National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for dry scrubber particulate

  1. Dry scrubber with integral particulate collection device

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, D.J.; Myers, R.B.; Tonn, D.P.

    1993-06-01

    A dry scrubber/particulate collection device is described comprising: (a) a dry scrubber component having a flue gas entrance, a spray zone, and a flue gas exit; (b) a particulate collection component downstream of said flue gas exit and capable of being isolated utilizing one or more isolation dampers located between said dry scrubber component and said particulate collection component, said dry scrubber component and said particulate collection component together comprising integral parts of a single assembly; and, (c) control means for controlling the flow of flue gas through said particulate collection component of said assembly.

  2. Dry scrubber reduces SO sub 2 in calciner flue gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, G.W. ); Roderick, D. ); Nastri, A. )

    1991-02-18

    This paper discusses the installation of a dry sulfur dioxide scrubber for an existing petroleum coke calciner at its Fruita, Colo., refinery. The dry scrubbing process was developed by the power industry to help cope with the acid rain problem. It is the first application of the process in an oil refinery. The process could also remove SO{sub 2} from the flue gas of a fluid catalytic cracker, fluid coker, or other refinery sources.

  3. Cyprus Amax develops a practical dry diesel scrubber

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fiscor, S.

    1995-06-01

    Underground diesel engines have gained popularity in the United States, especially in coal operations with longwalls. These engines provide the power needed during longwall moves and when hauling supplies to the various mechanized mining units. However, they also have inherent problems, particularly with the exhaust scrubbing devices. Two concerns must be addressed when considering underground diesel scrubbers: the environment and safety. Environmental concerns focus on the diesel engines exhaust emissions, which pose potential health risks to the miners sharing the common environment. Safety concerns involve aspects that pose a fire or ignition hazard from CH{sub 4}, coal dust, or spilled fuels. During late 1992, the first prototype, retrofitted to an Eimco 975 mantrip, was placed at the Shoshone mine. The Wyoming mine, with steep gradients, is one of Cyprus Amas`s more difficult operations. This was the first water-jacketed, manifold-and-catalyst scrubber installed on a Caterpiller (Cat) 3304 diesel engine underground. The dry heat exchanger is a simple, yet effective, two-pass, tube-and-shell heat exchanger. It is designed to be compact with minimal back pressure. While developing the dry heat exchanger, the designers focused on finding a stabilization rate of the unpreventible sooting process inside the tubes. Since manual cleaning was out of the question, an on-board internal cleaning system was created.

  4. An experimental study of ammonia effects in a circulating dry scrubber process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neathery, J.K.; Schaefer, J.L.; Stencel, J.M.

    1995-06-01

    Utilities and independent power plants have increased needs to install both de-NO{sub x} and flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems on coal-fired boilers. Many de-NO{sub x} processes are based on the reduction of nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) by ammonia (NH{sub 3}) to elemental nitrogen (N{sub 2}). When applied upstream of a dry FGD system the issue of NH{sub 3} slippage, which may influence the scrubbing chemistry and/or the proficiency of the particulate collector`s performance, has become a concern. This paper addresses some of those concerns as they relate to the circulating dry scrubber (CDS) process. Fundamental aspects of sulfur capture and sorbent utilization under various Ca/S ratios and inlet NH{sub 3} concentrations were investigated with a 5.6 m{sup 3} min{sup -1} (200 ft{sup 3} min{sup -1}) pilot-scale CDS reactor. The objective of this research was to elucidate possible benefits (e.g., increased sulfur capture) and adverse side-effects (e.g., increased baghouse pressure drop) resulting from trace amounts of NH{sub 3} in the flue gas.

  5. Design and operating experience of the Holcomb Station dry scrubber

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Emerson, R.D.

    1985-01-01

    The Holcomb Station dry flue gas desulfurization system has been operational since May, 1983. The lime based system, consisting of three spray drying absorbers and two baghouses, has met all regulatory compliance requirements and contractual guarantee values. Some serious operational problems were encountered during the startup of this system. This paper discusses these problems and subsequent solutions along with testing experience to-date. The availability of this system for the first quarter of 1985 was 99.51 percent.

  6. Chemical Structure of Copper in Incineration Dry Scrubber and Bag Filter Ashes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hsiao, M. C.; Wang, H. Paul; Peng, C. Y.; Huang, C. H.; Wei Yuling

    2007-02-02

    Speciation of copper in waste incineration fly ashes (dry scrubber (DS) and bag filter (BF)) has been studied by X-ray absorption near edge structural (XANES) spectroscopy in the present work. Copper species such as metallic Cu, CuO, Cu(OH)2, and a small amount of CuCO3 in the fly ashes could be distinguished by semi-quantitative analysis of the edge spectra. Interestingly, nano CuO (37%) were found in the BF fly ash, that might account for its relatively high leachability of copper.

  7. Design procedure for sizing a submerged-bed scrubber for airborne particulate removal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ruecker, C.M.; Scott, P.A.

    1987-04-01

    Performance correlations to design and operate the submerged bed scrubber were developed for various applications. Structural design procedure outlined in this report focuses on off-gas scrubbing for HLW vitrification applications; however, the method is appropriate for other applications.

  8. Scrubber myths and realities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1995-01-01

    This article addresses common misperceptions about flue gas desulfurization systems to provide a realistic appraisal of this capable control technology. Commonly known as scrubbers, flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems are a highly efficient and reliable means of removing SO[sub 2] as well as particulate matter, hydrochloric and other air toxics. Scrubbers, which have been used for 25 years, are not only commercially proven, but are the standard by which new technology is judged. This standard, however, continues to rise as scrubber cost-effectiveness, reliability, waste recycling and efficiency as steadily improved over the last several years.

  9. Model for flue-gas desulfurization in a circulating dry scrubber

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neathery, J.K.

    1996-01-01

    A simple model was developed to describe the absorption of SO{sub 2} in a circulating dry scrubbing (CDS) process, which is a semi dry, lime-based, flue-gas desulfurization (FGD) process that utilizes a circulating fluidized bed arrangement for contacting a sorbent with SO{sub 2}-laden flue gas under coolside conditions. The reaction chemistry is thought to be similar to that of spray-drying absorption. The liquid-phase mass-transfer coefficient was successfully modeled as a function of the sorbent particle spacing on the wetted surfaces. Gas-phase mass-transfer resistances were assumed to be insignificant. Due to the high surface area available in a CDS reactor, the evaporation rate of water from the slurry was modeled as constant-rate drying according to classic spray-dryer theory. However, the falling-rate and diffusion evaporation stages were negligible in CDS since sorbent particle bunching at the surface of the slurry is nonexistent.

  10. Dry scrubbing oxides and particulate contaminants from hot gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Quee, J. A.; Haak, M. P.

    1985-03-12

    Sulfur dioxides are dry scrubbed from a flue gas by introducing minute droplets containing a liquid, such as water, and an alkali or alkaline reactant, such as lime, into the spray zone in the primary spray drying chamber of a spray dryer and concurrently contacting these droplets with the hot flue gas. The droplets are partially dried to a tacky condition before reaching a foraminous collecting member extending through the primary spray drying chamber and collect on the collecting member as a moist, porous mat. As the flue gas continues to flow through the mat, the mat serves as a filter for removing fly ash and other particulate matter and remaining sulfur oxides react with unreacted particles of the reactant and reactive ingredients of the fly ash particles in the mat.

  11. Gas scrubbers. (Latest citations from the US Patent database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-07-01

    The bibliography contains selected patents concerning fabrication techniques and the utilization of gas scrubbers used in gas purification. Topics include methods of improving gas stream flow through the scrubber, gas sampling, materials recovery techniques, and the treatment of scrubber sludge. Wet and dry scrubbers, and foam devices are among the equipment types considered. Considerable attention is given to scrubber utilization in air pollution control operations. (Contains a minimum of 196 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  12. Characterizing toxic emissions from a coal-fired power plant demonstrating the AFGD ICCT Project and a plant utilizing a dry scrubber/baghouse system: Bailly Station Units 7 and 8 and AFGD ICCT Project. Final report. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dismukes, E.B.

    1994-10-20

    This report describes results of assessment of the risk of emissions of hazardous air pollutants at one of the electric power stations, Bailly Station, which is also the site of a Clean Coal Technology project demonstrating the Pure Air Advanced Flue Gas Desulfurization process (wet limestone). This station represents the configuration of no NO{sub x} reduction, particulate control with electrostatic precipitators, and SO{sub 2} control with a wet scrubber. The test was conducted September 3--6, 1993. Sixteen trace metals were determined along with 5 major metals. Other inorganic substances and organic compounds were also determined.

  13. Liquid film target impingement scrubber

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McDowell, William J.; Coleman, Charles F.

    1977-03-15

    An improved liquid film impingement scrubber is provided wherein particulates suspended in a gas are removed by jetting the particle-containing gas onto a relatively small thin liquid layer impingement target surface. The impingement target is in the form of a porous material which allows a suitable contacting liquid from a pressurized chamber to exude therethrough to form a thin liquid film target surface. The gas-supported particles collected by impingement of the gas on the target are continuously removed and flushed from the system by the liquid flow through each of a number of pores in the target.

  14. HYDROFLUORIC ACID SCRUBBER SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    PANESKO JV; MERRITT HD

    2011-05-18

    Each year over a million gallons of water are used to scrub hydrogen fluoride (HP) vapors from waste off-gas streams. Use of other potential scrubber solutions such as potassium hydroxide (KOH), aluminum nitrate nonahydrate (ANN), and monobasic aluminum nitrate (monoban) would result in significant volume reductions. A laboratory study was initiated to (1) demonstrate the effectiveness of these scrubber solutions to sorb HF, (2) determine if unexpected reactions occurred at flowsheet conditions, and (3) determine the consequences of deviation from flowsheet conditions. Caustic or aluminum scrubber solutions remove hydrogen fluoride from off-gas streams. Solids which appear with aluminum could be avoided by heating the scrubber solution.

  15. Next Generation Non-particulate Dry Nonwoven Pad for Chemical Warfare Agent Decontamination

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramkumar, S S; Love, A; Sata, U R; Koester, C J; Smith, W J; Keating, G A; Hobbs, L; Cox, S B; Lagna, W M; Kendall, R J

    2008-05-01

    New, non-particulate decontamination materials promise to reduce both military and civilian casualties by enabling individuals to decontaminate themselves and their equipment within minutes of exposure to chemical warfare agents or other toxic materials. One of the most promising new materials has been developed using a needlepunching nonwoven process to construct a novel and non-particulate composite fabric of multiple layers, including an inner layer of activated carbon fabric, which is well-suited for the decontamination of both personnel and equipment. This paper describes the development of a composite nonwoven pad and compares efficacy test results for this pad with results from testing other decontamination systems. The efficacy of the dry nonwoven fabric pad was demonstrated specifically for decontamination of the chemical warfare blister agent bis(2-chloroethyl)sulfide (H or sulfur mustard). GC/MS results indicate that the composite fabric was capable of significantly reducing the vapor hazard from mustard liquid absorbed into the nonwoven dry fabric pad. The mustard adsorption efficiency of the nonwoven pad was significantly higher than particulate activated carbon (p=0.041) and was similar to the currently fielded US military M291 kit (p=0.952). The nonwoven pad has several advantages over other materials, especially its non-particulate, yet flexible, construction. This composite fabric was also shown to be chemically compatible with potential toxic and hazardous liquids, which span a range of hydrophilic and hydrophobic chemicals, including a concentrated acid, an organic solvent and a mild oxidant, bleach.

  16. Assessment of Industrial VOC Gas-Scrubber Performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saito, H

    2004-02-13

    Gas scrubbers for air-pollution control of volatile organic compounds (VOC) cover a wide range of technologies. In this review, we have attempted to evaluate the single-pass scrubber destruction and removal efficiencies (DREs) for a range of gas-scrubber technologies. We have focused primarily on typical industrial DREs for the various technologies, typical problems, and any DRE-related experiential information available. The very limited literature citations found suggest significant differences between actual versus design performance in some technologies. The potentially significant role of maintenance in maintaining DREs was also investigated for those technologies. An in-depth portrayal of the entire gas scrubbing industry is elusive. Available literature sources suggest significant differences between actual versus design performance in some technologies. Lack of scrubber system maintenance can contribute to even larger variances. ''Typical'' industrial single-pass performance of commonly used VOC gas scrubbers generally ranged from {approx}80 to 99%. Imperfect solid and/or liquid particulates capture (possibly as low as 95% despite design for 99+% capture efficiency) can also lead to VOC releases. Changing the VOC composition in the gas stream without modifying scrubber equipment or operating conditions could also lead to significant deterioration in attainable destruction and removal efficiencies.

  17. Use of a polishing scrubber with a fluid bed boiler

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Toher, J.G.

    1996-12-31

    Once viewed as {open_quotes}competitive{close_quotes} technologies, the circulating dry scrubber (CDS){reg_sign} and circulating fluid bed (CFB) boiler are being used together to achieve enhanced performance with lower overall costs. The need to understand the synergy between these two technologies is driven by deregulation of the power industry and the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments. Deregulation of power production in the US has spurred the growth of Independent Power Producers (IPP) who are responding to Industry`s demand for lower cost fuels, and close attention to annual operating costs. Utilities have to provide {open_quotes}open{close_quotes} access to their transmission lines allowing various IPP`s to connect with the end user. Industrial users can now choose from one of several sources of electricity with prices per kilowatt hour that are much lower than what they are currently being charged. The race is on to reduce power production costs and fuel can be the key in many cases. IPP`s and industry are banding together in very logical ways that can benefit both. Industry`s byproducts with heating value can be sold {open_quotes}over the fence{close_quotes} to an IPP who provides the industry with low cost steam and or electricity in return. However, many alternative lower cost fuels also have a higher emissions potential for criteria pollutants such a SO{sub 2}, NO{sub X}, particulate, or other emissions such as VOC`s and mercury which are more recently receiving attention. Cost effective management of these environmental issues must be an integral part of the project planning process. Three such cases are examined that involve the use of CFB`s with the CDS{reg_sign} as a polishing scrubber for SO{sub 2}. The first two cases involve repowering of existing facilities with petroleum coke as the fuel. The last case involves a new facility powered with low sulfur coal.

  18. Commercial-scale dry scrubbing holds promise for SO2 control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-07-01

    Dry-scrubber systems coupled with fabric filters offer viable alternatives to high cost wet scrubbers and electrostatic precipitators. The dry scrubber design requires less energy and capital investment and is relatively simple. The only drawback to dry scrubbers is the high cost of alkali absorbent. Savings in capital and maintenance costs would offset the high cost of alkali absorbent in the long run. Operation of commercial dry scrubbers is expected to begin in 1981. (1 diagram, 2 photos, 1 table)

  19. Cement Kiln Flue Gas Recovery Scrubber Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    National Energy Technology Laboratory

    2001-11-30

    The Cement Kiln Flue Gas Recovery Scrubber Project was a technical success and demonstrated the following: CKD can be used successfully as the sole reagent for removing SO2 from cement kiln flue gas, with removal efficiencies of 90 percent or greater; Removal efficiencies for HCl and VOCs were approximately 98 percent and 70 percent, respectively; Particulate emissions were low, in the range of 0.005 to 0.007 grains/standard cubic foot; The treated CKD sorbent can be recycled to the kiln after its potassium content has been reduced in the scrubber, thereby avoiding the need for landfilling; The process can yield fertilizer-grade K2SO4, a saleable by-product; and Waste heat in the flue gas can provide the energy required for evaporation and crystallization in the by-product recovery operation. The demonstration program established the feasibility of using the Recovery Scrubber{trademark} for desulfurization of flue gas from cement kilns, with generally favorable economics, assuming tipping fees are available for disposal of ash from biomass combustion. The process appears to be suitable for commercial use on any type of cement kiln. EPA has ruled that CKD is a nonhazardous waste, provided the facility meets Performance Standards for the Management of CKD (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 1999d). Therefore, regulatory drivers for the technology focus more on reduction of air pollutants and pollution prevention, rather than on treating CKD as a hazardous waste. Application of the Recovery Scrubbe{trademark} concept to other waste-disposal operations, where pollution and waste reductions are needed, appears promising.

  20. Evaluating a heated metal scrubber's effectiveness in preventing ozone monitors' anomalous behavior during hot and humid ambient sampling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maddy, J.A.

    1999-07-01

    The purpose of this paper is to verify West Virginia's Wet/Dry test's prediction that Advanced Pollution Instrumentation's (API) ozone monitors, when using a heated metal scrubber in lieu of a standard MnO{sub 2} scrubber, would be made insensitive to sampling conditions which provoke anomalous behavior. Field trials involving two identical API model 400 ozone monitors, a Horiba APOA 360 ozone monitor, MnO{sub 2} scrubbers and API's optional heated metal scrubber would determine this. The heated metal scrubber succeeded in effectively eliminating the anomalous behavior. Evaluation results further verify the accuracy of West Virginia's Wet/Dry test. During the evaluation, a serendipitous event led to observations that confirmed previous observations by The Commonwealth of Virginia's monitoring staff, linking contamination of UV monitors' optics with anomalous behavior. Also, a partial summation of observations concerning ultraviolet ozone monitors' anomalous behavior, drawn from several sources, illustrates its complex nature.

  1. Separation of Flue-Gas Scrubber Sludge into Marketable Products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-02-28

    The reduction of sulfur oxides from high sulfur coal burning utility companies has resulted in the production of huge quantities of wet flue-gas desulfurization scrubber sludge. A typical 400 MW power station burning a coal containing 3.5% sulfur by weight and using a limestone absorbent would produce approximately 177,000 tons (dry weight) of scrubber sludge per year. This brownish colored, finely divided material contains calcium sulfite (CaSO{sub 3} {center_dot} 1/2 H{sub 2}O), calcium sulfate (CaSO{sub 4} {center_dot} 2H{sub 2}O), unreacted limestone (CaCO{sub 3}), and various other impurities such as fly-ash and iron oxide particles. The physical separation of the components of scrubber sludge would result in the re-use of this material. The primary use would be conversion to a highly pure synthetic gypsum. This technical report concentrates on the effect of baffle configuration on the separation of calcium sulfite/sulfate from limestone. The position of the baffles as they related to the feed inlet, and the quantity of the baffles were examined. A clean calcium sulfite/sulfate (less than 2.0% limestone by weight) was achieved with the combination of water-only cyclone and horizontally baffled column.

  2. Separation of flue-gas scrubber sludge into marketable products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kawatra, S.K.; Eisele, T.C.

    1997-08-31

    A tremendous amount of wet flue-gas desulfurization scrubber sludge (estimated 20 million metric tons per year in the US) is currently being landfilled at a huge cost to utility companies. Scrubber sludge is the solid precipitate produced during desulfurization of flue-gas from burning high sulfur coal. The amount of this sludge is expected to increase in the near future due to ever increasing governmental regulation concerning the amount of sulfur emissions. Scrubber sludge is a fine, grey colored powder that contains calcium sulfite hemihydrate (CaSO{sub 3} {center_dot} 1/2H{sub 2}), calcium sulfate dihydrate (CaSO{sub 4} {center_dot} 2H{sub 2}O), limestone (CaCO{sub 3}), silicates, and iron oxides. This material can continue to be landfilled at a steadily increasing cost, or an alternative for utilizing this material can be developed. This study explores the characteristics of a naturally oxidized wet flue-gas desulfurization scrubber sludge and uses these characteristics to develop alternatives for recycling this material. In order for scrubber sludge to be used as a feed material for various markets, it was necessary to process it to meet the specifications of these markets. A physical separation process was therefore needed to separate the components of this sludge into useful products at a low cost. There are several physical separation techniques available to separate fine particulates. These techniques can be divided into four major groups: magnetic separation, electrostatic separation, physico-chemical separation, and density-based separation. The properties of this material indicated that two methods of separation were feasible: water-only cycloning (density-based separation), and froth flotation (physico-chemical separation). These processes could be used either separately, or in combination. The goal of this study was to reduce the limestone impurity in this scrubber sludge from 5.6% by weight to below 2.0% by weight. The resulting clean calcium

  3. High efficiency, low cost scrubber upgrades

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klingspor, J.S.; Walters, M.

