National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for dry process wet

  1. Initial evaluation of dry storage issues for spent nuclear fuels in wet storage at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guenther, R.J.; Johnson, A.B. Jr.; Lund, A.L.; Gilbert, E.R.

    1996-07-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory has evaluated the basis for moving selected spent nuclear fuels in the CPP-603 and CPP-666 storage pools at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant from wet to dry interim storage. This work is being conducted for the Lockheed Idaho Technologies Company as part of the effort to determine appropriate conditioning and dry storage requirements for these fuels. These spent fuels are from 22 test reactors and include elements clad with aluminum or stainless steel and a wide variety of fuel materials: UAl{sub x}, UAl{sub x}-Al and U{sub 3}O{sub 8}-Al cermets, U-5% fissium, UMo, UZrH{sub x}, UErZrH, UO{sub 2}-stainless steel cermet, and U{sub 3}O{sub 8}-stainless steel cermet. The study also included declad uranium-zirconium hydride spent fuel stored in the CPP-603 storage pools. The current condition and potential failure mechanisms for these spent fuels were evaluated to determine the impact on conditioning and dry storage requirements. Initial recommendations for conditioning and dry storage requirements are made based on the potential degradation mechanisms and their impacts on moving the spent fuel from wet to dry storage. Areas needing further evaluation are identified.

  2. Wet/dry cooling tower and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Glicksman, Leon R.; Rohsenow, Warren R.

    1981-01-01

    A wet/dry cooling tower wherein a liquid to-be-cooled is flowed along channels of a corrugated open surface or the like, which surface is swept by cooling air. The amount of the surface covered by the liquid is kept small compared to the dry part thereof so that said dry part acts as a fin for the wet part for heat dissipation.

  3. Hydrothermal Processing of Wet Wastes

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Breakout Session 3A—Conversion Technologies III: Energy from Our Waste—Will we Be Rich in Fuel or Knee Deep in Trash by 2025? Hydrothermal Processing of Wet Wastes James R. Oyler, President, Genifuel Corporation

  4. Moving zone Marangoni drying of wet objects using naturally evaporated solvent vapor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Britten, J.A.

    1997-08-26

    A surface tension gradient driven flow (a Marangoni flow) is used to remove the thin film of water remaining on the surface of an object following rinsing. The process passively introduces by natural evaporation and diffusion of minute amounts of alcohol (or other suitable material) vapor in the immediate vicinity of a continuously refreshed meniscus of deionized water or another aqueous-based, nonsurfactant rinsing agent. Used in conjunction with cleaning, developing or wet etching application, rinsing coupled with Marangoni drying provides a single-step process for (1) cleaning, developing or etching, (2) rinsing, and (3) drying objects such as flat substrates or coatings on flat substrates without necessarily using heat, forced air flow, contact wiping, centrifugation or large amounts of flammable solvents. This process is useful in one-step cleaning and drying of large flat optical substrates, one-step developing/rinsing and drying or etching/rinsing/drying of large flat patterned substrates and flat panel displays during lithographic processing, and room-temperature rinsing/drying of other large parts, sheets or continuous rolls of material. 5 figs.

  5. Moving zone Marangoni drying of wet objects using naturally evaporated solvent vapor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Britten, Jerald A. (Oakley, CA)

    1997-01-01

    A surface tension gradient driven flow (a Marangoni flow) is used to remove the thin film of water remaining on the surface of an object following rinsing. The process passively introduces by natural evaporation and diffusion of minute amounts of alcohol (or other suitable material) vapor in the immediate vicinity of a continuously refreshed meniscus of deionized water or another aqueous-based, nonsurfactant rinsing agent. Used in conjunction with cleaning, developing or wet etching application, rinsing coupled with Marangoni drying provides a single-step process for 1) cleaning, developing or etching, 2) rinsing, and 3) drying objects such as flat substrates or coatings on flat substrates without necessarily using heat, forced air flow, contact wiping, centrifugation or large amounts of flammable solvents. This process is useful in one-step cleaning and drying of large flat optical substrates, one-step developing/rinsing and drying or etching/rinsing/drying of large flat patterned substrates and flat panel displays during lithographic processing, and room-temperature rinsing/drying of other large parts, sheets or continuous rolls of material.

  6. OVERVIEW OF CRITERIA FOR INTERIM WET & DRY STORAGE OF RESEARCH REACTOR SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sindelar, R.; Vinson, D.; Iyer, N.; Fisher, D.

    2010-11-03

    Following discharge from research reactors, spent nuclear fuel may be stored 'wet' in water pools or basins, or it may be stored 'dry' in various configurations including non-sealed or sealed containers until retrieved for ultimate disposition. Interim safe storage practices are based on avoiding degradation to the fuel that would impact functions related to safety. Recommended practices including environmental controls with technical bases, are outlined for wet storage and dry storage of aluminum-clad, aluminum-based research reactor fuel. For wet storage, water quality must be maintained to minimize corrosion degradation of aluminum fuel. For dry storage, vented canister storage of aluminum fuel readily provides a safe storage configuration. For sealed dry storage, drying must be performed so as to minimize water that would cause additional corrosion and hydrogen generation. Consideration must also be given to the potential for radiolytically-generated hydrogen from the bound water in the attendant oxyhydroxides on aluminum fuel from reactor operation for dry storage systems.

  7. Notes on the efficacy of wet versus dry screening of fly ash

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Valentim, B.; Hower, J.C.; Flores, D.; Guedes, A.

    2008-08-15

    The methodology used to obtain fly ash subsamples of different sizes is generally based on wet or dry sieving methods. However, the worth of such methods is not certain if the methodology applied is not mentioned in the analytical procedure. After performing a fly ash mechanical dry, sieving, the authors compared those results with the ones obtained by laser diffraction on the same samples and found unacceptable discrepancies. A preliminary, study of a wet sieving analysis carried out on an economizer fly ash sample showed that this method was more effective than the dry sieving. The importance of standardizing the way samples are handled, pretreated and presented to the instrument of analysis are suggested and interlaboratory reproducibility trials are needed to create a common standard methodology to obtain large amounts of fly ash size fraction subsamples.

  8. Sampling for Beryllium Surface Contamination using Wet, Dry and Alcohol Wipe Sampling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kerr, Kent

    2004-12-17

    This research project was conducted at the National Nuclear Security Administration's Kansas City Plant, operated by Honeywell Federal Manufacturing and Technologies, in conjunction with the Safety Sciences Department of Central Missouri State University, to compare relative removal efficiencies of three wipe sampling techniques currently used at Department of Energy facilities. Efficiencies of removal of beryllium contamination from typical painted surfaces were tested by wipe sampling with dry Whatman 42 filter paper, with water-moistened (Ghost Wipe) materials, and by methanol-moistened wipes. Test plates were prepared using 100 mm X 15 mm Pyrex Petri dishes with interior surfaces spray painted with a bond coat primer. To achieve uniform deposition over the test plate surface, 10 ml aliquots of solution containing 1 beryllium and 0.1 ml of metal working fluid were transferred to the test plates and subsequently evaporated. Metal working fluid was added to simulate the slight oiliness common on surfaces in metal working shops where fugitive oil mist accumulates over time. Sixteen test plates for each wipe method (dry, water, and methanol) were processed and sampled using a modification of wiping patterns recommended by OSHA Method 125G. Laboratory and statistical analysis showed that methanol-moistened wipe sampling removed significantly more (about twice as much) beryllium/oil-film surface contamination as water-moistened wipes (p< 0.001), which removed significantly more (about twice as much) residue as dry wipes (p <0.001). Evidence for beryllium sensitization via skin exposure argues in favor of wipe sampling with wetting agents that provide enhanced residue removal efficiency.

  9. FINAL REPORT: Transformational electrode drying process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Claus Daniel, C.; Wixom, M.

    2013-12-19

    This report includes major findings and outlook from the transformational electrode drying project performance period from January 6, 2012 to August 1, 2012. Electrode drying before cell assembly is an operational bottleneck in battery manufacturing due to long drying times and batch processing. Water taken up during shipment and other manufacturing steps needs to be removed before final battery assembly. Conventional vacuum ovens are limited in drying speed due to a temperature threshold needed to avoid damaging polymer components in the composite electrode. Roll to roll operation and alternative treatments can increase the water desorption and removal rate without overheating and damaging other components in the composite electrode, thus considerably reducing drying time and energy use. The objective of this project was the development of an electrode drying procedure, and the demonstration of processes with no decrease in battery performance. The benchmark for all drying data was an 80°C vacuum furnace treatment with a residence time of 18 – 22 hours. This report demonstrates an alternative roll to roll drying process with a 500-fold improvement in drying time down to 2 minutes and consumption of only 30% of the energy compared to vacuum furnace treatment.

  10. Electro-osmotic transport in wet processing of textiles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cooper, John F.

    1998-01-01

    Electro-osmotic (or electrokinetic) transport is used to efficiently force a solution (or water) through the interior of the fibers or yarns of textile materials for wet processing of textiles. The textile material is passed between electrodes that apply an electric field across the fabric. Used alone or in parallel with conventional hydraulic washing (forced convection), electro-osmotic transport greatly reduces the amount of water used in wet processing. The amount of water required to achieve a fixed level of rinsing of tint can be reduced, for example, to 1-5 lbs water per pound of fabric from an industry benchmark of 20 lbs water/lb fabric.

  11. Electro-osmotic transport in wet processing of textiles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cooper, J.F.

    1998-09-22

    Electro-osmotic (or electrokinetic) transport is used to efficiently force a solution (or water) through the interior of the fibers or yarns of textile materials for wet processing of textiles. The textile material is passed between electrodes that apply an electric field across the fabric. Used alone or in parallel with conventional hydraulic washing (forced convection), electro-osmotic transport greatly reduces the amount of water used in wet processing. The amount of water required to achieve a fixed level of rinsing of tint can be reduced, for example, to 1--5 lbs water per pound of fabric from an industry benchmark of 20 lbs water/lb fabric. 5 figs.

  12. Experimental evaluation of dry/wet air-cooled heat exchangers. Progress report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hauser, S.G.; Gruel, R.L.; Huenefeld, J.C.; Eschbach, E.J.; Johnson, B.M.; Kreid, D.K.

    1982-08-01

    The ultimate goal of this project was to contribute to the development of improved cooling facilities for power plants. Specifically, the objective during FY-81 was to experimentally determine the thermal performance and operating characteristics of an air-cooled heat exchanger surface manufactured by the Unifin Company. The performance of the spiral-wound finned tube surface (Unifin) was compared with two inherently different platefin surfaces (one developed by the Trane Co. and the other developed by the HOETERV Institute) which were previously tested as a part of the same continuing program. Under dry operation the heat transfer per unit frontal area per unit inlet temperature difference (ITD) of the Unifin surface was 10% to 20% below that of the other two surfaces at low fan power levels. At high fan power levels, the performances of the Unifin and Trane surfaces were essentially the same, and 25% higher than the HOETERV surface. The design of the Unifin surface caused a significantly larger air-side pressure drop through the heat exchanger both in dry and deluge operation. Generally higher overall heat transfer coefficients were calculated for the Unifin surface under deluged operation. They ranged from 2.0 to 3.5 Btu/hr-ft/sup 2/-/sup 0/F as compared to less than 2.0 Btu hr-ft/sup 2/-/sup 0/F for the Trane and HOETERV surfaces under similar conditions. The heat transfer enhancement due to the evaporative cooling effect was also measureably higher with the Unifin surface as compared to the Trane surface. This can be primarily attributed to the better wetting characteristics of the Unifin surface. If the thermal performance of the surfaces are compared at equal face velocities, the Unifin surface is as much as 35% better. This method of comparison accounts for the wetting characteristics while neglecting the effect of pressure drop. Alternatively the surfaces when compared at equal pressure drop essentially the same thermal performance.

  13. 2010 Dry and 2009 - 2010 Wet Season Branchiopod Survey Report, Site 300

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dexter, W

    2011-03-14

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) requested that Condor Country Consulting, Inc. (CCCI) perform wet season surveys and manage the dry season sampling for listed branchiopods in two ponded locations within the Site 300 Experimental Test Site. Site 300 is located in Alameda and San Joaquin Counties, located between the Cities of Livermore and Tracy. The two pool locations have been identified for possible amphibian enhancement activities in support of the Compensation Plan for impacts tied to the Building 850 soil clean-up project. The Building 850 project design resulted in formal consultation with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) as an amendment (File 81420-2009-F-0235) to the site-wide Biological Opinion (BO) (File 1-1-02-F-0062) in the spring of 2009 and requires mitigation for the California tiger salamander (AMCA, Ambystoma californiense) and California red-legged frog (CRLF, Rana draytonii) habitat loss. Both pools contain breeding AMCA, but do not produce metamorphs due to limited hydroperiod. The pool to the southeast (Pool BC-FS-2) is the preferred site for amphibian enhancement activities, and the wetland to northwest (Pool OA-FS-1) is the alternate location for enhancement. However, prior to enhancement, LLNL has been directed by USFWS (BO Conservation Measure 17 iii) to 'conduct USFWS protocol-level branchiopod surveys to determine whether listed brachiopod species are present within the compensation area.' CCCI conducted surveys for listed branchiopods in the 2009-2010 wet season to determine the presence of federally-listed branchiopods at the two pools (previous surveys with negative findings were performed by CCCI in 2001-2002 and 2002-2003 onsite). Surveys were conducted to partially satisfy the survey requirements of the USFWS 'Interim Survey Guidelines to Permittees for Recovery Permits under Section 10(a)(1)(A) of the Endangered Species Act for the Listed Vernal Pool Branchiopods' ('Guidelines, USFWS 1996 and BO Conservation Measure 17 iii). The dry sampling (included as an Appendix D) followed the wet season surveys in the summer of 2010.

  14. Critically safe volume vacuum pickup for use in wet or dry cleanup of radioactive enclosures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zeren, J.D.

    1993-12-28

    A physical compact vacuum pickup device of critically safe volume and geometric shape is provided for use in radioactive enclosures, such as a small glove box, to facilitate manual cleanup of either wet or dry radioactive material. The device is constructed and arranged so as to remain safe when filled to capacity with plutonium-239 oxide. Two fine mesh filter bags are supported on the exterior of a rigid fine mesh stainless steel cup. This assembly is sealed within, and spaced from, the interior walls of a stainless steel canister. An air inlet communicates with the interior of the canister. A modified conventional vacuum head is physically connected to, and associated with, the interior of the mesh cup. The volume of the canister, as defined by the space between the mesh cup and the interior walls of the canister, forms a critically safe volume and geometric shape for dry radioactive particles that are gathered within the canister. A critically safe liquid volume is maintained by operation of a suction terminating float valve, and/or by operation of redundant vacuum check/liquid drain valves and placement of the air inlet. 5 figures.

  15. Critically safe volume vacuum pickup for use in wet or dry cleanup of radioactive enclosures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zeren, Joseph D.

    1993-12-28

    A physical compact vacuum pickup device of critically safe volume and geometric shape is provided for use in radioactive enclosures, such as a small glove box, to facilitate manual cleanup of either wet or dry radioactive material. The device is constructed and arranged so as to remain safe when filled to capacity with plutonium-239 oxide. Two fine mesh filter bags are supported on the exterior of a rigid fine mesh stainless steel cup. This assembly is sealed within, and spaced from, the interior walls of a stainless steel canister. An air inlet communicates with the interior of the canister. A modified conventional vacuum head is physically connected to, and associated with, the interior of the mesh cup. The volume of the canister, as defined by the space between the mesh cup and the interior walls of the canister, forms a critically safe volume and geometric shape for dry radioactive particles that are gathered within the canister. A critically safe liquid volume is maintained by operation of a suction terminating float valve, and/or by operation of redundant vacuum check/liquid drain valves and placement of the air inlet.

  16. Dry Processing of Used Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K. M. Goff; M. F. Simpson

    2009-09-01

    Dry (non-aqueous) separations technologies have been used for treatment of used nuclear fuel since the 1960s, and they are still being developed and demonstrated in many countries. Dry technologies offer potential advantages compared to traditional aqueous separations including: compactness, resistance to radiation effects, criticality control benefits, compatibility with advanced fuel types, and ability to produce low purity products. Within the Department of Energys Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative, an electrochemical process employing molten salts is being developed for recycle of fast reactor fuel and treatment of light water reactor oxide fuel to produce a feed for fast reactors. Much of the development of this technology is based on treatment of used Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II) fuel, which is metallic. Electrochemical treatment of the EBR-II fuel has been ongoing in the Fuel Conditioning Facility, located at the Materials and Fuel Complex of Idaho National Laboratory since 1996. More than 3.8 metric tons of heavy metal of metallic fast reactor fuel have been treated using this technology. This paper will summarize the status of electrochemical development and demonstration activities with used nuclear fuel, including high-level waste work. A historic perspective on the background of dry processing will also be provided.

  17. Chemical Effect of Dry and Wet Cleaning of the Ru Protective Layer of the Extreme ultraviolet (EUV) Lithography Reflector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Belau, Leonid; Park, Jeong Y.; Liang, Ted; Seo, Hyungtak; Somorjai, Gabor A.

    2009-04-10

    The authors report the chemical influence of cleaning of the Ru capping layer on the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) reflector surface. The cleaning of EUV reflector to remove the contamination particles has two requirements: to prevent corrosion and etching of the reflector surface and to maintain the reflectivity functionality of the reflector after the corrosive cleaning processes. Two main approaches for EUV reflector cleaning, wet chemical treatments [sulfuric acid and hydrogen peroxide mixture (SPM), ozonated water, and ozonated hydrogen peroxide] and dry cleaning (oxygen plasma and UV/ozone treatment), were tested. The changes in surface morphology and roughness were characterized using scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy, while the surface etching and change of oxidation states were probed with x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Significant surface oxidation of the Ru capping layer was observed after oxygen plasma and UV/ozone treatment, while the oxidation is unnoticeable after SPM treatment. Based on these surface studies, the authors found that SPM treatment exhibits the minimal corrosive interactions with Ru capping layer. They address the molecular mechanism of corrosive gas and liquid-phase chemical interaction with the surface of Ru capping layer on the EUV reflector.

  18. The effect of dry and wet deposition of condensable vapors on secondary organic aerosols concentrations over the continental US

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Knote, C.; Hodzic, A.; Jimenez, J. L.

    2015-01-06

    The effect of dry and wet deposition of semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) in the gas phase on the concentrations of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) is reassessed using recently derived water solubility information. The water solubility of SVOCs was implemented as a function of their volatility distribution within the WRF-Chem regional chemistry transport model, and simulations were carried out over the continental United States for the year 2010. Results show that including dry and wet removal of gas-phase SVOCs reduces annual average surface concentrations of anthropogenic and biogenic SOA by 48 and 63% respectively over the continental US. Dry deposition ofmore » gas-phase SVOCs is found to be more effective than wet deposition in reducing SOA concentrations (−40 vs. −8% for anthropogenics, and −52 vs. −11% for biogenics). Reductions for biogenic SOA are found to be higher due to the higher water solubility of biogenic SVOCs. The majority of the total mass of SVOC + SOA is actually deposited via the gas phase (61% for anthropogenics and 76% for biogenics). Results are sensitive to assumptions made in the dry deposition scheme, but gas-phase deposition of SVOCs remains crucial even under conservative estimates. Considering reactivity of gas-phase SVOCs in the dry deposition scheme was found to be negligible. Further sensitivity studies where we reduce the volatility of organic matter show that consideration of gas-phase SVOC removal still reduces average SOA concentrations by 31% on average. We consider this a lower bound for the effect of gas-phase SVOC removal on SOA concentrations. A saturation effect is observed for Henry's law constants above 108 M atm−1, suggesting an upper bound of reductions in surface level SOA concentrations by 60% through removal of gas-phase SVOCs. Other models that do not consider dry and wet removal of gas-phase SVOCs would hence overestimate SOA concentrations by roughly 50%. Assumptions about the water solubility of SVOCs made in some current modeling systems (H* = H* (CH3COOH); H* = 105 M atm−1; H* = H* (HNO3)) still lead to an overestimation of 35%/25%/10% compared to our best estimate.« less

  19. The effect of dry and wet deposition of condensable vapors on secondary organic aerosols concentrations over the continental US

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Knote, C.; Hodzic, A.; Jimenez, J. L.

    2014-05-26

    The effect of dry and wet deposition of semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOC) in the gas-phase on the concentrations of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) is reassessed using recently derived water solubility information. The water solubility of SVOCs was implemented as a function of their volatility distribution within the regional chemistry transport model WRF-Chem, and simulations were carried out over the continental United States for the year 2010. Results show that including dry and wet removal of gas-phase SVOCs reduces annual average surface concentrations of anthropogenic and biogenic SOA by 48% and 63% respectively over the continental US Dry deposition of gas-phasemore » SVOCs is found to be more effective than wet deposition in reducing SOA concentrations (−40% vs. −8% for anthropogenics, −52% vs. −11% for biogenics). Reductions for biogenic SOA are found to be higher due to the higher water solubility of biogenic SVOCs. The majority of the total mass of SVOC + SOA is actually deposited via the gas-phase (61% for anthropogenics, 76% for biogenics). A number of sensitivity studies shows that this is a robust feature of the modeling system. Other models that do not consider dry and wet removal of gas-phase SVOCs would hence overestimate SOA concentrations by roughly 50%. Assumptions about the water solubility of SVOCs made in some current modeling systems (H* = 105 M atm−1; H* = H* (HNO3)) still lead to an overestimation of 25% / 10% compared to our best estimate. A saturation effect is observed for Henry's law constants above 108 M atm−1, suggesting an upper bound of reductions in surface level SOA concentrations by 60% through removal of gas-phase SVOCs. Considering reactivity of gas-phase SVOCs in the dry deposition scheme was found to be negligible. Further sensitivity studies where we reduce the volatility of organic matter show that consideration of gas-phase SVOC removal still reduces average SOA concentrations by 31% on average. We consider this a lower bound for the effect of gas-phase SVOC removal on SOA concentrations.« less

  20. Method for predicting dry mechanical properties from wet wood and standing trees

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Meglen, Robert R.; Kelley, Stephen S.

    2003-08-12

    A method for determining the dry mechanical strength for a green wood comprising: illuminating a surface of the wood to be determined with light between 350-2,500 nm, the wood having a green moisture content; analyzing the surface using a spectrometric method, the method generating a first spectral data, and using a multivariate analysis to predict the dry mechanical strength of green wood when dry by comparing the first spectral data with a calibration model, the calibration model comprising a second spectrometric method of spectral data obtained from a reference wood having a green moisture content, the second spectral data correlated with a known mechanical strength analytical result obtained from a reference wood when dried and having a dry moisture content.

  1. User's guide for the BNW-III optimization code for modular dry/wet-cooled power plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Braun, D.J.; Faletti, D.W.

    1984-09-01

    This user's guide describes BNW-III, a computer code developed by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) as part of the Dry Cooling Enhancement Program sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE). The BNW-III code models a modular dry/wet cooling system for a nuclear or fossil fuel power plant. The purpose of this guide is to give the code user a brief description of what the BNW-III code is and how to use it. It describes the cooling system being modeled and the various models used. A detailed description of code input and code output is also included. The BNW-III code was developed to analyze a specific cooling system layout. However, there is a large degree of freedom in the type of cooling modules that can be selected and in the performance of those modules. The costs of the modules are input to the code, giving the user a great deal of flexibility.

  2. Energy-efficient regenerative liquid desiccant drying process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ko, Suk M.; Grodzka, Philomena G.; McCormick, Paul O.

    1980-01-01

    This invention relates to the use of desiccants in conjunction with an open oop drying cycle and a closed loop drying cycle to reclaim the energy expended in vaporizing moisture in harvested crops. In the closed loop cycle, the drying air is brought into contact with a desiccant after it exits the crop drying bin. Water vapor in the moist air is absorbed by the desiccant, thus reducing the relative humidity of the air. The air is then heated by the used desiccant and returned to the crop bin. During the open loop drying cycle the used desiccant is heated (either fossil or solar energy heat sources may be used) and regenerated at high temperature, driving water vapor from the desiccant. This water vapor is condensed and used to preheat the dilute (wet) desiccant before heat is added from the external source (fossil or solar). The latent heat of vaporization of the moisture removed from the desiccant is reclaimed in this manner. The sensible heat of the regenerated desiccant is utilized in the open loop drying cycle. Also, closed cycle operation implies that no net energy is expended in heating drying air.

  3. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Dry Process Electrode Fabrication

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Navitas Systems at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about dry process electrode...

  4. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Dry Process Electrode Fabrication

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Navitas Systems at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about dry process electrode...

  5. Technical and economical considerations of new DRI melting process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ito, Shuzo; Tokuda, Koji; Sammt, F.; Gray, R.

    1997-12-31

    The new DRI melting process can effectively and economically produce high quality molten iron. This process utilizes hot charging of DRI directly from a reduction furnace into a dedicated new melting furnace. The molten iron from this DRI premelter can be charged into a steelmaking furnace, such as an electric arc furnace (EAF), where the molten iron, together with other iron sources, can be processed to produce steel. Alternatively the molten iron can be pigged or granulated for off-site merchant sales. Comprehensive research and development of the new process has been conducted including operational process simulation, melting tests using FASTMET DRI, slag technology development, and refractory corrosion testing. This paper describes the process concept, its operational characteristics and further applications of the process.

  6. Reductive stripping process for the recovery of uranium from wet-process phosphoric acid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hurst, Fred J.; Crouse, David J.

    1984-01-01

    A reductive stripping flow sheet for recovery of uranium from wet-process phosphoric acid is described. Uranium is stripped from a uranium-loaded organic phase by a redox reaction converting the uranyl to uranous ion. The uranous ion is reoxidized to the uranyl oxidation state to form an aqueous feed solution highly concentrated in uranium. Processing of this feed through a second solvent extraction cycle requires far less stripping reagent as compared to a flow sheet which does not include the reductive stripping reaction.

  7. Dry Process Electrode Fabrication | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Statistical Process Evaluation Volume 3 | Department of Energy Final Report: Drivers of Success in the Better Buildings Neighborhood Program - Statistical Process Evaluation Final Evaluation Volume 3, American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009, June 2015. PDF icon Drivers of Success in BBNP -- Statistical Process Evaluation More Documents & Publications Process Evaluation of the Better Buildings Neighborhood Program, Final Evaluation Volume 4 Evaluation of the Better Buildings

  8. DOE SC ARM TR 165 Integrating Nephelometer Instrument Handbook BNL wet_dry NEPH_formatted

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    TR-165 ENERGY Science Integrating Nephelometer Instrument Handbook J Uin March 2016 CLIMATE RESEARCH FACILITY DISCLAIMER This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by the U.S. Government. Neither the United States nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its

  9. Recovery of Uranium from Wet Phosphoric Acid by Solvent Extraction Processes

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Beltrami, Denis; Cote, Gérard; Mokhtari, Hamid; Courtaud, Bruno; Moyer, Bruce A; Chagnes, Alexandre

    2014-01-01

    Between 1951 and 1991, about 17 processes were developed to recover uranium from wet phosphoric acid (WPA), but the viability of these processes was subject to the variation of the uranium price market. Nowadays, uranium from WPA appears to be attractive due to the increase of the global uranium demand resulting from the emergence of developing countries. The increasing demand provides impetus for a new look at the applicable technology with a view to improvements as well as altogether new approaches. This paper gives an overview on extraction processes developed in the past to recover uranium from wet phosphoric acidmore » (WPA) as well as the physicochemistry involved in these processes. Recent advances concerning the development of new extraction systems are also reported and discussed.« less

  10. Recovery of Uranium from Wet Phosphoric Acid by Solvent Extraction Processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beltrami, Denis; Cote, Grard; Mokhtari, Hamid; Courtaud, Bruno; Moyer, Bruce A; Chagnes, Alexandre

    2014-01-01

    Between 1951 and 1991, about 17 processes were developed to recover uranium from wet phosphoric acid (WPA), but the viability of these processes was subject to the variation of the uranium price market. Nowadays, uranium from WPA appears to be attractive due to the increase of the global uranium demand resulting from the emergence of developing countries. The increasing demand provides impetus for a new look at the applicable technology with a view to improvements as well as altogether new approaches. This paper gives an overview on extraction processes developed in the past to recover uranium from wet phosphoric acid (WPA) as well as the physicochemistry involved in these processes. Recent advances concerning the development of new extraction systems are also reported and discussed.

  11. Utilization of geothermal heat in tropical fruit-drying process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, B.H.; Lopez, L.P.; King, R.; Fujii, J.; Tanaka, M.

    1982-10-01

    The power plant utilizes only the steam portion of the HGP-A well production. There are approximately 50,000 pounds per hour of 360/sup 0/F water produced (approximately 10 million Btu per hour) and the water is currently not used and is considered a waste. This tremendous resource could very well be used in applications such as food processing, food dehydration and other industrial processing that requires low-grade heat. One of the applications is examined, namely the drying of tropical fruits particularly the papaya. The papaya was chosen for the obvious reason that it is the biggest crop of all fruits produced on the Big Island. A conceptual design of a pilot plant facility capable of processing 1000 pounds of raw papaya per day is included. This facility is designed to provide a geothermally heated dryer to dehydrate papayas or other tropical fruits available on an experimental basis to obtain data such as drying time, optimum drying temperature, etc.

  12. Users guide for the conversion of Navy paint-spray-booth particulate emission-control systems from wet to dry operation. Final report, January-September 1989

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ayer, J.; Tate, D.

    1990-03-01

    The report is a guide for converting U.S. Navy paint-spray-booth particulate emission control systems from wet to dry operation. The use of water curtains for air-pollution-control of paint-spray booths is considered a major source of water and solid-waste pollution from industrial painting operations. It is possible, however, to eliminate this water-pollution problem and significantly reduce the solid-waste load by converting the booth to utilize a dry-filter pollution-control system. The conversion, however, requires extensive planning prior to actual facility modification. The report describes requirements to facilitate the planning and preparation for conversion of typical spray booths. Although the report addresses modifications of Navy spray booths, the basic engineering requirements discussed apply also to other Department of Defense installations and to commercial industrial facilities.

  13. The hydro nuclear services dry active waste processing system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bunker, A.S.

    1985-04-01

    There is a real need for a dry active waste processing system that can separate clean trash and recoverable items from radwaste safely and efficiently. This paper reports that Hydro Nuclear Services has produced just such a system and is marketing it as a DAW Segregation/Volume Reduction Process. The system is a unique, semi-automated package of sensitive monitoring instruments of volume reduction equipment that separates clean trash from contaminated and recoverable items in the waste stream and prepares the clean trash for unrestricted release. What makes the HNS system truly unique is its end product - clean trash.

  14. Preliminary Evaluation of Cesium Distribution for Wet Sieving Process Planned for Soil Decontamination in Japan - 13104

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Enokida, Y.; Tanada, Y.; Hirabayashi, D.; Sawada, K.

    2013-07-01

    For the purpose of decontaminating radioactive cesium from a huge amount of soil, which has been estimated to be 1.2x10{sup 8} m{sup 3} by excavating to a 5-cm depth from the surface of Fukushima Prefecture where a severe nuclear accident occurred at TEPCO's power generating site and has emitted a significant amount of radioactive materials, mainly radioactive cesium, a wet sieving process was selected as one of effective methods available in Japan. Some private companies have demonstrated this process for soil treatment in the Fukushima area by testing at their plants. The results were very promising, and a full-fledged application is expected to follow. In the present study, we spiked several aqueous samples containing soil collected from an industrial wet sieving plant located near our university for the recycling of construction wastes with non-radioactive cesium hydroxide. The present study provides scientific data concerning the effectiveness in volume reduction of the contaminated soil by a wet sieving process as well as the cesium distribution between the liquid phase and clay minerals for each sub-process of the full-scale one, but a simulating plant equipped with a process of coagulating sedimentation and operational safety fundamentals for the plant. Especially for the latter aspect, the study showed that clay minerals of submicron size strongly bind a high content of cesium, which was only slightly removed by coagulation with natural sedimentation (1 G) nor centrifugal sedimentation (3,700 G) and some of the cesium may be transferred to the effluent or recycled water. By applying ultracentrifugation (257,000 G), most of submicron clay minerals containing cesium was removed, and the cesium amount which might be transferred to the effluent or recycled water, could be reduced to less than 2.3 % of the original design by the addition of a cesium barrier consisting of ultracentrifugation or a hollow fiber membrane. (authors)

  15. Farm-scale production of fuel ethanol and wet grain from corn in a batch process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Westby, C.A.; Gibbons, W.R.

    1982-07-01

    The batch production of fuel grade ethanol and distillers' wet grain (wet solids) in a farm-scale process (1240-15,580 L/batch) is described. The procedure employs yeast fermentation of amylase-treated corn mash and a two-stage distillation. Primary emphasis in this study was on the cooking, fermentation and centrifugation steps. Without recycling, fermentation of the mash yielded beers with 10.0-10.5% ethanol. Recycling of stillage supernatant at full, 75, or 50% strengths produced enriched mashes that after 48-hour fermentation yielded beers with 5-14% more ethanol. Recycling twice with full-strength stillage supernatant at pH 7.0 increased the ethanol yield in the final beer 16.5%; however, the time to complete the final fermentation was extended from 48 to 72 hours and salt buildup occurred. By recycling at pH 5.4, it was possible to avoid salt buildup and obtain beers with 10.3-10.5% ethanol. Recycling resulted in increased levels of glucose, starch, crude protein, and fat in the beer and a reduced moisture content while the wet solids showed an increased starch content. Centrifugation after cooking or fermentation instead of after distillation reduced the mash volume 17-20% and this lowered the ethanol yield in the subsequently produced beer. Fermentation of a volume-restored mash supernatant gave a beer with only 9.25% ethanol. Mash wet solids varied somewhat chemically from beer and stillage solids. An economic and energy balance analysis of various modes of plant operation are provided and plant design considerations are suggested. (Refs. 31).

  16. Chemical Processing in High-Pressure Aqueous Environments. 7. Process Development for Catalytic Gasification of Wet Biomass Feedstocks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elliott, Douglas C.; Neuenschwander, Gary G.; Hart, Todd R.; Butner, Scott S.; Zacher, Alan H.; Engelhard, Mark H.; Young, James S.; McCready, David E.

    2004-07-01

    Through the use of a metal catalyst, gasification of wet biomass can be accomplished with high levels of carbon conversion to gas at relatively low temperature (350 C). In the pressurized-water environment (20 MPa) near-total conversion of the organic structure of biomass to gases has been accomplished in the presence of a ruthenium metal catalyst. The process is essentially steam reforming as there is no added oxidizer or reagent other than water. In addition, the gas produced is a medium-heating value gas due to the synthesis of high-levels of methane, as dictated by thermodynamic equilibrium. Biomass trace components cause processing difficulties using the fixed catalyst bed tubular reactor system. Results are described for both bench-scale and scaled-up reactor systems.

  17. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Advanced Drying Process for Lower Manufacturing Cost of Electrodes

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Lambda Technologies at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about advanced drying process...

  18. Process and composition for drying of gaseous hydrogen halides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tom, Glenn M.; Brown, Duncan W.

    1989-08-01

    A process for drying a gaseous hydrogen halide of the formula HX, wherein X is selected from the group consisting of bromine, chlorine, fluorine, and iodine, to remove water impurity therefrom, comprising: contacting the water impurity-containing gaseous hydrogen halide with a scavenger including a support having associated therewith one or more members of the group consisting of: (a) an active scavenging moiety selected from one or more members of the group consisting of: (i) metal halide compounds dispersed in the support, of the formula MX.sub.y ; and (ii) metal halide pendant functional groups of the formula -MX.sub.y-1 covalently bonded to the support, wherein M is a y-valent metal, and y is an integer whose value is from 1 to 3; (b) corresponding partially or fully alkylated compounds and/or pendant functional groups, of the metal halide compounds and/or pendant functional groups of (a); wherein the alkylated compounds and/or pendant functional groups, when present, are reactive with the gaseous hydrogen halide to form the corresponding halide compounds and/or pendant functional groups of (a); and M being selected such that the heat of formation, .DELTA.H.sub.f of its hydrated halide, MX.sub.y.(H.sub.2 O).sub.n, is governed by the relationship: .DELTA.H.sub.f .gtoreq.n.times.10.1 kilocalories/mole of such hydrated halide compound wherein n is the number of water molecules bound to the metal halide in the metal halide hydrate. Also disclosed is an appertaining scavenger composition and a contacting apparatus wherein the scavenger is deployed in a bed for contacting with the water impurity-containing gaseous hydrogen halide.

  19. Modified dry limestone process for control of sulfur dioxide emissions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shale, Correll C.; Cross, William G.

    1976-08-24

    A method and apparatus for removing sulfur oxides from flue gas comprise cooling and conditioning the hot flue gas to increase the degree of water vapor saturation prior to passage through a bed of substantially dry carbonate chips or lumps, e.g., crushed limestone. The reaction products form as a thick layer of sulfites and sulfates on the surface of the chips which is easily removed by agitation to restore the reactive surface of the chips.

  20. Process and apparatus for indirect-fired heating and drying

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Abbasi, Hamid Ali; Chudnovsky, Yaroslav

    2005-04-12

    A method for heating flat or curved surfaces comprising injecting fuel and oxidant along the length, width or longitudinal side of a combustion space formed between two flat or curved plates, transferring heat from the combustion products via convection and radiation to the surface being heated on to the material being dried/heated, and recirculating at least 20% of the combustion products to the root of the flame.

  1. Doping suppression and mobility enhancement of graphene transistors fabricated using an adhesion promoting dry transfer process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheol Shin, Woo; Hun Mun, Jeong; Yong Kim, Taek; Choi, Sung-Yool; Jin Cho, Byung E-mail: tskim1@kaist.ac.kr; Yoon, Taeshik; Kim, Taek-Soo E-mail: tskim1@kaist.ac.kr

    2013-12-09

    We present the facile dry transfer of graphene synthesized via chemical vapor deposition on copper film to a functional device substrate. High quality uniform dry transfer of graphene to oxidized silicon substrate was achieved by exploiting the beneficial features of a poly(4-vinylphenol) adhesive layer involving a strong adhesion energy to graphene and negligible influence on the electronic and structural properties of graphene. The graphene field effect transistors (FETs) fabricated using the dry transfer process exhibit excellent electrical performance in terms of high FET mobility and low intrinsic doping level, which proves the feasibility of our approach in graphene-based nanoelectronics.

  2. Development of an advanced process for drying fine coal in an inclined fluidized bed

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boysen, J.E.; Cha, C.Y.; Barbour, F.A.; Turner, T.F.; Kang, T.W.; Berggren, M.H.; Hogsett, R.F.; Jha, M.C.

    1990-02-01

    The objective of this research project was to demonstrate a technically feasible and economically viable process for drying and stabilizing high-moisture subbituminous coal. Controlled thermal drying of coal fines was achieved using the inclined fluidized-bed drying and stabilization process developed by the Western Research Institute. The project scope of work required completion of five tasks: (1) project planning, (2) characterization of two feed coals, (3) bench-scale inclined fluidized-bed drying studies, (4) product characterization and testing, and (5) technical and economic evaluation of the process. High moisture subbituminous coals from AMAX Eagle Butte mine located in the Powder River Basin of Wyoming and from Usibelli Coal Mine, Inc. in Healy, Alaska were tested in a 10-lb/hr bench-scale inclined fluidized-bed. Experimental results show that the dried coal contains less than 1.5% moisture and has a heating value over 11,500 Btu/lb. The coal fines entrainment can be kept below 15 wt % of the feed. The equilibrium moisture of dried coal was less than 50% of feed coal equilibrium moisture. 7 refs., 60 figs., 47 tabs.

  3. Drying '84

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baunack, F.

    1984-01-01

    This book covers the following topics: mechanism of water sorption-desorption in polymers; progress in freeze drying; on drying of materials in through circulation system; safety aspects of spray drying; dewatering process enhanced by electroosmosis; pressure drop and particle circulation studies in modified slot spouted beds; and experience in drying coal slurries.

