National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for dry process electrode

  1. FINAL REPORT: Transformational electrode drying process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Claus Daniel, C.; Wixom, M.

    2013-12-19

    This report includes major findings and outlook from the transformational electrode drying project performance period from January 6, 2012 to August 1, 2012. Electrode drying before cell assembly is an operational bottleneck in battery manufacturing due to long drying times and batch processing. Water taken up during shipment and other manufacturing steps needs to be removed before final battery assembly. Conventional vacuum ovens are limited in drying speed due to a temperature threshold needed to avoid damaging polymer components in the composite electrode. Roll to roll operation and alternative treatments can increase the water desorption and removal rate without overheating and damaging other components in the composite electrode, thus considerably reducing drying time and energy use. The objective of this project was the development of an electrode drying procedure, and the demonstration of processes with no decrease in battery performance. The benchmark for all drying data was an 80°C vacuum furnace treatment with a residence time of 18 – 22 hours. This report demonstrates an alternative roll to roll drying process with a 500-fold improvement in drying time down to 2 minutes and consumption of only 30% of the energy compared to vacuum furnace treatment.

  2. Dry Process Electrode Fabrication | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum Based| Department8,Department of2 FederalEnergy Green:Dry Process Electrode

  3. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Dry Process Electrode Fabrication

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Navitas Systems at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about dry process electrode...

  4. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Dry Process Electrode Fabrication

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Navitas Systems at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about dry process electrode...

  5. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Advanced Drying Process for Lower Manufacturing Cost of Electrodes

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Lambda Technologies at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about advanced drying process...

  6. Dry Process Electrode Fabrication

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

  7. A dry electrophysiology electrode using CNT arrays

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ruffini, G; Farres, E; Grau, C; Marco-Pallares, J; Mendoza, Eric; Ray, C; Silva, R; Dunne, Stephen; Farres, Esteve; Grau, Carles; Marco-Pallares, Josep; Mendoza, Ernest; Ray, Chris; Ruffini, Giulio; Silva, Ravi

    2006-01-01

    We describe the concept of a dry electrode sensor for biopotential measurement applications (ENOBIO) designed to eliminate the noise and inconvenience associated to the use of electrolytic gel. ENOBIO uses nanotechnology to remove gel-related noise, as well as maintaining a good contact impedance to minimise interference noise. The contact surface of the electrode will be covered with an array/forest of carbon nanotubes and will also be tested with an Ag/AgCl coating to provide ionic-electronic transduction. The nanotubes are to penetrate the outer layers of the skin, the Stratum Corneum, improving electrical contact. We discuss requirements, skin properties, nanotube penetration and transduction, noise sources, prototype design logic and biocompatibility. A future paper will report test results.

  8. Automated catalyst processing for cloud electrode fabrication for fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goller, Glen J. (West Springfield, MA); Breault, Richard D. (Coventry, CT)

    1980-01-01

    A process for making dry carbon/polytetrafluoroethylene floc material, particularly useful in the manufacture of fuel cell electrodes, comprises of the steps of floccing a co-suspension of carbon particles and polytetrafluoroethylene particles, filtering excess liquids from the co-suspension, molding pellet shapes from the remaining wet floc solids without using significant pressure during the molding, drying the wet floc pellet shapes within the mold at temperatures no greater than about 150.degree. F., and removing the dry pellets from the mold.

  9. Experiments and Analysis of Evaporation in Electrode Processing for Energy Storage 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stein, Malcolm T

    2015-04-20

    cost-effective measure for improving the performance of LIBs that can be implemented almost immediately. Although each step of processing can impact the final microstructure of LIB electrodes, perhaps the most important step is the last: drying...

  10. 106 IEEE REVIEWS IN BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING, VOL. 3, 2010 Dry-Contact and Noncontact Biopotential Electrodes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cauwenberghs, Gert

    106 IEEE REVIEWS IN BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING, VOL. 3, 2010 Dry-Contact and Noncontact Biopotential biopotential electrodes for patient physiological monitoring. The conventional wet adhesive Ag/AgCl electrodes forward. Index Terms--Biopotentials, electrocardiograms (ECG), electro- encephalograms (EEG). I

  11. ENOBIO - First tests of a dry electrophysiology electrode using carbon nanotubes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ruffini, G; Farres, E; Watts, P C P; Mendoza, Eric; Silva, R; Grau, C; Marco-Pallares, J; Fuentemilla, L; Vanfleteren, J; De Moor, P; Van de Casteele, B; Ruffini, Giulio; Dunne, Stephen; Farres, Esteve; Watts, Paul C. P.; Mendoza, Ernest; Silva, Ravi; Grau, Carles; Marco-Pallares, Josep; Fuentemilla, Lluis; Vanfleteren, Jan; Moor, Piet De; Vandecasteele, Bjorn

    2006-01-01

    We describe the development and first tests of Enobio, a dry electrode sensor concept for biopotential applications. In the proposed electrodes, the tip of the electrode is covered with a forest of multi-walled CNTs that will be coated with Ag/AgCl to provide ionic-electronic transduction. The CNT brush-like structure is to penetrate the outer layers of the skin improving electrical contact as well as increae the contact surface area. In this paper, we report the results of the first tests of this concept -- immersion on saline solution and pig skin signal detection. These indicate performance on a par with state of the art research-oriented wet electrodes.

  12. Roll-to-Roll Electrode Processing and Materials NDE for Advanced...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Review 2014: Roll-to-Roll Electrode Processing NDE for Advanced Lithium Secondary Batteries Lithium Ion Electrode Production NDE and QC Considerations Roll-to-Roll Electrode...

  13. Dry Processing of Used Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K. M. Goff; M. F. Simpson

    2009-09-01

    Dry (non-aqueous) separations technologies have been used for treatment of used nuclear fuel since the 1960s, and they are still being developed and demonstrated in many countries. Dry technologies offer potential advantages compared to traditional aqueous separations including: compactness, resistance to radiation effects, criticality control benefits, compatibility with advanced fuel types, and ability to produce low purity products. Within the Department of Energy’s Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative, an electrochemical process employing molten salts is being developed for recycle of fast reactor fuel and treatment of light water reactor oxide fuel to produce a feed for fast reactors. Much of the development of this technology is based on treatment of used Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II) fuel, which is metallic. Electrochemical treatment of the EBR-II fuel has been ongoing in the Fuel Conditioning Facility, located at the Materials and Fuel Complex of Idaho National Laboratory since 1996. More than 3.8 metric tons of heavy metal of metallic fast reactor fuel have been treated using this technology. This paper will summarize the status of electrochemical development and demonstration activities with used nuclear fuel, including high-level waste work. A historic perspective on the background of dry processing will also be provided.

  14. A FULLY DRY SELFA FULLY DRY SELF--ASSEMBLY PROCESS WITHASSEMBLY PROCESS WITH PROPER INPROPER IN--PLANE ORIENTATIONPLANE ORIENTATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A FULLY DRY SELFA FULLY DRY SELF--ASSEMBLY PROCESS WITHASSEMBLY PROCESS WITH PROPER INPROPER IN consumption byimprove the performance and reduce the power consumption by eliminating long horizontal wiring strategy with parallel self--assembly isassembly is necessary for high throughput.necessary for high

  15. Technical and economical considerations of new DRI melting process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ito, Shuzo; Tokuda, Koji; Sammt, F.; Gray, R.

    1997-12-31

    The new DRI melting process can effectively and economically produce high quality molten iron. This process utilizes hot charging of DRI directly from a reduction furnace into a dedicated new melting furnace. The molten iron from this DRI premelter can be charged into a steelmaking furnace, such as an electric arc furnace (EAF), where the molten iron, together with other iron sources, can be processed to produce steel. Alternatively the molten iron can be pigged or granulated for off-site merchant sales. Comprehensive research and development of the new process has been conducted including operational process simulation, melting tests using FASTMET DRI, slag technology development, and refractory corrosion testing. This paper describes the process concept, its operational characteristics and further applications of the process.

  16. Process for fabricating ribbed electrode substrates and other articles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goller, Glen J. (West Springfield, MA); Breault, Richard D. (Coventry, CT); Smith, J. Harold (Amherst, MA)

    1984-01-01

    A process for fabricating a resin bonded carbon fiber article, and in particular electrochemical cell electrode substrates and the like requiring different mean pore sizes in different areas, involves simultaneously heating and compacting different mixtures of carbon fibers and resin in different areas of an article forming mold, wherein the carbon fibers in each of the different mixtures have different, known bulk densities. The different bulk densities of the carbon fibers in the mixtures are chosen to yield the desired mean pore sizes and other properties in the article after heating and compacting the mixtures. Preferably, the different bulk densities are obtained using different carbon fiber lengths in the molding mixtures. The process is well suited to forming ribbed electrode substrates with preselected optimum mean pore sizes, porosities, and densities in the ribs, the webs connecting the ribs, and in the edge seals.

  17. Converting printed wiring product processing to aqueous processable dry film photoresist. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goldammer, S.E.

    1996-07-01

    Fully aqueous processable dry film photoresists were evaluated to determine which dry film in the Federal Manufacturing and Technologies printed wiring board facility performed the best. The photoresists were chosen for their compatibility in alkaline etching, copper electroplating, and tin-lead electroplating. The processing evaluation included both single layer and double layer dry film photoresist for pattern plating.

  18. Sintered electrode for solid oxide fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ruka, Roswell J. (Pittsburgh, PA); Warner, Kathryn A. (Bryan, TX)

    1999-01-01

    A solid oxide fuel cell fuel electrode is produced by a sintering process. An underlayer is applied to the electrolyte of a solid oxide fuel cell in the form of a slurry, which is then dried. An overlayer is applied to the underlayer and then dried. The dried underlayer and overlayer are then sintered to form a fuel electrode. Both the underlayer and the overlayer comprise a combination of electrode metal such as nickel, and stabilized zirconia such as yttria-stabilized zirconia, with the overlayer comprising a greater percentage of electrode metal. The use of more stabilized zirconia in the underlayer provides good adhesion to the electrolyte of the fuel cell, while the use of more electrode metal in the overlayer provides good electrical conductivity. The sintered fuel electrode is less expensive to produce compared with conventional electrodes made by electrochemical vapor deposition processes. The sintered electrodes exhibit favorable performance characteristics, including good porosity, adhesion, electrical conductivity and freedom from degradation.

  19. Physical processes involved in strip electrode welding using the method of slatted splicing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bushma, V. O. [Moscow State Technological University 'Stankin' (Russian Federation)

    2010-12-15

    Physical processes that take place in a strip electrode during welding using the slatted splicing technique are considered. Flowing of the welding current in the electrode is shown to be the key process which determines electrode heating and melting. Technological receipts are proposed that allow obtaining high-quality welds by the method of slatted splicing.

  20. ORIGINAL PAPER Twin-Screw Extrusion Processing of Distillers Dried

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ORIGINAL PAPER Twin-Screw Extrusion Processing of Distillers Dried Grains with Solubles (DDGS. Twin- screw extrusion studies were performed to investigate the production of nutritionally balanced amounts of fish meal, fish oil, whole wheat flour, corn gluten meal, and vitamin and mineral premixes

  1. Roll-to-Roll Electrode Processing and Materials NDE for Advanced...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Roll-to-Roll Electrode Processing and Materials NDE for Advanced Lithium Secondary Batteries 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual...

  2. Aqueous processing of composite lithium ion electrode material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Li, Jianlin; Armstrong, Beth L; Daniel, Claus; Wood, III, David L

    2015-02-17

    A method of making a battery electrode includes the steps of dispersing an active electrode material and a conductive additive in water with at least one dispersant to create a mixed dispersion; treating a surface of a current collector to raise the surface energy of the surface to at least the surface tension of the mixed dispersion; depositing the dispersed active electrode material and conductive additive on a current collector; and heating the coated surface to remove water from the coating.

  3. The Impact of Electrode Structure on the Processes that Limit...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    in Bethesda, Maryland. merit08wheeler.pdf More Documents & Publications Overview of the Batteries for Advanced Transportation Technologies (BATT) Program New Electrode Designs...

  4. Utilization of geothermal heat in tropical fruit-drying process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, B.H.; Lopez, L.P.; King, R.; Fujii, J.; Tanaka, M.

    1982-10-01

    The power plant utilizes only the steam portion of the HGP-A well production. There are approximately 50,000 pounds per hour of 360/sup 0/F water produced (approximately 10 million Btu per hour) and the water is currently not used and is considered a waste. This tremendous resource could very well be used in applications such as food processing, food dehydration and other industrial processing that requires low-grade heat. One of the applications is examined, namely the drying of tropical fruits particularly the papaya. The papaya was chosen for the obvious reason that it is the biggest crop of all fruits produced on the Big Island. A conceptual design of a pilot plant facility capable of processing 1000 pounds of raw papaya per day is included. This facility is designed to provide a geothermally heated dryer to dehydrate papayas or other tropical fruits available on an experimental basis to obtain data such as drying time, optimum drying temperature, etc.

  5. Characterization of flow-through electrode processes by AC impedance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yuh, C.Y. (Energy Research Corp., Danbury, CT (United States)); Selman, J.R. (Illinois Inst. of Tech., Chicago (United States))

    1993-04-01

    Flow-through porous electrodes, such as packed-bed and fluidized-bed electrodes, are attractive for electrowinning, electro-organic synthesis and flow-battery applications. The extensive surface area of the porous electrodes makes high volumetric reaction rate more possible than in a cell with smooth electrodes. Forced convection also enhances mass-transfer rate and hence reduces concentration polarization. AC-impedance method has been used successfully in characterizing a packed-bed flow-through electrode system. A macrohomogeneous model was developed to simulate the effect of structural, physical and flow parameters. The relative importance of kinetics and mass transfer can be inferred from the AC-impedance analysis. Kinetic information about copper deposition in supported cupric sulfate solution has been obtained successfully using this technique.

  6. ProcessFlowforMicro-ElectrodeArrayFabrication User: Hang Chen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garmestani, Hamid

    Equipment Fume Hood (Marcus) Chemicals Acetone/Methanol or IPA/DI Water Labware Glass beaker Tools Tweezers warning label, and place it in your work area. (2). Put the glass beaker, texwipes and solvent bottles substrate above a texwipes, blow dry it with a nitrogen gun, and put it back into its box. (7). Pour solvent

  7. Process for producing elements from a fused bath using a metal strap and ceramic electrode body nonconsumable electrode assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Byrne, S.C.

    1984-07-03

    A nonconsumable electrode assembly is described suitable for use in the production of metal by electrolytic reduction of a metal compound dissolved in a molten salt, the assembly comprising a ceramic electrode body and a metal subassembly of a metal conductor rod and at least one metal strap affixed to an end of the rod with opposing portions extending radially outwardly from the rod axis and having the ends of the strap attached to the electrode body. 7 figs.

  8. Studies of electrical breakdown processes across vacuum gaps between metallic electrodes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilson, Erik

    Studies of electrical breakdown processes across vacuum gaps between metallic electrodes L Available online 3 June 2013 Keywords: Magnetic insulation Vacuum electrical breakdown Bacteria-induced electrical breakdown Accelerator a b s t r a c t An experimental program to elucidate the physical causes

  9. Sintered electrode for solid oxide fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ruka, R.J.; Warner, K.A.

    1999-06-01

    A solid oxide fuel cell fuel electrode is produced by a sintering process. An underlayer is applied to the electrolyte of a solid oxide fuel cell in the form of a slurry, which is then dried. An overlayer is applied to the underlayer and then dried. The dried underlayer and overlayer are then sintered to form a fuel electrode. Both the underlayer and the overlayer comprise a combination of electrode metal such as nickel, and stabilized zirconia such as yttria-stabilized zirconia, with the overlayer comprising a greater percentage of electrode metal. The use of more stabilized zirconia in the underlayer provides good adhesion to the electrolyte of the fuel cell, while the use of more electrode metal in the overlayer provides good electrical conductivity. The sintered fuel electrode is less expensive to produce compared with conventional electrodes made by electrochemical vapor deposition processes. The sintered electrodes exhibit favorable performance characteristics, including good porosity, adhesion, electrical conductivity and freedom from degradation. 4 figs.

  10. Electrowinning process with electrode compartment to avoid contamination of electrolyte

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Poa, Davis S. (Naperville, IL); Pierce, R. Dean (Naperville, IL); Mulcahey, Thomas P. (Downers Grove, IL); Johnson, Gerald K. (Downers Grove, IL)

    1993-01-01

    An electrolytic process and apparatus for reducing calcium oxide in a molten electrolyte of CaCl.sub.2 -CaF.sub.2 with a graphite anode in which particles or other contamination from the anode is restricted by the use of a porous barrier in the form of a basket surrounding the anode which may be removed from the electrolyte to burn the graphite particles, and wherein the calcium oxide feed is introduced to the anode compartment to increase the oxygen ion concentration at the anode.

  11. The use of carbon aerogel electrodes for deionizing water and treating aqueous process wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farmer, J.C.; Mack, G.V.; Fix, D.V.

    1996-07-01

    A wide variety of ionic contaminants can be removed from aqueous solutions by electrosorption on carbon aerogel electrodes. Carbon aerogel is an ideal electrode material because of its low electrical resistivity (< 40 m{Omega}-cm), high specific surface area (400 to 1100 m{sup 2}/g), and controllable pore size distribution (< 50 nm). This approach may avoid the generation of a substantial amount of secondary waste associated with ion exchange processing. Ion exchange resins require concentrated solutions of acid, base, or salt for regeneration, whereas carbon aerogel electrodes require only electrical discharge or reverse polarization. Aqueous solutions of NaCl, NaNO{sub 3}, NH{sub 4}ClO{sub 4}, Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}, Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} and Na{sub 3}PO{sub 4} have been separated into concentrate and high-purity product streams. The deionization of a 100 {mu}S/cm NaCl solution with two parallel stacks of carbon aerogel electrodes in a potential-swing mode is discussed in detail. The selective removal of Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb, Cr, Mn, Co and U from a variety of process solutions and natural waters has also been demonstrated. Feasibility tests indicate that the remediation of Cr(VI)-contaminated ground water may be possible.

  12. An Experimental and Numerical Investigation of the Cutting Forces in Dry Milling Machining Process 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wadja, Bright Yves wilfried

    2014-04-29

    The aim in this thesis is the investigation of the cutting forces during a dry milling machining process. An experimental design was developed and the cutting forces were measured based on the cutting input parameters. The cutting forces’ signatures...

  13. Criticality Safety Evaluation Report for the Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) Facilities Process Water Handling System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    KESSLER, S.F.

    2000-08-10

    This report addresses the criticality concerns associated with process water handling in the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility. The controls and limitations on equipment design and operations to control potential criticality occurrences are identified.

  14. Doping suppression and mobility enhancement of graphene transistors fabricated using an adhesion promoting dry transfer process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheol Shin, Woo; Hun Mun, Jeong; Yong Kim, Taek; Choi, Sung-Yool; Jin Cho, Byung, E-mail: bjcho@kaist.edu, E-mail: tskim1@kaist.ac.kr [Department of Electrical Engineering, Graphene Research Center, KAIST, 373-1 Guseong-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Taeshik; Kim, Taek-Soo, E-mail: bjcho@kaist.edu, E-mail: tskim1@kaist.ac.kr [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Graphene Research Center, KAIST, 373-1 Guseong-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Graphene Research Center, KAIST, 373-1 Guseong-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-12-09

    We present the facile dry transfer of graphene synthesized via chemical vapor deposition on copper film to a functional device substrate. High quality uniform dry transfer of graphene to oxidized silicon substrate was achieved by exploiting the beneficial features of a poly(4-vinylphenol) adhesive layer involving a strong adhesion energy to graphene and negligible influence on the electronic and structural properties of graphene. The graphene field effect transistors (FETs) fabricated using the dry transfer process exhibit excellent electrical performance in terms of high FET mobility and low intrinsic doping level, which proves the feasibility of our approach in graphene-based nanoelectronics.

  15. Development of an advanced process for drying fine coal in an inclined fluidized bed

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boysen, J.E.; Cha, C.Y.; Barbour, F.A.; Turner, T.F.; Kang, T.W.; Berggren, M.H.; Hogsett, R.F.; Jha, M.C.

    1990-02-01

    The objective of this research project was to demonstrate a technically feasible and economically viable process for drying and stabilizing high-moisture subbituminous coal. Controlled thermal drying of coal fines was achieved using the inclined fluidized-bed drying and stabilization process developed by the Western Research Institute. The project scope of work required completion of five tasks: (1) project planning, (2) characterization of two feed coals, (3) bench-scale inclined fluidized-bed drying studies, (4) product characterization and testing, and (5) technical and economic evaluation of the process. High moisture subbituminous coals from AMAX Eagle Butte mine located in the Powder River Basin of Wyoming and from Usibelli Coal Mine, Inc. in Healy, Alaska were tested in a 10-lb/hr bench-scale inclined fluidized-bed. Experimental results show that the dried coal contains less than 1.5% moisture and has a heating value over 11,500 Btu/lb. The coal fines entrainment can be kept below 15 wt % of the feed. The equilibrium moisture of dried coal was less than 50% of feed coal equilibrium moisture. 7 refs., 60 figs., 47 tabs.

  16. Evaluation of heat transfer processes in the lower 1420 feet of dry cold frontal zones 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ryan, Bill Chatten

    1964-01-01

    EVALUATION OF HEAT TRANSFER PROCESSES IN THE IlNER 1420 FEET OF DRY COID FRONTAL ZONES A Thesis By BILL CHATTEN RYAN Captain U. S. A. F. Submitted to the Graduate College of the Texas ASM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1964 Ma]or Sub]ect: Meteorology EVALUATION OF HEAT TRANSFER PROCESSES IN THE LOWER 1420 FEET OF DRY COID FRONTAL ZONES A Thesis By BILL CHATTEN RYAN Captain U. S. A. F. Approved as to style and content by: (C...

  17. Development of an advanced process for drying fine coal in an inclined fluidized bed

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boysen, J.E.; Kang, T.W.; Cha, C.Y.; Berggren, M.H.; Jha, M.C.; AMAX Research and Development Center, Golden, CO )

    1989-10-01

    The main objective of this research is to develop a thermal process for drying fine coal that (1) reduces explosion potential, (2) uses a fluidized bed with minimum elutriation, (3) produces a stable dry coal by preventing moisture reabsorption and autogeneous heating, (4) reduces fugitive dust emissions, and (5) is technically and economically feasible. The project scope of work requires completion of five tasks: (1) project planning, (2) characterization of the two feed coals, (3) bench-scale IFB drying studies, (4) product characterization and testing, and (5) technical and economic process evaluation. The project technical achievements are primarily related to understanding of the behavior of the two coals in the IFB reactor. Solids residence time and solids entrainment can be correlated using the Reynolds number. Gas produced from the coal during drying and the product composition can be correlated to the average dryer temperature. A dry product with minimal proximate moisture and substantially increased heating value can be produced from either of these coals under a wide variety of fluidizing gas-to-solids ratios and IFB operating temperatures. Product characterization indicates that moisture reabsorption can be significantly reduced and that fugitive dust contents can be almost completely reduced. 4 refs., 19 figs., 24 tabs.

  18. 640 CEREAL CHEMISTRY Quick Fiber Process: Effect of Mash Temperature, Dry Solids,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    in the wet milling process is due to starch loss in the fiber and gluten fractions. Dry grind suffers from of cholesterol-lowering phytosterol components, ferulate phytosterol esters (FPE), free phytosterol of gluten slurries increases the flux 200% (K. Rausch,

  19. Method for processing aluminum spent potliner in a graphite electrode ARC furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    O'Connor, William K. (Lebanon, OR); Turner, Paul C. (Independence, OR); Addison, Gerald W. (St. Stephen, SC)

    2002-12-24

    A method of processing spent aluminum pot liner containing carbon, cyanide compositions, fluorides and inorganic oxides. The spent aluminum pot liner is crushed iron oxide is added to form an agglomerated material. The agglomerated material is melted in an electric arc furnace having the electrodes submerged in the molten material to provide a reducing environment during the furnace operation. In the reducing environment, pot liner is oxidized while the iron oxides are reduced to produce iron and a slag substantially free of cyanide compositions and fluorides. An off-gas including carbon oxides and fluorine is treated in an air pollution control system with an afterburner and a scrubber to produce NaF, water and a gas vented to the atmosphere free of cyanide compositions, fluorine and CO.

  20. Method for processing aluminum spent potliner in a graphite electrode arc furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    O'Connor, William K.; Turner, Paul C.; Addison, G.W. (AJT Enterprises, Inc.)

    2002-12-24

    A method of processing spent aluminum pot liner containing carbon, cyanide compositions, fluorides and inorganic oxides. The spend aluminum pot liner is crushed, iron oxide is added to form an agglomerated material. The agglomerated material is melted in an electric arc furnace having the electrodes submerged in the molten material to provide a reducing environment during the furnace operation. In the reducing environment, pot liner is oxidized while the iron oxides are reduced to produce iron and a slag substantially free of cyanide compositions and fluorides. An off-gas including carbon oxides and fluorine is treated in an air pollution control system with an afterburner and a scrubber to produce NaF, water and a gas vented to the atmosphere free of cyanide compositions, fluorine, and CO.

  1. Method of drying passivated micromachines by dewetting from a liquid-based process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Houston, Michael R. (Berkeley, CA); Howe, Roger T. (Lafayette, CA); Maboudian, Roya (Orinda, CA); Srinivasan, Uthara (Berkeley, CA)

    2000-01-01

    A method of fabricating a micromachine includes the step of constructing a low surface energy film on the micromachine. The micromachine is then rinsed with a rinse liquid that has a high surface energy, relative to the low surface energy film, to produce a contact angle of greater than 90.degree. between the low surface energy film and the rinse liquid. This relatively large contact angle causes any rinse liquid on the micromachine to be displaced from the micromachine when the micromachine is removed from the rinse liquid. In other words, the micromachine is dried by dewetting from a liquid-based process. Thus, a separate evaporative drying step is not required, as the micromachine is removed from the liquid-based process in a dry state. The relatively large contact angle also operates to prevent attractive capillary forces between micromachine components, thereby preventing contact and adhesion between adjacent microstructure surfaces. The low surface energy film may be constructed with a fluorinated self-assembled monolayer film. The processing of the invention avoids the use of environmentally harmful, health-hazardous chemicals.

  2. Method of fabrication of electrodes and electrolytes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jankowski, Alan F.; Morse, Jeffrey D.

    2004-01-06

    Fuel cell stacks contain an electrolyte layer surrounded on top and bottom by an electrode layer. Porous electrodes are prepared which enable fuel and oxidant to easily flow to the respective electrode-electrolyte interface without the need for high temperatures or pressures to assist the flow. Rigid, inert microspheres in combination with thin-film metal deposition techniques are used to fabricate porous anodes, cathodes, and electrolytes. Microshperes contained in a liquid are randomly dispersed onto a host structure and dried such that the microsperes remain in position. A thin-film deposition technique is subsequently employed to deposit a metal layer onto the microsperes. After such metal layer deposition, the microspheres are removed leaving voids, i.e. pores, in the metal layer, thus forming a porous electrode. Successive repetitions of the fabrication process result in the formation of a continuous fuel cell stack. Such stacks may produce power outputs ranging from about 0.1 Watt to about 50 Watts.

  3. Multi-objective optimization of the dry electric discharge machining process

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saha, Sourabh

    2009-01-01

    Dry Electric Discharge Machining (EDM) is an environment-friendly modification of the conventional EDM process, which is obtained by replacing the liquid dielectric by a gaseous medium. In this study, multi-objective optimization of dry EDM process has been done using the non dominated sorting genetic algorithm (NSGA II), with material removal rate (MRR) and surface roughness (Ra) as the objective functions. Experiments were conducted with air as dielectric to develop polynomial models of MRR and Ra in terms of the six input parameters: gap voltage, discharge current, pulse-on time, duty factor, air pressure and spindle speed. A Pareto-optimal front was then obtained using NSGA II. Analysis of the front was done to identify separate regions for finish and rough machining. Designed experiments were then conducted in these focused regions to verify the optimization results and to identify the region-specific characteristics of the process. Finishing conditions were obtained at low current, high pulse-on time an...

  4. Rapid formation of phase-clean 110 K (Bi-2223) powders derived via freeze-drying process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Balachandran, Uthamalingam (Hinsdale, IL)

    1996-01-01

    A process for the preparation of amorphous precursor powders for Pb-doped Bi.sub.2 Sr.sub.2 Ca.sub.2 Cu.sub.3 O.sub.x (2223) includes a freeze-drying process incorporating a splat-freezing step. The process generally includes splat freezing a nitrate solution of Bi, Pb, Sr, Ca, and Cu to form flakes of the solution without any phase separation; grinding the frozen flakes to form a powder; freeze-drying the frozen powder; heating the dried powder to form a dry green precursor powders; denitrating the green-powders; heating the denitrated powders to form phase-clean Bi-2223 powders. The grain boundaries of the 2223 grains appear to be clean, leading to good intergrain contact between 2223 grains.

  5. Rapid formation of phase-clean 110 K (Bi-2223) powders derived via freeze-drying process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Balachandran, U.

    1996-06-04

    A process for the preparation of amorphous precursor powders for Pb-doped Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2} Ca{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub x} (2223) includes a freeze-drying process incorporating a splat-freezing step. The process generally includes splat freezing a nitrate solution of Bi, Pb, Sr, Ca, and Cu to form flakes of the solution without any phase separation; grinding the frozen flakes to form a powder; freeze-drying the frozen powder; heating the dried powder to form a dry green precursor powders; denitrating the green-powders; heating the denitrated powders to form phase-clean Bi-2223 powders. The grain boundaries of the 2223 grains appear to be clean, leading to good intergrain contact between 2223 grains. 11 figs.

  6. Electrically conductive diamond electrodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Swain, Greg (East Lansing, MI); Fischer, Anne (Arlington, VA),; Bennett, Jason (Lansing, MI); Lowe, Michael (Holt, MI)

    2009-05-19

    An electrically conductive diamond electrode and process for preparation thereof is described. The electrode comprises diamond particles coated with electrically conductive doped diamond preferably by chemical vapor deposition which are held together with a binder. The electrodes are useful for oxidation reduction in gas, such as hydrogen generation by electrolysis.

  7. Fuel cell electrodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Strmcnik, Dusan; Cuesta, Angel; Stamenkovic, Vojislav; Markovic, Nenad

    2015-06-23

    A process includes patterning a surface of a platinum group metal-based electrode by contacting the electrode with an adsorbate to form a patterned platinum group metal-based electrode including platinum group metal sites blocked with adsorbate molecules and platinum group metal sites which are not blocked.

  8. Efficient process for previous metal recovery from cell membrane electrode assemblies

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shore, Lawrence; Matlin, Ramail; Heinz, Robert

    2010-05-04

    A method is provided for recovering a catalytic element from a fuel cell membrane electrode assembly. The method includes grinding the membrane electrode assembly into a powder, extracting the catalytic element by forming a slurry comprising the powder and an acid leachate adapted to dissolve the catalytic element into a soluble salt, and separating the slurry into a depleted powder and a supernatant containing the catalytic element salt. The depleted powder is washed to remove any catalytic element salt retained within pores in the depleted powder and the catalytic element is purified from the salt.

  9. Simplified process for leaching precious metals from fuel cell membrane electrode assemblies

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shore, Lawrence (Edison, NJ); Matlin, Ramail (Berkeley Heights, NJ)

    2009-12-22

    The membrane electrode assemblies of fuel cells are recycled to recover the catalyst precious metals from the assemblies. The assemblies are cryogenically embrittled and pulverized to form a powder. The pulverized assemblies are then mixed with a surfactant to form a paste which is contacted with an acid solution to leach precious metals from the pulverized membranes.

  10. Process for recycling components of a PEM fuel cell membrane electrode assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shore, Lawrence (Edison, NJ)

    2012-02-28

    The membrane electrode assembly (MEA) of a PEM fuel cell can be recycled by contacting the MEA with a lower alkyl alcohol solvent which separates the membrane from the anode and cathode layers of the assembly. The resulting solution containing both the polymer membrane and supported noble metal catalysts can be heated under mild conditions to disperse the polymer membrane as particles and the supported noble metal catalysts and polymer membrane particles separated by known filtration means.

  11. Seismic mass Top electrode

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kraft, Michael

    assembly process. For the measurements of the physical dimensions of the seismic mass a micrometer was usedSeismic mass Top electrode Bottom electrode x C1 C2 Chapter 4: The Micromachined Sensing Element supplied by Druck, Ltd., Groby, Leics. The manufacturing process at Druck was still in its experimental

  12. Cold and dry processes in the Martian Arctic: Geomorphic observations at the Phoenix landing site and comparisons with

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marchant, David R.

    Cold and dry processes in the Martian Arctic: Geomorphic observations at the Phoenix landing site-related landforms in the vicinity of the Phoenix lander, comparing the imaged features to analogous examples at the Phoenix landing site of pitted rocks, ``puzzle rocks'' undergoing in-situ breakdown, perched clasts

  13. Initial evaluation of dry storage issues for spent nuclear fuels in wet storage at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guenther, R.J.; Johnson, A.B. Jr.; Lund, A.L.; Gilbert, E.R. [and others

    1996-07-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory has evaluated the basis for moving selected spent nuclear fuels in the CPP-603 and CPP-666 storage pools at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant from wet to dry interim storage. This work is being conducted for the Lockheed Idaho Technologies Company as part of the effort to determine appropriate conditioning and dry storage requirements for these fuels. These spent fuels are from 22 test reactors and include elements clad with aluminum or stainless steel and a wide variety of fuel materials: UAl{sub x}, UAl{sub x}-Al and U{sub 3}O{sub 8}-Al cermets, U-5% fissium, UMo, UZrH{sub x}, UErZrH, UO{sub 2}-stainless steel cermet, and U{sub 3}O{sub 8}-stainless steel cermet. The study also included declad uranium-zirconium hydride spent fuel stored in the CPP-603 storage pools. The current condition and potential failure mechanisms for these spent fuels were evaluated to determine the impact on conditioning and dry storage requirements. Initial recommendations for conditioning and dry storage requirements are made based on the potential degradation mechanisms and their impacts on moving the spent fuel from wet to dry storage. Areas needing further evaluation are identified.

  14. Evaluation of a dry process for conversion of U-AVLIS product to UF{sub 6}. Milestone U361

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1992-05-01

    A technical and engineering evaluation has been completed for a dry UF{sub 6} production system to convert the product of an initial two-line U-AVLIS plant. The objective of the study has been to develop a better understanding of process design requirements, capital and operating costs, and demonstration requirements for this alternate process. This report summarizes the results of the study and presents various comparisons between the baseline and alternate processes, building on the information contained in UF{sub 6} Product Alternatives Review Committee -- Final Report. It also provides additional information on flowsheet variations for the dry route which may warrant further consideration. The information developed by this study and conceptual design information for the baseline process will be combined with information to be developed by the U-AVLIS program and by industrial participants over the next twelve months to permit a further comparison of the baseline and alternate processes in terms of cost, risk, and compatibility with U-AVLIS deployment schedules and strategies. This comparative information will be used to make a final process flowsheet selection for the initial U-AVLIS plant by March 1993. The process studied is the alternate UF{sub 6} production flowsheet. Process steps are (1) electron-beam distillation to reduce enriched product iron content from about 10 wt % or less, (2) hydrofluorination of the metal to UF{sub 4}, (3) fluorination of UF{sub 4} to UF{sub 6}, (4) cold trap collection of the UF{sub 6} product, (5) UF{sub 6} purification by distillation, and (6) final blending and packaging of the purified UF{sub 6} in cylinders. A preliminary system design has been prepared for the dry UF{sub 6} production process based on currently available technical information. For some process steps, such information is quite limited. Comparisons have been made between this alternate process and the baseline plant process for UF{sub 6} production.

  15. Electrode compositions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Block, J.; Fan, X.

    1998-10-27

    An electrode composition is described for use as an electrode in a non-aqueous battery system. The electrode composition contains an electrically active powder in a solid polymer and, as a dispersant, a C{sub 8}-C{sub 15} alkyl capped oligomer of a hexanoic acid that is electrochemically inert at 2.5--4.5 volts.

  16. Electrode compositions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Block, Jacob (Rockville, MD); Fan, Xiyun (Orange, TX)

    1998-01-01

    An electrode composition for use as an electrode in a non-aqueous battery system. The electrode composition contains an electrically active powder in a solid polymer and, as a dispersant, a C.sub.8 -C.sub.15 alkyl capped oligomer of a hexanoic acid that is electrochemically inert at 2.5-4.5 volts.

  17. Methods for and products of processing nanostructure nitride, carbonitride and oxycarbonitride electrode power materials by utilizing sol gel technology for supercapacitor applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Huang, Yuhong (West Hills, CA); Wei, Oiang (West Hills, CA); Chu, Chung-tse (Chatsworth, CA); Zheng, Haixing (Oak Park, CA)

    2001-01-01

    Metal nitride, carbonitride, and oxycarbonitride powder with high surface area (up to 150 m.sup.2 /g) is prepared by using sol-gel process. The metal organic precursor, alkoxides or amides, is synthesized firstly. The metal organic precursor is modified by using unhydrolyzable organic ligands or templates. A wet gel is formed then by hydrolysis and condensation process. The solvent in the wet gel is then be removed supercritically to form porous amorphous hydroxide. This porous hydroxide materials is sintered to 725.degree. C. under the ammonia flow and porous nitride powder is formed. The other way to obtain high surface area nitride, carbonitride, and oxycarbonitride powder is to pyrolyze polymerized templated metal amides aerogel in an inert atmosphere. The electrochemical capacitors are prepared by using sol-gel prepared nitride, carbonitride, and oxycarbonitride powder. Two methods are used to assemble the capacitors. Electrode is formed either by pressing the mixture of nitride powder and binder to a foil, or by depositing electrode coating onto metal current collector. The binder or coating is converted into a continuous network of electrode material after thermal treatment to provide enhanced energy and power density. Liquid electrolyte is soaked into porous electrode. The electrochemical capacitor assembly further has a porous separator layer between two electrodes/electrolyte and forming a unit cell.

  18. New Electrode Manufacturing Process Equipment: Novel High Energy Density Lithium-Ion Cell Designs via Innovative Manufacturing Process Modules for Cathode and Integrated Separator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-07-01

    BEEST Project: Applied Materials is developing new tools for manufacturing Li-Ion batteries that could dramatically increase their performance. Traditionally, the positive and negative terminals of Li-Ion batteries are mixed with glue-like materials called binders, pressed onto electrodes, and then physically kept apart by winding a polymer mesh material between them called a separator. With the Applied Materials system, many of these manually intensive processes will be replaced by next generation coating technology to apply each component. This process will improve product reliability and performance of the cells at a fraction of the current cost. These novel manufacturing techniques will also increase the energy density of the battery and reduce the size of several of the battery’s components to free up more space within the cell for storage.

  19. A SUB-MICRON CAPACITIVE GAP PROCESS FOR MULTIPLE-METAL-ELECTRODE LATERAL MICROMECHANICAL RESONATORS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nguyen, Clark T.-C.

    , metal electroplating, and a side- wall sacrificial-spacer technique, to achieve high-aspect-ratio, sub fabrication process that combines poly- silicon surface-micromachining, metal electroplating, and a side- wall

  20. Liquid electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ekechukwu, Amy A. (Augusta, GA)

    1994-01-01

    A dropping electrolyte electrode for use in electrochemical analysis of non-polar sample solutions, such as benzene or cyclohexane. The liquid electrode, preferably an aqueous salt solution immiscible in the sample solution, is introduced into the solution in dropwise fashion from a capillary. The electrolyte is introduced at a known rate, thus, the droplets each have the same volume and surface area. The electrode is used in making standard electrochemical measurements in order to determine properties of non-polar sample solutions.

  1. Development of the Ultra-Clean Dry Cleanup Process for Coal-Based Syngases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Newby, R.A.; Slimane, R.B.; Lau, F.S.; Jain, S.C.

    2002-09-20

    The Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation (SWPC) has proposed a novel scheme for polishing sulfur species, halides, and particulate from syngas to meet stringent cleaning requirements, the ''Ultra-Clean syngas polishing process.'' The overall development objective for this syngas polishing process is to economically achieve the most stringent cleanup requirements for sulfur species, halide species and particulate expected for chemical and fuel synthesis applications (total sulfur species < 60 ppbv, halides < 10 ppbv, and particulate < 0.1 ppmw). A Base Program was conducted to produce ground-work, laboratory test data and process evaluations for a conceptual feasibility assessment of this novel syngas cleaning process. Laboratory testing focused on the identification of suitable sulfur and halide sorbents and operating temperatures for the process. This small-scale laboratory testing was also performed to provide evidence of the capability of the process to reach its stringent syngas cleaning goals. Process evaluations were performed in the Base Program to identify process alternatives, to devise process flow schemes, and to estimate process material & energy balances, process performance, and process costs. While the work has focused on sulfur, halide, and particulate control, considerations of ammonia, and mercury control have also been included.

  2. Dry sample storage system for an analytical laboratory supporting plutonium processing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Treibs, H.A.; Hartenstein, S.D.; Griebenow, B.L.; Wade, M.A.

    1990-07-25

    The Special Isotope Separation (SIS) plant is designed to provide removal of undesirable isotopes in fuel grade plutonium by the atomic vapor laser isotope separation (AVLIS) process. The AVLIS process involves evaporation of plutonium metal, and passage of an intense beam of light from a laser through the plutonium vapor. The laser beam consists of several discrete wavelengths, tuned to the precise wavelength required to ionize the undesired isotopes. These ions are attracted to charged plates, leaving the bulk of the plutonium vapor enriched in the desired isotopes to be collected on a cold plate. Major portions of the process consist of pyrochemical processes, including direct reduction of the plutonium oxide feed material with calcium metal, and aqueous processes for purification of plutonium in residues. The analytical laboratory for the plant is called the Material and Process Control Laboratory (MPCL), and provides for the analysis of solid and liquid process samples.

  3. Solution-Processable Transparent Conductive Hole Injection Electrode for OLED SSL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2012-07-15

    An interconnected network of silver nanowires has been used as transparent anode in OLED devices. This layer was deposited by spin-coating and slot-die coating from an aqueous nanowire suspension. The sheet resistance of the film was 10ohms/sq with a transmission (including the glass substrate) of higher than 85%. The first phase of the project focused on the implementation of this nanowire layer with a hole-injection-layer (HIL) which has been developed at Plextronics and has been shown to provide good stability and efficiency in conventional OLED devices. We modified the HIL solution such that it coated reasonably well with suitable surface morphology so that actual devices can be manufactured. During the second phase we investigated the hole-injection and stability of hole-onlydevices. We determined that the use of the nanowire network as anode does not introduce an additional degradation mechanism since the observed device characteristics did not differ from those made with ITO anode. We then proceeded to make actual OLED devices with this nanowire / HIL stack and achieved device characteristics similar state-of-the-art OLED devices with a single junction. In order to gain traction with potential OLED manufacturers, we decided to contract Novaled to prepare large-area demonstrators for us. For these devices, we used an allevaporated stack, i.e. we did use Novaledâ??s HIL material instead of Plextronicsâ??. We successfully fabricated demonstrators with an area of 25cm2 with a double or triple junction stack. Minor stack optimizations were necessary to achieve efficacies and lifetime equivalent with ITO devices made with the same devices stack. Due to the reduced microcavity effect, the color of the emitted light is significantly more stable with respect to the viewing angle compared to ITO devices. This fact in conjunction with the promise of lower production cost due to the elimination of the ITO sputtering process and the direct patterning of the anode layer are the obvious advantages of this technology. The project has shown that this nanowire technology is a viable option to achieve OLED devices with good lifetime and efficiency and we are currently working with manufacturers to utilize this technology in a production setting.

