and the implementation of good design principles. Pressure losses, sorbent capacity, reaction kinetics, sorbent regeneration/uranium recovery requirements and the effects of other system components are the performance factors which are summarized. The commonly used uranium trapping materials highlighted are sodium fluoride, H-151 alumina, XF-100 alumina, and F-1 alumina. Sorbent selection and trap design have to be made on a case-by-case basis but the theoretical modeling studies and the evaluation of the performance factors presented can be used as a guide for other chemical trap applications.

Schultz, R.M.; Hobbs, W.E.; Norton, J.L.; Stephenson, M.J.

1981-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

196

Boron nitride nanotubes as novel sorbent for solid-phase microextraction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in environmental water samples  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Boron nitride nanotube (BNNT) is a novel material that shows potential ability in capturing organic pollutants. In this study, BNNTs fixed on a stainless steel fiber bya solgel technique were used as sorbent fo...

Meizhen Fu; Hanzhu Xing; Xiangfeng Chen

2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

Regeneration of carboxylic acid-laden basic sorbents by leaching with a volatile base in an organic solvent  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Carboxylic acids are sorbed from aqueous feedstocks onto a solid adsorbent. The acids are freed from the sorbent phase by treating it with an organic solution of alkylamine thus forming an alkylamine/carboxylic acid complex which is decomposed with improved efficiency to the desired carboxylic acid and the alkylamine. Carbon dioxide addition can be used to improve the adsorption or the carboxylic acids by the solid phase sorbent.

King, C. Judson (Kensington, CA); Husson, Scott M. (Berkeley, CA)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

Method of drying articles  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of drying a green particulate article includes the steps of: a. Providing a green article which includes a particulate material and a pore phase material, the pore phase material including a solvent; and b. contacting the green article with a liquid desiccant for a period of time sufficient to remove at least a portion of the solvent from the green article, the pore phase material acting as a semipermeable barrier to allow the solvent to be sorbed into the liquid desiccant, the pore phase material substantially preventing the liquid desiccant from entering the pores.

Janney, Mark A. (Knoxville, TN); Kiggans, Jr., James O. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

Method of drying articles  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of drying a green particulate article includes the steps of: (a) Providing a green article which includes a particulate material and a pore phase material, the pore phase material including a solvent; and (b) contacting the green article with a liquid desiccant for a period of time sufficient to remove at least a portion of the solvent from the green article, the pore phase material acting as a semipermeable barrier to allow the solvent to be sorbed into the liquid desiccant, the pore phase material substantially preventing the liquid desiccant from entering the pores. 3 figs.

Janney, M.A.; Kiggans, J.O. Jr.

1999-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

200

Injection-Induced Earthquakes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...injected into the reservoir under high pressure...core samples of the reservoir rocks and in situ determination...fracture-dominated porosity of less than 6...Implications for reservoir fracture permeability . AAPG Bull. 93...

William L. Ellsworth

2013-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dry sorbent injection" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Premixed direct injection disk  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A fuel/air mixing disk for use in a fuel/air mixing combustor assembly is provided. The disk includes a first face, a second face, and at least one fuel plenum disposed therebetween. A plurality of fuel/air mixing tubes extend through the pre-mixing disk, each mixing tube including an outer tube wall extending axially along a tube axis and in fluid communication with the at least one fuel plenum. At least a portion of the plurality of fuel/air mixing tubes further includes at least one fuel injection hole have a fuel injection hole diameter extending through said outer tube wall, the fuel injection hole having an injection angle relative to the tube axis. The invention provides good fuel air mixing with low combustion generated NOx and low flow pressure loss translating to a high gas turbine efficiency, that is durable, and resistant to flame holding and flash back.

York, William David; Ziminsky, Willy Steve; Johnson, Thomas Edward; Lacy, Benjamin; Zuo, Baifang; Uhm, Jong Ho

2013-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

202

Injection Laser System  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Injection Laser System For each of NIF's 192 beams: The pulse shape as a function of time must be generated with a high degree of precision The energy delivered to the target must...

203

Assessment of sorbent reactivation by water hydration for fluidized bed combustion application  

SciTech Connect

Disposal of fluidized bed combustion (FBC) solid residues currently represents one of the major issues in FBC design and operation, and contributes significantly to its operating cost. This issue has triggered research activities on the enhancement of sorbent utilization for in situ sulfur removal. The present study addresses the effectiveness of the reactivation by liquid water hydration of FB spent sorbents. Two materials are considered in the study, namely the bottom ash from the operation of a full-scale utility FB boiler and the raw commercial limestone used in the same boiler. Hydration-reactivation tests were carried out at temperatures of 40{sup o}C and 80{sup o}C and for curing times ranging from 15 minutes to 2d, depending on the sample. The influence of hydration conditions on the enhancement of sulfur utilization has been assessed. A combination of methods has been used to characterize the properties of liquid water-hydrated materials

Fabio Montagnaro; Piero Salatino; Fabrizio Scala; Yinghai Wu; Edward J. Anthony; Lufei Jia [Universita degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, Complesso Universitario del Monte di Sant'Angelo, Naples (Italy). Dipartimento di Chimica

2006-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

204

Tevatron injection timing  

SciTech Connect

Bunched beam transfer from one accelerator to another requires coordination and synchronization of many ramped devices. During collider operation timing issues are more complicated since one has to switch from proton injection devices to antiproton injection devices. Proton and antiproton transfers are clearly distinct sequences since protons and antiprotons circulate in opposite directions in the Main Ring (MR) and in the Tevatron. The time bumps are different, the kicker firing delays are different, the kickers and lambertson magnets are different, etc. Antiprotons are too precious to be used for tuning purposes, therefore protons are transferred from the Tevatron back into the Main Ring, tracing the path of antiprotons backwards. This tuning operation is called ``reverse injection.`` Previously, the reverse injection was handled in one supercycle. One batch of uncoalesced bunches was injected into the Tevatron and ejected after 40 seconds. Then the orbit closure was performed in the MR. In the new scheme the lambertson magnets have to be moved and separator polarities have to be switched, activities that cannot be completed in one supercycle. Therefore, the reverse injection sequence was changed. This involved the redefinition of TVBS clock event $D8 as MRBS $D8 thus making it possible to inject 6 proton batches (or coalesced bunches) and eject them one at a time on command, performing orbit closure each time in the MR. Injection devices are clock event driven. The TCLK is used as the reference clock. Certain TCLK events are triggered by the MR beam synchronized clock (MRBS) events. Some delays are measured in terms of MRBS ticks and MR revolutions. See Appendix A for a brief description of the beam synchronized clocks.

Saritepe, S.; Annala, G.

1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

Dry reforming of hydrocarbon feedstocks  

SciTech Connect

Developments in catalyst technology for the dry reforming of hydrocarbon feedstocks are reviewed for methane, higher hydrocarbons and alcohols. Thermodynamics, mechanisms and the kinetics of dry reforming are also reviewed. The literature on Ni catalysts, bi-metallic Ni catalysts and the role of promoters on Ni catalysts is critically evaluated. The use of noble and transitional metal catalysts for dry reforming is discussed. The application of solid oxide and metal carbide catalysts to dry reforming is also evaluated. Finally, various mechanisms for catalyst deactivation are assessed. This review also examines the various process related issues associated with dry reforming such as its application and heat optimization. Novel approaches such as supercritical dry reforming and microwave assisted dry reforming are briefly expanded upon.

Shah, Yatish T. [Norfolk State University; Gardner, Todd H. [U.S. DOE

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

CO2 Capture from Flue Gas Using SOlid Molecular Basket Sorbents  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

from Flue Gas Using Solid from Flue Gas Using Solid Molecular Basket Sorbents Background The mission of the U.S. Department of Energy/National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL) Existing Plants, Emissions & Capture (EPEC) Research & Development (R&D) Program is to develop innovative environmental control technologies to enable full use of the nation's vast coal reserves, while at the same time allowing the current fleet of coal-

207

XAFS Investigation of Mercury Sorption on Carbon-based and Other Sorbent Materials  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The sorption of mercury from simulated coal combustion flue gases on coal-derived chars, activated carbons, and zeolites has been examined using mercury LIII XAFS spectroscopy. The energy difference between the two inflection points (IPD) in the mercury XANES spectra has been shown to be a sensitive indicator of the local structure around the mercury adsorbed on the sorbent. The value of the IPD appears to reflect the form of mercury added to the flue gas and to be sensitive to acidic gaseous species such as HCl and H2SO4 that may be present in the flue gas, whether from addition to the flue gas or from the sulfur and chlorine in the coal. The data suggest that well-defined mercury species are not formed on carbon-based sorbents, but rather the structure and chemistry of the sorbed mercury species reflect the different anionic species present in the flue gas, as well as any activating element on the sorbent itself.

Frank E. Huggins; Nora Yap; Gerald P. Huffman

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

Investigation of combined SO{sub 2}/NO{sub x} removal by ceria sorbents. Quarterly technical progress report, [April--June 1995  

SciTech Connect

Simultaneous removal of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} using a regenerable solid sorbent will constitute an important improvement over the use of separate processes for the removal of these two pollutants from stack gases and possibly eliminate several shortcomings of the individual SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} removal operations. Recent studies at PETC considered cerium oxide as an alternate sorbent to CuO. The present study aims to determine the effects of ammonia on the sulfation of the sorbent and to obtain a rate expression for the regeneration of alumina-supported CeO{sub 2} sorbents. In this quarter runs for methane regeneration were completed. The data obtained were evaluated and interpreted. When the sulfated sorbent was regenerated with methane coke formation on the sorbent was observed. Treatment of fresh sorbent with methane also resulted in coking. Coke formed on the sorbent disappeared very rapidly after the methane flow was replaced with nitrogen. The order of the regeneration reaction with respect to methane was estimated as 0:76 and the activation energy of the reaction was estimated as 130 kJ/mol. During repeated sulfation-regeneration cycles the decrease in the sulfur capacity after the first cycle was slightly more when regeneration was done with methane compared to that observed with hydrogen regeneration. In the subsequent 4 cycles, the ceria sorbent preserved its sulfur capacity. The regenerated sorbent was able to capture 1.5 sulfur atoms per cerium atom in less than an hour of sulfation, compared to S/Ce of 2.5 for fresh sorbents and 2 for sorbents regenerated with hydrogen.

Akyurtlu, A.; Akyurtlu, J.F.

1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

209

Draft dry year tools (generation/planning)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Generation > Planning > Generation Hydro Power Wind Power Monthly GSP BPA White Book Dry Year Tools Firstgov Dry Year Tools November 9, 2006 - Final Dry Year Guide: The Final Dry...

210

Optimization of Injection Scheduling in  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

SGP-TR-I12 Optimization of Injection Scheduling in Geothermal Fields James Lovekin May 1987&injection optimization problem is broke$ into two subpmbkm:(1) choosing a configuration of injectorsfrom an existing set is defined as the fieldwide break- through lindex, B. Injection is optimized by choosing injection wells

Stanford University

211

Solar drying of seafood products  

SciTech Connect

The solar drying of seafood products by forced air convection and by direct insolation, as well as hot smoking fish with a solar assisted fish smoker are investigated.

Baird, C.D.; Deng, J.C.; Chau, K.V.; Heinis, J.J.; Perez, M.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

Injection-Induced Earthquakes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...sounds safe enough. But if the deep aquifer system was originally underpressured...directed toward protection of potable aquifers by requiring injection into formations...much smaller magnitudes. The largest fracking-induced earthquakes (24, 26) have all been below the damage...

William L. Ellsworth

2013-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

213

Trona Injection Tests: Mirant Potomac River Station, Unit 1, November 12 to  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Trona Injection Tests: Mirant Potomac River Station, Unit 1, Trona Injection Tests: Mirant Potomac River Station, Unit 1, November 12 to December 23, 2005, Summary Report Trona Injection Tests: Mirant Potomac River Station, Unit 1, November 12 to December 23, 2005, Summary Report Docket No. EO-05-01: Trona injection tests were conducted at Mirant's Potomac River Station on Unit 1 between November 12 and December 23, 2005. The purpose of these tests was to determine the capability of dry injection of trona to achieve substantial SO2 removal from the stack discharge, and the determination of other operating impacts from he trona injection, if any. Trona Injection Tests: Mirant Potomac River Station, Unit 1, November 12 to December 23, 2005, Summary Report More Documents & Publications Special Environmental Analysis For Actions Taken under U.S. Department of

214

Theoretical calculating the thermodynamic properties of solid sorbents for CO{sub 2} capture applications  

SciTech Connect

Since current technologies for capturing CO{sub 2} to fight global climate change are still too energy intensive, there is a critical need for development of new materials that can capture CO{sub 2} reversibly with acceptable energy costs. Accordingly, solid sorbents have been proposed to be used for CO{sub 2} capture applications through a reversible chemical transformation. By combining thermodynamic database mining with first principles density functional theory and phonon lattice dynamics calculations, a theoretical screening methodology to identify the most promising CO{sub 2} sorbent candidates from the vast array of possible solid materials has been proposed and validated. The calculated thermodynamic properties of different classes of solid materials versus temperature and pressure changes were further used to evaluate the equilibrium properties for the CO{sub 2} adsorption/desorption cycles. According to the requirements imposed by the pre- and post- combustion technologies and based on our calculated thermodynamic properties for the CO{sub 2} capture reactions by the solids of interest, we were able to screen only those solid materials for which lower capture energy costs are expected at the desired pressure and temperature conditions. Only those selected CO{sub 2} sorbent candidates were further considered for experimental validations. The ab initio thermodynamic technique has the advantage of identifying thermodynamic properties of CO{sub 2} capture reactions without any experimental input beyond crystallographic structural information of the solid phases involved. Such methodology not only can be used to search for good candidates from existing database of solid materials, but also can provide some guidelines for synthesis new materials. In this presentation, we first introduce our screening methodology and the results on a testing set of solids with known thermodynamic properties to validate our methodology. Then, by applying our computational method to several different kinds of solid systems, we demonstrate that our methodology can predict the useful information to help developing CO{sub 2} capture Technologies.

Duan, Yuhua

2012-11-02T23:59:59.000Z

215

Theoretical Screening of Mixed Solid Sorbent for Applications to CO{sub 2} Capture Technology  

SciTech Connect

Since current technologies for capturing CO{sub 2} to fight global climate change are still too energy intensive, there is a critical need for development of new materials that can capture CO{sub 2} reversibly with acceptable energy costs. Accordingly, solid sorbents have been proposed to be used for CO{sub 2} capture applications through a reversible chemical transformation. By combining thermodynamic database mining with first principles density functional theory and phonon lattice dynamics calculations, a theoretical screening methodology to identify the most promising CO{sub 2} sorbent candidates from the vast array of possible solid materials has been proposed and validated. The calculated thermodynamic properties of different classes of solid materials versus temperature and pressure changes were further used to evaluate the equilibrium properties for the CO{sub 2} adsorption/desorption cycles. According to the requirements imposed by the pre- and post- combustion technologies and based on our calculated thermodynamic properties for the CO{sub 2} capture reactions by the solids of interest, we were able to screen only those solid materials for which lower capture energy costs are expected at the desired pressure and temperature conditions. Only those selected CO{sub 2} sorbent candidates were further considered for experimental validations. The ab initio thermodynamic technique has the advantage of identifying thermodynamic properties of CO{sub 2} capture reactions without any experimental input beyond crystallographic structural information of the solid phases involved. Such methodology not only can be used to search for good candidates from existing database of solid materials, but also can provide some guidelines for synthesis new materials. In this presentation, we apply our screening methodology to mixing solid systems to adjust the turnover temperature to help on developing CO{sub 2} capture Technologies.

Duan, Yuhua

2014-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

216

An attrition-resistant zinc titanate sorbent for sulfur. Final technical report, September 1, 1992--August 31, 1993  

SciTech Connect

In the continuing search for good sorbent materials to remove sulfur for hot, coal-derived gases, zinc titanate sorbents have shown great promise. The objective of this project was to extend the work of prior investigators by developing improvements in the compressive strength and, therefore, the cycle life of these sorbents while maintaining good chemical reactivity. Fifteen formulations were prepared and evaluated. The best properties were obtained by blending relatively course (two micron) ZnO and TiO{sub 2} powders to obtain a composition of 50%Zn{sub 2}TiO{sub 4}-50%TiO{sub 2}. When sintered at 1000{degrees}C, it had a compressive strength of 28 MPa or 147 N/mm, which is four times higher than values obtained by prior investigators. It also performed well in thermogravimetric analysis measurements of reactivity, both in screening tests and in simulated coal gas.

Swisher, J.H. [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering and Energy Processes

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

217

Molybdenum-based additives to mixed-metal oxides for use in hot gas cleanup sorbents for the catalytic decomposition of ammonia in coal gases  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention relates to additives to mixed-metal oxides that act simultaneously as sorbents and catalysts in cleanup systems for hot coal gases. Such additives of this type, generally, act as a sorbent to remove sulfur from the coal gases while substantially simultaneously, catalytically decomposing appreciable amounts of ammonia from the coal gases.

Ayala, Raul E. (Clifton Park, NY)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

218

LONG-TERM DEMONSTRATION OF SORBENT ENHANCEMENT ADDITIVE TECHNOLOGY FOR MERCURY CONTROL  

SciTech Connect

Long-term demonstration tests of advanced sorbent enhancement additive (SEA) technologies have been completed at five coal-fired power plants. The targeted removal rate was 90% from baseline conditions at all five stations. The plants included Hawthorn Unit 5, Mill Creek Unit 4, San Miguel Unit 1, Centralia Unit 2, and Hoot Lake Unit 2. The materials tested included powdered activated carbon, treated carbon, scrubber additives, and SEAs. In only one case (San Miguel) was >90% removal not attainable. The reemission of mercury from the scrubber at this facility prevented >90% capture.

Jason D. Laumb; Dennis L. Laudal; Grant E. Dunham; John P. Kay; Christopher L. Martin; Jeffrey S. Thompson; Nicholas B. Lentz; Alexander Azenkeng; Kevin C. Galbreath; Lucinda L. Hamre

2011-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

219

Theoretical Screening of Solid Sorbents for CO{sub 2} Capture  

SciTech Connect

By combining thermodynamic database searches with density functional theory and lattice phonon dynamics, a screening methodology was developed to identify promising solid sorbent candidates for CO{sub 2} capture. This methodology has been used to screen hundreds of solid compounds and some of the promising candidates to date have been reported in literature. This screening methodology is particularly relevant for the case of materials for which experimental thermodynamic data is not available. Such areas of interest are represented by the case of solid mixtures and doped materials, where thermodynamic data are generally not available but for which the crystallographic structure is known or can be easily determined.

Duan, Y [NETL; Sorescu, D C [NETL; Luebke, D [NETL; Morreale, B [NETL; Li, B Y; Zhang, B; Johnson, J K; Zhang, K; Li, X S; King, D

2013-04-11T23:59:59.000Z

220

Investigation of Dry and Near-Dry Electrical Discharge Milling Processes.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The dry and near-dry electrical discharge machining (EDM) processes are investigated in this research. Dry EDM uses gas to replace the liquid dielectric fluid in (more)

Tao, Jia

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dry sorbent injection" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Injection-controlled laser resonator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A new injection-controlled laser resonator incorporates self-filtering and self-imaging characteristics with an efficient injection scheme. A low-divergence laser signal is injected into the resonator, which enables the injection signal to be converted to the desired resonator modes before the main laser pulse starts. This injection technique and resonator design enable the laser cavity to improve the quality of the injection signal through self-filtering before the main laser pulse starts. The self-imaging property of the present resonator reduces the cavity induced diffraction effects and, in turn, improves the laser beam quality. 5 figs.

Chang, J.J.

1995-07-18T23:59:59.000Z

222

Surface characterizatin of palladium-alumina sorbents for high-temperature capture of mercury and arsenic from fuel gas  

SciTech Connect

Coal gasification with subsequent cleanup of the resulting fuel gas is a way to reduce the impact of mercury and arsenic in the environment during power generation and on downstream catalytic processes in chemical production, The interactions of mercury and arsenic with PdlAl2D3 model thin film sorbents and PdlAh03 powders have been studied to determine the relative affinities of palladium for mercury and arsenic, and how they are affected by temperature and the presence of hydrogen sulfide in the fuel gas. The implications of the results on strategies for capturing the toxic metals using a sorbent bed are discussed.

Baltrus, J.P.; Granite, E.J.; Pennline, H.W.; Stanko, D.; Hamilton, H.; Rowsell, L.; Poulston, S.; Smith, A.; Chu, W.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

Sorption kinetics for phenol and nitro-substituted toxic phenols from aqueous solution using clay as sorbent material  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This study examined the effectiveness of less-expensive sorbent clay in removing phenols from wastewater by sorption. Batch kinetic experiment showed that phenol and nitro-substituted phenols (o-, m- and p-) sorption on clay was rapid and equilibrium was achieved within 2 h. The kinetics of sorption was found to be of pseudo-second order reaction. The influences of various factors, such as particle size, pH, concentration and temperature on the sorption capacity have been studied. This study showed that clay could be used as an efficient sorbent material for the sorption of phenols from aqueous solution.

Preeti Sagar Nayak; B.K. Singh

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

224

Multi-phase CFD modeling of solid sorbent carbon capture system  

SciTech Connect

Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations are used to investigate a low temperature post-combustion carbon capture reactor. The CFD models are based on a small scale solid sorbent carbon capture reactor design from ADA-ES and Southern Company. The reactor is a fluidized bed design based on a silica-supported amine sorbent. CFD models using both EulerianEulerian and EulerianLagrangian multi-phase modeling methods are developed to investigate the hydrodynamics and adsorption of carbon dioxide in the reactor. Models developed in both FLUENT and BARRACUDA are presented to explore the strengths and weaknesses of state of the art CFD codes for modeling multi-phase carbon capture reactors. The results of the simulations show that the FLUENT EulerianLagrangian simulations (DDPM) are unstable for the given reactor design; while the BARRACUDA EulerianLagrangian model is able to simulate the system given appropriate simplifying assumptions. FLUENT EulerianEulerian simulations also provide a stable solution for the carbon capture reactor given the appropriate simplifying assumptions.

Ryan, E. M.; DeCroix, D.; Breault, Ronald W. [U.S. DOE; Xu, W.; Huckaby, E. David [U.S. DOE

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

Multi-Phase CFD Modeling of Solid Sorbent Carbon Capture System  

SciTech Connect

Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations are used to investigate a low temperature post-combustion carbon capture reactor. The CFD models are based on a small scale solid sorbent carbon capture reactor design from ADA-ES and Southern Company. The reactor is a fluidized bed design based on a silica-supported amine sorbent. CFD models using both Eulerian-Eulerian and Eulerian-Lagrangian multi-phase modeling methods are developed to investigate the hydrodynamics and adsorption of carbon dioxide in the reactor. Models developed in both FLUENT and BARRACUDA are presented to explore the strengths and weaknesses of state of the art CFD codes for modeling multi-phase carbon capture reactors. The results of the simulations show that the FLUENT Eulerian-Lagrangian simulations (DDPM) are unstable for the given reactor design; while the BARRACUDA Eulerian-Lagrangian model is able to simulate the system given appropriate simplifying assumptions. FLUENT Eulerian-Eulerian simulations also provide a stable solution for the carbon capture reactor given the appropriate simplifying assumptions.