  4. Development of an advanced process for drying fine coal in an inclined fluidized bed

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boysen, J.E.; Kang, T.W.; Cha, C.Y.; Berggren, M.H.; Jha, M.C.; AMAX Research and Development Center, Golden, CO )

    1989-10-01

    The main objective of this research is to develop a thermal process for drying fine coal that (1) reduces explosion potential, (2) uses a fluidized bed with minimum elutriation, (3) produces a stable dry coal by preventing moisture reabsorption and autogeneous heating, (4) reduces fugitive dust emissions, and (5) is technically and economically feasible. The project scope of work requires completion of five tasks: (1) project planning, (2) characterization of the two feed coals, (3) bench-scale IFB drying studies, (4) product characterization and testing, and (5) technical and economic process evaluation. The project technical achievements are primarily related to understanding of the behavior of the two coals in the IFB reactor. Solids residence time and solids entrainment can be correlated using the Reynolds number. Gas produced from the coal during drying and the product composition can be correlated to the average dryer temperature. A dry product with minimal proximate moisture and substantially increased heating value can be produced from either of these coals under a wide variety of fluidizing gas-to-solids ratios and IFB operating temperatures. Product characterization indicates that moisture reabsorption can be significantly reduced and that fugitive dust contents can be almost completely reduced. 4 refs., 19 figs., 24 tabs.

  5. Effect of nitrogen doping on wetting and photoactive properties of laser processed zinc oxide-graphene oxide nanocomposite layers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    György, E.; Pérez del Pino, A.; Logofatu, C.; Duta, A.; Isac, L.

    2014-07-14

    Zinc oxide-graphene oxide nanocomposite layers were submitted to laser irradiation in air or controlled nitrogen atmosphere using a frequency quadrupled Nd:YAG (λ = 266 nm, τ{sub FWHM} ≅ 3 ns, ν = 10 Hz) laser source. The experiments were performed in air at atmospheric pressure or in nitrogen at a pressure of 2 × 10{sup 4} Pa. The effect of the irradiation conditions, incident laser fluence value, and number of subsequent laser pulses on the surface morphology of the composite material was systematically investigated. The obtained results reveal that nitrogen incorporation improves significantly the wetting and photoactive properties of the laser processed layers. The kinetics of water contact angle variation when the samples are submitted to laser irradiation in nitrogen are faster than that of the samples irradiated in air, the surfaces becoming super-hydrophilic under UV light irradiation.

  6. Mechanisms of dry SO/sub 2/ control processes. Final report Sep 80-Sep 81

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Apple, C.; Kelly, M.E.

    1982-04-01

    The report discusses physical and chemical processes and reaction mechanisms for lime spray drying and dry injection of sodium compounds in dry flue gas desulfurization (FGD) processes. It includes: chemical reactions, physical changes, proposed reaction mechanisms and mathematical models, process parameters affecting reactions and their rates, and data needed to verify proposed reaction mechanisms and models. Published technical papers were the primary reference sources. The report focuses on coal-fired boiler dry FGD applications. Lime spray drying reactions are primarily gas/liquid-phase reactions, with SO/sub 2/ removal depending on moisture in the lime slurry droplet. Initially, the moisture content is high, and the reaction rate is controlled by diffusion of SO/sub 2/ to the droplet surface; most SO/sub 2/ removal occurs during this phase. As evaporation reduces the moisture, the dissolution of Ca(OH)/sub 2/ into ions limits the SO/sub 2/ removal rate. Later, the precipitation of CaSO/sub 3/.1/2 H/sub 2/O onto the surface of the lime particles retards diffusion of SO/sub 2/ to the unreacted sorbent. Injecting sodium compound powders into flue gas removes SO/sub 2/ via gas/solid reactions. First, NaHCO/sub 3/ is thermally decomposed to Na/sub 2/CO/sub 3/ (small pores in the sorbent particles increase the particles' surface area and reactivity). Then the SO/sub 2/ reacts with Na/sub 2/CO/sub 3/ to form Na/sub 2/SO/sub 3/, starting at the particle surface.

  7. Drying of fiber webs

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Warren, D.W.

    1997-04-15

    A process and an apparatus are disclosed for high-intensity drying of fiber webs or sheets, such as newsprint, printing and writing papers, packaging paper, and paperboard or linerboard, as they are formed on a paper machine. The invention uses direct contact between the wet fiber web or sheet and various molten heat transfer fluids, such as liquefied eutectic metal alloys, to impart heat at high rates over prolonged durations, in order to achieve ambient boiling of moisture contained within the web. The molten fluid contact process causes steam vapor to emanate from the web surface, without dilution by ambient air; and it is differentiated from the evaporative drying techniques of the prior industrial art, which depend on the uses of steam-heated cylinders to supply heat to the paper web surface, and ambient air to carry away moisture, which is evaporated from the web surface. Contact between the wet fiber web and the molten fluid can be accomplished either by submersing the web within a molten bath or by coating the surface of the web with the molten media. Because of the high interfacial surface tension between the molten media and the cellulose fiber comprising the paper web, the molten media does not appreciatively stick to the paper after it is dried. Steam generated from the paper web is collected and condensed without dilution by ambient air to allow heat recovery at significantly higher temperature levels than attainable in evaporative dryers. 6 figs.

  8. Drying of fiber webs

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Warren, David W.

    1997-01-01

    A process and an apparatus for high-intensity drying of fiber webs or sheets, such as newsprint, printing and writing papers, packaging paper, and paperboard or linerboard, as they are formed on a paper machine. The invention uses direct contact between the wet fiber web or sheet and various molten heat transfer fluids, such as liquified eutectic metal alloys, to impart heat at high rates over prolonged durations, in order to achieve ambient boiling of moisture contained within the web. The molten fluid contact process causes steam vapor to emanate from the web surface, without dilution by ambient air; and it is differentiated from the evaporative drying techniques of the prior industrial art, which depend on the uses of steam-heated cylinders to supply heat to the paper web surface, and ambient air to carry away moisture, which is evaporated from the web surface. Contact between the wet fiber web and the molten fluid can be accomplished either by submersing the web within a molten bath or by coating the surface of the web with the molten media. Because of the high interfacial surface tension between the molten media and the cellulose fiber comprising the paper web, the molten media does not appreciately stick to the paper after it is dried. Steam generated from the paper web is collected and condensed without dilution by ambient air to allow heat recovery at significantly higher temperature levels than attainable in evaporative dryers.

  9. Outstanding field emission properties of wet-processed titanium dioxide coated carbon nanotube based field emission devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, Jinzhuo; Ou-Yang, Wei Chen, Xiaohong; Guo, Pingsheng; Piao, Xianqing; Sun, Zhuo; Xu, Peng; Wang, Miao; Li, Jun

    2015-02-16

    Field emission devices using a wet-processed composite cathode of carbon nanotube films coated with titanium dioxide exhibit outstanding field emission characteristics, including ultralow turn on field of 0.383 V μm{sup −1} and threshold field of 0.657 V μm{sup −1} corresponding with a very high field enhancement factor of 20 000, exceptional current stability, and excellent emission uniformity. The improved field emission properties are attributed to the enhanced edge effect simultaneously with the reduced screening effect, and the lowered work function of the composite cathode. In addition, the highly stable electron emission is found due to the presence of titanium dioxide nanoparticles on the carbon nanotubes, which prohibits the cathode from the influence of ions and free radical created in the emission process as well as residual oxygen gas in the device. The high-performance solution-processed composite cathode demonstrates great potential application in vacuum electronic devices.

  10. Study of an ammonia-based wet scrubbing process in a continuous flow system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mao, James X.; Lee, Anita S.; Kitchin, John R.; Nulwala, Hunaid B.; Luebke, David R.; Damodaran, Krishnan

    2013-01-01

    A continuous gas and liquid flow, regenerative scrubbing process for CO{sub 2} capture was demonstrated at the bench-scale level. An aqueous ammonia-based solution captures CO{sub 2} from simulated flue gas in an absorber and releases a nearly pure stream of CO{sub 2} in the regenerator. After the regeneration, the solution of ammonium compounds is recycled to the absorber. The design of a continuous flow unit was based on earlier exploratory results from a semi-batch reactor, where a CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2} simulated flue gas mixture flowed through a well-mixed batch of ammonia-based solution. During the semi-batch tests, the solution was cycled between absorption and regeneration steps to measure the carrying capacity of the solution at various initial ammonia concentrations and temperatures. Consequentially, a series of tests were conducted on the continuous unit to observe the effect of various parameters on CO{sub 2} removal efficiency and regenerator effectiveness within the flow system. The parameters that were studied included absorber temperature, regenerator temperature, initial NH{sub 3} concentration, simulated flue gas flow rate, liquid solvent inventory in the flow system, and height of the packed-bed absorber. From this testing and subsequent testing, ammonia losses from both the absorption and regeneration steps were quantified, and attempts were made to maintain steady state during operations. Implications of experimental results with respect to process design are discussed.

  11. Sensitivity analysis of a dry-processed Candu fuel pellet's design parameters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choi, Hangbok; Ryu, Ho Jin

    2007-07-01

    Sensitivity analysis was carried out in order to investigate the effect of a fuel pellet's design parameters on the performance of a dry-processed Canada deuterium uranium (CANDU) fuel and to suggest the optimum design modifications. Under a normal operating condition, a dry-processed fuel has a higher internal pressure and plastic strain due to a higher fuel centerline temperature when compared with a standard natural uranium CANDU fuel. Under a condition that the fuel bundle dimensions do not change, sensitivity calculations were performed on a fuel's design parameters such as the axial gap, dish depth, gap clearance and plenum volume. The results showed that the internal pressure and plastic strain of the cladding were most effectively reduced if a fuel's element plenum volume was increased. More specifically, the internal pressure and plastic strain of the dry-processed fuel satisfied the design limits of a standard CANDU fuel when the plenum volume was increased by one half a pellet, 0.5 mm{sup 3}/K. (authors)

  12. Method of drying passivated micromachines by dewetting from a liquid-based process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Houston, Michael R.; Howe, Roger T.; Maboudian, Roya; Srinivasan, Uthara

    2000-01-01

    A method of fabricating a micromachine includes the step of constructing a low surface energy film on the micromachine. The micromachine is then rinsed with a rinse liquid that has a high surface energy, relative to the low surface energy film, to produce a contact angle of greater than 90.degree. between the low surface energy film and the rinse liquid. This relatively large contact angle causes any rinse liquid on the micromachine to be displaced from the micromachine when the micromachine is removed from the rinse liquid. In other words, the micromachine is dried by dewetting from a liquid-based process. Thus, a separate evaporative drying step is not required, as the micromachine is removed from the liquid-based process in a dry state. The relatively large contact angle also operates to prevent attractive capillary forces between micromachine components, thereby preventing contact and adhesion between adjacent microstructure surfaces. The low surface energy film may be constructed with a fluorinated self-assembled monolayer film. The processing of the invention avoids the use of environmentally harmful, health-hazardous chemicals.

  13. Wet processing of palladium for use in the tritium facility at Westinghouse, Savannah River, SC. Preparation of palladium using the Mound Muddy Water process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baldwin, D.P.; Zamzow, D.S.

    1998-11-10

    Palladium used at Savannah River for tritium storage is currently obtained from a commercial source. In order to better understand the processes involved in preparing this material, Savannah River is supporting investigations into the chemical reactions used to synthesize this material and into the conditions necessary to produce palladium powder that meets their specifications. This better understanding may help to guarantee a continued reliable source for this material in the future. As part of this evaluation, a work-for-others contract between Westinghouse Savannah River Company and the Ames Laboratory Metallurgy and Ceramics Program was initiated. During FY98, the process for producing palladium powder developed in 1986 by Dan Grove of Mound Applied Technologies (USDOE) was studied to understand the processing conditions that lead to changes in morphology in the final product. This report details the results of this study of the Mound Muddy Water process, along with the results of a round-robin analysis of well-characterized palladium samples that was performed by Savannah River and Ames Laboratory. The Mound Muddy Water process is comprised of three basic wet chemical processes, palladium dissolution, neutralization, and precipitation, with a number of filtration steps to remove unwanted impurity precipitates.

  14. Rapid formation of phase-clean 110 K (Bi-2223) powders derived via freeze-drying process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Balachandran, Uthamalingam

    1996-01-01

    A process for the preparation of amorphous precursor powders for Pb-doped Bi.sub.2 Sr.sub.2 Ca.sub.2 Cu.sub.3 O.sub.x (2223) includes a freeze-drying process incorporating a splat-freezing step. The process generally includes splat freezing a nitrate solution of Bi, Pb, Sr, Ca, and Cu to form flakes of the solution without any phase separation; grinding the frozen flakes to form a powder; freeze-drying the frozen powder; heating the dried powder to form a dry green precursor powders; denitrating the green-powders; heating the denitrated powders to form phase-clean Bi-2223 powders. The grain boundaries of the 2223 grains appear to be clean, leading to good intergrain contact between 2223 grains.

  15. Rapid formation of phase-clean 110 K (Bi-2223) powders derived via freeze-drying process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Balachandran, U.

    1996-06-04

    A process for the preparation of amorphous precursor powders for Pb-doped Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2} Ca{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub x} (2223) includes a freeze-drying process incorporating a splat-freezing step. The process generally includes splat freezing a nitrate solution of Bi, Pb, Sr, Ca, and Cu to form flakes of the solution without any phase separation; grinding the frozen flakes to form a powder; freeze-drying the frozen powder; heating the dried powder to form a dry green precursor powders; denitrating the green-powders; heating the denitrated powders to form phase-clean Bi-2223 powders. The grain boundaries of the 2223 grains appear to be clean, leading to good intergrain contact between 2223 grains. 11 figs.

  16. Preparation of polyaniline/sodium alanate hybrid using a spray-drying process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moreira, B. R. E-mail: fabiopassador@gmail.com Passador, F. R. E-mail: fabiopassador@gmail.com Pessan, L. A. E-mail: fabiopassador@gmail.com

    2014-05-15

    Nowadays, hydrogen is highly interesting as an energy source, in particular in the automotive field. In fact, hydrogen is attractive as a fuel because it prevents air pollution and greenhouse emissions. One of the main problems with the utilization of hydrogen as a fuel is its on-board storage. The purpouse of this work was to develop a new hybrid material consisting of a polyaniline matrix with sodium alanate (NaAlH{sub 4}) using a spray-drying process. The polyaniline used for this experiment was synthesized by following a well-established method for the synthesis of the emeraldine base form of polyaniline using dodecylbenzenesulfonic acid as dopant. Micro particles of polyaniline/sodium alanate hybrids with 30 and 50 wt% of sodium alanate were prepared by using a spray-drying technique. Dilute solutions of polyaniline/sodium alanate were first prepared, 10g of the solid materials were mixed with 350 ml of toluene under stirring at room temperature for 24h and the solutions were dried using spray-dryer (Bchi, Switzerland) with 115C of an inlet temperature. The hybrids were analyzed by differential scanning calorimetry, FT-IR and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The addition of sodium alanate decreased the glass transition temperature of the hybrids when compared to neat polyaniline. FT-IR spectrum analysis was performed to identify the bonding environment of the synthesized material and was observed that simply physically mixture occurred between polyaniline and sodium alanate. The SEM images of the hybrids showed the formation of microspheres with sodium alanate dispersed in the polymer matrix.

  17. COMPOUNDING EFFECTS OF FLUID CONFINEMENT AND SURFACE STRAIN ON THE WET-DRY TRANSITION AND DYNAMICS OF GRAPHENE-WATER SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chialvo, Ariel A; Vlcek, Lukas; Cummings, Peter

    2015-01-01

    We studied the link between the water-mediated (tensile or compressive) strain-driven hydration free energy changes in the association process involving finite-size graphene surfaces, the resulting water-graphene interfacial behavior, and the combined effect of surface strain and fluid confinement on the thermodynamic response functions and the dynamics of water. We found that either small surface corrugation (compressive strain) or surface stretching (tensile strain) is able to enhance significantly the water-graphene hydrophobicity relative to that of the unstrained surface, an effect that exacerbates the confinement impact on the isothermal compressibility and isobaric thermal expansivity of confined water, as well as on the slowing down of its dynamics that gives rise to anomalous diffusivity.

  18. COMPOUNDING EFFECTS OF FLUID CONFINEMENT AND SURFACE STRAIN ON THE WET-DRY TRANSITION AND DYNAMICS OF GRAPHENE-WATER SYSTEMS

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Chialvo, Ariel A; Vlcek, Lukas; Cummings, Peter

    2015-01-01

    We studied the link between the water-mediated (tensile or compressive) strain-driven hydration free energy changes in the association process involving finite-size graphene surfaces, the resulting water-graphene interfacial behavior, and the combined effect of surface strain and fluid confinement on the thermodynamic response functions and the dynamics of water. We found that either small surface corrugation (compressive strain) or surface stretching (tensile strain) is able to enhance significantly the water-graphene hydrophobicity relative to that of the unstrained surface, an effect that exacerbates the confinement impact on the isothermal compressibility and isobaric thermal expansivity of confined water, as well as on themoreslowing down of its dynamics that gives rise to anomalous diffusivity.less

  19. Carbon nanotube fiber spun from wetted ribbon

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zhu, Yuntian T; Arendt, Paul; Zhang, Xiefei; Li, Qingwen; Fu, Lei; Zheng, Lianxi

    2014-04-29

    A fiber of carbon nanotubes was prepared by a wet-spinning method involving drawing carbon nanotubes away from a substantially aligned, supported array of carbon nanotubes to form a ribbon, wetting the ribbon with a liquid, and spinning a fiber from the wetted ribbon. The liquid can be a polymer solution and after forming the fiber, the polymer can be cured. The resulting fiber has a higher tensile strength and higher conductivity compared to dry-spun fibers and to wet-spun fibers prepared by other methods.

  20. Environmental aspects of alternative wet technologies for producing energy/fuel from peat. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, R.T.

    1981-05-01

    Peat in situ contains up to 90% moisture, with about 50% of this moisture trapped as a colloidal gel. This colloidal moisture cannot be removed by conventional dewatering methods (filter presses, etc.) and must be removed by thermal drying, solvent extraction, or solar drying before the peat can be utilized as a fuel feedstock for direct combustion or gasification. To circumvent the drying problem, alternative technologies such as wet oxidation, wet carbonization, and biogasification are possible for producing energy or enhanced fuel from peat. This report describes these three alternative technologies, calculates material balances for given raw peat feed rates of 1000 tph, and evaluates the environmental consequences of all process effluent discharges. Wastewater discharges represent the most significant effluent due to the relatively large quantities of water removed during processing. Treated process water returned to the harvested bog may force in situ, acidic bog water into recieving streams, disrupting local aquatic ecosystems.

  1. Evaluation of a dry process for conversion of U-AVLIS product to UF{sub 6}. Milestone U361

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1992-05-01

    A technical and engineering evaluation has been completed for a dry UF{sub 6} production system to convert the product of an initial two-line U-AVLIS plant. The objective of the study has been to develop a better understanding of process design requirements, capital and operating costs, and demonstration requirements for this alternate process. This report summarizes the results of the study and presents various comparisons between the baseline and alternate processes, building on the information contained in UF{sub 6} Product Alternatives Review Committee -- Final Report. It also provides additional information on flowsheet variations for the dry route which may warrant further consideration. The information developed by this study and conceptual design information for the baseline process will be combined with information to be developed by the U-AVLIS program and by industrial participants over the next twelve months to permit a further comparison of the baseline and alternate processes in terms of cost, risk, and compatibility with U-AVLIS deployment schedules and strategies. This comparative information will be used to make a final process flowsheet selection for the initial U-AVLIS plant by March 1993. The process studied is the alternate UF{sub 6} production flowsheet. Process steps are (1) electron-beam distillation to reduce enriched product iron content from about 10 wt % or less, (2) hydrofluorination of the metal to UF{sub 4}, (3) fluorination of UF{sub 4} to UF{sub 6}, (4) cold trap collection of the UF{sub 6} product, (5) UF{sub 6} purification by distillation, and (6) final blending and packaging of the purified UF{sub 6} in cylinders. A preliminary system design has been prepared for the dry UF{sub 6} production process based on currently available technical information. For some process steps, such information is quite limited. Comparisons have been made between this alternate process and the baseline plant process for UF{sub 6} production.

  2. Optical wet steam monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maxey, L.C.; Simpson, M.L.

    1995-01-17

    A wet steam monitor determines steam particle size by using laser doppler velocimeter (LDV) device to produce backscatter light. The backscatter light signal is processed with a spectrum analyzer to produce a visibility waveform in the frequency domain. The visibility waveform includes a primary peak and a plurality of sidebands. The bandwidth of at least the primary frequency peak is correlated to particle size by either visually comparing the bandwidth to those of known particle sizes, or by digitizing the waveform and comparing the waveforms electronically. 4 figures.

  3. Optical wet steam monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maxey, Lonnie C.; Simpson, Marc L.

    1995-01-01

    A wet steam monitor determines steam particle size by using laser doppler velocimeter (LDV) device to produce backscatter light. The backscatter light signal is processed with a spectrum analyzer to produce a visibility waveform in the frequency domain. The visibility waveform includes a primary peak and a plurality of sidebands. The bandwidth of at least the primary frequency peak is correlated to particle size by either visually comparing the bandwidth to those of known particle sizes, or by digitizing the waveform and comparing the waveforms electronically.

  4. Dry sample storage system for an analytical laboratory supporting plutonium processing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Treibs, H.A.; Hartenstein, S.D.; Griebenow, B.L.; Wade, M.A.

    1990-07-25

    The Special Isotope Separation (SIS) plant is designed to provide removal of undesirable isotopes in fuel grade plutonium by the atomic vapor laser isotope separation (AVLIS) process. The AVLIS process involves evaporation of plutonium metal, and passage of an intense beam of light from a laser through the plutonium vapor. The laser beam consists of several discrete wavelengths, tuned to the precise wavelength required to ionize the undesired isotopes. These ions are attracted to charged plates, leaving the bulk of the plutonium vapor enriched in the desired isotopes to be collected on a cold plate. Major portions of the process consist of pyrochemical processes, including direct reduction of the plutonium oxide feed material with calcium metal, and aqueous processes for purification of plutonium in residues. The analytical laboratory for the plant is called the Material and Process Control Laboratory (MPCL), and provides for the analysis of solid and liquid process samples.

  5. Dry scrubbing of SO/sub 2/

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shah, N.D.

    1982-06-01

    The advantages of dry scrubbing over wet scrubbing or spray drying are considered. One of the problem areas is that of waste disposal. The most cost-effective solutions are land disposal or landfill in clay cells. The factors influencing the selection of an SO/sub 2/ scrubbing system are discussed. Nahcolite appears to be the most promising agent for dry scrubbing.

  6. Hydrothermal Processing of Wet Wastes

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    produces more than 6 million MCFd of methane - Continue growing to 25% of US demand by ... pre-treater depending on refinery * Methane can be used several ways - Use as fuel ...

  7. Wetter for fine dry powder

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hall, James E.; Williams, Everett H.

    1977-01-01

    A system for wetting fine dry powders such as bentonite clay with water or other liquids is described. The system includes a wetting tank for receiving water and a continuous flow of fine powder feed. The wetting tank has a generally square horizontal cross section with a bottom end closure in the shape of an inverted pyramid. Positioned centrally within the wetting tank is a flow control cylinder which is supported from the walls of the wetting tank by means of radially extending inclined baffles. A variable speed motor drives a first larger propeller positioned immediately below the flow control cylinder in a direction which forces liquid filling the tank to flow downward through the flow control cylinder and a second smaller propeller positioned below the larger propeller having a reverse pitch to oppose the flow of liquid being driven downward by the larger propeller.

  8. Automated catalyst processing for cloud electrode fabrication for fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goller, Glen J.; Breault, Richard D.

    1980-01-01

    A process for making dry carbon/polytetrafluoroethylene floc material, particularly useful in the manufacture of fuel cell electrodes, comprises of the steps of floccing a co-suspension of carbon particles and polytetrafluoroethylene particles, filtering excess liquids from the co-suspension, molding pellet shapes from the remaining wet floc solids without using significant pressure during the molding, drying the wet floc pellet shapes within the mold at temperatures no greater than about 150.degree. F., and removing the dry pellets from the mold.

  9. Dry Process Electrode Fabrication

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

  10. Wet Gasification of Ethanol Residue: A Preliminary Assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, Michael D.; Elliott, Douglas C.

    2008-09-22

    A preliminary technoeconomic assessment has been made of several options for the application of catalytic hydrothermal gasification (wet gasification) to ethanol processing residues.

  11. Steam drying of products containing solvent mixtures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pothmann, E.; Schluender, E.U. [Univ. Karlsruhe (Germany). Inst. fuer Thermische Verfahrenstechnik

    1995-12-31

    Drying experiments with single, porous spheres wetted with mixtures of 2-propanol and water were performed using superheated steam, air, or steam-air mixtures as drying agent. Both the drying rate and the moisture composition were determined experimentally for different temperatures and compositions of the drying agent and for different initial compositions of the moisture. It is shown that evaporation of 2-propanol is enhanced by using superheated steam as drying agent instead of air due to steam condensing on the sample. While the overall drying rate increases with rising steam temperature, the evaporation rate of 2-propanol is hardly affected. When drying samples containing mixtures of 2-propanol and water, internal boiling can occur depending on the vapor-liquid equilibrium. Vapor generated inside the sample may cause mechanical dewatering of the sample which greatly increases the drying rate.

  12. Development of an advanced process for drying fine coal in an inclined fluidized bed: Technical progress report for the third quarter, April 1, 1989-June 30, 1989

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boysen, J.E.; Barbour, F.A.; Turner, T.F.; Cha, C.Y.; Berggren, M.H.; Jha, M.C.

    1989-07-01

    This research project is for the development of a technical and economical feasible process for drying and stability fine particles of high-moisture subbituminous coal. Research conducted in this quarter focused upon thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) of both feed coals; continuation of the bench-scale IFB drying experiments; and initiation of the characterization of the products from the bench-scale drying experiments to determine their moisture reabsorption, dustiness, and spontaneous ignition properties. Thirty 4-hr and six 12-hr bench-scale IFB drying tests were conducted this quarter making a total of forty-one 4-hr (19 using Eagle Butte feed coal and 22 using Usibelli feed coal) and six 12-hr (3 using each feed coal) tests conducted thus far. IFB reactor slopes of 3, 6, 9, 12, and 15 degrees were investigated for each feed coal. During the tests using Eagle Butte coal, gas-to-solids ratios ranging from approximately 0.7 to 9.7 lb/lb (kg/kg) and average IFB reactor temperatures ranging from approximately 370 to 700/degree/F (188 to 371/degree/C) were tested. 5 refs., 41 figs., 7 tabs.

  13. Full containment spray drying

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Masters, K.

    1999-11-01

    Aspects of safety, environmental protection, and powder quality will continue to influence advances within spray dryer design and operation, and the concept of full containment spray drying offers a means to meet future industrial requirements. Process air recycle and powder containment within the drying chamber leads to no process air discharge to atmosphere, provides a more favorable operator environment around the spray dryer installation, reduces regions within the dryer layout where potential explosive powder/air mixtures can exist, improves yields, reduces powder losses, and provides easier cleaning operations with reduced wash water requirements.

  14. Dry reforming of hydrocarbon feedstocks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shah, Yatish T.; Gardner, Todd H.

    2014-09-25

    Developments in catalyst technology for the dry reforming of hydrocarbon feedstocks are reviewed for methane, higher hydrocarbons and alcohols. Thermodynamics, mechanisms and the kinetics of dry reforming are also reviewed. The literature on Ni catalysts, bi-metallic Ni catalysts and the role of promoters on Ni catalysts is critically evaluated. The use of noble and transitional metal catalysts for dry reforming is discussed. The application of solid oxide and metal carbide catalysts to dry reforming is also evaluated. Finally, various mechanisms for catalyst deactivation are assessed. This review also examines the various process related issues associated with dry reforming such as its application and heat optimization. Novel approaches such as supercritical dry reforming and microwave assisted dry reforming are briefly expanded upon.

  15. Does surface roughness amplify wetting?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malijevský, Alexandr

    2014-11-14

    Any solid surface is intrinsically rough on the microscopic scale. In this paper, we study the effect of this roughness on the wetting properties of hydrophilic substrates. Macroscopic arguments, such as those leading to the well-known Wenzel's law, predict that surface roughness should amplify the wetting properties of such adsorbents. We use a fundamental measure density functional theory to demonstrate the opposite effect from roughness for microscopically corrugated surfaces, i.e., wetting is hindered. Based on three independent analyses we show that microscopic surface corrugation increases the wetting temperature or even makes the surface hydrophobic. Since for macroscopically corrugated surfaces the solid texture does indeed amplify wetting there must exist a crossover between two length-scale regimes that are distinguished by opposite response on surface roughening. This demonstrates how deceptive can be efforts to extend the thermodynamical laws beyond their macroscopic territory.

  16. Development of an advanced process for drying fine coal in an inclined fluidized bed: Technical progress report for the second quarter, January 19--March 31, 1989

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boysen, J.E.; Cha, C.Y.; Berggren, M.H.; Jha, M.C.

    1989-05-01

    This research project is for the development of a technically and economically feasible process for drying and stabilizing of fine particles of high-moisture subbituminous coal. Research activities were initiated with efforts concentrating on characterization of the two feed coals: Eagle Butte coal from AMAX Coal Company's mine located in the Powder River Basin of Wyoming; and coal from Usibelli Coal Mine, Inc.'s mine located in central Alaska. Both of the feed coals are high-moisture subbituminous coals with ''as received'' moisture contents of 29% and 22% for the Eagle Butte and Usibelli coals, respectively. However, physical analyses of the crushed coal samples (--28-mesh particle size range) indicate many differences. The minimum fluidization velocity (MFV) of the feed coals were experimentally determined. The MFV for --28-mesh Eagle Butte coal is approximately 1 ft/min, and the MFV for --28-mesh Usibelli coal is approximately 3 ft/min. 2 refs., 16 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. The influence of the drying medium on high temperature convective drying of single wood chips

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johansson, A.; Rasmuson, A.

    1997-10-01

    High temperature convective drying of single wood chips with air and superheated steam respectively is studied theoretically. The two-dimensional model presented describes the coupled transport of water, vapor, air and heat. Transport mechanisms included are the convection of gas and liquid, intergas as well as bound water diffusion. In the initial part of the drying process, moisture is transported to the surface mainly due to capillary forces in the transversal direction where evaporation occurs. As the surface becomes dry, the drying front moves towards the center of the particle and an overpressure is simultaneously built up which affects the drying process. The differences between drying in air and steam respectively can be assigned to the physical properties of the drying medium. The period of constant drying rate which does not exist (or is very short) in air drying becomes more significant with decreasing amounts of air in the drying medium and is clearly visible in pure superheated steam drying. The maximal drying rate is larger in air drying, and shorter drying times are obtained since the heat flux to the wood chip particle increases with increasing amounts of air in the drying medium. The period of falling drying rate can be divided into two parts: in the first, the drying rate is dependent upon the humidity of the drying medium whereas in the second, there is no such correlation.

  18. Chemical Engineering Division fuel cycle programs. Quarterly progress report, April-June 1979. [Pyrochemical/dry processing; waste encapsulation in metal; transport in geologic media

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steindler, M.J.; Ader, M.; Barletta, R.E.

    1980-09-01

    For pyrochemical and dry processing materials development included exposure to molten metal and salt of Mo-0.5% Ti-0.07% Ti-0.01% C, Mo-30% W, SiC, Si/sub 2/ON/sub 2/, ZrB/sub 2/-SiC, MgAl/sub 2/O/sub 4/, Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/, AlN, HfB/sub 2/, Y/sub 2/O/sub 3/, BeO, Si/sub 3/N/sub 4/, nickel nitrate-infiltrated W, W-coated Mo, and W-metallized alumina-yttria. Work on Th-U salt transport processing included solubility of Th in liquid Cd, defining the Cd-Th and Cd-Mg-Th phase diagrams, ThO/sub 2/ reduction experiments, and electrolysis of CaO in molten salt. Work on pyrochemical processes and associated hardware for coprocessing U and Pu in spent FBR fuels included a second-generation computer model of the transport process, turntable transport process design, work on the U-Cu-Mg system, and U and Pu distribution coefficients between molten salt and metal. Refractory metal vessels are being service-life tested. The chloride volatility processing of Th-based fuel was evaluated for its proliferation resistance, and a preliminary ternary phase diagram for the Zn-U-Pu system was computed. Material characterization and process analysis were conducted on the Exportable Pyrochemical process (Pyro-Civex process). Literature data on oxidation of fissile metals to oxides were reviewed. Work was done on chemical bases for the reprocessing of actinide oxides in molten salts. Flowsheets are being developed for the processing of fuel in molten tin. Work on encapsulation of solidified radioactive waste in metal matrix included studies of leach rate of crystalline waste materials and of the impact resistance of metal-matrix waste forms. In work on the transport properties of nuclear waste in geologic media, adsorption of Sr on oolitic limestone was studied, as well as the migration of Cs in basalt. Fitting of data on the adsorption of iodate by hematite to a mathematical model was attempted.

  19. Microwave drying of ferric oxide pellets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pickles, C.A.; Xia, D.K.

    1997-12-31

    The application of microwave energy for the drying of ferric oxide pellets has been investigated and evaluated. It is shown that the microwave drying rates are much higher than those observed in the conventional process. Also there is some potential for improved quality of the product. As a stand-alone technology it is unlikely that microwave drying would be economical for pellets due to the low cost of conventional fuels. However, based on an understanding of the drying mechanisms in the conventional process and in the microwave process, it is shown that microwave-assisted drying offers considerable potential. In this hybrid process, the advantages of the two drying techniques are combined to provide an improved drying process.

  20. Process for treating moisture laden coal fines

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Davis, Burl E.; Henry, Raymond M.; Trivett, Gordon S.; Albaugh, Edgar W.

    1993-01-01

    A process is provided for making a free flowing granular product from moisture laden caked coal fines, such as wet cake, by mixing a water immiscible substance, such as oil, with the caked coal, preferably under low shear forces for a period of time sufficient to produce a plurality of free flowing granules. Each granule is preferably comprised of a dry appearing admixture of one or more coal particle, 2-50% by weight water and the water immiscible substance.

  1. Wetting kinetics of water nano-droplet containing non-surfactant nanoparticles: A molecular dynamics study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Gui; Department of Mechanical Engineering and Mechanics, Drexel University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 ; Hu, Han; Sun, Ying E-mail: ysun@coe.drexel.edu; Duan, Yuanyuan E-mail: ysun@coe.drexel.edu

    2013-12-16

    In this Letter, dynamic wetting of water nano-droplets containing non-surfactant gold nanoparticles on a gold substrate is examined via molecular dynamics simulations. The results show that the addition of non-surfactant nanoparticles hinders the nano-second droplet wetting process, attributed to the increases in both surface tension of the nanofluid and friction between nanofluid and substrate. The droplet wetting kinetics decreases with increasing nanoparticle loading and water-particle interaction energy. The observed wetting suppression and the absence of nanoparticle ordering near the contact line of nano-sized droplets differ from the wetting behaviors reported from nanofluid droplets of micron size or larger.

  2. High strength air-dried aerogels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coronado, Paul R.; Satcher, Jr., Joe H.

    2012-11-06

    A method for the preparation of high strength air-dried organic aerogels. The method involves the sol-gel polymerization of organic gel precursors, such as resorcinol with formaldehyde (RF) in aqueous solvents with R/C ratios greater than about 1000 and R/F ratios less than about 1:2.1. Using a procedure analogous to the preparation of resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF) aerogels, this approach generates wet gels that can be air dried at ambient temperatures and pressures. The method significantly reduces the time and/or energy required to produce a dried aerogel compared to conventional methods using either supercritical solvent extraction. The air dried gel exhibits typically less than 5% shrinkage.

  3. Report on Biomass Drying Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Amos, W. A.

    1999-01-12

    Using dry fuel provides significant benefits to combustion boilers, mainly increased boiler efficiency, lower air emissions, and improved boiler operation. The three main choices for drying biomass are rotary dryers, flash dryers, and superheated steam dryers. Which dryer is chosen for a particular application depends very much on the material characteristics of the biomass, the opportunities for integrating the process and dryer, and the environmental controls needed or already available.

  4. Competitive Wetting in Active Brazes

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Chandross, Michael Evan

    2014-05-01

    We found that the wetting and spreading of molten filler materials (pure Al, pure Ag, and AgAl alloys) on a Kovar ™ (001) substrate was studied with molecular dynamics simulations. A suite of different simulations was used to understand the effects on spreading rates due to alloying as well as reactions with the substrate. Moreover, the important conclusion is that the presence of Al in the alloy enhances the spreading of Ag, while the Ag inhibits the spreading of Al.

  5. Mechanics of compression drying solid wood cubes and chip mats

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haygreen, J.G.

    1982-10-01

    Wood cubes and chip mats were compressed in a cell under ram face pressures to 13,000 psi. The amount of water removed was determined for a range of species of various specific gravities and at several green moisture contents (MCs). The time dependence of the process was also studied. The purpose of this work was to describe the mechanics of compression drying which must be considered in designing commercial equipment. Green MC of wood chip mats was reduced to 45 to 50 percent MC (31% to 33% MC, wet basis) at pressures of 13,000 psi. At low pressures of 1,000 to 2,000 psi, moisture was reduced to 60 to 75 percent MC (38% to 43% MC, wet basis). There was a significantly greater moisture reduction at these low pressures if the pressure is maintained for up to 2 minutes rather than releasing it immediately once the target pressure is obtained. Water can be removed from high density species but pressures required are higher by a factor of 2 to 3. The chip mat is reduced to about one-sixth of its original volume at 2,000 psi and one-seventh at 6,000 psi. When pressing cubes of high green MC, about 7,000 foot-pounds of work (equivalent to 9 Btu) applied to the wood will remove up to 1 pound of water. (Refs. 9).

  6. dry-regen | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Dry Regenerable Sorbents Project No.: FC26-07NT43089 Schematic of RTI's Dry Carbonate Process (click image to enlarge) Research Triangle Institute (RTI) International completed two projects, NT43089 and NT40923, to investigate the use of sodium carbonate (Na2CO3 or soda ash) as an inexpensive, dry, and regenerable sorbent for carbon dioxide (CO2) capture in the Dry Carbonate Process. In this process, Na2CO3 reacts with CO2 and water to form sodium bicarbonate at the temperature of the flue gas

  7. Model for flue-gas desulfurization in a circulating dry scrubber

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neathery, J.K.

    1996-01-01

    A simple model was developed to describe the absorption of SO{sub 2} in a circulating dry scrubbing (CDS) process, which is a semi dry, lime-based, flue-gas desulfurization (FGD) process that utilizes a circulating fluidized bed arrangement for contacting a sorbent with SO{sub 2}-laden flue gas under coolside conditions. The reaction chemistry is thought to be similar to that of spray-drying absorption. The liquid-phase mass-transfer coefficient was successfully modeled as a function of the sorbent particle spacing on the wetted surfaces. Gas-phase mass-transfer resistances were assumed to be insignificant. Due to the high surface area available in a CDS reactor, the evaporation rate of water from the slurry was modeled as constant-rate drying according to classic spray-dryer theory. However, the falling-rate and diffusion evaporation stages were negligible in CDS since sorbent particle bunching at the surface of the slurry is nonexistent.

  8. Coal combustion by wet oxidation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bettinger, J.A.; Lamparter, R.A.; McDowell, D.C.