  4. May 31-June 1, 2001 A. R. Raffray, et al., Assessment of Dry Chamber Walls as Preliminary Step in Defining Key Processes for Chamber Clearing Code 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raffray, A. René

    in Defining Key Processes for Chamber Clearing Code 3 Outline of Presentation · Chamber Wall Options ­ Thermal in Defining Key Processes for Chamber Clearing Code 7 Temporal Distribution of Energy Depositions from Photons in Defining Key Processes for Chamber Clearing Code 1 Assessment of Dry Chamber Wall Configurations

  5. Liquid electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ekechukwu, A.A.

    1994-07-05

    A dropping electrolyte electrode is described for use in electrochemical analysis of non-polar sample solutions, such as benzene or cyclohexane. The liquid electrode, preferably an aqueous salt solution immiscible in the sample solution, is introduced into the solution in dropwise fashion from a capillary. The electrolyte is introduced at a known rate, thus, the droplets each have the same volume and surface area. The electrode is used in making standard electrochemical measurements in order to determine properties of non-polar sample solutions. 2 figures.

  6. Terminal electrode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zagrodnik, J.P.; Bowen, G.K.

    1990-08-14

    This paper discusses a bipolar flow battery. It comprises a series of half cells in electrical communication with one another, the cells being defined by partitions comprising alternating electrodes and separators, each partition being secured to each adjacent partition about a common perimeter therewith, the series of half cells having a terminal electrode at an end thereof; an endblock, disposed at an end of the series of half cells, the endblock being secured to the terminal electrode; an electrolyte manifold in hydraulic communication with the half cells; and an electrolyte pump for urging electrolyte through the manifold and into the half cells.

  7. Composite carbon foam electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mayer, Steven T. (San Leandro, CA); Pekala, Richard W. (Pleasant Hill, CA); Kaschmitter, James L. (Pleasanton, CA)

    1997-01-01

    Carbon aerogels used as a binder for granularized materials, including other forms of carbon and metal additives, are cast onto carbon or metal fiber substrates to form composite carbon thin film sheets. The thin film sheets are utilized in electrochemical energy storage applications, such as electrochemical double layer capacitors (aerocapacitors), lithium based battery insertion electrodes, fuel cell electrodes, and electrocapacitive deionization electrodes. The composite carbon foam may be formed by prior known processes, but with the solid particles being added during the liquid phase of the process, i.e. prior to gelation. The other forms of carbon may include carbon microspheres, carbon powder, carbon aerogel powder or particles, graphite carbons. Metal and/or carbon fibers may be added for increased conductivity. The choice of materials and fibers will depend on the electrolyte used and the relative trade off of system resistivty and power to system energy.

  8. Composite carbon foam electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mayer, S.T.; Pekala, R.W.; Kaschmitter, J.L.

    1997-05-06

    Carbon aerogels used as a binder for granulated materials, including other forms of carbon and metal additives, are cast onto carbon or metal fiber substrates to form composite carbon thin film sheets. The thin film sheets are utilized in electrochemical energy storage applications, such as electrochemical double layer capacitors (aerocapacitors), lithium based battery insertion electrodes, fuel cell electrodes, and electrocapacitive deionization electrodes. The composite carbon foam may be formed by prior known processes, but with the solid particles being added during the liquid phase of the process, i.e. prior to gelation. The other forms of carbon may include carbon microspheres, carbon powder, carbon aerogel powder or particles, graphite carbons. Metal and/or carbon fibers may be added for increased conductivity. The choice of materials and fibers will depend on the electrolyte used and the relative trade off of system resistivity and power to system energy. 1 fig.

  9. Improved photovoltaic cells and electrodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Skotheim, T.A.

    1983-06-29

    Improved photovoltaic cells and electrodes for use therein, particularly electrodes employing amorphous silicon or polyacetylene coating are produced by a process which includes filling pinholes or porous openings in the coatings by electrochemical oxidation of selected monomers to deposit insulating polymer in the openings.

  10. Electrochemical photovoltaic cells and electrodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Skotheim, Terje A. (East Patchogue, NY)

    1984-01-01

    Improved electrochemical photovoltaic cells and electrodes for use therein, particularly electrodes employing amorphous silicon or polyacetylene coating are produced by a process which includes filling pinholes or porous openings in the coatings by electrochemical oxidation of selected monomers to deposit insulating polymer in the openings.

  11. Magnetohydrodynamic electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Marchant, David D. (Richland, WA); Killpatrick, Don H. (Orland Park, IL)

    1978-01-01

    An electrode capable of withstanding high temperatures and suitable for use as a current collector in the channel of a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) generator consists of a sintered powdered metal base portion, the upper surface of the base being coated with a first layer of nickel aluminide, an intermediate layer of a mixture of nickel aluminide - refractory ceramic on the first layer and a third or outer layer of a refractory ceramic material on the intermediate layer. The sintered powdered metal base resists spalling by the ceramic coatings and permits greater electrode compliance to thermal shock. The density of the powdered metal base can be varied to allow optimization of the thermal conductivity of the electrode and prevent excess heat loss from the channel.

  12. Cermet electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maskalick, Nicholas J. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1988-08-30

    Disclosed is a cermet electrode consisting of metal particles of nickel, cobalt, iron, or alloys or mixtures thereof immobilized by zirconia stabilized in cubic form which contains discrete deposits of about 0.1 to about 5% by weight of praseodymium, dysprosium, terbium, or a mixture thereof. The solid oxide electrode can be made by covering a substrate with particles of nickel, cobalt, iron, or mixtures thereof, growing a stabilized zirconia solid oxide skeleton around the particles thereby immobilizing them, contacting the skeleton with a compound of praseodymium, dysprosium, terbium, or a mixture thereof, and heating the skeleton to a temperature of at least 500.degree. C. The electrode can also be made by preparing a slurry of nickel, cobalt, iron, or mixture and a compound of praseodymium, dysprosium, terbium, or a mixture thereof, depositing the slurry on a substrate, heating the slurry to dryness, and growing a stabilized zirconia skeleton around the metal particles.

  13. Electrode films of porous agarose: The effects of physical structure on electron transport processes. [Impregnated with Nafion; immobilized electroactive species

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moran, K.D.

    1988-02-01

    Potential use of chemically modified electrodes in electrocatalysis has stimulated interest in creation and characterization of electrode films for reagent immobilization. We have created two highly porous electrocatalyst support matrices, with high rates of electron transport. Both are based on immobilization of reagents in agarose gel. In one case, Nafion was impregnated into agarose gel films. Diffusion of methyl viologen in Nafionagarose matrices are higher than in Nafion. In Nafion, the diffusion coefficient decreases with increasing methyl viologen concentration, while in Nafionagarose, the opposite dependence is observed. The faster rate of electron transport in Nafionagarose films is related to the heterogeneous structure and the coupling of the diffusion pathways. In the second application of agarose gels as an electrode coating material, agarose hydroxyl groups were activated in 1,1'carbonyldiimidazole and subsequently reacted with amine derivatives of electroactive mediators. Electron transport between the electroactive sites in the gel is very rapid (on the order of 10/sup -7/ cm/sup 2/s. Interpreting the data in light of the Dahms-Ruff description of electron transport shows that the rate of electron transport through both ferrocene and viologen derivatized gels is limited by the rate of electron self-exchange of the species. 22 figs., 15 tabs

  14. Aluminum reference electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sadoway, Donald R. (Belmont, MA)

    1988-01-01

    A stable reference electrode for use in monitoring and controlling the process of electrolytic reduction of a metal. In the case of Hall cell reduction of aluminum, the reference electrode comprises a pool of molten aluminum and a solution of molten cryolite, Na.sub.3 AlF.sub.6, wherein the electrical connection to the molten aluminum does not contact the highly corrosive molten salt solution. This is accomplished by altering the density of either the aluminum (decreasing the density) or the electrolyte (increasing the density) so that the aluminum floats on top of the molten salt solution.

  15. Aluminum reference electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sadoway, D.R.

    1988-08-16

    A stable reference electrode is described for use in monitoring and controlling the process of electrolytic reduction of a metal. In the case of Hall cell reduction of aluminum, the reference electrode comprises a pool of molten aluminum and a solution of molten cryolite, Na[sub 3]AlF[sub 6], wherein the electrical connection to the molten aluminum does not contact the highly corrosive molten salt solution. This is accomplished by altering the density of either the aluminum (decreasing the density) or the electrolyte (increasing the density) so that the aluminum floats on top of the molten salt solution. 1 fig.

  16. Carbon cloth supported electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lu, Wen-Tong P. (Upper St. Clair, PA); Ammon, Robert L. (Baldwin both of, PA)

    1982-01-01

    A flow-by anode is disclosed made by preparing a liquid suspension of about to about 18% by weight solids, the solids comprising about 3.5 to about 8% of a powdered catalyst of platinum, palladium, palladium oxide, or mixtures thereof; about 60 to about 76% carbon powder (support) having a particle size less than about 20 m.mu.m and about 20 to about 33% of an inert binder having a particle size of less than about 500 m.mu.m. A sufficient amount of the suspension is poured over a carbon cloth to form a layer of solids about 0.01 to about 0.05 cm thick on the carbon cloth when the electrode is completed. A vacuum was applied to the opposite side of the carbon cloth to remove the liquid and the catalyst layer/cloth assembly is dried and compressed at about 10 to about 50 MPa's. The binder is then sintered in an inert atmosphere to complete the electrode. The electrode is used for the oxidation of sulfur dioxide in a sulfur based hybrid cycle for the decomposition of water.

  17. Fabrication methods for low impedance lithium polymer electrodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chern, T.S.; MacFadden, K.O.; Johnson, S.L.

    1997-12-16

    A process is described for fabricating an electrolyte-electrode composite suitable for high energy alkali metal battery that includes mixing composite electrode materials with excess liquid, such as ethylene carbonate or propylene carbonate, to produce an initial formulation, and forming a shaped electrode therefrom. The excess liquid is then removed from the electrode to compact the electrode composite which can be further compacted by compression. The resulting electrode exhibits at least a 75% lower resistance.

  18. Fabrication methods for low impedance lithium polymer electrodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chern, Terry Song-Hsing (Midlothian, VA); MacFadden, Kenneth Orville (Highland, MD); Johnson, Steven Lloyd (Arbutus, MD)

    1997-01-01

    A process for fabricating an electrolyte-electrode composite suitable for high energy alkali metal battery that includes mixing composite electrode materials with excess liquid, such as ethylene carbonate or propylene carbonate, to produce an initial formulation, and forming a shaped electrode therefrom. The excess liquid is then removed from the electrode to compact the electrode composite which can be further compacted by compression. The resulting electrode exhibits at least a 75% lower resistance.

  19. Lithium battery electrodes with ultra-thin alumina coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Se-Hee, Lee; George, Steven M.; Cavanagh, Andrew S.; Yoon Seok, Jung; Dillon, Anne C.

    2015-11-24

    Electrodes for lithium batteries are coated via an atomic layer deposition process. The coatings can be applied to the assembled electrodes, or in some cases to particles of electrode material prior to assembling the particles into an electrode. The coatings can be as thin as 2 .ANG.ngstroms thick. The coating provides for a stable electrode. Batteries containing the electrodes tend to exhibit high cycling capacities.

  20. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Roll-to-Roll Electrode...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Roll-to-Roll Electrode Processing NDE for Advanced Lithium Secondary Batteries Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Roll-to-Roll Electrode Processing NDE for Advanced...

  1. Method for fabrication of electrodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jankowski, Alan F.; Morse, Jeffrey D.; Barksdale, Randy

    2004-06-22

    Described herein is a method to fabricate porous thin-film electrodes for fuel cells and fuel cell stacks. Furthermore, the method can be used for all fuel cell electrolyte materials which utilize a continuous electrolyte layer. An electrode layer is deposited on a porous host structure by flowing gas (for example, Argon) from the bottomside of the host structure while simultaneously depositing a conductive material onto the topside of the host structure. By controlling the gas flow rate through the pores, along with the process conditions and deposition rate of the thin-film electrode material, a film of a pre-determined thickness can be formed. Once the porous electrode is formed, a continuous electrolyte thin-film is deposited, followed by a second porous electrode to complete the fuel cell structure.

  2. Ice electrode electrolytic cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Glenn, D.F.; Suciu, D.F.; Harris, T.L.; Ingram, J.C.

    1993-04-06

    This invention relates to a method and apparatus for removing heavy metals from waste water, soils, or process streams by electrolytic cell means. The method includes cooling a cell cathode to form an ice layer over the cathode and then applying an electric current to deposit a layer of the heavy metal over the ice. The metal is then easily removed after melting the ice. In a second embodiment, the same ice-covered electrode can be employed to form powdered metals.

  3. Ice electrode electrolytic cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Glenn, David F. (Idaho Falls, ID); Suciu, Dan F. (Idaho Falls, ID); Harris, Taryl L. (Idaho Falls, ID); Ingram, Jani C. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1993-01-01

    This invention relates to a method and apparatus for removing heavy metals from waste water, soils, or process streams by electrolytic cell means. The method includes cooling a cell cathode to form an ice layer over the cathode and then applying an electric current to deposit a layer of the heavy metal over the ice. The metal is then easily removed after melting the ice. In a second embodiment, the same ice-covered electrode can be employed to form powdered metals.

  4. Method of making biocompatible electrodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wollam, John S. (Acton, MA)

    1992-01-01

    A process of improving the sensing function of biocompatible electrodes and the product so made are disclosed. The process is designed to alter the surfaces of the electrodes at their tips to provide increased surface area and therefore decreased contact resistance at the electrode-tissue interface for increased sensitivity and essentially includes rendering the tips atomically clean by exposing them to bombardment by ions of an inert gas, depositing an adhesion layer on the cleaned tips, forming a hillocked layer on the adhesion layer by increasing the temperature of the tips, and applying a biocompatible coating on the hillocked layer. The resultant biocompatible electrode is characterized by improved sensitivity, minimum voltage requirement for organ stimulation and a longer battery life for the device in which it is employed.

  5. Composite substrate for bipolar electrodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tekkanat, B.; Bolstad, J.J.

    1992-12-22

    Substrates for electrode systems, particularly those to be used for bipolar electrodes in zinc-bromine batteries, are disclosed. The substrates preferably include carbon-black as a conductive filler in a polymeric matrix, with reinforcing materials such as glass fibers. Warpage of the zinc-bromine electrodes which was experienced in the prior art and which was believed to be caused by physical expansion of the electrodes due to bromine absorption by the carbon-black, is substantially eliminated when new substrate fabrication techniques are employed. In the present invention, substrates are prepared using a lamination process known as glass mat reinforced thermoplastics technology or, in an alternate embodiment, the substrate is made using a slurry process. 4 figs.

  6. Composite substrate for bipolar electrodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tekkanat, Bora (Milwaukee, WI); Bolstad, James J. (Shorewood, WI)

    1992-12-22

    Substrates for electrode systems, particularly those to be used for bipolar electrodes in zinc-bromine batteries, are disclosed. The substrates preferably include carbon-black as a conductive filler in a polymeric matrix, with reinforcing materials such as glass fibers. Warpage of the zinc-bromine electrodes which was experienced in the prior art and which was believed to be caused by physical expansion of the electrodes due to bromine absorption by the carbon-black, is substantially eliminated when new substrate fabrication techniques are employed. In the pesent invention, substrates are prepared using a lamination process known as glass mat reinforced thermoplastics technology or, in an alternate embodiment, the substrate is made using a slurry process.

  7. Development of an advanced process for drying fine coal in an inclined fluidized bed: Technical progress report for the third quarter, April 1, 1989-June 30, 1989

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boysen, J.E.; Barbour, F.A.; Turner, T.F.; Cha, C.Y.; Berggren, M.H.; Jha, M.C.

    1989-07-01

    This research project is for the development of a technical and economical feasible process for drying and stability fine particles of high-moisture subbituminous coal. Research conducted in this quarter focused upon thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) of both feed coals; continuation of the bench-scale IFB drying experiments; and initiation of the characterization of the products from the bench-scale drying experiments to determine their moisture reabsorption, dustiness, and spontaneous ignition properties. Thirty 4-hr and six 12-hr bench-scale IFB drying tests were conducted this quarter making a total of forty-one 4-hr (19 using Eagle Butte feed coal and 22 using Usibelli feed coal) and six 12-hr (3 using each feed coal) tests conducted thus far. IFB reactor slopes of 3, 6, 9, 12, and 15 degrees were investigated for each feed coal. During the tests using Eagle Butte coal, gas-to-solids ratios ranging from approximately 0.7 to 9.7 lb/lb (kg/kg) and average IFB reactor temperatures ranging from approximately 370 to 700/degree/F (188 to 371/degree/C) were tested. 5 refs., 41 figs., 7 tabs.

  8. Capacitance enhancement via electrode patterning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ho, Tuan A.; Striolo, Alberto, E-mail: a.striolo@ucl.ac.uk [School of Chemical, Biological and Materials Engineering, The University of Oklahoma, Norman, Oklahoma 73019 (United States) [School of Chemical, Biological and Materials Engineering, The University of Oklahoma, Norman, Oklahoma 73019 (United States); Department of Chemical Engineering, University College London, Torrington Place, London WC1E 7JE (United Kingdom)

    2013-11-28

    The necessity of increasing the energy density in electric double layer capacitors to meet current demand is fueling fundamental and applied research alike. We report here molecular dynamics simulation results for aqueous electrolytes near model electrodes. Particular focus is on the effect of electrode patterning on the structure of interfacial electrolytes, and on the potential drop between the solid electrodes and the bulk electrolytes. The latter is estimated by numerically integrating the Poisson equation using the charge densities due to water and ions accumulated near the interface as input. We considered uniform and patterned electrodes, both positively and negatively charged. The uniformly charged electrodes are modeled as graphite. The patterned ones are obtained by removing carbon atoms from the top-most graphene layer, yielding nanoscopic squares and stripes patterns. For simplicity, the patterned electrodes are effectively simulated as insulators (the charge remains localized on the top-most layer of carbon atoms). Our simulations show that the patterns alter the structure of water and the accumulation of ions at the liquid-solid interfaces. Using aqueous NaCl solutions, we found that while the capacitance calculated for three positively charged electrodes did not change much, that calculated for the negatively charged electrodes significantly increased upon patterning. We find that both water structure and orientation, as well as ion accumulation affect the capacitance. As electrode patterning affects differently water structure and ion accumulation, it might be possible to observe ion-specific effects. These results could be useful for advancing our understanding of electric double layer capacitors, capacitive desalination processes, as well as of fundamental interfacial electrolytes properties.

  9. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Electrode Coating Defect Analysis and Processing NDE for High-Energy Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Oak Ridge National Laboratory at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about electrode...

  10. Dry reforming of hydrocarbon feedstocks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shah, Yatish T.; Gardner, Todd H.

    2014-09-25

    Developments in catalyst technology for the dry reforming of hydrocarbon feedstocks are reviewed for methane, higher hydrocarbons and alcohols. Thermodynamics, mechanisms and the kinetics of dry reforming are also reviewed. The literature on Ni catalysts, bi-metallic Ni catalysts and the role of promoters on Ni catalysts is critically evaluated. The use of noble and transitional metal catalysts for dry reforming is discussed. The application of solid oxide and metal carbide catalysts to dry reforming is also evaluated. Finally, various mechanisms for catalyst deactivation are assessed. This review also examines the various process related issues associated with dry reforming such as its application and heat optimization. Novel approaches such as supercritical dry reforming and microwave assisted dry reforming are briefly expanded upon.

  11. High frequency reference electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1994-05-31

    A high frequency reference electrode for electrochemical experiments comprises a mercury-calomel or silver-silver chloride reference electrode with a layer of platinum around it and a layer of a chemically and electrically resistant material such as TEFLON around the platinum covering all but a small ring or halo' at the tip of the reference electrode, adjacent to the active portion of the reference electrode. The voltage output of the platinum layer, which serves as a redox electrode, and that of the reference electrode are coupled by a capacitor or a set of capacitors and the coupled output transmitted to a standard laboratory potentiostat. The platinum may be applied by thermal decomposition to the surface of the reference electrode. The electrode provides superior high-frequency response over conventional electrodes. 4 figs.

  12. High frequency reference electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kronberg, James W. (Aiken, SC)

    1994-01-01

    A high frequency reference electrode for electrochemical experiments comprises a mercury-calomel or silver-silver chloride reference electrode with a layer of platinum around it and a layer of a chemically and electrically resistant material such as TEFLON around the platinum covering all but a small ring or "halo" at the tip of the reference electrode, adjacent to the active portion of the reference electrode. The voltage output of the platinum layer, which serves as a redox electrode, and that of the reference electrode are coupled by a capacitor or a set of capacitors and the coupled output transmitted to a standard laboratory potentiostat. The platinum may be applied by thermal decomposition to the surface of the reference electrode. The electrode provides superior high-frequency response over conventional electrodes.

  13. High performance cermet electrodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Isenberg, Arnold O. (Forest Hills Boro, PA); Zymboly, Gregory E. (Penn Hills, PA)

    1986-01-01

    Disclosed is a method of increasing the operating cell voltage of a solid oxide electrochemical cell having metal electrode particles in contact with an oxygen-transporting ceramic electrolyte. The metal electrode is heated with the cell, and oxygen is passed through the oxygen-transporting ceramic electrolyte to the surface of the metal electrode particles so that the metal electrode particles are oxidized to form a metal oxide layer between the metal electrode particles and the electrolyte. The metal oxide layer is then reduced to form porous metal between the metal electrode particles and the ceramic electrolyte.

  14. Multiple input electrode gap controller

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hysinger, Christopher L. (Austin, TX); Beaman, Joseph J. (Austin, TX); Melgaard, David K. (Albuquerque, NE); Williamson, Rodney L. (Albuquerque, NE)

    1999-01-01

    A method and apparatus for controlling vacuum arc remelting (VAR) furnaces by estimation of electrode gap based on a plurality of secondary estimates derived from furnace outputs. The estimation is preferably performed by Kalman filter. Adaptive gain techniques may be employed, as well as detection of process anomalies such as glows.

  15. Multiple input electrode gap controller

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hysinger, C.L.; Beaman, J.J.; Melgaard, D.K.; Williamson, R.L.

    1999-07-27

    A method and apparatus for controlling vacuum arc remelting (VAR) furnaces by estimation of electrode gap based on a plurality of secondary estimates derived from furnace outputs. The estimation is preferably performed by Kalman filter. Adaptive gain techniques may be employed, as well as detection of process anomalies such as glows. 17 figs.

  16. Nanoengineered membrane electrode assembly interface

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Song, Yujiang; Shelnutt, John A

    2013-08-06

    A membrane electrode structure suitable for use in a membrane electrode assembly (MEA) that comprises membrane-affixed metal nanoparticles whose formation is controlled by a photochemical process that controls deposition of the metal nanoparticles using a photocatalyst integrated with a polymer electrolyte membrane, such as an ionomer membrane. Impregnation of the polymer membrane with the photocatalyst prior to metal deposition greatly reduces the required amount of metal precursor in the deposition reaction solution by restricting metal reduction substantially to the formation of metal nanoparticles affixed on or near the surface of the polymer membrane with minimal formation of metallic particles not directly associated with the membrane.

  17. Dry effluent

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brady, J.D. (Anderson, 2000 Inc., Peachtree City, GA (US))

    1988-01-01

    The available choices of pollution control systems depend on what is being burned and how stringent the regulations are. The common systems are gas cooling by a waste heat boiler or an air-air heat exchanger followed by fabric filtration or electrostatic precipitation for particulate removal; alkaline spray absorbers followed by fabric filters (dry scrubbers) for particulate and acid gas removal; wet scrubbers for simultaneous particulate and acid gas removal, and; the newest - spray evaporation, followed by wet scrubbing for particulate and acid gas removal. Each has advantages and each has disadvantages. This paper discusses the advantages and disadvantages of the spray evaporator and wet scrubber combination.

  18. Near-electrode imager

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rathke, Jerome W. (Lockport, IL); Klingler, Robert J. (Westmont, IL); Woelk, Klaus (Wachtberg, DE); Gerald, II, Rex E. (Brookfield, IL)

    2000-01-01

    An apparatus, near-electrode imager, for employing nuclear magnetic resonance imaging to provide in situ measurements of electrochemical properties of a sample as a function of distance from a working electrode. The near-electrode imager uses the radio frequency field gradient within a cylindrical toroid cavity resonator to provide high-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance spectral information on electrolyte materials.

  19. Process for electrically interconnecting electrodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carey, Paul G. (Mountain View, CA); Thompson, Jesse B. (Brentwood, CA); Colella, Nicolas J. (Livermore, CA); Williams, Kenneth A. (Livermore, CA)

    2002-01-01

    Electrical interconnects for solar cells or other electronic components using a silver-silicone paste or a lead-tin (Pb--Sn) no-clean fluxless solder cream, whereby the high breakage of thin (<6 mil thick) solar cells using conventional solder interconnect is eliminated. The interconnects of this invention employs copper strips which are secured to the solar cells by a silver-silicone conductive paste which can be used at room temperature, or by a Pb--Sn solder cream which eliminates undesired residue on the active surfaces of the solar cells. Electrical testing using the interconnects of this invention has shown that no degradation of the interconnects developed under high current testing, while providing a very low contact resistance value.

  20. Development of an advanced process for drying fine coal in an inclined fluidized bed: Technical progress report for the second quarter, January 19--March 31, 1989

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boysen, J.E.; Cha, C.Y.; Berggren, M.H.; Jha, M.C.

    1989-05-01

    This research project is for the development of a technically and economically feasible process for drying and stabilizing of fine particles of high-moisture subbituminous coal. Research activities were initiated with efforts concentrating on characterization of the two feed coals: Eagle Butte coal from AMAX Coal Company's mine located in the Powder River Basin of Wyoming; and coal from Usibelli Coal Mine, Inc.'s mine located in central Alaska. Both of the feed coals are high-moisture subbituminous coals with ''as received'' moisture contents of 29% and 22% for the Eagle Butte and Usibelli coals, respectively. However, physical analyses of the crushed coal samples (--28-mesh particle size range) indicate many differences. The minimum fluidization velocity (MFV) of the feed coals were experimentally determined. The MFV for --28-mesh Eagle Butte coal is approximately 1 ft/min, and the MFV for --28-mesh Usibelli coal is approximately 3 ft/min. 2 refs., 16 figs., 3 tabs.

  1. Microwave drying of ferric oxide pellets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pickles, C.A.; Xia, D.K. [Queens` Univ., Kingston, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Materials and Metallurgical Engineering

    1997-12-31

    The application of microwave energy for the drying of ferric oxide pellets has been investigated and evaluated. It is shown that the microwave drying rates are much higher than those observed in the conventional process. Also there is some potential for improved quality of the product. As a stand-alone technology it is unlikely that microwave drying would be economical for pellets due to the low cost of conventional fuels. However, based on an understanding of the drying mechanisms in the conventional process and in the microwave process, it is shown that microwave-assisted drying offers considerable potential. In this hybrid process, the advantages of the two drying techniques are combined to provide an improved drying process.

  2. Chemical Engineering Division fuel cycle programs. Quarterly progress report, April-June 1979. [Pyrochemical/dry processing; waste encapsulation in metal; transport in geologic media

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steindler, M.J.; Ader, M.; Barletta, R.E.

    1980-09-01

    For pyrochemical and dry processing materials development included exposure to molten metal and salt of Mo-0.5% Ti-0.07% Ti-0.01% C, Mo-30% W, SiC, Si/sub 2/ON/sub 2/, ZrB/sub 2/-SiC, MgAl/sub 2/O/sub 4/, Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/, AlN, HfB/sub 2/, Y/sub 2/O/sub 3/, BeO, Si/sub 3/N/sub 4/, nickel nitrate-infiltrated W, W-coated Mo, and W-metallized alumina-yttria. Work on Th-U salt transport processing included solubility of Th in liquid Cd, defining the Cd-Th and Cd-Mg-Th phase diagrams, ThO/sub 2/ reduction experiments, and electrolysis of CaO in molten salt. Work on pyrochemical processes and associated hardware for coprocessing U and Pu in spent FBR fuels included a second-generation computer model of the transport process, turntable transport process design, work on the U-Cu-Mg system, and U and Pu distribution coefficients between molten salt and metal. Refractory metal vessels are being service-life tested. The chloride volatility processing of Th-based fuel was evaluated for its proliferation resistance, and a preliminary ternary phase diagram for the Zn-U-Pu system was computed. Material characterization and process analysis were conducted on the Exportable Pyrochemical process (Pyro-Civex process). Literature data on oxidation of fissile metals to oxides were reviewed. Work was done on chemical bases for the reprocessing of actinide oxides in molten salts. Flowsheets are being developed for the processing of fuel in molten tin. Work on encapsulation of solidified radioactive waste in metal matrix included studies of leach rate of crystalline waste materials and of the impact resistance of metal-matrix waste forms. In work on the transport properties of nuclear waste in geologic media, adsorption of Sr on oolitic limestone was studied, as well as the migration of Cs in basalt. Fitting of data on the adsorption of iodate by hematite to a mathematical model was attempted.

  3. The atomic-scale lithiation process in a crystalline Ge nanowire electrode is revealed by using an in situ transmission electron microscopy electrochemistry technique. Criti-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhu, Ting

    . Zhu. #12;DOI: 10.1002/celc.201300195 Germanium-Based Electrode Materials for Lithium-Ion Batteries sources, such as wind or solar energy. Lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) have received worldwide attention as a top per- forming energy-storage system. Currently, graphite is being used as the commercial anode

  4. Lithium Ion Electrode Production NDE and QC Considerations |...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Lithium Secondary Batteries Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Electrode Coating Defect Analysis and Processing NDE for High-Energy Lithium-Ion Batteries Roll-to-Roll...

  5. Nanoscopic electrode molecular probes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Krstic, Predrag S. (Knoxville, TN); Meunier, Vincent (Knoxville, TN)

    2012-05-22

    The present invention relates to a method and apparatus for enhancing the electron transport property measurements of a molecule when the molecule is placed between chemically functionalized carbon-based nanoscopic electrodes to which a suitable voltage bias is applied. The invention includes selecting a dopant atom for the nanoscopic electrodes, the dopant atoms being chemically similar to atoms present in the molecule, and functionalizing the outer surface and terminations of the electrodes with the dopant atoms.

  6. Cold vacuum drying facility design requirements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    IRWIN, J.J.

    1999-07-01

    This document provides the detailed design requirements for the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project Cold Vacuum Drying Facility. Process, safety, and quality assurance requirements and interfaces are specified.

  7. Drying of fiber webs

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Warren, D.W.

    1997-04-15

    A process and an apparatus are disclosed for high-intensity drying of fiber webs or sheets, such as newsprint, printing and writing papers, packaging paper, and paperboard or linerboard, as they are formed on a paper machine. The invention uses direct contact between the wet fiber web or sheet and various molten heat transfer fluids, such as liquefied eutectic metal alloys, to impart heat at high rates over prolonged durations, in order to achieve ambient boiling of moisture contained within the web. The molten fluid contact process causes steam vapor to emanate from the web surface, without dilution by ambient air; and it is differentiated from the evaporative drying techniques of the prior industrial art, which depend on the uses of steam-heated cylinders to supply heat to the paper web surface, and ambient air to carry away moisture, which is evaporated from the web surface. Contact between the wet fiber web and the molten fluid can be accomplished either by submersing the web within a molten bath or by coating the surface of the web with the molten media. Because of the high interfacial surface tension between the molten media and the cellulose fiber comprising the paper web, the molten media does not appreciatively stick to the paper after it is dried. Steam generated from the paper web is collected and condensed without dilution by ambient air to allow heat recovery at significantly higher temperature levels than attainable in evaporative dryers. 6 figs.

  8. Drying of fiber webs

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Warren, David W. (9253 Glenoaks Blvd., Sun Valley, CA 91352)

    1997-01-01

    A process and an apparatus for high-intensity drying of fiber webs or sheets, such as newsprint, printing and writing papers, packaging paper, and paperboard or linerboard, as they are formed on a paper machine. The invention uses direct contact between the wet fiber web or sheet and various molten heat transfer fluids, such as liquified eutectic metal alloys, to impart heat at high rates over prolonged durations, in order to achieve ambient boiling of moisture contained within the web. The molten fluid contact process causes steam vapor to emanate from the web surface, without dilution by ambient air; and it is differentiated from the evaporative drying techniques of the prior industrial art, which depend on the uses of steam-heated cylinders to supply heat to the paper web surface, and ambient air to carry away moisture, which is evaporated from the web surface. Contact between the wet fiber web and the molten fluid can be accomplished either by submersing the web within a molten bath or by coating the surface of the web with the molten media. Because of the high interfacial surface tension between the molten media and the cellulose fiber comprising the paper web, the molten media does not appreciately stick to the paper after it is dried. Steam generated from the paper web is collected and condensed without dilution by ambient air to allow heat recovery at significantly higher temperature levels than attainable in evaporative dryers.

  9. Plasma torch with liquid metal electrodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Predtechenskii, M.R.; Tukhto, O.M.

    2006-03-15

    In order to eliminate the negative effect of erosion processes on electrodes in arc plasma generators, a new scheme of arc discharge was proposed in which the surface of a molten metal acts as electrodes. A plasma reactor was designed on the basis of this concept. The electrophysical characteristics of such a discharge in steam and air as plasma gases were studied. Experiments on destruction of toxic polychlorinated biphenyls and steam coal gasification were performed.

  10. Report on Biomass Drying Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Amos, W. A.

    1999-01-12

    Using dry fuel provides significant benefits to combustion boilers, mainly increased boiler efficiency, lower air emissions, and improved boiler operation. The three main choices for drying biomass are rotary dryers, flash dryers, and superheated steam dryers. Which dryer is chosen for a particular application depends very much on the material characteristics of the biomass, the opportunities for integrating the process and dryer, and the environmental controls needed or already available.

  11. Improving nickel metal hydride batteries through research in negative electrode corrosion control and novel electrode materials 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alexander, Michael Scott

    1997-01-01

    electrode materials. In order to fully understand the processes involved in the corrosion study, tests were carried at Brookhaven National Laboratory using X-ray Absorption Near Edge Spectroscopy. These tests showed that Zn prevented the corrosion of Ni...

  12. Nanostructured Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Electrodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sholklapper, Tal Zvi

    2007-12-15

    The ability of Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC) to directly and efficiently convert the chemical energy in hydrocarbon fuels to electricity places the technology in a unique and exciting position to play a significant role in the clean energy revolution. In order to make SOFC technology cost competitive with existing technologies, the operating temperatures have been decreased to the range where costly ceramic components may be substituted with inexpensive metal components within the cell and stack design. However, a number of issues have arisen due to this decrease in temperature: decreased electrolyte ionic conductivity, cathode reaction rate limitations, and a decrease in anode contaminant tolerance. While the decrease in electrolyte ionic conductivities has been countered by decreasing the electrolyte thickness, the electrode limitations have remained a more difficult problem. Nanostructuring SOFC electrodes addresses the major electrode issues. The infiltration method used in this dissertation to produce nanostructure SOFC electrodes creates a connected network of nanoparticles; since the method allows for the incorporation of the nanoparticles after electrode backbone formation, previously incompatible advanced electrocatalysts can be infiltrated providing electronic conductivity and electrocatalysis within well-formed electrolyte backbones. Furthermore, the method is used to significantly enhance the conventional electrode design by adding secondary electrocatalysts. Performance enhancement and improved anode contamination tolerance are demonstrated in each of the electrodes. Additionally, cell processing and the infiltration method developed in conjunction with this dissertation are reviewed.

  13. Electrodes for microfluidic applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Crocker, Robert W. (Fremont, CA); Harnett, Cindy K. (Livermore, CA); Rognlien, Judith L. (Livermore, CA)

    2006-08-22

    An electrode device for high pressure applications. These electrodes, designed to withstand pressure of greater than 10,000 psi, are adapted for use in microfluidic devices that employ electrokinetic or electrophoretic flow. The electrode is composed, generally, of an outer electrically insulating tubular body having a porous ceramic frit material disposed in one end of the outer body. The pores of the porous ceramic material are filled with an ion conductive polymer resin. A conductive material situated on the upper surface of the porous ceramic frit material and, thus isolated from direct contact with the electrolyte, forms a gas diffusion electrode. A metal current collector, in contact with the gas diffusion electrode, provides connection to a voltage source.

  14. Layered electrode for electrochemical cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Swathirajan, Swathy (West Bloomfield, MI); Mikhail, Youssef M. (Sterling Heights, MI)

    2001-01-01

    There is provided an electrode structure comprising a current collector sheet and first and second layers of electrode material. Together, the layers improve catalyst utilization and water management.

  15. Black Conductive Titanium Oxide High-Capacity Materials for Battery Electrodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Han, W.

    2011-05-18

    Stoichiometric titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) is one of the most widely studied transitionmetal oxides because of its many potential applications in photoelectrochemical systems, such as dye-sensitized TiO{sub 2} electrodes for photovoltaic solar cells, and water-splitting catalysts for hydrogen generation, and in environmental purification for creating or degrading specific compounds. However, TiO{sub 2} has a wide bandgap and high electrical resistivity, which limits its use as an electrode. A set of non-stoichiometric titanium oxides called the Magneli phases, having a general formula of Ti{sub n}O{sub 2n-1} with n between 4 and 10, exhibits lower bandgaps and resistivities, with the highest electrical conductivities reported for Ti{sub 4}O{sub 7}. These phases have been formulated under different conditions, but in all reported cases the resulting oxides have minimum grain sizes on the order of micrometers, regardless of the size of the starting titanium compounds. In this method, nanoparticles of TiO{sub 2} or hydrogen titanates are first coated with carbon using either wet or dry chemistry methods. During this process the size and shape of the nanoparticles are 'locked in.' Subsequently the carbon-coated nanoparticles are heated. This results in the transformation of the original TiO{sub 2} or hydrogen titanates to Magneli phases without coarsening, so that the original size and shape of the nanoparticles are maintained to a precise degree. People who work on batteries, fuel cells, ultracapacitors, electrosynthesis cells, electro-chemical devices, and soil remediation have applications that could benefit from using nanoscale Magneli phases of titanium oxide. Application of these electrode materials may not be limited to substitution for TiO{sub 2} electrodes. Combining the robustness and photosensitivity of TiO{sub 2} with higher electrical conductivity may result in a general electrode material.

  16. Multifunctional reference electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Redey, L.; Vissers, D.R.

    1981-12-30

    A multifunctional, low mass reference electrode of a nickel tube, thermocouple means inside the nickel tube electrically insulated therefrom for measuring the temperature thereof, a housing surrounding the nickel tube, an electrolyte having a fixed sulfide ion activity between the housing and the outer surface of the nickel tube forming the nickel/nickel sulfide/sulfide half-cell are described. An ion diffusion barrier is associated with the housing in contact with the electrolyte. Also disclosed is a cell using the reference electrode to measure characteristics of a working electrode.

  17. Methods and systems for in-situ electroplating of electrodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zappi, Guillermo Daniel; Zarnoch, Kenneth Paul; Huntley, Christian Andrew; Swalla, Dana Ray

    2015-06-02

    The present techniques provide electrochemical devices having enhanced electrodes with surfaces that facilitate operation, such as by formation of a porous nickel layer on an operative surface, particularly of the cathode. The porous metal layer increases the surface area of the electrode, which may result in increasing the efficiency of the electrochemical devices. The formation of the porous metal layer is performed in situ, that is, after the assembly of the electrodes into an electrochemical device. The in situ process offers a number of advantages, including the ability to protect the porous metal layer on the electrode surface from damage during assembly of the electrochemical device. The enhanced electrode and the method for its processing may be used in any number of electrochemical devices, and is particularly well suited for electrodes in an electrolyzer useful for splitting water into hydrogen and oxygen.

  18. Zinc electrode with cement additive

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Charkey, Allen (Brookfield, CT)

    1982-06-01

    A zinc electrode having a cement additive, preferably, Portland Cement, distributed in the zinc active material.

  19. Method for making thin carbon foam electrodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pekala, R.W.; Mayer, S.T.; Kaschmitter, J.L.; Morrison, R.L.

    1999-08-03

    A method for fabricating thin, flat carbon electrodes by infiltrating highly porous carbon papers, membranes, felts, metal fibers/powders, or fabrics with an appropriate carbon foam precursor material is disclosed. The infiltrated carbon paper, for example, is then cured to form a gel-saturated carbon paper, which is subsequently dried and pyrolyzed to form a thin sheet of porous carbon. The material readily stays flat and flexible during curing and pyrolyzing to form thin sheets. Precursor materials include polyacrylonitrile (PAN), polymethylacrylonitrile (PMAN), resorcinol/formaldehyde, catechol/formaldehyde, phenol/formaldehyde, etc., or mixtures thereof. These thin films are ideal for use as high power and energy electrodes in batteries, capacitors, and fuel cells, and are potentially useful for capacitive deionization, filtration and catalysis.

  20. Method for making thin carbon foam electrodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pekala, Richard W. (Pleasant Hill, CA); Mayer, Steven T. (San Leandro, CA); Kaschmitter, James L. (Pleasanton, CA); Morrison, Robert L. (Modesto, CA)

    1999-01-01

    A method for fabricating thin, flat carbon electrodes by infiltrating highly porous carbon papers, membranes, felts, metal fibers/powders, or fabrics with an appropriate carbon foam precursor material. The infiltrated carbon paper, for example, is then cured to form a gel-saturated carbon paper, which is subsequently dried and pyrolyzed to form a thin sheet of porous carbon. The material readily stays flat and flexible during curing and pyrolyzing to form thin sheets. Precursor materials include polyacrylonitrile (PAN), polymethylacrylonitrile (PMAN), resorcinol/formaldehyde, catechol/formaldehyde, phenol/formaldehyde, etc., or mixtures thereof. These thin films are ideal for use as high power and energy electrodes in batteries, capacitors, and fuel cells, and are potentially useful for capacitive deionization, filtration and catalysis.

  1. 3-D Characterization of the Structure of Paper and Paperboard and Their Application to Optimize Drying and Water Removal Processes and End-Use Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shri Ramaswamy, University of Minnesota; B.V. Ramarao, State University of New York

    2004-08-29

    The three dimensional structure of paper materials plays a critical role in the paper manufacturing process especially via its impact on the transport properties for fluids. Dewatering of the wet web, pressing and drying will benefit from knowledge of the relationships between the web structure and its transport coefficients. The structure of the pore space within a paper sheet is imaged in serial sections using x-ray micro computed tomography. The three dimensional structure is reconstructed from these sections using digital image processing techniques. The structure is then analyzed by measuring traditional descriptors for the pore space such as specific surface area and porosity. A sequence of microtomographs was imaged at approximately 2 ?m intervals and the three-dimensional pore-fiber structure was reconstructed. The pore size distributions for both in-plane as well as transverse pores were measured. Significant differences in the in-plane (XY) and the transverse directions in pore characteristics are found and may help partly explain the different liquid and vapor transport properties in the in-plane and transverse directions. Results with varying sheet structures compare favorably with conventional mercury intrusion porosimetry data. Interestingly, the transverse pore structure appears to be more open with larger pore size distribution compared to the in plane pore structure. This may help explain the differences in liquid and vapor transport through the in plane and transverse structures during the paper manufacturing process and during end-use application. Comparison of Z-directional structural details of hand sheet and commercially made fine paper samples show a distinct difference in pore size distribution both in the in-plane and transverse direction. Method presented here may provide a useful tool to the papermaker to truly engineer the structure of paper and board tailored to specific end-use applications. The difference in surface structure between the top and bottom sides of the porous material, i.e. "two-sidedness" due to processing and raw material characteristics may lead to differences in end-use performance. The measurements of surface structure characteristics include thickness distribution, surface volume distribution, contact fraction distribution and surface pit distribution. This complements our earlier method to analyze the bulk structure and Z-D structure of porous materials. As one would expect, the surface structure characteristics will be critically dependent on the quality and resolution of the images. This presents a useful tool to characterize and engineer the surface structure of porous materials such as paper and board tailored to specific end-use applications. This will also help troubleshoot problems related to manufacturing and end-use applications. This study attempted to identify the optimal resolution through a comparison between 3D images obtained by monochromatic synchrotron radiation X-?CT in phase contrast mode (resolution ? 1 ?m) and polychromatic radiation X-?CT in absorption mode (res. ? 5 ?m). It was found that both resolutions have the ability to show the expected trends when comparing different paper samples. The low resolution technique shows fewer details resulting in lower specific surface area, larger pore channels, characterized as hydraulic radii, and lower tortuosities, where differences between samples and principal directions are more difficult to detect. The disadvantages of the high resolution images are high cost and limited availability of hard x-ray beam time as well as the small size of the sample volumes imaged. The results show that the low resolution images can be used for comparative studies, whereas the high resolution images may be better suited for fundamental research on the paper structure and its influence on paper properties, as one gets more accurate physical measurements. In addition, pore space diffusion model has been developed to simulate simultaneous diffusion in heterogeneous porous materials such as paper containing cellu

  2. Capacitor with a composite carbon foam electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mayer, Steven T. (San Leandro, CA); Pekala, Richard W. (Pleasant Hill, CA); Kaschmitter, James L. (Pleasanton, CA)

    1999-01-01

    Carbon aerogels used as a binder for granularized materials, including other forms of carbon and metal additives, are cast onto carbon or metal fiber substrates to form composite carbon thin film sheets. The thin film sheets are utilized in electrochemical energy storage applications, such as electrochemical double layer capacitors (aerocapacitors), lithium based battery insertion electrodes, fuel cell electrodes, and electrocapacitive deionization electrodes. The composite carbon foam may be formed by prior known processes, but with the solid partides being added during the liquid phase of the process, i.e. prior to gelation. The other forms of carbon may include carbon microspheres, carbon powder, carbon aerogel powder or particles, graphite carbons. Metal and/or carbon fibers may be added for increased conductivity. The choice of materials and fibers will depend on the electrolyte used and the relative trade off of system resistivity and power to system energy.