    1998-07-01

    ABB introduced the LS-2 technology; a limestone based wet FGD system, which is capable of producing high purity gypsum from low grade limestone, in late 1995. Drawing from 30,000 MWe of worldwide wet FGD experience, ABB has incorporated several innovations in the new system designed to reduce the overall cost of SO{sub 2} compliance. Collectively, these improvements are referred to as LS-2. The improvements include a compact high efficiency absorber, a simple dry grinding system, a closed coupled flue gas reheat system, and a tightly integrated dewatering system. The compact absorber includes features such a high velocity spray zone, significantly improved gas-liquid contact system, compact reaction tank, and a high velocity mist eliminator. The LS-2 system is being demonstrated at Ohio Edison's Niles Plant at the 130 MWe level, and this turnkey installation was designed and erected in a 20-month period. At Niles, all of the gypsum is sold to a local wallboard manufacturer. Many of the features included in the LS-2 design and demonstrated at Niles can be used to improve the efficiency and operation of existing systems including open spray towers and tray towers. The SO{sub 2} removal efficiency can be significantly improved by installing the high efficiency LS-2 style spray header design and the unique wall rings. The absorber bypass can be eliminated or reduced by including the LS-2 style high velocity mist eliminator. Also, the LS-2 style spray header design combined with wall rings allow for an increase in absorber gas velocity at a maintained or improved performance without the need for costly upgrades of the absorber recycle pumps. the first upgrade using LS-2 technology was done at CPA's Coal Creek Station (2{times}545 MWe). The experience form the scrubber upgrade at Coal Creek is discussed along with operating results.

  4. Users guide for the conversion of Navy paint-spray-booth particulate emission-control systems from wet to dry operation. Final report, January-September 1989

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ayer, J.; Tate, D.

    1990-03-01

    The report is a guide for converting U.S. Navy paint-spray-booth particulate emission control systems from wet to dry operation. The use of water curtains for air-pollution-control of paint-spray booths is considered a major source of water and solid-waste pollution from industrial painting operations. It is possible, however, to eliminate this water-pollution problem and significantly reduce the solid-waste load by converting the booth to utilize a dry-filter pollution-control system. The conversion, however, requires extensive planning prior to actual facility modification. The report describes requirements to facilitate the planning and preparation for conversion of typical spray booths. Although the report addresses modifications of Navy spray booths, the basic engineering requirements discussed apply also to other Department of Defense installations and to commercial industrial facilities.

  5. Parameters influencing the aerosol capture performance of the Submerged-Bed Scrubber

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ruecker, C.M.; Scott, P.A.

    1987-04-01

    The Submerged-Bed Scrubber (SBS) is a novel air cleaning device that has been investigated by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for scrubbing off gases from liquid-fed ceramic melters used to vitrify high-level waste (HLW). The concept for the SBS was originally conceived at Hanford for emergency venting of a reactor containment building. The SBS was adapted for use as a quenching scrubber at PNL because it can cool the hot melter off gas as well as remove over 90% of the airborne particles, thus meeting the minimum particulate decontamination factor (DF) of 10 required of a primary scrubber. The experiments in this study showed that the submicron aerosol DF for the SBS can exceed 100 under certain conditions. A conventional device, the ejector-venturi scrubber (EVS), has been previously used in this application. The EVS also adequately cools the hot gases from the melter while exhibiting aerosol removal DFs in the range of 5 to 30. In addition to achieving higher DFs than the EVS, however, the SBS has the advantage of being a passive system, better suited to the remote environment of an HLW processing system. The objective of this study was to characterize the performance of the SBS and to improve the aerosol capture efficiency by modifying the operating procedure or the design. A partial factorial experimental matrix was completed to determine the main effects of aerosol solubility, inlet off-gas temperature, inlet off-gas flow rate, steam-to-air ratio, bed diameter and packing diameter on the particulate removal efficiency of the SBS. Several additional experiments were conducted to measure the influence of the inlet aerosol concentration and scrubbing-water concentration on aerosol-removal performance. 33 refs., 17 figs., 14 tabs.

  6. CHEM.PLANT.ADMIN.REC.302.1.08.T.PDF

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    ... quench scrubber, a submicron aerosol scrubber, a nitrogen oxide gas removal system, ... Particulate emissions must not exceed 180 mgdscm (dry standard cubic meter) or 0.008 gr...

  7. EVALUATION OF AEROSOL EMISSIONS DOWNSTREAM OF AN AMMONIA-BASED SO2 SCRUBBER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dennis L. Laudal

    2002-04-01

    Center (EERC) was contracted by MET and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to evaluate the potential of a wet ESP for reducing SO{sub 3} emissions. The work consisted of pilot-scale tests using the EERC's slagging furnace system (SFS) to determine the effectiveness of a wet ESP to control SO{sub 3}/H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} aerosol emissions in conjunction with a dry ESP and MET's NH{sub 3}-based FGD. Because these compounds are in the form of fine particles, it is speculated that a relatively small, highly efficient wet ESP following the MET scrubber would remove these fine aerosol particles. The performance target for the wet ESP was a particulate mass collection efficiency of >90%; this level of performance would likely ensure a stack opacity of <10%.

  8. MERCURY CONTROL WITH ADVANCED HYBRID PARTICULATE COLLECTOR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ye Zhuang; Stanley J. Miller

    2005-05-01

    . An additional task was included in this project to evaluate mercury oxidation upstream of a dry scrubber by using mercury oxidants. This project demonstrated at the pilot-scale level a technology that provides a cost-effective technique to control mercury and, at the same time, greatly enhances fine particulate collection efficiency. The technology can be used to retrofit systems currently employing inefficient ESP technology as well as for new construction, thereby providing a solution for improved fine particulate control combined with effective mercury control for a large segment of the U.S. utility industry as well as other industries.

  9. High-solids paint overspray aerosols in a spray painting booth: particle size analysis and scrubber efficiency

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chan, T.L.; D'arcy, J.B.; Schreck, R.M.

    1986-07-01

    Particle size distributions of high-solids acrylic-enamel paint overspray aerosols were determined isokinetically in a typical downdraft spray painting booth in which a 7-stage cascade impactor was used. Three different industrial paint atomizers were used, and the paint aerosols were characterized before and after a paint both scrubber. The mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) of a metallic basecoat and an acrylic clearcoat paint aerosol from air-atomized spray guns ranged from 4-12 ..mu..m and was dependent on atomization pressure. When the paint booth was operated under controlled conditions simulating those in a plant, the collection efficiency of paint overspray aerosols by a paint scrubber was found to be size dependent and decreased sharply for particles smaller than 2 ..mu..m to as low as 64% for clearcoat paint particles of 0.6 ..mu..m. Improvement in the overall particulate removal efficiency can be achieved by optimizing the spray painting operations so as to produce the least amount of fine overspray paint aerosols less than 2 ..mu..m. Maintaining a higher static pressure drop across the paint both scrubber also will improve scrubber performance.

  10. JV Task 95-Particulate Control Consulting for Minnesota Ore Operations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stanley Miller

    2008-10-31

    The purpose of the project was to assist U.S. Steel in the evaluation, selection, planning, design, and testing of potential approaches to help meet U.S. Steel's goal for low-particulate matter emissions and regulatory compliance. The energy-intensive process for producing iron pellets includes treating the pellets in high-temperature kilns in which the iron is converted from magnetite to hematite. The kilns can be fired with either natural gas or a combination of gas and coal or biomass fuel and are equipped with wet venturi scrubbers for particulate control. Particulate measurements at the inlet and outlet of the scrubbers and analysis of size-fractionated particulate samples led to an understanding of the effect of process variables on the measured emissions and an approach to meet regulatory compliance.

  11. The Navajo scrubber project -- Start up and performance testing of the largest FGD system in the USA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lusko, J.; Massion, R.; Sekhar, N.

    1998-07-01

    The Navajo Scrubber Project located in Page, Arizona is the largest Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) system in the USA. Limestone based FGD system producing disposable grade gypsum is being installed on Units 1,2 and 3 (3 x 750 MWe) at the Navajo Generating Station (NGS) to comply with an EPA ruling mandating SO{sub 2} emission reduction to improve visibility in the Grand Canyon National Park. Compliance will be phased-in by unit in 1997, 1998 and 1999. The NGS burns low-sulfur coal with a sulfur content of approximately 0.5%. The FGD system is designed to treat a total flue gas flow of 11.25 million acfm, at an SO{sub 2} removal efficiency of 92% for an emission of 0.1 lb. per million BTU. Unique features of the FGD system include, a totally closed loop water balance system, 775 ft. chimney with C-276 alloy clad designed to handle both wet and hot dry gas, solid C-276 alloy absorber vessels and the use of existing ID fans, with suitable modification, to overcome the additional pressure drop of the FGD system. The start-up sequence/operation and performance tests of Unit 3 of this unique FGD system is described in this paper. Performance tests include, removal efficiency determination at 0.6 and 0.8% sulfur coal at normal and 60,000 PPM chloride in the slurry, particulate carry over determination under normal as well as upset ESP conditions, and determination of mist eliminator carry-over using Video Droplet Analyzer.

  12. Advanced dry scrubbing on Ohio coals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Amrhein, G.T.; Kudlac, G.A.; Smith, P.V.

    1994-12-31

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate, at pilot scale, that advanced dry-scrubbing-based technologies can attain the performance levels specified by the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments for SO{sub 2} emissions while burning high-sulfur Ohio coal, and that these technologies are economically competitive with wet scrubber systems. Dry scrubbing involves injecting an atomized mist of sorbent-containing slurry droplets into hot flue gas. The reaction products exit the scrubber as a dry powder that can be filtered from the gas and recycled or disposed. The project consists of testing an advanced dry scrubber system on two high sulfur Ohio coals. All testing will be conducted in the 5 MBtu pilot facility at B and W`s Alliance Research Center. The facility consists of a test furnace, a dry scrubber using a B and W DuraJet{trademark} two fluid atomizer, a pulse-jet baghouse, and an ash slaking system. Tests were conducted with and without recycling the solids collected from the baghouse. During recycle operation the solids were slurried with water and injected into the dry scrubber with the fresh lime slurry. Test results will be presented, including SO{sub 2} removal (70--99%), calcium to sulfur ratios (1.1--1.9), dry scrubber outlet temperatures (10--30 F), and system performance. An advanced feature of the project was the use of the B and W patented Droplet Impingement Device which removes large slurry droplets from the gas stream prior to the baghouse to prevent baghouse deposition. This allows operation at low approach temperatures.

  13. Circulating system simplifies dry scrubbing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morrison, S.Q.; Jorgensen, C.

    1995-10-01

    This article describes a circulating dry scrubber, based on fluid-bed absorption process, which demonstrates high SO{sub 2} removal with minimal O and M requirements. Unlike other dry scrubbers, this one involves dry reagent and results in dry products. Before construction can begin on a new coal-fired plant, a rigorous set of permit requirements must be satisfied. When the Roanoke Valley Energy Facility, Weldon, NC, began the permitting process for their proposed 44-MW pulverized-coal (p-c)-fired Unit 2, the facility permit limited not only SO{sub 2} emissions (0.187 lb SO{sub 2}/million Btu) but also the removal efficiency of the flue-gas desulfurization process (93%) and the maximum amount of sulfur in the coal (1.6%).

  14. Supporting Calculations For Submerged Bed Scrubber Condensate Disposal Preconceptual Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pajunen, A. J.; Tedeschi, A. R.

    2012-09-18

    This document provides supporting calculations for the preparation of the Submerged Bed Scrubber Condensate Disposal Preconceptual Study report The supporting calculations include equipment sizing, Hazard Category determination, and LAW Melter Decontamination Factor Adjustments.

  15. Mercury removal in utility wet scrubber using a chelating agent

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Amrhein, Gerald T.

    2001-01-01

    A method for capturing and reducing the mercury content of an industrial flue gas such as that produced in the combustion of a fossil fuel or solid waste adds a chelating agent, such as ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) or other similar compounds like HEDTA, DTPA and/or NTA, to the flue gas being scrubbed in a wet scrubber used in the industrial process. The chelating agent prevents the reduction of oxidized mercury to elemental mercury, thereby increasing the mercury removal efficiency of the wet scrubber. Exemplary tests on inlet and outlet mercury concentration in an industrial flue gas were performed without and with EDTA addition. Without EDTA, mercury removal totaled 42%. With EDTA, mercury removal increased to 71%. The invention may be readily adapted to known wet scrubber systems and it specifically provides for the removal of unwanted mercury both by supplying S.sup.2- ions to convert Hg.sup.2+ ions into mercuric sulfide (HgS) and by supplying a chelating agent to sequester other ions, including but not limited to Fe.sup.2+ ions, which could otherwise induce the unwanted reduction of Hg.sup.2+ to the form, Hg.sup.0.

  16. Flue gas desulfurization method and apparatus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Madden, Deborah A.; Farthing, George A.

    1998-08-18

    A combined furnace limestone injection and dry scrubber flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system collects solids from the flue gas stream in first particulate collection device located downstream of an outlet of a convection pass of the furnace and upstream of the dry scrubber. The collected solids are diverted to the dry scrubber feed slurry preparation system to increase sulfur oxide species removal efficiency and sorbent utilization. The level of lime in the feed slurry provided to the dry scrubber is thus increased, which enhances removal of sulfur oxide species in the dry scrubber. The decreased particulate loading to the dry scrubber helps maintain a desired degree of free moisture in the flue gas stream entering the dry scrubber, which enhances sulfur oxide species removal both in the dry scrubber and downstream particulate collector, normally a baghouse.

  17. Flue gas desulfurization method and apparatus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Madden, Deborah A.; Farthing, George A.

    1998-09-29

    A combined furnace limestone injection and dry scrubber flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system collects solids from the flue gas stream in first particulate collection device located downstream of an outlet of a convection pass of the furnace and upstream of the dry scrubber. The collected solids are diverted to the dry scrubber feed slurry preparation system to increase sulfur oxide species removal efficiency and sorbent utilization. The level of lime in the feed slurry provided to the dry scrubber is thus increased, which enhances removal of sulfur oxide species in the dry scrubber. The decreased particulate loading to the dry scrubber helps maintain a desired degree of free moisture in the flue gas stream entering the dry scrubber, which enhances sulfur oxide species removal both in the dry scrubber and downstream particulate collector, normally a baghouse.

  18. Flue gas desulfurization method and apparatus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Madden, D.A.; Farthing, G.A.

    1998-09-29

    A combined furnace limestone injection and dry scrubber flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system collects solids from the flue gas stream in first particulate collection device located downstream of an outlet of a convection pass of the furnace and upstream of the dry scrubber. The collected solids are diverted to the dry scrubber feed slurry preparation system to increase sulfur oxide species removal efficiency and sorbent utilization. The level of lime in the feed slurry provided to the dry scrubber is thus increased, which enhances removal of sulfur oxide species in the dry scrubber. The decreased particulate loading to the dry scrubber helps maintain a desired degree of free moisture in the flue gas stream entering the dry scrubber, which enhances sulfur oxide species removal both in the dry scrubber and downstream particulate collector, normally a baghouse. 5 figs.

  19. Flue gas desulfurization method and apparatus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Madden, D.A.; Farthing, G.A.

    1998-08-18

    A combined furnace limestone injection and dry scrubber flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system collects solids from the flue gas stream in first particulate collection device located downstream of an outlet of a convection pass of the furnace and upstream of the dry scrubber. The collected solids are diverted to the dry scrubber feed slurry preparation system to increase sulfur oxide species removal efficiency and sorbent utilization. The level of lime in the feed slurry provided to the dry scrubber is thus increased, which enhances removal of sulfur oxide species in the dry scrubber. The decreased particulate loading to the dry scrubber helps maintain a desired degree of free moisture in the flue gas stream entering the dry scrubber, which enhances sulfur oxide species removal both in the dry scrubber and downstream particulate collector, normally a baghouse. 5 figs.

  20. Ammonia scrubber testing during IDMS SRAT and SME processing. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lambert, D.P.

    1995-04-28

    This report summarizes results of the Integrated DWPF (Defense Waste Processing Facility) Melter System (IDMS) ammonia scrubber testing during the PX-7 run (the 7th IDMS run with a Purex type sludge). Operation of the ammonia scrubber during IDMS Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) and Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) processing has been completed. The ammonia scrubber was successful in removing ammonia from the vapor stream to achieve NH3 concentrations far below the 10 ppM vapor exist design basis during SRAT processing. However, during SME processing, vapor NH3 concentrations as high as 450 ppM were measured exiting the scrubber. Problems during the SRAT and SME testing were vapor bypassing the scrubber and inefficient scrubbing of the ammonia at the end of the SME cycle (50% removal efficiency; 99.9% is design basis efficiency).

  1. Spray-drying FGD

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yeager, K.

    1984-05-01

    Limited data are available on spray drying for SO/SUB/2 and particulate control to enable utilities to evaluate the claims of vendors. EPRI is sponsoring pilot- and full-scale testing of this technology and some results are presented.

  2. untitled

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    ... conventional treatment technologies like scrubber systems and particulate filters, and ... The compressed air system supplies clean, dry, compressed air to the BFC for production ...

  3. Microsoft Word - KCP Final EA Draft 042913 CLEAN for Concurrence...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    ... conventional treatment technologies like scrubber systems and particulate filters, and ... The compressed air system supplies clean, dry, compressed air to the BFC for production ...

  4. Final Site-Wide Environmental Assessment U.S. Department of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... The zone is designated to be for general research and development with dry laboratories, ... IBRF particulate baghouse and ammonia scrubber system, and the RFHP operations. ...

  5. Annual Energy Outlook 2014: Electricity Working Group Meeting...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    particulate requirements * All units without an FGD are required to add a FGD scrubber or dry sorbent injection (DSI) system with a fabric filter * AEO 2014 proposed approach * ...

  6. Microsoft Word - EA-1135.docx

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... The salts and particulates formed in the dry scrubbing operation subsequently would be ... the gas would pass through two wet scrubber devices with a sorbent, such as caustic ...

  7. Environmental Performance Report 2012: Annual Site Environmental...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... and limited dry laboratory research activities are currently conducted at the facility. ... air permits for two emergency generators and an ammonia scrubber and particulate baghouse. ...

  8. Microsoft Word - Novolyte Final EA for Concur 11-19-10.docx

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Particulate emissions from the salt dryers would be controlled by a scrubber, cyclone, or ... of dirt, when windy or dry conditions promote problematic fugitive dust emissions. ...

  9. DRAFT

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    ... conventional treatment technologies like scrubber systems and particulate filters, and ... The compressed air system supplies clean, dry, compressed air to the BFC for production ...

  10. Final 2014 Site-Wide Environmental Assessment - South Table Mountain...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... The zone is designated to be for general research and development with dry laboratories, ... IBRF particulate baghouse and ammonia scrubber system, and the RFHP operations. ...

  11. Cross-flow versus counter-current flow packed-bed scrubbers: a mathematical analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fthenakis, V.M.

