Sample records for droplet size distribution

  1. Droplet sizes, dynamics and deposition in vertical annular flow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lopes, J C.B.; Dukler, A E

    1985-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The role of droplets in vertical upwards annular flow is investigated, focusing on the droplet size distributions, dynamics, and deposition phenomena. An experimental program was performed based on a new laser optical technique developed in these laboratories and implemented here for annular flow. This permitted the simultaneous measurement of droplet size, axial and radial velocity. The dependence of droplet size distributions on flow conditions is analyzed. The Upper-Log Normal function proves to be a good model for the size distribution. The mechanism controlling the maximum stable drop size was found to result from the interaction of the pressure fluctuations of the turbulent flow of the gas core with the droplet. The average axial droplet velocity showed a weak dependence on gas rates. This can be explained once the droplet size distribution and droplet size-velocity relationship are analyzed simultaneously. The surprising result from the droplet conditional analysis is that larger droplet travel faster than smaller ones. This dependence cannot be explained if the drag curves used do not take into account the high levels of turbulence present in the gas core in annular flow. If these are considered, then interesting new situations of multiplicity and stability of droplet terminal velocities are encountered. Also, the observed size-velocity relationship can be explained. A droplet deposition is formulated based on the particle inertia control. This permitted the calculation of rates of drop deposition directly from the droplet size and velocities data.

  2. Dispersion of Cloud Droplet Size Distributions, Cloud Parameterizations and Indirect Aerosol Effects

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville Power AdministrationField Campaign:INEA : Papers Subfolders inDiscoveryDispersion of Cloud Droplet

  3. EVOLUTION OF DROPLET SIZE DISTRIBUTION AND AUTOCONVERSION PARAMETERIZATION IN TURBULENT CLOUDS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    .S. Department of Energy. The publisher by accepting the manuscript for publication acknowledges that the United or reproduce the published form of this manuscript, or allow others to do so, for United States Government condition (Weibull distribution) determined by the balance between diffusion and drift. Monte Carlo

  4. Corium droplet size in direct containment heating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sienicki, J.J.; Spencer, B.W.

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    For those light water reactor severe accident sequences in which molten corium is postulated to melt through the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) lower head at elevated primary system pressure and enter the cavity region beneath the vessel, the flow of corium from the RPV will be followed by a sustained high-pressure blowdown of steam and hydrogen through the breach remaining in the vessel. The gases flowing from the breached vessel constitute a source of driving forces capable of dispersing corium from the cavity as droplets into other parts of the containment. An important issue is the fraction of the dispersed corium thermal and chemical energy which may be transferred directly to the containment atmosphere. An important determinant of the extent of direct containment heating is the size of the corium droplets which are dispersed into the containment atmosphere. An analysis is presented here of the mass median droplet sizes in the Argonne National Laboratory CWTI-13 and CWTI-14 reactor material-direct containment heating experiments as well as the Sandia National Laboratory SPIT-19 thermite test. The observed median droplet diameters are shown to be in good agreement with a correlation for the drop size in ordinary annular flow, and a droplet size prediction is carried out for the reactor system.

  5. Sub-millimeter sized methyl butanoate droplet combustion: Microgravity experiments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walter, M.Todd

    -dependent, sphero-symmetric droplet combustion simulation that includes detailed gas phase chemical kineticsSub-millimeter sized methyl butanoate droplet combustion: Microgravity experiments and detailed 2012 Abstract Combustion characteristics of isolated sub-millimeter sized methyl butanoate (MB

  6. Inhomogeneous distribution of droplets in cloud turbulence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Itzhak Fouxon; Yongnam Park; Roei Harduf; Changhoon Lee

    2014-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

    We solve the problem of spatial distribution of inertial particles that sediment in turbulent flow with small ratio of acceleration of fluid particles to acceleration of gravity $g$. The particles are driven by linear drag and have arbitrary inertia. The pair-correlation function of concentration obeys a power-law in distance with negative exponent. Divergence at zero signifies singular distribution of particles in space. Independently of particle size the exponent is ratio of integral of energy spectrum of turbulence times the wavenumber to $g$ times numerical factor. We find Lyapunov exponents and confirm predictions by direct numerical simulations of Navier-Stokes turbulence. The predictions include typical case of water droplets in clouds. This significant progress in the study of turbulent transport is possible because strong gravity makes the particle's velocity at a given point unique.

  7. Effects of droplet size on intrusion of sub-surface oil spills

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chan, Godine Kok Yan

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis explores the effects of droplet size on droplet intrusion in sub-surface oil spills. Laboratory experiments were performed where glass beads of various sizes, which serve to simulate oil droplets in deepsea oil ...

  8. Thermo-fluid Dynamics of Flash Atomizing Sprays and Single Droplet Impacts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vu, Henry

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    flashing propane jets. Part two: droplet size distribution.distribution evolution after continuous or intermittent injection of butane or propaneflashing propane jets. Part two: droplet size distribution.

  9. Combustion characteristics of fuel droplets with addition of nano and micron-sized aluminum particles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qiao, Li

    Combustion characteristics of fuel droplets with addition of nano and micron-sized aluminum Aluminum nanoparticles Microexplosion Particle aggregation a b s t r a c t The burning characteristics of fuel droplets containing nano and micron-sized aluminum particles were investigated. Particle size

  10. Dryout droplet distribution and dispersed flow film boiling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hill, Wayne S.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Dispersed flow film boiling is characterized by liquid-phase droplets entrained in a continuous vapor-phase flow. In a previous work at MIT, a model of dispersed flow heat transfer was developed, called the Local Conditions ...

  11. The influence of droplet size upon the effectiveness of herbicidal application of 2, 4-D in beans

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dayhoff, Eldred Eugene

    1956-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    LIBRARY 4 S IS COLLESE OF TEXAS THE INFLUENCE OF DROPLET SIZE UPON THE EFFECTIVENESS OF HERBICIDAL APPLICATION OF 2, Q-D IN BEANS By ELDRED EUGENE DAYHOFF A Thesis Submitted to ths Graduate School of the Agricultural and Mechanical College... of Texas in partial fulfillment of ths requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August, 1956 MAJOR SUBJECT: RANGE MANAGEMENT THE INFLUENCE OF DROPLET SIZE UPON THE EFFECTIVENESS HERBICIDAL APPLICATION OF 2, $ D IN BEANS A Thesis By ELDRED...

  12. High flow rate nozzle system with production of uniform size droplets

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stockel, I.H.

    1990-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Method steps for production of substantially uniform size droplets from a flow of liquid include forming the flow of liquid, periodically modulating the momentum of the flow of liquid in the flow direction at controlled frequency, generating a cross flow direction component of momentum and modulation of the cross flow momentum of liquid at substantially the same frequency and phase as the modulation of flow direction momentum, and spraying the so formed modulated flow through a first nozzle outlet to form a desired spray configuration. A second modulated flow through a second nozzle outlet is formed according to the same steps, and the first and second modulated flows impinge upon each other generating a liquid sheet. Nozzle apparatus for modulating each flow includes rotating valving plates interposed in the annular flow of liquid. The plates are formed with radial slots. Rotation of the rotating plates is separably controlled at differential angular velocities for a selected modulating frequency to achieve the target droplet size and production rate for a given flow. The counter rotating plates are spaced to achieve a desired amplitude of modulation in the flow direction, and the angular velocity of the downstream rotating plate is controlled to achieve the desired amplitude of modulation of momentum in the cross flow direction. Amplitude of modulation is set according to liquid viscosity. 5 figs.

  13. High flow rate nozzle system with production of uniform size droplets

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stockel, Ivar H. (Bangor, ME)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Method steps for production of substantially uniform size droplets from a flow of liquid include forming the flow of liquid, periodically modulating the momentum of the flow of liquid in the flow direction at controlled frequency, generating a cross flow direction component of momentum and modulation of the cross flow momentum of liquid at substantially the same frequency and phase as the modulation of flow direction momentum, and spraying the so formed modulated flow through a first nozzle outlet to form a desired spray configuration. A second modulated flow through a second nozzle outlet is formed according to the same steps, and the first and second modulated flows impinge upon each other generating a liquid sheet. Nozzle apparatus for modulating each flow includes rotating valving plates interposed in the annular flow of liquid. The plates are formed with radial slots. Rotation of the rotating plates is separably controlled at differential angular velocities for a selected modulating frequency to achieve the target droplet size and production rate for a given flow. The counter rotating plates are spaced to achieve a desired amplitude of modulation in the flow direction, and the angular velocity of the downstream rotating plate is controlled to achieve the desired amplitude of modulation of momentum in the cross flow direction. Amplitude of modulation is set according to liquid viscosity.

  14. ARM - Measurement - Hydrometeor Size Distribution

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadap Documentation TDMADAP : XDC documentationBarrow,ice particleSize Distribution ARM Data

  15. Evolution of droplet size distribution and autoconversion parameterization

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville Power AdministrationField8,Dist. Category UC-l 1, 13Evacuation248 EvaluationMAYEvidencein

  16. Evaluation of the aerosol indirect effect in marine stratocumulus clouds: Droplet number, size, liquid water path, and radiative impact

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Russell, Lynn

    Evaluation of the aerosol indirect effect in marine stratocumulus clouds: Droplet number, size stratocumulus clouds in the northeastern Pacific Ocean were analyzed to determine the effect of aerosol particles on cloud microphysical and radiative properties. Seven nighttime and two daytime cases were

  17. The herbicidal effectiveness of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and 2,3,6,-trichlorobenzoic acid on beans as influenced by relative humidity and droplet size

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Morgan, Page Wesley

    1958-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    THE HERBICIDAL EFFECTIVENESS OF 2, 4-DICHLOROPHENOXYACETIC ACID AND 2, 3, 6-TRICHLOROBENZOIC ACID ON BEANS AS INFLUENCED BY RELATIVE HUMIDITY AND DROPLET SIZE By PAGE WESLEY MORGAN A Thesis Submitted to the Graduate School... TRICHLOROBENZO IC AC ID ON BEANS AS INFLUENCED BY RELATIVE HUMIDITY AND DROPLET SIZE A Thesis By PAGE WESLEY MORGAN Approved as to style and content by: / (Chairman of Commi ee) (Head of Dep e January, 1958 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT S With deepest appreciation...

  18. The Time Evolution of Aerosol Size Distribution Over the Mexico...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Size Distribution Over the Mexico City Plateau. The Time Evolution of Aerosol Size Distribution Over the Mexico City Plateau. Abstract: As part of the MILAGRO field campaign, the...

  19. Grain-size distributions of tsunami sediments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Spencer, Sarah

    2011-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

    of tsunamis. By implementing the use of simulation and modeling the tsunami depositional process may be fully understood. The program Python with PyLab was used to form distributions and calculate descriptive parameters with grain-size data from two past...

  20. 7, 1074310766, 2007 EC size distributions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    carbon in a coastal urban atmosphere in South China: characteristics, evolution processesACPD 7, 10743­10766, 2007 EC size distributions in an urban atmosphere in China Xiao-Feng Huang, Kowloon, Hong Kong, China Received: 30 May 2007 ­ Accepted: 19 July 2007 ­ Published: 25 July 2007

  1. 5, 1012510154, 2005 Size distributions of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    ·veh). The separation of the emission factor into passenger cars20 ((5.8±2)·1013 #/(km·veh)) and trucks ((2.5±0.9)·1015 #/(km·veh)) yielded in a 40-times higher emission factor for trucks compared to passenger cars. 1ACPD 5, 10125­10154, 2005 Size distributions of soot particles and emission factors D. Rose et al

  2. The influence of droplet size and biodegradation on the transport of subsurface oil droplets during the Deepwater Horizon: a model sensitivity study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    North, Elizabeth W

    A better understanding of oil droplet formation, degradation, and dispersal in deep waters is needed to enhance prediction of the fate and transport of subsurface oil spills. This research evaluates the influence of initial ...

  3. Particle size distribution of indoor aerosol sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shah, K.B.

    1990-10-24T23:59:59.000Z

    As concern about Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) has grown in recent years, it has become necessary to determine the nature of particles produced by different indoor aerosol sources and the typical concentration that these sources tend to produce. These data are important in predicting the dose of particles to people exposed to these sources and it will also enable us to take effective mitigation procedures. Further, it will also help in designing appropriate air cleaners. A new state of the art technique, DMPS (Differential Mobility Particle Sizer) System is used to determine the particle size distributions of a number of sources. This system employs the electrical mobility characteristics of these particles and is very effective in the 0.01--1.0 {mu}m size range. A modified system that can measure particle sizes in the lower size range down to 3 nm was also used. Experimental results for various aerosol sources is presented in the ensuing chapters. 37 refs., 20 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Parameterizing Size Distribution in Ice Clouds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeSlover, Daniel; Mitchell, David L.

    2009-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

    PARAMETERIZING SIZE DISTRIBUTIONS IN ICE CLOUDS David L. Mitchell and Daniel H. DeSlover ABSTRACT An outstanding problem that contributes considerable uncertainty to Global Climate Model (GCM) predictions of future climate is the characterization of ice particle sizes in cirrus clouds. Recent parameterizations of ice cloud effective diameter differ by a factor of three, which, for overcast conditions, often translate to changes in outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) of 55 W m-2 or more. Much of this uncertainty in cirrus particle sizes is related to the problem of ice particle shattering during in situ sampling of the ice particle size distribution (PSD). Ice particles often shatter into many smaller ice fragments upon collision with the rim of the probe inlet tube. These small ice artifacts are counted as real ice crystals, resulting in anomalously high concentrations of small ice crystals (D < 100 µm) and underestimates of the mean and effective size of the PSD. Half of the cirrus cloud optical depth calculated from these in situ measurements can be due to this shattering phenomenon. Another challenge is the determination of ice and liquid water amounts in mixed phase clouds. Mixed phase clouds in the Arctic contain mostly liquid water, and the presence of ice is important for determining their lifecycle. Colder high clouds between -20 and -36 oC may also be mixed phase but in this case their condensate is mostly ice with low levels of liquid water. Rather than affecting their lifecycle, the presence of liquid dramatically affects the cloud optical properties, which affects cloud-climate feedback processes in GCMs. This project has made advancements in solving both of these problems. Regarding the first problem, PSD in ice clouds are uncertain due to the inability to reliably measure the concentrations of the smallest crystals (D < 100 µm), known as the “small mode”. Rather than using in situ probe measurements aboard aircraft, we employed a treatment of ice cloud optical properties formulated in terms of PSD parameters in combination with remote measurements of thermal radiances to characterize the small mode. This is possible since the absorption efficiency (Qabs) of small mode crystals is larger at 12 µm wavelength relative to 11 µm wavelength due to the process of wave resonance or photon tunneling more active at 12 µm. This makes the 12/11 µm absorption optical depth ratio (or equivalently the 12/11 µm Qabs ratio) a means for detecting the relative concentration of small ice particles in cirrus. Using this principle, this project tested and developed PSD schemes that can help characterize cirrus clouds at each of the three ARM sites: SGP, NSA and TWP. This was the main effort of this project. These PSD schemes and ice sedimentation velocities predicted from them have been used to test the new cirrus microphysics parameterization in the GCM known as the Community Climate Systems Model (CCSM) as part of an ongoing collaboration with NCAR. Regarding the second problem, we developed and did preliminary testing on a passive thermal method for retrieving the total water path (TWP) of Arctic mixed phase clouds where TWPs are often in the range of 20 to 130 g m-2 (difficult for microwave radiometers to accurately measure). We also developed a new radar method for retrieving the cloud ice water content (IWC), which can be vertically integrated to yield the ice water path (IWP). These techniques were combined to determine the IWP and liquid water path (LWP) in Arctic clouds, and hence the fraction of ice and liquid water. We have tested this approach using a case study from the ARM field campaign called M-PACE (Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment). This research led to a new satellite remote sensing method that appears promising for detecting low levels of liquid water in high clouds typically between -20 and -36 oC. We hope to develop this method in future research.

  5. Pore size distribution and accessible pore size distribution in bituminous coals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sakurovs, Richard [ORNL; He, Lilin [ORNL; Melnichenko, Yuri B [ORNL; Radlinski, Andrzej Pawell [ORNL; Blach, Tomasz P [ORNL

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The porosity and pore size distribution of coals determine many of their properties, from gas release to their behavior on carbonization, and yet most methods of determining pore size distribution can only examine a restricted size range. Even then, only accessible pores can be investigated with these methods. Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) and ultra small-angle neutron scattering (USANS) are increasingly used to characterize the size distribution of all of the pores non-destructively. Here we have used USANS/SANS to examine 24 well-characterized bituminous and subbituminous coals: three from the eastern US, two from Poland, one from New Zealand and the rest from the Sydney and Bowen Basins in Eastern Australia, and determined the relationships of the scattering intensity corresponding to different pore sizes with other coal properties. The range of pore radii examinable with these techniques is 2.5 nm to 7 {micro}m. We confirm that there is a wide range of pore sizes in coal. The pore size distribution was found to be strongly affected by both rank and type (expressed as either hydrogen or vitrinite content) in the size range 250 nm to 7 {micro}m and 5 to 10 nm, but weakly in intermediate regions. The results suggest that different mechanisms control coal porosity on different scales. Contrast-matching USANS and SANS were also used to determine the size distribution of the fraction of the pores in these coals that are inaccessible to deuterated methane, CD{sub 4}, at ambient temperature. In some coals most of the small ({approx} 10 nm) pores were found to be inaccessible to CD{sub 4} on the time scale of the measurement ({approx} 30 min - 16 h). This inaccessibility suggests that in these coals a considerable fraction of inherent methane may be trapped for extended periods of time, thus reducing the effectiveness of methane release from (or sorption by) these coals. Although the number of small pores was less in higher rank coals, the fraction of total pores that was inaccessible was not rank dependent. In the Australian coals, at the 10 nm to 50 nm size scales the pores in inertinites appeared to be completely accessible to CD{sub 4}, whereas the pores in the vitrinite were about 75% inaccessible. Unlike the results for total porosity that showed no regional effects on relationships between porosity and coal properties, clear regional differences in the relationships between fraction of closed porosity and coal properties were found. The 10 to 50 nm-sized pores of inertinites of the US and Polish coals examined appeared less accessible to methane than those of the inertinites of Australian coals. This difference in pore accessibility in inertinites may explain why empirical relationships between fluidity and coking properties developed using Carboniferous coals do not apply to Australian coals.

  6. Size-independent vs. size-dependent policies in scheduling heavy-tailed distributions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nham, John (John T.)

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the problem of scheduling jobs on a two-machine distributed server, where the job size distribution is heavy-tailed. We focus on two distributions, for which we prove that the performance of the optimal size-independent ...

  7. activity size distributions: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of nutrients increased Mazumder, Asit 33 A COMPOSITE SOURCE MODEL WITH FRACTAL SUBEVENT SIZE DISTRIBUTION Geosciences Websites Summary: A COMPOSITE SOURCE MODEL WITH FRACTAL...

  8. activity size distribution: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of nutrients increased Mazumder, Asit 33 A COMPOSITE SOURCE MODEL WITH FRACTAL SUBEVENT SIZE DISTRIBUTION Geosciences Websites Summary: A COMPOSITE SOURCE MODEL WITH FRACTAL...

  9. ARM - Measurement - Aerosol particle size distribution

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadap Documentation TDMADAP : XDC documentationBarrow, AlaskaWhenimage ARM Dataparticle size

  10. INITIAL PLANETESIMAL SIZES AND THE SIZE DISTRIBUTION OF SMALL KUIPER BELT OBJECTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schlichting, Hilke E. [UCLA, Department of Earth and Space Science, 595 Charles E. Young Drive East, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Fuentes, Cesar I.; Trilling, David E., E-mail: hilke@ucla.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northern Arizona University, P.O. Box 6010, Flagstaff, AZ 86011 (United States)

    2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Kuiper Belt is a remnant from the early solar system and its size distribution contains many important constraints that can be used to test models of planet formation and collisional evolution. We show, by comparing observations with theoretical models, that the observed Kuiper Belt size distribution is well matched by coagulation models, which start with an initial planetesimal population with radii of about 1 km, and subsequent collisional evolution. We find that the observed size distribution above R {approx} 30 km is primordial, i.e., it has not been modified by collisional evolution over the age of the solar system, and that the size distribution below R {approx} 30 km has been modified by collisions and that its slope is well matched by collisional evolution models that use published strength laws. We investigate in detail the resulting size distribution of bodies ranging from 0.01 km to 30 km and find that its slope changes several times as a function of radius before approaching the expected value for an equilibrium collisional cascade of material strength dominated bodies for R {approx}< 0.1 km. Compared to a single power-law size distribution that would span the whole range from 0.01 km to 30 km, we find in general a strong deficit of bodies around R {approx} 10 km and a strong excess of bodies around 2 km in radius. This deficit and excess of bodies are caused by the planetesimal size distribution left over from the runaway growth phase, which left most of the initial mass in small planetesimals while only a small fraction of the total mass is converted into large protoplanets. This excess mass in small planetesimals leaves a permanent signature in the size distribution of small bodies that is not erased after 4.5 Gyr of collisional evolution. Observations of the small Kuiper Belt Object (KBO) size distribution can therefore test if large KBOs grew as a result of runaway growth and constrained the initial planetesimal sizes. We find that results from recent KBO occultation surveys and the observed KBO size distribution can be best matched by an initial planetesimal population that contained about equal mass per logarithmic mass bin in bodies ranging from 0.4 km to 4 km in radius. We further find that we cannot match the observed KBO size distribution if most of the planetesimal mass was contained in bodies that were 10 km in radius or larger simply because their resulting size distribution cannot be sufficiently depleted over 4.5 Gyr to match observations.

  11. Concentrations and Size Distributions of Particulate Matter Emissions...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Matter Emissions from Catalyzed Trap-Equipped Heavy-duty Diesel Vehicles Operating on Ultra-low Sulfur EC-D Fuel Concentrations and Size Distributions of Particulate Matter...

  12. Dust size distribution and concentrations with cottonseed oil mills

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wiederhold, Lee Roy

    1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    DUST SIZE DISTRIBUTION AND CONCENTRATIONS WITHIN COTTONSEED OIL MILLS A Thesis by LEE ROY WIEDERHOLD, JR. / I Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ARM University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER... OF SCIENCE August 1976 Major Subject: Aqricultural Engineering DUST SIZE DISTRIBUTION AND CONCENTRATIONS WITHIN COTTONSEED OIL MILLS A Thesis by LEE ROY WIEDERHOLD, JR. Approved as to style and content by: Chairman of Committee ~Hd fdp t Member ber...

  13. Collection strategy, inner morphology, and size distribution of dust particles in ASDEX Upgrade

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M. Balden; N. Endstrasser; P. W. Humrickhouse; V. Rohde; M. Rasinski; U. von Toussaint; S. Elgeti; R. Neu

    2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The dust collection and analysis strategy in ASDEX Upgrade (AUG) is described. During five consecutive operation campaigns (2007–2011), Si collectors were installed, which were supported by filtered vacuum sampling and collection with adhesive tapes in 2009. The outer and inner morphology (e.g. shape) and elemental composition of the collected particles were analysed by scanning electron microscopy. The majority of the ~50?000 analysed particles on the Si collectors of campaign 2009 contain tungsten—the plasma-facing material in AUG—and show basically two different types of outer appearance: spheroids and irregularly shaped particles. By far most of the W-dominated spheroids consist of a solid W core, i.e. solidified W droplets. A part of these particles is coated with a low-Z material; a process that seems to happen presumably in the far scrape-off layer plasma. In addition, some conglomerates of B, C and W appear as spherical particles after their contact with plasma. By far most of the particles classified as B-, C- and W-dominated irregularly shaped particles consist of the same conglomerate with varying fraction of embedded W in the B–C matrix and some porosity, which can exceed 50%. The fragile structures of many conglomerates confirm the absence of intensive plasma contact. Both the ablation and mobilization of conglomerate material and the production of W droplets are proposed to be triggered by arcing. The size distribution of each dust particle class is best described by a log-normal distribution allowing an extrapolation of the dust volume and surface area. The maximum in this distribution is observed above the resolution limit of 0.28 µm only for the W-dominated spheroids, at around 1 µm. The amount of W-containing dust is extrapolated to be less than 300 mg on the horizontal areas of AUG.

  14. Modeling the formation and size distribution of fly ash

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dahlin, R.S.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A set of mathematical models has been developed to predict the size distribution of fly ash particles formed in pulverized coal combustion. The large particle mode of the size distribution, typically centered about 10 to 20 ..mu..m, is predicted by a simple breakup model that is based on the complete coalescence of molten mineral inclusions within fragments of the devolatilized coal char. The ultrafine particle mode, that is typically centered about 0.1 to 0.2 ..mu..m, is modeled in terms of ash volatilization, nucleation, and coagulation. Silica and alumina are reduced to volatile suboxides through reactions at the char surface. The volatile suboxides are transported from the char surface where they are oxidized back to the stable oxides in the bulk gas, and then nucleated in accordance with homogeneous nucleation theory. The ultrafine nuclei coagulate in accordance with Brownian coagulation theory. The predicted particle size spectra have been compared to measured size distributions from a pilot-scale combustor and a full-scale utility boiler. Considering the disproportionate loss of coarse particles in the pilot-scale unit, the agreement between the predicted and measured size distributions was considered reasonably good. Both the predicted ultrafine and large particle modes agreed reasonably well with the measured particle size distribution for the full scale boiler. The validated computer models were used to study the effect of changes in the coal ash content, coal particle size, and the combustion flame temperature.

  15. Evolution of particle size distribution after the CFFF secondary combustor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Dujiu; Crawford, L.W.

    1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Particle size distribution after the CFFF secondary combustor is studied in this paper. As an important mechanism of particle collision, thermophoresis is briefly discussed in this paper and the thermophoretic velocity is given. The temperature gradient that causes the thermophoretic force is established between high and low temperature particles in the flow, which results from convection and radiation heat balance between particles and wall. Particle temperature with respect to their sizes is obtained. Mechanism of agglomeration and collection efficiency of fine particles is presented. Finally, at the inlet of the ESP, theoretical particle size distribution is compared with the experimental measurements at CFFF.

  16. Evolution of particle size distribution after the CFFF secondary combustor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Dujiu; Crawford, L.W.

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Particle size distribution after the CFFF secondary combustor is studied in this paper. As an important mechanism of particle collision, thermophoresis is briefly discussed in this paper and the thermophoretic velocity is given. The temperature gradient that causes the thermophoretic force is established between high and low temperature particles in the flow, which results from convection and radiation heat balance between particles and wall. Particle temperature with respect to their sizes is obtained. Mechanism of agglomeration and collection efficiency of fine particles is presented. Finally, at the inlet of the ESP, theoretical particle size distribution is compared with the experimental measurements at CFFF.

  17. ESTIMATION OF MATRIX BLOCK SIZE DISTRIBUTION IN NATURALLY FRACTURED RESERVOIRS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stanford University

    ESTIMATION OF MATRIX BLOCK SIZE DISTRIBUTION IN NATURALLY FRACTURED RESERVOIRS A Report Submitted;2 ABSTRACT Interporosity flow in a naturslly fractured reservoir is modelled by a new formulation of the distribution. Thus, observed pressure response from fractured reservoirs can be analysed to obtain the matrix

  18. Sedimentation of algae: relationships with biomass and size distribution1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mazumder, Asit

    Sedimentation of algae: relationships with biomass and size distribution1 Isabelle Larocque, A distribution of epilimnetic algae on patterns of algal sedimentation was determined in lake enclosures under the mean length of algae in fish-free enclosures and reduced the mean length in the enclosures to which

  19. Grain size, size-distribution and dislocation structure from diffraction peak profile analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gubicza, Jenõ

    Grain size, size-distribution and dislocation structure from diffraction peak profile analysis T, Budapest, Hungary Abstract Diffraction peak profile analysis (or Line Profile Analysis, LPA) has recently and the strain diffraction profiles. Strain anisotropy is rationalized in terms of the contrast factors

  20. Lognormal Size Distribution Theory for Deposition of Polydisperse Aerosol Particles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Park, S.H.; Lee, K.W. [Kwangju Institute of Science and Technology (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The moments method of the lognormal size distribution theory was applied to the deposition equation of a radioactive aerosol within a liquid-metal fast breeder reactor for analysis of postulated accidents. The deposition coefficient of Crump and Seinfeld was utilized to represent the Brownian and turbulent diffusions and the gravitational sedimentation. The deposition equation was converted into a set of three ordinary differential equations. This approach takes the view point that the size distribution of an aerosol is represented by a time-dependent lognormal size distribution function during the deposition process. Numerical calculations have been performed, and the results were found to be in good agreement with the exact solution. The derived model for aerosol deposition is convenient to use in a numerical general dynamic equation solution routine based on the moments method, where nucleation, condensation, coagulation, and deposition need to be solved simultaneously.

  1. Measurements and characterization of particle size distributions in coastal waters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stramski, Dariusz

    particle suspensions were measured using a laser diffractometer (LISST100X), an electrical impedance, the LISST provides an adequate proxy and has the capability for in situ measurements with high spatialMeasurements and characterization of particle size distributions in coastal waters R. A. Reynolds,1

  2. Loss Reduction of Power Distribution Network Using Optimum Size and Location of Distributed

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pota, Himanshu Roy

    Generation Adnan Anwar, Student Member, IEEE, and H. R. Pota, Member, IEEE Abstract--Distributed generation be reduced significantly. Index Terms--Distributed generation, Optimum size, Optimum location, Power loss directly to utility distribution system. The insulation level of the machines may not synchronize

  3. Explosive growth of inhomogeneities in the distribution of droplets in a turbulent air

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. A. Derevyanko; G. Falkovich; K. Turitsyn; S. Turitsyn

    2006-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

    We study how the spatial distribution of inertial particles evolves with time in a random flow. We describe an explosive appearance of caustics and show how they influence an exponential growth of clusters due to smooth parts of the flow, leading in particular to an exponential growth of the average distance between particles.

  4. Slant visual range from drop-size distribution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arrance, Edwin Stanley

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    YIci'Ai Ra', tq- DROP-SIZE DISTRIBU, ION A Thesi s EDWIN STANLEY ARPANCE Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas AIIM University in partial ful fi 1 lment of the requirement for the degree of M AS I . R 0 r S C I E I'I C E August I 9BO I...'laj or Subject: Mete orol oqy SLANT VISUAL RANGE FROM DROP-SIZE DISTRIBUTION A Thesis by EDWIN STANLEY ARRANCE Approved as to style and content by: Dr. Vance E. Moyer; (Chairman of Committee) Dr. Geor L. Huebner, Jr. (Member) Dr. Glen N. Williams...

  5. The Size Distribution of Superbubbles in the Interstellar Medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. S. Oey; C. J. Clarke

    1998-03-06T23:59:59.000Z

    We use the standard, adiabatic shell evolution to predict the size distribution N(R) for populations of SN-driven superbubbles in a uniform ISM. We derive N(R) for simple cases of superbubble creation rate and mechanical luminosity function. We then compare our predictions for N(R) with the largely complete HI hole catalogue for the SMC, with a view toward the global structure of the ISM in that galaxy. We also present a preliminary derivation for N(v), the distribution of shell expansion velocities.

  6. Aerosol size distribution evolution in large area fire plumes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Porch, W.M.; Penner, J.E.

    1986-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Large fires are significant seasonal contributors to western visibility reduction. We have found that the relative concentration of supermicron size particles (assumed to be a mixture of mechanically generated particles by high winds associated with large fires and low density chain aggregates from coagulation in the fire) and high turbulence in fire plumes can radically change the aerosol sizes in the fire plume. This is especially important for aerosols with high visibility reduction and long range transport potential. This calculation was done with a 10 level one dimensional model with parameterized vertical and horizontal diffusion, sedimentation and coagulation. The optical effects of the evolving concentration and size distributions were modeled using Mie scattering and absorption assumptions.

  7. Mineralogy and particle size of bed sediments 173 Chapter 7 -Quantitative Mineralogy and Particle-Size Distribution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mineralogy and particle size of bed sediments 173 Chapter 7 - Quantitative Mineralogy and Particle to assess particle-size distribution and mineralogical composition. Changes in particle- size distribution-ray diffraction, and their quantitative mineralogy was determined with a recently-developed computer program

  8. Lossless droplet transfer of droplet-based microfluidic analysis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kelly, Ryan T (West Richland, WA); Tang, Keqi (Richland, WA); Page, Jason S (Kennewick, WA); Smith, Richard D (Richland, WA)

    2011-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

    A transfer structure for droplet-based microfluidic analysis is characterized by a first conduit containing a first stream having at least one immiscible droplet of aqueous material and a second conduit containing a second stream comprising an aqueous fluid. The interface between the first conduit and the second conduit can define a plurality of apertures, wherein the apertures are sized to prevent exchange of the first and second streams between conduits while allowing lossless transfer of droplets from the first conduit to the second conduit through contact between the first and second streams.

  9. Population and Size Distribution of Small Jovian Trojan Asteroids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. C. Jewitt; C. A. Trujillo; J. X. Luu

    2000-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a study of Jovian Trojan objects detected serendipitously during the course of a sky survey conducted at the University of Hawaii 2.2-meter telescope. We used a 8192 x 8192 pixel charge-coupled device (CCD) mosaic to observe 20 deg^2 at locations spread over the L4 Lagrangian swarm and reached a limiting magnitude V = 22.5 mag (50% of maximum detection efficiency). Ninety-three Jovian Trojans were detected with radii 2 - 20 km (assumed albedo 0.04). Their differential magnitude distribution has a slope of 0.40 +/- 0.05 corresponding to a power law size distribution index 3.0 +/- 0.3 (1-sigma). The total number of L4 Trojans with radii > 1 km is of order 1.6 x 10^5 and their combined mass (dominated by the largest objects) is ~ 10^{-4} M_{Earth}. The bias-corrected mean inclination is 13.7 +/- 0.5 deg. We also discuss the size and spatial distribution of the L4 swarm.

  10. Method for measuring the size distribution of airborne rhinovirus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Russell, M.L.; Goth-Goldstein, R.; Apte, M.G.; Fisk, W.J.

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    About 50% of viral-induced respiratory illnesses are caused by the human rhinovirus (HRV). Measurements of the concentrations and sizes of bioaerosols are critical for research on building characteristics, aerosol transport, and mitigation measures. We developed a quantitative reverse transcription-coupled polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay for HRV and verified that this assay detects HRV in nasal lavage samples. A quantitation standard was used to determine a detection limit of 5 fg of HRV RNA with a linear range over 1000-fold. To measure the size distribution of HRV aerosols, volunteers with a head cold spent two hours in a ventilated research chamber. Airborne particles from the chamber were collected using an Andersen Six-Stage Cascade Impactor. Each stage of the impactor was analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR for HRV. For the first two volunteers with confirmed HRV infection, but with mild symptoms, we were unable to detect HRV on any stage of the impactor.

  11. The Superbubble Size Distribution in the Interstellar Medium of Galaxies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. S. Oey; C. J. Clarke

    1997-03-17T23:59:59.000Z

    We use the standard, adiabatic shell evolution to predict the size distribution N(R) for populations of OB superbubbles in a uniform ISM. We derive N(R) for simple cases of superbubble creation rate and mechanical luminosity function (MLF). For R R_e it is dominated by growing objects. We also briefly investigate N(R) resulting from momentum-conserving shell evolution. We predict a peak in N(R) corresponding to individual SNRs. To estimate the MLF, we also examine evolutionary effects on the HII region luminosity function (HII LF), finding that for nebular luminosity fading as a power law in time, there is a minimum observed slope for the HII LFs. Comparison with the largely complete HI hole catalog for the SMC shows surprising agreement in the predicted and observed slope of N(R), suggesting that no other fundamental process is needed to explain the size distribution of shells in the SMC. Further comparison with largely incomplete HI data for M31, M33, and Holmberg II is also encouraging. We present expressions for the ISM porosity parameters, and estimate that they are substantially <1 for all of the galaxies except Holmberg II. Most of these galaxies therefore may not be strongly dominated by a hot interstellar component. However, porosity results for the Galaxy remain inconclusive.

  12. Effect of Engine-Out NOx Control Strategies on PM Size Distribution...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Engine-Out NOx Control Strategies on PM Size Distribution in Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines Developed for 2010 Effect of Engine-Out NOx Control Strategies on PM Size Distribution in...

  13. Fine scale modeling of wintertime aerosol mass, number, and size distributions in central California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jacobson, Mark

    Fine scale modeling of wintertime aerosol mass, number, and size distributions in central with the observed PM number and size distributions (with an NMB of -13.9%), indicating the importance of coagulation scale modeling of wintertime aerosol mass, number, and size distributions in central California, J

  14. Measurements of Gas Bubble Size Distributions in Flowing Liquid Mercury

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wendel, Mark W [ORNL; Riemer, Bernie [ORNL; Abdou, Ashraf A [ORNL

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ABSTRACT Pressure waves created in liquid mercury pulsed spallation targets have been shown to induce cavitation damage on the target container. One way to mitigate such damage would be to absorb the pressure pulse energy into a dispersed population of small bubbles, however, measuring such a population in mercury is difficult since it is opaque and the mercury is involved in a turbulent flow. Ultrasonic measurements have been attempted on these types of flows, but the flow noise can interfere with the measurement, and the results are unverifiable and often unrealistic. Recently, a flow loop was built and operated at Oak Ridge National Labarotory to assess the capability of various bubbler designs to deliver an adequate population of bubbles to mitigate cavitation damage. The invented diagnostic technique involves flowing the mercury with entrained gas bubbles in a steady state through a horizontal piping section with a glass-window observation port located on the top. The mercury flow is then suddenly stopped and the bubbles are allowed to settle on the glass due to buoyancy. Using a bright-field illumination and a high-speed camera, the arriving bubbles are detected and counted, and then the images can be processed to determine the bubble populations. After using this technique to collect data on each bubbler, bubble size distributions were built for the purpose of quantifying bubbler performance, allowing the selection of the best bubbler options. This paper presents the novel procedure, photographic technique, sample visual results and some example bubble size distributions. The best bubbler options were subsequently used in proton beam irradiation tests performed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. The cavitation damage results from the irradiated test plates in contact with the mercury are available for correlation with the bubble populations. The most effective mitigating population can now be designed into prototypical geometries for implementation into an actual SNS target.

  15. ARM - Measurement - Cloud droplet size

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadap Documentation TDMADAP : XDC documentationBarrow, AlaskaWhenimageconcentration

  16. ARM Evaluation Product : Droplet Number Concentration Value-Added Product

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Riihimaki, Laura

    2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Cloud droplet number concentration is an important factor in understanding aerosol-cloud interactions. As aerosol concentration increases, it is expected that droplet number concentration, Nd, will increase and droplet size decrease, for a given liquid water path (Twomey 1977), which will greatly affect cloud albedo as smaller droplets reflect more shortwave radiation. However, the magnitude and variability of these processes under different environmental conditions is still uncertain. McComiskey et al. (2009) have implemented a method, based on Boers and Mitchell (1994), for calculating Nd from ground-based remote sensing measurements of optical depth and liquid water path. They show that the magnitude of the aerosol-cloud interactions (ACI) varies with a range of factors, including the relative value of the cloud liquid water path (LWP), the aerosol size distribution, and the cloud updraft velocity. Estimates of Nd under a range of cloud types and conditions and at a variety of sites are needed to further quantify the impacts of aerosol cloud interactions.

  17. ARM Evaluation Product : Droplet Number Concentration Value-Added Product

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Riihimaki, Laura

    Cloud droplet number concentration is an important factor in understanding aerosol-cloud interactions. As aerosol concentration increases, it is expected that droplet number concentration, Nd, will increase and droplet size decrease, for a given liquid water path (Twomey 1977), which will greatly affect cloud albedo as smaller droplets reflect more shortwave radiation. However, the magnitude and variability of these processes under different environmental conditions is still uncertain. McComiskey et al. (2009) have implemented a method, based on Boers and Mitchell (1994), for calculating Nd from ground-based remote sensing measurements of optical depth and liquid water path. They show that the magnitude of the aerosol-cloud interactions (ACI) varies with a range of factors, including the relative value of the cloud liquid water path (LWP), the aerosol size distribution, and the cloud updraft velocity. Estimates of Nd under a range of cloud types and conditions and at a variety of sites are needed to further quantify the impacts of aerosol cloud interactions.

  18. EFFECTS OF SAMPLE SIZE ON CHARACTERIZATION OF WOOD-PARTICLE LENGTH DISTRIBUTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    EFFECTS OF SAMPLE SIZE ON CHARACTERIZATION OF WOOD-PARTICLE LENGTH DISTRIBUTION Quang V. Cao of sample size on fitting length distribution of wood particles used for manufacturing wood-based composites moments and the ability of the sample distributions to characterize the population represented

  19. Fidelity of Analytic Drop Size Distributions in Drizzling Stratiform Clouds Based on Large-Eddy Simulations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kogan, Yefim L.; Kogan, Zena N.; Mechem, David B.

    2009-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Cloud microphysical parameterizations and retrievals rely heavily on knowledge of the shape of drop size distributions (DSDs). Many investigations assume that DSDs in the entire or partial drop size range may be approximated ...

  20. Size-dependent polarization distribution in ferroelectric nanostructures: Phase field simulations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Long-Qing

    to memory and storage devices, sen- sors, and actuators. The properties of low-dimensional ferro- electricsSize-dependent polarization distribution in ferroelectric nanostructures: Phase field simulations distribution in ferroelectric nanostructures embedded in a nonferroelectric medium. The simulation results

  1. Size distribution and chemical composition of aerosol particles in the free troposphere over Japan: Aircraft measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Iwasaka, Y.; Mori, I.; Mastunga, K. [Nagoya Univ. (Japan)

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Aircraft measurements of number-, mass- and volume-size distributions of aerosols and concentration of sulfate, nitrate and others contained in particulate matter were made in the free troposphere over Japan in 1991-1994. Number-size distribution frequently shows a peak in the area of a diameter of D {ge} 1 {mu}m in the free troposphere during observational periods. A few peaks are identified in the volume-size distribution as estimated on the basis of number-size distribution having single mode in a coarse range. Mass-size distribution frequently indicate enhancement in the coarse size range. This feature of the distribution is more frequent in those measurements made at 4.42 km than those at 2.29 km. On the basis of a backward trajectory analysis of the air mass containing those particles, soil particles originating from the Asian continent affect the features found in the size distributions as well as and vertical change in those size distributions. Particulate sulfate concentration in the free troposphere suggested that chemical transformation of particles with D {ge} 1 {mu}m advanced during long range transport of the particle possibly through coagulation of sulfate particles on coarse size particles such as Asian dust particles, adsorption of gaseous sulfate. Those measurements provide useful data et to discuss global geochemical cycle and radiative forcing of particles originated from the Asian continent.

  2. Size distribution of recruited alveolar volumes in airway reopening

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alencar, Adriano Mesquita

    during the reopening process can influence the distribution of recruited alveolar volumes and, hence, gas distribution of recruited alveolar volumes that become available for gas exchange during inflation from important quantity is the amount of alveolar volume available for gas exchange. This alveolar volume

  3. A fractal-based approach to lake size-distributions David A. Seekell,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pace, Michael L.