  3. Capacitor with a composite carbon foam electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mayer, S.T.; Pekala, R.W.; Kaschmitter, J.L.

    1999-04-27

    Carbon aerogels used as a binder for granularized materials, including other forms of carbon and metal additives, are cast onto carbon or metal fiber substrates to form composite carbon thin film sheets. The thin film sheets are utilized in electrochemical energy storage applications, such as electrochemical double layer capacitors (aerocapacitors), lithium based battery insertion electrodes, fuel cell electrodes, and electrocapacitive deionization electrodes. The composite carbon foam may be formed by prior known processes, but with the solid particles being added during the liquid phase of the process, i.e. prior to gelation. The other forms of carbon may include carbon microspheres, carbon powder, carbon aerogel powder or particles, graphite carbons. Metal and/or carbon fibers may be added for increased conductivity. The choice of materials and fibers will depend on the electrolyte used and the relative trade off of system resistivity and power to system energy. 1 fig.

  4. Dynamic control of remelting processes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bertram, Lee A. (Dublin, CA); Williamson, Rodney L. (Albuquerque, NM); Melgaard, David K. (Albuquerque, NM); Beaman, Joseph J. (Austin, TX); Evans, David G. (Clinton, NY)

    2000-01-01

    An apparatus and method of controlling a remelting process by providing measured process variable values to a process controller; estimating process variable values using a process model of a remelting process; and outputting estimated process variable values from the process controller. Feedback and feedforward control devices receive the estimated process variable values and adjust inputs to the remelting process. Electrode weight, electrode mass, electrode gap, process current, process voltage, electrode position, electrode temperature, electrode thermal boundary layer thickness, electrode velocity, electrode acceleration, slag temperature, melting efficiency, cooling water temperature, cooling water flow rate, crucible temperature profile, slag skin temperature, and/or drip short events are employed, as are parameters representing physical constraints of electroslag remelting or vacuum arc remelting, as applicable.

  5. Overcoming Processing Cost Barriers of High-Performance Lithium...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Processing Cost Barriers of High-Performance Lithium-Ion Battery Electrodes Overcoming Processing Cost Barriers of High-Performance Lithium-Ion Battery Electrodes 2012 DOE Hydrogen...

  6. Layered method of electrode for solid oxide electrochemical cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jensen, Russell R. (Murrysville, PA)

    1991-07-30

    A process for fabricating a fuel electrode comprising: slurry dipping to form layers which are structurally graded from all or mostly all stabilized zirconia at a first layer, to an outer most layer of substantially all metal powder, such an nickel. Higher performaance fuel electrodes may be achieved if sinter active stabilized zirconia doped for electronic conductivity is used.

  7. Porous electrode preparation method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Arons, R.M.; Dusek, J.T.

    1983-10-18

    A porous sintered plaque is provided with a bimodal porosity that is especially well suited for use as an electrode within a molten carbonate fuel cell. The coarse porosity is sufficient for admitting gases into contact with the reaction surfaces while the fine porosity is wetted with and retains molten electrolyte on the reaction sites. The electrode structure is prepared by providing a very fine powder of such as nickel oxide and blending the powder with a suitable decomposable binder to form a solid mass. The mass is comminuted into agglomerate size particles substantially larger than the fine oxide particles and formed into a cohesive compact for subsequent sintering. Sintering is carried out at sufficient conditions to bind the agglomerates together into a porous structure having both coarse and fine porosity. Where lithiated nickel oxide cathodes are prepared, the sintering conditions can be moderate enough to retain substantial quantities of lithium within the electrode for adequate conductivity. 2 figs.

  8. Porous electrode preparation method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Arons, Richard M. (Wheaton, IL); Dusek, Joseph T. (Downers Grove, IL)

    1983-01-01

    A porous sintered plaque is provided with a bimodal porosity that is especially well suited for use as an electrode within a molten carbonate fuel cell. The coarse porosity is sufficient for admitting gases into contact with the reaction surfaces while the fine porosity is wetted with and retains molten electrolyte on the reaction sites. The electrode structure is prepared by providing a very fine powder of such as nickel oxide and blending the powder with a suitable decomposable binder to form a solid mass. The mass is comminuted into agglomerate size particles substantially larger than the fine oxide particles and formed into a cohesive compact for subsequent sintering. Sintering is carried out at sufficient conditions to bind the agglomerates together into a porous structure having both coarse and fine porosity. Where lithiated nickel oxide cathodes are prepared, the sintering conditions can be moderate enough to retain substantial quantities of lithium within the electrode for adequate conductivity.

  9. Durable Fuel Cell Membrane Electrode Assembly (MEA)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Durable Fuel Cell Membrane Electrode Assembly (MEA) Durable Fuel Cell Membrane Electrode Assembly (MEA) A revolutionary method of building a membrane electrode assembly (MEA) for...

  10. Screen Electrode Materials & Cell Chemistries and Streamlining...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    & Cell Chemistries and Streamlining Optimization of Electrode Screen Electrode Materials & Cell Chemistries and Streamlining Optimization of Electrode 2010 DOE Vehicle Technologies...

  11. Dual porosity gas evolving electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Townsend, C.W.

    1994-11-15

    A dual porosity electrode is described for use in thermoelectrochemical systems where simultaneous transport of gas and liquid into and/or out of the electrode is required. The electrode includes catalytic electrode particles having diameters ranging from about 25 to 100 angstroms. The catalytic electrode particles are anchored to a support network in clusters which have internal pores ranging in size from 25 to 100 angstroms. The pores between the clusters range in size from between about 1 to 20 microns. A method for making the dual porosity electrodes is also disclosed.

  12. Virtual electrodes for high-density electrode arrays

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cela, Carlos J.; Lazzi, Gianluca

    2015-10-13

    The present embodiments are directed to implantable electrode arrays having virtual electrodes. The virtual electrodes may improve the resolution of the implantable electrode array without the burden of corresponding complexity of electronic circuitry and wiring. In a particular embodiment, a virtual electrode may include one or more passive elements to help steer current to a specific location between the active electrodes. For example, a passive element may be a metalized layer on a substrate that is adjacent to, but not directly connected to an active electrode. In certain embodiments, an active electrode may be directly coupled to a power source via a conductive connection. Beneficially, the passive elements may help to increase the overall resolution of the implantable array by providing additional stimulation points without requiring additional wiring or driver circuitry for the passive elements.

  13. Desalination with carbon aerogel electrodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farmer, J.C.; Richardson, J.H.; Fix, D.V.

    1996-10-21

    An electrically regenerated electrosorption process known as carbon aerogel CDI was developed for continuously removing ionic impurities from aqueous streams. A salt solution flows in a channel formed by pairs of parallel carbon aerogel electrodes. Each electrode has a very high BET surface area and very low resistivity. After polarization, anions and cations are removed from electrolyte by the electric field and electrosorbed onto the carbon aerogel. The solution is thus separated into two streams, brine and water. Based on this, carbon aerogel CDI appears to be an energy-efficient alternative to evaporation, electrodialysis, and reverse osmosis. The energy required by this process is about QV/2, plus losses. Estimated energy requirement for sea water desalination is 18-27 Wh gal{sup -1}, depending on cell voltage and flow rate. The requirement for brackish water desalination is less, 1.2-2.5 Wh gal{sup -1} at 1600 ppM. This is assuming that stored electrical energy is reclaimed during regeneration.

  14. Method of electrode fabrication for solid oxide electrochemical cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jensen, Russell R. (Murrysville, PA)

    1990-01-01

    A process for fabricating cermet electrodes for solid oxide electrochemical cells by sintering is disclosed. First, a porous metal electrode is fabricated on a solid oxide cell, such as a fuel cell by, for example, sintering, and is then infiltrated with a high volume fraction stabilized zirconia suspension. A second sintering step is used to sinter the infiltrated zirconia to a high density in order to more securely attach the electrode to the solid oxide electrolyte of the cell. High performance fuel electrodes can be obtained with this process. Further electrode performance enhancement may be achieved if stabilized zirconia doped with cerium oxide, chromium oxide, titanium oxide, and/or praseodymium oxide for electronic conduction is used.

  15. Method of electrode fabrication for solid oxide electrochemical cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jensen, R.R.

    1990-11-20

    A process for fabricating cermet electrodes for solid oxide electrochemical cells by sintering is disclosed. First, a porous metal electrode is fabricated on a solid oxide cell, such as a fuel cell by, for example, sintering, and is then infiltrated with a high volume fraction stabilized zirconia suspension. A second sintering step is used to sinter the infiltrated zirconia to a high density in order to more securely attach the electrode to the solid oxide electrolyte of the cell. High performance fuel electrodes can be obtained with this process. Further electrode performance enhancement may be achieved if stabilized zirconia doped with cerium oxide, chromium oxide, titanium oxide, and/or praseodymium oxide for electronic conduction is used. 5 figs.

  16. Battery electrode growth accommodation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bowen, Gerald K. (Cedarburg, WI); Andrew, Michael G. (Wauwatosa, WI); Eskra, Michael D. (Fredonia, WI)

    1992-01-01

    An electrode for a lead acid flow through battery, the grids including a plastic frame, a plate suspended from the top of the frame to hang freely in the plastic frame and a paste applied to the plate, the paste being free to allow for expansion in the planar direction of the grid.

  17. Electrode Polarization Effects in Broadband Dielectric Spectroscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. Emmert; M. Wolf; R. Gulich; S. Krohns; S. Kastner; P. Lunkenheimer; A. Loidl

    2011-06-07

    In the present work, we provide broadband dielectric spectra showing strong electrode polarization effects for various materials, belonging to very different material classes. This includes both ionic and electronic conductors as, e.g., salt solutions, ionic liquids, human blood, and colossal-dielectric-constant materials. These data are intended to provide a broad data base enabling a critical test of the validity of phenomenological and microscopic models for electrode polarization. In the present work, the results are analyzed using a simple phenomenological equivalent-circuit description, involving a distributed parallel RC circuit element for the modeling of the weakly conducting regions close to the electrodes. Excellent fits of the experimental data are achieved in this way, demonstrating the universal applicability of this approach. In the investigated ionically conducting materials, we find the universal appearance of a second dispersion region due to electrode polarization, which is only revealed if measuring down to sufficiently low frequencies. This indicates the presence of a second charge-transport process in ionic conductors with blocking electrodes.

  18. Interdigitated ring electrodes: Theory and experiment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barnes, Edward O; Pozo-Ayuso, Diego F; Castaño-Alvarez, Mario; Lewis, Grace E M; Dale, Sara E C; Marken, Frank; Compton, Richard G

    2013-01-01

    The oxidation of potassium ferrocyanide, K_4Fe(CN)_6, in aqueous solution under fully supported conditions is carried out at interdigitated band and ring electrode arrays, and compared to theoretical models developed to simulate the processes. Simulated data is found to fit well with experimental results using literature values of diffusion coefficients for Fe(CN)_6^(4-) and Fe(CN)_6^(3-). The theoretical models are used to compare responses from interdigitated band and ring arrays, and the size of ring array required to approximate the response to a linear band array is investigated. An equation is developed for the radius of ring required for a pair of electrodes in a ring array to give a result with 5% of a pair of electrodes in a band array. This equation is found to be independent of the scan rate used over six orders of magnitude.

  19. Control of magnetization-reversal processes via uniaxial anisotropy strength in La0.67Sr0.33MnO3 electrodes for spintronic devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Phillips, L. C.; Yan, W.; Moya, X.; Ghidini, M.; Maccherozzi, F.; Dhesi, S. S.; Mathur, N. D.

    2015-12-14

    Spintronic device performance depends critically on magnetization-reversal processes, but these are rarely imaged in order to verify correct operation. Here we use magnetometry and magnetic imaging to study thin films and patterned elements...

  20. Heating rate and electrode charging measurements in a scalable, microfabricated, surface-electrode ion trap

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. T. C. Allcock; T. P. Harty; H. A. Janacek; N. M. Linke; C. J. Ballance; A. M. Steane; D. M. Lucas; R. L. Jarecki Jr.; S. D. Habermehl; M. G. Blain; D. Stick; D. L. Moehring

    2011-05-24

    We characterise the performance of a surface-electrode ion "chip" trap fabricated using established semiconductor integrated circuit and micro-electro-mechanical-system (MEMS) microfabrication processes which are in principle scalable to much larger ion trap arrays, as proposed for implementing ion trap quantum information processing. We measure rf ion micromotion parallel and perpendicular to the plane of the trap electrodes, and find that on-package capacitors reduce this to heating rate for a single trapped ion. The performance of this trap is found to be comparable with others of the same size scale.

  1. Wall Drying in Hot and Humid Climates 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boone, K.; Weston, T.; Pascual, X.

    2004-01-01

    's ability to dry is not considered during the design or material selection process. No cladding system or installation is perfect, therefore wall systems should be designed with the assumption that some moisture will enter and then consider the effects...

  2. Electrode array for neural stimulation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wessendorf, Kurt O. (Albuquerque, NM); Okandan, Murat (Edgewood, NM); Stein, David J. (Albuquerque, NM); Yang, Pin (Albuquerque, NM); Cesarano, III, Joseph (Albuquerque, NM); Dellinger, Jennifer (Albuquerque, NM)

    2011-08-16

    An electrode array for neural stimulation is disclosed which has particular applications for use in a retinal prosthesis. The electrode array can be formed as a hermetically-sealed two-part ceramic package which includes an electronic circuit such as a demultiplexer circuit encapsulated therein. A relatively large number (up to 1000 or more) of individually-addressable electrodes are provided on a curved surface of a ceramic base portion the electrode array, while a much smaller number of electrical connections are provided on a ceramic lid of the electrode array. The base and lid can be attached using a metal-to-metal seal formed by laser brazing. Electrical connections to the electrode array can be provided by a flexible ribbon cable which can also be used to secure the electrode array in place.

  3. Cooking with Dry Beans 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anding, Jenna

    2008-12-09

    This fact sheet describes the nutritonal value and safe storage of dry beans, a commodity food. It also offers food preparation ideas.

  4. Cooking with Dried Potatoes 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anding, Jenna

    2008-12-09

    This fact sheet describes the nutritional value and safe storage of dried potatoes, a commodity food. It also offers food preparation ideas.

  5. Catalyzed enzyme electrodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zawodzinski, Thomas A. (Los Alamos, NM); Wilson, Mahlon S. (Los Alamos, NM); Rishpon, Judith (Ramat-Aviv, IL); Gottesfeld, Shimshon (Los Alamos, NM)

    1993-01-01

    An enzyme electrode is prepared with a composite coating on an electrical conductor. The composite coating is formed from a casting solution of a perfluorosulfonic acid polymer, an enzyme, and a carbon supported catalyst. The solution may be cast directly on the conductor surface or may be formed as a membrane and applied to the surface. The perfluorosulfonic acid ionomer formed from the casting solution provides an insoluble biocompatible protective matrix for the enzyme and acts to retain the enzyme for long term availability in the electrode structure. The carbon supported catalyst provides catalytic sites throughout the layer for the oxidation of hydrogen peroxide from the enzyme reactions. The carbon support then provides a conductive path for establishing an electrical signal to the electrical conductor. In one embodiment, the electrical conductor is a carbon cloth that permits oxygen or other gas to be introduced to the perfluorosulfonic polymer to promote the enzyme reaction independent of oxygen in the solution being tested.

  6. Inert electrode connection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weyand, John D. (Greensburg, PA); Woods, Robert W. (New Kensington, PA); DeYoung, David H. (Plum Boro, PA); Ray, Siba P. (Plum Boro, PA)

    1985-01-01

    An inert electrode connection is disclosed wherein a layer of inert electrode material is bonded to a layer of conductive material by providing at least one intermediate layer of material therebetween comprising a predetermined ratio of inert material to conductive material. In a preferred embodiment, the connection is formed by placing in a die a layer of powdered inert material, at least one layer of a mixture of powdered inert material and conductive material, and a layer of powdered conductive material. The connection is then formed by pressing the material at 15,000-20,000 psi to form a powder compact and then densifying the powder compact in an inert or reducing atmosphere at a temperature of 1200.degree.-1500.degree. C.

  7. Nickel anode electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Singh, Prabhakar (Bethel, CT); Benedict, Mark (Monroe, CT)

    1987-01-01

    A nickel anode electrode fabricated by oxidizing a nickel alloying material to produce a material whose exterior contains nickel oxide and whose interior contains nickel metal throughout which is dispersed the oxide of the alloying material and by reducing and sintering the oxidized material to form a product having a nickel metal exterior and an interior containing nickel metal throughout which is dispersed the oxide of the alloying material.

  8. Shielded capacitive electrode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kireeff Covo, Michel

    2013-07-09

    A device is described, which is sensitive to electric fields, but is insensitive to stray electrons/ions and unlike a bare, exposed conductor, it measures capacitively coupled current while rejecting currents due to charged particle collected or emitted. A charged particle beam establishes an electric field inside the beam pipe. A grounded metallic box with an aperture is placed in a drift region near the beam tube radius. The produced electric field that crosses the aperture generates a fringe field that terminates in the back surface of the front of the box and induces an image charge. An electrode is placed inside the grounded box and near the aperture, where the fringe fields terminate, in order to couple with the beam. The electrode is negatively biased to suppress collection of electrons and is protected behind the front of the box, so the beam halo cannot directly hit the electrode and produce electrons. The measured signal shows the net potential (positive ion beam plus negative electrons) variation with time, as it shall be observed from the beam pipe wall.

  9. Oxidation of coal and coal pyrite mechanisms and influence on surface characteristics. [Coal pyrite electrodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doyle, F.M.

    1992-01-01

    The objective of this research is to develop a mechanistic understanding of the oxidation of coal and coal pyrite, and to correlate the intrinsic physical and chemical properties of these minerals, along with changes resulting from oxidation, with those surface properties that influence the behavior in physical cleaning processes. The results will provide fundamental insight into oxidation, in terms of the bulk and surface chemistry, the microstructure, and the semiconductor properties of the pyrite. During the eighth quarter, wet chemical and dry oxidation tests were done on Upper Freeport coal from the Troutville [number sign]2 Mine, Clearfield County, Pennsylvania. In addition electrochemical experiments were done on electrodes prepared from Upper Freeport coal pyrite and Pittsburgh coal pyrite samples provided by the US Bureau of Mines, Pittsburgh Research Center, Pennsylvania.

  10. Cooking with Dry Spaghetti 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anding, Jenna

    2008-12-09

    of mushroom soup 1 10.75-ounce can of tomato soup 4 cups cooked, hot spaghetti 1 teaspoon dried oregano (if you like) 1 teaspoon dried basil (if you like) How to make it 1. Wash your hands; make sure your cooking area...

  11. Vapor Transport in Dry Soils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gee, Glendon W.; Ward, Anderson L.

    2001-11-16

    Water-vapor movement in soils is a complex process, controlled by both diffusion and advection and influenced by pressure and thermal gradients acting across tortuous flow paths. Wide-ranging interest in water-vapor transport includes both theoretical and practical aspects. Just how pressure and thermal gradients enhance water-vapor flow is still not completely understood and subject to ongoing research. Practical aspects include dryland farming (surface mulching), water harvesting (aerial wells), fertilizer placement, and migration of contaminants at waste-sites. The following article describes the processes and practical applications of water-vapor transport, with emphasis on unsaturated (dry) soil systems.

  12. Modifying the organic/electrode interface in Organic Solar Cells (OSCs) and improving the efficiency of solution-processed phosphorescent Organic Light-Emitting Diodes (OLEDs)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xiao, Teng

    2012-04-27

    Organic semiconductors devices, such as, organic solar cells (OSCs), organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) and organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) have drawn increasing interest in recent decades. As organic materials are flexible, light weight, and potentially low-cost, organic semiconductor devices are considered to be an alternative to their inorganic counterparts. This dissertation will focus mainly on OSCs and OLEDs. As a clean and renewable energy source, the development of OSCs is very promising. Cells with 9.2% power conversion efficiency (PCE) were reported this year, compared to < 8% two years ago. OSCs belong to the so-called third generation solar cells and are still under development. While OLEDs are a more mature and better studied field, with commercial products already launched in the market, there are still several key issues: (1) the cost of OSCs/OLEDs is still high, largely due to the costly manufacturing processes; (2) the efficiency of OSCs/OLEDs needs to be improved; (3) the lifetime of OSCs/OLEDs is not sufficient compared to their inorganic counterparts; (4) the physics models of the behavior of the devices are not satisfactory. All these limitations invoke the demand for new organic materials, improved device architectures, low-cost fabrication methods, and better understanding of device physics. For OSCs, we attempted to improve the PCE by modifying the interlayer between active layer/metal. We found that ethylene glycol (EG) treated poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene): polystyrenesulfonate (PEDOT: PSS) improves hole collection at the metal/polymer interface, furthermore it also affects the growth of the poly(3- hexylthiophene) (P3HT):phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) blends, making the phase segregation more favorable for charge collection. We then studied organic/inorganic tandem cells. We also investigated the effect of a thin LiF layer on the hole-collection of copper phthalocyanine (CuPc)/C70-based small molecular OSCs. A thin LiF layer serves typically as the electron injection layer in OLEDs and electron collection interlayer in the OSCs. However, several reports showed that it can also assist in holeinjection in OLEDs. Here we first demonstrate that it assists hole-collection in OSCs, which is more obvious after air-plasma treatment, and explore this intriguing dual role. For OLEDs, we focus on solution processing methods to fabricate highly efficient phosphorescent OLEDs. First, we investigated OLEDs with a polymer host matrix, and enhanced charge injection by adding hole- and electron-transport materials into the system. We also applied a hole-blocking and electron-transport material to prevent luminescence quenching by the cathode. Finally, we substituted the polymer host by a small molecule, to achieve more efficient solution processed small molecular OLEDs (SMOLEDs); this approach is cost-effective in comparison to the more common vacuum thermal evaporation. All these studies help us to better understand the underlying relationship between the organic semiconductor materials and the OSCs and OLEDs’ performance and will subsequently assist in further enhancing the efficiencies of OSCs and OLEDs. With better efficiency and longer lifetime, the OSCs and OLEDs will be competitive with their inorganic counterparts.

  13. FLOW-THROUGH POROUS ELECTRODES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Trainham, III, James Arthur

    2011-01-01

    Wilhelm. HBoundary conditions of a flow reactor. 1i Chemicala Packed-Bed Electrochemical Flow Reactor." Journal ofRichard, and Brian Gracon. "Flow-Through Porous Electrodes."

  14. Nanostructured Electrode Materials for Supercapacitors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Shin-Tson

    and batteries/fuel cells. Nanostructured electrode materials have demonstrated superior electrochemical of polymethine dyes electronic spectra is crucial for successful design of the new molecules with optimized

  15. Coated carbon nanotube array electrodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ren, Zhifeng (Newton, MA); Wen, Jian (Newton, MA); Chen, Jinghua (Chestnut Hill, MA); Huang, Zhongping (Belmont, MA); Wang, Dezhi (Wellesley, MA)

    2008-10-28

    The present invention provides conductive carbon nanotube (CNT) electrode materials comprising aligned CNT substrates coated with an electrically conducting polymer, and the fabrication of electrodes for use in high performance electrical energy storage devices. In particular, the present invention provides conductive CNTs electrode material whose electrical properties render them especially suitable for use in high efficiency rechargeable batteries. The present invention also provides methods for obtaining surface modified conductive CNT electrode materials comprising an array of individual linear, aligned CNTs having a uniform surface coating of an electrically conductive polymer such as polypyrrole, and their use in electrical energy storage devices.

  16. Coated carbon nanotube array electrodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ren, Zhifeng; Wen, Jian; Chen, Jinghua; Huang, Zhongping; Wang, Dezhi

    2006-12-12

    The present invention provides conductive carbon nanotube (CNT) electrode materials comprising aligned CNT substrates coated with an electrically conducting polymer, and the fabrication of electrodes for use in high performance electrical energy storage devices. In particular, the present invention provides conductive CNTs electrode material whose electrical properties render them especially suitable for use in high efficiency rechargeable batteries. The present invention also provides methods for obtaining surface modified conductive CNT electrode materials comprising an array of individual linear, aligned CNTs having a uniform surface coating of an electrically conductive polymer such as polypyrrole, and their use in electrical energy storage devices.

  17. FLOW-THROUGH POROUS ELECTRODES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Trainham, III, James Arthur

    2011-01-01

    configurations for flow redox battery applications: (i) theporous electrodes A flow-redox battery using flow-by poroustrue in battery applications, Flow..through porous

  18. Freeze drying method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coppa, Nicholas V. (Malvern, PA); Stewart, Paul (Youngstown, NY); Renzi, Ernesto (Youngstown, NY)

    1999-01-01

    The present invention provides methods and apparatus for freeze drying in which a solution, which can be a radioactive salt dissolved within an acid, is frozen into a solid on vertical plates provided within a freeze drying chamber. The solid is sublimated into vapor and condensed in a cold condenser positioned above the freeze drying chamber and connected thereto by a conduit. The vertical positioning of the cold condenser relative to the freeze dryer helps to help prevent substances such as radioactive materials separated from the solution from contaminating the cold condenser. Additionally, the system can be charged with an inert gas to produce a down rush of gas into the freeze drying chamber to also help prevent such substances from contaminating the cold condenser.

  19. Smooth electrode and method of fabricating same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weaver, Stanton Earl (Northville, NY); Kennerly, Stacey Joy (Albany, NY); Aimi, Marco Francesco (Niskayuna, NY)

    2012-08-14

    A smooth electrode is provided. The smooth electrode includes at least one metal layer having thickness greater than about 1 micron; wherein an average surface roughness of the smooth electrode is less than about 10 nm.

  20. Composite electrode/electrolyte structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Visco, Steven J. (Berkeley, CA); Jacobson, Craig P. (El Cerrito, CA); DeJonghe, Lutgard C. (Lafayette, CA)

    2004-01-27

    Provided is an electrode fabricated from highly electronically conductive materials such as metals, metal alloys, or electronically conductive ceramics. The electronic conductivity of the electrode substrate is maximized. Onto this electrode in the green state, a green ionic (e.g., electrolyte) film is deposited and the assembly is co-fired at a temperature suitable to fully densify the film while the substrate retains porosity. Subsequently, a catalytic material is added to the electrode structure by infiltration of a metal salt and subsequent low temperature firing. The invention allows for an electrode with high electronic conductivity and sufficient catalytic activity to achieve high power density in ionic (electrochemical) devices such as fuel cells and electrolytic gas separation systems.

  1. Electrode for a lithium cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thackeray, Michael M.; Vaughey, John T.; Dees, Dennis W.

    2008-10-14

    This invention relates to a positive electrode for an electrochemical cell or battery, and to an electrochemical cell or battery; the invention relates more specifically to a positive electrode for a non-aqueous lithium cell or battery when the electrode is used therein. The positive electrode includes a composite metal oxide containing AgV.sub.3O.sub.8 as one component and one or more other components consisting of LiV.sub.3O.sub.8, Ag.sub.2V.sub.4O.sub.11, MnO.sub.2, CF.sub.x, AgF or Ag.sub.2O to increase the energy density of the cell, optionally in the presence of silver powder and/or silver foil to assist in current collection at the electrode and to improve the power capability of the cell or battery.

  2. Low resistance electrode construction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Redey, Laszlo (Downers Grove, IL); Karell, Eric J. (Woodridge, IL)

    2002-01-01

    An electrochemical cell having a cathode and an anode in contact with an electrolyte. Both electrodes or one of them has an electrically conducting non-metal receptacle defining a chamber with a first metal having a melting point in the range of from about room temperature to about 800.degree. C. inside said receptacle chamber. A second metal with a melting point greater than about 800.degree. C. is in contact with the first metal inside the receptacle chamber and extends outside of the receptacle chamber to form a terminal for the anode. The electrolyte may include the oxides, halides or mixtures thereof of one or more of Li, V, U, Al and the lanthanides. Metal may be produced at the cathode during operation of the cell and oxygen or chlorine at the anode.

  3. Electrochromic counter electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, Se-Hee; Tracy, C. Edwin; Pitts, J. Roland; Jorgensen, Gary J.

    2005-02-22

    The present invention discloses an amorphous material comprising nickel oxide doped with tantalum that is an anodically coloring electrochromic material. The material of the present invention is prepared in the form of an electrode (200) having a thin film (202) of an electrochromic material of the present invention residing on a transparent conductive film (203). The material of the present invention is also incorporated into an electrochromic device (100) as a thin film (102) in conjunction with a cathodically coloring prior art electrochromic material layer (104) such that the devices contain both anodically coloring (102) and cathodically coloring (104) layers. The materials of the electrochromic layers in these devices exhibit broadband optical complimentary behavior, ionic species complimentary behavior, and coloration efficiency complimentary behavior in their operation.

  4. TiN coated aluminum electrodes for DC high voltage electron guns

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Mamun, Md Abdullah A.; Elmustafa, Abdelmageed A.; Taus, Rhys; Forman, Eric; Poelker, Matthew

    2015-05-01

    Preparing electrodes made of metals like stainless steel, for use inside DC high voltage electron guns, is a labor-intensive and time-consuming process. In this paper, the authors report the exceptional high voltage performance of aluminum electrodes coated with hard titanium nitride (TiN). The aluminum electrodes were comparatively easy to manufacture and required only hours of mechanical polishing using silicon carbide paper, prior to coating with TiN by a commercial vendor. The high voltage performance of three TiN-coated aluminum electrodes, before and after gas conditioning with helium, was compared to that of bare aluminum electrodes, and electrodes manufactured from titanium alloymore »(Ti-6AI-4V). Following gas conditioning, each TiN-coated aluminum electrode reached -225 kV bias voltage while generating less than 100 pA of field emission (« less

  5. Continuous Operation of Spray-Dried Zinc Based Sorbent in a Hot Gas Desulfurization Process Consisting of a Transport Desulfurizer and a Fluidized Regenerator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yi, C-K.; Jo, S-H.; Jin, G-T.; Son, J-E.; Han, M-H.; Ryu, C-K.

    2002-09-19

    We see the sorbent reaction performance in a HGD process consisting of a transport desulfurizer and a fluidized regenerator in this study. We have obtained the solid hold-up and solid circulation rate necessary to reach the target desulfurization efficiency. A major obstacle for fluidized- or transport bed sorbent developments is sorbent durability withstanding attrition. Continuous operation only makes similar conditions of real processes such as rapid temperature swing, chemical transformations between sulfidation and regeneration, stresses induced by fluidization and continuous particle circulation between two reactors. Therefore, an integrated system of transport desulfurizer and bubbling regenerator is operated continuously more than 150 hours to see system reliability, sorbent reaction characteristics, sorbent morphology before and after test.

  6. Development of Industrially Viable Battery Electrode Coatings...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Industrially Viable Battery Electrode Coatings Development of Industrially Viable Battery Electrode Coatings 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies...

  7. Mapping Particle Charges in Battery Electrodes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mapping Particle Charges in Battery Electrodes Mapping Particle Charges in Battery Electrodes Print Friday, 26 July 2013 14:18 The deceivingly simple appearance of batteries masks...

  8. Cold cap subsidence for in situ vitrification and electrodes therefor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Buelt, James L. (Richland, WA); Carter, John G. (Richland, WA); Eschbach, Eugene A. (Richland, WA); FitzPatrick, Vincent F. (Richland, WA); Koehmstedt, Paul L. (Richland, WA); Morgan, William C. (Richland, WA); Oma, Kenton H. (Richland, WA); Timmerman, Craig L. (Richland, WA)

    1992-01-01

    An electrode for use in in situ vitrification of soil comprises a molybdenum rod received within a conductive sleeve or collar formed of graphite. Electrodes of this type are placed on either side of a region containing buried waste material and an electric current is passed therebetween for vitrifying the soil between the electrodes. The graphite collar enhances the thermal conductivity of the electrode, bringing heat to the surface, and preventing the formation of a cold cap of material above the ground surface. The annulus between the molybdenum rod electrode and the graphite collar is filled with a conductive ceramic powder of a type that sinters upon the molybdenum rod, protecting the same from oxidation as the graphite material is consumed, or a metal powder which liquifies at operating temperatures. The molybdenum rod in the former case may be coated with an oxidation protectant, e.g. of molybdenum disilicide. As insulative blanket is suitably placed on the surface of the soil during processing to promote subsidence by allowing off-gassing and reducing surface heat loss. In other embodiments, connection to vitrification electrodes is provided below ground level to avoid loss of connection due to electrodes deterioration, or a sacrificial electrode may be employed when operation is started. Outboard electrodes can be utilized to square up the vitrified area. Further, the center of the molybdenum rod can be made hollow and filled with a powdered metal, such as copper, which liquifies at operating temperatures. In one embodiment, the molybdenum rod and the graphite collar are physically joined at the bottom.

  9. Biomass drying technologies. Final report, September 1997--May 1998

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Salomaa, E.

    1998-07-01

    The report examines the technologies used for drying of biomass and the energy requirements of biomass dryers. Biomass drying processes, drying methods, and the conventional types of dryers are surveyed generally. Drying methods and dryer studies using superheated steam as the drying medium are discussed more closely, with comparison to the methods of drying using air or flue gas as the drying medium. Available types of steam dryers are described with reference to operating conditions, energy requirements, and types of biomass dried. Energy aspects are considered, as well as possibilities of steam utilization to recover the latent heat of vaporization. Thermal energy required for drying of biomass is calculated using tabulated values of steam properties. The amount of steam to provide the thermal energy needed for biomass drying, at different pressures and temperatures applicable in steam dryers, is calculated for both indirectly and directly heated steam dryers. The calculated heat requirement values of steam dryers have been compared with those reported in the literature. Further, anticipated emissions from flue gas and steam drying processes have been summarized.

  10. Graphene and SWNT film as Hole Transport Layer and Electrode for Solar Cells Shigeo Maruyama

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maruyama, Shigeo

    Graphene and SWNT film as Hole Transport Layer and Electrode for Solar Cells Shigeo Maruyama], dry-deposited SWNTs-Si solar cell [4], graphene-Si solar cells, organic solar cell (OSC) and perovskite-type solar cells. Using millimeter-scale monocrystalline single-layer graphene and honeycomb

  11. Conductive lithium storage electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chiang, Yet-Ming; Chung, Sung-Yoon; Bloking, Jason T; Andersson, Anna M

    2014-10-07

    A compound comprising a composition A.sub.x(M'.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.y(XD.sub.4).sub.z, A.sub.x(M'.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.y(DXD.sub.4).sub.z, or A.sub.x(M'.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.y(X.sub.2D.sub.7).sub.z, (A.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.xM'.sub.y(XD.sub.4).sub.z, (A.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.xM'.sub.y(DXD.sub.4).sub.z, or (A.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.xM'.sub.y(X.sub.2D.sub.7).sub.z. In the compound, A is at least one of an alkali metal and hydrogen, M' is a first-row transition metal, X is at least one of phosphorus, sulfur, arsenic, molybdenum, and tungsten, M'' any of a Group IIA, IIIA, IVA, VA, VIA, VIIA, VIIIA, IB, IIB, IIIB, IVB, VB, and VIB metal, D is at least one of oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, or a halogen, 0.0001electrodes and storage batteries.

  12. High Speed, Low Cost Fabrication of Gas Diffusion Electrodes for Membrane Electrode Assemblies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeCastro, Emory S.; Tsou, Yu-Min; Liu, Zhenyu

    2013-09-20

    Fabrication of membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs) depends on creating inks or pastes of catalyst and binder, and applying this suspension to either the membrane (catalyst coated membrane) or gas diffusion media (gas diffusion electrode) and respectively laminating either gas diffusion media or gas diffusion electrodes (GDEs) to the membrane. One barrier to cost effective fabrication for either of these approaches is the development of stable and consistent suspensions. This program investigated the fundamental forces that destabilize the suspensions and developed innovative approaches to create new, highly stable formulations. These more concentrated formulations needed fewer application passes, could be coated over longer and wider substrates, and resulted in significantly lower coating defects. In March of 2012 BASF Fuel Cell released a new high temperature product based on these advances, whereby our customers received higher performing, more uniform MEAs resulting in higher stack build yields. Furthermore, these new materials resulted in an “instant” increase in capacity due to higher product yields and material throughput. Although not part of the original scope of this program, these new formulations have also led us to materials that demonstrate equivalent performance with 30% less precious metal in the anode. This program has achieved two key milestones in DOE’s Manufacturing R&D program: demonstration of processes for direct coating of electrodes and continuous in-line measurement for component fabrication.

  13. Electrodes for solid state gas sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mukundan, Rangachary (Santa Fe, NM); Brosha, Eric L. (Los Alamos, NM); Garzon, Fernando (Santa Fe, NM)

    2007-05-08

    A mixed potential electrochemical sensor for the detection of gases has a ceria-based electrolyte with a surface for exposing to the gases to be detected, and with a reference wire electrode and a sensing wire electrode extending through the surface and fixed within the electrolyte as the electrolyte is compressed and sintered. The electrochemical sensor is formed by placing a wire reference electrode and a wire sensing electrode in a die, where each electrode has a first compressed planar section and a second section depending from the first section with the second section of each electrode extending axially within the die. The die is filled with an oxide-electrolyte powder and the powder is pressed within the die with the wire electrodes. The wire-electrodes and the pressed oxide-electrolyte powder are sintered to form a ceramic electrolyte base with a reference wire electrode and a sensing wire electrode depending therefrom.

  14. Electrodes for solid state gas sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mukundan, Rangachary (Santa Fe, NM); Brosha, Eric L. (Los Alamos, NM); Garzon, Fernando (Santa Fe, NM)

    2003-08-12

    A mixed potential electrochemical sensor for the detection of gases has a ceria-based electrolyte with a surface for exposing to the gases to be detected, and with a reference wire electrode and a sensing wire electrode extending through the surface and fixed within the electrolyte as the electrolyte is compressed and sintered. The electrochemical sensor is formed by placing a wire reference electrode and a wire sensing electrode in a die, where each electrode has a first compressed planar section and a second section depending from the first section with the second section of each electrode extending axially within the die. The die is filled with an oxide-electrolyte powder and the powder is pressed within the die with the wire electrodes. The wire-electrodes and the pressed oxide-electrolyte powder are sintered to form a ceramic electrolyte base with a reference wire electrode and a sensing wire electrode depending therefrom.

  15. Desalination with carbon aerogel electrodes. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farmer, J.C.; Richardson, J.H.; Fix, D.V. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Thomson, S.L.; May, S.C. [Bechtel National, Inc., San Francisco, CA (United States)

    1996-12-04

    Electrically regenerated electrosorption process (carbon aerogel CDI) was developed by LLNL for continuously removing ionic impurities from aqueous streams. A salt solution flows in a channel formed by numerous pairs of parallel carbon aerogel electrodes. Each electrode has a very high BET surface area (2-5.4x10{sup 6}ft{sup 2}lb{sup -1} or 400-1100 m{sup 2}g{sup -1}) and very low electrical resistivity ({le}40 m{Omega}). Ions are removed from the electrolyte by the electric field and electrosorbed onto the carbon aerogel. It is concluded that carbon aerogel CDI may be an energy-efficient alternative to electrodialysis and reverse osmosis for desalination of brackish water ({le}5000 ppM). The intrinsic energy required by this process is about QV/2, where Q is the stored electrical charge and V is the voltage between the electrodes, plus losses. Estimated requirement for desalination of a 2000 ppM feed is -0.53-2.5 Wh/gal{sup -1} (0.5-2.4 kJ L{sup -1}), depending on voltage, flow rate, cell dimensions, aerogel density, recovery ratio, etc. This assumes that 50-70% of the stored electrical energy is reclaimed during regeneration (electrical discharge). Though the energy requirement for desalination of sea water is also low, this application will be much more difficult. Additional work will be required for desalination of streams that contain more than 5000 ppM total dissolved solids (2000 ppM will require electrochemical cells with extremely tight, demanding tolerances). At this present time, the process is best suited for streams with dilute impurities, as recently demonstrated during a field test at LLNL Treatment Facility C.

  16. Carbon film electrodes for super capacitor applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tan, Ming X. (Livermore, CA)

    1999-01-01

    A microporous carbon film for use as electrodes in energy strorage devices is disclosed, which is made by the process comprising the steps of: (1) heating a polymer film material consisting essentially of a copolymer of polyvinylidene chloride and polyvinyl chloride in an inert atmosphere to form a carbon film; and (2) activating said carbon film to form said microporous carbon film having a density between about 0.7 g/cm.sup.2 and 1 g/cm.sup.2 and a gravimetric capacitance of about between 120 F/g and 315 F/g.

  17. Organic light emitting diodes with structured electrodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mao, Samuel S.; Liu, Gao; Johnson, Stephen G.

    2012-12-04

    A cathode that contain nanostructures that extend into the organic layer of an OLED has been described. The cathode can have an array of nanotubes or a layer of nanoclusters extending out from its surface. In another arrangement, the cathode is patterned and etched to form protruding nanostructures using a standard lithographic process. Various methods for fabricating these structures are provided, all of which are compatible with large-scale manufacturing. OLEDs made with these novel electrodes have greatly enhanced electron injection, have good environmental stability.

  18. Controlled atmosphere for fabrication of cermet electrodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ray, Siba P. (Murrysville, PA); Woods, Robert W. (New Kensington, PA)

    1998-01-01

    A process for making an inert electrode composite wherein a metal oxide and a metal are reacted in a gaseous atmosphere at an elevated temperature of at least about 750.degree. C. The metal oxide is at least one of the nickel, iron, tin, zinc and zirconium oxides and the metal is copper, silver, a mixture of copper and silver or a copper-silver alloy. The gaseous atmosphere has an oxygen content that is controlled at about 5-3000 ppm in order to obtain a desired composition in the resulting composite.

  19. Controlled atmosphere for fabrication of cermet electrodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ray, S.P.; Woods, R.W.

    1998-08-11

    A process is disclosed for making an inert electrode composite wherein a metal oxide and a metal are reacted in a gaseous atmosphere at an elevated temperature of at least about 750 C. The metal oxide is at least one of the nickel, iron, tin, zinc and zirconium oxides and the metal is copper, silver, a mixture of copper and silver or a copper-silver alloy. The gaseous atmosphere has an oxygen content that is controlled at about 5--3000 ppm in order to obtain a desired composition in the resulting composite. 2 figs.

  20. Session: Hot Dry Rock

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tennyson, George P. Jr.; Duchane, David V.; Ponden, Raymond F.; Brown, Donald W.

    1992-01-01

    This session at the Geothermal Energy Program Review X: Geothermal Energy and the Utility Market consisted of four presentations: ''Hot Dry Rock - Summary'' by George P. Tennyson, Jr.; ''HDR Opportunities and Challenges Beyond the Long Term Flow Test'' by David V. Duchane; ''Start-Up Operations at the Fenton Hill HDR Pilot Plant'' by Raymond F. Ponden; and ''Update on the Long-Term Flow Testing Program'' by Donald W. Brown.