Ryan, Emily M.; DeCroix, David; Breault, Ronald W.; Xu, Wei; Huckaby, E. D.; Saha, Kringan; Darteville, Sebastien; Sun, Xin

2013-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

226

NEWTON: Preventing Tire Dry Rot  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Preventing Tire Dry Rot Preventing Tire Dry Rot Name: Millard Status: student Grade: 9-12 Location: MD Country: USA Date: Spring 2013 Question: My dad has a classic car, and because it gets driven very little each year, the tires dry rot before he can get much tread wear on them. What could be used to protect the tires from dry rot and cracking? Replies: Hi Millard, Thanks for the question. I would recommend keeping the car on blocks so that there is no weight on the tires. Additionally, I would recommend that no electrical equipment (motors, switches, and other things that spark) be used around the car. The sparks generate ozone and ozone can cause rubber items such as tires, belts, and hoses to crack. I hope this helps. Please let me know if you have more questions. Thanks Jeff Grell

227

DRI Companies | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

DRI Companies DRI Companies Jump to: navigation, search Name DRI Companies Place Irvine, California Zip 92614 Sector Solar Product US-based residential and commercial installer of turnkey solar systems, through subsidiary iDRI Energy. Coordinates 41.837752°, -79.268594° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":41.837752,"lon":-79.268594,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

228

Sustaining dry surfaces under water  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Rough surfaces immersed under water remain practically dry if the liquid-solid contact is on roughness peaks, while the roughness valleys are filled with gas. Mechanisms that prevent water from invading the valleys are well studied. However, to remain practically dry under water, additional mechanisms need consideration. This is because trapped gas (e.g. air) in the roughness valleys can dissolve into the water pool, leading to invasion. Additionally, water vapor can also occupy the roughness valleys of immersed surfaces. If water vapor condenses, that too leads to invasion. These effects have not been investigated, and are critically important to maintain surfaces dry under water. In this work, we identify the critical roughness scale below which it is possible to sustain the vapor phase of water and/or trapped gases in roughness valleys - thus keeping the immersed surface dry. Theoretical predictions are consistent with molecular dynamics simulations and experiments.

Paul R. Jones; Xiuqing Hao; Eduardo R. Cruz-Chu; Konrad Rykaczewski; Krishanu Nandy; Thomas M. Schutzius; Kripa K. Varanasi; Constantine M. Megaridis; Jens H. Walther; Petros Koumoutsakos; Horacio D. Espinosa; Neelesh A. Patankar

2014-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

229

Low Cost Sorbent for Capturing CO{sub 2} Emissions Generated by Existing Coal-fired Power Plants  

SciTech Connect

TDA Research, Inc. has developed a novel sorbent based post-combustion CO{sub 2} removal technology. This low cost sorbent can be regenerated with low-pressure (ca. 1 atm) superheated steam without temperature swing or pressure-swing. The isothermal and isobaric operation is a unique and advantageous feature of this process. The objective of this project was to demonstrate the technical and economic merit of this sorbent based CO{sub 2} capture approach. Through laboratory, bench-scale and field testing we demonstrated that this technology can effectively and efficiently capture CO{sub 2} produced at an existing pulverized coal power plants. TDA Research, Inc is developing both the solid sorbent and the process designed around that material. This project addresses the DOE Program Goal to develop a capture technology that can be added to an existing or new coal fired power plant, and can capture 90% of the CO{sub 2} produced with the lowest possible increase in the cost of energy. .

Elliott, Jeannine

2013-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

230

Evaluation of hybrid polymer containing iron oxides as As(III) and As(V) sorbent for drinking water purification  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The objective of this paper was to evaluate the possibility of utilization of a novel hybrid polymer containing iron oxides as an arsenate and arsenite sorbent in water treatment. This material was primarily obtained as a by-product in the water de-ironing process by means of N-chlorosulfonamide polymers. The sorption properties of the hybrid polymer, including pH and coexisting ions influence on arsenic removal efficiency, were examined using kinetic and equilibrium experiments in a batch regime. In the column process, conducted with As-spiked natural water containing both As(III) and As(V), the breakthrough of the sorbent bed occurred after the solution amounting to about 4800 bed volumes passed through the column. The regeneration and re-use of the sorbent with NaOH and NaCl solution was also studied, indicating the possibility of repeated use of the sorbent with only a slight decrease in its sorptive properties for four cycles.

Daniel Oci?ski; Irena Jacukowicz-Sobala; Jerzy Raczyk; El?bieta Kocio?ek-Balawejder

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

Monodisperse porous polymer particles containing macrocyclic ether as a new class of sorbent for SR(II) separation  

SciTech Connect

Strontium{sup 90} is one of the typical fission products that may be found in high level liquid waste (HLLW). Separation of Sr{sup 90} prior to the vitrification is beneficial to the final treatment of solid radioactive waste. In this study, a new class of sorbent for Sr(II) was developed by loading the macrocyclic ether DtBuCH18C6 into the monodisperse porous polymer particles (MPPPs). The MPPPs are well-known as a promising chromatographic material due to the uniform particle size, porous morphology, good compatibility with organic extractants, and rigid matrix. The structure and micro-morphology of the sorbent particles were characterized. The adsorption behavior towards Sr(II) in HNO{sub 3} media was investigated by both batch and column experiments. High adsorption efficiency and selective separation of Sr(II) was obtained. The sorbent particles can be recycled for at least several times before obvious lose of the adsorption ability. This kind of sorbent possesses the potential to be used for strontium separation in radioactive liquid waste.

Leng, Yuxiao; Bai, Feifei [Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Faculty of Chemical Science and Engineering, China University of Petroleum, Beijing 100084 (China); Ye, Gang; Wei, Jichao; Wang, Jianchen; Chen, Jing [Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

Cross-flow, filter-sorbent catalyst for particulate, SO sub 2 and NO sub x control  

SciTech Connect

This synopsis describes a new concept for integrated pollutant control: a cross-flow filter comprised of layered, gas permeable membranes that act as a particulate filter, an SO{sub 2} sorbent, and a NO{sub x} reduction catalyst.

Not Available

1990-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

Nitrogen Control in Electric Arc Furnace Steelmaking by DRI (TRP 0009)  

SciTech Connect

Nitrogen is difficult to remove in electric arc furnace (EAF) steelmaking, requiring the use of more energy in the oxygen steelmaking route to produce low-nitrogen steel. The objective of this work was to determine if the injection of directly reduced iron (DRI) fines into EAFs could reduce the nitrogen content by creating fine carbon monoxide bubbles that rinse nitrogen from the steel. The proposed work included physical and chemical characterization of DRI fines, pilot-scale injection into steel, and mathematical modeling to aid in scale-up of the process. Unfortunately, the pilot-scale injections were unsuccessful, but some full-scale data was obtained. Therefore, the original objectives were met, and presented in the form of recommendations to EAF steelmakers regarding: (1) The best composition and size of DRI fines to use; (2) The amount of DRI fines required to achieve a specific reduction in nitrogen content in the steel; and (3) The injection conditions. This information may be used by steelmakers in techno-economic assessments of the cost of reducing nitrogen with this technology.

Dr. Gordon A. Irons

2004-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

234

Dry cleaning of Turkish coal  

SciTech Connect

This study dealt with the upgrading of two different type of Turkish coal by a dry cleaning method using a modified air table. The industrial size air table used in this study is a device for removing stones from agricultural products. This study investigates the technical and economical feasibility of the dry cleaning method which has never been applied before on coals in Turkey. The application of a dry cleaning method on Turkish coals designated for power generation without generating environmental pollution and ensuring a stable coal quality are the main objectives of this study. The size fractions of 5-8, 3-5, and 1-3 mm of the investigated coals were used in the upgrading experiments. Satisfactory results were achieved with coal from the Soma region, whereas the upgrading results of Hsamlar coal were objectionable for the coarser size fractions. However, acceptable results were obtained for the size fraction 1-3 mm of Hsamlar coal.

Cicek, T. [Dokuz Eylul University, Izmir (Turkey). Faculty of Engineering

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

235

Premixed direct injection nozzle  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An injection nozzle having a main body portion with an outer peripheral wall is disclosed. The nozzle includes a plurality of fuel/air mixing tubes disposed within the main body portion and a fuel flow passage fluidly connected to the plurality of fuel/air mixing tubes. Fuel and air are partially premixed inside the plurality of the tubes. A second body portion, having an outer peripheral wall extending between a first end and an opposite second end, is connected to the main body portion. The partially premixed fuel and air mixture from the first body portion gets further mixed inside the second body portion. The second body portion converges from the first end toward said second end. The second body portion also includes cooling passages that extend along all the walls around the second body to provide thermal damage resistance for occasional flame flash back into the second body.

Zuo, Baifang (Simpsonville, SC); Johnson, Thomas Edward (Greer, SC); Lacy, Benjamin Paul (Greer, SC); Ziminsky, Willy Steve (Simpsonville, SC)

2011-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

236

Sorbents for High Temperature Removal of Arsenic from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Gokhan O. Alptekin, PhD Robert Copeland, PhD Gokhan O. Alptekin, PhD Robert Copeland, PhD (Primary Contact) TDA Research, Inc TDA Research, Inc 12345 W. 52 nd Avenue 12345 W. 52 nd Avenue Wheat Ridge, CO 80033 Wheat Ridge, CO 80033 Email: copeland@tda.com Email: galptekin@tda.com Tel: (303) 940-2323 Tel: (303) 940-2349 Fax: (303) 422-7763 Fax: (303) 422-7763 Margarita Dubovik Yevgenia Gershanovich TDA Research, Inc TDA Research, Inc 12345 W. 52 nd Avenue 12345 W. 52 nd Avenue Wheat Ridge, CO 80033 Wheat Ridge, CO 80033 Email: dubovik@tda.com Email: ygershan@tda.com Tel: (303) 940-2316 Tel: (303) 940-2346 Fax: (303) 422-7763 Fax: (303) 422-7763 Sorbents for High Temperature Removal of Arsenic from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas

237

Development of Fly Ash Derived Sorbents to Capture CO2 from Flue Gas of Power Plants  

SciTech Connect

This research program focused on the development of fly ash derived sorbents to capture CO{sub 2} from power plant flue gas emissions. The fly ash derived sorbents developed represent an affordable alternative to existing methods using specialized activated carbons and molecular sieves, that tend to be very expensive and hinder the viability of the CO{sub 2} sorption process due to economic constraints. Under Task 1 'Procurement and characterization of a suite of fly ashes', 10 fly ash samples, named FAS-1 to -10, were collected from different combustors with different feedstocks, including bituminous coal, PRB coal and biomass. These samples presented a wide range of LOI value from 0.66-84.0%, and different burn-off profiles. The samples also spanned a wide range of total specific surface area and pore volume. These variations reflect the difference in the feedstock, types of combustors, collection hopper, and the beneficiation technologies the different fly ashes underwent. Under Task 2 'Preparation of fly ash derived sorbents', the fly ash samples were activated by steam. Nitrogen adsorption isotherms were used to characterize the resultant activated samples. The cost-saving one-step activation process applied was successfully used to increase the surface area and pore volume of all the fly ash samples. The activated samples present very different surface areas and pore volumes due to the range in physical and chemical properties of their precursors. Furthermore, one activated fly ash sample, FAS-4, was loaded with amine-containing chemicals (MEA, DEA, AMP, and MDEA). The impregnation significantly decreased the surface area and pore volume of the parent activated fly ash sample. Under Task 3 'Capture of CO{sub 2} by fly ash derived sorbents', sample FAS-10 and its deashed counterpart before and after impregnation of chemical PEI were used for the CO{sub 2} adsorption at different temperatures. The sample FAS-10 exhibited a CO{sub 2} adsorption capacity of 17.5mg/g at 30 C, and decreases to 10.25mg/g at 75 C, while those for de-ashed counterpart are 43.5mg/g and 22.0 mg/g at 30 C and 75 C, respectively. After loading PEI, the CO{sub 2} adsorption capacity increased to 93.6 mg/g at 75 C for de-ashed sample and 62.1 mg/g at 75 C for raw fly ash sample. The activated fly ash, FAS-4, and its chemical loaded counterparts were tested for CO{sub 2} capture capacity. The activated carbon exhibited a CO{sub 2} adsorption capacity of 40.3mg/g at 30 C that decreased to 18.5mg/g at 70 C and 7.7mg/g at 120 C. The CO{sub 2} adsorption capacity profiles changed significantly after impregnation. For the MEA loaded sample the capacity increased to 68.6mg/g at 30 C. The loading of MDEA and DEA initially decreased the CO{sub 2} adsorption capacity at 30 C compared to the parent sample but increased to 40.6 and 37.1mg/g, respectively, when the temperature increased to 70 C. The loading of AMP decrease the CO{sub 2} adsorption capacity compared to the parent sample under all the studied temperatures. Under Task 4 'Comparison of the CO{sub 2} capture by fly ash derived sorbents with commercial sorbents', the CO{sub 2} adsorption capacities of selected activated fly ash carbons were compared to commercial activated carbons. The CO{sub 2} adsorption capacity of fly ash derived activated carbon, FAS-4, and its chemical loaded counterpart presented CO{sub 2} capture capacities close to 7 wt%, which are comparable to, and even better than, the published values of 3-4%.

M. Mercedes Maroto-Valer; John M. Andresen; Yinzhi Zhang; Zhe Lu

2003-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

238

Underground Injection Control Rule (Vermont)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This rule regulates injection wells, including wells used by generators of hazardous or radioactive wastes, disposal wells within an underground source of drinking water, recovery of geothermal...

239

Underground Injection Control Regulations (Kansas)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This article prohibits injection of hazardous or radioactive wastes into or above an underground source of drinking water, establishes permit conditions and states regulations for design,...

240

Injectivity Test | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Injectivity Test Injectivity Test Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Technique: Injectivity Test Details Activities (7) Areas (6) Regions (0) NEPA(1) Exploration Technique Information Exploration Group: Downhole Techniques Exploration Sub Group: Well Testing Techniques Parent Exploration Technique: Well Testing Techniques Information Provided by Technique Lithology: Stratigraphic/Structural: Hydrological: Permeability of the well Thermal: Dictionary.png Injectivity Test: A well testing technique conducted upon completion of a well. Water is pumped into the well at a constant rate until a stable pressure is reached then the pump is turned off and the rate at which pressure decreases is measured. The pressure measurements are graphed and well permeability can

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dry sorbent injection" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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241

Cool, Dry, Quiet Dehumidification with  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. Representative dehumidification increase using Trane CDQ dehumidification system Standard HVAC coil - 20% latent dehumidification system as the best new HVAC dehumidification product for 2006. #12;Trane CDQTM (Cool Dry Quiet, supply fan, cooling coil, optional reheat coil, optional final filters. A CDQ system in a Custom Climate

Oak Ridge National Laboratory

242

Impingement drying of potato chips  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Superheated steam impingement drying was used as an alternative technique to develop nutritious fat-free potato chips. The effect of superheated steam temperature (115, 130, and 145 C) and convective heat transfer coefficient (100 and 160 W/m C...

Caixeta, Aline Teixeira

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

243

THE DIRT ON DRY MERGERS  

SciTech Connect

Using data from the Spitzer Space Telescope, we analyze the mid-infrared (3-70 {mu}m) spectral energy distributions of dry merger candidates in the Booetes field of the NOAO Deep Wide-Field Survey. These candidates were selected by previous authors to be luminous, red, early-type galaxies with morphological evidence of recent tidal interactions. We find that a significant fraction of these candidates exhibit 8 and 24 {mu}m excesses compared to expectations for old stellar populations. We estimate that a quarter of dry merger candidates have mid-infrared-derived star formation rates greater than {approx}1 M{sub sun} yr{sup -1}. This represents a 'frosting' on top of a large old stellar population, and has been seen in previous studies of elliptical galaxies. Further, the dry merger candidates include a higher fraction of star-forming galaxies relative to a control sample without tidal features. We therefore conclude that the star formation in these massive ellipticals is likely triggered by merger activity. Our data suggest that the mergers responsible for the observed tidal features were not completely dry, and may be minor mergers involving a gas-rich dwarf galaxy.

Desai, Vandana; Soifer, B. T. [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Dey, Arjun [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, Tucson, AZ 85726-6732 (United States); Cohen, Emma [California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Le Floc'h, Emeric, E-mail: desai@ipac.caltech.edu [AIM, CNRS, Universite Paris Diderot, Bat. 709, CEA-Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France)

2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

Investigation of combined SO{sub 2}/NO{sub x} removal by ceria sorbents. Quarterly technical progress report, April 1, 1994--June 30, 1994  

SciTech Connect

Simultaneous removal of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} using a regenerable solid sorbent will constitute an important improvement over the use of separate processes for the removal of these two pollutants from stack gases and possibly eliminate several shortcomings of the individual SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} removal operations. This process will allow simple and reliable cleanup of large volumes of stack gases at a competitive cost; produce a concentrated stream of SO{sub 2} which can easily be converted into valuable by-products; be compatible with existing power generation plants; and essentially eliminate the waste materials generated in some other sulfur removal processes. Department of Energy`s Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) and UOP/Shell have developed processes which both employ copper oxide-based sorbents in different reactor configurations. More recent studies at PETC considered cerium oxide as an alternate sorbent to CuO. Ceria improves the resistance of the alumina support to thermal sintering and produces a regeneration off-gas stream that can be easily converted to elemental sulfur. It has a potentially higher sulfur capture capacity than copper. It is readily available at a moderate cost. Although it is more expensive than copper oxide, since the cost of metal oxide is a small fraction of the total sorbent cost this may not be a significant factor. The objective of this research is to determine the effects of ammonia on the sulfation of the sorbent; to determine the effects of fly ash on the sulfation and regeneration of the sorbent; to obtain a rate expression for the regeneration of alumina-supported CeO{sub 2} sorbents; to model reactor configurations for a commercial scale combined CeO{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} sorbent; and to study alternative designs, effects of design variables on the performance of the facility, and the economics of the process using the developed model.

Akyurtlu, A.

1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

245

Guides and Case Studies for Hot-Dry and Mixed-Dry Climates | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Dry and Mixed-Dry Climates Dry and Mixed-Dry Climates Guides and Case Studies for Hot-Dry and Mixed-Dry Climates Map of the Hot-Dry and Mixed-Dry Zone of the United States. The zone contains the eastern side of California and follows the US border to cover the western half of Texas. The Department of Energy (DOE) has developed a series of best practices and case studies to help builders improve whole-house energy performance in buildings found in hot-dry and mixed-dry climates. Best Practice Guides New Construction Case Studies Improvements to Existing Homes Case Studies Best Practice Guides 40% Whole-House Energy Savings in Hot-Dry and Mixed-Dry Climates - Volume 9 New Construction Case Studies Arizona Project: Gordon Estates - Phoenix Builder: Mandalay Homes Profile: Fourteen homes in this subdivision achieved Challenge Home

246

Injectivity Test At Fenton Hill Hdr Geothermal Area (Dash, Et Al., 1983) |  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Injectivity Test At Fenton Hill Hdr Geothermal Area (Dash, Et Al., 1983) Injectivity Test At Fenton Hill Hdr Geothermal Area (Dash, Et Al., 1983) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Injectivity Test At Fenton Hill Hdr Geothermal Area (Dash, Et Al., 1983) Exploration Activity Details Location Fenton Hill Hdr Geothermal Area Exploration Technique Injectivity Test Activity Date Usefulness useful DOE-funding Unknown Notes Fenton Hill HDR site. References Z. V. Dash, H. D. Murphy, R. L. Aamodt, R. G. Aguilar, D. W. Brown, D. A. Counce, H. N. Fisher, C. O. Grigsby, H. Keppler, A. W. Laughlin, R. M. Potter, J. W. Tester, P. E. Trujillo Jr, G. Zyvoloski (1983) Hot Dry Rock Geothermal Reservoir Testing- 1978 To 1980 Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Injectivity_Test_At_Fenton_Hill_Hdr_Geothermal_Area_(Dash,_Et_Al.,_1983)&oldid=511316"

247

Injectivity Test At Fenton Hill Hdr Geothermal Area (Grigsby, Et Al., 1983)  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Injectivity Test At Fenton Hill Hdr Geothermal Area (Grigsby, Et Al., 1983) Injectivity Test At Fenton Hill Hdr Geothermal Area (Grigsby, Et Al., 1983) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Injectivity Test At Fenton Hill Hdr Geothermal Area (Grigsby, Et Al., 1983) Exploration Activity Details Location Fenton Hill Hdr Geothermal Area Exploration Technique Injectivity Test Activity Date Usefulness not indicated DOE-funding Unknown References C. O. Grigsby, J. W. Tester, P. E. Trujillo, D. A. Counce, J. Abbott, C. E. Holley, L. A. Blatz (1983) Rock-Water Interactions In Hot Dry Rock Geothermal Systems- Field Investigations Of In Situ Geochemical Behavior Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Injectivity_Test_At_Fenton_Hill_Hdr_Geothermal_Area_(Grigsby,_Et_Al.,_1983)&oldid=511318

248

Development of Al-stabilized CaOnickel hybrid sorbentcatalyst for sorption-enhanced steam methane reforming  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract In this work, Al-stabilized CaONi hybrid sorbentcatalysts integrated in a single particle with various nickel loadings (12, 18 and 25wt% NiO) were developed and tested in cyclic hydrogen production by sorption-enhanced steam methane reforming (SESMR) process. A simple wet-mixing technique based on limestone acidification and two-step calcination was employed to produce hybrid materials with different nickel loadings. All developed materials were characterized by BET, XRD, SEM and TEM and studied during 25 CO2 sorption/regeneration cycles as well as for 10 SESMR cycles. Based on both CO2 sorption and SESMR results, it was concluded that the proposed hybrid sorbentcatalyst with NiO loading of 25wt% led to the best performances: (i) CaO molar conversion is 41.2% at the end of the 25th sorption cycle and (ii) average CH4 conversion and H2 production efficiency during 10 SESMR cycles are remarkable (99.1% and 96.1%, respectively). For the most efficient hybrid sorbentcatalyst (25wt% NiO), the influence of CH4 flow rate and steam to carbon ratio (S/C) was also investigated, as well as its behavior during long-term cyclic operation of SESMR (30 cycles), where the H2 production time was just limited to pre-breakthrough period. The very efficient performance (average of H2 yield 97.3%) of the proposed hybrid sorbentcatalyst material in long-term operation confirmed its high potential for use in SESMR process.

Hamid R. Radfarnia; Maria C. Iliuta

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

249

Textile Drying Via Wood Gasification  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

TEXTILE DRYING VIA WOOD GASIFICATION Thomas F. ;McGowan, Anthony D. Jape Georgia Institute of Technology Atlanta, Georgia ABSTRACT This project was carried out to investigate the possibility of using wood gas as a direct replacement... for dryers. In addition to the experimental program described above, the DOE grant covered two other major areas. A survey of the textile industry was made to assess the market for gasification equip ment. The major findings were that a large amount...

