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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dry process electrode" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

Dry Process Electrode Fabrication  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

250m of free standing dry process cathode at thickness >200 m thickness. + Validate cost model by running pilot coating line at >25 mmin. + Deliver 24 cells in A123 SOA EV...

2

Dry Process Electrode Fabrication  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

free standing dry process cathode that retains 50% capacity at 1C rate. + Validate cost model by running pilot coating line. + Deliver 24 cells in SOA EV cell format....

3

Dry Process Electrode Fabrication  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

free standing dry process cathode that retains 50% capacity at 1C rate. + Validate cost model by running pilot coating line. + Deliver 24 cells in SOA EV cell format. 3...

4

Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Dry Process Electrode Fabrication  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Presentation given by Navitas Systems at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about dry process electrode...

5

Dry Process Electrode Fabrication  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

6

Dry Process Electrode Fabrication  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

7

Flexible electrode belt for EIT using nanofiber web dry electrodes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Efficient connection of multiple electrodes to the body for impedance measurement and voltage monitoring applications is of critical importance to measurement quality and practicality. Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) experiments have generally required a cumbersome procedure to attach the multiple electrodes needed in EIT. Once placed, these electrodes must then maintain good contact with the skin during measurements that may last several hours. There is usually also the need to manage the wires that run between the electrodes and the EIT system. These problems become more severe as the number of electrodes increases, and may limit the practicality and portability of this imaging method. There have been several trials describing human–electrode interfaces using configurations such as electrode belts, helmets or rings. In this paper, we describe an electrode belt we developed for long-term EIT monitoring of human lung ventilation. The belt included 16 embossed electrodes that were designed to make good contact with the skin. The electrodes were fabricated using an Ag-plated PVDF nanofiber web and metallic threads. A large contact area and padding were used behind each electrode to improve subject comfort and reduce contact impedances. The electrodes were incorporated, equally spaced, into an elasticated fabric belt. We tested the electrode belt in conjunction with the KHU Mark1 multi-frequency EIT system, and demonstrate time-difference images of phantoms and human subjects during normal breathing and running. We found that the Ag-plated PVDF nanofiber web electrodes were suitable for long-term measurement because of their flexibility and durability. Moreover, the contact impedance and stability of the Ag-plated PVDF nanofiber web electrodes were found to be comparable to similarly tested Ag/AgCl electrodes.

Tong In Oh; Tae Eui Kim; Sun Yoon; Kap Jin Kim; Eung Je Woo; Rosalind J Sadleir

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

8

Automated catalyst processing for cloud electrode fabrication for fuel cells  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for making dry carbon/polytetrafluoroethylene floc material, particularly useful in the manufacture of fuel cell electrodes, comprises of the steps of floccing a co-suspension of carbon particles and polytetrafluoroethylene particles, filtering excess liquids from the co-suspension, molding pellet shapes from the remaining wet floc solids without using significant pressure during the molding, drying the wet floc pellet shapes within the mold at temperatures no greater than about 150.degree. F., and removing the dry pellets from the mold.

Goller, Glen J. (West Springfield, MA); Breault, Richard D. (Coventry, CT)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

9

Investigation of Dry and Near-Dry Electrical Discharge Milling Processes.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The dry and near-dry electrical discharge machining (EDM) processes are investigated in this research. Dry EDM uses gas to replace the liquid dielectric fluid in… (more)

Tao, Jia

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

10

Flexible PDMS-based dry electrodes for electro-optic acquisition of ECG signals in wearable devices  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present a new type of flexible dry copper electrodes based on Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) coatings, requiring no electrical contact with the body. Tests were performed in order to evaluate the performance of these types ...

Fernandes, M. S.

11

Roll-to-Roll Electrode Processing and Materials NDE for Advanced...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Merit Review 2014: Roll-to-Roll Electrode Processing NDE for Advanced Lithium Secondary Batteries In-situ characterization and diagnostics of mechanical degradation in electrodes...

12

Multiobjective optimization of the dry electric discharge machining process  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

January 15, 2009 Abstract Dry Electric Discharge Machining (EDM) is an environment­friendly modification: Electric Discharge Machining (EDM), Dry EDM, Design of experiments, Multi­objective optimization, NSGA II;1 Introduction Electric Discharge Machining (EDM) is a thermo­electric process in which material removal takes

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

13

Atmospheric pressure plasma processing with microstructure electrodes and microplanar reactors  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Atmospheric pressure plasmas can be generated, if the distance between the plasma generating electrodes is in the range of 100 ?m, and radio-frequencies of 13.56 or 27.12 \\{MHz\\} are applied. Such small dimensioned plasmas are only of interest for industrial plasma applications if larger areas can be processed. It will be shown that both with microstructure electrodes as with microplanar-reactor, plasma processing can be carried out for typical substrate dimensions of 100 mm and more using helium or neon for plasma generation. First experiments of plasma surface treatment of polymers and of thin film deposition on silicon will be presented. With mixtures of some percentage C2H2 in atmospheric pressure helium, diamond-like carbon films with deposition rates between 1–10 ?m/min can be deposited.

H. Schlemm; D. Roth

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

14

Process for fabricating ribbed electrode substrates and other articles  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for fabricating a resin bonded carbon fiber article, and in particular electrochemical cell electrode substrates and the like requiring different mean pore sizes in different areas, involves simultaneously heating and compacting different mixtures of carbon fibers and resin in different areas of an article forming mold, wherein the carbon fibers in each of the different mixtures have different, known bulk densities. The different bulk densities of the carbon fibers in the mixtures are chosen to yield the desired mean pore sizes and other properties in the article after heating and compacting the mixtures. Preferably, the different bulk densities are obtained using different carbon fiber lengths in the molding mixtures. The process is well suited to forming ribbed electrode substrates with preselected optimum mean pore sizes, porosities, and densities in the ribs, the webs connecting the ribs, and in the edge seals.

Goller, Glen J. (West Springfield, MA); Breault, Richard D. (Coventry, CT); Smith, J. Harold (Amherst, MA)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

15

Development of a metal hydride electrode waste treatment process  

SciTech Connect

Manufacturing residues of metal hydride electrodes for nickel - metal hydride batteries were chemically processed to recover the metal part and heat treated for the organic part. Chemical recovery yielded Ni-Co alloy after electrolysis of the solution and hydroxides of other metal, mainly rare earths. The organic part, pyrolyzed at 700 C, led to separation between carbon and fluorinated matter. Infrared coupling at the output of the pyrolysis furnace was used to identify the pyrolysis gases.

Bianco, J.C.; Martin, D.; Ansart, F.; Castillo, S.

1999-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

16

Sintered electrode for solid oxide fuel cells  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A solid oxide fuel cell fuel electrode is produced by a sintering process. An underlayer is applied to the electrolyte of a solid oxide fuel cell in the form of a slurry, which is then dried. An overlayer is applied to the underlayer and then dried. The dried underlayer and overlayer are then sintered to form a fuel electrode. Both the underlayer and the overlayer comprise a combination of electrode metal such as nickel, and stabilized zirconia such as yttria-stabilized zirconia, with the overlayer comprising a greater percentage of electrode metal. The use of more stabilized zirconia in the underlayer provides good adhesion to the electrolyte of the fuel cell, while the use of more electrode metal in the overlayer provides good electrical conductivity. The sintered fuel electrode is less expensive to produce compared with conventional electrodes made by electrochemical vapor deposition processes. The sintered electrodes exhibit favorable performance characteristics, including good porosity, adhesion, electrical conductivity and freedom from degradation.

Ruka, Roswell J. (Pittsburgh, PA); Warner, Kathryn A. (Bryan, TX)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

On the Stability of Nonequilibrium Steady-States for the Electrode Processes at a Streaming Mercury Electrode  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

On the Stability of Nonequilibrium Steady-States for the Electrode Processes at a Streaming Mercury Electrode ... Therefore, if the theoretical description of nonlinear phenomena is intended to be compared directly with the real electrochemical process, as in the present paper, the mathematical dependencies must be based on the equations related strictly to all of these specific features of the experimental system. ... Finally, both diagrams from Figure 6 qualitatively resemble the shape of the diagram of the interrelated oscillations and bistability, proposed by the Boissonade and De Kepper1,26 for the description of a large class of nonelectrochemical dynamical systems. ...

Marek Orlik; Rafa? Jurczakowski

2002-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

18

Coating and drying processes for functional films in polymer solar cells - from laboratory to pilot scale.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Polymer solar cells can be produced by a continuous low cost coating and drying process. This work details a specialized experimental set-up to enable large… (more)

Wengeler, Lukas

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

19

Design and Application of the Dry-FGD Process in Sanming Steel No. 2 Sintering Plant  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this paper, it summarizes the characteristics of sinter flue gas, and study the application of dry-type-FGD (flue gas desulphurization) process for...

Yu Zhijie; Li Qiyong; Xu Haijun; Lin Chunyuan

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

Solution-processed silver nanowires as a transparent conducting electrode for air-stable inverted organic solar cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Highly efficient and air-stable inverted organic solar cells (IOSCs) were fabricated using solution-processed silver nanowire electrodes. The electrodes showed a low sheet resistance of ~ 16 ? sq? 1 and a high transmittance of ~ 95% at a wavelength of 550 nm. A solution-processed ZnO buffer layer is typically used for electron transport and effective passivation of the surface of Ag NW electrodes. The device performance of the \\{IOSCs\\} that used these Ag NW electrodes, which were fabricated on a glass or plastic substrate, was > 94% of that of devices containing indium tin oxide (ITO) electrodes. This indicates that solution-processed Ag NW electrode can replace commercialized ITO and can be utilized in roll-to-roll and large-area fabrication processes.

Myungkwan Song; Jong-Kuk Kim; Shi-Young Yang; Jae-Wook Kang

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dry process electrode" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Studies of electrical breakdown processes across vacuum gaps between metallic electrodes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Studies of electrical breakdown processes across vacuum gaps between metallic electrodes L Available online 3 June 2013 Keywords: Magnetic insulation Vacuum electrical breakdown Bacteria-induced electrical breakdown Accelerator a b s t r a c t An experimental program to elucidate the physical causes

Gilson, Erik

22

Studies of electrical breakdown processes across vacuum gaps between metallic electrodes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Studies of electrical breakdown processes across vacuum gaps between metallic electrodes L Keywords: Magnetic insulation Vacuum electrical breakdown Bacteria-induced electrical breakdown Accelerator a b s t r a c t An experimental program to elucidate the physical causes of electrical breakdown

Gilson, Erik

23

Criticality Safety Evaluation Report for the Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) Facilities Process Water Handling System  

SciTech Connect

This report addresses the criticality concerns associated with process water handling in the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility. The controls and limitations on equipment design and operations to control potential criticality occurrences are identified.

KESSLER, S.F.

2000-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

24

Study on drying and combustion process in grate-CFB incinerator  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The drying and combustion process in the combined grate and circulating fluidized bed (grate-CFB) municipal solid waste (MSW) incinerator was ... was proposed. A 260 t/d grate-CFB incinerator was modeled and the ...

QingHai Li; YanGuo Zhang; MeiQian Chen…

2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

25

The dissipated energy of electrode surfaces: Temperature jumps from coupled transport processes  

SciTech Connect

Nonequilibrium thermodynamics for surfaces has been applied to the electrode surfaces of an electrochemical cell. It is shown that the temperature of the surface differs from that of the adjacent electrolyte and electrode, and that a temperature jump exists across the surface. mathematical expressions are derived for the temperature profiles of two cells at steady-state conditions. Methods for estimating transport coefficients for the coupled transport processes at the electrode surface are discussed. Possible numerical results for the temperature profile, the overpotential, and the dissipated energy are reported. The results reflect the relative importance of heat conductivities, electric conductivities, and the Peltier coefficients for the electrode surface phenomena in combination with bulk properties. Significant temperature jumps may occur at normal electrolysis conditions 10{sup 3} to 10{sup 4} A/m, and for temperature jump coefficients which are smaller than 10{sup 3} J/s K{sup 2} m{sup 2}. The overpotential may have contributions from the Peltier coefficients for the surface larger than the ohmic contribution. The method of analysis gives new information useful for heat control of electrochemical cells, electrode kinetic studies, and interpretation of overpotentials.

Bedeaux, D. [Univ. of Leiden (Netherlands). Dept. of Physical and Macromolecular Chemistry; Ratkje, S.K. [Univ. of Trondheim (Norway)

1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

Sintered electrode for solid oxide fuel cells  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A solid oxide fuel cell fuel electrode is produced by a sintering process. An underlayer is applied to the electrolyte of a solid oxide fuel cell in the form of a slurry, which is then dried. An overlayer is applied to the underlayer and then dried. The dried underlayer and overlayer are then sintered to form a fuel electrode. Both the underlayer and the overlayer comprise a combination of electrode metal such as nickel, and stabilized zirconia such as yttria-stabilized zirconia, with the overlayer comprising a greater percentage of electrode metal. The use of more stabilized zirconia in the underlayer provides good adhesion to the electrolyte of the fuel cell, while the use of more electrode metal in the overlayer provides good electrical conductivity. The sintered fuel electrode is less expensive to produce compared with conventional electrodes made by electrochemical vapor deposition processes. The sintered electrodes exhibit favorable performance characteristics, including good porosity, adhesion, electrical conductivity and freedom from degradation. 4 figs.

Ruka, R.J.; Warner, K.A.

1999-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

640 CEREAL CHEMISTRY Quick Fiber Process: Effect of Mash Temperature, Dry Solids,  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

production costs even more. There are two corn-to-ethanol processes currently used: wet milling (Fig. 1.6 gal/bu) when compared to the wet milling process (2.5 gal/bu). This lower ethanol production in the wet milling process is due to starch loss in the fiber and gluten fractions. Dry grind suffers from

28

Doping suppression and mobility enhancement of graphene transistors fabricated using an adhesion promoting dry transfer process  

SciTech Connect

We present the facile dry transfer of graphene synthesized via chemical vapor deposition on copper film to a functional device substrate. High quality uniform dry transfer of graphene to oxidized silicon substrate was achieved by exploiting the beneficial features of a poly(4-vinylphenol) adhesive layer involving a strong adhesion energy to graphene and negligible influence on the electronic and structural properties of graphene. The graphene field effect transistors (FETs) fabricated using the dry transfer process exhibit excellent electrical performance in terms of high FET mobility and low intrinsic doping level, which proves the feasibility of our approach in graphene-based nanoelectronics.

Cheol Shin, Woo; Hun Mun, Jeong; Yong Kim, Taek; Choi, Sung-Yool; Jin Cho, Byung, E-mail: bjcho@kaist.edu, E-mail: tskim1@kaist.ac.kr [Department of Electrical Engineering, Graphene Research Center, KAIST, 373-1 Guseong-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Taeshik; Kim, Taek-Soo, E-mail: bjcho@kaist.edu, E-mail: tskim1@kaist.ac.kr [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Graphene Research Center, KAIST, 373-1 Guseong-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Graphene Research Center, KAIST, 373-1 Guseong-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of)

2013-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

29

Elements of Dry-Grind Corn-Processing Streams 113 Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology Vol. 134, 2006  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

is produced from corn by either wet-milling or dry-grind processing. In wet milling, several coproducts. Samples of corn, ground corn, beer, wet grains, syrup, and DDGS were obtained from nine dry-grind plantsElements of Dry-Grind Corn-Processing Streams 113 Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology Vol. 134

30

Development of an advanced process for drying fine coal in an inclined fluidized bed  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this research project was to demonstrate a technically feasible and economically viable process for drying and stabilizing high-moisture subbituminous coal. Controlled thermal drying of coal fines was achieved using the inclined fluidized-bed drying and stabilization process developed by the Western Research Institute. The project scope of work required completion of five tasks: (1) project planning, (2) characterization of two feed coals, (3) bench-scale inclined fluidized-bed drying studies, (4) product characterization and testing, and (5) technical and economic evaluation of the process. High moisture subbituminous coals from AMAX Eagle Butte mine located in the Powder River Basin of Wyoming and from Usibelli Coal Mine, Inc. in Healy, Alaska were tested in a 10-lb/hr bench-scale inclined fluidized-bed. Experimental results show that the dried coal contains less than 1.5% moisture and has a heating value over 11,500 Btu/lb. The coal fines entrainment can be kept below 15 wt % of the feed. The equilibrium moisture of dried coal was less than 50% of feed coal equilibrium moisture. 7 refs., 60 figs., 47 tabs.

Boysen, J.E.; Cha, C.Y.; Barbour, F.A.; Turner, T.F.; Kang, T.W.; Berggren, M.H.; Hogsett, R.F.; Jha, M.C.

1990-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

Effective dose in the manufacturing process of rutile covered welding electrodes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Shielded metal arc welding using covered electrodes is the most common welding process. Sometimes the covering contains naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORMs). In Spain the most used electrodes are those covered with rutile mixed with other materials. Rutile contains some detectable natural radionuclides, so it can be considered a NORM. This paper mainly focuses on the use of MCNP (Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport Code) as a predictive tool to obtain doses in a factory which produces this type of electrode and assess the radiological impact in a specific facility after estimating the internal dose.To do this, in the facility, areas of highest radiation and positions of workers were identified, radioactive content of rutile and rutile covered electrodes was measured, and, considering a worst possible scenario, external dose at working points has been calculated using MCNP. This procedure has been validated comparing the results obtained with those from a pressurised ionisation chamber and TLD dosimeters. The internal dose has been calculated using DCAL (dose and risk calculation). The doses range between 8.8 and 394 ?Sv yr?1, always lower than the effective dose limit for the public, 1 mSv yr?1. The highest dose corresponds to the mixing area.

M Herranz; S Rozas; C Pérez; R Idoeta; R Núñez-Lagos; F Legarda

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

32

Laser-processed three dimensional graphitic electrodes for diamond radiation detectors  

SciTech Connect

We have used an original approach for diamond detectors where three dimensional buried graphitic electrodes are processed in the bulk of a diamond substrate via laser-induced graphitization. Prototype made of polycrystalline chemical vapor deposition diamond was fabricated using a nanosecond UV laser. Its charge collection efficiency was evaluated using ?-particles emitted by a 241-Americium source. An improved charge collection efficiency was measured proving that laser micro-machining of diamond is a valid option for the future fabrication of three dimensional diamond detectors.

Caylar, Beno?-carett; Pomorski, Michal; Bergonzo, Philippe [CEA-LIST, Diamond Sensors Laboratory, Gif-sur-Yvette F-91191 (France)] [CEA-LIST, Diamond Sensors Laboratory, Gif-sur-Yvette F-91191 (France)

2013-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

33

Method of drying passivated micromachines by dewetting from a liquid-based process  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of fabricating a micromachine includes the step of constructing a low surface energy film on the micromachine. The micromachine is then rinsed with a rinse liquid that has a high surface energy, relative to the low surface energy film, to produce a contact angle of greater than 90.degree. between the low surface energy film and the rinse liquid. This relatively large contact angle causes any rinse liquid on the micromachine to be displaced from the micromachine when the micromachine is removed from the rinse liquid. In other words, the micromachine is dried by dewetting from a liquid-based process. Thus, a separate evaporative drying step is not required, as the micromachine is removed from the liquid-based process in a dry state. The relatively large contact angle also operates to prevent attractive capillary forces between micromachine components, thereby preventing contact and adhesion between adjacent microstructure surfaces. The low surface energy film may be constructed with a fluorinated self-assembled monolayer film. The processing of the invention avoids the use of environmentally harmful, health-hazardous chemicals.

Houston, Michael R. (Berkeley, CA); Howe, Roger T. (Lafayette, CA); Maboudian, Roya (Orinda, CA); Srinivasan, Uthara (Berkeley, CA)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

34

Sensitivity analysis of a dry-processed Candu fuel pellet's design parameters  

SciTech Connect

Sensitivity analysis was carried out in order to investigate the effect of a fuel pellet's design parameters on the performance of a dry-processed Canada deuterium uranium (CANDU) fuel and to suggest the optimum design modifications. Under a normal operating condition, a dry-processed fuel has a higher internal pressure and plastic strain due to a higher fuel centerline temperature when compared with a standard natural uranium CANDU fuel. Under a condition that the fuel bundle dimensions do not change, sensitivity calculations were performed on a fuel's design parameters such as the axial gap, dish depth, gap clearance and plenum volume. The results showed that the internal pressure and plastic strain of the cladding were most effectively reduced if a fuel's element plenum volume was increased. More specifically, the internal pressure and plastic strain of the dry-processed fuel satisfied the design limits of a standard CANDU fuel when the plenum volume was increased by one half a pellet, 0.5 mm{sup 3}/K. (authors)

Choi, Hangbok; Ryu, Ho Jin [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute 1045 Daedeok-daero, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-353 (Korea, Republic of)

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

35

Roll-to-Roll Electrode Processing NDE for Advanced Lithium Secondary...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Merit Review, June 18, 2014 Summary * Objective: This project facilitates lowering unit energy cost of EVs and PHEVs by addressing the electrode scrap rate, QC enhancement,...

36

Roll-to-Roll Electrode Processing and Materials NDE for Advanced...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Merit Review, May 14, 2013 Summary * Objective: this project facilitates lowering unit energy cost of EVs and PHEVs by addressing the electrode scrap rate, QC enhancement, and...

37

Multi-objective optimization of the dry electric discharge machining process  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Dry Electric Discharge Machining (EDM) is an environment-friendly modification of the conventional EDM process, which is obtained by replacing the liquid dielectric by a gaseous medium. In this study, multi-objective optimization of dry EDM process has been done using the non dominated sorting genetic algorithm (NSGA II), with material removal rate (MRR) and surface roughness (Ra) as the objective functions. Experiments were conducted with air as dielectric to develop polynomial models of MRR and Ra in terms of the six input parameters: gap voltage, discharge current, pulse-on time, duty factor, air pressure and spindle speed. A Pareto-optimal front was then obtained using NSGA II. Analysis of the front was done to identify separate regions for finish and rough machining. Designed experiments were then conducted in these focused regions to verify the optimization results and to identify the region-specific characteristics of the process. Finishing conditions were obtained at low current, high pulse-on time an...

Saha, Sourabh

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

Rapid formation of phase-clean 110 K (Bi-2223) powders derived via freeze-drying process  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for the preparation of amorphous precursor powders for Pb-doped Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2} Ca{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub x} (2223) includes a freeze-drying process incorporating a splat-freezing step. The process generally includes splat freezing a nitrate solution of Bi, Pb, Sr, Ca, and Cu to form flakes of the solution without any phase separation; grinding the frozen flakes to form a powder; freeze-drying the frozen powder; heating the dried powder to form a dry green precursor powders; denitrating the green-powders; heating the denitrated powders to form phase-clean Bi-2223 powders. The grain boundaries of the 2223 grains appear to be clean, leading to good intergrain contact between 2223 grains. 11 figs.

Balachandran, U.

1996-06-04T23:59:59.000Z

39

Rapid formation of phase-clean 110 K (Bi-2223) powders derived via freeze-drying process  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for the preparation of amorphous precursor powders for Pb-doped Bi.sub.2 Sr.sub.2 Ca.sub.2 Cu.sub.3 O.sub.x (2223) includes a freeze-drying process incorporating a splat-freezing step. The process generally includes splat freezing a nitrate solution of Bi, Pb, Sr, Ca, and Cu to form flakes of the solution without any phase separation; grinding the frozen flakes to form a powder; freeze-drying the frozen powder; heating the dried powder to form a dry green precursor powders; denitrating the green-powders; heating the denitrated powders to form phase-clean Bi-2223 powders. The grain boundaries of the 2223 grains appear to be clean, leading to good intergrain contact between 2223 grains.

Balachandran, Uthamalingam (Hinsdale, IL)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

40

Spectroscopic in Situ Imaging of Acid Coextraction Processes in Solvent Polymeric Ion-Selective Electrode and Optode Membranes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Spectroscopic in Situ Imaging of Acid Coextraction Processes in Solvent Polymeric Ion-Selective Electrode and Optode Membranes ... 11 The optical and potentiometric responses can, therefore, be interrelated. ... 10 At high pH, on the other hand, the lower detection limit of the ISE is defined by an ion-exchange process, where H+ from the membrane is replaced by an interfering cation of the sample. ...

Ernö Lindner; Titus Zwickl; Eric Bakker; Bui Thi Thu Lan; Klara Tóth; Ernö Pretsch

1998-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dry process electrode" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Preparation of polyaniline/sodium alanate hybrid using a spray-drying process  

SciTech Connect

Nowadays, hydrogen is highly interesting as an energy source, in particular in the automotive field. In fact, hydrogen is attractive as a fuel because it prevents air pollution and greenhouse emissions. One of the main problems with the utilization of hydrogen as a fuel is its on-board storage. The purpouse of this work was to develop a new hybrid material consisting of a polyaniline matrix with sodium alanate (NaAlH{sub 4}) using a spray-drying process. The polyaniline used for this experiment was synthesized by following a well-established method for the synthesis of the emeraldine base form of polyaniline using dodecylbenzenesulfonic acid as dopant. Micro particles of polyaniline/sodium alanate hybrids with 30 and 50 wt% of sodium alanate were prepared by using a spray-drying technique. Dilute solutions of polyaniline/sodium alanate were first prepared, 10g of the solid materials were mixed with 350 ml of toluene under stirring at room temperature for 24h and the solutions were dried using spray-dryer (Büchi, Switzerland) with 115°C of an inlet temperature. The hybrids were analyzed by differential scanning calorimetry, FT-IR and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The addition of sodium alanate decreased the glass transition temperature of the hybrids when compared to neat polyaniline. FT-IR spectrum analysis was performed to identify the bonding environment of the synthesized material and was observed that simply physically mixture occurred between polyaniline and sodium alanate. The SEM images of the hybrids showed the formation of microspheres with sodium alanate dispersed in the polymer matrix.

Moreira, B. R., E-mail: bru-rms@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: fabiopassador@gmail.com, E-mail: pessan@ufscar.br; Passador, F. R., E-mail: bru-rms@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: fabiopassador@gmail.com, E-mail: pessan@ufscar.br; Pessan, L. A., E-mail: bru-rms@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: fabiopassador@gmail.com, E-mail: pessan@ufscar.br [Dep. de Engenharia de Materiais, Federal University of São Carlos (Brazil)

2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

42

Roll-to-Roll Electrode Processing and Materials NDE for Advanced...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

by UT-Battelle for the U.S. Department of Energy May 17, 2012 Thickness Measurement on Patch Coated Electrode (Continuous Scanning) (a) (b) (a) (b) ridge on the foil -0.02 0 0.02...

43

Heart Monitoring Garments Using Textile Electrodes for Healthcare Applications  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

First, we developed a set of dry-type electrodes contacting the skin directly and non-...1). Dry-type electrodes enabled us to acquire vital signals...2...in total size. To figure out the position of the modified...

Hyun-Seung Cho; Su-Min Koo; Joohyeon Lee; Hakyung Cho…

2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

Comprehensive study of noise processes in electrode electrolyte interfaces Arjang Hassibi,a)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, with emphasis on its implications for electrochemical sensors. The noise power spectral densities associated produced by electrochemical interactions. The power spectral density of the thermal equilibrium noise in sensing electrodes, shot noise in electrochemical batteries, and 1/f noise in corrosive interfaces

Lee, Thomas H.

45

Influence of corn drying on its quality for the wet-milling process  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Flint and dent corn were forced air-dried at 70–110 °C to a final moisture of about 12.0%. The rates of water absorption of both hybrids in the presence of 0.25% SO2 aqueous solution were evaluated in terms of the diffusion coefficient. Drying temperature affected negatively the rate of absorption of both hybrids. A laboratory wet-milling procedure was developed to evaluate starch recovery of corn samples. For flint corn starch recovery drop from 96.5% (undried) to 82% (dried at 110 °C); for dent corn the drop was from 97.5% to 90%. The starch isolated from air-dried corn contained greater amounts of protein than starch originated from undried corn. The effect was more marked for flint than for dent corn and increased with the drying temperature. Sorptional characteristics of starch were practically unaffected by drying temperature. DSC transition temperatures of starch showed an increasing tendency with drying temperature. For both hybrids the gelatinization enthalpy of starch decreased with the increasing of drying temperature, the effect being more marked for flint than for dent corn.

Mónica Haros; Marcela P Tolaba; Constantino Suárez

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

Develop apparatus and process for second-stage drying. Quarterly progress report, September 26--December 26, 1994  

SciTech Connect

Progress is reported on Task 1, Computer simulation refinement and extension, and its two subtasks: Verification of computer model simulation of the drying process for lumber in a superheated kiln and Establishment of energy loss predictions for specific kiln designs for the first stage kiln. A report of a trip to the Irvington Moore Corporation facility and plans for next quarter are described.

Taylor, F.

1995-01-05T23:59:59.000Z

47

Production and Characterization of Atomized U-Mo Powder by the Rotating Electrode Process  

SciTech Connect

In order to produce feedstock fuel powder for irradiation testing, the Idaho National Laboratory has produced a rotating electrode type atomizer to fabricate uranium-molybdenum alloy fuel. Operating with the appropriate parameters, this laboratory-scale atomizer produces fuel in the desired size range for the RERTR dispersion experiments. Analysis of the powder shows a homogenous, rapidly solidified microstructure with fine equiaxed grains. This powder has been used to produce irradiation experiments to further test adjusted matrix U-Mo dispersion fuel.

C.R. Clark; B.R. Muntifering; J.F. Jue

2007-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

48

Evaluation of a dry process for conversion of U-AVLIS product to UF{sub 6}. Milestone U361  

SciTech Connect

A technical and engineering evaluation has been completed for a dry UF{sub 6} production system to convert the product of an initial two-line U-AVLIS plant. The objective of the study has been to develop a better understanding of process design requirements, capital and operating costs, and demonstration requirements for this alternate process. This report summarizes the results of the study and presents various comparisons between the baseline and alternate processes, building on the information contained in UF{sub 6} Product Alternatives Review Committee -- Final Report. It also provides additional information on flowsheet variations for the dry route which may warrant further consideration. The information developed by this study and conceptual design information for the baseline process will be combined with information to be developed by the U-AVLIS program and by industrial participants over the next twelve months to permit a further comparison of the baseline and alternate processes in terms of cost, risk, and compatibility with U-AVLIS deployment schedules and strategies. This comparative information will be used to make a final process flowsheet selection for the initial U-AVLIS plant by March 1993. The process studied is the alternate UF{sub 6} production flowsheet. Process steps are (1) electron-beam distillation to reduce enriched product iron content from about 10 wt % or less, (2) hydrofluorination of the metal to UF{sub 4}, (3) fluorination of UF{sub 4} to UF{sub 6}, (4) cold trap collection of the UF{sub 6} product, (5) UF{sub 6} purification by distillation, and (6) final blending and packaging of the purified UF{sub 6} in cylinders. A preliminary system design has been prepared for the dry UF{sub 6} production process based on currently available technical information. For some process steps, such information is quite limited. Comparisons have been made between this alternate process and the baseline plant process for UF{sub 6} production.

NONE

1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

Micro-structured electrode arrays: atmospheric pressure plasma processes and applications  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Micro-structured electrode (MSE) arrays allow to generate large-area uniform glow discharges over a wide pressure range up to atmospheric pressure. The electrode dimensions in the micro-range realized by means of modern micro-machining and galvanic techniques are small enough to generate sufficiently high electric field strengths to ignite gas discharges applying only moderate radio frequency (13.56 MHz) voltages (80–390 V in Ne, He, Ar and N2). The non-thermal plasma system is characterized by a special probe measuring the electric parameters. Possible industrial applications of the MSE arrays are plasma chemistry (e.g. waste gas decomposition) and surface modification of materials. Using an MSE based micro-reactor the abatement of the greenhouse gas CF4 was performed with decomposition rates of over 90% at a pressure of 100 mbar in He and N2. The decomposition of waste gases in the plasma was monitored online with quadrupole mass spectrometry. At atmospheric pressure in He the abatement rate of CF4 is still over 70%. Other applications realized in our lab are thin film deposition of diamond-like carbon layers and SiO2 layers on various substrates and sterilization of food packaging materials.

L. Baars-Hibbe; P. Sichler; C. Schrader; C. Geßner; K.-H. Gericke; S. Büttgenbach

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

Electrospark coatings deposited onto an Armco iron substrate with nano- and microstructured WC–Co electrodes: Deposition process, structure, and properties  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Nano- and microstructured electrodes WC–8%Co were used for electrospark deposition (ESD) of coatings onto an Armco iron upon variation in the energy P of single discharge pulses between 0.01 and 1.2 J. Considered are the physical and chemical processes taking place at the surface of electrodes: in the coating formed on a substrate (cathode), and in the secondary structure of electrode (anode). The resultant coating was found to contain largely an amorphous phase and tungsten semicarbide W2C. In case of nanostructured electrodes, an increase in P above some threshold value gives rise to an increasing content of crystalline phases and formation of a structure comprising of sub-micron W2C/WC grains surrounded by an amorphous binder. In case of microstructured electrodes, the amount of the amorphous phase is predominant for any P. The use of nanostructured electrodes in ESD onto an Armco iron substrates seems expedient only for P < 0.23 J.

E.I. Zamulaeva; E.A. Levashov; A.E. Kudryashov; P.V. Vakaev; M.I. Petrzhik

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

Electrode compositions  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An electrode composition is described for use as an electrode in a non-aqueous battery system. The electrode composition contains an electrically active powder in a solid polymer and, as a dispersant, a C{sub 8}-C{sub 15} alkyl capped oligomer of a hexanoic acid that is electrochemically inert at 2.5--4.5 volts.

Block, J.; Fan, X.

1998-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

52

A Process for the Aqueous Enzymatic Extraction of Corn Oil from Dry Milled Corn Germ and Enzymatic Wet Milled Corn Germ (E-Germ)  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A bench-scale aqueous enzymatic method was developed to extract corn oil from corn germ from either a commercial corn dry mill or corn germ from a newly-developed experimental enzymatic wet milling process (E-Ger...

Robert A. Moreau; Leland C. Dickey…

2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

53

Advanced Binder for Electrode Materials  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

in the electrode to increase energy density. *Compatibility with current lithium-ion manufacturing process. 3 Environmental Energy Technologies Division 06082010 4...

54

Reduction of NO{sub x} emissions from a dry process preheater kiln with calciner through the use of the urea-based SNCR process  

SciTech Connect

The post combustion reduction of NO{sub x} using urea has proven to be an effective method in controlling NO{sub x} from various combustion sources. Such a reduction process has been successfully demonstrated in a week-long test at Ash Grove`s dry process cement kiln system located in Seattle. This system is equipped with planetary coolers, a 5-stage preheater and an air-through-the-kiln calciner. Testing was done under ten different kiln/calciner operating conditions. Using three to four injectors, NO{sub x} was efficiently reduced from 350--600 lb per hour lb/ton of clinker to less than 100 lb per hour. This calculates to a NO{sub x} reduction of greater than 80% for most cases. Chemical utilization was greater than 50%. A high degree of mixing and a long residence time at an appropriate temperature present in the preheater tower contributed to these excellent results. An average ammonia slip was four ppm above a baseline level at a normalized stoichiometric ratio of 1. This demonstration confirms expectations that dry process cement kilns with 4+ preheater stages are an ideal application for the selective noncatalytic reduction of NO{sub x} with urea. NO{sub x} was efficiently and effectively reduced with minimal byproduct emissions and virtually no effect on plant operations.

Steuch, H.E. [Ash Grove Cement Co., Portland, OR (United States)] [Ash Grove Cement Co., Portland, OR (United States); Hille, J.T. [Ash Grove Cement Co., Seattle, WA (United States)] [Ash Grove Cement Co., Seattle, WA (United States); Sun, W.H. [Nalco Fuel Tech, Naperville, IL (United States)] [Nalco Fuel Tech, Naperville, IL (United States); Bisnett, M.J.; Kirk, D.W. [Nalco Fuel Tech, Santa Fe Springs, CA (United States)] [Nalco Fuel Tech, Santa Fe Springs, CA (United States)

1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

Point-process analysis of neural spiking activity of muscle spindles recorded from thin-film longitudinal intrafascicular electrodes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Recordings from thin-film Longitudinal Intra-Fascicular Electrodes (tfLIFE) together with a wavelet-based de-noising and a correlation-based spike sorting algorithm, give access to firing patterns of muscle spindle afferents. ...

Citi, Luca

56

Investigation on the Charging Process of Li2O2-Based Air Electrodes in Li-O2 Batteries with Organic Carbonate Electrolytes  

SciTech Connect

The charge processes of Li-O2 batteries were investigated by analyzing the gas evolution by in situ gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC/MS) technique. The mixture of Li2O2/Fe3O4/Super P carbon/polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) was used as the starting air electrode material and 1M LiTFSI in carbonate-based solvents was used as electrolyte. It was found that Li2O2 is reactive to 1-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone and PVDF binder used in the electrode preparation. During the 1st charge (up to 4.6 V), O2 was the main component in the gases released. The amount of O2 measured by GC/MS was consistent with the amount of Li2O2 decomposed in the electrochemical process as measured by the charge capacity, indicative of the good chargeability of Li2O2. However, after the cell was discharged to 2.0 V in O2 atmosphere and re-charged to ~ 4.6 V in the second cycle, CO2 was dominant in the released gases. Further analysis of the discharged air electrode by X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy indicated that lithium-containing carbonate species (lithium alkyl carbonate and/or Li2CO3) were the main reaction products. Therefore, compatible electrolyte and electrodes as well as the electrode preparation procedures need to be developed for long term operation of rechargeable Li-O2 or Li-air batteries.

Xu, Wu; Viswanathan, Vilayanur V.; Wang, Deyu; Towne, Silas A.; Xiao, Jie; Nie, Zimin; Hu, Dehong; Zhang, Jiguang

2011-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

57

Sulfur Behavior in the Sasol?Lurgi Fixed-Bed Dry-Bottom Gasification Process  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This article reports on the findings of a study regarding the sulfur behavior across a Sasol?Lurgi gasifier. ... (2) This ash, referred to as “coarse ash”, is a combination of red and white to gray sintered clinkers with heterogeneous texture varying from fine material to large irregularly shaped aggregates of sizes ranging from 4 to 75 mm. ... South African coals that are used for the Sasol?Lurgi gasification process are normally low-grade medium rank C (bituminous) coal with a total sulfur content of approximately 1?2 wt %, on an as-received basis. ...

M. Pat Skhonde; R. Henry Matjie; J. Reginald Bunt; A. Christien Strydom; Herold Schobert

2008-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

58

Liquid electrode  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A dropping electrolyte electrode is described for use in electrochemical analysis of non-polar sample solutions, such as benzene or cyclohexane. The liquid electrode, preferably an aqueous salt solution immiscible in the sample solution, is introduced into the solution in dropwise fashion from a capillary. The electrolyte is introduced at a known rate, thus, the droplets each have the same volume and surface area. The electrode is used in making standard electrochemical measurements in order to determine properties of non-polar sample solutions. 2 figures.

Ekechukwu, A.A.

1994-07-05T23:59:59.000Z

59

Syngas production in a novel methane dry reformer by utilizing of tri-reforming process for energy supplying: Modeling and simulation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract In this study, tri-reforming process has been utilized as an energy source for driving highly endothermic process of methane dry reforming process in a multi-tubular recuperative thermally coupled reactor (TCTDR). 184 two-concentric-tubes have been proposed for this configuration. Outer tube sides of the two-concentric-tubes have been considered for the tri-reforming reactions while dry reforming process takes place in inner tube sides. Simulation results of co-current mode have been compared with corresponding predictions of thermally coupled tri- and steam reformer (TCTSR); in which the tri-reforming process has been coupled with steam reforming of methane in same conditions. A mathematical heterogeneous model has been applied to simulate both dry and tri-reforming sides of the TCTDR. Results showed that methane conversion at the output of dry and tri-reforming sides reached to 63% and 93%, respectively. Also, molar flow rate of syngas at the output of DR side of TCTDR reached to 7464 kmol h?1 in comparison to 3912 kmol h?1 for SR side of TCTSR.

Mehdi Farniaei; Mohsen Abbasi; Hamid Rahnama; Mohammad Reza Rahimpour; Alireza Shariati

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

Development and demonstration of energy-conserving drying modifications to textile processes. Part II, Phase III. Final report, December 1, 1978-November 30, 1979  

SciTech Connect

Research was conducted to develop and to expand procedural and engineering modifications to textile drying processes in order to reduce energy requirements. Research was concentrated on: an investigation of the potential of a Machnozzle as a fabric predrying device and a program to optimize textile can drying with respect to energy consumption. Results demonstrated that the Machnozzle can significantly reduce the moisture content in fabric. The energy consumption of the Machnozzle compares favorably with that for steam can drying. An economic analysis of the Machnozzle as a predrying device was made using the Internal Rate of Return. Results showed that the economic feasibility of using the Machnozzle was dependent on the cost of energy and process operating conditions. (MCW)

Brookstein, D.S.; Carr, W.W.; Holcombe, W.D.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dry process electrode" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Develop apparatus and process for second-stage drying. Quarterly progress report, September 27, 1995--December 26, 1995  

SciTech Connect

The effort this quarter has been directed primarily toward the testing of the experimental apparatus for the laboratory scale heat exchanger models. Some additional work has been done on the computer predictive model for dry kiln performance.

Taylor, F.

1996-01-05T23:59:59.000Z

62

Bio-energy recovery from high-solid organic substrates by dry anaerobic bio-conversion processes: a review  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Dry anaerobic bio-conversion (D-AnBioC) of high-solid organic ... involved in bioreactor designing; (3) present factors influencing the bio-conversion efficiency; (4) discuss the microbiology of ... existing comm...

Obuli P. Karthikeyan; C. Visvanathan

2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

Electrochemical photovoltaic cells and electrodes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Improved electrochemical photovoltaic cells and electrodes for use therein, particularly electrodes employing amorphous silicon or polyacetylene coating are produced by a process which includes filling pinholes or porous openings in the coatings by electrochemical oxidation of selected monomers to deposit insulating polymer in the openings.

Skotheim, Terje A. (East Patchogue, NY)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

64

Fabrication methods for low impedance lithium polymer electrodes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for fabricating an electrolyte-electrode composite suitable for high energy alkali metal battery that includes mixing composite electrode materials with excess liquid, such as ethylene carbonate or propylene carbonate, to produce an initial formulation, and forming a shaped electrode therefrom. The excess liquid is then removed from the electrode to compact the electrode composite which can be further compacted by compression. The resulting electrode exhibits at least a 75% lower resistance.

Chern, Terry Song-Hsing (Midlothian, VA); MacFadden, Kenneth Orville (Highland, MD); Johnson, Steven Lloyd (Arbutus, MD)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

Fabrication methods for low impedance lithium polymer electrodes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process is described for fabricating an electrolyte-electrode composite suitable for high energy alkali metal battery that includes mixing composite electrode materials with excess liquid, such as ethylene carbonate or propylene carbonate, to produce an initial formulation, and forming a shaped electrode therefrom. The excess liquid is then removed from the electrode to compact the electrode composite which can be further compacted by compression. The resulting electrode exhibits at least a 75% lower resistance.

Chern, T.S.; MacFadden, K.O.; Johnson, S.L.