  1. Conductive lithium storage electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chiang, Yet-Ming (Framingham, MA); Chung, Sung-Yoon (Seoul, KR); Bloking, Jason T. (Cambridge, MA); Andersson, Anna M. (Uppsala, SE)

    2008-03-18

    A compound comprising a composition A.sub.x(M'.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.y(XD.sub.4).sub.z, A.sub.x(M'.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.y(DXD.sub.4).sub.z, or A.sub.x(M'.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.y(X.sub.2D.sub.7).sub.z, and have values such that x, plus y(1-a) times a formal valence or valences of M', plus ya times a formal valence or valence of M'', is equal to z times a formal valence of the XD.sub.4, X.sub.2D.sub.7, or DXD.sub.4 group; or a compound comprising a composition (A.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.xM'.sub.y(XD.sub.4).sub.z, (A.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.xM'.sub.y(DXD.sub.4).sub.z(A.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).s- ub.xM'.sub.y(X.sub.2D.sub.7).sub.z and have values such that (1-a).sub.x plus the quantity ax times the formal valence or valences of M'' plus y times the formal valence or valences of M' is equal to z times the formal valence of the XD.sub.4, X.sub.2D.sub.7 or DXD.sub.4 group. In the compound, A is at least one of an alkali metal and hydrogen, M' is a first-row transition metal, X is at least one of phosphorus, sulfur, arsenic, molybdenum, and tungsten, M'' any of a Group IIA, IIIA, IVA, VA, VIA, VIIA, VIIIA, IB, IIB, IIIB, IVB, VB, and VIB metal, D is at least one of oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, or a halogen, 0.0001electrodes and storage batteries and can have a gravimetric capacity of at least about 80 mAh/g while being charged/discharged at greater than about C rate of the compound.

  2. Conductive lithium storage electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chiang, Yet-Ming (Framingham, MA); Chung, Sung-Yoon (Incheon, KR); Bloking, Jason T. (Mountain View, CA); Andersson, Anna M. (Vasteras, SE)

    2012-04-03

    A compound comprising a composition A.sub.x(M'.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.y(XD.sub.4).sub.z, A.sub.x(M'.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.y(DXD.sub.4).sub.z, or A.sub.x(M'.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.y(X.sub.2D.sub.7).sub.z, and have values such that x, plus y(1-a) times a formal valence or valences of M', plus ya times a formal valence or valence of M'', is equal to z times a formal valence of the XD.sub.4, X.sub.2D.sub.7, or DXD.sub.4 group; or a compound comprising a composition (A.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.xM'.sub.y(XD.sub.4).sub.z, (A.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.xM'.sub.y(DXD.sub.4).sub.z (A.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.xM'.sub.y(X.sub.2D.sub.7).sub.z and have values such that (1-a).sub.x plus the quantity ax times the formal valence or valences of M'' plus y times the formal valence or valences of M' is equal to z times the formal valence of the XD.sub.4, X.sub.2D.sub.7 or DXD.sub.4 group. In the compound, A is at least one of an alkali metal and hydrogen, M' is a first-row transition metal, X is at least one of phosphorus, sulfur, arsenic, molybdenum, and tungsten, M'' any of a Group IIA, IIIA, IVA, VA, VIA, VIIA, VIIIA, IB, IIB, IIIB, IVB, VB, and VIB metal, D is at least one of oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, or a halogen, 0.0001electrodes and storage batteries and can have a gravimetric capacity of at least about 80 mAh/g while being charged/discharged at greater than about C rate of the compound.

  3. Impingement drying of potato chips 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Caixeta, Aline Teixeira

    2001-01-01

    ) on the drying rate of potato chips and on the product quality properties such as shrinkage, density, porosity, microstructure, color, texture, and nutrition loss was investigated. Furthermore, superheated steam impingement dried potato chips (130 and 145° C, h...

  4. LOW POWER SCANNER FOR HIGH-DENSITY ELECTRODE ARRAY NEURAL RECORDING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mahmoodi, Hamid

    of this research is to design a low power integrated system that can be used in vivo for scanning the electrode. A model created in Python provides input vectors and output comparison for the verification processLOW POWER SCANNER FOR HIGH-DENSITY ELECTRODE ARRAY NEURAL RECORDING A Thesis work submitted

  5. Polymer electrolyte fuel cell electrodes grown by vapor deposition techniques Pascal Brault*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Polymer electrolyte fuel cell electrodes grown by vapor deposition techniques Pascal Brault Abstract: Polymer fuel cell electrode growth using vapor deposition techniques is reviewed. The supports process: sputtering, CVD, PECVD, MOCVD. In each case, up-to-date fuel cell performances are highlighted

  6. Dry scrubber reduces SO sub 2 in calciner flue gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, G.W. (Refining Consulting Services, Englewood, CO (US)); Roderick, D. (Western Slope Refining Co., Fruita, CO (US)); Nastri, A. (NATEC Resources Inc., Dallas, TX (US))

    1991-02-18

    This paper discusses the installation of a dry sulfur dioxide scrubber for an existing petroleum coke calciner at its Fruita, Colo., refinery. The dry scrubbing process was developed by the power industry to help cope with the acid rain problem. It is the first application of the process in an oil refinery. The process could also remove SO{sub 2} from the flue gas of a fluid catalytic cracker, fluid coker, or other refinery sources.

  7. Porous-electrode preparation method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Arons, R.M.; Dusek, J.T.

    1981-09-17

    A porous sintered plaque is provided with a bimodal porosity that is especially well suited for use as an electrode within a molten carbonate fuel cell. The coarse porosity is sufficient for admitting gases into contact with the reaction surfaces while the fine porosity is wetted with and retains molten electrolyte on the reaction sites. The electrode structure is prepared by providing a very fine powder such as nickel oxide and blending the powder with a suitable decomposable binder to form a solid mass. The mass is comminuted into agglomerate size particles substantially larger than the fine oxide particles and formed into a cohesive compact for subsequent sintering. Sintering is carried out at sufficient conditions to bind the agglomerates together into a porous structure having both coarse and fine porosity. Where lithiated nickel oxide cathodes are prepared, the sintering conditions can be moderate enough to retain substantial quantities of lithium within the electrode for adequate conductivity.

  8. Drying and burning wood waste using pulse combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buckkowski, A.G.; Eng, P.; Kitchen, J.A. [Novadyne Ltd., Ontario (Canada)

    1995-11-01

    Development of an industrial dryer using pulse combustion as a heating source for drying wood waste has continued. Pulse combustion offers the advantage of high heat transfer, efficient combustion, low NOx emissions and a source of kinetic energy for providing a motive force for a drying system. In our experiments, the drying system consists of a pulse combustor and a vertical drying column. The wood waste is injected into the exhaust gases from the combustor where the turbulence created by the pulsations enhance the drying process by reducing the boundary layer thicknesses. The material is further dried in the vertical drying column, then separated from the conveying airstream using a cyclone. The paper discusses two aspects of the drying system. Firstly, the performance of the drying tests are reviewed. Tests with the 1,000,000 BTU/hr test rig have shown that a gas-fired pulse combustion dryer can dry materials such as sawdust and pulverized hog fuel from a moisture content of 50% down to a 30% in a single pass, or further with multiple passes, without scorching or burning. Preliminary figures show that the operating costs of the dryer are reduced due to the kinetic energy created by the pulse combustor which offsets the use of electricity. Secondly, it has been shown that a pulse combustor can be fired with wood waste and thereby providing the potential to displace natural gas or propane as a fuel. The development of the wood burning combustor is reviewed.

  9. The effect of drying on the heating value of biomass fuels 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rodriguez, Pablo Gregorio

    1994-01-01

    There has been some speculation as to whether or not biomass fuels (such as feedlot manure) may lose volatile matter during the drying process. Since current standards state that heating value analysis may be performed before or after drying...

  10. Reference electrode for electrolytic cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kessie, R.W.

    1988-07-28

    A reference electrode device is provided for a high temperature electrolytic cell used to electrolytically recover uranium from spent reactor fuel dissolved in an anode pool, the device having a glass tube to enclose the electrode and electrolyte and serve as a conductive membrane with the cell electrolyte, and an outer metal tube about the glass tube to serve as a shield and basket for any glass sections broken by handling of the tube to prevent their contact with the anode pool, the metal tube having perforations to provide access between the bulk of the cell electrolyte and glass membrane. 4 figs.

  11. Electrolytic cell with reference electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kessie, Robert W. (Naperville, IL)

    1989-01-01

    A reference electrode device is provided for a high temperature electrolytic cell used to electrolytically recover uranium from spent reactor fuel dissolved in an anode pool, the device having a glass tube to enclose the electrode and electrolyte and serve as a conductive membrane with the cell electrolyte, and an outer metal tube about the glass tube to serve as a shield and basket for any glass sections broken by handling of the tube to prevent their contact with the anode pool, the metal tube having perforations to provide access between the bulk of the cell electrolyte and glass membrane.

  12. Dry Natural Gas

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry NaturalPrices1 Table272/S The National

  13. "Analysis of SOFCs using reference electrodes?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Finklea, Harry; Chen,Xiaoke; Gerdes,Kirk; Pakalapati, Suryanarayana; Celik, Ismail

    2013-07-01

    Reference electrodes are frequently applied to isolate the performance of one electrode in a solid oxide fuel cell. However, reference electrode simulations raise doubt to veracity of data collected using reference electrodes. The simulations predict that the reported performance for the one electrode will frequently contain performance of both electrodes. Nonetheless, recent reports persistently treat data so collected as ideally isolated. This work confirms the predictions of the reference electrode simulations on two SOFC designs, and to provides a method of validating the data measured in the 3-electrode configuration. Validation is based on the assumption that a change in gas composition to one electrode does not affect the impedance of the other electrode at open circuit voltage. This assumption is supported by a full physics simulation of the SOFC. Three configurations of reference electrode and cell design are experimentally examined using various gas flows and two temperatures. Impedance data are subjected to deconvolution analysis and equivalent circuit fitting and approximate polarization resistances of the cathode and anode are determined. The results demonstrate that the utility of reference electrodes is limited and often wholly inappropriate. Reported impedances and single electrode polarization values must be scrutinized on this basis.

  14. Enhanced electrodes for solid state gas sensors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Garzon, Fernando H. (Santa Fe, NM); Brosha, Eric L. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2001-01-01

    A solid state gas sensor generates an electrical potential between an equilibrium electrode and a second electrode indicative of a gas to be sensed. A solid electrolyte substrate has the second electrode mounted on a first portion of the electrolyte substrate and a composite equilibrium electrode including conterminous transition metal oxide and Pt components mounted on a second portion of the electrolyte substrate. The composite equilibrium electrode and the second electrode are electrically connected to generate an electrical potential indicative of the gas that is being sensed. In a particular embodiment of the present invention, the second electrode is a reference electrode that is exposed to a reference oxygen gas mixture so that the electrical potential is indicative of the oxygen in a gas stream.

  15. Sheet electrode for electrochemical systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tsien, Hsue C. (Chatham Township, Morris County, NJ); Newby, Kenneth R. (Berkeley Heights, NJ); Grimes, Patrick G. (Westfield, NJ); Bellows, Richard J. (Westfield, NJ)

    1983-04-12

    An electrochemical cell construction features a novel co-extruded plastic electrode in an interleaved construction with a novel integral separator-spacer. Also featured is a leak and impact resistant construction for preventing the spill of corrosive materials in the event of rupture.

  16. TiN coated aluminum electrodes for DC high voltage electron guns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mamun, Md Abdullah A.; Elmustafa, Abdelmageed A.; Taus, Rhys; Forman, Eric; Poelker, Matthew

    2015-05-15

    Preparing electrodes made of metals like stainless steel, for use inside DC high voltage electron guns, is a labor-intensive and time-consuming process. In this paper, the authors report the exceptional high voltage performance of aluminum electrodes coated with hard titanium nitride (TiN). The aluminum electrodes were comparatively easy to manufacture and required only hours of mechanical polishing using silicon carbide paper, prior to coating with TiN by a commercial vendor. The high voltage performance of three TiN-coated aluminum electrodes, before and after gas conditioning with helium, was compared to that of bare aluminum electrodes, and electrodes manufactured from titanium alloy (Ti-6Al-4V). Following gas conditioning, each TiN-coated aluminum electrode reached ?225?kV bias voltage while generating less than 100?pA of field emission (<10?pA) using a 40?mm cathode/anode gap, corresponding to field strength of 13.7?MV/m. Smaller gaps were studied to evaluate electrode performance at higher field strength with the best performing TiN-coated aluminum electrode reaching ?22.5 MV/m with field emission less than 100?pA. These results were comparable to those obtained from our best-performing electrodes manufactured from stainless steel, titanium alloy and niobium, as reported in references cited below. The TiN coating provided a very smooth surface and with mechanical properties of the coating (hardness and modulus) superior to those of stainless steel, titanium-alloy, and niobium electrodes. These features likely contributed to the improved high voltage performance of the TiN-coated aluminum electrodes.

  17. TiN coated aluminum electrodes for DC high voltage electron guns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mamun, Md Abdullah A.; Elmustafa, Abdelmageed A.; Taus, Rhys; Forman, Eric; Poelker, Matthew

    2015-05-01

    Preparing electrodes made of metals like stainless steel, for use inside DC high voltage electron guns, is a labor-intensive and time-consuming process. In this paper, the authors report the exceptional high voltage performance of aluminum electrodes coated with hard titanium nitride (TiN). The aluminum electrodes were comparatively easy to manufacture and required only hours of mechanical polishing using silicon carbide paper, prior to coating with TiN by a commercial vendor. The high voltage performance of three TiN-coated aluminum electrodes, before and after gas conditioning with helium, was compared to that of bare aluminum electrodes, and electrodes manufactured from titanium alloy (Ti-6AI-4V). Following gas conditioning, each TiN-coated aluminum electrode reached -225 kV bias voltage while generating less than 100 pA of field emission (<10 pA) using a 40 mm cathode/anode gap, corresponding to field strength of 13.7 MV/m. Smaller gaps were studied to evaluate electrode performance at higher field strength with the best performing TiN-coated aluminum electrode reaching ~22.5 MV/m with field emission less than 100 pA. These results were comparable to those obtained from our best-performing electrodes manufactured from stainless steel, titanium alloy and niobium, as reported in references cited below. The TiN coating provided a very smooth surface and with mechanical properties of the coating (hardness and modulus) superior to those of stainless steel, titanium-alloy, and niobium electrodes. These features likely contributed to the improved high voltage performance of the TiN-coated aluminum electrodes.

  18. First-principles Approaches to Simulate Lithiation in Silicon Electrodes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Qianfan; Wang, Enge

    2013-01-01

    Silicon is viewed as an excellent electrode material for lithium batteries due to its high lithium storage capacity. Various Si nano-structures, such as Si nanowires, have performed well as lithium battery anodes and have opened up exciting opportunities for the use of Si in energy storage devices. The mechanism of lithium insertion and the interaction between Li and the Si electrode must be understood at the atomic level; this understanding can be achieved by first-principles simulation. Here, first-principles computations of lithiation in silicon electrodes are reviewed. The review focuses on three aspects: the various properties of bulk Li-Si compounds with different Li concentrations, the electronic structure of Si nanowires and Li insertion behavior in Si nanowires, and the dynamic lithiation process at the Li/Si interface. Potential study directions in this research field and difficulties that the field still faces are discussed at the end.

  19. Alkali metal ion battery with bimetallic electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boysen, Dane A; Bradwell, David J; Jiang, Kai; Kim, Hojong; Ortiz, Luis A; Sadoway, Donald R; Tomaszowska, Alina A; Wei, Weifeng; Wang, Kangli

    2015-04-07

    Electrochemical cells having molten electrodes having an alkali metal provide receipt and delivery of power by transporting atoms of the alkali metal between electrode environments of disparate chemical potentials through an electrochemical pathway comprising a salt of the alkali metal. The chemical potential of the alkali metal is decreased when combined with one or more non-alkali metals, thus producing a voltage between an electrode comprising the molten the alkali metal and the electrode comprising the combined alkali/non-alkali metals.

  20. Drop short control of electrode gap

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fisher, Robert W. (Albuquerque, NM); Maroone, James P. (Albuquerque, NM); Tipping, Donald W. (Albuquerque, NM); Zanner, Frank J. (Sandia Park, NM)

    1986-01-01

    During vacuum consumable arc remelting the electrode gap between a consumable electrode and a pool of molten metal is difficult to control. The present invention monitors drop shorts by detecting a decrease in the voltage between the consumable electrode and molten pool. The drop shorts and their associated voltage reductions occur as repetitive pulses which are closely correlated to the electrode gap. Thus, the method and apparatus of the present invention controls electrode gap based upon drop shorts detected from the monitored anode-cathode voltage. The number of drop shorts are accumulated, and each time the number of drop shorts reach a predetermined number, the average period between drop shorts is calculated from this predetermined number and the time in which this number is accumulated. This average drop short period is used in a drop short period electrode gap model which determines the actual electrode gap from the drop short. The actual electrode gap is then compared with a desired electrode gap which is selected to produce optimum operating conditions and the velocity of the consumable error is varied based upon the gap error. The consumable electrode is driven according to any prior art system at this velocity. In the preferred embodiment, a microprocessor system is utilized to perform the necessary calculations and further to monitor the duration of each drop short. If any drop short exceeds a preset duration period, the consumable electrode is rapidly retracted a predetermined distance to prevent bonding of the consumable electrode to the molten remelt.

  1. Minimizing electrode contamination in an electrochemical cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kim, Yu Seung; Zelenay, Piotr; Johnston, Christina

    2014-12-09

    An electrochemical cell assembly that is expected to prevent or at least minimize electrode contamination includes one or more getters that trap a component or components leached from a first electrode and prevents or at least minimizes them from contaminating a second electrode.

  2. On the dry deposition of submicron particles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wesely, M. L.

    1999-10-08

    The air-surface exchange of particles can have a strong role in determining the amount, size, and chemical composition of particles in the troposphere. Here the authors consider only dry processes (deposition processes not directly aided by precipitation) and mostly address particles less than about 2 {micro}m in diameter (often referred to as submicron particles because most of such particles are less than 1 {micro}m in diameter). The processes that control the dry exchange of particulate material between the atmosphere and the surface of the Earth are numerous, highly varied, and sometimes poorly understood. As a result, determining which of the surface processes to parameterize or simulate in modeling the tropospheric mass budget of a particulate substance can be a significant challenge. Dry deposition, for example, can be controlled by a combination of Brownian diffusion, impaction, interception, and gravitational settling, depending on the size of the particles, the roughness of the surface on both micrometeorological and microscopic scales, the geometrical structure of vegetative canopies, and other surface characteristics such as wetness. Particles can be added to the lower atmosphere by resuspension from land surfaces and sea spray. The roles of rapid gas-to-particle conversion and growth or shrinkage of particles as a result of water condensation or evaporation in the lower few meters of the atmosphere can also have a significant impact on particle concentrations in the lower atmosphere. Here, a few micrometeorological observations and inferences on particle air-surface exchange are briefly addressed.

  3. Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes and Graphene as Hole Transport Layer & Electrode for Solar Cells Shigeo Maruyama

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maruyama, Shigeo

    Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes and Graphene as Hole Transport Layer & Electrode for Solar Cells-Si solar cell [1], dry-deposited SWNTs-Si solar cell [2], graphene-Si solar cells, organic solar cell (OSC) [3] and perovskite-type solar cells [4]. Using millimeter-scale monocrystalline single-layer graphene

  4. Design of superconducting transmission line integrated surface-electrode ion-traps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meyer, David Thomas

    2011-01-01

    We fabricated superconducting surface electrode ion traps with integrated microwave coplanar waveguides using direct-write optical lithography and a niobium on sapphire process. We then tested these traps in a closed cycle ...

  5. Electrospun carbon nanofiber electrodes decorated with palladium metal nanoparticles : fabrication and characterization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kurpiewski, John Paul

    2005-01-01

    A new method was investigated to produce a novel oxygen reduction electrode comprised of carbon nanofibers for use in polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells and metal-air batteries. The process involved electrospinning ...

  6. An Investigation of Different Methods of Fabricating Membrane Electrode Assemblies for Methanol Fuel Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hall, Kwame (Kwame J.)

    2009-01-01

    Methanol fuel cells are electrochemical conversion devices that produce electricity from methanol fuel. The current process of fabricating membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs) is tedious and if it is not sufficiently ...

  7. Control of electrode depth in electroslag remelting

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Melgaard, David K. (Albuquerque, NM); Shelmidine, Gregory J. (Tijeras, NM); Damkroger, Brian K. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2002-01-01

    A method of and apparatus for controlling an electroslag remelting furnace by driving the electrode at a nominal speed based upon melting rate and geometry while making minor proportional adjustments based on a measured metric of the electrode immersion depth. Electrode drive speed is increased if a measured metric of electrode immersion depth differs from a set point by a predetermined amount, indicating that the tip is too close to the surface of a slag pool. Impedance spikes are monitored to adjust the set point for the metric of electrode immersion depth based upon one or more properties of the impedance spikes.

  8. Long life lithium batteries with stabilized electrodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Amine, Khalil (Downers Grove, IL); Liu, Jun (Naperville, IL); Vissers, Donald R. (Naperville, IL); Lu, Wenquan (Darien, IL)

    2009-03-24

    The present invention relates to non-aqueous electrolytes having electrode stabilizing additives, stabilized electrodes, and electrochemical devices containing the same. Thus the present invention provides electrolytes containing an alkali metal salt, a polar aprotic solvent, and an electrode stabilizing additive. In some embodiments the additives include a substituted or unsubstituted cyclic or spirocyclic hydrocarbon containing at least one oxygen atom and at least one alkenyl or alkynyl group. When used in electrochemical devices with, e.g., lithium manganese oxide spinel electrodes or olivine or carbon-coated olivine electrodes, the new electrolytes provide batteries with improved calendar and cycle life.

  9. Composite electrode for use in electrochemical cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vanderborgh, N.E.; Huff, J.R.; Leddy, J.

    1987-10-16

    A porous composite electrode for use in electrochemical cells. The electrode has a first face and a second face defining a relatively thin section therebetween. The electrode is comprised of an ion conducting material, an electron conducting material, and an electrocatalyst. The volume concentration of the ion conducting material is greatest at the first face and is decreased across the section, while the volume concentration of the electron conducting material is greatest at the second face and decreases across the section of the electrode. Substantially all of the electrocatalyst is positioned within the electrode section in a relatively narrow zone where the rate of electron transport of the electrode is approximately equal to the rate of ion transport of the electrode. 4 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Some considerations in simulation of superheated steam drying of softwood lumber

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pang, S. [New Zealand Forest Research Inst., Rotorua (New Zealand). Wood Processing Div.

    1997-05-01

    A mathematical model for high-temperature drying of softwood lumber with moist air has been modified and extended to simulate wood drying with superheated steam. In the simulation, differences between the two types of drying are considered, these include: external heat and mass transfer processes and calculation of equilibrium moisture content. The external mass transfer coefficient in the superheated steam drying was found to be much higher than that in the moist air drying, however, the heat transfer coefficients for these two cases were of the same order. The predicted drying curves and wood temperatures from the superheated steam drying model were compared with experimental data and there was close agreement. Further studies will apply the model to development of commercial drying schedules for wood drying with superheated steam.

  11. Non-Sintered Nickel Electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bernard, Patrick (Massy, FR); Dennig, Corinne (Asnieres sur Seine, FR); Cocciantelli, Jean-Michel (Bordeaux, FR); Alcorta, Jose (Bordeaux, FR); Coco, Isabelle (Dax, FR)

    2002-01-01

    A non-sintered nickel electrode contains a conductive support and a paste comprising an electrochemically active material containing nickel hydroxide and a binder which is a mixture of an elastomer and a crystalline polymer. The proportion of the elastomer is in the range 25% to 60% by weight of the binder and the proportion of the crystalline polymer is in the range 40% to 75% by weight of the binder.

  12. Nanoparticle preparation of Mefenamic acid by electrospray drying

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zolkepali, Nurul Karimah, E-mail: fitrah@salam.uitm.edu.my; Bakar, Noor Fitrah Abu, E-mail: fitrah@salam.uitm.edu.my; Anuar, Nornizar [Faculty Of Chemical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Mara (UiTM), 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); Naim, M. Nazli [Food and Process Department, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM), 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Bakar, Mohd Rushdi Abu [Kulliyyah of Pharmacy, International Islamic University Malaysia, P.O Box 141, 25710, Kuantan, Pahang (Malaysia)

    2014-02-24

    Nanoparticles preparation of Mefenamic acid (MA) by using an electrospray drying method was conducted in this study. Electrospray drying is a process that uses electrostatic force to disperse a conductive liquid stream into fine charged droplets through the coulomb fission of charges in the liquid and finally dry into fine particles. Electrospray drying modes operation usually in Taylor cone jet, and it was formed by controlling applied voltage and liquid flow rate. A conductive liquid (2.77–8.55?Scm{sup ?1}) which is MA solution was prepared by using acetone with concentration 0.041 and 0.055 M before pumping at a flow rate of 3–6ml/h. By applying the applied voltage at 1.3–1.5 kV, Taylor cone jet mode was formed prior to the electrospray. During electrospray drying process, solvent evaporation from the droplet was occurring that leads to coulomb disruption and may generate to nanoparticles. The dried nanoparticles were collected on a grounded substrate that was placed at varying distance from the electrospray. MA particle with size range of 100–400 nm were produced by electrospray drying process. Characterization of particles by using X-ray diffractometry (XRD) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) show that particles formed into polymorph I.

  13. MODELING OF CHANGING ELECTRODE PROFILES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prentice, Geoffrey Allen

    1980-12-01

    A model for simulating the transient behavior of solid electrodes undergoing deposition or dissolution has been developed. The model accounts for ohmic drop, charge transfer overpotential, and mass transport limitations. The finite difference method, coupled with successive overrelaxation, was used as the basis of the solution technique. An algorithm was devised to overcome the computational instabilities associated with the calculations of the secondary and tertiary current distributions. Simulations were performed on several model electrode profiles: the sinusoid, the rounded corner, and the notch. Quantitative copper deposition data were obtained in a contoured rotating cylinder system, Sinusoidal cross-sections, machined on stainless steel cylinders, were used as model geometries, Kinetic parameters for use in the simulation were determined from polarization curves obtained on copper rotating cylinders, These parameters, along with other physical property and geometric data, were incorporated in simulations of growing sinusoidal profiles. The copper distributions on the sinusoidal cross-sections were measured and found to compare favorably with the simulated results. At low Wagner numbers the formation of a slight depression at the profile peak was predicted by the simulation and observed on the profile. At higher Wagner numbers, the simulated and experimental results showed that the formation of a depression was suppressed. This phenomenon was shown to result from the competition between ohmic drop and electrode curvature.

  14. Continuous process to produce lithium-polymer batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chern, T.S.H.; Keller, D.G.; MacFadden, K.O.

    1998-05-12

    Solid polymer electrolytes are extruded with active electrode material in a continuous, one-step process to form composite electrolyte-electrodes ready for assembly into battery cells. The composite electrolyte electrode sheets are extruded onto current collectors to form electrodes. The composite electrodes, as extruded, are electronically and ionically conductive. The composite electrodes can be over coated with a solid polymer electrolyte, which acts as a separator upon battery assembly. The interface between the solid polymer electrolyte composite electrodes and the solid polymer electrolyte separator has low resistance. 1 fig.

  15. Continuous process to produce lithium-polymer batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chern, Terry Song-Hsing (Midlothian, VA); Keller, David Gerard (Baltimore, MD); MacFadden, Kenneth Orville (Highland, MD)

    1998-01-01

    Solid polymer electrolytes are extruded with active electrode material in a continuous, one-step process to form composite electrolyte-electrodes ready for assembly into battery cells. The composite electrolyte-electrode sheets are extruded onto current collectors to form electrodes. The composite electrodes, as extruded, are electronically and ionically conductive. The composite electrodes can be overcoated with a solid polymer electrolyte, which acts as a separator upon battery assembly. The interface between the solid polymer electrolyte composite electrodes and the solid polymer electrolyte separator has low resistance.

  16. Lithographic dry development using optical absorption

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Olynick, Deirdre; Schuck, P. James; Schmidt, Martin

    2013-08-20

    A novel approach to dry development of exposed photo resist is described in which a photo resist layer is exposed to a visible light source in order to remove the resist in the areas of exposure. The class of compounds used as the resist material, under the influence of the light source, undergoes a chemical/structural change such that the modified material becomes volatile and is thus removed from the resist surface. The exposure process is carried out for a time sufficient to ablate the exposed resist layer down to the layer below. A group of compounds found to be useful in this process includes aromatic calixarenes.

  17. Drying Fruits and Vegetables at Home. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Putnam, Peggy H.

    1981-01-01

    Methods Sun (solar) heaters and dehydrators. Or dryers some times are used to dry foods. They can be made fairly easily at various costs. SUD heatets are effective when drying foods requiring humidity or when drying s'mall lots of food. Dehydrators... ............. ~ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Drying Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Sun-Drying .................................................... 3 Oven...

  18. Hot Dry Rock; Geothermal Energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1990-01-01

    The commercial utilization of geothermal energy forms the basis of the largest renewable energy industry in the world. More than 5000 Mw of electrical power are currently in production from approximately 210 plants and 10 000 Mw thermal are used in direct use processes. The majority of these systems are located in the well defined geothermal generally associated with crustal plate boundaries or hot spots. The essential requirements of high subsurface temperature with huge volumes of exploitable fluids, coupled to environmental and market factors, limit the choice of suitable sites significantly. The Hot Dry Rock (HDR) concept at any depth originally offered a dream of unlimited expansion for the geothermal industry by relaxing the location constraints by drilling deep enough to reach adequate temperatures. Now, after 20 years intensive work by international teams and expenditures of more than $250 million, it is vital to review the position of HDR in relation to the established geothermal industry. The HDR resource is merely a body of rock at elevated temperatures with insufficient fluids in place to enable the heat to be extracted without the need for injection wells. All of the major field experiments in HDR have shown that the natural fracture systems form the heat transfer surfaces and that it is these fractures that must be for geothermal systems producing from naturally fractured formations provide a basis for directing the forthcoming but, equally, they require accepting significant location constraints on HDR for the time being. This paper presents a model HDR system designed for commercial operations in the UK and uses production data from hydrothermal systems in Japan and the USA to demonstrate the reservoir performance requirements for viable operations. It is shown that these characteristics are not likely to be achieved in host rocks without stimulation processes. However, the long term goal of artificial geothermal systems developed by systematic engineering procedures at depth may still be attained if high temperature sites with extensive fracturing are developed or exploited. [DJE -2005

  19. Silver manganese oxide electrodes for lithium batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thackeray, Michael M.; Vaughey, John T.; Dees, Dennis W.

    2006-05-09

    This invention relates to electrodes for non-aqueous lithium cells and batteries with silver manganese oxide positive electrodes, denoted AgxMnOy, in which x and y are such that the manganese ions in the charged or partially charged electrodes cells have an average oxidation state greater than 3.5. The silver manganese oxide electrodes optionally contain silver powder and/or silver foil to assist in current collection at the electrodes and to improve the power capability of the cells or batteries. The invention relates also to a method for preparing AgxMnOy electrodes by decomposition of a permanganate salt, such as AgMnO4, or by the decomposition of KMnO4 or LiMnO4 in the presence of a silver salt.

  20. Drying Rough Rice in Storage. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sorenson, J. W. Jr.; Crane, L. E.

    1960-01-01

    feet columna erating schedule is drying at a rate fast enou 7.2 8 1.80 to prevent mold development. Another importa : 10 3.00 consideration is simplicity of operating instrr : 9.0 8 2.50 tions requiring a minimumjof supervision of i ( 10 4....25 drying operation. Other desirable features in : 10.8 6 1.80 fan operating schedule are maximum drying eE : 8 3.25 ciency and use of minimum air flow rates. . 'Based on data presented by C. K. Shedd (2). The direction of air movement through ri a...

  1. Semiconductor electrode with improved photostability characteristics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Frank, A.J.

    1985-02-19

    An electrode is described for use in photoelectrochemical cells having an electrolyte which includes an aqueous constituent. The electrode consists of a semiconductor and a hydrophobic film disposed between the semiconductor and the aqueous constituent. The hydrophobic film is adapted to permit charges to pass therethrough while substantially decreasing the activity of the aqueous constituent at the semiconductor surface thereby decreasing the photodegradation of the semiconductor electrode.

  2. Three-Electrode Metal Oxide Reduction Cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dees, Dennis W. (Downers Grove, IL); Ackerman, John P. (Downers Grove, IL)

    2005-06-28

    A method of electrochemically reducing a metal oxide to the metal in an electrochemical cell is disclosed along with the cell. Each of the anode and cathode operate at their respective maximum reaction rates. An electrolyte and an anode at which oxygen can be evolved, and a cathode including a metal oxide to be reduced are included as is a third electrode with independent power supplies connecting the anode and the third electrode and the cathode and the third electrode.

  3. Three-electrode metal oxide reduction cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dees, Dennis W. (Downers Groves, IL); Ackerman, John P. (Downers Grove, IL)

    2008-08-12

    A method of electrochemically reducing a metal oxide to the metal in an electrochemical cell is disclosed along with the cell. Each of the anode and cathode operate at their respective maximum reaction rates. An electrolyte and an anode at which oxygen can be evolved, and a cathode including a metal oxide to be reduced are included as is a third electrode with independent power supplies connecting the anode and the third electrode and the cathode and the third electrode.

  4. Method of making an electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Isenberg, Arnold O. (Forest Hills Boro, PA)

    1986-01-01

    Disclosed is a method of coating an electrode on a solid oxygen conductive oxide layer. A coating of particles of an electronic conductor is formed on one surface of the oxide layer and a source of oxygen is applied to the opposite surface of the oxide layer. A metal halide vapor is applied over the electronic conductor and the oxide layer is heated to a temperature sufficient to induce oxygen to diffuse through the oxide layer and react with the metal halide vapor. This results in the growing of a metal oxide coating on the particles of electronic conductor, thereby binding them to the oxide layer.

  5. Aluminum-carbon composite electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Farahmandi, C.J.; Dispennette, J.M.

    1998-07-07

    A high performance double layer capacitor having an electric double layer formed in the interface between activated carbon and an electrolyte is disclosed. The high performance double layer capacitor includes a pair of aluminum impregnated carbon composite electrodes having an evenly distributed and continuous path of aluminum impregnated within an activated carbon fiber preform saturated with a high performance electrolytic solution. The high performance double layer capacitor is capable of delivering at least 5 Wh/kg of useful energy at power ratings of at least 600 W/kg. 3 figs.

  6. Aluminum-carbon composite electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Farahmandi, C. Joseph (Auburn, AL); Dispennette, John M. (Auburn, AL)

    1998-07-07

    A high performance double layer capacitor having an electric double layer formed in the interface between activated carbon and an electrolyte is disclosed. The high performance double layer capacitor includes a pair of aluminum impregnated carbon composite electrodes having an evenly distributed and continuous path of aluminum impregnated within an activated carbon fiber preform saturated with a high performance electrolytic solution. The high performance double layer capacitor is capable of delivering at least 5 Wh/kg of useful energy at power ratings of at least 600 W/kg.

  7. Method of making an electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Isenberg, A.O.

    1986-07-01

    Disclosed is a method of coating an electrode on a solid oxygen conductive oxide layer. A coating of particles of an electronic conductor is formed on one surface of the oxide layer and a source of oxygen is applied to the opposite surface of the oxide layer. A metal halide vapor is applied over the electronic conductor and the oxide layer is heated to a temperature sufficient to induce oxygen to diffuse through the oxide layer and react with the metal halide vapor. This results in the growing of a metal oxide coating on the particles of electronic conductor, thereby binding them to the oxide layer. 2 figs.

  8. Electrode assemblies, plasma apparatuses and systems including electrode assemblies, and methods for generating plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kong, Peter C; Grandy, Jon D; Detering, Brent A; Zuck, Larry D

    2013-09-17

    Electrode assemblies for plasma reactors include a structure or device for constraining an arc endpoint to a selected area or region on an electrode. In some embodiments, the structure or device may comprise one or more insulating members covering a portion of an electrode. In additional embodiments, the structure or device may provide a magnetic field configured to control a location of an arc endpoint on the electrode. Plasma generating modules, apparatus, and systems include such electrode assemblies. Methods for generating a plasma include covering at least a portion of a surface of an electrode with an electrically insulating member to constrain a location of an arc endpoint on the electrode. Additional methods for generating a plasma include generating a magnetic field to constrain a location of an arc endpoint on an electrode.

  9. Electrically conductive connection for an electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hornack, T.R.; Chilko, R.J.

    1986-09-02

    An electrically conductive connection for an electrode assembly of an electrolyte cell in which aluminum is produced by electrolysis in a molten salt is described. The electrode assembly comprises an electrode flask and a conductor rod. The flask has a collar above an area of minimum flask diameter. The electrically conductive connection comprises the electrode flask, the conductor rod and a structure bearing against the collar and the conductor rod for pulling the conductor rod into compressive and electrical contact with the flask. 2 figs.

  10. Imaging Lithium Air Electrodes | ornl.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Neutron Imaging Reveals Lithium Distribution in Lithium-Air Electrodes Agatha Bardoel - January 01, 2013 Image produced by neutron-computed tomography. The next step in...

  11. Conductive Carbon Coatings for Electrode Materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doeff, Marca M.; Kostecki, Robert; Wilcox, James; Lau, Grace

    2007-01-01

    Raman spectrum of the carbon coating. Deconvoluted peaksConductive Carbon Coatings for Electrode Materials Marca M.for optimizing the carbon coatings on non-conductive battery

  12. Mapping Particle Charges in Battery Electrodes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of the porous electrode. Using the STXM lithium maps and the high-resolution TEM images, researchers found that LFP battery particles do not charge simultaneously....

  13. Negative electrodes for lithium cells and batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vaughey, John T.; Fransson, Linda M.; Thackeray, Michael M.

    2005-02-15

    A negative electrode is disclosed for a non-aqueous electrochemical cell. The electrode has an intermetallic compound as its basic structural unit with the formula M.sub.2 M' in which M and M' are selected from two or more metal elements including Si, and the M.sub.2 M' structure is a Cu.sub.2 Sb-type structure. Preferably M is Cu, Mn and/or Li, and M' is Sb. Also disclosed is a non-aqueous electrochemical cell having a negative electrode of the type described, an electrolyte and a positive electrode. A plurality of cells may be arranged to form a battery.

  14. Spectroscopy of Supercapacitor Electrodes In Operando

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Supercapacitor Electrodes In Operando Print Future technology will require energy storage systems that have much larger storage capability, rapid chargedischarge cycling, and...

  15. Carbon aerogel electrodes for direct energy conversion

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mayer, Steven T. (San Leandro, CA); Kaschmitter, James L. (Pleasanton, CA); Pekala, Richard W. (Pleasant Hill, CA)

    1997-01-01

    A direct energy conversion device, such as a fuel cell, using carbon aerogel electrodes, wherein the carbon aerogel is loaded with a noble catalyst, such as platinum or rhodium and soaked with phosphoric acid, for example. A separator is located between the electrodes, which are placed in a cylinder having plate current collectors positioned adjacent the electrodes and connected to a power supply, and a pair of gas manifolds, containing hydrogen and oxygen positioned adjacent the current collectors. Due to the high surface area and excellent electrical conductivity of carbon aerogels, the problems relative to high polarization resistance of carbon composite electrodes conventionally used in fuel cells are overcome.

  16. Carbon aerogel electrodes for direct energy conversion

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mayer, S.T.; Kaschmitter, J.L.; Pekala, R.W.

    1997-02-11

    A direct energy conversion device, such as a fuel cell, using carbon aerogel electrodes is described, wherein the carbon aerogel is loaded with a noble catalyst, such as platinum or rhodium and soaked with phosphoric acid, for example. A separator is located between the electrodes, which are placed in a cylinder having plate current collectors positioned adjacent the electrodes and connected to a power supply, and a pair of gas manifolds, containing hydrogen and oxygen positioned adjacent the current collectors. Due to the high surface area and excellent electrical conductivity of carbon aerogels, the problems relative to high polarization resistance of carbon composite electrodes conventionally used in fuel cells are overcome. 1 fig.

  17. Spectroscopy of Supercapacitor Electrodes In Operando

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    electrodes separated by a solid-state dielectric insulator. In a "supercapacitor," the solid-state dielectric is replaced by a liquid electrolyte with mobile ions. This...

  18. Electric filter with movable belt electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bergman, W.

    1983-09-20

    A method and apparatus for removing airborne contaminants entrained in a gas or airstream includes an electric filter characterized by a movable endless belt electrode, a grounded electrode, and a filter medium sandwiched there between. Inclusion of the movable, endless belt electrode provides the driving force for advancing the filter medium through the filter, and reduces frictional drag on the filter medium, thereby permitting a wide choice of filter medium materials. Additionally, the belt electrode includes a plurality of pleats in order to provide maximum surface area on which to collect airborne contaminants. 4 figs.

  19. Electric filter with movable belt electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bergman, Werner (Pleasanton, CA)

    1983-01-01

    A method and apparatus for removing airborne contaminants entrained in a gas or airstream includes an electric filter characterized by a movable endless belt electrode, a grounded electrode, and a filter medium sandwiched therebetween. Inclusion of the movable, endless belt electrode provides the driving force for advancing the filter medium through the filter, and reduces frictional drag on the filter medium, thereby permitting a wide choice of filter medium materials. Additionally, the belt electrode includes a plurality of pleats in order to provide maximum surface area on which to collect airborne contaminants.

  20. Mapping Particle Charges in Battery Electrodes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mapping Particle Charges in Battery Electrodes Print The deceivingly simple appearance of batteries masks their chemical complexity. A typical lithium-ion battery in a cell phone...

  1. Real-time interactions between cortical neurons and computational models : synaptic conductance analysis and digital compensation of electrode artifacts.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Destexhe, Alain

    of the electrode, considered as an arbitrary linear circuit. This circuit's impulse response is first established analysis and digital compensation of electrode artifacts. Zuzanna Piwkowska PhD thesis defended at the UNIC conductance, each generated by a stochastic process. We used this model as a basis for analysis tools allowing

  2. Sustaining dry surfaces under water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paul R. Jones; Xiuqing Hao; Eduardo R. Cruz-Chu; Konrad Rykaczewski; Krishanu Nandy; Thomas M. Schutzius; Kripa K. Varanasi; Constantine M. Megaridis; Jens H. Walther; Petros Koumoutsakos; Horacio D. Espinosa; Neelesh A. Patankar

    2014-09-29

    Rough surfaces immersed under water remain practically dry if the liquid-solid contact is on roughness peaks, while the roughness valleys are filled with gas. Mechanisms that prevent water from invading the valleys are well studied. However, to remain practically dry under water, additional mechanisms need consideration. This is because trapped gas (e.g. air) in the roughness valleys can dissolve into the water pool, leading to invasion. Additionally, water vapor can also occupy the roughness valleys of immersed surfaces. If water vapor condenses, that too leads to invasion. These effects have not been investigated, and are critically important to maintain surfaces dry under water. In this work, we identify the critical roughness scale below which it is possible to sustain the vapor phase of water and/or trapped gases in roughness valleys - thus keeping the immersed surface dry. Theoretical predictions are consistent with molecular dynamics simulations and experiments.

  3. Textile Drying Via Wood Gasification 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McGowan, T. F.; Jape, A. D.

    1983-01-01

    This project was carried out to investigate the possibility of using wood gas as a direct replacement for natural gas in textile drying. The Georgia Tech updraft gasifier was used for the experimental program. During preliminary tests, the 1 million...

  4. Geothermal Food Processors Agricultural Drying Low Temperature...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Geothermal Food Processors Agricultural Drying Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Geothermal Food Processors Agricultural Drying Low Temperature...