    1980-11-15

    The combustion of coal by wet oxidation was studied by the Center for Waste Management Programs, of Michigan Technological University. In wet oxidation a combustible material, such as coal, is reacted with oxygen in the presence of liquid water. The reaction is typically carried out in the range of 204/sup 0/C (400/sup 0/F) to 353/sup 0/C (650/sup 0/F) with sufficient pressure to maintain the water present in the liquid state, and provide the partial pressure of oxygen in the gas phase necessary to carry out the reaction. Experimental studies to explore the key reaction parameters of temperature, time, oxidant, catalyst, coal type, and mesh size were conducted by running batch tests in a one-gallon stirred autoclave. The factors exhibiting the greatest effect on the extent of reaction were temperature and residence time. The effect of temperature was studied from 204/sup 0/C (400/sup 0/F) to 260/sup 0/C (500/sup 0/F) with a residence time from 600 to 3600 seconds. From this data, the reaction activation energy of 2.7 x 10/sup 4/ calories per mole was determined for a high-volatile-A-Bituminous type coal. The reaction rate constant may be determined at any temperature from the activation energy using the Arrhenius equation. Additional data were generated on the effect of mesh size and different coal types. A sample of peat was also tested. Two catalysts were evaluated, and their effects on reaction rate presented in the report. In addition to the high temperature combustion, low temperature desulfurization is discussed. Desulfurization can improve low grade coal to be used in conventional combustion methods. It was found that 90% of the sulfur can be removed from the coal by wet oxidation with the carbon untouched. Further desulfurization studies are indicated.

  9. Dry compliant seal for phosphoric acid fuel cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Granata, Jr., Samuel J.; Woodle, Boyd M.

    1990-01-01

    A dry compliant overlapping seal for a phosphoric acid fuel cell preformed f non-compliant Teflon to make an anode seal frame that encircles an anode assembly, a cathode seal frame that encircles a cathode assembly and a compliant seal frame made of expanded Teflon, generally encircling a matrix assembly. Each frame has a thickness selected to accommodate various tolerances of the fuel cell elements and are either bonded to one of the other frames or to a bipolar or end plate. One of the non-compliant frames is wider than the other frames forming an overlap of the matrix over the wider seal frame, which cooperates with electrolyte permeating the matrix to form a wet seal within the fuel cell that prevents process gases from intermixing at the periphery of the fuel cell and a dry seal surrounding the cell to keep electrolyte from the periphery thereof. The frames may be made in one piece, in L-shaped portions or in strips and have an outer perimeter which registers with the outer perimeter of bipolar or end plates to form surfaces upon which flanges of pan shaped, gas manifolds can be sealed.

  10. Safe Advantage on Dry Interim Spent Nuclear Fuel Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Romanato, L.S.

    2008-07-01

    This paper aims to present the advantages of dry cask storage in comparison with the wet storage (cooling water pools) for SNF. When the nuclear fuel is removed from the core reactor, it is moved to a storage unit and it wait for a final destination. Generally, the spent nuclear fuel (SNF) remains inside water pools within the reactors facility for the radioactive activity decay. After some period of time in pools, SNF can be sent to a definitive deposition in a geological repository and handled as radioactive waste or to reprocessing facilities, or still, wait for a future solution. Meanwhile, SNF remains stored for a period of time in dry or wet facilities, depending on the method adopted by the nuclear power plant or other plans of the country. Interim storage, up to 20 years ago, was exclusively wet and if the nuclear facility had to be decommissioned another storage solution had to be found. At the present time, after a preliminary cooling of the SNF elements inside the water pool, the elements can be stored in dry facilities. This kind of storage does not need complex radiation monitoring and it is safer then wet one. Casks, either concrete or metallic, are safer, especially on occurrence of earthquakes, like that occurred at Kashiwazaki-Kariwa nuclear power plant, in Japan on July 16, 2007. (authors)

  11. Advanced dry scrubbing on Ohio coals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Amrhein, G.T.; Kudlac, G.A.; Smith, P.V.

    1994-12-31

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate, at pilot scale, that advanced dry-scrubbing-based technologies can attain the performance levels specified by the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments for SO{sub 2} emissions while burning high-sulfur Ohio coal, and that these technologies are economically competitive with wet scrubber systems. Dry scrubbing involves injecting an atomized mist of sorbent-containing slurry droplets into hot flue gas. The reaction products exit the scrubber as a dry powder that can be filtered from the gas and recycled or disposed. The project consists of testing an advanced dry scrubber system on two high sulfur Ohio coals. All testing will be conducted in the 5 MBtu pilot facility at B and W`s Alliance Research Center. The facility consists of a test furnace, a dry scrubber using a B and W DuraJet{trademark} two fluid atomizer, a pulse-jet baghouse, and an ash slaking system. Tests were conducted with and without recycling the solids collected from the baghouse. During recycle operation the solids were slurried with water and injected into the dry scrubber with the fresh lime slurry. Test results will be presented, including SO{sub 2} removal (70--99%), calcium to sulfur ratios (1.1--1.9), dry scrubber outlet temperatures (10--30 F), and system performance. An advanced feature of the project was the use of the B and W patented Droplet Impingement Device which removes large slurry droplets from the gas stream prior to the baghouse to prevent baghouse deposition. This allows operation at low approach temperatures.

  12. Wetting and free surface flow modeling for potting and encapsulation.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brooks, Carlton, F.; Brooks, Michael J.; Graham, Alan Lyman; Noble, David F. ); Notz, Patrick K.; Hopkins, Matthew Morgan; Castaneda, Jaime N.; Mahoney, Leo James; Baer, Thomas A.; Berchtold, Kathryn; Adolf, Douglas Brian; Wilkes, Edward Dean; Rao, Rekha Ranjana; Givler, Richard C.; Sun, Amy Cha-Tien; Cote, Raymond O.; Mondy, Lisa Ann; Grillet, Anne Mary; Kraynik, Andrew Michael

    2007-06-01

    As part of an effort to reduce costs and improve quality control in encapsulation and potting processes the Technology Initiative Project ''Defect Free Manufacturing and Assembly'' has completed a computational modeling study of flows representative of those seen in these processes. Flow solutions are obtained using a coupled, finite-element-based, numerical method based on the GOMA/ARIA suite of Sandia flow solvers. The evolution of the free surface is solved with an advanced level set algorithm. This approach incorporates novel methods for representing surface tension and wetting forces that affect the evolution of the free surface. In addition, two commercially available codes, ProCAST and MOLDFLOW, are also used on geometries representing encapsulation processes at the Kansas City Plant. Visual observations of the flow in several geometries are recorded in the laboratory and compared to the models. Wetting properties for the materials in these experiments are measured using a unique flowthrough goniometer.

  13. Dephosphorization when using DRI

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2005-09-21

    The increase in high quality steel production in electric arc furnaces (EAFs) requires the use of scrap substitute materials, such as Direct Reduced Iron (DRI) and Hot Briquetted Iron (HBI). Although DRI and HBI products have lower copper and nickel contents than most scrap materials, they can contain up to ten times more phosphorus. This project, led by Carnegie Mellon Universitys Center for Iron and Steelmaking Research, improves the understanding of how phosphorus behaves when DRI and HBI melt.

  14. Wet buildings: A moisture primer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lotz, W.A.

    1998-01-01

    This article will attempt to clarify the various issues that must be solved when investigating the cause of a building moisture problem. Several classic errors that result in mechanical engineers and contractors defending themselves in lawsuits will be reviewed. Moisture from internal and external sources is the most frequent cause of building problems and subsequent legal action. Many reported roof leaks are, in reality, condensation problems that have nothing to do with the roofing contractor. Mechanical design engineers need to work closely with the building owner, architect, and contractors to insure a dry, durable building. The first issue to examine is if the moisture is coming from the outside--i.e. rain. Other leaks discussed are ice dams, groundwater leaks, and roof leaks. Also discussed are vapor barriers, continuity of insulation, humidification chilled water, warehouses, trash plants, indoor pools, and hot or humid climates.

  15. Combined Corex/DRI technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Flickenschild, A.J.; Reufer, F.; Eberle, A.; Siuka, D.

    1996-08-01

    A feasible steelmaking alternative, the Corex/direct reduction/electric arc furnace combination, provides an economic route for the production of high quality steel products. This combination is a major step into a new generation of iron and steel mills. These mills are based on the production of liquid steel using noncoking coal and comply with the increasing demands of environmental protection. The favorable production costs are based on: Utilization of Corex and DRI/HBI plants; Production of hot metal equal to blast furnace quality; Use of low cost raw materials such as noncoking coal and lump ore; Use of process gas as reducing agent for DRI/HBI production; and Use of electric arc furnace with high hot metal input as the steelmaking process. The high flexibility of the process permits the adjustment of production in accordance with the strategy of the steel mills. New but proven technologies and applications of the latest state of art steelmaking process, e.g., Corex, in conjunction with DRI production as basic raw material for an electric arc furnace, will insure high quality, high availability, optimized energy generation at high efficiency rates, and high product quality for steelmaking.

  16. Theoretical approach for enhanced mass transfer effects in-duct flue gas desulfurization processes. Volume 2, Duct spray drying: Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jozewicz, W.; Rochelle, G.T.

    1992-01-29

    Removal of sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) from the flue gas of coal- burning power plants can be achieved by duct spray drying using calcium hydroxide [Ca(OH){sub 2}] slurries. A primary objective of this research was to discover the aspects of mass transfer into Ca(OH){sub 2} slurries which limit SO{sub 2} absorption. A bench- scale stirred tank reactor with a flat gas/liquid interface was used to simulate SO{sub 2} absorption in a slurry droplet. The absorption rate of SO{sub 2} from gas concentrations of 500 to 5000 ppm was measured at 55{degrees}C in clear solutions and slurries of Ca(OH){sub 2} up to 1.0 M (7 wt percent). Results are reported in terms of the enhancement factor, {O}. This research will allow prediction of conditions where the absorption of SO{sub 2} in Ca(OH){sub 2} slurries can be enhanced by changes to liquid phase constituents (under which SO{sub 2} absorption is controlled by liquid film mass transfer). Experiments in the stirred tank have shown that SO{sub 2} absorption in a 1.0 M Ca(OH){sub 2} slurry was completely dominated by gas film mass transfer with a large excess of Ca(OH){sub 2} but becomes controlled by liquid film resistance at greater than 50 percent Ca(OH){sub 2} utilization. (VC)

  17. Wetting of a Chemically Heterogeneous Surface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frink, L.J.D.; Salinger, A.G.

    1998-11-20

    Theories for inhomogeneous fluids have focused in recent years on wetting, capillary conden- sation, and solvation forces for model systems where the surface(s) is(are) smooth homogeneous parallel plates, cylinders, or spherical drops. Unfortunately natural systems are more likely to be hetaogeneous both in surt%ce shape and surface chemistry. In this paper we discuss the conse- quences of chemical heterogeneity on wetting. Specifically, a 2-dimensional implementation of a nonlocal density functional theory is solved for a striped surface model. Both the strength and range of the heterogeneity are varied. Contact angles are calculated, and phase transitions (both the wetting transition and a local layering transition) are located. The wetting properties of the surface ase shown to be strongly dependent on the nature of the surface heterogeneity. In addition highly ordered nanoscopic phases are found, and the operational limits for formation of ordered or crystalline phases of nanoscopic extent are discussed.

  18. National Ignition Facility wet weather construction plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kugler, A N

    1998-01-01

    This report presents a wet weather construction plan for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) construction project. Construction of the NIF commenced in mid- 1997, and excavation of the site was completed in the fall. Preparations for placing concrete foundations began in the fall, and above normal rainfall is expected over the tinter. Heavy rainfall in late November impacted foundation construction, and a wet weather construction plan was determined to be needed. This wet weather constiction plan recommends a strategy, techniques and management practices to prepare and protect the site corn wet weather effects and allow construction work to proceed. It is intended that information in this plan be incorporated in the Stormwater Pollution Prevention Plan (SWPPP) as warranted.

  19. Reducing the atmospheric impact of wet slaking

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    B.D. Zubitskii; G.V. Ushakov; B.G. Tryasunov; A.G.Ushakov

    2009-05-15

    Means of reducing the atmospheric emissions due to the wet slaking of coke are considered. One option, investigated here, is to remove residual active silt and organic compounds from the biologically purified wastewater sent for slaking, by coagulation and flocculation.

  20. ,"West Virginia Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Data for" ,"Data 1","West Virginia Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After ... PM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: West Virginia Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After ...

  1. ,"West Virginia Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Data for" ,"Data 1","West Virginia Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation ... PM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: West Virginia Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation ...

  2. ,"West Virginia Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Data for" ,"Data 1","West Virginia Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet ... PM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: West Virginia Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet ...

  3. ,"Virginia Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Data for" ,"Data 1","Virginia Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After ... 12:22:14 PM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: Virginia Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After ...

  4. Texas State Offshore Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Texas State Offshore Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade...

  5. Texas State Offshore Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Texas State Offshore Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves...

  6. Texas State Offshore Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Texas State Offshore Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic...

  7. Texas Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Texas Natural Gas, ... Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet After Lease Separation, as of Dec. 31 Texas Natural Gas ...

  8. Texas Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Texas Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves ... Wet After Lease Separation, as of Dec. 31 Texas Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas Proved ...

  9. Texas Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation,...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Texas Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion ... Nonassociated Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet After Lease Separation, as of Dec. 31 Texas ...

  10. MHK Technologies/WET NZ | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    to the MHK database homepage WET NZ.jpg Technology Profile Primary Organization Wave Energy Technology New Zealand WET NZ Technology Resource Click here Wave Technology...

  11. Texas - RRC District 1 Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Texas - RRC District 1 Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade...

  12. Texas - RRC District 6 Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Texas - RRC District 6 Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade...

  13. Texas - RRC District 5 Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Texas - RRC District 5 Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade...

  14. Freeze drying method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coppa, Nicholas V.; Stewart, Paul; Renzi, Ernesto

    1999-01-01

    The present invention provides methods and apparatus for freeze drying in which a solution, which can be a radioactive salt dissolved within an acid, is frozen into a solid on vertical plates provided within a freeze drying chamber. The solid is sublimated into vapor and condensed in a cold condenser positioned above the freeze drying chamber and connected thereto by a conduit. The vertical positioning of the cold condenser relative to the freeze dryer helps to help prevent substances such as radioactive materials separated from the solution from contaminating the cold condenser. Additionally, the system can be charged with an inert gas to produce a down rush of gas into the freeze drying chamber to also help prevent such substances from contaminating the cold condenser.

  15. Freeze drying apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coppa, Nicholas V.; Stewart, Paul; Renzi, Ernesto

    2001-01-01

    The present invention provides methods and apparatus for freeze drying in which a solution, which can be a radioactive salt dissolved within an acid, is frozen into a solid on vertical plates provided within a freeze drying chamber. The solid is sublimated into vapor and condensed in a cold condenser positioned above the freeze drying chamber and connected thereto by a conduit. The vertical positioning of the cold condenser relative to the freeze dryer helps to help prevent substances such as radioactive materials separated from the solution from contaminating the cold condenser. Additionally, the system can be charged with an inert gas to produce a down rush of gas into the freeze drying chamber to also help prevent such substances from contaminating the cold condenser.

  16. Freeze drying method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coppa, N.V.; Stewart, P.; Renzi, E.

    1999-12-07

    The present invention provides methods and apparatus for freeze drying in which a solution, which can be a radioactive salt dissolved within an acid, is frozen into a solid on vertical plates provided within a freeze drying chamber. The solid is sublimated into vapor and condensed in a cold condenser positioned above the freeze drying chamber and connected thereto by a conduit. The vertical positioning of the cold condenser relative to the freeze dryer helps to help prevent substances such as radioactive materials separated from the solution from contaminating the cold condenser. Additionally, the system can be charged with an inert gas to produce a down rush of gas into the freeze drying chamber to also help prevent such substances from contaminating the cold condenser.

  17. Coal combustion by wet oxidation. Wet oxidation of coal for energy production: test plan and partial results. Interim report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bettinger, J.A.

    1980-07-10

    A test plan has been developed which will provide the data necessary to carry out design and economic studies of a steam generating facility, employing the wet oxidation of coal as a heat source. It is obvious, from the literature search and preliminary testing, that the higher the reaction temperature, the more complete the combustion of coal. However, operation at elevated temperatures and pressures present difficult design problems, and the necessary equipment is costly. Operation under these conditions can only be justified by the higher economic value of high pressure and temperature steam. With a reduction in temperature from 550/sup 0/F (228/sup 0/C) to 450/sup 0/F (232/sup 0/C), the operating pressure is reduced by more than half, thus holding down the overall cost of the system. For this reason, our plan is to study both the enhancement of low temperature wet oxidation of coal, and the higher operating regions. The coal selected for the first portion of this test is an Eastern Appalachian high-volatile-A Bituminous type, from the Upper Clarion seam in Pennsylvania. This coal was selected as being a typical high sulfur, eastern coal. The wet oxidation of coal to produce low pressure steam is a process suited for a high sulfur, low grade, coal. It is not intended that wet oxidation be used in all applications with all types of coals, as it does not appear to be competitive, economically, with conventional combustion, therefore the testing will focus on using high sulfur, low grade coals. In the later portion of testing all the available coals will be tested. In addition, a sample of Minnesota peat will be tested to determine if it also can be used in the process.

  18. Safety Aspects of Dry Spent Fuel Storage and Spent Fuel Management - 13559

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Botsch, W.; Smalian, S.; Hinterding, P.

    2013-07-01

    Dry storage systems are characterized by passive and inherent safety systems ensuring safety even in case of severe incidents or accidents. After the events of Fukushima, the advantages of such passively and inherently safe dry storage systems have become more and more obvious. As with the storage of all radioactive materials, the storage of spent nuclear fuel (SF) and high-level radioactive waste (HLW) must conform to safety requirements. Following safety aspects must be achieved throughout the storage period: - safe enclosure of radioactive materials, - safe removal of decay heat, - securing nuclear criticality safety, - avoidance of unnecessary radiation exposure. The implementation of these safety requirements can be achieved by dry storage of SF and HLW in casks as well as in other systems such as dry vault storage systems or spent fuel pools, where the latter is neither a dry nor a passive system. Furthermore, transport capability must be guaranteed during and after storage as well as limitation and control of radiation exposure. The safe enclosure of radioactive materials in dry storage casks can be achieved by a double-lid sealing system with surveillance of the sealing system. The safe removal of decay heat must be ensured by the design of the storage containers and the storage facility. The safe confinement of radioactive inventory has to be ensured by mechanical integrity of fuel assembly structures. This is guaranteed, e.g. by maintaining the mechanical integrity of the fuel rods or by additional safety measures for defective fuel rods. In order to ensure nuclear critically safety, possible effects of accidents have also to be taken into consideration. In case of dry storage it might be necessary to exclude the re-positioning of fissile material inside the container and/or neutron moderator exclusion might be taken into account. Unnecessary radiation exposure can be avoided by the cask or canister vault system itself. In Germany dry storage of SF in casks fulfills both transport and storage requirements. Mostly, storage facilities are designed as concrete buildings above the ground, but due to regional constraints, one storage facility has also been built as a rock tunnel. The decay heat is always removed by natural air flow; further technical equipment is not needed. The removal of decay heat and shielding had been modeled and calculated by state-of-the-art computer codes before such a facility has been built. TueV and BAM present their long experience in the licensing process for sites and casks and inform about spent nuclear fuel management and issues concerning dry storage of spent nuclear fuel. Different storage systems and facilities in Germany, Europe and world-wide are compared with respect to the safety aspects mentioned above. Initial points are the safety issues of wet storage of SF, and it is shown how dry storage systems can ensure the compliance with the mentioned safety criteria over a long storage period. The German storage concept for dry storage of SF and HLW is presented and discussed. Exemplarily, the process of licensing, erection and operation of selected German dry storage facilities is presented. (authors)

  19. Mercury removal in utility wet scrubber using a chelating agent

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Amrhein, Gerald T.

    2001-01-01

    A method for capturing and reducing the mercury content of an industrial flue gas such as that produced in the combustion of a fossil fuel or solid waste adds a chelating agent, such as ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) or other similar compounds like HEDTA, DTPA and/or NTA, to the flue gas being scrubbed in a wet scrubber used in the industrial process. The chelating agent prevents the reduction of oxidized mercury to elemental mercury, thereby increasing the mercury removal efficiency of the wet scrubber. Exemplary tests on inlet and outlet mercury concentration in an industrial flue gas were performed without and with EDTA addition. Without EDTA, mercury removal totaled 42%. With EDTA, mercury removal increased to 71%. The invention may be readily adapted to known wet scrubber systems and it specifically provides for the removal of unwanted mercury both by supplying S.sup.2- ions to convert Hg.sup.2+ ions into mercuric sulfide (HgS) and by supplying a chelating agent to sequester other ions, including but not limited to Fe.sup.2+ ions, which could otherwise induce the unwanted reduction of Hg.sup.2+ to the form, Hg.sup.0.

  20. Wet powder seal for gas containment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stang, Louis G.

    1982-01-01

    A gas seal is formed by a compact layer of an insoluble powder and liquid filling the fine interstices of that layer. The smaller the particle size of the selected powder, such as sand or talc, the finer will be the interstices or capillary spaces in the layer and the greater will be the resulting sealing capacity, i.e., the gas pressure differential which the wet powder layer can withstand. Such wet powder seal is useful in constructing underground gas reservoirs or storage cavities for nuclear wastes as well as stopping leaks in gas mains buried under ground or situated under water. The sealing capacity of the wet powder seal can be augmented by the hydrostatic head of a liquid body established over the seal.

  1. Wet powder seal for gas containment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stang, L.G.

    1979-08-29

    A gas seal is formed by a compact layer of an insoluble powder and liquid filling the fine interstices of that layer. The smaller the particle size of the selected powder, such as sand or talc, the finer will be the interstices or capillary spaces in the layer and the greater will be the resulting sealing capacity, i.e., the gas pressure differential which the wet powder layer can withstand. Such wet powder seal is useful in constructing underground gas reservoirs or storage cavities for nuclear wastes as well as stopping leaks in gas mains buried under ground or situated under water. The sealing capacity of the wet powder seal can be augmented by the hydrostatic head of a liquid body established over the seal.

  2. Controllable underwater anisotropic oil-wetting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yong, Jiale; Chen, Feng Yang, Qing; Farooq, Umar; Bian, Hao; Du, Guangqing; Hou, Xun

    2014-08-18

    This Letter demonstrates a simple method to achieve underwater anisotropic oil-wetting using silicon surfaces with a microgroove array produced by femtosecond laser ablation. The oil contact angles along the direction perpendicular to the grooves are consistently larger than those parallel to the microgroove arrays in water because the oil droplet is restricted by the energy barrier that exists between the non-irradiated domain and the trapped water in the laser-ablated microgrooves. This underwater anisotropic oil-wetting is able to be controlled, and the anisotropy can be tuned from 0° to ∼20° by adjusting the period of the microgroove arrays.

  3. Drying '86. Volume 1-2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mujumdar, A.S. )

    1986-01-01

    These proceedings contain 123 papers grouped under the headings of: Drying theory and modelling; Drying of granular materials; Spray drying; Drying of paper and wood products; Drying of foodstuff and biomaterials; Drying of agricultural products and grains; Superheated steam drying; Industrial drying systems and novel dryers; Use of solar energy in drying; Measurement and control of humidity and moisture; and Dewatering.

  4. Critically safe vacuum pickup for use in wet or dry cleanup of radioactive materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zeren, Joseph D.

    1994-01-01

    A vacuum pickup of critically safe quantity and geometric shape is used in cleanup of radioactive materials. Collected radioactive material is accumulated in four vertical, parallel, equally spaced canisters arranged in a cylinder configuration. Each canister contains a filter bag. An upper intake manifold includes four 90 degree spaced, downward facing nipples. Each nipple communicates with the top of a canister. The bottom of each canister communicates with an exhaust manifold comprising four radially extending tubes that meet at the bottom of a centrally located vertical cylinder. The top of the central cylinder terminates at a motor/fan power head. A removable HEPA filter is located intermediate the top of the central cylinder and the power head. Four horizontal bypass tubes connect the top of the central cylinder to the top of each of the canisters. Air enters the vacuum cleaner via a hose connected to the intake manifold. Air then travels down the canisters, where particulate material is accumulated in generally equal quantities in each filter bag. Four air paths of bag filtered air then pass radially inward to the bottom of the central cylinder. Air moves up the central cylinder, through the HEPA filter, through a vacuum fan compartment, and exits the vacuum cleaner. A float air flow valve is mounted at the top of the central cylinder. When liquid accumulates to a given level within the central cylinder, the four bypass tubes, and the four canisters, suction is terminated by operation of the float valve.

  5. Gelcasting compositions having improved drying characteristics and machinability

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Janney, Mark A.; Walls, Claudia A. H.

    2001-01-01

    A gelcasting composition has improved drying behavior, machinability and shelf life in the dried and unfired state. The composition includes an inorganic powder, solvent, monomer system soluble in the solvent, an initiator system for polymerizing the monomer system, and a plasticizer soluble in the solvent. Dispersants and other processing aides to control slurry properties can be added. The plasticizer imparts an ability to dry thick section parts, to store samples in the dried state without cracking under conditions of varying relative humidity, and to machine dry gelcast parts without cracking or chipping. A method of making gelcast parts is also disclosed.

  6. Combined Grinding and Drying of Biomass in One Operation Phase I

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sokhansanj, S.

    2008-06-26

    First American Scientific Corporation (FASC) has developed a unique and innovative grinder/dryer called KDS Micronex. The KS (Kinetic Disintegration System) combines two operations of grinding and drying into a single operation which reduces dependence on external heat input. The machine captures the heat of comminution and combines it will centrifugal forces to expedite moisture extraction from wet biomass. Because it uses mechanical forces rather than providing direct heat to perform the drying operation, it is a simpler machine and uses less energy than conventional grinding and drying operations which occur as two separate steps. The entire compact unit can be transported on a flatbed trailer to the site where biomass is available. Hence, the KDS Micronex is a technology that enables inexpensive pretreatment of waste materials and biomass. A well prepared biomass can be used as feed, fuel or fertilizer instead of being discarded. Electricity and chemical feedstock produced from such biomass would displace the use of fossil fuels and no net greenhouse gas emissions would result from such bio-based operations. Organic fertilizers resulting from the KS Micronex grinding/drying process will be pathogen-free unlike raw animal manures. The feasibility tests on KS during Phase I showed that a prototype machine can be developed, field tested and the technology demonstrated for commercial applications. The present KDS machine can remove up to 400 kg/h of water from a wet feed material. Since biomass processors demand a finished product that is only 10% moist and most raw materials like corn stover, bagasse, layer manure, cow dung, and waste wood have moisture contents of the order of 50%, this water removal rate translates to a production rate of roughly half a ton per hour. this is too small for most processors who are unwilling to acquire multiple machines because of the added complexity to the feed and product removal systems. The economics suffer due to small production rates, because the labor costs are a much larger fraction of the production cost. The goal for further research and development work is to scale up the KDS technology incorporating findings from Phase I into a machine that has superior performance characteristics.

  7. Spray-drying FGD

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yeager, K.

    1984-05-01

    Limited data are available on spray drying for SO/SUB/2 and particulate control to enable utilities to evaluate the claims of vendors. EPRI is sponsoring pilot- and full-scale testing of this technology and some results are presented.

  8. Dry piston coal feeder

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hathaway, Thomas J.; Bell, Jr., Harold S.

    1979-01-01

    This invention provides a solids feeder for feeding dry coal to a pressurized gasifier at elevated temperatures substantially without losing gas from the gasifier by providing a lock having a double-acting piston that feeds the coals into the gasifier, traps the gas from escaping, and expels the trapped gas back into the gasifier.

  9. Predictive modeling of reactive wetting and metal joining.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    van Swol, Frank B.

    2013-09-01

    The performance, reproducibility and reliability of metal joints are complex functions of the detailed history of physical processes involved in their creation. Prediction and control of these processes constitutes an intrinsically challenging multi-physics problem involving heating and melting a metal alloy and reactive wetting. Understanding this process requires coupling strong molecularscale chemistry at the interface with microscopic (diffusion) and macroscopic mass transport (flow) inside the liquid followed by subsequent cooling and solidification of the new metal mixture. The final joint displays compositional heterogeneity and its resulting microstructure largely determines the success or failure of the entire component. At present there exists no computational tool at Sandia that can predict the formation and success of a braze joint, as current capabilities lack the ability to capture surface/interface reactions and their effect on interface properties. This situation precludes us from implementing a proactive strategy to deal with joining problems. Here, we describe what is needed to arrive at a predictive modeling and simulation capability for multicomponent metals with complicated phase diagrams for melting and solidification, incorporating dissolutive and composition-dependent wetting.

  10. Biomass drying technologies. Final report, September 1997--May 1998

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Salomaa, E.

    1998-07-01

    The report examines the technologies used for drying of biomass and the energy requirements of biomass dryers. Biomass drying processes, drying methods, and the conventional types of dryers are surveyed generally. Drying methods and dryer studies using superheated steam as the drying medium are discussed more closely, with comparison to the methods of drying using air or flue gas as the drying medium. Available types of steam dryers are described with reference to operating conditions, energy requirements, and types of biomass dried. Energy aspects are considered, as well as possibilities of steam utilization to recover the latent heat of vaporization. Thermal energy required for drying of biomass is calculated using tabulated values of steam properties. The amount of steam to provide the thermal energy needed for biomass drying, at different pressures and temperatures applicable in steam dryers, is calculated for both indirectly and directly heated steam dryers. The calculated heat requirement values of steam dryers have been compared with those reported in the literature. Further, anticipated emissions from flue gas and steam drying processes have been summarized.

  11. Draft dry year tools (generation/planning)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    BPA White Book Dry Year Tools Firstgov Dry Year Tools November 9, 2006 - Final Dry Year Guide: The Final Dry Year Guide (PDF, 5 pages, 44 kb) and Figure 1 - Dry Year Strategy (PDF,...

  12. Dry Natural Gas

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Estimated natural gas plant liquids and dry natural gas content of total natural gas proved reserves, 2014 million barrels and billion cubic feet 2014 Dry Natural Gas billion cubic feet billion cubic feet Alaska 6,805 241 6,745 Lower 48 States 382,036 14,788 361,959 Alabama 2,121 59 2,036 Arkansas 12,795 5 12,789 California 2,260 112 2,107 Coastal Region Onshore 277 12 261 Los Angeles Basin Onshore 84 4 80 San Joaquin Basin Onshore 1,823 96 1,690 State Offshore 76 0 76 Colorado 21,992 813 20,851

  13. ,"Virginia Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Data for" ,"Data 1","Virginia Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation ... 12:20:24 PM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: Virginia Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation ...

  14. ,"Virginia Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Data for" ,"Data 1","Virginia Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet ... 12:24:05 PM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: Virginia Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet ...

  15. Indian Centre for Wind Energy Technology C WET | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Centre for Wind Energy Technology C WET Jump to: navigation, search Name: Indian Centre for Wind Energy Technology (C-WET) Place: Chennai, India Zip: 601 302 Sector: Wind energy...

  16. Session: Hot Dry Rock

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tennyson, George P. Jr.; Duchane, David V.; Ponden, Raymond F.; Brown, Donald W.

    1992-01-01

    This session at the Geothermal Energy Program Review X: Geothermal Energy and the Utility Market consisted of four presentations: ''Hot Dry Rock - Summary'' by George P. Tennyson, Jr.; ''HDR Opportunities and Challenges Beyond the Long Term Flow Test'' by David V. Duchane; ''Start-Up Operations at the Fenton Hill HDR Pilot Plant'' by Raymond F. Ponden; and ''Update on the Long-Term Flow Testing Program'' by Donald W. Brown.

  17. Ultrasonic Clothes Drying Technology

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Patel, Viral; Momen, Ayyoub

    2016-05-12

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory researchers Ayyoub Momen and Viral Patel demonstrate a direct contact ultrasonic clothes dryer under development by ORNL in collaboration with General Electric (GE) Appliances. This novel approach uses high-frequency mechanical vibrations instead of heat to extract moisture as cold mist, dramatically reducing drying time and energy use. Funding for this project was competitively awarded by DOE?s Building Technologies Office in 2014. For more information please contact momena@ornl.gov.

  18. Technology Maturation Plan (TMP) Wet Air Oxidation (WAO) Technology for

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Tank 48H Treatment Project (TTP) | Department of Energy Wet Air Oxidation (WAO) Technology for Tank 48H Treatment Project (TTP) Technology Maturation Plan (TMP) Wet Air Oxidation (WAO) Technology for Tank 48H Treatment Project (TTP) This assessment determines the technology maturity level of the candidate Tank 48H treatment technologies that are being considered for implementation at DOE's SRS - specifically Wet Air Oxidation. PDF icon Technology Maturation Plan (TMP) Wet Air Oxidation (WAO)

  19. Tennessee Dry Natural Gas Production (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    64 131 118 94 59 42 1981-2014 Natural Gas Nonassociated, Wet After Lease Separation 161 128 113 88 56 42 1981-2014 Natural Gas Associated-Dissolved, Wet After Lease Separation 3 3 5 6 3 0 1981-2014 Dry Natural Gas 164 131 118 94 59 42 1981 Lease Separation

    161 128 113 88 56 42 1981-2014 Adjustments -29 -7 -24 7 -10 -2 1981-2014 Revision Increases 29 20 70 14 9 17 1981-2014 Revision Decreases 21 35 65 9 19 19 1981-2014 Sales 3 20 2 23 6 0 2000-2014 Acquisitions 0 35 26 0 0 0 2000-2014

  20. Method of drying articles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Janney, M.A.; Kiggans, J.O. Jr.

    1999-03-23

    A method of drying a green particulate article includes the steps of: (a) Providing a green article which includes a particulate material and a pore phase material, the pore phase material including a solvent; and (b) contacting the green article with a liquid desiccant for a period of time sufficient to remove at least a portion of the solvent from the green article, the pore phase material acting as a semipermeable barrier to allow the solvent to be sorbed into the liquid desiccant, the pore phase material substantially preventing the liquid desiccant from entering the pores. 3 figs.

  1. Method of drying articles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Janney, Mark A.; Kiggans, Jr., James O.

    1999-01-01

    A method of drying a green particulate article includes the steps of: a. Providing a green article which includes a particulate material and a pore phase material, the pore phase material including a solvent; and b. contacting the green article with a liquid desiccant for a period of time sufficient to remove at least a portion of the solvent from the green article, the pore phase material acting as a semipermeable barrier to allow the solvent to be sorbed into the liquid desiccant, the pore phase material substantially preventing the liquid desiccant from entering the pores.

  2. Pore-scale dynamics of salt transport and distribution in drying porous media

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shokri, Nima

    2014-01-15

    Understanding the physics of water evaporation from saline porous media is important in many natural and engineering applications such as durability of building materials and preservation of monuments, water quality, and mineral-fluid interactions. We applied synchrotron x-ray micro-tomography to investigate the pore-scale dynamics of dissolved salt distribution in a three dimensional drying saline porous media using a cylindrical plastic column (15 mm in height and 8 mm in diameter) packed with sand particles saturated with CaI{sub 2} solution (5% concentration by mass) with a spatial and temporal resolution of 12 ?m and 30 min, respectively. Every time the drying sand column was set to be imaged, two different images were recorded using distinct synchrotron x-rays energies immediately above and below the K-edge value of Iodine. Taking the difference between pixel gray values enabled us to delineate the spatial and temporal distribution of CaI{sub 2} concentration at pore scale. Results indicate that during early stages of evaporation, air preferentially invades large pores at the surface while finer pores remain saturated and connected to the wet zone at bottom via capillary-induced liquid flow acting as evaporating spots. Consequently, the salt concentration increases preferentially in finer pores where evaporation occurs. Higher salt concentration was observed close to the evaporating surface indicating a convection-driven process. The obtained salt profiles were used to evaluate the numerical solution of the convection-diffusion equation (CDE). Results show that the macro-scale CDE could capture the overall trend of the measured salt profiles but fail to produce the exact slope of the profiles. Our results shed new insight on the physics of salt transport and its complex dynamics in drying porous media and establish synchrotron x-ray tomography as an effective tool to investigate the dynamics of salt transport in porous media at high spatial and temporal resolution.

  3. A study of the minimum wetting rate of isothermal films flowing down on outer surface of vertical pipes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koizumi, Yasuo; Ohtake, Hiroyasu; Ueda, Tatsuhiro

    1999-07-01

    The minimum wetting rate (MWR) was investigated experimentally with an isothermal water film flowing down on the outer surface of test pipes arranged vertically. A dry patch was generated by blowing a small air jet onto the film temporally, and observation was made to discriminate whether the dry patch was rewetted or not. The contact angle of the film at the top edge of the dry patch and the amplitude, length and velocity of large waves on the film were measured. The MWR decreased rapidly as the film flowed down and reached a nearly constant value at a position around 0.6 m down from the film inlet. There were large waves on the film. The tendency of the variation of MWR with the distance coincided well with the growth of the amplitude of large waves with the distance. The contact angle at the top edge of the dry patch varied periodically in a range synchronizing with the arrival of the waves. When the contact angle exceeded the maximum advancing contact angle, the rewetting of the dry patch was initiated. The existing correlations where the smooth surface film was assumed considerably over-predicted the MWR. The MWR was properly given by supposing that the dry patch is rewetted when the maximum of the fluctuating dynamic pressure of the film exceeds the upward component of the surface tension corresponding to the maximum advancing contact angle at the top edge of the dry patch.

  4. Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery in Fractional-Wet Systems: A Pore-Scale Investigation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Armstrong, Ryan T.; Wildenschild, Dorthe

    2012-10-24

    Microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) is a technology that could potentially increase the tertiary recovery of oil from mature oil formations. However, the efficacy of this technology in fractional-wet systems is unknown, and the mechanisms involved in oil mobilization therefore need further investigation. Our MEOR strategy consists of the injection of ex situ produced metabolic byproducts produced by Bacillus mojavensis JF-2 (which lower interfacial tension (IFT) via biosurfactant production) into fractional-wet cores containing residual oil. Two different MEOR flooding solutions were tested; one solution contained both microbes and metabolic byproducts while the other contained only the metabolic byproducts. The columns were imaged with X-ray computed microtomography (CMT) after water flooding, and after MEOR, which allowed for the evaluation of the pore-scale processes taking place during MEOR. Results indicate that the larger residual oil blobs and residual oil held under relatively low capillary pressures were the main fractions recovered during MEOR. Residual oil saturation, interfacial curvatures, and oil blob sizes were measured from the CMT images and used to develop a conceptual model for MEOR in fractional-wet systems. Overall, results indicate that MEOR was effective at recovering oil from fractional-wet systems with reported additional oil recovered (AOR) values between 44 and 80%; the highest AOR values were observed in the most oil-wet system.

  5. Development of advanced, dry, SO{sub x}/NO{sub x} emission control technologies for high-sulfur coal. Final report, April 1, 1993--December 31, 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Amrhein, G.T.

    1994-12-23

    Dry Scrubbing is a common commercial process that has been limited to low- and medium-sulfur coal applications because high-sulfur coal requires more reagent than can be efficiently injected into the process. Babcock & Wilcox has made several advances that extend dry scrubbing technologies to higher sulfur coals by allowing deposit-free operation at low scrubber exit temperatures. This not only increases the amount of reagent that can be injected into the scrubber, but also increases SO{sub 2} removal efficiency and sorbent utilization. The objectives of this project were to demonstrate, at pilot scale, that advanced, dry-scrubbing-based technologies can attain the performance levels specified by the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments for SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} emissions while burning high-sulfur coal, and that these technologies are economically competitive with wet scrubber systems. The use of these technologies by utilities in and around Ohio, on new or retrofit applications, will ensure the future of markets for high-sulfur coal by creating cost effective options to coal switching.

  6. Mathematical models of cocurrent spray drying

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Negiz, A.; Lagergren, E.S.; Cinar, A.

    1995-10-01

    A steady state mathematical model for a cocurrent spray dryer is developed. The model includes the mass, momentum, and energy balances for a single drying droplet as well as the total energy and mass balances of the drying medium. A log normal droplet size distribution is assumed to hold at the exit of the twin-fluid atomizer located at the top of the drying chamber. The discretization of this log normal distribution with a certain number of bins yields a system of nonlinear coupled first-order differential equations as a function of the axial distance of the drying chamber. This system of equations is used to compute the axial changes in droplet diameter, density, velocity, moisture, and temperature for the droplets at each representative bin. Furthermore, the distributions of important process parameters such as droplet moisture content, diameter, density, and temperature are also obtainable along the length of the chamber. On the basis of the developed model, a constrained nonlinear optimization problem is solved, where the exit particle moisture content is minimized with respect to the process inputs subjected to a fixed mean particle diameter at the chamber exit. Response surface studies based on empirical models are also performed to illustrate the effectiveness of these techniques in achieving the optimal solution when an a priori model is not available. The structure of empirical models obtained from the model is shown to be in agreement with the structure of the empirical models obtained from the experimental studies.