1997-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

66

Processes Controlling the Mean Tropical Pacific Precipitation Pattern. Part II: The SPCZ and the Southeast Pacific Dry Zone  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

static energy by the trade winds. These results provide an explanation of the geometry of the western) ABSTRACT The nature of the South Pacific convergence zone (SPCZ) is addressed by focusing on the dry (and cool) zone bounded by it and the coast of South America through numerical experiments. As shown

Battisti, David

67

Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Roll-to-Roll Electrode...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Roll-to-Roll Electrode Processing NDE for Advanced Lithium Secondary Batteries Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Roll-to-Roll Electrode Processing NDE for Advanced...

68

Photoelectrochemical Processes at n-GaAs(100)/Aqueous HCl Electrolyte Interface: A Synchrotron Photoemission Spectroscopy Study of Emersed Electrodes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Processes occurring at the semiconductor/electrolyte interfaces are very complex and include interrelated ion adsorption, surface bond breaking (corrosion), as well as charge transfer from semiconductor conduction and valence bands to species in the solution for reduction and oxidation reactions, respectively. ... As the processing is ultraclean and has been integrated to the UHV system, even differences in the electronic structures could be derived. ... The processes of gallium chlorides and elemental arsenic formation are accelerated under irradiation with visible light, which clearly illustrates the participation of photo holes in the photoelectrochemical etching process. ...

Mikhail V. Lebedev; Wolfram Calvet; Thomas Mayer; Wolfram Jaegermann

2014-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

69

6 - Pipeline Drying  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Publisher Summary This chapter reviews pipeline dewatering, cleaning, and drying. Dewatering can be a simple process or, if the procedure is not properly planned, a difficult one. Pipelines used to transport crude oil and/or refined products will probably only require removal of the test water before the line is placed in service. If the pipeline will be used to transport materials that must meet a specified dryness requirement, the pipeline will need to be dewatered, cleaned, and dried. Pipelines used to transport natural gas will need some drying, depending on the operating pressure and the location of the line, to prevent the formation of hydrates. Other pipelines may require drying to protect the pipe from internal corrosion caused by the formation of corrosive acids, such as carbonic acid in the case of carbon dioxide pipelines.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

Fabrication process changes for performance improvement of an RF MEMS resonator : conformable contact lithography, Moiré alignment, and chlorine dry etching  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis presents fabrication process improvements for a RF MEMS resonator for the purpose of improving the quality factor (Q) and extending the frequency range. The process changes include the use of conformable contact ...

Sakai, Mark

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

A complete dry etching process for MOS FET's with submicron gate length P. Parrens, E. Raffat and P. Jeuch  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

was used for Si3N4, polysilicon and phosphosilicate glass (PSG). Aluminum was plasma etched. The process

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

72

Dry reforming of hydrocarbon feedstocks  

SciTech Connect

Developments in catalyst technology for the dry reforming of hydrocarbon feedstocks are reviewed for methane, higher hydrocarbons and alcohols. Thermodynamics, mechanisms and the kinetics of dry reforming are also reviewed. The literature on Ni catalysts, bi-metallic Ni catalysts and the role of promoters on Ni catalysts is critically evaluated. The use of noble and transitional metal catalysts for dry reforming is discussed. The application of solid oxide and metal carbide catalysts to dry reforming is also evaluated. Finally, various mechanisms for catalyst deactivation are assessed. This review also examines the various process related issues associated with dry reforming such as its application and heat optimization. Novel approaches such as supercritical dry reforming and microwave assisted dry reforming are briefly expanded upon.

Shah, Yatish T. [Norfolk State University; Gardner, Todd H. [U.S. DOE

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

Capacitance enhancement via electrode patterning  

SciTech Connect

The necessity of increasing the energy density in electric double layer capacitors to meet current demand is fueling fundamental and applied research alike. We report here molecular dynamics simulation results for aqueous electrolytes near model electrodes. Particular focus is on the effect of electrode patterning on the structure of interfacial electrolytes, and on the potential drop between the solid electrodes and the bulk electrolytes. The latter is estimated by numerically integrating the Poisson equation using the charge densities due to water and ions accumulated near the interface as input. We considered uniform and patterned electrodes, both positively and negatively charged. The uniformly charged electrodes are modeled as graphite. The patterned ones are obtained by removing carbon atoms from the top-most graphene layer, yielding nanoscopic squares and stripes patterns. For simplicity, the patterned electrodes are effectively simulated as insulators (the charge remains localized on the top-most layer of carbon atoms). Our simulations show that the patterns alter the structure of water and the accumulation of ions at the liquid-solid interfaces. Using aqueous NaCl solutions, we found that while the capacitance calculated for three positively charged electrodes did not change much, that calculated for the negatively charged electrodes significantly increased upon patterning. We find that both water structure and orientation, as well as ion accumulation affect the capacitance. As electrode patterning affects differently water structure and ion accumulation, it might be possible to observe ion-specific effects. These results could be useful for advancing our understanding of electric double layer capacitors, capacitive desalination processes, as well as of fundamental interfacial electrolytes properties.

Ho, Tuan A.; Striolo, Alberto, E-mail: a.striolo@ucl.ac.uk [School of Chemical, Biological and Materials Engineering, The University of Oklahoma, Norman, Oklahoma 73019 (United States) [School of Chemical, Biological and Materials Engineering, The University of Oklahoma, Norman, Oklahoma 73019 (United States); Department of Chemical Engineering, University College London, Torrington Place, London WC1E 7JE (United Kingdom)

2013-11-28T23:59:59.000Z

74

Screen Electrode Materials & Cell Chemistries and Streamlining...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Screen Electrode Materials & Cell Chemistries and Streamlining Optimization of Electrode Screen Electrode Materials & Cell Chemistries and Streamlining Optimization of Electrode...

75

Spray-drying synthesized lithium-excess Li4+xTi5?xO12?? and its electrochemical property as negative electrode material for Li-ion batteries  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Li4Ti5O12 (Fd-3m space group) materials were synthesized by controlling the lithium and titanium ratios (Li/Ti) in the range of 0.800–0.900 by using a spray-drying method, followed by calcination at several temperatures between 700 and 900 °C for large-scale production. Chemical and structure studies of the final products were done by X-ray diffraction (XRD), neutron diffraction (ND), X-ray photon electron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The optimum synthesis condition was examined in relation to the electrochemical characteristics including charge–discharge cycling and ac impedance spectroscopy. It was found that when the spray-drying precursors at the Li/Ti ratio of 0.860 were calcined at 700–900 °C for 12 h in air, a pure Li4+xTi5?xO12?? (x = 0.06–0.08) phase with a lithium-excess composition was obtained. Based on the structural studies, it was found that the excess lithium is located at the lithium and titanium layer of the 16d site in the spinel structure (Fd-3m). These pure Li4+xTi5?xO12?? (x = 0.06–0.08) phase materials showed a higher discharge capacity of ?164 mAh g?1 at 1.55 V (vs. Li/Li+), between the cut-off voltage of 1.2–3.0, with an excellent cyclability and superior rate performance in comparison with the Li4Ti5O12 phase containing impurity phases.

Daisuke Yoshikawa; Yoshihiro Kadoma; Jung-Min Kim; Koichi Ui; Naoaki Kumagai; Naoto Kitamura; Yasushi Idemoto

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

High frequency reference electrode  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A high frequency reference electrode for electrochemical experiments comprises a mercury-calomel or silver-silver chloride reference electrode with a layer of platinum around it and a layer of a chemically and electrically resistant material such as TEFLON around the platinum covering all but a small ring or halo' at the tip of the reference electrode, adjacent to the active portion of the reference electrode. The voltage output of the platinum layer, which serves as a redox electrode, and that of the reference electrode are coupled by a capacitor or a set of capacitors and the coupled output transmitted to a standard laboratory potentiostat. The platinum may be applied by thermal decomposition to the surface of the reference electrode. The electrode provides superior high-frequency response over conventional electrodes. 4 figs.

Kronberg, J.W.

1994-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

77

Gas tungsten arc welder with electrode grinder  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A welder for automated closure of fuel pins by a gas tungsten arc process in which a rotating length of cladding is positioned adjacent a welding electrode in a sealed enclosure. An independently movable axial grinder is provided in the enclosure for refurbishing the used electrode between welds.

Christiansen, David W. (Kennewick, WA); Brown, William F. (West Richland, WA)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

High performance cermet electrodes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Disclosed is a method of increasing the operating cell voltage of a solid oxide electrochemical cell having metal electrode particles in contact with an oxygen-transporting ceramic electrolyte. The metal electrode is heated with the cell, and oxygen is passed through the oxygen-transporting ceramic electrolyte to the surface of the metal electrode particles so that the metal electrode particles are oxidized to form a metal oxide layer between the metal electrode particles and the electrolyte. The metal oxide layer is then reduced to form porous metal between the metal electrode particles and the ceramic electrolyte.

Isenberg, Arnold O. (Forest Hills Boro, PA); Zymboly, Gregory E. (Penn Hills, PA)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

Advanced Binder for Electrode Materials  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

a coin cell with Li counter electrode. The electrode does not contain other conductivity additives. 2. Demonstrated limited porosity is a major issue for high Si electrode loading...

80

Multiple input electrode gap controller  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and apparatus for controlling vacuum arc remelting (VAR) furnaces by estimation of electrode gap based on a plurality of secondary estimates derived from furnace outputs. The estimation is preferably performed by Kalman filter. Adaptive gain techniques may be employed, as well as detection of process anomalies such as glows. 17 figs.

Hysinger, C.L.; Beaman, J.J.; Melgaard, D.K.; Williamson, R.L.

1999-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dry process electrode" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Chemical Engineering Division fuel cycle programs. Quarterly progress report, April-June 1979. [Pyrochemical/dry processing; waste encapsulation in metal; transport in geologic media  

SciTech Connect

For pyrochemical and dry processing materials development included exposure to molten metal and salt of Mo-0.5% Ti-0.07% Ti-0.01% C, Mo-30% W, SiC, Si/sub 2/ON/sub 2/, ZrB/sub 2/-SiC, MgAl/sub 2/O/sub 4/, Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/, AlN, HfB/sub 2/, Y/sub 2/O/sub 3/, BeO, Si/sub 3/N/sub 4/, nickel nitrate-infiltrated W, W-coated Mo, and W-metallized alumina-yttria. Work on Th-U salt transport processing included solubility of Th in liquid Cd, defining the Cd-Th and Cd-Mg-Th phase diagrams, ThO/sub 2/ reduction experiments, and electrolysis of CaO in molten salt. Work on pyrochemical processes and associated hardware for coprocessing U and Pu in spent FBR fuels included a second-generation computer model of the transport process, turntable transport process design, work on the U-Cu-Mg system, and U and Pu distribution coefficients between molten salt and metal. Refractory metal vessels are being service-life tested. The chloride volatility processing of Th-based fuel was evaluated for its proliferation resistance, and a preliminary ternary phase diagram for the Zn-U-Pu system was computed. Material characterization and process analysis were conducted on the Exportable Pyrochemical process (Pyro-Civex process). Literature data on oxidation of fissile metals to oxides were reviewed. Work was done on chemical bases for the reprocessing of actinide oxides in molten salts. Flowsheets are being developed for the processing of fuel in molten tin. Work on encapsulation of solidified radioactive waste in metal matrix included studies of leach rate of crystalline waste materials and of the impact resistance of metal-matrix waste forms. In work on the transport properties of nuclear waste in geologic media, adsorption of Sr on oolitic limestone was studied, as well as the migration of Cs in basalt. Fitting of data on the adsorption of iodate by hematite to a mathematical model was attempted.

Steindler, M.J.; Ader, M.; Barletta, R.E.

1980-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

Low resistance fuel electrodes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An electrode 6 bonded to a solid, ion conducting electrolyte 5 is made, where the electrode 6 comprises a ceramic metal oxide 18, metal particles 17, and heat stable metal fibers 19, where the metal fibers provide a matrix structure for the electrode. The electrolyte 5 can be bonded to an air electrode cathode 4, to provide an electrochemical cell 2, preferably of tubular design.

Maskalick, Nichols J. (Pittsburgh, PA); Folser, George R. (Lower Burrell, PA)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

83

Near-electrode imager  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An apparatus, near-electrode imager, for employing nuclear magnetic resonance imaging to provide in situ measurements of electrochemical properties of a sample as a function of distance from a working electrode. The near-electrode imager uses the radio frequency field gradient within a cylindrical toroid cavity resonator to provide high-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance spectral information on electrolyte materials.

Rathke, Jerome W. (Lockport, IL); Klingler, Robert J. (Westmont, IL); Woelk, Klaus (Wachtberg, DE); Gerald, II, Rex E. (Brookfield, IL)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

84

Drying of fiber webs  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process and an apparatus are disclosed for high-intensity drying of fiber webs or sheets, such as newsprint, printing and writing papers, packaging paper, and paperboard or linerboard, as they are formed on a paper machine. The invention uses direct contact between the wet fiber web or sheet and various molten heat transfer fluids, such as liquefied eutectic metal alloys, to impart heat at high rates over prolonged durations, in order to achieve ambient boiling of moisture contained within the web. The molten fluid contact process causes steam vapor to emanate from the web surface, without dilution by ambient air; and it is differentiated from the evaporative drying techniques of the prior industrial art, which depend on the uses of steam-heated cylinders to supply heat to the paper web surface, and ambient air to carry away moisture, which is evaporated from the web surface. Contact between the wet fiber web and the molten fluid can be accomplished either by submersing the web within a molten bath or by coating the surface of the web with the molten media. Because of the high interfacial surface tension between the molten media and the cellulose fiber comprising the paper web, the molten media does not appreciatively stick to the paper after it is dried. Steam generated from the paper web is collected and condensed without dilution by ambient air to allow heat recovery at significantly higher temperature levels than attainable in evaporative dryers. 6 figs.

Warren, D.W.

1997-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

85

Lithium Ion Electrode Production NDE and QC Considerations |...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

QC Considerations Lithium Ion Electrode Production NDE and QC Considerations Review of Oak Ridge process and QC activities by David Wood, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, at the...

86

Nanostructured Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Electrodes  

SciTech Connect

The ability of Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC) to directly and efficiently convert the chemical energy in hydrocarbon fuels to electricity places the technology in a unique and exciting position to play a significant role in the clean energy revolution. In order to make SOFC technology cost competitive with existing technologies, the operating temperatures have been decreased to the range where costly ceramic components may be substituted with inexpensive metal components within the cell and stack design. However, a number of issues have arisen due to this decrease in temperature: decreased electrolyte ionic conductivity, cathode reaction rate limitations, and a decrease in anode contaminant tolerance. While the decrease in electrolyte ionic conductivities has been countered by decreasing the electrolyte thickness, the electrode limitations have remained a more difficult problem. Nanostructuring SOFC electrodes addresses the major electrode issues. The infiltration method used in this dissertation to produce nanostructure SOFC electrodes creates a connected network of nanoparticles; since the method allows for the incorporation of the nanoparticles after electrode backbone formation, previously incompatible advanced electrocatalysts can be infiltrated providing electronic conductivity and electrocatalysis within well-formed electrolyte backbones. Furthermore, the method is used to significantly enhance the conventional electrode design by adding secondary electrocatalysts. Performance enhancement and improved anode contamination tolerance are demonstrated in each of the electrodes. Additionally, cell processing and the infiltration method developed in conjunction with this dissertation are reviewed.

Sholklapper, Tal Zvi

2007-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

87

Layered electrode for electrochemical cells  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

There is provided an electrode structure comprising a current collector sheet and first and second layers of electrode material. Together, the layers improve catalyst utilization and water management.

Swathirajan, Swathy (West Bloomfield, MI); Mikhail, Youssef M. (Sterling Heights, MI)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

88

Environmental and geographical aspects in HVdc electrode design  

SciTech Connect

An essential element in HVdc electrode design is to minimize all environmental stresses in order to meet and verify conformance to the laws and regulations associated with the concessions granted by the authorities. The environmental disturbance caused in anode or cathode operation is more or less entirely dependent on the materials used, the geographical location and the electrode size. The electrode materials and the related electrochemical process in the surrounding medium are discussed in the paper in order to shed further light on the chemical properties of different materials in an electrolyte process. The geographical location of an electrode is described, taking into account new aspects such as the impact of the earth`s magnetic field and the interaction with existing HVdc electrodes. The experiences described in this paper are based on the design, tests and operation of the electrodes in the Baltic Cable HVdc link and other Scandinavian HVdc links.

Tykeson, K. [Sydkraft Konsult AB, Malmoe (Sweden)] [Sydkraft Konsult AB, Malmoe (Sweden); Nyman, A. [Baltic Cable AB, Malmoe (Sweden)] [Baltic Cable AB, Malmoe (Sweden); Carlsson, H. [Permascand AB, Ljungaverk (Sweden)] [Permascand AB, Ljungaverk (Sweden)

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

Aspects of Solar Drying  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

For the economical utilization of solar energy for drying it is necessary to coordinate ... the drying purposes with the specific characteristic of solar radiation /e.g. small power demand;...

L. Imre

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

90

Cooking with Dry Beans  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

E-77 12/08 Cooking with Dry Beans Dry beans are nutritious and inexpensive. They are also very low in fat and sodium. Dry beans are great sources of fiber, folic acid, and protein. Cooked dry beans are also a good source of iron. To get the most... protein from the beans, serve them along with grain foods such as corn, rice or wheat. A serving size of cooked dry beans is ? cup. Uses Use beans as a tasty side dish or include it in casseroles, soups, and salads. Beans are often packaged in 1-pound...

Anding, Jenna

2008-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

91

Dynamic control of remelting processes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An apparatus and method of controlling a remelting process by providing measured process variable values to a process controller; estimating process variable values using a process model of a remelting process; and outputting estimated process variable values from the process controller. Feedback and feedforward control devices receive the estimated process variable values and adjust inputs to the remelting process. Electrode weight, electrode mass, electrode gap, process current, process voltage, electrode position, electrode temperature, electrode thermal boundary layer thickness, electrode velocity, electrode acceleration, slag temperature, melting efficiency, cooling water temperature, cooling water flow rate, crucible temperature profile, slag skin temperature, and/or drip short events are employed, as are parameters representing physical constraints of electroslag remelting or vacuum arc remelting, as applicable.

Bertram, Lee A. (Dublin, CA); Williamson, Rodney L. (Albuquerque, NM); Melgaard, David K. (Albuquerque, NM); Beaman, Joseph J. (Austin, TX); Evans, David G. (Clinton, NY)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

Liquid-permeable electrode  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Electrodes for use in an electrolytic cell, which are liquid-permeable and have low electrical resistance and high internal surface area are provided of a rigid, porous, carbonaceous matrix having activated carbon uniformly embedded throughout. The activated carbon may be catalyzed with platinum for improved electron transfer between electrode and electrolyte. Activated carbon is mixed with a powdered thermosetting phenolic resin and compacted to the desired shape in a heated mold to melt the resin and form the green electrode. The compact is then heated to a pyrolyzing temperature to carbonize and volatilize the resin, forming a rigid, porous structure. The permeable structure and high internal surface area are useful in electrolytic cells where it is necessary to continuously remove the products of the electrochemical reaction.

Folser, George R. (Lower Burrell, PA)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

93

Structured Pillar Electrodes - Energy Innovation Portal  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

the distance charge carriers must travel to encounter an electrode. Description An optoelectronic device comprises a photoactive layer having a heterojunction; and electrode(s)...

94

Cooling Dry Cows  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This publication discusses the effects of heat stress on dairy cows, methods of cooling cows, and research on the effects of cooling cows in the dry period....

Stokes, Sandra R.

2000-07-17T23:59:59.000Z

95

Sandia National Laboratories: DRI  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

DRI ECIS-Princeton Power Systems, Inc.: Demand Response Inverter On March 19, 2013, in DETL, Distribution Grid Integration, Energy, Energy Surety, Facilities, Grid Integration,...

96

Cooking with Dried Potatoes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This fact sheet describes the nutritional value and safe storage of dried potatoes, a commodity food. It also offers food preparation ideas....

Anding, Jenna

2008-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

97

Battery electrode growth accommodation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An electrode for a lead acid flow through battery, the grids including a plastic frame, a plate suspended from the top of the frame to hang freely in the plastic frame and a paste applied to the plate, the paste being free to allow for expansion in the planar direction of the grid.

Bowen, Gerald K. (Cedarburg, WI); Andrew, Michael G. (Wauwatosa, WI); Eskra, Michael D. (Fredonia, WI)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

Method of electrode fabrication for solid oxide electrochemical cells  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for fabricating cermet electrodes for solid oxide electrochemical cells by sintering is disclosed. First, a porous metal electrode is fabricated on a solid oxide cell, such as a fuel cell by, for example, sintering, and is then infiltrated with a high volume fraction stabilized zirconia suspension. A second sintering step is used to sinter the infiltrated zirconia to a high density in order to more securely attach the electrode to the solid oxide electrolyte of the cell. High performance fuel electrodes can be obtained with this process. Further electrode performance enhancement may be achieved if stabilized zirconia doped with cerium oxide, chromium oxide, titanium oxide, and/or praseodymium oxide for electronic conduction is used.

Jensen, Russell R. (Murrysville, PA)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

Method of electrode fabrication for solid oxide electrochemical cells  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for fabricating cermet electrodes for solid oxide electrochemical cells by sintering is disclosed. First, a porous metal electrode is fabricated on a solid oxide cell, such as a fuel cell by, for example, sintering, and is then infiltrated with a high volume fraction stabilized zirconia suspension. A second sintering step is used to sinter the infiltrated zirconia to a high density in order to more securely attach the electrode to the solid oxide electrolyte of the cell. High performance fuel electrodes can be obtained with this process. Further electrode performance enhancement may be achieved if stabilized zirconia doped with cerium oxide, chromium oxide, titanium oxide, and/or praseodymium oxide for electronic conduction is used. 5 figs.

Jensen, R.R.

1990-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

100

Mapping Particle Charges in Battery Electrodes  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Mapping Particle Charges in Battery Electrodes Print Mapping Particle Charges in Battery Electrodes Print The deceivingly simple appearance of batteries masks their chemical complexity. A typical lithium-ion battery in a cell phone consists of trillions of particles. When a lithium-ion battery is charged or discharged lithium ions move from one electrode to another, filling and unfilling individual, variably-sized battery particles. The rates of these processes determine how much power a battery can deliver. Despite the technological innovations and widespread use of batteries, the mechanism behind charging and discharging particles remains largely a mystery, partly because it is difficult to visualize the motion of lithium ions for a significant number of battery particles at nanoscale resolution.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dry process electrode" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Mapping Particle Charges in Battery Electrodes  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Mapping Particle Charges in Battery Electrodes Print Mapping Particle Charges in Battery Electrodes Print The deceivingly simple appearance of batteries masks their chemical complexity. A typical lithium-ion battery in a cell phone consists of trillions of particles. When a lithium-ion battery is charged or discharged lithium ions move from one electrode to another, filling and unfilling individual, variably-sized battery particles. The rates of these processes determine how much power a battery can deliver. Despite the technological innovations and widespread use of batteries, the mechanism behind charging and discharging particles remains largely a mystery, partly because it is difficult to visualize the motion of lithium ions for a significant number of battery particles at nanoscale resolution.

102

Fluidized Bed Fuel Cell Electrodes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... smoothed the electrolyte flow through the bed. The mesh acted as bed support and electrical contactor to the beads. In the case of the hydrogen peroxide electrode the nickel mesh ... at the top 'of the bed for the hydrogen peroxide electrode and close to the contactor for the methanol electrode. In both cases polarization measurements were carried out at 20 ...

T. BERENT; I. FELLS; R. MASON

1969-09-06T23:59:59.000Z

103

Survey of hybrid solar heat pump drying systems  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Solar drying is in practice since the ancient time for preservation of food and agriculture crops. The objective of most drying processes is to reduce the moisture content of the product to a specified value. Solar dryers used in agriculture for food ... Keywords: coefficient of performance (COP), direct expansion SAHD, drying chamber, heat pump, solar assisted heat pumps dryer (SAHPD), solar fraction

R. Daghigh; K. Sopian; M. H. Ruslan; M. A. Alghoul; C. H. Lim; S. Mat; B. Ali; M. Yahya; A. Zaharim; M. Y. Sulaiman

2009-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

Polyoxometalate-Graphene Nanocomposite Modified Electrode for...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Polyoxometalate-Graphene Nanocomposite Modified Electrode for Electrocatalytic Detection of Ascorbic Acid. Polyoxometalate-Graphene Nanocomposite Modified Electrode for...

105

Study on great northern beans (Phaseolus vulgaris): effect of drum drying process on bean flour properties and effect on gamma radiation on bean starch properties  

SciTech Connect

Great Northern bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) drum dried flours at native pH of 6.54, pH 6 and 7 showed reduced activities of trypsin inhibitor, ..cap alpha..-amylase inhibitor, hemagglutinating titer, and nitrogen solubility. Electrophoretic analyses showed a slight modification of the native bean proteins, and the presence of at least four trypsin inhibitors. The study of the effect of 2.5-20 kGy irradiation doses on Great Northern beans showed essentially no modification of the electrophoretic mobility of the storage proteins or the trypsin inhibitors. Nitrogen solubility and hemagglutinating activity were essentially unchanged. With the 20 kGy dose, decrease in ..cap alpha..-amylase inhibitor activity, decrease reactive/available lysine content, and decrease cooking time of the irradiated beans after 11 months of storage were observed. Taste panel results indicated that the control and 20 kGy irradiated bean were significantly different at 5% level. At 20 kGy dose, the beans developed a partially water soluble brown color.

Rayas-Solis, P.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

Long life reference electrode  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An external, reference electrode is provided for long term use with a high temperature, high pressure system. The electrode is arranged in a vertical, electrically insulative tube with an upper portion serving as an electrolyte reservoir and a lower portion in electrolytic communication with the system to be monitored. The lower end portion includes a flow restriction such as a porous plug to limit the electrolyte release into the system. A piston equalized to the system pressure is fitted into the upper portion of the tube to impart a small incremental pressure to the electrolyte. The piston is selected of suitable size and weight to cause only a slight flow of electrolyte through the porous plug into the high pressure system. This prevents contamination of the electrolyte but is of such small flow rate that operating intervals of a month or more can be achieved. 2 figs.

Yonco, R.M.; Nagy, Z.

1987-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

107

Electrocatalysts for oxygen electrodes  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of the research were: to develop further understanding of the factors controlling O{sub 2} reduction and generation on various electrocatalysts, including transition metal macrocycles and oxides: to use this understanding to identify and develop much higher activity catalysts, both monofunction and bifunction; and to establish how catalytic activity for a given O{sub 2} electrocatalyst depends on catalyst-support interactions and to identify stable catalyst supports for bifunctional electrodes.

Yeager, E.B. (Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States))

1991-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

Observation of radio frequency ring-shaped hollow cathode discharge plasma with MgO and Al electrodes for plasma processing  

SciTech Connect

Various high-density plasma sources have been proposed for plasma processing. Especially, the hollow cathode discharge is one of the powerful ones. In this work, radio-frequency (RF) driven ring-shaped hollow cathode discharges with high secondary-electron emission have been investigated, using an aluminum (Al) cathode, coated or not with magnesium oxide (MgO). The thickness of MgO thin film is approximately 200?nm. The RF discharge voltage for the coated cathode is almost the same as that for the uncoated one, in a wide range of Ar gas pressure, from 5.3 to 53.2?Pa. The results reveal that the plasma density has a peak at an Ar gas pressure of 10.6?Pa for both cathodes. The plasma density for the coated cathode is about 1.5–3 times higher than that for the uncoated one, at various gas pressures. To the contrary, the electron temperature for the coated cathode is lower than temperature obtained with the uncoated cathode, at various gas pressures. Radial profiles of electron saturation current, which is proportional to plasma flux, are also examined for a wide range of gas pressure. Radial profiles of electron temperature at various axial positions are almost uniform for both cathodes so that the diffusion process due to density gradient is dominant for plasma transport. The secondary electrons emitted from the coated cathode contribute to the improvement of the plasma flux radial profile obtained using the uncoated cathode.

Ohtsu, Yasunori, E-mail: ohtsuy@cc.saga-u.ac.jp; Matsumoto, Naoki [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Saga University, 1 Honjo-machi, Saga 840-8502 (Japan)

2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

109

Freeze drying apparatus  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention provides methods and apparatus for freeze drying in which a solution, which can be a radioactive salt dissolved within an acid, is frozen into a solid on vertical plates provided within a freeze drying chamber. The solid is sublimated into vapor and condensed in a cold condenser positioned above the freeze drying chamber and connected thereto by a conduit. The vertical positioning of the cold condenser relative to the freeze dryer helps to help prevent substances such as radioactive materials separated from the solution from contaminating the cold condenser. Additionally, the system can be charged with an inert gas to produce a down rush of gas into the freeze drying chamber to also help prevent such substances from contaminating the cold condenser.

Coppa, Nicholas V. (Malvern, PA); Stewart, Paul (Youngstown, NY); Renzi, Ernesto (Youngstown, NY)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

Freeze drying method  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention provides methods and apparatus for freeze drying in which a solution, which can be a radioactive salt dissolved within an acid, is frozen into a solid on vertical plates provided within a freeze drying chamber. The solid is sublimated into vapor and condensed in a cold condenser positioned above the freeze drying chamber and connected thereto by a conduit. The vertical positioning of the cold condenser relative to the freeze dryer helps to help prevent substances such as radioactive materials separated from the solution from contaminating the cold condenser. Additionally, the system can be charged with an inert gas to produce a down rush of gas into the freeze drying chamber to also help prevent such substances from contaminating the cold condenser.

Coppa, Nicholas V. (Malvern, PA); Stewart, Paul (Youngstown, NY); Renzi, Ernesto (Youngstown, NY)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

Dry etching and sputtering  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...emitting plasma has overall...electrodes and the plasma. A DC voltage...pressure and frequency. This rectification...variation of a high-frequency field, while...at 13.6 MHz and at a...driven by the radio-frequency (RF) field...heavily ionized plasma may be obtained...

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

112

Improving nickel metal hydride batteries through research in negative electrode corrosion control and novel electrode materials  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

electrode materials. In order to fully understand the processes involved in the corrosion study, tests were carried at Brookhaven National Laboratory using X-ray Absorption Near Edge Spectroscopy. These tests showed that Zn prevented the corrosion of Ni-a...

Alexander, Michael Scott

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

Definition: Electrode | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Electrode Electrode Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Electrode A conductor through which electrons enter or leave an electrolyte. Batteries and fuel cells have a negative electrode (the anode) and a positive electrode (the cathode).[1] View on Wikipedia Wikipedia Definition Related Terms Battery, Fuel cell, Electrolyteelectricity generation, fuel cell, electrolyte, electricity generation References ↑ http://www1.eere.energy.gov/hydrogenandfuelcells/glossary.html#e Retrieve LikeLike UnlikeLike You like this.Sign Up to see what your friends like. d from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Definition:Electrode&oldid=493048" Category: Definitions What links here Related changes Special pages Printable version Permanent link Browse properties About us Disclaimers

114

Coated carbon nanotube array electrodes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention provides conductive carbon nanotube (CNT) electrode materials comprising aligned CNT substrates coated with an electrically conducting polymer, and the fabrication of electrodes for use in high performance electrical energy storage devices. In particular, the present invention provides conductive CNTs electrode material whose electrical properties render them especially suitable for use in high efficiency rechargeable batteries. The present invention also provides methods for obtaining surface modified conductive CNT electrode materials comprising an array of individual linear, aligned CNTs having a uniform surface coating of an electrically conductive polymer such as polypyrrole, and their use in electrical energy storage devices.

Ren, Zhifeng (Newton, MA); Wen, Jian (Newton, MA); Chen, Jinghua (Chestnut Hill, MA); Huang, Zhongping (Belmont, MA); Wang, Dezhi (Wellesley, MA)

2008-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

115

Nanostructured Electrode Materials for Supercapacitors  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and batteries/fuel cells. Nanostructured electrode materials have demonstrated superior electrochemical of polymethine dyes electronic spectra is crucial for successful design of the new molecules with optimized

Wu, Shin-Tson

116

An experimental investigation of high temperature, high pressure paper drying  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

CONCLUSIONS RECOMMENDATIONS 50 51 REFERENCES APPENDIX A EXPERIMENTAL DATA 52 54 VITA 105 vail LIST OF FIGURES Page Fig. 1 Schematic of test facility 13 Fig. 2 Comparison of Texas A&M drying facility operating ranges to other drying processes... of number of drying passes for drying temperatures of 93, 149, and 204 'C (200, 300, and 400 'F), a contact pressure of 1. 4 MPa (200 psi), a basis weight of 25 g/m' (0. 005 lb/ft'), and contact times between 20 to 180 msec with same side drying...

Patel, Kamal Raoji

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

117

Determination of electrical resistivity of dry coke beds  

SciTech Connect

The electrical resistivity of the coke bed is of great importance when producing FeMn, SiMn, and FeCr in a submerged arc furnace. In these processes, a coke bed is situated below and around the electrode tip and consists of metallurgical coke, slag, gas, and metal droplets. Since the basic mechanisms determining the electrical resistivity of a coke bed is not yet fully understood, this investigation is focused on the resistivity of dry coke beds consisting of different carbonaceous materials, i.e., coke beds containing no slag or metal. A method that reliably compares the electrical bulk resistivity of different metallurgical cokes at 1500{sup o} C to 1600{sup o}C is developed. The apparatus is dimensioned for industrial sized materials, and the electrical resistivity of anthracite, charcoal, petroleum coke, and metallurgical coke has been measured. The resistivity at high temperatures of the Magnitogorsk coke, which has the highest resistivity of the metallurgical cokes investigated, is twice the resistivity of the Corus coke, which has the lowest electrical resistivity. Zdzieszowice and SSAB coke sort in between with decreasing resistivities in the respective order. The electrical resistivity of anthracite, charcoal, and petroleum coke is generally higher than the resistivity of the metallurgical cokes, ranging from about two to about eight times the resistivity of the Corus coke at 1450{sup o}C. The general trend is that the bulk resistivity of carbon materials decreases with increasing temperature and increasing particle size.

Eidem, P.A.; Tangstad, M.; Bakken, J.A. [NTNU, Trondheim (Norway)

2008-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

118

An experimental investigation of single and multiple pass high temperature, high pressure paper drying  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The primary drying process used in the paper industry is conventional drying which employs heated, rotating cylinders to evaporate moisture from the paper. One process which may improve energy efficiency is the use of higher temperature, higher...

Simonson, Eric Howard

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

119

Ion-trap electrode preparation with Ne$^+$ bombardment  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We describe an ex-situ surface-cleaning procedure that is shown to reduce motional heating from ion-trap electrodes. This precleaning treatment, to be implemented immediately before the final assembly and vacuum processing of ion traps, removes surface contaminants remaining after the electrode-fabrication process. We incorporate a multi-angle ion-bombardment treatment intended to clean the electrode surfaces and interelectrode gaps of microfabricated traps. This procedure helps to minimize redeposition in the gaps between electrodes that can cause electrical shorts. We report heating rates in a stylus-type ion trap prepared in this way that are lower by one order of magnitude compared to a similar untreated stylus-type trap using the same experimental setup.

McKay, K S; Colombe, Y; Jördens, R; Wilson, A C; Slichter, D H; Allcock, D T C; Leibfried, D; Wineland, D J; Pappas, D P

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

Ion-trap electrode preparation with Ne$^+$ bombardment  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We describe an ex-situ surface-cleaning procedure that is shown to reduce motional heating from ion-trap electrodes. This precleaning treatment, to be implemented immediately before the final assembly and vacuum processing of ion traps, removes surface contaminants remaining after the electrode-fabrication process. We incorporate a multi-angle ion-bombardment treatment intended to clean the electrode surfaces and interelectrode gaps of microfabricated traps. This procedure helps to minimize redeposition in the gaps between electrodes that can cause electrical shorts. We report heating rates in a stylus-type ion trap prepared in this way that are lower by one order of magnitude compared to a similar untreated stylus-type trap using the same experimental setup.

K. S. McKay; D. A. Hite; Y. Colombe; R. Jördens; A. C. Wilson; D. H. Slichter; D. T. C. Allcock; D. Leibfried; D. J. Wineland; D. P. Pappas

2014-06-06T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dry process electrode" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Electrode for a lithium cell  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention relates to a positive electrode for an electrochemical cell or battery, and to an electrochemical cell or battery; the invention relates more specifically to a positive electrode for a non-aqueous lithium cell or battery when the electrode is used therein. The positive electrode includes a composite metal oxide containing AgV.sub.3O.sub.8 as one component and one or more other components consisting of LiV.sub.3O.sub.8, Ag.sub.2V.sub.4O.sub.11, MnO.sub.2, CF.sub.x, AgF or Ag.sub.2O to increase the energy density of the cell, optionally in the presence of silver powder and/or silver foil to assist in current collection at the electrode and to improve the power capability of the cell or battery.

Thackeray, Michael M. (Naperville, IL); Vaughey, John T. (Elmhurst, IL); Dees, Dennis W. (Downers Grove, IL)

2008-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

122

Smooth electrode and method of fabricating same  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A smooth electrode is provided. The smooth electrode includes at least one metal layer having thickness greater than about 1 micron; wherein an average surface roughness of the smooth electrode is less than about 10 nm.

Weaver, Stanton Earl (Northville, NY); Kennerly, Stacey Joy (Albany, NY); Aimi, Marco Francesco (Niskayuna, NY)

2012-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

123

Conductive lithium storage electrode  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A compound comprising a composition A.sub.x(M'.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.y(XD.sub.4).sub.z, A.sub.x(M'.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.y(DXD.sub.4).sub.z, or A.sub.x(M'.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.y(X.sub.2D.sub.7).sub.z, (A.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.xM'.sub.y(XD.sub.4).sub.z, (A.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.xM'.sub.y(DXD.sub.4).sub.z, or (A.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.xM'.sub.y(X.sub.2D.sub.7).sub.z. In the compound, A is at least one of an alkali metal and hydrogen, M' is a first-row transition metal, X is at least one of phosphorus, sulfur, arsenic, molybdenum, and tungsten, M'' any of a Group IIA, IIIA, IVA, VA, VIA, VIIA, VIIIA, IB, IIB, IIIB, IVB, VB, and VIB metal, D is at least one of oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, or a halogen, 0.0001electrodes and storage batteries.

Chiang, Yet-Ming; Chung, Sung-Yoon; Bloking, Jason T; Andersson, Anna M

2014-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

124

High Speed, Low Cost Fabrication of Gas Diffusion Electrodes for Membrane Electrode Assemblies  

SciTech Connect

Fabrication of membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs) depends on creating inks or pastes of catalyst and binder, and applying this suspension to either the membrane (catalyst coated membrane) or gas diffusion media (gas diffusion electrode) and respectively laminating either gas diffusion media or gas diffusion electrodes (GDEs) to the membrane. One barrier to cost effective fabrication for either of these approaches is the development of stable and consistent suspensions. This program investigated the fundamental forces that destabilize the suspensions and developed innovative approaches to create new, highly stable formulations. These more concentrated formulations needed fewer application passes, could be coated over longer and wider substrates, and resulted in significantly lower coating defects. In March of 2012 BASF Fuel Cell released a new high temperature product based on these advances, whereby our customers received higher performing, more uniform MEAs resulting in higher stack build yields. Furthermore, these new materials resulted in an “instant” increase in capacity due to higher product yields and material throughput. Although not part of the original scope of this program, these new formulations have also led us to materials that demonstrate equivalent performance with 30% less precious metal in the anode. This program has achieved two key milestones in DOE’s Manufacturing R&D program: demonstration of processes for direct coating of electrodes and continuous in-line measurement for component fabrication.

DeCastro, Emory S.; Tsou, Yu-Min; Liu, Zhenyu

2013-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

125

Method of drying articles  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of drying a green particulate article includes the steps of: a. Providing a green article which includes a particulate material and a pore phase material, the pore phase material including a solvent; and b. contacting the green article with a liquid desiccant for a period of time sufficient to remove at least a portion of the solvent from the green article, the pore phase material acting as a semipermeable barrier to allow the solvent to be sorbed into the liquid desiccant, the pore phase material substantially preventing the liquid desiccant from entering the pores.

Janney, Mark A. (Knoxville, TN); Kiggans, Jr., James O. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

126

Method of drying articles  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of drying a green particulate article includes the steps of: (a) Providing a green article which includes a particulate material and a pore phase material, the pore phase material including a solvent; and (b) contacting the green article with a liquid desiccant for a period of time sufficient to remove at least a portion of the solvent from the green article, the pore phase material acting as a semipermeable barrier to allow the solvent to be sorbed into the liquid desiccant, the pore phase material substantially preventing the liquid desiccant from entering the pores. 3 figs.

Janney, M.A.; Kiggans, J.O. Jr.

1999-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

127

Analysis and Strategies for Five-Axis Near-Dry EDM Milling.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Strategies for precision five-axis near-dry electric discharge machining (EDM) milling are investigated. By understanding the material removal process behind near-dry EDM milling, its performance can… (more)

Fujiki, Masahiro

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

Controlled atmosphere for fabrication of cermet electrodes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for making an inert electrode composite wherein a metal oxide and a metal are reacted in a gaseous atmosphere at an elevated temperature of at least about 750.degree. C. The metal oxide is at least one of the nickel, iron, tin, zinc and zirconium oxides and the metal is copper, silver, a mixture of copper and silver or a copper-silver alloy. The gaseous atmosphere has an oxygen content that is controlled at about 5-3000 ppm in order to obtain a desired composition in the resulting composite.

Ray, Siba P. (Murrysville, PA); Woods, Robert W. (New Kensington, PA)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

Conductive lithium storage electrode  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A compound comprising a composition A.sub.x(M'.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.y(XD.sub.4).sub.z, A.sub.x(M'.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.y(DXD.sub.4).sub.z, or A.sub.x(M'.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.y(X.sub.2D.sub.7).sub.z, and have values such that x, plus y(1-a) times a formal valence or valences of M', plus ya times a formal valence or valence of M'', is equal to z times a formal valence of the XD.sub.4, X.sub.2D.sub.7, or DXD.sub.4 group; or a compound comprising a composition (A.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.xM'.sub.y(XD.sub.4).sub.z, (A.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.xM'.sub.y(DXD.sub.4).sub.z (A.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.xM'.sub.y(X.sub.2D.sub.7).sub.z and have values such that (1-a).sub.x plus the quantity ax times the formal valence or valences of M'' plus y times the formal valence or valences of M' is equal to z times the formal valence of the XD.sub.4, X.sub.2D.sub.7 or DXD.sub.4 group. In the compound, A is at least one of an alkali metal and hydrogen, M' is a first-row transition metal, X is at least one of phosphorus, sulfur, arsenic, molybdenum, and tungsten, M'' any of a Group IIA, IIIA, IVA, VA, VIA, VIIA, VIIIA, IB, IIB, IIIB, IVB, VB, and VIB metal, D is at least one of oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, or a halogen, 0.0001electrodes and storage batteries and can have a gravimetric capacity of at least about 80 mAh/g while being charged/discharged at greater than about C rate of the compound.