  5. Organic conductive films for semiconductor electrodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Frank, A.J.

    1984-01-01

    According to the present invention, improved electrodes overcoated with conductive polymer films and preselected catalysts are provided. The electrodes typically comprise an inorganic semiconductor over-coated with a charge conductive polymer film comprising a charge conductive polymer in or on which is a catalyst or charge-relaying agent.

  6. Means for limiting and ameliorating electrode shorting

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Van Konynenburg, Richard A. (Livermore, CA); Farmer, Joseph C. (Tracy, CA)

    1999-01-01

    A fuse and filter arrangement for limiting and ameliorating electrode shorting in capacitive deionization water purification systems utilizing carbon aerogel, for example. This arrangement limits and ameliorates the effects of conducting particles or debonded carbon aerogel in shorting the electrodes of a system such as a capacitive deionization water purification system. This is important because of the small interelectrode spacing and the finite possibility of debonding or fragmentation of carbon aerogel in a large system. The fuse and filter arrangement electrically protect the entire system from shutting down if a single pair of electrodes is shorted and mechanically prevents a conducting particle from migrating through the electrode stack, shorting a series of electrode pairs in sequence. It also limits the amount of energy released in a shorting event. The arrangement consists of a set of circuit breakers or fuses with one fuse or breaker in the power line connected to one electrode of each electrode pair and a set of screens of filters in the water flow channels between each set of electrode pairs.

  7. Means for limiting and ameliorating electrode shorting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Konynenburg, R.A. van; Farmer, J.C.

    1999-11-09

    A fuse and filter arrangement is described for limiting and ameliorating electrode shorting in capacitive deionization water purification systems utilizing carbon aerogel, for example. This arrangement limits and ameliorates the effects of conducting particles or debonded carbon aerogel in shorting the electrodes of a system such as a capacitive deionization water purification system. This is important because of the small interelectrode spacing and the finite possibility of debonding or fragmentation of carbon aerogel in a large system. The fuse and filter arrangement electrically protect the entire system from shutting down if a single pair of electrodes is shorted and mechanically prevents a conducting particle from migrating through the electrode stack, shorting a series of electrode pairs in sequence. It also limits the amount of energy released in a shorting event. The arrangement consists of a set of circuit breakers or fuses with one fuse or breaker in the power line connected to one electrode of each electrode pair and a set of screens of filters in the water flow channels between each set of electrode pairs.

  8. Modeling Solid-Electrolyte-Electrode Interfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Holzwarth, Natalie

    Modeling Solid-Electrolyte- Electrode Interfaces N. D. Lepley and N. A. W. Holzwarth Wake Forest University Supported by NSF grant DMR-1105485 #12;Motivation · Solid electrolyte/electrode interfaces more chemically stable · Enable Li anodes, S cathodes · Interested in characterizing interface ­ What interface

  9. Low temperature formation of electrode having electrically conductive metal oxide surface

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anders, Simone (Albany, CA); Anders, Andre (Albany, CA); Brown, Ian G. (Berkeley, CA); McLarnon, Frank R. (Orinda, CA); Kong, Fanping (Berkeley, CA)

    1998-01-01

    A low temperature process is disclosed for forming metal suboxides on substrates by cathodic arc deposition by either controlling the pressure of the oxygen present in the deposition chamber, or by controlling the density of the metal flux, or by a combination of such adjustments, to thereby control the ratio of oxide to metal in the deposited metal suboxide coating. The density of the metal flux may, in turn, be adjusted by controlling the discharge current of the arc, by adjusting the pulse length (duration of on cycle) of the arc, and by adjusting the frequency of the arc, or any combination of these parameters. In a preferred embodiment, a low temperature process is disclosed for forming an electrically conductive metal suboxide, such as, for example, an electrically conductive suboxide of titanium, on an electrode surface, such as the surface of a nickel oxide electrode, by such cathodic arc deposition and control of the deposition parameters. In the preferred embodiment, the process results in a titanium suboxide-coated nickel oxide electrode exhibiting reduced parasitic evolution of oxygen during charging of a cell made using such an electrode as the positive electrode, as well as exhibiting high oxygen overpotential, resulting in suppression of oxygen evolution at the electrode at full charge of the cell.

  10. Interfacial Interactions between Implant Electrode and Biological Environment 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chiu, Cheng-Wei 1979-

    2012-11-06

    Electrodes implanted into neural systems are known to degrade due to encapsulation by surrounding tissues. The mechanisms of electrode-tissue interactions and prediction of the behavior of electrode are yet to be achieved. This research will aim...

  11. Dielectrophoretic systems without embedded electrodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cummings, Eric B. (Livermore, CA); Singh, Anup K. (San Francisco, CA)

    2006-03-21

    Method and apparatus for dielectrophoretic separation of particles in a fluid based using array of insulating structures arranged in a fluid flow channel. By utilizing an array of insulating structures, a spatially inhomogeneous electric field is created without the use of the embedded electrodes conventionally employed for dielectrophoretic separations. Moreover, by using these insulating structures a steady applied electric field has been shown to provide for dielectrophoresis in contrast to the conventional use of an alternating electric field. In a uniform array of posts, dielectrophoretic effects have been produced flows having significant pressure-driven and electrokinetic transport. Above a threshold applied electric field, filaments of concentrated and rarefied particles appear in the flow as a result of dielectrophoresis. Above a higher threshold applied voltage, dielectrophoresis produces zones of highly concentrated and immobilized particles. These patterns are strongly influenced by the angle of the array of insulating structures with respect to the mean applied electric field and the shape of the insulating structures.

  12. Final Report - Membranes and MEA's for Dry, Hot Operating Conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hamrock, Steven J.

    2011-06-30

    The focus of this program was to develop a new Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) which can operate under hotter, dryer conditions than the state of the art membranes today and integrate it into a Membrane Electrode Assembly (MEA). These MEA's should meet the performance and durability requirements outlined in the solicitation, operating under low humidification conditions and at temperatures ranging from -20���ºC to 120���ºC, to meet 2010 DOE technical targets for membranes. This membrane should operate under low humidification conditions and at temperatures ranging from -20���ºC to 120���ºC in order to meet DOE HFCIT 2010 commercialization targets for automotive fuel cells. Membranes developed in this program may also have improved durability and performance characteristics making them useful in stationary fuel cell applications. The new membranes, and the MEA�¢����s comprising them, should be manufacturable at high volumes and at costs which can meet industry and DOE targets. This work included: A) Studies to better understand factors controlling proton transport within the electrolyte membrane, mechanisms of polymer degradation (in situ and ex situ) and membrane durability in an MEA; B) Development of new polymers with increased proton conductivity over the range of temperatures from -20���ºC to 120���ºC and at lower levels of humidification and with improved chemical and mechanical stability; C) Development of new membrane additives for increased durability and conductivity under these dry conditions; D) Integration of these new materials into membranes and membranes into MEA�¢����s, including catalyst and gas diffusion layer selection and integration; E) Verification that these materials can be made using processes which are scalable to commercial volumes using cost effective methods; F) MEA testing in single cells using realistic automotive testing protocols. This project addresses technical barriers A (Durability) and C (Performance) from the Fuel Cells section of the 2005 Hydrogen, Fuel Cells and Infrastructure Technologies Program Multi-Year R&D Plan. In the course of this four-year program we developed a new PEM with improved proton conductivity, chemical stability and mechanical stability. We incorporated this new membrane into MEAs and evaluated performance and durability.

  13. Drying/self-assembly of nanoparticle suspensions.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheng, Shengfeng; Plimpton, Steven James; Lechman, Jeremy B.; Grest, Gary Stephen

    2010-10-01

    The most feasible way to disperse particles in a bulk material or control their packing at a substrate is through fluidization in a carrier that can be processed with well-known techniques such as spin, drip and spray coating, fiber drawing, and casting. The next stage in the processing is often solidification involving drying by solvent evaporation. While there has been significant progress in the past few years in developing discrete element numerical methods to model dense nanoparticle dispersion/suspension rheology which properly treat the hydrodynamic interactions of the solvent, these methods cannot at present account for the volume reduction of the suspension due to solvent evaporation. As part of LDRD project FY-101285 we have developed and implemented methods in the current suite of discrete element methods to remove solvent particles and volume, and hence solvent mass from the liquid/vapor interface of a suspension to account for volume reduction (solvent drying) effects. To validate the methods large scale molecular dynamics simulations have been carried out to follow the evaporation process at the microscopic scale.

  14. Hierarchical electrode architectures for electrical energy storage & conversion.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zavadil, Kevin Robert; Missert, Nancy A.; Shelnutt, John Allen; van Swol, Frank B.

    2012-01-01

    The integration and stability of electrocatalytic nanostructures, which represent one level of porosity in a hierarchical structural scheme when combined with a three-dimensional support scaffold, has been studied using a combination of synthetic processes, characterization techniques, and computational methods. Dendritic platinum nanostructures have been covalently linked to common electrode surfaces using a newly developed chemical route; a chemical route equally applicable to a range of metals, oxides, and semiconductive materials. Characterization of the resulting bound nanostructure system confirms successful binding, while electrochemistry and microscopy demonstrate the viability of these electroactive particles. Scanning tunneling microscopy has been used to image and validate the short-term stability of several electrode-bound platinum dendritic sheet structures toward Oswald ripening. Kinetic Monte Carlo methods have been applied to develop an understanding of the stability of the basic nano-scale porous platinum sheets as they transform from an initial dendrite to hole containing sheets. Alternate synthetic strategies were pursued to grow dendritic platinum structures directly onto subunits (graphitic particles) of the electrode scaffold. A two-step photocatalytic seeding process proved successful at generating desirable nano-scale porous structures. Growth in-place is an alternate strategy to the covalent linking of the electrocatalytic nanostructures.

  15. Graphene-based battery electrodes having continuous flow paths...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Graphene-based battery electrodes having continuous flow paths Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Graphene-based battery electrodes having continuous flow paths Some...

  16. Pore Collapse and Regrowth in Silicon Electrodes for Rechargeable...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Pore Collapse and Regrowth in Silicon Electrodes for Rechargeable Batteries Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Pore Collapse and Regrowth in Silicon Electrodes for...

  17. Needle Electrode-Based Electromechanical Reshaping of Cartilage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Manuel, Cyrus T.; Foulad, Allen; Protsenko, Dmitriy E.; Sepehr, Ali; Wong, Brian J.

    2010-01-01

    Needle Electrode Electromechanical Reshaping of Cartilageand B. J. Wong. Electromechanical reshaping of septalElectrode-Based Electromechanical Reshaping of Cartilage C

  18. Rotating Disk-Electrode Aqueous Electrolyte Accelerated Stress...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Rotating Disk-Electrode Aqueous Electrolyte Accelerated Stress Tests for PGM ElectrocatalystSupport Durability Evaluation Rotating Disk-Electrode Aqueous Electrolyte Accelerated...

  19. Analysis of the Durability of PEM FC Membrane Electrode Assemblies...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    the Durability of PEM FC Membrane Electrode Assemblies in Automotive Applications Analysis of the Durability of PEM FC Membrane Electrode Assemblies in Automotive Applications...

  20. Positive and Negative Electrodes: Novel and Optimized Materials...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Investigation of critical parameters in Li-ion battery electrodes Novel and Optimized Materials Phases for High Energy Density Batteries Atomistic Modeling of Electrode Materials...

  1. Manufacturing of Protected Lithium Electrodes for Advanced Batteries...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Manufacturing of Protected Lithium Electrodes for Advanced Batteries Manufacturing of Protected Lithium Electrodes for Advanced Batteries PolyPlus Battery Company - Berkeley, CA A...

  2. Dry cleaning of Turkish coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cicek, T. [Dokuz Eylul University, Izmir (Turkey). Faculty of Engineering

    2008-07-01

    This study dealt with the upgrading of two different type of Turkish coal by a dry cleaning method using a modified air table. The industrial size air table used in this study is a device for removing stones from agricultural products. This study investigates the technical and economical feasibility of the dry cleaning method which has never been applied before on coals in Turkey. The application of a dry cleaning method on Turkish coals designated for power generation without generating environmental pollution and ensuring a stable coal quality are the main objectives of this study. The size fractions of 5-8, 3-5, and 1-3 mm of the investigated coals were used in the upgrading experiments. Satisfactory results were achieved with coal from the Soma region, whereas the upgrading results of Hsamlar coal were objectionable for the coarser size fractions. However, acceptable results were obtained for the size fraction 1-3 mm of Hsamlar coal.

  3. Optimization design of electrodes for anode-supported solid oxide fuel cells via genetic algorithm

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shi, J.; Xue, X.

    2011-01-01

    Porous electrode is the critical component of solid-oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) and provides a functional material backbone for multi-physicochemical processes. Model based electrode designs could significantly improve SOFC performance. This task is usually performed via parameter studies for simple case and assumed property distributions for graded electrodes. When nonlinearly coupled multiparameters of electrodes are considered, it could be very difficult for the model based parameter study method to effectively and systematically search the design space. In this research, the optimization approach with a genetic algorithm is demonstrated for this purpose. An anode-supported proton conducting SOFC integrated with a fuel supply system is utilized as a physical base for the model development and the optimization design. The optimization results are presented, which are difficult to obtain for parametric study method.

  4. Understanding the Factors Affecting the Formation of Carbonyl Iron Electrodes in Rechargeable Alkaline Iron Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Manohar, AK; Yang, CG; Malkhandi, S; Yang, B; Prakash, GKS; Narayanan, SR

    2012-01-01

    Rechargeable iron-based alkaline batteries such as iron - air and nickel - iron batteries are attractive for large-scale electrical energy storage because iron is inexpensive, globally-abundant and environmentally-friendly. Further, the iron electrode is known for its robustness to repeated charge/discharge cycling. During manufacturing these batteries are charged and discharged 20 to 50 times during which the discharge capacity of the iron electrode increases gradually and attains a stable value. This process of achieving stable capacity is called formation. In this study we have focused our efforts on understanding the effect of electrode design on formation. We have investigated the role of wetting agent, pore-former additive, and sulfide additive on the formation of carbonyl iron electrodes. The wetting agent increased the rate of formation while the pore-former additive increased the final capacity. Sodium sulfide added to the electrolyte worked as a de-passivation agent and increased the final discharge capacity. We have proposed a phenomenological model for the formation process that predicts the rate of formation and final discharge capacity given the design parameters for the electrode. The understanding gained here will be useful in reducing the time lost in formation and in maximizing the utilization of the iron electrode. (C) 2012 The Electrochemical Society. [DOI: 10.1149/2.021301jes] All rights reserved.

  5. Electrode systems for in situ vitrification

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Buelt, James L. (Richland, WA); Carter, John G. (Richland, WA); Eschbach, Eugene A. (Richland, WA); FitzPatrick, Vincent F. (Richland, WA); Koehmstedt, Paul L. (Richland, WA); Morgan, William C. (Richland, WA); Oma, Kenton H. (Richland, WA); Timmerman, Craig L. (Richland, WA)

    1990-01-01

    An electrode comprising a molybdenum rod is received within a conductive collar formed of graphite. The molybdenum rod and the graphite collar may be physically joined at the bottom. A pair of such electrodes are placed in soil containing buried waste material and an electric current is passed therebetween for vitrifying the soil. The graphite collar enhances the thermal conductivity of the combination, bringing heat to the surface, and preventing formation of a cold cap of material above the ground surface. The annulus between the molybdenum rod electrode and the graphite collar is suitably filled with a conductive ceramic powder that sinters upon the molybdenum rod, protecting the same from oxidation as graphite material is consumed, or a metal powder which liquefies at operating temperatures. The center of the molybdenum rod, used with a collar of separately, can be hollow and filled with a powdered metal, such as copper, which liquefies at operating temperatures. Connection to electrodes can be provided below ground level to avoid open circuit due to electrode deterioration, or sacrificial electrodes may be employed when operation is started. Outboard electrodes cna be utilized to square up a vitrified area.

  6. DRI Renewable Energy Center (REC) (NV)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoekman, S. Kent; Broch, Broch; Robbins, Curtis; Jacobson, Roger; Turner, Robert

    2012-12-31

    The primary objective of this project was to utilize a flexible, energy-efficient facility, called the DRI Renewable Energy Experimental Facility (REEF) to support various renewable energy research and development (R&D) efforts, along with education and outreach activities. The REEF itself consists of two separate buildings: (1) a 1200-ft2 off-grid capable house and (2) a 600-ft2 workshop/garage to support larger-scale experimental work. Numerous enhancements were made to DRI's existing renewable power generation systems, and several additional components were incorporated to support operation of the REEF House. The power demands of this house are satisfied by integrating and controlling PV arrays, solar thermal systems, wind turbines, an electrolyzer for renewable hydrogen production, a gaseous-fuel internal combustion engine/generator set, and other components. Cooling needs of the REEF House are satisfied by an absorption chiller, driven by solar thermal collectors. The REEF Workshop includes a unique, solar air collector system that is integrated into the roof structure. This system provides space heating inside the Workshop, as well as a hot water supply. The Workshop houses a custom-designed process development unit (PDU) that is used to convert woody biomass into a friable, hydrophobic char that has physical and chemical properties similar to low grade coal. Besides providing sufficient space for operation of this PDU, the REEF Workshop supplies hot water that is used in the biomass treatment process. The DRI-REEF serves as a working laboratory for evaluating and optimizing the performance of renewable energy components within an integrated, residential-like setting. The modular nature of the system allows for exploring alternative configurations and control strategies. This experimental test bed is also highly valuable as an education and outreach tool both in providing an infrastructure for student research projects, and in highlighting renewable energy features to the public.

  7. Lithium aluminum/iron sulfide battery having lithium aluminum and silicon as negative electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gilbert, M.; Kaun, T.

    1984-01-20

    A method of making a negative electrode, the electrode made thereby and a secondary electrochemical c

  8. Evaluation of electropolished stainless steel electrodes for use in DC high voltage photoelectron guns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BastaniNejad, Mahzad; Elmustafa, Abdelmageed A.; Forman, Eric; Covert, Steven; Hansknecht, John; Hernandez-Garcia, Carlos; Poelker, Matthew; Das, Lopa; Kelley, Michael; Williams, Phillip

    2015-07-01

    DC high voltage photoelectron guns are used to produce polarized electron beams for accelerator-based nuclear and high-energy physics research. Low-level field emission (~nA) from the cathode electrode degrades the vacuum within the photogun and reduces the photoelectron yield of the delicate GaAs-based photocathode used to produce the electron beams. High-level field emission (>?A) can cause significant damage the photogun. To minimize field emission, stainless steel electrodes are typically diamond-paste polished, a labor-intensive process often yielding field emission performance with a high degree of variability, sample to sample. As an alternative approach and as comparative study, the performance of electrodes electropolished by conventional commercially available methods is presented. Our observations indicate the electropolished electrodes exhibited less field emission upon the initial application of high voltage, but showed less improvement with gas conditioning compared to the diamond-paste polished electrodes. In contrast, the diamond-paste polished electrodes responded favorably to gas conditioning, and ultimately reached higher voltages and field strengths without field emission, compared to electrodes that were only electropolished. The best performing electrode was one that was both diamond-paste polished and electropolished, reaching a field strength of 18.7 MV/m while generating less than 100 pA of field emission. The speculate that the combined processes were the most effective at reducing both large and small scale topography. However, surface science evaluation indicates topography cannot be the only relevant parameter when it comes to predicting field emission performance.

  9. Evaluation of electropolished stainless steel electrodes for use in DC high voltage photoelectron guns

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    BastaniNejad, Mahzad; Elmustafa, Abdelmageed A.; Forman, Eric; Covert, Steven; Hansknecht, John; Hernandez-Garcia, Carlos; Poelker, Matthew; Das, Lopa; Kelley, Michael; Williams, Phillip

    2015-07-01

    DC high voltage photoelectron guns are used to produce polarized electron beams for accelerator-based nuclear and high-energy physics research. Low-level field emission (~nA) from the cathode electrode degrades the vacuum within the photogun and reduces the photoelectron yield of the delicate GaAs-based photocathode used to produce the electron beams. High-level field emission (>?A) can cause significant damage the photogun. To minimize field emission, stainless steel electrodes are typically diamond-paste polished, a labor-intensive process often yielding field emission performance with a high degree of variability, sample to sample. As an alternative approach and as comparative study, the performance of electrodes electropolishedmore »by conventional commercially available methods is presented. Our observations indicate the electropolished electrodes exhibited less field emission upon the initial application of high voltage, but showed less improvement with gas conditioning compared to the diamond-paste polished electrodes. In contrast, the diamond-paste polished electrodes responded favorably to gas conditioning, and ultimately reached higher voltages and field strengths without field emission, compared to electrodes that were only electropolished. The best performing electrode was one that was both diamond-paste polished and electropolished, reaching a field strength of 18.7 MV/m while generating less than 100 pA of field emission. The speculate that the combined processes were the most effective at reducing both large and small scale topography. However, surface science evaluation indicates topography cannot be the only relevant parameter when it comes to predicting field emission performance.« less

  10. Evaluation of electropolished stainless steel electrodes for use in DC high voltage photoelectron guns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BastaniNejad, Mahzad Elmustafa, Abdelmageed A.; Forman, Eric; Covert, Steven; Hansknecht, John; Hernandez-Garcia, Carlos; Poelker, Matthew; Das, Lopa; Kelley, Michael; Williams, Phillip

    2015-07-15

    DC high voltage photoelectron guns are used to produce polarized electron beams for accelerator-based nuclear and high-energy physics research. Low-level field emission (?nA) from the cathode electrode degrades the vacuum within the photogun and reduces the photoelectron yield of the delicate GaAs-based photocathode used to produce the electron beams. High-level field emission (>?A) can cause significant damage the photogun. To minimize field emission, stainless steel electrodes are typically diamond-paste polished, a labor-intensive process often yielding field emission performance with a high degree of variability, sample to sample. As an alternative approach and as comparative study, the performance of electrodes electropolished by conventional commercially available methods is presented. Our observations indicate the electropolished electrodes exhibited less field emission upon the initial application of high voltage, but showed less improvement with gas conditioning compared to the diamond-paste polished electrodes. In contrast, the diamond-paste polished electrodes responded favorably to gas conditioning, and ultimately reached higher voltages and field strengths without field emission, compared to electrodes that were only electropolished. The best performing electrode was one that was both diamond-paste polished and electropolished, reaching a field strength of 18.7 MV/m while generating less than 100?pA of field emission. The authors speculate that the combined processes were the most effective at reducing both large and small scale topography. However, surface science evaluation indicates topography cannot be the only relevant parameter when it comes to predicting field emission performance.

  11. Drying rate and temperature profile for superheated steam vacuum drying and moist air drying of softwood lumber

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pang, S.; Dakin, M. [New Zealand Forest Research Inst., Ltd., Rotorua (New Zealand). Mfg. Technologies Portfolio

    1999-07-01

    Two charges of green radiata pine sapwood lumber were dried, ether using superheated steam under vacuum (90 C, 0.2 bar abs.) or conventionally using hot moist air (90/60 C). Due to low density of the drying medium under vacuum, the circulation velocity used was 10 m/s for superheated steam drying and 5.0 m/s for moist air drying, and in both cases, the flow was unidirectional. In drying, stack drying rate and wood temperatures were measured to examine the differences between the superheated steam drying and drying using hot moist air. The experimental results have shown that the stack edge board in superheated steam drying dried faster than in the hot moist air drying. Once again due to the low density of the steam under vacuum, a prolonged maximum temperature drop across load (TDAL) was observed in the superheated steam drying, however, the whole stack dried slower and the final moisture content distribution was more variable than for conventional hot moist air drying.

  12. Gas permeable electrode for electrochemical system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ludwig, Frank A. (Rancho Palos Verdes, CA); Townsend, Carl W. (Los Angeles, CA)

    1989-01-01

    An electrode apparatus adapted for use in electrochemical systems having an anode compartment and a cathode compartment in which gas and ions are produced and consumed in the compartments during generation of electrical current. The electrode apparatus includes a membrane for separating the anode compartment from the cathode compartment wherein the membrane is permeable to both ions and gas. The cathode and anode for the assembly are provided on opposite sides of the membrane. During use of the membrane-electrode apparatus in electrochemical cells, the gas and ions generated at the cathode or anode migrate through the membrane to provide efficient transfer of gas and ions between the anode and cathode compartments.

  13. Redox polymer electrodes for advanced batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gregg, Brian A. (Golden, CO); Taylor, A. Michael (Golden, CO)

    1998-01-01

    Advanced batteries having a long cycle lifetime are provided. More specifically, the present invention relates to electrodes made from redox polymer films and batteries in which either the positive electrode, the negative electrode, or both, comprise redox polymers. Suitable redox polymers for this purpose include pyridyl or polypyridyl complexes of transition metals like iron, ruthenium, osmium, chromium, tungsten and nickel; porphyrins (either free base or metallo derivatives); phthalocyanines (either free base or metallo derivatives); metal complexes of cyclams, such as tetraazacyclotetradecane; metal complexes of crown ethers and metallocenes such as ferrocene, cobaltocene and ruthenocene.

  14. Process for forming sulfuric acid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lu, Wen-Tong P. (Upper St. Clair, PA)

    1981-01-01

    An improved electrode is disclosed for the anode in a sulfur cycle hydrogen generation process where sulfur dioxie is oxidized to form sulfuric acid at the anode. The active compound in the electrode is palladium, palladium oxide, an alloy of palladium, or a mixture thereof. The active compound may be deposited on a porous, stable, conductive substrate.

  15. Powder treatment process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weyand, J.D.

    1988-02-09

    Disclosed are: (1) a process comprising spray drying a powder-containing slurry, the slurry containing a powder constituent susceptible of oxidizing under the temperature conditions of the spray drying, while reducing the tendency for oxidation of the constituent by including as a liquid constituent of the slurry an organic liquid; (2) a process comprising spray drying a powder-containing slurry, the powder having been pretreated to reduce content of a powder constituent susceptible of oxidizing under the temperature conditions of the spray drying, the pretreating comprising heating the powder to react the constituent; and (3) a process comprising reacting ceramic powder, grinding the reacted powder, slurrying the ground powder, spray drying the slurried powder, and blending the dried powder with metal powder. 2 figs.

  16. Cool, Dry, Quiet Dehumidification with

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    dehumidification system as the best new HVAC dehumidification product for 2006. #12;Trane CDQTM (Cool Dry Quiet are optional. Size range is 1,000 - 70,000 cfm. Note: Under LEED, this unit may qualify for innovation points qualify for innovation points. Trane Climate ChangerTM air handler with CDQ dehumidification Trane Climate

  17. POC-SCALE TESTING OF A DRY TRIBOELECTROSTATIC SEPARATOR FOR FINE COAL CLEANING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R.H. Yoon; G.H. Luttrell; E.S. Yan; A.D. Walters

    2001-04-30

    Numerous advanced coal cleaning processes have been developed in recent years that are capable of substantially reducing both ash- and sulfur-forming minerals from coal. However, most of the processes involve fine grinding and use water as the cleaning medium; therefore, the clean coal products must be dewatered before they can be transported and burned. Unfortunately, dewatering fine coal is costly, which makes it difficult to deploy advanced coal cleaning processes for commercial applications. As a means of avoiding problems associated with the fine coal dewatering, the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) developed a dry coal cleaning process in which mineral matter is separated from coal without using water. In this process, pulverized coal is subjected to triboelectrification before being placed in an electric field for electrostatic separation. The triboelectrification is accomplished by passing a pulverized coal through an in-line mixer made of copper. Copper has a work function that lies between that of carbonaceous material (coal) and mineral matter. Thus, coal particles impinging on the copper wall lose electrons to the metal thereby acquiring positive charges, while mineral matter impinging on the wall gain electrons to acquire negative charges. The charged particles then pass through an electric field where they are separated according to their charges into two or more products depending on the configuration of the separator. The results obtained at NETL showed that it is capable of removing more than 90% of the pyritic sulfur and 70% of the ash-forming minerals from a number of eastern U.S. coals. However, the BTU recoveries were less than desirable. The laboratory-scale batch triboelectrostatic separator (TES) used by NETL relied on adhering charged particles on parallel electrode surfaces and scraping them off. Therefore, its throughput will be proportional to the electrode surface area. If this laboratory device is scaled-up as is, it would suffer from low throughput capacities and high maintenance requirements. In general, surface area-based separators (e.g., shaking tables, magnetic drum separator, electrodynamic separator, etc.) have lower throughput capacities than volume-based separators (e.g., flotation cell, dense-medium bath, cyclones, etc.) by an order of magnitude. Furthermore, the electrodes of the laboratory unit need to be cleaned frequently, creating a high maintenance requirement if it is scaled-up to a commercial unit. The bench-scale continuous TES unit developed at NETL, on the other hand, separates positively and negatively charged particles by splitting the gaseous stream containing these particles in an electric field by means of a flow splitter, so that the oppositely charged particles can be directed into different compartments. This device is fundamentally different from the laboratory unit in that the former is a surface area-based separator, while the latter is a volume-based separator. The bench-scale unit is referred to as an entrained flow separator by the in-house researchers at NETL. Thus, the entrained flow TES unit is a significant improvement over the laboratory unit with regard to throughput capacity. In the present work, the entrained flow separator concept will be utilized for developing a proof-of concept (POC) separator that can be scaled-up to commercial size units. To accomplish this, it is necessary to develop a bench-scale separator that can achieve high Btu recoveries while maintaining the high degree of separation efficiencies. It is the objective of the present investigation to develop an efficient separator by studying the mechanisms of triboelectrification and investigating better ways of separating the charged particles. An important criterion for developing efficient separators is that they not only provide high separation efficiencies but also have high throughput capacities, which are essential ingredients for successful commercialization.

  18. Reinforced Electrode Architecture for a Flexible Battery with Paperlike Characteristics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gaikwad, AM; Chu, HN; Qeraj, R; Zamarayeva, AM; Steingart, DA

    2013-02-10

    Compliant energy storage has not kept pace with flexible electronics. Herein we demonstrate a technique to reinforce arbitrary battery electrodes by supporting them with mechanically tough, low-cost fibrous membranes, which also serve as the separator. The membranes were laminated to form a full cell, and this stacked membrane reinforcement bears the loads during flexing. This technique was used to make a high energy density, nontoxic Zn-MnO2 battery with printed current collectors. The Zn and MnO2 electrodes were prepared by using a solution-based embedding process. The cell had a nominal potential of 1.5 V and an effective capacity of approximately 3 mA h cm(-2). We investigated the effect of bending and fatigue on the electrochemical performance and mechanical integrity of the battery. The battery was able to maintain its capacity even after 1000 flex cycles to a bend radius of 2.54 cm. The battery showed an improvement in discharge capacity (ca. 10%) if the MnO2 electrode was flexed to tension as a result of the improvement of particle-to-particle contact. In a demonstration, the flexible battery was used to power a light-emitting diode display integrated with a strain sensor and microcontroller.

  19. Field Emission Measurements from Niobium Electrodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M. BastaniNejad, P.A. Adderley, J. Clark, S. Covert, J. Hansknecht, C. Hernandez-Garcia, R. Mammei, M. Poelker

    2011-03-01

    Increasing the operating voltage of a DC high voltage photogun serves to minimize space charge induced emittance growth and thereby preserve electron beam brightness, however, field emission from the photogun cathode electrode can pose significant problems: constant low level field emission degrades vacuum via electron stimulated desorption which in turn reduces photocathode yield through chemical poisoning and/or ion bombardment and high levels of field emission can damage the ceramic insulator. Niobium electrodes (single crystal, large grain and fine grain) were characterized using a DC high voltage field emission test stand at maximum voltage -225kV and electric field gradient > 10MV/m. Niobium electrodes appear to be superior to diamond-paste polished stainless steel electrodes.

  20. Magnetron cathodes in plasma electrode Pockels cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rhodes, M.A.

    1995-04-25

    Magnetron cathodes, which produce high current discharges, form greatly improved plasma electrodes on each side of an electro-optic crystal. The plasma electrode has a low pressure gas region on both sides of the crystal. When the gas is ionized, e.g., by a glow discharge in the low pressure gas, the plasma formed is a good conductor. The gas electrode acts as a highly uniform conducting electrode. Since the plasma is transparent to a high energy laser beam passing through the crystal, the plasma is transparent. A crystal exposed from two sides to such a plasma can be charged up uniformly to any desired voltage. A typical configuration utilizes helium at 50 millitorr operating pressure and 2 kA discharge current. The magnetron cathode produces a more uniform plasma and allows a reduced operating pressure which leads to lower plasma resistivity and a more uniform charge on the crystal. 5 figs.

  1. Challenges for Na-ion Negative Electrodes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chevrier, Vincent L.

    Na-ion batteries have been proposed as candidates for replacing Li-ion batteries. In this paper we examine the viability of Na-ion negative electrode materials based on Na alloys or hard carbons in terms of volumetric ...

  2. Electrode for molten carbonate fuel cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Iacovangelo, Charles D. (Schenectady, NY); Zarnoch, Kenneth P. (Clifton Park, NY)

    1983-01-01

    A sintered porous electrode useful for a molten carbonate fuel cell is produced which is composed of a plurality of 5 wt. % to 95 wt. % nickel balance copper alloy encapsulated ceramic particles sintered together by the alloy.

  3. Fabricating solid carbon porous electrodes from powders

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kaschmitter, J.L.; Tran, T.D.; Feikert, J.H.; Mayer, S.T.

    1997-06-10

    Fabrication is described for conductive solid porous carbon electrodes for use in batteries, double layer capacitors, fuel cells, capacitive deionization, and waste treatment. Electrodes fabricated from low surface area (<50 m{sup 2}/gm) graphite and cokes exhibit excellent reversible lithium intercalation characteristics, making them ideal for use as anodes in high voltage lithium insertion (lithium-ion) batteries. Electrodes having a higher surface area, fabricated from powdered carbon blacks, such as carbon aerogel powder, carbon aerogel microspheres, activated carbons, etc. yield high conductivity carbon composites with excellent double layer capacity, and can be used in double layer capacitors, or for capacitive deionization and/or waste treatment of liquid streams. By adding metallic catalysts to high surface area carbons, fuel cell electrodes can be produced. 1 fig.

  4. Fabricating solid carbon porous electrodes from powders

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kaschmitter, James L. (Pleasanton, CA); Tran, Tri D. (Livermore, CA); Feikert, John H. (Livermore, CA); Mayer, Steven T. (San Leandro, CA)

    1997-01-01

    Fabrication of conductive solid porous carbon electrodes for use in batteries, double layer capacitors, fuel cells, capacitive dionization, and waste treatment. Electrodes fabricated from low surface area (<50 m.sup.2 /gm) graphite and cokes exhibit excellent reversible lithium intercalation characteristics, making them ideal for use as anodes in high voltage lithium insertion (lithium-ion) batteries. Electrodes having a higher surface area, fabricated from powdered carbon blacks, such as carbon aerogel powder, carbon aerogel microspheres, activated carbons, etc. yield high conductivity carbon compositives with excellent double layer capacity, and can be used in double layer capacitors, or for capacitive deionization and/or waste treatment of liquid streams. By adding metallic catalysts to be high surface area carbons, fuel cell electrodes can be produced.

  5. Manganese oxide composite electrodes for lithium batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnson, Christopher S. (Naperville, IL); Kang, Sun-Ho (Naperville, IL); Thackeray, Michael M. (Naperville, IL)

    2009-12-22

    An activated electrode for a non-aqueous electrochemical cell is disclosed with a precursor thereof a lithium metal oxide with the formula xLi.sub.2MnO.sub.3.(1-x)LiMn.sub.2-yM.sub.yO.sub.4 for 0.5electrode and 0.ltoreq.y<1 in which the Li.sub.2MnO.sub.3 and LiMn.sub.2-yM.sub.yO.sub.4 components have layered and spinel-type structures, respectively, and in which M is one or more metal cations. The electrode is activated by removing lithia, or lithium and lithia, from the precursor. A cell and battery are also disclosed incorporating the disclosed positive electrode.

  6. Advanced membrane electrode assemblies for fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kim, Yu Seung; Pivovar, Bryan S

    2014-02-25

    A method of preparing advanced membrane electrode assemblies (MEA) for use in fuel cells. A base polymer is selected for a base membrane. An electrode composition is selected to optimize properties exhibited by the membrane electrode assembly based on the selection of the base polymer. A property-tuning coating layer composition is selected based on compatibility with the base polymer and the electrode composition. A solvent is selected based on the interaction of the solvent with the base polymer and the property-tuning coating layer composition. The MEA is assembled by preparing the base membrane and then applying the property-tuning coating layer to form a composite membrane. Finally, a catalyst is applied to the composite membrane.

  7. Advanced membrane electrode assemblies for fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kim, Yu Seung; Pivovar, Bryan S.

    2012-07-24

    A method of preparing advanced membrane electrode assemblies (MEA) for use in fuel cells. A base polymer is selected for a base membrane. An electrode composition is selected to optimize properties exhibited by the membrane electrode assembly based on the selection of the base polymer. A property-tuning coating layer composition is selected based on compatibility with the base polymer and the electrode composition. A solvent is selected based on the interaction of the solvent with the base polymer and the property-tuning coating layer composition. The MEA is assembled by preparing the base membrane and then applying the property-tuning coating layer to form a composite membrane. Finally, a catalyst is applied to the composite membrane.

  8. Nanostructured Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Electrodes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sholklapper, Tal Zvi

    2007-01-01

    in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC IX), S. C. Singhal and J.create connected nanostructured SOFC electrodes is reviewed.of Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC) to directly and efficiently

  9. Elec 331 -Bio-Potential Electrodes Review Definitions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pulfrey, David L.

    Elec 331 - Bio-Potential Electrodes 1 Review Definitions · Ion Charged particle (molecule / atom - Bio-Potential Electrodes 2 Polarizable Electrodes · No chemical reaction / electron / ion exchange minimizes motion artifact · Pull hard to remove #12;Elec 331 - Bio-Potential Electrodes 3 Non

  10. Electrode immersion depth determination and control in electroslag remelting furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Melgaard, David K. (Albuquerque, NM); Beaman, Joseph J. (Austin, TX); Shelmidine, Gregory J. (Tijeras, NM)

    2007-02-20

    An apparatus and method for controlling an electroslag remelting furnace comprising adjusting electrode drive speed by an amount proportional to a difference between a metric of electrode immersion and a set point, monitoring impedance or voltage, and calculating the metric of electrode immersion depth based upon a predetermined characterization of electrode immersion depth as a function of impedance or voltage.

  11. Electrode electrolyte interlayers containing cerium oxide for electrochemical fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Borglum, Brian P. (Edgewood, PA); Bessette, Norman F. (N. Huntingdon, PA)

    2000-01-01

    An electrochemical cell is made having a porous fuel electrode (16) and a porous air electrode (13), with solid oxide electrolyte (15) therebetween, where the air electrode surface opposing the electrolyte has a separate, attached, dense, continuous layer (14) of a material containing cerium oxide, and where electrolyte (16) contacts the continuous oxide layer (14), without contacting the air electrode (13).

  12. Membrane-electrode assemblies for electrochemical cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Swathirajan, Sundararajan (Troy, MI); Mikhail, Youssef M. (Sterling Heights, MI)

    1993-01-01

    A combination, unitary, membrane and electrode assembly with a solid polymer electrolyte membrane, and first and second electrodes at least partially embedded in opposed surfaces of the membrane. The electrodes each comprise a respective group of finely divided carbon particles, very finely divided catalytic particles supported on internal and external surfaces of the carbon particles and a proton conductive material intermingled with the catalytic and carbon particles. A first group of finely divided carbon particles forming the first electrode has greater water attraction and retention properties, and is more hydrophilic than a second group of carbon particles forming the second electrode. In a preferred method, the membrane electrode assembly of the invention is prepared by forming a slurry of proton conductive material and at least one group of the carbon and catalyst particles. The slurry is applied to the opposed surfaces of the membrane and heated while being pressed to the membrane for a time and at a temperature and compressive load sufficient to embed at least a portion of the particles into the membrane.

  13. Capacitive, deionization with carbon aerogel electrodes: Carbonate, sulfate, and phosphate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farmer, J.C.; Fix, D.V.; Mack, G.V.; Pekala, R.W.; Poco, J.F.

    1995-07-24

    A process for the capacitive deionization (CDI) of water with a stack of carbon aerogel electrodes has been developed by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Unlike ion exchange, one of the more conventional deionization processes, no chemicals are required for regeneration of the system. Electricity is used instead. Water with various anions and cations is pumped through the electrochemical cell. After polarization, ions are electrostatically removed from the water and held in the electric double layers formed at the surfaces of electrodes. The water leaving the cell is purified, as desired. The effects of cell voltage on the electrosorption capacities for Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, Na{sub 3}PO{sub 4}, and Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} have been investigated and are reported here. Results for NaCl and NaNO{sub 3} have been reported previously. Possible applications for CDI are as a replacement for ion exchange processes which remove heavy metals and radioisotopes from process and waste water in various industries, as well as to remove inorganic ions from feedwater for fossil and nuclear power plants.

  14. Influence of finite geometrical asymmetry of the electrodes in capacitively coupled radio frequency plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bora, B., E-mail: bbora@cchen.cl; Soto, L. [Comisión Chilena de Energía Nuclear, Santiago, Chile and Center for Research and Applications in Plasma Physics and Pulsed Power, P4 (Chile)

    2014-08-15

    Capacitively coupled radio frequency (CCRF) plasmas are widely studied in last decades due to the versatile applicability of energetic ions, chemically active species, radicals, and also energetic neutral species in many material processing fields including microelectronics, aerospace, and biology. A dc self-bias is known to generate naturally in geometrically asymmetric CCRF plasma because of the difference in electrode sizes known as geometrical asymmetry of the electrodes in order to compensate electron and ion flux to each electrode within one rf period. The plasma series resonance effect is also come into play due to the geometrical asymmetry and excited several harmonics of the fundamental in low pressure CCRF plasma. In this work, a 13.56?MHz CCRF plasma is studied on the based on the nonlinear global model of asymmetric CCRF discharge to understand the influences of finite geometrical asymmetry of the electrodes in terms of generation of dc self-bias and plasma heating. The nonlinear global model on asymmetric discharge has been modified by considering the sheath at the grounded electrode to taking account the finite geometrical asymmetry of the electrodes. The ion density inside both the sheaths has been taken into account by incorporating the steady-state fluid equations for ions considering that the applied rf frequency is higher than the typical ion plasma frequency. Details results on the influences of geometrical asymmetry on the generation of dc self-bias and plasma heating are discussed.

  15. Ethanol production with dilute acid hydrolysis using partially dried lignocellulosics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nguyen, Quang A. (Chesterfield, MO); Keller, Fred A. (Lakewood, CO); Tucker, Melvin P. (Lakewood, CO)

    2003-12-09

    A process of converting lignocellulosic biomass to ethanol, comprising hydrolyzing lignocellulosic materials by subjecting dried lignocellulosic material in a reactor to a catalyst comprised of a dilute solution of a strong acid and a metal salt to lower the activation energy (i.e., the temperature) of cellulose hydrolysis and ultimately obtain higher sugar yields.

  16. Suppression of Heating Rates in Cryogenic Surface-Electrode Ion Traps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jaroslaw Labaziewicz; Yufei Ge; Paul Antohi; David Leibrandt; Kenneth R. Brown; Isaac L. Chuang

    2007-11-16

    Dense arrays of trapped ions provide one way of scaling up ion trap quantum information processing. However, miniaturization of ion traps is currently limited by sharply increasing motional state decoherence at sub-100 um ion-electrode distances. We characterize heating rates in cryogenically cooled surface-electrode traps, with characteristic sizes in 75 um to 150 um range. Upon cooling to 6 K, the measured rates are suppressed by 7 orders of magnitude, two orders of magnitude below previously published data of similarly sized traps operated at room temperature. The observed noise depends strongly on fabrication process, which suggests further improvements are possible.