  7. No Heat Spray Drying Technology

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Project Objective Advance research from prototype dryer ... First commercial market is dry flavors designed to ... change from existing practice Requires novel dryer ...

  8. DRI Companies | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Irvine, California Zip: 92614 Sector: Solar Product: US-based residential and commercial installer of turnkey solar systems, through subsidiary iDRI Energy. Coordinates:...

  9. Dry FGD (flue-gas desulfurization) at Argonne National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Livengood, C.D.

    1990-01-01

    Flue-gas desulfurization (FGD) systems based on spray drying are a relatively recent addition to the spectrum of sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) control options available to utility and industrial boiler operators. Such systems appear to offer advantages over wet lime/limestone systems in a number of areas: low energy consumption, low capital cost, high reliability, and production of a dry waste that is easily handled and disposed of. These advantages have promoted rapid acceptance of dry scrubbers for applications using western low-sulfur coal, but uncertainties regarding the performance and economics of such systems for control of high-sulfur-coal emissions have slowed adoption of the technology in the Midwest and East. At Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) we have had more than eight years of operating experience with an industrial-scale dry scrubber used with a boiler firing high-sulfur (3.5%) midwestern coal. This paper describes our operating experience with that system and summarizes several research programs that have utilized it. 7 refs., 15 figs., 6 tabs.

  10. Kinetics of wet sodium vapor complex plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mishra, S. K., E-mail: nishfeb@rediffmail.com [Institute for Plasma Research (IPR), Gandhinagar 382428 (India); Sodha, M. S. [Centre of Energy Studies, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi (IITD), New Delhi 110016 (India)] [Centre of Energy Studies, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi (IITD), New Delhi 110016 (India)

    2014-04-15

    In this paper, we have investigated the kinetics of wet (partially condensed) Sodium vapor, which comprises of electrons, ions, neutral atoms, and Sodium droplets (i) in thermal equilibrium and (ii) when irradiated by light. The formulation includes the balance of charge over the droplets, number balance of the plasma constituents, and energy balance of the electrons. In order to evaluate the droplet charge, a phenomenon for de-charging of the droplets, viz., evaporation of positive Sodium ions from the surface has been considered in addition to electron emission and electron/ion accretion. The analysis has been utilized to evaluate the steady state parameters of such complex plasmas (i) in thermal equilibrium and (ii) when irradiated; the results have been graphically illustrated. As a significant outcome irradiated, Sodium droplets are seen to acquire large positive potential, with consequent enhancement in the electron density.

  11. Gulf of Mexico Federal Offshore Percentage of Natural Gas, Wet...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Proved Reserves from Greater than 200 Meters Deep (Percent) Gulf of Mexico Federal Offshore Percentage of Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves from Greater than...

  12. Gulf of Mexico Federal Offshore Natural Gas, Wet After Lease...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Less than 200 Meters Deep (Billion Cubic Feet) Gulf of Mexico Federal Offshore Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Production from Less than 200 Meters Deep (Billion Cubic...

  13. Gulf of Mexico Federal Offshore Natural Gas, Wet After Lease...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Greater than 200 Meters Deep (Billion Cubic Feet) Gulf of Mexico Federal Offshore Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Production from Greater than 200 Meters Deep (Billion...

  14. Gulf of Mexico Federal Offshore Natural Gas, Wet After Lease...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Less than 200 Meters Deep (Billion Cubic Feet) Gulf of Mexico Federal Offshore Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves from Less than 200 Meters Deep (Billion...

  15. Gulf of Mexico Federal Offshore Percentage of Natural Gas, Wet...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Production from Greater than 200 Meters Deep (Percent) Gulf of Mexico Federal Offshore Percentage of Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Production from Greater than 200...

  16. Gulf of Mexico Federal Offshore Natural Gas, Wet After Lease...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Greater than 200 Meters Deep (Billion Cubic Feet) Gulf of Mexico Federal Offshore Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves from Greater than 200 Meters Deep...

  17. Challenges and Opportunities for Wet-Waste Feedstocks - Resource...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications "Wet" Waste-to-Energy in the Bioenergy Technologies Office Algae-to-Fuel: Integrating Thermochemical Conversion, Nutrient Recycling, and Wastewater ...

  18. W.E.T. Automotive Systems | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    E.T. Automotive Systems Jump to: navigation, search Name: W.E.T. Automotive Systems Place: Odelzhausen, Germany Information About Partnership with NREL Partnership with NREL Yes...

  19. New Mexico Natural Gas Wet After Lease Separation, Reserves in...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    After Lease Separation, Reserves in Nonproducing Reservoirs (Billion Cubic Feet) New Mexico Natural Gas Wet After Lease Separation, Reserves in Nonproducing Reservoirs (Billion...

  20. ,"New Mexico Nonassociated Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet After...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","New Mexico Nonassociated Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet After Lease Separation",10,"Annual",201...

  1. Observation of Ordered Structures in Counterion Layers near Wet...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    SciTech Connect Search Results Journal Article: Observation of Ordered Structures in Counterion Layers near Wet Charged Surfaces: A Potential Mechanism for Charge Inversion ...

  2. Wet oxidation of high-concentration reactive dyes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, G.; Lei, L.; Yue, P.L.

    1999-05-01

    Advanced oxidation methods were used to degrade reactive dyes at high concentrations in aqueous solutions. Wet peroxide oxidation (WPO) was found to be the best method in terms of the removal of color and total organic carbon (TOC). Reactive blue (Basilen Brilliant Blue P-3R) was chosen as a model dye for determining the suitable reaction conditions. The variables studied include reaction temperature, H{sub 2}O{sub 2} dosage, solution pH, dye concentration, and catalyst usage. The removal of TOC and color by wet oxidation is very sensitive to the reaction temperature. At 150 C, the removal of 77% TOC and 90% color was obtained in less than 30 min. The initial TOC removal rate is proportional to the H{sub 2}O{sub 2} dosage. The TOC removal is insignificant even when 50% of the stoichiometric amount of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} is used. No color change is observed until the dosage of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} is 100% of the stoichiometric amount. The color removal is closely related to TOC removal. When the pH of the solution is adjusted to 3.5, the dye degradation rate increases significantly. The rates of TOC and color removal are enhanced by using a Cu{sup 2+} catalyst. Another four reactive dyes, Procion Red PX-4B, Cibacron Yellow P-6GS, Cibacron Brown P-6R, and Procion Black PX-2R, were treated at 150 C using WPO. More than 80% TOC was removed from the solution in less than 15 min. The process can remove the colors of al these dyes except Procion Black PX-2R.

  3. Federal Offshore--Gulf of Mexico Dry Natural Gas Production (Million Cubic

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Dec. 31 740 725 711 652 264 243 1979-2014 Natural Gas Nonassociated, Wet After Lease Separation 9 3 0 0 0 0 1979-2014 Natural Gas Associated-Dissolved, Wet After Lease Separation 731 722 711 652 264 243 1979-2014 Dry Natural Gas 739 724 710 651 261 240 Reserves, Wet After Lease Separation

    9 3 0 0 0 0 1979-2014 Adjustments -1 0 0 0 0 0 1979-2014 Revision Increases 8 0 0 0 0 0 1979-2014 Revision Decreases 0 5 3 0 0 0 1979-2014 Sales 0 0 0 0 0 0 2000-2014 Acquisitions 0 0 0 0 0 0

  4. Some considerations in simulation of superheated steam drying of softwood lumber

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pang, S. [New Zealand Forest Research Inst., Rotorua (New Zealand). Wood Processing Div.

    1997-05-01

    A mathematical model for high-temperature drying of softwood lumber with moist air has been modified and extended to simulate wood drying with superheated steam. In the simulation, differences between the two types of drying are considered, these include: external heat and mass transfer processes and calculation of equilibrium moisture content. The external mass transfer coefficient in the superheated steam drying was found to be much higher than that in the moist air drying, however, the heat transfer coefficients for these two cases were of the same order. The predicted drying curves and wood temperatures from the superheated steam drying model were compared with experimental data and there was close agreement. Further studies will apply the model to development of commercial drying schedules for wood drying with superheated steam.

  5. Method for wetting a boron alloy to graphite

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Storms, E.K.

    1987-08-21

    A method is provided for wetting a graphite substrate and spreading a a boron alloy over the substrate. The wetted substrate may be in the form of a needle for an effective ion emission source. The method may also be used to wet a graphite substrate for subsequent joining with another graphite substrate or other metal, or to form a protective coating over a graphite substrate. A noneutectic alloy of boron is formed with a metal selected from the group consisting of nickel (Ni), palladium (Pd), and platinum (Pt) with excess boron, i.e., and atomic percentage of boron effective to precipitate boron at a wetting temperature of less than the liquid-phase boundary temperature of the alloy. The alloy is applied to the substrate and the graphite substrate is then heated to the wetting temperature and maintained at the wetting temperature for a time effective for the alloy to wet and spread over the substrate. The excess boron is evenly dispersed in the alloy and is readily available to promote the wetting and spreading action of the alloy. 1 fig.

  6. CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE FROM FLUE GAS USING DRY REGENERABLE SORBENTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David A. Green; Brian S. Turk; Jeffrey W. Portzer; Raghubir P. Gupta; William J. McMichael; Thomas Nelson

    2004-07-01

    This report describes research conducted between April 1, 2004 and June 30, 2004 on the preparation and use of dry regenerable sorbents for removal of carbon dioxide from flue gas. Support materials and supported sorbents were prepared by spray drying. Sorbents consisting of 20 to 50% sodium carbonate on a ceramic support were prepared by spray drying in batches of approximately 300 grams. The supported sorbents exhibited greater carbon dioxide capture rates than unsupported calcined sodium bicarbonate in laboratory tests. Preliminary process design and cost estimation for a retrofit application suggested that costs of a dry regenerable sodium carbonate-based process could be lower than those of a monoethanolamine absorption system. In both cases, the greatest part of the process costs come from power plant output reductions due to parasitic consumption of steam for recovery of carbon dioxide from the capture medium.

  7. Table 17. Estimated natural gas plant liquids and dry natural gas content of tot

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Estimated natural gas plant liquids and dry natural gas content of total natural gas proved reserves, 2014" "million barrels and billion cubic feet" ,"Total Wet Natural Gas Proved Reserves",,,,"Estimated content of proved reserves" " State and Subdivision",,2014,,,"Natural Gas Plant Liquids",,"Dry Natural Gas" ,,"billion cubic feet",,,"million barrels",,"billion cubic feet"

  8. Antimicrobial product and process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barrett, Karen B.

    1997-01-01

    A composition for controlling a plant disease caused by a plant pathogenic bacterium is disclosed. The composition comprises an activity for inhibiting the growth of the plant pathogenic bacterium and is extracted in an aqueous solvent from particles of malted cereal grain. The composition is used either in dry or wet form by application to plant parts, such as potato seed pieces, that are to be protected from the pathogenic bacteria.

  9. Antimicrobial product and process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barrett, K.B.

    1997-12-16

    A composition for controlling a plant disease caused by a plant pathogenic bacterium is disclosed. The composition comprises an activity for inhibiting the growth of the plant pathogenic bacterium and is extracted in an aqueous solvent from particles of malted cereal grain. The composition is used either in dry or wet form by application to plant parts, such as potato seed pieces, that are to be protected from the pathogenic bacteria. 6 figs.

  10. Hot Dry Rock; Geothermal Energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1990-01-01

    The commercial utilization of geothermal energy forms the basis of the largest renewable energy industry in the world. More than 5000 Mw of electrical power are currently in production from approximately 210 plants and 10 000 Mw thermal are used in direct use processes. The majority of these systems are located in the well defined geothermal generally associated with crustal plate boundaries or hot spots. The essential requirements of high subsurface temperature with huge volumes of exploitable fluids, coupled to environmental and market factors, limit the choice of suitable sites significantly. The Hot Dry Rock (HDR) concept at any depth originally offered a dream of unlimited expansion for the geothermal industry by relaxing the location constraints by drilling deep enough to reach adequate temperatures. Now, after 20 years intensive work by international teams and expenditures of more than $250 million, it is vital to review the position of HDR in relation to the established geothermal industry. The HDR resource is merely a body of rock at elevated temperatures with insufficient fluids in place to enable the heat to be extracted without the need for injection wells. All of the major field experiments in HDR have shown that the natural fracture systems form the heat transfer surfaces and that it is these fractures that must be for geothermal systems producing from naturally fractured formations provide a basis for directing the forthcoming but, equally, they require accepting significant location constraints on HDR for the time being. This paper presents a model HDR system designed for commercial operations in the UK and uses production data from hydrothermal systems in Japan and the USA to demonstrate the reservoir performance requirements for viable operations. It is shown that these characteristics are not likely to be achieved in host rocks without stimulation processes. However, the long term goal of artificial geothermal systems developed by systematic engineering procedures at depth may still be attained if high temperature sites with extensive fracturing are developed or exploited. [DJE -2005

  11. Lithographic dry development using optical absorption

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Olynick, Deirdre; Schuck, P. James; Schmidt, Martin

    2013-08-20

    A novel approach to dry development of exposed photo resist is described in which a photo resist layer is exposed to a visible light source in order to remove the resist in the areas of exposure. The class of compounds used as the resist material, under the influence of the light source, undergoes a chemical/structural change such that the modified material becomes volatile and is thus removed from the resist surface. The exposure process is carried out for a time sufficient to ablate the exposed resist layer down to the layer below. A group of compounds found to be useful in this process includes aromatic calixarenes.

  12. High Speed/ Low Effluent Process for Ethanol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M. Clark Dale

    2006-10-30

    n this project, BPI demonstrated a new ethanol fermentation technology, termed the High Speed/ Low Effluent (HS/LE) process on both lab and large pilot scale as it would apply to wet mill and/or dry mill corn ethanol production. The HS/LE process allows very rapid fermentations, with 18 to 22% sugar syrups converted to 9 to 11% ethanol beers in 6 to 12 hours using either a consecutive batch or continuous cascade implementation. This represents a 5 to 8X increase in fermentation speeds over conventional 72 hour batch fermentations which are the norm in the fuel ethanol industry today. The consecutive batch technology was demonstrated on a large pilot scale (4,800 L) in a dry mill corn ethanol plant near Cedar Rapids, IA (Xethanol Biofuels). The pilot demonstrated that 12 hour fermentations can be accomplished on an industrial scale in a non-sterile industrial environment. Other objectives met in this project included development of a Low Energy (LE) Distillation process which reduces the energy requirements for distillation from about 14,000 BTU/gal steam ($0.126/gal with natural gas @ $9.00 MCF) to as low as 0.40 KW/gal electrical requirements ($0.022/gal with electricity @ $0.055/KWH). BPI also worked on the development of processes that would allow application of the HS/LE fermentation process to dry mill ethanol plants. A High-Value Corn ethanol plant concept was developed to produce 1) corn germ/oil, 2) corn bran, 3) ethanol, 4) zein protein, and 5) nutritional protein, giving multiple higher value products from the incoming corn stream.

  13. Selecting a plutonium vitrification process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jouan, A. [Centre d`Etudes de la Vallee du Rhone, Bagnols sur Ceze (France)

    1996-05-01

    Vitrification of plutonium is one means of mitigating its potential danger. This option is technically feasible, even if it is not the solution advocated in France. Two situations are possible, depending on whether or not the glass matrix also contains fission products; concentrations of up to 15% should be achievable for plutonium alone, whereas the upper limit is 3% in the presence of fission products. The French continuous vitrification process appears to be particularly suitable for plutonium vitrification: its capacity is compatible with the required throughout, and the compact dimensions of the process equipment prevent a criticality hazard. Preprocessing of plutonium metal, to convert it to PuO{sub 2} or to a nitric acid solution, may prove advantageous or even necessary depending on whether a dry or wet process is adopted. The process may involve a single step (vitrification of Pu or PuO{sub 2} mixed with glass frit) or may include a prior calcination step - notably if the plutonium is to be incorporated into a fission product glass. It is important to weigh the advantages and drawbacks of all the possible options in terms of feasibility, safety and cost-effectiveness.

  14. Hot-dry-rock energy: review of environmental aspects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O'Banion, K.

    1981-10-13

    The potential environmental and socioeconomic impacts of the production of energy contained in hot dry rock (HDR) is surveyed here. In general, careful siting and timing and routine control measures should be adequate to prevent significant environmental harm; sites of particular ecological or visual and recreational value, however, may require more extensive (and more expensive) precautions such as using multiwell pads to reduce land disturbance and dry or wet and dry cooling towers to reduce or eliminate the consumptive use of water. The most important uncertainty among the environmental concerns is the seismic response of HDR formations to short-duration fluid injections at pressures above fracture thresholds; continued monitoring at HDR development sites is necessary. The direct socioeconomic impacts of HDR development should be relatively minor, owing to its capital-intensive nature. Of greater potential importance are the indirect jobs resulting from such development, which could cause significant demographic (and thus fiscal and social) impacts in sparsely populated regions. However, such indirect growth is not expected to begin until a large, stable HDR industry is established in a region, and thus its impacts are expected to be permanent rather than transient.

  15. Drying of pulverized material with heated condensible vapor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carlson, L.W.

    1984-08-16

    Apparatus for drying pulverized material utilizes a high enthalpy condensable vapor such as steam for removing moisture from the individual particles of the pulverized material. The initially wet particulate material is tangentially delivered by a carrier vapor flow to an upper portion of a generally vertical cylindrical separation drum. The lateral wall of the separation drum is provided with a plurality of flow guides for directing the vapor tangentially therein in the direction of particulate material flow. Positioned concentrically within the separation drum and along the longitudinal axis thereof is a water-cooled condensation cylinder which is provided with a plurality of collection plates, or fines, on the outer lateral surface thereof. The cooled collection fines are aligned counter to the flow of the pulverized material and high enthalpy vapor mixture to maximize water vapor condensation thereon. The condensed liquid which includes moisture removed from the pulverized materials then flows downward along the outer surface of the coolant cylinder and is collected and removed. The particles travel in a shallow helix due to respective centrifugal and vertical acceleration forces applied thereto. The individual particles of the pulverized material are directed outwardly by the vortex flow where they contact the inner cylindrical surface of the separation drum and are then deposited at the bottom thereof for easy collection and removal. The pulverized material drying apparatus is particularly adapted for drying coal fines and facilitates the recovery of the pulverized coal. 2 figs.

  16. Drying of pulverized material with heated condensible vapor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carlson, Larry W.

    1986-01-01

    Apparatus for drying pulverized material utilizes a high enthalpy condensable vapor such as steam for removing moisture from the individual particles of the pulverized material. The initially wet particulate material is tangentially delivered by a carrier vapor flow to an upper portion of a generally vertical cylindrical separation drum. The lateral wall of the separation drum is provided with a plurality of flow guides for directing the vapor tangentially therein in the direction of particulate material flow. Positioned concentrically within the separation drum and along the longitudinal axis thereof is a water-cooled condensation cylinder which is provided with a plurality of collection plates, or fins, on the outer lateral surface thereof. The cooled collection fins are aligned counter to the flow of the pulverized material and high enthalpy vapor mixture to maximize water vapor condensation thereon. The condensed liquid which includes moisture removed from the pulverized material then flows downward along the outer surface of the coolant cylinder and is collected and removed. The particles travel in a shallow helix due to respective centrifugal and vertical acceleration forces applied thereto. The individual particles of the pulverized material are directed outwardly by the vortex flow where they contact the inner cylindrical surface of the separation drum and are then deposited at the bottom thereof for easy collection and removal. The pulverized material drying apparatus is particularly adapted for drying coal fines and facilitates the recovery of the pulverized coal.

  17. evaluation-dry-sorbent-urs | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Evaluation of Dry Sorbent Technology for Pre-Combustion CO2 Capture Project No.: DE-FE0000465 Scanning Electron Microsopy (SEM) and Transmission Electron Miscroscopy (TEM) images of a multi-functional sorbent synthesized by a novel method. Scanning Electron Microsopy (SEM) and Transmission Electron Miscroscopy (TEM) images of a multi-functional sorbent synthesized by a novel method. URS and the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign are investigating a dry sorbent process configured to

  18. Lipid Extraction from Wet-Algae for Biofuel Production - Energy Innovation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Portal Biomass and Biofuels Biomass and Biofuels Advanced Materials Advanced Materials Find More Like This Return to Search Lipid Extraction from Wet-Algae for Biofuel Production University of Colorado Contact CU About This Technology Technology Marketing SummaryThere is a growing interest in algal biofuels; however, current methods of a thermal separation process for solvent mixtures involve concomitant issues and increased energy consumption. A research team at the University of Colorado

  19. Powder processing for the fabrication of Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} ceramics. 1: Influence of spray-dried granule strength on pore size distribution in green compacts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kamiya, Hidehiro; Isomura, Kenji; Jimbo, Genji; Junichiro, Tsubaki

    1995-01-01

    The effect of spray-dried granule strength on the microstructure of green compacts obtained by isostatic pressing was quantitatively analyzed. The fracture strength of single granules of Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} powder made with ultrafine Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} powders was measured directly by diametral compression. It was found that fracture strength increased notably with the increasing relative density of the granule and the decreasing size of agglomerates in suspension before spray-drying. Even when green bodies were prepared at an isostatic pressure of 200 MPa, intergranular pores, which negatively affected densification of the sintered bodies, occurred between unfractured granules. The volume and size of these pores in the green compacts increased with the increasing fracture strength of the granules. In the case of closely packed granules, an isostatic pressure of 800 MPa was required to completely collapse the intergranular pores. A simple equation was derived to calculate the isostatic pressure necessary for complete collapse of intergranular pores in the green compacts, and it was determined that granule strength must be kept as low as possible to obtain uniform green compacts.

  20. California Dry Natural Gas Reserves Revision Decreases (Billion...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Decreases (Billion Cubic Feet) California Dry Natural Gas Reserves Revision Decreases ... Dry Natural Gas Reserves Revision Decreases California Dry Natural Gas Proved Reserves Dry ...

  1. California Dry Natural Gas Reserves Revision Increases (Billion...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Increases (Billion Cubic Feet) California Dry Natural Gas Reserves Revision Increases ... Dry Natural Gas Reserves Revision Increases California Dry Natural Gas Proved Reserves Dry ...

  2. Texas Dry Natural Gas Expected Future Production (Billion Cubic...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Expected Future Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Texas Dry Natural Gas Expected Future ... Dry Natural Gas Proved Reserves as of Dec. 31 Texas Dry Natural Gas Proved Reserves Dry ...

  3. Gulf of Mexico Federal Offshore Natural Gas, Wet After Lease...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    (Billion Cubic Feet) Gulf of Mexico Federal Offshore Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5...

  4. Gulf of Mexico Federal Offshore Natural Gas, Wet After Lease...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    (Billion Cubic Feet) Gulf of Mexico Federal Offshore Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5...

  5. Development of a Wet Logistics System for Bulk Corn Stover

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    a Wet Logistics System for Bulk Corn Stover March 25, 2015 Lynn M. Wendt, William A. Smith, Austin Murphy, and Ian J. Bonner Idaho National Laboratory This presentation does not ...

  6. MHK Technologies/WET EnGen | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Test of Wave Energy Technologies Moored Floating WET EnGen: Regular and Irregular Waves. TR-2009-13, Fraser Winsor and Emile Baddour, June 2009. Date Submitted 1082010 << Return...

  7. Texas - RRC District 8 Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Texas - RRC District 8 Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 ...

  8. Nebraska Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation,

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) No Data Available For This Series - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet After Lease Separation, as of Dec. 31 Nebraska Associated-Dissolved Natural

  9. Nebraska Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Nebraska Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) No Data Available For This Series - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Nonassociated Natural Gas Proved Reserves,

  10. Observation of Ordered Structures in Counterion Layers near Wet Charged

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Surfaces: A Potential Mechanism for Charge Inversion (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect SciTech Connect Search Results Journal Article: Observation of Ordered Structures in Counterion Layers near Wet Charged Surfaces: A Potential Mechanism for Charge Inversion Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Observation of Ordered Structures in Counterion Layers near Wet Charged Surfaces: A Potential Mechanism for Charge Inversion Authors: Miller, Mitchell ; Chu, Miaoqi ; Lin, Binhua ; Meron,

  11. U.S. Federal Offshore Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) U.S. Federal Offshore Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves...

  12. U.S. Federal Offshore Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) U.S. Federal Offshore Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic...

  13. Texas - RRC District 2 Onshore Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Texas - RRC District 2 Onshore Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)...

  14. Texas - RRC District 7B Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Texas - RRC District 7B Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade...

  15. Texas - RRC District 4 Onshore Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Texas - RRC District 4 Onshore Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)...

  16. Texas - RRC District 3 Onshore Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Texas - RRC District 3 Onshore Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)...

  17. Texas - RRC District 7C Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Texas - RRC District 7C Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade...

  18. Energy efficiency improvement and cost saving opportunities for the Corn Wet Milling Industry: An ENERGY STAR Guide for Energy and Plant Managers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Galitsky, Christina; Worrell, Ernst; Ruth, Michael

    2003-07-01

    Corn wet milling is the most energy intensive industry within the food and kindred products group (SIC 20), using 15 percent of the energy in the entire food industry. After corn, energy is the second largest operating cost for corn wet millers in the United States. A typical corn wet milling plant in the United States spends approximately $20 to $30 million per year on energy, making energy efficiency improvement an important way to reduce costs and increase predictable earnings, especially in times of high energy-price volatility. This report shows energy efficiency opportunities available for wet corn millers. It begins with descriptions of the trends, structure and production of the corn wet milling industry and the energy used in the milling and refining process. Specific primary energy savings for each energy efficiency measure based on case studies of plants and references to technical literature are provided. If available, typical payback periods are also listed. The report draws upon the experiences of corn, wheat and other starch processing plants worldwide for energy efficiency measures. The findings suggest that given available resources and technology, there are opportunities to reduce energy consumption cost-effectively in the corn wet milling industry while maintaining the quality of the products manufactured. Further research on the economics of the measures, as well as the applicability of these to different wet milling practices, is needed to assess the feasibility of implementation of selected technologies at individual plants.

  19. Drying/self-assembly of nanoparticle suspensions.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheng, Shengfeng; Plimpton, Steven James; Lechman, Jeremy B.; Grest, Gary Stephen

    2010-10-01

    The most feasible way to disperse particles in a bulk material or control their packing at a substrate is through fluidization in a carrier that can be processed with well-known techniques such as spin, drip and spray coating, fiber drawing, and casting. The next stage in the processing is often solidification involving drying by solvent evaporation. While there has been significant progress in the past few years in developing discrete element numerical methods to model dense nanoparticle dispersion/suspension rheology which properly treat the hydrodynamic interactions of the solvent, these methods cannot at present account for the volume reduction of the suspension due to solvent evaporation. As part of LDRD project FY-101285 we have developed and implemented methods in the current suite of discrete element methods to remove solvent particles and volume, and hence solvent mass from the liquid/vapor interface of a suspension to account for volume reduction (solvent drying) effects. To validate the methods large scale molecular dynamics simulations have been carried out to follow the evaporation process at the microscopic scale.

  20. Catalytic Hydrothermal Gasification of Wet Biomass Feedstock

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2006-04-01

    Industries and municipalities generate substantial amounts of biomass as high-moisture waste streams, such as animal manure, food processing sludge, stillage from ethanol production, and municipal wastewater sludge.

  1. Drying rate and temperature profile for superheated steam vacuum drying and moist air drying of softwood lumber

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pang, S.; Dakin, M. [New Zealand Forest Research Inst., Ltd., Rotorua (New Zealand). Mfg. Technologies Portfolio

    1999-07-01

    Two charges of green radiata pine sapwood lumber were dried, ether using superheated steam under vacuum (90 C, 0.2 bar abs.) or conventionally using hot moist air (90/60 C). Due to low density of the drying medium under vacuum, the circulation velocity used was 10 m/s for superheated steam drying and 5.0 m/s for moist air drying, and in both cases, the flow was unidirectional. In drying, stack drying rate and wood temperatures were measured to examine the differences between the superheated steam drying and drying using hot moist air. The experimental results have shown that the stack edge board in superheated steam drying dried faster than in the hot moist air drying. Once again due to the low density of the steam under vacuum, a prolonged maximum temperature drop across load (TDAL) was observed in the superheated steam drying, however, the whole stack dried slower and the final moisture content distribution was more variable than for conventional hot moist air drying.

  2. DRI Renewable Energy Center (REC) (NV)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoekman, S. Kent; Broch, Broch; Robbins, Curtis; Jacobson, Roger; Turner, Robert

    2012-12-31

    The primary objective of this project was to utilize a flexible, energy-efficient facility, called the DRI Renewable Energy Experimental Facility (REEF) to support various renewable energy research and development (R&D) efforts, along with education and outreach activities. The REEF itself consists of two separate buildings: (1) a 1200-ft2 off-grid capable house and (2) a 600-ft2 workshop/garage to support larger-scale experimental work. Numerous enhancements were made to DRI's existing renewable power generation systems, and several additional components were incorporated to support operation of the REEF House. The power demands of this house are satisfied by integrating and controlling PV arrays, solar thermal systems, wind turbines, an electrolyzer for renewable hydrogen production, a gaseous-fuel internal combustion engine/generator set, and other components. Cooling needs of the REEF House are satisfied by an absorption chiller, driven by solar thermal collectors. The REEF Workshop includes a unique, solar air collector system that is integrated into the roof structure. This system provides space heating inside the Workshop, as well as a hot water supply. The Workshop houses a custom-designed process development unit (PDU) that is used to convert woody biomass into a friable, hydrophobic char that has physical and chemical properties similar to low grade coal. Besides providing sufficient space for operation of this PDU, the REEF Workshop supplies hot water that is used in the biomass treatment process. The DRI-REEF serves as a working laboratory for evaluating and optimizing the performance of renewable energy components within an integrated, residential-like setting. The modular nature of the system allows for exploring alternative configurations and control strategies. This experimental test bed is also highly valuable as an education and outreach tool both in providing an infrastructure for student research projects, and in highlighting renewable energy features to the public.

  3. Pilot Testing of Mercury Oxidation Catalysts for Upstream of Wet FGD Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary Blythe; Conor Braman; Katherine Dombrowski; Tom Machalek

    2010-12-31

    This document is the final technical report for Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-04NT41992, 'Pilot Testing of Mercury Oxidation Catalysts for Upstream of Wet FGD Systems,' which was conducted over the time-period January 1, 2004 through December 31, 2010. The objective of this project has been to demonstrate at pilot scale the use of solid catalysts and/or fixed-structure mercury sorbents to promote the removal of total mercury and oxidation of elemental mercury in flue gas from coal combustion, followed by wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) to remove the oxidized mercury at high efficiency. The project was co-funded by the U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE-NETL), EPRI, Great River Energy (GRE), TXU Energy (now called Luminant), Southern Company, Salt River Project (SRP) and Duke Energy. URS Group was the prime contractor. The mercury control process under development uses fixed-structure sorbents and/or catalysts to promote the removal of total mercury and/or oxidation of elemental mercury in the flue gas from coal-fired power plants that have wet lime or limestone FGD systems. Oxidized mercury not adsorbed is removed in the wet FGD absorbers and leaves with the byproducts from the FGD system. The project has tested candidate materials at pilot scale and in a commercial form, to provide engineering data for future full-scale designs. Pilot-scale catalytic oxidation tests have been completed for periods of approximately 14 to19 months at three sites, with an additional round of pilot-scale fixed-structure sorbent tests being conducted at one of those sites. Additionally, pilot-scale wet FGD tests have been conducted downstream of mercury oxidation catalysts at a total of four sites. The sites include the two of three sites from this project and two sites where catalytic oxidation pilot testing was conducted as part of a previous DOE-NETL project. Pilot-scale wet FGD tests were also conducted at a fifth site, but with no catalyst or fixed-structure mercury sorbent upstream. This final report presents and discusses detailed results from all of these efforts, and makes a number of conclusions about what was learned through these efforts.

  4. Powder treatment process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weyand, J.D.

    1988-02-09

    Disclosed are: (1) a process comprising spray drying a powder-containing slurry, the slurry containing a powder constituent susceptible of oxidizing under the temperature conditions of the spray drying, while reducing the tendency for oxidation of the constituent by including as a liquid constituent of the slurry an organic liquid; (2) a process comprising spray drying a powder-containing slurry, the powder having been pretreated to reduce content of a powder constituent susceptible of oxidizing under the temperature conditions of the spray drying, the pretreating comprising heating the powder to react the constituent; and (3) a process comprising reacting ceramic powder, grinding the reacted powder, slurrying the ground powder, spray drying the slurried powder, and blending the dried powder with metal powder. 2 figs.

  5. Powder treatment process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weyand, John D. (Greensburg, PA)

    1988-01-01

    (1) A process comprising spray drying a powder-containing slurry, the slurry containing a powder constituent susceptible of oxidizing under the temperature conditions of the spray drying, while reducing the tendency for oxidation of the constituent by including as a liquid constituent of the slurry an organic liquid; (2) a process comprising spray drying a powder-containing slurry, the powder having been pretreated to reduce content of a powder constituent susceptible of oxidizing under the temperature conditions of the spray drying, the pretreating comprising heating the powder to react the constituent; and (3) a process comprising reacting ceramic powder, grinding the reacted powder, slurrying the ground powder, spray drying the slurried powder, and blending the dried powder with metal powder.

  6. Activity release during the dry storage of fuel assemblies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Valentine, M.K. ); Fettel, W.; Gunther, H. )

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that wet storage is the predominant storage method in the USA for spent fuel assemblies. Nevertheless, most utilities have stretched their storage capacities and several reactors will lose their full-core reserve in the 90's. A great variety of out-of-pool storage methods already exist, including the FUELSTOR vault-type dry storage concept. A FUELSTOR vault relies on double containment of the spent fuel (intact cladding as the primary containment and sealing of assemblies in canisters filled with an inert gas as the secondary containment) to reduce radiation levels at the outside wall of the vault to less than site boundary levels. Investigation of accident scenarios reveals that radiation release limits are only exceeded following complete failure of all canisters and simultaneous cladding breach for more than 40% of the rods (or for more than 1% of failed rods if massive fuel oxidation occurs following cladding failure). Such failures are considered highly improbable. Thus, it can be concluded that this type of dry storage is safe and individual canister monitoring is not required in the facility.

  7. Molecular dynamics of wetting layer formation and forced water invasion in angular nanopores with mixed wettability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sedghi, Mohammad Piri, Mohammad; Goual, Lamia

    2014-11-21

    The depletion of conventional hydrocarbon reservoirs has prompted the oil and gas industry to search for unconventional resources such as shale gas/oil reservoirs. In shale rocks, considerable amounts of hydrocarbon reside in nanoscale pore spaces. As a result, understanding the multiphase flow of wetting and non-wetting phases in nanopores is important to improve oil and gas recovery from these formations. This study was designed to investigate the threshold capillary pressure of oil and water displacements in a capillary dominated regime inside nanoscale pores using nonequilibrium molecular dynamics (NEMD) simulations. The pores have the same cross-sectional area and volume but different cross-sectional shapes. Oil and water particles were represented with a coarse grained model and the NEMD simulations were conducted by assigning external pressure on an impermeable piston. Threshold capillary pressures were determined for the drainage process (water replaced by oil) in different pores. The molecular dynamics results are in close agreements with calculations using the Mayer-Stowe-Princen (MS-P) method which has been developed on the premise of energy balance in thermodynamic equilibrium. After the drainage simulations, a change in wall particles’ wettability from water-wet to oil-wet was implemented based on the final configuration of oil and water inside the pore. Waterflooding simulations were then carried out at the threshold capillary pressure. The results show that the oil layer formed between water in the corner and in the center of the pore is not stable and collapses as the simulation continues. This is in line with the predictions from the MS-P method.

  8. Solution-processable glass LiI-Li4SnS4 superionic conductors for all-solid-state Li-ion batteries

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kern Ho Park; Oh, Dae Yang; Choi, Young Eun; Nam, Young Jin; Han, Lili; Kim, Ju -Young; Xin, Huolin; Lin, Feng; Oh, Seung M.; Jung, Yoon Seok

    2015-12-22

    The new, highly conductive (4.1 × 10–4 S cm–1 at 30 °C), highly deformable, and dry-air-stable glass 0.4LiI-0.6Li4SnS4 is prepared using a homogeneous methanol solution. Furthermore, the solution process enables the wetting of any exposed surface of the active materials with highly conductive solidified electrolytes (0.4LiI-0.6Li4SnS4), resulting in considerable improvements in electrochemical performances of these electrodes over conventional mixture electrodes.