    1996-02-01

    Little is known about the mass transfer properties of packing media exposed to a crossflow of gas and liquid, whereas there is abundant information related to counter-current scrubbers. This paper presents a theoretical analysis of mass transfer and hydrodynamics in cross- flow packed bed scrubbers and compares those with information available for counter current towers, so that the first can be evaluated and/or designed based on data derived for the second. Mathematical models of mass transfer in cross-flow and counter- current packed bed scrubbers are presented. From those, one can predict the removal effectiveness of a crossflow scrubber from the number of transfer units (NTU) calculated for a similar counterflow operation; alternatively, when the removal effectiveness in counterflow is known, one can predict the corresponding NTU in crossflow.

  12. Value-Added Products From FGD Sulfite-Rich Scrubber Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vivak M. Malhotra

    2006-09-30

    Massive quantities of sulfite-rich flue gas desulfurization (FGD) scrubber materials are produced every year in the USA. In fact, at present, the production of wet sulfite-rich scrubber cake outstrips the production of wet sulfate-rich scrubber cake by about 6 million tons per year. However, most of the utilization focus has centered on FGD gypsum. Therefore, we have recently initiated research on developing new strategies for the economical, but environmentally-sound, utilization of sulfite-rich scrubber material. In this exploratory project (Phase I), we attempted to ascertain whether it is feasible to develop reconstituted wood replacement products from sulfite-rich scrubber material. In pursuit of this goal, we characterized two different wet sulfite-rich scrubber materials, obtained from two power plants burning Midwestern coal, for their suitability for the development of value-added products. The overall strategy adopted was to fabricate composites where the largest ingredient was scrubber material with additional crop materials as additives. Our results suggested that it may be feasible to develop composites with flexural strength as high as 40 MPa (5800 psi) without the addition of external polymers. We also attempted to develop load-bearing composites from scrubber material, natural fibers, and phenolic polymer. The polymer-to-solid ratio was limited to {le} 0.4. The formulated composites showed flexural strengths as high as 73 MPa (10,585 psi). We plan to harness the research outcomes from Phase I to develop parameters required to upscale our value-added products in Phase II.

  13. Value-Added Products from FGD Sulfite-Rich Scrubber Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vivak Malhotra

    2010-01-31

    According to the American Coal Ash Association, about 29.25 million tons of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) byproducts were produced in the USA in 2003. Out of 29.25 million tons, 17.35 million tons were sulfite-rich scrubber materials. At present, unlike its cousin FGD gypsum, the prospect for effective utilization of sulfite-rich scrubber materials is not bright. In fact, almost 16.9 million tons are leftover every year. In our pursuit to mitigate the liability of sulfite-rich FGD scrubber materials' disposal, we are attempting to develop value-added products that can commercially compete. More specifically, for this Innovative Concept Phase I project, we have the following objectives: to characterize the sulfite-rich scrubber material for toxic metals; to optimize the co-blending and processing of scrubber material and natural byproducts; to formulate and develop structural composites from sulfite-rich scrubber material; and to evaluate the composites' mechanical properties and compare them with current products on the market. After successfully demonstrating the viability of our research, a more comprehensive approach will be proposed to take these value-added materials to fruition.

  14. Method of drying articles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Janney, M.A.; Kiggans, J.O. Jr.

    1999-03-23

    A method of drying a green particulate article includes the steps of: (a) Providing a green article which includes a particulate material and a pore phase material, the pore phase material including a solvent; and (b) contacting the green article with a liquid desiccant for a period of time sufficient to remove at least a portion of the solvent from the green article, the pore phase material acting as a semipermeable barrier to allow the solvent to be sorbed into the liquid desiccant, the pore phase material substantially preventing the liquid desiccant from entering the pores. 3 figs.

  15. Method of drying articles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Janney, Mark A.; Kiggans, Jr., James O.

    1999-01-01

    A method of drying a green particulate article includes the steps of: a. Providing a green article which includes a particulate material and a pore phase material, the pore phase material including a solvent; and b. contacting the green article with a liquid desiccant for a period of time sufficient to remove at least a portion of the solvent from the green article, the pore phase material acting as a semipermeable barrier to allow the solvent to be sorbed into the liquid desiccant, the pore phase material substantially preventing the liquid desiccant from entering the pores.

  16. Spray drying for high-sulfur coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rhudy, R.

    1988-09-01

    Recent pilot plant tests indicate that spray drying, now used to control SO/sub 2/ emissions from low-sulfur coal, can also be effective for high-sulfur coal. Spray drying coupled with baghouse particulate removal is the most effective configuration tested to date, removing over 90% of SO/sub 2/ while easily meeting New Source Performance Standards for particulate emissions. 2 figures, 1 table.

  17. Particulate Matter Aerosols

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    particulate matter aerosols Particulate Matter Aerosols The study of atmospheric aerosols is important because of its adverse effects on health, air quality, visibility, cultural heritage, and Earth's radiation balance. Techniques that can help better characterize particulate matter are required to better understand the constituents, causes and sources of particulate matter (PM) aerosols. Carbon is one of the main constituents of atmospheric aerosols. Radiocarbon (14C) measurement performed on

  18. USDOE Innovative Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Project: Passamaquoddy Technology Recovery Scrubber{trademark}. Final report: Volume 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    This Final Report provides available design, operational, and maintenance information, and marketing plans, on the Passamaquoddy Technology Recovery Scrubber{trademark} demonstration Project at the Dragon Products company`s cement plant at Thomaston, Maine. In addition, data on pollutant removal efficiencies and system economics are reviewed. The Recovery Scrubber was developed to simultaneously address the emission of acid gas pollutants and the disposal of alkaline solid waste at a cement plant. The process, however, has general application to other combustion processes including waste or fossil fuel fired boilers. Selected chemistry of the exhaust gas, (before and after treatment by the Recovery Scrubber), selected chemistry of the cement plant kiln baghouse dust catch (before and after treatment by the Recovery Scrubber), and Dragon cement plant economics are presented. current marketing efforts and potential markets for the Recovery Scrubber in several industries are discussed.

  19. Drying '84

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baunack, F.

    1984-01-01

    This book covers the following topics: mechanism of water sorption-desorption in polymers; progress in freeze drying; on drying of materials in through circulation system; safety aspects of spray drying; dewatering process enhanced by electroosmosis; pressure drop and particle circulation studies in modified slot spouted beds; and experience in drying coal slurries.

  20. Pitch based foam with particulate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Klett, James W.

    2001-01-01

    A thermally conductive, pitch based foam composite having a particulate content. The particulate alters the mechanical characteristics of the foam without severely degrading the foam thermal conductivity. The composite is formed by mixing the particulate with pitch prior to foaming.

  1. Airborne particulate discriminator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Creek, Kathryn Louise; Castro, Alonso; Gray, Perry Clayton

    2009-08-11

    A method and apparatus for rapid and accurate detection and discrimination of biological, radiological, and chemical particles in air. A suspect aerosol of the target particulates is treated with a taggant aerosol of ultrafine particulates. Coagulation of the taggant and target particles causes a change in fluorescent properties of the cloud, providing an indication of the presence of the target.

  2. Particulate matter pollution in Mexico City

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vega R, E.; Mora P, V.; Mugica A, V.

    1998-12-31

    The levels of particulate matter are of concern since they may induce severe effects on public health and is the second atmospheric pollution problem in Mexico City. Another noticeable effect in large cities attributable to particulate matter, is the deterioration of visibility. In this paper the analysis of the data of TSP and PM10 during 1988 to 1996 is presented. The seasonal variation of particulate matter, the typical ratios of PM10/TSP and relationships of the two variables were determined. It was found that PM10 concentrations show an important tendency to decrease during this period, due to some control strategies, although this is not the case for TSP. The monthly trend exhibits a clear relationship with the dry (October through April) and wet (May through September) seasons. The particulate matter concentrations are lower during the wet season. The hourly behavior shows that the highest concentrations are correlated with the traffic rush hours. The most TSP polluted area was the northeast, meanwhile the southeast is the most PM10 polluted area. There is a clear evidence of the particulate matter transportation from these areas to other sites of the City.

  3. Configuration Self-Scrubber for Xilinx Virtex-5QV FPGAs - Energy Innovation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Portal Find More Like This Return to Search Configuration Self-Scrubber for Xilinx Virtex-5QV FPGAs Sandia National Laboratories Contact SNL About This Technology Publications: PDF Document Publication Market Sheet (162 KB) Technology Marketing Summary The Xilinx Virtex-5QV is a field programmable gate array (FPGA) designed for use in space applications. Despite radiation hardening of this particular FPGA, single-event upsets still occasionally corrupt the configuration memory of the

  4. Dry FGD (flue-gas desulfurization) at Argonne National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Livengood, C.D.

    1990-01-01

    Flue-gas desulfurization (FGD) systems based on spray drying are a relatively recent addition to the spectrum of sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) control options available to utility and industrial boiler operators. Such systems appear to offer advantages over wet lime/limestone systems in a number of areas: low energy consumption, low capital cost, high reliability, and production of a dry waste that is easily handled and disposed of. These advantages have promoted rapid acceptance of dry scrubbers for applications using western low-sulfur coal, but uncertainties regarding the performance and economics of such systems for control of high-sulfur-coal emissions have slowed adoption of the technology in the Midwest and East. At Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) we have had more than eight years of operating experience with an industrial-scale dry scrubber used with a boiler firing high-sulfur (3.5%) midwestern coal. This paper describes our operating experience with that system and summarizes several research programs that have utilized it. 7 refs., 15 figs., 6 tabs.

  5. Fluidizing device for solid particulates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Diebold, J.P.; Scahill, J.W.

    A flexible whip suspended in a hopper is caused to impact against fibrous and irregularly shaped particulates in the hopper to fluidize the particulates and facilitate the flow of the particulates through the hopper. The invention provides for the flow of particulates at a substantially constant mass flow rate and uses a minimum of energy.

  6. Particulate and Gaseous Emissions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Recent research in the MFC has focused on char-NOx formation and reburn (Figure 2), NOx formation during oxy-fuel combustion of pulverized coal, and ultrafine particulate matter ...

  7. Void/particulate detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Claytor, Thomas N.; Karplus, Henry B.

    1985-01-01

    Voids and particulates are detected in a flowing stream of fluid contained in a pipe by a detector which includes three transducers spaced about the pipe. A first transducer at a first location on the pipe transmits an ultrasonic signal into the stream. A second transducer detects the through-transmission of the signal at a second location and a third transducer at a third location upstream from the first location detects the back-scattering of the signal from any voids or particulates. To differentiate between voids and particulates a fourth transducer is positioned at a fourth location which is also upstream from the first location. The back-scattered signals are normalized with the through-transmission signal to minimize temperature fluctuations.

  8. Microwave regenerated particulate trap

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McDonald, A.C. Jr.; Yonushonis, T.M.; Haberkamp, W.C.; Mako, F.; Len, L.K,; Silberglitt, R.; Ahmed, I.

    1997-12-31

    It has been demonstrated that a fibrous particulate filter can extract particulate matter from the diesel exhaust. However, additional engineering efforts remains to achieve the design target of 90%. It has also be shown that with minor modifications magnetrons produced for home ovens can endure a simulated diesel operating environment. Much work remains to develop a robust product ready to complete extensive engine testing and evaluation. These efforts include: (1) additional environmental testing of magnetrons; (2) vibration testing of the filter in the housing; (3) evaluating alternative methods/designs to seal the center bore; and (4) determining the optimum coating thickness that provides sufficient structural integrity while maintaining rapid heating rates.

  9. Oxidation of North Dakota scrubber sludge for soil amendment and production of gypsum. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hassett, D.J.; Moe, T.A.

    1997-10-01

    Cooperative Power`s Coal Creek Station (CCS) the North Dakota Industrial Commission, and the US Department of Energy provided funds for a research project at the Energy and Environmental Research Center. The goals of the project were (1) to determine conditions for the conversion of scrubber sludge to gypsum simulating an ex situ process on the laboratory scale; (2) to determine the feasibility of scaleup of the process; (3) if warranted, to demonstrate the ex situ process for conversion on the pilot scale; and (4) to evaluate the quality and handling characteristics of the gypsum produced on the pilot scale. The process development and demonstration phases of this project were successfully completed focusing on ex situ oxidation using air at low pH. The potential to produce a high-purity gypsum on a commercial scale is excellent. The results of this project demonstrate the feasibility of converting CCS scrubber sludge to gypsum exhibiting characteristics appropriate for agricultural application as soil amendment as well as for use in gypsum wallboard production. Gypsum of a purity of over 98% containing acceptable levels of potentially problematic constituents was produced in the laboratory and in a pilot-scale demonstration.

  10. Fluidizing device for solid particulates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Diebold, James P.; Scahill, John W.

    1986-01-01

    A flexible whip or a system of whips with novel attachments is suspended in a hopper and is caused to impact against fibrous and irregularly shaped particulates in the hopper to fluidize the particulates and facilitate the flow of the particulates through the hopper. The invention provides for the flow of particulates at a substantially constant mass flow rate and uses a minimum of energy.

  11. Fluidizing device for solid particulates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Diebold, J.P.; Scahill, J.W.

    1984-06-27

    A flexible whip or a system of whips with novel attachments is suspended in a hopper and is caused to impact against fibrous and irregularly shaped particulates in the hopper to fluidize the particulates and facilitate the flow of the particulates through the hopper. The invention provides for the flow of particulates at a substantially constant mass flow rate and uses a minimum of energy.

  12. Drying low rank coal and retarding spontaneous ignition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bixel, J.C.; Bellow, E.J.; Heaney, W.F.; Facinelli, S.H.

    1989-05-09

    A method is described of producing a dried particulate coal fuel having a reduced tendency to ignite spontaneously comprising spraying and intimately mixing the dried coal with an aqueous emulsion of a material selected from the group consisting of foots oils, petrolatum filtrate, and hydrocracker recycle oil.

  13. Advanced Particulate Filter Technologies for Direct Injection...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Particulate Filter Technologies for Direct Injection Gasoline Engine Applications Advanced Particulate Filter Technologies for Direct Injection Gasoline Engine Applications Specific ...

  14. PNNL-18482

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    ... Then syngas is sent to a tar reformer and a scrubber. Syngas free of tars and particulates ... feed rate is assumed to be 2000 metric tonesday of dry feed (2205 short tons per day). ...

  15. Void/particulate detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Claytor, T.N.; Karplus, H.B.

    1983-09-26

    Apparatus for detecting voids and particulates in a flowing stream of fluid contained in a pipe may comprise: (a) a transducer for transmitting an ultrasonic signal into the stream, coupled to the pipe at a first location; (b) a second transducer for detecting the through-transmission of said signal, coupled to the pipe at a second location; (c) a third transducer for detecting the back-scattering of said signal, coupled to the pipe at a third location, said third location being upstream from said first location; (d) circuit means for normalizing the back-scattered signal from said third transducer to the through-transmitted signal from said second transducer; which normalized signal provides a measure of the voids and particulates flowing past said first location.

  16. Rigid particulate matter sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hall, Matthew

    2011-02-22

    A sensor to detect particulate matter. The sensor includes a first rigid tube, a second rigid tube, a detection surface electrode, and a bias surface electrode. The second rigid tube is mounted substantially parallel to the first rigid tube. The detection surface electrode is disposed on an outer surface of the first rigid tube. The detection surface electrode is disposed to face the second rigid tube. The bias surface electrode is disposed on an outer surface of the second rigid tube. The bias surface electrode is disposed to face the detection surface electrode on the first rigid tube. An air gap exists between the detection surface electrode and the bias surface electrode to allow particulate matter within an exhaust stream to flow between the detection and bias surface electrodes.

  17. Regenerable particulate filter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stuecker, John N.; Cesarano, III, Joseph; Miller, James E.

    2009-05-05

    A method of making a three-dimensional lattice structure, such as a filter used to remove particulates from a gas stream, where the physical lattice structure is designed utilizing software simulation from pre-defined mass transfer and flow characteristics and the designed lattice structure is fabricated using a free-form fabrication manufacturing technique, where the periodic lattice structure is comprised of individual geometric elements.

  18. Novel Adsorbent-Reactants for Treatment of Ash and Scrubber Pond Effluents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bill Batchelor; Dong Suk Han; Eun Jung Kim

    2010-01-31

    The overall goal of this project was to evaluate the ability of novel adsorbent/reactants to remove specific toxic target chemicals from ash and scrubber pond effluents while producing stable residuals for ultimate disposal. The target chemicals studied were arsenic (As(III) and As(V)), mercury (Hg(II)) and selenium (Se(IV) and Se(VI)). The adsorbent/reactants that were evaluated are iron sulfide (FeS) and pyrite (FeS{sub 2}). Procedures for measuring concentrations of target compounds and characterizing the surfaces of adsorbent-reactants were developed. Effects of contact time, pH (7, 8, 9, 10) and sulfate concentration (0, 1, 10 mM) on removal of all target compounds on both adsorbent-reactants were determined. Stability tests were conducted to evaluate the extent to which target compounds were released from the adsorbent-reactants when pH changed. Surface characterization was conducted with x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) to identify reactions occurring on the surface between the target compounds and surface iron and sulfur. Results indicated that target compounds could be removed by FeS{sub 2} and FeS and that removal was affected by time, pH and surface reactions. Stability of residuals was generally good and appeared to be affected by the extent of surface reactions. Synthesized pyrite and mackinawite appear to have the required characteristics for removing the target compounds from wastewaters from ash ponds and scrubber ponds and producing stable residuals.

  19. FGD system capital and operating cost reductions based on improved thiosorbic scrubber system design and latest process innovations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, K.; Tseng, S.; Babu, M.

    1994-12-31

    Dravo Lime Company has operated the Miami Fort wet scrubber FGD pilot test unit since late 1989 and has continued in-house R&D to improve the economics of the magnesium-enhanced scrubbing process. Areas investigated include the scrubber configuration, flue gas velocity, spray nozzle type, droplet size, mist eliminator design, additives to inhibit oxidation, improved solids dewatering, etc. Also tested was the forced oxidation Thioclear process. The data gathered from the pilot plant and in-house programs were used to evaluate the capital and operating costs for the improved systems. These evaluations were made with eye towards the choices electric utilities will need to make in the near future to meet the Phase II emission limits mandated by the 1990 Clean Air Act. Some of the process modifications investigated, for example, the dewatering improvements apply to potential beneficial retrofit of existing FGD systems today.

  20. Fluidizable particulate materials and methods of making same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gupta, Raghubir P.

    1999-01-01

    The invention provides fluidizable, substantially spherical particulate material of improved attrition resistance having an average particle size from about 100 to about 400 microns useful as sorbents, catalysts, catalytic supports, specialty ceramics or the like. The particles are prepared by spray drying a slurry comprising inorganic starting materials and an organic binder. Exemplary inorganic starting materials include mixtures of zinc oxide with titanium dioxide, or with iron oxide, alumina or the like. Exemplary organic binders include polyvinyl alcohol, hydroxypropylemethyl cellulose, polyvinyl acetate and the like. The spray dried particles are heat treated at a first temperature wherein organic binder material is removed to thereby provide a porous structure to the particles, and thereafter the particles are calcined at a higher temperature to cause reaction of the inorganic starting materials and to thereby form the final inorganic particulate material.

  1. Fluidizable particulate materials and methods of making same

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gupta, R.P.

    1999-10-26

    The invention provides fluidizable, substantially spherical particulate material of improved attrition resistance having an average particle size from about 100 to about 400 microns useful as sorbents, catalysts, catalytic supports, specialty ceramics or the like. The particles are prepared by spray drying a slurry comprising inorganic starting materials and an organic binder. Exemplary inorganic starting materials include mixtures of zinc oxide with titanium dioxide, or with iron oxide, alumina or the like. Exemplary organic binders include polyvinyl alcohol, hydroxypropylemethyl cellulose, polyvinyl acetate and the like. The spray dried particles are heat treated at a first temperature wherein organic binder material is removed to thereby provide a porous structure to the particles, and thereafter the particles are calcined at a higher temperature to cause reaction of the inorganic starting materials and to thereby form the final inorganic particulate material.