McGowan, T. F.; Jape, A. D.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

250

Hydrogen production by sorption-enhanced steam methane reforming process using CaO-Zr/Ni bifunctional sorbentcatalyst  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract A bifunctional CaO-Zr/Ni (13, 18, and 20.5wt% NiO) sorbentcatalyst was developed using the wet-mixing/sonication technique and applied for hydrogen production by sorption-enhanced steam methane reforming (SESMR), an intensified process that integrates hydrogen production with CO2 capture. The material was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and N2 physisorption (BET). CO2 sorption efficiency of the developed materials was evaluated during 25 CO2 sorption/regeneration cycles. The prepared sorbentcatalysts were then applied in the SESMR during 10 reaction cycles. The results showed that the bifunctional sorbentcatalyst with 20.5wt% NiO loading presented the most suitable activity. The H2 yield of ?91% at the end of the 10th SESMR cycle is considerably higher than equilibrium H2 yield that could be obtained by traditional steam methane reforming.

Hamid R. Radfarnia; Maria C. Iliuta

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

251

Injection nozzle for a turbomachine  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A turbomachine includes a compressor, a combustor operatively connected to the compressor, an end cover mounted to the combustor, and an injection nozzle assembly operatively connected to the combustor. The injection nozzle assembly includes a first end portion that extends to a second end portion, and a plurality of tube elements provided at the second end portion. Each of the plurality of tube elements defining a fluid passage includes a body having a first end section that extends to a second end section. The second end section projects beyond the second end portion of the injection nozzle assembly.

Uhm, Jong Ho; Johnson, Thomas Edward; Kim, Kwanwoo

2012-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

252

Investigation of mixed metal sorbent/catalysts for the simultaneous removal of sulfur and nitrogen oxides. Semiannual report, Apr 1, 1998--Oct 31, 1998  

SciTech Connect

Simultaneous removal of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} using a regenerable solid sorbent will constitute an important improvement over the use of separate processes for the removal of these two pollutants from stack gases and possibly eliminate several shortcomings of the individual SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} removal operations. The work done at PETC and the DOE-funded investigation of the investigators on the sulfation and regeneration of alumina-supported cerium oxide sorbents have shown that they can perform well at relatively high temperatures (823--900 K) as regenerable desulfurization sorbents. Survey of the recent literature shows that addition of copper oxide to ceria lowers the sulfation temperature of ceria down to 773 K, sulfated ceria-based sorbents can function as selective SCR catalysts even at elevated temperatures, SO{sub 2} can be directly reduced to sulfur by CO on CuO-ceria catalysts, and ceria-based catalysts may have a potential for selective catalytic reduction of NO{sub x} by methane. These observations indicate a possibility of developing a ceria-based sorbent/catalyst which can remove both SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} from flue gases within a relatively wide temperature window, produce significant amounts of elemental sulfur during regeneration, and use methane for the selective catalytic reduction of NO{sub x}. The objective of this research is to conduct kinetic and parametric studies of the selective catalytic reduction of NO{sub x} with NH{sub 3} and CH{sub 4} over alumina-supported cerium oxide and copper oxide-cerium oxide sorbent/catalysts; investigate SO{sub 2} removal at lower temperatures by supported copper oxide-cerium oxide sorbents; and investigate the possibility of elemental sulfur production during regeneration with CO or with CH{sub 4} air mixtures. The sorbents consisting of cerium oxide and copper oxide impregnated on alumina have been prepared and characterized. Their sulfation performance has been investigated in a TGA setup, studying mainly the effects of temperature and sorbent composition. The results of the sulfation experiments have been evaluated and presented in this report. A study to model the sulfation selectivity of the two constituents of the sorbents is also underway.

Dr. Ates Akyurtlu; Dr. Jale F. Akyurtlu

1998-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

253

Injections of Natural Gas into Storage (Annual Supply & Disposition)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Citygate Price Residential Price Commercial Price Industrial Price Electric Power Price Gross Withdrawals Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells Gross Withdrawals From Oil Wells Gross Withdrawals From Shale Gas Wells Gross Withdrawals From Coalbed Wells Repressuring Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed Vented and Flared Marketed Production NGPL Production, Gaseous Equivalent Dry Production Imports By Pipeline LNG Imports Exports Exports By Pipeline LNG Exports Underground Storage Capacity Gas in Underground Storage Base Gas in Underground Storage Working Gas in Underground Storage Underground Storage Injections Underground Storage Withdrawals Underground Storage Net Withdrawals Total Consumption Lease and Plant Fuel Consumption Pipeline & Distribution Use Delivered to Consumers Residential Commercial Industrial Vehicle Fuel Electric Power Period: Monthly Annual

254

Investigation of combined SO{sub 2}/NO{sub x} removal by Ceria Sorbents. Quarterly technical progress report, January 1, 1994--March 31, 1994  

SciTech Connect

Simultaneous removal of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} using a regenerable solid sorbent will constitute an important improvement over the use of separate processes for the removal of these two pollutants from stack gases and possibly eliminate several shortcomings of the individual SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} removal operations. This process will allow simple and reliable cleanup of large volumes of stack gases at a competitive cost; produce a concentrated stream of SO{sub 2} which an easily be converted into valuable by-products; be compatible with existing power generation plants; and essentially eliminate the waste materials generated in some other sulfur removal processes. Department of Energy`s Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) and UOP/Shell have developed processes which both employ copper oxide-based sorbents in different reactor configurations, namely, former uses a regenerative fluidized bed while the latter employs a cyclic fixed bed contactor. More recent studies at PETC considered cerium oxide as an alternate sorbent to CuO{sup (1,2)}. Ceria improves the resistance of the alumina support to thermal sintering and produces a regeneration off-gas stream that can be easily converted to elemental sulfur. It has potentially higher sulfur capture capacity than copper. The objective of this research is to determine the effects of ammonia on the sulfation of the sorbent; to determine the effects of fly ash on the sulfation and regeneration of the sorbent; to obtain a rate expression for the regeneration of alumina-supported CeO{sub 2} sorbents; to model reactor configurations for a commercial scale combined CeO{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} sorbent; and to study alternative designs, effects of design variables on the performance of the facility, and the economics of the process using the developed model.

Akyurtlu, A.; Akyurtlu, J.F.

1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

255

Investigation of combined SO{sub 2}/NO{sub x} removal by ceria sorbents. Quarterly technical progress report, January 1993--March 1993  

SciTech Connect

Simultaneous removal of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} using a regenerable solid sorbent will constitute an important improvement over the use of separate processes for the removal of these two pollutants from stack gases and possibly eliminate several shortcomings of the individual SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} removal operations. This process will allow simple and reliable cleanup of large volumes of stack gases at a competitive cost; produce a concentrated stream of SO{sub 2} which an easily be converted into valuable by-products; be compatible with existing power generation plants; and essentially eliminate the waste materials generated in some other sulfur removal processes. Department of Energy`s Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) and UOP/Shell have developed processes which both employ copper oxide-based sorbents in different reactor configurations, namely, former uses a regenerative fluidized bed while the latter employs a cyclic fixed bed contactor. More recent studies at PETC considered cerium oxide as an alternate sorbent to CuO. Ceria improves the resistance of the alumina support to thermal sintering and produces a regeneration off-gas stream that can be easily converted to elemental sulfur. It has a potentially higher sulfur capture capacity than copper. The objective of this research is to determine the effects of ammonia on the sulfation of the sorbent; to determine the effects of fly ash on the sulfation and regeneration of the sorbent; to obtain a rate expression for the regeneration of alumina-supported CeO{sub 2} sorbents; to model reactor configurations for a commercial scale combined CeO{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} sorbent; and to study alternative designs, effects of design variables on the performance of the facility, and the economics of the process using the developed model.

Akyurtlu, A.; Akyurtlu, J.F.

1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

256

Investigation of combined SO{sub 2}/NO{sub x} removal by Ceria sorbents. Quarterly technical progress report, July 1994--September 1994  

SciTech Connect

Simultaneous removal of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} using a regenerable solid sorbent will constitute an important improvement over the use of separate processes for the removal of these two pollutants from stack gases and possibly eliminate several shortcomings of the individual SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x}removal operations. This process will allow simple and reliable cleanup of large volumes of stack gases at a competitive cost; produce a concentrated stream of SO{sub 2} which an easily be converted into valuable by-products; be compatible with existing power generation plants; and essentially eliminate the waste materials generated in some other sulfur removal processes. Recent studies at PETC considered cerium oxide as an alternate sorbent to CuO. Ceria improves the resistance of the alumina support to thermal sintering and produces a regeneration off-gas stream that can be easily converted to elemental sulfur. It has a potentially higher sulfur capture capacity than copper. It is readily available at a moderate cost. Although it is more expensive than copper oxide, since the cost of metal oxide is a small fraction of the total sorbent cost this may not be a significant factor. The objective of this research is to determine the effects of ammonia on the sulfation of the sorbent; to determine the effects of fly ash on the sulfation and regeneration of the sorbent; to obtain a rate expression for the regeneration of alumina-supported CeO{sub 2} sorbents; to model reactor configurations for a commercial scale combined CeO{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} sorbent; and to study alternative designs, effects of design variables on the performance of the facility, and the economics of the process using the developed model.

Akyurtlu, A.

1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

Investigation of combined SO{sub 2}/NO{sub x} removal by ceria sorbents. Quarterly technical progress report, October 1993--December 1993  

SciTech Connect

Simultaneous removal of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} using a regenerable solid sorbent will constitute an important improvement over the use of separate processes for the removal of these two pollutants from stack gases and possibly eliminate several shortcomings of the individual SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} removal operations. This process will allow simple and reliable cleanup of large volumes of stack gases as a competitive cost; produce a concentrated stream of SO{sub 2} which can easily be converted into valuable by-products; be compatible with existing power generation plants; and essentially eliminate the waste materials generated in some other sulfur removal processes. Department of Energy`s Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) and UOP/Shell have developed processes which both employ copper oxide-based sorbents in different reactor configurations, namely, former uses a regenerative fluidized bed while the latter employs a cyclic fixed bed contactor. More recent studies at PETC considered cerium oxide as an alternate sorbent to CuO. Ceria improves the resistance of the alumina support to thermal sintering and produces a regeneration off-gas stream that can be easily converted to elemental sulfur. It has a potentially higher sulfur capture capacity than copper. The objective of this research is to determine the effects of ammonia on the sulfation of the sorbent; to determine the effects of fly ash on the sulfation and regeneration of the sorbent; to obtain a rate expression for the regeneration of alumina-supported CeO{sub 2} sorbents; to model reactor configurations for a commercial scale combined CeO{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} sorbent; and to study alternative designs, effects of design variables on the performance of the facility, and the economics of the process using the developed model.

Akyurtlu, A.

1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

Investigation of combined SO{sub 2}/NO{sub x} removal by ceria sorbents. Quarterly technical progress report, April 1, 1993--June 30, 1993  

SciTech Connect

Simultaneous removal of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} using a regenerable solid sorbent will constitute an important improvement over the use of separate processes for the removal of these two pollutants from stack gases and possibly eliminate several shortcomings of the individual SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} removal operations. This process will allow simple and reliable cleanup of large volumes of stack gases at a competitive cost; produce a concentrated stream of SO{sub 2} which can easily be converted into valuable by-products; be compatible with existing power generation plants; and essentially eliminate the waste materials generated in some other sulfur removal processes. Recent studies at PETC considered cerium oxide as an alternate sorbent to CuO. Ceria improves the resistance of the alumina support to thermal sintering and produces a regeneration off-gas stream that can be easily converted to elemental sulfur. It has a potentially higher sulfur capture capacity than copper. It is readily available at a moderate cost. Although it is more expensive than copper oxide, since the cost of metal oxide is a small fraction of the total sorbent cost this may not be a significant factor. The objective of this research is to determine the effects of ammonia on the sulfation of the sorbent; to determine the effects of fly ash on the sulfation and regeneration of the sorbent; to obtain a rate expression for the regeneration of alumina-supported CeO{sub 2} sorbents; to model reactor configurations for a commercial scale combined CeO{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} sorbent; and to study alternative designs, effects of design variables on the performance of the facility, and the economics of the process using the developed model.

Akyurtlu, A.

1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

259

Category:Injectivity Test | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Sign Up Search Category Edit History Facebook icon Twitter icon Category:Injectivity Test Jump to: navigation, search Geothermalpower.jpg Looking for the Injectivity Test page?...

260

Florida Dry Natural Gas Reserves Acquisitions (Billion Cubic...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

data. Release Date: 1242014 Next Release Date: 12312015 Referring Pages: Dry Natural Gas Reserves Acquisitions Florida Dry Natural Gas Proved Reserves Dry Natural Gas Proved...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dry sorbent injection" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Florida Dry Natural Gas Reserves New Field Discoveries (Billion...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

2014 Next Release Date: 12312015 Referring Pages: New Field Discoveries of Dry Natural Gas Reserves Florida Dry Natural Gas Proved Reserves Dry Natural Gas Proved Reserves New...

262

Dry-cleaning of graphene  

SciTech Connect

Studies of the structural and electronic properties of graphene in its pristine state are hindered by hydrocarbon contamination on the surfaces. Also, in many applications, contamination reduces the performance of graphene. Contamination is introduced during sample preparation and is adsorbed also directly from air. Here, we report on the development of a simple dry-cleaning method for producing large atomically clean areas in free-standing graphene. The cleanness of graphene is proven using aberration-corrected high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and electron spectroscopy.

Algara-Siller, Gerardo [Central Facility for Electron Microscopy, Group of Electron Microscopy of Materials Science, Ulm University, Albert-Einstein-Allee 11, Ulm 89081 (Germany); Department of Chemistry, Technical University Ilmenau, Weimarer Strasse 25, Ilmenau 98693 (Germany); Lehtinen, Ossi; Kaiser, Ute, E-mail: ute.kaiser@uni-ulm.de [Central Facility for Electron Microscopy, Group of Electron Microscopy of Materials Science, Ulm University, Albert-Einstein-Allee 11, Ulm 89081 (Germany); Turchanin, Andrey [Faculty of Physics, University of Bielefeld, Universittsstr. 25, Bielefeld 33615 (Germany)

2014-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

263

Sizing of a hot dry rock reservoir from a hydraulic fracturing experiment  

SciTech Connect

Hot dry rock (HDR) reservoirs do not lend themselves to the standard methods of reservoir sizing developed in the petroleum industry such as the buildup/drawdown test. In a HDR reservoir the reservoir is created by the injection of fluid. This process of hydraulic fracturing of the reservoir rock usually involves injection of a large volume (5 million gallons) at high rates (40BPM). A methodology is presented for sizing the HDR reservoir created during the hydraulic fracturing process. The reservoir created during a recent fracturing experiment is sized using the techniques presented. This reservoir is then investigated for commercial potential by simulation of long term power production. 5 refs., 7 figs.

Zyvoloski, G.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

Staged direct injection diesel engine  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A diesel engine having staged injection for using lower cetane number fuels than No. 2 diesel fuel. The engine includes a main fuel injector and a pilot fuel injector. Pilot and main fuel may be the same fuel. The pilot injector injects from five to fifteen percent of the total fuel at timings from 20.degree. to 180.degree. BTDC depending upon the quantity of pilot fuel injected, the fuel cetane number and speed and load. The pilot fuel injector is directed toward the centerline of the diesel cylinder and at an angle toward the top of the piston, avoiding the walls of the cylinder. Stratification of the early injected pilot fuel is needed to reduce the fuel-air mixing rate, prevent loss of pilot fuel to quench zones, and keep the fuel-air mixture from becoming too fuel lean to become effective. In one embodiment, the pilot fuel injector includes a single hole for injection of the fuel and is directed at approximately 48.degree. below the head of the cylinder.

Baker, Quentin A. (San Antonio, TX)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

Spheromak injection into a tokamak  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Recent results from the Caltech spheromak injection experiment [to appear in Phys. Rev. Lett.] are reported. First current drive by spheromak injection into the ENCORE tokamak as a result of the process of magnetic helicity injection is observed. An initial 30% increase in plasma current is observed followed by a drop by a factor of 3 because of sudden plasma cooling. Second spheromak injection results in an increase of tokamak central density by a factor of 6. The high?current/high?density discharge is terminated by a sharp peaking of the density profile followed by an interchange instability. In a second experiment the spheromak is injected into the magnetized toroidal vacuum vessel (with no tokamak plasma) fitted with magnetic probe arrays. An m=1 (nonaxisymmetric) magnetic structure forms in the vessel after the spheromak undergoes a double tilt; once in the cylindrical entrance between gun and tokamak then again in the tokamak vessel. In the absence of net toroidal flux the structure develops a helical pitch (the sense of pitch depends on the helicity sign). Experiments with a number of refractory metal electrode coatings have shown that tungsten and chrome coatings provide some improvement in spheromak parameters. Design details of a larger higher?current spheromak gun with a new accelerator section are also discussed.

M. R. Brown; P. M. Bellan

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

Unique Luminescences of Dry Chlorophylls  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Dry chlorophylls a and b in a rigid glass hydrocarbon solvent have intense emission at 7550 A and 7330 A respectively. In each case the room temperature absorption spectra show the presence of a band shoulder on the long wavelength side of the main red band. Both the emission and the absorption bands disappear in the presence of hydroxyllic solvents. The absorption and emission are interpreted as n??* singlet and n??* triplet transitions respectively. The lifetime of the n??* triplet emission in chlorophyll a is estimated to be 103 second. Cu chlorophyll b has an intense phosphorescence at 8740 A with a lifetime of less than 104 second. The differences in the room temperature emission spectra for chlorophylls a and b are discussed.

Jose Fernandez; Ralph S. Becker

1959-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

267

How carbon-based sorbents will impact fly ash utilization and disposal  

SciTech Connect

The injection of activated carbon flue gas to control mercury emissions will result in a fly ash and activated carbon mixture. The potential impact of this on coal combustion product disposal and utilization is discussed. The full paper (and references) are available at www.acaa-usa.org. 1 tab., 2 photos.

Pflughoeft-Hassett, D.F.; Hassett, D.J.; Buckley, T.D.; Heebink, L.V.; Pavlish, J.H. [Energy and Environmental Research Center (United States)

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

268

Rock-Water Interactions In Hot Dry Rock Geothermal Systems- Field  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

source source History View New Pages Recent Changes All Special Pages Semantic Search/Querying Get Involved Help Apps Datasets Community Login | Sign Up Search Page Edit History Facebook icon Twitter icon » Rock-Water Interactions In Hot Dry Rock Geothermal Systems- Field Investigations Of In Situ Geochemical Behavior Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Journal Article: Rock-Water Interactions In Hot Dry Rock Geothermal Systems- Field Investigations Of In Situ Geochemical Behavior Details Activities (5) Areas (2) Regions (0) Abstract: Two hot dry rock (HDR) geothermal energy reservoirs have been created by hydraulic fracturing of Precambrian granitic rock between two wells on the west flank of the Valles Caldera in the Jemez Mountains of northern New Mexico. Heat is extracted by injecting water into one well,

269

,"New York Dry Natural Gas Proved Reserves"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","New York Dry Natural Gas Proved Reserves",10,"Annual",2013,"6301977" ,"Release Date:","124...

270

DRI Research Parks Ltd | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Sector: Services Product: General Financial & Legal Services ( Academic Research foundation ) References: DRI Research Parks Ltd1 This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI...

271

,"New Mexico Dry Natural Gas Proved Reserves"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","New Mexico Dry Natural Gas Proved Reserves",10,"Annual",2012,"6301977" ,"Release Date:","410...

272

,"California Dry Natural Gas Proved Reserves"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","California Dry Natural Gas Proved Reserves",10,"Annual",2012,"6301977" ,"Release Date:","4...

273

Propane earth materials drying techniques and technologies.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??A feasibility study for the use of propane as a subbase drying technique. Michael Blahut (1) Dr. Vernon Schaefer (2) Dr. Chris Williams (3) The (more)

Blahut, Michael Edward

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

274

,"New York Dry Natural Gas Proved Reserves"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","New York Dry Natural Gas Proved Reserves",10,"Annual",2012,"6301977" ,"Release Date:","410...

275

Investigation of combined SO{sub 2}/NO{sub x} removal by ceria sorbents. Quarterly technical progress report, October--December, 1994  

SciTech Connect

Simultaneous removal of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} using a regenerable solid sorbent will constitute an important improvement over the use of separate processes for the removal of these two pollutants from stack gases and possibly eliminate several shortcomings of the individual SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} removal operations. Recent studies at PETC considered cerium oxide as an alternate sorbent to CuO. The present study aims to determine the effects of ammonia on the sulfation of the sorbent and to obtain a rate expression for the regeneration of alumina-supported CeO{sub 2} sorbents. The sulfation experiments indicated that 100% conversion of ceria could be attained. Activation energy for the sulfation reaction was found to be 19 kJ/mol. The rate of sulfation reaction is first order with respect to SO{sub 2} and solid reactant concentrations. For regeneration with hydrogen, the activation energy and the reaction order with respect to hydrogen was found to be 114 kJ/mol and 0.56, respectively. The ceria sorbent preserved its activity and structural stability after 6 cycles. The information obtained from these studies will be used to develop models for reactor-regenerator configurations. Subsequently, the SO{sub 2}/NO{sub x} removal facility will be integrated into the power production process using a commercial process simulation software. In this quarter of the project, the main focus was on the performance of the experimental program for the regeneration of the ceria sorbent by hydrogen and evaluation of experimental results.

Akyurtlu, A.; Akyurtlu, J.F.

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

Linked Injectives and Ore Localizations  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......injective right (Z?//)-module. By (a), L is ^-divisible and hence ^-divisible. Consider xeE and c e ^ such that xceL. Then xc = yc for some yeL, whence x = y and so xeL. Thus E/L is ^-torsion-free. In view of Lemma 1.1, we investigate......

K. R. Goodearl

1988-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

277

Precipitation scavenging, dry deposition, and resuspension. Volume 2: dry deposition and resuspension  

SciTech Connect

Papers are presented under the headings: dry deposition of gases, dry deposition of particles, wind erosion, plutonium deposition and resuspension, air-sea exchange, tropical and polar, global scale, and future studies.

Pruppacher, H.R.; Semanin, R.G.; Slinn, W.G.N.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

278

Sequential injection gas guns for accelerating projectiles  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Gas guns and methods for accelerating projectiles through such gas guns are described. More particularly, gas guns having a first injection port located proximate a breech end of a barrel and a second injection port located longitudinally between the first injection port and a muzzle end of the barrel are described. Additionally, modular gas guns that include a plurality of modules are described, wherein each module may include a barrel segment having one or more longitudinally spaced injection ports. Also, methods of accelerating a projectile through a gas gun, such as injecting a first pressurized gas into a barrel through a first injection port to accelerate the projectile and propel the projectile down the barrel past a second injection port and injecting a second pressurized gas into the barrel through the second injection port after passage of the projectile and to further accelerate the projectile are described.