    A fractal-based approach to lake size-distributions David A. Seekell,1 Michael L. Pace,1 Lars J in regional and global biogeochemical processes. Lakes are fractal but do not always conform to the power law size-distribution typically associated with fractal geographical features. Here, we evaluate

  4. Optimum Allocation and Sizing of DG Unit for Efficiency Enhancement of Distribution System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pota, Himanshu Roy

    of appropriate size and location of DG reduces total power loss in a distribution system significantly and hence, Power loss reduction, Sensitivity analysis. I. INTRODUCTION Distributed Generation (DG) has gained its size and inappropriate allocation of generation may lead to higher power loss than when there is no DG

  5. Determination of pore-size distribution in low-dielectric thin films D. W. Gidleya)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gidley, David

    -size distribution on pore shape/dimensionality and sample temperature is predicted using a simple quantum mechanicalDetermination of pore-size distribution in low-dielectric thin films D. W. Gidleya) and W. E. Frieze Department of Physics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 T. L. Dull, J. Sun, and A

  6. A forward microphysical model to predict the size-distribution parameters of laboratory generated (mimic)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oxford, University of

    A forward microphysical model to predict the size- distribution parameters of laboratory generated Interactions ­ Condensational Growth and Coagulation, Submitted for Indian Aerosol Science and Technology Microphysical Model for the UTLS (FAMMUS) is applied to predict the size-distribution parameters of laboratory

  7. Size distribution of particle systems analyzed with organic photodetectors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sentis, Matthias

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As part of a consortium between academic and industry, this PhD work investigates the interest and capabilities of organic photo-sensors (OPS) for the optical characterization of suspensions and two-phase flows. The principle of new optical particle sizing instruments is proposed to characterize particle systems confined in a cylinder glass (standard configuration for Process Analytical Technologies). To evaluate and optimize the performance of these systems, a Monte-Carlo model has been specifically developed. This model accounts for the numerous parameters of the system: laser beam profile, mirrors, lenses, sample cell, particle medium properties (concentration, mean & standard deviation, refractive indices), OPS shape and positions, etc. Light scattering by particles is treated either by using Lorenz-Mie theory, Debye, or a hybrid model (that takes into account the geometrical and physical contributions). For diluted media (single scattering), particle size analysis is based on the inversion of scatter...

  8. SUPPORTING INFORMATION2 Simplifying aerosol size distributions modes4

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meskhidze, Nicholas

    la Barceloneta 37-49, 08003 Barcelona, Spain27 28 29 30 #12;2 1 Table S1: Hourly k-means cluster size.35 0.40 0.45 T1 T2 T3 UB1 RB1 RB2 NU MIX NIT CO(mgm-3) CO RS UB TC RB (j) Figure S2: Comparison: Comparison for each significant cluster at each site (RS, UB, TC, RB) of: a) particle number2 concentration

  9. Capillary droplets on Leidenfrost micro-ratchets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marin, Alvaro G; Römer, Gertwillem R B E; Pathiraj, B; Veld, Albertus Huis in 't; Lohse, Detlef

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Leidenfrost ratchets are structures with the ability of transporting liquid droplets when heated over the critical Leidenfrost temperature. Once this temperature is reached, the droplet levitates over the surface and moves in the direction marked by the slope of the ratchet at terminal velocities around 10 cm/s. Here we provide new experiments with micron-sized ratchets, which have been produced with picosecond pulse laser ablation. In the following work, we use a simple method to measure the thrust driving droplets of capillary size over the micro-ratchets. The mechanism responsible for the force acting on the drop on superheated ratchets has been recently under debate. We extend the recently proposed 'viscous mechanism' proposed by Dupeaux et al. [Europhys. Lett., 96, 58001 (2011)] to capillary droplets and find good agreement with our measurements.

  10. Distribution Network Design: Selection and Sizing of Congested Connections

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nagi, Rakesh

    promotions (i.e., seasonal) and regular demand. In response to this, at the strategic or aggregate level demand. Several multinational companies use distribution center networks in this manner. For example. For most fast moving consumer goods, demand patterns are quite erratic, being a function of both sales

  11. LOAD PROFILING IN DISTRIBUTED REALTIME SYSTEMS \\Lambda ``One Size Doesn't Fit All''

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    LOAD PROFILING IN DISTRIBUTED REAL­TIME SYSTEMS \\Lambda ``One Size Doesn't Fit All'' Azer Bestavros a new load­profiling strategy that allows the nodes of a distributed system to be unequally loaded. Using load profiling, the system attempts to distribute the load amongst its nodes so as to maximize

  12. The dune size distribution and scaling relations of barchan dune fields

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Orencio Durán; Veit Schwämmle; Pedro G. Lind; Hans J. Herrmann

    2008-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Barchan dunes emerge as a collective phenomena involving the generation of thousands of them in so called barchan dune fields. By measuring the size and position of dunes in Moroccan barchan dune fields, we find that these dunes tend to distribute uniformly in space and follow an unique size distribution function. We introduce an analyticalmean-field approach to show that this empirical size distribution emerges from the interplay of dune collisions and sand flux balance, the two simplest mechanisms for size selection. The analytical model also predicts a scaling relation between the fundamental macroscopic properties characterizing a dune field, namely the inter-dune spacing and the first and second moments of the dune size distribution.

  13. Effect of a polynomial arbitrary dust size distribution on dust acoustic solitons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ishak-Boushaki, M.; Djellout, D.; Annou, R. [Faculty of Physics, USTHB, P.B. 32 El Alia, Bab-ezzouar, Algiers (Algeria)

    2012-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The investigation of dust-acoustic solitons when dust grains are size-distributed and ions adiabatically heated is conducted. The influence of an arbitrary dust size-distribution described by a polynomial function on the properties of dust acoustic waves is investigated. An energy-like integral equation involving Sagdeev potential is derived. The solitary solutions are shown to undergo a transformation into cnoidal ones under some physical conditions. The dust size-distribution can significantly affect both lower and upper critical Mach numbers for both solitons and cnoidal solutions.

  14. Time Evolution of the Mutual Fund Size Distribution Yonathan Schwarzkopf1,2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    empirically and theoreti- cally. The size of large mutual funds has a heavy tailed distribution that has been into a power law only over long time scales, suggesting that log-normality comes about because the industry

  15. Particle size distribution and mineralogy of Brazilian Ferralsols: Significance for the structure and hydraulic properties

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Particle size distribution and mineralogy of Brazilian Ferralsols: Significance for the structure of the mineralogy on the structure and hydraulic properties of Ferralsols. The Ferralsols (F) studied were selected according to the mineralogy of the

  16. Lipid-Protein Interactions Alter Line Tensions and Domain Size Distributions in Lung Surfactant Monolayers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dhar, Prajnaparamita

    The size distribution of domains in phase-separated lung surfactant monolayers influences monolayer viscoelasticity and compressibility which, in turn, influence monolayer collapse and set the compression at which the ...

  17. An experimental investigation of acoustic cavitation as a fragmentation mechanism of molten tin droplets in water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bjørnard, Trond Arnold

    1974-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A series of experiments were performed where single molten tin droplets of known size, shape and temperature were dropped from a low height into a pool of distilled water. The pressure waves emanating from the hot droplets ...

  18. The effects of deposit thermal history on microstructure produced by uniform droplet spray forming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cherng, Jean-Pei Jeanie

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Uniform droplet spray forming is a process aimed at producing near-net-shape parts directly from the liquid melt by spraying micron-sized droplets onto a movable target. In spray forming, the solidification rate of the ...

  19. Effects of surface properties on solder bump formation by direct droplet deposition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hsiao, Wen Kai, 1972-

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent advances in microdroplet generation and deposition processes have made it possible to directly form solder bumps on integrated circuits using micron-sized molten metal droplets. The direct droplet deposition bumping ...

  20. The influence of particle-size distribution and moisture levels on the formation of soil hardpans

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bauer, Herman John

    1963-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    THE INFLUENCE OF PARTICLE-SIZE DISTRIBUTION AND MOISTURE LEVELS ON THE FORMATION OF SOIL HARDPANS A Thesis By HERMAN J. BAUER Submitted to the Graduate School of the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE January, 1963 Major Subject: Soil Physics THE INFLUENCE OF PARTICLE-SIZE DISTRIBUTION AND MOISTURE LEVELS ON THE FORMATION OF SOIL HARDPANS A Thesis By HERMAN J. BAUER Approved as to style and content...

  1. The influence of particle-size distribution and moisture levels on the formation of soil hardpans 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bauer, Herman John

    1963-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    THE INFLUENCE OF PARTICLE-SIZE DISTRIBUTION AND MOISTURE LEVELS ON THE FORMATION OF SOIL HARDPANS A Thesis By HERMAN J. BAUER Submitted to the Graduate School of the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE January, 1963 Major Subject: Soil Physics THE INFLUENCE OF PARTICLE-SIZE DISTRIBUTION AND MOISTURE LEVELS ON THE FORMATION OF SOIL HARDPANS A Thesis By HERMAN J. BAUER Approved as to style and content...

  2. Notes on representing grain size distributions obtained by electron backscatter diffraction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Toth, Laszlo S., E-mail: laszlo.metz@univ-lorraine.fr [Laboratoire d'Etude des Microstructures et de Mécanique des Matériaux (LEM3), UMR 7239, CNRS/Université de Lorraine, F-57045 Metz (France); Laboratory of Excellence on Design of Alloy Metals for low-mAss Structures (DAMAS), Université de Lorraine (France); Biswas, Somjeet, E-mail: somjeetbiswas@gmail.com [Laboratory of Excellence on Design of Alloy Metals for low-mAss Structures (DAMAS), Université de Lorraine (France); Gu, Chengfan, E-mail: chengfan.gu@unsw.edu.au [School of Materials Science and Engineering, The University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia); Beausir, Benoit, E-mail: benoit.beausir@univ-lorraine.fr [Laboratoire d'Etude des Microstructures et de Mécanique des Matériaux (LEM3), UMR 7239, CNRS/Université de Lorraine, F-57045 Metz (France); Laboratory of Excellence on Design of Alloy Metals for low-mAss Structures (DAMAS), Université de Lorraine (France)

    2013-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Grain size distributions measured by electron backscatter diffraction are commonly represented by histograms using either number or area fraction definitions. It is shown here that they should be presented in forms of density distribution functions for direct quantitative comparisons between different measurements. Here we make an interpretation of the frequently seen parabolic tales of the area distributions of bimodal grain structures and a transformation formula between the two distributions are given in this paper. - Highlights: • Grain size distributions are represented by density functions. • The parabolic tales corresponds to equal number of grains in a bin of the histogram. • A simple transformation formula is given to number and area weighed distributions. • The particularities of uniform and lognormal distributions are examined.

  3. Size distributions of ionic aerosols measured at Waliguan Observatory: Implication for nitrate gas-to-particle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jacobson, Mark

    Size distributions of ionic aerosols measured at Waliguan Observatory: Implication for nitrate gas Plateau. Size-resolved ionic aerosols (NH4 + , Na+ , K+ , Ca2+ , Mg2+ , SO4 2À , ClÀ , NO3 À CO3 2À , formate, acetate and oxalate), organic aerosols, black carbon and gaseous HNO3 and SO2 were measured

  4. Sieving duration and sieve loading impacts on dry soil fragment size distributions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Perfect, Ed

    ; accepted 18 June 2006 Abstract Measurement of the soil fragment size distribution has been found.g. wind and water erosion, infiltration and aeration) crop establishment and productivity (Skidmore et al is inversely related to the amount of applied energy, and does not necessarily reflect the size of aggregates

  5. Swimming active droplet: A theoretical analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maximilian Schmitt; Holger Stark

    2012-10-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Recently, an active microswimmer was constructed where a micron-sized droplet of bromine water was placed into a surfactant-laden oil phase. Due to a bromination reaction of the surfactant at the interface, the surface tension locally increases and becomes non-uniform. This drives a Marangoni flow which propels the squirming droplet forward. We develop a diffusion-advection-reaction equation for the order parameter of the surfactant mixture at the droplet interface using a mixing free energy. Numerical solutions reveal a stable swimming regime above a critical Marangoni number M but also stopping and oscillating states when M is increased further. The swimming droplet is identified as a pusher whereas in the oscillating state it oscillates between being a puller and a pusher.

  6. Solitary dust sound waves in a plasma with two-temperature ions and distributed grain size

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prudskikh, V. V. [Southern Federal University, Research Institute of Physics (Russian Federation)

    2009-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The propagation of weakly nonlinear dust sound waves in a dusty plasma containing two different-temperature ion species is explored. The nonlinear equations describing both the quadratic and cubic plasma nonlinearities are derived. It is shown that the properties of dust sound waves depend substantially on the grain size distribution. In particular, for solitary dust sound waves with a positive potential to exist in a plasma with distributed grain size, it is necessary that the difference between the temperatures of two ion species be larger than that in the case of equal-size grains.

  7. LOAD PROFILING IN DISTRIBUTED REAL-TIME SYSTEMS \\One Size Doesn't Fit All"

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    LOAD PROFILING IN DISTRIBUTED REAL-TIME SYSTEMS \\One Size Doesn't Fit All" Azer Bestavros (best@cs.bu.edu) Boston University Computer Science Department 111 Cummington street Boston, MA 02215 Abstract Load balancing is often used to ensure that nodes in a distributed systems are equally loaded. In this paper, we

  8. Spatial distribution and size evolution of particles in Asian outflow: Significance of primary and secondary aerosols during ACE-Asia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    volatility suggested increasing neutralization of the aerosol during growth. Size distribution measurements; KEYWORDS: ACE-Asia, TRACE-P, aerosol size distribution, nucleation, primary and secondary aerosols, condensation and coagulation Citation: Mc Naughton, C. S., et al. (2004), Spatial distribution and size

  9. Measurements of Aerosol Charge and Size Distribution for Graphite, Gold, Palladium, and Silver Nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simones, Matthew P.; Gutti, Veera R.; Meyer, Ryan M.; Loyalka, Sudarshan K.

    2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The role of charge on aerosol evolution and hence the nuclear source term has been an issue of interest, and there is a need for both experimental techniques and modeling for quantifying this role. Our focus here is on further exploration of a tandem differential mobility analyzer (TDMA) technique to simultaneously measure both the size and charge (positive, negative and neutral) dependent aerosol distributions. We have generated graphite, gold, silver, and palladium nanoparticles (aerosol) using a spark generator. We measure the electrical mobility-size distributions for these aerosols using a TDMA, and from these data we deduce the full charge-size distributions. We observe asymmetry in the particle size distributions for negative and positive charges. This asymmetry could have a bearing on the dynamics of charged aerosols, indicating that the assumption of symmetry for size distributions of negatively and positively charged particles in source term simulations may not be always appropriate. Also, the experimental technique should find applications in measurements of aerosol rate processes that are affected by both particle charge and size (e.g. coagulation, deposition, resuspension), and hence in modeling and simulation of the nuclear source term.

  10. TIME INTEGRATED MEASUREMENTS OF THE ACTIVITY-WEIGHTED SIZE DISTRIBUTION OF RADON PROGENY by

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    William C. Tetley P. E; Daniel R. Westcott; Bruce A. Cununings

    The dose to the lung is dependent on the size distribution as well as the concentration of radon progeny. The principal indicator of particle size is the diffusion coefficient. The diffusion coefficient of radon progeny is the most important parameter in determining whether the particle will deposit its alpha energy in the tracheobronchial region of the respiratory tract. Due to the importance of the size distribution of progeny when characterizing health effects, a detector was developed that exploits the difference in diffusion coefficients to provide integrated measurements of the activity-weighted size distribution. Several radon chamber tests were performed in which the diffusion coefficient and unattached fraction of radon progeny were varied by the use of trace gasses and aerosol particles. The technical feasibility of this new detector design was demonstrated in all cases.

  11. Lipid droplets fusion in adipocyte differentiated 3T3-L1 cells: A Monte Carlo simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boschi, Federico, E-mail: federico.boschi@univr.it [Department of Neurological and Movement Sciences, University of Verona, Strada Le Grazie 8, 37134 Verona (Italy); Department of Computer Science, University of Verona, Strada Le Grazie 15, 37134 Verona (Italy); Rizzatti, Vanni; Zamboni, Mauro [Department of Medicine, Geriatric Section, University of Verona, Piazzale Stefani 1, 37126 Verona (Italy); Sbarbati, Andrea [Department of Neurological and Movement Sciences, University of Verona, Strada Le Grazie 8, 37134 Verona (Italy)

    2014-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Several human worldwide diseases like obesity, type 2 diabetes, hepatic steatosis, atherosclerosis and other metabolic pathologies are related to the excessive accumulation of lipids in cells. Lipids accumulate in spherical cellular inclusions called lipid droplets (LDs) whose sizes range from fraction to one hundred of micrometers in adipocytes. It has been suggested that LDs can grow in size due to a fusion process by which a larger LD is obtained with spherical shape and volume equal to the sum of the progenitors’ ones. In this study, the size distribution of two populations of LDs was analyzed in immature and mature (5-days differentiated) 3T3-L1 adipocytes (first and second populations, respectively) after Oil Red O staining. A Monte Carlo simulation of interaction between LDs has been developed in order to quantify the size distribution and the number of fusion events needed to obtain the distribution of the second population size starting from the first one. Four models are presented here based on different kinds of interaction: a surface weighted interaction (R2 Model), a volume weighted interaction (R3 Model), a random interaction (Random model) and an interaction related to the place where the LDs are born (Nearest Model). The last two models mimic quite well the behavior found in the experimental data. This work represents a first step in developing numerical simulations of the LDs growth process. Due to the complex phenomena involving LDs (absorption, growth through additional neutral lipid deposition in existing droplets, de novo formation and catabolism) the study focuses on the fusion process. The results suggest that, to obtain the observed size distribution, a number of fusion events comparable with the number of LDs themselves is needed. Moreover the MC approach results a powerful tool for investigating the LDs growth process. Highlights: • We evaluated the role of the fusion process in the synthesis of the lipid droplets. • We compared the size distribution of the lipid droplets in immature and mature cells. • We used the Monte Carlo simulation approach, simulating 10 thousand of fusion events. • Four different interaction models between the lipid droplets were tested. • The best model which mimics the experimental measures was selected.

  12. Preliminary investigation of the role that DMS (dimethyl sulfide) and cloud cycles play in the formation of the aerosol size distribution. Interim report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoppel, W.A.; Fitzgerald, J.W.; Frick, G.M.; Larson, R.E.; Wattle, B.J.

    1987-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A series of experiments designed to study the production of new particulate matter by photolysis of dimethyl sulfide (DMS) and the effect that nonprecipitating clouds have on the aerosol size distributions were carried out in Calspan Corporation's 600 cum environmental chamber during January and February 1986. The results show that DMS, the most-abundant natural source of sulfur, is photooxidized to some product of low volatility that can form new particles by homogeneous nucleation or condense on existing aerosols causing them to grow. To explain these observations, a theoretical study of the nucleation properties of methane sulfonic acid (MSA) was undertaken. The nucleation thresholds, calculated using thermodynamic data for MSA, show that at 70% RH, and MSA concentration of only 0.006 ppb will result in a supersaturated environment in which MSA will condense on preexisting particles larger than 0.02-micron radius. If the MSA concentrations increase to 30 ppb, then spontaneous formation of MSA solution droplets occurs by homogeneous binary nucleation. Simulations of the evolution of the size distribution observed for the DMS irradiation experiments with a dynamic aerosol model that includes the effects of coagulation, growth by condensation, and deposition to the walls of the chamber, yield results that are in excellent agreement with the observed evolution.

  13. Levitated droplet dye laser

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Azzouz, H; Balslev, S; Johansson, J; Mortensen, N A; Nilsson, S; Kristensen, A

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present the first observation, to our knowledge, of lasing from a levitated, dye droplet. The levitated droplets are created by computer controlled pico-liter dispensing into one of the nodes of a standing ultrasonic wave (100 kHz), where the droplet is trapped. The free hanging droplet forms a high quality optical resonator. Our 750 nL lasing droplets consist of Rhodamine 6G dissolved in ethylene glycol, at a concentration of 0.02 M. The droplets are optically pumped at 532 nm light from a pulsed, frequency doubled Nd:YAG laser, and the dye laser emission is analyzed by a fixed grating spectrometer. With this setup we have achieved reproducible lasing spectra in the visible wavelength range from 610 nm to 650 nm. The levitated droplet technique has previously successfully been applied for a variety of bio-analytical applications at single cell level. In combination with the lasing droplets, the capability of this high precision setup has potential applications within highly sensitive intra-cavity absorban...

  14. Controlled Buckling and Crumpling of Nanoparticle-Coated Droplets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Datta, Sujit S; Weitz, David A; 10.1021/la103874z

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We introduce a new experimental approach to study the structural transitions of large numbers of nanoparticle-coated droplets as their volume is reduced. We use an emulsion system where the dispersed phase is slightly soluble in the continuous phase. By adding a fixed amount of unsaturated continuous phase, the volume of the droplets can be controllably reduced, causing them to buckle or crumple, thereby becoming nonspherical. The resultant morphologies depend both on the extent of volume reduction and the average droplet size. The buckling and crumpling behavior implies that the droplet surfaces are solid.

  15. Controlled Buckling and Crumpling of Nanoparticle-Coated Droplets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sujit S. Datta; Ho Cheung Shum; David A. Weitz

    2010-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

    We introduce a new experimental approach to study the structural transitions of large numbers of nanoparticle-coated droplets as their volume is reduced. We use an emulsion system where the dispersed phase is slightly soluble in the continuous phase. By adding a fixed amount of unsaturated continuous phase, the volume of the droplets can be controllably reduced, causing them to buckle or crumple, thereby becoming nonspherical. The resultant morphologies depend both on the extent of volume reduction and the average droplet size. The buckling and crumpling behavior implies that the droplet surfaces are solid.

  16. Final Report: Property Improvement in CZT via Modeling and Processing Innovations – Te-particles in vertical gradient freeze CZT: Size and Spatial Distributions and Constitutional Supercooling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Henager, Charles H.; Alvine, Kyle J.; Bliss, Mary; Riley, Brian J.; Stave, Jean A.

    2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A section of a vertical gradient freeze CZT boule approximately 2100-mm3 with a planar area of 300-mm2 was prepared and examined using transmitted IR microscopy at various magnifications to determine the three-dimensional spatial and size distributions of Te-particles over large longitudinal and radial length scales. The boule section was approximately 50-mm wide by 60-mm in length by 7-mm thick and was doubly polished for TIR work. Te-particles were imaged through the thickness using extended focal imaging to locate the particles in thickness planes spaced 15-µm apart and then in plane of the image using xy-coordinates of the particle center of mass so that a true three dimensional particle map was assembled for a 1-mm by 45-mm longitudinal strip and for a 1-mm by 50-mm radial strip. Te-particle density distributions were determined as a function of longitudinal and radial positions in these strips, and treating the particles as vertices of a network created a 3D image of the particle spatial distribution. Te-particles exhibited a multi-modal log-normal size density distribution that indicated a slight preference for increasing size with longitudinal growth time, while showing a pronounced cellular network structure throughout the boule that can be correlated to dislocation network sizes in CZT. Higher magnification images revealed a typical Rayleigh-instability pearl string morphology with large and small satellite droplets. This study includes solidification experiments in small crucibles of 30:70 mixtures of Cd:Te to reduce the melting point below 1273 K (1000?C). These solidification experiments were performed over a wide range of cooling rates and clearly demonstrated a growth instability with Te-particle capture that is suggested to be responsible for one of the peaks in the size distribution using size discrimination visualization. The results are discussed with regard to a manifold Te-particle genesis history as 1) Te-particle direct capture from melt-solid growth instabilities, 2) Te-particle formation from dislocation core diffusion and the formation and breakup of Te-tubes, and 3) Te-particle formation due to classical nucleation and growth as precipitates.

  17. Development of laboratory and process sensors to monitor particle size distribution of industrial slurries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pendse, H.P.

    1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper we present a novel measurement technique for monitoring particle size distributions of industrial colloidal slurries based on ultrasonic spectroscopy and mathematical deconvolution. An on-line sensor prototype has been developed and tested extensively in laboratory and production settings using mineral pigment slurries. Evaluation to date shows that the sensor is capable of providing particle size distributions, without any assumptions regarding their functional form, over diameters ranging from 0.1 to 100 micrometers in slurries with particle concentrations of 10 to 50 volume percents. The newly developed on-line sensor allows one to obtain particle size distributions of commonly encountered inorganic pigment slurries under industrial processing conditions without dilution.

  18. THERMAL EFFECTS ON DROPLET TRANSPORT IN DIGITIAL MICROFLUIDICS WITH APPLICATIONS TO CHIP COOLING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chakrabarty, Krishnendu

    THERMAL EFFECTS ON DROPLET TRANSPORT IN DIGITIAL MICROFLUIDICS WITH APPLICATIONS TO CHIP COOLING, on a platform we call "digital microfluidics," where nanoliter-sized discrete liquid droplets immersed in oil-dependent system parameters on droplet transport in this digital microfluidic platform. We demonstrate

  19. Finite Size Effects on the Real-Space Pair Distribution Function of Nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gilbert, Benjamin

    2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The pair distribution function (PDF) method is a powerful approach for the analysis of the structure of nanoparticles. An important approximation used in nanoparticle PDF simulations is the incorporation of a form factor describing nanoparticle size and shape. The precise effect of the form factor on the PDF is determined by both particle shape and structure if these characteristics are both anisotropic and correlated. The correct incorporation of finite size effects is important for distinguishing and quantifying the structural consequences of small particle size in nanomaterials.

  20. Ultrashort laser ablation of bulk copper targets: Dynamics and size distribution of the generated nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tsakiris, N.; Gill-Comeau, M.; Lewis, L. J. [Département de Physique et Regroupement Québécois sur les Matériaux de Pointe (RQMP), Université de Montréal, C.P. 6128, Succursale Centre-Ville, Montréal, Québec H3C 3J7 (Canada); Anoop, K. K.; Ausanio, G.; Bruzzese, R.; Amoruso, S., E-mail: amoruso@na.infn.it [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Napoli Federico II and CNR-SPIN, Complesso Universitario di Monte S. Angelo, Via Cintia, I-80126 Napoli (Italy)

    2014-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

    We address the role of laser pulse fluence on expansion dynamics and size distribution of the nanoparticles produced by irradiating a metallic target with an ultrashort laser pulse in a vacuum, an issue for which contrasting indications are present in the literature. To this end, we have carried out a combined theoretical and experimental analysis of laser ablation of a bulk copper target with ?50 fs, 800?nm pulses, in an interval of laser fluencies going from few to several times the ablation threshold. On one side, molecular dynamics simulations, with two-temperature model, describe the decomposition of the material through the analysis of the evolution of thermodynamic trajectories in the material phase diagram, and allow estimating the size distribution of the generated nano-aggregates. On the other side, atomic force microscopy of less than one layer nanoparticles deposits on witness plates, and fast imaging of the nanoparticles broadband optical emission provide the corresponding experimental characterization. Both experimental and numerical findings agree on a size distribution characterized by a significant fraction (?90%) of small nanoparticles, and a residual part (?10%) spanning over a rather large size interval, evidencing a weak dependence of the nanoparticles sizes on the laser pulse fluence. Numerical and experimental findings show a good degree of consistency, thus suggesting that modeling can realistically support the search for experimental methods leading to an improved control over the generation of nanoparticles by ultrashort laser ablation.

  1. Wetting kinetics of water nano-droplet containing non-surfactant nanoparticles: A molecular dynamics study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Gui [Key Laboratory for Thermal Science and Power Engineering of MOE, Beijing Key Laboratory for CO2 Utilization and Reduction Technology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China) [Key Laboratory for Thermal Science and Power Engineering of MOE, Beijing Key Laboratory for CO2 Utilization and Reduction Technology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Department of Mechanical Engineering and Mechanics, Drexel University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 (United States); Hu, Han; Sun, Ying, E-mail: yyduan@tsinghua.edu.cn, E-mail: ysun@coe.drexel.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Mechanics, Drexel University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 (United States)] [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Mechanics, Drexel University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 (United States); Duan, Yuanyuan, E-mail: yyduan@tsinghua.edu.cn, E-mail: ysun@coe.drexel.edu [Key Laboratory for Thermal Science and Power Engineering of MOE, Beijing Key Laboratory for CO2 Utilization and Reduction Technology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)] [Key Laboratory for Thermal Science and Power Engineering of MOE, Beijing Key Laboratory for CO2 Utilization and Reduction Technology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2013-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

    In this Letter, dynamic wetting of water nano-droplets containing non-surfactant gold nanoparticles on a gold substrate is examined via molecular dynamics simulations. The results show that the addition of non-surfactant nanoparticles hinders the nano-second droplet wetting process, attributed to the increases in both surface tension of the nanofluid and friction between nanofluid and substrate. The droplet wetting kinetics decreases with increasing nanoparticle loading and water-particle interaction energy. The observed wetting suppression and the absence of nanoparticle ordering near the contact line of nano-sized droplets differ from the wetting behaviors reported from nanofluid droplets of micron size or larger.

  2. Distribution and direct radiative forcing of carbonaceous and sulfate aerosols in an interactive size-resolving

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Distribution and direct radiative forcing of carbonaceous and sulfate aerosols in an interactive size-resolving aerosol­climate model Dongchul Kim,1 Chien Wang,1 Annica M. L. Ekman,2 Mary C. Barth,3 August 2008. [1] A multimode, two-moment aerosol model has been incorporated in the NCAR CAM3 to develop

  3. Measurements of Mexico City nanoparticle size distributions: Observations of new particle formation and growth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jimenez, Jose-Luis

    Measurements of Mexico City nanoparticle size distributions: Observations of new particle formation diameter range were performed in the Mexico City metropolitan area. These measurements were made during the period 10­20 April 2003 at a ground-based, mountain pass site in the southeast corner of the Mexico City

  4. Computational and experimental study of the cluster size distribution in MAPLE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhigilei, Leonid V.

    for 300 s (melting temperature of toluene is $178 K). Toluene is selected as the matrix solvent due films deposited in matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE). Analysis of high-resolution SEM-assisted pulsed laser evaporation; Cluster size distribution; Molecular dynamics; Laser ablation Matrix

  5. Investigation of the relationship between chemical composition and size distribution of airborne particles by partial least

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stanier, Charlie

    combustion sources, secondary aerosol, and coal-fired power plants. The size distribution, particle identified: secondary nitrate 1 and 2, remote traffic, secondary sulfate, lead, diesel traffic, coal-fired power plant, steel mill, nucleation, local traffic, and coke plant. Citation: Zhou, L., P. K. Hopke, C

  6. ON CENTRIFUGAL SETTLING OF POLYDISPERSE SUSPENSIONS WITH A CONTINUOUS PARTICLE SIZE DISTRIBUTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bürger, Raimund

    -density particles [3]. The settling of an N-disperse suspension, including the formation of sediment, can@ucn.cl ABSTRACT Gravity or centrifugal sedimentation of polydisperse suspensions with a continuous particle size distribution (PSD) can be modelled by a kinetic equation, which represents the limit case of a system

  7. A particle size distribution was determined from the image analysis. With more expensive equipment,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Demirel, Melik C.

    contributes to fines generation during mining operations, the best practice is to replace drill bits Distribution Analysis Overview Kennametal, Incorporated is a major manufacturer of drill bits for mining ideally sized, half-inch pieces of coal. Because dull drill bits on mining machines significantly

  8. Three-dimensional assemblies built up by quantum dots in size-quantization regime: Band gap shifts due to size-distribution of cadmium selenide nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pejova, Biljana, E-mail: biljana@pmf.ukim.mk

    2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In the present study, it is predicted that the band gap energy of a three-dimensional quantum dot assembly exhibits a red shift when the dispersion of the crystal size distribution is enlarged, even at a fixed average value thereof. The effect is manifested when the size quantization regime in individual quantum dots constituting the assembly has been entered. Under the same conditions, the sub-band gap absorption tails are characterized with large Urbach energies, which could be one or two orders of magnitude larger than the value characteristic for the non-quantized case. - Graphical abstract: Band gap shifts due to size-distribution of nanoparticles in 3D assemblies built up by quantum dots in size-quantization regime. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Optical absorption of 3D QD assemblies in size-quantization regime is modeled. • Band gap energy of the QD solid depends on the size-distribution of the nanoparticles. • QD solid samples with same ?R? exhibit band gap shift depending on size distribution. • QD size distribution leads to large Urbach energies.

  9. Probe measurements and numerical model predictions of evolving size distributions in premixed flames

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    De Filippo, A.; Sgro, L.A.; Lanzuolo, G.; D'Alessio, A. [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Chimica, Universita degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, Piazzale Tecchio 80, 80125 Napoli (Italy)

    2009-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Particle size distributions (PSDs), measured with a dilution probe and a Differential Mobility Analyzer (DMA), and numerical predictions of these PSDs, based on a model that includes only coagulation or alternatively inception and coagulation, are compared to investigate particle growth processes and possible sampling artifacts in the post-flame region of a C/O = 0.65 premixed laminar ethylene-air flame. Inputs to the numerical model are the PSD measured early in the flame (the initial condition for the aerosol population) and the temperature profile measured along the flame's axial centerline. The measured PSDs are initially unimodal, with a modal mobility diameter of 2.2 nm, and become bimodal later in the post-flame region. The smaller mode is best predicted with a size-dependent coagulation model, which allows some fraction of the smallest particles to escape collisions without resulting in coalescence or coagulation through the size-dependent coagulation efficiency ({gamma}{sub SD}). Instead, when {gamma} = 1 and the coagulation rate is equal to the collision rate for all particles regardless of their size, the coagulation model significantly under predicts the number concentration of both modes and over predicts the size of the largest particles in the distribution compared to the measured size distributions at various heights above the burner. The coagulation ({gamma}{sub SD}) model alone is unable to reproduce well the larger particle mode (mode II). Combining persistent nucleation with size-dependent coagulation brings the predicted PSDs to within experimental error of the measurements, which seems to suggest that surface growth processes are relatively insignificant in these flames. Shifting measured PSDs a few mm closer to the burner surface, generally adopted to correct for probe perturbations, does not produce a better matching between the experimental and the numerical results. (author)

  10. SIZE DISTRIBUTION AND RATE OF PRODUCTION OF AIRBORNE PARTICULATE MATTER GENERATED DURING METAL CUTTING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M.A. Ebadian, Ph.D.; S.K. Dua, Ph.D., C.H.P.; Hillol Guha, Ph.D.

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    During deactivation and decommissioning activities, thermal cutting tools, such as plasma torch, laser, and gasoline torch, are used to cut metals. These activities generate fumes, smoke and particulates. These airborne species of matter, called aerosols, may be inhaled if suitable respiratory protection is not used. Inhalation of the airborne metallic aerosols has been reported to cause ill health effects, such as acute respiratory syndrome and chromosome damage in lymphocytes. In the nuclear industry, metals may be contaminated with radioactive materials. Cutting these metals, as in size reduction of gloveboxes and tanks, produces high concentrations of airborne transuranic particles. Particles of the respirable size range (size < 10 {micro}m) deposit in various compartments of the respiratory tract, the fraction and the site in the respiratory tract depending on the size of the particles. The dose delivered to the respiratory tract depends on the size distribution of the airborne particulates (aerosols) and their concentration and radioactivity/toxicity. The concentration of airborne particulate matter in an environment is dependent upon the rate of their production and the ventilation rate. Thus, measuring aerosol size distribution and generation rate is important for (1) the assessment of inhalation exposures of workers, (2) the selection of respiratory protection equipment, and (3) the design of appropriate filtration systems. Size distribution of the aerosols generated during cutting of different metals by plasma torch was measured. Cutting rates of different metals, rate of generation of respirable mass, as well as the fraction of the released kerf that become respirable were determined. This report presents results of these studies. Measurements of the particles generated during cutting of metal plates with a plasma arc torch revealed the presence of particles with mass median aerodynamic diameters of particles close to 0.2 {micro}m, arising from condensation of vaporized material and subsequent rapid formation of aggregates. Particles of larger size, resulting from ejection of melted material or fragments from the cutting zone, were also observed. This study presents data regarding the metal cutting rate, particle size distribution, and their generation rate, while using different cutting tools and metals. The study shows that respirable particles constitute only a small fraction of the released kerf.

  11. Ultrahigh throughput plasma processing of free standing silicon nanocrystals with lognormal size distribution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dogan, Ilker; Kramer, Nicolaas J.; Westermann, Rene H. J.; Verheijen, Marcel A. [Department of Applied Physics, Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Dohnalova, Katerina; Gregorkiewicz, Tom [Van der Waals-Zeeman Institute, University of Amsterdam, Science Park 904, 1098 XH Amsterdam (Netherlands); Smets, Arno H. M. [Photovoltaic Materials and Devices Laboratory, Delft University of Technology, P.O. Box 5031, 2600 GA Delft (Netherlands); Sanden, Mauritius C. M. van de [Department of Applied Physics, Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Dutch Institute for Fundamental Energy Research (DIFFER), P.O. Box 1207, 3430 BE Nieuwegein (Netherlands)

    2013-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

    We demonstrate a method for synthesizing free standing silicon nanocrystals in an argon/silane gas mixture by using a remote expanding thermal plasma. Transmission electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy measurements reveal that the distribution has a bimodal shape consisting of two distinct groups of small and large silicon nanocrystals with sizes in the range 2-10 nm and 50-120 nm, respectively. We also observe that both size distributions are lognormal which is linked with the growth time and transport of nanocrystals in the plasma. Average size control is achieved by tuning the silane flow injected into the vessel. Analyses on morphological features show that nanocrystals are monocrystalline and spherically shaped. These results imply that formation of silicon nanocrystals is based on nucleation, i.e., these large nanocrystals are not the result of coalescence of small nanocrystals. Photoluminescence measurements show that silicon nanocrystals exhibit a broad emission in the visible region peaked at 725 nm. Nanocrystals are produced with ultrahigh throughput of about 100 mg/min and have state of the art properties, such as controlled size distribution, easy handling, and room temperature visible photoluminescence.

  12. Scale-free Universal Spectrum for Atmospheric Aerosol Size Distribution for Davos, Mauna Loa and Izana

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. M. Selvam

    2014-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Atmospheric flows exhibit fractal fluctuations and inverse power law form for power spectra indicating an eddy continuum structure for the selfsimilar fluctuations. A general systems theory for fractal fluctuations developed by the author is based on the simple visualisation that large eddies form by space-time integration of enclosed turbulent eddies, a concept analogous to Kinetic Theory of Gases in Classical Statistical Physics. The ordered growth of atmospheric eddy continuum is in dynamical equilibrium and is associated with Maximum Entropy Production. The model predicts universal (scale-free) inverse power law form for fractal fluctuations expressed in terms of the golden mean. Atmospheric particulates are held in suspension in the fractal fluctuations of vertical wind velocity. The mass or radius (size) distribution for homogeneous suspended atmospheric particulates is expressed as a universal scale-independent function of the golden mean, the total number concentration and the mean volume radius. Model predicted spectrum is in agreement (within two standard deviations on either side of the mean) with total averaged radius size spectra for the AERONET (aerosol inversions) stations Davos and Mauna Loa for the year 2010 and Izana for the year 2009 daily averages. The general systems theory model for aerosol size distribution is scale free and is derived directly from atmospheric eddy dynamical concepts. At present empirical models such as the log normal distribution with arbitrary constants for the size distribution of atmospheric suspended particulates are used for quantitative estimation of earth-atmosphere radiation budget related to climate warming/cooling trends. The universal aerosol size spectrum will have applications in computations of radiation balance of earth-atmosphere system in climate models.

  13. The inertial and electrical effects on aerosol sampling, charging, and size distribution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Chuenchung.

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An experimental study was conducted to investigate the effect of particle inertia on deposition behavior near the filter cassette sampler. Field sampling cassettes were tested in a subsonic wind tunnel for 0.2, 0.5 and 0.68 m/s wind speeds to simulate indoor air environment. Fluorescein aerosols of 2 and 5 {mu}m were generated from Berglund-Liu vibrating orifice generator as test material. Sampling tests were conducted in a subsonic wind tunnel with variables of particle size, wind speed, suction velocity and orientation of sampler examined to evaluate the combined effects. Sampling efficiencies were also examined. Electrostatic force is usually used as an effective method for removing, classifying and separating aerosols according to the electrical mobilities of the particulates. On the other hand, the aerosol charging theories possess differences in the ultrafine size range and need experimental verification. The present TSI's electrostatic aerosol analyzer has particle loss problem and cannot be used as a reliable tool in achieving efficient charging. A new unipolar charger with associated electronic circuits was designed, constructed and tested. The performance of the charger is tested in terms of particle loss, uncharged particles, and the collection efficiency of the precipitator. The results were compared with other investigator's data. The log-Beta distribution function is considered to be more versatile in representing size distribution. This study discussed the method in determining the size parameters under different conditions. Also the mutability of size distribution was evaluated when particles undergo coagulation or classification processes. Comparison of evolution between log-Beta and lognormal distributions were made.

  14. Particle Size Distribution Data From Existing Boreholes at the Immobilized Low-Activity Waste Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Valenta, Michelle M.; Martin, Maria B.; Moreno, Jorge R.; Ferri, Rosalie M.; Horton, Duane G.; Reidel, Stephen P.

    2000-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

    This report provides particle size distribution data for samples near the Immobilized Low-Activity Waste (ILAW) Site that were archived in the Hanford Geotechnical Sample Library. Seventy-nine sediment samples were analyzed from four boreholes. Samples were collected from every ten feet in the boreholes. Eightly percent of the samples were classified as slightly gravelly sand. Fifteen percent were classified as gravelly sand, gravelly silty sand, or sandy gravels. These data indicate that the particle size of the sediment is consistent across the ILAW site and is dominated by sand in the upper part of the Hanford formation with more gravel rich units in the lower part.

  15. 6/10/12 The use of acoustic inversion to estimate the bubble size distribution in pipelines 1/4energy-daily.com/.../The_use_of_acoustic_inversion_to_estimate_the_bubble_size_distribution_in_...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sóbester, András

    6/10/12 The use of acoustic inversion to estimate the bubble size distribution in pipelines 1 address ... yes . . . The use of acoustic inversion to estimate the bubble size distribution in pipelines devised a new method to more accurately measure gas bubbles in pipelines. The ability to measure gas

  16. Spontaneous Charging and Crystallization of Water Droplets in Oil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joost de Graaf; Jos Zwanikken; Markus Bier; Arjen Baarsma; Yasha Oloumi; Mischa Spelt; Rene van Roij

    2008-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the spontaneous charging and the crystallization of spherical micron-sized water-droplets dispersed in oil by numerically solving, within a Poisson-Boltzmann theory in the geometry of a spherical cell, for the density profiles of the cations and anions in the system. We take into account screening, ionic Born self-energy differences between oil and water, and partitioning of ions over the two media. We find that the surface charge density of the droplet as induced by the ion partitioning is significantly affected by the droplet curvature and by the finite density of the droplets. We also find that the salt concentration and the dielectric constant regime in which crystallization of the water droplets is predicted is enhanced substantially compared to results based on the planar oil-water interface, thereby improving quantitative agreement with recent experiments.