  9. New York Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) New York Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 211 1980's 208 262 226 295 387 367 457 410 351 364 1990's 354 331 329 264 240 195 229 223 217 212 2000's 320 311 315 365 324 346 361 365 360 196 2010's 271 245 178 138 138 - = No Data

  10. North Dakota Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    (Billion Cubic Feet) Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) North Dakota Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 485 1980's 594 654 696 673 643 650 610 578 593 625 1990's 650 533 567 585 568 518 512 531 501 475 2000's 487 495 524 497 465 508 539 572 603 1,213 2010's 1,869 2,652 3,974 6,081 6,787 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA =

  11. North Dakota Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) North Dakota Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 284 1980's 355 401 448 416 376 319 317 302 327 312 1990's 316 290 301 311 293 255 257 274 240 225 2000's 223 225 209 181 145 165 182 155 119 143 2010's 152 141 105 91 45 - = No Data

  12. Ohio Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    (Billion Cubic Feet) Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Ohio Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 432 1980's 282 165 158 396 364 395 522 477 749 686 1990's 844 805 780 763 780 699 715 594 548 777 2000's 717 631 772 823 767 714 801 926 886 799 2010's 742 684 1,012 2,887 6,985 - = No Data Reported; --

  13. Pennsylvania Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation,

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Pennsylvania Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 9 1980's 11 14 14 21 78 67 22 21 8 19 1990's 23 20 10 8 9 36 47 92 79 96 2000's 157 168 137 164 125 134 151 130 127 133 2010's 144 134 125 269 299 - = No Data

  14. Louisiana - North Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Louisiana - North Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 765 1980's 916 1,040 832 775 690 632 567 488 249 237 1990's 241 192 160 120 134 133 255 287 183 260 2000's 186 168 159 139 107 98 90 73 78 53

  15. Louisiana State Offshore Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Louisiana State Offshore Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 3,269 1,351 1,478 1,209 1,273 1990's 1,019 1,082 845 946 988 862 783 743 571 661 2000's 721 772 512 527 394 433 442 392 934 728 2010's 386 519 519 420 341 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA =

  16. Louisiana State Offshore Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Louisiana State Offshore Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 2,820 1,100 1,218 1,002 1,042 1990's 812 875 691 789 820 714 626 613 473 541 2000's 592 627 428 448 333 370 386 327 248 215 2010's 279 468 391 332 273 - =

  17. Michigan Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation,

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Michigan Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 733 1980's 883 758 719 824 774 689 577 569 491 432 1990's 408 437 352 328 357 326 347 281 228 227 2000's 214 159 214 269 193 153 192 179 148 77 2010's 72 77 94 125 108

  18. Miscellaneous States Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Miscellaneous States Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 14 1980's 34 12 27 31 14 25 41 13 28 39 1990's 22 14 11 9 11 32 28 31 17 54 2000's 19 19 20 14 12 14 19 15 9 78 2010's 10 104 7 19 18 - = No

  19. Miscellaneous States Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Miscellaneous States Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 156 1980's 180 193 74 81 77 77 136 66 84 87 1990's 72 76 93 96 67 69 68 44 39 67 2000's 42 83 100 134 110 132 139 241 272 349 2010's 363 393 233 188 185 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available;

  20. Miscellaneous States Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation,

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Miscellaneous States Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 142 1980's 146 181 47 50 63 52 95 53 56 48 1990's 50 62 82 87 56 37 40 13 22 13 2000's 23 64 80 120 98 118 120 226 263 271 2010's 353 270 219 169 167 - = No Data

  1. Mississippi Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation,

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Mississippi Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 67 1980's 73 66 74 80 114 105 66 61 71 105 1990's 126 108 85 53 43 27 47 51 47 31 2000's 35 26 33 27 20 20 21 30 45 38 2010's 36 62 62 43 58 - = No Data Reported; --

  2. Montana Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation,

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Montana Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 51 1980's 122 89 81 108 77 91 98 97 101 68 1990's 86 66 61 53 55 53 51 42 52 67 2000's 70 85 94 112 130 161 195 219 197 312 2010's 302 270 289 304 325 - = No Data

  3. Montana Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Montana Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 786 1980's 1,186 1,247 789 813 748 793 725 704 733 821 1990's 834 782 814 631 672 739 755 727 737 784 2000's 822 822 820 956 872 837 874 848 817 681 2010's 657 522 327 286 361 - = No Data

  4. Alabama Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation,

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Alabama Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 13 1980's 23 25 1990's 25 23 30 46 56 44 38 30 28 27 2000's 29 26 31 32 32 29 18 20 19 29 2010's 38 48 100 46 141 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not

  5. Arkansas Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation,

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Arkansas Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 166 1980's 194 184 174 194 189 157 150 145 157 145 1990's 67 136 133 93 85 104 89 56 38 41 2000's 39 30 38 37 40 46 44 37 12 20 2010's 29 46 82 135 189 - = No Data

  6. California - Coastal Region Onshore Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) California - Coastal Region Onshore Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 307 1980's 265 265 325 344 256 254 261 243 220 233 1990's 228 220 196 135 145 109 120 129 116 233 2000's 244 185 197

  7. California - Coastal Region Onshore Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) California - Coastal Region Onshore Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 395 1980's 330 325 384 405 284 277 275 255 232 238 1990's 232 231 215 201 205 163 168 176 118 233 2000's 244 185 197 174 196 277 214 212 151 169 2010's 180 173 305 284 277 - = No Data

  8. California - Coastal Region Onshore Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) California - Coastal Region Onshore Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 88 1980's 65 60 59 61 28 23 14 12 12 5 1990's 4 11 19 66 60 54 48 47 2 0 2000's 0 0 0 1 8 8 6 1 1 1 2010's 2 1 2 2 8 - = No Data

  9. California - Los Angeles Basin Onshore Natural Gas, Wet After Lease

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) California - Los Angeles Basin Onshore Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 176 1980's 207 163 104 115 163 188 149 155 158 141 1990's 110 120 103 108 108 115 112 146 154 174 2000's 204 195 218 196 184 186 161 154 81 91 2010's 92 102 98 90 84 - =

  10. California - Los Angeles Basin Onshore Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) California - Los Angeles Basin Onshore Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 1 1980's 0 1 1 1 1 3 0 0 0 0 1990's 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 3 1 0 2000's 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2010's 0 0 0 0 0 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not

  11. California - San Joaquin Basin Onshore Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) California - San Joaquin Basin Onshore Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 1,784 1980's 1,721 1,566 1,593 1,556 1,538 1,642 1,398 1,196 1,086 972 1990's 901 885 773 749 744 679 560 518 445 336 2000's 748 836

  12. California Federal Offshore Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) California Federal Offshore Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 249 1980's 307 1,110 1,249 1,312 1,252 1990's 1,229 995 987 976 1,077 1,195 1,151 498 437 488 2000's 500 490 459 456 412 776 756

  13. California Federal Offshore Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) California Federal Offshore Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 73 1980's 107 227 217 258 267 1990's 240 179 149 147 110 94 115 58 52 48 2000's 76 50 56 55 47 49 55 53 3 9 2010's 3 0 0 0 0 - = No Data Reported; -- =

  14. California Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) California Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 1,881 1980's 1,792 1,424 1,230 1,120 1,006 1990's 911 901 799 817 808 736 610 570 453 355 2000's 754 842 796 759 767 799 780 686 621 612 2010's 503 510 272 247 273 - = No Data Reported;

  15. California State Offshore Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) California State Offshore Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 234 1980's 166 256 254 243 235 1990's 194 60 63 65 63 59 49 56 44 77 2000's 91 85 91 83 87 90 90 83 57 57 2010's 66 82 66 75 76 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W =

  16. California State Offshore Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) California State Offshore Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 8 1980's 6 12 22 22 29 1990's 6 5 4 2 4 3 2 2 5 19 2000's 5 5 6 7 2 1 5 4 3 4 2010's 3 3 1 0 0 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not

  17. Florida Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation,

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Florida Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 108 1980's 122 99 86 64 90 81 69 62 69 57 1990's 53 45 55 59 117 110 119 112 106 100 2000's 93 96 102 92 88 87 50 110 1 7 2010's 30 2 0 1 0 - = No Data Reported; -- =

  18. Florida Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Cubic Feet) Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Florida Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 108 1980's 122 99 86 64 90 81 69 62 69 57 1990's 53 45 55 59 117 110 119 112 106 100 2000's 93 96 102 92 88 87 50 110 1 7 2010's 56 6 16 15 0 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of

  19. Florida Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Florida Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 0 1980's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1990's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2000's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2010's 26 4 16 14 0 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid

  20. Kentucky Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation,

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Kentucky Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 2 1980's 11 14 12 19 17 13 17 19 19 22 1990's 8 10 8 6 47 27 24 26 20 29 2000's 27 25 25 25 19 30 36 34 34 32 2010's 111 98 93 44 49 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not

  1. Texas - RRC District 9 Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Texas - RRC District 9 Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 633 1980's 502 796 965 845 786 753 761 717 686 617 1990's 703 674 613 636 715 730 749 785 665 1,180 2000's 1,645 2,428 3,070 3,514 4,445 4,608 6,660 7,846

  2. Wyoming Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation,

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 1,038 1980's 1,374 1,228 1,060 959 867 710 691 691 616 581 1990's 573 572 624 502 611 879 824 850 794 713 2000's 652 488 561 450 362 384 347 365 223 362 2010's 334 318

  3. Guides and Case Studies for Hot-Dry and Mixed-Dry Climates | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Dry and Mixed-Dry Climates Guides and Case Studies for Hot-Dry and Mixed-Dry Climates Map of the Hot-Dry and Mixed-Dry Zone of the United States. The zone contains the eastern side of California and follows the US border to cover the western half of Texas. The Department of Energy (DOE) has developed a series of best practices and case studies to help builders improve whole-house energy performance in buildings found in hot-dry and mixed-dry climates. Best Practice Guides 40%

  4. Compton Dry-Cask Imaging System

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2013-05-28

    The Compton-Dry Cask Imaging Scanner is a system that verifies and documents the presence of spent nuclear fuel rods in dry-cask storage and determines their isotopic composition without moving or opening the cask. For more information about this project, visit http://www.inl.gov/rd100/2011/compton-dry-cask-imaging-system/

  5. Ethanol production with dilute acid hydrolysis using partially dried lignocellulosics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nguyen, Quang A.; Keller, Fred A.; Tucker, Melvin P.

    2003-12-09

    A process of converting lignocellulosic biomass to ethanol, comprising hydrolyzing lignocellulosic materials by subjecting dried lignocellulosic material in a reactor to a catalyst comprised of a dilute solution of a strong acid and a metal salt to lower the activation energy (i.e., the temperature) of cellulose hydrolysis and ultimately obtain higher sugar yields.

  6. Subcritical water extraction of lipids from wet algal biomass

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Deng, Shuguang; Reddy, Harvind K.; Schaub, Tanner; Holguin, Francisco Omar

    2016-05-03

    Methods of lipid extraction from biomass, in particular wet algae, through conventionally heated subcritical water, and microwave-assisted subcritical water. In one embodiment, fatty acid methyl esters from solids in a polar phase are further extracted to increase biofuel production.

  7. Trends in powder processing equipment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sheppard, L.M.

    1993-05-01

    Spray drying is the most widely used process for producing particles. It is used in industries other than ceramics including food, chemicals, and pharmaceutical. The process involves the atomization of a liquid feed stock into a spray of droplets and contacting the droplets with hot air in a drying chamber. The sprays are produced by either rotary or nozzle atomizers. Evaporation of moisture from the droplets and formation of dry particles proceed under controlled temperature and airflow conditions. Powder is then discharged continuously from the drying chamber. Spray drying equipment is being improved to handle an ever-increasing number of applications. Several developments in particle-size reduction equipment are also described.

  8. Dry-cleaning of graphene

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Algara-Siller, Gerardo; Lehtinen, Ossi; Kaiser, Ute; Turchanin, Andrey

    2014-04-14

    Studies of the structural and electronic properties of graphene in its pristine state are hindered by hydrocarbon contamination on the surfaces. Also, in many applications, contamination reduces the performance of graphene. Contamination is introduced during sample preparation and is adsorbed also directly from air. Here, we report on the development of a simple dry-cleaning method for producing large atomically clean areas in free-standing graphene. The cleanness of graphene is proven using aberration-corrected high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and electron spectroscopy.

  9. Dry Transfer Systems for Used Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brett W. Carlsen; Michaele BradyRaap

    2012-05-01

    The potential need for a dry transfer system (DTS) to enable retrieval of used nuclear fuel (UNF) for inspection or repackaging will increase as the duration and quantity of fuel in dry storage increases. This report explores the uses for a DTS, identifies associated general functional requirements, and reviews existing and proposed systems that currently perform dry fuel transfers. The focus of this paper is on the need for a DTS to enable transfer of bare fuel assemblies. Dry transfer systems for UNF canisters are currently available and in use for transferring loaded canisters between the drying station and storage and transportation casks.

  10. Federal Offshore--Gulf of Mexico Dry Natural Gas Production ...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Dry Natural Gas Production (Million Cubic Feet) Federal Offshore--Gulf of Mexico Dry ... Natural Gas Dry Production Federal Offshore Gulf of Mexico Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals ...

  11. California Dry Natural Gas Reserves Sales (Billion Cubic Feet...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Sales (Billion Cubic Feet) California Dry Natural Gas Reserves Sales (Billion Cubic Feet) ... Referring Pages: Dry Natural Gas Reserves Sales California Dry Natural Gas Proved Reserves ...

  12. California--State Offshore Natural Gas Dry Production (Million...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Dry Production (Million Cubic Feet) California--State Offshore Natural Gas Dry Production ... Referring Pages: Natural Gas Dry Production California State Offshore Natural Gas Gross ...

  13. California Dry Natural Gas Reserves Estimated Production (Billion...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Estimated Production (Billion Cubic Feet) California Dry Natural Gas Reserves Estimated ... Dry Natural Gas Reserves Estimated Production California Dry Natural Gas Proved Reserves ...

  14. California Dry Natural Gas Reserves Acquisitions (Billion Cubic...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Acquisitions (Billion Cubic Feet) California Dry Natural Gas Reserves Acquisitions ... Referring Pages: Dry Natural Gas Reserves Acquisitions California Dry Natural Gas Proved ...

  15. California Dry Natural Gas Reserves Extensions (Billion Cubic...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Extensions (Billion Cubic Feet) California Dry Natural Gas Reserves Extensions (Billion ... Referring Pages: Dry Natural Gas Reserves Extensions California Dry Natural Gas Proved ...

  16. California Dry Natural Gas Reserves New Field Discoveries (Billion...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    New Field Discoveries (Billion Cubic Feet) California Dry Natural Gas Reserves New Field ... New Field Discoveries of Dry Natural Gas Reserves California Dry Natural Gas Proved ...

  17. California Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) California Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments (Billion ... Referring Pages: Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments California Dry Natural Gas Proved ...

  18. Dry borax applicator operator's manual.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karsky, Richard, J.

    1999-01-01

    Annosum root rot affects conifers throughout the Northern Hemisphere, infecting their roots and eventually killing the trees. The fungus Heterobasidion annosum causes annosum root rot. The fungus colonizes readily on freshly cut stumps. Partially cut stands have a high risk of infestation because the fungus can colonize on each of the stumps and potentially infect the neighboring trees. Wind and rain carry the annosum spores. Spores that land on freshly cut stumps grow down the stump's root system where they can infect living trees through root grafts or root contacts. Once annosum becomes established, it can remain active for many years in the Southern United States and for several decades in the north. About 7% of the trees that become infected die. When thinning, stumps can be treated successfully using a competing fungus, Phlebia gigantea, and with ''Tim-Bor'' in liquid formulations. These liquid products are no longer approved in the United States. Only the dry powder form is registered and approved by the EPA. Stumps can be treated with a dry formula of borax, (Sporax), significantly reducing one of the primary routes by which Heterobasidion annosum infects a stand of trees. Sporax is used by the USDA Forest Service to control annosum root rot. Sporax is now applied by hand, but once the felled trees are skidded it becomes very hard to locate the stumps. A stump applicator will reduce error, labor costs, and hazards to workers.

  19. Assessment of superheated steam drying of wood waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Woods, B.G.; Nguyen, Y.; Bruce, S.

    1994-12-31

    A 5 MW co-generation facility using wood waste is described which will supply power to Ontario Hydro, steam to the sawmill for process heating, and hot water for district heating customers in the town. The use of superheated steam for drying the wood was investigated to determine the impact on boiler performance, the environmental impact and the economic feasibility. The main benefit with superheated steam drying is the reduction in VOC emissions. The capital cost is currently higher with superheated steam drying, but further investigation is warranted to determine if the cost reductions which could be achieved by manufacturing the major components in North America are sufficient to make the technology cost competitive.

  20. Second survey of dry SO/sub 2/ control systems. Final report Mar-Sep 80

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kelly, M.E.; Shareef, S.A.

    1981-02-01

    The report is an updated assessment of dry flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. Current and recently completed research, development, and commercial activities in the U.S. since October 1979, are reviewed including: (1) spray dryers with a fabric filter or an electrostatic precipitator (ESP), (2) dry injection of alkaline material into flue gas combined with particulate collection in an ESP or fabric filter, and (3) combustion of coal/alkali fuel mixtures. Spray drying remains the only commercially applied dry FGD process. Since the last survey, completed late in 1979, eight utility and two industrial spray drying systems have been sold. Nine of them use lime as the sorbent, and nine use a fabric filter for particulate collection. Removal guarantees for so/sub 2/ range from 62 to 85%, depending on coal sulfur content. Two full-scale industrial spray drying systems are currently operating. The first large utility system is scheduled for startup early in 1981. Several publicly and privately funded pilot-scale programs have been completed in the past year. EPA is currently funding three such programs (two spray drying and one dry injection), as well as development of two combustion modification processes for SO2 control (combustion of coal/limestone pellets and of a pulverized coal/alkali mixture in a low-NOx burner). The DoE and others are studying dry injection on a pilot scale.

  1. SPONTANEOUS CATALYTIC WET AIR OXIDATION DURING PRE-TREATMENT OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE SLUDGE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koopman, D.; Herman, C.; Pareizs, J.; Bannochie, C.; Best, D.; Bibler, N.; Fellinger, T.

    2009-10-01

    Savannah River Remediation, LLC (SRR) operates the Defense Waste Processing Facility for the U.S. Department of Energy at the Savannah River Site. This facility immobilizes high-level radioactive waste through vitrification following chemical pretreatment. Catalytic destruction of formate and oxalate ions to carbon dioxide has been observed during qualification testing of non-radioactive analog systems. Carbon dioxide production greatly exceeded hydrogen production, indicating the occurrence of a process other than the catalytic decomposition of formic acid. Statistical modeling was used to relate the new reaction chemistry to partial catalytic wet air oxidation of both formate and oxalate ions driven by the low concentrations of palladium, rhodium, and/or ruthenium in the waste. Variations in process conditions led to increases or decreases in the total oxidative destruction, as well as partially shifting the preferred species undergoing destruction from oxalate ion to formate ion.

  2. Oklahoma Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation,

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Oklahoma Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 2,246 1980's 2,252 2,441 2,426 2,269 2,244 2,149 2,191 2,017 1,894 1,785 1990's 1,820 1,406 1,483 1,550 1,342 1,228 1,023 1,015 1,196 1,238 2000's 1,113 1,109 1,177

  3. Oklahoma Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Cubic Feet) Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Oklahoma Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 14,545 1980's 13,908 15,507 17,140 17,261 17,102 17,078 17,779 17,703 17,450 16,733 1990's 16,967 15,518 14,732 14,099 14,323 14,295 13,952 14,311 14,517 13,490 2000's 14,543 14,366 15,753 16,231 17,200 18,146 18,535 20,184 22,113 24,207 2010's

  4. Oklahoma Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Oklahoma Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 12,299 1980's 11,656 13,066 14,714 14,992 14,858 14,929 15,588 15,686 15,556 14,948 1990's 15,147 14,112 13,249 12,549 12,981 13,067 12,929 13,296 13,321 12,252 2000's 13,430 13,256 14,576

  5. Pennsylvania Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    (Billion Cubic Feet) Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Pennsylvania Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 1,516 1980's 951 1,265 1,430 1,882 1,576 1,618 1,562 1,650 2,074 1,644 1990's 1,722 1,631 1,533 1,722 1,806 1,488 1,702 1,861 1,848 1,780 2000's 1,740 1,782 2,225 2,497 2,371 2,793 3,064 3,377 3,594 7,018 2010's 14,068 26,719 36,543

  6. Pennsylvania Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Pennsylvania Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 1,507 1980's 940 1,251 1,416 1,861 1,498 1,551 1,540 1,629 2,066 1,625 1990's 1,699 1,611 1,523 1,714 1,797 1,452 1,655 1,769 1,769 1,684 2000's 1,583 1,614 2,088 2,333 2,246 2,659

  7. Louisiana - North Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    (Billion Cubic Feet) Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Louisiana - North Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 2,869 1980's 3,160 3,358 2,988 3,008 2,546 2,650 2,567 2,350 2,442 2,705 1990's 2,640 2,435 2,363 2,376 2,599 2,863 3,189 3,156 2,943 3,127 2000's 3,344 3,927 4,283 5,137 5,841 6,768 6,795 6,437 7,966 17,273 2010's

  8. Louisiana - North Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation,

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) North Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Louisiana - North Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 2,104 1980's 2,244 2,318 2,156 2,233 1,856 2,018 2,000 1,862 2,193 2,468 1990's 2,399 2,243 2,203 2,256 2,465 2,730 2,934 2,869 2,760 2,867 2000's 3,158 3,759 4,124

  9. Louisiana - South Onshore Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Louisiana - South Onshore Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 14,580 1980's 13,407 13,049 12,153 11,553 10,650 10,120 9,416 9,024 8,969 8,934 1990's 8,492 7,846 7,019 6,219 6,558 6,166 6,105 6,137 5,966 5,858 2000's 5,447 5,341 4,395 3,874 3,557 3,478 3,473 3,463

  10. Louisiana - South Onshore Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Louisiana - South Onshore Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 12,276 1980's 11,273 11,178 10,364 9,971 9,162 8,328 7,843 7,644 7,631 7,661 1990's 7,386 6,851 6,166 5,570 5,880 5,446 5,478 5,538 5,336 5,259 2000's

  11. Louisiana Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation,

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Louisiana Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 3,360 2,391 2,128 1,794 1,741 1990's 1,554 1,394 1,167 926 980 1,001 1,039 1,016 911 979 2000's 807 796 670 586 557 588 561 641 1,235 1,072 2010's 679 639 773 870 908

  12. Louisiana Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Cubic Feet) Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Louisiana Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 19,676 13,334 12,852 12,620 12,912 1990's 12,151 11,363 10,227 9,541 10,145 9,891 10,077 10,036 9,480 9,646 2000's 9,512 10,040 9,190 9,538 9,792 10,679 10,710 10,292 11,816 20,970 2010's 29,517 30,545 22,135 20,389 23,258 - = No Data Reported;

  13. Louisiana Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Louisiana Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 16,316 10,943 10,724 10,826 11,171 1990's 10,597 9,969 9,060 8,615 9,165 8,890 9,038 9,020 8,569 8,667 2000's 8,704 9,245 8,520 8,952 9,235 10,091 10,149 9,651 10,581 19,898 2010's 28,838

  14. Lower 48 States Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation,

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Lower 48 States Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 143,852 1980's 139,421 143,515 142,984 143,469 141,226 138,464 139,070 135,256 141,211 139,798 1990's 141,941 140,584 138,883 136,953 138,213 139,369 141,136 140,382 139,015

  15. Michigan Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Michigan Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 601 1980's 668 494 481 529 419 375 665 1,002 943 1,011 1990's 922 967 938 890 1,022 1,018 1,778 1,975 2,158 2,086 2000's 2,558 2,873 3,097 3,219 2,961 2,808 2,925 3,512 3,105 2,728 2010's

  16. Mississippi Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    (Billion Cubic Feet) Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Mississippi Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 1,511 1980's 1,776 2,042 1,803 1,603 1,496 1,364 1,304 1,223 1,146 1,108 1990's 1,129 1,061 873 800 653 667 634 583 662 681 2000's 620 663 746 748 692 758 816 958 1,035 922 2010's 858 868 612 600 563 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not

  17. Mississippi Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Mississippi Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 1,444 1980's 1,703 1,976 1,729 1,523 1,382 1,259 1,238 1,162 1,075 1,003 1990's 1,003 953 788 747 610 640 587 532 615 650 2000's 585 637 713 721 672 738 795 928 990 884 2010's 822 806

  18. Montana Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Cubic Feet) Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Montana Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 837 1980's 1,308 1,336 870 921 825 884 823 801 834 889 1990's 920 848 875 684 727 792 806 769 789 851 2000's 892 907 914 1,068 1,002 998 1,069 1,067 1,014 993 2010's 959 792 616 590 686 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not

  19. New Mexico - East Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation,

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) East Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) New Mexico - East Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 2,634 1980's 2,266 2,377 2,331 2,214 2,117 2,001 1,750 1,901 2,030 2,131 1990's 2,290 2,073 1,948 1,860 1,791 1,648 1,612 1,694 1,694 1,880 2000's 2,526 2,571 2,632

  20. New Mexico - West Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation,

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) - West Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) New Mexico - West Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 9,934 1980's 10,001 10,536 9,231 8,654 8,341 7,947 9,344 9,275 15,000 13,088 1990's 14,804 16,131 16,854 16,494 15,156 15,421 14,620 13,586 13,122 13,292 2000's

  1. New Mexico Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) New Mexico Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 12,568 1980's 12,267 12,913 11,562 10,868 10,458 9,948 11,094 11,176 17,030 15,219 1990's 17,094 18,204 18,802 18,354 16,947 17,069 16,232 15,280 14,816 15,172 2000's 16,922 17,112 16,971

  2. Alabama Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Cubic Feet) Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Alabama Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 693 1980's 682 683 1990's 4,184 5,460 5,870 5,212 4,898 4,930 5,100 5,013 4,643 4,365 2000's 4,269 3,958 3,922 4,345 4,159 4,006 3,963 4,036 3,379 2,948 2010's 2,724 2,570 2,304 1,670 2,121 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not

  3. Alabama Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Alabama Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 680 1980's 659 658 1990's 4,159 5,437 5,840 5,166 4,842 4,886 5,062 4,983 4,615 4,338 2000's 4,241 3,931 3,891 4,313 4,127 3,977 3,945 4,016 3,360 2,919 2010's 2,686 2,522 2,204 1,624 1,980

  4. Alaska Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Cubic Feet) Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Alaska Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 32,275 1980's 33,395 33,049 35,002 34,291 34,476 34,223 33,355 33,715 9,179 9,019 1990's 9,393 9,653 9,725 9,986 9,813 9,575 9,296 10,673 10,043 9,855 2000's 9,331 8,901 8,533 8,348 8,473 8,237 10,333 12,022 7,766 9,183 2010's 8,917 9,511 9,667

  5. Alaska Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Alaska Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 5,058 1980's 4,828 4,373 4,188 3,883 4,120 3,131 2,462 2,983 2,910 2,821 1990's 2,466 2,924 3,002 3,492 3,326 3,310 3,216 2,957 2,768 2,646 2000's 2,564 2,309 2,157 2,081 2,004 1,875 1,447

  6. Arkansas Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Cubic Feet) Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Arkansas Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 1,725 1980's 1,796 1,821 1,974 2,081 2,240 2,032 2,011 2,018 2,000 1,782 1990's 1,739 1,672 1,752 1,555 1,610 1,566 1,472 1,479 1,332 1,546 2000's 1,584 1,619 1,654 1,666 1,837 1,967 2,271 3,306 5,628 10,872 2010's 14,181 16,374 11,039 13,524

  7. Arkansas Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Arkansas Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 1,559 1980's 1,602 1,637 1,800 1,887 2,051 1,875 1,861 1,873 1,843 1,637 1990's 1,672 1,536 1,619 1,462 1,525 1,462 1,383 1,423 1,294 1,505 2000's 1,545 1,589 1,616 1,629 1,797 1,921 2,227

  8. California - San Joaquin Basin Onshore Natural Gas, Wet After Lease

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) California - San Joaquin Basin Onshore Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 4,037 1980's 4,434 4,230 4,058 3,964 3,808 3,716 3,404 3,229 3,033 2,899 1990's 2,775 2,703 2,511 2,425 2,130 2,018 1,864 2,012 2,016 2,021 2000's 2,413 2,298 2,190 2,116

  9. California Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation,

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) California Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 2,961 1980's 3,345 2,660 2,663 2,546 2,507 1990's 2,400 2,213 2,093 1,982 1,698 1,619 1,583 1,820 1,879 2,150 2000's 2,198 1,922 1,900 1,810 2,006 2,585 2,155 2,193

  10. California Federal Offshore Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) California Federal Offshore Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 322 1980's 414 1,337 1,466 1,570 1,519 1990's 1,469 1,174 1,136 1,123 1,187 1,289 1,266 556 489 536 2000's 576 540 515 511 459 825 811 805 705 740 2010's 725 711 652 264 243 - = No Data Reported; -- =

  11. California Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Cubic Feet) Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) California Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 4,842 1980's 5,137 4,084 3,893 3,666 3,513 1990's 3,311 3,114 2,892 2,799 2,506 2,355 2,193 2,390 2,332 2,505 2000's 2,952 2,763 2,696 2,569 2,773 3,384 2,935 2,879 2,538 2,926 2010's 2,785 3,042 2,119 2,023 2,260 - = No Data Reported; -- =

  12. Colorado Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation,

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Colorado Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 181 1980's 200 259 206 173 208 167 190 219 177 236 1990's 510 682 762 1,162 1,088 1,072 1,055 533 772 781 2000's 960 1,025 1,097 1,186 1,293 1,326 1,541 1,838 2,010

  13. Colorado Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Cubic Feet) Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Colorado Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 2,838 1980's 3,170 3,228 3,551 3,373 3,140 3,095 3,198 3,131 3,749 4,526 1990's 4,759 6,011 6,463 6,979 7,036 7,592 8,064 7,160 8,208 9,372 2000's 10,837 12,949 14,348 15,893 15,249 17,122 17,682 22,480 24,169 24,081 2010's 25,372 26,151 21,674

  14. Colorado Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Colorado Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 2,657 1980's 2,970 2,969 3,345 3,200 2,932 2,928 3,008 2,912 3,572 4,290 1990's 4,249 5,329 5,701 5,817 5,948 6,520 7,009 6,627 7,436 8,591 2000's 9,877 11,924 13,251 14,707 13,956 15,796

  15. Gulf of Mexico Federal Offshore - Texas Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Gulf of Mexico Federal Offshore - Texas Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 6,411 6,191 6,956 6,739 6,745 6,504 1990's 6,884 6,305 6,353 6,138 5,739 5,674 5,240 4,799 4,452 4,507 2000's 5,030 5,404 4,967

  16. Kansas Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Cubic Feet) Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Kansas Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 10,824 1980's 10,065 10,443 10,128 10,183 9,981 9,844 11,093 11,089 10,530 10,509 1990's 10,004 9,946 10,302 9,872 9,705 9,093 8,145 7,328 6,862 6,248 2000's 5,682 5,460 5,329 5,143 5,003 4,598 4,197 4,248 3,795 3,500 2010's 3,937 3,747 3,557

  17. Kansas Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Kansas Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 10,657 1980's 9,880 10,304 10,016 10,051 9,871 9,729 10,961 10,974 10,427 10,408 1990's 9,890 9,831 10,208 9,779 9,630 9,026 8,063 7,277 6,802 6,196 2000's 5,641 5,355 5,263 5,058 4,923 4,515

  18. Kentucky Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Cubic Feet) Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Kentucky Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 504 1980's 536 561 592 600 647 806 883 940 957 1,015 1990's 1,047 1,187 1,126 1,036 1,025 1,102 1,046 1,429 1,295 1,530 2000's 1,837 1,950 1,999 1,971 1,982 2,240 2,369 2,588 2,846 2,919 2010's 2,785 2,128 1,515 1,794 1,753 - = No Data Reported;

  19. Kentucky Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Kentucky Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 502 1980's 525 547 580 581 630 793 866 921 938 993 1990's 1,039 1,177 1,118 1,030 978 1,075 1,022 1,403 1,275 1,501 2000's 1,810 1,925 1,974 1,946 1,963 2,210 2,333 2,554 2,812 2,887 2010's

  20. Texas - RRC District 1 Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Texas - RRC District 1 Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 732 1980's 683 870 708 960 714 754 716 639 1,002 1,037 1990's 744 660 606 540 586 498 523 950 1,101 1,165 2000's 1,037 1,024 1,047 1,047 1,184 1,148 1,048

  1. Texas - RRC District 10 Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) 10 Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Texas - RRC District 10 Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 6,805 1980's 6,381 6,264 6,242 5,948 5,443 5,484 5,320 5,030 4,876 4,849 1990's 4,608 4,763 4,463 4,214 4,405 4,656 4,592 4,386 4,510 4,447 2000's 4,143

  2. Texas - RRC District 5 Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) 5 Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Texas - RRC District 5 Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 1,127 1980's 1,117 1,265 1,322 1,477 1,911 2,100 2,169 2,106 1,989 1,789 1990's 1,835 1,841 1,692 1,790 1,926 1,876 2,088 1,681 1,906 2,301 2000's 3,089

  3. Texas - RRC District 6 Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) 6 Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Texas - RRC District 6 Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 2,710 1980's 3,622 3,653 3,749 4,279 4,087 4,274 4,324 4,151 4,506 5,201 1990's 5,345 4,856 4,987 5,170 5,131 5,425 5,690 5,616 5,691 5,562 2000's 5,901

  4. Texas - RRC District 8 Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Texas - RRC District 8 Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 8,073 1980's 7,216 6,620 6,084 6,064 5,362 5,246 5,254 4,973 4,738 4,403 1990's 4,323 4,023 3,792 3,569 3,267 3,218 3,069 2,886 2,727 2,947 2000's 3,345

  5. Utah Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    (Billion Cubic Feet) Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Utah Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 650 1980's 870 1,722 1,928 2,112 1,984 1,897 1,795 1,870 1,509 1,498 1990's 1,432 1,532 1,709 1,909 1,631 1,424 1,446 1,695 2,293 3,050 2000's 4,125 4,450 3,915 3,318 3,661 4,051 4,894 6,095 6,393 6,810

  6. Virginia Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Cubic Feet) Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Virginia Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 122 175 216 235 253 248 230 217 1990's 138 225 904 1,322 1,833 1,836 1,930 2,446 1,973 2,017 2000's 1,704 1,752 1,673 1,717 1,742 2,018 2,302 2,529 2,378 3,091 2010's 3,215 2,832 2,579 2,373 2,800 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA =

  7. Virginia Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Virginia Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 122 175 216 235 253 248 230 217 1990's 138 225 904 1,322 1,833 1,836 1,930 1,923 1,973 2,017 2000's 1,704 1,752 1,673 1,717 1,742 2,018 2,302 2,529 2,378 3,091 2010's 3,215 2,832 2,579

  8. West Virginia Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    (Billion Cubic Feet) Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) West Virginia Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 1,669 1980's 2,559 1,944 2,252 2,324 2,246 2,177 2,272 2,360 2,440 2,342 1990's 2,329 2,672 2,491 2,598 2,702 2,588 2,793 2,946 2,968 3,040 2000's 3,062 2,825 3,498 3,399 3,509 4,572 4,654 4,881 5,266 6,090 2010's 7,163 10,532

  9. West Virginia Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) West Virginia Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 1,593 1980's 2,437 1,881 2,169 2,238 2,173 2,104 2,207 2,210 2,299 2,244 1990's 2,243 2,513 2,293 2,408 2,569 2,514 2,722 2,887 2,925 2,952 2000's 2,929 2,777 3,477 3,376 3,489 4,553

  10. Wyoming Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Cubic Feet) Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 7,834 1980's 9,413 9,659 10,155 10,728 11,014 11,229 10,393 10,572 10,903 11,276 1990's 10,433 10,433 11,305 11,387 11,351 12,712 13,084 14,321 14,371 14,809 2000's 17,211 19,399 21,531 22,716 23,640 24,722 24,463 30,896 32,399 36,748 2010's

  11. Wyoming Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 6,796 1980's 8,039 8,431 9,095 9,769 10,147 10,519 9,702 9,881 10,287 10,695 1990's 9,860 9,861 10,681 10,885 10,740 11,833 12,260 13,471 13,577 14,096 2000's 16,559 18,911 20,970 22,266

  12. Challenges and Opportunities for Wet-Waste Feedstocks – Resource Assessment

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Breakout Session 2-C: Biogas and Beyond: Challenges and Opportunities for Advanced Biofuels from Wet-Waste FeedstocksChallenges and Opportunities for Wet-Waste Feedstocks – Resource...

  13. Wet-steam erosion of steam turbine disks and shafts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Averkina, N. V.; Zheleznyak, I. V.; Kachuriner, Yu. Ya.; Nosovitskii, I. A.; Orlik, V. G.; Shishkin, V. I.

    2011-01-15

    A study of wet-steam erosion of the disks and the rotor bosses or housings of turbines in thermal and nuclear power plants shows that the rate of wear does not depend on the diagrammed degree of moisture, but is determined by moisture condensing on the surfaces of the diaphragms and steam inlet components. Renovating the diaphragm seals as an assembly with condensate removal provides a manifold reduction in the erosion.

  14. Hydrologic Behavior of Two Engineered Barriers Following Extreme Wetting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Porro, I.

    2000-09-30

    Many engineered barriers are expected to function for hundreds of years or longer. Over the course of time, it is likely that some barriers will experience infiltration to the point of breakthrough. This study compares the recovery from breakthrough of two storage- evapotranspiration type engineered barriers. Replicates of test plots comprising thick soil and capillary/biobarrier covers were wetted to breakthrough in 1997. Test plots were kept cleared of vegetation to maximize hydrologic stress during recovery. Following cessation of drainage resulting from the wetting irrigations, water storage levels in all plots were at elevated levels compared to pre-irrigation levels. As a result, infiltration of melting snow during the subsequent spring overloaded the storage capacity and produced drainage in all plots. Relatively rapid melting of accumulated snowfall produced the most significant infiltration events each year during the study. Capillary barriers yielded less total drainage than thick soil barriers. By limiting drainage, capillary barriers increased water storage in the upper portions of the test plots, which led to increased evaporation from the capillary barrier plots compared to thick soil plots. Increased evaporation in the capillary barrier plots allowed more water to infiltrate in the second season following the wetting tests without triggering drainage. All thick soil plots again yielded drainage in the second season. Within two years of intentionally induced breakthrough, evaporation alone (without transpiration) restored the capability of the capillary barrier covers to function as intended, although water storage in these covers remained at elevated levels.

  15. DRI Research Parks Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Research Parks Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: DRI Research Parks Ltd Place: United States Sector: Services Product: General Financial & Legal Services ( Academic Research...

  16. ,"New Mexico Dry Natural Gas Proved Reserves"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","New Mexico Dry Natural Gas Proved Reserves",10,"Annual",2014,"06301977" ,"Release Date:","11...

  17. Cold vacuum drying system conceptual design report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bradshaw, F.W.

    1996-05-01

    This document summarizes the activities involved in the removal of the SNF from the leaking basins and to place it in stable dry storage.

  18. Catalytic cracking process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lokhandwala, Kaaeid A.; Baker, Richard W.

    2001-01-01

    Processes and apparatus for providing improved catalytic cracking, specifically improved recovery of olefins, LPG or hydrogen from catalytic crackers. The improvement is achieved by passing part of the wet gas stream across membranes selective in favor of light hydrocarbons over hydrogen.

  19. A Remote Absorption Process for Disposal of Evaporate and Reverse Osmosis Concentrates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brunsell, D.A.

    2008-07-01

    Many commercial nuclear plants and DOE facilities generate secondary waste streams consisting of evaporator bottoms and reverse osmosis (RO) concentrate. Since liquids are not permitted in disposal facilities, these waste streams must be converted to dry solids, either by evaporation to dried solids or by solidification to liquid-free solids. Evaporation of the liquid wastes reduces their volume, but requires costly energy and capital equipment. In some cases, concentration of the contaminants during drying can cause the waste to exceed Class A waste for nuclear utilities or exceed DOE transuranic limits. This means that disposal costs will be increased, or that, when the Barnwell, SC disposal site closes to waste outside of the Atlantic Compact in July 2008, the waste will be precluded from disposal for the foreseeable future). Solidification with cement agents requires less energy and equipment than drying, but results in a volume increase of 50-100%. The doubling or tripling of waste weight, along with the increased volume, sharply increases shipping and disposal costs. Confronted with these unattractive alternatives, Diversified Technologies Services (DTS), in conjunction with selected nuclear utilities and D and D operations at Rocky Flats, undertook an exploratory effort to convert this liquid wastewater to a solid without using cement. This would avoid the bulking effect of cement, and permit the waste to be disposed of the Energy Solutions facility in Utah as well as some DOE facilities. To address the need for an attractive alternative to drying and cement solidification, a test program was developed using a polymer absorbent media to convert the concentrate streams to a liquid-free waste form that meets the waste acceptance criteria of the pertinent burial sites. Two approaches for mixing the polymer with the liquid were tested: mechanical mixing and in-situ incorporation. As part of this test program, a process control program (PCP) was developed that is 100% scalable from a concentrate test sample as small as 50 grams to full-scale processing of 100 cubic foot containers or larger. In summary: The absorption process offers utilities a viable and less costly alternative to on-site drying or solidification of concentrates. The absorption process can be completed by site personnel or by a vendor as a turnkey service. The process is suitable for multiple types of waste, including RO and evaporator concentrates, sludges, and other difficult to process waters and wet solids. (author)

  20. Energy analysis on use of air and superheated steam as drying media

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tarnawski, W.Z.; Mitera, J.; Borowski, P.; Klepaczka, A. [Technical Univ. of Lodz (Poland). Inst. of Papermaking and Paper Machines

    1996-10-01

    The physical properties of air and superheated steam were analyzed in a range of temperatures applied in paper and paperboard drying processes. On the basis of tests carried out on a pilot stand the values of energy indices for air and steam drying processes are compared. With the drying media temperature as T{sub M} = 300 C, nozzle velocity {nu} = 60 m/s and using the Huang and Mujumdar model as well as relationships given by Chance a comparative analysis of the results has been carried out. Variation of several indices in the range of temperatures 100--600 C and various nozzle velocities was studied.

  1. Recent progress of spray drying in China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jinxin, T.; Zonglian, W.; Lixin, H.

    1999-10-01

    The development of spray drying technique during past 10 years of China is reviewed. Main achievements in research, development and utilization of three types of atomization are described and summarized. General trend of spray drying research and development in 21st century is forecasted.

  2. Cold vacuum drying facility 90% design review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O`Neill, C.T.

    1997-05-02

    This document contains review comment records for the CVDF 90% design review. Spent fuels retrieved from the K Basins will be dried at the CVDF. It has also been recommended that the Multi-Conister Overpacks be welded, inspected, and repaired at the CVD Facility before transport to dry storage.

  3. Dry phase reactor for generating medical isotopes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mackie, Thomas Rockwell; Heltemes, Thad Alexander

    2016-05-03

    An apparatus for generating medical isotopes provides for the irradiation of dry-phase, granular uranium compounds which are then dissolved in a solvent for separation of the medical isotope from the irradiated compound. Once the medical isotope is removed, the dissolved compound may be reconstituted in dry granular form for repeated irradiation.

  4. Evaluation of spray-drying methods for cellulase preservation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Himmel, M.; Oh, K.; Tucker, M.; Rivard, C.; Grohmann, K.; Scott, C.D.