  2. Apparatus for particulate matter analysis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gundel, Lara A.; Apte, Michael G.; Hansen, Anthony D.; Black, Douglas R.

    2007-01-30

    The apparatus described herein is a miniaturized system for particle exposure assessment (MSPEA) for the quantitative measurement and qualitative identification of particulate content in gases. The present invention utilizes a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) or other mass-sensitive temperature compensated acoustic wave resonator for mass measurement. Detectors and probes and light sources are used in combination for the qualitative determination of particulate matter.

  3. Electrically-Assisted Diesel Particulate Filter Regeneration...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Substrate Studies of an Electrically-Assisted Diesel Particulate Filter Electrically-Assisted Diesel Particulate Filter Regeneration Durability of ...

  4. Electrically-Assisted Diesel Particulate Filter Regeneration...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Electrically-Assisted Diesel Particulate Filter Regeneration Substrate Studies of an Electrically-Assisted Diesel Particulate Filter Biofuels Impact ...

  5. ADVANCED HYBRID PARTICULATE COLLECTOR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ye Zhuang; Stanley J. Miller; Michelle R. Olderbak; Rich Gebert

    2001-12-01

    A new concept in particulate control, called an advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC), is being developed under funding from the U.S. Department of Energy. The AHPC combines the best features of electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses in an entirely novel manner. The AHPC concept combines fabric filtration and electrostatic precipitation in the same housing, providing major synergism between the two methods, both in the particulate collection step and in transfer of dust to the hopper. The AHPC provides ultrahigh collection efficiency, overcoming the problem of excessive fine-particle emissions with conventional ESPs, and solves the problem of reentrainment and re-collection of dust in conventional baghouses. Phase I of the development effort consisted of design, construction, and testing of a 5.7-m{sup 3}/min (200-acfm) working AHPC model. Results from both 8-hr parametric tests and 100-hr proof-of-concept tests with two different coals demonstrated excellent operability and greater than 99.99% fine-particle collection efficiency. Since all of the developmental goals of Phase I were met, the approach was scaled up in Phase II to a size of 255 m{sup 3}/min (9000 acfm) (equivalent in size to 2.5 MW) and was installed on a slipstream at the Big Stone Power Plant. For Phase II, the AHPC at Big Stone Power Plant was operated continuously from late July 1999 until mid-December 1999. The Phase II results were highly successful in that ultrahigh particle collection efficiency was achieved, pressure drop was well controlled, and system operability was excellent. For Phase III, the AHPC was modified into a more compact configuration, and components were installed that were closer to what would be used in a full-scale commercial design. The modified AHPC was operated from April to July 2000. While operational results were acceptable during this time, inspection of bags in the summer of 2000 revealed some membrane damage to the fabric that appeared to be

  6. Electrically heated particulate filter restart strategy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI; Ament, Frank [Troy, MI

    2011-07-12

    A control system that controls regeneration of a particulate filter is provided. The system generally includes a propagation module that estimates a propagation status of combustion of particulate matter in the particulate filter. A regeneration module controls current to the particulate filter to re-initiate regeneration based on the propagation status.

  7. Particulate Generation in Tritium Systems

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Analysis SEM Photomicrograph X-ray Spectrum C Cu F Si 6 Analysis of Particulates ... Analysis X-Ray Spectrum O F 13 SEM images of lint free cloth used to collect particles. ...

  8. Development of advanced, dry, SO{sub x}/NO{sub x} emission control technologies for high-sulfur coal. Final report, April 1, 1993--December 31, 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Amrhein, G.T.

    1994-12-23

    Dry Scrubbing is a common commercial process that has been limited to low- and medium-sulfur coal applications because high-sulfur coal requires more reagent than can be efficiently injected into the process. Babcock & Wilcox has made several advances that extend dry scrubbing technologies to higher sulfur coals by allowing deposit-free operation at low scrubber exit temperatures. This not only increases the amount of reagent that can be injected into the scrubber, but also increases SO{sub 2} removal efficiency and sorbent utilization. The objectives of this project were to demonstrate, at pilot scale, that advanced, dry-scrubbing-based technologies can attain the performance levels specified by the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments for SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} emissions while burning high-sulfur coal, and that these technologies are economically competitive with wet scrubber systems. The use of these technologies by utilities in and around Ohio, on new or retrofit applications, will ensure the future of markets for high-sulfur coal by creating cost effective options to coal switching.

  9. Electrical diesel particulate filter (DPF) regeneration

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gonze, Eugene V; Ament, Frank

    2013-12-31

    An exhaust system that processes exhaust generated by an engine includes a diesel particulate filter (DPF) that is disposed downstream of the engine and that filters particulates from the exhaust. An electrical heater is disposed upstream of the DPF and selectively heats the exhaust to initiate combustion of the particulates within the exhaust as it passes therethrough. Heat generated by combustion of the particulates induces combustion of particulates within the DPF.

  10. Industry-Government-University Cooperative Research Program for the Development of Structural Materials from Sulfate-Rich FGD Scrubber Sludge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    V. M. Malhotra; Y. P. Chugh

    2003-08-31

    The main aim of our project was to develop technology, which converts flue gas desulfurization (FGD) sulfate-rich scrubber sludge into value-added decorative materials. Specifically, we were to establish technology for fabricating cost effective but marketable materials, like countertops and decorative tiles from the sludge. In addition, we were to explore the feasibility of forming siding material from the sludge. At the end of the project, we were to establish the potential of our products by generating 64 countertop pieces and 64 tiles of various colors. In pursuit of our above-mentioned goals, we conducted Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) measurements of the binders and co-processed binders to identify their curing behavior. Using our 6-inch x 6-inch and 4-inch x 4-inch high pressure and high temperature hardened stainless steel dies, we developed procedures to fabricate countertop and decorative tile materials. The composites, fabricated from sulfate-rich scrubber sludge, were subjected to mechanical tests using a three-point bending machine and a dynamic mechanical analyzer (DMA). We compared our material's mechanical performance against commercially obtained countertops. We successfully established the procedures for the development of countertop and tile composites from scrubber sludge by mounting our materials on commercial boards. We fabricated more than 64 pieces of countertop material in at least 11 different colors having different patterns. In addition, more than 100 tiles in six different colors were fabricated. We also developed procedures by which the fabrication waste, up to 30-weight %, could be recycled in the manufacturing of our countertops and decorative tiles. Our experimental results indicated that our countertops had mechanical strength, which was comparable to high-end commercial countertop materials and contained substantially larger inorganic content than the commercial products. Our moisture

  11. CHARACTERIZATION OF DWPF MELTER OFF-GAS QUENCHER AND STEAM ATOMIZED SCRUBBER DEPOSIT SAMPLES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zeigler, K; Ned Bibler, N

    2007-06-06

    This report summarizes the results from the characterization of deposits from the inlets of the primary off-gas Quencher and Steam Atomized Scrubber (SAS) in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), as requested by a technical assistance request. DWPF requested elemental analysis and compound identification to help determine the potential causes for the substance formation. This information will be fed into Savannah River National Laboratory modeling programs to determine if there is a way to decrease the formation of the deposits. The general approach to the characterization of these samples included x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and chemical analysis. The following conclusions are drawn from the analytical results found in this report: (1) The deposits are not high level waste glass from the DWPF melt pool based on comparison of the compositions of deposits to the composition of a sample of glass taken from the pour stream of the melter during processing of Sludge Batch 3. (2) Chemical composition results suggest that the deposits are probably a combination of sludge and frit particles entrained in the off-gas. (3) Gamma emitters, such as Co-60, Cs-137, Eu-154, Am-241, and Am-243 were detected in both the Quencher and SAS samples with Cs-137 having the highest concentration of the gamma emitters. (4) No evidence existed for accumulation of fissile material (U-233, U-235, and Pu-239) relative to Fe in either deposit. (5) XRD results indicated both samples were primarily amorphorous and contained some crystals of the iron oxides, hematite and magnetite (Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Fe(Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4})), along with sodium nitrate (NaNO{sub 3}). The other main crystalline compound in the SAS deposit was mercurous chloride. The main crystalline compound in the Quencher deposit was a uranium oxide compound. These are all sludge components. (6) SEM analysis of the Quencher deposit revealed crystalline uranium compounds within the sample

  12. Hydrocarbon-enhanced particulate filter regeneration via microwave ignition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gonze, Eugene V.; Brown, David B.

    2010-02-02

    A regeneration method for a particulate filter includes estimating a quantity of particulate matter trapped within the particulate filter, comparing the quantity of particulate matter to a predetermined quantity, heating at least a portion of the particulate filter to a combustion temperature of the particulate matter, and introducing hydrocarbon fuel to the particulate filter. The hydrocarbon fuel facilitates combustion of the particulate matter to regenerate the particulate filter.

  13. Development of Advanced Diesel Particulate Filtration (DPF) Systems...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Development of Advanced Diesel Particulate Filtration (DPF) Systems 2011 DOE Hydrogen and ... Development of Advanced Particulate Filters Development of Advanced Diesel Particulate ...

  14. Detailed Assessment of Particulate Characteristics from Low-Temperatur...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Gasoline Engine Particulates Through Advanced Aerosol Methods Fuel-Neutral Studies of Particulate Matter Transport Emissions Development of Advanced Diesel Particulate ...

  15. Electrically heated particulate filter with zoned exhaust flow...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Electrically heated particulate filter with zoned exhaust flow control Title: Electrically heated particulate filter with zoned exhaust flow control A system includes a particulate ...

  16. On the dry deposition of submicron particles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wesely, M. L.

    1999-10-08

    The air-surface exchange of particles can have a strong role in determining the amount, size, and chemical composition of particles in the troposphere. Here the authors consider only dry processes (deposition processes not directly aided by precipitation) and mostly address particles less than about 2 {micro}m in diameter (often referred to as submicron particles because most of such particles are less than 1 {micro}m in diameter). The processes that control the dry exchange of particulate material between the atmosphere and the surface of the Earth are numerous, highly varied, and sometimes poorly understood. As a result, determining which of the surface processes to parameterize or simulate in modeling the tropospheric mass budget of a particulate substance can be a significant challenge. Dry deposition, for example, can be controlled by a combination of Brownian diffusion, impaction, interception, and gravitational settling, depending on the size of the particles, the roughness of the surface on both micrometeorological and microscopic scales, the geometrical structure of vegetative canopies, and other surface characteristics such as wetness. Particles can be added to the lower atmosphere by resuspension from land surfaces and sea spray. The roles of rapid gas-to-particle conversion and growth or shrinkage of particles as a result of water condensation or evaporation in the lower few meters of the atmosphere can also have a significant impact on particle concentrations in the lower atmosphere. Here, a few micrometeorological observations and inferences on particle air-surface exchange are briefly addressed.

  17. Diesel Particulate Filtration (DPF) Technology: Success stories...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Materials Laboratory (HTML) User Program Durability of Diesel Engine Particulate Filters High Temperature Thermoelectric Materials Characterization for Automotive Waste ...

  18. Separation of flue-gas scrubber sludge into marketable products. Fourth year, first quarterly technical progress report, September 1, 1996--December 31, 1996 (Quarter No. 13)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kawatra, S.K.; Eisele, T.C.

    1996-12-01

    To reduce their sulfur emissions, many coal-fired electric power plants use wet flue-gas scrubbers. These scrubbers convert sulfur oxides into solid sulfate and sulfite sludge, which must then be disposed of. This sludge is a result of reacting limestone with sulfur dioxide to precipitate calcium sulfite and calcium sulfate. It consists of calcium sulfite (CaSO{sub 3}{circ}0.5H{sub 2}O), gypsum (CaSO{sub 4}{circ}2H{sub 2}O), and unreacted limestone (CaCO{sub 3}) or lime (Ca(OH)2), with miscellaneous objectionable impurities such as iron oxides, silicates, and magnesium, sodium, and potassium oxides or salts. These impurities prevent many sludges from being utilized as a replacement for natural gypsum, and as a result they must be disposed of in landfills, which presents a serious disposal problem. Knowledge of scrubber sludge characteristics is necessary for the development of purification technologies which will make it possible to directly utilize scrubber sludges rather than landfilling them. This project is studying the use of minimal-reagent froth flotation as the purification process, using the surface properties of the particles of unreacted limestone to remove them and their associated impurities from the material, leaving a purified calcium sulfite/gypsum product.

  19. Effects of Advanced Combustion Technologies on Particulate Matter...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Advanced Combustion Technologies on Particulate Matter Emissions Characteristics Effects of Advanced Combustion Technologies on Particulate Matter Emissions Characteristics ...

  20. Real-Time Particulate Mass Measurements Pre and Post Diesel Particulate

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Filters for LIght-Duty Diesel Vehicles | Department of Energy Particulate Mass Measurements Pre and Post Diesel Particulate Filters for LIght-Duty Diesel Vehicles Real-Time Particulate Mass Measurements Pre and Post Diesel Particulate Filters for LIght-Duty Diesel Vehicles 2005_deer_anderson.pdf (440.9 KB) More Documents & Publications Advanced Radio Frequency-Based Sensors for Monitoring Diesel Particulate Filter Loading and Regeneration Real-Time Measurement of Diesel Trap Efficiency

  1. Particulate Generation in Tritium Systems

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Particulate Generation in a Tritium System Paul Cloessner, PhD Laboratory Fellow Tritium Focus Group February 22, 2014 Outline * Description of Events * Analysis of Material * Sources of material contamination * System Restoration/Modifications * Contaminant Minimization and Control * Lessons Learned 2 An Unpleasant Surprise * Let down filter on compressor became plugged after 10 years of operation. * Tritium processing interrupted when other filters (flow orifices) became plugged approximately

  2. Diesel particulate filter with zoned resistive heater

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI

    2011-03-08

    A diesel particulate filter assembly comprises a diesel particulate filter (DPF) and a heater assembly. The DPF filters a particulate from exhaust produced by an engine. The heater assembly has a first metallic layer that is applied to the DPF, a resistive layer that is applied to the first metallic layer, and a second metallic layer that is applied to the resistive layer. The second metallic layer is etched to form a plurality of zones.

  3. Zone heated diesel particulate filter electrical connection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gonze, Eugene V.; Paratore, Jr., Michael J.

    2010-03-30

    An electrical connection system for a particulate filter is provided. The system includes: a particulate filter (PF) disposed within an outer shell wherein the PF is segmented into a plurality of heating zones; an outer mat disposed between the particulate filter and the outer shell; an electrical connector coupled to the outer shell of the PF; and a plurality of printed circuit connections that extend along the outer surface of the PF from the electrical connector to the plurality of heating zones.

  4. Particulate residue separators for harvesting devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hoskinson, Reed L.; Kenney, Kevin L.; Wright, Christopher T.; Hess, John R.

    2010-06-29

    A particulate residue separator and a method for separating a particulate residue stream may include a plenum borne by a harvesting device, and have a first, intake end and a second, exhaust end; first and second particulate residue air streams which are formed by the harvesting device and which travel, at least in part, along the plenum and in a direction of the second, exhaust end; and a baffle assembly which is located in partially occluding relation relative to the plenum, and which substantially separates the first and second particulate residue air streams.

  5. Methods of separating particulate residue streams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hoskinson, Reed L.; Kenney, Kevin L.; Wright, Christopher T.; Hess, J. Richard

    2011-04-05

    A particulate residue separator and a method for separating a particulate residue stream may include an air plenum borne by a harvesting device, and have a first, intake end and a second, exhaust end; first and second particulate residue air streams that are formed by the harvesting device and that travel, at least in part, along the air plenum and in a direction of the second, exhaust end; and a baffle assembly that is located in partially occluding relation relative to the air plenum and that substantially separates the first and second particulate residue air streams.

  6. Diesel Particulate Filters: Market Introducution in Europe |...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications A New Active DPF System for "Stop and Go" Duty-Cycle Vehicles French perspective on diesel engines & emissions Diesel Particulate Filter: A Success ...

  7. Electrically heated particulate filter using catalyst striping

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gonze, Eugene V; Paratore, Jr., Michael J; Ament, Frank

    2013-07-16

    An exhaust system that processes exhaust generated by an engine is provided. The system generally includes a particulate filter (PF) that filters particulates from the exhaust wherein an upstream end of the PF receives exhaust from the engine. A grid of electrically resistive material is applied to an exterior upstream surface of the PF and selectively heats exhaust passing through the grid to initiate combustion of particulates within the PF. A catalyst coating is applied to the PF that increases a temperature of the combustion of the particulates within the PF.

  8. Particle Number & Particulate Mass Emissions Measurements on...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Heavy-duty Engine using the PMP Methodologies Particle Number & Particulate Mass Emissions Measurements on a 'Euro VI' Heavy-duty Engine using the PMP Methodologies Poster ...

  9. Particulate Matter Characteristics for Highly Dilute Stoichiometric...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    PDF icon p-24storey.pdf More Documents & Publications Ethanol Effects on Lean-Burn and Stoichiometric GDI Emissions Effects of Advanced Combustion Technologies on Particulate ...

  10. Electrically heated particulate filter embedded heater design

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gonze, Eugene V.; Chapman, Mark R.

    2014-07-01

    An exhaust system that processes exhaust generated by an engine is provided. The system generally includes a particulate filter (PF) that filters particulates from the exhaust wherein an upstream end of the PF receives exhaust from the engine and wherein an upstream surface of the particulate filter includes machined grooves. A grid of electrically resistive material is inserted into the machined grooves of the exterior upstream surface of the PF and selectively heats exhaust passing through the grid to initiate combustion of particulates within the PF.

  11. Combustor for fine particulate coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carlson, Larry W.

    1988-01-01

    A particulate coal combustor with two combustion chambers is provided. The first combustion chamber is toroidal; air and fuel are injected, mixed, circulated and partially combusted. The air to fuel ratio is controlled to avoid production of soot or nitrogen oxides. The mixture is then moved to a second combustion chamber by injection of additional air where combustion is completed and ash removed. Temperature in the second chamber is controlled by cooling and gas mixing. The clean stream of hot gas is then delivered to a prime mover.

  12. Combustor for fine particulate coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carlson, L.W.

    1988-11-08

    A particulate coal combustor with two combustion chambers is provided. The first combustion chamber is toroidal; air and fuel are injected, mixed, circulated and partially combusted. The air to fuel ratio is controlled to avoid production of soot or nitrogen oxides. The mixture is then moved to a second combustion chamber by injection of additional air where combustion is completed and ash removed. Temperature in the second chamber is controlled by cooling and gas mixing. The clean stream of hot gas is then delivered to a prime mover. 4 figs.

  13. Combustor for fine particulate coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carlson, L.W.

    1988-01-26

    A particulate coal combustor with two combustion chambers is provided. The first combustion chamber is toroidal; air and fuel are injected, mixed, circulated and partially combusted. The air to fuel ratio is controlled to avoid production of soot or nitrogen oxides. The mixture is then moved to a second combustion chamber by injection of additional air where combustion is completed and ash removed. Temperature in the second chamber is controlled by cooling and gas mixing. The clean stream of hot gas is then delivered to a prime mover. 4 figs.

  14. Dephosphorization when using DRI

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2005-09-21

    The increase in high quality steel production in electric arc furnaces (EAFs) requires the use of scrap substitute materials, such as Direct Reduced Iron (DRI) and Hot Briquetted Iron (HBI). Although DRI and HBI products have lower copper and nickel contents than most scrap materials, they can contain up to ten times more phosphorus. This project, led by Carnegie Mellon University’s Center for Iron and Steelmaking Research, improves the understanding of how phosphorus behaves when DRI and HBI melt.