Chiang, Yet-Ming (Framingham, MA); Chung, Sung-Yoon (Incheon, KR); Bloking, Jason T. (Mountain View, CA); Andersson, Anna M. (Vasteras, SE)

2012-04-03T23:59:59.000Z

130

Conductive lithium storage electrode  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A compound comprising a composition A.sub.x(M'.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.y(XD.sub.4).sub.z, A.sub.x(M'.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.y(DXD.sub.4).sub.z, or A.sub.x(M'.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.y(X.sub.2D.sub.7).sub.z, and have values such that x, plus y(1-a) times a formal valence or valences of M', plus ya times a formal valence or valence of M'', is equal to z times a formal valence of the XD.sub.4, X.sub.2D.sub.7, or DXD.sub.4 group; or a compound comprising a composition (A.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.xM'.sub.y(XD.sub.4).sub.z, (A.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.xM'.sub.y(DXD.sub.4).sub.z(A.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).s- ub.xM'.sub.y(X.sub.2D.sub.7).sub.z and have values such that (1-a).sub.x plus the quantity ax times the formal valence or valences of M'' plus y times the formal valence or valences of M' is equal to z times the formal valence of the XD.sub.4, X.sub.2D.sub.7 or DXD.sub.4 group. In the compound, A is at least one of an alkali metal and hydrogen, M' is a first-row transition metal, X is at least one of phosphorus, sulfur, arsenic, molybdenum, and tungsten, M'' any of a Group IIA, IIIA, IVA, VA, VIA, VIIA, VIIIA, IB, IIB, IIIB, IVB, VB, and VIB metal, D is at least one of oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, or a halogen, 0.0001electrodes and storage batteries and can have a gravimetric capacity of at least about 80 mAh/g while being charged/discharged at greater than about C rate of the compound.

Chiang, Yet-Ming (Framingham, MA); Chung, Sung-Yoon (Seoul, KR); Bloking, Jason T. (Cambridge, MA); Andersson, Anna M. (Uppsala, SE)

2008-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

131

Draft dry year tools (generation/planning)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Generation > Planning > Generation Hydro Power Wind Power Monthly GSP BPA White Book Dry Year Tools Firstgov Dry Year Tools November 9, 2006 - Final Dry Year Guide: The Final Dry...

132

Mass loss of copper alloy electrode during TiB2 coating by electrospark deposition  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Titanium diboride was deposited on the surface of spot-welding electrodes for zinc coated steel sheets due to its high electrical and thermal conductivity and potential to prolong the lifespan of the electrodes, and mass of the electrodes was measured after every 30 s during depositing. The results showed that the as-deposited electrodes are losing their mass during the process, which is completely different from the deposition of TiC. Evaporation of copper and oxidation of TiB2 at high temperature generated by electrosparking play the most important roles in the mass loss. Cutting and flaking of the brittle coating also contribute to the mass loss. The cracks within the coating are channels for the leakage of the evaporated substrate material. The mass of the electrodes decreases as the pulse energy increases with the voltage increasing. Pre-coated nickel contributes to the mass loss of the electrodes too.

Cheng Luo; Shijie Dong; Xiang Xiong; Norman Zhou

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

Reference electrode for electrolytic cell  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A reference electrode device is provided for a high temperature electrolytic cell used to electrolytically recover uranium from spent reactor fuel dissolved in an anode pool, the device having a glass tube to enclose the electrode and electrolyte and serve as a conductive membrane with the cell electrolyte, and an outer metal tube about the glass tube to serve as a shield and basket for any glass sections broken by handling of the tube to prevent their contact with the anode pool, the metal tube having perforations to provide access between the bulk of the cell electrolyte and glass membrane. 4 figs.

Kessie, R.W.

1988-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

134

On the dry deposition of submicron particles  

SciTech Connect

The air-surface exchange of particles can have a strong role in determining the amount, size, and chemical composition of particles in the troposphere. Here the authors consider only dry processes (deposition processes not directly aided by precipitation) and mostly address particles less than about 2 {micro}m in diameter (often referred to as submicron particles because most of such particles are less than 1 {micro}m in diameter). The processes that control the dry exchange of particulate material between the atmosphere and the surface of the Earth are numerous, highly varied, and sometimes poorly understood. As a result, determining which of the surface processes to parameterize or simulate in modeling the tropospheric mass budget of a particulate substance can be a significant challenge. Dry deposition, for example, can be controlled by a combination of Brownian diffusion, impaction, interception, and gravitational settling, depending on the size of the particles, the roughness of the surface on both micrometeorological and microscopic scales, the geometrical structure of vegetative canopies, and other surface characteristics such as wetness. Particles can be added to the lower atmosphere by resuspension from land surfaces and sea spray. The roles of rapid gas-to-particle conversion and growth or shrinkage of particles as a result of water condensation or evaporation in the lower few meters of the atmosphere can also have a significant impact on particle concentrations in the lower atmosphere. Here, a few micrometeorological observations and inferences on particle air-surface exchange are briefly addressed.

Wesely, M. L.

1999-10-08T23:59:59.000Z

135

Pyrolytic carbon electrodes Lithographically Defined Porous Carbon Electrodes**  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

to the intrinsic material properties of carbon, functionalized films can be produced through chemical modification fabrication method capable of producing large area (%100 s cm2 ) submicrometer porous carbon films. In our methodology. The palladium-modified electrodes exhibit a catalytic response for methanol oxidation

New Mexico, University of

136

Standard guide for drying behavior of spent nuclear fuel  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1.1 This guide is organized to discuss the three major components of significance in the drying behavior of spent nuclear fuel: evaluating the need for drying, drying spent nuclear fuel, and confirmation of adequate dryness. 1.1.1 The guide addresses drying methods and their limitations in drying spent nuclear fuels that have been in storage at water pools. The guide discusses sources and forms of water that remain in SNF, its container, or both, after the drying process and discusses the importance and potential effects they may have on fuel integrity, and container materials. The effects of residual water are discussed mechanistically as a function of the container thermal and radiological environment to provide guidance on situations that may require extraordinary drying methods, specialized handling, or other treatments. 1.1.2 The basic issue in drying is to determine how dry the SNF must be in order to prevent issues with fuel retrievability, container pressurization, or container corrosion. Adequate d...

American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

137

Solar drying of seafood products  

SciTech Connect

The solar drying of seafood products by forced air convection and by direct insolation, as well as hot smoking fish with a solar assisted fish smoker are investigated.

Baird, C.D.; Deng, J.C.; Chau, K.V.; Heinis, J.J.; Perez, M.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

Continuity and Performance in Composite Electrodes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

C Figure 6 Au coating Cathode composite C coating - Currentof as-received LiFePCv composite electrodes: a) top and b)paths in A u coated composite electrode. The spheres

Chen, Guoying

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

First-principles Approaches to Simulate Lithiation in Silicon Electrodes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Silicon is viewed as an excellent electrode material for lithium batteries due to its high lithium storage capacity. Various Si nano-structures, such as Si nanowires, have performed well as lithium battery anodes and have opened up exciting opportunities for the use of Si in energy storage devices. The mechanism of lithium insertion and the interaction between Li and the Si electrode must be understood at the atomic level; this understanding can be achieved by first-principles simulation. Here, first-principles computations of lithiation in silicon electrodes are reviewed. The review focuses on three aspects: the various properties of bulk Li-Si compounds with different Li concentrations, the electronic structure of Si nanowires and Li insertion behavior in Si nanowires, and the dynamic lithiation process at the Li/Si interface. Potential study directions in this research field and difficulties that the field still faces are discussed at the end.

Zhang, Qianfan; Wang, Enge

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

A study of electrode passivation during aqueous phenol electrolysis  

SciTech Connect

The process of electrode passivation during phenol electrolysis at a platinum electrode was studied in a sulfuric acid electrolyte (pH0-1). Passive film growth and the effects of concentration and potential were investigated using chronoamperometry, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and gel permeation chromatography. The main products of the phenol oxidation are oligomers/polymers with weight-averaged molecular weights typically around 1000 g/mol after a 30 ms anodic pulse. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy shows that the passivating polymer film is oxidized incompletely with many hydroxyl groups present. Increased potential increased the polymerization rate, but above 1.0 V vs. SCE film decomposition reactions also occurred. Increased phenol concentration increased the charge required to initiate passivation. Potential steps to the open-circuit potential or to mo9re cathodic values can interfere with the passivation process. Chronamperometric results show that the current decay at the passivated electrode is roughly inversely proportional to time and that the currents for a fixed amount of polymerization reaction follow a Tafel relationship. This t;type of decay is not due to a limitation caused b;y reactant diffusion through, nor IR drop across, a growing film but is more characteristic of electron tunneling through a growing insulating barrier layer. The model proposed for the observed behavior involves the formation of a region of high molecular weight, oxidized material at the electrode surface which blocks further reaction at the electrode. The rate-determining step at the passivated electrode is therefore electron tunneling through this unreactive material.

Gattrell, M.; Kirk, D.W. (Univ. of Toronto, ON (Canada))

1993-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dry process electrode" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

A Simple Cold-Electrode Erosion Model for Non-stationary Arc Spots: I. Application to Electric Arc Heaters  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

erosion is an unfavorable process, and should be minimized.1) For electrical discharge machining (EDM), a process widely applied for cutting and shaping hard-to-machine solid materials, erosion is a positive factor, and should be maximized,2) regarding the machined electrode material. An electrode, manufactured

Marotta, Aruy

142

Lithographic dry development using optical absorption  

SciTech Connect

A novel approach to dry development of exposed photo resist is described in which a photo resist layer is exposed to a visible light source in order to remove the resist in the areas of exposure. The class of compounds used as the resist material, under the influence of the light source, undergoes a chemical/structural change such that the modified material becomes volatile and is thus removed from the resist surface. The exposure process is carried out for a time sufficient to ablate the exposed resist layer down to the layer below. A group of compounds found to be useful in this process includes aromatic calixarenes.

Olynick, Deirdre; Schuck, P. James; Schmidt, Martin

2013-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

143

Effect of electrode porosity on the electrospark deposition of recovery coatings  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The paper examines how the porosity of electrode materials used to restore parts influences the electrospark deposition process. A higher porosity decreases the heat ... of heat remains for melting. Erosion and deposition

S. M. Kirilenko; O. V. Paustovskii; M. V. Karpets

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

144

Manufacturing and performance of ceramic/metal matrix composite electrical discharge machining electrodes.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The manufacturing and performance of ceramic/metal matrix composite (cermet) electrical discharge machining (EDM) electrodes have been investigated. The processing techniques necessary for creating TiB2/Cu, TaC/Cu,… (more)

Kim, Eugene Ty

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

Composite electrode for use in electrochemical cells  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A porous composite electrode for use in electrochemical cells. The electrode has a first face and a second face defining a relatively thin section therebetween. The electrode is comprised of an ion conducting material, an electron conducting material, and an electrocatalyst. The volume concentration of the ion conducting material is greatest at the first face and is decreased across the section, while the volume concentration of the electron conducting material is greatest at the second face and decreases across the section of the electrode. Substantially all of the electrocatalyst is positioned within the electrode section in a relatively narrow zone where the rate of electron transport of the electrode is approximately equal to the rate of ion transport of the electrode. 4 figs., 1 tab.

Vanderborgh, N.E.; Huff, J.R.; Leddy, J.

1987-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

146

MODELING OF CHANGING ELECTRODE PROFILES  

SciTech Connect

A model for simulating the transient behavior of solid electrodes undergoing deposition or dissolution has been developed. The model accounts for ohmic drop, charge transfer overpotential, and mass transport limitations. The finite difference method, coupled with successive overrelaxation, was used as the basis of the solution technique. An algorithm was devised to overcome the computational instabilities associated with the calculations of the secondary and tertiary current distributions. Simulations were performed on several model electrode profiles: the sinusoid, the rounded corner, and the notch. Quantitative copper deposition data were obtained in a contoured rotating cylinder system, Sinusoidal cross-sections, machined on stainless steel cylinders, were used as model geometries, Kinetic parameters for use in the simulation were determined from polarization curves obtained on copper rotating cylinders, These parameters, along with other physical property and geometric data, were incorporated in simulations of growing sinusoidal profiles. The copper distributions on the sinusoidal cross-sections were measured and found to compare favorably with the simulated results. At low Wagner numbers the formation of a slight depression at the profile peak was predicted by the simulation and observed on the profile. At higher Wagner numbers, the simulated and experimental results showed that the formation of a depression was suppressed. This phenomenon was shown to result from the competition between ohmic drop and electrode curvature.

Prentice, Geoffrey Allen

1980-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

Biological purification of water by an ozoniser with a discharge tube electrode  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

An efficient apparatus with an internal discharge tube electrode has been developed and tested for the biological purification of water. Ultra-pure water can thus be obtained for the semiconductor, pharmaceutical and foodstuff industries. The purification is achieved by means of the combined effect of ozone and UV radiation. The silent discharge ozoniser consists of an internal discharge tube filled with Ar and Hg vapours as the inner electrode and concentric silica glass and cooling water as the outer electrode. The power consumption of this new type of ozoniser is 11.5 W h/gO3 and 7.0 W h/gO3 for the generation of 1% ozone concentration from dry air and oxygen, respectively.

J Drimal; J Janca

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

Surface-enhanced Raman scattering from silver electrodes  

SciTech Connect

The chemical and physical origins of the anomalously large enhancement of the Raman scattering cross section for molecules adsorbed on silver electrodes in an electrochemical cell were investigated. The effect of the chemical reactions which occur during the anodization/activation procedure were studied using the Ag-CN system. It was shown that the function of the anodization process is to roughen the electrode surface and create an activated site for bonding to the cyanide. A new nonelectrochemical technique for activating the silver surface, along with a study of the enhanced cyanide Raman scattering in different background electrolytes, showed that the Raman active entity on the surface must be a silver-cyanide complex. In order to study the physical mechanism of the enhancement, the angular dependence of the scattered radiation was measured from pyridine adsorbed on an evaporated silver electrode. Both polycrystalline and single crystalline silver films were used. The angular dependence of the scattered radiation from these films showed that the metal surface was controlling the directional properties of the scattered radiation, and not the polarizability tensor of the adsorbate. Based on these experimental results, it was concluded that for weakly roughened silver electrodes the source of the anomalous enhancement is due to a resonant Raman scattering process.

Trott, G.R.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

NEWTON: Preventing Tire Dry Rot  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Preventing Tire Dry Rot Preventing Tire Dry Rot Name: Millard Status: student Grade: 9-12 Location: MD Country: USA Date: Spring 2013 Question: My dad has a classic car, and because it gets driven very little each year, the tires dry rot before he can get much tread wear on them. What could be used to protect the tires from dry rot and cracking? Replies: Hi Millard, Thanks for the question. I would recommend keeping the car on blocks so that there is no weight on the tires. Additionally, I would recommend that no electrical equipment (motors, switches, and other things that spark) be used around the car. The sparks generate ozone and ozone can cause rubber items such as tires, belts, and hoses to crack. I hope this helps. Please let me know if you have more questions. Thanks Jeff Grell

150

DRI Companies | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

DRI Companies DRI Companies Jump to: navigation, search Name DRI Companies Place Irvine, California Zip 92614 Sector Solar Product US-based residential and commercial installer of turnkey solar systems, through subsidiary iDRI Energy. Coordinates 41.837752°, -79.268594° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":41.837752,"lon":-79.268594,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

151

Sustaining dry surfaces under water  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Rough surfaces immersed under water remain practically dry if the liquid-solid contact is on roughness peaks, while the roughness valleys are filled with gas. Mechanisms that prevent water from invading the valleys are well studied. However, to remain practically dry under water, additional mechanisms need consideration. This is because trapped gas (e.g. air) in the roughness valleys can dissolve into the water pool, leading to invasion. Additionally, water vapor can also occupy the roughness valleys of immersed surfaces. If water vapor condenses, that too leads to invasion. These effects have not been investigated, and are critically important to maintain surfaces dry under water. In this work, we identify the critical roughness scale below which it is possible to sustain the vapor phase of water and/or trapped gases in roughness valleys - thus keeping the immersed surface dry. Theoretical predictions are consistent with molecular dynamics simulations and experiments.

Paul R. Jones; Xiuqing Hao; Eduardo R. Cruz-Chu; Konrad Rykaczewski; Krishanu Nandy; Thomas M. Schutzius; Kripa K. Varanasi; Constantine M. Megaridis; Jens H. Walther; Petros Koumoutsakos; Horacio D. Espinosa; Neelesh A. Patankar

2014-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

152

Nanoparticle dispersion-strengthened coatings and electrode materials for electrospark deposition  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Advanced electrode compositions were developed using self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS). Electrospark deposition (ESD) was applied to produce tribological coatings which were disperse-strengthened by incorporation of nanosized particles. Nanostructured electrodes of cemented carbides were produced using powder metallurgy technologies. They allow increasing the coatings density, thickness, hardness, Young's modulus and wear resistance. Positive effects of the nanostructure of electrodes on the deposition process and structure and properties of the coatings are discussed. In that case the tungsten carbide phases become predominant in the coatings. A mechanism of the dissolution reaction of WC with Ni at the contact surface of electrode was proposed. It was shown that the formation of the coating structure starts on the electrode and is accomplished on the substrate.

E.A. Levashov; P.V. Vakaev; E.I. Zamulaeva; A.E. Kudryashov; Yu.S. Pogozhev; D.V. Shtansky; A.A. Voevodin; A. Sanz

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

153

Continuous process to produce lithium-polymer batteries  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Solid polymer electrolytes are extruded with active electrode material in a continuous, one-step process to form composite electrolyte-electrodes ready for assembly into battery cells. The composite electrolyte electrode sheets are extruded onto current collectors to form electrodes. The composite electrodes, as extruded, are electronically and ionically conductive. The composite electrodes can be over coated with a solid polymer electrolyte, which acts as a separator upon battery assembly. The interface between the solid polymer electrolyte composite electrodes and the solid polymer electrolyte separator has low resistance. 1 fig.

Chern, T.S.H.; Keller, D.G.; MacFadden, K.O.

1998-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

154

Interfacial studies of a thin-film Li2Mn4O9 electrode  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Interfacial studies of a thin-film Li2Mn4O9 electrode Interfacial studies of a thin-film Li2Mn4O9 electrode Title Interfacial studies of a thin-film Li2Mn4O9 electrode Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 1999 Authors Kostecki, Robert, Fanping Kong, Yoshiaki Matsuo, and Frank R. McLarnon Journal Electrochimica Acta Volume 45 Pagination 225-233 Keywords interfacial films, manganese oxide electrode Abstract A thin-film spinel Li2Mn4O9 electrode was prepared by spin coating onto a Pt substrate. Spectroscopic ellipsometry, X-ray diffraction and current-sensing atomic force microscopy (CSAFM) were used to characterize interfacial processes and film formation at this electrode in the presence of 1.0 M LiPF6, EC:DMC (1:1 by volume) electrolyte. Prolonged exposure of the film to the electrolyte at ambient temperature resulted in spontaneous decomposition of the spinel to λ-MnO2 without disruption of the original structure. The surface of the resulting λ-MnO2 film exhibited no significant change in morphology, however a thin passive electrode surface layer was detected by the CSAFM probe. This electrode surface layer exhibited insulating properties and most likely contained Li2O, a by-product of Li2Mn4O9 decomposition.

155

NETL: IEP – Post-Combustion CO2 Emissions Control - Dry Regenerable  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Dry Regenerable Sorbents Dry Regenerable Sorbents Project No.: FC26-07NT43089 CLICK ON IMAGE TO ENLARGE Schematic of RTI’s Dry Carbonate Process Research Triangle Institute (RTI) International completed two projects, NT43089 and NT40923, to investigate the use of sodium carbonate (Na2CO3 or soda ash) as an inexpensive, dry, and regenerable sorbent for carbon dioxide (CO2) capture in the Dry Carbonate Process. In this process, Na2CO3 reacts with CO2 and water to form sodium bicarbonate at the temperature of the flue gas exhaust; the sorbent is then regenerated at modest temperatures (~120°C) to yield a concentrated stream of CO2 for sequestration or other use. The regenerated sorbent is recycled to the absorption step for subsequent CO2 capture. See schematic of RTI's Dry Carbonate Process.

156

Detecting cooking state with gas sensors during dry cooking  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Gas sensors have the potential to assist cooking by providing feedback on the cooking process and by further automating cooking. In this work, we explored the potential use of gas sensors to monitor food during the cooking process. Focusing on dry cooking, ... Keywords: cooking state, electronic nose, food, gas sensors

Sen H. Hirano; Jed R. Brubaker; Donald J. Patterson; Gillian R. Hayes

2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

Economic analysis of transportation directly reduced iron (DRI) through ship  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Directly reduced iron (DRI) is a major source of iron units in cases of low scrap availability and/or hot metal. Its main advantage is it is low content of phosphorus and sulphur. Removal of phosphorus and sulphur demands high energy consumption in steel making process. With fast depleting sources of cooking coal, the availability of hot metal will decrease in the coming years. Also, scrap availability is already on the declining trend. Hence, DRI is going to be the main source of iron units in the future, especially in electric arc furnace (EAF steel making). The disadvantage of DRI usages lies in it is high reactivity. Freshly produced DRI possesses high susceptibility to oxidation whenever it comes in contact with air. The generated heat in the oxidation reaction increases the tendency to oxidation, thereby, starting a short of chain reaction and ultimately leading to the burning of DRI. This phenomenon makes storage and handling of DRI a concern. The problem caused loss of one cargo in Delta steel company, Nigeria. The authors of this dissertation were given the responsibility to work out the solution in the minimum possible time for implementing it to the next shipments. It is heartening that the problem could be successfully solved and implemented in the next shipments in November '06. Hence, after above work implementation of the recommendations for a $45 risk/ton of DRI, only $1 is to be spent for protection against the risk.

Manikant K. Paswan; Chinmoy Mukherjee

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

Flow through electrode with automated calibration  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention is an improved automated flow through electrode liquid monitoring system. The automated system has a sample inlet to a sample pump, a sample outlet from the sample pump to at least one flow through electrode with a waste port. At least one computer controls the sample pump and records data from the at least one flow through electrode for a liquid sample. The improvement relies upon (a) at least one source of a calibration sample connected to (b) an injection valve connected to said sample outlet and connected to said source, said injection valve further connected to said at least one flow through electrode, wherein said injection valve is controlled by said computer to select between said liquid sample or said calibration sample. Advantages include improved accuracy because of more frequent calibrations, no additional labor for calibration, no need to remove the flow through electrode(s), and minimal interruption of sampling.

Szecsody, James E [Richland, WA; Williams, Mark D [Richland, WA; Vermeul, Vince R [Richland, WA

2002-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

159

Method of making an electrode  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Disclosed is a method of coating an electrode on a solid oxygen conductive oxide layer. A coating of particles of an electronic conductor is formed on one surface of the oxide layer and a source of oxygen is applied to the opposite surface of the oxide layer. A metal halide vapor is applied over the electronic conductor and the oxide layer is heated to a temperature sufficient to induce oxygen to diffuse through the oxide layer and react with the metal halide vapor. This results in the growing of a metal oxide coating on the particles of electronic conductor, thereby binding them to the oxide layer.

Isenberg, Arnold O. (Forest Hills Boro, PA)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

Semiconductor electrode with improved photostability characteristics  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An electrode is described for use in photoelectrochemical cells having an electrolyte which includes an aqueous constituent. The electrode consists of a semiconductor and a hydrophobic film disposed between the semiconductor and the aqueous constituent. The hydrophobic film is adapted to permit charges to pass therethrough while substantially decreasing the activity of the aqueous constituent at the semiconductor surface thereby decreasing the photodegradation of the semiconductor electrode.

Frank, A.J.

1985-02-19T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dry process electrode" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Three-Electrode Metal Oxide Reduction Cell  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of electrochemically reducing a metal oxide to the metal in an electrochemical cell is disclosed along with the cell. Each of the anode and cathode operate at their respective maximum reaction rates. An electrolyte and an anode at which oxygen can be evolved, and a cathode including a metal oxide to be reduced are included as is a third electrode with independent power supplies connecting the anode and the third electrode and the cathode and the third electrode.

Dees, Dennis W. (Downers Grove, IL); Ackerman, John P. (Downers Grove, IL)

2005-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

162

Three-electrode metal oxide reduction cell  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of electrochemically reducing a metal oxide to the metal in an electrochemical cell is disclosed along with the cell. Each of the anode and cathode operate at their respective maximum reaction rates. An electrolyte and an anode at which oxygen can be evolved, and a cathode including a metal oxide to be reduced are included as is a third electrode with independent power supplies connecting the anode and the third electrode and the cathode and the third electrode.

Dees, Dennis W. (Downers Groves, IL); Ackerman, John P. (Downers Grove, IL)

2008-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

163

Assessment of an active dry barrier for a landfill cover system  

SciTech Connect

A dry barrier is a layer of geologic material that is dried by air flow. An active dry barrier system can be designed, installed, and operated as part of a landfill cover system. An active system uses blowers and fans to move air through a high-permeability layer within the cover system. Depending principally on the air-flow rate, it is possible for a dry barrier to remove enough water to substantially reduce the likelihood of water percolating through the cover system. If a material with a relatively great storage capacity, such as processed tuff, is used as the coarse layer, then the efficiency of the dry barrier will be increased.

Stormont, J.C. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ankeny, M.D.; Burkhard, M.E.; Tansey, M.K.; Kelsey, J.A. [Stephens (Daniel B.) and Associates, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

Drying by Cavitation and Poroelastic Relaxations in Porous Media with Macroscopic Pores Connected by Nanoscale Throats  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We investigate the drying dynamics of porous media with two pore diameters separated by several orders of magnitude. Nanometer-sized pores at the edge of our samples prevent air entry, while drying proceeds by heterogeneous nucleation of vapor bubbles (cavitation) in the liquid in micrometer-sized voids within the sample. We show that the dynamics of cavitation and drying are set by the interplay of the deterministic poroelastic mass transport in the porous medium and the stochastic nucleation process. Spatio-temporal patterns emerge in this unusual reaction-diffusion system, with temporal oscillations in the drying rate and variable roughness of the drying front.

Olivier Vincent; David A. Sessoms; Erik J. Huber; Jules Guioth; Abraham D. Stroock

2014-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

165

Electric filter with movable belt electrode  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and apparatus for removing airborne contaminants entrained in a gas or airstream includes an electric filter characterized by a movable endless belt electrode, a grounded electrode, and a filter medium sandwiched there between. Inclusion of the movable, endless belt electrode provides the driving force for advancing the filter medium through the filter, and reduces frictional drag on the filter medium, thereby permitting a wide choice of filter medium materials. Additionally, the belt electrode includes a plurality of pleats in order to provide maximum surface area on which to collect airborne contaminants. 4 figs.

Bergman, W.

1983-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

166

Independent Oversight Review, Hanford K Basin and Cold Vacuum Drying  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

K Basin and Cold Vacuum K Basin and Cold Vacuum Drying Facility - August 2012 Independent Oversight Review, Hanford K Basin and Cold Vacuum Drying Facility - August 2012 August 2012 Review of Hanford K Basin and Cold Vacuum Drying Facility Found Fuel Multi-Canister Overpack Operations The purpose of this independent oversight review by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Enforcement and Oversight (Independent Oversight), within the Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS) was to observe the operations associated with processing a Multi-Canister Overpack (MCO) of "found fuel" (small quantities of spent fuel discovered during cleanup of the reactor burial grounds) at the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF). The found fuel MCO was transported from the K West Basin on the Hanford

167

Independent Oversight Review, Hanford K Basin and Cold Vacuum Drying  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Hanford K Basin and Cold Vacuum Hanford K Basin and Cold Vacuum Drying Facility - August 2012 Independent Oversight Review, Hanford K Basin and Cold Vacuum Drying Facility - August 2012 August 2012 Review of Hanford K Basin and Cold Vacuum Drying Facility Found Fuel Multi-Canister Overpack Operations The purpose of this independent oversight review by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Enforcement and Oversight (Independent Oversight), within the Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS) was to observe the operations associated with processing a Multi-Canister Overpack (MCO) of "found fuel" (small quantities of spent fuel discovered during cleanup of the reactor burial grounds) at the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF). The found fuel MCO was transported from the K West Basin on the Hanford

168

Drying studies for corroded DOE aluminum plate fuels  

SciTech Connect

The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) currently stores a wide variety of spent nuclear fuel. The fuel was originally intended to be stored underwater for a short period of thermal cooling, then removed and reprocessed. However, it has been stored underwater for much longer thank originally anticipated. During this time dust and airborne desert soil have entered the oldest INEL pool, accumulating on the fuel. Also, the aluminum fuel cladding has corroded compromising the exposed surfaces of the fuel. Plans are now underway to move some the the more vulnerable aluminum plate type fuels into dry storage in an existing vented and filtered fuel storage facility. In preparation for dry storage of the fuel a drying and canning station is being built at the INEL. The two primary objectives of this facility are to determine the influence of corrosion products on the drying process and to establish temperature distribution inside the canister during heating.

Lords, R.E.; Windes, W.E. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Crepeau, J.C.; Sidwell, R.W. [Idaho Univ., Idaho Falls, ID (United States) Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

169

Safeguards and nonproliferation aspects of a dry fuel recycling technology  

SciTech Connect

Los Alamos National Laboratory undertook an independent assessment of the proliferation potentials and safeguardability of a dry fuel recycling technology, whereby spent pressurized-water reactor (PWR) fuels are used to fuel canadian deuterium uranium (CANDU) reactors. Objectives of this study included (1) the evaluation of presently available technologies that may be useful to safeguard technology options for dry fuel recycling (2) and identification of near-term and long-term research needs to develop process-specific safeguards requirements. The primary conclusion of this assessment is that like all other fuel cycle alternatives proposed in the past, the dry fuel recycle entails prolfferation risks and that there are no absolute technical fixes to eliminate such risks. This study further concludes that the proliferation risks of dry fuel recycling options are relatively minimal and presently known safeguards systems and technologies can be modified and/or adapted to meet the requirements of safeguarding such fuel recycle facilities.

Pillay, K.K.S.

1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

Dry cleaning of Turkish coal  

SciTech Connect

This study dealt with the upgrading of two different type of Turkish coal by a dry cleaning method using a modified air table. The industrial size air table used in this study is a device for removing stones from agricultural products. This study investigates the technical and economical feasibility of the dry cleaning method which has never been applied before on coals in Turkey. The application of a dry cleaning method on Turkish coals designated for power generation without generating environmental pollution and ensuring a stable coal quality are the main objectives of this study. The size fractions of 5-8, 3-5, and 1-3 mm of the investigated coals were used in the upgrading experiments. Satisfactory results were achieved with coal from the Soma region, whereas the upgrading results of Hsamlar coal were objectionable for the coarser size fractions. However, acceptable results were obtained for the size fraction 1-3 mm of Hsamlar coal.

Cicek, T. [Dokuz Eylul University, Izmir (Turkey). Faculty of Engineering

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

A study of effect affecting to energy in drying processby failure modes and effect analysis (FMEA)  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The objective of this research was to study the effect affecting energy in drying process for decreasing humidity. The residual humidity in Para wood affects to expand or shrink when they are fabricated or assembled in window or door frame wood. Finally, ... Keywords: drying process, factorial design, failure modes and effect analysis (FMEA)

Vanchai Laemlaksakul

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

172

Final Report - Membranes and MEA's for Dry, Hot Operating Conditions  

SciTech Connect

The focus of this program was to develop a new Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) which can operate under hotter, dryer conditions than the state of the art membranes today and integrate it into a Membrane Electrode Assembly (MEA). These MEA's should meet the performance and durability requirements outlined in the solicitation, operating under low humidification conditions and at temperatures ranging from -20���ºC to 120���ºC, to meet 2010 DOE technical targets for membranes. This membrane should operate under low humidification conditions and at temperatures ranging from -20���ºC to 120���ºC in order to meet DOE HFCIT 2010 commercialization targets for automotive fuel cells. Membranes developed in this program may also have improved durability and performance characteristics making them useful in stationary fuel cell applications. The new membranes, and the MEA�¢����s comprising them, should be manufacturable at high volumes and at costs which can meet industry and DOE targets. This work included: A) Studies to better understand factors controlling proton transport within the electrolyte membrane, mechanisms of polymer degradation (in situ and ex situ) and membrane durability in an MEA; B) Development of new polymers with increased proton conductivity over the range of temperatures from -20���ºC to 120���ºC and at lower levels of humidification and with improved chemical and mechanical stability; C) Development of new membrane additives for increased durability and conductivity under these dry conditions; D) Integration of these new materials into membranes and membranes into MEA�¢����s, including catalyst and gas diffusion layer selection and integration; E) Verification that these materials can be made using processes which are scalable to commercial volumes using cost effective methods; F) MEA testing in single cells using realistic automotive testing protocols. This project addresses technical barriers A (Durability) and C (Performance) from the Fuel Cells section of the 2005 Hydrogen, Fuel Cells and Infrastructure Technologies Program Multi-Year R&D Plan. In the course of this four-year program we developed a new PEM with improved proton conductivity, chemical stability and mechanical stability. We incorporated this new membrane into MEAs and evaluated performance and durability.

Hamrock, Steven J.

2011-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

173

Model electrode structures for studies of electrocatalyst degradation.  

SciTech Connect

Proton exchange membrane fuel cells are being extensively studied as power sources because of their technological advantages such as high energy efficiency and environmental friendliness. The most effective catalyst in these systems consists of nanoparticles of Pt or Pt-based alloys on carbon supports. Understanding the role of the nanoparticle size and structure on the catalytic activity and degradation is needed to optimize the fuel cell performance and reduce the noble metal loading. One of the more significant causes of fuel cell performance degradation is the cathode catalyst deactivation. There are four mechanisms considered relevant to the loss of electrochemically active surface area of Pt in the fuel cell electrodes that contribute to cathode catalyst degradation including: catalyst particle sintering such as Ostwald ripening, migration and coalescence, carbon corrosion and catalyst dissolution. Most approaches to study this catalyst degradation utilize membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs), which results in a complex system where it is difficult to deconvolute the effects of the metal nanoparticles. Our research addresses catalyst degradation by taking a fundamental approach to study electrocatalyst using model supports. Nanostructured particle arrays are engineered directly onto planar glassy carbon electrodes. These model electrocatalyst structures are applied to electrochemical activity measurements using a rotating disk electrode and surface characterization by scanning electron microscopy. Sample transfer between these measurement techniques enables examination of the same catalyst area before and after electrochemical cycling. This is useful to probe relationships between electrochemical activity and catalyst structure such as particle size and spacing. These model systems are applied to accelerated aging studies of activity degradation. We will present our work demonstrating the mechanistic aspects of catalyst degradation using this simplified geometric system. The active surface area loss observed in repeated cyclic voltammetry is explained through characterization and imaging of the same RDE electrode structures throughout the aging process.

St. Pierre, Jean (University of South Carolina); Atanassov, Plamen Borissov (University of New Mexico); Datye, Abhaya K. (University of New Mexico); Goeke, Ronald S. (University of New Mexico)

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

174

A mathematical model of a gas-fed oxygen reduction porous electrode  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. Experimental Procedure C. Experimental Results D. Analysis of Results IV. MODEL DEVELOPMENT 8 11 12 19 23 A. Gas Phase Diffusion B. Agglomerate Phase C. Reaction Rate Expression D. Boundary Conditions E. Solution of Equations MODEL PREDICTIONS VI... theories and equations that describe the physical processes in the electrode. A half cell apparatus is used in conducting the experiments for this study in which the membrane and electrode (MkE) assembly is fabricated without the porous anode. Instead...

Ridge, Stephen James

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

175

Organic conductive films for semiconductor electrodes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

According to the present invention, improved electrodes overcoated with conductive polymer films and preselected catalysts are provided. The electrodes typically comprise an inorganic semiconductor over-coated with a charge conductive polymer film comprising a charge conductive polymer in or on which is a catalyst or charge-relaying agent.

Frank, A.J.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

Cool, Dry, Quiet Dehumidification with  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. Representative dehumidification increase using Trane CDQ dehumidification system Standard HVAC coil - 20% latent dehumidification system as the best new HVAC dehumidification product for 2006. #12;Trane CDQTM (Cool Dry Quiet, supply fan, cooling coil, optional reheat coil, optional final filters. A CDQ system in a Custom Climate

Oak Ridge National Laboratory

177

Impingement drying of potato chips  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Superheated steam impingement drying was used as an alternative technique to develop nutritious fat-free potato chips. The effect of superheated steam temperature (115, 130, and 145° C) and convective heat transfer coefficient (100 and 160 W/m² °C...

Caixeta, Aline Teixeira

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

178

THE DIRT ON DRY MERGERS  

SciTech Connect

Using data from the Spitzer Space Telescope, we analyze the mid-infrared (3-70 {mu}m) spectral energy distributions of dry merger candidates in the Booetes field of the NOAO Deep Wide-Field Survey. These candidates were selected by previous authors to be luminous, red, early-type galaxies with morphological evidence of recent tidal interactions. We find that a significant fraction of these candidates exhibit 8 and 24 {mu}m excesses compared to expectations for old stellar populations. We estimate that a quarter of dry merger candidates have mid-infrared-derived star formation rates greater than {approx}1 M{sub sun} yr{sup -1}. This represents a 'frosting' on top of a large old stellar population, and has been seen in previous studies of elliptical galaxies. Further, the dry merger candidates include a higher fraction of star-forming galaxies relative to a control sample without tidal features. We therefore conclude that the star formation in these massive ellipticals is likely triggered by merger activity. Our data suggest that the mergers responsible for the observed tidal features were not completely dry, and may be minor mergers involving a gas-rich dwarf galaxy.

Desai, Vandana; Soifer, B. T. [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Dey, Arjun [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, Tucson, AZ 85726-6732 (United States); Cohen, Emma [California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Le Floc'h, Emeric, E-mail: desai@ipac.caltech.edu [AIM, CNRS, Universite Paris Diderot, Bat. 709, CEA-Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France)

2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

Electrochemical Roughening of Au(110) Single Crystal Electrodes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The surface roughness of a Au(110) electrode was studied as a function of electrode potential. The electrode potential was cycled between the double layer region and the oxide and hydrogen regions. Measurement...

K. M. Robinson; W. E. O’Grady; I. K. Robinson

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

180

Energy collection and charge transfer processes in thin film photocells and photoelectrochemical cells: Final report  

SciTech Connect

The following paragraphs describe accomplishments and significant results for the two lines of research: (1) studies of energy collection and charge transfer processes in thin film systems and (2) solar energy utilization by photosensitized electrode processes at semiconductor electrodes.

Tachikawa, Hiroyasu

1981-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dry process electrode" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Guides and Case Studies for Hot-Dry and Mixed-Dry Climates | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Dry and Mixed-Dry Climates Dry and Mixed-Dry Climates Guides and Case Studies for Hot-Dry and Mixed-Dry Climates Map of the Hot-Dry and Mixed-Dry Zone of the United States. The zone contains the eastern side of California and follows the US border to cover the western half of Texas. The Department of Energy (DOE) has developed a series of best practices and case studies to help builders improve whole-house energy performance in buildings found in hot-dry and mixed-dry climates. Best Practice Guides New Construction Case Studies Improvements to Existing Homes Case Studies Best Practice Guides 40% Whole-House Energy Savings in Hot-Dry and Mixed-Dry Climates - Volume 9 New Construction Case Studies Arizona Project: Gordon Estates - Phoenix Builder: Mandalay Homes Profile: Fourteen homes in this subdivision achieved Challenge Home

182

Electrochemical Studies of Packed Iron Powder Electrodes: Effects...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

of Packed Iron Powder Electrodes: Effects of Common Constituents of Natural Waters on Corrosion Electrochemical Studies of Packed Iron Powder Electrodes: Effects of Common...

183

Manufacturing of Protected Lithium Electrodes for Advanced Lithium...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Lithium Electrodes for Advanced Lithium-Air, Lithium-Water, and Lithium-Sulfur Batteries, April 2013 Manufacturing of Protected Lithium Electrodes for Advanced Lithium-Air,...

184

Hierarchically Porous Graphene as a Lithium-Air Battery Electrode...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Hierarchically Porous Graphene as a Lithium-Air Battery Electrode. Hierarchically Porous Graphene as a Lithium-Air Battery Electrode. Abstract: Functionalized graphene sheets (FGS)...

185

Flexible Pillared Graphene-Paper Electrodes for High-Performance...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Flexible Pillared Graphene-Paper Electrodes for High-Performance Electrochemical Supercapacitors. Flexible Pillared Graphene-Paper Electrodes for High-Performance Electrochemical...

186

Glucose oxidase-graphene-chitosan modified electrode for direct...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

oxidase-graphene-chitosan modified electrode for direct electrochemistry and glucose sensing. Glucose oxidase-graphene-chitosan modified electrode for direct electrochemistry and...

187

The Electrode as Organolithium Reagent: Catalyst-Free Covalent...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

The Electrode as Organolithium Reagent: Catalyst-Free Covalent Attachment of Electrochemically Active Species to an Azide The Electrode as Organolithium Reagent: Catalyst-Free...

188

Automation of amperometric titrations with rotating platinum electrodes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Automation of amperometric titrations with rotating platinum electrodes ... A modification of an earlier described apparatus allows for the automation of amperometric titrations with rotating platinum electrodes. ...

Eugene D. Olsen; Roger D. Walton

1966-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

189

Optimization of A Portable Microanalytical System to Reduce Electrode...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

System to Reduce Electrode Fouling from Proteins Associated with Biomonitoring of Optimization of A Portable Microanalytical System to Reduce Electrode Fouling from Proteins...

190

Microscale Electrode Design Using Coupled Kinetic, Thermal and...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Microscale Electrode Design Using Coupled Kinetic, Thermal and Mechanical Modeling Microscale Electrode Design Using Coupled Kinetic, Thermal and Mechanical Modeling 2010 DOE...

191

Microscale Electrode Design Using Coupled Kinetic, Thermal and...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Microscale Electrode Design Using Coupled Kinetic, Thermal and Mechanical Modeling Microscale Electrode Design Using Coupled Kinetic, Thermal and Mechanical Modeling 2009 DOE...

192

Textile Drying Via Wood Gasification  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

TEXTILE DRYING VIA WOOD GASIFICATION Thomas F. ;McGowan, Anthony D. Jape Georgia Institute of Technology Atlanta, Georgia ABSTRACT This project was carried out to investigate the possibility of using wood gas as a direct replacement... for dryers. In addition to the experimental program described above, the DOE grant covered two other major areas. A survey of the textile industry was made to assess the market for gasification equip ment. The major findings were that a large amount...

McGowan, T. F.; Jape, A. D.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

Modeling of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell functionally graded electrodes and a feasibility study of fabrication techniques for functionally graded electrodes.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Currently, Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) electrodes have not been explored for optimization of graded electrodes and nonlinear functional grading. In this work, a complete… (more)

Flesner, Reuben

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

194

Penetration rate prediction for percussive drilling via dry friction model  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Penetration rate prediction for percussive drilling via dry friction model Anton M. Krivtsov a. Similarly, an increased weight on bit in downhole drilling does not improve the penetration rates when hard- tration rate is presented. The inherent nonlinearity of the discontinuous impact process is modelled

Krivtsov, Anton M.

195

Determining electrochemical parameters with dual electrodes  

SciTech Connect

Use of the two-electrode method for determining corrosion rates and Tafel constants is described. The method involves polarization resistance measurements, as well as polarization data further from the corrosion potential. Combined treatment of these data enables the determination of Tafel constants and corrosion rates. It is also shown that values for corrosion potentials can be obtained with good accuracy when exchange current densities of anodic and cathodic reactions are known. This method overcomes some of the earlier drawbacks of the two-electrode technique, such as the need for separate, three-electrode Tafel constant determinations.

Bandy, R.; van Rooyen, D.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

196

Ionomer Degradation in Electrodes of PEM Fuel Cell  

SciTech Connect

Although PEMFC Membrane Electrode Assembly (MEA) durability related studies have increased dramatically since 2004, studies on ionomer degradation of the composite electrodes has received far less attention than that of the proton exchange membranes, electrocatalysts, and catalyst supports. The catalyst layer ionomer unavoidably gets involved in other components degradation processes since it is subjected to exposure to different operating effects, including the presence of the catalyst, catalyst support, and the porous nature of the electrode layer which includes 2-phase flow. PEMFC durability issues cannot be fully resolved without understanding the contribution of ionomer degradation in electrode to the performance decay in life time. However, addressing the impact of changes to the catalyst layer ionomer during durability tests is experimentally difficult mainly because of the need to separate the ionomer in the electrode from other components during chemical, electrical and materials characterization. The catalyst layer ionomer is essentially chemically identical to the membrane ionomeric material, and is composed of low atomic number elements, making characterization difficult. In the present work, MEAs with different Nafion ionomer types: stabilized and non-stablized ionomer in the electrode layer (Type I) and mixed membrane/ionomer MEAs (Type II) were designed to separate ionomer degradation from membrane degradation, as shown in Figure (1a) and (b) respectively. Stabilized and non stabilized ionomers were 5% Nafion{reg_sign} solutions (Ion Power, New Castle, Delaware). The non-stabilized version is the typical Nafion chemical structure with carboxylic acid (-COOH) end groups; these end groups are thought to be a susceptible point of degradative peroxide attack. The stabilized version replaces the -COOH end groups with -CF{sub 3} end groups to prevent peroxide attack at the end groups. Type I MEAs were designed to compare ionomer degradation and its effect on performance decay. Since F{sup -} ions are released only from PFSA based membranes, and not from non-PFSA based membranes, Type II MEAs use a hydrocarbon membrane with no fluorine with a PFSA (Nafion{reg_sign}) ionomer in the catalyst layer for FER measurements. Any F{sup -} ions measured will then have come only for the catalyst layer ionomer during degradation experiments. Type II MEAs allow more detailed chemical characterization exclusively of the catalyst layer ionomer to better understand its degradation.

Borup, Rodney L. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

Advanced membrane electrode assemblies for fuel cells  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of preparing advanced membrane electrode assemblies (MEA) for use in fuel cells. A base polymer is selected for a base membrane. An electrode composition is selected to optimize properties exhibited by the membrane electrode assembly based on the selection of the base polymer. A property-tuning coating layer composition is selected based on compatibility with the base polymer and the electrode composition. A solvent is selected based on the interaction of the solvent with the base polymer and the property-tuning coating layer composition. The MEA is assembled by preparing the base membrane and then applying the property-tuning coating layer to form a composite membrane. Finally, a catalyst is applied to the composite membrane.

Kim, Yu Seung; Pivovar, Bryan S

2014-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

198

Self-weakening in lithiated graphene electrodes  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

weakening in lithiated graphene electrodes Hui Yang a , Xu Huang a , Wentao Liang a , Adri C.T. van Duin b, , Muralikrishna Raju b , Sulin Zhang a, a Department of...

199

Nanostructured Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Electrodes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

post-Doping of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Cathodes,? P.h.D.and V. I. Birss, in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC IX), S. C.Nanostructured Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Electrodes By Tal Zvi

Sholklapper, Tal Zvi

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

Field Emission Measurements from Niobium Electrodes  

SciTech Connect

Increasing the operating voltage of a DC high voltage photogun serves to minimize space charge induced emittance growth and thereby preserve electron beam brightness, however, field emission from the photogun cathode electrode can pose significant problems: constant low level field emission degrades vacuum via electron stimulated desorption which in turn reduces photocathode yield through chemical poisoning and/or ion bombardment and high levels of field emission can damage the ceramic insulator. Niobium electrodes (single crystal, large grain and fine grain) were characterized using a DC high voltage field emission test stand at maximum voltage -225kV and electric field gradient > 10MV/m. Niobium electrodes appear to be superior to diamond-paste polished stainless steel electrodes.

M. BastaniNejad, P.A. Adderley, J. Clark, S. Covert, J. Hansknecht, C. Hernandez-Garcia, R. Mammei, M. Poelker

2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dry process electrode" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Magnetron cathodes in plasma electrode pockels cells  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Magnetron cathodes, which produce high current discharges, form greatly improved plasma electrodes on each side of an electro-optic crystal. The plasma electrode has a low pressure gas region on both sides of the crystal. When the gas is ionized, e.g., by a glow discharge in the low pressure gas, the plasma formed is a good conductor. The gas electrode acts as a highly uniform conducting electrode. Since the plasma is transparent to a high energy laser beam passing through the crystal, the plasma is transparent. A crystal exposed from two sides to such a plasma can be charged up uniformly to any desired voltage. A typical configuration utilizes helium at 50 millitorr operating. pressure and 2 kA discharge current. The magnetron cathode produces a more uniform plasma and allows a reduced operating pressure which leads to lower plasma resistivity and a more uniform charge on the crystal.

Rhodes, Mark A. (Pleasanton, CA)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

Manganese oxide composite electrodes for lithium batteries  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An activated electrode for a non-aqueous electrochemical cell is disclosed with a precursor thereof a lithium metal oxide with the formula xLi.sub.2MnO.sub.3.(1-x)LiMn.sub.2-yM.sub.yO.sub.4 for 0.5electrode and 0.ltoreq.y<1 in which the Li.sub.2MnO.sub.3 and LiMn.sub.2-yM.sub.yO.sub.4 components have layered and spinel-type structures, respectively, and in which M is one or more metal cations. The electrode is activated by removing lithia, or lithium and lithia, from the precursor. A cell and battery are also disclosed incorporating the disclosed positive electrode.

Johnson, Christopher S. (Naperville, IL); Kang, Sun-Ho (Naperville, IL); Thackeray, Michael M. (Naperville, IL)

2009-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

203

Subtask 5: Functional nanostructured transparent electrode materials...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

5: Functional nanostructured transparent electrode materials All papers by year Subtask 1 Subtask 2 Subtask 3 Subtask 4 Subtask 5 Jeon, K.-W. and Seo, D.-K.(2014)Concomitant...

204

Tape method of forming a thin layer of doped lanthanum chromite particles and of bonding such on an electrode  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A combustible polymer film, useful for application of an interconnection on an electrode is made by: (1) providing doped LaCro.sub.3 particles; (2) dispersing doped LaCrO.sub.3 particles in a solvent, to provide a dispersion; (3) screening the dispersion to provide particles in the range of from 30 micrometers to 80 micrometers; (4) admixing a fugitive polymer with the particles; (5) casting the dispersion to provide a film; (6) drying the film; and (7) stripping the film. The film can then be applied to a porous, preheated electrode top surface, and then electrochemical vapor depositing a dense skeletal LaCrO.sub.3 structure, between and around the doped LaCrO.sub.3 particles. Additional solid oxide electrolyte and fuel electrode layers can then be added to provide a fuel cell.

Richards, Von L. (Murrysville, PA); Singhal, Subhash C. (Murrysville, PA); Pal, Uday B. (Cambridge, MA)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

LOWER TEMPERATURE ELECTROLYTE AND ELECTRODE MATERIALS  

SciTech Connect

A thorough literature survey on low-temperature electrolyte and electrode materials for SOFC is given in this report. Thermodynamic stability of selected electrolyte and its chemical compatibility with cathode substrate were evaluated. Preliminary electrochemical characterizations were conducted on symmetrical cells consisting of the selected electrolyte and various electrode materials. Feasibility of plasma spraying new electrolyte material thin-film on cathode substrate was explored.

Keqin Huang

2003-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

206

Cold vacuum drying proof of performance (first article testing) test results  

SciTech Connect

This report presents and details the test results of the first of a kind process referred to as Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD). The test results are compiled from several months of testing of the first process equipment skid and ancillary components to de-water and dry Multi-Canister Overpacks (MCO) filled with Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF). The tests results provide design verifications, equipment validations, model validation data, and establish process parameters.

MCCRACKEN, K.J.

1999-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

207

Testing Oxygen Reduction Reaction Activity with the Rotating Disc Electrode Technique  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Testing Oxygen Reduction Reaction Activity Testing Oxygen Reduction Reaction Activity with the Rotating Disc Electrode Technique Date: Tuesday, March 12, 2013 Innovation for Our Energy Future Shyam S. Kocha: NREL Yannick Garsany: EXCET/NRL Deborah Myers: ANL https://www1.eere.energy.gov/hydrogenandfuelcells/webinars.html Outline 1) Background 2) Experimental Aspects of RDE Testing 3) Basic Measurement Technique & Analysis 4) Parameters Affecting RDE Activity Measurements 1) Impact of Film Deposition & Drying Techniques 2) Impact of Ink Formulation 3) Impact of Nafion Incorporation 4) Impact of particle size effects 5) Correlation with MEA data 5) Electrocatalyst Durability using RDE Measurements 6) Summary 2 Background PEMFC MEA Thin-film RDE Trends of activity and durability in Rotating Disc Electrode (RDE)

208

Application of wire beam electrode technique to investigate initiation and propagation of rebar corrosion  

SciTech Connect

Multi-electrode technique named as wire beam electrode (WBE) was used to study pitting corrosion of rebar under concrete cover. When WBE embedded mortar sample was immersed in NaCl solution, uneven distributions of galvanic current and open circuit potential (OCP) on the WBE were observed due to the initiation of pitting corrosion. The following oxygen depletion in mortar facilitated the negative shift of the OCP and the smoothing of the current and potential distributions. Wetting–drying cycle experiments showed that corrosion products instead of oxygen in wet mortar specimen sustained the propagation of pitting corrosion due to Fe (III) taking part in cathodic depolarization during oxygen-deficient wet period, which was confirmed by micro-Raman spectroscopy. In addition, new pitting corrosion occurred mainly near the corrosion products, leading to preferentially horizontal propagation of rust layer on the WBE. A localized corrosion factor was further presented to quantify the localised corrosion based on galvanic current maps.

Shi, Wei; Dong, Ze Hua, E-mail: zehua.dong@gmail.com; Kong, De Jie; Guo, Xing Peng

2013-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

209

Managing Aging Effects on Dry Cask Storage  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Managing Aging Effects Managing Aging Effects on Dry Cask Storage Systems for Extended Long-Term Storage and Transportation of Used Fuel Rev. 0 Prepared for U.S. Department of Energy Used Fuel Disposition Campaign O.K. Chopra, D. Diercks, R. Fabian, D. Ma, V. Shah, S-W Tam, and Y.Y. Liu Argonne National Laboratory June 30, 2012 FCRD-USED-2012-000119 ANL-12/29 DISCLAIMER This information was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the U.S. Government. Neither the U.S. Government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, expressed or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness, of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately

210

Electrode electrolyte interlayers containing cerium oxide for electrochemical fuel cells  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An electrochemical cell is made having a porous fuel electrode (16) and a porous air electrode (13), with solid oxide electrolyte (15) therebetween, where the air electrode surface opposing the electrolyte has a separate, attached, dense, continuous layer (14) of a material containing cerium oxide, and where electrolyte (16) contacts the continuous oxide layer (14), without contacting the air electrode (13).

Borglum, Brian P. (Edgewood, PA); Bessette, Norman F. (N. Huntingdon, PA)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

Carbon nanotube micro-electrodes for neuronal interfacing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

is based on planar metallic electrochemical electrode arrays (multi- electrodes arrays, MEAs). When in contact with ionic solution (i.e. biological medium), these electrodes can be regarded as electrochemical. This parameter defines the impedance of the electrode and determines its noise level, how well it can record

Jacob, Eshel Ben

212

Effect of drying, initial moisture and variety in corn wet milling  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A laboratory wet-milling process was used to determine starch yield and starch recovery of dent and flint corn dried under different drying conditions. A comparison with undried samples was performed. For the undried samples the starch recovery was not significantly different between both varieties. It decreased as both initial moisture content of the grains and drying air temperature increased. The reduction in starch recovery as well as the contamination by protein was greater for the flint than for the dent corn. Swelling, solubility and initial gelatinization temperatures of the starch derived from both varieties were affected by the drying conditions.

Mónica Haros; Costantino Suarez

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

Florida Dry Natural Gas Reserves Acquisitions (Billion Cubic...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

data. Release Date: 1242014 Next Release Date: 12312015 Referring Pages: Dry Natural Gas Reserves Acquisitions Florida Dry Natural Gas Proved Reserves Dry Natural Gas Proved...

214

Florida Dry Natural Gas Reserves New Field Discoveries (Billion...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

2014 Next Release Date: 12312015 Referring Pages: New Field Discoveries of Dry Natural Gas Reserves Florida Dry Natural Gas Proved Reserves Dry Natural Gas Proved Reserves New...

215

Dry-cleaning of graphene  

SciTech Connect

Studies of the structural and electronic properties of graphene in its pristine state are hindered by hydrocarbon contamination on the surfaces. Also, in many applications, contamination reduces the performance of graphene. Contamination is introduced during sample preparation and is adsorbed also directly from air. Here, we report on the development of a simple dry-cleaning method for producing large atomically clean areas in free-standing graphene. The cleanness of graphene is proven using aberration-corrected high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and electron spectroscopy.

Algara-Siller, Gerardo [Central Facility for Electron Microscopy, Group of Electron Microscopy of Materials Science, Ulm University, Albert-Einstein-Allee 11, Ulm 89081 (Germany); Department of Chemistry, Technical University Ilmenau, Weimarer Strasse 25, Ilmenau 98693 (Germany); Lehtinen, Ossi; Kaiser, Ute, E-mail: ute.kaiser@uni-ulm.de [Central Facility for Electron Microscopy, Group of Electron Microscopy of Materials Science, Ulm University, Albert-Einstein-Allee 11, Ulm 89081 (Germany); Turchanin, Andrey [Faculty of Physics, University of Bielefeld, Universitätsstr. 25, Bielefeld 33615 (Germany)

2014-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

216

Intracranial electrode implantation produces regional neuroinflammation and memory deficits in rats  

SciTech Connect

Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is an established treatment for advanced Parkinson's disease (PD). The procedure entails intracranial implantation of an electrode in a specific brain structure followed by chronic stimulation. Although the beneficial effects of DBS on motor symptoms in PD are well known, it is often accompanied by cognitive impairments, the origin of which is not fully understood. To explore the possible contribution of the surgical procedure itself, we studied the effect of electrode implantation in the subthalamic nucleus (STN) on regional neuroinflammation and memory function in rats implanted bilaterally with stainless steel electrodes. Age-matched sham and intact rats were used as controls. Brains were removed 1 or 8 weeks post-implantation and processed for in vitro autoradiography with [(3)H]PK11195, an established marker of microglial activation. Memory function was assessed by the novel object recognition test (ORT) before surgery and 2 and 8 weeks after surgery. Electrode implantation produced region-dependent changes in ligand binding density in the implanted brains at 1 as well as 8 weeks post-implantation. Cortical regions showed more intense and widespread neuroinflammation than striatal or thalamic structures. Furthermore, implanted animals showed deficits in ORT performance 2 and 8 weeks post-implantation. Thus, electrode implantation resulted in a widespread and persistent neuroinflammation and sustained memory impairment. These results suggest that the insertion and continued presence of electrodes in the brain, even without stimulation, may lead to inflammation-mediated cognitive deficits in susceptible individuals, as observed in patients treated with DBS.

Kuttner-Hirshler, Y.; Biegon, A.; Kuttner-Hirshler, Y.; Polat, U.; Biegon, A.

2009-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

217

Development of a Dry Sorbent-Based Post Combustion CO2 Capture Technology for Retrofit in Existing Power Plants  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Dry Sorbent-Based Dry Sorbent-Based Post Combustion CO 2 Capture Technology for Retrofit in Existing Power Plants Background Currently available commercial processes to remove carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) from flue gas streams are costly and energy intensive. RTI International is heading a research team to continue development and scale-up of an innovative process for CO 2 capture that has significant potential to be less expensive and less energy intensive than conventional technologies. The "Dry Carbonate Process" utilizes a dry,

218

Treating refinery wastewaters in microbial fuel cells using separator electrode assembly or spaced electrode configurations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Treating refinery wastewaters in microbial fuel cells using separator electrode assembly or spaced 2013 Available online 5 November 2013 Keywords: Microbial fuel cells Refinery wastewater Biodegradability Separator electrode assembly a b s t r a c t The effectiveness of refinery wastewater (RW

219

Unique Luminescences of Dry Chlorophylls  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Dry chlorophylls a and b in a rigid glass hydrocarbon solvent have intense emission at 7550 A and 7330 A respectively. In each case the room temperature absorption spectra show the presence of a band shoulder on the long wavelength side of the main red band. Both the emission and the absorption bands disappear in the presence of hydroxyllic solvents. The absorption and emission are interpreted as n??* singlet and n??* triplet transitions respectively. The lifetime of the n??* triplet emission in chlorophyll a is estimated to be 10—3 second. Cu chlorophyll b has an intense phosphorescence at 8740 A with a lifetime of less than 10—4 second. The differences in the room temperature emission spectra for chlorophylls a and b are discussed.

Jose Fernandez; Ralph S. Becker

1959-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

Low Cost, High Performance, 50-year Electrode  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

this ARPA-E project, Primus Power will develop an this ARPA-E project, Primus Power will develop an extremely durable, highly active, conductive, and inexpensive electrode for flow batteries. Flow batteries offer one of the most exciting opportunities for affordable grid storage, however electrodes are costly and are the single largest cost component in a well integrated design. Grid storage can yield numerous benefits in utility and customer- owned applications:  renewable firming  peak load reduction  load shifting  capital deferral  frequency regulation By incorporating volume production practices from the chlorine, filter media, and electroplating industries, Primus Power will effectively reduce electrode costs to exceed GRIDS cost targets while providing the durability essential for widespread grid-scale adoption.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dry process electrode" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Layered electrodes for lithium cells and batteries  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Lithium metal oxide compounds of nominal formula Li.sub.2MO.sub.2, in which M represents two or more positively charged metal ions, selected predominantly and preferably from the first row of transition metals are disclosed herein. The Li.sub.2MO.sub.2 compounds have a layered-type structure, which can be used as positive electrodes for lithium electrochemical cells, or as a precursor for the in-situ electrochemical fabrication of LiMO.sub.2 electrodes. The Li.sub.2MO.sub.2 compounds of the invention may have additional functions in lithium cells, for example, as end-of-discharge indicators, or as negative electrodes for lithium cells.

Johnson, Christopher S. (Naperville, IL); Thackeray, Michael M. (Naperville, IL); Vaughey, John T. (Elmhurst, IL); Kahaian, Arthur J. (Chicago, IL); Kim, Jeom-Soo (Naperville, IL)

2008-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

222

Lithium metal oxide electrodes for lithium batteries  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An uncycled electrode for a non-aqueous lithium electrochemical cell including a lithium metal oxide having the formula Li.sub.(2+2x)/(2+x)M'.sub.2x/(2+x)M.sub.(2-2x)/(2+x)O.sub.2-.delta., in which 0.ltoreq.x<1 and .delta. is less than 0.2, and in which M is a non-lithium metal ion with an average trivalent oxidation state selected from two or more of the first row transition metals or lighter metal elements in the periodic table, and M' is one or more ions with an average tetravalent oxidation state selected from the first and second row transition metal elements and Sn. Methods of preconditioning the electrodes are disclosed as are electrochemical cells and batteries containing the electrodes.

Thackeray, Michael M. (Naperville, IL); Kim, Jeom-Soo (Naperville, IL); Johnson, Christopher S. (Naperville, IL)

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

Manganese oxide composite electrodes for lithium batteries  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An activated electrode for a non-aqueous electrochemical cell is disclosed with a precursor of a lithium metal oxide with the formula xLi.sub.2MnO.sub.3.(1-x)LiMn.sub.2-yM.sub.yO.sub.4 for 0electrode is activated by removing lithia, or lithium and lithia, from the precursor. A cell and battery are also disclosed incorporating the disclosed positive electrode.

Thackeray, Michael M. (Naperville, IL); Johnson, Christopher S. (Naperville, IL); Li, Naichao (Croton on Hudson, NY)

2007-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

224

,"New York Dry Natural Gas Proved Reserves"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","New York Dry Natural Gas Proved Reserves",10,"Annual",2013,"6301977" ,"Release Date:","124...

225

DRI Research Parks Ltd | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Sector: Services Product: General Financial & Legal Services ( Academic Research foundation ) References: DRI Research Parks Ltd1 This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI...

226

,"New Mexico Dry Natural Gas Proved Reserves"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","New Mexico Dry Natural Gas Proved Reserves",10,"Annual",2012,"6301977" ,"Release Date:","410...

227

,"California Dry Natural Gas Proved Reserves"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","California Dry Natural Gas Proved Reserves",10,"Annual",2012,"6301977" ,"Release Date:","4...

228

Propane earth materials drying techniques and technologies.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??A feasibility study for the use of propane as a subbase drying technique. Michael Blahut (1) Dr. Vernon Schaefer (2) Dr. Chris Williams (3) The… (more)

Blahut, Michael Edward

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

,"New York Dry Natural Gas Proved Reserves"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","New York Dry Natural Gas Proved Reserves",10,"Annual",2012,"6301977" ,"Release Date:","410...

230

Optimization of LiFePO4 Nanoparticle Suspensions with Polyethyleneimine for Aqueous Processing  

SciTech Connect

Addition of dispersants to aqueous based lithium-ion battery electrode formulations containing LiFePO{sub 4} is critical to obtaining a stable suspension. The resulting colloidal suspensions enable dramatically improved coating deposition when processing electrodes. This research examines the colloidal chemistry modifications based on polyethyleneimine (PEI) addition and dispersion characterization required to produce high quality electrode formulations and coatings for LiFePO{sub 4} active cathode material. The isoelectric point, a key parameter in characterizing colloidal dispersion stability, of LiFePO{sub 4} and super P C45 were determined to be pH = 4.3 and 3.4, respectively. PEI, a cationic surfactant, was found to be an effective dispersant. It is demonstrated that 1.0 wt % and 0.5 wt % PEI were required to stabilize the LiFePO{sub 4} and super P C45 suspension, respectively. LiFePO{sub 4} cathode suspensions with 1.5 wt % PEI demonstrated the best dispersibility of all components, as evidenced by viscosity and agglomerate size of the suspensions and elemental distribution within dry cathodes. The addition of PEI significantly improved the LiFePO{sub 4} performance.

Li, Jianlin [ORNL; Armstrong, Beth L [ORNL; Kiggans, Jim [ORNL; Daniel, Claus [ORNL; Wood III, David L [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

Development of High Efficiency Electrode for Highly Tritiated Water Processing  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Detritiation and Isotope Separation / Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Tritium Science and Technology (Part 2)

K. Isobe; T. Yamanishi

232

System of fabricating a flexible electrode array  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An image is captured or otherwise converted into a signal in an artificial vision system. The signal is transmitted to the retina utilizing an implant. The implant consists of a polymer substrate made of a compliant material such as poly(dimethylsiloxane) or PDMS. The polymer substrate is conformable to the shape of the retina. Electrodes and conductive leads are embedded in the polymer substrate. The conductive leads and the electrodes transmit the signal representing the image to the cells in the retina. The signal representing the image stimulates cells in the retina.

Krulevitch, Peter (Pleasanton, CA); Polla, Dennis L. (Roseville, MN); Maghribi, Mariam N. (Davis, CA); Hamilton, Julie (Tracy, CA); Humayun, Mark S. (La Canada, CA); Weiland, James D. (Valencia, CA)

2010-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

233

Flexible electrode array for artifical vision  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An image is captured or otherwise converted into a signal in an artificial vision system. The signal is transmitted to the retina utilizing an implant. The implant consists of a polymer substrate made of a compliant material such as poly(dimethylsiloxane) or PDMS. The polymer substrate is conformable to the shape of the retina. Electrodes and conductive leads are embedded in the polymer substrate. The conductive leads and the electrodes transmit the signal representing the image to the cells in the retina. The signal representing the image stimulates cells in the retina.

Krulevitch, Peter (Pleasanton, CA); Polla, Dennis L. (Roseville, MN); Maghribi, Mariam N. (Davis, CA); Hamilton, Julie (Tracy, CA)

2006-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

234

System of fabricating a flexible electrode array  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An image is captured or otherwise converted into a signal in an artificial vision system. The signal is transmitted to the retina utilizing an implant. The implant consists of a polymer substrate made of a compliant material such as poly(dimethylsiloxane) or PDMS. The polymer substrate is conformable to the shape of the retina. Electrodes and conductive leads are embedded in the polymer substrate. The conductive leads and the electrodes transmit the signal representing the image to the cells in the retina. The signal representing the image stimulates cells in the retina.

Krulevitch, Peter (Pleasanton, CA); Polla, Dennis L. (Roseville, MN); Maghribi, Mariam N. (Davis, CA); Hamilton, Julie (Tracy, CA); Humayun, Mark S. (La Canada, CA); Weiland, James D. (Valencia, CA)

2012-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

235

Novel transparent electrodes allow sustainable production of electronic devices  

SciTech Connect

A novel technique for fabricating inexpensive, transparent electrodes from common metals has been developed by engineers and scientists at Iowa State University and Ames Laboratory. They exhibit very high transparency and are very good electrical conductors. This is a combination of properties that is difficult to achieve with common materials. The most frequently used transparent electrode in today's high-technology devices (such as LCD screens) is indium tin oxide (ITO). While ITO performs well in these applications, the supply of indium is very limited. In addition, it is rapidly decreasing as consumer demand for flat-panel electronics is skyrocketing. According to a 2004 US Geological Survey report, as little as 14 years exploitation of known indium reserves remains. In addition to increasing prices, the dwindling supply of indium suggests its use is not sustainable for future generations of electronics enthusiasts. Solar cells represent another application where transparent electrodes are used. To make solar-energy collection economically feasible, all parts of solar photovoltaics must be made more efficient and cost-effective. Our novel transparent electrodes have the potential to do both. In addition, there is much interest in developing more efficient, cost-effective, and environmentally friendly lighting. Incandescent light bulbs are very inefficient, because most of their energy consumption is wasted as heat. Fluorescent lighting is much more efficient but still uses mercury, an environmental toxin. An attractive alternative is offered by LEDs, which have very high efficiencies and long lifetimes, and do not contain mercury. If made bright enough, LED use for general lighting could provide a viable alternative. We have fabricated electrodes from more commonly available materials, using a technique that is cost effective and environmentally friendly. Most of today's electronic devices are made in specialized facilities equipped with low-particle-count clean-room facilities and multimillion-dollar equipment. On the other hand, the novel process we developed uses a method that makes use of polymer molds and standard deposition techniques in an ambient laboratory environment. The final structure consists of tall ribbons of metal (standing on edge) that are so thin that they do not block light but are very good conductors. The advantage of this design is that it avoids the competition between conductivity and transparency inherent in transparent oxide electrodes. By making the structure taller, conductivity can be increased without impacting transparency. We have measured both electrical conductivity and transparency for these structures. We performed two-wire electrical measurements to quantify the structures resistance using metal contacts deposited on each end. The total sample area was 4 x 4mm{sup 2}. We measured a resistance of structures with 40nm gold sidewalls of 7.3{Omega}, which is lower than that of ITO glass (which has a sheet resistance around 10O/square). We investigated the structures optical properties based on both specular- and total-transmission measurements. Specular transmission is measured by collecting the transmitted light at normal incidence, while total transmission is obtained by collecting transmitted light at normal incidence and diffracted light using an integrating sphere. Figure 3 shows the total transmission of a grating with 40nm gold or silver sidewalls on a glass substrate compared to that of ITO. Additionally, the transparency changes very little within 30{sup o} off normal incidence. This high visible-light transmission of our metal-patterned structures is very promising for their application as transparent electrodes, because most visible light was allowed to propagate through the patterned metallic/polymeric structures. Researchers in our group continue to refine the fabrication methods and are investigating methods to make large-scale structures for use in a variety of applications that require both transparency and high electrical conductivity. We are also applying these fab

Constant, Kristen

2010-12-27T23:59:59.000Z

236

Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Overcoming Processing...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Office Merit Review 2014: Overcoming Processing Cost Barriers of High-Performance Lithium-Ion Battery Electrodes Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Overcoming...

237

Operation of a planar-electrode ion trap array with adjustable RF electrodes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

One path to scaling-up trapped atomic ions for large-scale quantum computing and simulation is to create a two-dimensional array of ion traps in close proximity to each other. A method to control the interactions between nearest neighboring ions is demonstrated and characterized here, using an adjustable radio-frequency (RF) electrode between trapping sites. A printed circuit board planar-electrode ion trap is demonstrated, trapping laser-cooled $^{40}$Ca$^+$ ions. RF shuttling and secular-frequency adjustment are shown as a function of the power applied to the addressed RF electrode. The trapped ion's heating rate is measured via a fluorescence recooling method.

Muir Kumph; Philip Holz; Kirsten Langer; Michael Niedermayr; Michael Brownnutt; Rainer Blatt

2014-02-04T23:59:59.000Z

238

Precipitation scavenging, dry deposition, and resuspension. Volume 2: dry deposition and resuspension  

SciTech Connect

Papers are presented under the headings: dry deposition of gases, dry deposition of particles, wind erosion, plutonium deposition and resuspension, air-sea exchange, tropical and polar, global scale, and future studies.

Pruppacher, H.R.; Semanin, R.G.; Slinn, W.G.N.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

Inclined fluidized bed system for drying fine coal  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Coal is processed in an inclined fluidized bed dryer operated in a plug-flow manner with zonal temperature and composition control, and an inert fluidizing gas, such as carbon dioxide or combustion gas. Recycled carbon dioxide, which is used for drying, pyrolysis, quenching, and cooling, is produced by partial decarboxylation of the coal. The coal is heated sufficiently to mobilize coal tar by further pyrolysis, which seals micropores upon quenching. Further cooling with carbon dioxide enhances stabilization.

Cha, Chang Y. (Golden, CO); Merriam, Norman W. (Laramie, WY); Boysen, John E. (Laramie, WY)

1992-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

240

Performance of the Rack Type-greenhouse Effect Solar Dryer for Wild Ginger (Curcuma xanthorizza Roxb.) Drying  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Drying is the important process to produce wild ginger powder as herbal medicine. Conventional drying of wild ginger under the sun depends to weather and potencies to contaminate by pollutant. Therefore the objective of study is to obtain the performance of Greenhouse-effect solar dryer – rack type to dried wild ginger. Three conditions of drying experiment were carried out to obtain the performance of the dryer; without-product and using product at two different capacities. The best of drying performance is the drying of 60 kg slice wild ginger at 47.2oC for 30 hours represented by drying efficiency of 8% and total energy consumption of 29 MJ/kg vapor. The uniform heat air flow is achieved at temperature standard deviation of 2.32oC.

Elsamila Aritesty; Dyah Wulandani

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dry process electrode" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

A Rotating Electrode System for the Generation of Metal Alloy Microspheres  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

characterize this process for various U-Zr alloys and provide the feed material for testing fabrication techniques, a Rotating Electrode System (RES) was designed and built. The RES is largely based on a combination of two designs; an early REP system...

Thompson, Chad 1984-

2012-11-28T23:59:59.000Z

242

Wireless Non-contact EEG/ECG Electrodes for Body Sensor Networks  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Wireless Non-contact EEG/ECG Electrodes for Body Sensor Networks Yu M. Chi and Gert Cauwenberghs University of California, San Diego La Jolla, CA 92093 Abstract--A wireless EEG/ECG system using non transmits EEG/ECG telemetry to a computer for storage and processing. Index Terms--ECG, EEG, Body Sensor

Cauwenberghs, Gert

243

Cold vacuum drying facility 90% design review  

SciTech Connect

This document contains review comment records for the CVDF 90% design review. Spent fuels retrieved from the K Basins will be dried at the CVDF. It has also been recommended that the Multi-Conister Overpacks be welded, inspected, and repaired at the CVD Facility before transport to dry storage.

O`Neill, C.T.

1997-05-02T23:59:59.000Z

244

Molybdenum oxide electrodes for thermoelectric generators  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention is directed to a composite article suitable for use in thermoelectric generators. The article comprises a thin film comprising molybdenum oxide as an electrode deposited by physical deposition techniques onto solid electrolyte. The invention is also directed to the method of making same.

Schmatz, Duane J. (Dearborn Heights, MI)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

245

Titanium nitride electrodes for thermoelectric generators  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention is directed to a composite article suitable for use in thermoelectric generators. The article comprises a thin film of titanium nitride as an electrode deposited onto solid electrolyte. The invention is also directed to the method of making same.

Novak, Robert F. (Farmington Hills, MI); Schmatz, Duane J. (Dearborn Heights, MI); Hunt, Thomas K. (Ann Arbor, MI)

1987-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

246

Negative Electrode For An Alkaline Cell  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention concerns a negative electrode for an alkaline cell, comprising a current collector supporting a paste containing an electrochemically active material and a binder, characterized in that said binder is a polymer containing hydrophilic and hydrophobic groups, said polymer being selected from an acrylic homopolymer, copolymer and terpolymer, an unsaturated organic acid copolymer and an unsaturated acid anhydride copolymer.

Coco, Isabelle (Talence Cedex, FR); Cocciantelli, Jean-Michel (Bordeaux, FR); Villenave, Jean-Jacques (Talence Cedex, FR)

1998-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

247

The Stability of Organic Solvents and Carbon Electrode in Nonaqueous...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

The Stability of Organic Solvents and Carbon Electrode in Nonaqueous Li-O2 Batteries. The Stability of Organic Solvents and Carbon Electrode in Nonaqueous Li-O2 Batteries....

248

Interfacial Interactions between Implant Electrode and Biological Environment  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

interactions to the charge transport. The interfacial interactions of an implanted electrode with neural system will be studied in two types of electrodes: silver and graphene coated. The interfacial impedance of both samples will be studied using EIS...

Chiu, Cheng-Wei 1979-

2012-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

249

Improved zinc electrode and rechargeable zinc-air battery  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention comprises an improved rechargeable zinc-air cell/battery having recirculating alkaline electrolyte and a zinc electrode comprising a porous foam support material which carries the active zinc electrode material. 5 figs.

Ross, P.N. Jr.

1988-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

250

NO.sub.x sensing devices having conductive oxide electrodes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A NO.sub.x sensing device includes at least one pair of spaced electrodes, at least one of which is made of a conductive oxide, and an oxygen-ion conducting material in bridging electrical communication with the electrodes.

Montgomery, Frederick C. (Oak Ridge, TN); West, David L. (Oak Ridge, TN); Armstrong, Timothy R. (Clinton, TN); Maxey, Lonnie C. (Powell, TN)

2010-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

251

Electro-optic device with gap-coupled electrode  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An electro-optic device includes an electro-optic crystal having a predetermined thickness, a first face and a second face. The electro-optic device also includes a first electrode substrate disposed opposing the first face. The first electrode substrate includes a first substrate material having a first thickness and a first electrode coating coupled to the first substrate material. The electro-optic device further includes a second electrode substrate disposed opposing the second face. The second electrode substrate includes a second substrate material having a second thickness and a second electrode coating coupled to the second substrate material. The electro-optic device additionally includes a voltage source electrically coupled to the first electrode coating and the second electrode coating.

Deri, Robert J.; Rhodes, Mark A.; Bayramian, Andrew J.; Caird, John A.; Henesian, Mark A.; Ebbers, Christopher A.

2013-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

252

Electronically and ionically conducting electrodes for thermoelectric generators  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A composite article comprising a porous cermet electrode on a dense solid electrolyte and method of making same. The cerment electrode comprises beta-type-alumina and refractory metal.

Novak, Robert F. (Farmington Hills, MI); Weber, Neill (Murray, UT)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

In situ chemical probing of the electrode-electrolyte interface...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

chemical probing of the electrode-electrolyte interface by ToF-SIMS. In situ chemical probing of the electrode-electrolyte interface by ToF-SIMS. Abstract: A portable vacuum...

254

Multi-electrode double layer capacitor having single electrolyte seal and aluminum-impregnated carbon cloth electrodes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A single cell, multi-electrode high performance double layer capacitor includes first and second flat stacks of electrodes adapted to be housed in a closeable two-part capacitor case which includes only a single electrolyte seal. Each electrode stack has a plurality of electrodes connected in parallel, with the electrodes of one stack being interleaved with the electrodes of the other stack to form an interleaved stack, and with the electrodes of each stack being electrically connected to respective capacitor terminals. A porous separator sleeve is inserted over the electrodes of one stack before interleaving to prevent electrical shorts between the electrodes. The electrodes are made by folding a compressible, low resistance, aluminum-impregnated carbon cloth, made from activated carbon fibers, around a current collector foil, with a tab of the foils of each electrode of each stack being connected in parallel and connected to the respective capacitor terminal. The height of the interleaved stack is somewhat greater than the inside height of the closed capacitor case, thereby requiring compression of the interleaved electrode stack when placed inside of the case, and thereby maintaining the interleaved electrode stack under modest constant pressure. The closed capacitor case is filled with an electrolytic solution and sealed. A preferred electrolytic solution is made by dissolving an appropriate salt into acetonitrile (CH.sub.3 CN). In one embodiment, the two parts of the capacitor case are conductive and function as the capacitor terminals.

Farahmandi, C. Joseph (San Diego, CA); Dispennette, John M. (Oceanside, CA); Blank, Edward (San Diego, CA); Kolb, Alan C. (Rancho Santa Fe, CA)

1999-01-19T23:59:59.000Z

255

Multi-electrode double layer capacitor having single electrolyte seal and aluminum-impregnated carbon cloth electrodes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A single cell, multi-electrode high performance double layer capacitor includes first and second flat stacks of electrodes adapted to be housed in a closeable two-part capacitor case which includes only a single electrolyte seal. Each electrode stack has a plurality of electrodes connected in parallel, with the electrodes of one stack being interleaved with the electrodes of the other stack to form an interleaved stack, and with the electrodes of each stack being electrically connected to respective capacitor terminals. A porous separator sleeve is inserted over the electrodes of one stack before interleaving to prevent electrical shorts between the electrodes. The electrodes are made by folding a compressible, low resistance, aluminum-impregnated carbon cloth, made from activated carbon fibers, around a current collector foil, with a tab of the foils of each electrode of each stack being connected in parallel and connected to the respective capacitor terminal. The height of the interleaved stack is somewhat greater than the inside height of the closed capacitor case, thereby requiring compression of the interleaved electrode stack when placed inside of the case, and thereby maintaining the interleaved electrode stack under modest constant pressure. The closed capacitor case is filled with an electrolytic solution and sealed. A preferred electrolytic solution is made by dissolving an appropriate salt into acetonitrile (CH.sub.3 CN). In one embodiment, the two parts of the capacitor case are conductive and function as the capacitor terminals.

Farahmandi, C. Joseph (San Diego, CA); Dispennette, John M. (Oceanside, CA); Blank, Edward (San Diego, CA); Kolb, Alan C. (Rancho Santa Fe, CA)

1999-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

256

Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Electrode Architecture-Assembly of Battery Materials and Electrodes  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Presentation given by Hydro-Québec at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about electrode architecture-assembly...

257

Electrode and method of interconnection sintering on an electrode of an electrochemical cell  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An electrode structure is made by applying a base layer of doped LaCrO[sub 3] particles on a portion of an electrode and then coating the particles with a top layer composition such as CaO+Al[sub 2]O[sub 3], SrO+Al[sub 2]O[sub 3], or BaO+Al[sub 2]O[sub 3], and then heating the composition for a time effective to melt the composition and allow it to fill any open porosity in the base layer of doped LaCrO[sub 3] to form an interconnection, after which solid oxide electrolyte can be applied to the remaining portion of the electrode and the electrolyte can be covered with a cermet exterior electrode. 2 figures.

Ruka, R.J.; Kuo, L.J.H.

1994-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

258

Manufacturing of Protected Lithium Electrodes for Advanced Batteries  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Manufacturing of Protected Lithium Electrodes for Advanced Lithium-Air, Lithium-Water, and Lithium-Sulfur Batteries

259

Cold Vacuum Drying facility effluent drains system design description (SYS 18)  

SciTech Connect

The Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) Facility provides required process systems, supporting equipment, and facilities needed for the Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) mission. This system design description (SDD) addresses the effluent drain system (EFS), which supports removal of water from the process bay floors. The discussion that follows is limited to piping, valves, components, and the process bay floor drain retention basin.

TRAN, Y.S.

2000-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

260

Temperature dependence of the Tafel slope and electrochemical barrier symmetry factor,. beta. , in electrode kinetics  

SciTech Connect

The significance of the new-established situation that the Tafel slopes, b, ( = d{eta}/d In i) for simple charge-transfer processes at electrodes are usually not represented with respect to variation with temperature, T, by the conventional relation b = RT/{beta} cpF, where {beta} is a constant-valued electrochemical charge-transfer barrier-symmetry coefficient, is examined in the light of recent comments on the problem. Clear evidence is given that b has the form b = RT({beta}sub H + T{beta}{sub s})F for proton transfer at Hg in water and various other solvents, where {beta}{sub H} and T{beta}{sub s} are enthalpic components of the overall {beta}, corresponding to experimentally observable potential-dependence of both the enthalpy and the entropy of activation, respectively. The frequent deviation from conventional behavior thus arises because the entropy of activation, as well as the energy of activation, can be potential-dependent, a situation that, until recently, has been neglected in inter-pretations of electrode-kinetic experiments. The origin of the conventional effect of potential on electrode reaction rates, through the change of electrode work function,{Phi}, with overpotential or electrode potential, V, ({Phi}{sub v} = {Phi}{sub v = O}{plus minus} eV), is examined critically in relation to the potential-dependent surface-potential component, {chi}{sub d}, in {Phi}, which can also be T-dependent.

Conway, B.E. (Dept. of Chemistry, Univ. of Ottawa, Ontario (CA)); Tessier, D.F. (Alcan International, Research Labs. Kingston, Ontario (CA)); Wilkinson, D.P. (Moli Energy Limited, Burnaby, Vancouver, British Columbia (CA))

1989-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dry process electrode" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

The O2 reduction at the IFC modified O2 fuel-cell electrode  

SciTech Connect

The International Fuel Corporation (IFC) state of the art (SOA) O2 electrode (Au-10 percent Pt electrocatalyst by weight) is currently being used in the alkaline H2-O2 fuel cell in the NASA Space Shuttle. Recently, IFC modified O2 electrode, as a possible replacement for the SOA electrode. In the present study, O2 reduction data were obtained for the modified electrode at temperatures between 23.3 and 91.7 C. BET measurements gave an electrode BET surface area of about 2070 sq. cm/sq. cm of geometric surface area. The Tafel data could be fitted to two straight line regions. The slope for the lower region, designated as the 0.04 V/decade region, was temperature dependent, and the transfer coefficient was about 1.5. The 'apparent' energy of activation for this region was about 19 kcal/mol. An O2 reduction mechanism for this 0.04 region is presented. In the upper region, designated as the 0.08 V/decade region, diffusion may be the controlling process. Tafel data are presented to illustrate the increase in performance with increasing temperature.

Fielder, W.L.; Singer, J.; Baldwin, R.S.; Johnson, R.E.

1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

Simplified Reference Electrode for Electrorefining of Spent Nuclear Fuel in High Temperature Molten Salt  

SciTech Connect

Pyrochemical processing plays an important role in development of proliferation- resistant nuclear fuel cycles. At the Idaho National Laboratory (INL), a pyrochemical process has been implemented for the treatment of spent fuel from the Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II) in the last decade. Electrorefining in a high temperature molten salt is considered a signature or central technology in pyroprocessing fuel cycles. Separation of actinides from fission products is being demonstrated by electrorefining the spent fuel in a molten UCl3-LiCl-KCl electrolyte in two engineering scale electrorefiners (ERs). The electrorefining process is current controlled. The reference electrode provides process information through monitoring of the voltage difference between the reference and the anode and cathode electrodes. This information is essential for monitoring the reactions occurring at the electrodes, investigating separation efficiency, controlling the process rate, and determining the process end-point. The original reference electrode has provided good life expectancy and signal stability, but is not easily replaceable. The reference electrode used a vycor-glass ion-permeable membrane containing a high purity silver wire with one end positioned in ~2 grams of LiCl/KCl salt electrolyte with a low concentration (~1%) AgCl. It was, however, a complex assembly requiring specialized skill and talent to fabricate. The construction involved multiple small pieces, glass joints, ceramic to glass joints, and ceramic to metal joints all assembled in a high purity inert gas environment. As original electrodes reached end-of-life it was uncertain if the skills and knowledge were readily available to successfully fabricate replacements. Experimental work has been conducted to identify a simpler electrode design while retaining the needed long life and signal stability. This improved design, based on an ion-permeable membrane of mullite has been completed. Use of the silver wire and electrolyte composition remains the same. The resulting design maximizes the use of commercial components and can be fabricated with commonly available skills. This has resulted in a significant reduction of effort and cost to fabricate replacements. The piece count requiring assembly in a high purity glove box atmosphere has been reduced by over half and all specialized joints have been eliminated. The new design has been tested in a lab scale electrorefiner and has also been successfully scaled up and installed in the engineering scale electrorefiners.

Kim Davies; Shelly X Li

2007-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

263

Method for uniformly distributing carbon flakes in a positive electrode, the electrode made thereby and compositions  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A positive electrode for a secondary electrochemical cell wherein an electrically conductive current collector is in electrical contact with a particulate mixture of gray cast iron and an alkali metal sulfide and an electrolyte including alkali metal halides or alkaline earth metal halides. Also present may be a transition metal sulfide and graphite flakes from the conversion of gray cast iron to iron sulfide. Also disclosed is a method of distributing carbon flakes in a cell wherein there is formed an electrochemical cell of a positive electrode structure of the type described and a suitable electrolyte and a second electrode containing a material capable of alloying with alkali metal ions. The cell is connected to a source of electrical potential to electrochemically convert gray cast iron to an iron sulfide and uniformly to distribute carbon flakes formerly in the gray cast iron throughout the positive electrode while forming an alkali metal alloy in the negative electrode. Also disclosed are compositions useful in preparing positive electrodes.

Mrazek, Franklin C. (Hickory Hills, IL); Smaga, John A. (Lemont, IL); Battles, James E. (Oak Forest, IL)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

Nanopatterned Metallic Films for Use As Transparent Conductive Electrodes in  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Nanopatterned Metallic Films for Use As Transparent Conductive Electrodes in Optoelectronic Devices metallic films as transparent conductive electrodes in optoelectronic devices. We find that the physics electrodes are critical to the operation of optoelectronic devices. Effective elec- trodes need to combine

Fan, Shanhui

265

Method of making an air electrode material having controlled sinterability  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A tubular, porous ceramic electrode structure is made from the sintered admixture of doped lanthanum manganite and an additive containing cerium where a solid electrolyte, substantially surrounds the air electrode, and a porous outer fuel electrode substantially surrounds the electrolyte, to form a fuel cell. 2 figs.

Vasilow, T.R.; Kuo, L.J.H.; Ruka, R.J.

1994-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

266

Modified Dry Grind Ethanol Process Vijay Singh1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

.................................................................................6 2.2. US Corn Production.......................................................................................6 2.3. US Corn Use for Food and Industrial Uses ...............................................7 3..........................................................................................12 4.2.2. Water and Wastewater Treatment Requirements.......................12 4.2.3. Energy

267

Mathematical modeling of impingement drying of corn tortillas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

drying process should balance the beneficial effects, such as extended shelf life and desirable textural changes, with unfavorable effects, such as nutrient loss and decrease in digestibility (Barbosa-Canovas and Vega-Mercado, 1996). 2. 3 Methods... to 39'C (Barbosa-Canovas and Vega-Mercado, 1996). This method is used in processing citrus juices, apple flakes and other heat-sensitive products (Sokhansanj and Jayas, 19877. ~Fd ~ 1 1 1 lf1 d fh 1d~'i g. Th f p d fl *?p d to reduced pressure below...

Braud, Louise Marie

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

268

Material for electrodes of low temperature plasma generators  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Material for electrodes of low temperature plasma generators. The material contains a porous metal matrix impregnated with a material emitting electrons. The material uses a mixture of copper and iron powders as a porous metal matrix and a Group IIIB metal component such as Y.sub.2O.sub.3 is used as a material emitting electrons at, for example, the proportion of the components, mass %: iron: 3-30; Y.sub.2O.sub.3:0.05-1; copper: the remainder. Copper provides a high level of heat conduction and electric conductance, iron decreases intensity of copper evaporation in the process of plasma creation providing increased strength and lifetime, Y.sub.2O.sub.3 provides decreasing of electronic work function and stability of arc burning. The material can be used for producing the electrodes of low temperature AC plasma generators used for destruction of liquid organic wastes, medical wastes, and municipal wastes as well as for decontamination of low level radioactive waste, the destruction of chemical weapons, warfare toxic agents, etc.

Caplan, Malcolm (Fremont, CA); Vinogradov, Sergel Evge'evich (St. Peterburg, RU); Ribin, Valeri Vasil'evich (St. Peterburg, RU); Shekalov, Valentin Ivanovich (St. Peterburg, RU); Rutberg, Philip Grigor'evich (St. Peterburg, RU); Safronov, Alexi Anatol'evich (St. Peterburg, RU)

2008-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

269

Synthesis and Stability of a Nanoparticle-Infiltrated Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Electrode  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Nanoparticle-Infiltrated Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Electrode Talinfiltrated into SOFC (Solid Oxide Fuel Cell) electrodes can

Sholklapper, Tal Z.; Radmilovic, Velimir; Jacobson, Craig P.; Visco, Steven J.; De Jonghe, Lutgard C.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

270

Moving zone Marangoni drying of wet objects using naturally evaporated solvent vapor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A surface tension gradient driven flow (a Marangoni flow) is used to remove the thin film of water remaining on the surface of an object following rinsing. The process passively introduces by natural evaporation and diffusion of minute amounts of alcohol (or other suitable material) vapor in the immediate vicinity of a continuously refreshed meniscus of deionized water or another aqueous-based, nonsurfactant rinsing agent. Used in conjunction with cleaning, developing or wet etching application, rinsing coupled with Marangoni drying provides a single-step process for 1) cleaning, developing or etching, 2) rinsing, and 3) drying objects such as flat substrates or coatings on flat substrates without necessarily using heat, forced air flow, contact wiping, centrifugation or large amounts of flammable solvents. This process is useful in one-step cleaning and drying of large flat optical substrates, one-step developing/rinsing and drying or etching/rinsing/drying of large flat patterned substrates and flat panel displays during lithographic processing, and room-temperature rinsing/drying of other large parts, sheets or continuous rolls of material.

Britten, Jerald A. (Oakley, CA)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

271

Moving zone Marangoni drying of wet objects using naturally evaporated solvent vapor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A surface tension gradient driven flow (a Marangoni flow) is used to remove the thin film of water remaining on the surface of an object following rinsing. The process passively introduces by natural evaporation and diffusion of minute amounts of alcohol (or other suitable material) vapor in the immediate vicinity of a continuously refreshed meniscus of deionized water or another aqueous-based, nonsurfactant rinsing agent. Used in conjunction with cleaning, developing or wet etching application, rinsing coupled with Marangoni drying provides a single-step process for (1) cleaning, developing or etching, (2) rinsing, and (3) drying objects such as flat substrates or coatings on flat substrates without necessarily using heat, forced air flow, contact wiping, centrifugation or large amounts of flammable solvents. This process is useful in one-step cleaning and drying of large flat optical substrates, one-step developing/rinsing and drying or etching/rinsing/drying of large flat patterned substrates and flat panel displays during lithographic processing, and room-temperature rinsing/drying of other large parts, sheets or continuous rolls of material. 5 figs.

Britten, J.A.

1997-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

272

Method of manufacturing a polymer-consolidated cadmium electrode for an alkaline storage cell, and an electrode obtained by the method  

SciTech Connect

A method is described of manufacturing a polymer-consolidated cadmium electrode for an alkaline storage cell, the method comprising the steps of: mixing the following ingredients in water: a gelling agent; cadmium and cadmium oxide in powder form constituting the active material; and a copolymer of carboxylated styrene-butadiene at a concenration lying in the range 0.5% to 3% by weight of active materials; coating the resulting paste one a metal current collector; drying the coated current collector; and subjecting the resulting assembly to a temperature lying in the range 120/sup 0/C to 150/sup 0/C for a period of a few minutes in order to cause the polymer to cross-link.

Brezillon, J.L.; Dauchier, J.M.

1987-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

273

Electronically conductive polymer binder for lithium-ion battery electrode  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A family of carboxylic acid group containing fluorene/fluorenon copolymers is disclosed as binders of silicon particles in the fabrication of negative electrodes for use with lithium ion batteries. These binders enable the use of silicon as an electrode material as they significantly improve the cycle-ability of silicon by preventing electrode degradation over time. In particular, these polymers, which become conductive on first charge, bind to the silicon particles of the electrode, are flexible so as to better accommodate the expansion and contraction of the electrode during charge/discharge, and being conductive promote the flow battery current.

Liu, Gao; Xun, Shidi; Battaglia, Vincent S; Zheng, Honghe

2014-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

274

Graphene-based battery electrodes having continuous flow paths  

SciTech Connect

Some batteries can exhibit greatly improved performance by utilizing electrodes having randomly arranged graphene nanosheets forming a network of channels defining continuous flow paths through the electrode. The network of channels can provide a diffusion pathway for the liquid electrolyte and/or for reactant gases. Metal-air batteries can benefit from such electrodes. In particular Li-air batteries show extremely high capacities, wherein the network of channels allow oxygen to diffuse through the electrode and mesopores in the electrode can store discharge products.

Zhang, Jiguang; Xiao, Jie; Liu, Jun; Xu, Wu; Li, Xiaolin; Wang, Deyu

2014-05-24T23:59:59.000Z

275

Experimental investigation of a thermionic converter with developed surface electrodes  

SciTech Connect

A thermionic converter with developed planar electrode surfaces is designed and tested. One of the electrodes has concentric circular grooves cut into its surface, while the other electrode surface is smooth. The grooves are 0.5 mm deep and 0.5 mm wide, having lands that are 1.0 mm wide. The experimental setup is flexible so that either the smooth or developed surface electrode can be operated as the emitter, with the other operating as the collector. The I-V characteristics and power output are compared for the two electrode arrangements. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

Luke, J.R.; El-Genk, M.S.; Adrian, J.M. [Institute for Space and Nuclear Power Studies/Chemical and Nuclear Engineering Department University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico87131 (United States)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

Experimental investigation of a thermionic converter with developed surface electrodes  

SciTech Connect

A thermionic converter with developed planar electrode surfaces is designed and tested. One of the electrodes has concentric circular grooves cut into its surface, while the other electrode surface is smooth. The grooves are 0.5 mm deep and 0.5 mm wide, having lands that are 1.0 mm wide. The experimental setup is flexible so that either the smooth or developed surface electrode can be operated as the emitter, with the other operating as the collector. The I-V characteristics and power output are compared for the two electrode arrangements.

Luke, James R.; El-Genk, Mohamed S.; Adrian, John M. [Institute for Space and Nuclear Power Studies/Chemical and Nuclear Engineering Department University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87131 (United States)

1997-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

277

Imaging Lithium Air Electrodes | ornl.gov  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Neutron Imaging Reveals Lithium Distribution in Lithium-Air Electrodes Neutron Imaging Reveals Lithium Distribution in Lithium-Air Electrodes Agatha Bardoel - January 01, 2013 Image produced by neutron-computed tomography. The next step in revolutionizing electric vehicle capacity Research Contacts: Hassina Bilheux, Jagjit Nanda, and S. Pannala Using neutron-computed tomography, researchers at the CG-1D neutron imaging instrument at Oak Ridge National Laboratory's High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) have successfully mapped the three-dimensional spatial distribution of lithium products in electrochemically discharged lithium-air cathodes. Lithium-air chemistry promises very high-energy density that, if successful, would revolutionize the world of electric vehicles by extending their range to 500 miles or more. The high-energy density comes from

278

Reference electrode for strong oxidizing acid solutions  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A reference electrode for the measurement of the oxidation-reduction potentials of solutions is especially suitable for oxidizing solutions such as highly concentrated and fuming nitric acids, the solutions of nitrogen oxides, N.sub.2 O.sub.4 and N.sub.2 O.sub.5, in nitric acids. The reference electrode is fabricated of entirely inert materials, has a half cell of Pt/Ce(IV)/Ce(III)/70 wt. % HNO.sub.3, and includes a double-junction design with an intermediate solution of 70 wt. % HNO.sub.3. The liquid junctions are made from Corning No. 7930 glass for low resistance and negligible solution leakage.

Rigdon, Lester P. (Livermore, CA); Harrar, Jackson E. (Castro Valley, CA); Bullock, Sr., Jack C. (Pleasanton, CA); McGuire, Raymond R. (Brentwood, CA)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

279

HVDC power transmission electrode siting and design  

SciTech Connect

This research strives to shed light on the feasibility and practicality of using deep earth electrodes to permit their use for extended periods without adverse consequences. This report begins with a review of the fundamentals associated with current conduction in earth, including the various techniques available for measuring the earth`s electrical properties. The sources of existing data are discussed and some specific data for selected regions of the U.S. and Canada are reviewed as examples. Electrode technology and design issues are reviewed and recent experience gained by New England Power and Hydro-Quebec is discussed. The issues associated with direct current flowing in underground pipelines (and other facilities) are described and the present-day mitigation measures are evaluated. Suggestions are made for further R&D in the coordination of cathodic protection systems, an area that has evolved as an empirical, trial- and-error art more than a science.

Holt, R.J. [NDT Engineering, Inc., Shrewbury, MA (United States); Dabkowski, J. [Electro-Sciences, Inc., Crystal Lake, IL (United States); Hauth, R.L. [New England Power Service Co., Westborough, MA (United States)

1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

Dry Storage of Research Reactor Spent Nuclear Fuel - 13321  

SciTech Connect

Spent fuel from domestic and foreign research reactors is received and stored at the Savannah River Site's L Area Material Storage (L Basin) Facility. This DOE-owned fuel consists primarily of highly enriched uranium in metal, oxide or silicide form with aluminum cladding. Upon receipt, the fuel is unloaded and transferred to basin storage awaiting final disposition. Disposition alternatives include processing via the site's H Canyon facility for uranium recovery, or packaging and shipment of the spent fuel to a waste repository. A program has been developed to provide a phased approach for dry storage of the L Basin fuel. The initial phase of the dry storage program will demonstrate loading, drying, and storage of fuel in twelve instrumented canisters to assess fuel performance. After closure, the loaded canisters are transferred to pad-mounted concrete overpacks, similar to those used for dry storage of commercial fuel. Unlike commercial spent fuel, however, the DOE fuel has high enrichment, very low to high burnup, and low decay heat. The aluminum cladding presents unique challenges due to the presence of an oxide layer that forms on the cladding surface, and corrosion degradation resulting from prolonged wet storage. The removal of free and bound water is essential to the prevention of fuel corrosion and radiolytic generation of hydrogen. The demonstration will validate models predicting pressure, temperature, gas generation, and corrosion performance, provide an engineering scale demonstration of fuel handling, drying, leak testing, and canister backfill operations, and establish 'road-ready' storage of fuel that is suitable for offsite repository shipment or retrievable for onsite processing. Implementation of the Phase I demonstration can be completed within three years. Phases II and III, leading to the de-inventory of L Basin, would require an additional 750 canisters and 6-12 years to complete. Transfer of the fuel from basin storage to dry storage requires integration with current facility operations, and selection of equipment that will allow safe operation within the constraints of existing facility conditions. Examples of such constraints that are evaluated and addressed by the dry storage program include limited basin depth, varying fuel lengths up to 4 m, (13 ft), fissile loading limits, canister closure design, post-load drying and closure of the canisters, instrument selection and installation, and movement of the canisters to storage casks. The initial pilot phase restricts the fuels to shorter length fuels that can be loaded to the canister directly underwater; subsequent phases will require use of a shielded transfer system. Removal of the canister from the basin, followed by drying, inerting, closure of the canister, and transfer of the canister to the storage cask are completed with remotely operated equipment and appropriate shielding to reduce personnel radiation exposure. (authors)

Adams, T.M.; Dunsmuir, M.D.; Leduc, D.R.; Severynse, T.F.; Sindelar, R.L. [Savannah River National Laboratory (United States)] [Savannah River National Laboratory (United States); Moore, E.N. [Moore Nuclear Energy, LLC (United States)] [Moore Nuclear Energy, LLC (United States)

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dry process electrode" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Local Effects of Biased Electrodes in the Divertor of NSTX  

SciTech Connect

The goal of this paper is to characterize the effects of small non-axisymmetric divertor plate electrodes on the local scrape-off layer plasma. Four small rectangular electrodes were installed into the outer divertor plates of NSTX. When the electrodes were located near the outer divertor strike point and biased positively, there was an increase in the nearby probe currents and probe potentials and an increase in the LiI light emission at the large major radius end of these electrodes. When an electrode located farther outward from the outer divertor strike point was biased positively, there was sometimes a significant decrease in the LiI light emission at the small major radius end of this electrode, but there were no clear effects on the nearby probes. No non-local effects were observed with the biasing of these electrodes.

: S. Zweben, M.D. Campanell, B.C. Lyons, R.J. Maqueda, Y. Raitses, A.L. Roquemore and F. Scotti

2012-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

282

ELECTRODE DEVELOPMENT FOR REVERSIBLE SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS  

SciTech Connect

The reversibility of the electrodes for a solid oxide fuel cell with an yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) electrolyte was examined using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and current interrupt methods. The fuel electrodes were nickel/zirconia cermet and lanthanum-doped strontium titanate/doped ceria composites. The air electrodes were lanthanum strontium ferrite (LSF) and lanthanum strontium copper ferrite (LSCuF). Under the experimental conditions studied all four electrodes were able to operate in both the fuel cell and electrolyzer modes. The titanate/ceria fuel electrode performed substantially better in the electrolyzer mode than state-of-art Ni-YSZ. Moreover, it showed slightly higher activity for water electrolysis as compared to hydrogen oxidation. Air electrodes were less active in the electrolyzer than fuel cell modes. LSF typically provided higher overpotential losses in both modes than copper-substituted LSF. Changes in the defect chemistry of electrode materials under cathodic and anodic polarization are discussed.

Marina, Olga A.; Coffey, Greg W.; Pederson, Larry R.; Rieke, Peter C.; Thomsen, Ed C.; Williams, Mark C.

2004-08-06T23:59:59.000Z

283

Visualization of Charge Distribution in a Lithium Battery Electrode  

SciTech Connect

We describe a method for direct determination and visualization of the distribution of charge in a composite electrode. Using synchrotron X-ray microdiffraction, state-of-charge profiles in-plane and normal to the current collector were measured. In electrodes charged at high rate, the signatures of nonuniform current distribution were evident. The portion of a prismatic cell electrode closest to the current collector tab had the highest state of charge due to electronic resistance in the composite electrode and supporting foil. In a coin cell electrode, the active material at the electrode surface was more fully charged than that close to the current collector because the limiting factor in this case is ion conduction in the electrolyte contained within the porous electrode.

Liu, Jun; Kunz, Martin; Chen, Kai; Tamura, Nobumichi; Richardson, Thomas J.

2010-07-02T23:59:59.000Z

284

Linear particle accelerator with seal structure between electrodes and insulators  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An electrostatic linear accelerator includes an electrode stack comprised of primary electrodes formed or Kovar and supported by annular glass insulators having the same thermal expansion rate as the electrodes. Each glass insulator is provided with a pair of fused-in Kovar ring inserts which are bonded to the electrodes. Each electrode is designed to define a concavo-convex particle trap so that secondary charged particles generated within the accelerated beam area cannot reach the inner surface of an insulator. Each insulator has a generated inner surface profile which is so configured that the electrical field at this surface contains no significant tangential component. A spark gap trigger assembly is provided, which energizes spark gaps protecting the electrodes affected by over voltage to prevent excessive energy dissipation in the electrode stack.

Broadhurst, John H. (Golden Valley, MN)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

Electrocatalysts for oxygen electrodes. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of the research were: to develop further understanding of the factors controlling O{sub 2} reduction and generation on various electrocatalysts, including transition metal macrocycles and oxides: to use this understanding to identify and develop much higher activity catalysts, both monofunction and bifunction; and to establish how catalytic activity for a given O{sub 2} electrocatalyst depends on catalyst-support interactions and to identify stable catalyst supports for bifunctional electrodes.

Yeager, E.B. [Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States)

1991-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

286

High gradient magnetic beneficiation of dry pulverized coal via upwardly directed recirculating fluidization  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention relates to an improved device and method for the high gradient magnetic beneficiation of dry pulverized coal, for the purpose of removing sulfur and ash from the coal whereby the product is a dry environmentally acceptable, low-sulfur fuel. The process involves upwardly directed recirculating air fluidization of selectively sized powdered coal in a separator having sections of increasing diameters in the direction of air flow, with magnetic field and flow rates chosen for optimum separations depending upon particulate size.

Eissenberg, David M. (Oak Ridge, TN); Liu, Yin-An (Opelika, AL)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

287

Integrated Ingredients Dehydrated Agricultural Drying Low Temperature  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Ingredients Dehydrated Agricultural Drying Low Temperature Ingredients Dehydrated Agricultural Drying Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Integrated Ingredients Dehydrated Agricultural Drying Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Integrated Ingredients Dehydrated Sector Geothermal energy Type Agricultural Drying Location Empire, Nevada Coordinates 40.5757352°, -119.34213° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[]}

288

Resuspension and dry deposition research needs  

SciTech Connect

The author concludes that better predictive models are needed for the signifcant health, ecological, and economic impacts of resuspended particles and their subsequent dry deposition. Both chemical and radioactive aerosols are discussed. (PSB)

Sehmel, G.A.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

Advanced wet-dry cooling tower concept  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The purpose of this years' work has been to test and analyze the new dry cooling tower surface previously developed. The model heat transfer test apparatus built last year has been instrumented for temperature, humidity ...

Snyder, Troxell Kimmel

290

Diffusion in biofilms respiring on electrodes  

SciTech Connect

The goal of this study was to measure spatially and temporally resolved effective diffusion coefficients (De) in biofilms respiring on electrodes. Two model electrochemically active biofilms, Geobacter sulfurreducens PCA and Shewanella oneidensis MR-1, were investigated. A novel nuclear magnetic resonance microimaging perfusion probe capable of simultaneous electrochemical and pulsed-field gradient nuclear magnetic resonance (PFG-NMR) techniques was used. PFG-NMR allowed for noninvasive, nondestructive, high spatial resolution in situ De measurements in living biofilms respiring on electrodes. The electrodes were polarized so that they would act as the sole terminal electron acceptor for microbial metabolism. We present our results as both two-dimensional De heat maps and surface-averaged relative effective diffusion coefficient (Drs) depth profiles. We found that (1) Drs decreases with depth in G. sulfurreducens biofilms, following a sigmoid shape; (2) Drs at a given location decreases with G. sulfurreducens biofilm age; (3) average De and Drs profiles in G. sulfurreducens biofilms are lower than those in S. oneidensis biofilms—the G. sulfurreducens biofilms studied here were on average 10 times denser than the S. oneidensis biofilms; and (4) halting the respiration of a G. sulfurreducens biofilm decreases the De values. Density, reflected by De, plays a major role in the extracellular electron transfer strategies of electrochemically active biofilms.

Renslow, Ryan S.; Babauta, Jerome T.; Majors, Paul D.; Beyenal, Haluk

2013-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

291

Amendment 1 - Dry-type power transformers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Specifies requirements for dry-type power transformers (including auto-transformers) having values of highest voltage for equipment up to and including 36 kV. The following small and special dry-type transformers are not covered by this standard: -instrument transformers (covered by IEC 60185 and 60186); -transformers for static convertors (covered by IEC 60084, 60119 and 60146). Where IEC standards do not exist for other special transformers, this standard may be applicable as a whole or in part.

International Electrotechnical Commission. Geneva

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

292

Compression of cooked freeze-dried carrots  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. Reduction in volume of up to 18-fold can be obtained by com- pressing dehydrated vegetables (Rabman, 1969). During World War II, the United Kingdom produced dehydrated cabbage and carrots in compressed blocks (Gooding and Rolfe, 1967). Fairbrother (1968...-propanol at low concentration by freeze-drying carbohydrate solutions. J. of Food Sci. 37:617. Flosdorf, E. W. 1949. "Freeze-drying, " Reinhold Publishing Co. , New York. Gooding, E. B. B. and Rolfe, E. J. 1957. Some Recent Work on Dehy- dration...

Macphearson, Bruce Alan

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

293

Steam atmosphere drying exhaust steam recompression system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention relates to a heated steam atmosphere drying system comprising dryer in combination with an exhaust recompression system which is extremely energy efficient and eliminates dangers known to air dryers. The system uses superheated steam as the drying medium, which recirculates through the system where its heat of evaporation and heat of compression is recovered, thereby providing a constant source of heat to the drying chamber. The dryer has inlets whereby feedstock and superheated steam are fed therein. High heat transfer and drying rates are achieved by intimate contact of the superheated steam with the particles being dried. The dryer comprises a vessel which enables the feedstock and steam to enter and recirculate together. When the feedstock becomes dry it will exit the dryer with the steam and become separated from the steam through the use of a curvilinear louver separator (CLS). The CLS enables removal of fine and ultrafine particles from the dryer. Water vapor separated from the particles in the CLS as superheated steam, may then be recovered and recirculated as steam through the use of a compressor to either directly or indirectly heat the dryer, and a heat exchanger or a heater to directly provide heat to the dryer. This system not only provides a very efficient heat transfer system but results in a minimum carry-over of ultrafine particles thereby eliminating any explosive hazard. 17 figures.

Becker, F.E.; Smolensky, L.A.; Doyle, E.F.; DiBella, F.A.

1994-03-08T23:59:59.000Z

294

Texas State Offshore Dry Natural Gas Expected Future Production...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Dry Natural Gas Expected Future Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Texas State Offshore Dry Natural Gas Expected Future Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2...

295

Louisiana State Offshore Dry Natural Gas Expected Future Production...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Dry Natural Gas Expected Future Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Louisiana State Offshore Dry Natural Gas Expected Future Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2...

296

California State Offshore Dry Natural Gas Expected Future Production...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Dry Natural Gas Expected Future Production (Billion Cubic Feet) California State Offshore Dry Natural Gas Expected Future Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1...

297

High Burnup Dry Storage Cask Research and Development Project...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

High Burnup Dry Storage Cask Research and Development Project: Final Test Plan High Burnup Dry Storage Cask Research and Development Project: Final Test Plan The potential need to...

298

Sensing roller for in-process thickness measurement  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An apparatus and method are disclosed for processing materials by sensing roller, in which the sensing roller has a plurality of conductive rings (electrodes) separated by rings of dielectric material. Sensing capacitances or impedances between the electrodes provides information on thicknesses of the materials being processed, location of wires therein, and other like characteristics of the materials. 6 figs.

Novak, J.L.

1996-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

299

Metal/Diamond Composite Thin-Film Electrodes: New Carbon Supported Catalytic Electrodes  

SciTech Connect

The DOE-funded research conducted by the Swain group was focused on (i) understanding structure-function relationships at boron-doped diamond thin-film electrodes, (ii) understanding metal phase formation on diamond thin films and developing electrochemical approaches for producing highly dispersed electrocatalyst particles (e.g., Pt) of small nominal particle size, (iii) studying the electrochemical activity of the electrocatalytic electrodes for hydrogen oxidation and oxygen reduction and (iv) conducting the initial synthesis of high surface area diamond powders and evaluating their electrical and electrochemical properties when mixed with a Teflon binder. (Note: All potentials are reported versus Ag/AgCl (sat'd KCl) and cm{sup 2} refers to the electrode geometric area, unless otherwise stated).

Greg M. Swain, PI

2009-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

300

Contact impedance of grounded and capacitive electrodes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......areas, over very dry rock, or on space missions landing on asteroids or comets, the ideal conductor equations will break down...application to the near-surface region of asteroids and comets. Met. Planet. Sc. (2008) 43(6):997-1007......

Andreas Hördt; Peter Weidelt; Anita Przyklenk

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dry process electrode" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Diborane Electrode Response in 3D Silicon Sensors for the CMS and ATLAS Experiments  

SciTech Connect

Unusually high leakage currents have been measured in test wafers produced by the manufacturer SINTEF containing 3D pixel silicon sensor chips designed for the ATLAS (A Toroidal LHC ApparatuS) and CMS (Compact Muon Solenoid) experiments. Previous data has shown the CMS chips as having a lower leakage current after processing than ATLAS chips. Some theories behind the cause of the leakage currents include the dicing process and the usage of copper in bump bonding, and with differences in packaging and handling between the ATLAS and CMS chips causing the disparity between the two. Data taken at SLAC from a SINTEF wafer with electrodes doped with diborane and filled with polysilicon, before dicing, and with indium bumps added contradicts this past data, as ATLAS chips showed a lower leakage current than CMS chips. It also argues against copper in bump bonding and the dicing process as main causes of leakage current as neither were involved on this wafer. However, they still display an extremely high leakage current, with the source mostly unknown. The SINTEF wafer shows completely different behavior than the others, as the FEI3s actually performed better than the CMS chips. Therefore this data argues against the differences in packaging and handling or the intrinsic geometry of the two as a cause in the disparity between the leakage currents of the chips. Even though the leakage current in the FEI3s overall is lower, the current is still significant enough to cause problems. As this wafer was not diced, nor had it any copper added for bump bonding, this data argues against the dicing and bump bonding as causes for leakage current. To compliment this information, more data will be taken on the efficiency of the individual electrodes of the ATLAS and CMS chips on this wafer. The electrodes will be shot perpendicularly with a laser to test the efficiency across the width of the electrode. A mask with pinholes has been made to focus the laser to a beam smaller than the width of an electrode in order to properly scan it. This will provide more information on whether something in the electrodes, such as the polysilicon filling, is contributing to the leakage current or if there is another cause to be found. It will also reveal whether the diborane doping method and the new polysilicon filling has increased the electrode efficiency as expected. Thus, the cause of these leakage currents on the wafers from SINTEF has yet to be definitively found.

Brown, Emily R.; /Reed Coll. /SLAC

2011-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

302

Oxygen electrode bifunctional electrocatalyst NiCo/sub 2/O/sub 4/ spinel  

SciTech Connect

A significant increase in energy density may be possible if a two-unit alkaline regenerative H2-O2 fuel cell is replaced with a single-unit system that uses passive means for H2O transfer and thermal control. For this single-unit system, new electrocatalysts for the O2 electrode will be required which are not only bifunctionally active but also chemically and electrochemically stable between the voltage range of about 0.7 and 1.5 V. NiCo2O4 spinel is reported to have certain characteristics that make it useful for a study of electrode fabrication techniques. High surface area NiCo2O4 powder was fabricated into unsupported, bifunctional, PTFE-bonded, porous gas fuel cell electrodes by commercial sources using varying PTFE contents and sintering temperatures. The object of this study is to measure the bifunctional activities of these electrodes and to observe what performance differences might result from different commercial electrode fabricators. O2 evolution and O2 reduction data were obtained at 80 C (31 percent KOH). An irreversible reaction (i.e., aging) occurred during O2 evolution at potentials greater than about 1.5 V. Anodic Tafel slopes of 0.06 and 0.12 V/decade were obtained for the aged electrodes. Within the range of 15 to 25 percent, the PTFE content was not a critical parameter for optimizing the electrode for O2 evolution activity. Sintering temperatures between 300 and 340 C may be adequate but heating at 275 C may not be sufficient to properly sinter the PTFE-NiCo2O4 mixture. Electrode disintegration was observed during O2 reduction. Transport of O2 to the NiCo2O4 surface became prohibitive at greater than about -0.02 A/sq cm. Cathodic Tafel slopes of -0.6 and -0.12 V/decade were assumed for the O2 reduction process. A PTFE content of 25 percent (or greater) appears to be preferable for sintering the PTFE-NiCo2O4 mixture.

Fielder, W.L.; Singer, J.

1988-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

303

Competitive photoelectrochemical processes as studied by in situ photocalorimetry. Competition between the photoanodic oxidation of a solute (Cl sup minus , Br sup minus , H sub 2 O sub 2 , SO sub 3 sup 2 minus ) and that of water at some n-type TiO sub 2 electrodes  

SciTech Connect

An analysis is presented of the dependence on electrode potential of the relative change, L(U), of the photocalorimetric (heat-monitoring) signal measured in situ during competitive photoanodic oxidation of two species (S{sub r,1} and S{sub r,2}) at an n-type semiconductor electrode. Relations are given by which the photocurrent field for oxidation of a solute (S{sub r,2}) competing with that of water (S{sub r,1}) in aqueous solution can be determined from L(U) measured in the presence and in the absence of the solute. Further, it is shown how to obtain, from L(U), the light-into-chemical energy conversion efficiency and the Peltier heat for photoanodic oxidation of the solute. Photocalorimetric measurements employing photoacoustic or pyroelectric detection are reported for oxidation of Cl{sup {minus}}, Br{sup {minus}}, H{sub 2}O{sub 2} (HO{sub 2}{sup {minus}}), and SO{sub 3}{sup 2{minus}} at some illuminated TiO{sub 2} thin-film electrodes in aqueous solution. Values of the photocurrent yield, the internal quantum efficiency of the photocurrent, the energy conversion efficiency, and the Peltier heat for photoanodic oxidation of the solutes are given and discussed.

Rappich, J.; Dohrmann, J.K. (Freie Universitaet Berlin (West Germany))

1990-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

304

Running dry at the power plant  

SciTech Connect

In the future, competition for water will require electricity generators in the United States to address conservation of fresh water. There are a number of avenues to consider. One is to use dry-cooling and dry-scrubbing technologies. Another is to find innovative ways to recycle water within the power plant itself. A third is to find and use alternative sources of water, including wastewater supplies from municipalities, agricultural runoff, blackish groundwater, or seawater. Dry technologies are usually more capital intensive and typically exact a penalty in terms of plant performance, which in turn raises the cost of power generation. On the other hand, if the cost of water increases in response to greater demand, the cost differences between dry and wet technologies will be reduced. EPRI has a substantial R & D programme evaluating new water-conserving power plant technologies, improving dry and hybrid cooling technologies, reducing water losses in cooling towers, using degraded water sources and developing resource assessment and management decision support tools. 5 refs., 10 figs.

Barker, B.

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

305

Process for electrochemically gasifying coal using electromagnetism  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for electrochemically gasifying coal by establishing a flowing stream of coal particulate slurry, electrolyte and electrode members through a transverse magnetic field that has sufficient strength to polarize the electrode members, thereby causing them to operate in combination with the electrolyte to electrochemically reduce the coal particulate in the slurry. Such electrochemical reduction of the coal produces hydrogen and carbon dioxide at opposite ends of the polarized electrode members. Gas collection means are operated in conjunction with the process to collect the evolved gases as they rise from the slurry and electrolyte solution.

Botts, Thomas E. (Markham, VA); Powell, James R. (Shoreham, NY)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

306

Nanodisperse transition metal electrodes (NTME) for electrochemical cells  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Disclosed are transition metal electrodes for electrochemical cells using gel-state and solid-state polymers. The electrodes are suitable for use in primary and secondary cells. The electrodes (either negative electrode or positive electrode) are characterized by uniform dispersion of the transition metal at the nanoscale in the polymer. The transition metal moiety is structurally amorphous, so no capacity fade should occur due to lattice expansion/contraction mechanisms. The small grain size, amorphous structure and homogeneous distribution provide improved charge/discharge cycling performance, and a higher initial discharge rate capability. The cells can be cycled at high current densities, limited only by the electrolyte conductivity. A method of making the electrodes (positive and negative), and their usage in electrochemical cells are disclosed.

Striebel, Kathryn A. (Oakland, CA); Wen, Shi-Jie (Sunnyvale, CA)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

Ternary compound electrode for lithium cells  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Lithium-based cells are promising for applications such as electric vehicles and load-leveling for power plants since lithium is very electropositive and of light weight. One type of lithium-based cell utilizes a molten salt electrolyte and normally is operated in the temperature range of about 350 to 500/sup 0/C. Such high temperature operation accelerates corrosion problems. The present invention provides an electrochemical cell in which lithium is the electroactive species. The cell has a positive electrode which includes a ternary compound generally represented as Li-M-O, wherein M is a transition metal. Corrosion of the inventive cell is considerably reduced.

Raistrick, I.D.; Godshall, N.A.; Huggins, R.A.

1980-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

308

Self-weakening in lithiated graphene electrodes.  

SciTech Connect

We present a molecular dynamics study of the fracture mechanisms of lithiated graphene. Our modeli ng results reveal that lithium diffusion toward the crack tip is both energetically and kinetically favored owing to the crack-tip stress gradient. The stress-driven lithium diffusion results in lithium aggregation around the crack tip, chemically weakening the crack-tip bond and at the same time causing stress relax ation. Our simulations show that the chemical weakening effect is the dominant factor, which manifests a self-weakening mechanism in lithiated graphene. The atomistic understanding of the degradation mech anism provides guidance for the lifetime extension in the design of graphene-based electrodes.

Yang, Hui [Pennsylvania State University; Huang, Xu [Pennsylvania State University; Liang, Wentao [Pennsylvania State University; Van Duin, Adri C. T. [Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA; Raju, Muralikrishna [ORNL; Zhang, Sulin [Pennsylvania State University

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

309

Breakout Group 2: Membrane Electrode Assemblies  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

January 23-24, 2008 January 23-24, 2008 Breakout Group 2: Membrane Electrode Assemblies PARTICIPANTS Name Organization Jim Goldbach Arkema, Inc. Kev Adjemian Nissan Motor Co. Eric Funkenbusch 3M John Kerr Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Jonathan Sharman Johnson Matthey Fuel Cells Jean St-Pierre University of South Carolina Huyen Dinh National Renewable Energy Laboratory Bryan Pivovar Los Alamos National Laboratory Jim Martin Lockheed Martin Sami Mardini Superprotonic Reg Tyler U.S. Department of Energy/Golden Field Office Craig Gittleman General Motors Don Gervasio Arizona State University Eric Shrader Palo Alto Research Center Robert Miller MTI Micro Kathi Epping (Facilitator) U.S. Department of Energy

310

Method Of Characterizing An Electrode Binder  

SciTech Connect

In a method of characterizing a polymer binder for cell electrodes in contact with an electrolyte and including a current collector and a paste containing an electrochemically active material and said binder, a spreading coefficient of the binder on the active material is calculated from the measured angle of contact between standard liquids and the active material and the binder, respectively. An interaction energy of the binder with the electrolyte is calculated from the measured angle of contact between the electrolyte and the binder. The binder is selected such that the spreading coefficient is less than zero and the interaction energy is at least 60 mJ/m.sup.2.

Cocciantelli, Jean-Michel (Bordeaux, FR); Coco, Isabelle (Talence, FR); Villenave, Jean-Jacques (Talence, FR)

1999-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

311

Electrode With Porous Three-Dimensional Support  

SciTech Connect

Electrode including a paste containing particles of electrochemically active material and a conductive support consisting of a three-dimensional porous material comprising strands delimiting contiguous pores communicating via passages, characterized in that the average width L in .mu.m of said passages is related to the average diameter .O slashed. in .mu.m of said particles by the following equation, in which W and Y are dimensionless coefficients: wherein W=0.16 Y=1.69 X=202.4 .mu.m and Z=80 .mu.m

Bernard, Patrick (Massy, FR); Dauchier, Jean-Michel (Martignas, FR); Simonneau, Olivier (Dourdan, FR)

1999-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

312

Managing Aging Effects on Dry Cask Storage Systems for Extended Long Term  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Managing Aging Effects on Dry Cask Storage Systems for Extended Managing Aging Effects on Dry Cask Storage Systems for Extended Long Term Storage and Transportation of Used Fuel Rev0 Managing Aging Effects on Dry Cask Storage Systems for Extended Long Term Storage and Transportation of Used Fuel Rev0 The report is intended to help assess and establish the technical basis for extended long-term storage and transportation of used nuclear fuel. It provides: 1) an overview of the ISFSI license renewal process based on 10 CFR 72 and the guidance provided in NUREG-1927; 2) definitions and terms for structures and components in DCSSs, materials, environments, aging effects, and aging mechanisms; 3) TLAAs and AMPs, respectively, that have been developed for managing aging effects on the SSCs important to safety in the dry cask storage system designs; and 4) AMPs and TLAAs for the SSCs

313

2-M Probe At Winnemucca Dry Lake Area (Kratt, Et Al., 2010) | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Winnemucca Dry Lake Area (Kratt, Et Al., 2010) Winnemucca Dry Lake Area (Kratt, Et Al., 2010) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: 2-M Probe At Winnemucca Dry Lake Area (Kratt, Et Al., 2010) Exploration Activity Details Location Winnemucca Dry Lake Area Exploration Technique 2-M Probe Activity Date Usefulness useful DOE-funding Unknown Notes More than 20 2-meter-deep temperatures were measured adjacent to these selected towers in a two-day period of November 2007. No obvious zones of temperature anomalies were detected. We were unable to clearly ascertain the background temperature but the spatial distribution of the data did not point to a broader zone of thermal highs. At both of these tufa localities, the process of inserting 2-meterlong probes into the ground was

314

Increasing ion sorption and desorption rates of conductive electrodes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An electrolyte system includes a reactor having a pair of electrodes that may sorb ions from an electrolyte. The electrolyte system also includes at least one power supply in electrical communication with the reactor. The at least one power supply may supply a DC signal and an AC signal to the pair of electrodes during sorption of the ions. In addition, the power supply may supply only the AC signal to the pair of electrodes during desorption of the ions.

DePaoli, David William; Kiggans, Jr., James O; Tsouris, Costas; Bourcier, William; Campbell, Robert; Mayes, Richard T

2014-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

315

Study of ring and ring-disk electrodes  

SciTech Connect

Rotating ring and ring-disk electrodes were modeled. The primary, secondary, and below-the-limiting current distributions for ring electrodes were computed. The ring-disk system was modeled for secondary and below-the-limiting current distributions. Mass transfer measurements in laminar, transition, and turbulent flows were made for thin rotating rings. The effect of cell walls on the potential distribution of disk electrodes was computed.

Pierini, P.E.

1981-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

316

Fuel cell having dual electrode anode or cathode  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A fuel cell that is characterized by including a dual electrode anode that is operable to simultaneously electro-oxidize a gaseous fuel and a liquid fuel. In alternative embodiments, a fuel cell having a single electrode anode is provided with a dual electrode cathode that is operable to simultaneously reduce a gaseous oxidant and a liquid oxidant to electro-oxidize a fuel supplied to the cell.

Findl, E.

1984-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

317

Fuel cell having dual electrode anode or cathode  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A fuel cell that is characterized by including a dual electrode anode that is operable to simultaneously electro-oxidize a gaseous fuel and a liquid fuel. In alternative embodiments, a fuel cell having a single electrode anode is provided with a dual electrode cathode that is operable to simultaneously reduce a gaseous oxidant and a liquid oxidant to electro-oxidize a fuel supplied to the cell.

Findl, Eugene (Coram, NY)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

The Development of Nano-Composite Electrodes for Solid Oxide Electrolyzers  

SciTech Connect

Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) and electrolyzers (SOE) offer an attractive means for converting between electrical and chemical energy. Because they operate at high temperatures and are usually based on electrolytes that are oxygen-ion conducting ceramics, such as yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ), they are equally capable of converting between CO and CO2 as between H2 and H2O. When operated in the SOFC mode, they are able to operate on hydrocarbon fuels so long as there are no materials within the anode that can catalyze carbon formation. Compared to other types of electrolyzers, SOE can exhibit the highest efficiencies because the theoretical Nernst potential is lower at high temperatures and because the electrode overpotentials in SOE tend to be much lower. Finally, pure H2 can be produced without an external electrical source by electrolysis of steam at one electrode and oxidation of any fuel at the other electrode through a process known as Natural-Gas Assisted Steam Electrolysis. This final report describes results from studies of novel electrodes for SOE and SOFC prepared by infiltration methods.

Gorte, Raymond J.; Vohs, John M.

2014-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

319

Oxygen reduction on a graphite paste and a catalyst loaded graphite paste electrode  

SciTech Connect

Oxygen reduction was studied in basic solution at a graphite paste electrode (GPE). The GPE was used as the disk of a rotating ring disk electrode (RRDE) and experiments were done using the voltage scan technique. The enhancements afforded by catalysts applied to the GPE were also studied. Oxygen reduction on a GPE was shown to be a two-electron process resulting in the formation of peroxide. The Tafel slope (plotted as potential versus log(i/sub l/ x i/(i/sub l/ - i))) was 180 mV. The presence of gold, silver, or platinum on the GPE shifted the oxygen reduction wave approximately 800 mV in the anodic direction. Comparison of the data on a metal catalyzed GPE to the solid metal electrode showed that the former electrode produced a greater fraction of peroxide as product than did the latter. Silver and gold catalyzed GPEs gave Tagel slopes of about 120 mV. The intermediate catalysis of iron and cobalt porphyrin was also examined. While the cobalt porphyrin catalyzed oxygen reduction at a more anodic potential than the iron porphyrin, the latter appeared more active in reacting the peroxide formed as the product of the disk reaction.

DiMarco, D.M.

1980-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

320

Dry ports: a lacuna in Sri Lanka  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper examines the needs for dry ports in Sri Lanka, where none exists now, using the inputs from the stake holders in the logistics industry to fulfil a vacuum of some scholarly literature on the topic which is not sufficiently discussed. A hybrid approach comprising both quantitative and qualitative methods was used to analyse the topic using the data collected through surveys and literary sources. Resultant conclusion is that the dry ports are needed in Sri Lanka as a solution to capacity issues of the sea port and the roads and the railways could play prominent role in this context. Findings of the research show that dry ports could offer a relief to heavily congested roads of Colombo city and the port infrastructure.

Jayantha Rathnayake; Lu Jing; A.W. Wijeratne

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dry process electrode" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
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321

Non-supercritically dried silica–silica composite aerogel and its possible application for confining simulated nuclear wastes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The simpler non-supercritical drying approach has been used for the first time for the preparation of silica–silica composite aerogels (CA) and the efficiency of the process being demonstrated by testing the u...

P. R. Aravind; P. Shajesh; P. Mukundan…

2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

322

Extended, Continuous Pt Nanostructures in Thick, Dispersed Electrodes  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Bryan Pivovar (PI) Bryan Pivovar (PI) National Renewable Energy Laboratory Sept 30, 2009 Extended, Continuous Pt Nanostructures in Thick, Dispersed Electrodes This presentation does not contain any proprietary, confidential, or otherwise restricted information Objectives To assist the DOE Fuel Cell Technologies (FCT) Program in meeting cost, durability, and performance targets in the areas of Electrocatalysts and MEAs. Approach: Novel Synthesis and Electrode Studies Pt nanotubes (UC-R) Pt coated carbon nanotubes Synthesis of novel catalysts based on extended surfaces due to 3M's demonstrated improvements in specific activity and durability using similar systems. Electrode architecture design, based on novel catalyst structures that allow thick (~10 µm), dispersed electrodes to

323

Progress on nanopatterned front electrodes for organic solar cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We present our recent progress in the development of nanophotonic front electrodes for improved light management in organic solar cell. Experimental results and 3D electromagnetic...

Paetzold, Ulrich W; Smeets, Michael; Hadipour, Afshin; Cheyns, David

324

Extrusion of electrode material by liquid injection into extruder barrel  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An electrode sheet product is formed using an extruder having a feed throat and a downstream section by separately mixing an active electrode material and a solid polymer electrolyte composition that contains lithium salt. The active electrode material is fed into the feed throat of the extruder, while a portion of at least one fluid component of the solid polymer electrolyte composition is introduced to the downstream section. The active electrode material and the solid polymer electrolyte composition are compounded in a downstream end of the extruder. The extruded sheets, adhered to current collectors, can be formed into battery cells. 1 fig.

Keller, D.G.; Giovannoni, R.T.; MacFadden, K.O.

1998-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

325

Biomass-derived Hydrogen-evolution catalyst and electrode - Energy...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Find More Like This Return to Search Biomass-derived Hydrogen-evolution catalyst and electrode Brookhaven National Laboratory Contact...

326

Electrostatic coalescence system with independent AC and DC hydrophilic electrodes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved electrostatic coalescence system is provided in which independent AC and DC hydrophilic electrodes are employed to provide more complete dehydration of an oil emulsion. The AC field is produced between an AC electrode array and the water-oil interface wherein the AC electrode array is positioned parallel to the interface which acts as a grounded electrode. The emulsion is introduced into the AC field in an evenly distributed manner at the interface. The AC field promotes drop-drop and drop-interface coalescence of the water phase in the entering emulsion. The continuous oil phase passes upward through the perforated AC electrode array and enters a strong DC field produced between closely spaced DC electrodes in which small dispersed droplets of water entrained in the continuous phase are removed primarily by collection at hydrophilic DC electrodes. Large droplets of water collected by the electrodes migrate downward through the AC electrode array to the interface. All phase separation mechanisms are utilized to accomplish more complete phase separation.

Hovarongkura, A. David (Arlington, VA); Henry, Jr., Joseph D. (Morgantown, WV)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

327

Pt Nanophase supported catalysts and electrode systems for water electrolysis .  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??In this study novel composite electrodes were developed, in which the catalytic components were deposited in nanoparticulate form. The efficiency of the nanophase catalysts and… (more)

Petrik, Leslie Felicia

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

328

Mesoporous electrodes for hydrogen production | Center for Bio...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Center News Research Highlights Center Research News Media about Center Center Video Library Bisfuel Picture Gallery Mesoporous electrodes for hydrogen production 24 Oct 2012...

329

Nanomaterials for bio-functionalized electrodes: recent trends  

SciTech Connect

This review intends to highlight the interest of nanomaterials for building biologically-modified electrodes. Rather than giving a comprehensive overview of the topic, the present work intends to give a flavour on the most exciting achievements and most recent approaches to get (and use) nanostructured electrode surfaces (or electrodes modified with nano-objects) comprising biomolecules. It will mainly consider nano-engineered functional polymers, nano-sized objects such as nanoparticles, carbon nanotubes, graphene or related materials, as well as template-based nanostructures, as modifiers for bio-functionalised electrodes.

Walcarius, Alain; Minteer, Shelley D.; Wang, Joseph; Lin, Yuehe; Merkoci, Arben

2013-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

330

Molecular Simulations of Electrolytes and Electrolyte/Electrode...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Simulations of Electrolytes and ElectrolyteElectrode Interfaces Grant D. Smith and Oleg Borodin Department of Materials Science & Engineering University of Utah 02182008 "This...

331

Dry-Mass Sensing for Microfluidics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Dry-Mass Sensing for Microfluidics T. Mu¨ller,1 D. A. White,1 and T. P. J. Knowles1, a) Department of Chemistry, University of Cambridge, Lensfield Road, Cambridge CB2 1EW, United Kingdom (Dated: 25 November 2014) We present an approach... for interfacing an electromechanical sensor with a microfluidic device for the accurate quantification of the dry mass of analytes within microchannels. We show that depositing solutes onto the active surface of a quartz crystal microbalance by means of an on...

Müller, T.; White, D. A.; Knowles, T. P. J.

2014-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

332

Quartz resonator processing system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Disclosed is a single chamber ultra-high vacuum processing system for the oduction of hermetically sealed quartz resonators wherein electrode metallization and sealing are carried out along with cleaning and bake-out without any air exposure between the processing steps. The system includes a common vacuum chamber in which is located a rotatable wheel-like member which is adapted to move a plurality of individual component sets of a flat pack resonator unit past discretely located processing stations in said chamber whereupon electrode deposition takes place followed by the placement of ceramic covers over a frame containing a resonator element and then to a sealing stage where a pair of hydraulic rams including heating elements effect a metallized bonding of the covers to the frame.

Peters, Roswell D. M. (Rustburg, VA)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

333

Study of Influence of Electrode Geometry on Impedance Spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect

Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) is a powerful and proven tool for analyzing AC impedance response. A conventional three electrode EIS method was used to perform the investigation in the present study. Saturated potassium chloride solution was used as the electrolyte and three different material rods were used as working electrodes. Different configurations of electrode area were exposed to the electrolyte as an active area to investigate electrode geometry effects. Counter to working electrode distance was also altered while keeping the working electrode effective area constant to explore the AC response dependence on the variation of ion travel distance. Some controlled experiments were done to validate the experimental setup and to provide a control condition for comparison with experimental results. A frequency range of 100 mHz to 1 MHz was used for all experiments. In our analysis, we have found a noteworthy influence of electrode geometry on AC impedance response. For all electrodes, impedance decreases with the increase of effective area of the electrolyte. High frequency impedance is not as dependent on geometry as low frequency response. The observed phase shift angle drops in the high frequency region with increased working electrode area, whereas at low frequency the reverse is true. Resistance and capacitive reactance both decrease with an increase of area, but resistance response is more pronounce than reactance. For lower frequencies, small changes in working area produce very distinctive EIS variations. Electrode material as well as geometry was systematically varied in the present study. From these and other studies, we hope to develop a fundamental foundation for understanding specific changes in local geometry in fuel cell (and other) electrodes as a method of designing local morphology for specific performance.

Ahmed, Riaz; Reifsnider, Kenneth L

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

334

Hog Fuel Drying Using Vapour Recompression  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A continuous hog fuel drying pilot plant based on the principle of mixing hog fuel with a hot oil (e.g., crude tall oil) as the heat transfer medium, and recirculating the suspension through a steam heated exchanger was designed, built...

Azarniouch, M. K.; MacEachen, I.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

Hot-dry-rock geothermal resource 1980  

SciTech Connect

The work performed on hot dry rock (HDR) geothermal resource evaluation, site characterization, and geophysical exploration techniques is summarized. The work was done by region (Far West, Pacific Northwest, Southwest, Rocky Mountain States, Midcontinent, and Eastern) and limited to the conterminous US.

Heiken, G.; Goff, F.; Cremer, G. (ed.)

1982-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

336

NOVEL ELECTRODE MATERIALS FOR LOW-TEMPERATURE SOLID-OXIDE FUEL CELLS  

SciTech Connect

Composite electrodes consisting of silver and bismuth vanadates exhibit remarkable catalytic activity for oxygen reduction at 500-550 C and greatly reduce the cathode-electrolyte (doped ceria) resistances of low temperature SOFCs, down to about 0.53 {Omega}cm{sup 2} at 500 C and 0.21 {Omega}cm{sup 2} at 550 C. The observed power densities of 231, 332, and 443 mWcm{sup -2} at 500, 525 and 550 C, respectively, make it possible to operate SOFCs at temperatures about 500 C. Using in situ potential dependent FTIR emission spectroscopy, we have found evidence for two, possibly three distinct di-oxygen species present on the electrode surface. We have successfully identified which surface oxygen species is present under a particular electrical or chemical condition and have been able to deduce the reaction mechanisms. This technique will be used to probe the gas-solid interactions at or near the TPB and on the surfaces of mixed-conducting electrodes in an effort to understand the molecular processes relevant to the intrinsic catalytic activity. Broad spectral features are assigned to the polarization-induced changes in the optical properties of the electrode surface layer. The ability of producing vastly different microstructures and morphologies of the very same material is critical to the fabrication of functionally graded electrodes for solid-state electrochemical devices, such as SOFCs and lithium batteries. By carefully adjusting deposition parameters of combustion CVD, we have successfully produced oxide nano-powders with the size of 30 {approx} 200 nm. Porous films with various microstructures and morphologies are also deposited on several substrates by systematic adjustment of deposition parameters. Symmetrical cells were fabricated by depositing cathode materials on both sides of GDC electrolytes.

X. Lu; C. Xia; Y. Liu; W. Rauch; M. Liu

2002-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

337

Carbon Dioxide Capture from Flue Gas Using Dry Regenerable Sorbents  

SciTech Connect

Regenerable sorbents based on sodium carbonate (Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}) can be used to separate carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) from coal-fired power plant flue gas. Upon thermal regeneration and condensation of water vapor, CO{sub 2} is released in a concentrated form that is suitable for reuse or sequestration. During the research project described in this report, the technical feasibility and economic viability of a thermal-swing CO{sub 2} separation process based on dry, regenerable, carbonate sorbents was confirmed. This process was designated as RTI's Dry Carbonate Process. RTI tested the Dry Carbonate Process through various research phases including thermogravimetric analysis (TGA); bench-scale fixed-bed, bench-scale fluidized-bed, bench-scale co-current downflow reactor testing; pilot-scale entrained-bed testing; and bench-scale demonstration testing with actual coal-fired flue gas. All phases of testing showed the feasibility of the process to capture greater than 90% of the CO{sub 2} present in coal-fired flue gas. Attrition-resistant sorbents were developed, and these sorbents were found to retain their CO{sub 2} removal activity through multiple cycles of adsorption and regeneration. The sodium carbonate-based sorbents developed by RTI react with CO{sub 2} and water vapor at temperatures below 80 C to form sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) and/or Wegscheider's salt. This reaction is reversed at temperatures greater than 120 C to release an equimolar mixture of CO{sub 2} and water vapor. After condensation of the water, a pure CO{sub 2} stream can be obtained. TGA testing showed that the Na{sub 2}CO3 sorbents react irreversibly with sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and hydrogen chloride (HCl) (at the operating conditions for this process). Trace levels of these contaminants are expected to be present in desulfurized flue gas. The sorbents did not collect detectable quantities of mercury (Hg). A process was designed for the Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-based sorbent that includes a co-current downflow reactor system for adsorption of CO{sub 2} and a steam-heated, hollow-screw conveyor system for regeneration of the sorbent and release of a concentrated CO{sub 2} gas stream. An economic analysis of this process (based on the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory's [DOE/NETL's] 'Carbon Capture and Sequestration Systems Analysis Guidelines') was carried out. RTI's economic analyses indicate that installation of the Dry Carbonate Process in a 500 MW{sub e} (nominal) power plant could achieve 90% CO{sub 2} removal with an incremental capital cost of about $69 million and an increase in the cost of electricity (COE) of about 1.95 cents per kWh. This represents an increase of roughly 35.4% in the estimated COE - which compares very favorable versus MEA's COE increase of 58%. Both the incremental capital cost and the incremental COE were projected to be less than the comparable costs for an equally efficient CO{sub 2} removal system based on monoethanolamine (MEA).

Thomas Nelson; David Green; Paul Box; Raghubir Gupta; Gennar Henningsen

2007-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

338

Improved electrodes for BWR in-plant ECP monitoring  

SciTech Connect

In January 1978, NWT Corporation was contracted to obtain electrochemical potential (ECP) measurements of 304 stainless steel during exposure to reactor water at the Vermont Yankee boiling water reactor (BWR). Since existing electrode technology was inadequate for long term BWR ECP monitoring, NWT developed designs of measuring and reference electrodes to facilitate such measurements. The reference electrode is basically a silver/silver chloride electrode enclosed in a solid Teflon chamber filled with saturated silver chloride aqueous solution, and connected to the solution of interest through a liquid junction. The electrodes were qualified in a laboratory test facility to 288/sup 0/C (550/sup 0/F). Subsequent evaluation at Vermont Yankee demonstrated that the reference electrode was stable, resistant to thermal cycling, reproducible, interchangeable, and durable. One reference electrode performed satisfactorily for over 21 months (19 months at 270/sup 0/C) in the Vermont Yankee reactor water cleanup system. Routine long-term ECP monitoring in BWR reactor water systems is now achievable with the new electrodes.

Leibovitz, J.; Kassen, W.R.; Pearl, W.L.; Sawochka, S.G.

1982-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

339

Electron exchange between two electrodes mediated by two electroactive adsorbates  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Electron exchange between two electrodes mediated by two electroactive adsorbates W. Schmickler for the case in which the coupling between the two adsorbates is weak and determines the overall rate, in practice between one working and one reference electrode. Functionalized adsorbates attached

Prentiss, Mara

340

RAPID FREE FLOW ISOELECTRIC FOCUSING VIA NOVEL ELECTRODE STRUCTURES  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

RAPID FREE FLOW ISOELECTRIC FOCUSING VIA NOVEL ELECTRODE STRUCTURES Jacob Albrecht, Suzanne Gaudet for micro free flow electrophoresis devices. Packed polymer beads or agar were used to isolate the sample from the electrochemical reactions at the metal electrode surface. These materials allow for applied

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dry process electrode" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Photoelectrochemical energy conversion and storage using polycrystalline chalcogenide electrodes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... areas, such as activated carbon, should be used. Part of or all the converted energy is stored in a controlled way in the system by the introduction of an electrode ... eV) as the photoactive electrode2?4, thus severely limiting their practical use for solar energy ...

GARY HODES; JOOST MANASSEN; DAVID CAHEN

1976-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

342

Dry Kraft Pulping at Ambient Pressure for Cost Effective Energy Saving and Pollution Deduction  

SciTech Connect

Sponsored by the DOE Industrial Energy Efficiency Grand Challenge program, our research team at the Georgia Institute of Technology conducted laboratory studies and confirmed the concept of making wood pulp using a dry pulping technology. This technology is a new process different from any prior pulping technology used in Kraft and CTMP pulping. Three different kinds of dry pulping methods were investigated. (a) Dry Pulping at Atmospheric Pressure: The first one is to dry and bake the pretreated woodchips in a conventional oven at atmospheric pressure without the use of a catalyst. (b) Dry Pulping at Reduced Pressure: The second method is to dry the pretreated woodchips first in a vacuum oven in the presence of anthraquinone (AQ) as a pulping catalyst, followed by baking at elevated temperature. (c) Liquid Free Chemical Pulping, LFCP. The third method is to first remove the free water of pretreated woodchips, followed by dry pulping using a conventional Kraft pulping digester with AQ and triton as additives. Method one: Experimental results indicated that Dry Pulping at Atmospheric Pressure could produce pulp with higher brightness and lower bulk than conventional Kraft pulp. However, tensile strength of the acquired pulp is much lower than traditional Kraft pulp, and their Kappa number and energy consumption are higher than conventional Kraft pulp. By fully analyzing the results, we concluded that wood fibers might be damaged during the drying process at elevated temperature. The main reason for wood fiber damage is that a long drying time was used during evaporation of water from the woodchips. This resulted in an un-uniform reaction condition on the woodchips: the outside layer of the woodchips was over reacted while inside the woodchips did not reacted at all. To solve this problem, dry pulping at reduced pressure was investigated. Method two: To achieve uniform reaction throughout the entire reaction system, the water inside the pretreated woodchips was evaporated first under vacuum condition at low temperature. Then, the dry woodchips were baked at high temperature (120-130 C) at atmospheric pressure. The qualities of the pulp made with this method were improved compared to that made with method one. The pulp shows higher brightness and lower bulk than Kraft pulping. The tensile strength is significantly higher than the pulp made from the first method. Although the pulp is stronger than that of TMP pulp, it is still lower than conventional Kraft fiber. Method Three: The third dry method was done in a Kraft pulping digester at elevated pressure but without free liquid in the digester. With this method, pulp that has almost the same qualities as conventional Kraft pulp could be produced. The screen yield, Kappa number, fiber brightness, pulp strength and pulp bulk are almost identical to the conventional Kraft pulp. The key advantages of this dry pulping method include ca. 55 % of cooking energy saved during the pulping process, as high as 50 wt% of NaOH saving as well as 3 wt% of Na2S saving comparing to Kraft one. By analyzing fiber properties, yields, chemical and energy consumptions, we concluded that the dry pulping method based on Liquid Free Chemical Pulping, LFCP, could be very attractive for the pulp and paper industry. More fundamental studies and scale up trials are needed to fully commercialize the technology. We expect to conduct pilot trials between 12 to 24 months of period if the DOE or industry can provide continual research funding. Based on the technology we demonstrated in this report, several pilot trial facilities in the United States will be available after small modifications. For example, the Herty Foundation in Savannah, Georgia is one of these potential locations. DOE funding for continuous study and final lead to commercialization of the technique is important.

Yulin Deng; Art Ragauskas

2012-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

343

Dried chitosan-gels as organocatalysts for the production of biomass-derived platform chemicals  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Aldol condensations between sugar-derived dehydrated aldehydes (e.g. furfural) and acetone have been proposed as a route to provide useful biomass-derived chemicals. In the quest of sustainable catalytic ways for such aldol condensations, this paper assesses the use of dried chitosan-gels as naturally-immobilized, readily available and non-hazardous amino-based organocatalysts. At room temperature chitosan dried gels are not suitable catalysts for the desired reaction. However, at higher temperatures (>90 °C) reaction proceeds efficiently either in solvent-free systems (with addition of catalytic amounts of water) or in water. The set-up of closed reactor set-ups (thermoshakers or microwave reactions) proved highly beneficial for the reaction outcome. Furthermore, chitosan dried gels were successfully re-used for a number of cycles. An efficient catalyst drying method (either lyophilization or scCO2 drying) was crucial to achieve virtually full conversions in 4 h. After pertinent further process optimization, dried chitosan-gels may become very useful catalysts for their use in biomass-based reactions in biorefineries.

Henning Kayser; Christoph R. Müller; Carlos A. García-González; Irina Smirnova; Walter Leitner; Pablo Domínguez de María

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

Coplanar interdigitated grid detector with single electrode readout  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The coplanar interdigitated grid technique with single electrode readout provides substantial spectral performance improvement over that of conventional full-area planar electrode detectors and over coplanar interdigitated grid detectors which measure the difference between the induced charge signals from two interdigitated coplanar grid electrodes. The signal from only one interdigitated grid electrode is read out. The signal response is optimized by changing the relative areas of the two grid electrodes and the bias applied across the detector. Only one preamplifier is needed and signal subtraction is not necessary. This eliminates the electronic noise contribution from the additional preamplifier used in the normal coplanar grid implementation, and conventional single-amplifier detector electronics can be used.

Luke, Paul N. (Castro Valley, CA)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

Multi-layer electrode for high contrast electrochromic devices  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An electrochromic device includes a first substrate spaced from a second substrate. A first transparent conductive electrode is formed over at least a portion of the first substrate. A polymeric anode is formed over at least a portion of the first conductive electrode. A second transparent conductive electrode is formed over at least a portion of the second substrate. In one aspect of the invention, a multi-layer polymeric cathode is formed over at least a portion of the second conductive electrode. In one non-limiting embodiment, the multi-layer cathode includes a first cathodically coloring polymer formed over at least a portion of the second conductive electrode and a second cathodically coloring polymer formed over at least a portion of the first cathodically coloring polymer. An ionic liquid is positioned between the anode and the cathode.

Schwendeman, Irina G. (Wexford, PA); Finley, James J. (Pittsburgh, PA); Polcyn, Adam D. (Pittsburgh, PA); Boykin, Cheri M. (Wexford, PA)

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

346

Focused shock spark discharge drill using multiple electrodes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A spark discharge focused drill provided with one pulse forming line or a number of pulse forming lines. The pulse forming line is connected to an array of electrodes which would form a spark array. One of the electrodes of each of the array is connected to the high voltage side of the pulse forming line and the other electrodes are at ground potential. When discharged in a liquid, these electrodes produce intense focused shock waves that can pulverize or fracture rock. By delaying the firing of each group of electrodes, the drill can be steered within the earth. Power can be fed to the pulse forming line either downhole or from the surface area. A high voltage source, such as a Marx generator, is suitable for pulse charging the lines.

Moeny, William M. (Albuquerque, NM); Small, James G. (Albuquerque, NM)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

347

NETL: Evaluation of Dry Sorbent Technology for Pre-Combustion CO2 Capture  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Evaluation of Dry Sorbent Technology for Pre-Combustion CO2 Capture Evaluation of Dry Sorbent Technology for Pre-Combustion CO2 Capture Project No.: DE-FE0000465 Scanning Electron Microsopy (SEM) and Transmission Electron Miscroscopy (TEM) images of a multi-functional sorbent synthesized by a novel method. Scanning Electron Microsopy (SEM) and Transmission Electron Miscroscopy (TEM) images of a multi-functional sorbent synthesized by a novel method. URS and the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign are investigating a dry sorbent process configured to combine the water-gas-shift (WGS) reaction with carbon dioxide (CO2) removal for coal gasification systems. A combination of process simulation modeling and sorbent molecular and thermodynamic analyses will be performed to predict optimal sorbent properties and identify optimal operating temperature and pressure ranges

348

Shrinkage and porosity effects on heat and mass transfer during potato drying  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Fruits and vegetables are porous in nature and undergo pronounced shrinkage during convective drying process. Therefore, shrinkage and porosity should be taken into consideration while predicting heat and mass transfer. This work was conducted to study shrinkage and porosity changes along with simultaneous heat and mass transport during the process. Potato slices were subjected to drying for 7 h at 62 °C. It was observed that shrinkage varies linearly with respect to moisture content and reduction in radial dimension of potato slices was around 35%. Porosity undergoes rapid increase after attaining certain moisture content in final stages of drying. The work was extended to study the influence of shrinkage and porosity on heat and mass transfer. Simulated results were validated with experimental values. This model can be employed to predict temperature, moisture, density profiles and to study shrinkage and porosity of various fruits and vegetables.

J. Aprajeeta; R. Gopirajah; C. Anandharamakrishnan

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

Electrodes including a polyphosphazene cyclomatrix, methods of forming the electrodes, and related electrochemical cells  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An electrode comprising a polyphosphazene cyclomatrix and particles within pores of the polyphosphazene cyclomatrix. The polyphosphazene cyclomatrix comprises a plurality of phosphazene compounds and a plurality of cross-linkages. Each phosphazene compound of the plurality of phosphazene compounds comprises a plurality of phosphorus-nitrogen units, and at least one pendant group bonded to each phosphorus atom of the plurality of phosphorus-nitrogen units. Each phosphorus-nitrogen unit is bonded to an adjacent phosphorus-nitrogen unit. Each cross-linkage of the plurality of cross-linkages bonds at least one pendant group of one phosphazene compound of the plurality of phosphazene compounds with the at least one pendant group of another phosphazene compound of the plurality of phosphazene compounds. A method of forming a negative electrode and an electrochemical cell are also described.

Gering, Kevin L; Stewart, Frederick F; Wilson, Aaron D; Stone, Mark L

2014-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

350

Electrochemical behavior of a glassy-carbon electrode chemically modified with cadmium pentacyanonitrosylferrate in the presence of tetrahydrothiophene  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A glassy-carbon electrode was modified with cadmium pentacyanonitrosylferrate film using cyclic voltammetry. The voltammetry behavior of the cadmium pentacyanonitrosylferrate on the glassy-carbon electrode shows a redox couple (FeIII/FeII) with E°? of 593 mV (Ipa/Ipc = 0.96) and ?Ep of 34 mV in 0.5 mol dm?3 KNO3 (? = 100 mV s?1) with an adsorption-controlled process. The anodic-peak currents of the film decreased in the presence of tetrahydrothiophene due to a reaction of the precipitation on the film surface by a nucleophilic attack.

Leonardo L. Paim; Nelson R. Stradiotto

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

The Application of Highly Doped Single-Layer Graphene as the Top Electrodes of Semitransparent Organic Solar Cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Besides its use as the bottom electrode for organic solar cells, we find that graphene is an excellent candidate for the top electrode of a semitransparent organic solar cell since large area graphene films can be easily transferred to the top of various substrates by a solution process at room temperature. ... reported roll-to-roll production of single-layer CVD graphene film with the resistance of only 125 ?/?. ... Today, graphene is limited to small sizes because it is produced mostly by exfoliating graphite. ...

Zhike Liu; Jinhua Li; Zhen-Hua Sun; Guoan Tai; Shu-Ping Lau; Feng Yan

2011-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

352

Hydrodynamic Behavior of a Filter-Press Electrochemical Reactor with Carbon Felt As a Three-Dimensional Electrode  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This influence has been studied through an application of this kind of electrode in the Fe/Cr redox flow battery. ... 18,19 The Fe/Cr redox flow battery is an electrical energy storage system based on the redox process: The use of three-dimensional electrodes (carbon felts) in a redox flow battery will increase the value of the charging and discharging velocity. ... The state of charge of the Fe/Cr redox flow battery is given by the state of charge of the solutions that constitute it (Fe3+/Fe2+ and Cr3+/Cr2+). ...

José González-García; Vicente Montiel; Antonio Aldaz; Juan A. Conesa; José R. Pérez; Guillermo Codina

1998-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

353

Non-Linear Drying Diffusion and Viscoelastic Drying Shrinkage Modeling in Hardened Cement Pastes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

modeling with an average diffusion coefficient and with determined viscoelastic parameters from creep tests agreed well compared to the shrinkage data from experiments, indicating that drying shrinkage of cement paste may be considered as a poroviscoelastic...

Leung, Chin K.

2010-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

354

Membranes and MEAs for Dry Hot Operating Conditions  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

of this collaborative effort are to develop new proton exchange membranes (PEM's) for fuel cells, integrate them into membrane electrode assemblies (MEA's), and demonstrate in...

355

In situ ion exchange preparation of Pt/carbon nanotubes electrode: Effect of two-step oxidation of carbon nanotubes  

SciTech Connect

Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) supported Pt electrode is prepared by in-situ ion exchange method. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) confirms that compared with the only electrochemical oxidation or chemical oxidation treatment, more carboxylic acid groups are produced on the surface of MWNTs treated by dual-oxidation, which involves both electrochemical oxidation and chemical oxidation. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) shows that Pt nanoparticles deposited via in-situ ion exchange are highly dispersed on the MWNTs surface. Electrochemical measurements show that the resultant Pt/MWNTs electrode treated by dual-oxidation exhibits the largest electrochemical surface area and the highest activity for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) among the investigated electrodes. This can be attributed to the fact that dual-oxidation treatment produces more carboxylic acid groups at the electroactive sites on MWNTs surface, which results in loading more Pt nanoparticles in the following ion exchange process.

Zhang, Sheng; Shao, Yuyan; Gao, Yunzhi; Chen, Guangyu; Lin, Yuehe; Yin, Geping

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

356

Iron porphyrin polymer films: Materials for the modification of electrode surfaces and the detection of nitric oxide  

SciTech Connect

We are currently investigating a new method for the detection and quantification of nitric oxide (NO) based on a carbon electrode chemically modified with an iron porphyrin polymer film. Commercially available vinyl-substituted iron porphyrin monomers can be polymerized directly onto electrode surfaces through a published electrochemical polymerization process. We are also developing a synthesis for a new vinyl-substituted monomer, iron 5,10,15-triphenyl-20-vinyl porphyrin chloride, in hopes of improving polymer film stability. The electrochemistry of NO is also being investigated at electrodes chemically modified with an iron porphyrin polymer film. We are studying the catalytic oxidation of iron porphyrin bound NO to nitrate by molecular oxygen. The reaction with molecular oxygen is preceded by a one electron reduction of the iron porphyrin-NO complex. If currents proportional to nitric oxide concentration can be measured, a new NO electrochemical sensor will be designed.

McGuire, M.; Drew, S.M. [Carleton College, Northfield, MN (United States)

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

357

WO3 nanorods-modified carbon electrode for sustained electron uptake from Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 with suppressed biofilm formation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Carbon materials are widely used as electrodes for bioelectrochemical systems (BES). However, a thick biofilm tends to grow on the electrode surface during continuous operation, resulting in constrained transport of electrons and nutrients at the cell-electrode interface. In this work, we tackled this problem by adopting a WO3-nanorods modified carbon electrode (C–WO3 nanorods), which completely suppressed the biofilm growth of Shewanella Oneidensis MR-1. Moreover, the C–WO3 nanorods exhibited high electric conductivity and strong response to riboflavin. These two factors together make it possible for the C–WO3 nanorods to maintain a sustained, efficient process of electron transfer from the MR-1 planktonic cells. As a consequence, the microbial fuel cells with C–WO3 nanorods anode showed more stable performance than the pure carbon paper and WO3-nanoparticles systems in prolonged operation. This work suggests that WO3 nanorods have the potential to be used as a robust and biofouling-resistant electrode material for practical bioelectrochemical applications.

Feng Zhang; Shi-Jie Yuan; Wen-Wei Li; Jie-Jie Chen; Chi-Chiu Ko; Han-Qing Yu

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

358

Fuel cell plates with skewed process channels for uniform distribution of stack compression load  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An electrochemical fuel cell includes an anode electrode, a cathode electrode, an electrolyte matrix sandwiched between electrodes, and a pair of plates above and below the electrodes. The plate above the electrodes has a lower surface with a first group of process gas flow channels formed thereon and the plate below the electrodes has an upper surface with a second group of process gas flow channels formed thereon. The channels of each group extend generally parallel to one another. The improvement comprises the process gas flow channels on the lower surface of the plate above the anode electrode and the process gas flow channels on the upper surface of the plate below the cathode electrode being skewed in opposite directions such that contact areas of the surfaces of the plates through the electrodes are formed in crisscross arrangements. Also, the plates have at least one groove in areas of the surfaces thereof where the channels are absent for holding process gas and increasing electrochemical activity of the fuel cell. The groove in each plate surface intersects with the process channels therein. Also, the opposite surfaces of a bipolar plate for a fuel cell contain first and second arrangements of process gas flow channels in the respective surfaces which are skewed the same amount in opposite directions relative to the longitudinal centerline of the plate.

Granata, Jr., Samuel J. (Greensburg, PA); Woodle, Boyd M. (North Huntingdon Township, Westmoreland County, PA)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

359

Growth of solid conical structures during multistage drying of sessile poly(ethylene oxide) droplets  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Sessile droplets of aqueous poly(ethylene oxide) solution, with average molecular weight of 100 kDa, are monitored during evaporative drying at ambient conditions over a range of initial concentrations $c_0$. For all droplets with $c_0 \\geq 3%$, central conical structures, which can be hollow and nearly 50% taller than the initial droplet, are formed during a growth stage. Although the formation of superficially similar structures has been explained for glass-forming polymers using a skin-buckling model which predicts the droplet to have constant surface area during the growth stage (L. Pauchard and C. Allain, Europhys. Lett., 2003, 62, 897-903), we demonstrate that this model is not applicable here as the surface area is shown to increase during growth for all $c_0$. We interpret our experimental data using a proposed drying and deposition process comprising the four stages: pinned drying; receding contact line; bootstrap growth, during which the liquid droplet is lifted upon freshly-precipitated solid; and late drying. Additional predictions of our model, including a criterion for predicting whether a conical structure will form, compare favourably with observations. We discuss how the specific chemical and physical properties of PEO, in particular its amphiphilic nature, its tendency to form crystalline spherulites rather than an amorphous glass at high concentrations and its anomalous surface tension values for MW = 100 kDa may be critical to the observed drying process.

David Willmer; Kyle Anthony Baldwin; Charles Kwartnik; David John Fairhurst

2010-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

360

Dry-Mass Sensing for Microfluidics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present an approach for interfacing an electromechanical sensor with a microfluidic device for the accurate quantification of the dry mass of analytes within microchannels. We show that depositing solutes onto the active surface of a quartz crystal microbalance by means of an on-chip microfluidic spray nozzle and subsequent solvent removal provides the basis for the real-time determination of dry solute mass. Moreover, this detection scheme does not suffer from the decrease in the sensor quality factor and the viscous drag present if the measurement is performed in a liquid environment, yet allows solutions to be analysed. We demonstrate the sensitivity and reliability of our approach by controlled deposition of nanogram levels of salt and protein from a micrometer-sized channel.

Müller, T; Knowles, T P J

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dry process electrode" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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361

Dry Lake Wind Farm | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Wind Farm Wind Farm Jump to: navigation, search Name Dry Lake Wind Farm Facility Dry Lake Sector Wind energy Facility Type Commercial Scale Wind Facility Status In Service Owner Iberdrola Renewables Developer Iberdrola Renewables Energy Purchaser Iberdrola Renewables Location Navajo County AZ Coordinates 34.635651°, -110.357351° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":34.635651,"lon":-110.357351,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

362

PULSE DRYING EXPERIMENT AND BURNER CONSTRUCTION  

SciTech Connect

Non steady impingement heat transfer is measured. Impingement heating consumes 130 T-BTU/Yr in paper drying, but is only 25% thermally efficient. Pulse impingement is experimentally shown to enhance heat transfer by 2.8, and may deliver thermal efficiencies near 85%. Experimental results uncovered heat transfer deviations from steady theory and from previous investigators, indicating the need for further study and a better theoretical framework. The pulse burner is described, and its roll in pulse impingement is analyzed.

Robert States

2006-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

363

Application of Desiccant Drying in Plastic Molding  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

APPLICATION OF DESICCANT DRYING IN PLASTIC MOLDING Michael Brown, P.E. Greg Connors, P.E. Douglas Moore, P.E. Senior Research Engr. Industrial Engr. Senior Research Engr. Ga. Tech Research Inst. Atlanta Gas Light Co. Ga. Tech Research Inst... will condense on refrigerated display doors. In ice rinks, condensation will occur on the ice surface causing it to soften if the humidity too high. In plastic molding, chilled water is provi ed to rapidly cool the finished parts. Cooling incr...

Brown, M.; Connors, G.; Moore, D.

364

Cold Vacuum Drying Facility hazard analysis report  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the methodology used in conducting the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF) hazard analysis to support the CVDF phase 2 safety analysis report (SAR), and documents the results. The hazard analysis was performed in accordance with DOE-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for US Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Reports, and implements the requirements of US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Reports.

Krahn, D.E.

1998-02-23T23:59:59.000Z

365

Dry, laser?assisted rapid HBr etching of GaAs  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Dry rapid etching of GaAs has been accomplished using an excimer laser (ArF 193 nm) with HBr etching gas by photochemical initiation. Spatially uniform etch rates of up to 8 ?m/min have been achieved on large?area masked substrates. Selective crystallographic etching is observed and controlled in the process.

P. D. Brewer; D. McClure; R. M. Osgood Jr.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

Electrode Performance in Reversible Solid Oxide Fuel Cells  

SciTech Connect

The performance of several negative (fuel) and positive (air) electrode compositions for use in reversible solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) that are capable of operating both as a fuel cell and as an electrolyzer was investigated in half-cell and full-cell tests. Negative electrode compositions studied were a nickel/zirconia cermet (Ni/YSZ) and lanthanum-substituted strontium titanate/ceria composite, whereas positive electrode compositions examined included mixed ion and electron-conducting lanthanum strontium ferrite (LSF), lanthanum strontium copper ferrite (LSCuF), lanthanum strontium cobalt ferrite (LSCoF), and lanthanum strontium manganite (LSM). While titanate/ceria and Ni/YSZ electrodes performed similarly in the fuel cell mode in half-cell tests, losses associated with electrolysis were lower for the titanate/ceria electrode. Positive electrodes all gave higher losses in the electrolysis mode when compared to the fuel cell mode. This behavior was most apparent for mixed-conducting LSF, LSCuF, and LSCoF electrodes, and discernible but smaller for LSM; observations are consistent with expected trends in the interfacial oxygen vacancy concentration under anodic and cathodic polarization. Full-cell tests conducted for cells with a thin electrolyte (7 um YSZ) similarly showed higher polarization losses in the electrolysis than fuel cell direction.

Marina, Olga A.; Pederson, Larry R.; Williams, Mark C.; Coffey, Greg W.; Meinhardt, Kerry D.; Nguyen, Carolyn D.; Thomsen, Ed C.

2007-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

367

Standard electrode potential, Tafel equation, and the solvation thermodynamics  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Equilibrium in the electronic subsystem across the solution-metal interface is considered to connect the standard electrode potential to the statistics of localized electronic states in solution. We argue that a correct derivation of the Nernst equation for the electrode potential requires a careful separation of the relevant time scales. An equation for the standard metal potential is derived linking it to the thermodynamics of solvation. The Anderson–Newns model for electronic delocalization between the solution and the electrode is combined with a bilinear model of solute-solvent coupling introducing nonlinear solvation into the theory of heterogeneous electron transfer. We therefore are capable of addressing the question of how nonlinear solvation affects electrochemical observables. The transfer coefficient of electrode kinetics is shown to be equal to the derivative of the free energy or generalized force required to shift the unoccupied electronic level in the bulk. The transfer coefficient thus directly quantifies the extent of nonlinear solvation of the redox couple. The current model allows the transfer coefficient to deviate from the value of 0.5 of the linear solvation models at zero electrode overpotential. The electrode current curves become asymmetric in respect to the change in the sign of the electrode overpotential.

Dmitry V. Matyushov

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

Standard electrode potential, Tafel equation, and the solvation thermodynamics  

SciTech Connect

Equilibrium in the electronic subsystem across the solution-metal interface is considered to connect the standard electrode potential to the statistics of localized electronic states in solution. We argue that a correct derivation of the Nernst equation for the electrode potential requires a careful separation of the relevant time scales. An equation for the standard metal potential is derived linking it to the thermodynamics of solvation. The Anderson-Newns model for electronic delocalization between the solution and the electrode is combined with a bilinear model of solute-solvent coupling introducing nonlinear solvation into the theory of heterogeneous electron transfer. We therefore are capable of addressing the question of how nonlinear solvation affects electrochemical observables. The transfer coefficient of electrode kinetics is shown to be equal to the derivative of the free energy, or generalized force, required to shift the unoccupied electronic level in the bulk. The transfer coefficient thus directly quantifies the extent of nonlinear solvation of the redox couple. The current model allows the transfer coefficient to deviate from the value of 0.5 of the linear solvation models at zero electrode overpotential. The electrode current curves become asymmetric in respect to the change in the sign of the electrode overpotential.

Matyushov, Dmitry V. [Center for Biological Physics, Arizona State University, P.O. Box 871504, Tempe, Arizona 85287-1504 (United States)

2009-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

369

Wet and Dry Pollutant Deposition to the Mixed Conifer Forest  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The Mediterranean climate in southern California regulates wet and dry deposition characteristics in the San Bernardino Mountains (SBM). Long dry periods in combination with the large air pollution emissions f...

A. Bytnerowicz; M. E. Fenn; P. R. Miller…

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

370

Hadley Cell Dynamics in a Virtually Dry Snowball Earth Atmosphere  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The Hadley cell of a virtually dry snowball Earth atmosphere under equinox insolation is studied in a comprehensive atmospheric general circulation model. In contrast to the Hadley cell of modern Earth, momentum transport by dry convection, which ...

Aiko Voigt; Isaac M. Held; Jochem Marotzke

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

High voltage dry-type air-core shunt reactors  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Dry-type air-core shunt reactors are now being ... systems to limit overvoltages. Recently, high voltage dry-type air-core shunt reactors have been designed, ... transient overvoltages and electrical and magnetic...

Klaus Papp; Michael R. Sharp…

2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

372

Dry compliant seal for phosphoric acid fuel cell  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A dry compliant overlapping seal for a phosphoric acid fuel cell preformed f non-compliant Teflon to make an anode seal frame that encircles an anode assembly, a cathode seal frame that encircles a cathode assembly and a compliant seal frame made of expanded Teflon, generally encircling a matrix assembly. Each frame has a thickness selected to accommodate various tolerances of the fuel cell elements and are either bonded to one of the other frames or to a bipolar or end plate. One of the non-compliant frames is wider than the other frames forming an overlap of the matrix over the wider seal frame, which cooperates with electrolyte permeating the matrix to form a wet seal within the fuel cell that prevents process gases from intermixing at the periphery of the fuel cell and a dry seal surrounding the cell to keep electrolyte from the periphery thereof. The frames may be made in one piece, in L-shaped portions or in strips and have an outer perimeter which registers with the outer perimeter of bipolar or end plates to form surfaces upon which flanges of pan shaped, gas manifolds can be sealed.

Granata, Jr., Samuel J. (South Greensburg, PA); Woodle, Boyd M. (N. Huntingdon Township, Westmoreland County, PA)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

373

Effect of localized antiferromagnetic phases at interfaces between AlOx insulating barriers and Co50Fe50 electrodes in magnetic tunnel junctions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Localized antiferromagnetic (LAFM) phases at interfaces between AlOx insulating barriers and CoFe bottom electrodes were investigated. The LAFM phases were induced by interdiffusion of oxygen atoms into the bottom electrode during oxidation process. Observation in x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy exhibits the significant LAFM phases of CoO and FeO at 783 eV and 711 eV, respectively. The LAFM couplings sensitively relevant to oxidation time are directly related to the coercivity field difference in a magnetoresistance (MR) curve. They also enhance the coercivity of a CoFe bottom electrode from 25 Oe up to 71.5 Oe, depending on oxidation time. These results explain well the better MR curves by a locally overoxidized state inside a CoFe bottom electrode.

Kap Soo Yoon; Jung Yup Yang; Won Jun Choi; Chae Ok Kim; Jin Pyo Hong; Hyun Jung Kim

2004-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

374

Roles of Dry Friction in Fluctuating Motion of Adiabatic Piston  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The motion of an adiabatic piston under dry friction is investigated to clarify the roles of dry friction in non-equilibrium steady states. We clarify that dry friction can reverse the direction of the piston motion and causes a discontinuity or a cusp-like singularity for velocity distribution functions of the piston. We also show that the heat fluctuation relation is modified under dry friction.

Tomohiko G. Sano; Hisao Hayakawa

2014-03-08T23:59:59.000Z

375

Carbon Nanotubes as Electrodes for Dielectrophoresis of DNA  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Dielectrophoresis can potentially be used as an efficient trapping tool in the fabrication of molecular devices. For nanoscale objects, however, the Brownian motion poses a challenge. We show that the use of carbon nanotube electrodes makes it possible to apply relatively low trapping voltages and still achieve high enough field gradients for trapping nanoscale objects, e.g., single molecules. We compare the efficiency and other characteristics of dielectrophoresis between carbon nanotube electrodes and lithographically fabricated metallic electrodes, in the case of trapping nanoscale DNA molecules. The results are analyzed using finite element method simulations and reveal information about the frequency dependent polarizability of DNA.

Sampo Tuukkanen; J. Jussi Toppari; Anton Kuzyk; Lasse Hirviniemi; Vesa P. Hytonen; Teemu Ihalainen; Paivi Torma

2006-07-18T23:59:59.000Z

376

Comparison between single- and dual-electrode ion source systems for low-energy ion transport  

SciTech Connect

Extraction of ions with energies below 100 eV has been demonstrated using a hot-cathode multi-cusp ion source equipped with extraction electrodes made of thin wires. Two electrode geometries, a single-electrode system, and a dual-electrode system were built and tested. The single-electrode configuration showed high ion beam current densities at shorter distances from the electrode but exhibited rapid attenuation as the distance from the electrode increased. Beam angular spread measurements showed similar beam divergence for both electrode configurations at low plasma densities. At high plasma densities and low extraction potentials, the single-electrode system showed the angular spread twice as large as that of the dual-electrode system. Energy distribution analyses showed a broader energy spread for ion beams extracted from a single-electrode set-up.

Vasquez, M. Jr.; Tokumura, S.; Kasuya, T.; Maeno, S.; Wada, M. [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Doshisha University, Kyotanabe, Kyoto 610-321 and Nissin Ion Equipment Co., Ltd. 575 Kuze Tonoshiro-cho, Minami-ku, Kyoto 601-8205 (Japan); Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Doshisha University, Kyotanabe, Kyoto 610-321 (Japan); Novelion Systems Co.Ltd., D-Egg, Kyotanabe, Kyoto 610-332 (Japan); Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Doshisha University, Kyotanabe, Kyoto 610-321 (Japan)

2012-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

377

Evaluation of the economic and environmental impact of combining dry reforming with steam reforming of methane  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Lately, there has been considerable interest in the development of more efficient processes to generate syngas, an intermediate in the production of fuels and chemicals, including methanol, dimethyl ether, ethylene, propylene and Fischer–Tropsch fuels. Steam methane reforming (SMR) is the most widely applied method of producing syngas from natural gas. Dry reforming of methane (DRM) is a process that uses waste carbon dioxide to produce syngas from natural gas. Dry reforming alone has not yet been implemented commercially; however, a combination of steam methane reforming and dry reforming of methane (SMR + DRM) has been used in industry for several years. The aim of this work was to simulate both the SMR and SMR + DRM processes and to conduct an economic and environmental analysis to determine whether the SMR + DRM process is competitive with the more popular SMR process. The results indicate that the SMR + DRM process has a lower carbon footprint. Further research on DRM catalysts could make this process economically competitive with steam methane reforming.

Preeti Gangadharan; Krishna C. Kanchi; Helen H. Lou

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

378

Modeling of Coal Drying before Pyrolysis Damintode Kolani1, a  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in the coal without chemical decomposition and pyrolysis converts dry coal into gas and coke [1]. The final1 Modeling of Coal Drying before Pyrolysis Damintode Kolani1, a , Eric Blond1, b , Alain Gasser1 Forbach, France a damintode.kolani@univ-orleans.fr, b eric.blond@univ-orleans.fr Keywords: coal, drying

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

379

BWR In-Core Monitor Housing Replacement Under Dry Condition of Reactor Pressure Vessel  

SciTech Connect

A new method of In-Core Monitor Housing replacement has been successfully applied to Tokai Unit 2 (BWR with 1100 MWe) in April of 2001. It was designed to replace a housing under dry condition of reactor pressure vessel (RPV): this enabled the elimination of water filled-up and drained processes during the replacement procedure resulting in the reduction of implementation schedule. To realize the dry condition, the radiation shields were placed in the RPV and the hollow guide pipe (GP) was adopted to transfer the apparatuses from the top to the bottom work area. (authors)

Tatsuo Ishida; Shoji Yamamoto; Fujitoshi Eguchi [Japan Atomic Power Company (Japan); Motomasa Fuse; Kouichi Kurosawa; Sadato Shimizu; Minoru Masuda [Hitachi Ltd. (Japan); Shinya Fujii; Junji Tanaka [General Electric International Inc. (Japan); Jacobson, Bryce A. [General Electric Company (United States)

2002-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

380

Optimization of graphene dry etching conditions via combined microscopic and spectroscopic analysis  

SciTech Connect

Single-layer graphene structures and devices are commonly defined using reactive ion etching and plasma etching with O{sub 2} or Ar as the gaseous etchants. Although optical microscopy and Raman spectroscopy are widely used to determine the appropriate duration of dry etching, additional characterization with atomic force microscopy (AFM) reveals that residual graphene and/or etching byproducts persist beyond the point where the aforementioned methods suggest complete graphene etching. Recognizing that incomplete etching may have deleterious effects on devices and/or downstream processing, AFM characterization is used here to determine optimal etching conditions that eliminate graphene dry etching residues.

Prado, Mariana C. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Av. Antonio Carlos, 6627, 31270-901 Belo Horizonte (Brazil)] [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Av. Antonio Carlos, 6627, 31270-901 Belo Horizonte (Brazil); Jariwala, Deep [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208 (United States)] [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208 (United States); Marks, Tobin J.; Hersam, Mark C. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208 (United States) [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208 (United States); Department of Chemistry, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208 (United States)

2013-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dry process electrode" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Nanostructured Composite Electrodes for Lithium Batteries (Final Technical Report)  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this study was to explore new ways to create nanostructured electrodes for rechargeable lithium batteries. Of particular interests are unique nanostructures created by electrochemical deposition, etching and combustion chemical vapor deposition (CCVD). Three-dimensional nanoporous Cu6Sn5 alloy has been successfully prepared using an electrochemical co-deposition process. The walls of the foam structure are highly-porous and consist of numerous small grains. This represents a novel way of creating porous structures that allow not only fast transport of gas and liquid but also rapid electrochemical reactions due to high surface area. The Cu6Sn5 samples display a reversible capacity of {approx}400 mAhg-1. Furthermore, these materials exhibit superior rate capability. At a current drain of 10 mA/cm2(20C rate), the obtainable capacity was more than 50% of the capacity at 0.5 mA/cm2 (1C rate). Highly open and porous SnO2 thin films with columnar structure were obtained on Si/SiO2/Au substrates by CCVD. The thickness was readily controlled by the deposition time, varying from 1 to 5 microns. The columnar grains were covered by nanoparticles less than 20 nm. These thin film electrodes exhibited substantially high specific capacity. The reversible specific capacity of {approx}3.3 mAH/cm2 was demonstrated for up to 80 cycles at a charge/discharge rate of 0.3 mA/cm2. When discharged at 0.9 mA/cm2, the capacity was about 2.1 mAH/cm2. Tin dioxide box beams or tubes with square or rectangular cross sections were synthesized using CCVD. The cross-sectional width of the SnO2 tubules was tunable from 50 nm to sub-micrometer depending on synthesis temperature. The tubes are readily aligned in the direction perpendicular to the substrate surface to form tube arrays. Silicon wafers were electrochemically etched to produce porous silicon (PS) with honeycomb-type channels and nanoporous walls. The diameters of the channels are about 1 to 3 microns and the depth of the channels can be up to 100 microns. We have successfully used the PS as a matrix for Si-Li-based alloy. Other component(s) can be incorporated into the PS either by an electroless metallization or by kinetically controlled vapor deposition.

Meilin Liu, James Gole

2006-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

382

Electrode wells for powerline-frequency electrical heating of soils  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An electrode well is described for use in powerline-frequency heating of soils for decontamination of the soil. Heating of soils enables the removal of volatile organic compounds from soil when utilized in combination with vacuum extraction. A preferred embodiment of the electrode well utilizes a mild steel pipe as the current-carrying conductor to at least one stainless steel electrode surrounded by a conductive backfill material, preferably graphite or steel shot. A covering is also provided for electrically insulating the current-carrying pipe. One of the electrode wells is utilized with an extraction well which is under subatmospheric pressure to withdraw the volatile material, such as gasoline and trichloroethylene (TCE) as it is heated. 4 figs.

Buettner, H.M.; Daily, W.D.; Aines, R.D.; Newmark, R.L.; Ramirez, A.L.; Siegel, W.H.

1999-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

383

Lithium Ion Electrode Production NDE and QC Considerations  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

3 Presentation name New Directions in Lithium Ion Electrode In-Line NDE * Low-cost IR laser thickness measurement (can be done in multiple point scans across the web or an entire...

384

Hierarchically Porous Graphene as a Lithium–Air Battery Electrode  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The lithium–air battery is one of the most promising technologies among various electrochemical energy storage systems. We demonstrate that a novel air electrode consisting of an unusual hierarchical arrangement of functionalized graphene sheets (with no ...

Jie Xiao; Donghai Mei; Xiaolin Li; Wu Xu; Deyu Wang; Gordon L. Graff; Wendy D. Bennett; Zimin Nie; Laxmikant V. Saraf; Ilhan A. Aksay; Jun Liu; Ji-Guang Zhang

2011-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

385

The presentation of electrode potentials using an energy level diagram  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The tabular form in which standard electrode potentials are usually presented often leads to confusion that can be diminished by representing the electrochemical series on an energy diagram like that provided.

T. A. Pinfold

1972-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

High-Rate, High-Capacity Binder-Free Electrode  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

PCT: 09-41 Binderfree electrode 4 Why it is better than other technologies Carbon Nanotubes Composite Materials C. Ban, Z. Wu, LChen, Y. Yan and A.C. Dillon Adv. Mat., 2010...

387

Plasma of Electric Arc Discharge between Melted Electrodes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Plasma of electric arc discharge between melted electrodes was experimentally investigated. Diagnostics of electric arc plasma was carried out. Optical emission and ... in plasma tends to be located at the arc ax...

A.N. Veklich; I.L. Babich

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

388

First Principles Calculations and NMR Spectroscopy of Electrode...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

and C. P. Grey, Inorg. Chem., 52, 8540-8550 (2013). * "Paramagnetic electrodes and bulk magnetic susceptibility effects in the in situ NMR studies of batteries: Application to Li...

389

Nonlinear dynamics of capacitive charging and desalination by porous electrodes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The rapid and efficient exchange of ions between porous electrodes and aqueous solutions is important in many applications, such as electrical energy storage by supercapacitors, water desalination and purification by ...

Bazant, Martin Z.

390

Improved Positive Electrode Materials for Li-ion Batteries  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

as a battery material due to its excellent thermal safetybattery system, including the safety attributes (both overcharge and thermalbattery electrodes, for example, have been observed during electrochemical cycling and thermal

Conry, Thomas Edward

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

391

Microneedle Electrodes Toward an Amperometric Glucose-Sensing Smart Patch  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Here, efforts toward the development of a microneedle-based glucose sensor or “smart patch” for intradermal glucose sensing are described. Metallic microneedle array electrodes, conducting polymers, and glucose oxidase ...

Invernale, Michael A.

392

Intercalation Kinetics and Ion Mobility in Electrode Materials...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

es093daniel2011o.pdf More Documents & Publications Coupled Kinetic, Thermal, and Mechanical Modeling of FIB Micro-machined Electrodes In-Situ Electron Microscopy of Electrical...

393

Electron microscopic and voltammetric analysis of carbon fibre electrode pretreatments  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The comparison between the differential pulse voltammetric capability of untreated or treated 12 µm or 30 µm diameter carbon fibre electrodes (CFE) to detect electroactive compoundsin vitro...has been analysed. T...

T. J. Self; F. Crespi

1992-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

394

Spent nuclear fuel project cold vacuum drying facility vacuum and purge system design description  

SciTech Connect

This document provides the System Design Description (SDD) for the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF) Vacuum and Purge System (VPS) . The SDD was developed in conjunction with HNF-SD-SNF-SAR-O02, Safety Analysis Report for the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility, Phase 2, Supporting Installation of Processing Systems (Garvin 1998), The HNF-SD-SNF-DRD-002, 1998, Cold Vacuum Drying Facility Design Requirements, and the CVDF Design Summary Report. The SDD contains general descriptions of the VPS equipment, the system functions, requirements and interfaces. The SDD provides references for design and fabrication details, operation sequences and maintenance. This SDD has been developed for the SNFP Operations Organization and shall be updated, expanded, and revised in accordance with future design, construction and startup phases of the CVDF until the CVDF final ORR is approved.

IRWIN, J.J.

1998-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

395

ETEM observation of Pt/C electrode catalysts in a moisturized cathode atmosphere  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

There have been reports of challenges in designing platinum carbon (Pt/C) electrode catalysts for PEMFC. Pt/C electrode catalysts deactivate much faster on the cathode (in moisturized O2) than on the anode (in H2). To understand influences of moisture and oxygen on the deactivation of the Pt/C catalysts in proton-exchange-membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs), spherical-aberration-corrected environmental transmission electron microscopy (AC-ETEM) was applied with a high-speed CCD camera. Structural changes of the Pt/C electrode catalysts were dynamically recorded in moisturized nitrogen, oxygen and hydrogen. The mass spectrometry confirmed the moisture content (between 5 to 30 %) of nitrogen driving gas through a humidifier. Coalescence of platinum nanoparticles (D = 3.24 nm) was carefully evaluated in pure N2 and moisturized N2 atmosphere. The Pt/C showed considerable structural weakness in a moisturized N2 atmosphere. Comparable results obtained by AC-ETEM in different gas atmospheres also suggested ways to improve the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). In this paper, the deactivation process due to moisture (hydroxylation) of carbon supports is discussed using for comparison the movement of platinum nanoparticles measured in moisturized nitrogen and pure nitrogen atmospheres.

K Yoshida; X Zhang; N Tanaka; E D Boyes; P L Gai

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

396

The Stability of Organic Solvents and Carbon Electrode in Nonaqueous Li-O2 Batteries  

SciTech Connect

The effect of different kinds of aprotic organic solvents on the discharge performance and discharge products in Li-O2 batteries was systematically investigated. The discharge products deposited in air cathodes were analyzed by X-ray diffraction, in situ gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. We found that a significant amount of Li2O2 can be formed in glyme-based electrolytes during the discharge process, while only small amount of Li2O2 is produced in electrolytes of phosphate, nitrile, ionic liquid and sulfoxide. However, in all the seven types of solvent systems we studied, Li2CO3 and LiF were still formed as byproducts whose compositions are strongly related to the solvents. Li2CO3 is produced not from the carbon air electrode but from oxidation and decomposition of the solvent as we verified by using a 13C-labeled carbon electrode and the solid-state 13C-MAS NMR technique. The formation of Li2CO3 and LiF during discharge will greatly reduce the Coulombic efficiency and cycle life of the Li-air batteries. Therefore, better electrolytes that can ensure the formation of Li2O2 but minimize other reaction products formed on air electrodes of Li-air batteries need to be further investigated.

Xu, Wu; Hu, Jian Z.; Engelhard, Mark H.; Towne, Silas A.; Hardy, John S.; Xiao, Jie; Feng, Ju; Hu, Mary Y.; Zhang, Jian; Ding, Fei; Gross, Mark E.; Zhang, Jiguang

2012-05-18T23:59:59.000Z

397

In situ Raman spectroscopy of lithium electrode surface in ambient temperature lithium secondary battery. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Raman spectroscopy was used to characterize surface layers on lithium electrodes in different solvents such as propylene carbonate (PC), dimethyl carbonate (DMC), diethyl carbonate (DEC), and polyethylene glycol 400 dimethyl ether (PEG400DME). Both DMC and DEC were used singly, and also mixed with either methyl acetate (MA) or methyl formate (MF). The Raman spectra showed that passive films formed on the Li surface in different solvents may have different chemical structures, which changed during the charging and discharging processes. Raman spectroscopy was also applied to characterize zinc electrode surfaces in alkaline solutions. The results suggested that ZnO and Zn(OH){sub 2} formed on the Zn electrode when a passive potential was applied. A solid film of fullerene C{sub 60}, which could be used as a cathode in Li rechargeable batteries, was examined in the PEG400DME solution by both electrochemical and Raman spectroscopy. Cyclic voltammograms (CVs) showed five redox peaks which suggested the formation of C{sub 60}{sup {minus}}, C{sub 60}{sup 2{minus}}, C{sub 60}{sup 3{minus}}, C{sub 60}{sup 4{minus}}, and C{sub 60}{sup 5{minus}}. Raman spectra obtained from a thin C{sub 60} film indicated that the thin fulleride film dissolved in the PEG400DME/LiClO{sub 4} solution at negative potentials.

Tachikawa, Hiroyasu [Jackson State Univ., MS (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

398

A New Approach to Wastewater Remediation Based on Bifunctional Electrodes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A New Approach to Wastewater Remediation Based on Bifunctional Electrodes ... To illustrate this innovative technique, TiO2/Ti/Ta2O5?IrO2 bifunctional electrodes were prepared using a facile thermal decomposition technique and employed in this study. ... The establishment and enforcement of limits for the discharge and/or disposal of toxic and hazardous materials has required the development of new technologies to effectively remediate a variety of gaseous and liquid effluents, solid waste and sludge. ...

Robert Matthew Asmussen; Min Tian; Aicheng Chen

2009-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

399

Drying Fruits and Vegetables at Home.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

all fresh produce thoroughly to re move any dirt or spray. Sort and discard any defective food. Decay, bruises or mold on any piece may affect an entire batch of food being dried. Peel, pit and/or cut the food into uniform sized pieces. A stainless.... (See charts on pages 6 to 9 for specific times .) ? Set the dmtainer of sulfur beside the stacked trays. 2 Ignite the sulfur. Do not leave burned matches in the container; they may keep the sulfur from burning completely. Because of the flame...

Putnam, Peggy H.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

400

Graphite electrode DC arc furnace. Innovative technology summary report  

SciTech Connect

The Graphite Electrode DC Arc Furnace (DC Arc) is a high-temperature thermal process, which has been adapted from a commercial technology, for the treatment of mixed waste. A DC Arc Furnace heats waste to a temperature such that the waste is converted into a molten form that cools into a stable glassy and/or crystalline waste form. Hazardous organics are destroyed through combustion or pyrolysis during the process and the majority of the hazardous metals and radioactive components are incorporated in the molten phase. The DC Arc Furnace chamber temperature is approximately 593--704 C and melt temperatures are as high as 1,500 C. The DC Arc system has an air pollution control system (APCS) to remove particulate and volatiles from the offgas. The advantage of the DC Arc is that it is a single, high-temperature thermal process that minimizes the need for multiple treatment systems and for extensive sorting/segregating of large volumes of waste. The DC Arc has the potential to treat a wide range of wastes, minimize the need for sorting, reduce the final waste volumes, produce a leach resistant waste form, and destroy organic contaminants. Although the DC arc plasma furnace exhibits great promise for treating the types of mixed waste that are commonly present at many DOE sites, several data and technology deficiencies were identified by the Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA) regarding this thermal waste processing technique. The technology deficiencies that have been addressed by the current studies include: establishing the partitioning behavior of radionuclides, surrogates, and hazardous metals among the product streams (metal, slag, and offgas) as a function of operating parameters, including melt temperature, plenum atmosphere, organic loading, chloride concentration, and particle size; demonstrating the efficacy of waste product removal systems for slag and metal phases; determining component durability through test runs of extended duration, evaluating the effect of feed composition variations on process operating conditions and slag product performance; and collecting mass balance and operating data to support equipment and instrument design.

NONE

1999-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dry process electrode" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Ultrafast laser induced breakdown spectroscopy of electrode/electrolyte  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Ultrafast laser induced breakdown spectroscopy of electrode/electrolyte Ultrafast laser induced breakdown spectroscopy of electrode/electrolyte interfaces Title Ultrafast laser induced breakdown spectroscopy of electrode/electrolyte interfaces Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2012 Authors Zormpa, Vasileia, Jaroslaw Syzdek, Xianglei Mao, Richard E. Russo, and Robert Kostecki Journal Applied Physics Letters Volume 100 Issue 23 Date Published 05-2012 ISSN 0003-6951 Keywords electrochemical electrodes, graphite, high-speed optical techniques, laser beam effects, organic compounds, pyrolysis, solid electrolytes Abstract Direct chemical analysis of electrode/electrolyte interfaces can provide critical information on surface phenomena that define and control the performance of Li-based battery systems. In this work, we introduce the use of ex situ femtosecond laser induced breakdown spectroscopy to probe compositional variations within the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) layer. Nanometer-scale depth resolution was achieved for elemental and molecular depth profiling of SEI layers formed on highly oriented pyrolytic graphite electrodes in an organic carbonate-based electrolyte. This work demonstrates the unique ability of ultrafast laser spectroscopy as a highly versatile, light element-sensitive technique for direct chemical analysis of interfacial layers in electrochemical energy storage systems.

402

Electrical resistance tomography using steel cased boreholes as electrodes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An electrical resistance tomography method is described which uses steel cased boreholes as electrodes. The method enables mapping the electrical resistivity distribution in the subsurface from measurements of electrical potential caused by electrical currents injected into an array of electrodes in the subsurface. By use of current injection and potential measurement electrodes to generate data about the subsurface resistivity distribution, which data is then used in an inverse calculation, a model of the electrical resistivity distribution can be obtained. The inverse model may be constrained by independent data to better define an inverse solution. The method utilizes pairs of electrically conductive (steel) borehole casings as current injection electrodes and as potential measurement electrodes. The greater the number of steel cased boreholes in an array, the greater the amount of data is obtained. The steel cased boreholes may be utilized for either current injection or potential measurement electrodes. The subsurface model produced by this method can be 2 or 3 dimensional in resistivity depending on the detail desired in the calculated resistivity distribution and the amount of data to constrain the models. 2 figs.

Daily, W.D.; Ramirez, A.L.

1999-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

403

Electrical resistance tomography using steel cased boreholes as electrodes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An electrical resistance tomography method using steel cased boreholes as electrodes. The method enables mapping the electrical resistivity distribution in the subsurface from measurements of electrical potential caused by electrical currents injected into an array of electrodes in the subsurface. By use of current injection and potential measurement electrodes to generate data about the subsurface resistivity distribution, which data is then used in an inverse calculation, a model of the electrical resistivity distribution can be obtained. The inverse model may be constrained by independent data to better define an inverse solution. The method utilizes pairs of electrically conductive (steel) borehole casings as current injection electrodes and as potential measurement electrodes. The greater the number of steel cased boreholes in an array, the greater the amount of data is obtained. The steel cased boreholes may be utilized for either current injection or potential measurement electrodes. The subsurface model produced by this method can be 2 or 3 dimensional in resistivity depending on the detail desired in the calculated resistivity distribution and the amount of data to constain the models.

Daily, William D. (Livermore, CA); Ramirez, Abelardo L. (Pleasanton, CA)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

404

Low circumferential voltage gradient self supporting electrode for solid oxide fuel cells  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The porous, self-supporting, elongated electrode is made, having at least two chambers through its axial length, the chambers separated by an electronically conductive member. This electrode can be an air electrode of a fuel cell, having a superimposed solid electrolyte and fuel electrode.

Reichner, Philip (Plum Boro, PA)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

405

Method of making a multi-electrode double layer capacitor having single electrolyte seal and aluminum-impregnated carbon cloth electrodes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A single cell, multi-electrode high performance double layer capacitor includes first and second flat stacks of electrodes adapted to be housed in a closeable two-part capacitor case which includes only a single electrolyte seal. Each electrode stack has a plurality of electrodes connected in parallel, with the electrodes of one stack being interleaved with the electrodes of the other stack to form an interleaved stack, and with the electrodes of each stack being electrically connected to respective capacitor terminals. A porous separator is positioned against the electrodes of one stack before interleaving to prevent electrical shorts between the electrodes. The electrodes are made by folding a compressible, low resistance, aluminum-impregnated carbon cloth, made from activated carbon fibers, around a current collector foil, with a tab of the foils of each electrode of each stack being connected in parallel and connected to the respective capacitor terminal. The height of the interleaved stack is somewhat greater than the inside height of the closed capacitor case, thereby requiring compression of the interleaved electrode stack when placed inside of the case, and thereby maintaining the interleaved electrode stack under modest constant pressure. The closed capacitor case is filled with an electrolytic solution and sealed. A preferred electrolytic solution is made by dissolving an appropriate salt into acetonitrile (CH.sub.3 CN). In one embodiment, the two parts of the capacitor case are conductive and function as the capacitor terminals.

Farahmandi, C. Joseph (San Diego, CA); Dispennette, John M. (Oceanside, CA); Blank, Edward (San Diego, CA); Kolb, Alan C. (Rancho Santa Fe, CA)

2002-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

406

Storage capacity in hot dry rock reservoirs  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of extracting thermal energy, in a cyclic manner, from geologic strata which may be termed hot dry rock. A reservoir comprised of hot fractured rock is established and water or other liquid is passed through the reservoir. The water is heated by the hot rock, recovered from the reservoir, cooled by extraction of heat by means of heat exchange apparatus on the surface, and then re-injected into the reservoir to be heated again. Water is added to the reservoir by means of an injection well and recovered from the reservoir by means of a production well. Water is continuously provided to the reservoir and continuously withdrawn from the reservoir at two different flow rates, a base rate and a peak rate. Increasing water flow from the base rate to the peak rate is accomplished by rapidly decreasing backpressure at the outlet of the production well in order to meet periodic needs for amounts of thermal energy greater than a baseload amount, such as to generate additional electric power to meet peak demands. The rate of flow of water provided to the hot dry rock reservoir is maintained at a value effective to prevent depletion of the liquid

Brown, Donald W. (Los Alamos, NM)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

407

Convective heat and mass transfer and evolution of the moisture distribution in combined convection and radio frequency drying  

SciTech Connect

In a previous study (Dostie and Navarri, 1994), experiments indicated that a non-uniform moisture distribution could develop in radio frequency drying depending on the applied power and initial conditions, making the design and scale-up of such a dryer a more difficult task. Consequently, a thorough study of the combined convection and RF drying process was undertaken. Experimental results have shown that the values of the heat and mass transfer coefficients decrease with an increase in evaporation rate caused by RF energy. This effect is adequately taken into account by the boundary layer theory. Furthermore, the usual analogy between heat and mass transfer has been verified to apply in RF drying. Experiments have also shown that a different mass transfer resistance on both sides of the product should not result in non-uniform drying. However, it appears that non-uniform drying is dependent upon the initial moisture distribution and the relative intensity of heat transfer by convection and RF. It was shown that the maximum drying rate occurs at a higher average water content and that the total drying time increases with non-uniformity of the initial moisture distribution.

Poulin, A.; Dostie, M.; Kendall, J. [LTEE d`Hydro-Quebec, Shawinigan, Quebec (Canada); Proulx, P. [Univ. de Sherbrooke, Quebec (Canada)

1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

408

WIPP Remote Handled Waste Facility: Performance Dry Run Operations  

SciTech Connect

The Remote Handled (RH) TRU Waste Handling Facility at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) was recently upgraded and modified in preparation for handling and disposal of RH Transuranic (TRU) waste. This modification will allow processing of RH-TRU waste arriving at the WIPP site in two different types of shielded road casks, the RH-TRU 72B and the CNS 10-160B. Washington TRU Solutions (WTS), the WIPP Management and Operation Contractor (MOC), conducted a performance dry run (PDR), beginning August 19, 2002 and successfully completed it on August 24, 2002. The PDR demonstrated that the RHTRU waste handling system works as designed and demonstrated the handling process for each cask, including underground disposal. The purpose of the PDR was to develop and implement a plan that would define in general terms how the WIPP RH-TRU waste handling process would be conducted and evaluated. The PDR demonstrated WIPP operations and support activities required to dispose of RH-TRU waste in the WIPP underground.

Burrington, T. P.; Britain, R. M.; Cassingham, S. T.

2003-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

409

Building Technologies Office: Guides and Case Studies for Hot-Dry and  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Dry and Mixed-Dry Climates to someone by E-mail Dry and Mixed-Dry Climates to someone by E-mail Share Building Technologies Office: Guides and Case Studies for Hot-Dry and Mixed-Dry Climates on Facebook Tweet about Building Technologies Office: Guides and Case Studies for Hot-Dry and Mixed-Dry Climates on Twitter Bookmark Building Technologies Office: Guides and Case Studies for Hot-Dry and Mixed-Dry Climates on Google Bookmark Building Technologies Office: Guides and Case Studies for Hot-Dry and Mixed-Dry Climates on Delicious Rank Building Technologies Office: Guides and Case Studies for Hot-Dry and Mixed-Dry Climates on Digg Find More places to share Building Technologies Office: Guides and Case Studies for Hot-Dry and Mixed-Dry Climates on AddThis.com... About Take Action to Save Energy Partner With DOE

410

Artificial neural networks: Principle and application to model based control of drying systems -- A review  

SciTech Connect

This paper reviews the developments in the model based control of drying systems using Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs). Survey of current research works reveals the growing interest in the application of ANN in modeling and control of non-linear, dynamic and time-variant systems. Over 115 articles published in this area are reviewed. All landmark papers are systematically classified in chronological order, in three distinct categories; namely, conventional feedback controllers, model based controllers using conventional methods and model based controllers using ANN for drying process. The principles of ANN are presented in detail. The problems and issues of the drying system and the features of various ANN models are dealt with up-to-date. ANN based controllers lead to smoother controller outputs, which would increase actuator life. The paper concludes with suggestions for improving the existing modeling techniques as applied to predicting the performance characteristics of dryers. The hybridization techniques, namely, neural with fuzzy logic and genetic algorithms, presented, provide, directions for pursuing further research for the implementation of appropriate control strategies. The authors opine that the information presented here would be highly beneficial for pursuing research in modeling and control of drying process using ANN. 118 refs.

Thyagarajan, T.; Ponnavaikko, M. [Crescent Engineering Coll., Madras (India); Shanmugam, J. [Madras Inst. of Tech. (India); Panda, R.C.; Rao, P.G. [Central Leather Research Inst., Madras (India)

1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

411

Hyper-dry conditions provide new insights into the cause of extreme floods after wildfire  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A catastrophic wildfire in the foothills of the Rocky Mountains near Boulder, Colorado provided a unique opportunity to investigate soil conditions immediately after a wildfire and before alteration by rainfall. Measurements of near-surface (wildfire began. These measurements established that hyper-dry conditions (?  ~ 3 × 105 cm) existed and provided an in-situ retention curve for these conditions. These conditions exacerbate the effects of water repellency (natural and fire-induced) and limit the effectiveness of capillarity and gravity driven infiltration into fire-affected soils. The important consequence is that given hyper-dry conditions, the critical rewetting process before the first rain is restricted to the diffusion–adsorption of water-vapor. This process typically has a time scale of days to weeks (especially when the hydrologic effects of the ash layer are included) that is longer than the typical time scale (minutes to hours) of some rainstorms, such that under hyper-dry conditions essentially no rain infiltrates. The existence of hyper-dry conditions provides insight into why, frequently during the first rain storm after a wildfire, nearly all rainfall becomes runoff causing extreme floods and debris flows.

John A. Moody; Brian A. Ebel

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

412

Performance characteristic of a tubular carbon-based fuel cell short stack coupled with a dry carbon gasifier  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract A carbon gasified carbon-based fuel cell (CFC) short stack was fabricated and investigated for generating effective carbon fuel cell reactions. Anode-supported tubular CFC cells with a 45 cm2 active electrode area were used to manufacture the CFC short stack, which was coupled with a dry gasifier induced by a reverse Boudouard reaction. Activated carbon (BET area 1800 m2/g) powder was mixed with K2CO3 powder (5 wt.%) and used to fill a dry gasifier as a solid carbon fuel, and pure CO2 gas was supplied to the gasifier. The CO fuel generated by the reverse Boudouard reaction in the dry gasifier increased the performance of the CFC short stack. The tubular CFC short stack showed a maximum power of 29.4 W at 800 °C. It was operated under a range of operating conditions by changing the operating temperature, flow rate of the pure CO2 and the thermal cycle operation. The results indicate that the fabricated tubular CFC is a promising power generation system candidate for many practical applications, such as residential power generation (RPG) and stationary power systems.

Tak-Hyoung Lim; Sun-Kyung Kim; Ui-Jin Yun; Jong-Won Lee; Seung-Bok Lee; Seok-Joo Park; Rak-Hyun Song

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

413

Method of making a multi-electrode double layer capacitor having single electrolyte seal and aluminum-impregnated carbon cloth electrodes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of making a double layer capacitior includes first and second flat stacks of electrodes adapted to be housed in a closeable two-part capacitor case which includes only a single electrolyte seal. Each electrode stack has a plurality of electrodes connected in parallel, with the electrodes of one stack being interleaved with the electrodes of the other stack to form an interleaved stack, and with the electrodes of each stack being electrically connected to respective capacitor terminals. A porous separator is positioned against the electrodes of one stack before interleaving to prevent electrical shorts between the electrodes. The electrodes are made by folding a compressible, low resistance, aluminum-impregnated carbon cloth, made from activated carbon fibers, around a current collector foil, with a tab of the foils of each electrode of each stack being connected in parallel and connected to the respective capacitor terminal. The height of the interleaved stack is somewhat greater than the inside height of the closed capacitor case, thereby requiring compression of the interleaved electrode stack when placed inside of the case, and thereby maintaining the interleaved electrode stack under modest constant pressure. The closed capacitor case is filled with an electrolytic solution and sealed. A preferred electrolytic solution is made by dissolving an appropriate salt into acetonitrile (CH.sub.3 CN). In one embodiment, the two arts of the capacitor case are conductive and function as the capacitor terminals.

Farahmandi, C. Joseph (San Diego, CA); Dispennette, John M. (Oceanside, CA); Blank, Edward (San Diego, CA); Kolb, Alan C. (Rancho Santa Fe, CA)

2000-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

414

Process for concentrated biomass saccharification  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Processes for saccharification of pretreated biomass to obtain high concentrations of fermentable sugars are provided. Specifically, a process was developed that uses a fed batch approach with particle size reduction to provide a high dry weight of biomass content enzymatic saccharification reaction, which produces a high sugars concentration hydrolysate, using a low cost reactor system.

Hennessey, Susan M. (Avondale, PA); Seapan, Mayis (Landenberg, PA); Elander, Richard T. (Evergreen, CO); Tucker, Melvin P. (Lakewood, CO)

2010-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

415

METHOD TO PREVENT SULFUR ACCUMULATION INSIDE MEMBRANE ELECTRODE ASSEMBLY  

SciTech Connect

HyS is conceptually the simplest of the thermochemical cycles and involves only sulfur chemistry. In the HyS Cycle hydrogen gas (H{sub 2}) is produced at the cathode of the electrochemical cell (or electrolyzer). Sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) is oxidized at the anode to form sulfuric acid (H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}) and protons (H{sup +}) as illustrated below. A separate high temperature reaction decomposes the sulfuric acid to water and sulfur dioxide which are recycled to the electrolyzers, and oxygen which is separated out as a secondary product. The electrolyzer includes a membrane that will allow hydrogen ions to pass through but block the flow of hydrogen gas. The membrane is also intended to prevent other chemical species from migrating between electrodes and undergoing undesired reactions that could poison the cathode or reduce overall process efficiency. In conventional water electrolysis, water is oxidized at the anode to produce protons and oxygen. The standard cell potential for conventional water electrolysis is 1.23 volts at 25 C. However, commercial electrolyzers typically require higher voltages ranging from 1.8 V to 2.6 V [Kirk-Othmer, 1991]. The oxidation of sulfur dioxide instead of water in the HyS electrolyzer occurs at a much lower potential. For example, the standard cell potential for sulfur dioxide oxidation at 25 C in 50 wt % sulfuric acid is 0.29 V [Westinghouse, 1980]. Since power consumption by the electrolyzers is equal to voltage times current, and current is proportional to hydrogen production, a large reduction in voltage results in a large reduction in electrical power cost per unit of hydrogen generated.

Steimke, J.; Steeper, T.; Herman, D.; Colon-Mercado, H.; Elvington, M.

2009-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

416

Frostbite Theater - Liquid Nitrogen Experiments - Dry Ice vs. Liquid  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Egg + Liquid Nitrogen + Time-lapse! Egg + Liquid Nitrogen + Time-lapse! Previous Video (Egg + Liquid Nitrogen + Time-lapse!) Frostbite Theater Main Index Next Video (Liquid Nitrogen Cooled Dry Ice in Water!) Liquid Nitrogen Cooled Dry Ice in Water! Dry Ice vs. Liquid Nitrogen! Dry ice is cold. Liquid nitrogen is cold, too. What happens when the two are mixed together? [ Show Transcript ] Announcer: Frostbite Theater presents... Cold Cuts! No baloney! Joanna and Steve: Just science! Joanna: Hi! I'm Joanna! Steve: And I'm Steve! Joanna: Have you ever wondered what happens when you mix dry ice and liquid nitrogen? Steve: Well, we just happen to have a chunk of dry ice left over from when we filmed 'How to Make a Cloud Chamber,' and here at Jefferson Lab, liquid nitrogen flows like water, so we're going to find out!

417

California - Coastal Region Onshore Dry Natural Gas Proved Reserves  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Dry Natural Gas Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Dry Natural Gas Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) California - Coastal Region Onshore Dry Natural Gas Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 334 350 365 1980's 299 306 362 381 265 256 255 238 215 222 1990's 217 216 203 189 194 153 156 164 106 192 2000's 234 177 190 167 189 268 206 205 146 163 2010's 173 165 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 8/1/2013 Next Release Date: 8/1/2014 Referring Pages: Dry Natural Gas Proved Reserves as of Dec. 31 CA, Coastal Region Onshore Dry Natural Gas Proved Reserves Dry Natural Gas Proved Reserves as of 12/31 (Summary)

418

California - Los Angeles Basin Onshore Dry Natural Gas Proved Reserves  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Dry Natural Gas Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Dry Natural Gas Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) California - Los Angeles Basin Onshore Dry Natural Gas Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 255 178 163 1980's 193 154 96 107 156 181 142 148 151 137 1990's 106 115 97 102 103 111 109 141 149 168 2000's 193 187 207 187 174 176 153 144 75 84 2010's 87 97 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 8/1/2013 Next Release Date: 8/1/2014 Referring Pages: Dry Natural Gas Proved Reserves as of Dec. 31 CA, Los Angeles Basin Onshore Dry Natural Gas Proved Reserves Dry Natural Gas Proved Reserves as of 12/31 (Summary)

419

High Temperature Electrolysis using Electrode-Supported Cells  

SciTech Connect

An experimental study is under way to assess the performance of electrode-supported solid-oxide cells operating in the steam electrolysis mode for hydrogen production. The cells currently under study were developed primarily for the fuel cell mode of operation. Results presented in this paper were obtained from single cells, with an active area of 16 cm2 per cell. The electrolysis cells are electrode-supported, with yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) electrolytes (~10 µm thick), nickel-YSZ steam/hydrogen electrodes (~1400 µm thick), and manganite (LSM) air-side electrodes (~90 µm thick). The purpose of the present study was to document and compare the performance and degradation rates of these cells in the fuel cell mode and in the electrolysis mode under various operating conditions. Initial performance was documented through a series of DC potential sweeps and AC impedance spectroscopy measurements. Degradation was determined through long-duration testing, first in the fuel cell mode, then in the electrolysis mode over more than 500 hours of operation. Results indicate accelerated degradation rates in the electrolysis mode compared to the fuel cell mode, possibly due to electrode delamination. The paper also includes details of the single-cell test apparatus developed specifically for these experiments.

J. E. O'Brien; C. M. Stoots

2010-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

420

Electrodes synthesized from carbon nanostructures coated with a smooth and conformal metal adlayer  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

High-surface-area carbon nanostructures coated with a smooth and conformal submonolayer-to-multilayer thin metal films and their method of manufacture are described. The preferred manufacturing process involves the initial oxidation of the carbon nanostructures followed by a surface preparation process involving immersion in a solution with the desired pH to create negative surface dipoles. The nanostructures are subsequently immersed in an alkaline solution containing a suitable quantity of non-noble metal ions which adsorb at surface reaction sites. The metal ions are then reduced via chemical or electrical means. The nanostructures are exposed to a solution containing a salt of one or more noble metals which replace adsorbed non-noble surface metal atoms by galvanic displacement. The process can be controlled and repeated to obtain a desired film coverage. The resulting coated nanostructures may be used, for example, as high-performance electrodes in supercapacitors, batteries, or other electric storage devices.

Adzic, Radoslav; Harris, Alexander

2014-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dry process electrode" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Dry dig: Ethics and alcohol in Middle Eastern archaeological practice  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ARTICLE DRY DIG ETHICS AND ALCOHOL IN MIDDLE EASTERNhad encountered discussions of ethics, archaeology, andtower discussions regarding ethics and archaeology can ring

Porter, Benjamin W.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

422

,"Federal Offshore, Gulf of Mexico, Louisiana & Alabama Dry Natural...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Federal Offshore, Gulf of Mexico, Louisiana & Alabama Dry Natural Gas Proved Reserves",10,"Annual",2012,"6301981"...

423

,"New York Dry Natural Gas Expected Future Production (Billion...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","New York Dry Natural Gas Expected Future Production (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2013...

424

,"California State Offshore Dry Natural Gas Expected Future Production...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","California State Offshore Dry Natural Gas Expected Future Production (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2013...

425

,"Texas State Offshore Dry Natural Gas Expected Future Production...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

ame","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Texas State Offshore Dry Natural Gas Expected Future Production (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2013...

426

,"Louisiana State Offshore Dry Natural Gas Expected Future Production...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Louisiana State Offshore Dry Natural Gas Expected Future Production (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2013...

427

,"California Federal Offshore Dry Natural Gas Expected Future...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","California Federal Offshore Dry Natural Gas Expected Future Production (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2013...

428

,"Federal Offshore California Dry Natural Gas Proved Reserves...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Federal Offshore California Dry Natural Gas Proved Reserves",10,"Annual",2012,"6301977" ,"Release Date:","4...

429

,"U.S. Dry Natural Gas Proved Reserves"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","U.S. Dry Natural Gas Proved Reserves",10,"Annual",2013,"6301925" ,"Release Date:","1242014" ,"Next...

430

Hydrogen storage materials and method of making by dry homogenation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Dry homogenized metal hydrides, in particular aluminum hydride compounds, as a material for reversible hydrogen storage is provided. The reversible hydrogen storage material comprises a dry homogenized material having transition metal catalytic sites on a metal aluminum hydride compound, or mixtures of metal aluminum hydride compounds. A method of making such reversible hydrogen storage materials by dry doping is also provided and comprises the steps of dry homogenizing metal hydrides by mechanical mixing, such as be crushing or ball milling a powder, of a metal aluminum hydride with a transition metal catalyst. In another aspect of the invention, a method of powering a vehicle apparatus with the reversible hydrogen storage material is provided.

Jensen, Craig M. (Kailua, HI); Zidan, Ragaiy A. (Honolulu, HI)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

431

,"New York Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","New York Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2012 ,"Release...

432

,"New York Dry Natural Gas Reserves Sales (Billion Cubic Feet...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","New York Dry Natural Gas Reserves Sales (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2012 ,"Release...

433

,"New York Dry Natural Gas Reserves Acquisitions (Billion Cubic...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","New York Dry Natural Gas Reserves Acquisitions (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2012 ,"Release...

434

,"New York Dry Natural Gas Reserves Estimated Production (Billion...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","New York Dry Natural Gas Reserves Estimated Production (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2012...

435

,"New York Dry Natural Gas Reserves Extensions (Billion Cubic...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","New York Dry Natural Gas Reserves Extensions (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2012 ,"Release...

436

,"New York Dry Natural Gas Reserves Revision Decreases (Billion...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","New York Dry Natural Gas Reserves Revision Decreases (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2012...

437

,"New York Dry Natural Gas Reserves New Field Discoveries (Billion...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","New York Dry Natural Gas Reserves New Field Discoveries (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2012...

438

,"New York Dry Natural Gas Reserves Revision Increases (Billion...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","New York Dry Natural Gas Reserves Revision Increases (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2012...

439

Electrochemical studies of the corrosion behavior of carbon and weathering steels in alternating wet/dry environments with sulfur dioxide gas  

SciTech Connect

Electrochemical impedance techniques were used to investigate the corrosion behavior of carbon steel (CS) and weathering steel (WS) in sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2})-containing environments. Impedance measurements were conducted in a modified three-electrode electrochemical cell covered by a thin electrolyte layer during the wet/dry period. Results showed WS was more resistant to SO{sub 2}-induced atmospheric corrosion than CS. Three forms of impedance spectra were observed, depending upon exposure period. Accordingly, three impedance models were proposed to explain the characteristic impedance data and corrosion behaviors in different stages of exposure. The proposed models and equivalent circuits produced good agreement with experimental impedance data.

Wang, J.H.; Shih, H.C. [National Tsing Hua Univ., Hsinchu (Taiwan, Province of China). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; Wei, F.I. [China Steel Corp., Kaoshiung (Taiwan, Province of China)

1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

440

Atmospheric corrosion monitoring of a weathering steel under an electrolyte film in cyclic wet–dry condition  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) and film thickness measurements have been employed to study the corrosion monitoring of steel under an electrolyte film in wet–dry cycles simulating a coastal atmosphere. The results indicate that within each cycle, the corrosion rate increases during drying process due to an increase in Cl? concentration and an enhancement of oxygen diffusion by thinning out of the electrolyte. As corrosion process proceeds, the corrosion rate increases greatly and reaches a maximum. During subsequent corrosion stage, the corrosion rate decreases greatly and keeps at a low value due to the formation of a stable rust layer.

Ch. Thee; Long Hao; Junhua Dong; Xin Mu; Xin Wei; Xiaofang Li; Wei Ke

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dry process electrode" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Neutron Sciences - Electrode Material for Solid-oxide Fuel Cells  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Theory meets experiment: structure-property relationships in an electrode Theory meets experiment: structure-property relationships in an electrode material for solid-oxide fuel cells Research Contact: Ana B. Munoz-Garcia December 2012, Written by Agatha Bardoel Fuel cell technology is one potentially very efficient and environmentally friendly way to convert the chemical energy of fuels into electricity. Solid-oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) can convert a wide variety of fuels with simpler, cheaper designs than those used in liquid electrolyte cells. Using the Powder Diffractometer at the Spallation Neutron Source, researchers experimentally characterized the promising new SOFC electrode material strontium iron molybdenum oxide─Sr2Fe1.5Mo0.5O6-δ (SFMO). Combining the experimental results with insights from theory showed that the crystal structure is distorted from the ideal cubic simple perovskite

442

The future of coproducts from corn processing  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Increased demand for ethanol as a fuel additive has resulted in dramatic growth in ethanol production. Ethanol is produced from corn by either wet milling or dry-grind processing. In wet milling, the corn kernel ...

Kent D. Rausch; Ronald L. Belyea

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

443

A solar rechargeable battery based on polymeric charge storage electrodes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A solar rechargeable battery is constructed by use of a hybrid TiO2/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene, PEDOT) photo-anode and a ClO4? doped polypyrrole counter electrode. Here, the dye-sensitized TiO2/PEDOT photo-anode serves for positive charge storage and a p-doped \\{PPy\\} counter electrode acts for electron storage in LiClO4 electrolyte. The proposed device demonstrates a rapid photo-charge at light illumination and a stable electrochemical discharge in the dark, realizing an in situ solar-to-electric conversion and storage.

P. Liu; H.X. Yang; X.P. Ai; G.R. Li; X.P. Gao

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

444

Modified cermet fuel electrodes for solid oxide electrochemical cells  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An exterior porous electrode (10), bonded to a solid oxygen ion conducting electrolyte (13) which is in contact with an interior electrode (14), contains coarse metal particles (12) of nickel and/or cobalt, having diameters from 3 micrometers to 35 micrometers, where the coarse particles are coated with a separate, porous, multiphase layer (17) containing fine metal particles of nickel and/or cobalt (18), having diameters from 0.05 micrometers to 1.75 micrometers and conductive oxide (19) selected from cerium oxide, doped cerium oxide, strontium titanate, doped strontium titanate and mixtures thereof.

Ruka, Roswell J. (Churchill Boro, PA); Spengler, Charles J. (Murrysville, PA)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

445

Electrolytic photodissociation of chemical compounds by iron oxide electrodes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Chemical compounds can be dissociated by contacting the same with a p/n type semi-conductor diode having visible light as its sole source of energy. The diode consists of low cost, readily available materials, specifically polycrystalline iron oxide doped with silicon in the case of the n-type semi-conductor electrode, and polycrystalline iron oxide doped with magnesium in the case of the p-type electrode. So long as the light source has an energy greater than 2.2 electron volts, no added energy source is needed to achieve dissociation.

Somorjai, Gabor A. (Berkeley, CA); Leygraf, Christofer H. (Berkeley, CA)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

446

Batteries - Materials Processing and Manufacturing Breakout session  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Materials Processing and Manufacturing Materials Processing and Manufacturing Breakout Session #1 - Discussion of Performance Targets and Barriers Comments on the Achievability of the Targets * PHEV40 and AEV 100 possible with success in current R&D * Achievable with Li-ion manufacturing improvements and advanced chemistries in current Li-ion R&D * AEV300 more challenging * Requires manufacturing improvements and materials and chemistry improvements * Quantify benefits/ drawbacks of fast charging vs. increased electrode cost Barriers Interfering with Reaching the Targets * Materials cost * Need: Material synthesis in large quantities/ with increased impurities and broader size distributions or advanced manufacturing * Electrode thickness - manufacturing and performance * Separator cost/ performance/ safety

447

Cold Vacuum Drying Facility - Hanford Site  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Disposal Facility U Plant Vitrification Plant Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility Waste Receiving and Processing Facility Waste Sampling and Characterization Facility Waste...

448

Evaluation of potential food applications of dried distillers spent grain (DSG). Final research report  

SciTech Connect

Results from experimental test bakes indicate that dried distillers spent grain (DSG) can be used to replace up to 15% of the flour for the production of an acceptable variety bread, provided that the DSG is processed under optimum conditions for a satisfactory flavor and color development. The raw materials used for the mash bill may also affect the taste of the finished product. (MHR)

Not Available

1981-02-06T23:59:59.000Z

449

Cold Vacuum Drying facility fire protection system design description (SYS 24)  

SciTech Connect

This document describes the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF) fire protection system (FPS). The FPS provides fire detection, suppression, and loss limitation for the CVDF structure, personnel, and in-process spent nuclear fuel. The system provides, along with supporting interfacing systems, detection, alarm, and activation instrumentation and controls, distributive piping system, isolation valves, and materials and controls to limit combustibles and the associated fire loadings.

PITKOFF, C.C.

1999-07-06T23:59:59.000Z

450

Enhancement of film-forming reactions for microcrystalline Si growth in atmospheric-pressure plasma using porous carbon electrode  

SciTech Connect

We have investigated the structural and electrical properties of microcrystalline silicon ({mu}c-Si:H) films deposited with high rates ({>=}5 nm/s) at 220 deg. C in atmospheric-pressure He/H{sub 2}/SiH{sub 4} plasma excited by a 150 MHz, very high-frequency (VHF) power. For this purpose, Si films are prepared varying the deposition parameters, such as H{sub 2} and SiH{sub 4} flow rates (H{sub 2} and SiH{sub 4} concentrations) and VHF power density, using two types of electrode (porous carbon and cylindrical rotary electrodes). In the case of using the porous carbon electrode, a {mu}c-Si:H film having a crystalline volume fraction of 71.9% is obtained even when hydrogen is not added to the process gas mixture (H{sub 2}/SiH{sub 4}=0). In addition, the films exhibit considerably low defect densities of (3-5)x10{sup 16} cm{sup -3} despite the high deposition rates. Such high-rate depositions of good-quality films are realized primarily due to the chemical and physical excitations of the film-growing surface by the atmospheric-pressure plasma while suppressing ion damage and excessive heating of the surface. On the other hand, when using the cylindrical rotary electrode, the phase transition from amorphous to microcrystalline occurs at around H{sub 2}/SiH{sub 4}=70. The enhancement of the film-forming reactions by the porous carbon electrode are discussed from the viewpoint of the gas residence time in the plasma.

Kakiuchi, Hiroaki; Ohmi, Hiromasa; Inudzuka, Ryohei; Ouchi, Kentaro; Yasutake, Kiyoshi [Department of Precision Science and Technology, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

451

Nitrogen Control in Electric Arc Furnace Steelmaking by DRI (TRP 0009)  

SciTech Connect

Nitrogen is difficult to remove in electric arc furnace (EAF) steelmaking, requiring the use of more energy in the oxygen steelmaking route to produce low-nitrogen steel. The objective of this work was to determine if the injection of directly reduced iron (DRI) fines into EAFs could reduce the nitrogen content by creating fine carbon monoxide bubbles that rinse nitrogen from the steel. The proposed work included physical and chemical characterization of DRI fines, pilot-scale injection into steel, and mathematical modeling to aid in scale-up of the process. Unfortunately, the pilot-scale injections were unsuccessful, but some full-scale data was obtained. Therefore, the original objectives were met, and presented in the form of recommendations to EAF steelmakers regarding: (1) The best composition and size of DRI fines to use; (2) The amount of DRI fines required to achieve a specific reduction in nitrogen content in the steel; and (3) The injection conditions. This information may be used by steelmakers in techno-economic assessments of the cost of reducing nitrogen with this technology.

Dr. Gordon A. Irons

2004-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

452

Corrosion assessment of dry fuel storage containers  

SciTech Connect

The structural stability as a function of expected corrosion degradation of 75 dry fuel storage containers located in the 200 Area Low-Level Waste Burial Grounds was evaluated. These containers include 22 concrete burial containers, 13 55-gal (208-l) drums, and 40 Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II) transport/storage casks. All containers are buried beneath at least 48 in. of soil and a heavy plastic tarp with the exception of 35 of the EBR-II casks which are exposed to atmosphere. A literature review revealed that little general corrosion is expected and pitting corrosion of the carbon steel used as the exterior shell for all containers (with the exception of the concrete containers) will occur at a maximum rate of 3.5 mil/yr. Penetration from pitting of the exterior shell of the 208-l drums and EBR-II casks is calculated to occur after 18 and 71 years of burial, respectively. The internal construction beneath the shell would be expected to preclude containment breach, however, for the drums and casks. The estimates for structural failure of the external shells, large-scale shell deterioration due to corrosion, are considerably longer, 39 and 150 years respectively for the drums and casks. The concrete burial containers are expected to withstand a service life of 50 years.

Graves, C.E.

1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

453

Dry coating of micronized API powders for improved dissolution of directly compacted tablets with high drug loading  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Motivated by our recent study showing improved flow and dissolution rate of the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) powders (20 ?m) produced via simultaneous micronization and surface modification through continuous fluid energy milling (FEM) process, the performance of blends and direct compacted tablets with high drug loading is examined. Performance of 50 ?m API powders dry coated without micronization is also considered for comparison. Blends of micronized, non-micronized, dry coated or uncoated API powders at 30, 60 and 70% drug loading, are examined. The results show that the blends containing dry coated API powders, even micronized ones, have excellent flowability and high bulk density compared to the blends containing uncoated API, which are required for direct compaction. As the drug loading increases, the difference between dry coated and uncoated blends is more pronounced, as seen in the proposed bulk density-FFC phase map. Dry coating led to improved tablet compactibility profiles, corresponding with the improvements in blend compressibility. The most significant advantage is in tablet dissolution where for all drug loadings, the t80 for the tablets with dry coated \\{APIs\\} was well under 5 min, indicating that this approach can produce nearly instant release direct compacted tablets at high drug loadings.

Xi Han; Chinmay Ghoroi; Rajesh Davé

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

454

Chapter 5 - Gasification Processes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Publisher Summary There is a broad range of reactor types that are used in the practical realization of the gasification process. For most purposes, these reactor types can be grouped into one of three categories: moving-bed gasifiers, fluid-bed gasifiers, and entrained-flow gasifiers. Moving-bed processes are the oldest processes, and two processes in particular, the producer gas process and the water gas process, have played an important role in the production of synthesis gas from coal and coke. In moving bed processes, there are the sasol-lurgi dry bottom process, British Gas/Lurgi (BGL) slagging gasifier, that are detailed in the chapter along with their applications. Following this, fluid-bed processes are discussed in which the blast has two functions: that of blast as a reactant and that of the fluidizing medium for the bed. The best known fluid-bed gasifiers that have no tar problem are regenerators of catalytic cracking units that often operate under reducing, that is, gasification conditions that can be found in many refineries. HRL process, BHEL gasifier, circulating fluidized-bed (CFB) processes, the KBR transport gasifier, agglomerating fluid-bed processes, the Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne (PWR) gasifier, the GEE gasification process, the Shell Gasification Process (SGP), Lurgi’ s Multi-Purpose Gasification process (MPG), etc. are the various processes discussed in the chapter.

Christopher Higman; Maarten van der Burgt

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

455

Solvent Selection Use dry ice/isopropanol for cooling baths  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Solvent Selection Use dry ice/isopropanol for cooling baths Reaches essentially the same temperature as dry ice/acetone (-77°C vs. -78°C), but the lower volatility of isopropanol minimizes vapor a closed-loop cooling system for condensers Closed-loop cooling systems eliminate wastewater and accidental

Chan, Hue Sun

456

RISO-M-2438 Dry deposition and resuspension of  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

CO RISO-M-2438 2 S Dry deposition and resuspension of particulate matter in city environments N 1984 få #12;RIS�-M-2438 DRY DEPOSITION AND RESUSPENSION OF PARITUCLATE NATTER IN CITY ENVIRONMENTS N.O. Jensen Abstract. The report describes, mostly in qualitative terms, the deposition and resuspension

457

Simple approaches for measuring dry atmospheric nitrogen deposition to watersheds  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

'' and spatial variations of gaseous dry N deposition (i.e., nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and ammonia (NH3)), thoughSimple approaches for measuring dry atmospheric nitrogen deposition to watersheds Heather E. Golden the effects of atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition on surface water quality requires accurate accounts

Elliott, Emily M.

458

Dry friction avalanches: Experiment and theory Sergey V. Buldyrev,1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Dry friction avalanches: Experiment and theory Sergey V. Buldyrev,1 John Ferrante,2 and Fredy R and theoretical models are presented supporting the conjecture that dry friction stick-slip is described by self the variation of the friction force as a function of time. We study nominally flat surfaces of matching aluminum

Buldyrev, Sergey

459

Horizontal Air Flow Drying Foods at Home Safely  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Horizontal Air Flow Drying Foods at Home Safely Choosing a Food Dehydrator Drying is one. The thermostat should go up to 160 degrees F. The unit should have a fan or blower for air circulation. Mesh trays made of sturdy plastic that can be easily washed. UL seal of approval is recommended for safety

460

Innovative Drying Technology Extracts More Energy from High Moisture Coal |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Innovative Drying Technology Extracts More Energy from High Innovative Drying Technology Extracts More Energy from High Moisture Coal Innovative Drying Technology Extracts More Energy from High Moisture Coal March 11, 2010 - 12:00pm Addthis Washington, DC - An innovative coal-drying technology that will extract more energy from high moisture coal at less cost and simultaneously reduce potentially harmful emissions is ready for commercial use after successful testing at a Minnesota electric utility. The DryFining(TM) technology was developed with funding from the first round of the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Coal Power Initiative (CCPI). Great River Energy of Maple Grove, Minn., has selected the WorleyParsons Group to exclusively distribute licenses for the technology, which essentially uses waste heat from a power plant to reduce moisture content

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dry process electrode" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

The Radiance Process: Water and Chemical Free Cleaning  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Radiance Services Company manages a new technology called the Radiance Process®, a dry non-toxic technology for surface cleaning. The Radiance Process received the National Pollution Prevention Roundtable's 1997 Most Valuable Pollution Prevention...

Robison, J. H.

462

Improving the Efficiency of Your Process Cooling System  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Many industries require process cooling to achieve desired outcomes of specific processes. This cooling may come from cooling towers, once-through water, mechanical refrigeration, or cryogenic sources such as liquid nitrogen or dry ice. This paper...

Baker, R.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

463

Novel Electrode Materials for Low-Temperature Solid-Oxide Fuel Cells  

SciTech Connect

Composites electrodes consisting of silver and bismuth vanadates exhibit remarkable catalytic activity for oxygen reduction at 500-550 C and greatly reduce the cathode-electrolyte (doped ceria) resistances of low temperature SOFCs, down to about 0.53 {omega}cm{sup 2} at 500 C and 0.21 {omega}cm{sup 2} at 550 C. The observed power densities of 231, 332, and 443 mWcm-2 at 500, 525 and 550 C, respectively, make it possible to operate SOFCs at temperatures about 500 C. Fuel cell performance depends strongly on the anode microstructure, which is determined by the anode compositions and fabrication conditions. Four types of anodes with two kinds of NiO and GDC powders were investigated. By carefully adjusting the anode microstructure, the GDC electrolyte/anode interfacial polarization resistances reduced dramatically. The interfacial resistance at 600 C decreased from 1.61 {omega} cm{sup 2} for the anodes prepared using commercially available powders to 0.06 {omega} cm{sup 2} for those prepared using powders derived from a glycine-nitrate process. Although steam reforming or partial oxidation is effective in avoiding carbon deposition of hydrocarbon fuels, it increases the operating cost and reduces the energy efficiency. Anode-supported SOFCs with an electrolyte of 20 {micro}m-thick Gd-doped ceria (GDC) were fabricated by co-pressing. A catalyst (1 %wt Pt dispersed on porous Gd-doped ceria) for pre-reforming of propane was developed with relatively low steam to carbon (S/C) ratio ({approx}0.5), coupled with direct utilization of the reformate in low-temperature SOFCs. Propane was converted to smaller molecules during pre-reforming, including H{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, CO, and CO{sub 2}. A peak power density of 247 mW/cm{sup 2} was observed when pre-reformed propane was directly fed to an SOFC operated at 600 C. No carbon deposition was observed in the fuel cell for a continuous operation of 10 hours at 600 C. The ability of producing vastly different microstructures and morphologies of the very same material is critical to the fabrication of functionally graded electrodes for solid-state electrochemical devices such as SOFCs and lithium batteries. By carefully adjusting deposition parameters, we have successfully produced oxide nano-powders with the size of 30 {approx} 200 nm. Porous films with various microstructures and morphologies are also deposited on several substrates by systematic adjustment of the deposition parameters. Highly porous, excellently bonded and nano-structured electrodes fabricated by combustion CVD exhibit extremely high surface area and remarkable catalytic activities. Using in situ potential dependent FTIR emission spectroscopy, we have found evidence for two, possibly three distinct di-oxygen species present on the electrode surface. We have successfully identified which surface oxygen species is present under a particular electrical or chemical condition and have been able to deduce the reaction mechanisms. This technique will be used to probe the gas-solid interactions at or near the TPB and on the surfaces of mixed-conducting electrodes in an effort to understand the molecular processes relevant to the intrinsic catalytic activity. Broad spectral features are assigned to the electrochemical-polarization-induced changes in the optical properties of the electrode surface layer.

Shaowu Zha; Meilin Liu

2005-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

464

Seebeck and Peltier coefficients of hydrogen electrodes related to the  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and Technology #12;#12;Thermopower of concentration cell with hydrogen electrodes related to PEMFC Papy Mutuwa for clean energy started when I first heard about the advantages of sustainable energy at the Uni- versity with a specialization in Energy and gas Technology. This was a little bit different from Physical Chemistry. I

Kjelstrup, Signe

465

Can every Pt atom be utilized in FC electrodes?  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Presentation about platinum utilization in fuel cell electrodes, presented by Radoslav Adzic, Brookhaven National Laboratory, at the kick-off meeting of the U.S. Department of Energy Fuel Cell Technologies Program's Catalysis Working Group, held May 14, 2012, in Arlington, Virginia.

466

Graphene as a subnanometre trans-electrode , W. Hubbard2  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

#12;LETTERS Graphene as a subnanometre trans-electrode membrane S. Garaj1 , W. Hubbard2 , A. Reina3 of graphite, called graphene, have recently been the subject of intense research with the hope that practical and elec- trical sensitivity of graphene motivated us to investigate the poten- tial use of graphene

Golovchenko, Jene A.

467

Tunable organic transistors that use microfluidic source and drain electrodes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Tunable organic transistors that use microfluidic source and drain electrodes George Maltezos of organic transistor has the potential to be useful in plastic microfluidic devices that require active electronics directly with molded microfluidic channel arrays represents a promising way to increase

Rogers, John A.

468

Molybdenum-platinum-oxide electrodes for thermoelectric generators  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention is directed to a composite article suitable for use in thermoelectric generators. The article comprises a solid electrolyte carrying a thin film comprising molybdenum-platinum-oxide as an electrode deposited by physical deposition techniques. The invention is also directed to the method of making same.

Schmatz, Duane J. (Dearborn Heights, MI)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

469

Microporous Patterned Electrodes for Color-Matched Electrochromic Polymer Displays  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Microporous Patterned Electrodes for Color-Matched Electrochromic Polymer Displays Pierre of electroactive and conducting polymers offers new opportunities for the design of materials for electrochromic the most promising electrochromic (EC) properties. Here, we report the use of highly porous metallized

Tanner, David B.

470

Mediated electrochemical oxidation of organic wastes without electrode separators  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An electrochemical cell/electrolyte/mediator combination is described for the efficient destruction of organic contaminants using metal salt mediators in a sulfuric acid electrolyte, wherein the electrodes and mediator are chosen such that hydrogen gas is produced at the cathode and no cell membrane is required. 3 figs.

Farmer, J.C.; Wang, F.T.; Hickman, R.G.; Lewis, P.R.

1996-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

471

Elec 331 -Bio-Potential Electrodes Review Definitions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

voltages ­ Ohmic (Vr) · Resistance of surface layer · Resistance of electrolyte ­ Concentration (Vc) · Ion V I V I #12;Elec 331 - Bio-Potential Electrodes 5 Equivalent Circuit · Vhc = half-cell potential · Vop = over-potential · CJ = junction capacitance · RJ = junction resistance · RE = electrolyte

Pulfrey, David L.

472

Effect of Nafion and platinum content in a catalyst layer processed in a  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 Effect of Nafion and platinum content in a catalyst layer processed in a radio frequency helicon fuel cells (PEMFC). Electrodes with low Pt loading are prepared, assembled in custom-made membrane, the electrical performance of the custom-made MEA with one plasma prepared electrode (either anode or cathode

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

473

Removal of Chromium from Aqueous Solutions by Treatment with Carbon Aerogel Electrodes Using Response Surface Methodology  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Removal of Chromium from Aqueous Solutions by Treatment with Carbon Aerogel Electrodes Using Response Surface Methodology ... In the past few years, various researchers have used different materials as electrodes in the electrochemical reactors and filters. ...

Parul Rana-Madaria; Mohan Nagarajan; Chitra Rajagopal; Bhagwan S. Garg

2005-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

474

Simulation of Electric Potentials and Ion Motion in Planar Electrode Structures for Lossless Ion Manipulations (SLIM)  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We report a conceptual study and computational evaluation of novel planar electrode structures for lossless ion manipulations (SLIM). Planar electrode SLIM components were designed that allow for flexible ion ...

Sandilya V. B. Garimella; Yehia M. Ibrahim…

2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

475

Effects of electrode compression on the performance of a solid polymer electrolyte fuel cell  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The effects of electrode compression on the performance of a polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC) were investigated. Preliminary testing showed that considerable compression of the carbon cloth electrodes was provided by the PEFC structure. Further...

Del Campo, Christopher Scott

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

476

Resistance to earth of substation earth electrodes in uniform and two-layer soils  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The resistance to earth of square and rectangular grid and combined grid-multiple rods earth electrodes buried in uniform and two-layer soils has been analyzed for a wide set of electrodes and soil parameters. No...

J. Nahman; V. Djordjevi?

1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

477

Parameters of free-burning arc discharge plasma in air with silver-based electrodes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We have used optical spectroscopy to study the radial temperature profiles for an electric arc plasma between silver electrodes and electrodes made ... . We established that the parameters of the arc discharge pl...

I. L. Babich; A. N. Veklich; L. A. Kryachko…

2006-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

478

Reaction of CO/CO2 gas mixtures on Ni–YSZ cermet electrodes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The reaction of carbon monoxide/carbon dioxide mixtures on Ni–YSZ cermet electrodes was investigated as a function of the electrode potential and the partial pressures of the reactants at 1273 K. Time-dependen...

P. Holtappels; L. G. J. De Haart; U. Stimming…

1999-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

479

Stress fields in hollow core–shell spherical electrodes of lithium ion batteries  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...core-shell spherical electrodes of lithium ion batteries Yingjie Liu 1 Pengyu Lv...System, Department of Mechanics and Engineering Science, College of Engineering...structure design of electrodes of lithium ion batteries. lithium ion battery...

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

480

Controlling electrode gap during vacuum arc remelting at low melting current  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An apparatus and method are disclosed for controlling electrode gap in a vacuum arc remelting furnace, particularly at low melting currents. Spectrographic analysis is performed of the metal vapor plasma, from which estimates of electrode gap are derived. 5 figs.

Williamson, R.L.; Zanner, F.J.; Grose, S.M.

1997-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dry process electrode" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


481

Air-hydrogen fuel cell with two-level slotted silicon-based electrode  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The design of a two-level slotted silicon-based electrode and a technology of its manufacturing by anisotropic etching of (110)-oriented Si wafers are described. The electrode contains two layers, one with wid...

E. V. Astrova; A. A. Tomasov; D. N. Goryachev; N. K. Zelenina…

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

482

E-Print Network 3.0 - arrays electrode array Sample Search Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

results for: arrays electrode array Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 IMPROVED PLANAR PDMS PATCH ELECTRODE ARRAY Kathryn Greene Klemic, Xiaohui Li, James F Klemic, Mark A Reed, Fred J...

483

Characterization of Electrode Materials for Lithium Ion and Sodium Ion Batteries using Synchrotron Radiation Techniques  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Relationships in the Li-Ion Battery Electrode Material LiNiAl foil may be used for Li ion battery cathode materials andElectrode materials, Li ion battery, Na ion battery, X-ray

Doeff, Marca M.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

484

Poly(brilliant green)/carbon nanotube-modified carbon film electrodes and application as sensors  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Poly(brilliant green) (PBG) films were formed on carbon film electrodes (CFE) by electropolymerisation of brilliant green monomer using ... different pH solutions. The modified electrodes, PBG/CFE, were character...

M. Emilia Ghica; Y. Wintersteller…

2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

485

Nanopillar ITO electrodes via argon plasma etching  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The authors demonstrate the formation of vertically aligned indium tin oxide (ITO) nanopillars by exposing planar ITO films to Ar plasma the conditions of which determine the size spacing and aspect ratio of the pillars. Annealing in air and forming gas is used to recover and optimize the optical transmittance and electrical conductivity of the nanopillarfilms. The final product is an ITO film whose superior optical transmittance and strong electrical conductivity combine with its robust columnar morphology and processing scalability to make it suitable for use in highly absorbing organic solar cells.

Jaron G. Van Dijken; Michael J. Brett

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

486

Nanopillar ITO electrodes via argon plasma etching  

SciTech Connect

The authors demonstrate the formation of vertically aligned indium tin oxide (ITO) nanopillars by exposing planar ITO films to Ar plasma, the conditions of which determine the size, spacing, and aspect ratio of the pillars. Annealing in air and forming gas is used to recover and optimize the optical transmittance and electrical conductivity of the nanopillar films. The final product is an ITO film whose superior optical transmittance and strong electrical conductivity combine with its robust columnar morphology and processing scalability to make it suitable for use in highly absorbing organic solar cells.

Van Dijken, Jaron G.; Brett, Michael J. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2V4 (Canada); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2V4 (Canada) and NRC-National Institute for Nanotechnology, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2M9 (Canada)

2012-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

487

Structural Sensitivity of Dry Storage Canisters  

SciTech Connect

This LS-DYNA modeling study evaluated a generic used nuclear fuel vertical dry storage cask system under tip-over, handling drop, and seismic load cases to determine the sensitivity of the canister containment boundary to these loads. The goal was to quantify the expected failure margins to gain insight into what material changes over the extended long-term storage lifetime could have the most influence on the security of the containment boundary. It was determined that the tip-over case offers a strong challenge to the containment boundary, and identifies one significant material knowledge gap, the behavior of welded stainless steel joints under high-strain-rate conditions. High strain rates are expected to increase the material’s effective yield strength and ultimate strength, and may decrease its ductility. Determining and accounting for this behavior could potentially reverse the model prediction of a containment boundary failure at the canister lid weld. It must be emphasized that this predicted containment failure is an artifact of the generic system modeled. Vendor specific designs analyze for cask tip-over and these analyses are reviewed and approved by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Another location of sensitivity of the containment boundary is the weld between the base plate and the canister shell. Peak stresses at this location predict plastic strains through the whole thickness of the welded material. This makes the base plate weld an important location for material study. This location is also susceptible to high strain rates, and accurately accounting for the material behavior under these conditions could have a significant effect on the predicted performance of the containment boundary. The handling drop case was largely benign to the containment boundary, with just localized plastic strains predicted on the outer surfaces of wall sections. It would take unusual changes in the handling drop scenario to harm the containment boundary, such as raising the drop height or changing the impact angle. The seismic load case was derived from the August 23, 2011 earthquake that affected the North Anna power station. The source of the data was a monitoring station near Charlottesville, Virginia, so the ground motion is not an exact match. Stresses on the containment boundary were so low, even from a fatigue standpoint, that the seismic load case is generally not a concern. Based on this study, it is recommended that high strain rate testing of welded stainless steel test samples be pursued to define the currently unknown material behavior. Additional modeling is recommended to evaluate specific dry storage cask system designs subjected to tip-over loads using a high level of model detail. Additional modeling of the canister interior components (basket, fuel assemblies, etc.) is also recommended, to evaluate the feasibility of fuel retrievability after a tip-over incident. Finally, additional modeling to determine how much degradation a system could undergo and still maintain the integrity of the confinement barrier should be performed.

Klymyshyn, Nicholas A.; Karri, Naveen K.; Adkins, Harold E.; Hanson, Brady D.

2013-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

488

Dry aging beef for the retail channel  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

fabricated in a simulated retail cutting room at Texas A&M University to determine retail yields and processing times. Upon completion of cutting tests, steaks were served to consumers to determine palatability characteristics. Retail cutting tests showed...

Smith, Robert David

2007-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

489

Continuous blending of dry pharmaceutical powders  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Conventional batch blending of pharmaceutical powders coupled with long quality analysis times increases the production cycle time leading to strained cash flows. Also, scale-up issues faced in process development causes ...

Pernenkil, Lakshman

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

490

Zinc Oxide Modified with Benzylphosphonic Acids as Transparent Electrodes in Regular and Inverted Organic Solar Cell Structures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An approach is presented to modify the WF of solution-processed sol-gel derived ZnOover an exceptionally wide range of more than 2.3 eV. This approach relies on the formation of dense and homogeneous self-assembled monolayers based on phosphonic acids with different dipole moments. This allows us to apply ZnO as charge selective bottom electrodes in either regular or inverted solar cell structures, using P3HT:PCBM as the active layer. These devices compete with or even exceed the performance of the reference cell on ITO/PEDOT:PSS. Our finding challenges the current view that bottom electrodes in inverted solar cells need to be electron-blocking for good device performance.

Ilja Lange; Sina Reiter; Juliane Kniepert; Fortunato Piersimoni; Michael Paetzel; Jana Hildebrandt; Thomas Brenner; Stefan Hecht; Dieter Neher

2015-02-05T23:59:59.000Z

491

Adsorption site interconversion induced by electrode potential of CO on the Pt(100) single-crystal electrode  

SciTech Connect

The interconversion of adsorbed CO on Pt(100) between on-top and bridge-bonded sites induced by applied electrode potential was observed by infrared reflection-absorption spectroscopy. The bridge-bonded site is more favorable than the on-top site increases at the anodic potential region. The exchange of both adsorption sites is stoichiometric and completely reversible.

Kitamura, F.; Takahashi, M.; Ito, M.

1988-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

492

The single-electrode Peltier heats of Li-Al alloy electrodes in LiCl-KCl eutectic system  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents the single-electrode Peltier heat of cathodic (or anodic) reaction of Li-Al alloy electrode in a coexisting phase state, or an intermetallic compound phase state estimated by thermoelectric-power measurement. The thermoelectric-power measurements of Li-Al alloys in various coexisting phase states were carried out with both potentiometric and potential-sweep methods in the LiCl-KCl eutectic system between 673 and 843 K. The values of the thermoelectric power of Li-Al alloys calculated by using thermodynamic literature data were in good agreement with those obtained by experiment. The single-electrode Peltier heat changes drastically with change of its phase state, and it was found that the formation reactions of [beta] (Li[sub 0.5]Al[sub 0.5]) and [gamma] (Li[sub 0.6]Al[sub 0.4]) phases are exothermic, and those of liquid phase from [beta] and [gamma] phase are endothermic. The single-electrode Peltier heat for the cathodic formation reaction of Li-Al alloy in intermetallic compound [gamma] phase is estimated to be exothermic by using the measured values of thermoelectric powers of Li-Al alloys in ([beta] + [gamma]) and ([gamma] + liq.) regions.

Amezawa, Koji; Ito, Yasuhiko; Tomii, Yoichi (Kyoto Univ. (Japan))

1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

493

Design of a precision grinder with closed loop optical feedback for the manufacture of micro electro discharge machining electrodes.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This research focuses on the design of a precision grinder for the manufacture of electrodes used in micro-electro discharge machining (EDM). Electrodes used in micro-… (more)

Howe, Matthew Riga

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

494

Characterization of a spheromak plasma gun: The effect of refractory electrode coatings  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Characterization of a spheromak plasma gun: The effect of refractory electrode coatings M. FL Brown, the center electrode of the spheromak plasma gun has been coated with a variety of metals (bare steel, copper in the gun breech was monitored for each of the coated electrodes. Plasma density and temperature

Brown, Michael R.

495

Adsorption study of carbon oxides on reticulated vitreous carbon/RVC/plated with Ru electrode  

SciTech Connect

The adsorption of CO and CO2 on Ru/RVC and Ru/Pt electrodes has been studied by a potentiodynamic technique. It was shown that there are some differences between CO adsorption products on these two kinds of electrodes.CO2 adsorption on Ru electrode was not observed.

Czerwinski, A.

1987-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

496

Motion control of the ankle joint with a multiple contact nerve cuff electrode: a simulation study  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The flat interface nerve electrode (FINE) has demonstrated significant capability for fascicular and subfascicular stimulation selectivity. However, due to the inherent complexity of the neuromuscular skeletal systems and nerve---electrode interface, ... Keywords: Ankle joint, Functional electrical stimulation, Motion control, Nerve electrode, Nerve stimulation, Sciatic nerve

Hyun-Joo Park; Dominique M. Durand

2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

497

Author's personal copy Agar chemical hydrogel electrode binder for fuel-electrolyte-fed  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Author's personal copy Agar chemical hydrogel electrode binder for fuel-electrolyte-fed fuel cells­acid direct ethanol fuel cell Agar chemical hydrogel Electrode binder a b s t r a c t This work reports-based electrode offers better performance than the Nafion-based one does. A peak power density of 380 mW cm�2

Zhao, Tianshou

498

Integrated dry NO sub x /SO sub 2 emissions control system  

SciTech Connect

This project's goal is to demonstrate the removal up to 70% of the NO{sub x} and 70% of the SO{sub 2} emissions from coal fired utility boilers. It will establish an alternative emissions control technology integrating a combination of several processes, while minimizing capital expenditures and limiting waste production to dry solids that are handled with convention ash removal equipment. These processes include low-NO{sub x} burners and urea injection for NO{sub x} control, sodium- or calcium-based sorbent injection for SO{sub 2} control, and flue gas humidification to enhance the reactivity of the SO{sub 2} control compound.

Not Available

1991-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

499

Sizing of a hot dry rock reservoir from a hydraulic fracturing experiment  

SciTech Connect

Hot dry rock (HDR) reservoirs do not lend themselves to the standard methods of reservoir sizing developed in the petroleum industry such as the buildup/drawdown test. In a HDR reservoir the reservoir is created by the injection of fluid. This process of hydraulic fracturing of the reservoir rock usually involves injection of a large volume (5 million gallons) at high rates (40BPM). A methodology is presented for sizing the HDR reservoir created during the hydraulic fracturing process. The reservoir created during a recent fracturing experiment is sized using the techniques presented. This reservoir is then investigated for commercial potential by simulation of long term power production. 5 refs., 7 figs.

Zyvoloski, G.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

500

Vol. 83, No. 2, 2006 121 Analysis of Heat Transfer Fouling by Dry-Grind Maize Thin Stillage  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Vol. 83, No. 2, 2006 121 Analysis of Heat Transfer Fouling by Dry-Grind Maize Thin Stillage Using increases heat transfer resistance, energy use, cleaning costs, downtime to restore evaporators to optimal, particularly energy use. Under- standing the fouling of heat transfer surfaces and the tendencies of process