Lacy, Jeffrey M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Chu, Henry S. (Idaho Falls, ID); Novascone, Stephen R. (Idaho Falls, ID)

2011-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

279

Durable regenerable sorbent pellets for removal of hydrogen sulfide from coal gas  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Pellets for removing hydrogen sulfide from a coal gasification stream at an elevated temperature are prepared in durable form usable over repeated cycles of absorption and regeneration. The pellets include a material reactive with hydrogen sulfide, in particular zinc oxide, a binder, and an inert material, in particular calcium sulfate (drierite), having a particle size substantially larger than other components of the pellets. A second inert material and a promoter may also be included. Preparation of the pellets may be carried out by dry, solid-state mixing of components, moistening the mixture, and agglomerating it into pellets, followed by drying and calcining. Pellet size is selected, depending on the type of reaction bed for which the pellets are intended. The use of inert material with a large particle size provides a stable pellet structure with increased porosity, enabling effective gas contact and prolonged mechanical durability.

Siriwardane, Ranjani V. (Morgantown, WV)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

Durable regenerable sorbent pellets for removal of hydrogen sulfide coal gas  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Pellets for removing hydrogen sulfide from a coal gasification stream at an elevated temperature are prepared in durable form, usable over repeated cycles of absorption and regeneration. The pellets include a material reactive with hydrogen sulfide, in particular zinc oxide, a binder, and an inert material, in particular calcium sulfate (drierite), having a particle size substantially larger than other components of the pellets. A second inert material and a promoter may also be included. Preparation of the pellets may be carried out by dry, solid-state mixing of components, moistening the mixture, and agglomerating it into pellets, followed by drying and calcining. Pellet size is selected, depending on the type of reaction bed for which the pellets are intended. The use of inert material with a large particle size provides a stable pellet structure with increased porosity, enabling effective gas contact and prolonged mechanical durability.

Siriwardane, Ranjani V. (Morgantown, WV)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dry sorbent injection" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

A new class of non-zeolitic sorbents for air separations: Lithium ion exchanged pillared clays  

SciTech Connect

Zeolites are the only known sorbents that adsorb N{sub 2} selectively over O{sub 2}, and are used for industrial air separation. Pillared clays (PILCs) have a high Broensted acidity (k.e., high proton density). It is found in this study that when the protons are exchanged by alkali metal ions, in particular Li{sup +}, the ion exchanged pillared clays can exhibit a high N{sub 2}/O{sub 2} adsorption selectivity that rivals that of the zeolites. The first result shows a pure-component adsorption ratio of N{sub 2}/O{sub 2} = 3.2 (at 25 C and 1 atm) for Li{sup +}-exchanged PILC. The N{sub 2} capacity, however, is only 20% that of the zeolite, and remains to be improved. A systematic investigation is conducted on the effects of three factors on the N{sub 2}/O{sub 2} selectivity: (1) starting clays (tetrahedral vs octahedral isomorphous substitution and clays with different charge densities), (2) different metal oxides as pillars, and (3) different ion exchange alkali metal cations (Li{sup +}, Na{sup +}, K{sup +}, Rb{sup +}, and Cs{sup +}). The highest N{sub 2}/O{sub 2} selectivities are achieved by using clays with the highest charge densities, metal oxides forming pillars with the narrowest gallery spaces, and ion exchange cations with the smallest ionic radii. Effects by all three factors are qualitatively understood. The high N{sub 2}/O{sub 2} selectivity on the Li{sup +} exchanged PILC is the result of the small ionic radius (and hence high polarizing power) of Li{sup +} and the strong quadrupole moment of the N{sub 2} molecule. Moreover, a technique is developed with which the amount of the exchanged cations can exceed that allowed by the original cation exchange capacity of the clay by using a high pH value in the ion exchange solution.

Cheng, L.S.; Yang, R.T. [State Univ. of New York, Buffalo, NY (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

282

Cold vacuum drying facility 90% design review  

SciTech Connect

This document contains review comment records for the CVDF 90% design review. Spent fuels retrieved from the K Basins will be dried at the CVDF. It has also been recommended that the Multi-Conister Overpacks be welded, inspected, and repaired at the CVD Facility before transport to dry storage.

O`Neill, C.T.

1997-05-02T23:59:59.000Z

283

carbon sequestration via direct injection  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

SEQUESTRATION VIA DIRECT INJECTION SEQUESTRATION VIA DIRECT INJECTION Howard J. Herzog, Ken Caldeira, and Eric Adams INTRODUCTION The build-up of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and other greenhouse gases in the Earth's atmosphere has caused concern about possible global climate change. As a result, international negotiations have produced the Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC), completed during the 1992 Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro. The treaty, which the United States has ratified, calls for the "stabilization of greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system." The primary greenhouse gas is CO 2 , which is estimated to contribute to over two-thirds of any climate change. The primary source of CO

284

Injection Technology for Marine Diesel Engines  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The introduction of new emission limits faces modern injection systems with new challenges. Increasing the system pressures puts higher loads on the injection components as regards stability, wear and temperature...

Dr. Rolf Leonhard; Dr.-Ing. Marcus Parche

2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

An environmental analysis of injection molding  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis investigates injection molding from an environmental standpoint, yielding a system-level environmental analysis of the process. There are three main objectives: analyze the energy consumption trends in injection ...

Thiriez, Alexandre

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

286

SQL Injection Attacks and Defense, 2 edition  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

SQL Injection Attacks and Defense, First Edition: Winner of the Best Book Bejtlich Read Award "SQL injection is probably the number one problem for any server-side application, and this book unequaled in its coverage." Richard ...

Justin Clarke; Kevvie Fowler; Erlend Oftedal; Rodrigo Marcos Alvarez; Dave Hartley; Alexander Kornbrust; Gary O'Leary-Steele; Alberto Revelli; Sumit Siddharth; Marco Slaviero

2009-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

287

A Model of Transient Thermal Transport Phenomena Applied to the Carbonation and Calcination of a Sorbent Particle for Calcium Oxide Looping CO2 Capture  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

looping is selected as the model cycle because of its suitability for solar-driven carbon dioxide captureA Model of Transient Thermal Transport Phenomena Applied to the Carbonation and Calcination of a Sorbent Particle for Calcium Oxide Looping CO2 Capture Lindsey Yue and Wojciech Lipi´nski, The Australian

288

Cross-flow, filter-sorbent catalyst for particulate, SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} control. First quarterly technical progress report, 1990  

SciTech Connect

This synopsis describes a new concept for integrated pollutant control: a cross-flow filter comprised of layered, gas permeable membranes that act as a particulate filter, an SO{sub 2} sorbent, and a NO{sub x} reduction catalyst.

Not Available

1990-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

Effect of High-Pressure Impregnation on Structure Variation and Desulfurization Property of a Zn-Based Sorbent Prepared Using Lignite as a Support  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Effect of High-Pressure Impregnation on Structure Variation and Desulfurization Property of a Zn-Based Sorbent Prepared Using Lignite as a Support ... Lignite reserves are relatively abundant in China; however, its utilization is significantly limited because of its high water content and low calorific value. ...

Xiurong Ren; Qiang He; Yurong Dong; Meijun Wang; Liping Chang; Weiren Bao

2014-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

290

Liquid Propane Injection Applications | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Liquid propane injection technology meets manufacturingassembly guidelines, maintenancerepair strategy, and regulations, with same functionality, horsepower, and torque as...

291

ELECTRON INJECTION INTO CYCLIC ACCELERATOR USING  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ELECTRON INJECTION INTO CYCLIC ACCELERATOR USING LASER WAKEFIELD ACCELERATION Ya. V. Getmanov, O. A acceleration #12;Storage ring with laser injection CYCLIC ACCELERATOR RF Electron injection The LWFA beam ­ accelerating light, 5 ­ accelerated electrons, 6 ­fast kicker - + accelerating laser pulse evaporatinglaser

292

Numerical Simulation of Cooling Gas Injection Using  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Numerical Simulation of Cooling Gas Injection Using Adaptive Multiscale Techniques Wolfgang Dahmen: finite volume method, film cooling, cooling gas injection, multiscale techniques, grid adaptation AMS@igpm.rwth-aachen.de (Thomas Gotzen) #12;Numerical simulation of cooling gas injection using adaptive multiscale techniques

293

Investigation of combined SO{sub 2}/NO{sub x} removal by ceria sorbents. Quarterly technical progress report, January 1995--March 1995  

SciTech Connect

Simultaneous removal of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x}using a regenerable solid sorbent will constitute an important improvement over the use of separate processes for the removal of these two pollutants from stack gases and possibly eliminate several shortcomings of the individual SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} removal operations. Recent studies at PETC considered cerium oxide as an alternate sorbent to CuO. The present study aims to determine the effects of ammonia on the sulfation of the sorbent and to obtain a rate expression for the regeneration of alumina-supported CeO{sub 2} sorbents. The sulfation experiments indicated that 100 % conversion of ceria can be attained. Activation energy for the sulfation reaction was found to be 19 kJ/mol. The rate of sulfation reaction is first order with respect to SO{sub 2} and solid reactant concentrations. For regeneration with hydrogen, the activation energy and the reaction order with respect to hydrogen was found to be 114 kJ/mol and 0.56, respectively. The ceria sorbent preserved its activity and structural stability after 6 cycles. In the last quarter regeneration with methane was studied. Since regeneration with methane is more complicated than regeneration with hydrogen, the evaluation of data needs the development of new methods. The information obtained from these studies will be used to develop models for reactor-regenerator configurations. Subsequently, the SO{sub 2}/NO{sub x} removal facility will be integrated into the power production process using a commercial process simulation software.

Akyurtlu, A.; Akyurtlu, J.F.

1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

294

TAILORING INORGANIC SORBENTS FOR SRS STRONTIUM AND ACTINIDE SEPARATIONS: OPTIMIZED MONOSODIUM TITANATE PHASE II FINAL REPORT  

SciTech Connect

This document provides a final report of Phase II testing activities for the development of a modified monosodium titanate (MST) that exhibits improved strontium and actinide removal characteristics compared to the baseline MST material. The activities included determining the key synthesis conditions for preparation of the modified MST, preparation of the modified MST at a larger scale by a commercial vendor, demonstration of the strontium and actinide removal characteristics with actual tank waste supernate and measurement of filtration characteristics. Key findings and conclusions include the following. Testing evaluated three synthetic methods and eleven process parameters for the optimum synthesis conditions for the preparation on an improved form of MST. We selected the post synthesis method (Method 3) for continued development based on overall sorbate removal performance. We successfully prepared three batches of the modified MST using Method 3 procedure at a 25-gram scale. The laboratory prepared modified MST exhibited increased sorption kinetics with simulated and actual waste solutions and similar filtration characteristics to the baseline MST. Characterization of the modified MST indicated that the post synthesis treatment did not significantly alter the particle size distribution, but did significantly increase the surface area and porosity compared to the original MST. Testing indicated that the modified MST exhibits reduced affinity for uranium compared to the baseline MST, reducing risk of fissile loading. Shelf-life testing indicated no change in strontium and actinide performance removal after storing the modified MST for 12-months at ambient laboratory temperature. The material releases oxygen during the synthesis and continues to offgas after the synthesis at a rapidly diminishing rate until below a measurable rate after 4 months. Optima Chemical Group LLC prepared a 15-kilogram batch of the modified MST using the post synthesis procedure (Method 3). Performance testing with simulated and actual waste solutions indicated that the material performs as well as or better than batches of modified MST prepared at the laboratory-scale. Particle size data of the vendor-prepared modified MST indicates a broader distribution centered at a larger particle size and microscopy shows more irregular particle morphology compared to the baseline MST and laboratory prepared modified MST. Stirred-cell (i.e., dead-end) filter testing revealed similar filtration rates relative to the baseline MST for both the laboratory and vendor-prepared modified MST materials. Crossflow filtration testing indicated that with MST-only slurries, the baseline MST produced between 30-100% higher flux than the vendor-prepared modified MST at lower solids loadings and comparable flux at higher solids loadings. With sludge-MST slurries, the modified MST produced 1.5-2.2 times higher flux than the baseline MST at all solids loadings. Based on these findings we conclude that the modified MST represents a much improved sorbent for the separation of strontium and actinides from alkaline waste solutions and recommend continued development of the material as a replacement for the baseline MST for waste treatment facilities at the Savannah River Site.

Hobbs, D; Thomas Peters, T; Michael Poirier, M; Mark Barnes, M; Major Thompson, M; Samuel Fink, S

2007-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

295

Preparation of carbon aerogel microspheres by a simple-injection emulsification method  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Carbon aerogel microspheres were successfully prepared using a simple-injection emulsification method, employing solgel polycondensation of a resorcinolformaldehyde solution containing sodium carbonate as a catalyst. This process was followed by solvent exchange using acetone, supercritical drying with carbon dioxide and carbonization in a nitrogen atmosphere. The effect of curing time before starting injection, injection rate and agitation rate of continuous phase on the particle size and the porous properties of the carbon aerogel microspheres was investigated. Adsorption of phenol by using the prepared carbon aerogel microspheres was also examined. The diameter of carbon aerogel microspheres was controlled in the range of 2055?m by varying injection rate and agitation rate. The mean diameter of carbon aerogel microspheres decreased with increasing the injection rate and the agitation rate, whereas their mean diameter was independent of the curing time. The BET surface area and total pore volume of carbon aerogel microspheres increased with increasing the curing time. In contrast, their BET surface area and total pore volume decreased with increasing the injection rate and the agitation rate. The BET surface area, total pore volume, mesopore volume and micropore volume of the carbon aerogel microspheres with a mean diameter of 45?m were 903m2/g, 0.60cm3/g, 0.31cm3/g and 0.27cm3/g, respectively. The phenol-adsorption capacity of these carbon aerogel microspheres was 29.3mg phenol/g adsorbent.

Jintawat Chaichanawong; Koranit Kongcharoen; Surat Areerat

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

296

Integrated Ingredients Dehydrated Agricultural Drying Low Temperature  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Ingredients Dehydrated Agricultural Drying Low Temperature Ingredients Dehydrated Agricultural Drying Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Integrated Ingredients Dehydrated Agricultural Drying Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Integrated Ingredients Dehydrated Sector Geothermal energy Type Agricultural Drying Location Empire, Nevada Coordinates 40.5757352°, -119.34213° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[]}

297

Resuspension and dry deposition research needs  

SciTech Connect

The author concludes that better predictive models are needed for the signifcant health, ecological, and economic impacts of resuspended particles and their subsequent dry deposition. Both chemical and radioactive aerosols are discussed. (PSB)

Sehmel, G.A.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

298

Advanced wet-dry cooling tower concept  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The purpose of this years' work has been to test and analyze the new dry cooling tower surface previously developed. The model heat transfer test apparatus built last year has been instrumented for temperature, humidity ...

Snyder, Troxell Kimmel

299

Allergy Injection Policy | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Allergy Injection Policy Allergy Injection Policy Allergy Injection Policy Millions of Americans suffer from perennial and seasonal allergic rhinitis. Allergy immunotherapy is an effective way to reduce or eliminate the symptoms of allergic rhinitis by desensitizing the patient to the allergen(s) by giving escalating doses of an extract via regular injections. Receiving weekly injections at a private physician's office is time consuming, reduces productivity, and can quickly deplete an employee's earned leave. FOH offers the convenience of receiving allergy injections at the OHC as a physician-prescribed service, reducing time away from work for many federal employees. Allergy Injection Policy.pdf More Documents & Publications Physician Treatment Order Handicapped Parking Guidance

300

Amendment 1 - Dry-type power transformers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Specifies requirements for dry-type power transformers (including auto-transformers) having values of highest voltage for equipment up to and including 36 kV. The following small and special dry-type transformers are not covered by this standard: -instrument transformers (covered by IEC 60185 and 60186); -transformers for static convertors (covered by IEC 60084, 60119 and 60146). Where IEC standards do not exist for other special transformers, this standard may be applicable as a whole or in part.

International Electrotechnical Commission. Geneva

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dry sorbent injection" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Compression of cooked freeze-dried carrots  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. Reduction in volume of up to 18-fold can be obtained by com- pressing dehydrated vegetables (Rabman, 1969). During World War II, the United Kingdom produced dehydrated cabbage and carrots in compressed blocks (Gooding and Rolfe, 1967). Fairbrother (1968...-propanol at low concentration by freeze-drying carbohydrate solutions. J. of Food Sci. 37:617. Flosdorf, E. W. 1949. "Freeze-drying, " Reinhold Publishing Co. , New York. Gooding, E. B. B. and Rolfe, E. J. 1957. Some Recent Work on Dehy- dration...

Macphearson, Bruce Alan

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

302

Dynamic modeling and transient studies of a solid-sorbent adsorber for CO{sub 2} capture  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energys Carbon Capture Simulation Initiative (CCSI) is dedicated to accelerating the commercialization of carbon capture technologies from discovery to development, demonstration, and ultimately the widespread deployment to hundreds of power plants. In this multi-lab initiative in partnership with academic and industrial institutions, the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) leads the development of a multi-scale modeling and simulation toolset for rapid evaluation and deployment of carbon capture systems. One element of the CCSI is focused on optimizing the operation and control of carbon capture systems since this can have a significant impact on the extent and the rate at which commercial-scale capture processes will be scaled-up, deployed, and used in the years to come. Capture processes must be capable of operating over a wide range of transient events, malfunctions, and disturbances, as well as under uncertainties. As part of this work, dynamic simulation and control models, methods, and tools are being developed for CO{sub 2} capture and compression processes and their integration with a baseline commercial-scale supercritical pulverized coal (SCPC) power plant. Solid-sorbent-based post-combustion capture technology was chosen as the first industry challenge problem for CCSI because significant work remains to define and optimize the reactors and processes needed for successful sorbent capture systems. Sorbents offer an advantage because they can reduce the regeneration energy associated with CO{sub 2} capture, thus reducing the parasitic load. In view of this, the current paper focuses on development of a dynamic model of a solid-sorbent CO{sub 2} adsorber-reactor and an analysis of its transient performance with respect to several typical process disturbances. A one-dimensional, non-isothermal, pressure-driven dynamic model of a two-stage bubbling fluidized bed (BFB) adsorber-reactor is developed in Aspen Custom Modeler (ACM). The BFB stages are of overflow-type configuration where the solids leave the stage by flowing over the overflow-weir. Each bed is divided into three regions, namely emulsion, bubble, and cloud-wake regions. In all three regions, the model considers mass and energy balances. Along with the models of the BFB stages, models of other associated hardware are developed and integrated in a single flowsheet. A valid pressure-flow network is developed and a lower-level control system is designed so that the overall CO{sub 2} capture can be maintained at a desired level in face of the typical disturbances. The dynamic model is used for studying the transient responses of a number of important process variables as a result of the disturbances that are typical of post-combustion CO{sub 2} capture processes.

Modekurti, Srinivasarao [WVU; Bhattacharyya, Debangsu [WVU; Zitney, Stephen E. [U.S. DOE

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

303

Steam atmosphere drying exhaust steam recompression system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention relates to a heated steam atmosphere drying system comprising dryer in combination with an exhaust recompression system which is extremely energy efficient and eliminates dangers known to air dryers. The system uses superheated steam as the drying medium, which recirculates through the system where its heat of evaporation and heat of compression is recovered, thereby providing a constant source of heat to the drying chamber. The dryer has inlets whereby feedstock and superheated steam are fed therein. High heat transfer and drying rates are achieved by intimate contact of the superheated steam with the particles being dried. The dryer comprises a vessel which enables the feedstock and steam to enter and recirculate together. When the feedstock becomes dry it will exit the dryer with the steam and become separated from the steam through the use of a curvilinear louver separator (CLS). The CLS enables removal of fine and ultrafine particles from the dryer. Water vapor separated from the particles in the CLS as superheated steam, may then be recovered and recirculated as steam through the use of a compressor to either directly or indirectly heat the dryer, and a heat exchanger or a heater to directly provide heat to the dryer. This system not only provides a very efficient heat transfer system but results in a minimum carry-over of ultrafine particles thereby eliminating any explosive hazard. 17 figures.

Becker, F.E.; Smolensky, L.A.; Doyle, E.F.; DiBella, F.A.

1994-03-08T23:59:59.000Z

304

Texas State Offshore Dry Natural Gas Expected Future Production...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Dry Natural Gas Expected Future Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Texas State Offshore Dry Natural Gas Expected Future Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2...

305

Louisiana State Offshore Dry Natural Gas Expected Future Production...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Dry Natural Gas Expected Future Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Louisiana State Offshore Dry Natural Gas Expected Future Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2...

306

California State Offshore Dry Natural Gas Expected Future Production...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Dry Natural Gas Expected Future Production (Billion Cubic Feet) California State Offshore Dry Natural Gas Expected Future Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1...

307

High Burnup Dry Storage Cask Research and Development Project...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

High Burnup Dry Storage Cask Research and Development Project: Final Test Plan High Burnup Dry Storage Cask Research and Development Project: Final Test Plan The potential need to...

308

Liquid Propane Injection Technology Conductive to Today's North...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Technology Conductive to Today's North American Specification Liquid Propane Injection Technology Conductive to Today's North American Specification Liquid propane injection...

309

Theory of diffusion and sorption of various substances through a biporous sorbent membrane for the case of a constant concentration difference at its boundaries and a linear sorption isotherm. I. Case of an exponential kinetic function for the microporous zones  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

An analytical solution has been obtained for the passage of the sorbed substance through a membrane of a biporous sorbent for the case of constant concentration differences of the sorptive on its boundaries and a...

V. I. Ulin; P. P. Zolotarev; A. I. Pilipenko

1980-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

310

Running dry at the power plant  

SciTech Connect

In the future, competition for water will require electricity generators in the United States to address conservation of fresh water. There are a number of avenues to consider. One is to use dry-cooling and dry-scrubbing technologies. Another is to find innovative ways to recycle water within the power plant itself. A third is to find and use alternative sources of water, including wastewater supplies from municipalities, agricultural runoff, blackish groundwater, or seawater. Dry technologies are usually more capital intensive and typically exact a penalty in terms of plant performance, which in turn raises the cost of power generation. On the other hand, if the cost of water increases in response to greater demand, the cost differences between dry and wet technologies will be reduced. EPRI has a substantial R & D programme evaluating new water-conserving power plant technologies, improving dry and hybrid cooling technologies, reducing water losses in cooling towers, using degraded water sources and developing resource assessment and management decision support tools. 5 refs., 10 figs.

Barker, B.

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

311

Application of dried anaerobic digested sewage sludge as phenol biosorbent  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Untreated anaerobically digested sewage sludge was used for the first time as a biosorbent for removing phenol from aqueous solution. Results showed that adsorption capacity was influenced by the pH of the aqueous solution with an observed maximum phenol removal at pH around 6-8. The adsorption equilibrium of phenolic compounds was obtained after almost two hours with an adsorption of approximately 90% of the phenolic compounds. A sorbent concentration of 1.8 g/L was found to insure the best removal percentage and the best sorbent capacity. Both Langmuir and Freundlich models have provided reasonable fittings for the data of phenol adsorption. The experimental data fitted the pseudo-second-order kinetic model and the intraparticle diffusion model. The values of change in Gibbs free energy (?G), enthalpy (?H) and entropy (?S) were calculated. The thermodynamic study of adsorption process showed that the process was exothermic in nature.