  17. A batch fabricated biomimetic dry adhesive

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Northen, Michael T; Turner, K L

    2005-01-01

    nano-structures as dry adhesives J. Adhesion Sci. Technol.al 2003 Microfabricated adhesive mimicking gecko foot-hairfabricated biomimetic dry adhesive Michael T Northen 1,3 and

  18. Steam drying of products containing solvent mixtures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pothmann, E.; Schluender, E.U. [Univ. Karlsruhe (Germany). Inst. fuer Thermische Verfahrenstechnik

    1995-12-31

    Drying experiments with single, porous spheres wetted with mixtures of 2-propanol and water were performed using superheated steam, air, or steam-air mixtures as drying agent. Both the drying rate and the moisture composition were determined experimentally for different temperatures and compositions of the drying agent and for different initial compositions of the moisture. It is shown that evaporation of 2-propanol is enhanced by using superheated steam as drying agent instead of air due to steam condensing on the sample. While the overall drying rate increases with rising steam temperature, the evaporation rate of 2-propanol is hardly affected. When drying samples containing mixtures of 2-propanol and water, internal boiling can occur depending on the vapor-liquid equilibrium. Vapor generated inside the sample may cause mechanical dewatering of the sample which greatly increases the drying rate.

  19. Charge Storage in Organic Electrodes for Energy & Electrochemical Applications 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jeon, Ju Won

    2014-10-15

    ………………………………………………………………...………138 vii LIST OF FIGURES Page 1.1 Various cathode and anode materials with their potential and capacity..……...……3 1.2 Schematic illustration of the discharge and charge processes of a lithium rechargeable battery....13 Graphs of log i vs. log ? for (a) anodic and (b) cathodic scans of the 347 nm thick (PANI-NF2.5/ERGO3.5) LbL electrodes used to obtain b values. The calculation was performed using cyclic voltammograms from 1 to 5 mV/s….....101 4.14 Calculated b...

  20. Compton Dry-Cask Imaging System

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2013-05-28

    The Compton-Dry Cask Imaging Scanner is a system that verifies and documents the presence of spent nuclear fuel rods in dry-cask storage and determines their isotopic composition without moving or opening the cask. For more information about this project, visit http://www.inl.gov/rd100/2011/compton-dry-cask-imaging-system/

  1. Compton Dry-Cask Imaging System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2011-01-01

    The Compton-Dry Cask Imaging Scanner is a system that verifies and documents the presence of spent nuclear fuel rods in dry-cask storage and determines their isotopic composition without moving or opening the cask. For more information about this project, visit http://www.inl.gov/rd100/2011/compton-dry-cask-imaging-system/

  2. Porous electrode apparatus for electrodeposition of detailed metal structures or microelectronic interconnections

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Griffiths, Stewart K. (Danville, CA); Nilson, Robert H. (Cardiff, CA); Hruby, Jill M. (Livermore, CA)

    2002-01-01

    An apparatus and procedure for performing microfabrication of detailed metal structures by electroforming metal deposits within small cavities. Two primary areas of application are: the LIGA process which manufactures complex three-dimensional metal parts and the damascene process used for electroplating line and via interconnections of microelectronic devices. A porous electrode held in contact or in close proximity with a plating substrate or mold top to ensure one-dimensional and uniform current flow into all mold cavities is used. Electrolyte is pumped over the exposed surface of the porous electrode to ensure uniform ion concentrations at this external surface. The porous electrode prevents electrolyte circulation within individual mold cavities, avoiding preferential enhancement of ion transport in cavities having favorable geometries. Both current flow and ion transport are one-dimensional and identical in all mold cavities, so all metal deposits grow at the same rate eliminating nonuniformities of the prior art.

  3. Method of preparation of carbon materials for use as electrodes in rechargeable batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Doddapaneni, N.; Wang, J.C.F.; Crocker, R.W.; Ingersoll, D.; Firsich, D.W.

    1999-03-16

    A method is described for producing carbon materials for use as electrodes in rechargeable batteries. Electrodes prepared from these carbon materials exhibit intercalation efficiencies of {approx_equal} 80% for lithium, low irreversible loss of lithium, long cycle life, are capable of sustaining a high rates of discharge and are cheap and easy to manufacture. The method comprises a novel two-step stabilization process in which polymeric precursor materials are stabilized by first heating in an inert atmosphere and subsequently heating in air. During the stabilization process, the polymeric precursor material can be agitated to reduce particle fusion and promote mass transfer of oxygen and water vapor. The stabilized, polymeric precursor materials can then be converted to a synthetic carbon, suitable for fabricating electrodes for use in rechargeable batteries, by heating to a high temperature in a flowing inert atmosphere. 4 figs.

  4. Method of preparation of carbon materials for use as electrodes in rechargeable batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Doddapaneni, Narayan (Alburquerque, NM); Wang, James C. F. (Livermore, CA); Crocker, Robert W. (Fremont, CA); Ingersoll, David (Alburquerque, NM); Firsich, David W. (Dayton, OH)

    1999-01-01

    A method of producing carbon materials for use as electrodes in rechargeable batteries. Electrodes prepared from these carbon materials exhibit intercalation efficiencies of .apprxeq.80% for lithium, low irreversible loss of lithium, long cycle life, are capable of sustaining a high rates of discharge and are cheap and easy to manufacture. The method comprises a novel two-step stabilization process in which polymeric precursor materials are stabilized by first heating in an inert atmosphere and subsequently heating in air. During the stabilization process, the polymeric precursor material can be agitated to reduce particle fusion and promote mass transfer of oxygen and water vapor. The stabilized, polymeric precursor materials can then be converted to a synthetic carbon, suitable for fabricating electrodes for use in rechargeable batteries, by heating to a high temperature in a flowing inert atmosphere.

  5. Nanopowder molding method for creating implantable high-aspect-ratio electrodes on thin flexible substrates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hu, Zhiyu [ORNL; Thundat, Thomas George [ORNL

    2006-03-01

    Metal nanoparticles and a nanopowder molding process were used to fabricate 2D and 3D patternable structures having a height-to-width ratio of up to 10:1. By means of this process, an entire neural stimulation circuit, including stimulating electrode, connection trace, and contact pad, can be fused into one continuous, integrated structure where different sections can have different heights, widths, and shapes. The technique is suitable for mass production, and the fabricated electrode is robust and very flexible. More importantly for biomedical applications, the entire fabricated structure can be packed at room temperature onto a biocompatible flexible substrate, such as polydimethylsiloxane, parylene, and polyimide as well as other temperature-sensitive or vacuum-sensitive materials. The electrodes and wires have about the same electrical resistivities as bulk materials and desirable electrochemical properties, including low impedance.

  6. Inert electrode composition having agent for controlling oxide growth on electrode made therefrom

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ray, S.P.

    1986-04-15

    An improved inert electrode composition is suitable for use as an inert electrode in the production of metals such as aluminum by the electrolytic reduction of metal oxide or metal salt dissolved in a molten salt bath. The composition comprises one or more metal alloys and metal compounds which may include oxides of the metals comprising the alloy. The alloy and metal compounds are interwoven in a network which provides improved electrical conductivity and mechanical strength while preserving the level of chemical inertness necessary for such an electrode to function satisfactorily. The electrode composition further includes a metal compound dopant which will aid in controlling the thickness of a protective oxide layer on at least the bottom portion of an electrode made therefrom during use. 12 figs.

  7. Inert electrode composition having agent for controlling oxide growth on electrode made therefrom

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ray, Siba P. (Plum Boro, PA)

    1986-01-01

    An improved inert electrode composition is suitable for use as an inert electrode in the production of metals such as aluminum by the electrolytic reduction of metal oxide or metal salt dissolved in a molten salt bath. The composition comprises one or more metal alloys and metal compounds which may include oxides of the metals comprising the alloy. The alloy and metal compounds are interwoven in a network which provides improved electrical conductivity and mechanical strength while preserving the level of chemical inertness necessary for such an electrode to function satisfactorily. The electrode composition further includes a metal compound dopant which will aid in controlling the thickness of a protective oxide layer on at least the bottom portion of an electrode made therefrom during use.

  8. Determination of hexabromocyclododecane in waste waters with a bromide-selective electrode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paama, L.A.; Kokk, K.Y.

    1985-11-01

    This paper presents a method for the determination of microquantities of hexabromocyclodecane (HBCD), an antipyrene for the reduction of the flammability of frothing polystyrene in industrial waste waters. The method is based on the extraction of HBCD from waste waters with chloroform, evaporation of the chloroform from the extracts in a stream of air, mineralization of the dry residues, and determination of the bromide ions with a bromine-selective electrode. One of the simpler approaches is given as based on alkaline hydrolysis with dimethyl formamide or in the presence of metallic cadmium. The dry residues after evaporation of the chloroform were decomposed by boiling in a KOH solution in the presence of metallic zinc.

  9. Optimization and neural modelling of pulse combustors for drying applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zbicinski, I.; Smucerowicz, I.; Strumillo, C.; Kasznia, J.; Stawczyk, J.; Murlikiewicz, K. [Technical Univ. of Lodz (Poland). Faculty of Process and Environmental Engineering

    1999-03-01

    Results of investigations of a valved pulse combustor to choose optimal geometry, which covered measurements of the flow rates of air and fuel, pressure oscillations, including pressure amplitude and frequency and flue gas composition are presented in the paper. Experimental studies comparing the operation of the pulse combustor coupled with a drying chamber and working separately are described. It was found that coupling of the pulse combustor with a drying chamber had no significant effect on the pulse combustion process. Smoother runs of pressure oscillations in the combustion chamber, lower noise level and slightly higher NO{sub x} emission were observed. The velocity flow field inside the drying chamber was measured by LDA technique. Results confirmed a complex character of pulsating flow in the chamber. A large experimental data set obtained from measurements enabled developing a neural model of pulse combustion process. Artificial neural networks were trained to predict amplitudes and frequencies of pressure oscillations, temperatures in the combustion chamber and emission of toxic substances. An excellent mapping performance of the developed neural models was obtained. Due to complex character of the pulse combustion process, the application of artificial neural networks seems to be the best way to predict inlet parameters of drying agent produced by the pulse combustor.

  10. Assessment of superheated steam drying of wood waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Woods, B.G.; Nguyen, Y.; Bruce, S.

    1994-12-31

    A 5 MW co-generation facility using wood waste is described which will supply power to Ontario Hydro, steam to the sawmill for process heating, and hot water for district heating customers in the town. The use of superheated steam for drying the wood was investigated to determine the impact on boiler performance, the environmental impact and the economic feasibility. The main benefit with superheated steam drying is the reduction in VOC emissions. The capital cost is currently higher with superheated steam drying, but further investigation is warranted to determine if the cost reductions which could be achieved by manufacturing the major components in North America are sufficient to make the technology cost competitive.

  11. Coupling dry deposition to vegetation phenology in the Community Earth System Model: Implications for the simulation of surface O[subscript 3

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Val?Martin, M.

    Dry deposition is an important removal process controlling surface ozone. We examine the representation of this ozone loss mechanism in the Community Earth System Model. We first correct the dry deposition parameterization ...

  12. Dry Transfer Systems for Used Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brett W. Carlsen; Michaele BradyRaap

    2012-05-01

    The potential need for a dry transfer system (DTS) to enable retrieval of used nuclear fuel (UNF) for inspection or repackaging will increase as the duration and quantity of fuel in dry storage increases. This report explores the uses for a DTS, identifies associated general functional requirements, and reviews existing and proposed systems that currently perform dry fuel transfers. The focus of this paper is on the need for a DTS to enable transfer of bare fuel assemblies. Dry transfer systems for UNF canisters are currently available and in use for transferring loaded canisters between the drying station and storage and transportation casks.

  13. Process for electrochemically gasifying coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Botts, T.E.; Powell, J.R.

    1985-10-25

    A process is claimed for electrochemically gasifying coal by establishing a flowing stream of coal particulate slurry, electrolyte and electrode members through a transverse magnetic field that has sufficient strength to polarize the electrode members, thereby causing them to operate in combination with the electrolyte to electrochemically reduce the coal particulate in the slurry. Such electrochemical reduction of the coal produces hydrogen and carbon dioxide at opposite ends of the polarized electrode members. Gas collection means are operated in conjunction with the process to collect the evolved gases as they rise from the slurry and electrolyte solution. 7 figs.

  14. Dry-cleaning of graphene

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Algara-Siller, Gerardo; Lehtinen, Ossi; Kaiser, Ute; Turchanin, Andrey

    2014-04-14

    Studies of the structural and electronic properties of graphene in its pristine state are hindered by hydrocarbon contamination on the surfaces. Also, in many applications, contamination reduces the performance of graphene. Contamination is introduced during sample preparation and is adsorbed also directly from air. Here, we report on the development of a simple dry-cleaning method for producing large atomically clean areas in free-standing graphene. The cleanness of graphene is proven using aberration-corrected high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and electron spectroscopy.

  15. Fuel cell electrode and method of preparation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kaun, T.D

    1984-03-02

    A fuel cell having good resistance to compressive creep includes electrodes having a superstructure of porous electrically conductive foam with surface sections adjacent to opposing surfaces of an electrolyte matrix impregnated with electrode catalyst materials. The catalyst materials are affixed in sections contiguous to an inner major surface by sinter bonding, electrochemical bonding or restrictive interstitial spacing. The outer sections of the porous plaque thickness are reserved for gas distribution to the electrode catalyst. Oxidant and fuel gases can be separately manifolded into alternate sides of a fuel cell stack by sealing opposing edges of the porous plaques containing the anode material in one set of opposing side surfaces and sealing opposing edges of the porous plaque containing cathode material in alternate side surfaces of the stack.

  16. Carbon fiber electrode for redox flow battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Inoue, M.; Tsuzuki, Y.; Iizuka, Y.; Shimada, M.

    1987-03-01

    Advanced secondary batteries have been developed as electrical energy storage systems for use in electrical utility load-levelling and stand-alone photovoltaic installations. Among them, the redox flow system based on aqueous iron and chromium redox couple is one of the most advanced. An important key to its feasibility is electrode fabrication. Woven and non-woven fabrics of carbon fibers have been used as thin but three dimensional electrodes of the redox flow system in view of their electric conductivity, chemical stability, and economy. One of the electrochemical problems of iron-chromium redox battery related to the electrode is the slow reaction rate of reduction and oxidation of chromium complex ion. As the electron transfer rate of chromium complex ion is lower than that of iron ion, the voltaic efficiency of the battery tends to decrease.

  17. Gas permeable electrode for electrochemical system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ludwig, F.A.; Townsend, C.W.

    1989-09-12

    An electrode apparatus is described which is adapted for use in electrochemical systems having an anode compartment and a cathode compartment in which gas and ions are produced and consumed in the compartments during generation of electrical current. The electrode apparatus includes a membrane for separating the anode compartment from the cathode compartment wherein the membrane is permeable to both ions and gas. The cathode and anode for the assembly are provided on opposite sides of the membrane. During use of the membrane-electrode apparatus in electrochemical cells, the gas and ions generated at the cathode or anode migrate through the membrane to provide efficient transfer of gas and ions between the anode and cathode compartments. 3 figs.

  18. Manganese oxide composite electrodes for lithium batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thackeray, Michael M. (Naperville, IL); Johnson, Christopher S. (Naperville, IL); Li, Naichao (Croton on Hudson, NY)

    2007-12-04

    An activated electrode for a non-aqueous electrochemical cell is disclosed with a precursor of a lithium metal oxide with the formula xLi.sub.2MnO.sub.3.(1-x)LiMn.sub.2-yM.sub.yO.sub.4 for 0electrode is activated by removing lithia, or lithium and lithia, from the precursor. A cell and battery are also disclosed incorporating the disclosed positive electrode.

  19. Layered electrodes for lithium cells and batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnson, Christopher S. (Naperville, IL); Thackeray, Michael M. (Naperville, IL); Vaughey, John T. (Elmhurst, IL); Kahaian, Arthur J. (Chicago, IL); Kim, Jeom-Soo (Naperville, IL)

    2008-04-15

    Lithium metal oxide compounds of nominal formula Li.sub.2MO.sub.2, in which M represents two or more positively charged metal ions, selected predominantly and preferably from the first row of transition metals are disclosed herein. The Li.sub.2MO.sub.2 compounds have a layered-type structure, which can be used as positive electrodes for lithium electrochemical cells, or as a precursor for the in-situ electrochemical fabrication of LiMO.sub.2 electrodes. The Li.sub.2MO.sub.2 compounds of the invention may have additional functions in lithium cells, for example, as end-of-discharge indicators, or as negative electrodes for lithium cells.

  20. Lithium metal oxide electrodes for lithium batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thackeray, Michael M. (Naperville, IL); Kim, Jeom-Soo (Naperville, IL); Johnson, Christopher S. (Naperville, IL)

    2008-01-01

    An uncycled electrode for a non-aqueous lithium electrochemical cell including a lithium metal oxide having the formula Li.sub.(2+2x)/(2+x)M'.sub.2x/(2+x)M.sub.(2-2x)/(2+x)O.sub.2-.delta., in which 0.ltoreq.x<1 and .delta. is less than 0.2, and in which M is a non-lithium metal ion with an average trivalent oxidation state selected from two or more of the first row transition metals or lighter metal elements in the periodic table, and M' is one or more ions with an average tetravalent oxidation state selected from the first and second row transition metal elements and Sn. Methods of preconditioning the electrodes are disclosed as are electrochemical cells and batteries containing the electrodes.

  1. Synthesis and Characterization of Simultaneous Electronic and Ionic Conducting Block Copolymers for Lithium Battery Electrodes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Patel, Shrayesh

    2013-01-01

    Copolymer: Application in Lithium Battery Electrodes. Angew.Schematic of the Proposed lithium battery electrode with aBlock Copolymers for Lithium Battery Electrodes By Shrayesh

  2. Surface-electrode point Paul trap

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Tony Hyun; Herskind, Peter F.; Chuang, Isaac L. [Center for Ultracold Atoms, Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Kim, Taehyun; Kim, Jungsang [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Duke University Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States)

    2010-10-15

    We present a model as well as experimental results for a surface electrode radiofrequency Paul trap that has a circular electrode geometry well suited for trapping single ions and two-dimensional planar ion crystals. The trap design is compatible with microfabrication and offers a simple method by which the height of the trapped ions above the surface may be changed in situ. We demonstrate trapping of single {sup 88}Sr{sup +} ions over an ion height range of 200-1000 {mu}m for several hours under Doppler laser cooling and use these to characterize the trap, finding good agreement with our model.

  3. Plasma nonuniformities induced by dissimilar electrode metals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barnat, E.V.; Hebner, G.A. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185-1423 (United States)

    2005-07-01

    Nonuniformities in both sheath electric field and plasma excitation were observed around dissimilar metals placed on a rf electrode. Spatial maps of the rf sheath electric field obtained by laser-induced fluorescence-dip (LIF-dip) spectroscopy show that the sheath structure was a function of the electrode metal. In addition to the electric-field measurements, LIF, optical emission, and Langmuir probe measurements show nonuniform excitation around the dissimilar metals. The degree and spatial extent of the discharge nonuniformities were dependent on discharge conditions and the history of the metal surfaces.

  4. System of fabricating a flexible electrode array

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Krulevitch, Peter (Pleasanton, CA); Polla, Dennis L. (Roseville, MN); Maghribi, Mariam N. (Davis, CA); Hamilton, Julie (Tracy, CA); Humayun, Mark S. (La Canada, CA); Weiland, James D. (Valencia, CA)

    2010-10-12

    An image is captured or otherwise converted into a signal in an artificial vision system. The signal is transmitted to the retina utilizing an implant. The implant consists of a polymer substrate made of a compliant material such as poly(dimethylsiloxane) or PDMS. The polymer substrate is conformable to the shape of the retina. Electrodes and conductive leads are embedded in the polymer substrate. The conductive leads and the electrodes transmit the signal representing the image to the cells in the retina. The signal representing the image stimulates cells in the retina.

  5. Flexible electrode array for artifical vision

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Krulevitch, Peter (Pleasanton, CA); Polla, Dennis L. (Roseville, MN); Maghribi, Mariam N. (Davis, CA); Hamilton, Julie (Tracy, CA)

    2006-12-05

    An image is captured or otherwise converted into a signal in an artificial vision system. The signal is transmitted to the retina utilizing an implant. The implant consists of a polymer substrate made of a compliant material such as poly(dimethylsiloxane) or PDMS. The polymer substrate is conformable to the shape of the retina. Electrodes and conductive leads are embedded in the polymer substrate. The conductive leads and the electrodes transmit the signal representing the image to the cells in the retina. The signal representing the image stimulates cells in the retina.

  6. System of fabricating a flexible electrode array

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Krulevitch, Peter (Pleasanton, CA); Polla, Dennis L. (Roseville, MN); Maghribi, Mariam N. (Davis, CA); Hamilton, Julie (Tracy, CA); Humayun, Mark S. (La Canada, CA); Weiland, James D. (Valencia, CA)

    2012-01-28

    An image is captured or otherwise converted into a signal in an artificial vision system. The signal is transmitted to the retina utilizing an implant. The implant consists of a polymer substrate made of a compliant material such as poly(dimethylsiloxane) or PDMS. The polymer substrate is conformable to the shape of the retina. Electrodes and conductive leads are embedded in the polymer substrate. The conductive leads and the electrodes transmit the signal representing the image to the cells in the retina. The signal representing the image stimulates cells in the retina.

  7. Optimization of LiFePO4 Nanoparticle Suspensions with Polyethyleneimine for Aqueous Processing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Jianlin; Armstrong, Beth L; Kiggans, Jim; Daniel, Claus; Wood III, David L

    2012-01-01

    Addition of dispersants to aqueous based lithium-ion battery electrode formulations containing LiFePO{sub 4} is critical to obtaining a stable suspension. The resulting colloidal suspensions enable dramatically improved coating deposition when processing electrodes. This research examines the colloidal chemistry modifications based on polyethyleneimine (PEI) addition and dispersion characterization required to produce high quality electrode formulations and coatings for LiFePO{sub 4} active cathode material. The isoelectric point, a key parameter in characterizing colloidal dispersion stability, of LiFePO{sub 4} and super P C45 were determined to be pH = 4.3 and 3.4, respectively. PEI, a cationic surfactant, was found to be an effective dispersant. It is demonstrated that 1.0 wt % and 0.5 wt % PEI were required to stabilize the LiFePO{sub 4} and super P C45 suspension, respectively. LiFePO{sub 4} cathode suspensions with 1.5 wt % PEI demonstrated the best dispersibility of all components, as evidenced by viscosity and agglomerate size of the suspensions and elemental distribution within dry cathodes. The addition of PEI significantly improved the LiFePO{sub 4} performance.

  8. PHYSICAL REVIEW E 83, 061507 (2011) Diffuse charge and Faradaic reactions in porous electrodes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bazant, Martin Z.

    2011-01-01

    desalination [2,12­24], and capacitive energy-harvesting cells, which exploit the reverse process to extract Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA 4 Department of flat electrodes are widely used in electrochemical systems to boost storage capacities for ions

  9. Using Flow Electrodes in Multiple Reactors in Series for Continuous Energy Generation from Capacitive Mixing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of energy that is released by sea and river water mixing at global estuaries.1-4 The CapMix energy consumption) or mixing (energy generation) processes occur intermittently.6 This intermittency occurs becauseUsing Flow Electrodes in Multiple Reactors in Series for Continuous Energy Generation from

  10. Characterization of Electrode Materials for Lithium Ion and Sodium Ion Batteries using Synchrotron Radiation Techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mehta, Apurva; Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource; Doeff, Marca M.; Chen, Guoying; Cabana, Jordi; Richardson, Thomas J.; Mehta, Apurva; Shirpour, Mona; Duncan, Hugues; Kim, Chunjoong; Kam, Kinson C.; Conry, Thomas

    2013-04-30

    We describe the use of synchrotron X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques to probe details of intercalation/deintercalation processes in electrode materials for Li ion and Na ion batteries. Both in situ and ex situ experiments are used to understand structural behavior relevant to the operation of devices.

  11. Zinc/air battery R and D research and development of bifunctional oxygen electrode: Tasks I and II, Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klein, M.; Viswanathan, S.

    1986-12-01

    Studies were conducted of the bifunctional oxygen electrode. The development of a rechargeable metal-oxygen (air) cell has been hampered to a great extent by the lack of a stable and cost effective oxygen electrode capable of use during both charge and discharge. The first type of bifunctional electrode consists of two distinct catalytifc layers. The oxygen reduction catalyst layer containing a supported gold catalyst is in contact with a hydrophilic nickel layer in which evolution of oxygen takes place. Loadings of gold from 0.5 to 1.0 mg/cm/sup 2/ were investigated; carbon, graphite, metal, and spinel oxides were evaluated as substrates. The second part of the research effort was centered on developing a reversible oxygen electrode containing only one catalytic layer for both reduction and evolution of oxygen. The work was directed specifically to the study of perovskite type of oxides with the composition AA/sup 1/BO/sub 3/ where A is an element of the lanthanide series, A/sup 1/ is an alkaline earth metal and B, a first row transition element. Initial polarization data obtained in unscrubbed air gave a value of approximately 200 millivolts vs Hg/HgO reference electrode at a current density of 50 ma/cm/sup 2/. Electrodes were made both by roll-bonding and by pelletizing techniques and tested for polarization and cycle life. This study also indicates the optimum process conditions for the manufacture of oxides and fabrication of electrodes.

  12. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Technologies: Improved Electrode-Electrode Structures

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effect Photovoltaics -7541C. Temperature and energy Most basically,Processes -for

  13. The use of capacitive deionization with carbon aerogel electrodes to remove inorganic contaminants from water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farmer, J.C.; Fix, D.V.; Mack, G.V.; Pekala, R.W.; Poco, J.F.

    1995-02-17

    The capacitive deionization of water with a stack of carbon aerogel electrodes has been successfully demonstrated for the first time. Unlike ion exchange, one of the more conventional deionization processes, no chemicals were required for regeneration of the system. Electricity was used instead. Water with various anions and cations was pumped through the electrochemical cell. After polarization, ions were electrostatically removed from the water and held in the electric double layers formed at electrode surfaces. The water leaving the cell was purified, as desired.

  14. Supercapacitors Based on Metal Electrodes Prepared from Nanoparticle Mixtures at Room Temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nakanishi, Hideyuki; Grzybowski, Bartosz A.

    2010-01-01

    Films comprising Au and Ag nanoparticles are transformed into porous metal electrodes by desorption of weak organic ligands followed by wet chemical etching of silver. Thus prepared electrodes provide the basis for supercapacitors whose specific capacitances approach 70 F/g. Cyclic voltammetry measurement yield “rectangular” I-V curves even at high scan rates, indicating that the supercapacitors have low internal resistance. Owing to this property, the supercapacitors have a high power density ~12 kW/kg, comparable with that of the state-of-the-art carbon-based devices. The entire assembly protocol does not require high-temperature processing or the use of organic binders.

  15. Nanostructured Electrodes for Improved Neural Recording Karen C. Cheung1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cheung, Karen C.

    the structures on top of the electrode and then electroplating metal up. Electrode materials historically used for gold, electroplating platinum black or ion milling the platinum surface, or activating iridium to form

  16. Electrochemical charge transfer at a metallic electrode: a simulation study 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pounds, Michael A.

    2010-01-01

    Part I Electrochemical charge transfer at a metallic electrode: a simulation study The factors which affect the rate of heterogeneous electron transfer at a metallic electrode in the context of Marcus theory are ...

  17. Improved zinc electrode and rechargeable zinc-air battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ross, P.N. Jr.

    1988-06-21

    The invention comprises an improved rechargeable zinc-air cell/battery having recirculating alkaline electrolyte and a zinc electrode comprising a porous foam support material which carries the active zinc electrode material. 5 figs.

  18. Attractive forces in microporous carbon electrodes for capacitive deionization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Biesheuvel, P. M.

    The recently developed modified Donnan (mD) model provides a simple and useful description of the electrical double layer in microporous carbon electrodes, suitable for incorporation in porous electrode theory. By postulating ...

  19. Transferred metal electrode films for large-area electronic devices...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    metal electrode films for large-area electronic devices The evaporation of metal-film gate electrodes for top-gate organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) limits the...

  20. Electro-optic device with gap-coupled electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Deri, Robert J.; Rhodes, Mark A.; Bayramian, Andrew J.; Caird, John A.; Henesian, Mark A.; Ebbers, Christopher A.

    2013-08-20

    An electro-optic device includes an electro-optic crystal having a predetermined thickness, a first face and a second face. The electro-optic device also includes a first electrode substrate disposed opposing the first face. The first electrode substrate includes a first substrate material having a first thickness and a first electrode coating coupled to the first substrate material. The electro-optic device further includes a second electrode substrate disposed opposing the second face. The second electrode substrate includes a second substrate material having a second thickness and a second electrode coating coupled to the second substrate material. The electro-optic device additionally includes a voltage source electrically coupled to the first electrode coating and the second electrode coating.

  1. Electronically and ionically conducting electrodes for thermoelectric generators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Novak, Robert F. (Farmington Hills, MI); Weber, Neill (Murray, UT)

    1987-01-01

    A composite article comprising a porous cermet electrode on a dense solid electrolyte and method of making same. The cerment electrode comprises beta-type-alumina and refractory metal.

  2. Method Of Making An Ultracapacitor Electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wei, Chang (Niskayuna, NY); Jerabek, Elihu Calvin (Glenmont, NY); DeJager, Katherine Dana (BJ Goes, NL); LeBlanc, Jr., Oliver Harris (Schenectady, NY)

    2003-05-06

    A paste of organic solvent with dissolved organic salt and active carbon is formed and a uniform film of the paste is applied onto a substrate by casting the paste into a clearance between a knife blade and the substrate. The paste is evaporated to form a paste electrode for an ultracapacitor.

  3. Method of making an ultracapacitor electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wei, Chang (Niskayuna, NY); Jerabek, Elihu Calvin (Glenmont, NY); DeJager, Katherine Dana (BJ Goes, NL); LeBlanc, Jr., Oliver Harris (Schenectady, NY)

    2001-10-16

    A paste of organic solvent with dissolved organic salt and active carbon is formed and a uniform film of the paste is applied onto a substrate by casting the paste into a clearance between a knife blade and the substrate. The paste is evaporated to form a paste electrode for an ultracapacitor.

  4. Cells containing solvated electron lithium negative electrodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Uribe, F.A.; Semkow, K.W.; Sammells, A.F. (Eltron Research, Incorporated, Aurora, IL (US))

    1989-12-01

    Preliminary work performed on a novel solvated electron lithium negative electrode which may have application in either high energy density secondary or reserve battery systems is discussed. The lithium electrode investigated consisted of lithium initially dissolved in liquid ammonia to give a solvated electron solution. Containment of this liquid negative active material from direct contact with a liquid nonaqueous electrolyte present in the cell positive electrode compartment was addressed via the use of a lithium intercalated electronically conducting ceramic membrane of the general composition Li{sub x}WO{sub 2}(0.1{lt}x{lt} 1.0). Secondary electrochemical cells having the general configuration Li,NH{sub 3}/Li{sub x}WO{sub 2}NAE/TiS{sub 2} using nonaqueous electrolytes (NAE) based upon both propylene carbonate and 2Me-THF. Depending upon initial lithium activity in the negative electrode compartments the cell possessed an initial open-circuit potential (OCP 3.44V). Both cells, which were operated at ambient pressure (low temperature) and ambient temperature (high pressure) showed evidence for electrochemical reversibility.

  5. Titanium nitride electrodes for thermoelectric generators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Novak, Robert F. (Farmington Hills, MI); Schmatz, Duane J. (Dearborn Heights, MI); Hunt, Thomas K. (Ann Arbor, MI)

    1987-12-22

    The invention is directed to a composite article suitable for use in thermoelectric generators. The article comprises a thin film of titanium nitride as an electrode deposited onto solid electrolyte. The invention is also directed to the method of making same.

  6. Molybdenum oxide electrodes for thermoelectric generators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schmatz, Duane J. (Dearborn Heights, MI)

    1989-01-01

    The invention is directed to a composite article suitable for use in thermoelectric generators. The article comprises a thin film comprising molybdenum oxide as an electrode deposited by physical deposition techniques onto solid electrolyte. The invention is also directed to the method of making same.

  7. A reduced graphene oxide/Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} composite for supercapacitor electrode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xiang, Chengcheng; Li, Ming; Zhi, Mingjia; Manivannan, Ayyakkannu; Wu, Nianqiang

    2013-03-15

    20 nm sized Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles are in-situ grown on the chemically reduced graphene oxide (rGO) sheets to form a rGO-Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} composite during hydrothermal processing. The rGO-Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} composite is employed as the pseudocapacitor electrode in the 2 M KOH aqueous electrolyte solution. The rGOCo{sub 3}O{sub 4} composite electrode exhibits a specific capacitance of 472 F/g at a scan rate of 2 mV/s in a two-electrode cell. 82.6% of capacitance is retained when the scan rate increases to 100 mV/s. The rGOCo{sub 3}O{sub 4} composite electrode shows high rate capability and excellent long-term stability. It also exhibits high energy density at relatively high power density. The energy density reaches 39.0 Wh/kg at a power density of 8.3 kW/kg. The super performance of the composite electrode is attributed to the synergistic effects of small size and good redox activity of the Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} particles combined with high electronic conductivity of the rGO sheets.

  8. Atomic-Layer-Deposited Transparent Electrodes for Silicon Heterojunction Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Demaurex, Benedicte; Seif, Johannes P.; Smit, Sjoerd; Macco, Bart; Kessels, W. M.; Geissbuhler, Jonas; De Wolf, Stefaan; Ballif, Christophe

    2014-11-01

    We examine damage-free transparent-electrode deposition to fabricate high-efficiency amorphous silicon/crystalline silicon heterojunction solar cells. Such solar cells usually feature sputtered transparent electrodes, the deposition of which may damage the layers underneath. Using atomic layer deposition, we insert thin protective films between the amorphous silicon layers and sputtered contacts and investigate their effect on device operation. We find that a 20-nm-thick protective layer suffices to preserve, unchanged, the amorphous silicon layers beneath. Insertion of such protective atomic-layer-deposited layers yields slightly higher internal voltages at low carrier injection levels. However, we identify the presence of a silicon oxide layer, formed during processing, between the amorphous silicon and the atomic-layer-deposited transparent electrode that acts as a barrier, impeding hole and electron collection.

  9. Atomic-Layer-Deposited Transparent Electrodes for Silicon Heterojunction Solar Cells

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Demaurex, Benedicte; Seif, Johannes P.; Smit, Sjoerd; Macco, Bart; Kessels, W. M.; Geissbuhler, Jonas; De Wolf, Stefaan; Ballif, Christophe

    2014-11-01

    We examine damage-free transparent-electrode deposition to fabricate high-efficiency amorphous silicon/crystalline silicon heterojunction solar cells. Such solar cells usually feature sputtered transparent electrodes, the deposition of which may damage the layers underneath. Using atomic layer deposition, we insert thin protective films between the amorphous silicon layers and sputtered contacts and investigate their effect on device operation. We find that a 20-nm-thick protective layer suffices to preserve, unchanged, the amorphous silicon layers beneath. Insertion of such protective atomic-layer-deposited layers yields slightly higher internal voltages at low carrier injection levels. However, we identify the presence of a silicon oxide layer, formed during processing,more »between the amorphous silicon and the atomic-layer-deposited transparent electrode that acts as a barrier, impeding hole and electron collection.« less

  10. Perovskite electrodes and method of making the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Seabaugh, Matthew M.; Swartz, Scott L.

    2005-09-20

    The invention relates to perovskite oxide electrode materials in which one or more of the elements Mg, Ni, Cu, and Zn are present as minority components that enhance electrochemical performance, as well as electrode products with these compositions and methods of making the electrode materials. Such electrodes are useful in electrochemical system applications such as solid oxide fuel cells, ceramic oxygen generation systems, gas sensors, ceramic membrane reactors, and ceramic electrochemical gas separation systems.

  11. Perovskite electrodes and method of making the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Seabaugh, Matthew M. (Columbus, OH); Swartz, Scott L. (Columbus, OH)

    2009-09-22

    The invention relates to perovskite oxide electrode materials in which one or more of the elements Mg, Ni, Cu, and Zn are present as minority components that enhance electrochemical performance, as well as electrode products with these compositions and methods of making the electrode materials. Such electrodes are useful in electrochemical system applications such as solid oxide fuel cells, ceramic oxygen generation systems, gas sensors, ceramic membrane reactors, and ceramic electrochemical gas separation systems.

  12. Molecular Simulations of Electrolytes and Electrolyte/Electrode...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    electrode interfaces Molecular dynamics simulation studies of electrolytes and electrolyteelectrode interfaces Linking Ion Solvation and Lithium Battery Electrolyte Properties...

  13. Redox battery including a bromine positive electrode and a chromium ion negative electrode and method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Giner, J.D.; Stark, H.H.

    1984-09-04

    A redox flow battery with a positive half-cell compartment containing bromide ion, bromine and a complexing organic liquid for bromine, and a negative electrode half-cell compartment containing chromium ion, and including electrolyte fluid communication therebetween.

  14. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Electrode Architecture-Assembly of Battery Materials and Electrodes

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Presentation given by Hydro-Québec at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about electrode architecture-assembly...

  15. Advanced Flow Battery Electrodes: Low-cost, High-Performance 50-Year Electrode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-09-01

    GRIDS Project: Primus Power is developing zinc-based, rechargeable liquid flow batteries that could produce substantially more energy at lower cost than conventional batteries. A flow battery is similar to a conventional battery, except instead of storing its energy inside the cell it stores that energy for future use in chemicals that are kept in tanks that sit outside the cell. One of the most costly components in a flow battery is the electrode, where the electrochemical reactions actually occur. Primus Power is investigating and developing mixed-metal materials for their electrodes that could ultimately reduce the lifetime cost of flow batteries because they are more durable and long-lasting than electrodes found in traditional batteries. Using these electrodes, Primus Power’s flow batteries can be grouped together into robust, containerized storage pods for use by utilities, renewable energy developers, businesses, and campuses.

  16. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Electrode Architecture-Assembly of Battery Materials and Electrodes

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Presentation given by Hydro Quebec at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about electrode architecture-assembly...

  17. Energy analysis on use of air and superheated steam as drying media

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tarnawski, W.Z.; Mitera, J.; Borowski, P.; Klepaczka, A. [Technical Univ. of Lodz (Poland). Inst. of Papermaking and Paper Machines

    1996-10-01

    The physical properties of air and superheated steam were analyzed in a range of temperatures applied in paper and paperboard drying processes. On the basis of tests carried out on a pilot stand the values of energy indices for air and steam drying processes are compared. With the drying media temperature as T{sub M} = 300 C, nozzle velocity {nu} = 60 m/s and using the Huang and Mujumdar model as well as relationships given by Chance a comparative analysis of the results has been carried out. Variation of several indices in the range of temperatures 100--600 C and various nozzle velocities was studied.

  18. Li-alloy electrode for Li-alloy/metal sulfide cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kaun, Thomas D. (320 Willow St., New Lenox, IL 60451)

    1996-01-01

    A method of making a negative electrode, the electrode made thereby and a secondary electrochemical cell using the electrode. Lithium, silicon and nickel is alloyed in a prescribed proportion forming an electroactive material, to provide an improved electrode and cell.

  19. Innovative Drying and Nutrients Extraction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    to the extraction process. This method evaporates the water from the products but also drives off up to 70 percent dimethyl ether to extract the water from the material. The new process does not require the addition of heat to evaporate the water during the extraction process. Dimethyl ether has a lower heat

  20. Wet/dry cooling tower and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Glicksman, Leon R. (Lynnfield, MA); Rohsenow, Warren R. (Waban, MA)

    1981-01-01

    A wet/dry cooling tower wherein a liquid to-be-cooled is flowed along channels of a corrugated open surface or the like, which surface is swept by cooling air. The amount of the surface covered by the liquid is kept small compared to the dry part thereof so that said dry part acts as a fin for the wet part for heat dissipation.

  1. High power and high energy electrodes using carbon nanotubes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Martini, Fabrizio; Brambilla, Nicolo Michele; Signorelli, Riccardo

    2015-04-07

    An electrode useful in an energy storage system, such as a capacitor, includes an electrode that includes at least one to a plurality of layers of compressed carbon nanotube aggregate. Methods of fabrication are provided. The resulting electrode exhibits superior electrical performance in terms of gravimetric and volumetric power density.

  2. Method of making an air electrode material having controlled sinterability

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vasilow, T.R.; Kuo, L.J.H.; Ruka, R.J.

    1994-08-30

    A tubular, porous ceramic electrode structure is made from the sintered admixture of doped lanthanum manganite and an additive containing cerium where a solid electrolyte, substantially surrounds the air electrode, and a porous outer fuel electrode substantially surrounds the electrolyte, to form a fuel cell. 2 figs.

  3. Electrically conductive polycrystalline diamond and particulate metal based electrodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Swain, Greg M.; Wang, Jian

    2005-04-26

    An electrically conducting and dimensionally stable diamond (12, 14) and metal particle (13) electrode produced by electrodepositing the metal on the diamond is described. The electrode is particularly useful in harsh chemical environments and at high current densities and potentials. The electrode is particularly useful for generating hydrogen, and for reducing oxygen and oxidizing methanol in reactions which are of importance in fuel cells.

  4. Oxide modified air electrode surface for high temperature electrochemical cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Singh, Prabhakar (Export, PA); Ruka, Roswell J. (Churchill Boro, Allegheny County, PA)

    1992-01-01

    An electrochemical cell is made having a porous cermet electrode (16) and a porous lanthanum manganite electrode (14), with solid oxide electrolyte (15) between them, where the lanthanum manganite surface next to the electrolyte contains a thin discontinuous layer of high surface area cerium oxide and/or praseodymium oxide, preferably as discrete particles (30) in contact with the air electrode and electrolyte.

  5. Cold vacuum drying system conceptual design report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bradshaw, F.W.

    1996-05-01

    This document summarizes the activities involved in the removal of the SNF from the leaking basins and to place it in stable dry storage.

  6. ,"New Mexico Dry Natural Gas Proved Reserves"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","New Mexico Dry Natural Gas Proved Reserves",10,"Annual",2014,"06301977" ,"Release Date:","11...

  7. Coproducts From Corn Processing 47 Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology Vol. 128, 2006

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Tonghun

    , distillers' dried grains with solubles (DDGS), is generated. Dry-grind plants require less equipment, 2006 Index Entries: Distillers' dried grains with solubles; dry-grind process; wet milling; dry milling and reformulated gasoline to reduce CO and other pollutants. The amount of corn used for ethanol production has

  8. Synthesis and Stability of a Nanoparticle-Infiltrated Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Electrode

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sholklapper, Tal Z.; Radmilovic, Velimir; Jacobson, Craig P.; Visco, Steven J.; De Jonghe, Lutgard C.

    2006-01-01

    Infiltrated Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Electrode Tal Z.SOFC (Solid Oxide Fuel Cell) electrodes can significantly

  9. Dry soldering with hot filament produced atomic hydrogen

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Panitz, Janda K. G. (Edgewood, NM); Jellison, James L. (Albuquerque, NM); Staley, David J. (Los Lunas, NM)

    1995-01-01

    A system for chemically transforming metal surface oxides to metal that is especially, but not exclusively, suitable for preparing metal surfaces for dry soldering and solder reflow processes. The system employs one or more hot, refractory metal filaments, grids or surfaces to thermally dissociate molecular species in a low pressure of working gas such as a hydrogen-containing gas to produce reactive species in a reactive plasma that can chemically reduce metal oxides and form volatile compounds that are removed in the working gas flow. Dry soldering and solder reflow processes are especially applicable to the manufacture of printed circuit boards, semiconductor chip lead attachment and packaging multichip modules. The system can be retrofitted onto existing metal treatment ovens, furnaces, welding systems and wave soldering system designs.

  10. Dry soldering with hot filament produced atomic hydrogen

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Panitz, J.K.G.; Jellison, J.L.; Staley, D.J.

    1995-04-25

    A system is disclosed for chemically transforming metal surface oxides to metal that is especially, but not exclusively, suitable for preparing metal surfaces for dry soldering and solder reflow processes. The system employs one or more hot, refractory metal filaments, grids or surfaces to thermally dissociate molecular species in a low pressure of working gas such as a hydrogen-containing gas to produce reactive species in a reactive plasma that can chemically reduce metal oxides and form volatile compounds that are removed in the working gas flow. Dry soldering and solder reflow processes are especially applicable to the manufacture of printed circuit boards, semiconductor chip lead attachment and packaging multichip modules. The system can be retrofitted onto existing metal treatment ovens, furnaces, welding systems and wave soldering system designs. 1 fig.

  11. Material for electrodes of low temperature plasma generators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Caplan, Malcolm (Fremont, CA); Vinogradov, Sergel Evge'evich (St. Peterburg, RU); Ribin, Valeri Vasil'evich (St. Peterburg, RU); Shekalov, Valentin Ivanovich (St. Peterburg, RU); Rutberg, Philip Grigor'evich (St. Peterburg, RU); Safronov, Alexi Anatol'evich (St. Peterburg, RU)

    2008-12-09

    Material for electrodes of low temperature plasma generators. The material contains a porous metal matrix impregnated with a material emitting electrons. The material uses a mixture of copper and iron powders as a porous metal matrix and a Group IIIB metal component such as Y.sub.2O.sub.3 is used as a material emitting electrons at, for example, the proportion of the components, mass %: iron: 3-30; Y.sub.2O.sub.3:0.05-1; copper: the remainder. Copper provides a high level of heat conduction and electric conductance, iron decreases intensity of copper evaporation in the process of plasma creation providing increased strength and lifetime, Y.sub.2O.sub.3 provides decreasing of electronic work function and stability of arc burning. The material can be used for producing the electrodes of low temperature AC plasma generators used for destruction of liquid organic wastes, medical wastes, and municipal wastes as well as for decontamination of low level radioactive waste, the destruction of chemical weapons, warfare toxic agents, etc.

  12. Material for electrodes of low temperature plasma generators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Caplan, Malcolm (Fremont, CA); Vinogradov, Sergel Evge'evich (St. Peterburg, RU); Ribin, Valeri Vasil'evich (St. Peterburg, RU); Shekalov, Valentin Ivanovich (St. Peterburg, RU); Rutberg, Philip Grigor'evich (St. Peterburg, RU); Safronov, Alexi Anatol'evich (St. Peterburg, RU); Shiryaev, Vasili Nikolaevich (St. Peterburg, RU)

    2010-03-02

    Material for electrodes of low temperature plasma generators. The material contains a porous metal matrix impregnated with a material emitting electrons. The material uses a mixture of copper and iron powders as a porous metal matrix and a Group IIIB metal component such as Y.sub.2O.sub.3 is used as a material emitting electrons at, for example, the proportion of the components, mass %: iron:3-30; Y.sub.2O.sub.3:0.05-1; copper: the remainder. Copper provides a high level of heat conduction and electric conductance, iron decreases intensity of copper evaporation in the process of plasma creation providing increased strength and lifetime, Y.sub.2O.sub.3 provides decreasing of electronic work function and stability of arc burning. The material can be used for producing the electrodes of low temperature AC plasma generators used for destruction of liquid organic wastes, medical wastes, municipal wastes as well as for decontamination of low level radioactive waste, the destruction of chemical weapons, warfare toxic agents, etc.

  13. Inclined fluidized bed system for drying fine coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cha, Chang Y. (Golden, CO); Merriam, Norman W. (Laramie, WY); Boysen, John E. (Laramie, WY)

    1992-02-11

    Coal is processed in an inclined fluidized bed dryer operated in a plug-flow manner with zonal temperature and composition control, and an inert fluidizing gas, such as carbon dioxide or combustion gas. Recycled carbon dioxide, which is used for drying, pyrolysis, quenching, and cooling, is produced by partial decarboxylation of the coal. The coal is heated sufficiently to mobilize coal tar by further pyrolysis, which seals micropores upon quenching. Further cooling with carbon dioxide enhances stabilization.

  14. Precipitation scavenging, dry deposition, and resuspension. Volume 2: dry deposition and resuspension

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pruppacher, H.R.; Semanin, R.G.; Slinn, W.G.N.

    1983-01-01

    Papers are presented under the headings: dry deposition of gases, dry deposition of particles, wind erosion, plutonium deposition and resuspension, air-sea exchange, tropical and polar, global scale, and future studies.

  15. Graphene-based battery electrodes having continuous flow paths

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zhang, Jiguang; Xiao, Jie; Liu, Jun; Xu, Wu; Li, Xiaolin; Wang, Deyu

    2014-05-24

    Some batteries can exhibit greatly improved performance by utilizing electrodes having randomly arranged graphene nanosheets forming a network of channels defining continuous flow paths through the electrode. The network of channels can provide a diffusion pathway for the liquid electrolyte and/or for reactant gases. Metal-air batteries can benefit from such electrodes. In particular Li-air batteries show extremely high capacities, wherein the network of channels allow oxygen to diffuse through the electrode and mesopores in the electrode can store discharge products.

  16. Apparatus for electrode current control in linear MHD generators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Demirjian, Ara M. (Arlington, MA); Solbes, Albert (Rancho Palos Verdes, CA)

    1984-01-01

    Apparatus for controlling a plurality of opposing, electrode, direct-currents at pre-set locations across a channel that comprises a converter for converting each electrode current into first and second periodic control signals which are 180.degree. out of phase with respect to each other and which have equal magnitudes corresponding to the magnitude of the associated electrode current; and couplers for magnetically coupling individual ones of the first control signals and for magnetically coupling individual ones of the second signals such that the corresponding electrode currents are equalized or rendered proportional by balancing the same in the same or constant ratios in accordance with the locations of the electrode currents.

  17. Electronically conductive polymer binder for lithium-ion battery electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, Gao; Xun, Shidi; Battaglia, Vincent S; Zheng, Honghe

    2014-10-07

    A family of carboxylic acid group containing fluorene/fluorenon copolymers is disclosed as binders of silicon particles in the fabrication of negative electrodes for use with lithium ion batteries. These binders enable the use of silicon as an electrode material as they significantly improve the cycle-ability of silicon by preventing electrode degradation over time. In particular, these polymers, which become conductive on first charge, bind to the silicon particles of the electrode, are flexible so as to better accommodate the expansion and contraction of the electrode during charge/discharge, and being conductive promote the flow battery current.

  18. No Heat Spray Drying Technology

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    process Improved yield causing need to manufacture fewer pounds of product Avoids air pollution by not evaporating active material Consumes significantly less water ...

  19. Visualization of Charge Distribution in a Lithium Battery Electrode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Jun; Kunz, Martin; Chen, Kai; Tamura, Nobumichi; Richardson, Thomas J.

    2010-07-02

    We describe a method for direct determination and visualization of the distribution of charge in a composite electrode. Using synchrotron X-ray microdiffraction, state-of-charge profiles in-plane and normal to the current collector were measured. In electrodes charged at high rate, the signatures of nonuniform current distribution were evident. The portion of a prismatic cell electrode closest to the current collector tab had the highest state of charge due to electronic resistance in the composite electrode and supporting foil. In a coin cell electrode, the active material at the electrode surface was more fully charged than that close to the current collector because the limiting factor in this case is ion conduction in the electrolyte contained within the porous electrode.

  20. HVDC power transmission electrode siting and design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holt, R.J. [NDT Engineering, Inc., Shrewbury, MA (United States); Dabkowski, J. [Electro-Sciences, Inc., Crystal Lake, IL (United States); Hauth, R.L. [New England Power Service Co., Westborough, MA (United States)

    1997-04-01

    This research strives to shed light on the feasibility and practicality of using deep earth electrodes to permit their use for extended periods without adverse consequences. This report begins with a review of the fundamentals associated with current conduction in earth, including the various techniques available for measuring the earth`s electrical properties. The sources of existing data are discussed and some specific data for selected regions of the U.S. and Canada are reviewed as examples. Electrode technology and design issues are reviewed and recent experience gained by New England Power and Hydro-Quebec is discussed. The issues associated with direct current flowing in underground pipelines (and other facilities) are described and the present-day mitigation measures are evaluated. Suggestions are made for further R&D in the coordination of cathodic protection systems, an area that has evolved as an empirical, trial- and-error art more than a science.

  1. Inspection of Used Fuel Dry Storage Casks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dennis C. Kunerth; Tim McJunkin; Mark McKay; Sasan Bakhtiari

    2012-09-01

    ABSTRACT The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulates the storage of used nuclear fuel, which is now and will be increasingly placed in dry storage systems. Since a final disposition pathway is not defined, the fuel is expected to be maintained in dry storage well beyond the time frame originally intended. Due to knowledge gaps regarding the viability of current dry storage systems for long term use, efforts are underway to acquire the technical knowledge and tools required to understand the issues and verify the integrity of the dry storage system components. This report summarizes the initial efforts performed by researchers at Idaho National Laboratory and Argonne National Laboratory to identify and evaluate approaches to in-situ inspection dry storage casks. This task is complicated by the design of the current storage systems that severely restrict access to the casks.

  2. Lithium metal oxide electrodes for lithium batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thackeray, Michael M.; Johnson, Christopher S.; Amine, Khalil; Kang, Sun-Ho

    2010-06-08

    An uncycled preconditioned electrode for a non-aqueous lithium electrochemical cell including a lithium metal oxide having the formula xLi.sub.2-yH.sub.yO.xM'O.sub.2.(1-x)Li.sub.1-zH.sub.zMO.sub.2 in which 0electrodes are disclosed, as are electrochemical cells and batteries containing the electrodes.

  3. Graphite electrode arc melter demonstration Phase 2 test results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Soelberg, N.R.; Chambers, A.G.; Anderson, G.L.; O`Connor, W.K.; Oden, L.L.; Turner, P.C.

    1996-06-01

    Several U.S. Department of Energy organizations and the U.S. Bureau of Mines have been collaboratively conducting mixed waste treatment process demonstration testing on the near full-scale graphite electrode submerged arc melter system at the Bureau`s Albany (Oregon) Research Center. An initial test series successfully demonstrated arc melter capability for treating surrogate incinerator ash of buried mixed wastes with soil. The conceptual treatment process for that test series assumed that buried waste would be retrieved and incinerated, and that the incinerator ash would be vitrified in an arc melter. This report presents results from a recently completed second series of tests, undertaken to determine the ability of the arc melter system to stably process a wide range of {open_quotes}as-received{close_quotes} heterogeneous solid mixed wastes containing high levels of organics, representative of the wastes buried and stored at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The Phase 2 demonstration test results indicate that an arc melter system is capable of directly processing these wastes and could enable elimination of an up-front incineration step in the conceptual treatment process.

  4. Sludge Drying Beds Under Construction 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Unknown

    2011-08-17

    An Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket Process used in converting biodegradable, soluble, organic pollutants in industrial wastewaters to a directly-burnable biogas composed mainly of methane has been developed, tested, and commercially applied...

  5. Moving zone Marangoni drying of wet objects using naturally evaporated solvent vapor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Britten, Jerald A. (Oakley, CA)

    1997-01-01

    A surface tension gradient driven flow (a Marangoni flow) is used to remove the thin film of water remaining on the surface of an object following rinsing. The process passively introduces by natural evaporation and diffusion of minute amounts of alcohol (or other suitable material) vapor in the immediate vicinity of a continuously refreshed meniscus of deionized water or another aqueous-based, nonsurfactant rinsing agent. Used in conjunction with cleaning, developing or wet etching application, rinsing coupled with Marangoni drying provides a single-step process for 1) cleaning, developing or etching, 2) rinsing, and 3) drying objects such as flat substrates or coatings on flat substrates without necessarily using heat, forced air flow, contact wiping, centrifugation or large amounts of flammable solvents. This process is useful in one-step cleaning and drying of large flat optical substrates, one-step developing/rinsing and drying or etching/rinsing/drying of large flat patterned substrates and flat panel displays during lithographic processing, and room-temperature rinsing/drying of other large parts, sheets or continuous rolls of material.

  6. Manufacturing of Monolithic Electrodes from Low-Cost Renewable Resources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McNutt, Nichiolas William [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Rios, Orlando [ORNL; Johs, Alexander [ORNL; Tenhaeff, Wyatt E [ORNL; Chatterjee, Sabornie [ORNL; Keffer, David [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)

    2014-01-01

    Lignin, a low-cost, biomass derived precursor, was selected as an alternative for carbon based free standing anodes in Li-ion batteries. Industrially scalable melt-spinning and melt-blowing synthesis methods were developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory that are compatible with industrially viable production. Engineering studies predict that LCFs can be manufactured at $3/lb using these technologies, which compares favorably to $12/lb for battery grade graphite. The physical properties of lignin carbon fibers, specifically the tunable electrochemical and thermal transport, are suitable for energy storage applications as both an active material and current collector. The elimination of inactive components in the slurry-coated electrodes was enabled by LCF processing parameters modifications to produce monolithic mats in which the fibers are electrically interconnected. These mats were several hundreds of micrometers thick, and the fibers functioned as both current collector and active material by virtue of their mixed ionic/electronic conductivities. The LCFs were coated onto copper current collectors with PVDF binder and conductive carbon additive through conventional slurry processing. Galvanostatic cycling of the LCFs against Li revealed reversible capacities greater than 300 mAh/g. The coulombic efficiencies were over 99.8%. The mats were galvanostatically cycled in half cells against Li. Specific capacities as high as 250 mAh/g were achieved approximately 17% lower than the capacities of the same fibers in slurries. However, there were no inactive materials reducing the practical specific capacity of the entire electrode construction. Lithiation and delithiation of the LCFs proceeded with coulombic efficiencies greater than 99.9%, and the capacity retention was greater than 99% over 100 cycles at a rate of 15 mA/g. Research sponsored by the Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program of Oak Ridge National Laboratory, managed by UT-Battelle, LLC, for the U. S. Department of Energy.

  7. Sensing roller for in-process thickness measurement

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Novak, J.L.

    1996-07-16

    An apparatus and method are disclosed for processing materials by sensing roller, in which the sensing roller has a plurality of conductive rings (electrodes) separated by rings of dielectric material. Sensing capacitances or impedances between the electrodes provides information on thicknesses of the materials being processed, location of wires therein, and other like characteristics of the materials. 6 figs.

  8. Metal/Diamond Composite Thin-Film Electrodes: New Carbon Supported Catalytic Electrodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greg M. Swain, PI

    2009-03-10

    The DOE-funded research conducted by the Swain group was focused on (i) understanding structure-function relationships at boron-doped diamond thin-film electrodes, (ii) understanding metal phase formation on diamond thin films and developing electrochemical approaches for producing highly dispersed electrocatalyst particles (e.g., Pt) of small nominal particle size, (iii) studying the electrochemical activity of the electrocatalytic electrodes for hydrogen oxidation and oxygen reduction and (iv) conducting the initial synthesis of high surface area diamond powders and evaluating their electrical and electrochemical properties when mixed with a Teflon binder. (Note: All potentials are reported versus Ag/AgCl (sat'd KCl) and cm{sup 2} refers to the electrode geometric area, unless otherwise stated).

  9. Acoustically enhanced heat exchange and drying apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bramlette, T.T.; Keller, J.O.

    1987-07-10

    A heat transfer drying apparatus includes an acoustically augmented heat transfer chamber for receiving material to be dried. The chamber includes a first heat transfer gas inlet, a second heat transfer gas inlet, a material inlet, and a gas outlet which also serves as a dried material and gas outlet. A non-pulsing first heat transfer gas source provides a first drying gas to the acoustically augmented heat transfer chamber through the first heat transfer gas inlet. A valveless, continuous second heat transfer gas source provides a second drying gas to the acoustically augmented heat transfer chamber through the second heat transfer gas inlet. The second drying gas also generates acoustic waves which bring about acoustical coupling with the gases in the acoustically augmented heat transfer chamber. The second drying gas itself oscillates at an acoustic frequency of approximately 180 Hz due to fluid mechanical motion in the gas. The oscillations of the second heat transfer gas coupled to the first heat transfer gas in the acoustically augmented heat transfer chamber enhance heat and mass transfer by convection within the chamber. 3 figs.

  10. Modified Dry Grind Ethanol Process Vijay Singh1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    .............................................................................................5 1.5. Functional Foods.......................................................................................6 2.3. US Corn Use for Food and Industrial Uses ...............................................7 3

  11. Dry Heat Processing of Sorghum Grain for Beef Cattle. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Riggs, J. K.; Sorenson, J. W. Jr.; Hobgood, Price

    1970-01-01

    and popped as it was conveyed a distance of 15.7 feet on the heated-tray surface. The popped- grain mixture was then discharged from the rnach~nr through an unloading spout. Tests were made with this machine to determine the effect of initial grain... - - - ........... - A Machine Operation and Capacity A - - - Bulk Density ............................................. - A - - A - Effect of Grain Moisture Content on - A - .......................... .- A - Popping Characteristics...

  12. Dry process fluorination of uranium dioxide using ammonium bifluoride

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yeamans, Charles Burnett, 1978-

    2003-01-01

    An experimental study was conducted to determine the practicality of various unit operations for fluorination of uranium dioxide. The objective was to prepare ammonium uranium fluoride double salts from uranium dioxide and ...

  13. Airless drying -- Developments since IDS'94

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stubbing, T.J.

    1999-09-01

    Since its introduction to IDS'94 delegates, significant progress has been made with the development of airless drying technology. The ceramic industry internationally is beginning to benefit from both the energy use and drying time reductions it achieves, while on the basis of further theoretical work carried out since 1993 other industries, including the bioenergy sector, should also soon begin to exploit its advantages. As global warming becomes a reality and oil reserves decline, superheated steam drying and gasification of biomass will contribute to the mitigation of those problems.

  14. High gradient magnetic beneficiation of dry pulverized coal via upwardly directed recirculating fluidization

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Eissenberg, David M. (Oak Ridge, TN); Liu, Yin-An (Opelika, AL)

    1980-01-01

    This invention relates to an improved device and method for the high gradient magnetic beneficiation of dry pulverized coal, for the purpose of removing sulfur and ash from the coal whereby the product is a dry environmentally acceptable, low-sulfur fuel. The process involves upwardly directed recirculating air fluidization of selectively sized powdered coal in a separator having sections of increasing diameters in the direction of air flow, with magnetic field and flow rates chosen for optimum separations depending upon particulate size.

  15. Resuspension and dry deposition research needs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sehmel, G.A.

    1983-01-01

    The author concludes that better predictive models are needed for the signifcant health, ecological, and economic impacts of resuspended particles and their subsequent dry deposition. Both chemical and radioactive aerosols are discussed. (PSB)

  16. Advanced wet-dry cooling tower concept

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Snyder, Troxell Kimmel

    The purpose of this years' work has been to test and analyze the new dry cooling tower surface previously developed. The model heat transfer test apparatus built last year has been instrumented for temperature, humidity ...

  17. Infrared Dry-peeling Technology for Tomatoes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    This research will use infrared heating technology for peeling tomatoes. Infrared dry peeling, a device District: 8 Senate District: 5 Application: Nationwide Amount: $324,250 Term: November 1, 2010

  18. High strength air-dried aerogels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coronado, Paul R.; Satcher, Jr., Joe H.

    2012-11-06

    A method for the preparation of high strength air-dried organic aerogels. The method involves the sol-gel polymerization of organic gel precursors, such as resorcinol with formaldehyde (RF) in aqueous solvents with R/C ratios greater than about 1000 and R/F ratios less than about 1:2.1. Using a procedure analogous to the preparation of resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF) aerogels, this approach generates wet gels that can be air dried at ambient temperatures and pressures. The method significantly reduces the time and/or energy required to produce a dried aerogel compared to conventional methods using either supercritical solvent extraction. The air dried gel exhibits typically less than 5% shrinkage.

  19. Dry Cask Storage Study Feb 1989

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This report on the use of dry-cask-storage technologies at the sites of civilian nuclear power reactors has been prepared by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE} in response to the requirements of...

  20. Optimization of electrode characteristics for the Br2/H2 redox flow cell

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Tucker, Michael C.; Cho, Kyu Taek; Weber, Adam Z.; Lin, Guangyu; Nguyen, Trung V.

    2014-10-01

    The Br2/H2 redox flow cell shows promise as a high-power, low-cost energy storage device. The effect of various aspects of material selection, processing, and assembly of electrodes on the operation, performance, and efficiency of the system is determined. In particular, (+) electrode thickness, cell compression, hydrogen pressure, and (?) electrode architecture are investigated. Increasing hydrogen pressure and depositing the (?) catalyst layer on the membrane instead of on the carbon paper backing layers have a large positive impact on performance, enabling a limiting current density above 2 A cm?2 and a peak power density of 1.4 W cm?2. Maximum energymore »efficiency of 79 % is achieved. In addition, the root cause of limiting-current behavior in this system is elucidated, where it is found that Br? reversibly adsorbs at the Pt (?) electrode for potentials exceeding a critical value, and the extent of Br? coverage is potential-dependent. This phenomenon limits maximum cell current density and must be addressed in system modeling and design. These findings are expected to lower system cost and enable higher efficiency.« less

  1. Powering microbes with electricity: direct electron transfer from electrodes to microbes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lovley, DR

    2010-09-16

    P>The discovery of electrotrophs, microorganisms that can directly accept electrons from electrodes for the reduction of terminal electron acceptors, has spurred the investigation of a wide range of potential applications. To date, only a handful of pure cultures have been shown to be capable of electrotrophy, but this process has also been inferred in many studies with undefined consortia. Potential electron acceptors include: carbon dioxide, nitrate, metals, chlorinated compounds, organic acids, protons and oxygen. Direct electron transfer from electrodes to cells has many advantages over indirect electrical stimulation of microbial metabolism via electron shuttles or hydrogen production. Supplying electrons with electrodes for the bioremediation of chlorinated compounds, nitrate or toxic metals may be preferable to adding organic electron donors or hydrogen to the subsurface or bioreactors. The most transformative application of electrotrophy may be microbial electrosynthesis in which carbon dioxide and water are converted to multi-carbon organic compounds that are released extracellularly. Coupling photovoltaic technology with microbial electrosynthesis represents a novel photosynthesis strategy that avoids many of the drawbacks of biomass-based strategies for the production of transportation fuels and other organic chemicals. The mechanisms for direct electron transfer from electrodes to microorganisms warrant further investigation in order to optimize envisioned applications.

  2. Optimization of electrode characteristics for the Br2/H2 redox flow cell

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Tucker, Michael C.; Cho, Kyu Taek; Weber, Adam Z.; Lin, Guangyu; Nguyen, Trung V.

    2014-10-01

    The Br2/H2 redox flow cell shows promise as a high-power, low-cost energy storage device. The effect of various aspects of material selection, processing, and assembly of electrodes on the operation, performance, and efficiency of the system is determined. In particular, (+) electrode thickness, cell compression, hydrogen pressure, and (?) electrode architecture are investigated. Increasing hydrogen pressure and depositing the (?) catalyst layer on the membrane instead of on the carbon paper backing layers have a large positive impact on performance, enabling a limiting current density above 2 A cm?2 and a peak power density of 1.4 W cm?2. Maximum energy efficiency of 79 % is achieved. In addition, the root cause of limiting-current behavior in this system is elucidated, where it is found that Br? reversibly adsorbs at the Pt (?) electrode for potentials exceeding a critical value, and the extent of Br? coverage is potential-dependent. This phenomenon limits maximum cell current density and must be addressed in system modeling and design. These findings are expected to lower system cost and enable higher efficiency.

  3. Optimization of electrode characteristics for the Br?/H? redox flow cell

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Tucker, Michael C.; Cho, Kyu Taek; Weber, Adam Z.; Lin, Guangyu; Van Nguyen, Trung

    2014-10-17

    The Br?/H? redox flow cell shows promise as a high-power, low-cost energy storage device. The effect of various aspects of material selection, processing, and assembly of electrodes on the operation, performance, and efficiency of the system is determined. In particular, (+) electrode thickness, cell compression, hydrogen pressure, and (–) electrode architecture are investigated. Increasing hydrogen pressure and depositing the (–) catalyst layer on the membrane instead of on the carbon-paper backing layers have a large positive impact on performance, enabling a limiting current density above 2 A cm-2 and a peak power density of 1.4 W cm-2. Maximum energy efficiencymore »of 79% is achieved. In addition, the root cause of limiting-current behavior in this system is elucidated, where it is found that Br- reversibly adsorbs at the Pt (–) electrode for potentials exceeding a critical value, and the extent of Br- coverage is potential-dependent. This phenomenon limits maximum cell current density and must be addressed in system modeling and design. These findings are expected to lower system cost and enable higher efficiency.« less

  4. Optimization of electrode characteristics for the Br?/H? redox flow cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tucker, Michael C.; Cho, Kyu Taek; Weber, Adam Z.; Lin, Guangyu; Van Nguyen, Trung

    2015-01-01

    The Br?/H? redox flow cell shows promise as a high-power, low-cost energy storage device. The effect of various aspects of material selection, processing, and assembly of electrodes on the operation, performance, and efficiency of the system is determined. In particular, (+) electrode thickness, cell compression, hydrogen pressure, and (–) electrode architecture are investigated. Increasing hydrogen pressure and depositing the (–) catalyst layer on the membrane instead of on the carbon-paper backing layers have a large positive impact on performance, enabling a limiting current density above 2 A cm-2 and a peak power density of 1.4 W cm-2. Maximum energy efficiency of 79% is achieved. In addition, the root cause of limiting-current behavior in this system is elucidated, where it is found that Br- reversibly adsorbs at the Pt (–) electrode for potentials exceeding a critical value, and the extent of Br- coverage is potential-dependent. This phenomenon limits maximum cell current density and must be addressed in system modeling and design. These findings are expected to lower system cost and enable higher efficiency.

  5. Optimization of electrode characteristics for the Br-2/H-2 redox flow cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tucker, MC; Cho, KT; Weber, AZ; Lin, GY; Nguyen, TV

    2014-10-17

    The Br-2/H-2 redox flow cell shows promise as a high-power, low-cost energy storage device. The effect of various aspects of material selection, processing, and assembly of electrodes on the operation, performance, and efficiency of the system is determined. In particular, (+) electrode thickness, cell compression, hydrogen pressure, and (-) electrode architecture are investigated. Increasing hydrogen pressure and depositing the (-) catalyst layer on the membrane instead of on the carbon paper backing layers have a large positive impact on performance, enabling a limiting current density above 2 A cm(-2) and a peak power density of 1.4 W cm(-2). Maximum energy efficiency of 79 % is achieved. In addition, the root cause of limiting-current behavior in this system is elucidated, where it is found that Br- reversibly adsorbs at the Pt (-) electrode for potentials exceeding a critical value, and the extent of Br- coverage is potential-dependent. This phenomenon limits maximum cell current density and must be addressed in system modeling and design. These findings are expected to lower system cost and enable higher efficiency.

  6. The Development of Nano-Composite Electrodes for Solid Oxide Electrolyzers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gorte, Raymond J.; Vohs, John M.

    2014-03-26

    Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) and electrolyzers (SOE) offer an attractive means for converting between electrical and chemical energy. Because they operate at high temperatures and are usually based on electrolytes that are oxygen-ion conducting ceramics, such as yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ), they are equally capable of converting between CO and CO2 as between H2 and H2O. When operated in the SOFC mode, they are able to operate on hydrocarbon fuels so long as there are no materials within the anode that can catalyze carbon formation. Compared to other types of electrolyzers, SOE can exhibit the highest efficiencies because the theoretical Nernst potential is lower at high temperatures and because the electrode overpotentials in SOE tend to be much lower. Finally, pure H2 can be produced without an external electrical source by electrolysis of steam at one electrode and oxidation of any fuel at the other electrode through a process known as Natural-Gas Assisted Steam Electrolysis. This final report describes results from studies of novel electrodes for SOE and SOFC prepared by infiltration methods.

  7. Solvated electron lithium electrode for high energy density battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sammells, A.F.

    1987-05-26

    A rechargeable high energy density lithium-based cell is described comprising: a solvated electron lithium negative electrode comprising a solution of lithium dissolved in liquid ammonia; a lithium ion conducting solid electrolyte contacting the negative electrode; a liquid non-aqueous lithium ion conducting electrolyte comprising a lithium ion conducting supporting electrolyte dissolved in a non-aqueous solvent. The liquid electrolyte contacting the lithium ion conducting solid electrolyte; and a solid lithium intercalation positive electrode contacting the liquid electrolyte.

  8. Increasing ion sorption and desorption rates of conductive electrodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    DePaoli, David William; Kiggans, Jr., James O; Tsouris, Costas; Bourcier, William; Campbell, Robert; Mayes, Richard T

    2014-12-30

    An electrolyte system includes a reactor having a pair of electrodes that may sorb ions from an electrolyte. The electrolyte system also includes at least one power supply in electrical communication with the reactor. The at least one power supply may supply a DC signal and an AC signal to the pair of electrodes during sorption of the ions. In addition, the power supply may supply only the AC signal to the pair of electrodes during desorption of the ions.

  9. Fuel cell having dual electrode anode or cathode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Findl, E.

    1984-04-10

    A fuel cell that is characterized by including a dual electrode anode that is operable to simultaneously electro-oxidize a gaseous fuel and a liquid fuel. In alternative embodiments, a fuel cell having a single electrode anode is provided with a dual electrode cathode that is operable to simultaneously reduce a gaseous oxidant and a liquid oxidant to electro-oxidize a fuel supplied to the cell.

  10. Fuel cell having dual electrode anode or cathode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Findl, Eugene (Coram, NY)

    1985-01-01

    A fuel cell that is characterized by including a dual electrode anode that is operable to simultaneously electro-oxidize a gaseous fuel and a liquid fuel. In alternative embodiments, a fuel cell having a single electrode anode is provided with a dual electrode cathode that is operable to simultaneously reduce a gaseous oxidant and a liquid oxidant to electro-oxidize a fuel supplied to the cell.

  11. Conductor-polymer composite electrode materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ginley, D.S.; Kurtz, S.R.; Smyrl, W.H.; Zeigler, J.M.

    1984-06-13

    A conductive composite material useful as an electrode, comprises a conductor and an organic polymer which is reversibly electrochemically dopable to change its electrical conductivity. Said polymer continuously surrounds the conductor in intimate electrical contact therewith and is prepared by electrochemical growth on said conductor or by reaction of its corresponding monomer(s) on said conductor which has been pre-impregnated or pre-coated with an activator for said polymerization. Amount of the conductor is sufficient to render the resultant composite electrically conductive even when the polymer is in an undoped insulating state.

  12. Ternary compound electrode for lithium cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Raistrick, I.D.; Godshall, N.A.; Huggins, R.A.

    1980-07-30

    Lithium-based cells are promising for applications such as electric vehicles and load-leveling for power plants since lithium is very electropositive and of light weight. One type of lithium-based cell utilizes a molten salt electrolyte and normally is operated in the temperature range of about 350 to 500/sup 0/C. Such high temperature operation accelerates corrosion problems. The present invention provides an electrochemical cell in which lithium is the electroactive species. The cell has a positive electrode which includes a ternary compound generally represented as Li-M-O, wherein M is a transition metal. Corrosion of the inventive cell is considerably reduced.

  13. Ternary compound electrode for lithium cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Raistrick, Ian D. (Menlo Park, CA); Godshall, Ned A. (Stanford, CA); Huggins, Robert A. (Stanford, CA)

    1982-01-01

    Lithium-based cells are promising for applications such as electric vehicles and load-leveling for power plants since lithium is very electropositive and of light weight. One type of lithium-based cell utilizes a molten salt electrolyte and normally is operated in the temperature range of about 350.degree.-500.degree. C. Such high temperature operation accelerates corrosion problems. The present invention provides an electrochemical cell in which lithium is the electroactive species. The cell has a positive electrode which includes a ternary compound generally represented as Li-M-O, wherein M is a transition metal. Corrosion of the inventive cell is considerably reduced.

  14. Electrode With Porous Three-Dimensional Support

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bernard, Patrick (Massy, FR); Dauchier, Jean-Michel (Martignas, FR); Simonneau, Olivier (Dourdan, FR)

    1999-07-27

    Electrode including a paste containing particles of electrochemically active material and a conductive support consisting of a three-dimensional porous material comprising strands delimiting contiguous pores communicating via passages, characterized in that the average width L in .mu.m of said passages is related to the average diameter .O slashed. in .mu.m of said particles by the following equation, in which W and Y are dimensionless coefficients: wherein W=0.16 Y=1.69 X=202.4 .mu.m and Z=80 .mu.m

  15. Battery Electrode Materials with High Cycle Lifetimes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prof. Brent Fultz

    2001-06-29

    In an effort to understand the capacity fade of nickel-metal hydride (Ni-MH) batteries, we performed a systematic study of the effects of solute additions on the cycle life of metal hydride electrodes. We also performed a series of measurements on hydrogen absorption capacities of novel carbon and graphite-based materials including graphite nanofibers and single-walled carbon nanotubes. Towards the end of this project we turned our attention to work on Li-ion cells with a focus on anode materials.

  16. Self-weakening in lithiated graphene electrodes.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Hui [Pennsylvania State University; Huang, Xu [Pennsylvania State University; Liang, Wentao [Pennsylvania State University; Van Duin, Adri C. T. [Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA; Raju, Muralikrishna [ORNL; Zhang, Sulin [Pennsylvania State University

    2013-01-01

    We present a molecular dynamics study of the fracture mechanisms of lithiated graphene. Our modeli ng results reveal that lithium diffusion toward the crack tip is both energetically and kinetically favored owing to the crack-tip stress gradient. The stress-driven lithium diffusion results in lithium aggregation around the crack tip, chemically weakening the crack-tip bond and at the same time causing stress relax ation. Our simulations show that the chemical weakening effect is the dominant factor, which manifests a self-weakening mechanism in lithiated graphene. The atomistic understanding of the degradation mech anism provides guidance for the lifetime extension in the design of graphene-based electrodes.

  17. Process for electrochemically gasifying coal using electromagnetism

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Botts, Thomas E. (Markham, VA); Powell, James R. (Shoreham, NY)

    1987-01-01

    A process for electrochemically gasifying coal by establishing a flowing stream of coal particulate slurry, electrolyte and electrode members through a transverse magnetic field that has sufficient strength to polarize the electrode members, thereby causing them to operate in combination with the electrolyte to electrochemically reduce the coal particulate in the slurry. Such electrochemical reduction of the coal produces hydrogen and carbon dioxide at opposite ends of the polarized electrode members. Gas collection means are operated in conjunction with the process to collect the evolved gases as they rise from the slurry and electrolyte solution.

  18. Steam atmosphere drying exhaust steam recompression system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Becker, F.E.; Smolensky, L.A.; Doyle, E.F.; DiBella, F.A.

    1994-03-08

    This invention relates to a heated steam atmosphere drying system comprising dryer in combination with an exhaust recompression system which is extremely energy efficient and eliminates dangers known to air dryers. The system uses superheated steam as the drying medium, which recirculates through the system where its heat of evaporation and heat of compression is recovered, thereby providing a constant source of heat to the drying chamber. The dryer has inlets whereby feedstock and superheated steam are fed therein. High heat transfer and drying rates are achieved by intimate contact of the superheated steam with the particles being dried. The dryer comprises a vessel which enables the feedstock and steam to enter and recirculate together. When the feedstock becomes dry it will exit the dryer with the steam and become separated from the steam through the use of a curvilinear louver separator (CLS). The CLS enables removal of fine and ultrafine particles from the dryer. Water vapor separated from the particles in the CLS as superheated steam, may then be recovered and recirculated as steam through the use of a compressor to either directly or indirectly heat the dryer, and a heat exchanger or a heater to directly provide heat to the dryer. This system not only provides a very efficient heat transfer system but results in a minimum carry-over of ultrafine particles thereby eliminating any explosive hazard. 17 figures.

  19. Steam atmosphere drying exhaust steam recompression system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Becker, Frederick E. (Reading, MA); Smolensky, Leo A. (Concord, MA); Doyle, Edward F. (Dedham, MA); DiBella, Francis A. (Roslindale, MA)

    1994-01-01

    This invention relates to a heated steam atmosphere drying system comprising dryer in combination with an exhaust recompression system which is extremely energy efficient and eliminates dangers known to air dryers. The system uses superheated steam as the drying medium, which recirculated through the system where its heat of evaporation and heat of compression is recovered, thereby providing a constant source of heat to the drying chamber. The dryer has inlets whereby feedstock and superheated steam are fed therein. High heat transfer and drying rates are achieved by intimate contact of the superheated steam with the particles being dried The dryer comprises a vessel which enables the feedstock and steam to enter recirculate together. When the feedstock becomes dry it will exit the dryer with the steam and become separated from the steam through the use of a curvilinear louver separator (CLS). The CLS enables removal of fine and ultrafine particles from the dryer. Water vapor separated from the particles in the CLS as superheated steam, may then be recovered and recirculated as steam through the use of a compressor to either directly or indirectly heat the dryer, and a heat exchanger or a heater to directly provide heat to the dryer. This system not only provides a very efficient heat transfer system but results in a minimum carry-over of ultrafine particles thereby eliminating any explosive hazard.

  20. Electrode Materials for Rechargeable Lithium-Ion Batteries: A...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Electrode Materials for Rechargeable Lithium-Ion Batteries: A New Synthetic Approach Technology available for licensing: New high-energy cathode materials for use in rechargeable...

  1. Intermetallic Electrodes Improve Safety and Performance in Lithium...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Intermetallic Electrodes Improve Safety and Performance in Lithium-Ion Batteries Technology available for licensing: A new class of intermetallic material that can be used as a...

  2. Wick-and-pool electrodes for electrochemical cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Roche, Michael F. (Downers Grove, IL); Faist, Suzan M. (Haddonfield, NJ); Eberhart, James G. (Naperville, IL); Ross, Laurids E. (Naperville, IL)

    1980-01-01

    An electrode system includes a reservoir of liquid-metal reactant, and a wick extending from a submersed location within the reservoir into the molten electrolyte of an electrochemical cell structure. The wick is flooded with the liquid metal and thereby serves as one electrode within the cell. This electrode system has application in high-temperature batteries employing molten alkali metals or their alloys as active material within an electrode submersed within a molten salt electrolyte. It also can be used in electrochemical cells where the purification, separation or electrowinning of liquid metals is accomplished.

  3. Liquid and gel electrodes for transverse free flow electrophoresis...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Liquid and gel electrodes for transverse free flow electrophoresis The present invention provides a mechanism for separating or isolating charged particles under the...

  4. Extrusion of electrode material by liquid injection into extruder barrel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Keller, D.G.; Giovannoni, R.T.; MacFadden, K.O.

    1998-03-10

    An electrode sheet product is formed using an extruder having a feed throat and a downstream section by separately mixing an active electrode material and a solid polymer electrolyte composition that contains lithium salt. The active electrode material is fed into the feed throat of the extruder, while a portion of at least one fluid component of the solid polymer electrolyte composition is introduced to the downstream section. The active electrode material and the solid polymer electrolyte composition are compounded in a downstream end of the extruder. The extruded sheets, adhered to current collectors, can be formed into battery cells. 1 fig.

  5. Extrusion of electrode material by liquid injection into extruder barrel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Keller, David Gerard (Baltimore, MD); Giovannoni, Richard Thomas (Reisterstown, MD); MacFadden, Kenneth Orville (Highland, MD)

    1998-01-01

    An electrode sheet product is formed using an extruder having a feed throat and a downstream section by separately mixing an active electrode material and a solid polymer electrolyte composition that contains lithium salt. The active electrode material is fed into the feed throat of the extruder, while a portion of at least one fluid component of the solid polymer electrolyte composition is introduced to the downstream section. The active electrode material and the solid polymer electrolyte composition are compounded in a downstream end of the extruder. The extruded sheets, adhered to current collectors, can be formed into battery cells.

  6. RADIATION DAMAGE RESISTANCE OF REVERSE ELECTRODE GE COAXIAL DETECTORS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pehl, Richard H.

    2011-01-01

    Parker, "Radiation Damage of Germanium Detectors", Bull. Am.to radiation damage between the two detectors was clearlyRADIATION DAMAGE RESISTANCE OF REVERSE ELECTRODE GE COAXIAL DETECTORS

  7. Microscale Electrode Design Using Coupled Kinetic, Thermal and...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    geothermal systems (EGS) | geothermal 2015 peer review Coupled Kinetic, Thermal, and Mechanical Modeling of FIB Micro-machined Electrodes 2015 GTO Peer Review | Poster Session...

  8. Molecular Structure and Ion Transport near Electrode-Electrolyte...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Structure and Ion Transport near Electrode-Electrolyte Interfaces in Lithium-Ion Batteries Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Molecular Structure and Ion Transport...

  9. Sorted Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Films for Transparent Electrodes...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Sorted Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Films for Transparent Electrodes in Organic Solar Cells Home > Research > ANSER Research Highlights > Sorted Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube...

  10. Manufacturing of Protected Lithium Electrodes for Advanced Lithium...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    harness high energy Lithium electrode Completely stable in air, water, aggressive solvents Allows pairing of previously incompatible chemistries (i.e. Liaqueous) Enables...

  11. Nanomaterials for bio-functionalized electrodes: recent trends

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walcarius, Alain; Minteer, Shelley D.; Wang, Joseph; Lin, Yuehe; Merkoci, Arben

    2013-09-10

    This review intends to highlight the interest of nanomaterials for building biologically-modified electrodes. Rather than giving a comprehensive overview of the topic, the present work intends to give a flavour on the most exciting achievements and most recent approaches to get (and use) nanostructured electrode surfaces (or electrodes modified with nano-objects) comprising biomolecules. It will mainly consider nano-engineered functional polymers, nano-sized objects such as nanoparticles, carbon nanotubes, graphene or related materials, as well as template-based nanostructures, as modifiers for bio-functionalised electrodes.

  12. Improved, Defect-Free Electrode Materials - Energy Innovation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Fuels Vehicles and Fuels Find More Like This Return to Search Improved, Defect-Free Electrode Materials Brookhaven National Laboratory Contact BNL About This Technology...

  13. Molecular Simulations of Electrolytes and Electrolyte/Electrode...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Molecular Simulations of Electrolytes and ElectrolyteElectrode Interfaces Grant D. Smith and Oleg Borodin Department of Materials Science & Engineering University of Utah 0218...

  14. High power density supercapacitors using locally aligned carbon nanotube electrodes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Du, C S; Yeh, J; Pan, Ning

    2005-01-01

    carbon nanotubes in 1 ml of DMF) on two 12 mm × 12 mm nickelnanotubes as electrodes. An [7, 15] obtained high power density with polished nickel

  15. Novel Stack Concepts: Patterned Aligned Carbon Nanotubes as Electrodes...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    on new fuel cell projects. newfcliuargonne.pdf More Documents & Publications Novel PEMFC Stack Using Patterned Aligned Carbon Nanotubes as Electrodes in MEA Advanced Cathode...

  16. Intercalation Kinetics and Ion Mobility in Electrode Materials...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Intercalation Kinetics and Ion Mobility in Electrode Materials for Advanced Lithium Ion Batteries 2011 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program...

  17. Development of Multifunctional Electrode Arrays for Medical Diagnostic...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Development of Multifunctional Electrode Arrays for Medical Diagnostics and Environmental Monitoring. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Development of Multifunctional...

  18. Investigation of critical parameters in Li-ion battery electrodes...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and Negative Electrodes: Novel and Optimized Materials Novel and Optimized Materials Phases for High Energy Density Batteries FY 2012 Annual Progress Report for Energy Storage R&D...

  19. In operando Investigation of SOFC Electrodes Using Synchrotron...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    In operando Investigation of SOFC Electrodes Using Synchrotron-based Ambient Pressure X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (AP-XPS) in a Novel Two- Environment Chamber. Citation...

  20. Ionic conductivity of stabilized zirconia networks in composite SOFC electrodes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yamahara, Keiji; Sholklapper, Tal Z.; Jacobson, Craig P.; Visco, Steven J.; De Jonghe, Lutgard C.

    2004-01-01

    E.P. Murray,S.A. Barnett, in SOFC VI, S. C. Singhal and M.NETWORKS IN COMPOSITE SOFC ELECTRODES Keiji Yamahara + , Tal

  1. Manufacturing of Monolithic Electrodes from Low-Cost Renewable...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    of Monolithic Electrodes from Low-Cost Renewable Resources Lignin, a low-cost, biomass derived precursor, was selected as an alternative for carbon based free standing...