  15. Recovery and utilization of gypsum and limestone from scrubber sludge. Final technical report, September 1, 1992--August 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kawatra, S.K.; Eisele, T.C.

    1993-12-31

    Wet flue-gas desulfurization units in coal-fired power plants produce a large amount of sludge which must be disposed of, and which is currently landfilled in most cases. Increasing landfill costs are gradually forcing utilities to find other alternatives. In principle, this sludge can be used to make gypsum (CaSO{sub 4}{center_dot}2H{sub 2}O) for products such as plaster-of-Paris and wallboard, but only if impurities such as unreacted limestone and soluble salts are removed, and the calcium sulfite (CaSO{sub 3}) is oxidized to calcium sulfate (CaSO{sub 4}). This project investigated methods for removing the impurities from the sludge so that high-quality, salable gypsum products can be made. Two processes were studied, both separately and in combination: Water-only cycloning, and froth flotation. A large fraction (30--40%) of the impurities in the sludge are contained in the coarser, higher-density particles, which are readily removed using a water-only cyclone. Much of the remaining impurities are hydrophobic, and can be removed by froth flotation. A combined cyclone/froth flotation process has been found to be suitable for producing a high-purity product from scrubber sludge at low cost.

  16. Advanced particulate matter control apparatus and methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, Stanley J.; Zhuang, Ye; Almlie, Jay C.

    2012-01-10

    Apparatus and methods for collection and removal of particulate matter, including fine particulate matter, from a gas stream, comprising a unique combination of high collection efficiency and ultralow pressure drop across the filter. The apparatus and method utilize simultaneous electrostatic precipitation and membrane filtration of a particular pore size, wherein electrostatic collection and filtration occur on the same surface.

  17. Advanced Fine Particulate Characterization Methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steven Benson; Lingbu Kong; Alexander Azenkeng; Jason Laumb; Robert Jensen; Edwin Olson; Jill MacKenzie; A.M. Rokanuzzaman

    2007-01-31

    The characterization and control of emissions from combustion sources are of significant importance in improving local and regional air quality. Such emissions include fine particulate matter, organic carbon compounds, and NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2} gases, along with mercury and other toxic metals. This project involved four activities including Further Development of Analytical Techniques for PM{sub 10} and PM{sub 2.5} Characterization and Source Apportionment and Management, Organic Carbonaceous Particulate and Metal Speciation for Source Apportionment Studies, Quantum Modeling, and High-Potassium Carbon Production with Biomass-Coal Blending. The key accomplishments included the development of improved automated methods to characterize the inorganic and organic components particulate matter. The methods involved the use of scanning electron microscopy and x-ray microanalysis for the inorganic fraction and a combination of extractive methods combined with near-edge x-ray absorption fine structure to characterize the organic fraction. These methods have direction application for source apportionment studies of PM because they provide detailed inorganic analysis along with total organic and elemental carbon (OC/EC) quantification. Quantum modeling using density functional theory (DFT) calculations was used to further elucidate a recently developed mechanistic model for mercury speciation in coal combustion systems and interactions on activated carbon. Reaction energies, enthalpies, free energies and binding energies of Hg species to the prototype molecules were derived from the data obtained in these calculations. Bimolecular rate constants for the various elementary steps in the mechanism have been estimated using the hard-sphere collision theory approximation, and the results seem to indicate that extremely fast kinetics could be involved in these surface reactions. Activated carbon was produced from a blend of lignite coal from the Center Mine in North Dakota and

  18. Electrically heated particulate filter propagation support methods and systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI; Ament, Frank [Troy, MI

    2011-06-07

    A control system that controls regeneration of a particulate filter is provided. The system generally includes a regeneration module that controls current to the particulate filter to initiate combustion of particulate matter in the particulate filter. A propagation module estimates a propagation status of the combustion of the particulate matter based on a combustion temperature. A temperature adjustment module controls the combustion temperature by selectively increasing a temperature of exhaust that passes through the particulate filter.

  19. Second survey of dry SO/sub 2/ control systems. Final report Mar-Sep 80

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kelly, M.E.; Shareef, S.A.

    1981-02-01

    The report is an updated assessment of dry flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. Current and recently completed research, development, and commercial activities in the U.S. since October 1979, are reviewed including: (1) spray dryers with a fabric filter or an electrostatic precipitator (ESP), (2) dry injection of alkaline material into flue gas combined with particulate collection in an ESP or fabric filter, and (3) combustion of coal/alkali fuel mixtures. Spray drying remains the only commercially applied dry FGD process. Since the last survey, completed late in 1979, eight utility and two industrial spray drying systems have been sold. Nine of them use lime as the sorbent, and nine use a fabric filter for particulate collection. Removal guarantees for so/sub 2/ range from 62 to 85%, depending on coal sulfur content. Two full-scale industrial spray drying systems are currently operating. The first large utility system is scheduled for startup early in 1981. Several publicly and privately funded pilot-scale programs have been completed in the past year. EPA is currently funding three such programs (two spray drying and one dry injection), as well as development of two combustion modification processes for SO2 control (combustion of coal/limestone pellets and of a pulverized coal/alkali mixture in a low-NOx burner). The DoE and others are studying dry injection on a pilot scale.

  20. Radiant zone heated particulate filter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI

    2011-12-27

    A system includes a particulate matter (PM) filter including an upstream end for receiving exhaust gas and a downstream end. A radiant zoned heater includes N zones, where N is an integer greater than one, wherein each of the N zones includes M sub-zones, where M is an integer greater than or equal to one. A control module selectively activates at least a selected one of the N zones to initiate regeneration in downstream portions of the PM filter from the one of the N zones, restricts exhaust gas flow in a portion of the PM filter that corresponds to the selected one of the N zones, and deactivates non-selected ones of the N zones.

  1. Characterization of Pre-Commercial Gasoline Engine Particulates...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Pre-Commercial Gasoline Engine Particulates Through Advanced Aerosol Methods Characterization of Pre-Commercial Gasoline Engine Particulates Through Advanced Aerosol Methods ...

  2. Effects of Advanced Combustion Technologies on Particulate Matter Emissions Characteristics

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Findings of important implications for aftertreatment devices such as EGR coolers and diesel particulate filters, of physico-chemical changes observed in particulate matter during advanced combustion.

  3. Local Soot Loading Distribution in Cordierite Diesel Particulate...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Local Soot Loading Distribution in Cordierite Diesel Particulate Filters by Dynamic Neutron Radiography Local Soot Loading Distribution in Cordierite Diesel Particulate Filters by...

  4. New Cordierite Diesel Particulate Filters for Catalyzed and Non...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Cordierite Diesel Particulate Filters for Catalyzed and Non-Catalyzed Applications New Cordierite Diesel Particulate Filters for Catalyzed and Non-Catalyzed Applications 2003 DEER ...

  5. CARB Verification of Catalyzed Diesel Particulate Filters for...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    CARB Verification of Catalyzed Diesel Particulate Filters for Emergency Generator Sets CARB Verification of Catalyzed Diesel Particulate Filters for Emergency Generator Sets 2005 ...

  6. Requirements-Driven Diesel Catalyzed Particulate Trap Design...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Requirements-Driven Diesel Catalyzed Particulate Trap Design and Optimization Requirements-Driven Diesel Catalyzed Particulate Trap Design and Optimization 2005 Diesel Engine ...

  7. Active DPF for Off-Road Particulate Matter (PM) Control

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This presentation details how a possibly catalyzed active diesel particulate filter can be used to control off-road particulate matter.

  8. A New CFD Model for understanding and Managing Diesel Particulate...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    CFD Model for understanding and Managing Diesel Particulate Filter Regeneration A New CFD Model for understanding and Managing Diesel Particulate Filter Regeneration ...

  9. Mesoscale Simulations of Particulate Flows with Parallel Distributed...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Mesoscale Simulations of Particulate Flows with Parallel Distributed Lagrange Multiplier Technique Fluid particulate flows are common phenomena in nature and industry. ...

  10. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emission profiles and removal efficiency by electrostatic precipitator and wetfine scrubber in an iron ore sintering plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ettore Guerriero; Antonina Lutri; Rosanna Mabilia; Maria Concetta Tomasi Sciano; Mauro Rotatori

    2008-11-15

    A monitoring campaign of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans, polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and polychlorinated biphenyl was carried out in an Italian iron ore sintering plant by sampling the combustion gases at the electrostatic precipitator (ESP) outlet, at the Wetfine scrubber (WS) outlet, and by collecting the ESP dust. Few data are available on these micropollutants produced in iron ore sintering plants, particularly from Italian plants. This study investigates the PAH emission profiles and the removal efficiency of ESPs and WS. PAHs were determined at the stack, ESP outlet flue gases, and in ESP dust to characterize the emission profiles and the performance of the ESP and the WS for reducing PAH emission. The 11 PAHs monitored are listed in the Italian legislative decree 152/2006. The mean total PAH sum concentration in the stack flue gases is 3.96 {mu}g/N m{sup 3}, in ESP outlet flue gases is 9.73 {mu}g/N m{sup 3}, and in ESP dust is 0.53 {mu}g/g. Regarding the emission profiles, the most abundant compound is benzo(b)fluoranthene, which has a relative low BaP toxic equivalency factors (TEF) value, followed by dibenzo(a,l)pyrene, which has a very high BaP(TEF) value. The emission profiles in ESP dust and in the flue gases after the ESP show some changes, whereas the fingerprint in ESP and stack flue gases is very similar. The removal efficiency of the ESP and of WS on the total PAH concentration is 5.2 and 59.5%, respectively. 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  11. Electrically heated particulate filter enhanced ignition strategy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gonze, Eugene V; Paratore, Jr., Michael J

    2012-10-23

    An exhaust system that processes exhaust generated by an engine is provided. The system generally includes a particulate filter (PF) that filters particulates from the exhaust wherein an upstream end of the PF receives exhaust from the engine. A grid of electrically resistive material is applied to an exterior upstream surface of the PF and selectively heats exhaust passing through the grid to initiate combustion of particulates within the PF. A catalyst coating applied to at least one of the PF and the grid. A control module estimates a temperature of the grid and controls the engine to produce a desired exhaust product to increase the temperature of the grid.

  12. Freeze drying method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coppa, N.V.; Stewart, P.; Renzi, E.

    1999-12-07

    The present invention provides methods and apparatus for freeze drying in which a solution, which can be a radioactive salt dissolved within an acid, is frozen into a solid on vertical plates provided within a freeze drying chamber. The solid is sublimated into vapor and condensed in a cold condenser positioned above the freeze drying chamber and connected thereto by a conduit. The vertical positioning of the cold condenser relative to the freeze dryer helps to help prevent substances such as radioactive materials separated from the solution from contaminating the cold condenser. Additionally, the system can be charged with an inert gas to produce a down rush of gas into the freeze drying chamber to also help prevent such substances from contaminating the cold condenser.

  13. Dry Valleys in Antarctica

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    May 20, 2016 The McMurdo Dry Valleys of Antarctica host the coldest and driest ecosystem on Earth. The sensitivity of these glaciers to climate change is not well understood. A ...

  14. Freeze drying method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coppa, Nicholas V.; Stewart, Paul; Renzi, Ernesto

    1999-01-01

    The present invention provides methods and apparatus for freeze drying in which a solution, which can be a radioactive salt dissolved within an acid, is frozen into a solid on vertical plates provided within a freeze drying chamber. The solid is sublimated into vapor and condensed in a cold condenser positioned above the freeze drying chamber and connected thereto by a conduit. The vertical positioning of the cold condenser relative to the freeze dryer helps to help prevent substances such as radioactive materials separated from the solution from contaminating the cold condenser. Additionally, the system can be charged with an inert gas to produce a down rush of gas into the freeze drying chamber to also help prevent such substances from contaminating the cold condenser.

  15. Freeze drying apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coppa, Nicholas V.; Stewart, Paul; Renzi, Ernesto

    2001-01-01

    The present invention provides methods and apparatus for freeze drying in which a solution, which can be a radioactive salt dissolved within an acid, is frozen into a solid on vertical plates provided within a freeze drying chamber. The solid is sublimated into vapor and condensed in a cold condenser positioned above the freeze drying chamber and connected thereto by a conduit. The vertical positioning of the cold condenser relative to the freeze dryer helps to help prevent substances such as radioactive materials separated from the solution from contaminating the cold condenser. Additionally, the system can be charged with an inert gas to produce a down rush of gas into the freeze drying chamber to also help prevent such substances from contaminating the cold condenser.

  16. Neutron Imaging of Diesel Particulate Filters | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Neutron Imaging of Diesel Particulate Filters Neutron Imaging of Diesel Particulate Filters Neutron computed tomography shows soot and ash loading in a cordierite diesel particulate filter deer09_bilheux.pdf (782.15 KB) More Documents & Publications Neutron Imaging of Advanced Engine Technologies Neutron Imaging of Advanced Engine Technologies Development of an Accelerated Ash-Loading Protocol for Diesel Particulate Filters

  17. Predicting Thermal Stress in Diesel Particulate Filters | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Thermal Stress in Diesel Particulate Filters Predicting Thermal Stress in Diesel Particulate Filters 2004 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentation: Corning Incorporated 2004_deer_wilcox.pdf (224.39 KB) More Documents & Publications Diesel Emission Control Review Substrate Studies of an Electrically-Assisted Diesel Particulate Filter Electrically-Assisted Diesel Particulate Filter Regeneration

  18. Requirements from Particulate Filter Technology for Commercial...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Hot Gas Filtration of Fine and Ultra fine Particles with Liquid Phase Sintered SiC Ceramic DPF Evaluation of Passive and Active Soot Filters for Removal of Particulate ...

  19. Electrically heated particulate filter regeneration methods and...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    A control system for controlling regeneration of a particulate filter for a hybrid vehicle ... An engine control module controls operation of an engine of the hybrid vehicle based on ...

  20. Investigation of Direct Injection Vehicle Particulate Matter...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    This study focuses primarily on particulate matter mass analysis of a gasoline direct injection engine in a test cell with a chassis dynamometer. PDF icon p-10gibbs.pdf More ...

  1. Drying '86. Volume 1-2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mujumdar, A.S. )

    1986-01-01

    These proceedings contain 123 papers grouped under the headings of: Drying theory and modelling; Drying of granular materials; Spray drying; Drying of paper and wood products; Drying of foodstuff and biomaterials; Drying of agricultural products and grains; Superheated steam drying; Industrial drying systems and novel dryers; Use of solar energy in drying; Measurement and control of humidity and moisture; and Dewatering.

  2. Expanded Capacity Microwave-Cleaned Diesel Particulate Filter | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy Expanded Capacity Microwave-Cleaned Diesel Particulate Filter Expanded Capacity Microwave-Cleaned Diesel Particulate Filter 2002 DEER Conference Presentation: Industrial Ceramic Solutions, LLC 2002_deer_nixdorf.pdf (1016.17 KB) More Documents & Publications Ultra-Lite Diesel Particulate Filter Cartridge for Reduced Regeneration Time and Fuel Consumption Pleated Ceramic Fiber Diesel Particulate Filter Versatile Diesel Particulate Filter Cartridge Any Size, Any Shape

  3. Requirements from Particulate Filter Technology for Commercial Vehicles:

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Sintered Metal Particulate Filter Opens a New Dimension of Performance | Department of Energy from Particulate Filter Technology for Commercial Vehicles: Sintered Metal Particulate Filter Opens a New Dimension of Performance Requirements from Particulate Filter Technology for Commercial Vehicles: Sintered Metal Particulate Filter Opens a New Dimension of Performance 2005 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentations and Posters 2005_deer_biddinger.pdf (687.99 KB) More

  4. Partitioning of Volatile Organics in Diesel Particulate and Exhaust |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Partitioning of Volatile Organics in Diesel Particulate and Exhaust Partitioning of Volatile Organics in Diesel Particulate and Exhaust Evaluation of how sampling details affect the measurement of volatile organic compounds in diesel exhaust deer08_strzelec.pdf (209.9 KB) More Documents & Publications Trends in Particulate Nanostructure Method Development: Identification of the Soluble Organic Fraction of Particulate Matter on DPF Soot Diesel Particulate Oxidation

  5. Pleated Ceramic Fiber Diesel Particulate Filter | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Pleated Ceramic Fiber Diesel Particulate Filter Pleated Ceramic Fiber Diesel Particulate Filter 2005 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentations and Posters 2005_deer_nixdorf.pdf (173.63 KB) More Documents & Publications Versatile Diesel Particulate Filter Cartridge Any Size, Any Shape Ultra-Lite Diesel Particulate Filter Cartridge for Reduced Regeneration Time and Fuel Consumption Expanded Capacity Microwave-Cleaned Diesel Particulate Filter

  6. Drying of pulverized material with heated condensible vapor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carlson, L.W.

    1984-08-16

    Apparatus for drying pulverized material utilizes a high enthalpy condensable vapor such as steam for removing moisture from the individual particles of the pulverized material. The initially wet particulate material is tangentially delivered by a carrier vapor flow to an upper portion of a generally vertical cylindrical separation drum. The lateral wall of the separation drum is provided with a plurality of flow guides for directing the vapor tangentially therein in the direction of particulate material flow. Positioned concentrically within the separation drum and along the longitudinal axis thereof is a water-cooled condensation cylinder which is provided with a plurality of collection plates, or fines, on the outer lateral surface thereof. The cooled collection fines are aligned counter to the flow of the pulverized material and high enthalpy vapor mixture to maximize water vapor condensation thereon. The condensed liquid which includes moisture removed from the pulverized materials then flows downward along the outer surface of the coolant cylinder and is collected and removed. The particles travel in a shallow helix due to respective centrifugal and vertical acceleration forces applied thereto. The individual particles of the pulverized material are directed outwardly by the vortex flow where they contact the inner cylindrical surface of the separation drum and are then deposited at the bottom thereof for easy collection and removal. The pulverized material drying apparatus is particularly adapted for drying coal fines and facilitates the recovery of the pulverized coal. 2 figs.

  7. Drying of pulverized material with heated condensible vapor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carlson, Larry W.

    1986-01-01

    Apparatus for drying pulverized material utilizes a high enthalpy condensable vapor such as steam for removing moisture from the individual particles of the pulverized material. The initially wet particulate material is tangentially delivered by a carrier vapor flow to an upper portion of a generally vertical cylindrical separation drum. The lateral wall of the separation drum is provided with a plurality of flow guides for directing the vapor tangentially therein in the direction of particulate material flow. Positioned concentrically within the separation drum and along the longitudinal axis thereof is a water-cooled condensation cylinder which is provided with a plurality of collection plates, or fins, on the outer lateral surface thereof. The cooled collection fins are aligned counter to the flow of the pulverized material and high enthalpy vapor mixture to maximize water vapor condensation thereon. The condensed liquid which includes moisture removed from the pulverized material then flows downward along the outer surface of the coolant cylinder and is collected and removed. The particles travel in a shallow helix due to respective centrifugal and vertical acceleration forces applied thereto. The individual particles of the pulverized material are directed outwardly by the vortex flow where they contact the inner cylindrical surface of the separation drum and are then deposited at the bottom thereof for easy collection and removal. The pulverized material drying apparatus is particularly adapted for drying coal fines and facilitates the recovery of the pulverized coal.

  8. Full containment spray drying

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Masters, K.

    1999-11-01

    Aspects of safety, environmental protection, and powder quality will continue to influence advances within spray dryer design and operation, and the concept of full containment spray drying offers a means to meet future industrial requirements. Process air recycle and powder containment within the drying chamber leads to no process air discharge to atmosphere, provides a more favorable operator environment around the spray dryer installation, reduces regions within the dryer layout where potential explosive powder/air mixtures can exist, improves yields, reduces powder losses, and provides easier cleaning operations with reduced wash water requirements.

  9. Advanced Hybrid Particulate Collector Project Management Plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, S.J.

    1995-11-01

    As the consumption of energy increases, its impact on ambient air quality has become a significant concern. Recent studies indicate that fine particles from coal combustion cause health problems as well as atmospheric visibility impairment. These problems are further compounded by the concentration of hazardous trace elements such as mercury, cadmium, selenium, and arsenic in fine particles. Therefore, a current need exists to develop superior, but economical, methods to control emissions of fine particles. Since most of the toxic metals present in coal will be in particulate form, a high level of fine- particle collection appears to be the best method of overall air toxics control. However, over 50% of mercury and a portion of selenium emissions are in vapor form and cannot be collected in particulate control devices. Therefore, this project will focus on developing technology not only to provide ultrahigh collection efficiency of particulate air toxic emissions, but also to capture vapor- phase trace metals such as mercury and selenium. Currently, the primary state-of-the-art technologies for particulate control are fabric filters (baghouses) and electrostatic precipitators (ESPs). However, they both have limitations that prevent them from achieving ultrahigh collection of fine particulate matter and vapor-phase trace metals. The objective of this project is to develop a highly reliable advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC) that can provide > 99.99 % particulate collection efficiency for all particle sizes between 0.01 and 50 14m, is applicable for use with all U.S. coals, and is cost-0443competitive with existing technologies. Phase I of the project is organized into three tasks: Task I - Project Management, Reporting, and Subcontract Consulting Task 2 - Modeling, Design, and Construction of 200-acfm AHPC Model Task 3 - Experimental Testing and Subcontract Consulting

  10. SUBMERGED GRAVEL SCRUBBER DEMONSTRATION AS A PASSIVE AIR CLEANER FOR CONTAINMENT VENTING AND PURGING WITH SODIUM AEROSOLS -- CSTF TESTS AC7 - AC10

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    HILLIARD, R K.; MCCORMACK, J D.; POSTMA, A K.

    1981-11-01

    Four large-scale air cleaning tests (AC7 - AC10) were performed in the Containment Systems Test Facility (CS'lF) to demonstrate the performance of a Submerged Gravel Scrubber for cleaning the effluent gas from a vented and purged breeder reactor containment vessel. The test article, comprised of a Submerged Gravel Scrubber (SGS) followed by a high efficiency fiber demister, had a design gas flow rate of 0.47 m{sup 3}/s (1000 ft{sup 3}/min) at a pressure drop of 9.0 kPa (36 in. H{sub 2}O). The test aerosol was sodium oxide, sodium hydroxide, or sodium carbonate generated in the 850-m{sup 3} CSTF vessel by continuously spraying sodium into the air-filled vessel while adding steam or carbon dioxide. Approximately 4500 kg (10,000 lb) of sodium was sprayed over a total period of 100 h during the tests. The SGS/Demister system was shown to be highly efficient (removing ~99.98% of the entering sodium aerosol mass), had a high mass loading capacity, and operated in a passive manner, with no electrical requirement. Models for predicting aerosol capture, gas cooling, and pressure drop are developed and compared with experimental results.

  11. Dry piston coal feeder

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hathaway, Thomas J.; Bell, Jr., Harold S.

    1979-01-01

    This invention provides a solids feeder for feeding dry coal to a pressurized gasifier at elevated temperatures substantially without losing gas from the gasifier by providing a lock having a double-acting piston that feeds the coals into the gasifier, traps the gas from escaping, and expels the trapped gas back into the gasifier.

  12. Compact air scrubber

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bentley, Bill F.; Jett, James H.; Martin, John C.; Saunders, George C.

    1992-01-01

    Method and apparatus for removing material from a gas. A mist created by a piezoelectric ultrasonic transducer is contacted with the gas and both gas and mist are passed through baffled separators. Liquid effluent from the separators contains solid material removed from the gas and gaseous material which reacted with the liquid or was absorbed by the liquid. The invention is useful for collecting a sample of material in a gas, such as a vapor in the atmosphere, and in cleaning a gas. A relatively concentrated solution of a material present in a gas in a very small concentration can be obtained.

  13. Method for dispersing catalyst onto particulate material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Utz, Bruce R. (Pittsburgh, PA); Cugini, Anthony V. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1992-01-01

    A method for dispersing finely divided catalyst precursors onto the surface of coal or other particulate material includes the steps of forming a wet paste mixture of the particulate material and a liquid solution containing a dissolved transition metal salt, for instance a solution of ferric nitrate. The wet paste mixture is in a state of incipient wetness with all of this solution adsorbed onto the surfaces of the particulate material without the presence of free moisture. On adding a precipitating agent such as ammonia, a catalyst precursor such as hydrated iron oxide is deposited on the surfaces of the coal. The catalyst is activated by converting it to the sulfide form for the hydrogenation or direct liquefaction of the coal.

  14. PRODUCTION OF SHEET FROM PARTICULATE MATERIAL

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blainey, A.

    1959-05-12

    A process is presented for forming coherent sheet material from particulate material such as granular or powdered metal, granular or powdered oxide, slurries, pastes, and plastic mixes which cohere under pressure. The primary object is to avoid the use of expensive and/ or short lived pressing tools, that is, dies and specially profiled rolls, and so to reduce the cost of the product and to prcvide in a simple manner for the making of the product in a variety of shapes or sizes. The sheet material is formed when the particulate material is laterally confined in a boundary material deformable in all lateral directions under axial pressure and then axially compressing the layer of particulate material together with the boundary material.

  15. Draft dry year tools (generation/planning)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    BPA White Book Dry Year Tools Firstgov Dry Year Tools November 9, 2006 - Final Dry Year Guide: The Final Dry Year Guide (PDF, 5 pages, 44 kb) and Figure 1 - Dry Year Strategy (PDF,...

  16. Particulate hot gas stream cleanup technical issues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pontius, D.H.; Snyder, T.R.

    1999-09-30

    The analyses of hot gas stream cleanup particulate samples and descriptions of filter performance studied under this contract were designed to address problems with filter operation that have been linked to characteristics of the collected particulate matter. One objective of this work was to generate an interactive, computerized data bank of the key physical and chemical characteristics of ash and char collected from operating advanced particle filters and to relate these characteristics to the operation and performance of these filters. The interactive data bank summarizes analyses of over 160 ash and char samples from fifteen pressurized fluidized-bed combustion and gasification facilities utilizing high-temperature, high pressure barrier filters.

  17. Method of dispersing particulate aerosol tracer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    O'Holleran, Thomas P.

    1988-01-01

    A particulate aerosol tracer which comprises a particulate carrier of sheet silicate composition having a particle size up to one micron, and a cationic dopant chemically absorbed in solid solution in the carrier. The carrier is preferably selected from the group consisting of natural mineral clays such as bentonite, and the dopant is selected from the group consisting of rare earth elements and transition elements. The tracers are dispersed by forming an aqueous salt solution with the dopant present as cations, dispersing the carriers in the solution, and then atomizing the solution under heat sufficient to superheat the solution droplets at a level sufficient to prevent reagglomeration of the carrier particles.

  18. Particulate matter sensor with a heater

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hall, Matthew

    2011-08-16

    An apparatus to detect particulate matter. The apparatus includes a sensor electrode, a shroud, and a heater. The electrode measures a chemical composition within an exhaust stream. The shroud surrounds at least a portion of the sensor electrode, exclusive of a distal end of the sensor electrode exposed to the exhaust stream. The shroud defines an air gap between the sensor electrode and the shroud and an opening toward the distal end of the sensor electrode. The heater is mounted relative to the sensor electrode. The heater burns off particulate matter in the air gap between the sensor electrode and the shroud.

  19. Dry Natural Gas

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Estimated natural gas plant liquids and dry natural gas content of total natural gas proved reserves, 2014 million barrels and billion cubic feet 2014 Dry Natural Gas billion cubic feet billion cubic feet Alaska 6,805 241 6,745 Lower 48 States 382,036 14,788 361,959 Alabama 2,121 59 2,036 Arkansas 12,795 5 12,789 California 2,260 112 2,107 Coastal Region Onshore 277 12 261 Los Angeles Basin Onshore 84 4 80 San Joaquin Basin Onshore 1,823 96 1,690 State Offshore 76 0 76 Colorado 21,992 813 20,851

  20. Session: Hot Dry Rock

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tennyson, George P. Jr.; Duchane, David V.; Ponden, Raymond F.; Brown, Donald W.

    1992-01-01

    This session at the Geothermal Energy Program Review X: Geothermal Energy and the Utility Market consisted of four presentations: ''Hot Dry Rock - Summary'' by George P. Tennyson, Jr.; ''HDR Opportunities and Challenges Beyond the Long Term Flow Test'' by David V. Duchane; ''Start-Up Operations at the Fenton Hill HDR Pilot Plant'' by Raymond F. Ponden; and ''Update on the Long-Term Flow Testing Program'' by Donald W. Brown.

  1. Ultrasonic Clothes Drying Technology

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Patel, Viral; Momen, Ayyoub

    2016-05-12

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory researchers Ayyoub Momen and Viral Patel demonstrate a direct contact ultrasonic clothes dryer under development by ORNL in collaboration with General Electric (GE) Appliances. This novel approach uses high-frequency mechanical vibrations instead of heat to extract moisture as cold mist, dramatically reducing drying time and energy use. Funding for this project was competitively awarded by DOE?s Building Technologies Office in 2014.

  2. Drying of fiber webs

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Warren, David W.

    1997-01-01

    A process and an apparatus for high-intensity drying of fiber webs or sheets, such as newsprint, printing and writing papers, packaging paper, and paperboard or linerboard, as they are formed on a paper machine. The invention uses direct contact between the wet fiber web or sheet and various molten heat transfer fluids, such as liquified eutectic metal alloys, to impart heat at high rates over prolonged durations, in order to achieve ambient boiling of moisture contained within the web. The molten fluid contact process causes steam vapor to emanate from the web surface, without dilution by ambient air; and it is differentiated from the evaporative drying techniques of the prior industrial art, which depend on the uses of steam-heated cylinders to supply heat to the paper web surface, and ambient air to carry away moisture, which is evaporated from the web surface. Contact between the wet fiber web and the molten fluid can be accomplished either by submersing the web within a molten bath or by coating the surface of the web with the molten media. Because of the high interfacial surface tension between the molten media and the cellulose fiber comprising the paper web, the molten media does not appreciately stick to the paper after it is dried. Steam generated from the paper web is collected and condensed without dilution by ambient air to allow heat recovery at significantly higher temperature levels than attainable in evaporative dryers.

  3. Drying of fiber webs

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Warren, D.W.

    1997-04-15

    A process and an apparatus are disclosed for high-intensity drying of fiber webs or sheets, such as newsprint, printing and writing papers, packaging paper, and paperboard or linerboard, as they are formed on a paper machine. The invention uses direct contact between the wet fiber web or sheet and various molten heat transfer fluids, such as liquefied eutectic metal alloys, to impart heat at high rates over prolonged durations, in order to achieve ambient boiling of moisture contained within the web. The molten fluid contact process causes steam vapor to emanate from the web surface, without dilution by ambient air; and it is differentiated from the evaporative drying techniques of the prior industrial art, which depend on the uses of steam-heated cylinders to supply heat to the paper web surface, and ambient air to carry away moisture, which is evaporated from the web surface. Contact between the wet fiber web and the molten fluid can be accomplished either by submersing the web within a molten bath or by coating the surface of the web with the molten media. Because of the high interfacial surface tension between the molten media and the cellulose fiber comprising the paper web, the molten media does not appreciatively stick to the paper after it is dried. Steam generated from the paper web is collected and condensed without dilution by ambient air to allow heat recovery at significantly higher temperature levels than attainable in evaporative dryers. 6 figs.

  4. Design/installation and structural integrity assessment of Bethel Valley low-level waste collection and transfer system upgrade for Building 3092 (Central Off-Gas Scrubber Facility) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-01-01

    This document describes and assesses planned modifications to be made to the Building 3092 Central Off-Gas Scrubber Facility of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The modifications are made in responsible to the requirements of 40CFR264 Subpart J, relating to environmental protection requirements for buried tank systems. The modifications include the provision of a new scrubber recirculation tank in a new, below ground, lines concrete vault, replacing and existing recirculation sump that does not provide double containment. A new buried, double contained pipeline is provided to permit discharge of spent scrubber recirculation fluid to the Central Waste Collection Header. The new vault, tank, and discharge line are provided with leak detection and provisions to remove accumulated liquid. New scrubber recirculation pumps, piping, and accessories are also provided. This assessment concludes that the planned modifications comply with applicable requirements of 40CFR264 Subpart J, as set forth in Appendix F to the Federal Facility Agreement, Docket No. 89-04-FF, covering the Oak Ridge Reservation.

  5. Update on 2007 Diesel Particulate Measurement Research | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy 2007 Diesel Particulate Measurement Research Update on 2007 Diesel Particulate Measurement Research 2005 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentations and Posters 2005_deer_shimpi.pdf (228.33 KB) More Documents & Publications Real-Time Measurement of Diesel Trap Efficiency Mass Correlation of Engine Emissions with Spectral Instruments Real-Time Particulate Mass Measurements Pre and Post Diesel Particulate Filters for LIght-Duty Diesel Vehicles

  6. Expanded Capacity Microwave-Cleaned Diesel Particulate Filter...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    DEER Conference Presentation: Industrial Ceramic Solutions, LLC PDF icon ... Time and Fuel Consumption Pleated Ceramic Fiber Diesel Particulate Filter Versatile ...

  7. Substrate Studies of an Electrically-Assisted Diesel Particulate...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Transient distributed DPF wall and gas temperature were simultaneously measured using ... Filter Regeneration Durability of Diesel Engine Particulate Filters (Agreement ...

  8. Investigation of Direct Injection Vehicle Particulate Matter Emissions |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Direct Injection Vehicle Particulate Matter Emissions Investigation of Direct Injection Vehicle Particulate Matter Emissions This study focuses primarily on particulate matter mass analysis of a gasoline direct injection engine in a test cell with a chassis dynamometer. p-10_gibbs.pdf (851.22 KB) More Documents & Publications On-Road PM Mass Emission Measured with OBS-TRPM Performance of the Low-Efficiency Diesel Particulate Filter for Diesel PM Reduction Study of

  9. Development of Advanced Diesel Particulate Filtration (DPF) Systems |

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Department of Energy 2011 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation ace024_lee_2011_o.pdf (1.73 MB) More Documents & Publications Development of Advanced Particulate Filters Development of Advanced Diesel Particulate Filtration (DPF) Systems Development of Advanced Diesel Particulate Filtration (DPF) Systems (ANL/Corning/Caterpillar CRADA)

  10. Electrically heated particulate filter preparation methods and systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI

    2012-01-31

    A control system that controls regeneration of a particulate filter is provided. The system generally includes a fuel control module that controls injection of fuel into exhaust that passes through the particulate filter. A regeneration module controls current to the particulate filter to initiate regeneration after the fuel has been injected into the exhaust.

  11. Waste Treatment And Immobilization Plant U. S. Department Of Energy Office Of River Protection Submerged Bed Scrubber Condensate Disposition Project - Abstract # 13460

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yanochko, Ronald M; Corcoran, Connie

    2012-11-15

    The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) will generate an off-gas treatment system secondary liquid waste stream [submerged bed scrubber (SBS) condensate], which is currently planned for recycle back to the WTP Low Activity Waste (LAW) melter. This SBS condensate waste stream is high in Tc-99, which is not efficiently captured in the vitrified glass matrix. A pre-conceptual engineering study was prepared in fiscal year 2012 to evaluate alternate flow paths for melter off-gas secondary liquid waste generated by the WTP LAW facility. This study evaluated alternatives for direct off-site disposal of this SBS without pre-treatment, which mitigates potential issues associated with recycling.

  12. Dry reforming of hydrocarbon feedstocks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shah, Yatish T.; Gardner, Todd H.

    2014-09-25

    Developments in catalyst technology for the dry reforming of hydrocarbon feedstocks are reviewed for methane, higher hydrocarbons and alcohols. Thermodynamics, mechanisms and the kinetics of dry reforming are also reviewed. The literature on Ni catalysts, bi-metallic Ni catalysts and the role of promoters on Ni catalysts is critically evaluated. The use of noble and transitional metal catalysts for dry reforming is discussed. The application of solid oxide and metal carbide catalysts to dry reforming is also evaluated. Finally, various mechanisms for catalyst deactivation are assessed. This review also examines the various process related issues associated with dry reforming such as its application and heat optimization. Novel approaches such as supercritical dry reforming and microwave assisted dry reforming are briefly expanded upon.

  13. Face crack reduction strategy for particulate filters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI

    2012-01-31

    A system comprises a particulate matter (PM) filter that comprises an upstream end for receiving exhaust gas, a downstream end and at least one portion. A control module initiates combustion of PM in the PM filter using a heater and selectively adjusts oxygen levels of the exhaust gas to adjust a temperature of combustion adjacent to the at least one portion of the PM filter. A method comprises providing a particulate matter (PM) filter that comprises an upstream end for receiving exhaust gas, a downstream end and at least one portion; initiating combustion of PM in the PM filter using a heater; selectively adjusting oxygen levels of the exhaust gas to adjust a temperature of combustion adjacent to the at least one portion of the PM filter.

  14. Apparatus for measuring surface particulate contamination

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Woodmansee, Donald E.

    2002-01-01

    An apparatus for measuring surface particulate contamination includes a tool for collecting a contamination sample from a target surface, a mask having an opening of known area formed therein for defining the target surface, and a flexible connector connecting the tool to the mask. The tool includes a body portion having a large diameter section defining a surface and a small diameter section extending from the large diameter section. A particulate collector is removably mounted on the surface of the large diameter section for collecting the contaminants. The tool further includes a spindle extending from the small diameter section and a spool slidingly mounted on the spindle. A spring is disposed between the small diameter section and the spool for biasing the spool away from the small diameter section. An indicator is provided on the spindle so as to be revealed when the spool is pressed downward to compress the spring.

  15. Generator powered electrically heated diesel particulate filter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gonze, Eugene V; Paratore, Jr., Michael J

    2014-03-18

    A control circuit for a vehicle powertrain includes a switch that selectivity interrupts current flow between a first terminal and a second terminal. A first power source provides power to the first terminal and a second power source provides power to the second terminal and to a heater of a heated diesel particulate filter (DPF). The switch is opened during a DPF regeneration cycle to prevent the first power source from being loaded by the heater while the heater is energized.

  16. Use of a TM sub 010 microwave cavity at 2. 45 GHz for aerosol and filament drying

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Christiansen, D.E.; Unruh, W.P.

    1991-01-01

    As part of the development of a generic spray-drying process for aerosol preparation of homogeneous powders of complex metal oxide systems, we have investigated the use of 2.45 GHz power in a high-Q single-mode TM{sub 010} cavity coupled directly to aerosols of aqueous solutions. Partial success was attained with a concentrated solution of ferric nitrate. Although all particulates showed drying, only a few percent of the particles were fully dried prior to collection. The cavity operated at a power level just below that sufficient to cause electric field breakdown in the carrier gas (dry nitrogen). The large inherent dielectric shielding of the spherical droplets makes it difficult to couple enough power into an aerosol at 2.45 GHz to overcome the heat loss from individual droplets to the surrounding gas and achieve full particulate drying. The calculated and measured dielectric shielding of a thin cylinder of water aligned with the cavity electric field is very much smaller. We have produced heating rates in water {approximately}600 times more rapid than could be achieved with aerosols. This suggests using 2.45 GHz microwave power for drying extruded filaments and then calcining those dried filaments to ceramic fiber. 3 refs., 4 figs.