Alaa H. Hawari

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

Underground Injection Control Permits and Registrations (Texas) |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

You are here You are here Home » Underground Injection Control Permits and Registrations (Texas) Underground Injection Control Permits and Registrations (Texas) < Back Eligibility Utility Agricultural Investor-Owned Utility State/Provincial Govt Industrial Construction Municipal/Public Utility Local Government Installer/Contractor Rural Electric Cooperative Fuel Distributor Savings Category Buying & Making Electricity Program Info State Texas Program Type Environmental Regulations Safety and Operational Guidelines Provider Texas Commission on Environmental Quality Chapter 27 of the Texas Water Code (the Injection Well Act) defines an "injection well" as "an artificial excavation or opening in the ground made by digging, boring, drilling, jetting, driving, or some other

313

Low Temperature Catalyst for Fuel Injection System  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

A low temperature oxidation catalyst applied to a DOC and DPF combined with a unique fuel injection system remove soot from a diesel exhaust system.

314

NONLINEAR MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMICS OF AC HELICITY INJECTION  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

parameter: the driving fre- quency . The lower the frequency, the greater the classical penetration and the higher the helicity injection rate. On the other hand, the field...

315

Energy-efficient control in injection molding.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??As an energy-intensive process, in injection molding, energy cost is one of the major cost components. The energy expenditure during molding can be divided into (more)

Yao, Ke

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

316

Advanced Gasoline Turbocharged Direct Injection (GTDI) Engine...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

in Gasoline Turbocharged Direct Injection (GTDI) engine technology in the near term as a cost effective, high volume, fuel economy solution, marketed globally as EcoBoost...

317

Hawaii Underground Injection Control Permitting Webpage | Open...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Webpage Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Web Site: Hawaii Underground Injection Control Permitting Webpage Author State of Hawaii Department of...

318

Dry ports: a lacuna in Sri Lanka  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper examines the needs for dry ports in Sri Lanka, where none exists now, using the inputs from the stake holders in the logistics industry to fulfil a vacuum of some scholarly literature on the topic which is not sufficiently discussed. A hybrid approach comprising both quantitative and qualitative methods was used to analyse the topic using the data collected through surveys and literary sources. Resultant conclusion is that the dry ports are needed in Sri Lanka as a solution to capacity issues of the sea port and the roads and the railways could play prominent role in this context. Findings of the research show that dry ports could offer a relief to heavily congested roads of Colombo city and the port infrastructure.

Jayantha Rathnayake; Lu Jing; A.W. Wijeratne

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

Sorbent Testing for the Solidification of Organic Process Waste streams from the Radiochemical Engineering Development Center at Oak Ridge National Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has tasked MSE Technology Applications, Inc. (MSE) with evaluating various sorbents to solidify the radioactive liquid organic waste from the Radiochemical Engineering Development Center (REDC) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). REDC recovers and purifies heavy elements (berkelium, californium, einsteinium, and fermium) from irradiated targets for research and industrial applications. Both aqueous and organic waste streams are discharged from REDC. Organic waste is generated from the plutonium/uranium extraction (PUREX), Cleanex, and Pubex processes.1 The PUREX waste derives from an organic-aqueous isotope separation process for plutonium and uranium fission products, the Cleanex waste derives from the removal of fission products and other impurities from the americium/curium product, and the Pubex waste is derived from the separation process of plutonium from dissolved targets. An aqueous waste stream is also produced from these separation processes. MSE has been tasked to test a grouting formula for the aqueous waste stream that includes specially formulated radioactive shielding materials developed by Science and Technology Applications, LLC. This paper will focus on the sorbent testing work. Based on work performed at Savannah River Site (SRS) (Refs. 1, 2), ORNL tested and evaluated three sorbents capable of solidifying the PUREX, Pubex, and Cleanex waste streams and a composite of the three organic waste streams: Imbiber Beads{sup R} IMB230301 (Imbiber Beads), Nochar A610 Petro Bond, and Petroset II Granular{sup TM} (Petroset II-G). Surrogates of the PUREX, Pubex, Cleanex, and a composite organic waste were used for the bench-scale testing. Recommendations resulting from the ORNL testing included follow-on testing by MSE for two of the three sorbents: Nochar Petro Bond and Petroset II-G. MSE recommended that another clay sorbent, Organoclay BM-QT-199, be added to the test sequence. The sorbent/surrogate combinations were tested at bench scale, 19-liter (L) [5-gallon (gal)] bucket scale, and 208-L (55-gal) drum scale. The testing performed by MSE will help ORNL select the right solidification materials and wasteform generation methods for the design of a new treatment facility. The results could also be used to help demonstrate that ORNL could meet the waste acceptance criteria for the ultimate disposal site for the waste-forms. The organics will be solidified as transuranic waste for disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, and the aqueous waste stream will be grouted and disposed of at the Nevada Test Site as low-level waste if real waste testing indicates similar results to the surrogate testing. The objective of this work was to identify a sorbent capable of solidifying PUREX, Pubex, and Cleanex organic wastes individually and a composite of the three organic waste streams. The sorbent and surrogate combinations must also be compatible with processing equipment and maintain stability under a variety of conditions that could occur during storage/shipment of the solidified wastes. (authors)

Bickford, J.; Foote, M. [MSE Technology Applications, Inc., Montana (United States); Taylor, P. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee (United States)

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

320

Dry-Mass Sensing for Microfluidics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Dry-Mass Sensing for Microfluidics T. Muller,1 D. A. White,1 and T. P. J. Knowles1, a) Department of Chemistry, University of Cambridge, Lensfield Road, Cambridge CB2 1EW, United Kingdom (Dated: 25 November 2014) We present an approach... for interfacing an electromechanical sensor with a microfluidic device for the accurate quantification of the dry mass of analytes within microchannels. We show that depositing solutes onto the active surface of a quartz crystal microbalance by means of an on...

Mller, T.; White, D. A.; Knowles, T. P. J.

2014-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dry sorbent injection" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Bench-scale Development of an Advanced Solid sorbent-based CO2 Capture Process for Coal-fired Power Plalnts  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

scale Development of an scale Development of an Advanced Solid Sorbent-based CO 2 Capture Process for Coal-fired Power Plants Background The mission of the U.S. Department of Energy/National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL) Existing Plants, Emissions, & Capture (EPEC) Research & Development (R&D) Program is to develop innovative environmental control technologies to enable full use of the nation's vast coal reserves, while at the same time allowing the current

322

Hog Fuel Drying Using Vapour Recompression  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A continuous hog fuel drying pilot plant based on the principle of mixing hog fuel with a hot oil (e.g., crude tall oil) as the heat transfer medium, and recirculating the suspension through a steam heated exchanger was designed, built...

Azarniouch, M. K.; MacEachen, I.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

323

Hot-dry-rock geothermal resource 1980  

SciTech Connect

The work performed on hot dry rock (HDR) geothermal resource evaluation, site characterization, and geophysical exploration techniques is summarized. The work was done by region (Far West, Pacific Northwest, Southwest, Rocky Mountain States, Midcontinent, and Eastern) and limited to the conterminous US.

Heiken, G.; Goff, F.; Cremer, G. (ed.)

1982-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

324

Sorbent Testing For Solidification of Process Waste streams from the Radiochemical Engineering Development Center at Oak Ridge National Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) tasked MSE Technology Applications, Inc. (MSE) to evaluate sorbents identified by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to solidify the radioactive liquid organic waste from the Radiochemical Engineering Development Center (REDC) at ORNL. REDC recovers and purifies heavy elements (berkelium, californium, einsteinium, and fermium) from irradiated targets for research and industrial applications. Both organic and aqueous waste streams are discharged from REDC. The organic waste is generated from the plutonium/uranium extraction (Purex), Cleanex, and Pubex processes. The Purex waste derives from an organic-aqueous isotope separation process for plutonium and uranium fission products, the Cleanex waste derives from the removal of fission products and other impurities from the americium/curium product, and the Pubex waste is derived from the separation process of plutonium from dissolved targets. MSE had also been tasked to test a grouting formula for the aqueous waste stream that includes radioactive shielding material. The aqueous waste is a mixture of the raffinate streams from the various extraction processes plus the caustic solution that is used to dissolve the aluminum cladding from the irradiated targets. (authors)

Bickford, J. [MSE Technology Applications, Inc., MT (United States); Taylor, P. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

325

Drilling Waste Management Fact Sheet: Slurry Injection of Drilling Wastes  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Slurry Injection Slurry Injection Fact Sheet - Slurry Injection of Drilling Wastes Underground Injection of Drilling Wastes Several different approaches are used for injecting drilling wastes into underground formations for permanent disposal. Salt caverns are described in a separate fact sheet. This fact sheet focuses on slurry injection technology, which involves grinding or processing solids into small particles, mixing them with water or some other liquid to make a slurry, and injecting the slurry into an underground formation at pressures high enough to fracture the rock. The process referred to here as slurry injection has been given other designations by different authors, including slurry fracture injection (this descriptive term is copyrighted by a company that provides slurry injection services), fracture slurry injection, drilled cuttings injection, cuttings reinjection, and grind and inject.

326

Non-Linear Drying Diffusion and Viscoelastic Drying Shrinkage Modeling in Hardened Cement Pastes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

modeling with an average diffusion coefficient and with determined viscoelastic parameters from creep tests agreed well compared to the shrinkage data from experiments, indicating that drying shrinkage of cement paste may be considered as a poroviscoelastic...

Leung, Chin K.

2010-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

327

Laboratory scale studies of Pd/{gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} sorbents for the removal of trace contaminants from coal-derived fuel gas at elevated temperatures  

SciTech Connect

The Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) is a promising technology for the use of coal in a clean and efficient manner. In order to maintain the overall efficiency of the IGCC process, it is necessary to clean the fuel gas of contaminants (sulfur, trace compounds) at warm (150540 C) to hot (>540 C) temperatures. Current technologies for trace contaminant (such as mercury) removal, primarily activated carbon based sorbents, begin to lose effectiveness above 100 C, creating the need to develop sorbents effective at elevated temperatures. As trace elements are of particular environmental concern, previous work by this group has focused on the development of a Pd/?-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} sorbent for Hg removal. This paper extends the research to Se (as hydrogen selenide, H{sub 2}Se), As (as arsine, AsH{sub 3}), and P (as phosphine, PH{sub 3}) which thermodynamic studies indicate are present as gaseous species under gasification conditions. Experiments performed under ambient conditions in He on 20 wt.% Pd/?-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} indicate the sorbent can remove the target contaminants. Further work is performed using a 5 wt.% Pd/?-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} sorbent in a simulated fuel gas (H{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2}, N{sub 2} and H{sub 2}S) in both single and multiple contaminant atmospheres to gauge sorbent performance characteristics. The impact of H{sub 2}O, Hg and temperature on sorbent performance is explored.

Rupp, Erik C.; Granite, Evan J. [U.S. DOE; Stanko, Dennis C. [U.S. DOE

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

328

Integrated injection-locked semiconductor diode laser  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A continuous wave integrated injection-locked high-power diode laser array is provided with an on-chip independently-controlled master laser. The integrated injection locked high-power diode laser array is capable of continuous wave lasing in a single near-diffraction limited output beam at single-facet power levels up to 125 mW (250 mW total). Electronic steering of the array emission over an angle of 0.5 degrees is obtained by varying current to the master laser. The master laser injects a laser beam into the slave array by reflection of a rear facet. 18 figures.

Hadley, G.R.; Hohimer, J.P.; Owyoung, A.

1991-02-19T23:59:59.000Z

329

Integrated injection-locked semiconductor diode laser  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A continuous wave integrated injection-locked high-power diode laser array is provided with an on-chip independently-controlled master laser. The integrated injection locked high-power diode laser array is capable of continuous wave lasing in a single near-diffraction limited output beam at single-facet power levels up to 125 mW (250 mW total). Electronic steering of the array emission over an angle of 0.5 degrees is obtained by varying current to the master laser. The master laser injects a laser beam into the slave array by reflection of a rear facet.

Hadley, G. Ronald (Albuquerque, NM); Hohimer, John P. (Albuquerque, NM); Owyoung, Adelbert (Albuquerque, NM)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

330

Dry-Mass Sensing for Microfluidics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present an approach for interfacing an electromechanical sensor with a microfluidic device for the accurate quantification of the dry mass of analytes within microchannels. We show that depositing solutes onto the active surface of a quartz crystal microbalance by means of an on-chip microfluidic spray nozzle and subsequent solvent removal provides the basis for the real-time determination of dry solute mass. Moreover, this detection scheme does not suffer from the decrease in the sensor quality factor and the viscous drag present if the measurement is performed in a liquid environment, yet allows solutions to be analysed. We demonstrate the sensitivity and reliability of our approach by controlled deposition of nanogram levels of salt and protein from a micrometer-sized channel.

Mller, T; Knowles, T P J

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

331

Dry Lake Wind Farm | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Wind Farm Wind Farm Jump to: navigation, search Name Dry Lake Wind Farm Facility Dry Lake Sector Wind energy Facility Type Commercial Scale Wind Facility Status In Service Owner Iberdrola Renewables Developer Iberdrola Renewables Energy Purchaser Iberdrola Renewables Location Navajo County AZ Coordinates 34.635651°, -110.357351° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":34.635651,"lon":-110.357351,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

332

PULSE DRYING EXPERIMENT AND BURNER CONSTRUCTION  

SciTech Connect

Non steady impingement heat transfer is measured. Impingement heating consumes 130 T-BTU/Yr in paper drying, but is only 25% thermally efficient. Pulse impingement is experimentally shown to enhance heat transfer by 2.8, and may deliver thermal efficiencies near 85%. Experimental results uncovered heat transfer deviations from steady theory and from previous investigators, indicating the need for further study and a better theoretical framework. The pulse burner is described, and its roll in pulse impingement is analyzed.

Robert States

2006-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

333

Application of Desiccant Drying in Plastic Molding  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

APPLICATION OF DESICCANT DRYING IN PLASTIC MOLDING Michael Brown, P.E. Greg Connors, P.E. Douglas Moore, P.E. Senior Research Engr. Industrial Engr. Senior Research Engr. Ga. Tech Research Inst. Atlanta Gas Light Co. Ga. Tech Research Inst... will condense on refrigerated display doors. In ice rinks, condensation will occur on the ice surface causing it to soften if the humidity too high. In plastic molding, chilled water is provi ed to rapidly cool the finished parts. Cooling incr...

Brown, M.; Connors, G.; Moore, D.

334

Cold Vacuum Drying Facility hazard analysis report  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the methodology used in conducting the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF) hazard analysis to support the CVDF phase 2 safety analysis report (SAR), and documents the results. The hazard analysis was performed in accordance with DOE-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for US Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Reports, and implements the requirements of US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Reports.

Krahn, D.E.

1998-02-23T23:59:59.000Z

335

On the dry deposition of submicron particles  

SciTech Connect

The air-surface exchange of particles can have a strong role in determining the amount, size, and chemical composition of particles in the troposphere. Here the authors consider only dry processes (deposition processes not directly aided by precipitation) and mostly address particles less than about 2 {micro}m in diameter (often referred to as submicron particles because most of such particles are less than 1 {micro}m in diameter). The processes that control the dry exchange of particulate material between the atmosphere and the surface of the Earth are numerous, highly varied, and sometimes poorly understood. As a result, determining which of the surface processes to parameterize or simulate in modeling the tropospheric mass budget of a particulate substance can be a significant challenge. Dry deposition, for example, can be controlled by a combination of Brownian diffusion, impaction, interception, and gravitational settling, depending on the size of the particles, the roughness of the surface on both micrometeorological and microscopic scales, the geometrical structure of vegetative canopies, and other surface characteristics such as wetness. Particles can be added to the lower atmosphere by resuspension from land surfaces and sea spray. The roles of rapid gas-to-particle conversion and growth or shrinkage of particles as a result of water condensation or evaporation in the lower few meters of the atmosphere can also have a significant impact on particle concentrations in the lower atmosphere. Here, a few micrometeorological observations and inferences on particle air-surface exchange are briefly addressed.

Wesely, M. L.

1999-10-08T23:59:59.000Z

336

Injection of Electrons and Holes into Nanostructures  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Injection of Electrons and Holes into Nanostructures Injection of Electrons and Holes into Nanostructures This program targets fundamental understanding of nanoscale charge transfer processes. The proposed work draws on the strengths of the Brookhaven Chemistry Department in the areas of electron transfer experiment and theory, and extends the area of inquiry to nanoscale processes. Electron/hole injection into a wire, a nanocrystal, a nanotube or other nanostructure in solution may be brought about by light absorption, by an electron pulse (pulse radiolysis, LEAF), by a chemical reagent, or through an electrode. These processes are being studied by transient methods by following conductivity, current, but most generally, spectroscopic changes in the solutions to determine the dynamics of charge injection. The observed transient spectra can also provide values for electron-transfer coupling elements and energetics. Theoretical/computational studies can help in materials design and in the interpretation of the experimental results. The experimental systems being examined include molecular wires and metal nanoclusters.

337

Injection Locking Techniques for Spectrum Analysis  

SciTech Connect

Wideband spectrum analysis supports future communication systems that reconfigure and adapt to the capacity of the spectral environment. While test equipment manufacturers offer wideband spectrum analyzers with excellent sensitivity and resolution, these spectrum analyzers typically cannot offer acceptable size, weight, and power (SWAP). CMOS integrated circuits offer the potential to fully integrate spectrum analysis capability with analog front-end circuitry and digital signal processing on a single chip. Unfortunately, CMOS lacks high-Q passives and wideband resonator tunability that is necessary for heterodyne implementations of spectrum analyzers. As an alternative to the heterodyne receiver architectures, two nonlinear methods for performing wideband, low-power spectrum analysis are presented. The first method involves injecting the spectrum of interest into an array of injection-locked oscillators. The second method employs the closed loop dynamics of both injection locking and phase locking to independently estimate the injected frequency and power.

Gathma, Timothy D.; Buckwalter, James F. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of California San Diego, 9500 Gilman Dr., La Jolla, CA 9209 (United States)

2011-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

338

Resonantly pumped optical pumping injection cavity lasers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An optical parametric oscillator is tuned to the resonance wavelength of the etalon in an optical pumping injection cavity (OPIC) laser with a type-II "W" active region, thereby minimizing the threshold pump intensity and ...

Santilli, Michael Robert; McAlpine, T. C.; Greene, K. R.; Olafsen, L. J.; Bewley, W. W.; Felix, C. L.; Vurgaftman, I.; Meyer, J. R.; Lee, H.; Martinelli, R. U.

2004-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

339

Injection Technologies for Fault Attacks on Microprocessors  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The fault injection technique we will analyze in detail in Sect.16.3, is the constant under-powering of a computing device. By running the chip with a depleted power supply, the attacker is able to insert transi...

Alessandro Barenghi; Guido M. Bertoni; Luca Breveglieri

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

340

Investigation of Direct Injection Vehicle Particulate Matter...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Emissions This study focuses primarily on particulate matter mass analysis of a gasoline direct injection engine in a test cell with a chassis dynamometer. p-10gibbs.pdf...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dry sorbent injection" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Wet and Dry Pollutant Deposition to the Mixed Conifer Forest  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The Mediterranean climate in southern California regulates wet and dry deposition characteristics in the San Bernardino Mountains (SBM). Long dry periods in combination with the large air pollution emissions f...

A. Bytnerowicz; M. E. Fenn; P. R. Miller

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

342

Hadley Cell Dynamics in a Virtually Dry Snowball Earth Atmosphere  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The Hadley cell of a virtually dry snowball Earth atmosphere under equinox insolation is studied in a comprehensive atmospheric general circulation model. In contrast to the Hadley cell of modern Earth, momentum transport by dry convection, which ...

Aiko Voigt; Isaac M. Held; Jochem Marotzke

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

343

High voltage dry-type air-core shunt reactors  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Dry-type air-core shunt reactors are now being ... systems to limit overvoltages. Recently, high voltage dry-type air-core shunt reactors have been designed, ... transient overvoltages and electrical and magnetic...

Klaus Papp; Michael R. Sharp

2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

Fluidized bed injection assembly for coal gasification  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A coaxial feed system for fluidized bed coal gasification processes including an inner tube for injecting particulate combustibles into a transport gas, an inner annulus about the inner tube for injecting an oxidizing gas, and an outer annulus about the inner annulus for transporting a fluidizing and cooling gas. The combustibles and oxidizing gas are discharged vertically upward directly into the combustion jet, and the fluidizing and cooling gas is discharged in a downward radial direction into the bed below the combustion jet.

Cherish, Peter (Bethel Park, PA); Salvador, Louis A. (Hempfield Township, Westmoreland County, PA)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

Smart Materials for Fuel Injection Actuation  

SciTech Connect

The demands of stringent emissions and a robust engine dynamic torque response characteristic require innovative, accurate and repeatable control of the fuel injection event. Recent advances in piezo-material actuators have warranted the pursuit of its application to advanced heavy-duty truck fuel injection systems. This presentation will report on design and testing of an advanced electronic unit injector for the Detroit Diesel Series 60 truck engine.

Hakim, Nabil

2000-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

346

Proper Injection Techniques in Dairy Cattle  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

tissue reaction. Don?t inject more than 10 cc (ml) in one site. If more ? medication must be given, use several injection sites. Use the recommended route of administration. There ? are three main routs of administration. Subcutaneously (SQ... sunlight and in a controlled environment. When finished vaccinating for ? the day, properly dispose of any remaining vaccine. Once a vaccine vial is opened, the expiration date is void. Using sanitary methods Protect needles and medicines ? from dust...

Villarino, Mario A.

2009-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

347

Orthogonal ion injection apparatus and process  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An orthogonal ion injection apparatus and process are described in which ions are directly injected into an ion guide orthogonal to the ion guide axis through an inlet opening located on a side of the ion guide. The end of the heated capillary is placed inside the ion guide such that the ions are directly injected into DC and RF fields inside the ion guide, which efficiently confines ions inside the ion guide. Liquid droplets created by the ionization source that are carried through the capillary into the ion guide are removed from the ion guide by a strong directional gas flow through an inlet opening on the opposite side of the ion guide. Strong DC and RF fields divert ions into the ion guide. In-guide orthogonal injection yields a noise level that is a factor of 1.5 to 2 lower than conventional inline injection known in the art. Signal intensities for low m/z ions are greater compared to convention inline injection under the same processing conditions.

Kurulugama, Ruwan T; Belov, Mikhail E

2014-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

348

Flue gas desulfurization: Physicochemical and biotechnological approaches  

SciTech Connect

Various flue gas desulfurization processes - physicochemical, biological, and chemobiological - for the reduction of emission of SO{sub 2} with recovery of an economic by-product have been reviewed. The physicochemical processes have been categorized as 'once-through' and 'regenerable.' The prominent once-through technologies include wet and dry scrubbing. The wet scrubbing technologies include wet limestone, lime-inhibited oxidation, limestone forced oxidation, and magnesium-enhanced lime and sodium scrubbing. The dry scrubbing constitutes lime spray drying, furnace sorbent injection, economizer sorbent injection, duct sorbent injection, HYPAS sorbent injection, and circulating fluidized bed treatment process. The regenerable wet and dry processes include the Wellman Lord's process, citrate process, sodium carbonate eutectic process, magnesium oxide process, amine process, aqueous ammonia process, Berglau Forchung's process, and Shell's process. Besides these, the recently developed technologies such as the COBRA process, the OSCAR process, and the emerging biotechnological and chemobiological processes are also discussed. A detailed outline of the chemistry, the advantages and disadvantages, and the future research and development needs for each of these commercially viable processes is also discussed.