  2. Negative Electrodes Improve Safety in Lithium Cells and Batteries...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    intermetallic material for the negative electrode that offers a significantly higher volumetric and gravimetric capacity and improves battery stability and safety. PDF icon...

  3. ENGINEERED ELECTRODES AND ELECTRODE-ORGANIC INTERFACES FOR HIGH-EFFICIENCY ORGANIC PHOTOVOLTAICS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tobin J. Marks; R.P.H. Chang; Tom Mason; Ken Poeppelmeier; Arthur J. Freeman

    2008-11-13

    Organic photovoltaic (OPV) cells offer the ultimate promise of low cost, readily manufacturable, and durable solar power. While recent advances have led to cells with impressive performance levels, OPV cells have yet to break the double-digit efficiency barrier. Further gains in efficiency and durability, to that competitive with high-performance inorganic photovoltaics will require breakthroughs in transparent electrode and interfacial materials science and engineering. This project involved an integrated basic research effort carried out by an experienced and highly collaborative interdisciplinary team to address in unconventional ways, critical electrode-interfacial issues underlying OPV performance--controlling band offsets between transparent electrodes and organics, addressing current loss/leakage problems at interfaces, enhancing adhesion, interfacial stability, and device durability while minimizing cost. It synergistically combined materials and interfacial reagent synthesis, nanostructural and photovoltaic characterization, and high level quantum theory. The research foci were: 1) understanding of/development of superior transparent electrode materials and materials morphologies--i.e., better matched electronically and chemically to organic active layers, 2) understanding-based development of inorganic interfacial current-collecting/charge-blocking layers, and 3) understanding-based development of self-assembled adhesion/current-collecting/charge-blocking/cross-linking layers for high-efficiency OPV interfaces. Pursing the goal of developing the fundamental scientific understanding needed to design, fabricate, prototype and ultimately test high-efficiency OPV cells incorporating these new concepts, we achieved a record power conversion efficiency of 5.2% for an organic bulk-heterjunction solar cell.

  4. Scientific American: "Tall Trees Sucked Dry by Global Warming...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Scientific American: "Tall Trees Sucked Dry by Global Warming" June 7, 2015 Scientific American: "Tall Trees Sucked Dry by Global Warming" A well-known scientific principle...

  5. Scientific American: "Tall Trees Sucked Dry by Global Warming...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Dry by Global Warming" Scientific American: "Tall Trees Sucked Dry by Global Warming" Climate change will challenge tall trees like California's redwoods. June 7, 2015...

  6. High Burnup Dry Storage Cask Research and Development Project...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    High Burnup Dry Storage Cask Research and Development Project: Final Test Plan High Burnup Dry Storage Cask Research and Development Project: Final Test Plan The potential need to...

  7. Heat Transfer Performance of a Dry and Wet / Dry Advanced Cooling Tower Condenser 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fricke, H. D.; Webster, D. J.; McIlroy, K.; Bartz, J. A.

    1981-01-01

    PERFORMANCE OF A DRY AND WET/DRY ADVANCED COOLING TOWER CONDENSER Hans D. Fricke, David J. Webster, Kenneth McIlroy Union carbide Corporation - Linde Division, Tonawanda, New York John A. Bartz Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, california... cooling in creases siting flexibility, particularly for locations in arid Western coal fields. However, dry cooling requires considerable capital investment for the cooling towers. Hence, the development of effitient (low cost) heat transfer surfaces...

  8. Tunneling magnetoresistance phenomenon utilizing graphene magnet electrode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hashimoto, T.; Kamikawa, S.; Haruyama, J.; Soriano, D.; Pedersen, J. G.; Roche, S.

    2014-11-03

    Using magnetic rare-metals for spintronic devices is facing serious problems for the environmental contamination and the limited material-resource. In contrast, by fabricating ferromagnetic graphene nanopore arrays (FGNPAs) consisting of honeycomb-like array of hexagonal nanopores with hydrogen-terminated zigzag-type atomic structure edges, we reported observation of polarized electron spins spontaneously driven from the pore edge states, resulting in rare-metal-free flat-energy-band ferromagnetism. Here, we demonstrate observation of tunneling magnetoresistance (TMR) behaviors on the junction of cobalt/SiO{sub 2}/FGNPA electrode, serving as a prototype structure for future rare-metal free TMR devices using magnetic graphene electrodes. Gradual change in TMR ratios is observed across zero-magnetic field, arising from specified alignment between pore-edge- and cobalt-spins. The TMR ratios can be controlled by applying back-gate voltage and by modulating interpore distance. Annealing the SiO{sub 2}/FGNPA junction also drastically enhances TMR ratios up to ?100%.

  9. Nutr Cancer . Author manuscript Freeze-dried ham promotes azoxymethane-induced mucin-depleted foci

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Nutr Cancer . Author manuscript Page /1 9 Freeze-dried ham promotes azoxymethane-induced mucin and red meat consumption is associated with the risk of colorectal cancer. Meta-analyses have suggested that the risk associated with processed meat is higher. Most processed meats are cured and cooked, which leads

  10. This invention relates to methods of generating NP gallium nitride (GaN) across large areas (>1 cm.sup.2) with controlled pore diameters, pore density, and porosity. Also disclosed are methods of generating novel optoelectronic devices based on porous GaN. Additionally a layer transfer scheme to separate and create free-standing crystalline GaN thin layers is disclosed that enables a new device manufacturing paradigm involving substrate recycling. Other disclosed embodiments of this invention relate to fabrication of GaN based nanocrystals and the use of NP GaN electrodes for electrolysis, water splitting, or photosynthetic process applications.

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zhang, Yu; Sun, Qian; Han, Jung

    2015-12-08

    This invention relates to methods of generating NP gallium nitride (GaN) across large areas (>1 cm.sup.2) with controlled pore diameters, pore density, and porosity. Also disclosed are methods of generating novel optoelectronic devices based on porous GaN. Additionally a layer transfer scheme to separate and create free-standing crystalline GaN thin layers is disclosed that enables a new device manufacturing paradigm involving substrate recycling. Other disclosed embodiments of this invention relate to fabrication of GaN based nanocrystals and the use of NP GaN electrodes for electrolysis, water splitting, or photosynthetic process applications.

  11. Electrochemical Characterization of Vanadium Oxide Nanostructured Electrode

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sadoway, Donald Robert

    microstructures called aerogels in the case of supercritical or freeze-drying and ambigels in the case of solvent for intercalated ions.7 When cycled between 4.0 and 1.5 V, vanadium oxide aerogels achieved capaci- ties of 410 mAh/g at C/40.6 Baudrin et al. have used the vanadium oxide aerogel structure to access a metastable phase

  12. Utilization of Process Off-Gas as a Fuel for Improved Energy...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    with waste heat utilization. The calcining process is composed of the petroleum coke charger (black), fluidized bed calciner with electrodes and nitrogen supply (red), and gas...

  13. Highly Reversible Open Framework Nanoscale Electrodes for Divalent Ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cui, Yi

    Highly Reversible Open Framework Nanoscale Electrodes for Divalent Ion Batteries Richard Y. Wang into electrode materials has enabled the development of rechargeable batteries with high energy density. Reversible insertion of divalent ions such as magnesium would allow the creation of new battery chemistries

  14. Reversibly immobilized biological materials in monolayer films on electrodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weaver, P.F.; Frank, A.J.

    1993-05-04

    Methods and techniques are described for reversibly binding charged biological particles in a fluid medium to an electrode surface. The methods are useful in a variety of applications. The biological materials may include microbes, proteins, and viruses. The electrode surface may consist of reversibly electroactive materials such as polyvinylferrocene, silicon-linked ferrocene or quinone.

  15. Reversibly immobilized biological materials in monolayer films on electrodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weaver, Paul F. (Golden, CO); Frank, Arthur J. (Lakewood, CO)

    1993-01-01

    Methods and techniques are described for reversibly binding charged biological particles in a fluid medium to an electrode surface. The methods are useful in a variety of applications. The biological materials may include microbes, proteins, and viruses. The electrode surface may consist of reversibly electroactive materials such as polyvinylferrocene, silicon-linked ferrocene or quinone.

  16. Method for the electro-addressable functionalization of electrode arrays

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Harper, Jason C.; Polsky, Ronen; Dirk, Shawn M.; Wheeler, David R.; Arango, Dulce C.; Brozik, Susan M.

    2015-12-15

    A method for preparing an electrochemical biosensor uses bias-assisted assembly of unreactive -onium molecules on an electrode array followed by post-assembly electro-addressable conversion of the unreactive group to a chemical or biological recognition group. Electro-addressable functionalization of electrode arrays enables the multi-target electrochemical sensing of biological and chemical analytes.

  17. Method of making a layered composite electrode/electrolyte

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Visco, Steven J. (Berkeley, CA); Jacobson, Craig P. (El Cerrito, CA); DeJonghe, Lutgard C. (Lafayette, CA)

    2005-01-25

    An electrode/electrolyte structure is prepared by a plurality of methods. An unsintered (possibly bisque fired) moderately catalytic electronically-conductive or homogeneous mixed ionic electronic conductive electrode material is deposited on a layer composed of a sintered or unsintered ionically-conductive electrolyte material prior to being sintered. A layer of particulate electrode material is deposited on an unsintered ("green") layer of electrolyte material and the electrode and electrolyte layers are sintered simultaneously, sometimes referred to as "co-firing," under conditions suitable to fully densify the electrolyte while the electrode retains porosity. Or, the layer of particulate electrode material is deposited on a previously sintered layer of electrolyte, and then sintered. Subsequently, a catalytic material is added to the electrode structure by infiltration of an electrolcatalyst precursor (e.g., a metal salt such as a transition metal nitrate). This may be followed by low temperature firing to convert the precursor to catalyst. The invention allows for an electrode with high electronic conductivity and sufficient catalytic activity to achieve high power density in an ionic (electrochemical) device such as fuel cells and electrolytic gas separation systems.

  18. Solid electrolyte-electrode system for an electrochemical cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tuller, Harry L. (Wellesley, MA); Kramer, Steve A. (Somerville, MA); Spears, Marlene A. (Woburn, MA)

    1995-01-01

    An electrochemical device including a solid electrolyte and solid electrode composed of materials having different chemical compositions and characterized by different electrical properties but having the same crystalline phase is provided. A method for fabricating an electrochemical device having a solid electrode and solid electrolyte characterized by the same crystalline phase is also provided.

  19. Oriented nanotube electrodes for lithium ion batteries and supercapacitors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Frank, Arthur J.; Zhu, Kai; Wang, Qing

    2013-03-05

    An electrode having an oriented array of multiple nanotubes is disclosed. Individual nanotubes have a lengthwise inner pore defined by interior tube walls which extends at least partially through the length of the nanotube. The nanotubes of the array may be oriented according to any identifiable pattern. Also disclosed is a device featuring an electrode and methods of fabrication.

  20. Morphological Analyses of Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cell Electrodes with

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Litster, Shawn

    fuel cell (PEFC) electrodes, which are often referred to as catalyst layers. Due to the combination of automo- tive PEFC stacks [3]. Typical PEFC electrodes consist of a network of carbon black aggregates for a polymer elec- trolyte fuel cell (PEFC) catalyst layer. The 3D structure of the platinum

  1. Aquagel electrode separator for use in batteries and supercapacitors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mayer, S.T.; Kaschmitter, J.L.; Pekala, R.W.

    1995-03-28

    An electrode separator is described for electrochemical energy storage devices, such as a high energy density capacitor incorporating a variety of carbon foam electrodes. The separator is derived from an aquagel of resorcinol-formaldehyde and related polymers and containing ionically conducting electrolyte in the pores thereof. 9 figures.

  2. Thermoelectric energy recovery at ionic-liquid/electrode interface

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marco Bonetti; Sawako Nakamae; Bo Tao Huang; Thomas J. Salez; Cecile Wiertel-Gasquet; Michel Roger

    2015-06-22

    A Thermally Chargeable Capacitor containing a binary solution of 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)-imide (EMIMTFSI) in acetonitrile is electrically charged by applying a tempera- ture gradient to two ideally polarisable electrodes. The corresponding thermoelectric coefficient is -1.7 mV/K for platinum foil electrodes and -0.3 mV/K for nanoporous carbon electrodes. Stored electrical energy is extracted by discharging the capacitor through a resistor. The measured capacitance of the electrode/ionic- liquid interface is 5 micro $\\mu$F for each platinum electrode while it becomes four orders of magnitude larger $\\approx 36$ mF for a single nanoporous carbon electrode. Reproducibility of the effect through repeated charging-discharging cycles under a steady-state temperature gradient demonstrates the robustness of the electrical charging pro- cess at the liquid/electrode interface. The acceleration of the charging by convective flows is also observed. This offers the possibility to convert waste-heat into electric energy without exchanging electrons between ions and electrodes, in contrast to what occurs in most thermogalvanic cells.

  3. Aquagel electrode separator for use in batteries and supercapacitors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mayer, Steven T. (San Leandro, CA); Kaschmitter, James L. (Pleasanton, CA); Pekala, Richard W. (Pleasant Hill, CA)

    1995-01-01

    An electrode separator for electrochemical energy storage devices, such as a high energy density capacitor incorporating a variety of carbon foam electrodes. The separator is derived from an aquagel of resorcinol-formaldehyde and related polymers and containing ionically conducting electrolyte in the pores thereof.

  4. Solid electrolyte-electrode system for an electrochemical cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tuller, H.L.; Kramer, S.A.; Spears, M.A.

    1995-04-04

    An electrochemical device including a solid electrolyte and solid electrode composed of materials having different chemical compositions and characterized by different electrical properties but having the same crystalline phase is provided. A method for fabricating an electrochemical device having a solid electrode and solid electrolyte characterized by the same crystalline phase is also provided. 17 figures.

  5. Gene expression and deletion analysis of mechanisms for electron transfer from electrodes to Geobacter sulfurreducens

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lovley, Derek

    transfer to electrodes. Keywords: microbial fuel cell, Geobacter sulfurreducens, cathode, electron donor. Surprisingly, genes for putative cell-electrode connections, such as outer-surface cytochromes and pili, which emerging area in microbe-electrode interactio

  6. The design of a microfabricated air electrode for liquid electrolyte fuel cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pierre, Fritz, 1977-

    2007-01-01

    In this dissertation, the microfabricated electrode (MFE) concept was applied to the design of an air electrode for liquid electrolyte fuel cells. The catalyst layer of the electrode is envisioned to be fabricated by using ...

  7. Influence of Fe-doped Graphite Electrode Characteristics on Ar-H2 Carbon Arc Plasma and SWCNT Formation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huczko, A.; Lange, H.; Bystrzejewski, M.; Ando, Y.; Zhao, X.; Inoue, S.

    2005-09-27

    Two Fe-doped (ca. 1 at.%) homogeneous graphite electrodes (different graphite microcrystals, degree of graphitization and, thereby, electrical conductivities) electrodes were used in the process of production of single-walled carbon nanotubes in Ar-H2 arc plasma under pressure 26 kPa. The C2 content (namely carbon vapor pressure) and temperature distributions in the arc plasma were determined using optical emission spectroscopy. The mechanism of CNT formation based on carbon dimers as the building blocks seems to be at least questionable.

  8. Focused shock spark discharge drill using multiple electrodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moeny, William M. (Albuquerque, NM); Small, James G. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1988-01-01

    A spark discharge focused drill provided with one pulse forming line or a number of pulse forming lines. The pulse forming line is connected to an array of electrodes which would form a spark array. One of the electrodes of each of the array is connected to the high voltage side of the pulse forming line and the other electrodes are at ground potential. When discharged in a liquid, these electrodes produce intense focused shock waves that can pulverize or fracture rock. By delaying the firing of each group of electrodes, the drill can be steered within the earth. Power can be fed to the pulse forming line either downhole or from the surface area. A high voltage source, such as a Marx generator, is suitable for pulse charging the lines.

  9. Insensitivity of tunneling anisotropic magnetoresistance to non-magnetic electrodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Y. Y.; Song, C. Wang, G. Y.; Zeng, F.; Pan, F.

    2013-11-11

    Ferromagnetic electrodes play a crucial role in magnetoresistance effect and spin injection, whereas the essential features of non-magnetic metal electrodes in spintronics are commonly ignored except for their electrical conductivity. Here, we verify that the room-temperature tunneling anisotropic magnetoresistance (TAMR) behavior in antiferromagnet-based [Pt/Co]/IrMn/AlO{sub x}/metal (metal?=?Pt, Au, Cu, Al) junctions is insensitive to the top metal electrodes. Similar out-of-plane signals are detected for different electrodes, in contrast to the varied shapes of in-plane TAMR curves which are most likely attributed to the differences in the multidomain structure of the magnetic electrode. This would add a different dimension to spintronics.

  10. Zinc electrode and rechargeable zinc-air battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ross, Jr., Philip N. (Kensington, CA)

    1989-01-01

    An improved zinc electrode is disclosed for a rechargeable zinc-air battery comprising an outer frame and a porous foam electrode support within the frame which is treated prior to the deposition of zinc thereon to inhibit the formation of zinc dendrites on the external surface thereof. The outer frame is provided with passageways for circulating an alkaline electrolyte through the treated zinc-coated porous foam. A novel rechargeable zinc-air battery system is also disclosed which utilizes the improved zinc electrode and further includes an alkaline electrolyte within said battery circulating through the passageways in the zinc electrode and an external electrolyte circulation means which has an electrolyte reservoir external to the battery case including filter means to filter solids out of the electrolyte as it circulates to the external reservoir and pump means for recirculating electrolyte from the external reservoir to the zinc electrode.

  11. Coplanar interdigitated grid detector with single electrode readout

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Luke, Paul N. (Castro Valley, CA)

    2001-01-01

    The coplanar interdigitated grid technique with single electrode readout provides substantial spectral performance improvement over that of conventional full-area planar electrode detectors and over coplanar interdigitated grid detectors which measure the difference between the induced charge signals from two interdigitated coplanar grid electrodes. The signal from only one interdigitated grid electrode is read out. The signal response is optimized by changing the relative areas of the two grid electrodes and the bias applied across the detector. Only one preamplifier is needed and signal subtraction is not necessary. This eliminates the electronic noise contribution from the additional preamplifier used in the normal coplanar grid implementation, and conventional single-amplifier detector electronics can be used.

  12. Multi-layer electrode for high contrast electrochromic devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schwendeman, Irina G. (Wexford, PA); Finley, James J. (Pittsburgh, PA); Polcyn, Adam D. (Pittsburgh, PA); Boykin, Cheri M. (Wexford, PA)

    2011-11-01

    An electrochromic device includes a first substrate spaced from a second substrate. A first transparent conductive electrode is formed over at least a portion of the first substrate. A polymeric anode is formed over at least a portion of the first conductive electrode. A second transparent conductive electrode is formed over at least a portion of the second substrate. In one aspect of the invention, a multi-layer polymeric cathode is formed over at least a portion of the second conductive electrode. In one non-limiting embodiment, the multi-layer cathode includes a first cathodically coloring polymer formed over at least a portion of the second conductive electrode and a second cathodically coloring polymer formed over at least a portion of the first cathodically coloring polymer. An ionic liquid is positioned between the anode and the cathode.

  13. Evaluating the biogas potential of the dry fraction from pretreatment of food waste from households

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murto, Marika; Björnsson, Lovisa; Rosqvist, Håkan; Bohn, Irene

    2013-05-15

    Highlights: ? A novel approach for biogas production from a waste fraction that today is incinerated. ? Biogas production is possible in spite of the impurities of the waste. ? Tracer studies are applied in a novel way. ? Structural material is needed to improve the flow pattern of the waste. ? We provide a solution to biological treatment for the complex waste fraction. - Abstract: At the waste handling company NSR, Helsingborg, Sweden, the food waste fraction of source separated municipal solid waste is pretreated to obtain a liquid fraction, which is used for biogas production, and a dry fraction, which is at present incinerated. This pretreatment and separation is performed to remove impurities, however also some of the organic material is removed. The possibility of realising the methane potential of the dry fraction through batch-wise dry anaerobic digestion was investigated. The anaerobic digestion technique used was a two-stage process consisting of a static leach bed reactor and a methane reactor. Treatment of the dry fraction alone and in a mixture with structural material was tested to investigate the effect on the porosity of the leach bed. A tracer experiment was carried out to investigate the liquid flow through the leach beds, and this method proved useful in demonstrating a more homogenous flow through the leach bed when structural material was added. Addition of structural material to the dry fraction was needed to achieve a functional digestion process. A methane yield of 98 m{sup 3}/ton was obtained from the dry fraction mixed with structural material after 76 days of digestion. This was in the same range as obtained in the laboratory scale biochemical methane potential test, showing that it was possible to extract the organic content in the dry fraction in this type of dry digestion system for the production of methane.

  14. Quartz resonator processing system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Peters, Roswell D. M. (Rustburg, VA)

    1983-01-01

    Disclosed is a single chamber ultra-high vacuum processing system for the oduction of hermetically sealed quartz resonators wherein electrode metallization and sealing are carried out along with cleaning and bake-out without any air exposure between the processing steps. The system includes a common vacuum chamber in which is located a rotatable wheel-like member which is adapted to move a plurality of individual component sets of a flat pack resonator unit past discretely located processing stations in said chamber whereupon electrode deposition takes place followed by the placement of ceramic covers over a frame containing a resonator element and then to a sealing stage where a pair of hydraulic rams including heating elements effect a metallized bonding of the covers to the frame.

  15. Method and apparatus for drying web

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Orloff, David I. (Atlanta, GA); Kloth, Gerald R. (Kennesaw, GA); Rudemiller, Gary R. (Paducah, KY)

    1992-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a method and apparatus for drying a web of paper utilizing impulse drying techniques. In the method of the invention for drying a paper web, the paper web is transported through a pair of rolls wherein at least one of the rolls has been heated to an elevated temperature. The heated roll is provided with a surface having a low thermal diffusivity of less than about 1.times.10.sup.-6 m.sup.2 /s. The surface material of the roll is preferably prepared from a material selected from the group consisting of ceramics, polymers, glass, inorganic plastics, composite materials and cermets. The heated roll may be constructed entirely from the material having a low thermal diffusivity or the roll may be formed from metal, such as steel or aluminum, or other suitable material which is provided with a surface layer of a material having a low thermal diffusivity.

  16. Temperature-Dependent Simulations of Dry Gas Transport in the Electrodes of Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stockie, John

    Membrane Fuel Cells M. J. Kermani1 J. M. Stockie2 mkermani@unb.ca stockie@unb.ca 1 Post Doctoral Fellow the cathode of a proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell is studied numerically. The di usion to achieve this goal is via proton exchange mem- brane (PEM) fuel cells, which in principle combine oxygen

  17. Carbon Film Electrodes For Super Capacitor Applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tan, Ming X. (Livermore, CA)

    1999-07-20

    A method for treating an organic polymer material, preferably a vinylidene chloride/vinyl chloride copolymer (Saran) to produce a flat sheet of carbon film material having a high surface area (.apprxeq.1000 m.sup.2 /g) suitable as an electrode material for super capacitor applications. The method comprises heating a vinylidene chloride/vinyl chloride copolymer film disposed between two spaced apart graphite or ceramic plates to a first temperature of about 160.degree. C. for about 14 hours to form a stabilized vinylidene chloride/vinyl chloride polymer film, thereafter heating the stabilized film to a second temperature of about 750.degree. C. in an inert atmosphere for about one hour to form a carbon film; and finally activating the carbon film to increase the surface area by heating the carbon film in an oxidizing atmosphere to a temperature of at least 750-850.degree. C. for between 1-6 hours.

  18. Electrodes including a polyphosphazene cyclomatrix, methods of forming the electrodes, and related electrochemical cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gering, Kevin L; Stewart, Frederick F; Wilson, Aaron D; Stone, Mark L

    2014-10-28

    An electrode comprising a polyphosphazene cyclomatrix and particles within pores of the polyphosphazene cyclomatrix. The polyphosphazene cyclomatrix comprises a plurality of phosphazene compounds and a plurality of cross-linkages. Each phosphazene compound of the plurality of phosphazene compounds comprises a plurality of phosphorus-nitrogen units, and at least one pendant group bonded to each phosphorus atom of the plurality of phosphorus-nitrogen units. Each phosphorus-nitrogen unit is bonded to an adjacent phosphorus-nitrogen unit. Each cross-linkage of the plurality of cross-linkages bonds at least one pendant group of one phosphazene compound of the plurality of phosphazene compounds with the at least one pendant group of another phosphazene compound of the plurality of phosphazene compounds. A method of forming a negative electrode and an electrochemical cell are also described.

  19. Different electrode configurations to optimize performance of multi-electrode microbial fuel cells for generating power or treating

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Different electrode configurations to optimize performance of multi- electrode microbial fuel cells a b s t r a c t Scaling-up of microbial fuel cells (MFCs) for practical applications requires compact. Introduction Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) are an emerging method for achieving sustainable wastewater treatment

  20. Dry etching method for compound semiconductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shul, R.J.; Constantine, C.

    1997-04-29

    A dry etching method is disclosed. According to the present invention, a gaseous plasma comprising, at least in part, boron trichloride, methane, and hydrogen may be used for dry etching of a compound semiconductor material containing layers including aluminum, or indium, or both. Material layers of a compound semiconductor alloy such as AlGaInP or the like may be anisotropically etched for forming electronic devices including field-effect transistors and heterojunction bipolar transistors and for forming photonic devices including vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers, edge-emitting lasers, and reflectance modulators. 1 fig.

  1. Annotated Bibliography for Drying Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rebecca E. Smith

    2011-09-01

    Internationally, the nuclear industry is represented by both commercial utilities and research institutions. Over the past two decades many of these entities have had to relocate inventories of spent nuclear fuel from underwater storage to dry storage. These efforts were primarily prompted by two factors: insufficient storage capacity (potentially precipitated by an open-ended nuclear fuel cycle) or deteriorating quality of existing underwater facilities. The intent of developing this bibliography is to assess what issues associated with fuel drying have been identified, to consider where concerns have been satisfactorily addressed, and to recommend where additional research would offer the most value to the commercial industry and the U. S. Department of Energy.

  2. Acoustically enhanced heat exchange and drying apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bramlette, T. Tazwell (Livermore, CA); Keller, Jay O. (Oakland, CA)

    1989-01-01

    A heat transfer apparatus includes a first chamber having a first heat transfer gas inlet, a second heat transfer gas inlet, and an outlet. A first heat transfer gas source provides a first gas flow to the first chamber through the first heat transfer gas inlet. A second gas flow through a second chamber connected to the side of the first chamber, generates acoustic waves which bring about acoustical coupling of the first and second gases in the acoustically augmented first chamber. The first chamber may also include a material inlet for receiving material to be dried, in which case the gas outlet serves as a dried material and gas outlet.

  3. Method for linearizing deflection of a MEMS device using binary electrodes and voltage modulation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Horenstein, Mark N. (West Roxbury, MA) [West Roxbury, MA

    2008-06-10

    A micromechanical device comprising one or more electronically movable structure sets comprising for each set a first electrode supported on a substrate and a second electrode supported substantially parallel from said first electrode. Said second electrode is movable with respect to said first electrode whereby an electric potential applied between said first and second electrodes causing said second electrode to move relative to said first electrode a distance X, (X), where X is a nonlinear function of said potential, (V). Means are provided for linearizing the relationship between V and X.

  4. Synthesis and Stability of a Nanoparticle-Infiltrated Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Electrode

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sholklapper, Tal Z.; Radmilovic, Velimir; Jacobson, Craig P.; Visco, Steven J.; De Jonghe, Lutgard C.

    2006-01-01

    a stable scandia-stabilized zirconia (SSZ) cathode electrodeSSZ (scandia- stabilized zirconia) electrodes proved, forin isopropanol, using zirconia balls as the milling medium.

  5. Synthesis and Stability of a Nanoparticle-Infiltrated Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Electrode

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sholklapper, Tal Z.; Radmilovic, Velimir; Jacobson, Craig P.; Visco, Steven J.; De Jonghe, Lutgard C.

    2006-01-01

    catalysts infiltrated into SOFC (Solid Oxide Fuel Cell)the demanding environment of SOFC electrodes. Introductioninfiltrated into already formed SOFC electrodes to enhance

  6. Three dimensional electrode for the electrolytic removal of contaminants from aqueous waste streams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Spiegel, Ella F. (Louisville, CO); Sammells, Anthony F. (Boulder, CO)

    2001-01-01

    Efficient and cost-effective electrochemical devices and processes for the remediation of aqueous waste streams. The invention provides electrolytic cells having a high surface area spouted electrode for removal of heavy metals and oxidation of organics from aqueous environments. Heavy metal ions are reduced, deposited on cathode particles of a spouted bed cathode and removed from solution. Organics are efficiently oxidized at anode particles of a spouted bed anode and removed from solution. The method of this inventions employs an electrochemical cell having an anolyte compartment and a catholyte compartment, separated by a microporous membrane, in and through which compartments anolyte and catholyte, respectively, are circulated. A spouted-bed electrode is employed as the cathode for metal deposition from contaminated aqueous media introduced as catholyte and as the anode for oxidation of organics from contaminated aqueous media introduced as anolyte.

  7. Gas diffusion electrode setup for catalyst testing in concentrated phosphoric acid at elevated temperatures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wiberg, Gustav K. H. E-mail: m.arenz@chem.ku.dk; Fleige, Michael; Arenz, Matthias E-mail: m.arenz@chem.ku.dk

    2015-02-15

    We present a detailed description of the construction and testing of an electrochemical cell setup allowing the investigation of a gas diffusion electrode containing carbon supported high surface area catalysts. The setup is designed for measurements in concentrated phosphoric acid at elevated temperature, i.e., very close to the actual conditions in high temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cells (HT-PEMFCs). The cell consists of a stainless steel flow field and a PEEK plastic cell body comprising the electrochemical cell, which exhibits a three electrode configuration. The cell body and flow field are braced using a KF-25 vacuum flange clamp, which allows an easy assembly of the setup. As demonstrated, the setup can be used to investigate temperature dependent electrochemical processes on high surface area type electrocatalysts, but it also enables quick screening tests of HT-PEMFC catalysts under realistic conditions.

  8. Feed Processing, Handling, and Gasification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2006-04-01

    Both current and future sugar biorefineries will generate a wide variety of residue streams that can be used as feedstocks for thermochemical processes, including corn stover, corn fiber, lignin-rich materials, and distillers’ dried grain and solubles.

  9. 4 kW Test of Solid Oxide Electrolysis Stacks with Advanced Electrode-Supported Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. E. O'Brien; X. Zhang; G. K. Housley; L. Moore-McAteer; G. Tao

    2012-06-01

    A new test stand has been developed at the Idaho National Laboratory for multi-kW testing of solid oxide electrolysis stacks. This test stand will initially be operated at the 4 KW scale. The 4 kW tests will include two 60-cell stacks operating in parallel in a single hot zone. The stacks are internally manifolded with an inverted-U flow pattern and an active area of 100 cm2 per cell. Process gases to and from the two stacks are distributed from common inlet/outlet tubing using a custom base manifold unit that also serves as the bottom current collector plate. The solid oxide cells incorporate a negative-electrode-supported multi-layer design with nickel-zirconia cermet negative electrodes, thin-film yttria-stabilized zirconia electrolytes, and multi-layer lanthanum ferrite-based positive electrodes. Treated metallic interconnects with integral flow channels separate the cells and electrode gases. Sealing is accomplished with compliant mica-glass seals. A spring-loaded test fixture is used for mechanical stack compression. Due to the power level and the large number of cells in the hot zone, process gas flow rates are high and heat recuperation is required to preheat the cold inlet gases upstream of the furnace. Heat recuperation is achieved by means of two inconel tube-in-tube counter-flow heat exchangers. A current density of 0.3 A/cm2 will be used for these tests, resulting in a hydrogen production rate of 25 NL/min. Inlet steam flow rates will be set to achieve a steam utilization value of 50%. The 4 kW test will be performed for a minimum duration of 1000 hours in order to document the long-term durability of the stacks. Details of the test apparatus and initial results will be provided.

  10. Human factors engineering report for the cold vacuum drying facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    IMKER, F.W.

    1999-06-30

    The purpose of this report is to present the results and findings of the final Human Factors Engineering (HFE) technical analysis and evaluation of the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF). Ergonomics issues are also addressed in this report, as appropriate. This report follows up and completes the preliminary work accomplished and reported by the Preliminary HFE Analysis report (SNF-2825, Spent Nuclear Fuel Project Cold Vacuum Drying Facility Human Factors Engineering Analysis: Results and Findings). This analysis avoids redundancy of effort except for ensuring that previously recommended HFE design changes have not affected other parts of the system. Changes in one part of the system may affect other parts of the system where those changes were not applied. The final HFE analysis and evaluation of the CVDF human-machine interactions (HMI) was expanded to include: the physical work environment, human-computer interface (HCI) including workstation and software, operator tasks, tools, maintainability, communications, staffing, training, and the overall ability of humans to accomplish their responsibilities, as appropriate. Key focal areas for this report are the process bay operations, process water conditioning (PWC) skid, tank room, and Central Control Room operations. These key areas contain the system safety-class components and are the foundation for the human factors design basis of the CVDF.

  11. Carbon Dioxide Capture from Flue Gas Using Dry Regenerable Sorbents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas Nelson; David Green; Paul Box; Raghubir Gupta; Gennar Henningsen

    2007-06-30

    Regenerable sorbents based on sodium carbonate (Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}) can be used to separate carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) from coal-fired power plant flue gas. Upon thermal regeneration and condensation of water vapor, CO{sub 2} is released in a concentrated form that is suitable for reuse or sequestration. During the research project described in this report, the technical feasibility and economic viability of a thermal-swing CO{sub 2} separation process based on dry, regenerable, carbonate sorbents was confirmed. This process was designated as RTI's Dry Carbonate Process. RTI tested the Dry Carbonate Process through various research phases including thermogravimetric analysis (TGA); bench-scale fixed-bed, bench-scale fluidized-bed, bench-scale co-current downflow reactor testing; pilot-scale entrained-bed testing; and bench-scale demonstration testing with actual coal-fired flue gas. All phases of testing showed the feasibility of the process to capture greater than 90% of the CO{sub 2} present in coal-fired flue gas. Attrition-resistant sorbents were developed, and these sorbents were found to retain their CO{sub 2} removal activity through multiple cycles of adsorption and regeneration. The sodium carbonate-based sorbents developed by RTI react with CO{sub 2} and water vapor at temperatures below 80 C to form sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) and/or Wegscheider's salt. This reaction is reversed at temperatures greater than 120 C to release an equimolar mixture of CO{sub 2} and water vapor. After condensation of the water, a pure CO{sub 2} stream can be obtained. TGA testing showed that the Na{sub 2}CO3 sorbents react irreversibly with sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and hydrogen chloride (HCl) (at the operating conditions for this process). Trace levels of these contaminants are expected to be present in desulfurized flue gas. The sorbents did not collect detectable quantities of mercury (Hg). A process was designed for the Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-based sorbent that includes a co-current downflow reactor system for adsorption of CO{sub 2} and a steam-heated, hollow-screw conveyor system for regeneration of the sorbent and release of a concentrated CO{sub 2} gas stream. An economic analysis of this process (based on the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory's [DOE/NETL's] 'Carbon Capture and Sequestration Systems Analysis Guidelines') was carried out. RTI's economic analyses indicate that installation of the Dry Carbonate Process in a 500 MW{sub e} (nominal) power plant could achieve 90% CO{sub 2} removal with an incremental capital cost of about $69 million and an increase in the cost of electricity (COE) of about 1.95 cents per kWh. This represents an increase of roughly 35.4% in the estimated COE - which compares very favorable versus MEA's COE increase of 58%. Both the incremental capital cost and the incremental COE were projected to be less than the comparable costs for an equally efficient CO{sub 2} removal system based on monoethanolamine (MEA).

  12. Undesired drying of concrete and cement paste

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Langendoen, Koen

    Undesired drying of concrete and cement paste is a nightmare for any construction engineer of the concrete or cement paste surface. Inspired by the art of molecular cooking a team of TU Delft scientists for instance sodium alginates. When sprayed on the surface of concrete or cement paste, a rapid chemical

  13. Galaxy formation from dry and hydro simulations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ciotti, L

    2009-01-01

    The effects of dry and wet merging on the Scaling Laws (SLs) of elliptical galaxies (Es) are discussed. It is found that the galaxy SLs, possibly established at high redshift by the fast collapse of gas-rich and clumpy stellar distributions in preexisting dark matter halos following the cosmological SLs, are compatible with a (small) number of galaxy mergers at lower redshift.

  14. Nanostructured Block Copolymer Dry Electrolyte Ayan Ghosha,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rubloff, Gary W.

    Nanostructured Block Copolymer Dry Electrolyte Ayan Ghosha, * and Peter Kofinasb,z a Department, College Park, Maryland 20742, USA We report on the synthesis and characterization of a solid-state polymer electrolyte with enhanced lithium transport based on a self-assembled diblock copolymer. The diblock copolymer

  15. Dry aging beef for the retail channel 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, Robert David

    2007-09-17

    USDA Choice (n=48) and Select (n=48) paired Beef Loin, Short Loins, Short Cut (IMPS #174) were separated randomly into one of two treatments, dry or wet aging, and were aged for 14, 21, 28, or 35 d. At the end of each aging period, short loins were...

  16. Hog Fuel Drying Using Vapour Recompression 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Azarniouch, M. K.; MacEachen, I.

    1984-01-01

    A continuous hog fuel drying pilot plant based on the principle of mixing hog fuel with a hot oil (e.g., crude tall oil) as the heat transfer medium, and recirculating the suspension through a steam heated exchanger was designed, built...

  17. Dry Kraft Pulping at Ambient Pressure for Cost Effective Energy Saving and Pollution Deduction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yulin Deng; Art Ragauskas

    2012-08-28

    Sponsored by the DOE Industrial Energy Efficiency Grand Challenge program, our research team at the Georgia Institute of Technology conducted laboratory studies and confirmed the concept of making wood pulp using a dry pulping technology. This technology is a new process different from any prior pulping technology used in Kraft and CTMP pulping. Three different kinds of dry pulping methods were investigated. (a) Dry Pulping at Atmospheric Pressure: The first one is to dry and bake the pretreated woodchips in a conventional oven at atmospheric pressure without the use of a catalyst. (b) Dry Pulping at Reduced Pressure: The second method is to dry the pretreated woodchips first in a vacuum oven in the presence of anthraquinone (AQ) as a pulping catalyst, followed by baking at elevated temperature. (c) Liquid Free Chemical Pulping, LFCP. The third method is to first remove the free water of pretreated woodchips, followed by dry pulping using a conventional Kraft pulping digester with AQ and triton as additives. Method one: Experimental results indicated that Dry Pulping at Atmospheric Pressure could produce pulp with higher brightness and lower bulk than conventional Kraft pulp. However, tensile strength of the acquired pulp is much lower than traditional Kraft pulp, and their Kappa number and energy consumption are higher than conventional Kraft pulp. By fully analyzing the results, we concluded that wood fibers might be damaged during the drying process at elevated temperature. The main reason for wood fiber damage is that a long drying time was used during evaporation of water from the woodchips. This resulted in an un-uniform reaction condition on the woodchips: the outside layer of the woodchips was over reacted while inside the woodchips did not reacted at all. To solve this problem, dry pulping at reduced pressure was investigated. Method two: To achieve uniform reaction throughout the entire reaction system, the water inside the pretreated woodchips was evaporated first under vacuum condition at low temperature. Then, the dry woodchips were baked at high temperature (120-130 C) at atmospheric pressure. The qualities of the pulp made with this method were improved compared to that made with method one. The pulp shows higher brightness and lower bulk than Kraft pulping. The tensile strength is significantly higher than the pulp made from the first method. Although the pulp is stronger than that of TMP pulp, it is still lower than conventional Kraft fiber. Method Three: The third dry method was done in a Kraft pulping digester at elevated pressure but without free liquid in the digester. With this method, pulp that has almost the same qualities as conventional Kraft pulp could be produced. The screen yield, Kappa number, fiber brightness, pulp strength and pulp bulk are almost identical to the conventional Kraft pulp. The key advantages of this dry pulping method include ca. 55 % of cooking energy saved during the pulping process, as high as 50 wt% of NaOH saving as well as 3 wt% of Na2S saving comparing to Kraft one. By analyzing fiber properties, yields, chemical and energy consumptions, we concluded that the dry pulping method based on Liquid Free Chemical Pulping, LFCP, could be very attractive for the pulp and paper industry. More fundamental studies and scale up trials are needed to fully commercialize the technology. We expect to conduct pilot trials between 12 to 24 months of period if the DOE or industry can provide continual research funding. Based on the technology we demonstrated in this report, several pilot trial facilities in the United States will be available after small modifications. For example, the Herty Foundation in Savannah, Georgia is one of these potential locations. DOE funding for continuous study and final lead to commercialization of the technique is important.

  18. Dry particle coating of polymer particles for tailor-made product properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blümel, C. Schmidt, J. Dielesen, A. Sachs, M. Winzer, B. Peukert, W. Wirth, K.-E.

    2014-05-15

    Disperse polymer powders with tailor-made particle properties are of increasing interest in industrial applications such as Selective Laser Beam Melting processes (SLM). This study focuses on dry particle coating processes to improve the conductivity of the insulating polymer powder in order to assemble conductive devices. Therefore PP particles were coated with Carbon Black nanoparticles in a dry particle coating process. This process was investigated in dependence of process time and mass fraction of Carbon Black. The conductivity of the functionalized powders was measured by impedance spectroscopy. It was found that there is a dependence of process time, respectively coating ratio and conductivity. The powder shows higher conductivities with increasing number of guest particles per host particle surface area, i.e. there is a correlation between surface functionalization density and conductivity. The assembled composite particles open new possibilities for processing distinct polymers such as PP in SLM process. The fundamentals of the dry particle coating process of PP host particles with Carbon Black guest particles as well as the influence on the electrical conductivity will be discussed.

  19. Intercalation compounds and electrodes for batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chiang, Yet-Ming; Sadoway, Donald R.; Jang, Young-Il; Huang, Biyan

    2004-09-07

    This invention concerns intercalation compounds and in particular lithium intercalation compounds which have improved properties for use in batteries. Compositions of the invention include particulate metal oxide material having particles of multicomponent metal oxide, each including an oxide core of at least first and second metals in a first ratio, and each including a surface coating of metal oxide or hydroxide that does not include the first and second metals in the first ratio formed by segregation of at least one of the first and second metals from the core. The core may preferably comprise Li.sub.x M.sub.y N.sub.z O.sub.2 wherein M and N are metal atom or main group elements, x, y and z are numbers from about 0 to about 1 and y and z are such that a formal charge on M.sub.y N.sub.z portion of the compound is (4-x), and having a charging voltage of at least about 2.5V. The invention may also be characterized as a multicomponent oxide microstructure usable as a lithium intercalation material including a multiphase oxide core and a surface layer of one material, which is a component of the multiphase oxide core, that protects the underlying intercalation material from chemical dissolution or reaction. In a particular preferred example the multicomponent oxide may be an aluminum-doped lithium manganese oxide composition. Such aluminum-doped lithium manganese oxide compositions, having an orthorhombic structure, also form a part of the invention. In addition, the invention includes articles, particularly electrodes, for batteries formed from the compositions of the invention, and batteries including such electrodes. The invention further relates to a composite intercalation material comprising at least two compounds in which at least one compound has an orthorhombic structure Li.sub.x Al.sub.y Mn.sub.1-y O.sub.2, where y is nonzero, or a mixture of orthorhombic and monoclinic Li.sub.x Al.sub.y Mn.sub.1-y O.sub.2.

  20. Nutrition and Cancer, 62(5), 567573 Authors' version Freeze-Dried Ham Promotes Azoxymethane-Induced

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Nutrition and Cancer, 62(5), 567­573 Authors' version Freeze-Dried Ham Promotes Azoxymethane, INRA, 180 Tournefeuille, F-31931 Toulouse, France Abstract Processed and red meat consumption with processed meat is higher. Most processed meats are cured and cooked, which leads to formation of free