  17. How water droplets evaporate on a superhydrophobic substrate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gelderblom, Hanneke; Nair, Hrudya; van Houselt, Arie; Lefferts, Leon; Snoeijer, Jacco H; Lohse, Detlef

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Evaporation of water droplets on a superhydrophobic substrate, on which the contact line is pinned, is investigated. While previous studies mainly focused on droplets with contact angles smaller than $90^\\circ$, here we analyze almost the full range of possible contact angles (10$^\\circ$-150$^\\circ$). The greater contact angles and pinned contact lines can be achieved by the use of superhydrophobic Carbon Nanofiber substrates. The time-evolutions of the contact angle and the droplet mass are examined. The experimental data is in good quantitative agreement with the model presented by Popov (Physical Review E 71, 2005), demonstrating that the evaporation process is quasi-static, diffusion-driven, and that thermal effects play no role. Furthermore, we show that the experimental data for the evolution of both the contact angle and the droplet mass can be collapsed onto one respective universal curve for all droplet sizes and initial contact angles.

  18. The effect of fuel and engine design on diesel exhaust particle size distributions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baumgard, K.J.; Johnson, J.H. [Michigan Technological Univ., Houghton, MI (United States)

    1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this research was to obtain diesel particle size distributions from a 1988 and a 1991 diesel engine using three different fuels and two exhaust control technologies (a ceramic particle trap and an oxidation catalytic converter). The particle size distributions from both engines were used to develop models to estimate the composition of the individual size particles. Nucleation theory of the H{sub 2}O and H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} vapor is used to predict when nuclei-mode particles will form in the dilution tunnel. Combining the theory with the experimental data, the conditions necessary in the dilution tunnel for particle formation are predicted. The paper also contains a discussion on the differences between the 1988 and 1991 engine`s particle size distributions. The results indicated that nuclei mode particles (0.0075--0.046 {micro}m) are formed in the dilution tunnel and consist of more than 80% H{sub 2}O-H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} particles when using the 1988 engine and 0.29 wt% sulfur fuel. Nucleation theory indicated that H{sub 2}O-H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} particles may form during dilution at 0.03 wt% fuel sulfur levels and above. The 1991 engine was designed for lower particulate emissions than the 1988 engine and the 1991 engine`s accumulation mode particles (0.046-1.0 {micro}m) were reduced more than 80% by volume compared to the 1988 engine using the same low sulfur fuel. The particle size composition model indicated that using low sulfur fuel and the 1991 engine, the nuclei mode contained more than 45% of the total solid particles and over 85% of the soluble organic fraction.

  19. Finite-size analysis of a continuous-variable quantum key distribution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leverrier, Anthony [Institut Telecom / Telecom ParisTech, CNRS LTCI, 46 rue Barrault, 75634 Paris Cedex 13, France and ICFO-Institut de Ciences Fotoniques, E-08860 Castelldefels (Barcelona) (Spain); Grosshans, Frederic [Laboratoire de Photonique Quantique et Moleculaire, ENS de Cachan, UMR CNRS 8735, F-94235 Cachan Cedex (France); Grangier, Philippe [Laboratoire Charles Fabry, Institut d'Optique, CNRS, Universite Paris-Sud, Campus Polytechnique, RD 128, F-91127 Palaiseau Cedex (France)

    2010-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The goal of this paper is to extend the framework of finite-size analysis recently developed for quantum key distribution to continuous-variable protocols. We do not solve this problem completely here, and we mainly consider the finite-size effects on the parameter estimation procedure. Despite the fact that some questions are left open, we are able to give an estimation of the secret key rate for protocols which do not contain a postselection procedure. As expected, these results are significantly more pessimistic than those obtained in the asymptotic regime. However, we show that recent continuous-variable protocols are able to provide fully secure secret keys in the finite-size scenario, over distances larger than 50 km.

  20. Soil water and particle size distribution influence laboratory-generated PM10 Nicholaus M. Madden a,*, Randal J. Southard a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ahmad, Sajjad

    Soil water and particle size distribution influence laboratory-generated PM10 Nicholaus M. Madden a Soil particle size distribution Soil water content a b s t r a c t Management of soils to reduce earlier work of predicting tillage-generated dust emissions based on soil properties. We focus

  1. Chip-based droplet sorting

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beer, Neil Reginald; Lee, Abraham; Hatch, Andrew

    2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A non-contact system for sorting monodisperse water-in-oil emulsion droplets in a microfluidic device based on the droplet's contents and their interaction with an applied electromagnetic field or by identification and sorting.

  2. Research on droplet formation for application to kraft black liquors---Final project report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bousfield, D.W.

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project was to generate technical data to guide the design of new nozzles for kraft black liquor recovery boilers. The goal of new nozzle designs would be to narrow the droplet size distribution compared to current nozzles and to adjust for changing black liquor properties and production requirements. Uniform droplets in a recovery boiler should reduce fouling of superheater tubes and caused a more efficient burning of the black liquor, both of which result in improved energy efficiency. The research was organized into five tasks which are described in the next chapter. This fifth and final project report contains the details of Task 4 and 5 and further analysis of Task 1 results. The details of the other tasks are reported in previous technical reports. The major results from the entire project are highlighted in this section in order of significance.

  3. Nucleation, transition, and maturing of the self-assembled Au droplets on various type-A GaAs substrates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Ming-Yu, E-mail: mingyuli.oliver@gmail.com; Sui, Mao; Kim, Eun-Soo [College of Electronics and Information, Kwangwoon University, Nowon-gu, Seoul 139-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jihoon, E-mail: jihoonleenano@gmail.com [College of Electronics and Information, Kwangwoon University, Nowon-gu, Seoul 139-701 (Korea, Republic of); Institute of Nanoscale Science and Engineering, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, Arkansas 72701 (United States)

    2014-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

    In this study, the fabrication of self-assembled Au droplets is successfully demonstrated on various type-A GaAs substrates: (711)A, (511)A, (411)A, and (311)A. The nucleation of the self-assembled tiny Au clusters is observed at 300?°C. As an intermediate stage, corrugated Au nanostructures are clearly observed at 350?°C on various type-A GaAs surfaces, rarely witnessed on other substrates. Based on the Volmer-Weber growth mode, the dome-shaped Au droplets with excellent uniformities are successfully fabricated between 500 and 550?°C. As a function of annealing temperature, the self-assembled Au droplets show the increased dimensions including average height and diameter, compensated by the decreased average density. Depending on the substrate indices utilized, the size and density of Au droplets show clear differences throughout the whole temperature range. The results are symmetrically analyzed by using atomic force microscope images, cross-sectional line-profiles, size and density plots, height distribution histograms, and Fourier filter transform power spectra.

  4. Prediction of the Size Distributions of Methanol-Ethanol Clusters Detected in VUV Laser/Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goddard III, William A.

    Prediction of the Size Distributions of Methanol-Ethanol Clusters Detected in VUV Laser distributions and geometries of vapor clusters equilibrated with methanol-ethanol (Me-Et) liquid mixtures were distributions of vapor clusters equilibrated with liquids, ranging from neat alcohols1,2 to methanol-ethanol (Me

  5. Comparison of airborne and surface particulate size distributions in specific Hanford Nuclear Facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ottley, D.B.

    1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Settled dust from nuclear operations may be contaminated with radionuclides and become resuspended and subsequently breathed. This is the predominate radionuclide inhalation hazard scenario in nuclear facilities that have been deactivated and no longer have liquid in their process systems that may become directly airborne in accident situations. Comparisons were made between indoor ambient airborne particulate size distribution and that of resuspended dust that could become contaminated and subsequently airborne during decommissioning operations at selected nuclear facilities on the Hanford Site. Results indicate that only 5% of the particles, by count, above the breathing zone are greater than ten (10) {mu}m in size and that the particulates that could be resuspended into the breathing zone had a mean aerodynamic equivalent diameter of four (4) {mu}m or less.

  6. Vertical transport and dynamic size distribution of New Bedford Harbor sediments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sanders, Stephanie Carol

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    02? 1000 0 E 0 08 0 0 06- o IO OO. . " 6 Krone 1000 m 530 O. C 2- 120 0~~~1 oOI- Allersma 0 61- 0 I- 06- 06 04 06[ 02 0 0 2 4 8 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 Salinity (ppt) Fig. 8. - Variation of Particle Settling Velocity...VERTICAL ~SPORT AND DYNAMIC SIZE DISTRIBUTION OF NEW BEDFORD HARBOR SEDIMENTS A Thesis STEPHANIE CAROL SANDERS Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&:M University in partia! fulfillment of the requuements for the degree...

  7. The effect of dust size distribution on quantum dust acoustic wave

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    El-Labany, S. K.; El-Taibany, W. F.; Behery, E. E. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Mansoura University, Damietta Branch, Damietta El-Gedida, P.O. 34517 (Egypt); El-Siragy, N. M. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Tanta University, Tanta, P.O. 31527 (Egypt)

    2009-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Based on the quantum hydrodynamics theory, a proposed model for quantum dust acoustic waves (QDAWs) is presented including the dust size distribution (DSD) effect. A quantum version of Zakharov-Kuznetsov equation is derived adequate for describing QDAWs. Two different DSD functions are applied. The relevance of the wave velocity, amplitude, and width to the DSD is investigated numerically. The quantum effect changes only the soliton width. A brief conclusion is presented to the current findings and their relevance to astrophysics data is also discussed.

  8. Structural morphology of acoustically levitated and heated nanosilica droplet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumar, Ranganathan; Tijerino, Erick; Saha, Abhishek [Department of Mechanical, Materials and Aerospace Engineering, University of Central Florida, Orlando, Florida 32816 (United States); Basu, Saptarshi [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, 560012 Bangalore (India)

    2010-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the vaporization and precipitation dynamics of a nanosilica encapsulated water droplet by levitating it acoustically and heating it with a CO{sub 2} laser. For all concentrations, we observe three phases: solvent evaporation, surface agglomeration, and precipitation leading to bowl or ring shaped structures. At higher concentrations, ring reorientation and rotation are seen consistently. The surface temperature from an infrared camera is seen to be dependent on the final geometrical shape of the droplet and its rotation induced by the acoustic field of the levitator. With nonuniform particle distribution, these structures can experience rupture which modifies the droplet rotational speed.

  9. Oscillatory Flame Response in Acoustically Coupled Fuel Droplet Combustion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sevilla Esparza, Cristhian Israel

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    CombustionCombustion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Coupled Droplet Combustion . . . . . . . . . . . . Burning

  10. Polarized light propagation in highly scattering turbid media with a distribution of the particle size: a Monte Carlo study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Koh, Wonshill

    2013-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

    The light propagation in highly scattering turbid media composed of the particles with different size distribution is studied using a Monte Carlo simulation model implemented in Standard C. Monte Carlo method has been widely utilized to study...

  11. In situ diagnostic of the size distribution of nanoparticles generated by ultrashort pulsed laser ablation in vacuum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bourquard, Florent; Loir, Anne-Sophie; Donnet, Christophe; Garrelie, Florence, E-mail: florence.garrelie@univ-st-etienne.fr [Université de Lyon, CNRS UMR 5516, Laboratoire Hubert Curien, Université Jean Monnet, Saint-Étienne (France)] [Université de Lyon, CNRS UMR 5516, Laboratoire Hubert Curien, Université Jean Monnet, Saint-Étienne (France)

    2014-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

    We aim to characterize the size distribution of nanoparticles located in the ablation plume produced by femtosecond laser interaction. The proposed method relies on the use of white-light extinction spectroscopy setup assisted by ultrafast intensified temporal gating. This method allows measurement of optical absorbance of a nickel nanoparticles cloud. Simulation of the extinction section of nickel nanoparticles size distributions has been developed in order to compare the measured optical absorbance to the optical extinction by theoretical and experimental nanoparticles size distributions (measured by scanning electron microscopy). A good agreement has been found between the in situ measured optical absorbance and the optical extinction cross section calculated from ex situ nanoparticles size distribution measurements.

  12. Secondary atomization of single coal-water fuel droplets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hassel, G.R.; Scaroni, A.W.

    1989-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The evaporative behavior of single, well characterized droplets of a lignite coal-water slurry fuel (CWSF) and a carbon black in water slurry was studied as a function of heating rate and droplet composition. Induced droplet heating rates were varied from 0 to 10{sup 5} K/s. Droplets studied were between 97 and 170 {mu}m in diameter, with compositions ranging from 25 to 60% solids by weight. The effect of a commercially available surfactant additive package on droplet evaporation rate, explosive boiling energy requirements, and agglomerate formation was assessed. Surfactant concentrations were varied from none to 2 and 4% by weight solution (1.7 and 3.6% by weight of active species on a dry coal basis). The experimental system incorporated an electrodynamic balance to hold single, free droplets, a counterpropagating pulsed laser heating arrangement, and both video and high speed cinematographic recording systems. Data were obtained for ambient droplet evaporation by monitoring the temporal size, weight, and solids concentration changes. 49 refs., 31 figs.

  13. Hovering UFO Droplets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anand, Sushant; Dhiman, Rajeev; Smith, J David; Varanasi, Kripa K

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This fluid dynamics video is an entry for the Gallery of Fluid Motion of the 65th Annual Meeting of the APS-DFD. This video shows behavior of condensing droplets on a lubricant impregnated surface and a comparison with a superhydrophobic surface. On impregnated surfaces, drops appear like UFOs hovering over a surface. The videos were recorded in an Environmental SEM and a specially built condensation rig.

  14. The effect of sand grain size distribution on the minimum oil saturation necessary to support in-situ combustion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daniel, William Marvin

    1973-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    THE EFFECT OF SAND GRAIN SIZE DISTRIBUTION ON THE MINIMUM OIL SATURATION NECESSARY TO SUPPORT IN-SITU COMBUSTION A Thesis by WILLIAM MARVIN DANIEL Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ARM University in partial fulfillment... of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1973 Major Subject: Petroleum. Engineering THE EFFECT OF SAND GRAIN SIZE DISTRIBUTION ON THE MINIMUM OIL SATURATION NECESSARY TO SUPPORT IN-SITU COMBUSTION A Thesis by WILLIAM MARVIN DANIEL Approved...

  15. Determination of aerosol size distributions at uranium mill tailings remedial action project sites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Newton, G.J.; Reif, R.H. [CWM Federal Environmental Services, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hoover, M.D.

    1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has an ongoing program, the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project, to stabilize piles of uranium mill tailings in order to reduce the potential radiological hazards to the public. Protection of workers and the general public against airborne radioactivity during remedial action is a top priority at the UMTRA Project. The primary occupational radionuclides of concern are {sup 230}Th, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 210}Pb, {sup 210}Po, and the short-lived decay products of {sup 222}Rn with {sup 230}Th causing the majority of the committed effective dose equivalent (CEDE) from inhaling uranium mill tailings. Prior to this study, a default particle size of 1.0 {mu}m activity median aerodynamic diameter (AMAD) was assumed for airborne radioactive tailings dust. Because of recent changes in DOE requirements, all DOE operations are now required to use the CEDE methodology, instead of the annual effective dose equivalent (AEDE) methodology, to evaluate internal radiation exposures. Under the transition from AEDE to CEDE, with a 1.0 {mu}m AMAD particle size, lower bioassay action levels would be required for the UMTRA Project. This translates into an expanded internal dosimetry program where significantly more bioassay monitoring would be required at the UMTRA Project sites. However, for situations where the particle size distribution is known to differ significantly from 1.0 {mu}m AMAD, the DOE allows for corrections to be made to both the estimated dose to workers and the derived air concentration (DAC) values. For particle sizes larger than 1.0 {mu}m AMAD, the calculated CEDE from inhaling tailings would be relatively lower.

  16. Controlled Dispensing and Mixing of Pico- to Nanoliter Volumes Using On-Demand Droplet-Based Microfluidics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Xuefei; Tang, Keqi; Smith, Richard D.; Kelly, Ryan T.

    2013-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

    We present an integrated droplet-on-demand microfluidic platform for dispensing, mixing, incubating, extracting and analyzing by mass spectrometry pico- to nanoliter sized droplets. Droplet generation is accomplished using computer-controlled pneumatic valves. Controlled actuation of valves for different aqueous streams enables controlled dosing and rapid mixing of reagents within droplets in the droplet generation area or in a region with widening channel cross-section. Following incubation, which takes place while droplets travel in the oil stream, the droplet contents are extracted to an aqueous channel for subsequent ionization at an integrated nanoelectrospray emitter. As an initial demonstration of the platform, rapid enzymatic digestions of a model protein are performed in droplets and detected on-line by nanoelectrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

  17. SURFACE AREA, VOLUME, MASS, AND DENSITY DISTRIBUTIONS FOR SIZED BIOMASS PARTICLES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramanathan Sampath

    2006-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This semi-annual technical progress report describes work performed at Morehouse College under DOE Grant No. DE-FC26-04NT42130 during the period January 01, 2006 to June 30, 2006 which covers the fourth six months of the project. Presently work is in progress to characterize surface area, volume, mass, and density distributions for sized biomass particles. During this reporting period, Morehouse completed obtaining additional mean mass measurements for biomass particles employing the gravimetric technique measurement system that was set up in a previous reporting period. Simultaneously, REM, our subcontractor, has completed obtaining raw data for surface area, volume, and drag coefficient to mass ratio (Cd/m) information for 9 more biomass particles employing the electrodynamic balance (EDB) measurement system that was calibrated before in this project. Results of the mean mass data obtained to date are reported here, and analysis of the raw data collected by REM is in progress.

  18. SURFACE AREA, VOLUME, MASS, AND DENSITY DISTRIBUTIONS FOR SIZED BIOMASS PARTICLES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramanathan Sampath

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This semi-annual technical progress report describes work performed at Morehouse College under DOE Grant No. DE-FC26-04NT42130 during the period July 01, 2005 to December 31, 2005 which covers the third six months of the project. Presently work is in progress to characterize surface area, volume, mass, and density distributions for sized biomass particles. During this reporting period, Morehouse continued to obtain additional mean mass measurements for biomass particles employing the gravimetric technique measurement system that was set up in the last reporting period. Simultaneously, REM, our subcontractor, has obtained raw data for surface area, volume, and drag coefficient to mass ratio (C{sub d}/m) information for several biomass particles employing the electrodynamic balance (EDB) measurement system that was calibrated in the last reporting period. Preliminary results of the mean mass and the shape data obtained are reported here, and more data collection is in progress.

  19. Use of ultrasound attenuation spectroscopy to determine the size distribution of clay tactoids in aqueous suspensions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Samim Ali; Ranjini Bandyopadhyay

    2014-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The dispersion processes of aqueous samples of clay are studied using ultrasound attenuation spectroscopy. The attenuation spectra that are acquired in the frequency range $10-100$ MHz are used to determine the particle size distributions (PSDs) for different concentrations and ages of the clay suspensions. Our analysis, using equivalent spherical diameter (ESD) for circular discs under Stokes drag in samples of concentrations greater than 1.5\\% w/v, shows that a substantial fraction of the aggregates in suspension are actually tactoids that are composed of more than one platelet. This is in contrast to the general belief that clay disperses into individual platelets in the concentration range where their suspensions exhibit glassy behavior. We conclude that the incomplete fragmentation of the clay tactoids arises from the rapid enhancement of the inter-tactoid Coulombic repulsion.

  20. A General Systems Theory for Atmospheric Flows and Atmospheric Aerosol Size Distribution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. M. Selvam

    2011-07-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Atmospheric flows exhibit selfsimilar fractal spacetime fluctuations manifested as the fractal geometry to global cloud cover pattern and inverse power law form for power spectra of meteorological parameters such as windspeed, temperature, rainfall etc. Inverse power law form for power spectra indicate long-range spacetime correlations or non-local connections and is a signature of selforganised criticality generic to dynamical systems in nature such as river flows, population dynamics, heart beat patterns etc. The author has developed a general systems theory which predicts the observed selforganised criticality as a signature of quantumlike chaos in dynamical systems. The model predictions are (i) The fractal fluctuations can be resolved into an overall logarithmic spiral trajectory with the quasiperiodic Penrose tiling pattern for the internal structure. (ii) The probability distribution represents the power (variance) spectrum for fractal fluctuations and follows universal inverse power law form incorporating the golden mean. Such a result that the additive amplitudes of eddies when squared represent probability distribution is observed in the subatomic dynamics of quantum systems such as the electron or photon. Therefore the irregular or unpredictable fractal fluctuations exhibit quantumlike chaos. (iii) Atmospheric aerosols are held in suspension by the vertical velocity distribution (spectrum). The atmospheric aerosol size spectrum is derived in terms of the universal inverse power law characterizing atmospheric eddy energy spectrum. Model predicted spectrum is in agreement with the following two experimentally determined atmospheric aerosol data sets, (i) SAFARI 2000 CV-580 Aerosol Data, Dry Season 2000 (CARG) (ii) World Data Centre Aerosols data sets for the three stations Ny {\\AA}lesund, Pallas and Hohenpeissenberg.

  1. Measurement and simulation of a droplet population in a turbulent flow field Rbert Bords a,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    John, Volker

    online 30 May 2012 Keywords: Two-phase turbulent flow Disperse droplet population Non-intrusive are determined by non-intrusive measurements. A direct discretization of the 4D equation for the droplet size deter- mined by means of non-intrusive measurement techniques. In this way, suitable time

  2. Combustion of sludge waste in FBC. Distribution of metals and particle sizes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kozinski, J.A. [McGill Univ., Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Rink, K.K.; Lighty, J.S. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Due to the increases in the amounts of sludge generated and increasingly stringent regulations regarding its disposal, alternative methods to landfilling are becoming more important. Fluidized bed combustion is one such alternative, providing permanent disposal of the sludge. In this research, metal-solid particle characteristics during combustion of a sludge waste were studied. The sludge was a result of de-inking process. Experiments were carried out using a pilot-scale circulating fluidized bed combustion facility (CFB). The fluidized bed was operated in the bubbling mode. The sludge was separately burned with silica sand particles, ultrasorb particles, and alumina particles as bed materials. Major flue gas components (CO{sub 2}, CO, O{sub 2}, NO, NO{sub 2}) were measured continuously. Gas temperature profiles were determined using a water-cooled suction pyrometer. Solid particle samples were collected at multiple locations using a dilution tunnel sampling system. The solid samples were analyzed to determine ash structure, size and composition distributions. Metal analyses were performed using a computer-controlled Electron Probe Microanalyzer (EPMA) equipped with four Wavelength-Dispersive Spectrometers. Analyses of individual fly ash particles indicated that heavy metal elements (Pb, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni) were generally located in regions near the particle`s core. Lighter metals (Si, Al, Ca, Na, K) were present across the entire cross-section of a particle, with the highest concentrations at the particle surface. These distributions were found to be similar regardless of the type of bed material. This suggests that the light metal layers are formed because of the internal rearrangements of a chemical nature as opposed to physical deposition of light metal fragments on particle surfaces.

  3. Ultrafine particles formed by heating droplets of simulated ash containing metals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carbone, F.; Barone, A.; Pagliara, R.; Beretta, F.; D'Anna, A.; D'Alessio, A. [University of Naples Federico II, Naples (Italy)

    2008-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Coal and biomass combustion and waste incineration produce inorganic aerosol, whose ultrafine fraction is hypothesized to be generated mainly by metal vaporization and subsequent nucleation and growth in a high-temperature atmosphere. To investigate this mechanism, we investigated nanoparticle inception and early growth processes at high temperature by spraying monodisperse droplets of simulated ash containing metals in the centerline of a laboratory ethylene/air laminar premixed flame at stoichiometric conditions. Particles were collected by thermophoresis on mica substrates for atomic force microscopy dimensional and morphological analysis. Chemical nature, volume fraction, and mean diameter of particles were evaluated by in situ UV-Vis broadband light absorption and laser light-scattering measurements. We also measured size distribution of material sampled from the flame without dilution using differential mobility analysis and scanning electron microscopy. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy provided further information on the chemical composition of particles deposited on substrates. Size distributions showed that the flame-generated aerosol have a high number concentration, are mostly smaller than 10 nm, and persist far downstream of the droplet injection point. Preliminary results showed that the coagulation rate of those nanoparticles is much slower than their collision rate, which implies that their lifetime may be long and may represent a severe problem for environmental pollution.

  4. Droplet Combustion and Non-Reactive Shear-Coaxial Jets with Transverse Acoustic Excitation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Teshome, Sophonias

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Related Works in Droplet Combustion . . . . . . . .of Acoustics on Droplet Combustion . . . . . . . . . . . .Fuel Droplet Combustion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

  5. Impacts of Venturi Turbulent Mixing on the Size Distributions of Sodium Chloride and Dioctyl-Phthalate Aerosols

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheng, M-D.

    2000-08-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Internal combustion engines are a major source of airborne particulate matter (PM). The size of the engine PM is in the sub-micrometer range. The number of engine particles per unit volume is high, normally in the range of 10{sup 12} to 10{sup 14}. To measure the size distribution of the engine particles dilution of an aerosol sample is required. A diluter utilizing a venturi ejector mixing technique is commercially available and tested. The purpose of this investigation was to determine if turbulence created by the ejector in the mini-dilutor changes the size of particles passing through it. The results of the NaCl aerosol experiments show no discernible difference in the geometric mean diameter and geometric standard deviation of particles passing through the ejector. Similar results were found for the DOP particles. The ratio of the total number concentrations before and after the ejector indicates that a dilution ratio of approximately 20 applies equally for DOP and NaCl particles. This indicates the dilution capability of the ejector is not affected by the particle composition. The statistical analysis results of the first and second moments of a distribution indicate that the ejector may not change the major parameters (e.g., the geometric mean diameter and geometric standard deviation) characterizing the size distributions of NaCl and DOP particles. However, when the skewness was examined, it indicates that the ejector modifies the particle size distribution significantly. The ejector could change the skewness of the distribution in an unpredictable and inconsistent manner. Furthermore, when the variability of particle counts in individual size ranges as a result of the ejector is examined, one finds that the variability is greater for DOP particles in the size range of 40-150 nm than for NaCl particles in the size range of 30 to 350 nm. The numbers or particle counts in this size region are high enough that the Poisson counting errors are small (<10%) compared with the tail regions. This result shows that the ejector device could have a higher bin-to-bin counting uncertainty for ''soft'' particles such as DOP than for a solid dry particle like NaCl. The results suggest that it may be difficult to precisely characterize the size distribution of particles ejected from the mini-dilution system if the particle is not solid.

  6. Real-time x-ray studies of gallium nitride nanodot formation by droplet heteroepitaxy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang Yiyi; Oezcan, Ahmet S.; Sanborn, Christopher; Ludwig, Karl F.; Bhattacharyya, Anirban; Chandrasekaran, Ramya; Moustakas, Theodore D.; Zhou Lin; Smith, David J. [Physics Department, Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts 02215 (United States); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts 02215 (United States); Department of Physics, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287, USA and School of Materials, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287 (United States)

    2007-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Self-organized gallium nitride nanodots have been fabricated using droplet heteroepitaxy on c-plane sapphire by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy at different substrate temperatures and Ga fluxes. Nanoscale Ga droplets were initially formed on the sapphire substrate at high temperatures by Ga deposition from an effusion cell in an ultrahigh vacuum growth chamber. Subsequently, the droplets were converted into GaN nanodots using a nitrogen plasma source. The process was monitored and controlled using real-time grazing-incidence small-angle x-ray scattering. The samples were examined postgrowth by in situ grazing incidence x-ray diffraction and reflection high-energy electron diffraction, which confirmed the epitaxial relationship between the GaN nanodots and the sapphire surface. X-ray diffraction indicated that the wurtzite phase was dominant at higher substrate temperature (710 deg. C), but a mixture of wurtzite and zinc blende phases was present at a substrate temperature of 620 deg. C. Ex situ atomic force microscopy and transmission electron microscopy analyses showed that the dot size distribution was bimodal. A thin GaN continuous layer of {approx} three monolayers thick was observed by transmission electron microscopy on the sample grown at a substrate temperature of 620 deg. C, but no such layer was observed for the substrate temperature of 710 deg. C. This suggests that there is little mobility of Ga atoms in contact with the sapphire substrate at the lower temperature so that they cannot easily diffuse to nearby droplets and instead form a thin layer covering the surface.

  7. Real-Time X-ray Studies of Gallium Nitride Nanodot Formation by Droplet Heteroepitaxy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang,Y.; Ozcan, A.; Sanborn, C.; Ludwig, K.; Bhattacharyya, A.; Chandrasekaran, R.; Moustakas, T.; Zhou, L.; Smith, D.

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Self-organized gallium nitride nanodots have been fabricated using droplet heteroepitaxy on c-plane sapphire by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy at different substrate temperatures and Ga fluxes. Nanoscale Ga droplets were initially formed on the sapphire substrate at high temperatures by Ga deposition from an effusion cell in an ultrahigh vacuum growth chamber. Subsequently, the droplets were converted into GaN nanodots using a nitrogen plasma source. The process was monitored and controlled using real-time grazing-incidence small-angle x-ray scattering. The samples were examined postgrowth by in situ grazing incidence x-ray diffraction and reflection high-energy electron diffraction, which confirmed the epitaxial relationship between the GaN nanodots and the sapphire surface. X-ray diffraction indicated that the wurtzite phase was dominant at higher substrate temperature (710? C), but a mixture of wurtzite and zinc blende phases was present at a substrate temperature of 620? C. Ex situ atomic force microscopy and transmission electron microscopy analyses showed that the dot size distribution was bimodal. A thin GaN continuous layer of ? three monolayers thick was observed by transmission electron microscopy on the sample grown at a substrate temperature of 620? C, but no such layer was observed for the substrate temperature of 710? C. This suggests that there is little mobility of Ga atoms in contact with the sapphire substrate at the lower temperature so that they cannot easily diffuse to nearby droplets and instead form a thin layer covering the surface.

  8. Effects of dust size distribution on dust negative ion acoustic solitary waves in a magnetized dusty plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ma, Yi-Rong; Qi, Xin; Sun, Jian-An; Duan, Wen-Shan [Joint Laboratory of Atomic and Molecular Physics of NWNU and IMP CAS, Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000, China and College of Physics and Electronic Engineering, Northwest Normal University, Lanzhou 730070 (China)] [Joint Laboratory of Atomic and Molecular Physics of NWNU and IMP CAS, Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000, China and College of Physics and Electronic Engineering, Northwest Normal University, Lanzhou 730070 (China); Yang, Lei [Joint Laboratory of Atomic and Molecular Physics of NWNU and IMP CAS, Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000, China and College of Physics and Electronic Engineering, Northwest Normal University, Lanzhou 730070 (China) [Joint Laboratory of Atomic and Molecular Physics of NWNU and IMP CAS, Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000, China and College of Physics and Electronic Engineering, Northwest Normal University, Lanzhou 730070 (China); Department of Physics, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China)

    2013-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Dust negative ion acoustic solitary waves in a magnetized multi-ion dusty plasma containing hot isothermal electron, ions (light positive ions and heavy negative ions) and extremely massive charge fluctuating dust grains are investigated by employing the reductive perturbation method. How the dust size distribution affect the height and the thickness of the nonlinear solitary wave are given. It is noted that the characteristic of the solitary waves are different with the different dust size distribution. The magnitude of the external magnetic field also affects the solitary wave form.

  9. Solitary Dust--Acoustic Waves in a Plasma with Two-Temperature Ions and Distributed Grain Size

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    V. V. Prudskikh

    2008-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

    The propagation of weakly nonlinear dust--acoustic waves in a dusty plasma containing two ion species with different temperatures is explored. The nonlinear equations describing both the quadratic and cubic plasma nonlinearities are derived. It is shown that the properties of dust--acoustic waves depend substantially on the grain size distribution. In particular, for solitary dust--acoustic waves with a positive potential to exist in a plasma with distributed grain size, it is necessary that the difference between the temperatures of two ion species be large that that in the case of unusized grains.

  10. Evolution of soot size distribution in premixed ethylene/air and ethylene/benzene/air flames: Experimental and modeling study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Echavarria, Carlos A.; Sarofim, Adel F.; Lighty, JoAnn S. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); D'Anna, Andrea [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Chimica, Universita ''Federico II'' di Napoli, Naples (Italy)

    2011-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The effect of benzene concentration in the initial fuel on the evolution of soot size distribution in ethylene/air and ethylene/benzene/air flat flames was characterized by experimental measurements and model predictions of size and number concentration within the flames. Experimentally, a scanning mobility particle sizer was used to allow spatially resolved and online measurements of particle concentration and sizes in the nanometer-size range. The model couples a detailed kinetic scheme with a discrete-sectional approach to follow the transition from gas-phase to nascent particles and their coagulation to larger soot particles. The evolution of soot size distribution (experimental and modeled) in pure ethylene and ethylene flames doped with benzene showed a typical nucleation-sized (since particles do not actually nucleate in the classical sense particle inception is often used in place of nucleation) mode close to the burner surface, and a bimodal behavior at greater height above burner (HAB). However, major features were distinguished between the data sets. The growth of nucleation and agglomeration-sized particles was faster for ethylene/benzene/air flames, evidenced by the earlier presence of bimodality in these flames. The most significant changes in size distribution were attributed to an increase in benzene concentration in the initial fuel. However, these changes were more evident for high temperature flames. In agreement with the experimental data, the model also predicted the decrease of nucleation-sized particles in the postflame region for ethylene flames doped with benzene. This behavior was associated with the decrease of soot precursors after the main oxidation zone of the flames. (author)

  11. Surface Area, Volume, Mass, and Density Distributions for Sized Biomass Particles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramanathan Sampath

    2007-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This final technical report describes work performed at Morehouse College under DOE Grant No. DE-FC26-04NT42130 during the period July 01, 2004 to June 30, 2007 which covers the entire performance period of the project. 25 individual biomass particles (hardwood sawdust AI14546 in the size range of 100-200 microns) were levitated in an electrodynamic balance (EDB) and their external surface area, volume, and drag coefficient/mass (C{sub d}/m) ratios were characterized applying highly specialized video based and high-speed diode array imaging systems. Analysis methods were employed using shape and drag information to calculate mass and density distributions for these particles. Results of these measurements and analyses were validated by independent mass measurements using a particle weighing and counting technique. Similar information for 28 PSOC 1451D bituminous coal particles was retrieved from a previously published work. Using these two information, density correlations for coal/biomass blends were developed. These correlations can be used to estimate the density of the blend knowing either the volume fraction or the mass fraction of coal in the blend. The density correlations presented here will be useful in predicting the burning rate of coal/biomass blends in cofiring combustors. Finally, a discussion on technological impacts and economic projections of burning biomass with coal in US power plants is presented.

  12. Characterization of Vertical Velocity and Drop Size Distribution Parameters in Widespread Precipitation at ARM Facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Giangrande S. E.; Luke, E. P.; Kollias, P.

    2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Extended, high-resolution measurements of vertical air motion and median volume drop diameter D0 in widespread precipitation from three diverse Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program (ARM) locations [Lamont, Oklahoma, Southern Great Plains site (SGP); Niamey, Niger; and Black Forest, Germany] are presented. The analysis indicates a weak (0-10 cm{sup -1}) downward air motion beneath the melting layer for all three regions, a magnitude that is to within the typical uncertainty of the retrieval methods. On average, the hourly estimated standard deviation of the vertical air motion is 0.25 m s{sup -1} with no pronounced vertical structure. Profiles of D0 vary according to region and rainfall rate. The standard deviation of 1-min-averaged D0 profiles for isolated rainfall rate intervals is 0.3-0.4 mm. Additional insights into the form of the raindrop size distribution are provided using available dual-frequency Doppler velocity observations at SGP. The analysis suggests that gamma functions better explain paired velocity observations and radar retrievals for the Oklahoma dataset. This study will be useful in assessing uncertainties introduced in the measurement of precipitation parameters from ground-based and spaceborne remote sensors that are due to small-scale variability.

  13. Impacts of Venturi Turbulent Mixing on the Size Distribution of Sodium Chloride and Dioctyl-Phthalate Aerosols

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheng, M.-D.; Wainman, T.; Storey, J.

    2000-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Internal combustion engines are a major source of airborne particulate matter (PM). The size of the engine PM is in the sub-micrometer range. The number of engine particles per unit volume is high, normally in the range of 10{sup 12} to 10{sup 14}. To measure the size distribution of the engine particles dilution of an aerosol sample is required. A diluter utilizing a venturi ejector mixing technique is commercially available and tested. The purpose of this investigation was to determine if turbulence created by the ejector in the mini-dilutor changes the size of particles passing through it.

  14. a bouncing droplet Terwagne, Vandewalle, and Dorbolo

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Texas at Austin. University of

    plays a key role microdevice used microfluidic applications. droplet often laid onto a substrate where

  15. Method development and validation for measuring the particle size distribution of pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN) powders.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Young, Sharissa Gay

    2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Currently, the critical particle properties of pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN) that influence deflagration-to-detonation time in exploding bridge wire detonators (EBW) are not known in sufficient detail to allow development of a predictive failure model. The specific surface area (SSA) of many PETN powders has been measured using both permeametry and gas absorption methods and has been found to have a critical effect on EBW detonator performance. The permeametry measure of SSA is a function of particle shape, packed bed pore geometry, and particle size distribution (PSD). Yet there is a general lack of agreement in PSD measurements between laboratories, raising concerns regarding collaboration and complicating efforts to understand changes in EBW performance related to powder properties. Benchmarking of data between laboratories that routinely perform detailed PSD characterization of powder samples and the determination of the most appropriate method to measure each PETN powder are necessary to discern correlations between performance and powder properties and to collaborate with partnering laboratories. To this end, a comparison was made of the PSD measured by three laboratories using their own standard procedures for light scattering instruments. Three PETN powder samples with different surface areas and particle morphologies were characterized. Differences in bulk PSD data generated by each laboratory were found to result from variations in sonication of the samples during preparation. The effect of this sonication was found to depend on particle morphology of the PETN samples, being deleterious to some PETN samples and advantageous for others in moderation. Discrepancies in the submicron-sized particle characterization data were related to an instrument-specific artifact particular to one laboratory. The type of carrier fluid used by each laboratory to suspend the PETN particles for the light scattering measurement had no consistent effect on the resulting PSD data. Finally, the SSA of the three powders was measured using both permeametry and gas absorption methods, enabling the PSD to be linked to the SSA for these PETN powders. Consistent characterization of other PETN powders can be performed using the appropriate sample-specific preparation method, so that future studies can accurately identify the effect of changes in the PSD on the SSA and ultimately model EBW performance.

  16. Granular Matter 2, 179187 c Springer-Verlag 2000 Effect of particle size distribution on pile tip resistance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bolton, Malcolm

    Granular Matter 2, 179­187 c Springer-Verlag 2000 Effect of particle size distribution on pile tip the specific boundary problem associated with the penetration of a model pile into two different gradings of fine particles on the pile end bearing resistance. The first grading of sand comprised particles

  17. Influence of Cement Particle-Size Distribution on Early Age Autogenous Strains and Stresses in Cement-Based Materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bentz, Dale P.

    Influence of Cement Particle-Size Distribution on Early Age Autogenous Strains and Stresses in Cement-Based Materials Dale P. Bentz* Building and Fire Research Laboratory, National Institute-Jochen Haecker* Wilhelm Dyckerhoff Institut, 65203 Wiesbaden, Germany The influence of cement particle

  18. Size distribution of fine Particles in Stack emissions of a 600-MWe coal-fired Power Plant

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Size distribution of fine Particles in Stack emissions of a 600-MWe coal-fired Power Plant I coal-fired power plant. Aknowledgements: French environment agency ADEME (Contract number 04-74-C0018 that was carried out in March 2006 at a 600-MWe coal-fired power plant. 51 ineris-00973267,version1-4Apr2014 Author

  19. Three-dimensional Studies of Aerosol Ions and Their Size Distribution in East1 Asia During Spring 20012

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sandu, Adrian

    2 condensation and gas phase ammonia distribution determine the nitrate size and32 gas observations. The regional27 chemical transport model, STEM-2K3, which includes the on-line gas-aerosol thermodynamic28 module SCAPE II, and explicitly considers chemical aging of dust is used in the analysis. The29

  20. Ice nucleation and droplet formation by bare and coated soot particles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Friedman, Beth

    We have studied ice formation at temperatures relevant to homogeneous and heterogeneous ice nucleation, as well as droplet activation and hygroscopicity, of soot particles of variable size and composition. Coatings of ...

  1. 6/10/12 The use of acoustic inversion to estimate the bubble size distribution in pipelines | Science 5 Senses 1/4...globalproductivityforum.info/.../the-use-of-acoustic-inversion-to-estimate-the-bubble-size-distribu...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sóbester, András

    6/10/12 The use of acoustic inversion to estimate the bubble size distribution in pipelines method to more accurately measure gas bubbles in pipelines. The ability to measure gas bubbles in 2010. Currently, the most popular technique for estimating the gas bubble size distribution (BSD

  2. The dynamics of droplet formation and detachment in gas metal arc welding

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, J.A.; Smartt, H.B.; Clark, D.E.; Carlson, N.M.; Watkins, A.D.; Lethcoe, B.J.

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Experimental measurements of gas metal arc welding are required for the development and confirmation of models of the process. This paper reports on two experiments that provide information for models of the arc physics and of the weld pool dynamics. The heat transfer efficiency of the spray transfer mode in gas metal arc welding was measured using a calorimetry technique. The efficiency varied from 75 to 85%. A special fixture was used to measure the droplet contribution, which is determined to be between 35 and 45% of the total input energy. A series of experiments was performed at a variety of conditions ranging from globular to spray to streaming transfer. The transfer was observed by taking high-speed movies at 500 to 5000 frames per second of the backlighted droplets. An automatic image analysis system was used to obtain information about the droplets including time between detachments, droplet size, and droplet acceleration. At the boundary between the globular and spray modes, the droplet size varies between small droplets that melt off faster than average, resulting in a smaller electrode extension, and large droplets that melt off slower than average, resulting in an increase in the electrode extension. 5 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Tailored mixing inside a translating droplet

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rodolphe Chabreyrie; Dmitri Vainchtein; Cristel Chandre; Pushpendra Singh; Nadine Aubry

    2008-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Tailored mixing inside individual droplets could be useful to ensure that reactions within microscopic discrete fluid volumes, which are used as microreactors in ``digital microfluidic'' applications, take place in a controlled fashion. In this article we consider a translating spherical liquid drop to which we impose a time periodic rigid-body rotation. Such a rotation not only induces mixing via chaotic advection, which operates through the stretching and folding of material lines, but also offers the possibility of tuning the mixing by controlling the location and size of the mixing region. Tuned mixing is achieved by judiciously adjusting the amplitude and frequency of the rotation, which are determined by using a resonance condition and following the evolution of adiabatic invariants. As the size of the mixing region is increased, complete mixing within the drop is obtained.