    1986-01-01

    Spray drying processes are widely used for the large-scale preservation of biology goods. The application of this technology to the enhancement of the storability of cellulase and related enzymes would improve fermentation processes requiring input of specific quantities of enzyme catalyst of known activity. Very high percentages (90% of original) of filter paper and carboxymethyicellulose hydrolyzing activities can be recovered from conventional spray dryers when operated at inlet air temperatures ranging from 90 to 180 degrees. The beta-glucosidase and beta-xylosidase activity recoveries were somewhat lower and were optimal at temperatures ranging from 120 to 150 degrees. However, the individual performance of the 12 enzyme preparations examined was quite preparation specific. An ultrasonic nozzle adaptation to the Yamato dryer demonstrated the overall feasibility of high energy atomization inasmuch as the filter paper activity was retained after drying. The more labile beta-xylosidase activity was, however, entirely lost.

  5. Dry soldering with hot filament produced atomic hydrogen

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Panitz, Janda K. G.; Jellison, James L.; Staley, David J.

    1995-01-01

    A system for chemically transforming metal surface oxides to metal that is especially, but not exclusively, suitable for preparing metal surfaces for dry soldering and solder reflow processes. The system employs one or more hot, refractory metal filaments, grids or surfaces to thermally dissociate molecular species in a low pressure of working gas such as a hydrogen-containing gas to produce reactive species in a reactive plasma that can chemically reduce metal oxides and form volatile compounds that are removed in the working gas flow. Dry soldering and solder reflow processes are especially applicable to the manufacture of printed circuit boards, semiconductor chip lead attachment and packaging multichip modules. The system can be retrofitted onto existing metal treatment ovens, furnaces, welding systems and wave soldering system designs.

  6. Dry soldering with hot filament produced atomic hydrogen

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Panitz, J.K.G.; Jellison, J.L.; Staley, D.J.

    1995-04-25

    A system is disclosed for chemically transforming metal surface oxides to metal that is especially, but not exclusively, suitable for preparing metal surfaces for dry soldering and solder reflow processes. The system employs one or more hot, refractory metal filaments, grids or surfaces to thermally dissociate molecular species in a low pressure of working gas such as a hydrogen-containing gas to produce reactive species in a reactive plasma that can chemically reduce metal oxides and form volatile compounds that are removed in the working gas flow. Dry soldering and solder reflow processes are especially applicable to the manufacture of printed circuit boards, semiconductor chip lead attachment and packaging multichip modules. The system can be retrofitted onto existing metal treatment ovens, furnaces, welding systems and wave soldering system designs. 1 fig.

  7. C60 -induced Devil's Staircase transformation on a Pb/Si(111) wetting layer

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wang, Lin -Lin; Johnson, Duane D.; Tringides, Michael C.

    2015-12-03

    Density functional theory is used to study structural energetics of Pb vacancy cluster formation on C60/Pb/Si(111) to explain the unusually fast and error-free transformations between the “Devil's Staircase” (DS) phases on the Pb/Si(111) wetting layer at low temperature (~110K). The formation energies of vacancy clusters are calculated in C60/Pb/Si(111) as Pb atoms are progressively ejected from the initial dense Pb wetting layer. Vacancy clusters larger than five Pb atoms are found to be stable with seven being the most stable, while vacancy clusters smaller than five are highly unstable, which agrees well with the observed ejection rate of ~5 Pbmore » atoms per C60. Furthermore, the high energy cost (~0.8 eV) for the small vacancy clusters to form indicates convincingly that the unusually fast transformation observed experimentally between the DS phases, upon C60 adsorption at low temperature, cannot be the result of single-atom random walk diffusion but of correlated multi-atom processes.« less

  8. Inspection of Used Fuel Dry Storage Casks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dennis C. Kunerth; Tim McJunkin; Mark McKay; Sasan Bakhtiari

    2012-09-01

    ABSTRACT The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulates the storage of used nuclear fuel, which is now and will be increasingly placed in dry storage systems. Since a final disposition pathway is not defined, the fuel is expected to be maintained in dry storage well beyond the time frame originally intended. Due to knowledge gaps regarding the viability of current dry storage systems for long term use, efforts are underway to acquire the technical knowledge and tools required to understand the issues and verify the integrity of the dry storage system components. This report summarizes the initial efforts performed by researchers at Idaho National Laboratory and Argonne National Laboratory to identify and evaluate approaches to in-situ inspection dry storage casks. This task is complicated by the design of the current storage systems that severely restrict access to the casks.

  9. Inclined fluidized bed system for drying fine coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cha, Chang Y.; Merriam, Norman W.; Boysen, John E.

    1992-02-11

    Coal is processed in an inclined fluidized bed dryer operated in a plug-flow manner with zonal temperature and composition control, and an inert fluidizing gas, such as carbon dioxide or combustion gas. Recycled carbon dioxide, which is used for drying, pyrolysis, quenching, and cooling, is produced by partial decarboxylation of the coal. The coal is heated sufficiently to mobilize coal tar by further pyrolysis, which seals micropores upon quenching. Further cooling with carbon dioxide enhances stabilization.

  10. 3.1.1.2 Feed Processing and Handling DL2 Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elliott, Douglas C.; Magnuson, Jon K.; Wend, Christopher F.

    2006-09-30

    This milestone report is the deliverable for our Feed Processing and Handling project. It includes results of wet biomass feedstock analysis, slurry pumping information, fungal processing to produce a lignin-rich biorefinery residue and two subcontracted efforts to quantify the amount of wet biomass feedstocks currently available within the corn processing and paper processing industries.

  11. Virginia Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation,

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Virginia Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1990's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2000's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2010's 0 0 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016

  12. Treatment of electrochemical cell components with lithium tetrachloroaluminate (LiAlCl.sub.4) to promote electrolyte wetting

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Eberhart, James G. (Naperville, IL); Battles, James E. (Oak Forest, IL)

    1980-01-01

    Electrochemical cell components such as interelectrode separators, retaining screens and current collectors are contacted with lithium tetrachloroaluminate prior to contact with molten electrolytic salt to improve electrolyte wetting. The LiAlCl.sub.4 can be applied in powdered, molten or solution form but, since this material has a lower melting point than the electrolytic salt used in high-temperature cells, the powdered LiAlCl.sub.4 forms a molten flux prior to contact by the molten electrolyte when both materials are initially provided in solid form. Components of materials such as boron nitride and other materials which are difficult to wet with molten salts are advantageously treated by this process.

  13. Michigan Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Cubic Feet) Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Michigan Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 1,334 1980's 1,551 1,252 1,200 1,353 1,193 1,064 1,242 1,571 1,434 1,443 1990's 1,330 1,404 1,290 1,218 1,379 1,344 2,125 2,256 2,386 2,313 2000's 2,772 3,032 3,311 3,488 3,154 2,961 3,117 3,691 3,253 2,805 2010's 2,975 2,549 1,781 1,839 1,873 -

  14. 1986 wet deposition temporal and spatial patterns in North America

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olsen, A.R.

    1989-07-01

    The focus of this report is on North American wet deposition temporal patterns from 1979 to 1986 and spatial patterns for 1986. The report provides statistical distribution summaries of annual precipitation-weighted average concentration and annual deposition for nine ion species: hydrogen, sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, calcium, chloride, sodium, potassium, and magnesium. The data in the report are from the Acid Depositing System (ADS) for the statistical reporting of North American deposition data. Isopleth maps, based on surface estimation using kriging, display concentration and deposition spatial patterns of pH, hydrogen, sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, and calcium ion species for 1986 annual, winter, and summer periods. The temporal pattern analyses use a subset of 30 sites over an 8-year (1979-1986) period and an expanded subset of 137 sites with greater spatial coverage over a 5-year (1982-1986) period. The 8-year period represents the longest period with wet deposition monitoring data unavailable that has a sufficient number of sites with data of known quality to allow a descriptive summary of annual temporal patterns. 19 refs., 105 figs., 29 tabs.

  15. Acoustically enhanced heat exchange and drying apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bramlette, T.T.; Keller, J.O.

    1987-07-10

    A heat transfer drying apparatus includes an acoustically augmented heat transfer chamber for receiving material to be dried. The chamber includes a first heat transfer gas inlet, a second heat transfer gas inlet, a material inlet, and a gas outlet which also serves as a dried material and gas outlet. A non-pulsing first heat transfer gas source provides a first drying gas to the acoustically augmented heat transfer chamber through the first heat transfer gas inlet. A valveless, continuous second heat transfer gas source provides a second drying gas to the acoustically augmented heat transfer chamber through the second heat transfer gas inlet. The second drying gas also generates acoustic waves which bring about acoustical coupling with the gases in the acoustically augmented heat transfer chamber. The second drying gas itself oscillates at an acoustic frequency of approximately 180 Hz due to fluid mechanical motion in the gas. The oscillations of the second heat transfer gas coupled to the first heat transfer gas in the acoustically augmented heat transfer chamber enhance heat and mass transfer by convection within the chamber. 3 figs.

  16. Airless drying -- Developments since IDS'94

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stubbing, T.J.

    1999-09-01

    Since its introduction to IDS'94 delegates, significant progress has been made with the development of airless drying technology. The ceramic industry internationally is beginning to benefit from both the energy use and drying time reductions it achieves, while on the basis of further theoretical work carried out since 1993 other industries, including the bioenergy sector, should also soon begin to exploit its advantages. As global warming becomes a reality and oil reserves decline, superheated steam drying and gasification of biomass will contribute to the mitigation of those problems.

  17. Licensing of spent fuel dry storage and consolidated rod storage: A Review of Issues and Experiences

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bailey, W.J.

    1990-02-01

    The results of this study, performed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) and sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE), respond to the nuclear industry's recommendation that a report be prepared that collects and describes the licensing issues (and their resolutions) that confront a new applicant requesting approval from the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for dry storage of spent fuel or for large-scale storage of consolidated spent fuel rods in pools. The issues are identified in comments, questions, and requests from the NRC during its review of applicants' submittals. Included in the report are discussions of (1) the 18 topical reports on cask and module designs for dry storage fuel that have been submitted to the NRC, (2) the three license applications for dry storage of spent fuel at independent spent fuel storage installations (ISFSIs) that have been submitted to the NRC, and (3) the three applications (one of which was later withdrawn) for large-scale storage of consolidated fuel rods in existing spent fuel storage pools at reactors that were submitted tot he NRC. For each of the applications submitted, examples of some of the issues (and suggestions for their resolutions) are described. The issues and their resolutions are also covered in detail in an example in each of the three subject areas: (1) the application for the CASTOR V/21 dry spent fuel storage cask, (2) the application for the ISFSI for dry storage of spent fuel at Surry, and (3) the application for full-scale wet storage of consolidated spent fuel at Millstone-2. The conclusions in the report include examples of major issues that applicants have encountered. Recommendations for future applicants to follow are listed. 401 refs., 26 tabs.

  18. Land application uses for dry FGD by-products. Phase 2 report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stehouwer, R.; Dick, W.; Bigham, J.

    1996-03-01

    A study was initiated in December 1990 to demonstrate large volume beneficial uses of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) by-products. A Phase 1 report provided results of an extensive characterization of chemical, physical, mineralogical and engineering properties of 58 dry FGD by-product samples. The Phase 1 report concluded that high volume beneficial reuses will depend on the economics related to their ability to substitute for existing materials for various types of applications (e.g. as an agricultural liming material, soil borrow for highway embankment construction, and reclamation of active and abandoned surface coal mine lands). Phase 2 objectives were (1) to conduct laboratory and greenhouse studies of FGD and soil (spoil) mixtures for agronomic and engineering applications, (2) to initiate field studies related to high volume agronomic and engineering uses, and (3) to develop the basic methodological framework for estimation of the financial and economic costs and benefits to society of several FGD reuse options and to make some preliminary runs of economic models. High volume beneficial reuses of dry FGD by-products have been successfully demonstrated. Adverse environmental impacts have been negligible. Although few sources of dry FGD by-products currently exist in Ohio and the United States there is potential for smaller coal-fired facilities to adopt S0{sub 2} scrubbing technologies that produce dry FGD material. Also much of what we have learned from studies on dry FGD by-products is applicable to the more prevalent wet FGD by-products. The adaptation of the technologies demonstrated in this project seem to be not only limited by economic constraints, but even more so, by the need to create awareness of the market potential of using these FGD by-products.

  19. Dry Cask Storage Study Feb 1989

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This report on the use of dry-cask-storage technologies at the sites of civilian nuclear power reactors has been prepared by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE} in response to the requirements of...

  20. Geothermal Food Processors Agricultural Drying Low Temperature...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Processors is an Agricultural Drying low temperature direct use geothermal facility in Brady Hot Springs E of Fernley, Nevada. This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by...

  1. Bioenergy Impacts … Billion Dry Tons

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    by 2030 at least one billion dry tons of non-food biomass resources, yielding up to 60 billion gallons of biofuels, as well as bio- based chemicals, products, and electricity. ...

  2. Spray drying for high-sulfur coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rhudy, R.

    1988-09-01

    Recent pilot plant tests indicate that spray drying, now used to control SO/sub 2/ emissions from low-sulfur coal, can also be effective for high-sulfur coal. Spray drying coupled with baghouse particulate removal is the most effective configuration tested to date, removing over 90% of SO/sub 2/ while easily meeting New Source Performance Standards for particulate emissions. 2 figures, 1 table.

  3. Safeguards-by-Design: Guidance for Independent Spent Fuel Dry Storage Installations (ISFSI)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trond Bjornard; Philip C. Durst

    2012-05-01

    This document summarizes the requirements and best practices for implementing international nuclear safeguards at independent spent fuel storage installations (ISFSIs), also known as Away-from- Reactor (AFR) storage facilities. These installations may provide wet or dry storage of spent fuel, although the safeguards guidance herein focuses on dry storage facilities. In principle, the safeguards guidance applies to both wet and dry storage. The reason for focusing on dry independent spent fuel storage installations is that this is one of the fastest growing nuclear installations worldwide. Independent spent fuel storage installations are typically outside of the safeguards nuclear material balance area (MBA) of the reactor. They may be located on the reactor site, but are generally considered by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the State Regulator/SSAC to be a separate facility. The need for this guidance is becoming increasingly urgent as more and more nuclear power plants move their spent fuel from resident spent fuel ponds to independent spent fuel storage installations. The safeguards requirements and best practices described herein are also relevant to the design and construction of regional independent spent fuel storage installations that nuclear power plant operators are starting to consider in the absence of a national long-term geological spent fuel repository. The following document has been prepared in support of two of the three foundational pillars for implementing Safeguards-by-Design (SBD). These are: i) defining the relevant safeguards requirements, and ii) defining the best practices for meeting the requirements. This document was prepared with the design of the latest independent dry spent fuel storage installations in mind and was prepared specifically as an aid for designers of commercial nuclear facilities to help them understand the relevant international requirements that follow from a countrys safeguards agreement with the IAEA. If these requirements are understood at the earliest stages of facility design, it will help eliminate the costly retrofit of facilities that has occurred in the past to accommodate nuclear safeguards, and will help the IAEA implement nuclear safeguards worldwide, especially in countries building their first nuclear facilities. It is also hoped that this guidance document will promote discussion between the IAEA, State Regulator/SSAC, Project Design Team, and Facility Owner/Operator at an early stage to ensure that new ISFSIs will be effectively and efficiently safeguarded. This is intended to be a living document, since the international nuclear safeguards requirements may be subject to revision over time. More importantly, the practices by which the requirements are met are continuously modernized by the IAEA and facility operators for greater efficiency and cost effectiveness. As these improvements are made, it is recommended that the subject guidance document be updated and revised accordingly.

  4. Steam atmosphere drying exhaust steam recompression system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Becker, F.E.; Smolensky, L.A.; Doyle, E.F.; DiBella, F.A.

    1994-03-08

    This invention relates to a heated steam atmosphere drying system comprising dryer in combination with an exhaust recompression system which is extremely energy efficient and eliminates dangers known to air dryers. The system uses superheated steam as the drying medium, which recirculates through the system where its heat of evaporation and heat of compression is recovered, thereby providing a constant source of heat to the drying chamber. The dryer has inlets whereby feedstock and superheated steam are fed therein. High heat transfer and drying rates are achieved by intimate contact of the superheated steam with the particles being dried. The dryer comprises a vessel which enables the feedstock and steam to enter and recirculate together. When the feedstock becomes dry it will exit the dryer with the steam and become separated from the steam through the use of a curvilinear louver separator (CLS). The CLS enables removal of fine and ultrafine particles from the dryer. Water vapor separated from the particles in the CLS as superheated steam, may then be recovered and recirculated as steam through the use of a compressor to either directly or indirectly heat the dryer, and a heat exchanger or a heater to directly provide heat to the dryer. This system not only provides a very efficient heat transfer system but results in a minimum carry-over of ultrafine particles thereby eliminating any explosive hazard. 17 figures.

  5. Steam atmosphere drying exhaust steam recompression system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Becker, Frederick E.; Smolensky, Leo A.; Doyle, Edward F.; DiBella, Francis A.

    1994-01-01

    This invention relates to a heated steam atmosphere drying system comprising dryer in combination with an exhaust recompression system which is extremely energy efficient and eliminates dangers known to air dryers. The system uses superheated steam as the drying medium, which recirculated through the system where its heat of evaporation and heat of compression is recovered, thereby providing a constant source of heat to the drying chamber. The dryer has inlets whereby feedstock and superheated steam are fed therein. High heat transfer and drying rates are achieved by intimate contact of the superheated steam with the particles being dried The dryer comprises a vessel which enables the feedstock and steam to enter recirculate together. When the feedstock becomes dry it will exit the dryer with the steam and become separated from the steam through the use of a curvilinear louver separator (CLS). The CLS enables removal of fine and ultrafine particles from the dryer. Water vapor separated from the particles in the CLS as superheated steam, may then be recovered and recirculated as steam through the use of a compressor to either directly or indirectly heat the dryer, and a heat exchanger or a heater to directly provide heat to the dryer. This system not only provides a very efficient heat transfer system but results in a minimum carry-over of ultrafine particles thereby eliminating any explosive hazard.

  6. Patterned functional arrays by selective de-wetting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    FAN,HONGYOU; DOSHI,DHAVAL; LU,YUNFENG; BRINKER,C. JEFFREY

    2000-05-11

    Using a micro-Contact Printing ({mu}-CP) technique, substrates are prepared with patterns of hydrophilic, hydroxyl-terminated SAMS and hydrophobic methyl-terminated SAMS. Beginning with a homogeneous solution of silica, surfactant, ethanol, water, and functional silane, preferential ethanol evaporation during dip-coating, causes water enrichment and selective de-wetting of the hydrophobic SAMS. Correspondingly, film deposition occurs exclusively on the patterned hydrophilic SAMS. In addition, by co-condensation of tetrafunctional silanes (Si(OR){sub 4}) with tri-functional organosilanes ((RO){sub 3}Si(CH{sub 2}){sub 3}NH{sub 2}), the authors have selectively derived the silica framework with functional amine NH{sub 2} groups. A pH sensitive, micro-fluidic system was formed by further conjugation reactions with pH sensitive dye molecules.

  7. Wet chemical thinning of molybdenum disulfide down to its monolayer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Amara, Kiran Kumar; Chu, Leiqiang; Kumar, Rajeev; Toh, Minglin; Eda, Goki

    2014-09-01

    We report on the preparation of mono- and bi-layer molybdenum disulfide (MoS{sub 2}) from a bulk crystal by facile wet chemical etching. We show that concentrated nitric acid (HNO{sub 3}) effectively etches thin MoS{sub 2} crystals from their edges via formation of MoO{sub 3}. Interestingly, etching of thin crystals on a substrate leaves behind unreacted mono- and bilayer sheets. The flakes obtained by chemical etching exhibit electronic quality comparable to that of mechanically exfoliated counterparts. Our findings indicate that the self-limiting chemical etching is a promising top-down route to preparing atomically thin crystals from bulk layer compounds.

  8. Crude Oil and Lease Condensate Wet Natural Gas

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    U.S. proved reserves, and reserves changes, 2013-2014 Crude Oil and Lease Condensate Wet Natural Gas billion barrels trillion cubic feet U.S. proved reserves at December 31, 2013 36.5 354.0 Total discoveries 5.4 50.5 Net revisions 0.4 1.0 Net Adjustments, Sales, Acquisitions 0.8 11.5 Production -3.2 -28.1 Net additions to U.S. proved reserves 3.4 34.8 U.S. proved reserves at December 31, 2014 39.9 388.8 Percent change in U.S. proved reserves 9.3% 9.8% Percent change calculated from unrounded

  9. WPN 97-6: Approval of Wet-Spray Cellulose Insulation as an Allowable Weatherization Material

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    To provide states with information about the approved use of wet-spray cellulose for use in the low-income Weatherization Assistance Program.

  10. MHK Projects/US Navy Wave Energy Technology WET Program at Marine...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    US Navy Wave Energy Technology WET Program at Marine Corps Base Hawaii MCBH < MHK Projects Jump to: navigation, search << Return to the MHK database homepage Loading map......

  11. High Burnup Dry Storage Cask Research and Development Project...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    High Burnup Dry Storage Cask Research and Development Project: Final Test Plan High Burnup Dry Storage Cask Research and Development Project: Final Test Plan The potential need to ...

  12. ,"Virginia Dry Natural Gas Expected Future Production (Billion...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Data for" ,"Data 1","Virginia Dry Natural Gas Expected Future ... 12:18:23 PM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: Virginia Dry Natural Gas Expected Future ...

  13. ,"West Virginia Dry Natural Gas Expected Future Production (Billion...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Data for" ,"Data 1","West Virginia Dry Natural Gas Expected Future ... PM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: West Virginia Dry Natural Gas Expected Future ...

  14. Louisiana - South Onshore Dry Natural Gas Expected Future Production...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Dry Natural Gas Expected Future Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Louisiana - South Onshore Dry Natural Gas Expected Future Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1...

  15. Texas State Offshore Dry Natural Gas Expected Future Production...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Dry Natural Gas Expected Future Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Texas State Offshore Dry Natural Gas Expected Future Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2...

  16. Louisiana State Offshore Dry Natural Gas Expected Future Production...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Dry Natural Gas Expected Future Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Louisiana State Offshore Dry Natural Gas Expected Future Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2...

  17. Miscellaneous States Dry Natural Gas Expected Future Production...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Dry Natural Gas Expected Future Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Miscellaneous States Dry Natural Gas Expected Future Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2...

  18. Scientific American: "Tall Trees Sucked Dry by Global Warming...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Scientific American: "Tall Trees Sucked Dry by Global Warming" Scientific American: "Tall Trees Sucked Dry by Global Warming" Climate change will challenge tall trees like ...

  19. Scientific American: "Tall Trees Sucked Dry by Global Warming...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Scientific American: "Tall Trees Sucked Dry by Global Warming" June 7, 2015 Scientific American: "Tall Trees Sucked Dry by Global Warming" A well-known scientific principle ...

  20. Aq Dryers Agricultural Drying Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Aq Dryers Agricultural Drying Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Aq Dryers Agricultural Drying Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Aq...

  1. Texas - RRC District 2 Onshore Dry Natural Gas Expected Future...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Dry Natural Gas Expected Future Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Texas - RRC District 2 Onshore Dry Natural Gas Expected Future Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 ...

  2. Texas - RRC District 3 Onshore Dry Natural Gas Expected Future...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Dry Natural Gas Expected Future Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Texas - RRC District 3 Onshore Dry Natural Gas Expected Future Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 ...

  3. Texas - RRC District 4 Onshore Dry Natural Gas Expected Future...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Dry Natural Gas Expected Future Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Texas - RRC District 4 Onshore Dry Natural Gas Expected Future Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 ...

  4. Impacts of WRF Physics and Measurement Uncertainty on California Wintertime Model Wet Bias

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chin, H S; Caldwell, P M; Bader, D C

    2009-07-22

    The Weather and Research Forecast (WRF) model version 3.0.1 is used to explore California wintertime model wet bias. In this study, two wintertime storms are selected from each of four major types of large-scale conditions; Pineapple Express, El Nino, La Nina, and synoptic cyclones. We test the impacts of several model configurations on precipitation bias through comparison with three sets of gridded surface observations; one from the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration, and two variations from the University of Washington (without and with long-term trend adjustment; UW1 and UW2, respectively). To simplify validation, California is divided into 4 regions (Coast, Central Valley, Mountains, and Southern California). Simulations are driven by North American Regional Reanalysis data to minimize large-scale forcing error. Control simulations are conducted with 12-km grid spacing (low resolution) but additional experiments are performed at 2-km (high) resolution to evaluate the robustness of microphysics and cumulus parameterizations to resolution changes. We find that the choice of validation dataset has a significant impact on the model wet bias, and the forecast skill of model precipitation depends strongly on geographic location and storm type. Simulations with right physics options agree better with UW1 observations. In 12-km resolution simulations, the Lin microphysics and the Kain-Fritsch cumulus scheme have better forecast skill in the coastal region while Goddard, Thompson, and Morrison microphysics, and the Grell-Devenyi cumulus scheme perform better in the rest of California. The effect of planetary boundary layer, soil-layer, and radiation physics on model precipitation is weaker than that of microphysics and cumulus processes for short- to medium-range low-resolution simulations. Comparison of 2-km and 12-km resolution runs suggests a need for improvement of cumulus schemes, and supports the use of microphysics schemes in coarser-grid applications.

  5. Cold Vacuum Drying facility design basis accident analysis documentation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    CROWE, R.D.

    2000-08-08

    This document provides the detailed accident analysis to support HNF-3553, Annex B, Spent Nuclear Fuel Project Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR), ''Cold Vacuum Drying Facility Final Safety Analysis Report.'' All assumptions, parameters, and models used to provide the analysis of the design basis accidents are documented to support the conclusions in the FSAR. The calculations in this document address the design basis accidents (DBAs) selected for analysis in HNF-3553, ''Spent Nuclear Fuel Project Final Safety Analysis Report'', Annex B, ''Cold Vacuum Drying Facility Final Safety Analysis Report.'' The objective is to determine the quantity of radioactive particulate available for release at any point during processing at the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF) and to use that quantity to determine the amount of radioactive material released during the DBAs. The radioactive material released is used to determine dose consequences to receptors at four locations, and the dose consequences are compared with the appropriate evaluation guidelines and release limits to ascertain the need for preventive and mitigative controls.

  6. Selenium Speciation and Management in Wet FGD Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Searcy, K; Richardson, M; Blythe, G; Wallschlaeger, D; Chu, P; Dene, C

    2012-02-29

    This report discusses results from bench- and pilot-scale simulation tests conducted to determine the factors that impact selenium speciation and phase partitioning in wet FGD systems. The selenium chemistry in wet FGD systems is highly complex and not completely understood, thus extrapolation and scale-up of these results may be uncertain. Control of operating parameters and application of scrubber additives have successfully demonstrated the avoidance or decrease of selenite oxidation at the bench and pilot scale. Ongoing efforts to improve sample handling methods for selenium speciation measurements are also discussed. Bench-scale scrubber tests explored the impacts of oxidation air rate, trace metals, scrubber additives, and natural limestone on selenium speciation in synthetic and field-generated full-scale FGD liquors. The presence and concentration of redox-active chemical species as well as the oxidation air rate contribute to the oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) conditions in FGD scrubbers. Selenite oxidation to the undesirable selenate form increases with increasing ORP conditions, and decreases with decreasing ORP conditions. Solid-phase manganese [Mn(IV)] appeared to be the significant metal impacting the oxidation of selenite to selenate. Scrubber additives were tested for their ability to inhibit selenite oxidation. Although dibasic acid and other scrubber additives showed promise in early clear liquor (sodium based and without calcium solids) bench-scale tests, these additives did not show strong inhibition of selenite oxidation in tests with higher manganese concentrations and with slurries from full-scale wet FGD systems. In bench-tests with field liquors, addition of ferric chloride at a 250:1 iron-to-selenium mass ratio sorbed all incoming selenite to the solid phase, although addition of ferric salts had no impact on native selenate that already existed in the field slurry liquor sample. As ORP increases, selenite may oxidize to selenate more rapidly than it sorbs to ferric solids. Though it was not possible to demonstrate a decrease in selenium concentrations to levels below the project?¢????s target of 50 ???µg/L during pilot testing, some trends observed in bench-scale testing were evident at the pilot scale. Specifically, reducing oxidation air rate and ORP tends to either retain selenium as selenite in the liquor or shift selenium phase partitioning to the solid phase. Oxidation air flow rate control may be one option for managing selenium behavior in FGD scrubbers. Units that cycle load widely may find it more difficult to impact ORP conditions with oxidation air flow rate control alone. Because decreasing oxidation air rates to the reaction tank showed that all ?¢????new?¢??? selenium reported to the solids, the addition of ferric chloride to the pilot scrubber could not show further improvements in selenium behavior. Ferric chloride addition did shift mercury to the slurry solids, specifically to the fine particles. Several competing pathways may govern the reporting of selenium to the slurry solids: co-precipitation with gypsum into the bulk solids and sorption or co-precipitation with iron into the fine particles. Simultaneous measurement of selenium and mercury behavior suggests a holistic management strategy is best to optimize the fate of both of these elements in FGD waters. Work conducted under this project evaluated sample handling and analytical methods for selenium speciation in FGD waters. Three analytical techniques and several preservation methods were employed. Measurements of selenium speciation over time indicated that for accurate selenium speciation, it is best to conduct measurements on unpreserved, filtered samples as soon after sampling as possible. The capital and operating costs for two selenium management strategies were considered: ferric chloride addition and oxidation air flow rate control. For ferric chloride addition, as migh

  7. Organic additive systems for spray-drying and dry pressing silicon nitride

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walker, W.J. Jr.; Reed, J.S.

    1996-06-01

    Silicon nitride granules for dry pressing were prepared by spray-drying slurries containing polyethylene glycol as the primary binder combined with other organic additives. Differences in slurry viscosity, granule character, pressing behavior and green strength were found to depend on the choice of deflocculant.

  8. Method and apparatus for drying web

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Orloff, David I.; Kloth, Gerald R.; Rudemiller, Gary R.

    1992-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a method and apparatus for drying a web of paper utilizing impulse drying techniques. In the method of the invention for drying a paper web, the paper web is transported through a pair of rolls wherein at least one of the rolls has been heated to an elevated temperature. The heated roll is provided with a surface having a low thermal diffusivity of less than about 1.times.10.sup.-6 m.sup.2 /s. The surface material of the roll is preferably prepared from a material selected from the group consisting of ceramics, polymers, glass, inorganic plastics, composite materials and cermets. The heated roll may be constructed entirely from the material having a low thermal diffusivity or the roll may be formed from metal, such as steel or aluminum, or other suitable material which is provided with a surface layer of a material having a low thermal diffusivity.

  9. Dry etching method for compound semiconductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shul, R.J.; Constantine, C.

    1997-04-29

    A dry etching method is disclosed. According to the present invention, a gaseous plasma comprising, at least in part, boron trichloride, methane, and hydrogen may be used for dry etching of a compound semiconductor material containing layers including aluminum, or indium, or both. Material layers of a compound semiconductor alloy such as AlGaInP or the like may be anisotropically etched for forming electronic devices including field-effect transistors and heterojunction bipolar transistors and for forming photonic devices including vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers, edge-emitting lasers, and reflectance modulators. 1 fig.

  10. Dry etching method for compound semiconductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shul, Randy J.; Constantine, Christopher

    1997-01-01

    A dry etching method. According to the present invention, a gaseous plasma comprising, at least in part, boron trichloride, methane, and hydrogen may be used for dry etching of a compound semiconductor material containing layers including aluminum, or indium, or both. Material layers of a compound semiconductor alloy such as AlGaInP or the like may be anisotropically etched for forming electronic devices including field-effect transistors and heterojunction bipolar transistors and for forming photonic devices including vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers, edge-emitting lasers, and reflectance modulators.

  11. Annotated Bibliography for Drying Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rebecca E. Smith

    2011-09-01

    Internationally, the nuclear industry is represented by both commercial utilities and research institutions. Over the past two decades many of these entities have had to relocate inventories of spent nuclear fuel from underwater storage to dry storage. These efforts were primarily prompted by two factors: insufficient storage capacity (potentially precipitated by an open-ended nuclear fuel cycle) or deteriorating quality of existing underwater facilities. The intent of developing this bibliography is to assess what issues associated with fuel drying have been identified, to consider where concerns have been satisfactorily addressed, and to recommend where additional research would offer the most value to the commercial industry and the U. S. Department of Energy.

  12. Acoustically enhanced heat exchange and drying apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bramlette, T. Tazwell (Livermore, CA); Keller, Jay O. (Oakland, CA)

    1989-01-01

    A heat transfer apparatus includes a first chamber having a first heat transfer gas inlet, a second heat transfer gas inlet, and an outlet. A first heat transfer gas source provides a first gas flow to the first chamber through the first heat transfer gas inlet. A second gas flow through a second chamber connected to the side of the first chamber, generates acoustic waves which bring about acoustical coupling of the first and second gases in the acoustically augmented first chamber. The first chamber may also include a material inlet for receiving material to be dried, in which case the gas outlet serves as a dried material and gas outlet.

  13. 1987 wet deposition temporal and spatial patterns in North America

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simpson, J.C.; Olsen, A.R.

    1990-03-01

    The focus of this report is on North American wet deposition temporal patterns from 1979 to 1987 and spatial patterns for 1987. The report investigates the patterns of annual precipitation-weighted average concentration and annual deposition for nine ion species: hydrogen, sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, calcium, chloride, sodium, potassium, and magnesium. Data are from the Acid Deposition System (ADS) for the statistical reporting of North American deposition data which includes the National Atmospheric Deposition Program/National Trends Network (NADP/NTN), the MAP3S precipitation chemistry network, the Utility Acid Precipitation Study Program (UAPSP), the Canadian Precipitation Monitoring Network (CAPMoN), and the daily and 4-weekly Acidic Precipitation in Ontario Study (APIOS-D and APIOS-C). Mosaic maps, based on surface estimation using kriging, display concentration and deposition spatial patterns of pH, hydrogen, sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, and calcium ion species for 1987 annual, winter, and summer periods. The temporal pattern analyses use a subset of 39 sites over a 9-year (1979--1987) period and an expanded subset of 140 sites with greater spatial coverage over a 6-year (1982--1987) period. 68 refs., 15 figs., 15 tabs.

  14. Evaluating the biogas potential of the dry fraction from pretreatment of food waste from households

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murto, Marika; Bjrnsson, Lovisa; Rosqvist, Hkan; Bohn, Irene

    2013-05-15

    Highlights: ? A novel approach for biogas production from a waste fraction that today is incinerated. ? Biogas production is possible in spite of the impurities of the waste. ? Tracer studies are applied in a novel way. ? Structural material is needed to improve the flow pattern of the waste. ? We provide a solution to biological treatment for the complex waste fraction. - Abstract: At the waste handling company NSR, Helsingborg, Sweden, the food waste fraction of source separated municipal solid waste is pretreated to obtain a liquid fraction, which is used for biogas production, and a dry fraction, which is at present incinerated. This pretreatment and separation is performed to remove impurities, however also some of the organic material is removed. The possibility of realising the methane potential of the dry fraction through batch-wise dry anaerobic digestion was investigated. The anaerobic digestion technique used was a two-stage process consisting of a static leach bed reactor and a methane reactor. Treatment of the dry fraction alone and in a mixture with structural material was tested to investigate the effect on the porosity of the leach bed. A tracer experiment was carried out to investigate the liquid flow through the leach beds, and this method proved useful in demonstrating a more homogenous flow through the leach bed when structural material was added. Addition of structural material to the dry fraction was needed to achieve a functional digestion process. A methane yield of 98 m{sup 3}/ton was obtained from the dry fraction mixed with structural material after 76 days of digestion. This was in the same range as obtained in the laboratory scale biochemical methane potential test, showing that it was possible to extract the organic content in the dry fraction in this type of dry digestion system for the production of methane.

  15. Method for dry etching of transition metals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ashby, C.I.H.; Baca, A.G.; Esherick, P.; Parmeter, J.E.; Rieger, D.J.; Shul, R.J.

    1998-09-29

    A method for dry etching of transition metals is disclosed. The method for dry etching of a transition metal (or a transition metal alloy such as a silicide) on a substrate comprises providing at least one nitrogen- or phosphorus-containing {pi}-acceptor ligand in proximity to the transition metal, and etching the transition metal to form a volatile transition metal/{pi}-acceptor ligand complex. The dry etching may be performed in a plasma etching system such as a reactive ion etching (RIE) system, a downstream plasma etching system (i.e. a plasma afterglow), a chemically-assisted ion beam etching (CAIBE) system or the like. The dry etching may also be performed by generating the {pi}-acceptor ligands directly from a ligand source gas (e.g. nitrosyl ligands generated from nitric oxide), or from contact with energized particles such as photons, electrons, ions, atoms, or molecules. In some preferred embodiments of the present invention, an intermediary reactant species such as carbonyl or a halide ligand is used for an initial chemical reaction with the transition metal, with the intermediary reactant species being replaced at least in part by the {pi}-acceptor ligand for forming the volatile transition metal/{pi}-acceptor ligand complex.

  16. Method for dry etching of transition metals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ashby, Carol I. H.; Baca, Albert G.; Esherick, Peter; Parmeter, John E.; Rieger, Dennis J.; Shul, Randy J.

    1998-01-01

    A method for dry etching of transition metals. The method for dry etching of a transition metal (or a transition metal alloy such as a silicide) on a substrate comprises providing at least one nitrogen- or phosphorous-containing .pi.-acceptor ligand in proximity to the transition metal, and etching the transition metal to form a volatile transition metal/.pi.-acceptor ligand complex. The dry etching may be performed in a plasma etching system such as a reactive ion etching (RIE) system, a downstream plasma etching system (i.e. a plasma afterglow), a chemically-assisted ion beam etching (CAIBE) system or the like. The dry etching may also be performed by generating the .pi.-acceptor ligands directly from a ligand source gas (e.g. nitrosyl ligands generated from nitric oxide), or from contact with energized particles such as photons, electrons, ions, atoms, or molecules. In some preferred embodiments of the present invention, an intermediary reactant species such as carbonyl or a halide ligand is used for an initial chemical reaction with the transition metal, with the intermediary reactant species being replaced at least in part by the .pi.-acceptor ligand for forming the volatile transition metal/.pi.-acceptor ligand complex.

  17. Hot-dry-rock geothermal resource 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heiken, G.; Goff, F.; Cremer, G.

    1982-04-01

    The work performed on hot dry rock (HDR) geothermal resource evaluation, site characterization, and geophysical exploration techniques is summarized. The work was done by region (Far West, Pacific Northwest, Southwest, Rocky Mountain States, Midcontinent, and Eastern) and limited to the conterminous US.

  18. Long Wavelength Catalytic Infrared Drying System | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    conventional drying. 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 Energy Savings (Trillion Btu) 0.003 0.003 0.003 0.003 0.003 0.003 Emissions Reductions (Thousand Tons) Carbon 0.046 0.046 0.046 ...

  19. Site characterization summary report for dry weather surface water sampling upper East Fork Poplar Creek characterization area Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-08-01

    This report describes activities associated with conducting dry weather surface water sampling of Upper East Fork Poplar Creek (UEFPC) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. This activity is a portion of the work to be performed at UEFPC Operable Unit (OU) 1 [now known as the UEFPC Characterization Area (CA)], as described in the RCRA Facility Investigation Plan for Group 4 at the Oak- Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee and in the Response to Comments and Recommendations on RCRA Facility Investigation Plan for Group 4 at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, Volume 1, Operable Unit 1. Because these documents contained sensitive information, they were labeled as unclassified controlled nuclear information and as such are not readily available for public review. To address this issue the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) published an unclassified, nonsensitive version of the initial plan, text and appendixes, of this Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Facility Investigation (RFI) Plan in early 1994. These documents describe a program for collecting four rounds of wet weather and dry weather surface water samples and one round of sediment samples from UEFPC. They provide the strategy for the overall sample collection program including dry weather sampling, wet weather sampling, and sediment sampling. Figure 1.1 is a schematic flowchart of the overall sampling strategy and other associated activities. A Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPJP) was prepared to specifically address four rounds of dry weather surface water sampling and one round of sediment sampling. For a variety of reasons, sediment sampling has not been conducted and has been deferred to the UEFPC CA Remedial Investigation (RI), as has wet weather sampling.