Pandey, R.A.; Biswas, R.; Chakrabarti, T.; Devotta, S. [National Environmental Engineering Research Institute, Nagpur (India)

2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

Roles of Dry Friction in Fluctuating Motion of Adiabatic Piston  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The motion of an adiabatic piston under dry friction is investigated to clarify the roles of dry friction in non-equilibrium steady states. We clarify that dry friction can reverse the direction of the piston motion and causes a discontinuity or a cusp-like singularity for velocity distribution functions of the piston. We also show that the heat fluctuation relation is modified under dry friction.

Tomohiko G. Sano; Hisao Hayakawa

2014-03-08T23:59:59.000Z

350

Injection System and Engine Strategies for Advanced Emission...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Injection System and Engine Strategies for Advanced Emission Standards Injection System and Engine Strategies for Advanced Emission Standards Presentation given at DEER 2006,...

351

Advantages of Oxygenates Fuels over Gasoline in Direct Injection...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Advantages of Oxygenates Fuels over Gasoline in Direct Injection Spark Ignition Engines Advantages of Oxygenates Fuels over Gasoline in Direct Injection Spark Ignition Engines...

352

Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Fuel Injection...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Fuel Injection and Spray Research Using X-Ray Diagnostics Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Fuel Injection and Spray Research Using X-Ray Diagnostics Presentation...

353

Injection risk behavior among women syringe exchangers in San Francisco.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

injection supplies (cotton, cookers, water, and bleach),injection equipment, such as cookers, cottons, and rinsepartners, n=148 Shared cooker, cotton, or rinse water

Lum, Paula J; Sears, Clare; Guydish, Joseph

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

354

Alabama Injection Project Aimed at Enhanced Oil Recovery, Testing...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Alabama Injection Project Aimed at Enhanced Oil Recovery, Testing Important Geologic CO2 Storage Alabama Injection Project Aimed at Enhanced Oil Recovery, Testing Important...

355

Survey of hybrid solar heat pump drying systems  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Solar drying is in practice since the ancient time for preservation of food and agriculture crops. The objective of most drying processes is to reduce the moisture content of the product to a specified value. Solar dryers used in agriculture for food ... Keywords: coefficient of performance (COP), direct expansion SAHD, drying chamber, heat pump, solar assisted heat pumps dryer (SAHPD), solar fraction

R. Daghigh; K. Sopian; M. H. Ruslan; M. A. Alghoul; C. H. Lim; S. Mat; B. Ali; M. Yahya; A. Zaharim; M. Y. Sulaiman

2009-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

356

Modeling of Coal Drying before Pyrolysis Damintode Kolani1, a  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in the coal without chemical decomposition and pyrolysis converts dry coal into gas and coke [1]. The final1 Modeling of Coal Drying before Pyrolysis Damintode Kolani1, a , Eric Blond1, b , Alain Gasser1 Forbach, France a damintode.kolani@univ-orleans.fr, b eric.blond@univ-orleans.fr Keywords: coal, drying

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

357

Temperature histories in geothermal wells: survey of rock thermomechanical properties and drilling, production, and injection case studies  

SciTech Connect

Thermal and mechanical properties for geothermal formations are tabulated for a range of temperatures and stress conditions. Data was obtained from the technical literature and direct contacts with industry. Thermal properties include heat capacity, conductivity, and diffusivity. Undisturbed geothermal profiles are also presented. Mechanical properties include Youngs modulus and Poisson ratio. GEOTEMP thermal simulations of drilling, production and injection are reported for two geothermal regions, the hot dry rock area near Los Alamos and the East Mesa field in the Imperial Valley. Actual drilling, production, and injection histories are simulated. Results are documented in the form of printed GEOTEMP output and plots of temperatures versus depth, radius, and time. Discussion and interpretation of the results are presented for drilling and well completion design to determine: wellbore temperatures during drilling as a function of depth; bit temperatures over the drilling history; cement temperatures from setting to the end of drilling; and casing and formation temperatures during drilling, production, and injection.

Goodman, M.A.

1981-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

358

Transonic Combustion ?- Injection Strategy Development for Supercritical Gasoline Injection-Ignition in a Light Duty Engine  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Novel fuel injection equipment enables knock-free ignition with low noise and smoke in compression-ignition engines and low-particulates in spark-ignition engines.

359

Effects of O{sub 2} and SO{sub 2} on the Capture Capacity of a Primary-Amine Based Polymeric CO{sub 2} Sorbent  

SciTech Connect

Post combustion CO{sub 2} capture is most commonly carried out using an amine solution that results in a high parasitic energy cost in the stripper unit due to the need to heat the water which comprises a majority of the amine solution. It is also well known that amine solvents suffer from stability issues due to amine leaching and poisoning by flue gas impurities. Solid sorbents provide an alternative to solvent systems that would potentially reduce the energy penalty of carbon capture. However, the cost of using a particular sorbent is greatly affected by the usable lifetime of the sorbent. This work investigated the stability of a primary amine-functionalized ion exchange resin in the presence of O{sub 2} and SO{sub 2}, both of which are constituents of flue gas that have been shown to cause degradation of various amines in solvent processes. The CO{sub 2} capture capacity was measured over multiple capture cycles under continuous exposure to two simulated flue gas streams, one containing 12 vol% CO{sub 2}, 4% O{sub 2}, 84% N{sub 2}, and the other containing 12.5 vol% CO{sub 2}, 4% O{sub 2}, 431 ppm SO{sub 2}, balance N{sub 2} using a custom-built packed bed reactor. The resin maintained its CO{sub 2} capture capacity of 1.31 mol/kg over 17 capture cycles in the presence of O{sub 2} without SO{sub 2}. However, the CO{sub 2} capture capacity of the resin decreased rapidly under exposure to SO{sub 2} by an amount of 1.3 mol/kg over 9 capture cycles. Elemental analysis revealed the resin adsorbed 1.0 mol/kg of SO{sub 2}. Thermal regeneration was determined to not be possible. The poisoned resin was, however, partially regenerated with exposure to 1.5M NaOH for 3 days resulting in a 43% removal of sulfur, determined through elemental analysis, and a 35% recovery of CO{sub 2} capture capacity. Evidence was also found for amine loss upon prolonged (7 days) continuous exposure to high temperatures (120 #14;C) in air. It is concluded that desulfurization of the flue gas stream prior to CO{sub 2} capture will greatly improve the economic viability of using this solid sorbent in a post-combustion CO{sub 2} capture process.

Hallenbeck, Alexander P.; Kitchin, John R.

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

360

Carbon Filter Process for Flue-Gas Carbon Capture on Carbonaceous Sorbents: Field Tests of Steam-Aided Vacuum Swing Adsorption  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The final 30 cycles are performed at Pawnee Station, owned by Xcel Energy, in Brush, CO. ... This work was funded by Wyomings Enhanced Oil Recovery Institute, Supercritical Fluids LLC, the state of Wyomings Clean Coal Program administered by the University of Wyomings School of Energy Resources, the Electric Power Research Institute, Pacificorp Energy, Xcel Energy, and a discretionary fund of one of the authors (Maciej Radosz). ... The authors also thank Mr. Ryan Taucher, Pacificorp Energys Jim Bridger Power Plant, WY, Mr. Barry Andrews, Xcel Energys Pawnee Station, CO, and Dr. Xin Hu, who characterized the sorbents. ...

Bryce Dutcher; Kaspars Krutkramelis; Hertanto Adidharma; Maciej Radosz

2012-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dry sorbent injection" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

In Situ Infrared Study of the Effect of Amine Density on the Nature of Adsorbed CO2 on Amine-Functionalized Solid Sorbents  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Danon et al. observed that the absorbance band formed at 1701 cm1 during CO2 adsorption on densely loaded APTES/SBA-15 (DAPS) sorbent shifted to higher frequencies (1714 cm1) after evacuation of CO2, which they assigned to the surface-bound carbamate species instead of carbamic acid. ... Danon, A.; Stair, P. C.; Weitz, E.FTIR Study of CO2 Adsorption on Amine-Grafted SBA-15: Elucidation of Adsorbed Species J. Phys. ... Danon, Alon; Stair, Peter C.; Weitz, Eric ...

Uma Tumuluri; Mathew Isenberg; Chung-Sung Tan; Steven S. C. Chuang

2014-06-04T23:59:59.000Z

362

Management of dry flue gas desulfurization by-products in underground mines. Quarterly report, August 1--October 31, 1997  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project was to develop and demonstrate two technologies for the placement of coal combustion by-products in abandoned underground coal mines, and to assess the environmental impact of these technologies for the management of CCB materials. The two technologies for the underground placement that were to be developed and demonstrated are: (1) pneumatic placement using virtually dry CCB products, and (2) hydraulic placement using a paste mixture of CCB products with about 70% solids. The period covered by this report is the second quarter of Phase 3 of the overall program. During this period over 8,000 tons of CCB mixtures was injected using the hydraulic paste technology. This amount of material virtually filled the underground opening around the injection well, and was deemed sufficient to demonstrate fully the hydraulic injection technology. By the end of this quarter about 2,000 tons of fly ash had been placed underground using the pneumatic placement technology. While the rate of injection of about 50 tons per hour met design criteria, problems were experienced in the delivery of fly ash to the pneumatic demonstration site. The source of the fly ash, the Archer Daniels Midland Company power plant at Decatur, Illinois is some distance from the demonstration site, and often sufficient tanker trucks are not available to haul enough fly ash to fully load the injection equipment. Further, on some occasions fly ash from the plant was not available. The injection well was plugged three times during the demonstration. This typically occurred due to cementation of the FBC ash in contact with water. After considerable deliberations and in consultation with the technical project officer, it was decided to stop further injection of CCB`s underground using the developed pneumatic technology.

Chugh, Y.P.

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

363

An experimental investigation of high temperature, high pressure paper drying  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

CONCLUSIONS RECOMMENDATIONS 50 51 REFERENCES APPENDIX A EXPERIMENTAL DATA 52 54 VITA 105 vail LIST OF FIGURES Page Fig. 1 Schematic of test facility 13 Fig. 2 Comparison of Texas A&M drying facility operating ranges to other drying processes... of number of drying passes for drying temperatures of 93, 149, and 204 'C (200, 300, and 400 'F), a contact pressure of 1. 4 MPa (200 psi), a basis weight of 25 g/m' (0. 005 lb/ft'), and contact times between 20 to 180 msec with same side drying...

Patel, Kamal Raoji

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

364

Lithographic dry development using optical absorption  

SciTech Connect

A novel approach to dry development of exposed photo resist is described in which a photo resist layer is exposed to a visible light source in order to remove the resist in the areas of exposure. The class of compounds used as the resist material, under the influence of the light source, undergoes a chemical/structural change such that the modified material becomes volatile and is thus removed from the resist surface. The exposure process is carried out for a time sufficient to ablate the exposed resist layer down to the layer below. A group of compounds found to be useful in this process includes aromatic calixarenes.

Olynick, Deirdre; Schuck, P. James; Schmidt, Martin

2013-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

365

Drying Fruits and Vegetables at Home.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

all fresh produce thoroughly to re move any dirt or spray. Sort and discard any defective food. Decay, bruises or mold on any piece may affect an entire batch of food being dried. Peel, pit and/or cut the food into uniform sized pieces. A stainless.... (See charts on pages 6 to 9 for specific times .) ? Set the dmtainer of sulfur beside the stacked trays. 2 Ignite the sulfur. Do not leave burned matches in the container; they may keep the sulfur from burning completely. Because of the flame...

Putnam, Peggy H.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

Formation dry-out from CO2 injection into saline aquifers: Part 1, Effects of solids precipitation and their mitigation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and W. Mller. Modelling of Halite Formation in Natural Gasgas storage systems, where halite (NaCl) is the most common600 bar, and salinity to full halite saturation (Pruess and

Pruess, Karsten

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

367

Duct injection for SO{sub 2} control, Design Handbook, Volume 1, Process design and engineering guidelines  

SciTech Connect

PETC developed a comprehensive program of coal-related, acid-rain research and development with a major activity area centering on flue gas cleanup and control of SO{sub 2} emissions. Particular emphasis was placed on the retrofit measures for older coal-fired power plants which predate the 1971 New Source Performance Standards. Candidate emission control technologies fall into three categories, depending upon their point of application along the fuel path (i.e., pre, during, or post combustion). The post-combustion, in-duct injection of a calcium-based chemical reagent seemed promising. Preliminary studies showed that reagent injection between the existing air heater and electrostatic precipitator (ESP) could remove between 50-60% of the SO{sub 2} and produce an environmentally safe, dry, solid waste that is easily disposed. Although SO{sub 2} removal efficiencies were less, the estimated capital costs for duct injection technology were low making the economics of duct injection systems seem favorable when compared to conventional wet slurry scrubbers under certain circumstances. With the promulgation of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 came more incentive for the development of low capital cost flue gas desulfurization (FGD) processes. A number of technical problems had to be resolved, however, before duct injection technology could be brought to a state of commercial readiness. The Duct Injection Technology Development Program was launched as a comprehensive, four-year research effort undertaken by PETC to develop this new technology. Completed in 1992, this Duct Injection Design Handbook and the three-dimensional predictive mathematical model constitute two primary end products from this development program. The aim of this design handbook and the accompanying math model is to provide utility personnel with sufficient information to evaluate duct injection technology against competing SO{sub 2} emissions reduction strategies for an existing plant.

NONE

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

Long-Term Carbon Injection Field Test for 90% Mercury Removal for a PRB Unit a Spray Dryer and Fabric Filter  

SciTech Connect

The power industry in the U.S. is faced with meeting regulations to reduce the emissions of mercury compounds from coal-fired plants. Injecting a sorbent such as powdered activated carbon (PAC) into the flue gas represents one of the simplest and most mature approaches to controlling mercury emissions from coal-fired boilers. The purpose of this test program was to evaluate the long-term mercury removal capability, long-term mercury emissions variability, and operating and maintenance (O&M) costs associated with sorbent injection on a configuration being considered for many new plants. Testing was conducted by ADA Environmental Solutions (ADA) at Rocky Mountain Powers (RMP) Hardin Station through funding provided by DOE/NETL, RMP, and other industry partners. The Hardin Station is a new plant rated at 121 MW gross that was first brought online in April of 2006. Hardin fires a Powder River Basin (PRB) coal and is configured with selective catalytic reduction (SCR) for NOx control, a spray dryer absorber (SDA) for SO2 control, and a fabric filter (FF) for particulate control. Based upon previous testing at PRB sites with SCRs, very little additional mercury oxidation from the SCR was expected at Hardin. In addition, based upon results from DOE/NETL Phase II Round I testing at Holcomb Station and results from similarly configured sites, low native mercury removal was expected across the SDA and FF. The main goal of this project was metsorbent injection was used to economically and effectively achieve 90% mercury control as measured from the air heater (AH) outlet to the stack for a period of ten months. This goal was achieved with DARCO Hg-LH, Calgon FLUEPAC-MC PLUS and ADA Power PAC PREMIUM brominated activated carbons at nominal loadings of 1.52.5 lb/MMacf. An economic analysis determined the twenty-year levelized cost to be 0.87 mills/kW-hr, or $15,000/lb Hg removed. No detrimental effects on other equipment or plant operations were observed. The results of this project also filled a data gap for plants firing PRB coal and configured with an SCR, SDA, and FF, as many new plants are being designed today. Another goal of the project was to evaluate, on a short-term basis, the mercury removal associated with coal additives and coal blending with western bituminous coal. The additive test showed that, at this site, the coal additive known as KNX was affective at increasing mercury removal while decreasing sorbent usage. Coal blending was conducted with two different western bituminous coals, and West Elk coal increased native capture from nominally 10% to 50%. Two additional co-benefits were discovered at this site. First, it was found that native capture increased from nominally 10% at full load to 50% at low load. The effect is believed to be due to an increase in mercury oxidation across the SCR caused by a corresponding decrease in ammonia injection when the plant reduces load. Less ammonia means more active oxidation sites in the SCR for the mercury. The second co-benefit was the finding that high ammonia concentrations can have a negative impact on mercury removal by powdered activated carbon. For a period of time, the plant operated with a high excess of ammonia injection necessitated by the plugging of one-third of the SCR. Under these conditions and at high load, the mercury control system could not maintain 90% removal even at the maximum feed rate of 3.5 lb/MMacf (pounds of mercury per million actual cubic feet). The plant was able to demonstrate that mercury removal was directly related to the ammonia injection rate in a series of tests where the ammonia rate was decreased, causing a corresponding increase in mercury removal. Also, after the SCR was refurbished and ammonia injection levels returned to normal, the mercury removal performance also returned to normal. Another goal of the project was to install a commercial-grade activated carbon injection (ACI) system and integrate it with new-generation continuous emissions monitors for mercury (Hg-CEMs) to allow automatic feedback control on outlet me

Sjostrom, Sharon; Amrhein, Jerry

2009-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

369

Definition: Injectivity Test | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Definition Definition Edit with form History Facebook icon Twitter icon » Definition: Injectivity Test Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Injectivity Test A well testing technique conducted upon completion of a well. Water is pumped into the well at a constant rate until a stable pressure is reached then the pump is turned off and the rate at which pressure decreases is measured. The pressure measurements are graphed and well permeability can be calculated.[1] References ↑ https://pangea.stanford.edu/ERE/pdf/IGAstandard/ISS/2008Croatia/Hole03.pdf Ret LikeLike UnlikeLike You and one other like this.One person likes this. Sign Up to see what your friends like. rieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Definition:Injectivity_Test&oldid=688681"

370

Interaction between Injection Points during Hydraulic Fracturing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present a model of the hydraulic fracturing of heterogeneous poroelastic media. The formalism is an effective continuum model that captures the coupled dynamics of the fluid pressure and the fractured rock matrix and models both the tensile and shear failure of the rock. As an application of the formalism, we study the geomechanical stress interaction between two injection points during hydraulic fracturing (hydrofracking) and how this interaction influences the fracturing process. For injection points that are separated by less than a critical correlation length, we find that the fracturing process around each point is strongly correlated with the position of the neighboring point. The magnitude of the correlation length depends on the degree of heterogeneity of the rock and is on the order of 30-45 m for rocks with low permeabilities. In the strongly correlated regime, we predict a novel effective fracture-force that attracts the fractures toward the neighboring injection point.

Hals, Kjetil M D

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

Multistaged stokes injected Raman capillary waveguide amplifier  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A multistaged Stokes injected Raman capillary waveguide amplifier for providing a high gain Stokes output signal. The amplifier uses a plurality of optically coupled capillary waveguide amplifiers and one or more regenerative amplifiers to increase Stokes gain to a level sufficient for power amplification. Power amplification is provided by a multifocused Raman gain cell or a large diameter capillary waveguide. An external source of CO.sub.2 laser radiation can be injected into each of the capillary waveguide amplifier stages to increase Raman gain. Devices for injecting external sources of CO.sub.2 radiation include: dichroic mirrors, prisms, gratings and Ge Brewster plates. Alternatively, the CO.sub.2 input radiation to the first stage can be coupled and amplified between successive stages.

Kurnit, Norman A. (Santa Fe, NM)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

372

Mixed Mode Fuel Injector And Injection System  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A fuel injector includes a homogenous charge nozzle outlet set and a conventional nozzle outlet set that are controlled respectively by first and second three way needle control valves. Each fuel injector includes first and second concentric needle valve members. One of the needle valve members moves to an open position for a homogenous charge injection event, while the other needle valve member moves to an open position for a conventional injection event. The fuel injector has the ability to operate in a homogenous charge mode with a homogenous charge spray pattern, a conventional mode with a conventional spray pattern or a mixed mode.

Stewart, Chris Lee (Normal, IL); Tian, Ye (Bloomington, IL); Wang, Lifeng (Normal, IL); Shafer, Scott F. (Morton, IL)

2005-12-27T23:59:59.000Z

373

Building Technologies Office: Guides and Case Studies for Hot-Dry and  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Dry and Mixed-Dry Climates to someone by E-mail Dry and Mixed-Dry Climates to someone by E-mail Share Building Technologies Office: Guides and Case Studies for Hot-Dry and Mixed-Dry Climates on Facebook Tweet about Building Technologies Office: Guides and Case Studies for Hot-Dry and Mixed-Dry Climates on Twitter Bookmark Building Technologies Office: Guides and Case Studies for Hot-Dry and Mixed-Dry Climates on Google Bookmark Building Technologies Office: Guides and Case Studies for Hot-Dry and Mixed-Dry Climates on Delicious Rank Building Technologies Office: Guides and Case Studies for Hot-Dry and Mixed-Dry Climates on Digg Find More places to share Building Technologies Office: Guides and Case Studies for Hot-Dry and Mixed-Dry Climates on AddThis.com... About Take Action to Save Energy Partner With DOE

374

Managing Aging Effects on Dry Cask Storage  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Managing Aging Effects Managing Aging Effects on Dry Cask Storage Systems for Extended Long-Term Storage and Transportation of Used Fuel Rev. 0 Prepared for U.S. Department of Energy Used Fuel Disposition Campaign O.K. Chopra, D. Diercks, R. Fabian, D. Ma, V. Shah, S-W Tam, and Y.Y. Liu Argonne National Laboratory June 30, 2012 FCRD-USED-2012-000119 ANL-12/29 DISCLAIMER This information was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the U.S. Government. Neither the U.S. Government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, expressed or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness, of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately

375

On the flat length of injective modules  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......that I has a projective resolution of length n + m and hence pdRI n + m. Therefore, spli R n + m, as needed. The second inequality...n - 1. Proof. Let I be an injective left R-module. Then pdRI spli R n and hence Corol- lary 2.12 implies that fdRI n......

Ioannis Emmanouil; Olympia Talelli

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

376

Enhanced oil recovery using hydrogen peroxide injection  

SciTech Connect

NOVATEC received an US Patent on a novel method to recovery viscous oil by hydrogen peroxide injection. The process appears to offer several significant improvements over existing thermal methods of oil recovery. Tejas joined NOVATEC to test the process in the laboratory and to develop oil field applications and procedures.

Moss, J.T. Jr.; Moss, J.T.

1995-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

377

Accounting for Remaining Injected Fracturing Fluid  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The technology of multi-stage fracturing of horizontal wells made the development of shale gas reservoirs become greatly successful during the past decades. A large amount of fracturing fluid, usually from 53,000 bbls to 81,400 bbls, is injected...

Zhang, Yannan

2013-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

378

Refueling Tokamaks by Injection of Compact Toroids  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

It is shown that transverse injection of a hypervelocity high-density spheromak plasmoid into a tokamak plasma may be a viable fueling scheme. Three important processes occur and are discussed individually: establishment of equilibrium, slowing down, and disassembly of the compact toroid.

P. B. Parks

1988-09-19T23:59:59.000Z

379

Injection of solids to lift coastal areas  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...used to inject sand into oil or gas reservoirs because the...in sandstone (Western Missouri) at depths ranging from...Delavaud2006Use of vegetable oil and silica powder for scale...seismicity near the Lacq gas field southwestern FranceJ...

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

380

Passive safety injection system using borated water  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A passive safety injection system relies on differences in water density to induce natural circulatory flow patterns which help maintain prescribed concentrations of boric acid in borated water, and prevents boron from accumulating in the reactor vessel and possibly preventing heat transfer.

Conway, Lawrence E. (Allegheny, PA); Schulz, Terry L. (Westmoreland, PA)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dry sorbent injection" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Injection of solids to lift coastal areas  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...formations, although additional investigations are needed to improve this...Sparks2006An experimental investigation of sill formation and propagation...fracturing soil to improve remedial actions NTIS report PB91-181818Washington...D. Bolton2004Laboratory investigation of multiple injection into...

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

382

A study on Raman Injection Laser  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Raman Injection Laser is a new type of laser which is based on triply resonant stimulated Raman scattering between quantum confined states within the active region of a Quantum Cascade Laser that serves as an internal optical pump. The Raman...

Liu, Debin

2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

383

Study Reveals Fuel Injection Timing Impact on Particle Number Emissions (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect

Start of injection can improve environmental performance of fuel-efficient gasoline direct injection engines.

Not Available

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

Frostbite Theater - Liquid Nitrogen Experiments - Dry Ice vs. Liquid  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Egg + Liquid Nitrogen + Time-lapse! Egg + Liquid Nitrogen + Time-lapse! Previous Video (Egg + Liquid Nitrogen + Time-lapse!) Frostbite Theater Main Index Next Video (Liquid Nitrogen Cooled Dry Ice in Water!) Liquid Nitrogen Cooled Dry Ice in Water! Dry Ice vs. Liquid Nitrogen! Dry ice is cold. Liquid nitrogen is cold, too. What happens when the two are mixed together? [ Show Transcript ] Announcer: Frostbite Theater presents... Cold Cuts! No baloney! Joanna and Steve: Just science! Joanna: Hi! I'm Joanna! Steve: And I'm Steve! Joanna: Have you ever wondered what happens when you mix dry ice and liquid nitrogen? Steve: Well, we just happen to have a chunk of dry ice left over from when we filmed 'How to Make a Cloud Chamber,' and here at Jefferson Lab, liquid nitrogen flows like water, so we're going to find out!

385

California - Coastal Region Onshore Dry Natural Gas Proved Reserves  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Dry Natural Gas Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Dry Natural Gas Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) California - Coastal Region Onshore Dry Natural Gas Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 334 350 365 1980's 299 306 362 381 265 256 255 238 215 222 1990's 217 216 203 189 194 153 156 164 106 192 2000's 234 177 190 167 189 268 206 205 146 163 2010's 173 165 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 8/1/2013 Next Release Date: 8/1/2014 Referring Pages: Dry Natural Gas Proved Reserves as of Dec. 31 CA, Coastal Region Onshore Dry Natural Gas Proved Reserves Dry Natural Gas Proved Reserves as of 12/31 (Summary)

386

California - Los Angeles Basin Onshore Dry Natural Gas Proved Reserves  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Dry Natural Gas Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Dry Natural Gas Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) California - Los Angeles Basin Onshore Dry Natural Gas Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 255 178 163 1980's 193 154 96 107 156 181 142 148 151 137 1990's 106 115 97 102 103 111 109 141 149 168 2000's 193 187 207 187 174 176 153 144 75 84 2010's 87 97 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 8/1/2013 Next Release Date: 8/1/2014 Referring Pages: Dry Natural Gas Proved Reserves as of Dec. 31 CA, Los Angeles Basin Onshore Dry Natural Gas Proved Reserves Dry Natural Gas Proved Reserves as of 12/31 (Summary)

387

Gasoline direct injection: Actual trends and future strategies for injection and combustion systems  

SciTech Connect

Recent developments have raised increased interest on the concept of gasoline direct injection as the most promising future strategy for fuel economy improvement of SI engines. The general requirements for mixture preparation and combustion systems in a GDI engine are presented in view of known and actual systems regarding fuel economy and emission potential. The characteristics of the actually favored injection systems are discussed and guidelines for the development of appropriate combustion systems are derived. The differences between such mixture preparation strategies as air distributed fuel and fuel wall impingement are discussed, leading to the alternative approach to the problem of mixture preparation with the fully air distributing concept of direct mixture injection.

Fraidl, G.K.; Piock, W.F.; Wirth, M.

1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

388

Standard guide for drying behavior of spent nuclear fuel  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1.1 This guide is organized to discuss the three major components of significance in the drying behavior of spent nuclear fuel: evaluating the need for drying, drying spent nuclear fuel, and confirmation of adequate dryness. 1.1.1 The guide addresses drying methods and their limitations in drying spent nuclear fuels that have been in storage at water pools. The guide discusses sources and forms of water that remain in SNF, its container, or both, after the drying process and discusses the importance and potential effects they may have on fuel integrity, and container materials. The effects of residual water are discussed mechanistically as a function of the container thermal and radiological environment to provide guidance on situations that may require extraordinary drying methods, specialized handling, or other treatments. 1.1.2 The basic issue in drying is to determine how dry the SNF must be in order to prevent issues with fuel retrievability, container pressurization, or container corrosion. Adequate d...

American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

389

Dry dig: Ethics and alcohol in Middle Eastern archaeological practice  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ARTICLE DRY DIG ETHICS AND ALCOHOL IN MIDDLE EASTERNhad encountered discussions of ethics, archaeology, andtower discussions regarding ethics and archaeology can ring

Porter, Benjamin W.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

390

Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Dry Process Electrode Fabrication  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Presentation given by Navitas Systems at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about dry process electrode...

391

,"Federal Offshore, Gulf of Mexico, Louisiana & Alabama Dry Natural...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Federal Offshore, Gulf of Mexico, Louisiana & Alabama Dry Natural Gas Proved Reserves",10,"Annual",2012,"6301981"...

392

,"New York Dry Natural Gas Expected Future Production (Billion...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","New York Dry Natural Gas Expected Future Production (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2013...

393

,"California State Offshore Dry Natural Gas Expected Future Production...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","California State Offshore Dry Natural Gas Expected Future Production (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2013...

394

,"Texas State Offshore Dry Natural Gas Expected Future Production...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

ame","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Texas State Offshore Dry Natural Gas Expected Future Production (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2013...

395

,"Louisiana State Offshore Dry Natural Gas Expected Future Production...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Louisiana State Offshore Dry Natural Gas Expected Future Production (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2013...

396

,"California Federal Offshore Dry Natural Gas Expected Future...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","California Federal Offshore Dry Natural Gas Expected Future Production (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2013...

397

,"Federal Offshore California Dry Natural Gas Proved Reserves...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Federal Offshore California Dry Natural Gas Proved Reserves",10,"Annual",2012,"6301977" ,"Release Date:","4...

398

,"U.S. Dry Natural Gas Proved Reserves"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","U.S. Dry Natural Gas Proved Reserves",10,"Annual",2013,"6301925" ,"Release Date:","1242014" ,"Next...

399

Hydrogen storage materials and method of making by dry homogenation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Dry homogenized metal hydrides, in particular aluminum hydride compounds, as a material for reversible hydrogen storage is provided. The reversible hydrogen storage material comprises a dry homogenized material having transition metal catalytic sites on a metal aluminum hydride compound, or mixtures of metal aluminum hydride compounds. A method of making such reversible hydrogen storage materials by dry doping is also provided and comprises the steps of dry homogenizing metal hydrides by mechanical mixing, such as be crushing or ball milling a powder, of a metal aluminum hydride with a transition metal catalyst. In another aspect of the invention, a method of powering a vehicle apparatus with the reversible hydrogen storage material is provided.

Jensen, Craig M. (Kailua, HI); Zidan, Ragaiy A. (Honolulu, HI)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

400

,"New York Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","New York Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2012 ,"Release...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dry sorbent injection" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

,"New York Dry Natural Gas Reserves Sales (Billion Cubic Feet...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","New York Dry Natural Gas Reserves Sales (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2012 ,"Release...

402

,"New York Dry Natural Gas Reserves Acquisitions (Billion Cubic...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","New York Dry Natural Gas Reserves Acquisitions (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2012 ,"Release...

403

,"New York Dry Natural Gas Reserves Estimated Production (Billion...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","New York Dry Natural Gas Reserves Estimated Production (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2012...

404

,"New York Dry Natural Gas Reserves Extensions (Billion Cubic...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","New York Dry Natural Gas Reserves Extensions (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2012 ,"Release...

405

,"New York Dry Natural Gas Reserves Revision Decreases (Billion...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","New York Dry Natural Gas Reserves Revision Decreases (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2012...

406

,"New York Dry Natural Gas Reserves New Field Discoveries (Billion...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","New York Dry Natural Gas Reserves New Field Discoveries (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2012...

407

,"New York Dry Natural Gas Reserves Revision Increases (Billion...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","New York Dry Natural Gas Reserves Revision Increases (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2012...

408

Simultaneous removal of H2S and COS using Zn-based solid sorbents in the bench-scale continuous hot gas desulfurization system integrated with a coal gasifier  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A bench-scale continuous hot gas desulfurization system using Zn-based solid sorbents was developed to remove H2S and COS simultaneously in a 110 Nm3.../h of real coal-gasified syngas. The bench-scale unit, which...

Young Cheol Park; Sung-Ho Jo; Ho-Jung Ryu

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

Water injected fuel cell system compressor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A fuel cell system including a dry compressor for pressurizing air supplied to the cathode side of the fuel cell. An injector sprays a controlled amount of water on to the compressor's rotor(s) to improve the energy efficiency of the compressor. The amount of water sprayed out the rotor(s) is controlled relative to the mass flow rate of air inputted to the compressor.

Siepierski, James S. (Williamsville, NY); Moore, Barbara S. (Victor, NY); Hoch, Martin Monroe (Webster, NY)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

410

Determination of Water Saturation in Relatively Dry Porous Media Using Gas-phase Tracer Tests  

SciTech Connect

Soil desiccation (drying), involving water evaporation induced by dry air injection and extraction, is a potentially robust remediation process to slow migration of inorganic or radionuclide contaminants through the vadose zone. The application of gas-phase partitioning tracer tests has been proposed as a means to estimate initial water volumes and to monitor the progress of the desiccation process at pilot-test and field sites. In this paper, tracer tests have been conducted in porous medium columns with various water saturations using sulfur hexafluoride as the conservative tracer and tricholorofluoromethane and difluoromethane as the water-partitioning tracers. For porous media with minimal silt and/or organic matter fractions, tracer tests provided reasonable saturation estimates for saturations close to zero. However, for sediments with significant silt and/or organic matter fractions, tracer tests only provided satisfactory results when the water saturation was at least 0.1 - 0.2. For dryer conditions, the apparent tracer retardation increases due to air soil sorption, which is not included in traditional retardation coefficients derived from advection-dispersion equations accounting only for air water partitioning and water soil sorption. Based on these results, gas-phase partitioning tracer tests may be used to determine initial water volumes in sediments, provided the initial water saturations are sufficiently large. However, tracer tests are not suitable for quantifying moisture content in desiccated sediments.

Oostrom, Martinus; Tartakovsky, Guzel D.; Wietsma, Thomas W.; Truex, Michael J.; Dane, Jacob H.

2011-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

411

BEAMS3D Neutral Beam Injection Model  

SciTech Connect

With the advent of applied 3D fi elds in Tokamaks and modern high performance stellarators, a need has arisen to address non-axisymmetric effects on neutral beam heating and fueling. We report on the development of a fully 3D neutral beam injection (NBI) model, BEAMS3D, which addresses this need by coupling 3D equilibria to a guiding center code capable of modeling neutral and charged particle trajectories across the separatrix and into the plasma core. Ionization, neutralization, charge-exchange, viscous velocity reduction, and pitch angle scattering are modeled with the ADAS atomic physics database [1]. Benchmark calculations are presented to validate the collisionless particle orbits, neutral beam injection model, frictional drag, and pitch angle scattering effects. A calculation of neutral beam heating in the NCSX device is performed, highlighting the capability of the code to handle 3D magnetic fields.

Lazerson, Samuel

2014-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

412

Terahertz graphene lasers: Injection versus optical pumping  

SciTech Connect

We analyze the formation of nonequilibrium states in optically pumped graphene layers and in forward-biased graphene structures with lateral p-i-n junctions and consider the conditions of population inversion and lasing. The model used accounts for intraband and interband relaxation processes as well as deviation of the optical phonon system from equilibrium. As shown, optical pumping suffers from a significant heating of both the electron-hole plasma and the optical phonon system, which can suppress the formation of population inversion. In the graphene structures with p-i-n junction, the injected electrons and holes have relatively low energies, so that the effect of cooling can be rather pronounced, providing a significant advantage of the injection pumping in realization of graphene terahertz lasers.

Ryzhii, Victor; Otsuji, Taiichi [Research Institute for Electrical Communication, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Ryzhii, Maxim [Computational Nanoelectronics Laboratory, University of Aizu, Aizu-Wakamatsu 965-8580 (Japan); Mitin, Vladimir [Department of Electrical Engineering, University at Buffalo, SUNY, Buffalo, New York 14260-1920 (United States)

2013-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

413

Spheromak Formation by Steady Inductive Helicity Injection  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A spheromak is formed for the first time using a new steady state inductive helicity injection method. Using two inductive injectors with odd symmetry and oscillating at 5.8kHz, a steady state spheromak with even symmetry is formed and sustained through nonlinear relaxation. A spheromak with about 13kA of toroidal current is formed and sustained using about 3MW of power. This is a much lower power threshold for spheromak production than required for electrode-based helicity injection. Internal magnetic probe data, including oscillations driven by the injectors, agree with the plasma being in the Taylor state. The agreement is remarkable considering the only fitting parameter is the amplitude of the spheromak component of the state.

T. R. Jarboe; W. T. Hamp; G. J. Marklin; B. A. Nelson; R. G. ONeill; A. J. Redd; P. E. Sieck; R. J. Smith; J. S. Wrobel

2006-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

414

Waterflooding injectate design systems and methods  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of designing an injectate to be used in a waterflooding operation is disclosed. One aspect includes specifying data representative of chemical characteristics of a liquid hydrocarbon, a connate, and a reservoir rock, of a subterranean reservoir. Charged species at an interface of the liquid hydrocarbon are determined based on the specified data by evaluating at least one chemical reaction. Charged species at an interface of the reservoir rock are determined based on the specified data by evaluating at least one chemical reaction. An extent of surface complexation between the charged species at the interfaces of the liquid hydrocarbon and the reservoir rock is determined by evaluating at least one surface complexation reaction. The injectate is designed and is operable to decrease the extent of surface complexation between the charged species at interfaces of the liquid hydrocarbon and the reservoir rock. Other methods, apparatus, and systems are disclosed.

Brady, Patrick V.; Krumhansl, James L.

2014-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

415

Corrosion assessment of dry fuel storage containers  

SciTech Connect

The structural stability as a function of expected corrosion degradation of 75 dry fuel storage containers located in the 200 Area Low-Level Waste Burial Grounds was evaluated. These containers include 22 concrete burial containers, 13 55-gal (208-l) drums, and 40 Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II) transport/storage casks. All containers are buried beneath at least 48 in. of soil and a heavy plastic tarp with the exception of 35 of the EBR-II casks which are exposed to atmosphere. A literature review revealed that little general corrosion is expected and pitting corrosion of the carbon steel used as the exterior shell for all containers (with the exception of the concrete containers) will occur at a maximum rate of 3.5 mil/yr. Penetration from pitting of the exterior shell of the 208-l drums and EBR-II casks is calculated to occur after 18 and 71 years of burial, respectively. The internal construction beneath the shell would be expected to preclude containment breach, however, for the drums and casks. The estimates for structural failure of the external shells, large-scale shell deterioration due to corrosion, are considerably longer, 39 and 150 years respectively for the drums and casks. The concrete burial containers are expected to withstand a service life of 50 years.

Graves, C.E.

1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

416

Improved Water Flooding through Injection Brine Modification  

SciTech Connect

Crude oil/brine/rock interactions can lead to large variations in the displacement efficiency of waterflooding, by far the most widely applied method of improved oil recovery. Laboratory waterflood tests show that injection of dilute brine can increase oil recovery. Numerous fields in the Powder River basin have been waterflooded using low salinity brine (about 500 ppm) from the Madison limestone or Fox Hills sandstone. Although many uncertainties arise in the interpretation and comparison of field production data, injection of low salinity brine appears to give higher recovery compared to brine of moderate salinity (about 7,000 ppm). Laboratory studies of the effect of brine composition on oil recovery cover a wide range of rock types and crude oils. Oil recovery increases using low salinity brine as the injection water ranged from a low of no notable increase to as much as 37.0% depending on the system being studied. Recovery increases using low salinity brine after establishing residual oil saturation (tertiary mode) ranged from no significant increase to 6.0%. Tests with two sets of reservoir cores and crude oil indicated slight improvement in recovery for low salinity brine. Crude oil type and rock type (particularly the presence and distribution of kaolinite) both play a dominant role in the effect that brine composition has on waterflood oil recovery.

Robertson, Eric Partridge; Thomas, Charles Phillip; Morrow, Norman; (U of Wyoming)

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

417

European Lean Gasoline Direct Injection Vehicle Benchmark  

SciTech Connect

Lean Gasoline Direct Injection (LGDI) combustion is a promising technical path for achieving significant improvements in fuel efficiency while meeting future emissions requirements. Though Stoichiometric Gasoline Direct Injection (SGDI) technology is commercially available in a few vehicles on the American market, LGDI vehicles are not, but can be found in Europe. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) obtained a European BMW 1-series fitted with a 2.0l LGDI engine. The vehicle was instrumented and commissioned on a chassis dynamometer. The engine and after-treatment performance and emissions were characterized over US drive cycles (Federal Test Procedure (FTP), the Highway Fuel Economy Test (HFET), and US06 Supplemental Federal Test Procedure (US06)) and steady state mappings. The vehicle micro hybrid features (engine stop-start and intelligent alternator) were benchmarked as well during the course of that study. The data was analyzed to quantify the benefits and drawbacks of the lean gasoline direct injection and micro hybrid technologies from a fuel economy and emissions perspectives with respect to the US market. Additionally that data will be formatted to develop, substantiate, and exercise vehicle simulations with conventional and advanced powertrains.

Chambon, Paul H [ORNL] [ORNL; Huff, Shean P [ORNL] [ORNL; Edwards, Kevin Dean [ORNL] [ORNL; Norman, Kevin M [ORNL] [ORNL; Prikhodko, Vitaly Y [ORNL] [ORNL; Thomas, John F [ORNL] [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

418

Solvent Selection Use dry ice/isopropanol for cooling baths  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Solvent Selection Use dry ice/isopropanol for cooling baths Reaches essentially the same temperature as dry ice/acetone (-77°C vs. -78°C), but the lower volatility of isopropanol minimizes vapor a closed-loop cooling system for condensers Closed-loop cooling systems eliminate wastewater and accidental

Chan, Hue Sun

419

RISO-M-2438 Dry deposition and resuspension of  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

CO RISO-M-2438 2 S Dry deposition and resuspension of particulate matter in city environments N 1984 få #12;RIS?-M-2438 DRY DEPOSITION AND RESUSPENSION OF PARITUCLATE NATTER IN CITY ENVIRONMENTS N.O. Jensen Abstract. The report describes, mostly in qualitative terms, the deposition and resuspension

420

Simple approaches for measuring dry atmospheric nitrogen deposition to watersheds  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

'' and spatial variations of gaseous dry N deposition (i.e., nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and ammonia (NH3)), thoughSimple approaches for measuring dry atmospheric nitrogen deposition to watersheds Heather E. Golden the effects of atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition on surface water quality requires accurate accounts

Elliott, Emily M.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dry sorbent injection" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Dry friction avalanches: Experiment and theory Sergey V. Buldyrev,1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Dry friction avalanches: Experiment and theory Sergey V. Buldyrev,1 John Ferrante,2 and Fredy R and theoretical models are presented supporting the conjecture that dry friction stick-slip is described by self the variation of the friction force as a function of time. We study nominally flat surfaces of matching aluminum

Buldyrev, Sergey

422

Multiobjective optimization of the dry electric discharge machining process  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

January 15, 2009 Abstract Dry Electric Discharge Machining (EDM) is an environment­friendly modification: Electric Discharge Machining (EDM), Dry EDM, Design of experiments, Multi­objective optimization, NSGA II;1 Introduction Electric Discharge Machining (EDM) is a thermo­electric process in which material removal takes

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

423

Horizontal Air Flow Drying Foods at Home Safely  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Horizontal Air Flow Drying Foods at Home Safely Choosing a Food Dehydrator Drying is one. The thermostat should go up to 160 degrees F. The unit should have a fan or blower for air circulation. Mesh trays made of sturdy plastic that can be easily washed. UL seal of approval is recommended for safety

424

Injection and Extraction Lines for the ILC Damping Rings  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

INJECTION AND EXTRACTION LINES FOR THE ILC DAMPING RINGS ?the injection and extraction lines into and out of the ILCas the design for the abort line. Due to changes of the geo-

Reichel, Ina

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

425

Innovative Drying Technology Extracts More Energy from High Moisture Coal |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Innovative Drying Technology Extracts More Energy from High Innovative Drying Technology Extracts More Energy from High Moisture Coal Innovative Drying Technology Extracts More Energy from High Moisture Coal March 11, 2010 - 12:00pm Addthis Washington, DC - An innovative coal-drying technology that will extract more energy from high moisture coal at less cost and simultaneously reduce potentially harmful emissions is ready for commercial use after successful testing at a Minnesota electric utility. The DryFining(TM) technology was developed with funding from the first round of the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Coal Power Initiative (CCPI). Great River Energy of Maple Grove, Minn., has selected the WorleyParsons Group to exclusively distribute licenses for the technology, which essentially uses waste heat from a power plant to reduce moisture content

426

Experimental Target Injection and Tracking System  

SciTech Connect

Targets must be injected into an IFE power plant with an accuracy of and plusmn; 5 mm at a rate of approximately 5 to 10 each second. Targets must be tracked very accurately to allow driver beams to be aligned with defined points on the targets with accuracy {+-}200{mu}m for indirect drive and {+-}20{mu}m for direct drive. An experimental target injection and tracking system has been designed and is being constructed at General Atomics to investigate injection and tracking of both direct drive and indirect drive targets. The design is modular to allow testing of alternate target acceleration and tracking methods. The injector system will be used as a tool for testing the survivability of various target designs and provide feed back to the target designers. This 30 m long system will be the centerpiece of a Facility for developing IFE target fabrication and injection technologies. A high-speed high-flow gas valve (designed and built by Oak Ridge National Laboratory) will provide helium propellant gas to the targets. To avoid target damage from excessive acceleration, an 8 m gun barrel is being built to achieve 400 m/s target speed while not exceeding 10,000 m/s{sup 2} acceleration. Direct-drive targets are protected in the barrel by sabots that are spring loaded to separate into two halves after acceleration. A sabot deflector directs the sabot halves away from the target injection path. Gas expansion chambers and orifices, keep propellant gas out of the target-tracking region. Targets will be optically tracked with laser beams and line scan cameras. High-speed computations will calculate target position in less than 2 ms based on the output from the line-scan cameras. Target position and arrival time to a plane in the reaction chamber center will be predicted in real-time based on early target position measurements. The system design, construction progress, and early testing results will be presented.

Petzoldt, R.W. [General Atomics (United States); Alexander, N.B. [General Atomics (United States); Drake, T.J. [General Atomics (United States); Goodin, D.T. [General Atomics (United States); Stemke, R.W. [General Atomics (United States); Jonestrask, K

2003-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

427

Liquid Propane Injection Technology Conductive to Today's North American Specification  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Liquid propane injection technology can offer the same power, torque, and environmental vehicle performance while reducing imports of foreign oil

428

Impact of Extreme Injection Pressure and EGR on the Combustion...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Analyse of the Injection System * Simulation * Hydraulic Characterisation * Optical Spray Diagnostics Engine Investigations * Experimental Results * Optical Combustion...

429

Trapping of Gun-Injected Plasma by a Tokamak  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

It is shown that a plasma produced by a Marshall gun can be injected into and trapped by a tokamak plasma. Gun injection raises the line-averaged density and peaks the density profile. Trapping of the gun-injected plasma is explainable in terms of a depolarization current mechanism.

A. W. Leonard; R. N. Dexter; J. C. Sprott

1986-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

430

Gun Injection into a Microwave Plasma J. C. Sprott  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Gun Injection into a Microwave Plasma by J. C. Sprott May, 1970 Plasma Studies University high densities by rapid pulsed gun injection. TIlis no te describes measurements made -Cwo years ago in which a gun plasma was injected into a background microwave plasma of variable density in the toroidal

Sprott, Julien Clinton

431

Near-surface groundwater responses to injection of geothermal wastes  

SciTech Connect

This report assesses the feasibility of injection as an alternative for geothermal wastewater disposal and analyzes hydrologic controls governing the upward migration of injected fluids. Injection experiences at several geothermal developments are presented including the following: Raft River Valley, Salton Sea, East Mesa, Otake, Hatchobaru, and Ahuachapan geothermal fields.

Arnold, S.C.

1984-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

432

Electron Cloud at Injection Region BNL/SNS TECHNICAL NOTE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

's tangential plane. The stripped electrons from the injection beam cause about 145W thermal damage. They haveElectron Cloud at Injection Region BNL/SNS TECHNICAL NOTE NO. 143 Y.Y. Lee, G. Mahler, W. Meng, D, NEW YORK 11973 #12;1 ELECTRON CLOUD AT INJECTION REGEION Y.Y. Lee, G. Mahler, W. Meng, D. Raparia, L

433

Transient injection-locking of an unstable ring dye laser  

SciTech Connect

The transient injection-locking properties of an unstable ring resonator dye laser have been investigated. When a narrow line optical pulse was injected into the ring resonator, the energy emitted from the ring increased and the lasing spectrum narrowed to that of the injected pulse. However, the polarization control of the emitted radiation was incomplete.

Harris, D.G.; Waite, T.R.; Holmes, D.A. (Rockwell International, Rocketdyne Division, Canoga Park, California 91303 (USA))

1990-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

434

Injection Solvent Effect on Peak Height in Ion Exchange HPLC  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......2. To further evaluate the effect of the injection volume only...injection volume were varied. Effect of weak injection solvent There...same eluent ion strength. The effect of eluent ion strength. Figure...nitrate in the mobile phase. 418 ship of the peak height of phenylacetate......

Hyunjoo Kim Lee; Norman E. Hoffman

1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

435

COPPER AND ZINC DEFICIENCIES TREATMENT BY INTRAMUSCULAR INJECTIONS IN SHEEP  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

COPPER AND ZINC DEFICIENCIES TREATMENT BY INTRAMUSCULAR INJECTIONS IN SHEEP M. LAMAND Claudine LAB in the injection site. Copper per os dosing is efficient for treating deficient animals (Lamand et al., 1969 consuming. Therefore we tried to per- fect a copper and zinc deficiency treatment allowing the injection

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

436

Structural Sensitivity of Dry Storage Canisters  

SciTech Connect

This LS-DYNA modeling study evaluated a generic used nuclear fuel vertical dry storage cask system under tip-over, handling drop, and seismic load cases to determine the sensitivity of the canister containment boundary to these loads. The goal was to quantify the expected failure margins to gain insight into what material changes over the extended long-term storage lifetime could have the most influence on the security of the containment boundary. It was determined that the tip-over case offers a strong challenge to the containment boundary, and identifies one significant material knowledge gap, the behavior of welded stainless steel joints under high-strain-rate conditions. High strain rates are expected to increase the materials effective yield strength and ultimate strength, and may decrease its ductility. Determining and accounting for this behavior could potentially reverse the model prediction of a containment boundary failure at the canister lid weld. It must be emphasized that this predicted containment failure is an artifact of the generic system modeled. Vendor specific designs analyze for cask tip-over and these analyses are reviewed and approved by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Another location of sensitivity of the containment boundary is the weld between the base plate and the canister shell. Peak stresses at this location predict plastic strains through the whole thickness of the welded material. This makes the base plate weld an important location for material study. This location is also susceptible to high strain rates, and accurately accounting for the material behavior under these conditions could have a significant effect on the predicted performance of the containment boundary. The handling drop case was largely benign to the containment boundary, with just localized plastic strains predicted on the outer surfaces of wall sections. It would take unusual changes in the handling drop scenario to harm the containment boundary, such as raising the drop height or changing the impact angle. The seismic load case was derived from the August 23, 2011 earthquake that affected the North Anna power station. The source of the data was a monitoring station near Charlottesville, Virginia, so the ground motion is not an exact match. Stresses on the containment boundary were so low, even from a fatigue standpoint, that the seismic load case is generally not a concern. Based on this study, it is recommended that high strain rate testing of welded stainless steel test samples be pursued to define the currently unknown material behavior. Additional modeling is recommended to evaluate specific dry storage cask system designs subjected to tip-over loads using a high level of model detail. Additional modeling of the canister interior components (basket, fuel assemblies, etc.) is also recommended, to evaluate the feasibility of fuel retrievability after a tip-over incident. Finally, additional modeling to determine how much degradation a system could undergo and still maintain the integrity of the confinement barrier should be performed.

Klymyshyn, Nicholas A.; Karri, Naveen K.; Adkins, Harold E.; Hanson, Brady D.

2013-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

437

Evaluation of the effects of contaminant injection location and injection method on the determination of overall relative room ventilation efficiency  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 5. Figure 6. Calculation of zeroeth moment Calculation of first moment. . 29 30 Diagram of flows in and out of a perfectly mixed room. 30 Floor plan of test room. 31 Carbon dioxide concentration versus time for supply... duct injection point and pulse injection method. 32 Example of use of moments to determine mean age of air. . . . 29 Figure 7. Carbon dioxide concentration versus time for short circuit injection point and pulse injection method. 32 Figure 8...

Pierce, Stephen Dale

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

438

Economic analysis of transportation directly reduced iron (DRI) through ship  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Directly reduced iron (DRI) is a major source of iron units in cases of low scrap availability and/or hot metal. Its main advantage is it is low content of phosphorus and sulphur. Removal of phosphorus and sulphur demands high energy consumption in steel making process. With fast depleting sources of cooking coal, the availability of hot metal will decrease in the coming years. Also, scrap availability is already on the declining trend. Hence, DRI is going to be the main source of iron units in the future, especially in electric arc furnace (EAF steel making). The disadvantage of DRI usages lies in it is high reactivity. Freshly produced DRI possesses high susceptibility to oxidation whenever it comes in contact with air. The generated heat in the oxidation reaction increases the tendency to oxidation, thereby, starting a short of chain reaction and ultimately leading to the burning of DRI. This phenomenon makes storage and handling of DRI a concern. The problem caused loss of one cargo in Delta steel company, Nigeria. The authors of this dissertation were given the responsibility to work out the solution in the minimum possible time for implementing it to the next shipments. It is heartening that the problem could be successfully solved and implemented in the next shipments in November '06. Hence, after above work implementation of the recommendations for a $45 risk/ton of DRI, only $1 is to be spent for protection against the risk.

Manikant K. Paswan; Chinmoy Mukherjee

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

439

Measurements of injected impurity assimilation during massive gas injection experiments in DIII-D  

SciTech Connect

Impurities (H-2, D-2, He, Ne or Ar) injected into steady (non-disrupting) discharges with massive gas injection (MGI) are shown to mix into the plasma core dominantly via magnetohydrodynamic activity during the plasma thermal quench (TQ). Mixing efficiencies of injected impurities into the plasma core are measured to be of order 0.05-0.4. 0D modelling of the experiments is found to reproduce observed TQ and current quench durations reasonably well (typically within +/- 25% or so), although shutdown onset times are underestimated (by around 2 x). Preliminary 0D modelling of ITER based on DIII-D mixing efficiencies suggests that MGI will work well in ITER with regard to disruption heat load and vessel force mitigation, but may not collisionally suppress runaway electrons.

Hollmann, E. M. [University of California, San Diego; Jernigan, T. C. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Parks, P. B. [General Atomics; Boedo, J.A. [University of California, San Diego; Evans, T. E. [General Atomics, San Diego; Groth, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Humphreys, D A [General Atomics, San Diego; James, A. N. [University of California, San Diego; Lanctot, M J [Columbia University; Nishijima, D. [University of California, San Diego; Rudakov, D.L. [University of California, San Diego; Scott, H A [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Strait, E. J. [General Atomics; Van Zeeland, Michael [General Atomics; Wesley, J. C. [General Atomics; West, J C [General Atomics, San Diego; Wu, W [General Atomics, San Diego; Yu, J.H. [University of California, San Diego

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

440

Downward two-phase flow effects in heat-loss and pressure-drop modeling of steam injection wells  

SciTech Connect

Modelling of the pressure drop and heat loss in steam injection wells has undergone a gradual evolution since the heavy interest in enhanced oil recovery by steam injection in the mid-60's. After briefly reviewing the evolution of steam models this paper presents a model which advances the state-of-the-art of steam modelling. The main advance presented in this paper is modelling the effects of the various flow regimens that occur during steam injection. The paper describes the formulation of a two-phase downward vertical flow pressure drop model which is not limited by the ''no-slip'' homogeneous flow assumptions in most previously published models. By using different correlations for mist, bubble, and slug flow, improved pressure drop calculations result, which in turn improve temperature predictions. The paper describes how the model handles temperature predictions differently in the single and two-phase steam flow situations. The paper also describes special features in the model to account for layered soil properties, soil dry out, cyclic injection, coupling heat losses, and reflux boiling in wet annuli. Two examples problems are presented which illustrate some of these features.

Galate, J.W.; Mitchell, R.F.

1985-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dry sorbent injection" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

E-Print Network 3.0 - ar injection experiment Sample Search Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

in 553AR. The cumulative steam injected after 400 days on injection and the injection rate both similar... ... Source: Patzek, Tadeusz W. - Department of Petroleum and...

442

Nox reduction system utilizing pulsed hydrocarbon injection  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Hydrocarbon co-reductants, such as diesel fuel, are added by pulsed injection to internal combustion engine exhaust to reduce exhaust NO.sub.x to N.sub.2 in the presence of a catalyst. Exhaust NO.sub.x reduction of at least 50% in the emissions is achieved with the addition of less than 5% fuel as a source of the hydrocarbon co-reductants. By means of pulsing the hydrocarbon flow, the amount of pulsed hydrocarbon vapor (itself a pollutant) can be minimized relative to the amount of NO.sub.x species removed.

Brusasco, Raymond M. (Livermore, CA); Penetrante, Bernardino M. (San Ramon, CA); Vogtlin, George E. (Fremont, CA); Merritt, Bernard T. (Livermore, CA)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

443

Economic analysis of wind-powered crop drying. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Potential applications of wind energy include not only large central turbines that can be utilized by utilities, but also dispersed systems for farms and other applications. The US Departments of Energy (DOE) and Agriculture (USDA) currently are establishing the feasibility of wind energy use in applications where the energy can be used as available, or stored in a simple form. These applications include production of hot water for rural sanitation, heating and cooling of rural structures and products, drying agricultural products, and irrigation. This study, funded by USDA, analyzed the economic feasibility of wind power in crop drying. Drying of corn, soybeans, rice, peanuts, tobacco, and dehydrated alfalfa were addressed.

Garling, W.S.; Harper, M.R.; Merchant-Geuder, L.; Welch, M.

1980-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

444

Scoping Studies to Evaluate the Benefits of an Advanced Dry Feed System on the Use of Low-Rank Coal  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the development of the design of an advanced dry feed system that was carried out under Task 4.0 of Cooperative Agreement DE-FE0007902 with the US DOE, Scoping Studies to Evaluate the Benefits of an Advanced Dry Feed System on the use of Low- Rank Coal. The resulting design will be used for the advanced technology IGCC case with 90% carbon capture for sequestration to be developed under Task 5.0 of the same agreement. The scope of work covered coal preparation and feeding up through the gasifier injector. Subcomponents have been broken down into feed preparation (including grinding and drying), low pressure conveyance, pressurization, high pressure conveyance, and injection. Pressurization of the coal feed is done using Posimetric1 Feeders sized for the application. In addition, a secondary feed system is described for preparing and feeding slag additive and recycle fines to the gasifier injector. This report includes information on the basis for the design, requirements for down selection of the key technologies used, the down selection methodology and the final, down selected design for the Posimetric Feed System, or PFS.

Rader, Jeff; Aguilar, Kelly; Aldred, Derek; Chadwick, Ronald; Conchieri,; Dara, Satyadileep; Henson, Victor; Leininger, Tom; Liber, Pawel; Nakazono, Benito; Pan, Edward; Ramirez, Jennifer; Stevenson, John; Venkatraman, Vignesh

2012-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

445

Direct tuyere injection of oxygen for enhanced coal combustion  

SciTech Connect

Injecting oxygen directly into the tuyere blowpipe can enhance the ignition and combustion of injected pulverized coal, allowing the efficient use of higher coal rates at high furnace production levels. The effects of direct oxygen injection have been estimated from an analysis of the factors controlling the dispersion, heating, ignition, and combustion of injected coal. Injecting ambient temperature oxygen offers mechanical improvements in the dispersion of coal but provides little thermochemical benefit over increased blast enrichment. Injecting hot oxygen through a novel, patented thermal nozzle lance offers both mechanical and thermochemical benefits over increased enrichment or ambient oxygen injection. Plans for pilot-scale and commercial-scale testing of this new lance are described.

Riley, M.F. [Praxair, Inc., Tarrytown, NY (United States)

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

446

Well injection valve with retractable choke  

SciTech Connect

An injection valve is described for use in a well conduit consisting of: a housing having a bore, a valve closure member in the bore moving between open and closed positions, a flow tube telescopically movable in the housing for controlling the movement of the valve closure member, means for biasing the flow tube in a direction for allowing the valve closure member to move to the closed position, an expandable and contractible fluid restriction connected to the flow tube and extending into the bore for moving the flow tube to the open position in response to injection fluid, but allowing the passage of well tools through the valve, the restriction contractible in response to fluid flow, the restriction includes, segments movable into and out of the bore, and biasing means yieldably urging the segments into the bore, a no-go shoulder on the flow tube, and releasable lockout means between the flow tube and the housing for locking the flow tube and valve in the open position.

Pringle, R.E.

1986-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

447

Dry Lake II Wind Farm | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Dry Lake II Wind Farm Dry Lake II Wind Farm Jump to: navigation, search Name Dry Lake II Wind Farm Facility Dry Lake II Sector Wind energy Facility Type Commercial Scale Wind Facility Status In Service Owner Iberdrola Renewables Developer Iberdrola Renewables Energy Purchaser Salt River Project Location Northwest of Snowflake AZ Coordinates 34.635651°, -110.357351° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":34.635651,"lon":-110.357351,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

448

Independent Oversight Review, Hanford K Basin and Cold Vacuum Drying  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

K Basin and Cold Vacuum K Basin and Cold Vacuum Drying Facility - August 2012 Independent Oversight Review, Hanford K Basin and Cold Vacuum Drying Facility - August 2012 August 2012 Review of Hanford K Basin and Cold Vacuum Drying Facility Found Fuel Multi-Canister Overpack Operations The purpose of this independent oversight review by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Enforcement and Oversight (Independent Oversight), within the Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS) was to observe the operations associated with processing a Multi-Canister Overpack (MCO) of "found fuel" (small quantities of spent fuel discovered during cleanup of the reactor burial grounds) at the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF). The found fuel MCO was transported from the K West Basin on the Hanford

449

Independent Oversight Review, Hanford K Basin and Cold Vacuum Drying  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Hanford K Basin and Cold Vacuum Hanford K Basin and Cold Vacuum Drying Facility - August 2012 Independent Oversight Review, Hanford K Basin and Cold Vacuum Drying Facility - August 2012 August 2012 Review of Hanford K Basin and Cold Vacuum Drying Facility Found Fuel Multi-Canister Overpack Operations The purpose of this independent oversight review by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Enforcement and Oversight (Independent Oversight), within the Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS) was to observe the operations associated with processing a Multi-Canister Overpack (MCO) of "found fuel" (small quantities of spent fuel discovered during cleanup of the reactor burial grounds) at the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF). The found fuel MCO was transported from the K West Basin on the Hanford

450

Dry Cask Storage Study Feb 1989 | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Dry Cask Storage Study Feb 1989 Dry Cask Storage Study Feb 1989 Dry Cask Storage Study Feb 1989 This report on the use of dry-cask-storage technologies at the sites of civilian nuclear power reactors has been prepared by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE} in response to the requirements of the Nuclear Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1987 (P.L. 100-203). In particular, Section 5064 of the Amendments Act directs the Secretary of Energy to conduct a study and evaluation of using these technologies for the temporary storage of spent nuclear fuel until such time as a permanent geologic repository has been constructed and licensed by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). In conducting this study, the DOE is required to consider such factors as costs, effects on human health and the environment, effects on the costs

451

Disneyland's Dry Cleaning Gets an Energy Efficient Upgrade | Department  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Disneyland's Dry Cleaning Gets an Energy Efficient Upgrade Disneyland's Dry Cleaning Gets an Energy Efficient Upgrade Disneyland's Dry Cleaning Gets an Energy Efficient Upgrade March 16, 2011 - 2:58pm Addthis April Saylor April Saylor Former Digital Outreach Strategist, Office of Public Affairs What does this project do? In three hours, enough energy is recovered from the TMC to heat 15 loads of water for L&N's largest-capacity washing machine, and enough water is recovered to fill 1-1/2 loads of that same machine. As the provider of laundry and dry cleaning services for Disneyland Resort's costumes and hospitality supply items, L&N Costume and Linen Service knows a little something about both quantity and quality. Now, with the help of the Gas Technology Institute (GTI) and the Department of Energy, this forward-looking enterprise is embracing new, clean energy

452

Aq Dryers Agricultural Drying Low Temperature Geothermal Facility | Open  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Aq Dryers Agricultural Drying Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Aq Dryers Agricultural Drying Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Aq Dryers Agricultural Drying Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Aq Dryers Sector Geothermal energy Type Agricultural Drying Location Vale, Oregon Coordinates 43.9821055°, -117.2382311° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[]}

453

Winnemucca Dry Lake Geothermal Area | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Winnemucca Dry Lake Geothermal Area Winnemucca Dry Lake Geothermal Area (Redirected from Winnemucca Dry Lake Area) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Geothermal Resource Area: Winnemucca Dry Lake Geothermal Area Contents 1 Area Overview 2 History and Infrastructure 3 Regulatory and Environmental Issues 4 Exploration History 5 Well Field Description 6 Geology of the Area 7 Geofluid Geochemistry 8 NEPA-Related Analyses (0) 9 Exploration Activities (1) 10 References Area Overview Geothermal Area Profile Location: Nevada Exploration Region: Walker-Lane Transition Zone Geothermal Region GEA Development Phase: 2008 USGS Resource Estimate Mean Reservoir Temp: Estimated Reservoir Volume: Mean Capacity: Click "Edit With Form" above to add content History and Infrastructure Operating Power Plants: 0

454

Colorado Dry Natural Gas Reserves Sales (Billion Cubic Feet)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Sales (Billion Cubic Feet) Colorado Dry Natural Gas Reserves Sales (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 1,049...

455

Colorado Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Colorado Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9...

456

Colorado Dry Natural Gas New Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

New Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields (Billion Cubic Feet) Colorado Dry Natural Gas New Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2...

457

Colorado Dry Natural Gas Reserves New Field Discoveries (Billion...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

New Field Discoveries (Billion Cubic Feet) Colorado Dry Natural Gas Reserves New Field Discoveries (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6...

458

Colorado Dry Natural Gas Reserves Extensions (Billion Cubic Feet...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Extensions (Billion Cubic Feet) Colorado Dry Natural Gas Reserves Extensions (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9...

459

Colorado Dry Natural Gas Reserves Revision Decreases (Billion...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Decreases (Billion Cubic Feet) Colorado Dry Natural Gas Reserves Revision Decreases (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8...

460

Colorado Dry Natural Gas Reserves Acquisitions (Billion Cubic...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

Acquisitions (Billion Cubic Feet) Colorado Dry Natural Gas Reserves Acquisitions (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dry sorbent injection" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Drying studies for corroded DOE aluminum plate fuels  

SciTech Connect

The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) currently stores a wide variety of spent nuclear fuel. The fuel was originally intended to be stored underwater for a short period of thermal cooling, then removed and reprocessed. However, it has been stored underwater for much longer thank originally anticipated. During this time dust and airborne desert soil have entered the oldest INEL pool, accumulating on the fuel. Also, the aluminum fuel cladding has corroded compromising the exposed surfaces of the fuel. Plans are now underway to move some the the more vulnerable aluminum plate type fuels into dry storage in an existing vented and filtered fuel storage facility. In preparation for dry storage of the fuel a drying and canning station is being built at the INEL. The two primary objectives of this facility are to determine the influence of corrosion products on the drying process and to establish temperature distribution inside the canister during heating.

Lords, R.E.; Windes, W.E. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Crepeau, J.C.; Sidwell, R.W. [Idaho Univ., Idaho Falls, ID (United States) Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

462

Precipitation scavenging, dry deposition, and resuspension. Volume 2. Proceedings  

SciTech Connect

Volume 2 of these proceedings contains papers on dry deposition and resuspension of airborne pollutants. Items within the scope of EDB have been entered separately into the data base. (ACR)

Pruppacher, H.R.; Semonin, R.G.; Slinn, W.G.N.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

463

Loading guide for dry-type power transformers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Applicable to naturally cooled dry-type power transformers complying with IEC 60726. Permits the calculation of, and indicates the permissible loading under certain defined conditions in terms of rated current.

International Electrotechnical Commission. Geneva

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

464

Effects of Multiple Drying Cycles on HBU PWR Cladding Alloys  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The purpose of this research effort is to determine the effects of canister/cask vacuum drying and storage on radial hydride precipitation in high?burnup (HBU) pressurized water reactor (PWR)...