  4. Comparison of the bubble size distribution in silicate foams using 2-dimensional images and 3-dimensional x-ray microtomography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert, G.; Baker, D.R.; Rivers, M.L.; Allard, E.; Larocque, J. (McGill); (UC)

    2005-02-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Three silicate glasses were hydrated at high pressure and then heated at atmospheric pressure to exsolve the water into bubbles and create foams. The bubble size distribution in these foams was measured by x-ray microtomography on the GSECARS BM-13 beamline at the Advanced Photon Source. The bubble area distributions were measured in two dimensions using the image slices produced from the microtomography and the software ImageJ. The bubble volume distributions were measured from the three-dimensional tomographic images with the BLOB3D software. We found that careful analysis of the microtomography data in both two and three dimensions was necessary to avoid the physically unrealistic, experimental artifact of identifying and counting many small bubbles whose surfaces were not defined by a septum of glass. When this artifact was avoided the foams demonstrated power-law distributions of bubble sizes in both two and three dimensions. Conversion of the power-law exponents for bubble areas measured in two dimensions to exponents for bubble volumes usually agreed with the measured three dimensional volume exponents. Furthermore, the power-law distributions for bubble volumes typically agree with multiple theories of bubble growth, all of which yield an exponent of 1 for the cumulative bubble volume distribution. The measured bubble volume distributions with exponents near 0.3 can be explained by diffusive growth as proposed by other authors, but distributions with exponents near 1.4 remain to be explained and are the subject of continuing research on the effects of water concentration and melt viscosity on foaming behavior.

  5. The environment of a geomaterial (soil, rock, concrete) determines its susceptibility to failure: grain size distribution and mineralogy, fluid-saturation, pore fluid chemistry, current state of stress, history, the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Borja, Ronaldo I.

    to failure: grain size distribution and mineralogy, fluid-saturation, pore fluid chemistry, current state

  6. Effect of Particle Optical Properties on Size Distribution of Soils Obtained by Laser Diffraction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ahmad, Sajjad

    ) is essential infor- mation for those in the fields of engineering and environmental geosciences, sedimentology, sedimentology, pedology, etc. (Wen et al., 2002). In geotechnical practices, PSD and clay-size fraction of soils

  7. Ionization Cluster Size Distributions Created by Low Energy Electrons and Alpha Particles in Nanometric Track Segment in Gases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bantsar, Aliaksandr

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The interaction of ionizing radiation with nanometric targets is a field of interest for many branches of science such as: radiology, oncology, radiation protection and nanoelectronics. A new experimental technique known as nanodosimetry has been developed for the qualitative as well as quantitative description of these types of interactions. The work presented here is a contribution to this development, namely by further improvement of the new experimental technique called the Jet Counter, originally developed at the Andrzej So{\\l}tan Institute for Nuclear Studies. The Jet Counter is a unique device in the world for studying the interaction of low energy electrons with nanometer targets in the range 2-10 nm (in unit density). The basic experimental result is the frequency distribution of ionization cluster size produced by ionizing particles in a gaseous (nitrogen or propane) nanometric track segment. The first experimental data on the frequency distribution of ionization cluster size produced by low energy ...

  8. Evaporation-driven ring and film deposition from colloidal droplets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. Nadir Kaplan; L. Mahadevan

    2014-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Evaporating suspensions of colloidal particles lead to the formation of a variety of patterns, ranging from a left-over ring of a dried coffee drop to uniformly distributed solid pigments left behind wet paint. To characterize the transition between single rings, multiple concentric rings, broad bands, and uniform deposits, we investigate the dynamics of a drying droplet via a multiphase model of colloidal particles in a solvent. Our theory couples the inhomogeneous evaporation at the evolving droplet interface to the dynamics inside the drop, i.e. the liquid flow, local variations of the particle concentration, and the propagation of the deposition front where the solute forms an incompressible porous medium at high concentrations. A dimensionless parameter combining the capillary number and the droplet aspect ratio captures the formation conditions of different pattern types.

  9. Raindrop size distributions and radar reflectivity-rain rate relationships for radar hydrology Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 5(4), 615627 (2001) EGS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Raindrop size distributions and radar reflectivity-rain rate relationships for radar hydrology 615 Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 5(4), 615­627 (2001) © EGS Raindrop size distributions and radar reflectivity­rain rate relationships for radar hydrology* Remko Uijlenhoet1 Sub-department Water Resources

  10. Method and apparatus for controlled size distribution of gel microspheres formed from aqueous dispersions. [Patent application

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ryon, A.D.; Haas, P.A.; Vavruska, J.S.

    1982-01-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is directed to a method and apparatus for making a population of dense, closely size-controlled microspheres by sol-gel procedures wherein said microspheres are characterized by a significant percentage of said population being within a predetermined, relatively narrow size range. This is accomplished by subjecting aqueous dispersions of a sol, within a water-immiscible organic liquid to a turbulent flow. Microsphere populations thus provided are useful in vibratory-packed processes for nuclear fuels to be irradiated in LWR- and FBR-type nuclear reactors.

  11. Theoretical studies on hydrogen ignition and droplet combustion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Del Álamo, Gonzalo

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    moving luiquid fuel droplets. Journal of Fluid Mechanics,for a fuel droplet in slow viscous ?ow. Journal of Fluid

  12. Marine particle dynamics : sinking velocities, size distributions, fluxes, and microbial degradation rates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McDonnell, Andrew M. P

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The sinking flux of particulate matter into the ocean interior is an oceanographic phenomenon that fuels much of the metabolic demand of the subsurface ocean and affects the distribution of carbon and other elements ...

  13. Marangoni convection in droplets on superhydrophobic surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tam, Daniel

    We consider a small droplet of water sitting on top of a heated superhydrophobic surface. A toroidal convection pattern develops in which fluid is observed to rise along the surface of the spherical droplet and to accelerate ...

  14. Research on droplet formation for application to kraft black liquors: Final report: Tasks I and III, report No. 4

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stockel, I.H.

    1988-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The overall objective of this project is to generate technical data with which to design nozzles for kraft black liquor recovery boilers which can reduce under and over size droplets and adjust for changing black liquor properties and production requirements. The research is organized into five tasks: Droplet formation from a single jet, theoretical and experimental--ambient gas medium; Surface tensions of black liquor; Aerodynamic/hydrodynamic stability/instability of droplets once formed; Black liquor droplet formation from a single jet--furnace gas medium; Prototype of a new nozzle design. 88 figs.

  15. Development of laboratory and process sensors to monitor particle size distribution of industrial slurries (including shape characterization). Final technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pendse, H.P.; Goetz, P.J.; Sharma, A.; Han, W; Bliss, T.C.

    1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The overall goal of the Particle Size Distribution (PSD) sensor projects was to develop and commercialize a sensor system capable of particle analysis, in terms of size distributions, using concentrated suspensions at high solids concentrations. The early research was focused on application of ultrasonic spectroscopy of inorganic pigment slurries (e.g. titanium dioxide) commonly encountered on paper industry. During the project prototypes were tested in both academic and industrial laboratories. Work also involved successful field tests of the on-line prototype at a pigment manufacturing facility. Pen Kem continued the work at its cost beyond the initial funded period from March `92 to September `94. The first project (DE- FC05-88CE40684), which began in September 1988, culminated in a commercial laboratory instrument, Pen Kem AcoustoPhor {trademark} 8000, put on the market in June 1993. The follow-on project was aimed at investigation of shape and orientation effects on ultrasonic spectroscopy. A new cooperative agreement was awarded in September 1994 (DE-FC05-94CE40005) to develop shape characterization capabilities deemed critical by the clay industry. This follow-on project achieved following successes: A theoretical model was developed to account for the effects of size-dependent aspect ratios of spheroid particles under different orientations on ultrasound attenuation spectra of concentrated slurries. The theoretical model was confirmed by laboratory tests on kaolin slurries. An algorithm was developed to simulate evolution of particle orientation fields in simple squeezing flows.

  16. Importance of Size and Distribution of Ni Nanoparticles for the Hydrodeoxygenation of Microalgae Oil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Song, Wenji; Zhao, Chen; Lercher, Johannes A.

    2013-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Improved synthetic approaches for preparing small-sized Ni nanoparticles (d=3 nm) supported on HBEA zeolite have been explored and compared with the traditional impregnation method. The formation of surface nickel silicate/aluminate involved in the two precipitation processes are inferred to lead to the stronger interaction between the metal and the support. The lower Brønsted acid concentrations of these two Ni/HBEA catalysts compared with the parent zeolite caused by the partial exchange of Brønsted acid sites by Ni2+ cations do not influence the hydrodeoxygenation rates, but alter the product selectivity. Higher initial rates and higher stability have been achieved with these optimized catalysts for the hydrodeoxygenation of stearic acid and microalgae oil. Small metal particles facilitate high initial catalytic activity in the fresh sample and size uniformity ensures high catalyst stability.

  17. In-situ droplet monitoring for self-tuning spectrometers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Montaser, Akbar (Potomac, MD); Jorabchi, Kaveh (Arlington, VA); Kahen, Kaveh (Kleinburg, CA)

    2010-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

    A laser scattering based imaging technique is utilized in order to visualize the aerosol droplets in an inductively coupled plasma (ICP) torch from an aerosol source to the site of analytical measurements. The resulting snapshots provide key information about the spatial distribution of the aerosol introduced by direct and indirect injection devices: 1) a direct injection high efficiency nebulizer (DIHEN); 2) a large-bore DIHEN (LB-DIHEN); and 3) a PFA microflow nebulizer with a PFA Scott-type spray chamber. Moreover, particle image velocimetry (PIV) is used to study the in-situ behavior of the aerosol before interaction with, for example, plasma, while the individual surviving droplets are explored by particle tracking velocimetry (PTV). Further, the velocity distribution of the surviving droplets demonstrates the importance of the initial droplet velocities in complete desolvation of the aerosol for optimum analytical performance in ICP spectrometries. These new observations are important in the design of the next-generation direct injection devices for lower sample consumption, higher sensitivity, lower noise levels, suppressed matrix effects, and for developing smart spectrometers. For example, a controller can be provided to control the output of the aerosol source by controlling the configuration of the source or the gas flow rate via feedback information concerning the aerosol.

  18. Inhalation toxicology of red and violet mixtures. Chamber concentration and particle-size distribution report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Higuchi, M.A.; Davies, D.W.

    1991-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An inhalation exposure facility was developed at the U.S. EPA, RTP, NC to conduct inhalation exposures of rodents and guinea pigs to dye mixtures used by the U.S. Army in the manufacture of smoke munitions. Initially, an evaluation of the prototype chamber aerosol homogeneity was conducted to determine the uniformity and reproducibility of the concentration and particle size of dye aerosol throughout the breathing zone of the test animals. The three dyes, DR11, SR1, and DB3, were chemically analyzed for purity and optically examined for size and shape. All pure dyes appeared to be stable at room temperature except DB3, which decomposes if not stored at 4 C. The particle size ranges varied for each pure dye and structures were either amorphous (azo dye) or crystalline (anthraquinone dyes). The bulk red and violet dye mixtures were analyzed for composition. The chemical analysis of the relative composition of each dye mixture, collected by cascade impactor sampling, revealed fractionation of the mixtures into component dyes.

  19. HII regions in spiral galaxies: Size distribution, luminosity function, and new isochrone diagnostics of density wave kinematics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. S. Oey; J. S. Parker; V. J. Mikles; X. Zhang

    2003-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate the relationship of the HII region luminosity function (HII LF) to the HII region size distribution and density wave triggering in grand-design spiral galaxies. We suggest that the differential nebular size distribution is described by a power law of slope ~ -4, with flattening at radii below ~ 130 pc. This contrasts with the conventional exponential description, but it is physically and quantitatively consistent with the typical observed value of -2 for the HII LF slope. We have developed an interactive code that computes spatial isochrones for the evolving loci of spiral density waves in disk galaxies. This allows comparison of the nebular spatial distribution with the spatial isochrones for simple rotation curve parameters. Our comparisons for four grand-design galaxies suggest that the corotation radius r_co coincides with the outer ends of the star-forming arms. This value for r_co yields the best spatial correspondence between the HII regions and the isochrones, and also appears to yield a coincidence between the Inner Lindblad Resonance with the radial onset of star formation in the arms. Thus, we suggest that isochrones offer a new, simple, and effective technique for determining r_co, and thus the spiral pattern speed. However, application of the isochrones also demonstrates that evolution of the nebular population is difficult to spatially isolate in these galaxies.

  20. When the expansion of finite-size corrections to hydrogen Lamb shift in moments of charge distribution breaks down

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hagelstein, Franziska

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We point out a limitation of the standard way of accounting the finite-size effects, i.e., when the leading $[(Z\\alpha)^4]$ and subleading $[(Z\\alpha)^5]$ contributions to the Lamb shift are given by the mean-square radius and the third Zemach moment of the charge distribution. This limitation may have profound consequences for the interpretation of the "proton size puzzle". We find, for instance, that the de R\\'ujula toy model of the proton form factor does not resolve the puzzle as claimed, despite the large value of the third Zemach moment. Given the formula which does not rely on the radii expansion, we show how tiny (less than a hundredth of percent) changes in the proton electric form factor at a MeV scale would be able to explain the puzzle.

  1. Tuning Mixing within a Droplet for Digital Microfluidics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. Chabreyrie; D. Vainchtein; C. Chandre; P. Singh; N. Aubry

    2008-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

    The design of strategies to generate efficient mixing is crucial for a variety of applications, particularly digital microfluidic devices that use small "discrete" fluid volumes (droplets) as fluid carriers and microreactors. In recent work, we have presented an approach for the generation and control of mixing inside a translating spherical droplet. This was accomplished by considering Stokes' flow within a droplet proceeding downstream to which we have superimposed time dependent (sinusoidal) rotation. The mixing obtained is the result of the stretching and folding of material lines which increase exponentially the surface contact between reagents. The mixing strategy relies on the generation of resonances between the steady and the unsteady part of the flow, which is achieved by tuning the parameters of the periodic rotation. Such resonances, in our system, offer the possibility of controlling both the location and the size of the mixing region within the droplet, which may be useful to manufacture inhomogeneous particles (such as Janus particles). While the period and amplitude of the periodic rotation play a major role, it is shown here by using a triangular function that the particular shape of the rotation (as a function of time) has a minor influence. This finding demonstrates the robustness of the proposed mixing strategy, a crucial point for its experimental realization.

  2. The Impact of Oil Consumption Mechanisms on Diesel Exhaust Particle Size Distributions and Detailed Exhaust Chemical Composition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stetter, J; Forster, N; Ghandhi, J; Foster, D

    2003-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Detailed exhaust emission data have been taken from a Cummins N-14 single cylinder research engine in which the oil consumption was varied by different engine modifications. Low sulfur fuel was used, and oil consumption was varied by modifying the intake valve stem seals, the exhaust valve stem seals, the oil control ring and combinations of these modifications. Detailed measurements of exhaust gas particle size distributions and chemical composition were made for the various oil consumption configurations for a range of engine loads and speeds. The particulate mass was measured with TEOM and traditional gravimetric filter methods. Filter data for EC/OC, sulfates and trace metals have been taken and analyzed. The trace metals in the particulate mass serve as the basis for assessing oil consumption at the different operating conditions. The data indicate that the oil consumption for the steady state testing done here was approximately an order of magnitude below oil consumption values cited in the literature. We did measure changes in the details of the chemical composition of the particulate for the different engine operating conditions, but it did not correlate with changes in the oil consumption. Furthermore, the data indicate that the particle size distribution is not strongly impacted by low level oil consumption variations observed in this work.

  3. Vortices catapult droplets in atomization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jerome, J. John Soundar, E-mail: soundar@dalembert.upmc.fr; Zaleski, Stéphane; Hoepffner, Jérôme [Institut Jean Le Rond d'Alembert, UPMC Univ. Paris 06 and CNRS-UMR 7190, F-75005 Paris (France)] [Institut Jean Le Rond d'Alembert, UPMC Univ. Paris 06 and CNRS-UMR 7190, F-75005 Paris (France); Marty, Sylvain; Matas, Jean-Philippe [Laboratoire des Écoulements Géophysiques et Industriels (LEGI), Univ. Grenoble Alpes and CNRS - UMR 5519, F-38000 Grenoble (France)] [Laboratoire des Écoulements Géophysiques et Industriels (LEGI), Univ. Grenoble Alpes and CNRS - UMR 5519, F-38000 Grenoble (France)

    2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A droplet ejection mechanism in planar two-phase mixing layers is examined. Any disturbance on the gas-liquid interface grows into a Kelvin-Helmholtz wave, and the wave crest forms a thin liquid film that flaps as the wave grows downstream. Increasing the gas speed, it is observed that the film breaks up into droplets which are eventually thrown into the gas stream at large angles. In a flow where most of the momentum is in the horizontal direction, it is surprising to observe these large ejection angles. Our experiments and simulations show that a recirculation region grows downstream of the wave and leads to vortex shedding similar to the wake of a backward-facing step. The ejection mechanism results from the interaction between the liquid film and the vortex shedding sequence: a recirculation zone appears in the wake of the wave and a liquid film emerges from the wave crest; the recirculation region detaches into a vortex and the gas flow over the wave momentarily reattaches due to the departure of the vortex; this reattached flow pushes the liquid film down; by now, a new recirculation vortex is being created in the wake of the wave—just where the liquid film is now located; the liquid film is blown up from below by the newly formed recirculation vortex in a manner similar to a bag-breakup event; the resulting droplets are catapulted by the recirculation vortex.

  4. Molecular Dynamic Approach of Enhanced Self-Propelled Nano-Droplet Motion on Wettability Gradient Surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chakraborty, Monojit; Bhusan, Richa; DasGupta, Sunando

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Droplet motion over a surface with wettability gradient has been simulated using molecular dynamics (MD) simulation to highlight the underlying physics. GROMACS and Visual Molecular Dynamics (VMD) were used for simulation and intermittent visualization of the droplet configuration respectively. The simulations mimic experiments in a comprehensive manner wherein micro-sized droplets are propelled by surface wettability gradient against a number of retarding forces. The liquid-wall Lennard-Jones interaction parameter and the substrate temperature were varied to explore their effects on the three-phase contact line friction coefficient. The contact line friction was observed to be a strong function of temperature at atomistic scales, confirming the experimentally observed inverse functionality between the coefficient of contact line friction and increase in temperatures. These MD simulation results were successfully compared with the results from a model for self-propelled droplet motion on gradient surfaces.

  5. Compound droplet manipulations on fiber arrays

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weyer, Floriane; Dreesen, Laurent; Vandewalle, Nicolas

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent works demonstrated that fiber arrays may constitue the basis of an open digital microfluidics. Various processes, such as droplet motion, fragmentation, trapping, release, mixing and encapsulation, may be achieved on fiber arrays. However, handling a large number of tiny droplets resulting from the mixing of several liquid components is still a challenge for developing microreactors, smart sensors or microemulsifying drugs. Here, we show that the manipulation of tiny droplets onto fiber networks allows for creating compound droplets with a high complexity level. Moreover, this cost-effective and flexible method may also be implemented with optical fibers in order to develop fluorescence-based biosensor.

  6. Heavy electrons: Electron droplets generated by photogalvanic and pyroelectric effects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    V. Krasnoholovets; N. Kukhtarev; T. Kukhtareva

    2009-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Electron clusters, X-rays and nanosecond radio-frequency pulses are produced by 100 mW continuous-wave laser illuminating ferroelectric crystal of LiNbO_3. A long-living stable electron droplet with the size of about 100 mcm has freely moved with the velocity 0.5 cm/s in the air near the surface of the crystal experiencing the Earth gravitational field. The microscopic model of cluster stability, which is based on submicroscopic mechanics developed in the real physical space, is suggested. The role of a restraining force plays the inerton field, a substructure of the particles' matter waves, which a solitary one can elastically withstand the Coulomb repulsion of electrons. It is shown that electrons in the droplet are heavy electrons whose mass at least 1 million of times exceeds the rest mass of free electron. Application for X-ray imaging and lithography is discussed.

  7. Bimodal Distribution of Sulfuric Acid Aerosols in the Upper Haze of Venus

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gao, Peter; Crisp, David; Bardeen, Charles G; Yung, Yuk L

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The upper haze (UH) of Venus is variable on the order of days and it is populated by two particle modes. We use a 1D microphysics and vertical transport model based on the Community Aerosol and Radiation Model for Atmospheres to evaluate whether interaction of upwelled cloud particles and sulfuric acid particles nucleated in situ on meteoric dust are able to generate the two size modes and whether their observed variability are due to cloud top vertical transient winds. Nucleation of photochemically produced sulfuric acid onto polysulfur condensation nuclei generates mode 1 cloud droplets that then diffuse upwards into the UH. Droplets generated in the UH from nucleation of sulfuric acid onto meteoric dust coagulate with the upwelled cloud particles and cannot reproduce the observed bimodal size distribution. The mass transport enabled by cloud top transient winds are able to generate a bimodal size distribution in a time scale consistent with observations. Sedimentation and convection in the middle and lower...

  8. Millisecond dip events in the 2007 RXTE/PCA data of Sco X-1 and the TNO size distribution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chih-Yuan Liu; Hsiang-Kuang Chang; Jau-Shian Liang; Sun-Kun King

    2008-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Millisecond dips in the RXTE/PCA archival data of Sco X-1 taken from 1996 to 2002 were reported recently. Those dips were found to be most likely caused by instrumental dead time but may also contain some true astronomical events, which were interpreted as the occultation of X-rays from Sco X-1 by Trans-Neptunian Objects (TNO) of 100-m size. Here we report the results of search for millisecond dip events with the new RXTE/PCA data of Sco X-1 taken in year 2007. Adopting the same selection criteria as that in the previous study, we found only 3 dip events in 72-ks data, much fewer than the 107 events found in the 560-ks data taken from 1996 to 2002 reported earlier. The new data provides more detailed information of individual `very large events' (VLEs), which is not available in the old archival data. Although the number of VLEs does not obviously increase during the occurrence of dip events, all the 3 dip events are coincident in time with VLEs that have no flags set for any of the propane or the 6 main xenon anodes. It is a strong indication of instrumental effects. No significant dips which might be real occultation by 60 -- 100 m TNOs were observed. With only 72-ks data, however, the previously proposed possibility that about 10 percent of the dip events might not be instrumental still cannot be strictly excluded. Using the absence of those anomalous VLEs as the criterion for identifying non-instrumental dip events, we found, at a lower confidence level, 4 dip events of duration 8 - 10 ms in the 72-ks data. Upper limits to the size distribution of TNOs at the small size end are suggested.

  9. Oil droplet behavior at a pore entrance in the presence of crossflow: Implications for microfiltration of oil-water dispersions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Darvishzadeh, Tohid; Priezjev, Nikolai V

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The behavior of an oil droplet pinned at the entrance of a micropore and subject to clossflow-induced shear is investigated numerically by solving the Navier-Stokes equation. We found that in the absence of crossflow, the critical transmembrane pressure required to force the droplet into the pore is in excellent agreement with a theoretical prediction based on the Young-Laplace equation. With increasing shear rate, the critical pressure of permeation increases, and at sufficiently high shear rates the oil droplet breaks up into two segments. The results of numerical simulations indicate that droplet breakup at the pore entrance is facilitated at lower surface tension, higher oil-to-water viscosity ratio and larger droplet size but is insensitive to the value of the contact angle. Using simple force and torque balance arguments, an estimate for the increase in critical pressure due to crossflow and the breakup capillary number is obtained and validated for different viscosity ratios, surface tension coefficien...

  10. Kinetics of complex plasma with liquid droplets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Misra, Shikha; Sodha, M. S. [Centre of Energy Studies, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi (IITD), New Delhi 110016 (India)] [Centre of Energy Studies, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi (IITD), New Delhi 110016 (India); Mishra, S. K. [Institute for Plasma Research (IPR), Gandhinagar 382428 (India)] [Institute for Plasma Research (IPR), Gandhinagar 382428 (India)

    2013-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper provides a theoretical basis for the reduction of electron density by spray of water (or other liquids) in hot plasma. This phenomenon has been observed in a hypersonic flight experiment for relief of radio black out, caused by high ionization in the plasma sheath of a hypersonic vehicle, re-entering the atmosphere. The analysis incorporates a rather little known phenomenon for de-charging of the droplets, viz., evaporation of ions from the surface and includes the charge balance on the droplets and number cum energy balance of electrons, ions, and neutral molecules; the energy balance of the evaporating droplets has also been taken into account. The analysis has been applied to a realistic situation and the transient variations of the charge and radius of water droplets, and other plasma parameters have been obtained and discussed. The analysis through made in the context of water droplets is applicable to all liquids.

  11. Simultaneous Retrieval of Effective Refractive Index and Density from Size Distribution and Light Scattering Data: Weakly-Absorbing Aerosol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kassianov, Evgueni I.; Barnard, James C.; Pekour, Mikhail S.; Berg, Larry K.; Shilling, John E.; Flynn, Connor J.; Mei, Fan; Jefferson, Anne

    2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We propose here a novel approach for retrieving in parallel the effective density and real refractive index of weakly absorbing aerosol from optical and size distribution measurements. Here we define “weakly absorbing” as aerosol single-scattering albedos that exceed 0.95 at 0.5 um.The required optical measurements are the scattering coefficient and the hemispheric backscatter fraction, obtained in this work from an integrating nephelometer. The required size spectra come from a Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer and an Aerodynamic Particle Sizer. The performance of this approach is first evaluated using a sensitivity study with synthetically generated but measurement-related inputs. The sensitivity study reveals that the proposed approach is robust to random noise; additionally the uncertainties of the retrieval are almost linearly proportional to the measurement errors, and these uncertainties are smaller for the real refractive index than for the effective density. Next, actual measurements are used to evaluate our approach. These measurements include the optical, microphysical, and chemical properties of weakly absorbing aerosol which are representative of a variety of coastal summertime conditions observed during the Two-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP; http://campaign.arm.gov/tcap/). The evaluation includes calculating the root mean square error (RMSE) between the aerosol characteristics retrieved by our approach, and the same quantities calculated using the conventional volume mixing rule for chemical constituents. For dry conditions (defined in this work as relative humidity less than 55%) and sub-micron particles, a very good (RMSE~3%) and reasonable (RMSE~28%) agreement is obtained for the retrieved real refractive index (1.49±0.02) and effective density (1.68±0.21), respectively. Our approach permits discrimination between the retrieved aerosol characteristics of sub-micron and sub-10micron particles. The evaluation results also reveal that the retrieved density and refractive index tend to decrease with an increase of the relative humidity.

  12. Evaluation of the modified Anderson sampler for determining particle size distributions and respirable concentrations of particulate matter present in the working environment of cottonseed oil mills

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Matlock, Stanley Wayne

    1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    EVALUATION OF THE MODIFIED ANDERSON SAMPLER FOR DETERMINING PARTICLE SIZE DISTRIBUTIONS AND RESPIRABLE CONCENTRATIONS OF PARTICULATE MATTER PRESENT IN THE WORKING ENVIRONMENT OF COTTONSEED OIL MILLS A Thesis by STANLEY WAYNE MATLOCK Submitted... to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1976 Major Subject: Agricultural Engineering FVALUATION OF THE MODIFIED ANDERSON SAMPLER FOR DETERMINING PARTICLE SIZE...

  13. Droplet Formation via Solvent Shifting in a Microfluidic Device

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hajian, Ramin

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Solvent shifting is a process in which a non-solvent is added to a solvent/solute mixture and extracts the solvent. The solvent and the non-solvent are miscible. Because of solution supersaturation a portion of the solute transforms to droplets. In this paper, based on this process, we present an investigation on droplet formation and their radial motion in a microfluidic device in which a jet is injected in a co-flowing liquid stream. Thanks to the laminar flow, the microfluidic setup enables studying diffusion mass transfer in radial direction and obtaining well-defined concentration distributions. Such profiles together with Ternary Phase Diagram (TPD) give detailed information about the conditions for droplet formation condition as well as their radial migration in the channel. The ternary system is composed of ethanol (solvent), de-ionized water (non-solvent) and divinyle benzene (solute). We employ analytical/numerical solutions of the diffusion equation to obtain concentration profiles of the component...

  14. Theoretical studies on hydrogen ignition and droplet combustion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Del Álamo, Gonzalo

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    1.2 Droplet Combustion . . . . . . . . . . . . .Combustion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Lewis, B. and von Elbe, G. Combustion, Flames and Explosions

  15. Droplet-Based Microfluidics DOI: 10.1002/anie.200601554

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ismagilov, Rustem F.

    Droplet-Based Microfluidics DOI: 10.1002/anie.200601554 Reactions in Droplets in Microfluidic · interfaces · microfluidics · microreactors · plugs R. F. Ismagilov et al.Reviews 7336 www;1. Introduction: Reactions in Droplets This Review discusses the use of droplets in microfluidic channels

  16. Cement and Concrete Research, Vol. 42 (2), 404-409, 2012. Influence of Particle Size Distributions on Yield Stress and Viscosity of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bentz, Dale P.

    Cement and Concrete Research, Vol. 42 (2), 404-409, 2012. Influence of Particle Size Distributions on Yield Stress and Viscosity of Cement-Fly Ash Pastes Dale P. Bentz Chiara F. Ferraris Michael A. Galler.galler@nist.gov Phone: (301)975-5865 Andrew S. Hansen John M. Guynn Roman Cement LLC andrew@RomanCement.com Abstract

  17. A b s t r a c t. The paper presents a comparison of particle size distributions of 23 mineral soils from SE Poland obtained by the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ahmad, Sajjad

    fraction (sand). K e y w o r d s: mineral soils, particle size distribution, laser diffraction, areometric soils (Orthic Luvisols) and 1 black earth (Mollic Gleysol). Air-dry soil samples were sieved on 2 mm was prepared using distilled water as the liquid phase. To improve the credibility of results, the measurement

  18. Modeling kinetic partitioning of secondary organic aerosol and size distribution dynamics: representing effects of volatility, phase state, and particle-phase reaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zaveri, Rahul A.; Easter, Richard C.; Shilling, John E.; Seinfeld, J. H.

    2014-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Evidence is mounting that the majority of the climatically active aerosols are produced through the growth of smaller particles via secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation from gas-to-particle conversion of anthropogenic and biogenic volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The timescale of SOA partitioning and the associated size distribution dynamics are expected to depend on the gas-phase oxidation of the precursor VOCs and their products, volatility of these organic solutes, composition and phase state of the pre-existing particles, and diffusivity and reactivity of the solute within the particle phase. This paper describes a new framework for modeling kinetic gas-particle partitioning of SOA, with an analytical treatment for the diffusion-reaction process within the particle phase. The formulation is amenable for eventual use in regional and global climate models, although it currently awaits implementation of the actual particle-phase reactions that are important for SOA formation. In the present work, the model is applied to investigate the competitive growth dynamics of the Aitken and accumulation mode particles while the Kelvin effect and coagulation are neglected for simplicity. The timescale of SOA partitioning and evolution of number and composition size distributions are evaluated for a range of solute volatilities (C*), particle-phase bulk diffusivities (Db), and particle-phase reactivity, as exemplified by a pseudo-first-order rate constant (kc). Results show that irreversible condensation of non-volatile organic vapors (equivalent to ) produces significant narrowing of the size distribution. At the other extreme, non-reactive partitioning of semi-volatile organic vapors is volume-controlled in which the final (equilibrium) size distribution simply shifts to the right on the diameter axis while its shape remains unchanged. However, appreciable narrowing of the size distribution may occur when the pre-existing particles are highly viscous semi-solids such that small particles reach quasi-equilibrium much faster than the large ones. In the case of reactive partitioning (finite ), the size distribution experiences permanent narrowing, which is especially pronounced for Db < 10-13 cm2 s-1 and kc > 0.01 s-1. As a result, both number and composition size distributions are needed to effectively constrain and evaluate the next generation of SOA models that treat phase state thermodynamics, particle-phase diffusion and particle-phase chemical reactions.

  19. Laser induced rotation of trapped chiral and achiral nematic droplets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marjan Mosallaeipour; Yashodhan Hatwalne; N. V. Madhusudana; Sharath Ananthamurthy

    2010-02-05T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the response of optically trapped achiral and chiralised nematic liquid crystal droplets to linear as well as circular polarised light. We find that there is internal dissipation in rotating achiral nematic droplets trapped in glycerine. We also demonstrate that some chiralised droplets rotate under linearly polarised light. The best fit to our data on chiralised droplets indicates that rotational frequency of these droplets with radius R is approximately proportional to1/R^2, rather than to 1/R^3.

  20. Synthesis, droplet combustion, and sooting characteristics of biodiesel produced from waste vegetable oils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, T. X.; Zhu, D. L.; Akafuah, N.; Saito, K.; Law, C. K.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In light of the potential of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME, i.e. biodiesel) as a renewable energy source, an innovative acid catalyzed process was developed for the synthesis of biodiesel from waste vegetable oils. The synthesized biodiesels were analytically characterized for their major components, molar fraction and molecular weight of each component, the average molecular weight, and the heat of combustion. Their droplet combustion characteristics in terms of the burning rate, flame size, and sooting tendency were subsequently determined in a high-temperature, freely-falling droplet apparatus. Results show that the biodiesel droplet has higher burning rate, and that biodiesel in general has a lower propensity to soot because its molecular oxygen content promotes the oxidation of the soot precursors.

  1. The dynamics of laser droplet generation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blaz Krese; Matjaz Perc; Edvard Govekar

    2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We propose an experimental setup allowing for the characterization of laser droplet generation in terms of the underlying dynamics, primarily showing that the latter is deterministically chaotic by means of nonlinear time series analysis methods. In particular, we use a laser pulse to melt the end of a properly fed vertically placed metal wire. Due to the interplay of surface tension, gravity force and light-metal interaction, undulating pendant droplets are formed at the molten end, which eventually completely detach from the wire as a consequence of their increasing mass. We capture the dynamics of this process by employing a high-speed infrared camera, thereby indirectly measuring the temperature of the wire end and the pendant droplets. The time series is subsequently generated as the mean value over the pixel intensity of every infrared snapshot. Finally, we employ methods of nonlinear time series analysis to reconstruct the phase space from the observed variable and test it against determinism and stationarity. After establishing that the observed laser droplet generation is a deterministic and dynamically stationary process, we calculate the spectra of Lyapunov exponents. We obtain a positive largest Lyapunov exponent and a negative divergence, i.e., sum of all the exponents, thus indicating that the observed dynamics is deterministically chaotic with an attractor as solution in the phase space. In addition to characterizing the dynamics of laser droplet generation, we outline industrial applications of the process and point out the significance of our findings for future attempts at mathematical modeling.

  2. A hemispherical Langmuir probe array detector for angular resolved measurements on droplet-based laser-produced plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gambino, Nadia, E-mail: gambinon@ethz.ch; Brandstätter, Markus; Rollinger, Bob; Abhari, Reza [ETH Zürich, Laboratory for Energy Conversion, Sonneggstrasse 3, 8092 Zürich (Switzerland)

    2014-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In this work, a new diagnostic tool for laser-produced plasmas (LPPs) is presented. The detector is based on a multiple array of six motorized Langmuir probes. It allows to measure the dynamics of a LPP in terms of charged particles detection with particular attention to droplet-based LPP sources for EUV lithography. The system design permits to temporally resolve the angular and radial plasma charge distribution and to obtain a hemispherical mapping of the ions and electrons around the droplet plasma. The understanding of these dynamics is fundamental to improve the debris mitigation techniques for droplet-based LPP sources. The device has been developed, built, and employed at the Laboratory for Energy Conversion, ETH Zürich. The experimental results have been obtained on the droplet-based LPP source ALPS II. For the first time, 2D mappings of the ion kinetic energy distribution around the droplet plasma have been obtained with an array of multiple Langmuir probes. These measurements show an anisotropic expansion of the ions in terms of kinetic energy and amount of ion charge around the droplet target. First estimations of the plasma density and electron temperature were also obtained from the analysis of the probe current signals.

  3. Study of catalytic diffusion in coal. Final report for 1983/1984 SOMED Project. [Determination of pore (hole) size and pore shape distribution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kispert, L.D.

    1984-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of our studies is to determine the pore (hole) size and pore shape distribution in standard bituminous coal samples from various Alabama coal seams such as that of the Mary Lee, Black Creek and Pratt during and after swelling of the coal with different solvents at various temperatures. These samples come from the Penn State Coal Sample Bank at Pennsylvania State University Coal Research Section and from Alabama's Mineral Industries. Methods have been developed in the laboratory whereby free radical probes of varying sizes can be diffused into the coal under various conditions. These probes can be detected and the environment surrounding the probes can be deduced by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) methods. To date, we have found that not only can the shape and size of the pores be determined, but that the size distribution varies from one bituminous coal seam to another, even for coal of the same rank, suggesting a different optimal catalyst should be used for each seam. The effect of oxygen on the coal samples during grinding has been studied; however, the free radical technique appears to be insensitive to the presence of oxygen effects. It is our goal to determine the structural differences between various bituminous coals. 9 references, 9 figures, 1 table.

  4. 6/10/12 The use of acoustic inversion to estimate the bubble size distribution in pipelines | Global Scientia 1/2globalscientia.com/article/.../use-acoustic-inversion-estimate-bubble-size-distribution-pipelines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sóbester, András

    to expand and causes 'blow out'. A blow out is the sudden release of oil and/or gas from a well and issues with the blow out preventer were key in Deepwater Horizon oil spill (also known as the Macondo blowout) in the Gulf of Mexico in 2010. Currently, the most popular technique for estimating the gas bubble size

  5. 6/10/12 The use of acoustic inversion to estimate the bubble size distribution in pipelines 1/2www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2012/05/120515104537.htm

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sóbester, András

    6/10/12 The use of acoustic inversion to estimate the bubble size distribution in pipelines 1/2www gas bubbles in pipelines. The ability to measure gas bubbles in pipelines is vital technique for estimating the gas bubble size distribution (BSD) is to send sound waves through the bubble

  6. Suppression and Enhancement of Boiling Associated with Multiple Droplet Impingement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Yuxuan

    2014-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    are at play simultaneously. Furthermore, experiments with single streams of droplets have not been able to elucidate the effects of the onset of boiling (ONB) during the droplet impingement process. Therefore, efforts have been undertaken to consider...

  7. Phenomenology of electrostatically charged droplet combustion in normal gravity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, Eric K.; Koch, Jeremy A.; Kyritsis, Dimitrios C. [Department of Mechanical Science and Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States)

    2008-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Experimental findings are provided on the effect of electrostatically charging a fuel on single-burning droplet combustion in normal gravity. It was established that significant modification of the flame morphology and the droplet burning time could be achieved, solely by the droplet charge, without the application of external electric fields. Negative charging of the droplets of mixtures of isooctane with either ethanol or a commercially available anti-static additive generated intense motion of the flame and abbreviated the droplet burning time by as much as 40% for certain blend compositions. Positive charging of the droplets generated almost spherical flames, because electrostatic attraction toward the droplets countered the effect of buoyancy. By comparing combustion of droplets of the same conductivity but different compositions, coupling of electrostatics with combustion chemistry was established. (author)

  8. Jumping-Droplet-Enhanced Condensation on Scalable Superhydrophobic Nanostructured Surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miljkovic, Nenad

    When droplets coalesce on a superhydrophobic nanostructured surface, the resulting droplet can jump from the surface due to the release of excess surface energy. If designed properly, these superhydrophobic nanostructured ...

  9. Anisotropic Particle Synthesis Inside Droplet Templates on Superhydrophobic Surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Velev, Orlin D.

    Anisotropic Particle Synthesis Inside Droplet Templates on Superhydrophobic Surfaces Vinayak on superhydrophobic substrates can be used to fabricate both shape-anisotropic (``doughnut'') and composition anisotropic structures via droplet templates dispensed on superhydrophobic substrates. Hence, little is known

  10. Electrowetting and droplet impalement experiments on superhydrophobic multiscale

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brunet, Philippe

    Electrowetting and droplet impalement experiments on superhydrophobic multiscale structures F925544c The reversible actuation of droplets on superhydrophobic surfaces under ambient conditions. Introduction The superhydrophobic character of a surface generally arises from an interplay between the surface

  11. Dislocation structure and crystallite size-distribution in hexagonal nanomaterials from X-ray peak profile analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gubicza, Jenõ

    profile analysis Tamás Ungár1 and Jen Gubicza1,2 1 Department of General Physics, Eötvös University crystal structure are studied by X-ray diffraction peak profile analysis. The crystallite size, X-ray peak profile analysis, hexagonal crystals, nanostructure. Short title: T. Ungár & J. Gubicza

  12. MODELING AND CONTROLLING PARALLEL TASKS IN DROPLET-BASED MICROFLUIDIC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chapter 12 MODELING AND CONTROLLING PARALLEL TASKS IN DROPLET-BASED MICROFLUIDIC SYSTEMS Karl F-independent models and algorithms to automate the operation of droplet-based microfluidic systems. In these systems mapping of a biochemical analysis task onto a droplet-based microfluidic system is investigated. Achieving

  13. SPECIAL TOPIC: HELIUM NANODROPLETS Experimental studies of helium droplets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Northby, Jan A.

    SPECIAL TOPIC: HELIUM NANODROPLETS Experimental studies of helium droplets J. A. Northbya) Physics September 2001 In this report I will review experimental studies of free helium droplets, with the exception of spectroscopic studies of helium droplets that contain impurities. This particular topic, as well as theoretical

  14. Turbulent Transition in an Electromagnetically Levitated Droplet

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mountziaris, T. J.

    Turbulent Transition in an Electromagnetically Levitated Droplet Christina R. Rizer, Robert W a marked transition from laminar to turbulent flow, which can be observed by following the movement, will oscillate and break apart, marking the transition to turbulence. Using videos taken of these metal samples

  15. Power law and exponential ejecta size distributions from the dynamic fragmentation of shock-loaded Cu and Sn metals under melt conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Durand, O.; Soulard, L. [CEA, DAM, DIF, F-91297 Arpajon (France)

    2013-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Large scale molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are performed to study and to model the ejecta production from the dynamic fragmentation of shock-loaded metals under melt conditions. A generic 3D crystal in contact with vacuum containing about 10{sup 8} atoms and with a sinusoidal free surface roughness is shock loaded so as to undergo a solid-liquid phase change on shock. The reflection of the shock wave at the interface metal/vacuum gives rise to the ejection of 2D jets/sheets of atoms (Richtmyer-Meshkov instabilities in the continuum limit), which develop and break up, forming ejecta (fragments) of different volumes (or mass). The fragmentation process is investigated by analyzing the evolution of the resulting volume distribution of the ejecta as a function of time. Two metals are studied (Cu and Sn) and the amplitude of the roughness is varied. The simulations show that the associated distributions exhibit a generic behavior with the sum of two distinct terms of varying weight, following the expansion rate of the jets: in the small size limit, the distribution obeys a power law dependence with an exponent equal to 1.15?±?0.08; and in the large size limit, it obeys an exponential form. These two components are interpreted, with the help of additional simple simulations, as the signature of two different basic mechanisms of fragmentation. The power law dependence results from the fragmentation of a 2D network of ligaments arranged following a fractal (scale free) geometry and generated when the sheets of liquid metal expand and tear. The exponential distribution results from a 1D Poisson fragmentation process of the largest ligaments previously generated. Unlike the power law distribution, it is governed by a characteristic length scale, which may be provided by energy balance principle.

  16. An interface tracking model for droplet electrocoalescence.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Erickson, Lindsay Crowl

    2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes an Early Career Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project to develop an interface tracking model for droplet electrocoalescence. Many fluid-based technologies rely on electrical fields to control the motion of droplets, e.g. microfluidic devices for high-speed droplet sorting, solution separation for chemical detectors, and purification of biodiesel fuel. Precise control over droplets is crucial to these applications. However, electric fields can induce complex and unpredictable fluid dynamics. Recent experiments (Ristenpart et al. 2009) have demonstrated that oppositely charged droplets bounce rather than coalesce in the presence of strong electric fields. A transient aqueous bridge forms between approaching drops prior to pinch-off. This observation applies to many types of fluids, but neither theory nor experiments have been able to offer a satisfactory explanation. Analytic hydrodynamic approximations for interfaces become invalid near coalescence, and therefore detailed numerical simulations are necessary. This is a computationally challenging problem that involves tracking a moving interface and solving complex multi-physics and multi-scale dynamics, which are beyond the capabilities of most state-of-the-art simulations. An interface-tracking model for electro-coalescence can provide a new perspective to a variety of applications in which interfacial physics are coupled with electrodynamics, including electro-osmosis, fabrication of microelectronics, fuel atomization, oil dehydration, nuclear waste reprocessing and solution separation for chemical detectors. We present a conformal decomposition finite element (CDFEM) interface-tracking method for the electrohydrodynamics of two-phase flow to demonstrate electro-coalescence. CDFEM is a sharp interface method that decomposes elements along fluid-fluid boundaries and uses a level set function to represent the interface.

  17. Influence of Liquid Viscosity on Droplet Impingement on Superhydrophobic Surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pearson, John T; Webb, Brent W

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This fluid dynamics video describes droplet impingement experiments performed on superhydrophobic surfaces. When droplets of pure water are impinged upon superhydrophobic surfaces, a region of thin coherent jets are observed for Weber numbers between 5 and 15. Also, peripheral splashing is observed for Weber numbers above about 200. When the viscosity of the droplet is increased by mixing glycerol with the water, the thin jets are not observed and peripheral splashing is delayed somewhat. In the Weber number range where pure water droplets are observed to splash peripherally, the water/glycerol droplets are observed to have two-pronged jets.

  18. Oil droplet behavior at a pore entrance in the presence of crossflow: Implications for microfiltration of oil-water dispersions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tohid Darvishzadeh; Volodymyr V. Tarabara; Nikolai V. Priezjev

    2013-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The behavior of an oil droplet pinned at the entrance of a micropore and subject to clossflow-induced shear is investigated numerically by solving the Navier-Stokes equation. We found that in the absence of crossflow, the critical transmembrane pressure required to force the droplet into the pore is in excellent agreement with a theoretical prediction based on the Young-Laplace equation. With increasing shear rate, the critical pressure of permeation increases, and at sufficiently high shear rates the oil droplet breaks up into two segments. The results of numerical simulations indicate that droplet breakup at the pore entrance is facilitated at lower surface tension, higher oil-to-water viscosity ratio and larger droplet size but is insensitive to the value of the contact angle. Using simple force and torque balance arguments, an estimate for the increase in critical pressure due to crossflow and the breakup capillary number is obtained and validated for different viscosity ratios, surface tension coefficients, contact angles, and drop-to-pore size ratios.

  19. THE IMPORTANCE OF PHYSICAL MODELS FOR DERIVING DUST MASSES AND GRAIN SIZE DISTRIBUTIONS IN SUPERNOVA EJECTA. I. RADIATIVELY HEATED DUST IN THE CRAB NEBULA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Temim, Tea; Dwek, Eli, E-mail: tea.temim@nasa.gov [Observational Cosmology Lab, Code 665, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent far-infrared (IR) observations of supernova remnants (SNRs) have revealed significantly large amounts of newly condensed dust in their ejecta, comparable to the total mass of available refractory elements. The dust masses derived from these observations assume that all the grains of a given species radiate at the same temperature, regardless of the dust heating mechanism or grain radius. In this paper, we derive the dust mass in the ejecta of the Crab Nebula, using a physical model for the heating and radiation from the dust. We adopt a power-law distribution of grain sizes and two different dust compositions (silicates and amorphous carbon), and calculate the heating rate of each dust grain by the radiation from the pulsar wind nebula. We find that the grains attain a continuous range of temperatures, depending on their size and composition. The total mass derived from the best-fit models to the observed IR spectrum is 0.019-0.13 M{sub Sun }, depending on the assumed grain composition. We find that the power-law size distribution of dust grains is characterized by a power-law index of 3.5-4.0 and a maximum grain size larger than 0.1 {mu}m. The grain sizes and composition are consistent with what is expected for dust grains formed in a Type IIP supernova (SN). Our derived dust mass is at least a factor of two less than the mass reported in previous studies of the Crab Nebula that assumed more simplified two-temperature models. These models also require a larger mass of refractory elements to be locked up in dust than was likely available in the ejecta. The results of this study show that a physical model resulting in a realistic distribution of dust temperatures can constrain the dust properties and affect the derived dust masses. Our study may also have important implications for deriving grain properties and mass estimates in other SNRs and for the ultimate question of whether SNe are major sources of dust in the Galactic interstellar medium and in external galaxies.

  20. Net Metering Policy Development and Distributed Solar Generation in Minnesota: Overview of Trends in Nationwide Policy Development and Implications of Increasing the Eligible System Size Cap

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doris, E.; Busche, S.; Hockett, S.

    2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The goal of the Minnesota net metering policy is to give the maximum possible encouragement to distributed generation assets, especially solar electric systems (MN 2008). However, according to a published set of best practices (NNEC 2008) that prioritize the maximum development of solar markets within states, the Minnesota policy does not incorporate many of the important best practices that may help other states transform their solar energy markets and increase the amount of grid-connected distributed solar generation assets. Reasons cited include the low system size limit of 40kW (the best practices document recommends a 2 MW limit) and a lack of language protecting generators from additional utility fees. This study was conducted to compare Minnesota's policies to national best practices. It provides an overview of the current Minnesota policy in the context of these best practices and other jurisdictions' net metering policies, as well as a qualitative assessment of the impacts of raising the system size cap within the policy based on the experiences of other states.

  1. Sessile droplet evaporation on superheated superhydrophobic surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hays, Robb C; Maynes, Daniel; Webb, Brent W

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This fluid dynamics video depicts the evaporation of sessile water droplets placed on heated superhydrophobic (SH) surfaces of varying cavity fraction, F_c, and surface temperature, T_s, above the saturation temperature, T_sat. Images were captured at 10,000 FPS and are played back at 30 FPS in this video. Teflon-coated silicon surfaces of F_c = 0, 0.5, 0.8, and 0.95 were used for these experiments. T_s ranging from 110{\\deg}C to 210{\\deg}C were studied. The video clips show how the boiling behavior of sessile droplets is altered with changes in surface microstructure. Quantitative results from heat transfer rate experiments conducted by the authors are briefly discussed near the end of the video.

  2. Millisecond dip events in the 2007 RXTE/PCA data of Sco X-1 and the TNO size distribution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Chih-Yuan; Liang, Jau-Shian; King, Sun-Kun

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Millisecond dips in the RXTE/PCA archival data of Sco X-1 taken from 1996 to 2002 were reported recently. Those dips were found to be most likely caused by instrumental dead time but may also contain some true astronomical events, which were interpreted as the occultation of X-rays from Sco X-1 by Trans-Neptunian Objects (TNO) of 100-m size. Here we report the results of search for millisecond dip events with the new RXTE/PCA data of Sco X-1 taken in year 2007. Adopting the same selection criteria as that in the previous study, we found only 3 dip events in 72-ks data, much fewer than the 107 events found in the 560-ks data taken from 1996 to 2002 reported earlier. The new data provides more detailed information of individual `very large events' (VLEs), which is not available in the old archival data. Although the number of VLEs does not obviously increase during the occurrence of dip events, all the 3 dip events are coincident in time with VLEs that have no flags set for any of the propane or the 6 main xeno...

  3. Computational Fluid Dynamics of rising droplets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wagner, Matthew [Lake Superior State University; Francois, Marianne M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-09-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The main goal of this study is to perform simulations of droplet dynamics using Truchas, a LANL-developed computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software, and compare them to a computational study of Hysing et al.[IJNMF, 2009, 60:1259]. Understanding droplet dynamics is of fundamental importance in liquid-liquid extraction, a process used in the nuclear fuel cycle to separate various components. Simulations of a single droplet rising by buoyancy are conducted in two-dimensions. Multiple parametric studies are carried out to ensure the problem set-up is optimized. An Interface Smoothing Length (ISL) study and mesh resolution study are performed to verify convergence of the calculations. ISL is a parameter for the interface curvature calculation. Further, wall effects are investigated and checked against existing correlations. The ISL study found that the optimal ISL value is 2.5{Delta}x, with {Delta}x being the mesh cell spacing. The mesh resolution study found that the optimal mesh resolution is d/h=40, for d=drop diameter and h={Delta}x. In order for wall effects on terminal velocity to be insignificant, a conservative wall width of 9d or a nonconservative wall width of 7d can be used. The percentage difference between Hysing et al.[IJNMF, 2009, 60:1259] and Truchas for the velocity profiles vary from 7.9% to 9.9%. The computed droplet velocity and interface profiles are found in agreement with the study. The CFD calculations are performed on multiple cores, using LANL's Institutional High Performance Computing.

  4. Collective waves in dense and confined microfluidic droplet arrays

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ulf D. Schiller; Jean-Baptiste Fleury; Ralf Seemann; Gerhard Gompper

    2015-02-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Excitation mechanisms for collective waves in confined dense one-dimensional microfluidic droplet arrays are investigated by experiments and computer simulations. We demonstrate that distinct modes can be excited by creating specific `defect' patterns in flowing droplet trains. Excited longitudinal modes exhibit a short-lived cascade of pairs of laterally displacing droplets. Transversely excited modes obey the dispersion relation of microfluidic phonons and induce a coupling between longitudinal and transverse modes, whose origin is the hydrodynamic interaction of the droplets with the confining walls. Moreover, we investigate the long-time behaviour of the oscillations and discuss possible mechanisms for the onset of instabilities. Our findings demonstrate that the collective dynamics of microfluidic droplet ensembles can be studied particularly well in dense and confined systems. Experimentally, the ability to control microfluidic droplets may allow to modulate the refractive index of optofluidic crystals which is a promising approach for the production of dynamically programmable metamaterials.

  5. Azeotropic Distillation as a Technique for Emulsion Size Reduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Petta, Jason

    Azeotropic Distillation as a Technique for Emulsion Size Reduction Taylor Emanuelle Sweet 2013 Prism/PCCM #12;Overview -Intro- What is Microfluidics? What is Heterogeneous Azeotropic Distillation microns in size and use Binary Heterogeneous Azeotropic Distillation to shrink droplets to 5-10 microns

  6. acoustic droplet vaporization: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    we present detailed study of a laser irradiated droplet containing nanosilica particles. Infrared and High speed imaging of the heating process for different concentrations of...

  7. acoustically levitated droplet: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    we present detailed study of a laser irradiated droplet containing nanosilica particles. Infrared and High speed imaging of the heating process for different concentrations of...

  8. acoustically levitated droplets: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    we present detailed study of a laser irradiated droplet containing nanosilica particles. Infrared and High speed imaging of the heating process for different concentrations of...

  9. Modeling spray impingement using linear stability theories for droplet shattering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DesJardin, Paul Edward; Yoon, Sam Sukgoo

    2005-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper compares several linear-theory-based models for droplet shattering employed for simulations of spray impingement on flat wall surface or a circular cylinder. Numerical simulations are conducted using a stochastic separated flow (SSF) technique that includes sub-models for droplet dynamics and impact. Results for spray impingement over a flat wall indicate that the linear theory applicable for a single droplet impact over-predicts the number of satellite (or secondary) droplets upon shattering when compared to experimental data. The causes for the observed discrepancies are discussed. Numerical simulation results for spray impingement over for a circular cylinder in cross flow are obtained and discussed.

  10. atomizing analyte droplets: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    droplet patterning and is potentially useful for many applications, such as microfluidics, thermal control and microfabrication. Style, Robert W; Park, Su Ji; Weon, Byung...

  11. atmospheric aqueous droplets: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    droplet patterning and is potentially useful for many applications, such as microfluidics, thermal control and microfabrication. Style, Robert W; Park, Su Ji; Weon, Byung...

  12. Impalement transitions in droplets impacting microstructured superhydrophobic surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. Hyväluoma; J. Timonen

    2008-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Liquid droplets impacting a superhydrophobic surface decorated with micro-scale posts often bounce off the surface. However, by decreasing the impact velocity droplets may land on the surface in a fakir state, and by increasing it posts may impale droplets that are then stuck on the surface. We use a two-phase lattice-Boltzmann model to simulate droplet impact on superhydrophobic surfaces, and show that it may result in a fakir state also for reasonable high impact velocities. This happens more easily if the surface is made more hydrophobic or the post height is increased, thereby making the impaled state energetically less favourable.

  13. Effect of coal type, residence time, and combustion configuration on the submicron aerosol composition and size distribution from pulverized coal combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Linak, W.P.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Pulverized samples of Utah bituminous, Beulah (North Dakota) low Na lignite, Deulah high Na lignite and Texas (San Miguel) lignite coals were burned at a rate of 2.5 kg/hr in a laboratory furnace under various (overall fuel lean) combustion conditions. Particle size distributions (PSD) and size segregated particle filter samples were taken at various positions within the convection section. Temperature and gas concentrations were measured throughout. The evolution of the submicron PSD within the convection section for the four coals was similar, although the location of the initial particle mode at the convection section inlet varied with coal type. While stage combustion of the Utah bituminous coal had a variable effect on the volume of submicron aerosol produced, staged combustion of two of the three lignites (Beulah low Na and Texas) caused a definite increase in the submicron aerosol volume. Chemical analysis of the size segregated particle samples show the trace elements, As, Pb, Zn, and the major elements, Na and K to be enriched in the submicron aerosol. Auger depth profiles show these small particles to be comprised of a core enriched in Fe, Si, Ca and Mg and surface layers enriched in Na and K. These results point to a mechanism of homogeneous nucleation of low vapor pressure species followed by successive layering of progressively more volatile species. Volatile species are enriched in the submicron aerosol due to the large surface areas provided. Modeling efforts show that while coagulation may be the dominant mechanism to describe the aerosol evolving within the convection section, it cannot be used solely to predict the PSD. Another mechanism, presumably surface area dependent growth (condensation) must be included.

  14. Nonlinear electrohydrodynamics of a viscous droplet

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Salipante, Paul F

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A classic result due to G.I.Taylor is that a drop placed in a uniform electric field becomes a prolate or oblate spheroid, which is axisymmetrically aligned with the applied field. We report an instability and symmetry-breaking transition to obliquely oriented, steady and unsteady shapes in strong fields. Our experiments reveal novel droplet behaviors such as tumbling, shape oscillations, and chaotic dynamics even under creeping flow conditions. A theoretical model, which includes anisotropy in the polarization relaxation due to drop asphericity and charge convection due to drop fluidity, elucidates the interplay of interfacial flow and charging as the source of the rich nonlinear dynamics.

  15. Vortex and Droplet Engineering in Holographic Superconductors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tameem Albash; Clifford V. Johnson

    2009-08-22T23:59:59.000Z

    We give a detailed account of the construction of non--trivial localized solutions in a 2+1 dimensional model of superconductors using a 3+1 dimensional gravitational dual theory of a black hole coupled to a scalar field. The solutions are found in the presence of a background magnetic field. We use numerical and analytic techniques to solve the full Maxwell--scalar equations of motion in the background geometry, finding condensate droplet solutions, and vortex solutions possessing a conserved winding number. These solutions and their properties, which we uncover, help shed light on key features of the (B,T) phase diagram.

  16. Temporal and spatial study of drying of suspension and solution droplets for tablets coating purposes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sartori Velasco, Silvana

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of water- in-oil emulsion droplets,” Combustion and Flame,and combustion processes of metal, coal slurry droplets [20], water-in-oil

  17. Thermo-fluid Dynamics of Flash Atomizing Sprays and Single Droplet Impacts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vu, Henry

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    T , where C is the heat capacity of the liquid. Since fluidheat capacity bubble growth constant droplet diameter mean droplet diameter nozzle diameter thermal diffusivity of liquid

  18. SHORT REPORT Open Access Nuclear lipid droplets identified by electron

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    SHORT REPORT Open Access Nuclear lipid droplets identified by electron microscopy of serial that nuclear lipid droplets (LDs) are organized into domains similar to those of cytoplasmic LDs with the nuclear envelope, it could be suggested however that nuclear LDs are cytoplamic LDs trapped within

  19. Cooling of Integrated Circuits Using Droplet-Based Microfluidics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chakrabarty, Krishnendu

    Cooling of Integrated Circuits Using Droplet-Based Microfluidics Vamsee K. Pamula Duke University and microfluidics-based solutions were proposed in the past. We present a cooling method based on high supply of droplets without the need for external sensors and electrothermocapillary control where hot

  20. OIL DROPLET MANIPULATION USING LIQUID DIELECTROPHORESIS ON ELECTRET WITH SUPERLYOPHOBIC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kasagi, Nobuhide

    OIL DROPLET MANIPULATION USING LIQUID DIELECTROPHORESIS ON ELECTRET WITH SUPERLYOPHOBIC SURFACES flow friction for water and oil. Charge stability of electret in liquid is much improved with new hysteresis of SLS for oil droplets are experimentally demonstrated, indicating low motion resistance

  1. ARM - Measurement - Particle size distribution

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadap Documentation TDMADAP : XDCnarrowband upwelling irradiancenumber concentration ARM Datasize

  2. Using Resonances to Control Chaotic Mixing within a Translating and Rotating Droplet

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rodolphe Chabreyrie; Dmitri Vainchtein; Cristel Chandre; Pushpendra Singh; Nadine Aubry

    2009-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Enhancing and controlling chaotic advection or chaotic mixing within liquid droplets is crucial for a variety of applications including digital microfluidic devices which use microscopic ``discrete'' fluid volumes (droplets) as microreactors. In this work, we consider the Stokes flow of a translating spherical liquid droplet which we perturb by imposing a time-periodic rigid-body rotation. Using the tools of dynamical systems, we have shown in previous work that the rotation not only leads to one or more three-dimensional chaotic mixing regions, in which mixing occurs through the stretching and folding of material lines, but also offers the possibility of controlling both the size and the location of chaotic mixing within the drop. Such a control was achieved through appropriate tuning of the amplitude and frequency of the rotation in order to use resonances between the natural frequencies of the system and those of the external forcing. In this paper, we study the influence of the orientation of the rotation axis on the chaotic mixing zones as a third parameter, as well as propose an experimental set up to implement the techniques discussed.

  3. Physical and chemical properties of the regional mixed layer of Mexico's Megapolis – Part II: Evaluation of measured and modeled trace gases and particle size distributions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ochoa, Carlos; Baumgardner, Darrel; Grutter, M.; Allan, James D.; Fast, Jerome D.; Rappengluck, B.

    2012-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This study extends the work of Baumgardner et al. (2009) in which measurements of trace gases and particles at a remote, high-altitude mountain site 60 km from Mexico City were analyzed with respect to the origin of air masses. In the current evaluation, the temperature, water vapor, ozone (O3), carbon monoxide (CO), acyl peroxy nitrate (APN) and particle size distributions (PSDs) of the mass concentrations of sulfate, nitrate, ammonium and organic mass (OM) were simulated with the WRF-Chem chemical transport model and compared with the measurements at the mountain site. The model prediction of the diurnal trends of the gases were well correlated with the measurements before the regional boundary layer reached the measurement site but underestimated the concentrations after that time. The differences are caused by an overly rapid growth of the boundary layer by the model with too much dilution. There also appears to be more O3 produced by photochemical production, downwind of the emission sources, than predicted by the model. The measured and modeled PSDs compare very well with respect to their general shape and diameter of the peak concentrations. The spectra are log normally distributed with most of the mass in the accumulation mode and the geometric diameter centered at 200 ±20 nm, with little observed or predicted change with respect to the origin of the air mass or the time when the RBL is above the Altzomoni research. Only the total mass changed with time and air mass origin. The invariability of the average diameter of the accumulation mode suggests that there is very little growth of the particles by condensation or coagulation after six hours of aging downwind of the major sources of anthropogenic emissions in Mexico’s Megapolis.

  4. Universal molecule injector in liquid helium: Pulsed cryogenic doped helium droplet source

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Apkarian, V. Ara

    metastable species for spectroscopic investigations;10 and the superthermal conductivity of the droplets

  5. DIGITAL CHROMATOGRAPHY AND THE FORMA-TION OF HETEROGENEOUS DROPLET LIBRARIES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Basu, Amar S.

    DIGITAL CHROMATOGRAPHY AND THE FORMA- TION OF HETEROGENEOUS DROPLET LIBRARIES USING University, Detroit MI, USA ABSTRACT Generating chemical libraries in droplet form is vital to the adoption in droplets (µFD), a method for generating heterogeneous droplet libraries using standard separation processes

  6. Ultralocalized thermal reactions in subnanoliter droplets-in-air

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bashir, Rashid

    in droplets including hybridization of low copy number DNA molecules, lysing of single cells, interrogation profiles. Previous on-chip, localized heating designs focused on peltier heaters, resistive heaters

  7. Droplet Bouncing Behavior in the Direct Solder Bumping Process

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hsiao, Wayne

    This paper presents the results of an ongoing effort to develop a direct solder bumping process for electronics packaging. The proposed process entails delivering molten droplets onto specific locations on electronic devices ...

  8. Recent Progress in Droplet-Based Manufacturing Research

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, H.-Y.

    This article reports the recent progress of re-search made in the Droplet-Based Manufacturing Laboratory at MIT. The study has been focused on obtaining a fundamental understanding of microdroplet deposition and applying ...

  9. Droplet Impingement Cooling Experiments on Nano-structured Surfaces 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, Yen-Po

    2011-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

    ), was defined based on the radial temperature profiles inside the impact zone to quantify the effects of the nano-structured surface in droplet cooling. Results indicate that larger effective cooling area can be achieved using nano-structured surface...

  10. Microfluidic emulsion characterization for the development of armored droplet arrays

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maltas, Stephen K

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An experimental study was performed to determine the best method for using a flow-focusing device to produce monodisperse water droplets in a polymer flow with sufficient spacing to polymerize a protective shell around the ...

  11. Programmable active droplet generation enabled by integrated pneumatic micropumps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zeng, Yong; Shin, Mimi; Wang, Tanyu

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    through programming the pumping configurations and the application to multi-volume digital PCR for precise and quantitative detection of genetic targets. Overall, our results suggest that the pump-based droplet microfluidics provide a robust platform...

  12. Droplet minimizers for the Cahn Hilliard free energy functional

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    E. A. Carlen; M. C. Carvalho; R. Esposito; J. L. Lebowitz; R. Marra

    2005-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

    We prove theorem characterizing the minimizers in a model for condensation based on the Cahn Hilliard free energy functional. In particular, we exactly determine the critical density for droplet formation.

  13. Evaporation-induced non-wetting droplets on superhydrophilic surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Adera, Solomon (Solomon E.)

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A droplet deposited on a rough, lyophilic surface satisfying the imbibition condition, results in spontaneous spreading and hence complete wetting. However, in this thesis, we demonstrate that this wetting behavior can be ...

  14. Dynamic wetting on superhydrophobic surfaces: Droplet impact and wetting hysteresis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smyth, Katherine M.

    We study the wetting energetics and wetting hysteresis of sessile and impacting water droplets on superhydrophobic surfaces as a function of surface texture and surface energy. For sessile drops, we find three wetting ...

  15. Jumping Droplet Dynamics on Scalable Nanostructured Superhydrophobic Surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miljkovic, Nenad

    Environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM) and high speed images of coalescence-induced droplet jumping on a nanostructured superhydrophobic copper oxide (CuO) surface are presented. Nanostructured CuO films were ...

  16. Material forming apparatus using a directed droplet stream

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Holcomb, David E. (Oak Ridge, TN); Viswanathan, Srinath (Knoxville, TN); Blue, Craig A. (Knoxville, TN); Wilgen, John B. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Systems and methods are described for rapidly forming precision metallic and intermetallic alloy net shape parts directly from liquid metal droplets. A directed droplet deposition apparatus includes a crucible with an orifice for producing a jet of material, a jet destabilizer, a charging structure, a deflector system, and an impact zone. The systems and methods provide advantages in that fully dense, microstructurally controlled parts can be fabricated at moderate cost.

  17. Ultrasonic estimation of the contact angle of a sessile droplet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Quintero, R.; Simonetti, F. [Department of Aerospace Engineering and Engineering Mechanics, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45221 (United States)

    2014-02-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Radiation of energy by large amplitude leaky Rayleigh waves is regarded as one of the key physical mechanisms regulating the actuation and manipulation of droplets in surface acoustic wave (SAW) microfluidic devices. The interaction between a SAW and a droplet is highly complex and is presently the subject of extensive research. This paper investigates the existence of an additional interaction mechanism based on the propagation of quasi-Stoneley waves inside sessile droplets deposited on a solid substrate. In contrast with the leaky Rayleigh wave, the energy of the Stoneley wave is confined within a thin fluid layer in contact with the substrate. The hypothesis is confirmed by three-dimensional finite element simulations and ultrasonic scattering experiments measuring the reflection of Rayleigh waves from droplets of different diameters. Moreover, real-time monitoring of the droplet evaporation process reveals a clear correlation between the droplet contact angle and the spectral information of the reflected Rayleigh signal, thus paving the way for ultrasonic measurements of surface tension.

  18. Technical Letter Report Development of Flaw Size Distribution Tables Including Effects of Flaw Depth Sizing Errors for Draft 10CFR 50.61a (Alternate PTS Rule) JCN-N6398, Task 4

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simonen, Fredric A.; Gosselin, Stephen R.; Doctor, Steven R.

    2013-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

    This document describes a new method to determine whether the flaws in a particular reactor pressure vessel are consistent with the assumptions regarding the number and sizes of flaws used in the analyses that formed the technical justification basis for the new voluntary alternative Pressurized Thermal Shock (PTS) rule (Draft 10 CFR 50.61a). The new methodology addresses concerns regarding prior methodology because ASME Code Section XI examinations do not detect all fabrication flaws, they have higher detection performance for some flaw types, and there are flaw sizing errors always present (e.g., significant oversizing of small flaws and systematic under sizing of larger flaws). The new methodology allows direct comparison of ASME Code Section XI examination results with values in the PTS draft rule Tables 2 and 3 in order to determine if the number and sizes of flaws detected by an ASME Code Section XI examination are consistent with those assumed in the probabilistic fracture mechanics calculations performed in support of the development of 10 CFR 50.61a.

  19. Liquid Droplet Impact Dynamics on Micro-Patterned Superhydrophobic Surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clavijo, Cristian; Crockett, Julie

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The video exhibits experimental qualitative and quantitative results of water/glycerol (50%/50% by mass) droplet impact on two types of micro-patterned superhydrophobic surfaces. The two types of surfaces used were 80% cavity fraction ribs and posts with a periodic spacing of 40 {\\mu}m and 32 {\\mu}m, respectively. All surfaces were manufactured through photolithography. The impact Weber number is used as the dynamic parameter to compare splash and rebound behaviors between the two types of surfaces. While droplets exhibit similar dynamics at low Weber numbers, rebound jet speed (normalized by droplet impact speed) is notably higher on posts than ribs for all Weber numbers tested here (5 265. On posts, satellite droplets also follow a specific path but in a different orientation. Satellite droplets form in locations aligned with the post lattice structure. This behavior is observed for 600 < We < 750. Jet rebound exhibits an interesting phenomenon on ribs under certain conditions. Due to the uneven shear...

  20. Determination of lateral size distribution of type-II ZnTe/ZnSe stacked submonolayer quantum dots via spectral analysis of optical signature of the Aharanov-Bohm excitons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ji, Haojie; Dhomkar, Siddharth; Roy, Bidisha; Kuskovsky, Igor L. [Department of Physics, Queens College of CUNY, Queens, New York 11367 (United States); The Graduate Center of CUNY, New York, New York 10016 (United States); Shuvayev, Vladimir [Department of Physics, Queens College of CUNY, Queens, New York 11367 (United States); Deligiannakis, Vasilios; Tamargo, Maria C. [The Graduate Center of CUNY, New York, New York 10016 (United States); Department of Chemistry, City College of CUNY, New York, New York 10031 (United States); Ludwig, Jonathan [National High Magnetic Field Laboratory, Tallahassee, Florida 32310 (United States); Department of Physics, Florida State University, Tallahassee, Florida 32306 (United States); Smirnov, Dmitry [National High Magnetic Field Laboratory, Tallahassee, Florida 32310 (United States); Wang, Alice [Evans Analytical Group, Sunnyvale, California 94086 (United States)

    2014-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

    For submonolayer quantum dot (QD) based photonic devices, size and density of QDs are critical parameters, the probing of which requires indirect methods. We report the determination of lateral size distribution of type-II ZnTe/ZnSe stacked submonolayer QDs, based on spectral analysis of the optical signature of Aharanov-Bohm (AB) excitons, complemented by photoluminescence studies, secondary-ion mass spectroscopy, and numerical calculations. Numerical calculations are employed to determine the AB transition magnetic field as a function of the type-II QD radius. The study of four samples grown with different tellurium fluxes shows that the lateral size of QDs increases by just 50%, even though tellurium concentration increases 25-fold. Detailed spectral analysis of the emission of the AB exciton shows that the QD radii take on only certain values due to vertical correlation and the stacked nature of the QDs.

  1. Breaking anchored droplets in a microfluidic Hele-Shaw cell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Amselem, Gabriel; Gallaire, François; Baroud, Charles N

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We study microfluidic self digitization in Hele-Shaw cells using pancake droplets anchored to surface tension traps. We show that above a critical flow rate, large anchored droplets break up to form two daughter droplets, one of which remains in the anchor. Below the critical flow velocity for breakup the shape of the anchored drop is given by an elastica equation that depends on the capillary number of the outer fluid. As the velocity crosses the critical value, the equation stops admitting a solution that satisfies the boundary conditions; the drop breaks up in spite of the neck still having finite width. A similar breaking event also takes place between the holes of an array of anchors, which we use to produce a 2D array of stationary drops in situ.

  2. Simultaneous measurement of the surface temperature and the release of atomic sodium from a burning black liquor droplet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saw, Woei L.; Nathan, Graham J. [Centre for Energy Technology, The University of Adelaide, SA 5006 (Australia); School of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Adelaide (Australia); Ashman, Peter J.; Alwahabi, Zeyad T. [Centre for Energy Technology, The University of Adelaide, SA 5006 (Australia); School of Chemical Engineering, The University of Adelaide (Australia); Hupa, Mikko [Process Chemistry Centre, Aabo Akademi, Biskopsgatan 8 FI-20500 Aabo (Finland)

    2010-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Simultaneous measurement of the concentration of released atomic sodium, swelling, surface and internal temperature of a burning black liquor droplet under a fuel lean and rich condition has been demonstrated. Two-dimensional two-colour optical pyrometry was employed to determine the distribution of surface temperature and swelling of a burning black liquor droplet while planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) was used to assess the temporal release of atomic sodium. The key findings of these studies are: (i) the concentration of atomic sodium released during the drying and devolatilisation stages was found to be correlated with the external surface area; and (ii) the insignificant presence of atomic sodium during the char consumption stage shows that sodium release is suppressed by the lower temperature and by the high CO{sub 2} content in and around the particle. (author)

  3. Droplet Combustion and Non-Reactive Shear-Coaxial Jets with Transverse Acoustic Excitation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Teshome, Sophonias

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ame sur- rounding an ethanol fuel droplet. The time spaname sur- rounding an ethanol fuel droplet. The time spanestablished (mm 2 /s) Fuel Ethanol Methanol JP-8 0.87,1.04 (

  4. Effects of Induced Acoustic Vibrations on Droplet Shedding on Hybrid Micro-structured Surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lai, Chen-Ling

    2014-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

    . In an effort to circumvent the pinning effect, a vibration-induced droplet shedding method has been explored to overcome contact angle hysteresis and facilitate droplet shedding at lower rolling angles. To understand the effects of hybrid surface morphology...

  5. Emulsion Templating of Poly(lactic acid) Particles: Droplet Formation Goran T. Vladisavljevic,*,,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    be produced from monodisperse droplets. As a consequence of inhomogeneous shear field during processing, the conventional methods of droplet generation such as spray drying,22 sonication,11,23 high-shear rotor/stator

  6. Air-stable droplet interface bilayers on oil-infused surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boreyko, Jonathan B [ORNL] [ORNL; Polizos, Georgios [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)] [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Datskos, Panos G [ORNL] [ORNL; Sarles, Stephen A [ORNL] [ORNL; Collier, Pat [ORNL] [ORNL

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Droplet interface bilayers (DIBs) are versatile model membranes useful for synthetic biology and biosensing; however, to date they have always been confined to fluid reservoirs. Here, we demonstrate that when two or more water droplets collide on an oil-infused substrate, they exhibit non-coalescence due to the formation of a thin oil film that gets squeezed between the droplets from the bottom-up. We show that when phospholipids are included in the water droplets, a stable droplet interface bilayer forms between the non-coalescing water droplets. As with traditional oil-submerged DIBs, we were able to characterize ion channel transport by incorporating peptides into each droplet. Our findings reveal that droplet interface bilayers can function in air environments, which could potentially enable biosensing of atmospheric particulates.

  7. MEASUREMENTS AND COMPUTATIONS OF FUEL DROPLET TRANSPORT IN TURBULENT FLOWS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joseph Katz and Omar Knio

    2007-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project is to study the dynamics of fuel droplets in turbulent water flows. The results are essential for development of models capable of predicting the dispersion of slightly light/heavy droplets in isotropic turbulence. Since we presently do not have any experimental data on turbulent diffusion of droplets, existing mixing models have no physical foundations. Such fundamental knowledge is essential for understanding/modeling the environmental problems associated with water-fuel mixing, and/or industrial processes involving mixing of immiscible fluids. The project has had experimental and numerical components: 1. The experimental part of the project has had two components. The first involves measurements of the lift and drag forces acting on a droplet being entrained by a vortex. The experiments and data analysis associated with this phase are still in progress, and the facility, constructed specifically for this project is described in Section 3. In the second and main part, measurements of fuel droplet dispersion rates have been performed in a special facility with controlled isotropic turbulence. As discussed in detail in Section 2, quantifying and modeling the of droplet dispersion rate requires measurements of their three dimensional trajectories in turbulent flows. To obtain the required data, we have introduced a new technique - high-speed, digital Holographic Particle Image Velocimetry (HPIV). The technique, experimental setup and results are presented in Section 2. Further information is available in Gopalan et al. (2005, 2006). 2. The objectives of the numerical part are: (1) to develop a computational code that combines DNS of isotropic turbulence with Lagrangian tracking of particles based on integration of a dynamical equation of motion that accounts for pressure, added mass, lift and drag forces, (2) to perform extensive computations of both buoyant (bubbles) and slightly buoyant (droplets) particles in turbulence conditions relevant to the experiments, and (3) to explore whether the corresponding predictions can explain the experimentally-observed behavior of the rise and dispersion of oil droplets in isotropic turbulence. A brief summary of results is presented in Section 4.

  8. Bouncing or sticky droplets: impalement transitions on superhydrophobic micropatterned surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Denis Bartolo; Farid Bouamrirene; Emilie Verneuil; Axel Buguin; Pascal Silberzan; Sebastien Moulinet

    2005-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

    When a liquid drops impinges a hydrophobic rough surface it can either bounce off the surface (fakir droplets) or be impaled and strongly stuck on it (Wenzel droplets). The analysis of drop impact and quasi static ''loading'' experiments on model microfabricated surfaces allows to clearly identify the forces hindering the impalement transitions. A simple semi-quantitative model is proposed to account for the observed relation between the surface topography and the robustness of fakir non-wetting states. Motivated by potential applications in microfluidics and in the fabrication of self cleaning surfaces, we finally propose some guidelines to design robust superhydrophobic surfaces.

  9. Dilution-Free Analysis from Picoliter Droplets by Nano-Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kelly, Ryan T.; Page, Jason S.; Marginean, Ioan; Tang, Keqi; Smith, Richard D.

    2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The expanding role of microfluidics for chemical and biochemical analysis is due to factors including the favorable scaling of separation performance with reduced channel dimensions,[1] flexibility afforded by computer-aided device design, and the ability to integrate multiple sample handling and analysis steps into a single platform.[2] Such devices enable smaller liquid volumes and sample sizes to be handled than can be achieved on the benchtop, where sub-microliter volumes are difficult to work with and where sample losses to the surfaces of multiple reaction vessels become prohibitive. A particularly attractive microfluidic platform for sample-limited analyses employs aqueous droplets or plugs encapsulated by an immiscible oil.[3,4] Each droplet serves as a discrete compartment or reaction chamber enabling, e.g., high throughput screening[5,6] and kinetic studies[7-9] of femto- to nanoliter samples, as well as the encapsulation[10-12] and lysis[10] of individual cells with limited dilution of the cellular contents

  10. Solar Absorption by Mie Resonances in Cloud Droplets Charles S. Zender

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zender, Charles

    by cloud droplets may consti- tute a significant and unaccounted-for solar energy sink in the atmosphere

  11. Integrated Droplet Routing in the Synthesis of Microfluidic Tao Xu and Krishnendu Chakrabarty

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chakrabarty, Krishnendu

    Integrated Droplet Routing in the Synthesis of Microfluidic Biochips* Tao Xu and Krishnendu, krish}@ee.duke.edu ABSTRACT Microfluidic biochips are revolutionizing many areas of biochemistry of droplet routing in microfluidic arrays. These methods typically rely on post-synthesis droplet routing

  12. The recoiling of liquid droplets upon collision with solid surfaces H.-Y. Kima)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Ho-Young

    solid surfaces polycarbonate and silicon oxide . The droplet dynamics are experimentally studied using of different liquid droplets water, ink, and silicone oil on different solid surfaces polycarbonate and silicon. Fukai et al.14,15 conducted a theoretical study on the spreading and recoiling of a liquid droplet upon

  13. Cross-Contamination Avoidance for Droplet Routing in Digital Microfluidic Biochips

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chakrabarty, Krishnendu

    Cross-Contamination Avoidance for Droplet Routing in Digital Microfluidic Biochips Yang Zhao- contamination between droplets of different biomolecules can lead to erroneous outcomes for bioassays, the avoidance of cross- contamination during droplet routing is a key design challenge for biochips. We propose

  14. Droplet microfluidic technology for single-cell high-throughput screening

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Perrimon, Norbert

    Droplet microfluidic technology for single-cell high-throughput screening Eric Brouzesa,b,1 (received for review March 31, 2009) We present a droplet-based microfluidic technology that enables high our droplet microfluidic platform is modular, robust, uses no moving parts, and has a wide range

  15. DROPLET-BASED HOT SPOT COOLING USING TOPLESS DIGITAL MICROFLUIDICS ON A PRINTED CIRCUIT BOARD

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    DROPLET-BASED HOT SPOT COOLING USING TOPLESS DIGITAL MICROFLUIDICS ON A PRINTED CIRCUIT BOARD Phil demonstrated a cooling method on a "digital microfluidics" platform whereby discrete droplets are manipulated and the effective flow rate of the droplets. The results presented here suggest that digital microfluidics

  16. Evaporation and Condensation of Large Droplets in the Presence of Inert Admixtures Containing Soluble Gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Elperin, Tov

    the mutual influence of heat and mass transfer during gas absorption and evaporation or condensation transfer during gas absorption by liquid droplets and during droplets evaporation and va- por condensationEvaporation and Condensation of Large Droplets in the Presence of Inert Admixtures Containing

  17. Jumping-Droplet-Enhanced Condensation on Scalable Superhydrophobic Nanostructured Surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miljkovic, N; Enright, R; Nam, Y; Lopez, K; Dou, N; Sack, J; Wang, E

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    When droplets coalesce on a superhydrophobic nanostructured surface, the resulting droplet can jump from the surface due to the release of excess surface energy. If designed properly, these superhydrophobic nanostructured surfaces can not only allow for easy droplet removal at micrometric length scales during condensation but also promise to enhance heat transfer performance. However, the rationale for the design of an ideal nanostructured surface as well as heat transfer experiments demonstrating the advantage of this jumping behavior are lacking. Here, we show that silanized copper oxide surfaces created via a simple fabrication method can achieve highly efficient jumping-droplet condensation heat transfer. We experimentally demonstrated a 25% higher overall heat flux and 30% higher condensation heat transfer coefficient compared to state-of-the-art hydrophobic condensing surfaces at low supersaturations (<1.12). This work not only shows significant condensation heat transfer enhancement but also promises a low cost and scalable approach to increase efficiency for applications such as atmospheric water harvesting and dehumidification. Furthermore, the results offer insights and an avenue to achieve high flux superhydrophobic condensation.

  18. Air Effects on Large Droplet Impact Frank T Smith1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Purvis, Richard

    Air Effects on Large Droplet Impact Frank T Smith1 and Richard Purvis2 UCL, London WC1E 6BT, UK A study is presented of the interaction(s) between air and water in determining the motion of a large surrounding air motion. I.Nomenclature A = magnitude of shear flow in the air c = ratio U /V D

  19. Resuspension by droplets STUART B. DALZIEL & MARTIN D. SEATON

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dalziel, Stuart

    Resuspension by droplets STUART B. DALZIEL & MARTIN D. SEATON Department of Applied Mathematics.dalziel@damtp.cam.ac.uk 1. Introduction Most of the work on hydrodynamic resuspension has concentrated on the lift (and drag, this hydrodynamic mechanism represents the dominant component of resuspension for most naturally occurring particle

  20. Bouncing Water Droplet on a Superhydrophobic Carbon Nanotube Array

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aria, Adrianus I

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Over the past few decades, superhydrophobic materials have attaracted a lot of interests, due to their numerous practical applications. Among various superhydrophobic materials, carbon nanotube arrays have gained enormous attentions simply because of their outstanding properties. The impact dynamic of water droplet on a superhydrophobic carbon nanotube array is shown in this fluid dynamics video.

  1. 6, 1184511875, 2006 A new SIze REsolved

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    the aerosol size distribution into sections and solves the GDE by splitting coagulation and condensation Interactive Discussion EGU that affect the aerosol size/composition distribution are therefore crucial. ThreeACPD 6, 11845­11875, 2006 A new SIze REsolved Aerosol Model E. Debry et al. Title Page Abstract

  2. Effect of droplet size on the behavior and characteristics of emulsified acid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Almutairi, Saleh Haif

    2008-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Emulsified acids have been extensively used in the oil industry since 1933. Most of the available research and publications discussed mainly the application of emulsified acid in the field. A fair number of the published work also discussed in depth...

  3. Effect of boric acid on the properties of Li{sub 2}MnO{sub 3}·LiNi{sub 0.5}Mn{sub 0.5}O{sub 2} composite cathode powders prepared by large-scale spray pyrolysis with droplet classifier

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hong, Young Jun; Choi, Seung Ho; Sim, Chul Min; Lee, Jung-Kul [Department of Chemical Engineering, Konkuk University, 1 Hwayang-dong, Gwangjin-gu, Seoul 143-701 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Chemical Engineering, Konkuk University, 1 Hwayang-dong, Gwangjin-gu, Seoul 143-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Yun Chan, E-mail: yckang@konkuk.ac.kr [Department of Chemical Engineering, Konkuk University, 1 Hwayang-dong, Gwangjin-gu, Seoul 143-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ? Spherical shape Li{sub 2}MnO{sub 3}·LiNi{sub 0.5}Mn{sub 0.5}O{sub 2} composite cathode powders are prepared by large-scale spray pyrolysis with droplet classifier. ? Boric acid improves the morphological and electrochemical properties of the composite cathode powders. ? The discharge capacity of the composite cathode powders decreases from 217 to 196 mAh g{sup ?1} by the 30th cycle. -- Abstract: Spherically shaped 0.3Li{sub 2}MnO{sub 3}·0.7LiNi{sub 0.5}Mn{sub 0.5}O{sub 2} composite cathode powders with filled morphology and narrow size distribution are prepared by large-scale spray pyrolysis. A droplet classification reduces the standard deviation of the size distribution of the composite cathode powders. Addition of boric acid improves the morphological properties of the product powders by forming a lithium borate glass material with low melting temperature. The optimum amount of boric acid dissolved in the spray solution is 0.8 wt% of the composite powders. The powders prepared from the spray solution with 0.8 wt% boric acid have a mixed layered crystal structure comprising Li{sub 2}MnO{sub 3} and LiNi{sub 0.5}Mn{sub 0.5}O{sub 2} phases, thus forming a composite compound. The initial charge and discharge capacities of the composite cathode powders prepared from the 0.8 wt% boric acid spray solution are 297 and 217 mAh g{sup ?1}, respectively. The discharge capacity of the powders decreases from 217 to 196 mAh g{sup ?1} by the 30th cycle, in which the capacity retention is 90%.

  4. Study of the Physics of Droplet Impingement Cooling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Soriano, Guillermo Enrique

    2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    is one of the most promising technologies in applications which require large heat removal capacity in very small areas. Previous experimental studies have suggested that one of the main mechanisms of heat removal in spray cooling is forced convection... flux behavior, critical heat flux, and film morphology were elucidated. The study showed that forced heat convection is the main heat transfer mecha- nism inside the crown formation formed by droplet impingement and impact regimes play an important...

  5. adjustable pore size: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Science Websites Summary: -size distribution on pore shapedimensionality and sample temperature is predicted using a simple quantum mechanicalDetermination of pore-size...

  6. aerosol size classification: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2006 Aerosol size Physics Websites Summary: ACPD 6, 10493-10522, 2006 Aerosol size distribution source identification T. W. Chan and M Esc Printer-friendly Version...

  7. Aerosol formation from high-velocity uranium drops: Comparison of number and mass distributions. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rader, D.J.; Benson, D.A.

    1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents the results of an experimental study of the aerosol produced by the combustion of high-velocity molten-uranium droplets produced by the simultaneous heating and electromagnetic launch of uranium wires. These tests are intended to simulate the reduction of high-velocity fragments into aerosol in high-explosive detonations or reactor accidents involving nuclear materials. As reported earlier, the resulting aerosol consists mainly of web-like chain agglomerates. A condensation nucleus counter was used to investigate the decay of the total particle concentration due to coagulation and losses. Number size distributions based on mobility equivalent diameter obtained soon after launch with a Differential Mobility Particle Sizer showed lognormal distributions with an initial count median diameter (CMD) of 0.3 {mu}m and a geometric standard deviation, {sigma}{sub g} of about 2; the CMD was found to increase and {sigma}{sub g} decrease with time due to coagulation. Mass size distributions based on aerodynamic diameter were obtained for the first time with a Microorifice Uniform Deposit Impactor, which showed lognormal distributions with mass median aerodynamic diameters of about 0.5 {mu}m and an aerodynamic geometric standard deviation of about 2. Approximate methods for converting between number and mass distributions and between mobility and aerodynamic equivalent diameters are presented.

  8. Investigation of thermochemical biorefinery sizing and environmental sustainability impacts for conventional supply system and distributed pre-processing supply system designs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David J. Muth, Jr.; Matthew H. Langholtz; Eric C. D. Tan; Jacob J. Jacobson; Amy Schwab; May M. Wu; Andrew Argo; Craig C. Brandt; Kara G. Cafferty; Yi-Wen Chiu; Abhijit Dutta; Laurence M. Eaton; Erin M. Searcy

    2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The 2011 US Billion-Ton Update estimates that by 2030 there will be enough agricultural and forest resources to sustainably provide at least one billion dry tons of biomass annually, enough to displace approximately 30% of the country's current petroleum consumption. A portion of these resources are inaccessible at current cost targets with conventional feedstock supply systems because of their remoteness or low yields. Reliable analyses and projections of US biofuels production depend on assumptions about the supply system and biorefinery capacity, which, in turn, depend upon economic value, feedstock logistics, and sustainability. A cross-functional team has examined combinations of advances in feedstock supply systems and biorefinery capacities with rigorous design information, improved crop yield and agronomic practices, and improved estimates of sustainable biomass availability. A previous report on biochemical refinery capacity noted that under advanced feedstock logistic supply systems that include depots and pre-processing operations there are cost advantages that support larger biorefineries up to 10 000 DMT/day facilities compared to the smaller 2000 DMT/day facilities. This report focuses on analyzing conventional versus advanced depot biomass supply systems for a thermochemical conversion and refinery sizing based on woody biomass. The results of this analysis demonstrate that the economies of scale enabled by advanced logistics offsets much of the added logistics costs from additional depot processing and transportation, resulting in a small overall increase to the minimum ethanol selling price compared to the conventional logistic supply system. While the overall costs do increase slightly for the advanced logistic supply systems, the ability to mitigate moisture and ash in the system will improve the storage and conversion processes. In addition, being able to draw on feedstocks from further distances will decrease the risk of biomass supply to the conversion facility.

  9. ON-DEMAND SERIAL DILUTION USING QUANTIZED NANO/PICOLITER-SCALE DROPLETS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jambovane, Sachin R.; Prost, Spencer A.; Sheen, Allison M.; Magnuson, Jon K.; Kelly, Ryan T.

    2014-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes a fully automated droplet-based microfluidic device for on-demand serial dilution that is capable of achieving a dilution ratio of >6000 (concentration ranges from 1 mM to 160nM) over 35 nanoliter-scale droplets. This serial diluter can be applied to high throughput and label-free kinetic assays by integrating with our previously developed on-demand droplet-based microfluidic with mass spectrometry detection.

  10. Thermo-fluid Dynamics of Flash Atomizing Sprays and Single Droplet Impacts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vu, Henry

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    speed in ambient gas sound speed in liquid force thicknessliquid density, V is the droplet impact velocity, and C l is the speed of sound

  11. The entrainment of oil droplets in flow beneath an oil slick

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chao, Chien-Hwa

    1973-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    velocity, wind velocity and oil specific gravity, an equilibrium oil thickness will be reached if there is no loss of oil past the barrier. As the velocity is increased, the oil up- stream of the barrier increases in thickness and decreases in for- ward... for any given oil at which droplets are first formed and entrained. Below this speed there is no droplet formation and above this speed the number of droplets formed and the volume of oil entrained increases rapidly. The critical speed for droplet for...

  12. Droplets on Inclined Plates: Local and Global Hysteresis of Pinned Capillary Surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michiel Musterd; Volkert van Steijn; Chris R. Kleijn; Michiel T. Kreutzer

    2014-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Local contact line pinning prevents droplets from rearranging to minimal global energy, and models for droplets without pinning cannot predict their shape. We show that experiments are much better described by a theory, developed herein, that does account for the constrained contact line motion, using as example droplets on tilted plates. We map out their shapes in suitable phase spaces. For 2D droplets, the critical point of maximum tilt depends on the hysteresis range and Bond number. In 3D, it also depends on the initial width, highlighting the importance of the deposition history.

  13. Natural discharge after pulse and cooperative electrodes to enhance droplet velocity in digital microfluidics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Tianlan; Dong, Cheng; Gao, Jie; Jia, Yanwei; Mak, Pui-In, E-mail: pimak@umac.mo; Vai, Mang-I; Martins, Rui P. [State Key Laboratory of Analog and Mixed-Signal VLSI and FST-ECE, University of Macau, Macao (China)] [State Key Laboratory of Analog and Mixed-Signal VLSI and FST-ECE, University of Macau, Macao (China)

    2014-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Digital Microfluidics (DMF) is a promising technology for biological/chemical micro-reactions due to its distinct droplet manageability via electronic automation, but the limited velocity of droplet transportation has hindered DMF from utilization in high throughput applications. In this paper, by adaptively fitting the actuation voltages to the dynamic motions of droplet movement under real-time feedback monitoring, two control-engaged electrode-driving techniques: Natural Discharge after Pulse (NDAP) and Cooperative Electrodes (CE) are proposed. They together lead to, for the first time, enhanced droplet velocity with lower root mean square voltage value.

  14. Robust Extraction Interface for Coupling Droplet-Based and Continuous Flow Microfluidics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Xuefei; Tang, Keqi; Smith, Richard D.; Kelly, Ryan T.

    2012-03-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Reliable and highly efficient extraction of droplets from oil to aqueous phase is key for downstream coupling with chemical separations and nonoptical detection methods such as amperometry and mass spectrometry. This paper presents an improved interface providing robust extraction for droplet-based poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) microfluidic devices. The extraction interface consists of an array of cylindrical posts with narrow apertures in between. The aqueous flow channel into which droplets coalesced was simply and selectively modified to be hydrophilic, while the continuous oil phase flow channel that contained encapsulated aqueous droplets retained a hydrophobic surface. The different surfaces on both sides of the extraction region form a highly stable liquid interface between the two immiscible phases, allowing rapid droplet transfer to the aqueous stream. Entire droplets could be completely extracted within broad ranges of aqueous and oil flow rates (0 - 1 and 0.1 - 1 uL/min, respectively). After extraction, the droplet contents could be transported electrophoretically or by pressure-driven flow to a monolithically integrated emitter for nano-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (nanoESI-MS) analysis. This interface should be amenable to the separation and identification of droplet contents and on-line monitoring of in-droplet reactions.

  15. Project Sponsor: Siemens Power GenerationUCI Combustion Laboratory www.ucicl.uci.edu

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mease, Kenneth D.

    in ultra low sulfur diesel fuel (DF2), its discrete water droplet size distribution and the injection

  16. Petrographic characterization of Kentucky coals. Final report. Part V. Pyrite size/form/microlithotype distribution in western Kentucky prepared coals and in channel samples from western Kentucky and western Pennsylvania

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frankle, K.A.; Hower, J.C.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Pyrite and marcasite distribution has been characterized in several western Kentucky coals, western Pennsylvania coals, and coals from western Kentucky preparation plants using three parameters of size, morphology, and microlithotype association. A classification system was developed to provide a consistent method for recording different pyrite/marcasite types. Sulfides were microscopically measured and placed in one of six size divisions (<5, 5 to 10, 10 to 40, 40 to 75, 75 to 100, or >150..mu..m) rather than absolute size. Five categories (euhedral, framboidal, dendritic, massive, or cleat) describe pyrite/marcasite morphology. The third parameter identifies the microlithotype (vitrite, clarite, inertite, liptite, durite, vitrinertite, trimacerite, or carbominerite) in which the pyrite occurs (not including the measured sulfide). Carbominerite is a mineral/organic association dominated by mineral matter. The percentage of each variable represents the total number of counts per sample and not the volume of pyrite. Throughout the studies, both sulfides are collectively referred to as pyrite unless otherwise specified. This paper describes the different studies which were undertaken to test the usefulness of this pyrite classification system. Systematic trends in pyrite variability were determined for the Springfield coal and Herrin of western Kentucky. Pyrite characterization of the Lower Kittanning coal from western Pennsylvania shows that certain pyrite morphologies can be an expression of the environments deposition of coal bodies. Studies of western Kentucky prepared coals demonstrate that pyrite characterization apparently can provide a method for predicting pyrite behavior and the extent of pyrite removal for specific coals. 77 references, 15 figures, 19 tables.

  17. ARM - Measurement - Hydrometeor size

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadap Documentation TDMADAP : XDC documentationBarrow,ice particleSize Distribution

  18. In-service Inspection Ultrasonic Testing of Reactor Pressure Vessel Welds for Assessing Flaw Density and Size Distribution per 10 CFR 50.61a, Alternate Fracture Toughness Requirements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sullivan, Edmund J.; Anderson, Michael T.; Norris, Wallace

    2012-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Pressurized thermal shock (PTS) events are system transients in a pressurized water reactor (PWR) in which there is a rapid operating temperature cool-down that results in cold vessel temperatures with or without repressurization of the vessel. The rapid cooling of the inside surface of the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) causes thermal stresses that can combine with stresses caused by high pressure. The aggregate effect of these stresses is an increase in the potential for fracture if a pre-existing flaw is present in a material susceptible to brittle failure. The ferritic, low alloy steel of the reactor vessel beltline adjacent to the core, where neutron radiation gradually embrittles the material over the lifetime of the plant, can be susceptible to brittle fracture. The PTS rule, described in the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 10, Section 50.61 (§50.61), “Fracture Toughness Requirements for Protection against Pressurized Thermal Shock Events,” adopted on July 23, 1985, establishes screening criteria to ensure that the potential for a reactor vessel to fail due to a PTS event is deemed to be acceptably low. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) completed a research program that concluded that the risk of through-wall cracking due to a PTS event is much lower than previously estimated. The NRC subsequently developed a rule, §50.61a, published on January 4, 2010, entitled “Alternate Fracture Toughness Requirements for Protection Against Pressurized Thermal Shock Events” (75 FR 13). Use of the new rule by licensees is optional. The §50.61a rule differs from §50.61 in that it requires licensees who choose to follow this alternate method to analyze the results from periodic volumetric examinations required by the ASME Code, Section XI, Rules for Inservice Inspection (ISI) of Nuclear Power Plants. These analyses are intended to determine if the actual flaw density and size distribution in the licensee’s reactor vessel beltline welds are bounded by the flaw density and size distribution values used in the PTS technical basis. Under a contract with the NRC, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has been working on a program to assess the ability of current inservice inspection (ISI)-ultrasonic testing (UT) techniques, as qualified through ASME Code, Appendix VIII, Supplements 4 and 6, to detect small fabrication or inservice-induced flaws located in RPV welds and adjacent base materials. As part of this effort, the investigators have pursued an evaluation, based on the available information, of the capability of UT to provide flaw density/distribution inputs for making RPV weld assessments in accordance with §50.61a. This paper presents the results of an evaluation of data from the 1993 Browns Ferry Nuclear Plant, Unit 3, Spirit of Appendix VIII reactor vessel examination, a comparison of the flaw density/distribution from this data with the distribution in §50.61a, possible reasons for differences, and plans and recommendations for further work in this area.

  19. Thermocapillary valve for droplet production and sorting Charles N. Baroud,1,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    for use as microfluidic reactors, if active control of their formation and transport can be achieved. We as a microfluidic valve for two-phase flows. A theoretical model is developed to explain the forces acting on a drop in complex droplet microfluidic systems. PACS numbers: 47.61.-k, 47.55.dm Microfluidic droplets have been

  20. Test Planning and Test Resource Optimization for Droplet-Based Microfluidic Systems*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chakrabarty, Krishnendu

    Test Planning and Test Resource Optimization for Droplet-Based Microfluidic Systems* Fei Su, Sule of droplet- based microfluidic systems for safety-critical biomedical applications. In order to ensure reliability, microsystems incorporating microfluidic components must be tested adequately. In this paper, we

  1. Concurrent Testing of Droplet-Based Microfluidic Systems for Multiplexed Biomedical Assays*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chakrabarty, Krishnendu

    Concurrent Testing of Droplet-Based Microfluidic Systems for Multiplexed Biomedical Assays* Fei Su methodology for detecting catastrophic faults in droplet-based microfluidic systems and investigate-based microfluidic array that was fabricated and used to perform multiplexed glucose and lactate assays. The test

  2. Spherically symmetric droplet combustion of three and four component miscible mixtures as surrogates for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walter, M.Todd

    .48/7.28/22.83, respectively, were previously shown to replicate certain gas phase combustion properties of JetSpherically symmetric droplet combustion of three and four component miscible mixtures This study examines the droplet combustion characteristics of three and four component miscible liquid

  3. On the spherically symmetrical combustion of methyl decanoate droplets and comparisons with detailed numerical modeling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walter, M.Todd

    .53­0.57 mm and the combustion gas is normal atmospheric pressure air. A detailed numerical simulationOn the spherically symmetrical combustion of methyl decanoate droplets and comparisons Biodiesel Biofuel Microgravity Numerical Droplet combustion a b s t r a c t This study presents

  4. Confined Dissipative Droplet Solitons in Spin-Valve Nanowires with Perpendicular Magnetic Anisotropy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hoefer, Mark

    in nanoscale structures for magnetic storage and computation, but dissipative droplet studies have so far been possibilities for the study of low-dimensional solitons and droplet applications in nanostructures. DOI: 10 is achieved in devices known as spin valves (SVs) [5­8], where two magnetic layers are separated

  5. Microfluidic droplet encapsulation of highly motile single zoospores for phenotypic screening of an antioomycete chemical

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bhattacharyya, Madan Kumar

    Microfluidic droplet encapsulation of highly motile single zoospores for phenotypic screening for re-usable 3D polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microfluidic networks Biomicrofluidics 5, 036502 (2011://bmf.aip.org/about/rights_and_permissions #12;Microfluidic droplet encapsulation of highly motile single zoospores for phenotypic screening

  6. Simulations of the effect of final state interactions on the scattering reponses of helium droplets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Jian

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    droplets. The edge function of the droplet's s-wave density matrix approaches that of the one-body density matrix of bulk Helium. We compute the scaled dynamic structure factor F =-(qlM) S (q, w) as measured in deep inelastic neutron scattering (DINS...

  7. Experimental test of scaling of mixing by chaotic advection in droplets moving through microfluidic channels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ismagilov, Rustem F.

    Experimental test of scaling of mixing by chaotic advection in droplets moving through microfluidic that predicts the scaling of chaotic mixing in a droplet moving through a winding microfluidic channel microfluidic channels.1 In microfluidic systems2,3 operating at low values of the Reynolds number Re, streams

  8. Fatty Acid Chemistry at the Oil-Water Interface: Self-Propelled Oil Droplets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ikegami, Takashi

    Fatty Acid Chemistry at the Oil-Water Interface: Self-Propelled Oil Droplets Martin M. Hanczyc transitions. Here we have explored the possibility that fatty acid systems also demonstrate movement. An oil solution. The oil droplets showed autonomous, sustained movement through the aqueous media. Internal

  9. Formation of Droplets and Mixing in Multiphase Microfluidics at Low Values of the Reynolds and the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ismagilov, Rustem F.

    Formation of Droplets and Mixing in Multiphase Microfluidics at Low Values of the Reynolds to mixing. Droplet- based microfluidics offers a simple method of achieving rapid mixing and transport of using flow of immiscible fluids in microfluidic channels to form plugs containing multiple aqueous

  10. Sminaire du Groupe N2IS Manipulation of chemicals in droplet-based microfluidics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ingrand, François

    Séminaire du Groupe N2IS Manipulation of chemicals in droplet-based microfluidics Le 06 Septembre TOULOUSE Cedex 4 Résumé Droplet-based microfluidics has a tremendous potential for the miniaturization of chemicals in microfluidic systems is therefore a key to reliably downscale the assays from microtiter plates

  11. Transport of expiratory droplets in an aircraft cabin Jitendra K. Guptaa

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Qingyan "Yan"

    disease such as influenza or Tuberculosis may be the carriers of contagious agents. Indoor environments such as the airliner cabins may be susceptible to infection from such airborne contagious agents. The present of the droplets exhaled by an index passenger in an aircraft cabin. These droplets may contain active contagious

  12. Experimental Study of Water Droplet Flows in a Model PEM Fuel Cell Gas Microchannel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Victoria, University of

    Experimental Study of Water Droplet Flows in a Model PEM Fuel Cell Gas Microchannel by Grant Minor Experimental Study of Water Droplet Flows in a Model PEM Fuel Cell Gas Microchannel by Grant Minor B. Eng. Mgmt Committee Member, Mechanical Engineering). Abstract Liquid water formation and flooding in PEM fuel cell gas

  13. Impact of a compound droplet on a flat surface: A model for single cell epitaxy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Demirci, Utkan

    ­10 and experimental4,11­13 points of view. In spite of a growing interest in generation and manipulation as the inner droplet and diesel oil as the encapsulating fluid, and studied the residence time of a compound­21 or to cryopreserve cells.18,22,23 The current droplet generation technologies make it possible to generate

  14. PHYSICAL REVIEW E 83, 026306 (2011) How water droplets evaporate on a superhydrophobic substrate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Snoeijer, Jacco

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    PHYSICAL REVIEW E 83, 026306 (2011) How water droplets evaporate on a superhydrophobic substrate October 2010; published 17 February 2011) Evaporation of water droplets on a superhydrophobic substrate ). The greater contact angles and pinned contact lines can be achieved by use of superhydrophobic carbon

  15. CLOUD DROPLET SPECTRAL DISPERSION AND THE INDIRECT AEROSOL EFFECT: COMPARISON OF TWO TREATMENTS IN A GCM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    to be a radiative forcing by Forster et al. [2007], but global climate models (GCMs) that include both effects canCLOUD DROPLET SPECTRAL DISPERSION AND THE INDIRECT AEROSOL EFFECT: COMPARISON OF TWO TREATMENTS effect are compared in a global climate model. The earlier scheme specifies , the ratio of droplet

  16. High speed flow cytometer droplet formation system and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Van den Engh, Ger (Seattle, WA)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A droplet forming flow cytometer system allows high speed processing without the need for high oscillator drive powers through the inclusion of an oscillator or piezoelectric crystal such as within the nozzle volume or otherwise unidirectionally coupled to the sheath fluid. The nozzle container continuously converges so as to amplify unidirectional oscillations which are transmitted as pressure waves through the nozzle volume to the nozzle exit so as to form droplets from the fluid jet. The oscillator is directionally isolated so as to avoid moving the entire nozzle container so as to create only pressure waves within the sheath fluid. A variation in substance concentration is achieved through a movable substance introduction port which is positioned within a convergence zone to vary the relative concentration of substance to sheath fluid while still maintaining optimal laminar flow conditions. This variation may be automatically controlled through a sensor and controller configuration. A replaceable tip design is also provided whereby the ceramic nozzle tip is positioned within an edge insert in the nozzle body so as to smoothly transition from nozzle body to nozzle tip. The nozzle tip is sealed against its outer surface to the nozzle body so it may be removable for cleaning or replacement.

  17. Cluster size distribution for free molecular agglomeration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mulholland, G.W.; Samson, R.J.; Mountain, R.D.; Ernst, M.H.

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Dobbins and Megaridis have observed soot agglomerates in a diffusion flame via thermophoretic sampling. The agglomerates are made up of spherules with a typical diameter of about 30 nm. A characteristic of the agglomerate is the relatively low density of the structure with much open space. This study is concerned with modeling the agglomeration growth process.

  18. Particle Size Distribution of Gypseous Samples

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arnett, Morgan P.

    2010-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

    to conditions in the field. In order to understand the true characterization of the soil and the gypsum particles, the entire soil sample should be analyzed. Four different approaches to the BaCl2 method presented in the literature (Hesse, 1976, Matar...

  19. ARM - Measurement - Cloud particle size distribution

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadap Documentation TDMADAP : XDC documentationBarrow,ice particle ARM Data Discoverysize

  20. Characterizing Uncertainties in Ice Particle Size Distributions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office511041clothAdvanced Materials Advanced. C o w l i t z C

  1. Cavitation within a dropletCavitation within a droplet G. L. Heijnen1,2, P. A. Quinto-Su2, X. Zhao2, C. D. Ohl1,2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ohl, Claus-Dieter

    Cavitation within a dropletCavitation within a droplet G. L. Heijnen1,2, P. A. Quinto-Su2, X. Zhao2 University, Singapore. A cavitation bubble expanding and collapsing inside a liquid droplet creates two high jets taken 400µs after the cavitation bubble has been created. The central jet is surrounded

  2. Bouncing of a droplet on a superhydrophobic surface in AC electrowetting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Seung Jun; Kang, Kwan Hyoung

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We introduce a droplet-jumping phenomenon on a superhydrophobic surface driven by the resonant AC electrowetting. The resonant electrical actuation enables a droplet to accumulate sufficient surface energy for jumping, and superhydrophobic surface minimizes adhesion and hysteresis effects. They provide the effective energy conversion from the surface energy to the kinetic energy and improve the stability and the reproducibility of the droplet jumping. The controlled droplet jumping made by the resonant AC electrowetting could place another milestone in digital microfluidics by establishing a potential way to realize the three-dimensional droplet manipulation based on the conventional single plate EWOD configurations. This abstract is related to a fluid dynamics video for the gallery of fluid motion 2009.

  3. Aerosol mobility size spectrometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang, Jian (Port Jefferson, NY); Kulkarni, Pramod (Port Jefferson Station, NY)

    2007-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A device for measuring aerosol size distribution within a sample containing aerosol particles. The device generally includes a spectrometer housing defining an interior chamber and a camera for recording aerosol size streams exiting the chamber. The housing includes an inlet for introducing a flow medium into the chamber in a flow direction, an aerosol injection port adjacent the inlet for introducing a charged aerosol sample into the chamber, a separation section for applying an electric field to the aerosol sample across the flow direction and an outlet opposite the inlet. In the separation section, the aerosol sample becomes entrained in the flow medium and the aerosol particles within the aerosol sample are separated by size into a plurality of aerosol flow streams under the influence of the electric field. The camera is disposed adjacent the housing outlet for optically detecting a relative position of at least one aerosol flow stream exiting the outlet and for optically detecting the number of aerosol particles within the at least one aerosol flow stream.

  4. Hopper Job Size Charts

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Job Size Charts Hopper Job Size Charts Fractional Jobs The following charts show the fraction of hours used on Hopper in each of five job-core-size bins: 2014 Usage by Job Size...

  5. Edison Job Size Charts

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Job Size Charts Edison Job Size Charts Fraction of Hours Used per Job Size This chart shows the fraction of hours used on Edison in each of 5 job-core-size bins. 2015 Usage by Job...

  6. A Superheated Droplet Detector for Dark Matter Search

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamel, L A; Rainville, L; Sur, B; Zacek, V

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We discuss the operation principle of a detector based on superheated droplets of Freon-12 and its feasibility for the search of weakly interacting cold dark matter particles. In particular we are interested in a neutralino search experiment in the mass range from 10 to 10^4 GeV/c^2 and with a sensitivity of better than 10^-2 events/kg/d. We show that our new proposed detector can be operated at ambient pressure and room temperature in a mode where it is exclusively sensitive to nuclear recoils like those following neutralino interactions, which allows a powerful background discrimination. An additional advantage of this technique is due to the fact that the detection material, Freon-12, is cheap and readily available in large quantities. Moreover we were able to show that piezoelectric transducers allow efficient event localization in large volumes.

  7. A Superheated Droplet Detector for Dark Matter Search

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    L. A. Hamel; L. Lessard; L. Rainville; B. Sur; V. Zacek

    1996-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We discuss the operation principle of a detector based on superheated droplets of Freon-12 and its feasibility for the search of weakly interacting cold dark matter particles. In particular we are interested in a neutralino search experiment in the mass range from 10 to 10^4 GeV/c^2 and with a sensitivity of better than 10^-2 events/kg/d. We show that our new proposed detector can be operated at ambient pressure and room temperature in a mode where it is exclusively sensitive to nuclear recoils like those following neutralino interactions, which allows a powerful background discrimination. An additional advantage of this technique is due to the fact that the detection material, Freon-12, is cheap and readily available in large quantities. Moreover we were able to show that piezoelectric transducers allow efficient event localization in large volumes.

  8. Beam Measurements of a CLOUD (Cosmics Leaving OUtdoor Droplets) Chamber

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kirkby, Jasper

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A striking correlation has recently been observed between global cloud cover and the flux of incident cosmic rays. The effect of natural variations in the cosmic ray flux is large, causing estimated changes in the Earth's energy radiation balance that are comparable to those attributed to greenhouse gases from the burning of fossil fuels since the Industrial Revolution. However a direct link between cosmic rays and cloud formation has not been unambiguously established. We therefore propose to experimentally measure cloud (water droplet) formation under controlled conditions in a test beam at CERN with a CLOUD chamber, duplicating the conditions prevailing in the troposphere. These data, which have never been previously obtained, will allow a detailed understanding of the possible effects of cosmic rays on clouds and confirm, or otherwise, a direct link between cosmic rays, global cloud cover and the Earth's climate. The measurements will, in turn, allow more reliable calculations to be made of the residual e...

  9. On-Demand Generation of Monodisperse Femtoliter Droplets by Shape-Induced Shear

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Collier, Pat [ORNL; Retterer, Scott T [ORNL; Jung, Seung-Yong [ORNL

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We describe a method for creating discrete femtoliter-scale water-in-oil droplets on demand, based solely on a geometrically induced reduction in oil/water interfacial area at microfabricated junction orifices. This on-demand generation method is driven by self-shear of droplets due to interfacial tension induced forces resulting from a localized transition in microchannel height. The magnitudes of shear stresses involved appear to be significantly less than the shearing instabilities used to split off daughter droplets from aqueous mother plugs at microfabricated junctions in continuous water-in-oil segmented flows, which implies that this method may be better suited for studying biochemical reactions and reaction kinetics in droplets of decreased volume without loss of chemical reactivity due to redistribution of surfactant density used to passivate the oil/water interface. Predictable droplet generation rates under constant pressure conditions or the gated formation of one, two or more droplets at a time with fixed pressure pulses have been demonstrated in a similar manner to active on-demand droplet generation strategies, but with a simpler system not needing actuation and sensing equipment beyond a pressure regulator.

  10. Self-propelled running droplets on solid substrates driven by chemical reactions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    K. John; M. Baer; U. Thiele

    2006-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

    We study chemically driven running droplets on a partially wetting solid substrate by means of coupled evolution equations for the thickness profile of the droplets and the density profile of an adsorbate layer. Two models are introduced corresponding to two qualitatively different types of experiments described in the literature. In both cases an adsorption or desorption reaction underneath the droplets induces a wettability gradient on the substrate and provides the driving force for droplet motion. The difference lies in the behavior of the substrate behind the droplet. In case I the substrate is irreversibly changed whereas in case II it recovers allowing for a periodic droplet movement (as long as the overall system stays far away from equilibrium). Both models allow for a non-saturated and a saturated regime of droplet movement depending on the ratio of the viscous and reactive time scales. In contrast to model I, model II allows for sitting drops at high reaction rate and zero diffusion along the substrate. The transition from running to sitting drops in model II occurs via a super- or subcritical drift-pitchfork bifurcation and may be strongly hysteretic implying a coexistence region of running and sitting drops.

  11. Oscillation and collective conveyor of water-in-oil droplets by microfluidic bolus flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ohmura, Takuya; Kamei, Ken-ichiro; Maeda, Yusuke T

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Microfluidic techniques have been extensively developed to realize micro-total analysis systems in a small chip. For microanalysis, the trapping or arranging of objects in a line is a critical step. Physical effects such as inertial lift force have been utilized so far, however, hydrodynamic interaction in a many body system is yet to be explored despite its relevance to pattern formation. Here, we report water-in-oil (W/O) droplets can be transported with sequential order in the grid of one-dimensional array of another large W/O droplets. As each droplet comes close to an interspace of the large droplet array, while exhibiting persistent back-and-forth motion, it is conveyed at a velocity equal to the droplet array. The droplet also makes asymmetric orbit to and from the large droplet behind, suggesting vortex like stream was involved. We confirm the appearance of closed streamlines, which called bolus flow, in numerical simulation based on lattice Boltzmann method. The existence region of bolus flow account...

  12. Evaporation of Picolitre Droplets on Surfaces with a Range of Wettabilities and Thermal Conductivities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Talbot, E.L.; Berson, A.; Brown, P.S.; Bain, C.D.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of inkjet droplets ranges between 10 µm and 100 µm. Evaporation should still be limited by dif- fusion at this scale. Convection occurs in evaporating sessile droplets [12] where, in order to conserve mass, evaporating liquid is replenished by a convective... Controller CT-M3-02). High-purity water (MilliQ) or ethanol filtered through a 0.45 µm pore filter were used as the fluids. Shadowgraph profile images of the droplets were produced using side illumination. A cold LED light source (Beaglehole instruments...

  13. Integrated Droplet Routing and Defect Tolerance in the Synthesis of Digital

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chakrabarty, Krishnendu

    11 Integrated Droplet Routing and Defect Tolerance in the Synthesis of Digital Microfluidic Biochips TAO XU and KRISHNENDU CHAKRABARTY Duke University Microfluidic biochips are revolutionizing high to digital microfluidic platforms, the need for design automation techniques is being increasingly felt

  14. Modelin combustion of multicomponent fuel droplets: formulation and application to transportation fuels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vittilapuram Subramanian, Kannan

    2006-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

    The quasi-steady, spherically symmetric combustion of multicomponent isolated fuel droplets has been modeled using modified Shvab-Zeldovich variable mechanism. Newly developed modified Shvab-Zeldovich equations have been used to describe the gas...

  15. Collection of submicron particles with cloud droplets using the new MIT-CFC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ardon-Dryer, K.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Collection efficiency of submicron mineral dust particles by cloud droplets will be examined using the new Massachusetts Institute of Technology-Contact Freezing Chamber (MIT-CFC). Comparison of the collection efficiency ...

  16. Synchronization of Washing Operations with Droplet Routing for Cross-Contamination Avoidance in Digital Microfluidic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chakrabarty, Krishnendu

    in Digital Microfluidic Biochips Yang Zhao and Krishnendu Chakrabarty Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering Duke University, Durham, NC 27708, USA ABSTRACT Digital microfluidic biochips are being utilized Terms Algorithms, Performance, Design. Keywords Droplet-based microfluidics, electrowetting, lab

  17. RESEARCH PAPER Effect of geometry on droplet formation in the squeezing regime

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gupta, Amit

    field Ca Capillary number = lcUc/r cs Speed of sound D Diameter of the drop ei Lattice speed that generate emul- sions of liquid droplets suspended in an outer immiscible liquid have found widespread

  18. Tunable spatial heterogeneity in structure and composition within aqueous microfluidic droplets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hui, Sophia Lee Su

    In this paper, we demonstrate biphasic microfluidic droplets with broadly tunable internal structures, from simple near-equilibrium drop-in-drop morphologies to complex yet uniform non-equilibrium steady-state structures. ...

  19. Modelin combustion of multicomponent fuel droplets: formulation and application to transportation fuels 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vittilapuram Subramanian, Kannan

    2006-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

    The quasi-steady, spherically symmetric combustion of multicomponent isolated fuel droplets has been modeled using modified Shvab-Zeldovich variable mechanism. Newly developed modified Shvab-Zeldovich equations have been ...

  20. Microfluidic device incorporating closed loop feedback control for uniform and tunable production of micro-droplets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rothstein, Jonathan

    Microfluidic device incorporating closed loop feedback control for uniform and tunable production, we have designed a microfluidic-based technology utilizing elementary microchannel geometries initial development using flow-focusing microfluidic geometry for droplet formation, computer

  1. A trajectory equation for walking droplets : hydrodynamic pilot-wave theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oza, Anand Uttam

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Yves Couder and coworkers have demonstrated that millimetric droplets walking on a vibrating fluid bath exhibit several features previously thought to be peculiar to the microscopic quantum realm, including single-particle ...

  2. MOLECULAR DYNAMICS SIMULATION OF HETEROGENEOUS NUCLEATION OF LIQUID DROPLET ON SOLID SURFACE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maruyama, Shigeo

    such as the quantum dot generation. We have simulated the equilibrium liquid droplet on the solid surface simulation on the bubble nucleation process on the solid surface [2]. In the meantime, direct molecular

  3. Self-propulsion of pure water droplets by spontaneous Marangoni stress driven motion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ziane Izri; Marjolein N. van der Linden; Sébastien Michelin; Olivier Dauchot

    2014-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

    We report spontaneous motion in a fully bio-compatible system consisting of pure water droplets in an oil-surfactant medium of squalane and monoolein. Water from the droplet is solubilized by the reverse micellar solution, creating a concentration gradient of swollen reverse micelles around each droplet. The strong advection and weak diffusion conditions allow for the first experimental realization of spontaneous motion in a system of isotropic particles at sufficiently large P\\'eclet number according to a straightforward generalization of a recently proposed mechanism. Experiments with a highly concentrated solution of salt instead of water, and tetradecane instead of squalane, confirm the above mechanism. The present swimming droplets are able to carry external bodies such as large colloids, salt crystals, and even cells.

  4. Dynamic Response of Quartz Crystal Microbalances in contact with Silicone Oil Droplets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhuang, Han

    Quartz crystal microbalances (QCMs) in contact with liquid droplets have been used to investigate the rheological properties of liquids and the diverse solid-liquid interfacial phenomena. In this article, we first report ...

  5. Development of a uniform-droplet spray apparatus for high melting temperature metals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joumaa, Hady K

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The building and operation of a high-temperature uniform droplet spraying (UDS) apparatus extend the performance and capabilities of powder based manufacturing processes. Although the main concepts of operation of the ...

  6. Studies on the ion-droplet mixed regime in colloid thrusters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lozano-Tovar, Paulo César, 1970-

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Colloid thrusters working with mixtures of ions and droplets are gradually becoming an alternative technology for space micro-propulsion needs in missions requiring high position controllability, compactness and low power ...

  7. Droplet-Based Microfluidics for Emulsion and Solvent Evaporation Synthesis of Monodisperse Mesoporous Silica Microspheres

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Engineering, UniVersity of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87131, and School of Engineering and Applied and are suspended in hexadecane as the continuous oil phase. The solvent is then expelled from the droplets, leading

  8. Experimental investigation into the evaporating behaviour of pure and nanofluid droplets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moffat, John Ross

    2011-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

    In this experimental investigation the evaporative behaviour of liquid droplets of both pure fluids and fluids containing nanoparticles was studied. Initial tests were conducted on drops of pure volatile liquids using IR ...

  9. Physico-chemical hydrodynamics of droplets on textured surfaces with engineered micro/nanostructures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Park, Kyoo Chul

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Understanding physico-chemical hydrodynamics of droplets on textured surfaces is of fundamental and practical significance for designing a diverse range of engineered surfaces such as low-reflective, self-cleaning or ...

  10. Wetting hysteresis and droplet roll off behavior on superhydrophobic surfaces by Katherine Marie Smyth.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smyth, Katherine Marie

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Various states of hydrophobic wetting and hysteresis are observed when water droplets are deposited on micro-post surfaces of different post densities. Hysteresis is commonly defined as the difference between the advancing ...

  11. An AFM Study of the Deformation and Nanorheology of Cross-Linked PDMS Droplets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Attard, Phil

    to understand the interaction and stability of bubbles in foams and froths, droplets in emulsions to elastic JKR theory.16 In addition the deformation and elastic vibration of glass lenses have been measured

  12. Impact of picolitre droplets on superhydrophobic surfaces with ultra-low spreading ratios

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, P.S.; Berson, A.; Talbot, E.L.; Wood, T.J.; Schofield, W.C.E.; Bain, C.D.; Badyal, J.P.S.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    :24 1 IMPACT OF PICOLITRE DROPLETS ON SUPERHYDROPHOBIC SURFACES WITH ULTRA-LOW SPREADING RATIOS P. S. Brown, A. Berson, E. L. Talbot, T. J. Wood, W. C. E. Schofield, C. D. Bain†, and J. P. S. Badyal†* Department of Chemistry Science... the dynamics of wetting to be precisely controlled. Final spreading ratios as low as 0.63 can be achieved. Comparison of the maximum spreading ratio and droplet oscillation frequencies with models described in the literature shows that both are found...

  13. Local droplet etching – Nanoholes, quantum dots, and air-gap heterostructures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heyn, Ch.; Sonnenberg, D.; Graf, A.; Kerbst, J.; Stemmann, A.; Hansen, W. [Institute of Applied Physics, University of Hamburg, Jungiusstr. 11, 20355 Hamburg (Germany)

    2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Local droplet etching (LDE) allows the self-organized generation of nanoholes in semiconductor surfaces and is fully compatible with molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). The influence of the process parameters as well as of droplet and substrate materials on the LDE nanohole morphology is discussed. Furthermore, recent applications of LDE, the fabrication of quantum dots by hole filling and the creation of air-gap heterostructures are addressed.

  14. System for sensing droplet formation time delay in a flow cytometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Van den Engh, Ger (Seattle, WA); Esposito, Richard J. (Seattle, WA)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A droplet flow cytometer system which includes a system to optimize the droplet formation time delay based on conditions actually experienced includes an automatic droplet sampler which rapidly moves a plurality of containers stepwise through the droplet stream while simultaneously adjusting the droplet time delay. Through the system sampling of an actual substance to be processed can be used to minimize the effect of the substances variations or the determination of which time delay is optimal. Analysis such as cell counting and the like may be conducted manually or automatically and input to a time delay adjustment which may then act with analysis equipment to revise the time delay estimate actually applied during processing. The automatic sampler can be controlled through a microprocessor and appropriate programming to bracket an initial droplet formation time delay estimate. When maximization counts through volume, weight, or other types of analysis exists in the containers, the increment may then be reduced for a more accurate ultimate setting. This may be accomplished while actually processing the sample without interruption.

  15. On-chip real-time single-copy polymerase chain reaction in picoliter droplets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beer, N R; Hindson, B; Wheeler, E; Hall, S B; Rose, K A; Kennedy, I; Colston, B

    2007-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The first lab-on-chip system for picoliter droplet generation and PCR amplification with real-time fluorescence detection has performed PCR in isolated droplets at volumes 10{sup 6} smaller than commercial real-time PCR systems. The system utilized a shearing T-junction in a silicon device to generate a stream of monodisperse picoliter droplets that were isolated from the microfluidic channel walls and each other by the oil phase carrier. An off-chip valving system stopped the droplets on-chip, allowing them to be thermal cycled through the PCR protocol without droplet motion. With this system a 10-pL droplet, encapsulating less than one copy of viral genomic DNA through Poisson statistics, showed real-time PCR amplification curves with a cycle threshold of {approx}18, twenty cycles earlier than commercial instruments. This combination of the established real-time PCR assay with digital microfluidics is ideal for isolating single-copy nucleic acids in a complex environment.

  16. Beam Measurements of a CLOUD (Cosmics Leaving OUtdoor Droplets) Chamber

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jasper Kirkby

    2001-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

    A striking correlation has recently been observed between global cloud cover and the flux of incident cosmic rays. The effect of natural variations in the cosmic ray flux is large, causing estimated changes in the Earth's energy radiation balance that are comparable to those attributed to greenhouse gases from the burning of fossil fuels since the Industrial Revolution. However a direct link between cosmic rays and cloud formation has not been unambiguously established. We therefore propose to experimentally measure cloud (water droplet) formation under controlled conditions in a test beam at CERN with a CLOUD chamber, duplicating the conditions prevailing in the troposphere. These data, which have never been previously obtained, will allow a detailed understanding of the possible effects of cosmic rays on clouds and confirm, or otherwise, a direct link between cosmic rays, global cloud cover and the Earth's climate. The measurements will, in turn, allow more reliable calculations to be made of the residual effect on global temperatures of the burning of fossil fuels, an issue of profound importance to society. Furthermore, light radio-isotope records indicate a correlation has existed between global climate and the cosmic ray flux extending back over the present inter-glacial and perhaps earlier. This suggests it may eventually become possible to make long-term (10-1,000 year) predictions of changes in the Earth's climate, provided a deeper understanding can be achieved of the ``geomagnetic climate'' of the Sun and Earth that modulates the cosmic-ray flux.

  17. The structure of mixed {sup 3}He-{sup 4}He droplets doped with OCS: A density functional approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leal, Antonio; Mateo, David; Pi, Martí; Barranco, Manuel [Departament ECM, Facultat de Física and IN2UB, Universitat de Barcelona, Diagonal 645, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)] [Departament ECM, Facultat de Física and IN2UB, Universitat de Barcelona, Diagonal 645, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Navarro, Jesús [IFIC (CSIC-Universidad de Valencia), P.O. Box 22085, E-46071 Valencia (Spain)] [IFIC (CSIC-Universidad de Valencia), P.O. Box 22085, E-46071 Valencia (Spain)

    2013-11-07T23:59:59.000Z

    We have investigated the structure and energetics of mixed {sup 3}He-{sup 4}He droplets doped with a carbonyl sulfide molecule within a density functional approach considering a small but finite temperature of 0.1 K. The molecule is treated as an external field to which the helium droplet is attached. The energetics and appearance of these droplets are discussed for selected numbers of helium atoms, identifying the first magic numbers of the fermionic component.

  18. atmospheric aerosol size: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Size Distribution Physics (arXiv) Summary: Atmospheric flows exhibit selfsimilar fractal spacetime fluctuations manifested as the fractal geometry to global cloud cover...

  19. algorithm population sizing: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    CiteSeer Summary: Deciding the appropriate population size and number of islands for distributed island-model genetic algorithms is often critical to the algorithms success. This...

  20. alter perceived size: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of two colliding dust aggregates into a coagulation model that computes the dust size distribution with time. All collisional outcomes -- sticking, fragmentation...

  1. Axisymmetric oscillation modes of a double droplet system

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ramalingam, Santhosh K.; Basaran, Osman A.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A double droplet system (DDS) consists of a sessile and a pendant drop that are coupled through a liquid filled cylindrical hole in a plate of thickness d. For a small hole radius R, equilibrium shapes of both drops are sections of spheres. While DDSs have a number of applications in microfluidics, a DDS oscillating about its equilibrium state can be used as a fast focusing liquid lens. Here, a DDS consisting of an isothermal, incompressible Newtonian fluid of constant density p and constant viscosity u that is surrounded by a gas is excited by oscillating in time (a) themore »pressure in the gas surrounding either drop (pressure excitation), (b) the plate perpendicular to its plane (axial excitation), and (c) the hole radius (radial excitation). In contrast to previous works that assumed transient drop shapes are spherical, they are determined here by simulation and used to identify the natural modes of axisymmetric oscillations from resonances observed during frequency sweeps with DDSs for which the combined volume V of the two drops is less than (4/3)?R3. Pressure and axial excitations are found to have identical responses but axial and radial excitations are shown to excite different modes. These modes are compared to those exhibited by single pendant (sessile) drop systems. In particular, while a single pendant (sessile) drop has one additional oscillation mode compared to a free drop, a DDS is found to exhibit roughly twice as many oscillation modes as a pendant (sessile) drop. The effects of dimensionless volume V/R3, dimensionless plate thickness d/R, and Ohnesorge number Oh =?/??R? , where ? is the surface tension of the DDS-gas interface, on the resonance frequencies are also investigated.« less

  2. Axisymmetric oscillation modes of a double droplet system

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ramalingam, Santhosh K.; Basaran, Osman A.

    2010-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A double droplet system (DDS) consists of a sessile and a pendant drop that are coupled through a liquid filled cylindrical hole in a plate of thickness d. For a small hole radius R, equilibrium shapes of both drops are sections of spheres. While DDSs have a number of applications in microfluidics, a DDS oscillating about its equilibrium state can be used as a fast focusing liquid lens. Here, a DDS consisting of an isothermal, incompressible Newtonian fluid of constant density p and constant viscosity u that is surrounded by a gas is excited by oscillating in time (a) the pressure in the gas surrounding either drop (pressure excitation), (b) the plate perpendicular to its plane (axial excitation), and (c) the hole radius (radial excitation). In contrast to previous works that assumed transient drop shapes are spherical, they are determined here by simulation and used to identify the natural modes of axisymmetric oscillations from resonances observed during frequency sweeps with DDSs for which the combined volume V of the two drops is less than (4/3)?R3. Pressure and axial excitations are found to have identical responses but axial and radial excitations are shown to excite different modes. These modes are compared to those exhibited by single pendant (sessile) drop systems. In particular, while a single pendant (sessile) drop has one additional oscillation mode compared to a free drop, a DDS is found to exhibit roughly twice as many oscillation modes as a pendant (sessile) drop. The effects of dimensionless volume V/R3, dimensionless plate thickness d/R, and Ohnesorge number Oh =?/??R? , where ? is the surface tension of the DDS-gas interface, on the resonance frequencies are also investigated.

  3. Axisymmetric oscillation modes of a double droplet system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramalingam, Santhosh K.; Basaran, Osman A.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A double droplet system (DDS) consists of a sessile and a pendant drop that are coupled through a liquid filled cylindrical hole in a plate of thickness d. For a small hole radius R, equilibrium shapes of both drops are sections of spheres. While DDSs have a number of applications in microfluidics, a DDS oscillating about its equilibrium state can be used as a fast focusing liquid lens. Here, a DDS consisting of an isothermal, incompressible Newtonian fluid of constant density p and constant viscosity u that is surrounded by a gas is excited by oscillating in time (a) the pressure in the gas surrounding either drop (pressure excitation), (b) the plate perpendicular to its plane (axial excitation), and (c) the hole radius (radial excitation). In contrast to previous works that assumed transient drop shapes are spherical, they are determined here by simulation and used to identify the natural modes of axisymmetric oscillations from resonances observed during frequency sweeps with DDSs for which the combined volume V of the two drops is less than (4/3)?R3. Pressure and axial excitations are found to have identical responses but axial and radial excitations are shown to excite different modes. These modes are compared to those exhibited by single pendant (sessile) drop systems. In particular, while a single pendant (sessile) drop has one additional oscillation mode compared to a free drop, a DDS is found to exhibit roughly twice as many oscillation modes as a pendant (sessile) drop. The effects of dimensionless volume V/R3, dimensionless plate thickness d/R, and Ohnesorge number Oh =?/??R? , where ? is the surface tension of the DDS-gas interface, on the resonance frequencies are also investigated.

  4. On the Synchronization of Networks with Prescribed Degree Distributions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jost, Jürgen

    On the Synchronization of Networks with Prescribed Degree Distributions Fatihcan M. Atay T for building non-synchronizing networks having a prescribed degree distribution. Index Terms distribution, which converges to a Poisson distribution for large network sizes. The degree distribution

  5. Controlled emulsion droplet solvent evaporation for particle production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chang, Emily P

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this work, we are motivated by the need to produce particles of well-controlled size, shape and morphology for general application in catalysis, environmental remediation, nanomedicine, pharmaceuticals, the development ...

  6. Elemental diffusion during the droplet epitaxy growth of In(Ga)As/GaAs(001) quantum dots by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Z. B.; Chen, B.; Wang, Y. B.; Liao, X. Z., E-mail: xiaozhou.liao@sydney.edu.au [School of Aerospace, Mechanical and Mechatronic Engineering, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Lei, W. [School of Electrical, Electronic and Computer Engineering, The University of Western Australia, Perth, WA 6009 (Australia); Tan, H. H.; Jagadish, C. [Department of Electronic Materials Engineering, Research School of Physics and Engineering, The Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia); Zou, J. [Materials Engineering and Centre for Microscopy and Microanalysis, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD 4072 (Australia); Ringer, S. P. [School of Aerospace, Mechanical and Mechatronic Engineering, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Australian Centre for Microscopy and Microanalysis, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia)

    2014-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Droplet epitaxy is an important method to produce epitaxial semiconductor quantum dots (QDs). Droplet epitaxy of III-V QDs comprises group III elemental droplet deposition and the droplet crystallization through the introduction of group V elements. Here, we report that, in the droplet epitaxy of InAs/GaAs(001) QDs using metal-organic chemical vapor deposition, significant elemental diffusion from the substrate to In droplets occurs, resulting in the formation of In(Ga)As crystals, before As flux is provided. The supply of As flux suppresses the further elemental diffusion from the substrate and promotes surface migration, leading to large island formation with a low island density.

  7. Bright tunable femtosecond x-ray emission from laser irradiated micro-droplets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu, Tong-Pu, E-mail: tongpu@nudt.edu.cn; Hu, Li-Xiang; Yin, Yan; Shao, Fu-Qiu; Zhuo, Hong-Bin; Ma, Yan-Yun; Yang, Xiao-Hu [College of Science, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073 (China); Luo, Wen [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, University of South China, Hengyang 421001 (China); Pukhov, Alexander [Institut für Theoretische Physik I, Heinrich-Heine-Universität Düsseldorf, 40225 Düsseldorf (Germany)

    2014-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    It is demonstrated that bright femtosecond X-rays can be obtained by irradiating a moderate laser onto a helium micro-droplet. The laser ponderomotive force continuously sweeps electrons from the droplets and accelerates them forward. The electrons exposed in the outrunning laser field oscillate transversely and emit photons in the forward direction. The total flux of photons with energies above 1?keV is as high as 10{sup 9}/shot which is about 10-fold enhancement compared with betatron oscillation under similar laser conditions. The maximum achieved peak brightness is up to 10{sup 21} photons/s/mm{sup 2}/mrad{sup 2}/0.1%BW. By adjusting laser and droplet parameters, we can get tunable X-rays with required brightness and energy.

  8. Usage by Job Size

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Usage by Job Size Table Usage by Job Size Table page loading animation Usage Query Interface System All Hopper Edison Carver Planck Matgen Franklin Hopper 1 Magellan Dirac Bassi...

  9. Experimental observation of a chaos-to-chaos transition in laser droplet generation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blaz Krese; Matjaz Perc; Edvard Govekar

    2010-08-03T23:59:59.000Z

    We examine the dynamics of laser droplet generation in dependence on the detachment pulse power. In the absence of the detachment pulse, undulating pendant droplets are formed at the end of a properly fed metal wire due to the impact of the primary laser pulse that induces melting. Eventually, these droplets detach, i.e. overcome the surface tension, because of their increasing mass. We show that this spontaneous dripping is deterministically chaotic by means of a positive largest Lyapunov exponent and a negative divergence. In the presence of the detachment pulse, however, the generation of droplets is fastened depending on the pulse power. At high powers, the spontaneity of dripping is completely overshadowed by the impact of the detachment pulse. Still, amplitude chaos can be detected, which similarly as the spontaneous dripping, is characterized by a positive largest Lyapunov exponent and a negative divergence, thus indicating that the observed dynamics is deterministically chaotic with an attractor as solution in the phase space. In the intermediate regime, i.e. for low and medium detachment pulse powers, the two chaotic states compete for supremacy, yielding an intermittent period-doubling to amplitude chaos transition, which we characterize by means of recurrence plots and their properties. Altogether, the transition from spontaneous to triggered laser droplet generation is characterized by a chaos-to-chaos transition with an intermediate dynamically nonstationary phase in-between. Since metal droplets can be used in various industrial applications, we hope that the accurate determination of the dynamical properties underlying their formation will facilitate their use and guide future attempts at mathematical modeling.

  10. Optimization of Droplet Routing for an n-Plex Bioassay on a Digital Microfluidic Lab-on-Chip

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chakrabarty, Krishnendu

    Optimization of Droplet Routing for an n-Plex Bioassay on a Digital Microfluidic Lab-on-Chip Yang on an electrowetting-based digital microfluidic lab-on-chip. The n product droplets of the n-plex bioassay are detected for rapid and point-of-care diagnosis of such disorders. Digital microfluidic lab-on-chip is an emerging

  11. Microfluidic production of monodisperse functional o/w droplets and study of their reversible pH dependent aggregation behavior

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cicuta, Pietro

    Microfluidic production of monodisperse functional o/w droplets and study of their reversible p DOI: 10.1039/c1sm05087g We report the use of microfluidics for the production of monodisperse oil of individual droplets. Introduction Microdroplets in microfluidics have attracted enormous atten- tion

  12. The spherically symmetric droplet burning characteristics of Jet-A and biofuels derived from camelina and tallow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walter, M.Todd

    The spherically symmetric droplet burning characteristics of Jet-A and biofuels derived from the biofuels due to its higher aromatic content. " Droplet burning rates of camelina and tallow HRJ fuel Available online 1 March 2013 Keywords: Alternative jet fuel Hydroprocessed biofuel Spherically symmetric

  13. The entrainment of oil droplets in flow beneath an oil slick 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chao, Chien-Hwa

    1973-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Trajectorie of All Different Droplets 67 LIST OP TABLES Table 1 Oil Slick Interfacial Traveling Waves 2 The Maximum Depth of the Oil Droplet Trajectory Page 53 70 CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION Oil spills at sea are becoming more numerous and such spills... are recognized as a ma)or environmental hazard which must be cleaned up as rapidly as possible. When oil is spilled on a body of water, it will tend to spread. In order to control such a spill, several means are available, one of the most important of which...

  14. Magnetic response of holographic Lifshitz superconductors:Vortex and Droplet solutions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arindam Lala

    2014-07-04T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper a holographic model of $s$-wave superconductor with anisotropic Lifshitz scaling has been considered. In the presence of an external magnetic field our holographic model exhibits both vortex and droplet solutions. Based on analytic methods we have shown that the anisotropy has no effect on the vortex and droplet solutions whereas it may affect the condensation. Our vortex solution closely resembles the Ginzburg-Landau theory and a relation between the upper critical magnetic field and superconducting coherence length has been speculated from this comparison. Using Sturm-Liouville method, the effect of anisotropy on the critical parameters in insulator/superconductor phase transitions has been analyzed.

  15. On-chip single-copy real-time reverse-transcription PCR in isolated picoliter droplets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beer, N R; Wheeler, E; Lee-Houghton, L; Watkins, N; Nasarabadi, S; Hebert, N; Leung, P; Arnold, D; Bailey, C; Colston, B

    2007-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The first lab-on-chip system for picoliter droplet generation and RNA isolation, followed by reverse transcription, and PCR amplification with real-time fluorescence detection in the trapped droplets has been developed. The system utilized a shearing T-junction in a fused silica device to generate a stream of monodisperse picoliter-scale droplets that were isolated from the microfluidic channel walls and each other by the oil phase carrier. An off-chip valving system stopped the droplets on-chip, allowing thermal cycling for reverse transcription and subsequent PCR amplification without droplet motion. This combination of the established real-time reverse transcription-PCR assay with digital microfluidics is ideal for isolating single-copy RNA and virions from a complex environment, and will be useful in viral discovery and gene-profiling applications.

  16. Rerngchai ArayanarakoolISBN: 978-90-365-3431-4 TowardSingleEnzymeAnalysisinaDroplet-basedMicroandNanofluidicSystemRerngchaiArayanarakool

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wieringa, Roel

    microfluidics and enzyme kinetics 6 I. Droplet-based Microfluidics 7 a. Characteristics of droplet-based microfluidics 7 b. Droplet generation 10 (1) T-junction system 10 (2) Flow-focusing system 11 (3) Co channel 45 II. Material selection 46 III. Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)based microfluidic device 49 IV

  17. Droplet Routing in the Synthesis of Digital Microfluidic Biochips* Fei Su, William Hwang and Krishnendu Chakrabarty

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chakrabarty, Krishnendu

    Droplet Routing in the Synthesis of Digital Microfluidic Biochips* Fei Su, William Hwang in the IC industry.Recent advances in microfluidics are expected to lead to sensor systems for high microfluidic biochip into two major phases, i.e., architectural-level synthesis and physical design

  18. Defect-Aware Synthesis of Droplet-Based Microfluidic Biochips* , Krishnendu Chakrabarty

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chakrabarty, Krishnendu

    Defect-Aware Synthesis of Droplet-Based Microfluidic Biochips* Tao Xu , Krishnendu Chakrabarty Corporation, Folsom, CA Abstract Recent advances in microfluidics technology have led to the emergence of miniaturized biochip devices for biochemical analysis. A promising category of microfluidic biochips relies

  19. Retinyl Ester Storage Particles (Retinosomes) from the Retinal Pigmented Epithelium Resemble Lipid Droplets in Other

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Palczewski, Krzysztof

    retinosomes are structures spe- cific to the eye or similar to lipid droplets in other organs functions such as nourishing and removing metabolic waste products, absorbing excess light, phagocytosis of photoreceptor fragments, and recycling the visual chro- mophore, 11-cis-retinal (2­6). Recycling of 11-cis

  20. DROPLET FEATURES EXTRACTION WITH A DYNAMIC ACTIVE CONTOUR FOR MIG/MAG

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    at high temperature, avoiding contamination of the metal by oxygen and nitrogen. The welding generatorDROPLET FEATURES EXTRACTION WITH A DYNAMIC ACTIVE CONTOUR FOR MIG/MAG WELDING MODELLING J.briand@airliquide.com, frederic-p.richard@airliquide.com Keywords: MIG/MAG welding, modelling, active con- tour, greedy algorithm

  1. Droplet impingement and vapor layer formation on hot hydrophobic surfaces Ji Yong Park1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cahill, David G.

    diameter) water droplets that bounce from hydrophobic surfaces whose temperature exceeds the boiling point angle. The residence time determined by high-speed imaging is constant at 1 msec over the temperature-speed imaging is approximately independent of the temperature of the hot surface. Measurements of thermal

  2. Journal of Power Sources 161 (2006) 333345 Liquid droplet behavior and instability in a polymer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mench, Matthew M.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    electrolyte fuel cell flow channel E.C. Kumbur, K.V. Sharp, M.M. Mench Fuel Cell Dynamics and Diagnostics electrolyte fuel cell; Droplet removal; Gas diffusion layer; Surface tension 1. Introduction Channel level elec- trolyte fuel cell (PEFC). Due to the complexity of the thin film porous media and small length

  3. Pervaporation of Emulsion Droplets for the Templated Assembly of Spherical Particles: A Population Balance Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Braatz, Richard D.

    , but are immiscible with each other as the solvent volume decreases.4­9 Water-in-oil emulsions, where the water, evaporation, population balance, pervaporation, mathematical modeling, transport Introduction The emulsionPervaporation of Emulsion Droplets for the Templated Assembly of Spherical Particles: A Population

  4. Direct Detection of Membrane Channels from Gels Using Water-in-Oil Droplet Bilayers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wallace, Mark

    Direct Detection of Membrane Channels from Gels Using Water-in-Oil Droplet Bilayers Andrew J. Heron lipid bilayers serve as simplified models of biological membranes and are widely used for the electrical in many situations. Alternative emulsion-based approaches to forming bilayers have also been reported,15

  5. Local Heating of Discrete Droplets Using Magnetic Porous Silicon-Based Photonic Crystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bhatia, Sangeeta

    Local Heating of Discrete Droplets Using Magnetic Porous Silicon-Based Photonic Crystals Ji-Ho Park and Technology (HarVard-MIT) and Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts AVenue, Building E19-502d, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 Received

  6. Lattice Boltzmann simulation of the rise and dissolution of two-1 dimensional immiscible droplets2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Dongxiao

    were in agreement with the empirical correlation derived for13 predicting bubble rise. When more than.38 39 I. INTRODUCTION40 41 The motion and dissolution of a rising droplet/bubble is an important two, including43 geological carbon sequestration, wastewater treatments, drug delivery in blood vessels, and44

  7. Study of the Effects of Surface Morphology and Droplet Growth Dynamics on Condensation Heat Transfer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yao, Chun-Wei

    2014-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

    system 2 on Sample 3 (50??m micropillar spacing hybrid surface) ............................................................................................... 66 Figure 24. Environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) time- sequence images... tension gradients to promote and induce a droplet removal mechanism. They concluded that their gradient surface exhibited a higher heat transfer coefficient than a hydrophobic silane based surface. More recently, environmental scanning electron...

  8. Erratum to: Neonicotinoid insecticides translocated in guttated droplets of seed-treated maize and wheat

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Erratum to: Neonicotinoid insecticides translocated in guttated droplets of seed-treated maize Gasur and the fungicide Efa of the treated seed in triticale have to be reduced by the factor 100 (which corresponds to the recommended application rate): Seeds of triticale were treated with a combination

  9. Fibre-optic interferometric pressure sensor based on droplet-shaped PDMS elastomer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vlachos, Kyriakos G.

    Fibre-optic interferometric pressure sensor based on droplet-shaped PDMS elastomer C. Markos1 , K *gkakaran@eie.gr Keywords: white-light interferometer, fibre-optic pressure sensor, PDMS-based Fabry progress in fiber-optic extrinsic Fabry­Perot interferometric sensors ", Optical Fiber Technology, 23, p

  10. Curvature-Dependent Surface Tension of a Growing Droplet Michael P. Moody and Phil Attard

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Attard, Phil

    Curvature-Dependent Surface Tension of a Growing Droplet Michael P. Moody and Phil Attard School-vapor interfaces. It is shown that the surface tension decreases approximately linearly with the supersaturation ratio and that it vanishes at the spinodal. The effect leads to a curvature-dependent surface tension

  11. Effective Radius of Cloud Droplets by Ground-Based Remote Sensing: Relationship to Aerosol

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schwartz, Stephen E.

    albedo and radiative forcing for a given LWP are highly sensitive to effective radius; for solar zenith and the average cloud cover on earth. Additionally, reduction in cloud cover caused by absorption of solarEffective Radius of Cloud Droplets by Ground-Based Remote Sensing: Relationship to Aerosol Byung

  12. Strategy Guideline: HVAC Equipment Sizing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burdick, A.

    2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) system is arguably the most complex system installed in a house and is a substantial component of the total house energy use. A right-sized HVAC system will provide the desired occupant comfort and will run efficiently. This Strategy Guideline discusses the information needed to initially select the equipment for a properly designed HVAC system. Right-sizing of an HVAC system involves the selection of equipment and the design of the air distribution system to meet the accurate predicted heating and cooling loads of the house. Right-sizing the HVAC system begins with an accurate understanding of the heating and cooling loads on a space; however, a full HVAC design involves more than just the load estimate calculation - the load calculation is the first step of the iterative HVAC design procedure. This guide describes the equipment selection of a split system air conditioner and furnace for an example house in Chicago, IL as well as a heat pump system for an example house in Orlando, Florida. The required heating and cooling load information for the two example houses was developed in the Department of Energy Building America Strategy Guideline: Accurate Heating and Cooling Load Calculations.

  13. LBNL -42691 Leakage Diagnostics, Sealant Longevity, Sizing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    LBNL - 42691 1 Leakage Diagnostics, Sealant Longevity, Sizing and Technology Transfer of or agreement with these findings, nor that of any CIEE sponsor. #12;LBNL - 42691 2 Leakage Diagnostics, Sealant of the Residential Thermal Distribution Systems research done by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL

  14. What determines cell size?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    mechanism for nuclear positioning in fission yeast based onboth budding and fission yeast that nuclear volume increasesFR, Nurse P: Nuclear size control in fission yeast. J Cell

  15. The distribution of Voronoi cells generated by Southern California earthquake epicenters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schoenberg, Frederic P; Barr, Christopher; Jungju Seo

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Continuous Univariate Distributions. 2nd ed. Wiley, Newfor the tapered Pareto distribution. Journal of AppliedWoods, J. (2003) On the distribution of wild?re sizes. Envi-

  16. A study of ignition and combustion characteristics of isolated coal water slurry droplet using digital image processing technique 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bhadra, Tanmoy

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    diameter and ambient oxygen concentrations. Simplified phenomen ological type models are presented in order to determine the number of particles. interparticle spacing and density of coal water slurry droplet. Finally qualitative relations between ignition...

  17. Spatially resolved temperature and heat flux measurements for slow evaporating droplets heated by a microfabricated heater array 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paik, Sokwon

    2006-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

    The evaporation phenomenon of a liquid droplet was investigated by using microfabricated heaters. All 32 microheaters were designed to have the same resistance. Gold microheaters worked both as temperature indicators and ...

  18. Modeling of droplet breakup in a microfluidic T--shaped junction with a phase--field model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mario De Menech

    2005-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A phase--field method is applied to the modeling of flow and breakup of droplets in a T--shaped junction in the hydrodynamic regime where capillary and viscous stresses dominate over inertial forces, which is characteristic of microfluidic devices. The transport equations are solved numerically in the three--dimensional geometry, and the dependence of the droplet breakup on the flow rates, surface tension and viscosities of the two components is investigated in detail. The model reproduces quite accurately the phase diagram observed in experiments performed with immiscible fluids. The critical capillary number for droplet breakup depends on the viscosity contrast, with a trend which is analogous to that observed for free isolated droplets in hyperbolic flow.

  19. Study on lipid droplet dynamics in live cells and fluidity changes in model bacterial membranes using optical microscopy techniques 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wong, Christine Shiang Yee

    2014-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

    In this thesis optical microscopy techniques are used to consider aspects of viral and bacterial infections. In part 1, the physical effects of cytomegalovirus on lipid droplet dynamics in live cells are studied; in part ...

  20. The interaction of radio frequency electromagnetic fields with atmospheric water droplets and application to aircraft ice prevention

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hansman, Robert John

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this work the physics of advanced microwave anti-icing systems, which pre-heat impinging supercooled water droplets prior to impact, is studied by means of a computer simulation and is found to be feasible. In order to ...

  1. Spatially resolved temperature and heat flux measurements for slow evaporating droplets heated by a microfabricated heater array

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paik, Sokwon

    2006-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

    flux datum per one droplet. No spatial or temporal heat flux information was given. Klassen et al. [12] and di Marzo et al. [13] were the first to use an infrared thermography technique to attempt to measure the spatially and temporally resolved... infrared thermography. Because of the aforementioned limitation of the IR thermography, measurements were only possible outside of the droplets. Michiyoshi and Makino [15] used a dual beam synchroscope to measure the variation of the heater supply...

  2. Gallium surface diffusion on GaAs (001) surfaces measured by crystallization dynamics of Ga droplets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bietti, Sergio, E-mail: sergio.bietti@mater.unimib.it; Somaschini, Claudio; Esposito, Luca; Sanguinetti, Stefano [L–NESS and Dipartimento di Scienza dei Materiali, Università di Milano Bicocca, Via Cozzi 55, I–20125 Milano (Italy); Fedorov, Alexey [L–NESS and CNR–IFN, via Anzani 42, I-22100 Como (Italy)

    2014-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

    We present accurate measurements of Ga cation surface diffusion on GaAs surfaces. The measurement method relies on atomic force microscopy measurement of the morphology of nano–disks that evolve, under group V supply, from nanoscale group III droplets, earlier deposited on the substrate surface. The dependence of the radius of such nano-droplets on crystallization conditions gives direct access to Ga diffusion length. We found an activation energy for Ga on GaAs(001) diffusion E{sub A}=1.31±0.15 eV, a diffusivity prefactor of D{sub 0}?=?0.53(×2.1±1) cm{sup 2} s{sup ?1} that we compare with the values present in literature. The obtained results permit to better understand the fundamental physics governing the motion of group III ad–atoms on III–V crystal surfaces and the fabrication of designable nanostructures.

  3. Droplet traffic in microfluidic networks: A simple model for understanding and designing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Schindler; A. Ajdari

    2007-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

    We propose a simple model to analyze the traffic of droplets in microfluidic ``dual networks''. Such functional networks which consist of two types of channels, namely those accessible or forbidden to droplets, often display a complex behavior characteristic of dynamical systems. By focusing on three recently proposed configurations, we offer an explanation for their remarkable behavior. Additionally, the model allows us to predict the behavior in different parameter regimes. A verification will clarify fundamental issues, such as the network symmetry, the role of the driving conditions, and of the occurrence of reversible behavior. The model lends itself to a fast numerical implementation, thus can help designing devices, identifying parameter windows where the behavior is sufficiently robust for a devices to be practically useful, and exploring new functionalities.

  4. Injectable Spontaneous Generation of Tremendous Self-Fueled Liquid Metal Droplet Motors in a Moment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yao, You-You; Liu, Jing

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Micro motors that could run in liquid environment is very important for a variety of practices such as serving as pipeline robot, soft machine, drug delivery, or microfluidics system etc. However, fabrication of such tiny motors is generally rather time and cost consumptive and has been a tough issue due to involve too many complicated procedures and tools. Here, we show a straightforward injectable way for spontaneously generating autonomously running soft motors in large quantity. A basic fabrication strategy thus enabled is established and illustrated. It was found that, injecting the GaIn alloy pre-fueled with aluminum into electrolyte would automatically split in seconds into tremendous droplet motors swiftly running here and there. The driving force originated from the galvanic cell reaction among alloy, aluminum and surrounding electrolyte which offers interior electricity and hydrogen gas as motion power. This finding opens the possibility to develop injectable tiny-robots, droplet machines or microfl...

  5. Nuclear mass systematics by complementing the Finite Range Droplet Model with neural networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. Athanassopoulos; E. Mavrommatis; K. A. Gernoth; J. W. Clark

    2005-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A neural-network model is developed to reproduce the differences between experimental nuclear mass-excess values and the theoretical values given by the Finite Range Droplet Model. The results point to the existence of subtle regularities of nuclear structure not yet contained in the best microscopic/phenomenological models of atomic masses. Combining the FRDM and the neural-network model, we create a hybrid model with improved predictive performance on nuclear-mass systematics and related quantities.

  6. Proton transfer in histidine-tryptophan heterodimers embedded in helium droplets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bellina, Bruno; Kresin, Vitaly V

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We used cold helium droplets as nano-scale reactors to form and ionize, by electron bombardment and charge transfer, aromatic amino acid heterodimers of histidine with tryptophan, methyl-tryptophan, and indole. The molecular interaction occurring through an N-H...N hydrogen bond leads to a proton transfer from the indole group of tryptophan to the imidazole group of histidine in a radical cationic environment.

  7. Computational insights of water droplet transport on graphene sheet with chemical density

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Liuyang; Wang, Xianqiao, E-mail: xqwang@uga.edu [College of Engineering and NanoSEC, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia 30602 (United States)

    2014-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Surface gradient has been emerging as an intriguing technique for nanoscale particle manipulation and transportation. Owing to its outstanding and stable chemical properties, graphene with covalently bonded chemical groups represents extraordinary potential for the investigation of nanoscale transport in the area of physics and biology. Here, we employ molecular dynamics simulations to investigate the fundamental mechanism of utilizing a chemical density on a graphene sheet to control water droplet motions on it. Simulation results have demonstrated that the binding energy difference among distinct segment of graphene in terms of interaction between the covalently bonded oxygen atoms on graphene and the water molecules provides a fundamental driving force to transport the water droplet across the graphene sheet. Also, the velocity of the water droplet has showed a strong dependence on the relative concentration of oxygen atoms between successive segments. Furthermore, a multi-direction channel provides insights to guide the transportation of objects towards a targeted position, separating the mixtures with a system of specific chemical functionalization. Our findings shed illuminating lights on the surface gradient method and therefore provide a feasible way to control nanoscale motion on the surface and mimic the channelless microfluidics.

  8. Droplet minimizers for the Gates-Lebowitz-Penrose free energy functional

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    E. A. Carlen; M. C. Carvalho; R. Esposito; J. L. Lebowitz; R. Marra

    2009-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the structure of the constrained minimizers of the Gates-Lebowitz-Penrose free-energy functional ${\\mathcal F}_{\\rm GLP}(m)$, non-local functional of a density field $m(x)$, $x\\in {\\mathcal T}_L$, a $d$-dimensional torus of side length $L$. At low temperatures, ${\\mathcal F}_{\\rm GLP}$ is not convex, and has two distinct global minimizers, corresponding to two equilibrium states. Here we constrain the average density $L^{-d}\\int_{{\\cal T}_L}m(x)\\dd x$ to be a fixed value $n$ between the densities in the two equilibrium states, but close to the low density equilibrium value. In this case, a "droplet" of the high density phase may or may not form in a background of the low density phase, depending on the values $n$ and $L$. We determine the critical density for droplet formation, and the nature of the droplet, as a function of $n$ and $L$. The relation between the free energy and the large deviations functional for a particle model with long-range Kac potentials, proven in some cases, and expected to be true in general, then provides information on the structure of typical microscopic configurations of the Gibbs measure when the range of the Kac potential is large enough.

  9. On droplet combustion of biodiesel fuel mixed with diesel/alkanes in microgravity condition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pan, Kuo-Long; Li, Je-Wei; Chen, Chien-Pei; Wang, Ching-Hua [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617 (China)

    2009-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The burning characteristics of a biodiesel droplet mixed with diesel or alkanes such as dodecane and hexadecane were experimentally studied in a reduced-gravity environment so as to create a spherically symmetrical flame without the influence of natural convection due to buoyancy. Small droplets on the order of 500 {mu}m in diameter were initially injected via a piezoelectric technique onto the cross point intersected by two thin carbon fibers; these were prepared inside a combustion chamber that was housed in a drag shield, which was freely dropped onto a foam cushion. It was found that, for single component droplets, the tendency to form a rigid soot shell was relatively small for biodiesel fuel as compared to that exhibited by the other tested fuels. The soot created drifted away readily, showing a puffing phenomenon; this could be related to the distinct molecular structure of biodiesel leading to unique soot layers that were more vulnerable to oxidative reactivity as compared to the soot generated by diesel or alkanes. The addition of biodiesel to these more traditional fuels also presented better performance with respect to annihilating the soot shell, particularly for diesel. The burning rate generally follows that of multi-component fuels, by some means in terms of a lever rule, whereas the mixture of biodiesel and dodecane exhibits a somewhat nonlinear relation with the added fraction of dodecane. This might be related to the formation of a soot shell. (author)

  10. aerosol particle size: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (AD... Dileep, V.R. 2012-06-07 79 Scale-free Universal Spectrum for Atmospheric Aerosol Size Distribution for Davos, Mauna Loa and Izana Physics (arXiv) Summary: Atmospheric flows...

  11. agglomerates sizes approach: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lorenzo Isella; Yannis Drossinos 2010-04-26 52 A fractal-based approach to lake size-distributions David A. Seekell,1 Environmental Sciences and Ecology Websites Summary:...

  12. air gaps size: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    cars in a number of roads in central London is well represented by the spacing distribution of a Gaussian unitary ensemble. Abul-Magd, A Y 2006-01-01 29 The Role of Size in...

  13. Magnetic agglomeration method for size control in the synthesis of magnetic nanoparticles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Huber, Dale L. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2011-07-05T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for controlling the size of chemically synthesized magnetic nanoparticles that employs magnetic interaction between particles to control particle size and does not rely on conventional kinetic control of the reaction to control particle size. The particles are caused to reversibly agglomerate and precipitate from solution; the size at which this occurs can be well controlled to provide a very narrow particle size distribution. The size of particles is controllable by the size of the surfactant employed in the process; controlling the size of the surfactant allows magnetic control of the agglomeration and precipitation processes. Agglomeration is used to effectively stop particle growth to provide a very narrow range of particle sizes.

  14. Control of pore size in epoxy systems.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sawyer, Patricia Sue; Lenhart, Joseph Ludlow (North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND); Lee, Elizabeth (North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND); Kallam, Alekhya (North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND); Majumdar, Partha (North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND); Dirk, Shawn M.; Gubbins, Nathan; Chisholm, Bret J. (North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND); Celina, Mathias Christopher; Bahr, James (North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND); Klein, Robert J.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Both conventional and combinatorial approaches were used to study the pore formation process in epoxy based polymer systems. Sandia National Laboratories conducted the initial work and collaborated with North Dakota State University (NDSU) using a combinatorial research approach to produce a library of novel monomers and crosslinkers capable of forming porous polymers. The library was screened to determine the physical factors that control porosity, such as porogen loading, polymer-porogen interactions, and polymer crosslink density. We have identified the physical and chemical factors that control the average porosity, pore size, and pore size distribution within epoxy based systems.

  15. Size separation in vibrated granular matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Kudrolli

    2004-02-06T23:59:59.000Z

    We review recent developments in size separation in vibrated granular materials. Motivated by a need in industry to efficiently handle granular materials and a desire to make fundamental advances in non-equilibrium physics, experimental and theoretical investigations have shown size separation to be a complex phenomena. Large particles in a vibrated granular system invariably rise to the top. However, they may also sink to the bottom, or show other patterns depending on subtle variations in physical conditions. While size ratio is a dominant factor, particle specific properties such as density, inelasticity and friction can play an important role. The nature of the energy input, boundary conditions and interstitial air have been also shown to be significant factors in determining spatial distributions. The presence of convection can enhance mixing or lead to size separation. Experimental techniques including direct visualization and magnetic resonance imaging are being used to investigate these properties. Molecular dynamics and Monte Carlo simulation techniques have been developed to probe size separation. Analytical methods such as kinetic theory are being used to study the interplay between particle size and density in the vibro-fluidized regime, and geometric models have been proposed to describe size separation for deep beds. Besides discussing these studies, we will also review the impact of inelastic collision and friction on the density and velocity distributions to gain a deeper appreciation of the non-equilibrium nature of the system. While a substantial number of studies have been accomplished, considerable work is still required to achieve a firm description of the phenomena.

  16. Ice particle size matters | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Ice particle size matters Ice particle size matters Released: May 04, 2014 Fine-tuning cloud models for improved climate predictions The Science Arctic clouds are widespread and...

  17. Sample sizes for confidence limits for reliability.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Darby, John L.

    2010-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We recently performed an evaluation of the implications of a reduced stockpile of nuclear weapons for surveillance to support estimates of reliability. We found that one technique developed at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) under-estimates the required sample size for systems-level testing. For a large population the discrepancy is not important, but for a small population it is important. We found that another technique used by SNL provides the correct required sample size. For systems-level testing of nuclear weapons, samples are selected without replacement, and the hypergeometric probability distribution applies. Both of the SNL techniques focus on samples without defects from sampling without replacement. We generalized the second SNL technique to cases with defects in the sample. We created a computer program in Mathematica to automate the calculation of confidence for reliability. We also evaluated sampling with replacement where the binomial probability distribution applies.

  18. Optimum Size of Nanorods for Heating Application

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Seshadri, Gowrishankar; Mehra, Anurag

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Magnetic nanoparticles (MNP's) have become increasingly important in heating applications such as hyperthermia treatment of cancer due to their ability to release heat when a remote external alternating magnetic field is applied. It has been shown that the heating capability of such particles varies significantly with the size of particles used. In this paper, we theoretically evaluate the heating capability of rod-shaped MNP's and identify conditions under which these particles display highest efficiency. For optimally sized monodisperse particles, the power generated by rod-shaped particles is found to be equal to that generated by spherical particles. However, for particles which have a dispersion in size, rod-shaped particles are found to be more effective in heating as a result of the greater spread in the power density distribution curve. Additionally, for rod-shaped particles, a dispersion in the radius of the particle contributes more to the reduction in loss power when compared to a dispersion in the...

  19. A microfluidic device based on droplet storage for screening solubility diagrams

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. Laval; N. Lisai; J. -B. Salmon; M. Joanicot

    2007-04-04T23:59:59.000Z

    This work describes a new microfluidic device developed for rapid screening of solubility diagrams. In several parallel channels, hundreds of nanoliter-volume droplets of a given solution are first stored with a gradual variation in the solute concentration. Then, the application of a temperature gradient along these channels enables us to read directly and quantitatively phase diagrams, concentration vs. temperature. We show, using a solution of adipic acid, that we can measure ten points of the solubility curve in less than 1 hr and with only 250 $\\mu$L of solution.

  20. Study of the Effects of Single and Double Droplets Impingement on Surface Cooling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsai, Hsin-Min

    2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    and impact spacing, the coupled heat transfer-fluid dynamic behavior still is complicated and difficult to understand by considering all the above variables simultaneously. The main mechanisms which drive heat transfer performance in spray cooling... nozzle. Sprays typically consist of a wide , the droplet diameter with the same volume-to g1856g2871g2870 g3404 ? g3041g3284 g3031g3284g3119? g3041g3284 g3031g3284g3118 g1848g2868 g3404 g4674g1848g3047g3048g3029g3032g2870 g3397 g2870?g3017g3096g...

  1. Packaging a liquid metal ESD with micro-scale Mercury droplet.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barnard, Casey Anderson

    2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A liquid metal ESD is being developed to provide electrical switching at different acceleration levels. The metal will act as both proof mass and electric contact. Mercury is chosen to comply with operation parameters. There are many challenges surrounding the deposition and containment of micro scale mercury droplets. Novel methods of micro liquid transfer are developed to deliver controllable amounts of mercury to the appropriate channels in volumes under 1 uL. Issues of hermetic sealing and avoidance of mercury contamination are also addressed.

  2. Aerosol measurements at a high-elevation site: composition, size, and cloud condensation nuclei activity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Friedman, B.

    Measurements of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) concentrations, single particle composition and size distributions at a high-elevation research site from March 2011 are presented.

  3. Edison Job Size Charts

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadapInactiveVisitingContract ManagementDiscoveringESnet UpdateEarth WeekAlamosEdisonEdisonJob Size

  4. Uniform Distribution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    randomly and equally likely a point in that interval), the uniform distribution ... Roughly speaking, this means that from any distribution we can create the uniform.

  5. be explained by the indirect aerosol cloud effect. The use of a parcel model to determine the cloud droplet number concentration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reiners, Peter W.

    cloud properties and their effect on the surface radiation budget: selected cases from FIRE ACE. Jbe explained by the indirect aerosol cloud effect. The use of a parcel model to determine the cloud droplet number concentration enables us to separate the effects of the cloud LWP and cloud droplet number

  6. Cell detachment and label-free cell sorting using modulated surface acoustic waves (SAW) in droplet-based microfluidics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bussonnière, Adrien; Baudoin, Michael; Bou-Matar, Olivier; Grandbois, Michel; Charette, Paul; Renaudin, Alan

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a droplet-based surface acoustic wave (SAW) system designed to viably detach biological cells from a surface and sort cell types based on differences in adhesion strength (adhesion contrast), without the need to label cells with molecular markers. The system uses modulated SAW to generate pulsatile flows in the droplets and efficiently detach the cells, thereby minimizing SAW excitation power and exposure time. As a proof-of-principle, the system is shown to efficiently sort HEK 293 from A7r5 cells based on adhesion contrast. Results are obtained in minutes with sorting purity and efficiency reaching 97 % and 95 %, respectively.

  7. Simultaneous fog formation and thermophoretic droplet deposition in a turbulent pipe flow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Epstein, M.; Hauser, G.M. (Fauske and Associates, Inc., Burr Ridge, IL (USA))

    1991-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Simultaneous aerosol formation by equilibrium condensation and the migration of the resulting droplets to the cold surface by thermophoresis is studied theoretically for a turbulent pipe flow. The problem is one in which a mixture of a vapor and noncondensable gas flows into a section of pipe where the pipe wall is cooled to below the dew point of the vapor. Because the temperature gradient at the pipe wall decays to zero once the gas travels far enough into the pipe, only some fraction of the droplets formed will deposit on the pipe wall. The equations of energy and diffusion suggest that turbulence leads to a discontinuity in the aerosol (fog) concentration at the boundary between the fog and clear regions. Numerical solutions are obtained for CsOH fog formation and deposition in steam flow, a particular case of current practical interest in water reactor safety. The axial and radial variations of the aerosol and vapor concentrations are displayed graphically, as are the location of the fog boundary as a function of axial distance and the efficiency of deposition as a function of the pipe wall temperature.

  8. Assessment of the release of atomic Na from a burning black liquor droplet using quantitative PLIF

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saw, Woei L.; Nathan, Graham J. [Centre for Energy Technology, The Environment Institute, School of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Adelaide, SA 5005 (Australia); Ashman, Peter J.; Alwahabi, Zeyad T. [Centre for Energy Technology, The Environment Institute, School of Chemical Engineering, The University of Adelaide, SA 5005 (Australia)

    2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The quantitative measurement of atomic sodium (Na) release, at high concentration, from a burning black liquor droplet has been demonstrated using a planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) technique, corrected for fluorescence trapping. The local temperature of the particle was measured to be approximately 1700 C, at a height of 10 mm above a flat flame burner. The PLIF technique was used to assess the temporal release of atomic Na from the combustion of black liquor and compare it with the Na concentration in the remaining smelt. A first-order model was made to provide insight using a simple Plug Flow Reactor model based on the independently measured concentration of residual Na in the smelt as a function of time. This model also required the dilution ratio of the combustion products in the flat flame entrained into the plume gas from the black liquor particle to be estimated. The key findings of these studies are: (i) the peak concentration of atomic Na from the combustion of the black liquor droplets is around 1.4 ppm; (ii) very little atomic Na is present during the drying, devolatilisation or char combustion stages; and (iii) the presence of atomic Na during smelt phase dominates over that from the other combustion stages. (author)

  9. Epitaxial GaN films by hyperthermal ion-beam nitridation of Ga droplets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gerlach, J. W.; Ivanov, T.; Neumann, L.; Hoeche, Th.; Hirsch, D.; Rauschenbach, B. [Leibniz-Institut fuer Oberflaechenmodifizierung (IOM), D-04318 Leipzig (Germany)

    2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Epitaxial GaN film formation on bare 6H-SiC(0001) substrates via the process of transformation of Ga droplets into a thin GaN film by applying hyperthermal nitrogen ions is investigated. Pre-deposited Ga atoms in well defined amounts form large droplets on the substrate surface which are subsequently nitridated at a substrate temperature of 630 Degree-Sign C by a low-energy nitrogen ion beam from a constricted glow-discharge ion source. The Ga deposition and ion-beam nitridation process steps are monitored in situ by reflection high-energy electron diffraction. Ex situ characterization by x-ray diffraction and reflectivity techniques, Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, and electron microscopy shows that the thickness of the resulting GaN films depends on the various amounts of pre-deposited gallium. The films are epitaxial to the substrate, exhibit a mosaic like, smooth surface topography and consist of coalesced large domains of low defect density. Possible transport mechanisms of reactive nitrogen species during hyperthermal nitridation are discussed and the formation of GaN films by an ion-beam assisted process is explained.

  10. Population growth, distribution, and size in Latin America

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lopez-Carr, David

    timber harvesting oil exploration/extraction population growth? degradation of lands in source areas history in Amazonia · Early extractive uses Rubber Forestry #12;Development history in Amazonia forests in the world 2) 45% of all the fresh water on the Earth 3) the planet's largest carbon sink 4

  11. The geographic distribution of mammal body size in Europe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rodriguez, M A; Lopez-Sanudo, I L; Hawkins, Bradford A.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Nacionales, Madrid. Peltier, W. (1993) Time dependentlast glacial maximum (Peltier, 1993). This variable measures

  12. The geographic distribution of mammal body size in Europe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rodriguez, M A; Lopez-Sanudo, I L; Hawkins, Bradford A.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    cell age), estim- ated by mapped changes in ice coverage at 1-Kyr intervals since the last glacial maximum (Peltier,

  13. aerosol size distributions: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    for Davos, Mauna Loa and Izana Physics (arXiv) Summary: Atmospheric flows exhibit fractal fluctuations and inverse power law form for power spectra indicating an eddy...

  14. aerosol size distribution: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    for Davos, Mauna Loa and Izana Physics (arXiv) Summary: Atmospheric flows exhibit fractal fluctuations and inverse power law form for power spectra indicating an eddy...

  15. Concentrations and Size Distributions of Particulate Matter Emissions...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    ECD-1 CRT CNG1 CNG2 Carbonyl Compounds (Air Toxics) Formaldehyde Acetaldehyde Acetone Acrolein Propionaldehyde Croton Methyl ethyl Ketone (MEK) Methylacrolein Butanal Benzaldehyde...

  16. Estimating sandstone permeability using network models with pore size distributions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mathews, Alan Ronald

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the effects of each parameter on the response of the network lattice. A FoR+RAv source code was written to generate and analyze the response of the network model (see Appendix G for source code description and flow chart). The controlling parameters used... in appearance to empirical data. A network model is developed to simulate the pore geometry of a clean, well-sorted sandstone. Pores were modeled as straight capillaries connected in various lattice configurations. Complex lattice configurations produce more...

  17. Assessing Impact of Shattered Artifacts on Measured Size Distributions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office511041cloth DocumentationProductsAlternativeOperational Management »EnergyHubs | DepartmentCloud

  18. Concentrations and Size Distributions of Particulate Matter Emissions from

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny: Theof"Wave the WhiteNational|ofSeptember 3,Bringing youProgram AreasCatalyzed

  19. Transporting of a Cell-Sized Phospholipid Vesicle Across Water/Oil Interface

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hase, M; Hamada, T; Yoshikawa, K; Hase, Masahiko; Yamada, Ayako; Hamada, Tsutomu; Yoshikawa, Kenichi

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    When a cell-sized water droplet, with a diameter of several tens of micro meter, is placed in oil containing phospholipids, a stable cell-sized vesicle is spontaneously formed as a water-in-oil phospholipid emulsion (W/O CE) with a phospholipid monolayer. We transferred the lipid vesicle thus formed in the oil phase to the water phase across the water/oil interface by micromanipulation, which suggests that the vesicle is transformed from a phospholipid monolayer as W/O CE into a bilayer. The lipid vesicle can then be transported back into the oil phase. This novel experimental procedure may be a useful tool for creating a model cellular system, which, together with a microreactor, is applicable as a micrometer-scale biochemical reaction field.

  20. Droplet Activation Properties of Organic Aerosols Observed at an Urban Site during CalNex-LA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mei, Fan; Hayes, Patrick L.; Ortega, Amber; Taylor, Jonathan W.; Allan, James D.; Gilman, Jessica; Kuster, W. C.; de Gouw, Joost A.; Jimenez, Jose L.; Wang, Jian

    2013-04-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Size-resolved cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) spectra and aerosol chemical composition were characterized at an urban supersite in Pasadena, California from 15 May to 4 June, 2010, during the CalNex campaign. The derived hygroscopicity (?CCN) of CCN-active particles with diameter between 97 and 165 nm ranged from 0.05 to 0.4. Diurnal variation showed a slight decrease of ?CCN from 8:00 to 16:00 (from 0.24 to 0.20), which is attributed to increasing organics volume fraction resulted from secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation. The derived hygroscopicity distribution and maximum activated fraction of the size selected particles were examined as functions of photochemical age. The result indicates that condensation of secondary species (e.g., SOA and sulfate) quickly converted hydrophobic particles to hydrophilic ones, and during daytime, nearly every particle became a CCN at ~0.4% in just a few hours. Based on ?CCN and aerosol chemical composition, the organic hygroscopicity (?org) was derived, and ranged from 0.05 to 0.23 with an average value of 0.13, consistent with the results from earlier studies. The derived ?org generally increased with the organic oxidation level, and most of the variation in ?org could be explained by the variation of the organic O:C atomic ratio alone. The least squares fit of the data yielded ?org =(0.83±0.06) ? (O:C) +(-0.19±0.02). Compared to previous results based on CCN measurements of laboratory generated aerosols, ?org derived from measurements during the CalNex campaign exhibited stronger increase with O:C atomic ratio, and therefore substantially higher values for organics with average O:C greater than 0.5.

  1. 5, 1019710216, 2005 Effect of HNO3 on

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    of aerosol particles. Sulfuric acid (H2SO4) production and incloud coagulation are both affected by condensed particle size distributions (Hoppel et al., 1994). Cloud droplets grow by condensation of different gases in the particles also when cloud droplets evaporate. Hence the dry particle size distribution and the chemical

  2. Miscible droplets in a porous medium and the effects of Korteweg Ching-Yao Chen and Lilin Wang

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meiburg, Eckart H.

    the growth of the viscous fingering instability, while simultaneously generating larger stabilizing Korteweg as technological situa- tions ranging from groundwater contamination and enhanced oil recovery to biomedicalARTICLES Miscible droplets in a porous medium and the effects of Korteweg stresses Ching-Yao Chen

  3. Control of Initiation, Rate, and Routing of Spontaneous Capillary-Driven Flow of Liquid Droplets through Microfluidic Channels on

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ismagilov, Rustem F.

    angle hysteresis, the presence or absence of a lubricating oil layer, and adsorption of surface between the plates of the SlipChip ("dead-end flow"). Rupture of the lubricating oil layer (reminiscent containing an aqueous droplet into contact with a slightly deeper channel filled with immiscible oil

  4. Reprint from RSC Advances, 4, 14962 (2014) Formation and dynamics of partially wetting droplets in square microchannels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cubaud, Thomas

    are generated by focusing water in a continuous phase of silicone oil using square microchannels. The shape and stability of the lubricating film between droplets and channel walls permit the classification of typical water hydrology,1-3 oil recovery,4-8 water-oil filtration,9-11 and fuel cells.12 Examples of basic flow

  5. Using sharp transitions in contact angle hysteresis to move, deflect, and sort droplets on a superhydrophobic surface

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rothstein, Jonathan

    on a superhydrophobic surface Michael A. Nilsson and Jonathan P. Rothstein Citation: Phys. Fluids 24, 062001 (2012); doi droplets on a superhydrophobic surface Michael A. Nilsson and Jonathan P. Rothsteina) Department by sanding Teflon are used as the microfluidics platform. The superhydrophobic surfaces used in this study

  6. Numerical simulation of bubble and droplet deformation by a level set approach with surface tension in three dimensions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sminchisescu, Cristian

    Numerical simulation of bubble and droplet deformation by a level set approach with surface tension-dimensional Navier­Stokes solver for incompressible two-phase flow problems with surface tension and apply is the impact of surface tension and its discretization on the overall convergence behavior and conservation

  7. Near-Global Survey of Effective Droplet Radii in Liquid Water Clouds Using ISCCP Data 1 . Introduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Han, Quingyuan

    VOLUME 7 Near-Global Survey of Effective Droplet Radii in Liquid Water Clouds Using ISCCP Data 1 indicate the magnitude ofaerosol effects on clouds. A method, based on a complete radiative transfer model the radiative effects ofwater vapor and clouds and the hydrological cycle, and create several important cloud

  8. 3476 JOURNAL OF CLIMATE VOLUME 16 Sensitivity of the First Indirect Aerosol Effect to an Increase of Cloud Droplet Spectral

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    effect, but this is usually not parameterized in global climate models (GCMs). Empirical), and is usually broken down into two compo- nents. The "first indirect effect" refers to the radiative impact of a decrease in cloud droplet effective radius (re> that is associated with increased N. A decrease

  9. Charge tuning in [111] grown GaAs droplet quantum dots

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bouet, L.; Vidal, M.; Marie, X.; Amand, T.; Wang, G.; Urbaszek, B. [INSA-CNRS-UPS, LPCNO, Université de Toulouse, 135 Ave. Rangueil, 31077 Toulouse (France); Mano, T.; Ha, N.; Kuroda, T.; Sakoda, K. [National Institute for Materials Science, 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba 305-0044 (Japan); Durnev, M. V.; Glazov, M. M.; Ivchenko, E. L. [Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute RAS, 194021 St.-Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2014-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

    We demonstrate charge tuning in strain free GaAs/AlGaAs quantum dots (QDs) grown by droplet epitaxy on a GaAs(111)A substrate. Application of a bias voltage allows the controlled charging of the QDs from ?3|e| to +2|e|. The resulting changes in QD emission energy and exciton fine-structure are recorded in micro-photoluminescence experiments at T?=?4?K. We uncover the existence of excited valence and conduction states, in addition to the s-shell-like ground state. We record a second series of emission lines about 25?meV above the charged exciton emission coming from excited charged excitons. For these excited interband transitions, a negative diamagnetic shift of large amplitude is uncovered in longitudinal magnetic fields.

  10. Liquid-Droplet as a model for the rotation curve problem

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    F. Darabi

    2014-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

    The dynamics of large scale gravitational structures like galaxies, local groups and clusters is studied based on the so-called {\\it Liquid-Droplet} model describing the saturation property of the nuclear force. Using the assumption that the gravitational force is also saturated over large scale structures, it is argued that the Newtonian gravitational potential may be replaced by an effective {\\it Machian} gravitational potential. Application of this new potential at these large scale structures may give the rotation curves in good agreement with observations. Then, the virial theorem for this kind of gravitational interaction is developed and also the Tully-Fisher relation is obtained. A physical explanation is given for the so-called {\\it constant} acceleration in the MOND as the {\\it effective} gravitational strength of these structures. Finally, a brief argument is given for comparison with dark matter models.

  11. Fabrication and Response of High Concentration SIMPLE Superheated Droplet Detectors with Different Liquids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ,

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The combined measurement of dark matter interactions with different superheated liquids has recently been suggested as a cross-correlation technique in identifying WIMP candidates. We describe the fabrication of high concentration superheated droplet detectors based on the light nuclei liquids C3F8, C4F8, C4F10 and CCl2F2, and investigation of their irradiation response with respect to C2ClF5. The results are discussed in terms of the basic physics of superheated liquid response to particle interactions, as well as the necessary detector qualifications for application in dark matter search investigations. The possibility of heavier nuclei SDDs is explored using the light nuclei results as a basis, with CF3I provided as an example.

  12. Searching for universal behaviour in superheated droplet detector with effective recoil nuclei

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Das, Mala

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Energy calibration of superheated droplet detector is discussed in terms of the effective recoil nucleus threshold energy and the reduced superheat. This provides a universal energy calibration curve valid for different liquids used in this type of detector. Two widely used liquids, R114 and C4F10, one for neutron detection and the other for WIMPs dark matter search experiment, have been compared. Liquid having recoil nuclei with larger values of LET provides better neutron and gamma discrimination. Gamma response of C4F10 has also been studied and the results are discussed. Behaviour of nucleation parameter with the effective recoil nucleus threshold energy and the reduced superheat have been explored.

  13. Wide size range fast integrated mobility spectrometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang, Jian

    2013-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A mobility spectrometer to measure a nanometer particle size distribution is disclosed. The mobility spectrometer includes a conduit and a detector. The conduit is configured to receive and provide fluid communication of a fluid stream having a charged nanometer particle mixture. The conduit includes a separator section configured to generate an electrical field of two dimensions transverse to a dimension associated with the flow of the charged nanometer particle mixture through the separator section to spatially separate charged nanometer particles of the charged nanometer particle mixture in said two dimensions. The detector is disposed downstream of the conduit to detect concentration and position of the spatially-separated nanometer particles.

  14. 1999 Commercial Buildings Characteristics--Building Size

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS8) Distribution Category UC-950 Cost and Quality of Fuels for Electric Utility Plants 1998 TablesSize of

  15. This journal is The Royal Society of Chemistry [year] [journal], [year], [vol], 0000 | 1 Droplet mobility on lubricant-impregnated surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , the surrounding gas, and the liquid that needs to be shed ­ referred hereafter for simplicity as oil, airThis journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry [year] [journal], [year], [vol], 00­00 | 1 Droplet

  16. ITP Industrial Distributed Energy: Distributed Energy Program...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ITP Industrial Distributed Energy: Distributed Energy Program Project Profile: Verizon Central Office Building ITP Industrial Distributed Energy: Distributed Energy Program Project...

  17. Electrowetting on liquid-infused film (EWOLF): Complete reversibility and controlled droplet oscillation suppression for fast optical imaging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hao, Chonglei; Chen, Xuemei; He, Yuncheng; Li, Qiusheng; Li, K Y; Wang, Zuankai

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Electrowetting on dielectric (EWOD) has emerged as a powerful tool to electrically manipulate tiny individual droplets in a controlled manner. Despite tremendous progress over the past two decades, current EWOD operating in ambient conditions has limited functionalities posing challenges for its applications, including electronic display, energy generation, and microfluidic systems. Here, we demonstrate a new paradigm of electrowetting on liquid-infused film (EWOLF) that allows for complete reversibility and tunable transient response simultaneously. We determine that these functionalities in EWOLF are attributed to its novel configuration, which allows for the formation of viscous liquid-liquid interfaces as well as additional wetting ridges, thereby suppressing the contact line pinning and severe droplet oscillation encountered in the conventional EWOD. Finally, by harnessing these functionalities demonstrated in EWOLF, we also explore its application as liquid lens for fast optical focusing.

  18. Synchronized droplet size measurements of intermittent coal-water slurry diesel sprays from an electronically-controlled accumulator fuel injection system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Terracina, Dwayne Paul

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Experiments have been completed to characterize atomization of intermittent coal-water slurry sprays from an electronically controlled accumulator fuel injection system of a diesel fuel engine. A synchronized laser diffraction particle analyzer...

  19. Does semantic size affect size constancy scaling using lexical stimuli? 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beveridge, Madeleine

    2010-11-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Binocular disparity allows us to perceive the world in 3-dimensions through the process of stereopsis. In this study, we used binocular disparity to induce the size constancy illusion in lexical stimuli. 47 undergraduate ...

  20. Molecular behavior of DNA in a cell-sized compartment coated by lipids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamada, T; Shimobayashi, S F; Ichikawa, M; Takagi, M

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The behavior of long DNA molecules in a cell-sized confined space was investigated. We prepared water-in-oil droplets covered by phospholipids, which mimic the inner space of a cell, following the encapsulation of DNA molecules with unfolded coil and folded globule conformations. Microscopic observation revealed that the adsorption of coiled DNA onto the membrane surface depended on the size of the vesicular space. Globular DNA showed a cell-size-dependent unfolding transition after adsorption on the membrane. Furthermore, when DNA interacted with a two-phase membrane surface, DNA selectively adsorbed on the membrane phase, such as an ordered or disordered phase, depending on its conformation. We discuss the mechanism of these trends by considering the free energy of DNA together with a polyamine in the solution. The free energy of our model was consistent with the present experimental data. The cooperative interaction of DNA and polyamines with a membrane surface leads to the size-dependent behavior of molec...

  1. METER-SIZED MOONLET POPULATION IN SATURN'S C RING AND CASSINI DIVISION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baillie, Kevin; Colwell, Joshua E. [Department of Physics, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL 32816-2385 (United States); Esposito, Larry W. [Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics, University of Colorado at Boulder, 392 UCB, Boulder, CO 80309-0392 (United States); Lewis, Mark C., E-mail: kevin.baillie@cea.fr [Department of Computer Science, Trinity University, One Trinity Place, San Antonio, TX 78212-7200 (United States)

    2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Stellar occultations observed by the Cassini Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph reveal the presence of transparent holes a few meters to a few tens of meters in radial extent in otherwise optically thick regions of the C ring and the Cassini Division. We attribute the holes to gravitational disturbances generated by a population of {approx}10 m boulders in the rings that is intermediate in size between the background ring particle size distribution and the previously observed {approx}100 m propeller moonlets in the A ring. The size distribution of these boulders is described by a shallower power-law than the one that describes the ring particle size distribution. The number and size distribution of these boulders could be explained by limited accretion processes deep within Saturn's Roche zone.

  2. Splashing phenomena of room temperature liquid metal droplet striking on the pool of the same liquid under ambient air environment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haiyan Li; Shengfu Mei; Lei Wang; Yunxia Gao; Jing Liu

    2013-09-04T23:59:59.000Z

    In this article, the fluid dynamics of room temperature liquid metal (RTLM) droplet impacting onto a pool of the same liquid in ambient air was investigated. A series of experiments were conducted in order to disclose the influence of the oxidation effect on the impact dynamics. The droplet shape and impact phenomenology were recorded with the aid of a high-speed digital camera. The impact energy stored in the splash structures was estimated via a theoretical model and several morphological parameters obtained from instantaneous images of the splash. It was observed that the droplet shape and the splashing morphology of RTLM were drastically different from those of water, so was the impact dynamics between room temperature LM pool and high temperature LM pool. The energy analysis disclosed that the height of the jet is highly sensitive to the viscosity of the fluid, which is subjected to the oxidation effect and temperature effect simultaneously, and thus perfectly explained the phenomena. These basic findings are important for the application of RTLM in a series of newly emerging technologies such as liquid metal based spray cooling, ink-jet printed electronics, interface material painting and coating, metallurgy, and 3D packages, etc.

  3. Extremal sizes of subspace partitions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heden, Olof; Nastase, Esmeralda; Sissokho, Papa

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A subspace partition $\\Pi$ of $V=V(n,q)$ is a collection of subspaces of $V$ such that each 1-dimensional subspace of $V$ is in exactly one subspace of $\\Pi$. The size of $\\Pi$ is the number of its subspaces. Let $\\sigma_q(n,t)$ denote the minimum size of a subspace partition of $V$ in which the largest subspace has dimension $t$, and let $\\rho_q(n,t)$ denote the maximum size of a subspace partition of $V$ in which the smallest subspace has dimension $t$. In this paper, we determine the values of $\\sigma_q(n,t)$ and $\\rho_q(n,t)$ for all positive integers $n$ and $t$. Furthermore, we prove that if $n\\geq 2t$, then the minimum size of a maximal partial $t$-spread in $V(n+t-1,q)$ is $\\sigma_q(n,t)$.

  4. Distributed DBMS Introduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Yangjun

    Distributed DBMS Outline Introduction What is a distributed DBMS Problems Current state-of-affairs Background Distributed DBMS Architecture Distributed Database Design Semantic Data Control Distributed Query Processing Distributed Transaction Management Parallel Database Systems Distributed Object DBMS

  5. Children's Clothes - Size and Selection.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vanderpoorten, Ann; Kerbel, Claudia

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Tooe ZTA245.7 8-1303 B873 no ? \\'3J~3L-~=============i1 ? ? ? CHILDREN'S CLOTHES, SIZE AND SELECTION ? ~========================~ Texas Agricultural Extension Service. The Texas A&M University System. Daniel C. pfannstiel, Director.... College Station, Texas ," ? (BIaBk Pa,ge in O'rigjaal Bulletinl ' / I' j '. ":SIZE AND SELECTION Ann Vanderpoorten and Claudia Kerbel* Preschool and school-age children have special...

  6. Normal Distribution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    User

    NORMAL DlSTRlBUTION TABLE. Entries represent the area under the standardized normal distribution from -w to z, Pr(Z

  7. Microgrids: distributed on-site generation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Watson, Andrew

    : · Diversity of the load profile as a function of microgrid size; · Feasibility of accurate control of bothMicrogrids: distributed on-site generation Suleiman Abu-Sharkh, Rachel Li, Tom Markvart, Neil Ross for Climate Change Research Technical Report 22 #12;1 Microgrids: distributed on-site generation Tyndall

  8. Strain modification in thin Si1 x yGexCy alloys on ,,100... Si for formation of high density and uniformly sized quantum dots

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    size, increase the density of islands, and significantly narrow the distribution of island sizes for dislocation generation within the three-dimensional islands, which then limits the maximum height which and the island size distribution becomes broader with the increase of misfit and strain. The optimal growth

  9. Under consideration for publication in J. Fluid Mech. 1 Field-induced motion of ferrofluid droplets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Renardy, Yuriko

    al. 2005). By treating the sphere as a magnetic particle, the magnetic force acting on it can sizes, the shape deformed from a sphere to a teardrop as it acceler- ated toward the magnet.

  10. Emergence of skew distributions in controlled growth processes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Segun Goh; H. W. Kwon; M. Y. Choi; Jean-Yves Fortin

    2011-04-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Starting from a master equation, we derive the evolution equation for the size distribution of elements in an evolving system, where each element can grow, divide into two, and produce new elements. We then probe general solutions of the evolution quation, to obtain such skew distributions as power-law, log-normal, and Weibull distributions, depending on the growth or division and production. Specifically, repeated production of elements of uniform size leads to power-law distributions, whereas production of elements with the size distributed according to the current distribution as well as no production of new elements results in log-normal distributions. Finally, division into two, or binary fission, bears Weibull distributions. Numerical simulations are also carried out, confirming the validity of the obtained solutions.

  11. JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH, VOL. 103,NO. D3, PAGES 3419-3435,FEBRUARY 20, 1998 Size-resolvedand chemicallyresolvedmodel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dabdub, Donald

    . An atmospheric aerosol is characterized by both its size and composition distribution.The mostgeneralformParticulateMatter model[Binkowski and Shankar, 1995] assumesthat the aerosol size distribution adheresto a bimodal,includingnucleation,condensation, coagulation,chemicaltransformationin the gas,aerosol,and aqueous(cloud and fog) phases

  12. DISTRIBUTED DATABASES INTRODUCTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Chengfei

    D DISTRIBUTED DATABASES INTRODUCTION The development of network and data communication tech- nology distributed database management. Naturally, the decen- tralized approach reflects the distributed aspects in the definition of a distributed database exist. First, a distributed database is distributed

  13. Control of Transcription by Cell Size

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Chia-Yung

    Cell size increases significantly with increasing ploidy. Differences in cell size and ploidy are associated with alterations in gene expression, although no direct connection has been made between cell size and transcription. ...

  14. 5, 52235252, 2005 Size-resolved source

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    , gasoline vehicle, diesel vehicle, copper smelter, and volcano emission. PMF analysis of size% in the fine size range (0.56­2.5 µm). The diesel vehicle source contributed the most in the ultra-fine size

  15. Method for estimating mean particle size from high-frequency fluctuations in beam attenuation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boss, Emmanuel S.

    aim of scientists and engineers hoping to improve prediction of the effects of dredging, contaminant. However, the size, cost, ease of use, power, and data requirements of these technologies 1559-128X/13 caused by random distribution of par- ticles. The low cost, moderate size, and widespread deployment

  16. Understanding global secondary organic aerosol amount and size-resolved condensational behavior

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Understanding global secondary organic aerosol amount and size-resolved condensational behavior and Adams, 2009b) ·Condensation, coagulation, nucleation ·40 size bins (1 nm ­ 10 µm) ·Nucleation rates the aerosol mass distribution. However, recent closure studies with field measurements show that a significant

  17. Sample size for logistic regression with small response probability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whittemore, A S

    1980-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Fisher information matrix for the estimated parameters in a multiple logistic regression can be approximated by the augmented Hessian matrix of the moment generating function for the covariates. The approximation is valid when the probability of response is small. With its use one can obtain a simple closed form estimate of the asymptotic covariance matrix of the maximum likelihood parameter estimates, and thus approximate sample sizes needed to test hypotheses about the parameters. The method is developed for selected distributions of a single covariate, and for a class of exponential-type distributions of several covariates. It is illustrated with an example concerning risk factors for coronary heart disease.

  18. Key distributionKey distribution Key distribution, symmetric encryption

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fisher, Michael

    COMP 522 Key distributionKey distribution COMP 522 Key distribution, symmetric encryption From in a secure way and must keep the key secure" · Important issue: how to distribute secret keys? COMP 522 Key distribution, manual delivery For two parties A and B: · A key could be created by A and delivered physically

  19. Droplet destabilization during Bi catalyzed vapor-liquuid-solid growth of GaAs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeJarld, M., E-mail: mdejarld@umich.edu; Nothern, D.; Millunchick, J. M. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Michigan 2300 Hayward Street, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48105 (United States)

    2014-03-21T23:59:59.000Z

    GaAs nanodiscs are grown in a molecular beam epitaxy chamber via the vapor-liquid-solid mechanism with liquid Bi as the catalyst. Each nanostructure consists of a series of increasingly larger overlapping discs. The structure forms during deposition due to the fact that the catalyst grows until reaching a critical size whereupon it destabilizes, dropping off the disc onto the substrate, where it catalyzes the growth of a new disc of larger radius. It is shown that critical size is limited by the sidewall wetting with a contact angle significantly smaller than the Gibb's criterion.

  20. A high-speed beam of lithium droplets for collecting diverted energy and particles in ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Werley, K.A.

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A high-speed (160m/s) beam (0.14 {times} 0.86m) of liquid-lithium droplets passing through the divertor region(s) below (and above) the main plasma has the potential to replace and out-perform conventional'' solid divertor plates in both heat and particle removal. In addition to superior heat-collection properties, the lithium beam would: remove impurities; require low power to circulate the lithium; exhibit low-recycle divertor operation compatible with lower-hybrid current drive, H-mode plasma confinement, and no flow reversal in the edge plasma; be insensitive to plasma shifts; and finally protect solid structures from the plasma thermal energy for those disruptions that deposit energy preferentially into the divertor while simultaneously being rapidly re-established after a major disruption. Scoping calculations identifying the beam configuration and the droplet dynamics, including formation, MHD effects, gravitational effects, thermal response and hydrodynamics, are presented. Limitations and uncertainties are also discussed. 20 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  1. Size and spatial homogeneity of SiGe quantum dots in amorphous silica matrix

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buljan, Maja [Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University in Prague, Prague 12116 (Czech Republic); Ruder Boskovic Institute, P.O. Box 180, 10002 Zagreb (Croatia); Pinto, Sara R. C.; Rolo, Anabela G.; Levichev, Sergey; Gomes, Maria J. M. [Physics Department, University of Minho, 4710-057 Braga (Portugal); Kashtiban, Reza J.; Bangert, Ursel [Nanostructured Materials Research Group, School of Materials, University of Manchester, P.O. Box 88, Manchester, M1 7HS (United Kingdom); Chahboun, Adil [Physics Department, University of Minho, 4710-057 Braga (Portugal); Department of Physics, Dhar Mehraz Sciences Faculty, BP 1796, Fes (Morocco); Holy, Vaclav [Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University in Prague, Prague 12116 (Czech Republic)

    2009-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, we present a study of structural properties of SiGe quantum dots formed in amorphous silica matrix by magnetron sputtering technique. We investigate deposition conditions leading to the formation of dense and uniformly sized quantum dots, distributed homogeneously in the matrix. X-ray and Raman spectroscopy were used to estimate the Si content. A detailed analysis based on grazing incidence small angle x-ray scattering revealed the influence of the deposition conditions on quantum dot sizes, size distributions, spatial arrangement, and concentration of quantum dots in the matrix, as well as the Si:Ge content.

  2. Pit distribution in the equatorial region of Titan Kimberly A. Adams n

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jurdy, Donna M.

    distribution and size to characterize these features and understand their formation. Chi-square analysis. However, analysis of the densest cluster of pits, a group of 50, shows a more random distribution. Fractal analysis and comparison with a same-sized random set find only a hint of linearity. A Poisson distribution

  3. Introduction to Dynamic Distributed

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roma "La Sapienza", Università di

    Introduction to Dynamic Distributed SystemsSystems #12;Outline Introduction Churn Building Applications in Dynamic Distributed Systems RegistersRegisters Eventual Leader election Connectivity in Dynamic Distributed Systems #12;Dynamic Distributed Systems: Context & Motivations Advent of Complex Distributed

  4. Distributed Generation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville Power AdministrationField Campaign:INEA : Papers SubfoldersU.S. RefiningDistributed EnergyUntapped

  5. Nanoparticle size and morphology control using ultrafast laser induced forward transfer of Ni thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murphy, Ryan D. [Applied Physics Program, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States)] [Applied Physics Program, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Abere, Michael J.; Schrider, Keegan J.; Yalisove, Steven M. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States)] [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Torralva, Ben [Department of Atmospheric, Oceanic and Space Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States)] [Department of Atmospheric, Oceanic and Space Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States)

    2013-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

    We have developed a nanoparticle (NP) printing technique using Ni thin film lift-off from glass substrates after ultrafast irradiation in air. Unique interactions of ultrafast laser pulses with thin films allow for control over NP faceting and size distributions. Control is achieved by changing the laser fluence, film thickness, and film-substrate distance. We demonstrate 20 nm Ni film removal from substrates and rapid NP printing, with size distributions centered at a 6 nm diameter. When the Ni film thickness is lowered to 10 nm, NPs are printed with distributions peaked at a 2 nm diameter.

  6. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON COMPUTER-AIDED DESIGN OF INTEGRATED CIRCUITS AND SYSTEMS, VOL. 27, NO. 11, NOVEMBER 2008 1905 A Droplet-Manipulation Method for Achieving

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chakrabarty, Krishnendu

    -Referencing-Based Digital Microfluidic Biochips Tao Xu, Student Member, IEEE, and Krishnendu Chakrabarty, Fellow, IEEE Abstract--Digital microfluidic biochips are revolutionizing high-throughput DNA, immunoassays, and clinical simultaneous movement of a large number of droplets on a microfluidic array. Concurrency is enhanced through

  7. In-flight thermal control of molten metal droplet streams B. Matthew Michaelis *, Derek Dunn-Rankin, Robert F. Smith Jr., James E. Bobrow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bobrow, James E.

    -Rankin, Robert F. Smith Jr., James E. Bobrow Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University could be controlled by super- heating the reservoir of molten metal but many metal alloys have for desired droplet arrival temperature. This ``holding" temperature varies for each alloy as a result

  8. Optically trapped aqueous droplets for single molecule studies J. E. Reiner, A. M. Crawford, R. B. Kishore, Lori S. Goldner, and K. Helmersona

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldner, Lori S.

    -of-refraction fluorocarbon medium. The index-of-refraction mismatch between the container and fluorocarbon, individual manipula- tion, and application of femtoliter aqueous droplets in an immiscible fluorocarbon and the matrix fluorocarbon. Encapsulation in liposomes re- quires the lipid membrane to surround the analyte

  9. Interfacial temperature measurements, high-speed visualization and finite-element simulations of droplet impact and evaporation on a solid surface

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bhardwaj, Rajneesh; Attinger, Daniel

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this work is to investigate the coupling of fluid dynamics, heat transfer and mass transfer during the impact and evaporation of droplets on a heated solid substrate. A laser-based thermoreflectance method is used to measure the temperature at the solid-liquid interface, with a time and space resolution of 100 {\\mu}s and 20 {\\mu}m, respectively. Isopropanol droplets with micro- and nanoliter volumes are considered. A finite-element model is used to simulate the transient fluid dynamics and heat transfer during the droplet deposition process, considering the dynamics of wetting as well as Laplace and Marangoni stresses on the liquid-gas boundary. For cases involving evaporation, the diffusion of vapor in the atmosphere is solved numerically, providing an exact boundary condition for the evaporative flux at the droplet-air interface. High-speed visualizations are performed to provide matching parameters for the wetting model used in the simulations. Numerical and experimental results are compar...

  10. Atomized Spraying of Liquid Metal Droplets on Desired Substrate Surfaces as a Generalized Way for Ubiquitous Printed Electronics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Qin; Liu, Jing

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A direct electronics printing technique through atomized spraying for patterning room temperature liquid metal droplets on desired substrate surfaces is proposed and experimentally demonstrated for the first time. This method has generalized purpose and is highly flexible and capable of fabricating electronic components on any desired target objects, with either flat or rough surfaces, made of different materials, or different orientations from 1-D to 3-D geometrical configurations. With a pre-designed mask, the liquid metal ink can be directly deposited on the substrate to form various specific patterns which lead to the rapid prototyping of electronic devices. Further, extended printing strategies were also suggested to illustrate the adaptability of the method such that the natural porous structure can be adopted to offer an alternative way of making transparent conductive film with an optical transmittance of 47% and a sheet resistance of 5.167{\\Omega}/O. Different from the former direct writing technolog...

  11. Phase-retrieval X-ray microscopy by Wigner-distribution deconvolution

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Chapman, Henry, N.

    64x64 scan of a group of latex spheres with 45 nm step size, used for demonstrating Wigner-distribution deconvolution.

  12. Phase-retrieval X-ray microscopy by Wigner-distribution deconvolution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chapman, Henry, N.

    2014-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

    64x64 scan of a group of latex spheres with 45 nm step size, used for demonstrating Wigner-distribution deconvolution.

  13. Genome Size Varaiation in D. melanogaster

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alfrejd, Benjamin

    2011-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

    in genome size may account for some of the missing heritability. We measured female genome sizes for 34 Drosophila melanogaster inbred strains that derived from isofemale lines established from a natural population in Raleigh, NC, in addition to a group...

  14. Combustion characteristics of alternative liquid fuels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chong, Cheng Tung

    2011-11-08T23:59:59.000Z

    atomizer are investigated using a phase Doppler anemometry (PDA) under non-reacting conditions. The droplet size and velocity distribution of biodiesels are compared to conventional fuels. For spray combustion investigations, a generic gas turbine...

  15. Distributed DBMS I Introduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Yangjun

    Distributed DBMS Outline I Introduction I Background I Distributed DBMS Architecture I Distributed Data server approach Parallel architectures Parallel DBMS techniques Parallel execution models Parallel Database Systems Distributed Object DBMS Database Interoperability Concluding Remarks #12

  16. Distributed Theorem Proving for Distributed Hybrid Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Platzer, André

    system with a varying number of arbitrarily many cars. 1 Introduction Hybrid systems with joint discrete a multi-agent system, e.g., distributed car control systems. Such systems form distributed hybrid systemsDistributed Theorem Proving for Distributed Hybrid Systems David W. Renshaw, Sarah M. Loos

  17. Software implemented fault-tolernace on distributed-memory MIMD architectures 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Holland, Gavin D

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Large multicomputer systems are inherently unreliable because of their enormous complexity. This has a direct impact on distributed computations performed on these systems. As the size and execution time of these distributed computations grows, so...

  18. Areas of contact and pressure distribution in bolted joints

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gould, Herbert Hirsch

    1970-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    When two plates are bolted (or riveted) together these will be in contact in the immediate vicinity of the bolt heads and separated beyond it. The pressure distribution and size of the contact zone is of considerable ...

  19. GASIFICATION FOR DISTRIBUTED GENERATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ronald C. Timpe; Michael D. Mann; Darren D. Schmidt

    2000-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A recent emphasis in gasification technology development has been directed toward reduced-scale gasifier systems for distributed generation at remote sites. The domestic distributed power generation market over the next decade is expected to be 5-6 gigawatts per year. The global increase is expected at 20 gigawatts over the next decade. The economics of gasification for distributed power generation are significantly improved when fuel transport is minimized. Until recently, gasification technology has been synonymous with coal conversion. Presently, however, interest centers on providing clean-burning fuel to remote sites that are not necessarily near coal supplies but have sufficient alternative carbonaceous material to feed a small gasifier. Gasifiers up to 50 MW are of current interest, with emphasis on those of 5-MW generating capacity. Internal combustion engines offer a more robust system for utilizing the fuel gas, while fuel cells and microturbines offer higher electric conversion efficiencies. The initial focus of this multiyear effort was on internal combustion engines and microturbines as more realistic near-term options for distributed generation. In this project, we studied emerging gasification technologies that can provide gas from regionally available feedstock as fuel to power generators under 30 MW in a distributed generation setting. Larger-scale gasification, primarily coal-fed, has been used commercially for more than 50 years to produce clean synthesis gas for the refining, chemical, and power industries. Commercial-scale gasification activities are under way at 113 sites in 22 countries in North and South America, Europe, Asia, Africa, and Australia, according to the Gasification Technologies Council. Gasification studies were carried out on alfalfa, black liquor (a high-sodium waste from the pulp industry), cow manure, and willow on the laboratory scale and on alfalfa, black liquor, and willow on the bench scale. Initial parametric tests evaluated through reactivity and product composition were carried out on thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) equipment. These tests were evaluated and then followed by bench-scale studies at 1123 K using an integrated bench-scale fluidized-bed gasifier (IBG) which can be operated in the semicontinuous batch mode. Products from tests were solid (ash), liquid (tar), and gas. Tar was separated on an open chromatographic column. Analysis of the gas product was carried out using on-line Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). For selected tests, gas was collected periodically and analyzed using a refinery gas analyzer GC (gas chromatograph). The solid product was not extensively analyzed. This report is a part of a search into emerging gasification technologies that can provide power under 30 MW in a distributed generation setting. Larger-scale gasification has been used commercially for more than 50 years to produce clean synthesis gas for the refining, chemical, and power industries, and it is probable that scaled-down applications for use in remote areas will become viable. The appendix to this report contains a list, description, and sources of currently available gasification technologies that could be or are being commercially applied for distributed generation. This list was gathered from current sources and provides information about the supplier, the relative size range, and the status of the technology.

  20. Size and Crystallinity in Protein-Templated Inorganic Nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jolley, Craig C.; Uchida, Masaki; Reichhardt, Courtney; Harrington, Richard; Kang, Sebyung; Klem, Michael T.; Parise, John B.; Douglas, Trevor (SBU); (Montana)

    2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Protein cages such as ferritins and virus capsids have been used as containers to synthesize a wide variety of protein-templated inorganic nanoparticles. While identification of the inorganic crystal phase has been successful in some cases, very little is known about the detailed nanoscale structure of the inorganic component. We have used pair distribution function analysis of total X-ray scattering to measure the crystalline domain size in nanoparticles of ferrihydrite, {gamma}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Mn{sub 3}O{sub 4}, CoPt, and FePt grown inside 24-meric ferritin cages from H. sapiens and P. furiosus. The material properties of these protein-templated nanoparticles are influenced by processes at a variety of length scales: the chemistry of the material determines the precise arrangement of atoms at very short distances, while the interior volume of the protein cage constrains the maximum nanoparticle size attainable. At intermediate length scales, the size of coherent crystalline domains appears to be constrained by the arrangement of crystal nucleation sites on the interior of the cage. On the basis of these observations, some potential synthetic strategies for the control of crystalline domain size in protein-templated nanoparticles are suggested.