  20. Feed Processing, Handling, and Gasification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2006-04-01

    Both current and future sugar biorefineries will generate a wide variety of residue streams that can be used as feedstocks for thermochemical processes, including corn stover, corn fiber, lignin-rich materials, and distillers dried grain and solubles.

  1. Human factors engineering report for the cold vacuum drying facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    IMKER, F.W.

    1999-06-30

    The purpose of this report is to present the results and findings of the final Human Factors Engineering (HFE) technical analysis and evaluation of the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF). Ergonomics issues are also addressed in this report, as appropriate. This report follows up and completes the preliminary work accomplished and reported by the Preliminary HFE Analysis report (SNF-2825, Spent Nuclear Fuel Project Cold Vacuum Drying Facility Human Factors Engineering Analysis: Results and Findings). This analysis avoids redundancy of effort except for ensuring that previously recommended HFE design changes have not affected other parts of the system. Changes in one part of the system may affect other parts of the system where those changes were not applied. The final HFE analysis and evaluation of the CVDF human-machine interactions (HMI) was expanded to include: the physical work environment, human-computer interface (HCI) including workstation and software, operator tasks, tools, maintainability, communications, staffing, training, and the overall ability of humans to accomplish their responsibilities, as appropriate. Key focal areas for this report are the process bay operations, process water conditioning (PWC) skid, tank room, and Central Control Room operations. These key areas contain the system safety-class components and are the foundation for the human factors design basis of the CVDF.

  2. Carbon Dioxide Capture from Flue Gas Using Dry Regenerable Sorbents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas Nelson; David Green; Paul Box; Raghubir Gupta; Gennar Henningsen

    2007-06-30

    Regenerable sorbents based on sodium carbonate (Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}) can be used to separate carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) from coal-fired power plant flue gas. Upon thermal regeneration and condensation of water vapor, CO{sub 2} is released in a concentrated form that is suitable for reuse or sequestration. During the research project described in this report, the technical feasibility and economic viability of a thermal-swing CO{sub 2} separation process based on dry, regenerable, carbonate sorbents was confirmed. This process was designated as RTI's Dry Carbonate Process. RTI tested the Dry Carbonate Process through various research phases including thermogravimetric analysis (TGA); bench-scale fixed-bed, bench-scale fluidized-bed, bench-scale co-current downflow reactor testing; pilot-scale entrained-bed testing; and bench-scale demonstration testing with actual coal-fired flue gas. All phases of testing showed the feasibility of the process to capture greater than 90% of the CO{sub 2} present in coal-fired flue gas. Attrition-resistant sorbents were developed, and these sorbents were found to retain their CO{sub 2} removal activity through multiple cycles of adsorption and regeneration. The sodium carbonate-based sorbents developed by RTI react with CO{sub 2} and water vapor at temperatures below 80 C to form sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) and/or Wegscheider's salt. This reaction is reversed at temperatures greater than 120 C to release an equimolar mixture of CO{sub 2} and water vapor. After condensation of the water, a pure CO{sub 2} stream can be obtained. TGA testing showed that the Na{sub 2}CO3 sorbents react irreversibly with sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and hydrogen chloride (HCl) (at the operating conditions for this process). Trace levels of these contaminants are expected to be present in desulfurized flue gas. The sorbents did not collect detectable quantities of mercury (Hg). A process was designed for the Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-based sorbent that includes a co-current downflow reactor system for adsorption of CO{sub 2} and a steam-heated, hollow-screw conveyor system for regeneration of the sorbent and release of a concentrated CO{sub 2} gas stream. An economic analysis of this process (based on the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory's [DOE/NETL's] 'Carbon Capture and Sequestration Systems Analysis Guidelines') was carried out. RTI's economic analyses indicate that installation of the Dry Carbonate Process in a 500 MW{sub e} (nominal) power plant could achieve 90% CO{sub 2} removal with an incremental capital cost of about $69 million and an increase in the cost of electricity (COE) of about 1.95 cents per kWh. This represents an increase of roughly 35.4% in the estimated COE - which compares very favorable versus MEA's COE increase of 58%. Both the incremental capital cost and the incremental COE were projected to be less than the comparable costs for an equally efficient CO{sub 2} removal system based on monoethanolamine (MEA).

  3. Aerosol transport and wet scavenging in deep convective clouds: a case study and model evaluation using a multiple passive tracer analysis approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Qing; Easter, Richard C.; Campuzano-Jost, Pedro; Jimenez, Jose L.; Fast, Jerome D.; Ghan, Steven J.; Wang, Hailong; Berg, Larry K.; Barth, Mary; Liu, Ying; Shrivastava, ManishKumar B.; Singh, Balwinder; Morrison, H.; Fan, Jiwen; Ziegler, Conrad L.; Bela, Megan; Apel, Eric; Diskin, G. S.; Mikoviny, Tomas; Wisthaler, Armin

    2015-08-20

    The effect of wet scavenging on ambient aerosols in deep, continental convective clouds in the mid-latitudes is studied for a severe storm case in Oklahoma during the Deep Convective Clouds and Chemistry (DC3) field campaign. A new passive-tracer based transport analysis framework is developed to characterize the convective transport based on the vertical distribution of several slowly reacting and nearly insoluble trace gases. The passive gas concentration in the upper troposphere convective outflow results from a mixture of 47% from the lower level (0-3 km), 21% entrained from the upper troposphere, and 32% from mid-atmosphere based on observations. The transport analysis framework is applied to aerosols to estimate aerosol transport and wet-scavenging efficiency. Observations yield high overall scavenging efficiencies of 81% and 68% for aerosol mass (Dp < 1μm) and aerosol number (0.03< Dp < 2.5μm), respectively. Little chemical selectivity to wet scavenging is seen among observed submicron sulfate (84%), organic (82%), and ammonium (80%) aerosols, while nitrate has a much lower scavenging efficiency of 57% likely due to the uptake of nitric acid. Observed larger size particles (0.15 - 2.5μm) are scavenged more efficiently (84%) than smaller particles (64%; 0.03 - 0.15μm). The storm is simulated using the chemistry version of the WRF model. Compared to the observation based analysis, the standard model underestimates the wet scavenging efficiency for both mass and number concentrations with low biases of 31% and 40%, respectively. Adding a new treatment of secondary activation significantly improves simulation results, so that the bias in scavenging efficiency in mass and number concentrations is reduced to <10%. This supports the hypothesis that secondary activation is an important process for wet removal of aerosols in deep convective storms.

  4. Dry Kraft Pulping at Ambient Pressure for Cost Effective Energy Saving and Pollution Deduction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yulin Deng; Art Ragauskas

    2012-08-28

    Sponsored by the DOE Industrial Energy Efficiency Grand Challenge program, our research team at the Georgia Institute of Technology conducted laboratory studies and confirmed the concept of making wood pulp using a dry pulping technology. This technology is a new process different from any prior pulping technology used in Kraft and CTMP pulping. Three different kinds of dry pulping methods were investigated. (a) Dry Pulping at Atmospheric Pressure: The first one is to dry and bake the pretreated woodchips in a conventional oven at atmospheric pressure without the use of a catalyst. (b) Dry Pulping at Reduced Pressure: The second method is to dry the pretreated woodchips first in a vacuum oven in the presence of anthraquinone (AQ) as a pulping catalyst, followed by baking at elevated temperature. (c) Liquid Free Chemical Pulping, LFCP. The third method is to first remove the free water of pretreated woodchips, followed by dry pulping using a conventional Kraft pulping digester with AQ and triton as additives. Method one: Experimental results indicated that Dry Pulping at Atmospheric Pressure could produce pulp with higher brightness and lower bulk than conventional Kraft pulp. However, tensile strength of the acquired pulp is much lower than traditional Kraft pulp, and their Kappa number and energy consumption are higher than conventional Kraft pulp. By fully analyzing the results, we concluded that wood fibers might be damaged during the drying process at elevated temperature. The main reason for wood fiber damage is that a long drying time was used during evaporation of water from the woodchips. This resulted in an un-uniform reaction condition on the woodchips: the outside layer of the woodchips was over reacted while inside the woodchips did not reacted at all. To solve this problem, dry pulping at reduced pressure was investigated. Method two: To achieve uniform reaction throughout the entire reaction system, the water inside the pretreated woodchips was evaporated first under vacuum condition at low temperature. Then, the dry woodchips were baked at high temperature (120-130 C) at atmospheric pressure. The qualities of the pulp made with this method were improved compared to that made with method one. The pulp shows higher brightness and lower bulk than Kraft pulping. The tensile strength is significantly higher than the pulp made from the first method. Although the pulp is stronger than that of TMP pulp, it is still lower than conventional Kraft fiber. Method Three: The third dry method was done in a Kraft pulping digester at elevated pressure but without free liquid in the digester. With this method, pulp that has almost the same qualities as conventional Kraft pulp could be produced. The screen yield, Kappa number, fiber brightness, pulp strength and pulp bulk are almost identical to the conventional Kraft pulp. The key advantages of this dry pulping method include ca. 55 % of cooking energy saved during the pulping process, as high as 50 wt% of NaOH saving as well as 3 wt% of Na2S saving comparing to Kraft one. By analyzing fiber properties, yields, chemical and energy consumptions, we concluded that the dry pulping method based on Liquid Free Chemical Pulping, LFCP, could be very attractive for the pulp and paper industry. More fundamental studies and scale up trials are needed to fully commercialize the technology. We expect to conduct pilot trials between 12 to 24 months of period if the DOE or industry can provide continual research funding. Based on the technology we demonstrated in this report, several pilot trial facilities in the United States will be available after small modifications. For example, the Herty Foundation in Savannah, Georgia is one of these potential locations. DOE funding for continuous study and final lead to commercialization of the technique is important.

  5. Horizontal modular dry irradiated fuel storage system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fischer, Larry E.; McInnes, Ian D.; Massey, John V.

    1988-01-01

    A horizontal, modular, dry, irradiated fuel storage system (10) includes a thin-walled canister (12) for containing irradiated fuel assemblies (20), which canister (12) can be positioned in a transfer cask (14) and transported in a horizontal manner from a fuel storage pool (18), to an intermediate-term storage facility. The storage system (10) includes a plurality of dry storage modules (26) which accept the canister (12) from the transfer cask (14) and provide for appropriate shielding about the canister (12). Each module (26) also provides for air cooling of the canister (12) to remove the decay heat of the irradiated fuel assemblies (20). The modules (26) can be interlocked so that each module (26) gains additional shielding from the next adjacent module (26). Hydraulic rams (30) are provided for inserting and removing the canisters (12) from the modules (26).

  6. Dry lake reveals evidence of Southwestern 'megadroughts'

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Estimated natural gas plant liquids and dry natural gas content of total natural gas proved reserves, 2014 million barrels and billion cubic feet 2014 Dry Natural Gas billion cubic feet billion cubic feet Alaska 6,805 241 6,745 Lower 48 States 382,036 14,788 361,959 Alabama 2,121 59 2,036 Arkansas 12,795 5 12,789 California 2,260 112 2,107 Coastal Region Onshore 277 12 261 Los Angeles Basin Onshore 84 4 80 San Joaquin Basin Onshore 1,823 96 1,690 State Offshore 76 0 76 Colorado 21,992 813 20,851

  7. Cold Vacuum Drying Facility hazard analysis report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krahn, D.E.

    1998-02-23

    This report describes the methodology used in conducting the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF) hazard analysis to support the CVDF phase 2 safety analysis report (SAR), and documents the results. The hazard analysis was performed in accordance with DOE-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for US Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Reports, and implements the requirements of US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Reports.

  8. PULSE DRYING EXPERIMENT AND BURNER CONSTRUCTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert States

    2006-07-15

    Non steady impingement heat transfer is measured. Impingement heating consumes 130 T-BTU/Yr in paper drying, but is only 25% thermally efficient. Pulse impingement is experimentally shown to enhance heat transfer by 2.8, and may deliver thermal efficiencies near 85%. Experimental results uncovered heat transfer deviations from steady theory and from previous investigators, indicating the need for further study and a better theoretical framework. The pulse burner is described, and its roll in pulse impingement is analyzed.

  9. Effects of pulverized coal fly-ash addition as a wet-end filler in papermaking

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sinha, A.S.K.

    2008-09-15

    This experimental study is based on the innovative idea of using pulverized coal fly ash as a wet-end filler in papermaking. This is the first evaluation of the possible use of fly ash in the paper industry. Coal-based thermal power plants throughout the world are generating fly ash as a solid waste product. The constituents of fly ash can be used effectively in papermaking. Fly ash has a wide variation in particle size, which ranges from a few micrometers to one hundred micrometers. Fly ash acts as an inert material in acidic, neutral, and alkaline papermaking processes. Its physical properties such as bulk density (800-980 kg/m{sup 3}), porosity (45%-57%), and surface area (0.138-2.3076 m{sup 2}/g) make it suitable for use as a paper filler. Fly ash obtained from thermal power plants using pulverized coal was fractionated by a vibratory-sieve stack. The fine fraction with a particle size below 38 micrometers was used to study its effect on the important mechanical-strength and optical properties of paper. The effects of fly-ash addition on these properties were compared with those of kaolin clay. Paper opacity was found to be much higher with fly ash as a filler, whereas brightness decreased as the filler percentage increased Mechanical strength properties of the paper samples with fly ash as filler were superior to those with kaolin clay.

  10. WETTABILITY AND IMBIBITION: MICROSCOPIC DISTRIBUTION OF WETTING AND ITS CONSEQUENCES AT THE CORE AND FIELD SCALES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jill S. Buckley; Norman R. Morrow; Chris Palmer; Purnendu K. Dasgupta

    2003-02-01

    The questions of reservoir wettability have been approached in this project from three directions. First, we have studied the properties of crude oils that contribute to wetting alteration in a reservoir. A database of more than 150 different crude oil samples has been established to facilitate examination of the relationships between crude oil chemical and physical properties and their influence on reservoir wetting. In the course of this work an improved SARA analysis technique was developed and major advances were made in understanding asphaltene stability including development of a thermodynamic Asphaltene Solubility Model (ASM) and empirical methods for predicting the onset of instability. The CO-Wet database is a resource that will be used to guide wettability research in the future. The second approach is to study crude oil/brine/rock interactions on smooth surfaces. Contact angle measurements were made under controlled conditions on mica surfaces that had been exposed to many of the oils in the CO-Wet database. With this wealth of data, statistical tests can now be used to examine the relationships between crude oil properties and the tendencies of those oils to alter wetting. Traditionally, contact angles have been used as the primary wetting assessment tool on smooth surfaces. A new technique has been developed using an atomic forces microscope that adds a new dimension to the ability to characterize oil-treated surfaces. Ultimately we aim to understand wetting in porous media, the focus of the third approach taken in this project. Using oils from the CO-Wet database, experimental advances have been made in scaling the rate of imbibition, a sensitive measure of core wetting. Application of the scaling group to mixed-wet systems has been demonstrated for a range of core conditions. Investigations of imbibition in gas/liquid systems provided the motivation for theoretical advances as well. As a result of this project we have many new tools for studying wetting at microscopic and macroscopic scales and a library of well-characterized fluids for use in studies of crude oil/brine/rock interactions.

  11. Dry particle coating of polymer particles for tailor-made product properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blümel, C. Schmidt, J. Dielesen, A. Sachs, M. Winzer, B. Peukert, W. Wirth, K.-E.

    2014-05-15

    Disperse polymer powders with tailor-made particle properties are of increasing interest in industrial applications such as Selective Laser Beam Melting processes (SLM). This study focuses on dry particle coating processes to improve the conductivity of the insulating polymer powder in order to assemble conductive devices. Therefore PP particles were coated with Carbon Black nanoparticles in a dry particle coating process. This process was investigated in dependence of process time and mass fraction of Carbon Black. The conductivity of the functionalized powders was measured by impedance spectroscopy. It was found that there is a dependence of process time, respectively coating ratio and conductivity. The powder shows higher conductivities with increasing number of guest particles per host particle surface area, i.e. there is a correlation between surface functionalization density and conductivity. The assembled composite particles open new possibilities for processing distinct polymers such as PP in SLM process. The fundamentals of the dry particle coating process of PP host particles with Carbon Black guest particles as well as the influence on the electrical conductivity will be discussed.

  12. Safety Aspects of Wet Storage of Spent Nuclear Fuel, OAS-L-13-11

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Safety Aspects of Wet Storage of Spent Nuclear Fuel OAS-L-13-11 July 2013 Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 July 10, 2013 MEMORANDUM FOR THE SENIOR ADVISOR FOR ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT FROM: Daniel M. Weeber Assistant Inspector General for Audits and Administration Office of Inspector General SUBJECT: INFORMATION: Audit Report on "Safety Aspects of Wet Storage of Spent Nuclear Fuel" BACKGROUND The Department of Energy (Department) is responsible for managing and storing spent

  13. ChemCam follows the 'Yellowknife Road' to Martian wet area

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    'Yellowknife Road' to martian wet area ChemCam follows the 'Yellowknife Road' to martian wet area Researchers have tracked a trail of minerals that point to the prior presence of water at the Curiosity rover site on Mars. January 15, 2013 The Mars Science Laboratory's Curiosity Rover recently took this photo of the Martian landscape looking toward Mount Sharp while on its way toward Yellowknife Bay-an area where researchers have found minerals indicating the past presence of water. (NASA Photo)

  14. Florida Dry Natural Gas New Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    New Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 ... Dry Natural Gas New Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields Florida Dry Natural Gas Proved ...

  15. Alabama--State Offshore Natural Gas Dry Production (Million Cubic...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    State Offshore Natural Gas Dry Production (Million Cubic Feet) Alabama--State Offshore Natural Gas Dry Production (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4...

  16. Dry Lake II Wind Farm | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    II Wind Farm Jump to: navigation, search Name Dry Lake II Wind Farm Facility Dry Lake II Sector Wind energy Facility Type Commercial Scale Wind Facility Status In Service Owner...

  17. Lower 48 States Dry Natural Gas Expected Future Production (Billion...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Dry Natural Gas Expected Future Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Lower 48 States Dry Natural Gas Expected Future Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3...

  18. Texas - RRC District 9 Dry Natural Gas Expected Future Production...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Dry Natural Gas Expected Future Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Texas - RRC District 9 Dry Natural Gas Expected Future Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2...

  19. Texas - RRC District 10 Dry Natural Gas Expected Future Production...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Dry Natural Gas Expected Future Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Texas - RRC District 10 Dry Natural Gas Expected Future Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2...

  20. Texas - RRC District 8 Dry Natural Gas Expected Future Production...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Dry Natural Gas Expected Future Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Texas - RRC District 8 Dry Natural Gas Expected Future Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2...

  1. Louisiana - North Dry Natural Gas Expected Future Production...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Dry Natural Gas Expected Future Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Louisiana - North Dry Natural Gas Expected Future Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3...

  2. Louisiana--State Offshore Natural Gas Dry Production (Million...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Dry Production (Million Cubic Feet) Louisiana--State Offshore Natural Gas Dry Production (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8...

  3. Hot Dry Rock Geothermal Energy- Important Lessons From Fenton...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Conference Paper: Hot Dry Rock Geothermal Energy- Important Lessons From Fenton Hill Abstract The concept of Hot Dry Rock...

  4. Inspection of Used Fuel Dry Storage Casks (Technical Report)...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Inspection of Used Fuel Dry Storage Casks Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Inspection of Used Fuel Dry Storage Casks ABSTRACT The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) ...

  5. Texas - RRC District 5 Dry Natural Gas Expected Future Production...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Dry Natural Gas Expected Future Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Texas - RRC District 5 Dry Natural Gas Expected Future Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 ...

  6. Texas - RRC District 6 Dry Natural Gas Expected Future Production...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Dry Natural Gas Expected Future Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Texas - RRC District 6 Dry Natural Gas Expected Future Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 ...

  7. Texas - RRC District 1 Dry Natural Gas Expected Future Production...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Dry Natural Gas Expected Future Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Texas - RRC District 1 Dry Natural Gas Expected Future Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 ...

  8. Managing Aging Effects on Dry Cask Storage Systems for Extended...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    dry cask storage system designs; and 4) AMPs and TLAAs for the SSCs that are important to safety in the DCSS designs. PDF icon Managing Aging Effects on Dry Cask Storage Systems...

  9. High Performance Walls in Hot-Dry Climates (Technical Report...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    High Performance Walls in Hot-Dry Climates Citation Details In-Document Search Title: High Performance Walls in Hot-Dry Climates High performance walls represent a high priority...

  10. Heat Transfer Characteristics of the Wet Thermal Insulator with Multi-layer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jong-Won Kim; Goon-Cherl Park; Tae-Wan Kim; Doo-Jeong Lee

    2006-07-01

    SMART developed in KAERI is an integral type nuclear cogeneration reactor. SMART uses a nitrogen-filled gas pressurizer so that the steam partial pressure should be minimized and the pressurizer should be under low temperature condition. To sustain the low temperature condition, the wet thermal insulator and pressurizer cooler are installed in the pressurizer. Since the performance of wet thermal insulator is an important parameter to determine the size of the pressurizer cooler, it is important to evaluate the insulation performance of the wet thermal insulator. The wet thermal insulators with 20 layers are installed in SMART. In the design of SMART, the empirical correlation by Adamovich was used to estimate the thermal resistance of the wet thermal insulator. However, the experimental condition and results are not clear so that this correlation should be verified. To analyze the heat transfer characteristics of the multi-layer wet thermal insulator, natural convective heat transport through horizontal and vertical water-filled layers is investigated. Experiments and numerical analyses have been performed to evaluate the heat transfer rates through multi-layer and verify Adamovich correlation. In addition, a new multi-layer correlation was obtained. (authors)

  11. Assessment of technologies for constructing self-drying low-slope roofs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kyle, D.M.; Desjarlais, A.O.

    1994-05-01

    Issues associated with removing excessive moisture from low-slope roofs have been assessed. The economic costs associated with moisture trapped in existing roofs have been estimated. The evidence suggests that existing moisture levels cause approximately a 40% overall reduction in the R-value of installed roofing insulation in the United States. Excess operating costs are further increased by a summertime heat transfer mode unique to wet insulation, caused by the daily migration of water within the roof. By itself, this effect can increase peak electrical demand for air conditioning by roughly 15 W/m{sup 2} of roofing, depending on the type of insulation. This effect will increase peak demand capacity required of utilities in any geographic region (e.g., 900 MW in the South). A simple formula has been derived for predicting the effect that self-drying roofs can have upon time-averaged construction costs. It is presumed that time-averaged costs depend predominantly upon (1) actual service life and (2) the likelihood that the less expensive recover membranes can be installed safely over old roofs. For example, an increase in service life from 15 to 20 years should reduce the current cost of roofing ($12 billion/year) by 21%. Another simple formula for predicting the reroofing waste volume indicates that an increase in service life from 15 to 20 years might reduce the current estimated 0.4 billion ft{sup 3}/year of waste by 25%. A finite-difference computer program has been used to study the flow of heat and moisture within typical existing roofs for a variety of US climates. Nearly all publicly available experimental drying data have been consulted. The drying times for most existing low-slope roofs in the United States are controlled largely climate and the permeability of the structural deck to water vapor.

  12. http://www.cemp.dri.edu/cemp/climate/

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Go Page 1 of 1 Community Environmental Monitoring Program | CEMP - DOE 5152011 http:www.cemp.dri.educempclimate

  13. Low-temperature catalytic gasification of wet industrial wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elliott, D C; Neuenschwander, G G; Baker, E G; Sealock, Jr, L J; Butner, R S

    1991-04-01

    Bench-scale reactor tests are in progress at Pacific Northwest Laboratory to develop a low-temperature, catalytic gasification system. The system, licensed under the trade name Thermochemical Environmental Energy System (TEES{reg sign}), is designed for treating a wide variety of feedstocks ranging from dilute organics in water to waste sludges from food processing. This report describes a test program which used a continuous-feed tubular reactor. This test program is an intermediate stage in the process development. The reactor is a laboratory-scale version of the commercial concept as currently envisioned by the process developers. An energy benefit and economic analysis was also completed on the process. Four conceptual commercial installations of the TEES process were evaluated for three food processing applications and one organic chemical manufacturing application. Net energy production (medium-Btu gas) was achieved in all four cases. The organic chemical application was found to be economically attractive in the present situation. Based on sensitivity studies included in the analysis, the three food processing cases will likely become attractive in the near future as waste disposal regulations tighten and disposal costs increase. 21 refs., 2 figs., 9 tabs.

  14. Solution-processable glass LiI-Li4SnS4 superionic conductors for all-solid-state Li-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kern Ho Park; Oh, Dae Yang; Choi, Young Eun; Nam, Young Jin; Han, Lili; Kim, Ju -Young; Xin, Huolin; Lin, Feng; Oh, Seung M.; Jung, Yoon Seok

    2015-12-22

    The new, highly conductive (4.1 × 10–4 S cm–1 at 30 °C), highly deformable, and dry-air-stable glass 0.4LiI-0.6Li4SnS4 is prepared using a homogeneous methanol solution. Furthermore, the solution process enables the wetting of any exposed surface of the active materials with highly conductive solidified electrolytes (0.4LiI-0.6Li4SnS4), resulting in considerable improvements in electrochemical performances of these electrodes over conventional mixture electrodes.

  15. RELEASE OF DRIED RADIOACTIVE WASTE MATERIALS TECHNICAL BASIS DOCUMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    KOZLOWSKI, S.D.

    2007-05-30

    This technical basis document was developed to support RPP-23429, Preliminary Documented Safety Analysis for the Demonstration Bulk Vitrification System (PDSA) and RPP-23479, Preliminary Documented Safety Analysis for the Contact-Handled Transuranic Mixed (CH-TRUM) Waste Facility. The main document describes the risk binning process and the technical basis for assigning risk bins to the representative accidents involving the release of dried radioactive waste materials from the Demonstration Bulk Vitrification System (DBVS) and to the associated represented hazardous conditions. Appendices D through F provide the technical basis for assigning risk bins to the representative dried waste release accident and associated represented hazardous conditions for the Contact-Handled Transuranic Mixed (CH-TRUM) Waste Packaging Unit (WPU). The risk binning process uses an evaluation of the frequency and consequence of a given representative accident or represented hazardous condition to determine the need for safety structures, systems, and components (SSC) and technical safety requirement (TSR)-level controls. A representative accident or a represented hazardous condition is assigned to a risk bin based on the potential radiological and toxicological consequences to the public and the collocated worker. Note that the risk binning process is not applied to facility workers because credible hazardous conditions with the potential for significant facility worker consequences are considered for safety-significant SSCs and/or TSR-level controls regardless of their estimated frequency. The controls for protection of the facility workers are described in RPP-23429 and RPP-23479. Determination of the need for safety-class SSCs was performed in accordance with DOE-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for US. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Documented Safety Analyses, as described below.

  16. DRI Model of the U.S. Economy -- Model Documentation:

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    1993-01-01

    Provides documentation on Data Resources, Inc., DRI Model of the U.S. Economy and the DRI Personal Computer Input/Output Model. It also describes the theoretical basis, structure and functions of both DRI models; and contains brief descriptions of the models and their equations.

  17. Hot dry rock geothermal energy. Draft final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    This second EPRI workshop on hot dry rock (HDR) geothermal energy, held in May 1994, focused on the status of worldwide HDR research and development and used that status review as the starting point for discussions of what could and should be done next: by U.S. federal government, by U.S. industry, by U.S. state governments, and by international organizations or through international agreements. The papers presented and the discussion that took place indicate that there is a community of researchers and industrial partners that could join forces, with government support, to begin a new effort on hot dry rock geothermal development. This new heat mining effort would start with site selection and confirmatory studies, done concurrently. The confirmatory studies would test past evaluations against the most current results (from the U.S. site at Fenton Hill, New Mexico, and from the two sites in Japan, the one in Russia, and the two in western Europe) and the best models of relevant physical and economic aspects. Site selection would be done in the light of the confirmatory studies and would be influenced by the need to find a site where success is probable and which is representative enough of other sites so that its success would imply good prospects for success at numerous other sites. The test of success would be circulation between a pair of wells, or more wells, in a way that confirmed, with the help of flow modeling, that a multi-well system would yield temperatures, flows and lifetimes that support economically feasible power generation. The flow modeling would have to have previously achieved its own confirmation from relevant data taken from both heat mining and conventional hydrothermal geothermal experience. There may be very relevant experience from the enhancement of ''hot wet rock'' sites, i.e., sites where hydrothermal reservoirs lack, or have come to lack, enough natural water or steam and are helped by water injected cold and produced hot. The new site would have to be selected in parallel with the confirmatory studies because it would have to be modeled as part of the studies and because its similarity to other candidate sites must be known well enough to assure that results at the selected site are relevant to many others. Also, the industry partners in the joint effort at the new site must be part of the confirmatory studies, because they must be convinced of the economic feasibility. This meeting may have brought together the core of people who can make such a joint effort take place. EPRI sponsored the organization of this meeting in order to provide utilities with an update on the prospects for power generation via heat mining. Although the emerging rules for electric utilities competing in power generation make it very unlikely that the rate-payers of any one utility (or small group of utilities) can pay the differential to support this new heat mining research and development effort, the community represented at this meeting may be able to make the case for national or international support of a new heat mining effort, based on the potential size and economics of this resource as a benefit for the nation as a whole and as a contribution to reduced emissions of fossil CO{sub 2} worldwide.

  18. PLUVIUS: a generalized one-dimensional model of reactive pollutant behavior, including dry deposition, precipitation formation, and wet removal. Second edition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Easter, R.C.; Hales, J.M.

    1984-11-01

    This report is a second-edition user's manual for the PLUVIUS reactive-storm model. The PLUVIUS code simulates the formation of storm systems of a variety of types, and characterizes the behavior of air pollutants as they flow through, react within, and are scavenged by the storms. The computer code supplied with this report is known as PLUVIUS MOD 5.0, and is a substantial improvement over the MOD 3.1 version given in the original user's manual. Example applications of MOD 5.0 are given in the report to facilitate rapid application of the code for a variety of specific uses. 22 references, 7 figures, 48 tables.

  19. Application and energy saving potential of superheated steam drying in the food industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fitzpatrick, J. [Univ. College Cork (United Kingdom); Robinson, A. [Stork Engineering, Uxbridge (United Kingdom)

    1996-12-31

    The possibilities of using superheated steam in heat and mass transfer processes such as drying have lately been investigated and tested by several industries. The mode of operation, energy saving potential, advantages of and problems with this media in contact with foodstuffs and food waste sludge are discussed in this article.

  20. Process Development for Hydrothermal Liquefaction of Algae Feedstocks in a Continuous-Flow Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elliott, Douglas C.; Hart, Todd R.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Neuenschwander, Gary G.; Rotness, Leslie J.; Olarte, Mariefel V.; Zacher, Alan H.; Albrecht, Karl O.; Hallen, Richard T.; Holladay, Johnathan E.

    2013-10-01

    Wet algae slurries can be converted into an upgradeable biocrude by hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL). High levels of carbon conversion to gravity-separable biocrude product were accomplished at relatively low temperature (350 ?C) in a continuous-flow, pressurized (sub-critical liquid water) environment (20 MPa). As opposed to earlier work in batch reactors reported by others, direct oil recovery was achieved without the use of a solvent and biomass trace components were removed by processing steps so that they did not cause process difficulties. High conversions were obtained even with high slurry concentrations of up to 35 wt% of dry solids. Catalytic hydrotreating was effectively applied for hydrodeoxygenation, hydrodenitrogenation, and hydrodesulfurization of the biocrude to form liquid hydrocarbon fuel. Catalytic hydrothermal gasification was effectively applied for HTL byproduct water cleanup and fuel gas production from water soluble organics, allowing the water to be considered for recycle of nutrients to the algae growth ponds. As a result, high conversion of algae to liquid hydrocarbon and gas products was found with low levels of organic contamination in the byproduct water. All three process steps were accomplished in bench-scale, continuous-flow reactor systems such that design data for process scale-up was generated.

  1. Hot dry rock venture risks investigation:

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    This study assesses a promising resource in central Utah as the potential site of a future commerical hot dry rock (HDR) facility for generating electricity. The results indicate that, if the HDR reservoir productivity equals expectations based on preliminary results from research projects to date, a 50 MWe HDR power facility at Roosevelt Hot Springs could generate power at cost competitive with coal-fired plants. However, it is imperative that the assumed productivity be demonstrated before funds are committed for a commercial facility. 72 refs., 39 figs., 38 tabs.

  2. Final Report - Recovery Act - Development and application of processing and process control for nano-composite materials for lithium ion batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daniel, Claus; Armstrong, Beth L; Maxey, L Curt; Sabau, Adrian S; Wang, Hsin; Hagans, Patrick; Babinec, Sue

    2013-08-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory and A123 Systems, Inc. collaborated on this project to develop a better understanding, quality control procedures, and safety testing for A123 System s nanocomposite separator (NCS) technology which is a cell based patented technology and separator. NCS demonstrated excellent performance. x3450 prismatic cells were shown to survive >8000 cycles (1C/2C rate) at room temperature with greater than 80% capacity retention with only NCS present as an alternative to conventional polyolefin. However, for a successful commercialization, the coating conditions required to provide consistent and reliable product had not been optimized and QC techniques for being able to remove defective material before incorporation into a cell had not been developed. The work outlined in this report addresses these latter two points. First, experiments were conducted to understand temperature profiles during the different drying stages of the NCS coating when applied to both anode and cathode. One of the more interesting discoveries of this study was the observation of the large temperature decrease experienced by the wet coating between the end of the infrared (IR) drying stage and the beginning of the exposure to the convection drying oven. This is not a desirable situation as the temperature gradient could have a deleterious effect on coating quality. Based on this and other experimental data a radiative transfer model was developed for IR heating that also included a mass transfer module for drying. This will prove invaluable for battery coating optimization especially where IR drying is being employed. A stress model was also developed that predicts that under certain drying conditions tensile stresses are formed in the coating which could lead to cracking that is sometimes observed after drying is complete. Prediction of under what conditions these stresses form is vital to improving coating quality. In addition to understanding the drying process other parameters such as slurry quality and equipment optimization were examined. Removal of particles and gels by filtering, control of viscosity by %solids and mixing adjustments, removal of trapped gas in the slurry and modification of coater speed and slot die gap were all found to be important for producing uniform and flaw-free coatings. Second, an in-line Hi-Pot testing method has been developed specifically for NCS that will enable detection of coating flaws that could lead to soft or hard electrical shorts within the cell. In this way flawed material can be rejected before incorporation into the cell thus greatly reducing the amount of scrap that is generated. Improved battery safety is an extremely important benefit of NCS. Evaluation of battery safety is usually accomplished by conducting a variety of tests including nail penetration, hot box, over charge, etc. For these tests entire batteries must be built but the resultant temperature and voltage responses reveal little about the breakdown mechanism. In this report is described a pinch test which is used to evaluate NCS quality at various stages including coated anode and cathode as well as assembled cell. Coupled with post-microscopic examination of the damaged pinch point test data can assist in the coating optimization from an improved end-use standpoint. As a result of this work two invention disclosures, one for optimizing drying methodology and the other for an in-line system for flaw detection, have been filed. In addition, 2 papers are being written for submission to peer-reviewed journals.

  3. Development of a novel ultrasonic temperature probe for long-term monitoring of dry cask storage systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bakhtiari, S.; Wang, K.; Elmer, T. W.; Koehl, E.; Raptis, A. C. [Nuclear Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Ave., Argonne, IL, 60439 (United States)

    2013-01-25

    With the recent cancellation of the Yucca Mountain repository and the limited availability of wet storage utilities for spent nuclear fuel (SNF), more attention has been directed toward dry cask storage systems (DCSSs) for long-term storage of SNF. Consequently, more stringent guidelines have been issued for the aging management of dry storage facilities that necessitate monitoring of the conditions of DCSSs. Continuous health monitoring of DCSSs based on temperature variations is one viable method for assessing the integrity of the system. In the present work, a novel ultrasonic temperature probe (UTP) is being tested for long-term online temperature monitoring of DCSSs. Its performance was evaluated and compared with type N thermocouple (NTC) and resistance temperature detector (RTD) using a small-scale dry storage canister mockup. Our preliminary results demonstrate that the UTP system developed at Argonne is able to achieve better than 0.8 Degree-Sign C accuracy, tested at temperatures of up to 400 Degree-Sign C. The temperature resolution is limited only by the sampling rate of the current system. The flexibility of the probe allows conforming to complex geometries thus making the sensor particularly suited to measurement scenarios where access is limited.

  4. Storage capacity in hot dry rock reservoirs

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brown, D.W.

    1997-11-11

    A method is described for extracting thermal energy, in a cyclic manner, from geologic strata which may be termed hot dry rock. A reservoir comprised of hot fractured rock is established and water or other liquid is passed through the reservoir. The water is heated by the hot rock, recovered from the reservoir, cooled by extraction of heat by means of heat exchange apparatus on the surface, and then re-injected into the reservoir to be heated again. Water is added to the reservoir by means of an injection well and recovered from the reservoir by means of a production well. Water is continuously provided to the reservoir and continuously withdrawn from the reservoir at two different flow rates, a base rate and a peak rate. Increasing water flow from the base rate to the peak rate is accomplished by rapidly decreasing backpressure at the outlet of the production well in order to meet periodic needs for amounts of thermal energy greater than a baseload amount, such as to generate additional electric power to meet peak demands. The rate of flow of water provided to the hot dry rock reservoir is maintained at a value effective to prevent depletion of the liquid inventory of the reservoir. 4 figs.

  5. Storage capacity in hot dry rock reservoirs

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brown, Donald W.