  17. No Heat Spray Drying Technology

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Project Objective Advance research from prototype dryer ... First commercial market is dry flavors designed to ... change from existing practice Requires novel dryer ...

  18. DRI Companies | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Irvine, California Zip: 92614 Sector: Solar Product: US-based residential and commercial installer of turnkey solar systems, through subsidiary iDRI Energy. Coordinates:...

  19. Estimates of particulate mass in multi-canister overpacks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    SLOUGHTER, J.P.

    1999-02-25

    High, best estimate, and low values are developed for particulate inventories within MCO baskets that have been loaded with freshly cleaned fuel assemblies and scrap. These per-basket estimates are then applied to all anticipated MCO payload configurations to identify which configurations are bounding for each type of particulate. Finally the resulting bounding and nominal values for residual particulates are combined with corresponding values [from other documents] for particulate that may be generated by corrosion of exposed uranium after the fuel has been cleaned. The resulting rounded nominal estimate for a typical MCO after 40 years of storage is 8 kg. The estimate for a bounding total particulate case MCO is that it may contain up to 64 kg of particulate after 40 years of storage.

  20. Estimates of Particulate Mass in Multi Canister Overpacks (MCO)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    SLOUGHTER, J.P.

    2000-02-16

    High, best estimate, and low values are developed for particulate inventories within MCO baskets that have been loaded with freshly cleaned fuel assemblies and scrap. These per-basket estimates are then applied to all anticipated MCO payload configurations to identify which configurations are bounding for each type of particulate. Finally the resulting bounding and nominal values for residual particulates are combined with corresponding values [from other documents] for particulates that may be generated by corrosion of exposed uranium after the fuel has been cleaned. The resulting rounded nominal estimate for a typical MCO after 40 years of storage is 8 kg. The estimate for a bounding total particulate case MCO is that it may contain up to 64 kg of particulate after 40 years of storage.

  1. CARB Verification of Catalyzed Diesel Particulate Filters for Emergency

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Generator Sets | Department of Energy CARB Verification of Catalyzed Diesel Particulate Filters for Emergency Generator Sets CARB Verification of Catalyzed Diesel Particulate Filters for Emergency Generator Sets 2005 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentations and Posters 2005_deer_huang.pdf (272.67 KB) More Documents & Publications Development and Applications of Catalyzed Diesel Particulate Filter California ARB Verification Testing of the CBSTM Soot Filter for

  2. High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) Filter Test Facility (FTF) |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) Filter Test Facility (FTF) High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) Filter Test Facility (FTF) DOE-STD-3020-2015 Specification for HEPA Filters Used by DOE Contractors The purpose of this standard is to establish specifications and quality assurance (QA) requirements for the procurement, packaging, shipping and storage of high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters. DOE-STD-3025-2007 Quality Assurance Inspection and Testing of HEPA

  3. Final Report: Particulate Emissions Testing, Unit 1, Potomac River

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Generating Station, Alexandria, Virginia | Department of Energy Final Report: Particulate Emissions Testing, Unit 1, Potomac River Generating Station, Alexandria, Virginia Final Report: Particulate Emissions Testing, Unit 1, Potomac River Generating Station, Alexandria, Virginia Docket No. EO-05-01: TRC Environmental Corporation (TRC) of Lowell, Massachusetts was retained by Mirant Potomac River, LLC (Mirant) to provide sampling and analytical support in completing a Particulate Emission

  4. Development of an Active Regeneration Diesel Particulate Filter System |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy an Active Regeneration Diesel Particulate Filter System Development of an Active Regeneration Diesel Particulate Filter System 2004_deer_anderson.pdf (1.38 MB) More Documents & Publications A New Active DPF System for "Stop and Go" Duty-Cycle Vehicles Donaldson Active Regeneration PM System A New CFD Model for understanding and Managing Diesel Particulate Filter Regeneration

  5. Characterization of Particulate Emissions from GDI Engine Combustion with

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Alcohol-blended Fuels | Department of Energy Particulate Emissions from GDI Engine Combustion with Alcohol-blended Fuels Characterization of Particulate Emissions from GDI Engine Combustion with Alcohol-blended Fuels Analysis showed that gasoline direct injection engine particulates from alcohol-blended fuels are significantly different in morphology and nanostructures p-19_seong.pdf (856.46 KB) More Documents & Publications Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Fuel and

  6. Reliability and Design Strength Limit Calculations on Diesel Particulate

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Filters | Department of Energy and Design Strength Limit Calculations on Diesel Particulate Filters Reliability and Design Strength Limit Calculations on Diesel Particulate Filters 2004 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Confererence Presentation: Corning 2004_deer_webb.pdf (126.93 KB) More Documents & Publications Predicting Thermal Stress in Diesel Particulate Filters Environmental Effects on Power Electronic Devices Effect of Machining Procedures on the Strength of Ceramics for

  7. Requirements-Driven Diesel Catalyzed Particulate Trap Design and

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Optimization | Department of Energy Requirements-Driven Diesel Catalyzed Particulate Trap Design and Optimization Requirements-Driven Diesel Catalyzed Particulate Trap Design and Optimization 2005 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentations and Posters 2005_deer_harris.pdf (388.49 KB) More Documents & Publications Diesel Emission Control Technology Review Investigation of Aging Mechanisms in Lean NOx Traps Diesel Particulate Filters: Market Introducution in Euro

  8. Development and Applications of Catalyzed Diesel Particulate Filter |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Applications of Catalyzed Diesel Particulate Filter Development and Applications of Catalyzed Diesel Particulate Filter 2004 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentation: Sud Chemie Prototech Inc. 2004_deer_huang.pdf (171.31 KB) More Documents & Publications CARB Verification of Catalyzed Diesel Particulate Filters for Emergency Generator Sets A Revealing Look Inside Passive and Active DPF Regeneration: In-Situ Optical Analysis of Ash Formation

  9. Development of Acicular Mullite Materials for Diesel Particulate Filters

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Application | Department of Energy Acicular Mullite Materials for Diesel Particulate Filters Application Development of Acicular Mullite Materials for Diesel Particulate Filters Application 2005 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentations and Posters 2005_deer_pyzik.pdf (3.23 MB) More Documents & Publications Tailored Acicular Mullite Substrates for Multifunctional Diesel Particulate Filters Future Trends for DPFƒSCR On-Filter (SCRF) fundamental Modeling and

  10. Non-Destructive Neutron Imaging to Analyze Particulate Filters | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy Neutron Imaging to Analyze Particulate Filters Non-Destructive Neutron Imaging to Analyze Particulate Filters Non-destructive, non-invasive imaging is being employed in the laboratory to understand how soot, ash, and catalytic washcoat are deposited within a diesel particulate filter. p-27_toops.pdf (403.38 KB) More Documents & Publications Neutron Imaging of Advanced Engine Technologies Neutron Imaging of Advanced Engine Technologies Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review

  11. Mesoscale Simulations of Particulate Flows with Parallel Distributed

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Lagrange Multiplier Technique (Conference) | SciTech Connect Mesoscale Simulations of Particulate Flows with Parallel Distributed Lagrange Multiplier Technique Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Mesoscale Simulations of Particulate Flows with Parallel Distributed Lagrange Multiplier Technique Fluid particulate flows are common phenomena in nature and industry. Modeling of such flows at micro and macro levels as well establishing relationships between these approaches are needed to

  12. Diesel particulate filter regeneration via resistive surface heating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gonze, Eugene V; Ament, Frank

    2013-10-08

    An exhaust system that processes exhaust generated by an engine is provided. The system includes: a particulate filter (PF) that filters particulates from the exhaust wherein an upstream end of the PF receives exhaust from the engine; and a grid of electrically resistive material that is applied to an exterior upstream surface of the PF and that selectively heats exhaust passing through the grid to initiate combustion of particulates within the PF.

  13. Shielded regeneration heating element for a particulate filter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI; Ament, Frank [Troy, MI

    2011-01-04

    An exhaust system includes a particulate filter (PF) that is disposed downstream from an engine. The PF filters particulates within an exhaust from the engine. A heating element heats particulate matter in the PF. A catalyst substrate or a flow converter is disposed upstream from said heating element. The catalyst substrate oxidizes the exhaust prior to reception by the heating element. The flow converter converts turbulent exhaust flow to laminar exhaust flow prior to reception by the heating element.

  14. Substrate Studies of an Electrically-Assisted Diesel Particulate Filter |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Substrate Studies of an Electrically-Assisted Diesel Particulate Filter Substrate Studies of an Electrically-Assisted Diesel Particulate Filter Transient distributed DPF wall and gas temperature were simultaneously measured using the optical and thermocouple systems, on both electrically assisted and conventional fuel-only DPF regeneration cycles deer12_parks.pdf (2.67 MB) More Documents & Publications Electrically-Assisted Diesel Particulate Filter Regeneration

  15. 2007 Diesel Particulate Measurement Research (E-66 Project) | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Diesel Particulate Measurement Research (E-66 Project) 2007 Diesel Particulate Measurement Research (E-66 Project) 2004 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference: Southwest Research Institute 2004_deer_khalek.pdf (235.38 KB) More Documents & Publications Investigation of the Effects of Fuels and Aftertreatment Devices on the Emission Profiles of Trucks and Buses Concentrations and Size Distributions of Particulate Matter Emissions from Catalyzed Trap-Equipped Heavy-duty

  16. Definitions - D

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    generation, flood control, irrigation, or other use. Also refers to the act of lowering reservoir levels. dry scrubber See scrubber. DSI Direct-service industry. See...

  17. Cold Vacuum Drying facility design basis accident analysis documentation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    CROWE, R.D.

    2000-08-08

    This document provides the detailed accident analysis to support HNF-3553, Annex B, Spent Nuclear Fuel Project Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR), ''Cold Vacuum Drying Facility Final Safety Analysis Report.'' All assumptions, parameters, and models used to provide the analysis of the design basis accidents are documented to support the conclusions in the FSAR. The calculations in this document address the design basis accidents (DBAs) selected for analysis in HNF-3553, ''Spent Nuclear Fuel Project Final Safety Analysis Report'', Annex B, ''Cold Vacuum Drying Facility Final Safety Analysis Report.'' The objective is to determine the quantity of radioactive particulate available for release at any point during processing at the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF) and to use that quantity to determine the amount of radioactive material released during the DBAs. The radioactive material released is used to determine dose consequences to receptors at four locations, and the dose consequences are compared with the appropriate evaluation guidelines and release limits to ascertain the need for preventive and mitigative controls.

  18. Zone heated inlet ignited diesel particulate filter regeneration...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Data Explorer Search Results Zone heated inlet ignited diesel particulate filter ... An exhaust system that processes exhaust generated by an engine is provided. The system ...

  19. Electrically heated particulate filter regeneration using hydrocarbon adsorbents

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI

    2011-02-01

    An exhaust system that processes exhaust generated by an engine is provided. The system generally includes a particulate filter (PF) that filters particulates from the exhaust wherein an upstream end of the PF receives exhaust from the engine. A grid of electrically resistive material selectively heats exhaust passing through the upstream end to initiate combustion of particulates within the PF. A hydrocarbon adsorbent coating applied to the PF releases hydrocarbons into the exhaust to increase a temperature of the combustion of the particulates within the PF.

  20. Development of Advanced Diesel Particulate Filtration (DPF) Systems...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Advanced Diesel Particulate Filtration (DPF) Systems (ANLCorningCaterpillar CRADA) PDF icon ace22lee.pdf More Documents & Publications Development of Advanced Diesel ...

  1. Diesel Particulate Filter: A Success for Faurecia Exhaust Systems...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Filter: A Success for Faurecia Exhaust Systems Diesel Particulate Filter: A Success for ... More Documents & Publications Combination of Diesel fuel system architectures and ...

  2. Development of Acicular Mullite Materials for Diesel Particulate...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Tailored Acicular Mullite Substrates for Multifunctional Diesel Particulate Filters Future Trends for DPFSCR On-Filter (SCRF) fundamental Modeling and Experimental Studies of ...

  3. Effect of Biodiesel Blends on Diesel Particulate Filter Performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, A.; McCormick, R. L.; Hayes, R. R.; Ireland, J.; Fang, H. L.

    2006-11-01

    Presents results of tests of ultra-low sulfur diesel blended with soy-biodiesel at 5 percent using a Cummins ISB engine with a diesel particulate filter.

  4. Characterization of Particulate Emissions from GDI Engine Combustion...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Analysis showed that gasoline direct injection engine particulates from alcohol-blended fuels are significantly different in morphology and nanostructures PDF icon p-19seong.pdf ...

  5. Diesel Particulate Oxidation Model: Combined Effects of Fixed...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Diesel Particulate Oxidation Model: Combined Effects of Fixed & Volatile Carbon Poster presented at the 16th Directions in Engine-Efficiency and Emissions Research (DEER) ...

  6. Performance of the Low-Efficiency Diesel Particulate Filter for...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Performance of the Low-Efficiency Diesel Particulate Filter for Diesel PM Reduction Poster presented at the 16th Directions in Engine-Efficiency and Emissions Research (DEER) ...

  7. Partial-Flow Diesel Particulate Filter of Sintered Metal Fiber...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Partial-Flow Diesel Particulate Filter of Sintered Metal Fiber Fleece Poster presented at the 16th Directions in Engine-Efficiency and Emissions Research (DEER) Conference in ...

  8. Particulate Produced from Advanced Combustion Operation in a...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Produced from Advanced Combustion Operation in a Compression Ignition Engine Particulate Produced from Advanced Combustion Operation in a Compression Ignition Engine Determine ...

  9. Non-Destructive Neutron Imaging to Analyze Particulate Filters...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    non-invasive imaging is being employed in the laboratory to understand how soot, ash, and catalytic washcoat are deposited within a diesel particulate filter. PDF icon...

  10. Final Report: Particulate Emissions Testing, Unit 1, Potomac...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    analytical support in completing a Particulate Emission Test of Unit 1 of the Potomac River generating facility. The Test Program at the Potomac facility involved the completion ...

  11. Reduction of Transient Particulate Matter Spikes with Decision...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Reduction of Transient Particulate Matter Spikes with Decision Tree Based Control Using a non-parametric decision tree to measure transient PM could correctly identify 94% of high ...

  12. Fuel-Neutral Studies of Particulate Matter Transport Emissions...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation PDF icon ace056stewart2011o.pdf More Documents & Publications Fuel-Neutral Studies of Particulate Matter ...

  13. The State of the Science in Diesel Particulate Control | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Method Development: Identification of the Soluble Organic Fraction of Particulate Matter on DPF Soot Aftertreatment Research Prioritization: A CLEERS Industrial Survey Development ...

  14. Partitioning of Volatile Organics in Diesel Particulate and Exhaust...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Evaluation of how sampling details affect the measurement of volatile organic compounds in ... Identification of the Soluble Organic Fraction of Particulate Matter on DPF ...

  15. Organic and Elemental Carbon Aerosol Particulates at the Southern...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Elemental Carbon Aerosol Particulates at the Southern Great Plains Site Field Campaign Report Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Organic and Elemental Carbon Aerosol ...

  16. Electrically heated particulate filter with reduced stress

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gonze, Eugene V.

    2013-03-05

    A system comprises a particulate matter (PM) filter comprising an inlet for receiving exhaust gas. A zoned heater is arranged in the inlet and comprises a resistive heater comprising N zones, where N is an integer greater than one. Each of the N zones comprises M sub-zones, where M is an integer greater than one. A control module selectively activates one of the N zones to initiate regeneration in downstream portions of the PM filter from the one of the N zones and deactivates others of the N zones.

  17. Neutron Imaging of Diesel Particulate Filters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Strzelec, Andrea; Bilheux, Hassina Z; FINNEY, Charles E A; Daw, C Stuart; Foster, Prof. Dave; Rutland, Prof. Christopher J.; Schillinger, Burkhard; Schulz, Michael

    2009-01-01

    This article presents nondestructive neutron computed tomography (nCT) measurements of Diesel Particulate Filters (DPFs) as a method to measure ash and soot loading in the filters. Uncatalyzed and unwashcoated 200cpsi cordierite DPFs exposed to 100% biodiesel (B100) exhaust and conventional ultra low sulfur 2007 certification diesel (ULSD) exhaust at one speed-load point (1500rpm, 2.6bar BMEP) are compared to a brand new (never exposed) filter. Precise structural information about the substrate as well as an attempt to quantify soot and ash loading in the channel of the DPF illustrates the potential strength of the neutron imaging technique.

  18. Method for minimizing environmental release of toxic compounds in the incineration of wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lerner, B.J.

    1993-08-24

    A method is described for reducing the discharge of contaminated liquid streams in the treatment of hot waste incinerator exhaust gases containing hydrochloric acid gas, particulate fly ash, toxic metal oxides and toxic organic compounds, comprising the steps of: contacting the exhaust gases with an alkaline material; reacting the major portion of the hydrochloric acid gas content of the exhaust gases with the alkaline material; removing substantially all of the reacted spent alkaline material, fly ash and other particulate matter from the gas in a solids separation stage; treating the particulate-free exhaust gases from the solids separation stage in at least two wet scrubber contact stages operating in series; operating each of the wet scrubber stages with separate dedicated salt-free aqueous scrubbing solutions; scrubbing the gas in the successive wet scrubber contact stages with acid solutions of diminishing acid concentration; absorbing in the scrubbing liquor of the wet scrubber stages substantially all of the residual hydrochloric acid and a portion of the toxic organic compounds from the particulate-free exhaust gases; operating at least the first wet scrubber stage with a recycle aqueous salt-free scrubbing solution loop; recycling a portion of the aqueous acid scrubbing solution from a downstream wet scrubber stage to the initial wet scrubber contactor stage; collecting and conveying the contaminated acid liquid blowdown stream from the initial wet scrubbing liquid recycle loop to the waste incinerator; reincinerating the acid liquor blowdown stream in the waste incinerator for destruction of the organic toxics; removing the major portion of the recycled acid gas in the first alkaline dry solids gas treatment stage and thereby eliminating discharge of a contaminated liquid stream to the environment; and thereafter recovering a purified gaseous stream from the wet scrubbing stages.

  19. Method of forming particulate materials for thin-film solar cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Eberspacher, Chris; Pauls, Karen Lea

    2004-11-23

    A method for preparing particulate materials useful in fabricating thin-film solar cells is disclosed. Particulate materials is prepared by the method include for example materials comprising copper and indium and/or gallium in the form of single-phase, mixed-metal oxide particulates; multi-phase, mixed-metal particulates comprising a metal oxide; and multinary metal particulates.

  20. Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant U. S. Department of Energy Office of River Protection Submerged Bed Scrubber Condensate Disposition Project - 13460

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yanochko, Ronald M. [Washington River Protection Solutions, P.O. Box 850, Richland, Washington 99352 (United States)] [Washington River Protection Solutions, P.O. Box 850, Richland, Washington 99352 (United States); Corcoran, Connie [AEM Consulting, LLC, 1201 Jadwin Avenue, Richland, Washington 99352 (United States)] [AEM Consulting, LLC, 1201 Jadwin Avenue, Richland, Washington 99352 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) will generate an off-gas treatment system secondary liquid waste stream [submerged bed scrubber (SBS) condensate], which is currently planned for recycle back to the WTP Low Activity Waste (LAW) melter. This SBS condensate waste stream is high in Tc-99, which is not efficiently captured in the vitrified glass matrix [1]. A pre-conceptual engineering study was prepared in fiscal year 2012 to evaluate alternate flow paths for melter off-gas secondary liquid waste generated by the WTP LAW facility [2]. This study evaluated alternatives for direct off-site disposal of this SBS without pre-treatment, which mitigates potential issues associated with recycling. This study [2] concluded that SBS direct disposal is a viable option to the WTP baseline. The results show: - Off-site transportation and disposal of the SBS condensate is achievable and cost effective. - Reduction of approximately 4,325 vitrified WTP Low Activity Waste canisters could be realized. - Positive WTP operational impacts; minimal WTP construction impacts are realized. - Reduction of mass flow from the LAW Facility to the Pretreatment Facility by 66%. - Improved Double Shell Tank (DST) space management is a benefit. (authors)

  1. Fluid placement of fixated scrubber sludge to reduce surface subsidence and to abate acid mine drainage in abandoned underground coal mines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meiers, R.J.; Golden, D.; Gray, R.; Yu, W.C.

    1995-12-31

    Indianapolis Power and Light Company (IPL) began researching the use of fluid placement techniques of the fixated scrubber sludge (FSS) to reduce surface subsidence from underground coal mines to develop an economic alternative to low strength concrete grout. Abandoned underground coal mines surround property adjacent to IPL`s coal combustion by-product (CCBP) landfill at the Petersburg Generating Station. Landfill expansion into these areas is in question because of the high potential for sinkhole subsidence to develop. Sinkholes manifesting at the surface would put the integrity of a liner or runoff pond containment structure for a CCBP disposal facility at risk. The fluid placement techniques of the FSS as a subsidence abatement technology was demonstrated during an eight week period in September, October, and November 1994 at the Petersburg Generating Station. The success of this technology will be determined by the percentage of the mine void filled, strength of the FSS placed, and the overall effects on the hydrogeologic environment. The complete report for this project will be finalized in early 1996.

  2. Multiple moving wall dry coal extrusion pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fitzsimmons, Mark Andrew

    2013-05-14

    A pump for transporting particulate material includes a passageway defined on each side between an inlet and an outlet by a moving wall.

  3. High-intensity drying processes: Impulse drying. Annual report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Orloff, D.I.; Phelan, P.M.

    1993-12-01

    Experiments were conducted on a sheet-fed pilot-scale shoe press to compare impulse drying and double-felted pressing. Both an IPST (Institute of Paper Science and Technology) ceramic coated and Beloit Type A press roll were evaluated for lienrboard sheet structures having a wide range of z-direction permeability. Purpose was to find ways of correcting sheet sticking problems observed in previous pilot-scale shoe press experiments. Results showed that impulse drying was superior to double felted pressing in both press dryness and in important paper physical properties. Impulse drying critical temperature was found to depend on specific surface of the heated layer of the sheet, thermal properties of the press roll surface, and choice of felt. Impulse drying of recycled and two-ply liner was demonstrated for both Southern Pile and Douglas fir-containing furnishes.

  4. Process for off-gas particulate removal and apparatus therefor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carl, D.E.

    1997-10-21

    In the event of a breach in the off-gas line of a melter operation requiring closure of the line, a secondary vessel vent line is provided with a particulate collector utilizing atomization for removal of large particulates from the off-gas. The collector receives the gas containing particulates and directs a portion of the gas through outer and inner annular channels. The collector further receives a fluid, such as water, which is directed through the outer channel together with a second portion of the particulate-laden gas. The outer and inner channels have respective ring-like termination apertures concentrically disposed adjacent one another on the outer edge of the downstream side of the particulate collector. Each of the outer and inner channels curves outwardly away from the collector`s centerline in proceeding toward the downstream side of the collector. Gas flow in the outer channel maintains the fluid on the channel`s wall in the form of a ``wavy film,`` while the gas stream from the inner channel shears the fluid film as it exits the outer channel in reducing the fluid to small droplets. Droplets formed by the collector capture particulates in the gas stream by one of three mechanisms: impaction, interception or Brownian diffusion in removing the particulates. The particulate-laden droplets are removed from the fluid stream by a vessel vent condenser or mist eliminator. 4 figs.

  5. Method for immobilizing particulate materials in a packed bed

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Even, W.R. Jr.; Guthrie, S.E.; Raber, T.N.; Wally, K.; Whinnery, L.L.; Zifer, T.

    1999-02-02

    The present invention pertains generally to immobilizing particulate matter contained in a packed bed reactor so as to prevent powder migration, compaction, coalescence, or the like. More specifically, this invention relates to a technique for immobilizing particulate materials using a microporous foam-like polymer such that (a) the particulate retains its essential chemical nature, (b) the local movement of the particulate particles is not unduly restricted, (c) bulk powder migration and is prevented, (d) physical and chemical access to the particulate is unchanged over time, and (e) very high particulate densities are achieved. The immobilized bed of the present invention comprises a vessel for holding particulate matter, inlet and an outlet ports or fittings, a loosely packed bed of particulate material contained within the vessel, and a three dimensional porous matrix for surrounding and confining the particles thereby fixing the movement of an individual particle to a limited local position. The established matrix is composed of a series of cells or chambers comprising walls surrounding void space, each wall forming the wall of an adjacent cell; each wall containing many holes penetrating through the wall yielding an overall porous structure and allowing useful levels of gas transport. 4 figs.

  6. Method for immobilizing particulate materials in a packed bed

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Even, Jr., William R.; Guthrie, Stephen E.; Raber, Thomas N.; Wally, Karl; Whinnery, LeRoy L.; Zifer, Thomas

    1999-01-01

    The present invention pertains generally to immobilizing particulate matter contained in a "packed" bed reactor so as to prevent powder migration, compaction, coalescence, or the like. More specifically, this invention relates to a technique for immobilizing particulate materials using a microporous foam-like polymer such that a) the particulate retains its essential chemical nature, b) the local movement of the particulate particles is not unduly restricted, c) bulk powder migration and is prevented, d) physical and chemical access to the particulate is unchanged over time, and e) very high particulate densities are achieved. The immobilized bed of the present invention comprises a vessel for holding particulate matter, inlet and an outlet ports or fittings, a loosely packed bed of particulate material contained within the vessel, and a three dimensional porous matrix for surrounding and confining the particles thereby fixing the movement of individual particle to a limited local position. The established matrix is composed of a series of cells or chambers comprising walls surrounding void space, each wall forming the wall of an adjacent cell; each wall containing many holes penetrating through the wall yielding an overall porous structure and allowing useful levels of gas transport.

  7. Process for off-gas particulate removal and apparatus therefor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carl, Daniel E.

    1997-01-01

    In the event of a breach in the off-gas line of a melter operation requiring closure of the line, a secondary vessel vent line is provided with a particulate collector utilizing atomization for removal of large particulates from the off-gas. The collector receives the gas containing particulates and directs a portion of the gas through outer and inner annular channels. The collector further receives a fluid, such as water, which is directed through the outer channel together with a second portion of the particulate-laden gas. The outer and inner channels have respective ring-like termination apertures concentrically disposed adjacent one another on the outer edge of the downstream side of the particulate collector. Each of the outer and inner channels curves outwardly away from the collector's centerline in proceeding toward the downstream side of the collector. Gasflow in the outer channel maintains the fluid on the channel's wall in the form of a "wavy film," while the gas stream from the inner channel shears the fluid film as it exits the outer channel in reducing the fluid to small droplets. Droplets formed by the collector capture particulates in the gas stream by one of three mechanisms: impaction, interception or Brownian diffusion in removing the particulates. The particulate-laden droplets are removed from the fluid stream by a vessel vent condenser or mist eliminator.

  8. Advanced Particulate Filter Technologies for Direct Injection Gasoline Engine Applications

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Specific designs and material properties have to be developed for gasoline particulate filters based on the different engine and exhaust gas characteristic of gasoline engines compared to diesel engines, e.g., generally lower levels of engine-out particulate emissions or higher GDI exhaust gas temperatures

  9. Preserving Diesel Exhaust Ultrafine (Nano-) Particulate Structure in

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Genotoxicity Studies to Support Engineering Development of Emission Controls | Department of Energy Preserving Diesel Exhaust Ultrafine (Nano-) Particulate Structure in Genotoxicity Studies to Support Engineering Development of Emission Controls Preserving Diesel Exhaust Ultrafine (Nano-) Particulate Structure in Genotoxicity Studies to Support Engineering Development of Emission Controls Poster presentation at the 2007 Diesel Engine-Efficiency & Emissions Research Conference (DEER

  10. Method for removing particulate matter from a gas stream

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Postma, Arlin K.

    1984-01-01

    Particulate matter is removed from a stream of pressurized gas by directing the stream of gas upwardly through a bed of porous material, the porous bed being held in an open ended container and at least partially submerged in liquid. The passage of the gas through the porous bed sets up a circulation in the liquid which cleans the particulate matter from the bed.

  11. Report on Biomass Drying Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Amos, W. A.

    1999-01-12

    Using dry fuel provides significant benefits to combustion boilers, mainly increased boiler efficiency, lower air emissions, and improved boiler operation. The three main choices for drying biomass are rotary dryers, flash dryers, and superheated steam dryers. Which dryer is chosen for a particular application depends very much on the material characteristics of the biomass, the opportunities for integrating the process and dryer, and the environmental controls needed or already available.

  12. Overlap zoned electrically heated particulate filter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI; Chapman, Mark R [Brighton, MI

    2011-07-19

    A system includes a particulate matter (PM) filter that includes an upstream end for receiving exhaust gas and a downstream end. A zoned heater is arranged spaced from the upstream end and comprises N zones, where N is an integer greater than one, wherein each of the N zones comprises M sub-zones, where M is an integer greater than or equal to one, and wherein the N zones and the M sub-zones are arranged in P layers, where P is an integer greater than one. A control module selectively activates at least a selected one of the N zones to initiate regeneration in downstream portions of the PM filter from the one of the N zones and deactivates non-selected ones of the N zones.

  13. Process for producing dispersed particulate composite materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Henager, Jr., Charles H.; Hirth, John P.

    1995-01-01

    This invention is directed to a process for forming noninterwoven dispersed particulate composite products. In one case a composite multi-layer film product comprises a substantially noninterwoven multi-layer film having a plurality of discrete layers. This noninterwoven film comprises at least one discrete layer of a first material and at least one discrete layer of a second material. In another case the first and second materials are blended together with each other. In either case, the first material comprises a metalloid and the second material a metal compound. At least one component of a first material in one discrete layer undergoes a solid state displacement reaction with at least one component of a second material thereby producing the requisite noninterwoven composite film product. Preferably, the first material comprises silicon, the second material comprises Mo.sub.2 C, the third material comprises SiC and the fourth material comprises MoSi.sub.2.

  14. On-Board Engine Exhaust Particulate Matter Sensor for HCCI and...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Engine Exhaust Particulate Matter Sensor for HCCI and Conventional Diesel Engines On-Board Engine Exhaust Particulate Matter Sensor for HCCI and Conventional Diesel Engines 2009 DOE ...

  15. Management of dry flue gas desulfurization by-products in underground mines. Topical report, April 1, 1996--April 30, 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chugh, Y.P.; Brackebusch, F.; Carpenter, J.

    1998-12-31

    This report represents the Final Technical Progress Report for Phase II of the overall program for a cooperative research agreement between the U.S. Department of Energy - MORGANTOWN Energy Technology Center (DOE-METC) and Southern Illinois University at Carbondale (SIUC). Under the agreement, SIUC will develop and demonstrate technologies for the handling, transport, and placement in abandoned underground coal mines of dry flue gas desulfurization by-products, such as fly ash, scrubber sludge, fluidized bed combustion by-products, and will assess the environmental impact of such underground placement. The overall program is divided into three (3) phases. Phase II of the program is primarily concerned with developing and testing the hardware for the actual underground placement demonstrations. Two technologies have been identified and hardware procured for full-scale demonstrations: (1) hydraulic placement, where coal combustion by-products (CCBs) will be placed underground as a past-like mixture containing about 70 to 75 percent solids; and (2) pneumatic placement, where CCBs will be placed underground as a relatively dry material using compressed air. 42 refs., 36 figs., 36 tabs.

  16. West Virginia Dry Natural Gas Reserves Extensions (Billion Cubic...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Extensions (Billion Cubic Feet) West Virginia Dry Natural Gas Reserves Extensions (Billion ... Dry Natural Gas Reserves Extensions West Virginia Dry Natural Gas Proved Reserves Dry ...

  17. West Virginia Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) West Virginia Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments ... Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments West Virginia Dry Natural Gas Proved Reserves Dry ...

  18. Virginia Dry Natural Gas Reserves Revision Increases (Billion...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Increases (Billion Cubic Feet) Virginia Dry Natural Gas Reserves Revision Increases ... Dry Natural Gas Reserves Revision Increases Virginia Dry Natural Gas Proved Reserves Dry ...

  19. Virginia Dry Natural Gas Reserves Estimated Production (Billion...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Estimated Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Virginia Dry Natural Gas Reserves Estimated ... Dry Natural Gas Reserves Estimated Production Virginia Dry Natural Gas Proved Reserves Dry ...

  20. Virginia Dry Natural Gas Reserves Revision Decreases (Billion...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Decreases (Billion Cubic Feet) Virginia Dry Natural Gas Reserves Revision Decreases ... Dry Natural Gas Reserves Revision Decreases Virginia Dry Natural Gas Proved Reserves Dry ...

  1. New York Dry Natural Gas Reserves Estimated Production (Billion...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Estimated Production (Billion Cubic Feet) New York Dry Natural Gas Reserves Estimated ... Dry Natural Gas Reserves Estimated Production New York Dry Natural Gas Proved Reserves Dry ...

  2. New York Dry Natural Gas Reserves Revision Decreases (Billion...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Decreases (Billion Cubic Feet) New York Dry Natural Gas Reserves Revision Decreases ... Dry Natural Gas Reserves Revision Decreases New York Dry Natural Gas Proved Reserves Dry ...

  3. New Mexico Dry Natural Gas Reserves Revision Increases (Billion...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Increases (Billion Cubic Feet) New Mexico Dry Natural Gas Reserves Revision Increases ... Dry Natural Gas Reserves Revision Increases New Mexico Dry Natural Gas Proved Reserves Dry ...

  4. New York Dry Natural Gas Reserves Revision Increases (Billion...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Increases (Billion Cubic Feet) New York Dry Natural Gas Reserves Revision Increases ... Dry Natural Gas Reserves Revision Increases New York Dry Natural Gas Proved Reserves Dry ...

  5. New Mexico Dry Natural Gas Reserves Revision Decreases (Billion...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Decreases (Billion Cubic Feet) New Mexico Dry Natural Gas Reserves Revision Decreases ... Dry Natural Gas Reserves Revision Decreases New Mexico Dry Natural Gas Proved Reserves Dry ...

  6. Louisiana - North Dry Natural Gas Expected Future Production...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Dry Natural Gas Expected Future Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Louisiana - North Dry ... Dry Natural Gas Proved Reserves as of Dec. 31 North Louisiana Dry Natural Gas Proved ...

  7. Particulate contamination removal from wafers using plasmas and mechanical agitation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Selwyn, G.S.

    1998-12-15

    Particulate contamination removal from wafers is disclosed using plasmas and mechanical agitation. The present invention includes the use of plasmas with mechanical agitation for removing particulate matter from the surface of a wafer. The apparatus hereof comprises a mechanical activator, at least one conducting contact pin for transferring the vibration from the activator to the wafer, clamp fingers that maintain the wafer`s position, and means for generating a plasma in the vicinity of the surface of the wafer, all parts of the cleaning apparatus except the mechanical activator and part of the contact pin being contained inside the processing chamber. By exposing a wafer to a plasma and providing motion thereto in a direction perpendicular to its surface, the bonding between the particulate matter and the surface may be overcome. Once free of the wafer surface, the particulates become charged by electrons from the plasma and are drawn into the plasma by attractive forces which keep them from redepositing. The introduction of a flowing gas through the plasma sweeps the particulates away from the wafer and out of the plasma. The entire surface is cleaned during one cleaning step. The use of an rf plasma to accomplish the particulate removal was found to remove more than 90% of the particulates. 4 figs.

  8. Particulate contamination removal from wafers using plasmas and mechanical agitation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Selwyn, Gary S.

    1998-01-01

    Particulate contamination removal from wafers using plasmas and mechanical agitation. The present invention includes the use of plasmas with mechanical agitation for removing particulate matter from the surface of a wafer. The apparatus hereof comprises a mechanical activator, at least one conducting contact pin for transferring the vibration from the activator to the wafer, clamp fingers that maintain the wafer's position, and means for generating a plasma in the vicinity of the surface of the wafer, all parts of the cleaning apparatus except the mechanical activator and part of the contact pin being contained inside the processing chamber. By exposing a wafer to a plasma and providing motion thereto in a direction perpendicular to its surface, the bonding between the particulate matter and the surface may be overcome. Once free of the wafer surface, the particulates become charged by electrons from the plasma and are drawn into the plasma by attractive forces which keep them from redepositing. The introduction of a flowing gas through the plasma sweeps the particulates away from the wafer and out of the plasma. The entire surface is cleaned during one cleaning step. The use of an rf plasma to accomplish the particulate removal was found to remove more than 90% of the particulates.

  9. Preparation of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Mo nanocomposite powder via chemical route and spray drying

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lo, M.; Cheng, F.; Wei, W.J.

    1996-08-01

    A route to prepare nanometer-sized Mo particulates in Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} was attempted by a combination of solution reactions in molecular scale and forcing precipitation by a spray-drying technique. MoO{sub 3} was first dissolved in ammonia water and then added in the slurry with high purity, submicrometer Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} powder. Mixed suspension was spray-dried, and then the dried granules were reduced by hydrogen gas and further hot-pressing to a bulky composite at various temperatures. Dissolution of Mo oxide, adsorption reactions on alumina surface, and surface potential of alumina particles in homogeneous ammonia suspension were studied. Characterization of the granules, including compactability, flowing properties, surface morphology, grain growth of Mo and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and mixing homogeneity, were examined. Homogeneity of the spray-dried granules was determined by the calculation of mixing index and the observation of the microstructure of sintered body. The existence of intergranular, intragranular, and nanosized Mo particulates within Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} grains was observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). All the evidences revealed that homogeneous composites with nanometer-sized Mo had been successfully prepared by this attempt with the proposed chemical route and following spray-drying process. {copyright}{ital 1996 Materials Research Society.}

  10. Status of dry SO/sub 2/ control systems: Fall 1983. Final report August 1983-July 1984

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Palazzolo, M.A.; Baviello, M.A.

    1984-08-01

    The report, on the status of dry SO/sub 2/ control for utility and industrial boilers in the U.S., reviews curent and recently completed research, development, and commercial activities. Dry SO/sub 2/ control systems covered include: (1) spray dryers with a fabric filter or an electrostatic precipitator (ESP), (2) dry injection of alkaline material into flue gas accompanied by collection of product solids and fly ash in a fabric filter or an ESP, and (3) electron-beam (E-beam) irradiation. Spray drying and dry injection systems generally include a fabric filter or an ESP and control SO/sub 2/ and particulate matter simultaneously; E-beam technology is designed to also control NOx. Spray drying continues to be the only technology commercially applied to utility and industrial boilers. The two new utility systems sold since the last status report (Fall 1982) bring the total utility spray drying flue gas desulfurization (FGD) capacity to about 7200 MWe. Also, 10 recently sold new industrial units bring the total of commercial industrial boiler unit sales to 21. Performance data for five utility systems and three industrial systems were recently published. Some full-scale systems that have come on-line since the last survey have experienced atomization problems and solids buildup on the dryer walls during initial operation. The first trona dry injection application has been announced for a 500 MWe unit.