    1997-01-01

    A method of extracting thermal energy, in a cyclic manner, from geologic strata which may be termed hot dry rock. A reservoir comprised of hot fractured rock is established and water or other liquid is passed through the reservoir. The water is heated by the hot rock, recovered from the reservoir, cooled by extraction of heat by means of heat exchange apparatus on the surface, and then re-injected into the reservoir to be heated again. Water is added to the reservoir by means of an injection well and recovered from the reservoir by means of a production well. Water is continuously provided to the reservoir and continuously withdrawn from the reservoir at two different flow rates, a base rate and a peak rate. Increasing water flow from the base rate to the peak rate is accomplished by rapidly decreasing backpressure at the outlet of the production well in order to meet periodic needs for amounts of thermal energy greater than a baseload amount, such as to generate additional electric power to meet peak demands. The rate of flow of water provided to the hot dry rock reservoir is maintained at a value effective to prevent depletion of the liquid

  6. Pilot Testing of Mercury Oxidation Catalysts for Upstream of Wet FGD Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richard Rhudy

    2006-06-30

    This final report presents and discusses results from a mercury control process development project entitled ''Pilot Testing of Mercury Oxidation Catalysts for Upstream of Wet FGD Systems''. The objective of this project was to demonstrate at pilot scale a mercury control technology that uses solid honeycomb catalysts to promote the oxidation of elemental mercury in the flue gas from coal combustion. Oxidized mercury is removed in downstream wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) absorbers and leaves with the FGD byproducts. The goal of the project was to achieve 90% oxidation of elemental mercury in the flue gas and 90% overall mercury capture with the downstream wet FGD system. The project was co-funded by EPRI and the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE NETL) under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT41185. Great River Energy (GRE) and City Public Service (now CPS Energy) of San Antonio were also project co-funders and provided host sites. URS Group, Inc. was the prime contractor. Longer-term pilot-scale tests were conducted at two sites to provide catalyst life data. GRE provided the first site, at their Coal Creek Station (CCS), which fires North Dakota lignite, and CPS Energy provided the second site, at their Spruce Plant, which fires Powder River Basin (PRB) coal. Mercury oxidation catalyst testing began at CCS in October 2002 and continued through the end of June 2004, representing nearly 21 months of catalyst operation. An important finding was that, even though the mercury oxidation catalyst pilot unit was installed downstream of a high-efficiency ESP, fly ash buildup began to plug flue gas flow through the horizontal catalyst cells. Sonic horns were installed in each catalyst compartment and appeared to limit fly ash buildup. A palladium-based catalyst showed initial elemental mercury oxidation percentages of 95% across the catalyst, declining to 67% after 21 months in service. A carbon-based catalyst began with almost 98% elemental mercury oxidation across the catalyst, but declined to 79% oxidation after nearly 13 months in service. The other two catalysts, an SCR-type catalyst (titanium/vanadium) and an experimental fly-ash-based catalyst, were significantly less active. The palladium-based and SCR-type catalysts were effectively regenerated at the end of the long-term test by flowing heated air through the catalyst overnight. The carbon-based catalyst was not observed to regenerate, and no regeneration tests were conducted on the fourth, fly-ash-based catalyst. Preliminary process economics were developed for the palladium and carbon-based catalysts for a scrubbed, North Dakota lignite application. As described above, the pilot-scale results showed the catalysts could not sustain 90% or greater oxidation of elemental mercury in the flue gas for a period of two years. Consequently, the economics were based on performance criteria in a later DOE NETL solicitation, which required candidate mercury control technologies to achieve at least a 55% increase in mercury capture for plants that fire lignite. These economics show that if the catalysts must be replaced every two years, the catalytic oxidation process can be 30 to 40% less costly than conventional (not chemically treated) activated carbon injection if the plant currently sells their fly ash and would lose those sales with carbon injection. If the plant does not sell their fly ash, activated carbon injection was estimated to be slightly less costly. There was little difference in the estimated cost for palladium versus the carbon-based catalysts. If the palladium-based catalyst can be regenerated to double its life to four years, catalytic oxidation process economics are greatly improved. With regeneration, the catalytic oxidation process shows over a 50% reduction in mercury control cost compared to conventional activated carbon injection for a case where the plant sells its fly ash. At Spruce Plant, mercury oxidation catalyst testing began in September 2003 and continued through the end of April 2005, interrupted only by a

  7. Analysis of transport phenomena during the convective drying in superheated steam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Topin, F.; Tadrist, L. [Univ. de Provence, Marseille (France)

    1997-10-01

    This work focused on high-temperature convective drying (superheated steam drying). The process has been investigated both experimentally and numerically. The experimental analysis was carried out in an aerodynamic return-flow wind-tunnel, with very small cylinders of cellular concrete. For the local analysis, the samples were fitted with thermocouples and pressure sensors. The mean moisture content of the cylinders was measured by simple weighing while the temperature and pressure readings were being taken. Global and local analysis of heat and mass transfer in small cylinders in superheated steam were carried out. The systematical study for several sizes and aerothermal conditions show a similar behavior for moisture content, pressure and temperature values. A numerical model for high temperature drying, using the finite elements method, in a 2-D configuration, was implemented and validated.

  8. Spent nuclear fuel project cold vacuum drying facility vacuum and purge system design description

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    IRWIN, J.J.

    1998-11-30

    This document provides the System Design Description (SDD) for the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF) Vacuum and Purge System (VPS) . The SDD was developed in conjunction with HNF-SD-SNF-SAR-O02, Safety Analysis Report for the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility, Phase 2, Supporting Installation of Processing Systems (Garvin 1998), The HNF-SD-SNF-DRD-002, 1998, Cold Vacuum Drying Facility Design Requirements, and the CVDF Design Summary Report. The SDD contains general descriptions of the VPS equipment, the system functions, requirements and interfaces. The SDD provides references for design and fabrication details, operation sequences and maintenance. This SDD has been developed for the SNFP Operations Organization and shall be updated, expanded, and revised in accordance with future design, construction and startup phases of the CVDF until the CVDF final ORR is approved.

  9. Energy-Efficient and Reduced-Effluent Process for Ultraclean...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Find More Like This Return to Search Energy-Efficient and Reduced-Effluent Process for ... Marangoni drying is extremely efficient in producing ultraclean surfaces on both ...

  10. Improved Formulations for Air-Surface Exchanges Related to National Security Needs: Dry Deposition Models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Droppo, James G.

    2006-07-01

    The Department of Homeland Security and others rely on results from atmospheric dispersion models for threat evaluation, event management, and post-event analyses. The ability to simulate dry deposition rates is a crucial part of our emergency preparedness capabilities. Deposited materials pose potential hazards from radioactive shine, inhalation, and ingestion pathways. A reliable characterization of these potential exposures is critical for management and mitigation of these hazards. A review of the current status of dry deposition formulations used in these atmospheric dispersion models was conducted. The formulations for dry deposition of particulate materials from am event such as a radiological attack involving a Radiological Detonation Device (RDD) is considered. The results of this effort are applicable to current emergency preparedness capabilities such as are deployed in the Interagency Modeling and Atmospheric Assessment Center (IMAAC), other similar national/regional emergency response systems, and standalone emergency response models. The review concludes that dry deposition formulations need to consider the full range of particle sizes including: 1) the accumulation mode range (0.1 to 1 micron diameter) and its minimum in deposition velocity, 2) smaller particles (less than .01 micron diameter) deposited mainly by molecular diffusion, 3) 10 to 50 micron diameter particles deposited mainly by impaction and gravitational settling, and 4) larger particles (greater than 100 micron diameter) deposited mainly by gravitational settling. The effects of the local turbulence intensity, particle characteristics, and surface element properties must also be addressed in the formulations. Specific areas for improvements in the dry deposition formulations are 1) capability of simulating near-field dry deposition patterns, 2) capability of addressing the full range of potential particle properties, 3) incorporation of particle surface retention/rebound processes, and. 4) development of dry deposition formulations applicable to urban areas. Also to improve dry deposition modeling capabilities, atmospheric dispersion models in which the dry deposition formulations are imbedded need better source-term plume initialization and improved in-plume treatment of particle growth processes. Dry deposition formulations used in current models are largely inapplicable to the complex urban environment. An improved capability is urgently needed to provide surface-specific information to assess local exposure hazard levels in both urban and non-urban areas on roads, buildings, crops, rivers, etc. A model improvement plan is developed with a near-term and far-term component. Despite some conceptual limitations, the current formulations for particle deposition based on a resistance approach have proven to provide reasonable dry deposition simulations. For many models with inadequate dry deposition formulations, adding or improving a resistance approach will be the desirable near-term update. Resistance models however are inapplicable aerodynamically very rough surfaces such as urban areas. In the longer term an improved parameterization of dry deposition needs to be developed that will be applicable to all surfaces, and in particular urban surfaces.

  11. Feasibility Study For Use Of Commercial Cask Vendor Dry Transfer Systems To Unload Used Fuel Assemblies In L-Area

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krementz, Dan; Rose, David; Dunsmuir, Mike

    2014-02-06

    The purpose of this study is to determine whether a commercial dry transfer system (DTS) could be used for loading or unloading used nuclear fuel (UNF) in L-Basin and to determine if a DTS pool adapter could be made for L-Basin Transfer Pit #2 that could accommodate a variety of DTS casks and fuel baskets or canisters up to 24 diameter.[1, 2] This study outlines the technical feasibility of accommodating different vendor dry transfer systems in the L-Basin Transfer Bay with a general work scope. It identifies equipment needing development, facility modifications, and describes the needed analyses and calculations. After reviewing the L-Basin Transfer Bay area layout and information on the only DTS system currently in use for the Nuclear Assurance Corporation Legal Weight Truck cask (NAC LWT), the authors conclude that use of a dry transfer cask is feasible. AREVA was contacted and acknowledged that they currently do not have a design for a dry transfer cask for their new Transnuclear Long Cask (TN-LC) cask. Nonetheless, this study accounted for a potential future DTS from AREVA to handle fuel baskets up to 18 in diameter. Due to the layout of the Transfer Bay, it was determined that a DTS cask pool adapter designed specifically for spanning Pit #2 and placed just north of the 70 Ton Cask lid lifting superstructure would be needed. The proposed pool adapter could be used to transition a fuel basket up to 24 in diameter and ~11 feet long from a dry transfer cask to the basin. The 18 and 24 applications of the pool adapter are pending vendor development of dry transfer casks that accommodate these diameters. Once a fuel basket has been lowered into Pit #2 through a pool adapter, a basket cart could be used to move the basket out from under the pool adapter for access by the 5 Ton Crane. The cost to install a dry transfer cask handling system in L-Area capable of handling multiple vendor provided transport and dry transfer casks and baskets with different diameters and lengths would likely be on the same order of magnitude as the Basin Modifications project. The cost of a DTS capability is affected by the number of design variations of different vendor transport and dry transfer casks to be considered for design input. Some costs would be incurred for each vendor DTS to be handled. For example, separate analyses would be needed for each dry transfer cask type such as criticality, shielding, dropping a dry transfer cask and basket, handling and auxiliary equipment, procedures, operator training, readiness assessments, and operational readiness reviews. A DTS handling capability in L-Area could serve as a backup to the Shielded Transfer System (STS) for unloading long casks and could support potential future missions such as the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Exchange or transferring UNF from wet to dry storage.

  12. The Edgewater Coolside process demonstration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCoy, D.C.; Scandrol, R.O.; Statnick, R.M.; Stouffer, M.R.; Winschel, R.A.; Withum, J.A.; Wu, M.M.; Yoon, H. )

    1992-02-01

    The Edgewater Coolside process demonstration met the program objectives which were to determine Coolside SO[sub 2] removal performance, establish short-term process operability, and evaluate the economics of the process versus a limestone wet scrubber. On a flue gas produced from the combustion of 3% sulfur coal, the Coolside process achieved 70% SO[sub 2] removal using commercially-available hydrated lime as the sorbent. The operating conditions were Ca/S mol ratio 2.0, Na/Ca mol ratio 0.2, and 20[degree]F approach to adiabatic saturation temperature ([del]T). During tests using fresh plus recycle sorbent, the recycle sorbent exhibited significant capacity for additional SO[sub 2] removal. The longest steady state operation was eleven days at nominally Ca/S = 2, Na/Ca = 0.22, [del]T = 20--22[degree]F, and 70% SO[sub 2] removal. The operability results achieved during the demonstration indicate that with the recommended process modifications, which are discussed in the Coolside process economic analysis, the process could be designed as a reliable system for utility application. Based on the demonstration program, the Coolside process capital cost for a hypothetical commercial installation was minimized. The optimization consisted of a single, large humidifier, no spare air compressor, no isolation dampers, and a 15 day on-site hydrated lime storage. The levelized costs of the Coolside and the wet limestone scrubbing processes were compared. The Coolside process is generally economically competitive with wet scrubbing for coals containing up to 2.5% sulfur and plants under 350 MWe. Site-specific factors such as plant capacity factor, SO[sub 2] emission limit, remaining plant life, retrofit difficulty, and delivered sorbent cost affect the scrubber-Coolside process economic comparison.

  13. The Edgewater Coolside process demonstration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCoy, D.C.; Scandrol, R.O.; Statnick, R.M.; Stouffer, M.R.; Winschel, R.A.; Withum, J.A.; Wu, M.M.; Yoon, H.

    1992-02-01

    The Edgewater Coolside process demonstration met the program objectives which were to determine Coolside SO{sub 2} removal performance, establish short-term process operability, and evaluate the economics of the process versus a limestone wet scrubber. On a flue gas produced from the combustion of 3% sulfur coal, the Coolside process achieved 70% SO{sub 2} removal using commercially-available hydrated lime as the sorbent. The operating conditions were Ca/S mol ratio 2.0, Na/Ca mol ratio 0.2, and 20{degree}F approach to adiabatic saturation temperature ({del}T). During tests using fresh plus recycle sorbent, the recycle sorbent exhibited significant capacity for additional SO{sub 2} removal. The longest steady state operation was eleven days at nominally Ca/S = 2, Na/Ca = 0.22, {del}T = 20--22{degree}F, and 70% SO{sub 2} removal. The operability results achieved during the demonstration indicate that with the recommended process modifications, which are discussed in the Coolside process economic analysis, the process could be designed as a reliable system for utility application. Based on the demonstration program, the Coolside process capital cost for a hypothetical commercial installation was minimized. The optimization consisted of a single, large humidifier, no spare air compressor, no isolation dampers, and a 15 day on-site hydrated lime storage. The levelized costs of the Coolside and the wet limestone scrubbing processes were compared. The Coolside process is generally economically competitive with wet scrubbing for coals containing up to 2.5% sulfur and plants under 350 MWe. Site-specific factors such as plant capacity factor, SO{sub 2} emission limit, remaining plant life, retrofit difficulty, and delivered sorbent cost affect the scrubber-Coolside process economic comparison.

  14. Quaternary history of the northeastern Bighorn Basin based on a climatically-controlled process-response model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Birdseye, R.U.

    1985-01-01

    The highest surfaces and oldest Pleistocene sediments in the northeastern Bighorn Basin are associated with the 600 kya North Kane Ash. Subsequent climatically-induced periods of aggradation and incision produced the remaining geomorphic elements. Processes associated with a typical interglacial-glacial cycle include: (1) interglacial stability with Bighorn River alluviation, pedimentation, and eolian deposition; (2) late-interglacial to early-glacial incision; (3) alluvial fan extension and increased landslide development during glacial intervals; and (4) an early-interglacial return to more stable conditions. Frequent stream captures during interglacial times were caused by the out-of-phase relationships between the Bighorn River and its tributaries. Quaternary climates of a given type have not been of equal magnitude or duration in the northeastern Bighorn Basin. The most intense glacial climates from which sediments are preserved are believed to have occurred ca. 600 kya, 440 kya an d140 kya. An abnormally dry climate existed between 400 kya and 275 kya, while extremely wet interglacial conditions prevailed about 100 kya. The last complete climatic cycle was the Bull Lake. The subsequent Holocene interglacial has been unusually dry. Thus not all Pleistocene climates have been capable of generating terraces of extensive alluvial fans.

  15. Submicron particle mass concentrations and sources in the Amazonian wet season (AMAZE-08)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Q.; Farmer, D. K.; Rizzo, L. V.; Pauliqueivis, T.; Kuwata, Mikinori; Karl, Thomas G.; Guenther, Alex B.; Allan, James D.; Coe, H.; Andreae, M. O.; Poeschl, U.; Jiminez, J. L.; Artaxo, Paulo; Martin, Scot T.

    2015-01-01

    Real-time mass spectra of non-refractory component of submicron aerosol particles were recorded in a tropical rainforest in the central Amazon basin during the wet season of 2008, as a part of the Amazonian Aerosol Characterization Experiment (AMAZE-08). Organic components accounted on average for more than 80% of the non-refractory submicron particle mass concentrations during the period of measurements. Ammonium was present in sufficient quantities to halfway neutralize sulfate. In this acidic, isoprene-dominated, low-NOx environment the high-resolution mass spectra as well as mass closures with ion chromatography measurements did not provide evidence for significant contributions of organosulfate species, at least at concentrations above uncertainty levels. Positive-matrix factorization of the time series of particle mass spectra identified four statistical factors to account for the variance of the signal intensities of the organic constituents: a factor HOA having a hydrocarbon-like signature and identified as regional emissions of primary organic material, a factor OOA-1 associated with fresh production of secondary organic material by a mechanism of BVOC oxidation followed by gas-to-particle conversion, a factor OOA-2 consistent with reactive uptake of isoprene oxidation products, especially epoxydiols by acidic particles, and a factor OOA-3 associated with long range transport and atmospheric aging. The OOA-1, -2, and -3 factors had progressively more oxidized signatures. Diameter-resolved mass spectral markers also suggested enhanced reactive uptake of isoprene oxidation products to the accumulation mode for the OOA-2 factor, and such size partitioning can be indicative of in-cloud process. The campaign-average factor loadings were in a ratio of 1.1:1.0 for the OOA-1 compared to the OOA-2 pathway, suggesting the comparable importance of gas-phase compared to particle-phase (including cloud waters) production pathways of secondary organic material during the study period.

  16. Cavitation as a Mechanism to Enhance Wetting in a Mercury Thermal Convection Loop

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pawel, SJ

    2001-07-17

    Type 316L stainless steel was statically tested under cavitation conditions via an ultrasonic transducer externally mounted on a tube filled with ambient mercury. During the preliminary exposure (24 h, 20 kHz, 1.5 MPa), cavitation resulted in apparent wetting of the specimens by mercury as well as general surface roughening and wastage similar to erosion damage. Subsequently, a thermal convection loop identical to those used previously to study thermal gradient mass transfer was modified to include an externally-mounted donut-shaped transducer in order to similarly produce cavitation and wetting at temperatures prototypic of those expected in the SNS target. However, a series of attempts to develop cavitation and wetting on 316L specimens in the thermal convection loop was unsuccessful.

  17. Use of a TM sub 010 microwave cavity at 2. 45 GHz for aerosol and filament drying

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Christiansen, D.E.; Unruh, W.P.

    1991-01-01

    As part of the development of a generic spray-drying process for aerosol preparation of homogeneous powders of complex metal oxide systems, we have investigated the use of 2.45 GHz power in a high-Q single-mode TM{sub 010} cavity coupled directly to aerosols of aqueous solutions. Partial success was attained with a concentrated solution of ferric nitrate. Although all particulates showed drying, only a few percent of the particles were fully dried prior to collection. The cavity operated at a power level just below that sufficient to cause electric field breakdown in the carrier gas (dry nitrogen). The large inherent dielectric shielding of the spherical droplets makes it difficult to couple enough power into an aerosol at 2.45 GHz to overcome the heat loss from individual droplets to the surrounding gas and achieve full particulate drying. The calculated and measured dielectric shielding of a thin cylinder of water aligned with the cavity electric field is very much smaller. We have produced heating rates in water {approximately}600 times more rapid than could be achieved with aerosols. This suggests using 2.45 GHz microwave power for drying extruded filaments and then calcining those dried filaments to ceramic fiber. 3 refs., 4 figs.

  18. Comparative Reactivity Study of Forsterite and Antigorite in Wet Supercritical CO2 by In Situ Infrared Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thompson, Christopher J.; Loring, John S.; Rosso, Kevin M.; Wang, Zheming

    2013-10-01

    The carbonation reactions of forsterite (Mg2SiO4) and antigorite [Mg3Si2O5(OH)4], representatives of olivine and serpentine minerals, in dry and wet supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) at conditions relevant to geologic carbon sequestration (35 C and 100 bar) were studied by in-situ Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. Our results confirm that water plays a critical role in the reactions between metal silicate minerals and scCO2. For neat scCO2, no reaction was observed in 24 hr for either mineral. When water was added to the scCO2, a thin water film formed on the minerals surfaces, and the reaction rates and extents increased as the water saturation level was raised from 54% to 116% (excess water). For the first time, the presence of bicarbonate, a key reaction intermediate for metal silicate reactions with scCO2, was observed in a heterogeneous system where mineral solids, an adsorbed water film, and bulk scCO2 co-exist. In excess-water experiments, approximately 4% of forsterite and less than 2% of antigorite transformed into hydrated Mg-carbonates. A precipitate similar to nesquehonite (MgCO33H2O) was observed for forsterite within 6 hr of reaction time, but no such precipitate was formed from antigorite until after water was removed from the scCO2 following a 24-hr reaction period. The reduced reactivity and carbonate-precipitation behavior of antigorite was attributed to slower, incongruent dissolution of the mineral and lower concentrations of Mg2+ and HCO3- in the water film. The in situ measurements employed in this work make it possible to quantify metal carbonate precipitates and key reaction intermediates such as bicarbonate for the investigation of carbonation reaction mechanisms relevant to geologic carbon sequestration.

  19. A round robin evaluation of the corrosiveness of wet residential insulation by electrochemical measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stansbury, E.E. , Knoxville, TN )

    1991-10-01

    The results of a round cabin evaluation of the use of an electrochemical method of calculating the corrosion rate of low carbon steel in environments related to cellulosic building insulations are reported. Environments included the leachate from a wet cellulosic insulation and solutions based on pure and commercial grades of borax, ammonium sulfate and aluminum sulfate. The pH values of these environments were in the range of 2.5 to 9.5. Electrochemical measurements were made using a direct reading corrosion rate instrument. The calculated corrosion rates were compared with those determined directly by weight loss measurements. Electrochemical measurements were made over a period of 48 hours and weight loss exposures were for two weeks. Poor agreement was observed for the corrosion rates determined electrochemically and the values were consistently larger than those based on weight loss. Reasons proposed for these results included the complex nature of the corrosion product deposits and the control these deposits have on oxygen diffusion to the metal interface. Both factors influence the validity of the calculation of the corrosion rate by the direct reading instrument. It was concluded that development of a viable electrochemical method of general applicability to the evaluation of the corrosiveness of wet residential building thermal insulations were doubtful. Because of the controlling influence of dissolved oxygen on the corrosion rate in the insulation leachate, an alternate evaluation method is proposed in which a thin steel specimen is partially immersed in wet insulation for three weeks. The corrosiveness of the wet insulation is evaluated in terms of the severity of attack near the metal-air-wet insulation interface. With thin metal specimens, complete penetration along the interface is proposed as a pass/fail criterion. An environment of sterile cotton wet with distilled water is proposed as a comparative standard. 9 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. New York Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Cubic Feet) Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) New York Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 211 1980's 208 264 229 295 389 369 457 410 351 368 1990's 354 331 329 264 242 197 232 224 218 221 2000's 322 318 315 365 324 349 363 375 389 196 2010's 281 253 184 144 143 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W =

  1. North Dakota Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation,

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) North Dakota Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 201 1980's 239 253 248 257 267 331 293 276 266 313 1990's 334 243 266 274 275 263 255 257 261 250 2000's 264 270 315 316 320 343 357 417 484 1,070 2010's 1,717

  2. Ohio Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Ohio Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 1,047 1980's 1,417 800 984 1,635 1,178 938 898 594 480 589 1990's 371 376 381 343 315 355 399 391 342 402 2000's 469 340 346 304 208 184 174 101 99 97 2010's 90 74 223 314 208 - =

  3. Louisiana - South Onshore Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) South Onshore Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Louisiana - South Onshore Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 2,304 1980's 2,134 1,871 1,789 1,582 1,488 1,792 1,573 1,380 1,338 1,273 1990's 1,106 995 853 649 678 720 627 599 630 599

  4. Louisiana State Offshore Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Louisiana State Offshore Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 449 251 260 207 231 1990's 207 207 154 157 168 148 157 130 98 120 2000's 129 145 84 79 61 63 56 65 686 513 2010's 107 51 128 88 68 - = No

  5. New Mexico - West Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) West Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) New Mexico - West Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 151 1980's 156 150 146 180 194 181 214 213 259 178 1990's 184 156 127 107 97 119 108 106 98 92 2000's 115 99 103 89 90 98 82 87 86 82 2010's

  6. New York Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation,

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) New York Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 0 1980's 0 2 3 0 2 2 0 0 0 4 1990's 0 0 0 0 2 2 3 1 1 9 2000's 2 7 0 0 0 3 2 10 29 0 2010's 10 8 6 6 5 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W

  7. California State Offshore Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) California State Offshore Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 226 1980's 160 244 232 221 206 1990's 188 55 59 63 59 56 47 54 39 58 2000's 86 80 85 76 85 89 85 79 54 53 2010's 63 79 65 75 76 - = No Data

  8. Kansas Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Kansas Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 167 1980's 185 139 112 132 110 115 132 115 103 101 1990's 114 115 94 93 75 67 82 51 60 52 2000's 40 105 66 85 80 83 82 83 85 83 2010's 79 127 326 433 657 - = No Data Reported;

  9. Development of a two-body wet abrasion test method with attention to the

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    effects of reused abradant (Conference) | SciTech Connect Conference: Development of a two-body wet abrasion test method with attention to the effects of reused abradant Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Development of a two-body wet abrasion test method with attention to the effects of reused abradant Abrasive wear is among the most common and costliest causes for material wastage, and it occurs in many forms. A simple method has been developed to quantify the response of metals

  10. ,"Michigan Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Michigan Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release Date:","11/19/2015" ,"Next Release

  11. ,"Mississippi Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Mississippi Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release Date:","11/19/2015" ,"Next Release

  12. ,"Montana Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Montana Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release Date:","11/19/2015" ,"Next Release

  13. ,"Ohio Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Ohio Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release Date:","11/19/2015" ,"Next Release

  14. ,"Oklahoma Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Oklahoma Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release Date:","11/19/2015" ,"Next Release

  15. ,"Pennsylvania Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Pennsylvania Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release Date:","11/19/2015" ,"Next Release

  16. ,"Texas Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Texas Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release Date:","11/19/2015" ,"Next Release

  17. ,"U.S. Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet After Lease Separation"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Proved Reserves, Wet After Lease Separation" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","U.S. Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet After Lease Separation",10,"Annual",2014,"6/30/1979" ,"Release Date:","11/19/2015" ,"Next Release Date:","12/31/2016" ,"Excel File

  18. ,"Wyoming Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Wyoming Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release Date:","11/19/2015" ,"Next Release

  19. Texas - RRC District 1 Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Texas - RRC District 1 Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 209 1980's 172 180 216 175 170 260 241 205 204 251 1990's 333 401 361 191 151 248 446 68 51 67 2000's 69 43 47 48 45 57 61 72 60 67 2010's 267

  20. Texas - RRC District 10 Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) 0 Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Texas - RRC District 10 Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 484 1980's 546 456 489 537 617 560 537 482 424 364 1990's 311 298 396 264 264 254 253 227 234 241 2000's 289 255 271 252 249 253 316 436

  1. Texas - RRC District 2 Onshore Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) 2 Onshore Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Texas - RRC District 2 Onshore Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 955 1980's 921 806 780 747 661 570 517 512 428 430 1990's 407 352 308 288 299 245 252 235 204 202 2000's 115 65 70 81

  2. Texas - RRC District 4 Onshore Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) 4 Onshore Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Texas - RRC District 4 Onshore Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 1,416 1980's 1,292 1,005 890 765 702 684 596 451 393 371 1990's 301 243 228 215 191 209 246 368 394 182 2000's 176 140

  3. Texas - RRC District 5 Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) 5 Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Texas - RRC District 5 Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 62 1980's 75 44 47 52 44 40 69 118 101 136 1990's 116 89 126 141 148 47 53 68 89 49 2000's 128 83 65 62 58 51 57 50 40 21 2010's 8 40 53 177

  4. Texas - RRC District 6 Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) 6 Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Texas - RRC District 6 Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 868 1980's 954 869 881 943 938 874 822 811 728 695 1990's 668 638 606 607 547 611 562 578 580 545 2000's 464 412 400 387 402 344 276 247 412

  5. Texas - RRC District 7B Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) 7B Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Texas - RRC District 7B Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 234 1980's 332 292 214 338 292 276 244 282 264 196 1990's 214 157 170 187 181 276 232 260 204 190 2000's 114 88 57 69 76 73 74 62 68 102

  6. Texas - RRC District 7B Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) B Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Texas - RRC District 7B Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 608 1980's 530 655 733 872 645 574 589 546 576 364 1990's 413 379 380 393 332 263 378 299 306 275 2000's 242 203 237 314 288 859 1,589 2,350 2,682 2,322

  7. Texas - RRC District 8A Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) 8A Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Texas - RRC District 8A Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 71 1980's 69 59 37 44 43 39 34 30 24 16 1990's 21 21 13 12 15 15 18 41 18 44 2000's 69 82 101 100 95 85 82 88 63 43 2010's 58 31 20 23 24 - = No Data

  8. Texas - RRC District 9 Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) 9 Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Texas - RRC District 9 Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 175 1980's 249 274 299 255 274 290 263 267 241 212 1990's 214 200 184 178 148 138 121 147 199 180 2000's 209 124 140 125 110 126 105 139 158

  9. Utah Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Utah Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 367 1980's 414 335 325 360 341 391 410 471 475 442 1990's 455 469 309 289 286 277 301 310 209 321 2000's 348 303 359 299 290 308 317 368 321 601 2010's 631 909 1,001 895 872 - =

  10. West Virginia Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation,

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) West Virginia Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 76 1980's 122 63 83 86 73 73 65 150 141 98 1990's 86 159 198 190 133 74 71 59 43 88 2000's 98 48 21 23 20 19 16 16 23 24 2010's 29 52 21 70 32 - = No Data

  11. ,"Alabama Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Alabama Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release Date:","11/19/2015" ,"Next Release

  12. ,"Alaska Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Alaska Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release Date:","11/19/2015" ,"Next Release

  13. ,"Arkansas Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Arkansas Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release Date:","11/19/2015" ,"Next Release

  14. ,"California Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","California Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release Date:","11/19/2015" ,"Next Release

  15. ,"Colorado Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Colorado Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release Date:","11/19/2015" ,"Next Release

  16. ,"Florida Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Florida Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release Date:","11/19/2015" ,"Next Release

  17. ,"Kansas Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Kansas Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release Date:","11/19/2015" ,"Next Release

  18. ,"Kentucky Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Kentucky Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release Date:","11/19/2015" ,"Next Release

  19. ,"Louisiana Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Louisiana Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release Date:","11/19/2015" ,"Next Release

  20. Retrofit costs for lime/limestone FGD and lime spray drying at coal-fired utility boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Emmel, T.E.; Jones, J.W.

    1990-01-01

    The paper gives results of a research program the objective of which was to significantly improve engineering cost estimates currently being used to evaluate the economic effects of applying SO2 controls to existing coal-fired utility boilers. The costs of retrofitting conventional lime/limestone wet flue gas desulfurization (L/LS FGD) and lime spray drying (LSD) FGD at 100-200 coal-fired power plants are being estimated under this program. The retrofit capital cost estimating procedures used for L/LS FGD and LSD FGD make two cost adjustments to current procedures used to estimate FGD costs: cost adders (for items not normally included in FGD system costs; e.g., demolition and relocation of existing facilities) and cost multipliers (to adjust capital costs for site access, congestion, and underground obstructions).

  1. Enhanced Dry Reforming of Methane on Ni and Ni-Pt Catalysts Synthesized by Atomic Layer Deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gould, Troy D.; Montemore, Matthew M.; Lubers, Alia M.; Ellis, Lucas D.; Weimer, Alan; Falconer, John L.; Medlin, James W.

    2015-02-25

    Atomic layer deposition (ALD) was used to deposit Ni and Pt on alumina supports to form monometallic and bimetallic catalysts with initial particle sizes of 12.4 nm. The ALD catalysts were more active (per mass of metal) than catalysts prepared by incipient wetness (IW) for dry reforming of methane (DRM), and they did not form carbon whiskers during reaction due to their sufficiently small size. Catalysts modified by Pt ALD had higher rates of reaction per mass of metal and inhibited coking, whereas NiPt catalysts synthesized by IW still formed carbon whiskers. Temperature-programmed reduction of Ni catalysts modified by Pt ALD indicated the presence of bimetallic interaction. Density functional theory calculations suggested that under reaction conditions, the NiPt surfaces form Ni-terminated surfaces that are associated with higher DRM rates (due to their C and O adsorption energies, as well as the CO formation and CH4 dissociation energies).

  2. Land application uses for dry FGD by-products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bigham, J.; Dick, W.; Forster, L.; Hitzhusen, F.; McCoy, E.; Stehouwer, R.; Traina, S.; Wolfe, W. ); Haefner, R. . Water Resources Div.)

    1993-04-01

    The 1990 amendments to the Clean Air Act have spurred the development of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) processes, several of which produce a dry, solid by-product material consisting of excess sorbent, reaction products containing sulfates and sulfites, and coal fly ash. Presently FGD by-product materials are treated as solid wastes and must be landfilled. However, landfill sites are becoming more scarce and tipping fees are constantly increasing. It is, therefore, highly desirable to find beneficial reuses for these materials provided the environmental impacts are minimal and socially acceptable. Phase 1 results of a 4 and 1/2 year study to demonstrate large volume beneficial uses of FGD by-products are reported. The purpose of the Phase 1 portion of the project was to characterize the chemical, physical, mineralogical and engineering properties of the FGD by-product materials obtained from various FGD technologies being developed in the state of Ohio. Phase 1 also involved the collection of baseline economic data related to the beneficial reuse of these FGD materials. A total of 58 samples were collected and analyzed. In summary Phase 1 results revealed that FGD by-product materials are essentially coal fly ash materials diluted with unreacted sorbent and reaction products. High volume beneficial reuses will depend on the economics of their substituting for existing materials for various types of applications (e.g. as an agricultural liming material, soil borrow for highway embankment construction, and reclamation of active and abandoned surface coal mines). Environmental constraints to the beneficial reuse of dry FGD byproduct materials, based on laboratory and leachate studies, seem to be less than for coal fly ash.

  3. Process for concentrated biomass saccharification

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hennessey, Susan M.; Seapan, Mayis; Elander, Richard T.; Tucker, Melvin P.

    2010-10-05

    Processes for saccharification of pretreated biomass to obtain high concentrations of fermentable sugars are provided. Specifically, a process was developed that uses a fed batch approach with particle size reduction to provide a high dry weight of biomass content enzymatic saccharification reaction, which produces a high sugars concentration hydrolysate, using a low cost reactor system.

  4. Degradation of EBR-II driver fuel during wet storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pahl, R. G.

    2000-03-09

    Characterization data are reported for sodium bonded EBR-II reactor fuel which had been stored underwater in containers since the 1981--1982 timeframe. Ten stainless steel storage containers, which had leaked water during storage due to improper sealing, were retrieved from the ICPP-603 storage basin at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) in Idaho. In the container chosen for detailed destructive analysis, the stainless steel cladding on the uranium alloy fuel had ruptured and fuel oxide sludge filled the bottom of the container. Headspace gas sampling determined that greater than 99% hydrogen was present. Cesium 137, which had leached out of the fuel during the aqueous corrosion process, dominated the radionuclide source term of the water. The metallic sodium from the fuel element bond had reacted with the water, forming a concentrated caustic solution of NaOH.

  5. Mercury Control for Plants Firing Texas Lignite and Equipped with ESP-wet FGD

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Katherine Dombrowski

    2009-12-31

    This report presents the results of a multi-year test program conducted as part of Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-06NT42779, 'Mercury Control for Plants Firing Texas Lignite and Equipped with ESP-wet FGD.' The objective of this program was to determine the level of mercury removal achievable using sorbent injection for a plant firing Texas lignite fuel and equipped with an ESP and wet FGD. The project was primarily funded by the U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory. EPRI, NRG Texas, Luminant (formerly TXU), and AEP were project co-funders. URS Group was the prime contractor, and Apogee Scientific and ADA-ES were subcontractors. The host site for this program was NRG Texas Limestone Electric Generating Station (LMS) Units 1 and 2, located in Jewett, Texas. The plant fires a blend of Texas lignite and Powder River Basin (PRB) coal. Full-scale tests were conducted to evaluate the mercury removal performance of powdered sorbents injected into the flue gas upstream of the ESP (traditional configuration), upstream of the air preheater, and/or between electric fields within the ESP (Toxecon{trademark} II configuration). Phases I through III of the test program, conducted on Unit 1 in 2006-2007, consisted of three short-term parametric test phases followed by a 60-day continuous operation test. Selected mercury sorbents were injected to treat one quarter of the flue gas (e.g., approximately 225 MW equivalence) produced by Limestone Unit 1. Six sorbents and three injection configurations were evaluated and results were used to select the best combination of sorbent (Norit Americas DARCO Hg-LH at 2 lb/Macf) and injection location (upstream of the ESP) for a two-month performance evaluation. A mercury removal rate of 50-70% was targeted for the long-term test. During this continuous-injection test, mercury removal performance and variability were evaluated as the plant operated under normal conditions. Additional evaluations were made to determine any balance-of-plant impacts of the mercury control process, including those associated with ESP performance and fly ash reuse properties. Upon analysis of the project results, the project team identified several areas of interest for further study. Follow-on testing was conducted on Unit 2 in 2009 with the entire unit treated with injected sorbent so that mercury removal across the FGD could be measured and so that other low-ash impact technologies could be evaluated. Three approaches to minimizing ash impacts were tested: (1) injection of 'low ash impact' sorbents, (2) alterations to the injection configuration, and (3) injection of calcium bromide in conjunction with sorbent. These conditions were tested with the goal of identifying the conditions that result in the highest mercury removal while maintaining the sorbent injection at a rate that preserves the beneficial use of ash.

  6. Gulf of Mexico Federal Offshore Percentage of Dry Natural Gas...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Production from Greater than 200 Meters Deep (Percent) Gulf of Mexico Federal Offshore Percentage of Dry Natural Gas Production from Greater than 200 Meters Deep (Percent) Decade...

  7. Gulf of Mexico Federal Offshore Dry Natural Gas Proved Reserves...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Greater than 200 Meters Deep (Billion Cubic Feet) Gulf of Mexico Federal Offshore Dry Natural Gas Proved Reserves from Greater than 200 Meters Deep (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade...

  8. Gulf of Mexico Federal Offshore Percentage of Dry Natural Gas...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Proved Reserves from Greater than 200 Meters Deep (Percent) Gulf of Mexico Federal Offshore Percentage of Dry Natural Gas Proved Reserves from Greater than 200 Meters Deep...

  9. Utah Dry Natural Gas Reserves Sales (Billion Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Sales (Billion Cubic Feet) Utah Dry Natural Gas Reserves Sales (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 568 17 978 729 946 6 1,147 484 258 92 2010's 530 758 12 478 23 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Dry Natural Gas Reserves Sales Utah Dry Natural Gas Proved Reserves Dry

  10. Virginia Dry Natural Gas Reserves Sales (Billion Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Sales (Billion Cubic Feet) Virginia Dry Natural Gas Reserves Sales (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 28 718 0 0 0 1 133 0 2 0 2010's 124 3 0 1 573 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Dry Natural Gas Reserves Sales Virginia Dry Natural Gas Proved Reserves Dry Natural

  11. Hydrogen storage materials and method of making by dry homogenation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jensen, Craig M.; Zidan, Ragaiy A.

    2002-01-01

    Dry homogenized metal hydrides, in particular aluminum hydride compounds, as a material for reversible hydrogen storage is provided. The reversible hydrogen storage material comprises a dry homogenized material having transition metal catalytic sites on a metal aluminum hydride compound, or mixtures of metal aluminum hydride compounds. A method of making such reversible hydrogen storage materials by dry doping is also provided and comprises the steps of dry homogenizing metal hydrides by mechanical mixing, such as be crushing or ball milling a powder, of a metal aluminum hydride with a transition metal catalyst. In another aspect of the invention, a method of powering a vehicle apparatus with the reversible hydrogen storage material is provided.

  12. Arkansas Dry Natural Gas Reserves Sales (Billion Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Sales (Billion Cubic Feet) Arkansas Dry Natural Gas Reserves Sales (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 336 8 66 63 24 31 4 298 19 54 2010's 393 6,760 1 4 248 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Dry Natural Gas Reserves Sales Arkansas Dry Natural Gas Proved Reserves Dry

  13. Florida Dry Natural Gas Reserves Sales (Billion Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Sales (Billion Cubic Feet) Florida Dry Natural Gas Reserves Sales (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 47 0 0 2010's 0 0 0 0 0 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Dry Natural Gas Reserves Sales Florida Dry Natural Gas Proved Reserves Dry Natural Gas Proved

  14. Kansas Dry Natural Gas Reserves Sales (Billion Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Sales (Billion Cubic Feet) Kansas Dry Natural Gas Reserves Sales (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 190 259 43 230 140 44 18 65 17 2 2010's 17 124 887 31 1,092 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Dry Natural Gas Reserves Sales Kansas Dry Natural Gas Proved Reserves Dry

  15. ,"Montana Dry Natural Gas Expected Future Production (Billion...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Dry Natural Gas Expected Future Production (Billion Cubic Feet)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest...

  16. ,"Miscellaneous States Dry Natural Gas Expected Future Production...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Dry Natural Gas Expected Future Production (Billion Cubic Feet)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest...

  17. ,"Utah Dry Natural Gas Expected Future Production (Billion Cubic...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Dry Natural Gas Expected Future Production (Billion Cubic Feet)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest...

  18. ,"Pennsylvania Dry Natural Gas Expected Future Production (Billion...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Dry Natural Gas Expected Future Production (Billion Cubic Feet)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest...

  19. ,"Michigan Dry Natural Gas Expected Future Production (Billion...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Dry Natural Gas Expected Future Production (Billion Cubic Feet)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest...

  20. ,"Ohio Dry Natural Gas Expected Future Production (Billion Cubic...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Dry Natural Gas Expected Future Production (Billion Cubic Feet)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest...